United States                   EPA- 600/7- 89- 01? a
          Environmental Protection
                                  November 1989
EPA     Research and
          Development
          THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

          (VERSION 2): DEVELOPMENT OF THE

          ANNUAL DATA AND MODELERS' TAPES
         Prepared for
          The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
         Prepared by
         Air and Energy Engineering Research
         Laboratory
         Research Triangle Park NC 27711

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                  RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES


Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate-
gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en-
vironmental technology. Elimination of traditional  grouping  was consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
The nine series are:

    1. Environmental Health Effects Research

    2. Environmental Protection Technology

    3. Ecological Research

    4. Environmental Monitoring

    5. Socioeconomic Environmental Studies

    6. Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports  (STAR)

    7. Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development

    8. "Special" Reports

    9. Miscellaneous Reports

This report has been assigned to the INTERAGENCY ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT series. Reports in this series result from the
effort funded  under the 17-agency  Federal  Energy/Environment  Research and
Development Program. These studies relate to EPA's mission to protect the public
health and welfare from  adverse effects of pollutants associated with energy sys-
tems. The goal of the Program is to assure the rapid development of domestic
energy supplies in an environmentally-compatible manner by providing the nec-
essary environmental data and control technology. Investigations  include analy-
ses of the transport of energy-related pollutants and  their health and ecological
effects;  assessments of, and development of, control technologies for energy
systems; and integrated assessments of a wide range of energy-related environ-
mental issues.
                        EPA REVIEW NOTICE
This report has been reviewed by the participating Federal Agencies, and approved
for  publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect
the views and policies of the Government, nor does mention of trade names or
commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

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                                      EPA-600/7-89-Ol2a
                                      November 1989
                                                         ^.
 THE  1985 MAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY (VERSION 2):        /      J
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANNUAL DATA AND MODELERS'  TAPES
                   FINAL REPORT
                         by

                   Mark  Saeger
                  John Langstaff
                 Robert Walters
                   Lysa  Modica
                 David  Zimmerman
                   David Fratt
                  Daniel  Dulleba
                   Ronald Ryan
                  Janice  Denny
                    Wienke Tax
                  David Sprague
                  Daniel Mudgett
                 Arthur S. Werner
         ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
                 100 Europa Drive
              Chapel Hill, NC  27514
            EPA Contract  No.  68-02-4274
      This study was  conducted  in cooperation
       with the National Acid Precipitation
                Assessment  Program
       EPA Project  Officer:  J. David Mobley
              Acid Deposition Branch
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
         Research Triangle Park, NC  27711
                   Prepared  for:
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        Office of Research and Development
               Washington, DC   20460

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                                ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The development of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2
involved the cooperative efforts of a large number of individuals.  Robert C.
Lagemann, Dale A. Pahl, Carl T. Ripberger, Charles C. Masser, and Janice K.
Wagner of the Environmental Protection Agency's Air and Energy Engineering
Research Laboratory provided guidance and oversight during the development of
the inventories and this report.  Lynn K. Pendergraft provided valuable
assistance in facilitating and maintaining communication between Alliance and
EPA personnel.

     The development of the NEDS emission inventories for U.S. point and area
sources served as the basis for the U.S. component of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions
Inventory Version 2.  John C. Bosch, John B. Fink, Evelyn S. Kimbrough and
Charles 0. Mann of EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
provided invaluable assistance throughout the NEDS inventory development
effort.  Representatives of state air pollution agencies and the 10 EPA
Regional Offices are also recognized for their input to this project.  Each of
the principal state and regional officials that participated on this project
was acknowledged in a previous report on the NAPAP inventories (EPA-600/7-88-
022, November 1988).

     Frank Vena, Anthony Kosteltz, and Marc Deslauriers of Environment Canada
were primarily responsible for the development and delivery of the Canadian
emissions data.  Researchers within NAPAP Task Groups II and III also provided
significant assistance and direction toward the successful completion of this
project.                                           .           '

     The authors would also like to acknowledge the very able assistance of
many other Alliance staff members who are not listed as authors of this
report.  In particular, Lynn Magee, who was the technical editor, and Peggy
Mason, who assisted her, are gratefully acknowledged.  Arthur Werner was the
Program Manager for this project.  Other Alliance staff who contributed to
this project  include William Battye, David Cogley, Steve Capone, David Caron,
Edward Cohen, Vincent DelGobbo, Shannon Parker, Devi Sekar, Tamsin Toler,
Behnaz Whitmire, Terry Wilson and Terri Young.  Former Alliance staff member,
Rebecca Battye, also contributed to this effort.

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                                   CONTENTS

                                                                      Page

Acknowledgments	     ii
Figures	•	     vi
Tables	     ix
Abbreviations	   xiv
Abstract	   xvi
Foreward	  xvi i
Executive Summary	     xx
     1.   Introduction	   1-1
               Background	   1-1
               Objectives	   1-2
               Development	   1-3
                  1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2	   1-4
                  1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory -
                  Version 2	   1-6
               Organization of  the Report	   1-7
     2.   Overview of Emissions Data	   2-1
               Summary of  Total Emissions	   2-1
               Point-Level Emissions Data	   2-13
               Modelers' Emissions Inventory	   2-15
               Emissions Summary Maps	   2-25
     3.   Development and  Quality Assurance of the  1985 Annual NAPAP
            U.S.  Anthropogenic  Emissions  Inventory	'...   3-1
               Background	   3-1
               Development of the 1985 Annual NAPAP U.S.
                  Anthropogenic  Emissions  Inventory	   3-2
                    Point  Source Data	   3-2
                    Area Source Data	   3-9
               Quality Assurance Objectives for the Annual
                  Emissions Data	   3-15
                    Objectives	   3-15
                    QC of  the Annual Point Source Data	   3-16
                    QC of  the Annual Area Source Data	   3-23
                    Electric Utility QC	   3-26
               1985 NAPAP  Annual Emissions Inventory - Version 2....   3-31
                    Default Specifications	   3-31
                    Small  Point Sources	   3-40
                    Record-level Review of Questionable Data	   3-41
                    NOX Emissions from Large  Industrial
                      and  Commercial Boilers	   3-44
                    Version 2 Mobile Source Emissions	   3-45
                    Audit  Trail	   3-47
                    Canadian Emissions and Natural  Source Emissions.   3-48
               References	   3-49

                                      iii

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                        CONTENTS (continued)

                                                                 Page

4.   1985 NAPAP Emission Factors	  4-1
          Background	  4-1
          Criteria Pollutant Emission Factors	  4-10
          Primary Sulfate Emission Factors	  4-13
          Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Fluoride
            Emission Factors	  4-18
          Ammonia Emission Factors	  4-21
          References	  4-26
5.   Development and Quality Assurance of the 1985
       NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory - Version 2	  5-1
          Background	  5-1
          Development of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions
          Inventory - Version 2	  5-1
          Development and Quality Assurance of Allocation
            Factors	  5-3
          FREDS Enhancements and Quality Control Measures	  5-8
          Quality Control of the Modelers' Inventory	 5-10
          References	  5-11
6.   Development of Temporal, Spatial and Species
       Allocation Factors	  6«-l
          Introduction	.'	  6-1
          Temporal Allocation Factors..'	.•	  6-1
          Spatial Allocation Factors	  6-9
          Speciation Factors	  6-23
          References	  6-40
7.   Development and Quality Assurance of the 1985 Canadian
       Data	  7-1
          Introduction.	  7-1
          1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory	  7-1
          Point Source Data	  7-8
          Area Source Data	  7-11
          1985 Canadian Natural Particulate Emissions  Inventory. 7-13
          Quality Assurance and Data  Processing  of
            Point and Area  Source Data	  7-14
8.   Natural Sources	  8-1
          Introduction	  8-1
          Development of County-level Alkaline
            Particulate Emissions	  8-2
          Natural Sources Allocation  Factors	 8-7
          References	  8-10
                                  IV

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                        CONTENTS (continued)
                                                                 Page

9.   Emissions Inventory Data Processing	  9-1
          Introduction	  9-1
          FREDS System Overview	  9-2
          FREDS Enhancements for the 1985 NAPAP
            Emissions Inventory	  9-6
          FREDS Modifications for Canadian Data Processing	  9-8
          FREDS Modifications for Natural Source Data
            Processing	  9-9
          Data Processing Results	  9-10
          1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2
            Modelers' Tapes	  9-20
          References	  9-52

Appendix A:  Detailed Emissions Summaries	  A-l
Appendix B:  List of Source Classification Codes for
               U.S. and Canadian Point and Area Sources	  B-l
Appendix C:  SAROAD Code Listing for Pollutants and Total
               Annual Emissions of Volatile Organics Species...  C-l
Appendix D:  Quality Control Software for the,Annual
               Emissions Inventory	  D-l
                    NEDS Edit Error Rejection Messages..*.	   D-2
                    Fields Requiring All Numbers
                      (or all blanks)	  D-6
                    NEDS Edit Warning Messages	  D-l7
                    NEDS Edit User's Guide, Appendix A
                      (Edit Requirements for NEDS Point
                      Source Data)	  D-26
                    NEDS Edit User's Guide, Appendix B
                      (NEDS Edit Program Cross Checks on
                      Data Validity)	  D-31
                     1985 NAPAP QA Program Documentation Point
                      Source QA Software	  D-34
Appendix E:  Default Fuel Parameter Values for the 1985 U.S.
               NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2	  E-l
Appendix F:  Default Stack Parameters for the 1985 U.S. NAPAP
               Emissions Inventory - Version 2	  F-l
Appendix G:  Plant-level Emissions Summary of Data
               Changes-Resuting from the Substitution
               of NURF Data	  G-l
Appendix H:  Plots for 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions
               Inventory - Version 2	  H-l
Appendix I:  NAPAP Approval Letter from Canada	  1-1

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                               FIGURES

Nuaber                                                           Page

 1        Simplified Diagram of Freds Processing	  xxviii
 2        1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Distribution of
            Emissions by Source Category for SC^, NOX, VOC
            and TSP	    xxxi
 3        1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
            and Canadian SO2 Emissions in Tons/Hour for the
            Typical Summer Weekday Scenario at 1700 GMT	   xxxvi
 4        1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
            and Canadian NOX Emissions in Tons/Hour for the
            Typical Summer Weekday Scenario at 1700 GMT	  xxxvii
 5        1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
            and Canadian VOC Emissions in Tons/Hour for the
            Typical Summer Weekday Scenario at 1700 GMT	 xxxviii
 2-1      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
            Distribution of U.S. and  Canadian Emissions
            by Major Source Category	  2-8
 2-2      Distribution of U.S. Anthropogenic Emissions
            by Source Type	  2-9
 2-3      Distribution of Canadian Anthropogenic Emissions
            by Source Type	  2-10
 2-4      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Spatial
            Distribution of Plants Emitting More Than
            25,000 TPY S02	  2-14
 2-5      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2
            Distribution of U.S. Point Source Emissions
            by Estimation Method	.'	  2-16
 2-6      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2
            Distribution of U.S. Utility Emissions by
            Estimation Method	   2-17
 2-7      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Point and
            Area Source Patterns for  S02, NOX and VOC for
            a Typical Summer Weekday	  2-20
 2-8      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Diurnal Emissions
            Patterns for S02, NOX and VOC for a Typical
            Summer Weekday	  2-21
 2-9      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Spatial
            Distribution of Annual U.S. and Canadian SO2
            Emissions	  2-22
 2-10     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Spatial
            Distribution of Annual U.S. and Canadian
            NOX Emissions	  2-23
 2-11     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Spatial
            Distribution of Annual U.S. and Canadian
            VOC Emissions	  2-24
                                  VI

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                          FIGURES (continued)
Number                                                            Page

  2-12     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
             S(>2 County Emissions Density	  2-26
  2-13     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
             NOX County Emissions Density	  2-27
  2-14     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
             VOC County Emissions Density	  2-28
  2-15     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
             Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded S(>2 Emissions
             in Tons/Year	  2-29
  2-16     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
             Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded NOX Emissions
             in Tons/Year	  2-30
  2-17     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
             Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded VOC Emissions
             in Tons/Year	  2-31
  2-18     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
             Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded CO Emissions
             in Tons/Year	  2-32
  2-19     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
             Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded Anthropogenic
             TSP Emissions  in Tons/Year	  2-33
  2-20     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
             and Canadian VOC Emissions in Tons/Hour for
             for Typical Summer Weekday Scenario at 17:00 GMT...  2-35
  2-21     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
             and Canadian Hydrocarbon Class 16 Emissions in
             Thousands of Moles/Hour for Typical Summer
             Weekday Scenario at 17:00 GMT	  2-36
  3-1      QC Loop for Point Source Emissions Data	  3-18
  3-2      Components of the MOBILE4 VOC emission factors
             as a function  of temperature	  3-46
  6-1      The NAPAP Grid System	  6-11
  6-2      Example of County-to-Grid Cell Areal Relationship....  6-19
  9-1      Simplified Diagram of FREDS Processing	  9-3
  9-2      Sample Point Source Resolution Program	  9-46
  H-l      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Spatial
           Distribution of  Annual U.S. and Canadian S02
           Emissions	   H-2
  H-2      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Spatial
           Distribution.of  Annual U.S. and Canadian NOX
           Emissions	  H-3
  H-3      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Spatial
           Distribution of  Annual U.S. and Canadian VOC
           Emissions	   H-4
  H-4      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
           U.S. S02 County  Emissions Density	  H-5

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                           FIGURES (continued)

Number                                                          Page
H-5      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         U.S. NOX County Emissions Density	  H-6
H-6      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
         VOC County Emissions Density	  H-7
H-7      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded S(>2 Emissions
         in Tons/Year	  H-8
H-8      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded NOX Emissions
         in Tons/Year	  H-9
H-9      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded VOC Emissions
         in Tons/Year	  H-10
H-10     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded CO Emissions
         in Tons/Year	  H-ll
H-ll     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded Anthropogenic
         TSP Emissions  in Tons/Year	   H-12
H-12     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded TUC Emissions
         in Tons/Year	•.	  H-13
H-13     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded S0^~2 Emissions  in
         Tons/Year	  H-14
H-14     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded NH-j Emissions
         in Tons/Year	   H-15
H-15     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded HC1 Emissions
         in Tons/Year	  H-16
H-16     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -
         Annual U.S. and Canadian Gridded HP Emissions
         in Tons/Year	  H-17
H-17     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
         and Canadian  S(>2 Emissions  in  Tons/Hour for
         the Typical Summer  Weekday  Scenario at 17:00 GMT	  H-18
H-18     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
         and Canadian  NOX Emissions  in  Tons/Hour
         for the  Typical Summer Weekday Scenario at 17:00  GMT.  H-19
H-19     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
         and Canadian  VOC Emissions  in  Tons/Hour for Typical
         Summer Weekday Scenario at  17:000  GMT...	  H-20
H-20     1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - U.S.
         and Canadian  Hydrocarbon Class  16  Emissions
         in Thousands  of Moles/Hour  for Typical Summer
         Weekday  Scenario at 17:00 GMT	  H-21
                                vm

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                               TABLES

Number                                                            Page

 1        1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Data Summaries	    xxx
 2        1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2- Point
            and Area Source Emissions by Major Category	    xxxii
 3        Distribution of Point Source Emissions by Plant
            Emissions Size Classes - United States	    xxxiii
 4        Distribution of Point Source Emissions by Plant
            Emissions Size Classes - Canada	    xxxiv
1-1       Molecular Weights of Species Represented in the
            1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory -
            Version 2 -  	,	    1-4
2-1       1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Annual
            U.S. Point and Area Source Emissions by EPA
            Region	   2-2
2-2       1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 -  Annual
            Canadian Point and Area Source Emissions by
            Province	   2-2
2-3       1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Annual
            U.S. Point and Area Source Emissions by State	   2-3
2-4       Annual Anthropogenic S(>2 Emissions (10  Tons)
            by Category  by State	   2-4
2-5       Annual Anthropogenic NOX Emissions (10  Tons)
            by Category  by State	   2-5
2-6       Annual Anthropogenic VOC Emissions (10  Tons)
            by Category  by State	   2-6  •
2-7       Distribution of .Point Source Emissions
   •  .       by-Plant Emissions Size Classes -  United States...   2-11
2-8       Distribution of Point Source Emissions by Plant
            Emissions Size Classes - Canada	   2-12
2-9       1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2
            Combined U.S. and Canada Emissions by Stack
            Height Range	   2-15
2-10      1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Version 2 - Seasonal
            Distribution of S02, NOX and VOC Emissions	   2-19
3-1       National Emissions Data System (NEDS) Data
            Structure	   3-4
3-2       1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Priorities	   3-5
3-3       1985 NAPAP Area Source Category Groups  	   3-11
3-4       Comparison of  Coal Consumption for Utility
            Sources, By  State	   3-28
3-5       Comparison of  Oil Consumption for Utility Sources,
            by State	   3-29
3-6       Comparison of  Natural Gas Consumption for Utility
            Sources, by  State	   3-30
3-7       Total U.S. Anthropogenic Emissions by Category  for
            S02, NOX, VOC and TSP (103 Tons)	   3-32
3-8       U.S. Stack Parameter Revisions	   3-38
3-9       Canadian Stack Parameter Revisions	   3-39
                                 IX

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                         TABLES (continued)


Number                                                           Page
3-10      1985 NAPAP U.S. Annual Point Source Inventory
            Profile	  3-42
3-11      Mobile Source Adjustments for VOC Emissions to
            Represent the MOBILEA Emission Factor Model	  3-47
4-1       1985 NAPAP Area Source Emission Factors	  4-2

4-2       Emission Distributions by Factor Data Quality
            Rat ings	  4-12
4-3       Primary Sulfate Emission Factors	  4-16
4-4       Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Fluoride
            Emission Factors	  4-19
4-5       Ammonia Emission Factors	  4-23
5-1       1985 NAPAP Resolved Inventory Coverage	  5-2
6-1       1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Temporal
            Allocation Scenarios	  6-10
6-2       Spatial Allocation Surrogates Available in the
            1985 NAPAP Spatial Allocation Factor Files.........  6-12
6-3       Spatial Allocation Surrogates for U.S. Area
            Sources	  6-14
6-4       Summary of Spatial Factor Adjustments for the
            1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory	  6-21
6-5       Hydrocarbon Species Classes, 1985 NAPAP Modelers'
            Inventory.	  6-24
6-6       Particulate Species Classes, 1985 Modelers'
            Inventory	  6-26
6-7       VOC Emissions  in Percent, By Classes, By Speciation
            Profile Quality Rating	     6-28
6-8       Largest SCC Contributions and Data Quality
            Indicators to Reactive VOC Classes	  6-30
6-9       Particulate Emissions in Percent, By Classes,
            By Speciation Profile Quality Rating	  6-31
6-10      PSPLIT File Format	  6-35
6-11      Speciation Factor File Format	  6-38
7-1       1985 Canadian  National Emissions Inventory by  Province 7-2
7-2       1985 Canadian  NAPAP Emissions Inventory by Province..  7-3
7-3       1985 Canadian  NAPAP Emissions Inventory by v^aLegory
            for S02, NOX, VOC and TSP	  7-5
7-4       VOC Profiles for Extra Canadian SCC's	  7-12
7-5       Canadian Area  Source  Categories That Were Not
            Processed by FREDS	  7-14
8-1       Natural Alkaline Particulate Categories Included
            in  1985 NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  Version  2	  8-2
8-2       Summary of Resolved Natural Particulate Emissions
            for the United States and Canada..	  8-3

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                         TABLES (continued)

Number                                                           Page

8-3       Speciation Factors for U.S. Natural Alkaline
            Participates	  8-9
9-1       FREDS Processing - U.S. Point Sources	  9-11
9-2       FREDS Processing - Canadian Point Sources	  9-13
9-3       FREDS Processing - U.S. Area Sources	  9-15
9-4       FREDS Processing - Canadian Area Sources	  9-18
9-5       FREDS Processing - Natural Sources	  9-19
9-6       1985 NAPAP Version 2 Modelers' Tapes	  9-21
9-7       1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2 - Products..  9-22
9-8       U.S. Point Source Annual Inventory Format	  9-26
9-9       Canadian Point Source Annual Inventory Format	  9-29
9-10      U.S. Area Source Annual Inventory Format	  9-31
9-11      Canadian Area Source Annual Inventory Format	  9-32
9-12      U.S. Natural Source Annual Inventory Format	  9-33
9-13      Canadian Natural Source Annual Inventory Format	  9-34
9-14      U.S. Point Source Modeling Inventory Format	  9-35
9-15      Canada Point Source Modeling Inventory Format	  9-38
9-16      Area Source Modeling Inventory Format
              (THC/NOX File)	,	  9-41
9-17      Area Source Modeling Inventory Format
              (TSP/S02 Files)	  9-43
9-18      Natural Source Modeling Inventory Format	  9-44
9-19      Tape Totals for Combined U.S. and Canadian Area
            Sources, THC/NOX Files	   9-49
9-20      Tape Totals for Combined U.S. and Canadian Area
            Sources, TSP/S02 Files	   9-50
9-21      Tape Totals for Combined U.S. and Canadian Natural
            Sources	   9-51
A-l       1985JNAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Point Source Emissions By State	   A-2
A-2       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Point Source Hydrocarbon Emissions in
            Moles by State	   A-9
A-3       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Inventory Version 2 - U.S.
            Area Source Emissions By State	   A-13
A-4       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Area Source Hydrocarbon Emissions in
            Moles by State	   A-20
A-5       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Combined Point and Area Source Emissions
            by State	   A-24
A-6       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Combined Point and Area Source Hydrocarbon
            Emissions in Moles by State	   A-31
A-7       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Natural Source Particulate Emissions
            By State	   A-35
                                 XI

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                         TABLES (continued)

Muaber                                                           Page
A-8       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Point Source Emissions by EPA Region	   A-37
A-9       1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Point Source Hydrocarbon Emissions in
            Moles By EPA Region	   A-41
A-10      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Area Source Emissions by EPA Region	   A-43
A-ll      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Area Source Hydrocarbon Emissions in
            Moles By EPA Region	   A-47
A-12      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Combined Point and Area Source Emissions
            By EPA Region	   A-49
A-13      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Combined Point and Area Source Hydrocarbon
            Emissions in Moles	   A-53
A-14      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Natural Source Particulate Emissions By
            EPA Region	   A-55
A-15      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            Canadian Point  Source  Emissions By Province	   A-56
A-16      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            Canadian Point  Source  Hydrocarbon Emissions
            in Moles By Province	,...   A-60
A-17      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            Canadian Area Source Emissions By Province	   A-62
A-18      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            Canadian Area—Source Hydrocarbon Emissions
            in Moles By Province	   A-66
A-19      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            Canadian Combined Point and Area Source
            Emissions By Province	   A-68
A-20      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            Canadian Combined Point and Area Source
            Hydrocarbon Emissions  in  Moles by Province	   A-72
A-21      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            Canadian Natural  Source Particulate  Emissions
            By Province	   A-74
A-22      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Point  Source Emissions By SCC	   A-75
A-23      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Point  Source Hydrocarbon Emissions
            in Moles By SCC	   A-131
A-24      1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
            U.S. Area Source  Emissions  By Source  Category	   A-163
                                 XII

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                          TABLES (continued)

 Number                                                           Page

 A-25       1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
             U.S. Area Source Hydrocarbon Emissions in
             Moles By Source Category	   A-177
 A-26       1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
             U.S. Natural Source Particulate Emissions
             By Source Category	   A-185
 A-27       1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
             Canadian Point Source Emissions By SCC..	   A-186
 A-28       1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
             Canadian Point Source Hydrocarbon Emissions
             In Moles By SCC	   A-207
 A-29       1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
             Canadian Area Source Emissions by Source
             Category	   A-219
 A-30       1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
             Canadian Area Source Hydrocarbon Emissions
             in Moles By Source Category	   A-240
 A-31       1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version 2 -
             Canadian Natural Source Particulate Emissions
             By Source Category	   A-2A9
 B-l       Six-Digit Point Source Classification Codes
             Included in the 1985 U.S. and Canadian NAPAP
             Emissions Inventories	  B-2
«B-2       United States Area Source Category Descriptions -
             1985 U.S. NAPAP Emissions Inventory. Version 2	  B-12
 B-3       Canadian Area Source Category Descriptions -
             1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory	  B-15
 C-l       Pollutant SAROAD Codes Included in the 1985 NAPAP
             Modelers' Emissions Inventory-Version 2	  C-2
 C-2       SAROAD Codes, Hydrocarbon Class Assignments and
             Emissions Summaries for the Individual
             Hydrocarbon Profile Species...	   C-3
 F-l       U.S. Stack Parameter Changes	   F-2
 F-2       Canadian Stack Parameter Changes	   F-19
 G-l       Plant-Level Summary of Emissions Substituted From
             the 1985 NAPAP Inventory (Version 2):  National
             Utility Reference File	   G-3
 G-2       Plant-Level Industrial Emissions Updates Originally
             Coded as Utility Emissions Based on File
             Compari son wi th NURF	   G-6
                                 Xlll

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                                 ABBREVIATIONS
ADOM
AEERL
AEROS
APCDs
AQCR
AREAL
BACT
BGs
BIDs
BNAs
Ca
CCDs
GEM
CFR
CO
CTC
DOD
DOE
EBCDIC
EDs
EIA
EIS/PS
EPA
EPRI
ESPs
ESRL
FREDS
GMT
GURF
HC1
HCPREP
HF
K
LAER
LTO
MCDs
MDEM
Mg
MIP
MLRAs
MMBTU
MMCF
MTPREP
Na
NADB
NAPAP
NCAR
NCC
NECRMP
Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model
Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System
Air Pollution Control Districts
Air Quality Control Region
Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory
Best Available Control Technology
Block Groups
Background Information Documents
Block Numbering Areas
Calcium
Census County Divisions
Continuous Emissions Monitoring
Code of Federal Regulations
Carbon Monoxide
Continuous Traffic Count
U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of Energy
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
Enumeration Districts
Energy Information Agency
Emission Inventory System/Point Source
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Electric Power Research Institute
Electrostatic Precipitators
Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory
Flexible Regional Emissions Data System
Greenwich Mean Time
Generating Unit Reference File
Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrocarbon Preprocessor
Hydrogen Fluoride
Potassium
Lowest Achievable Emission Rate
Landing/Takeoff
Minor Civil Divisions
Model Data Extraction Module
Magnesium
Model Input Preprocessor
Major Land Resource Areas
Million British Thermal Units
Million Cubic Feet
Modelers' Tape Preprocessor
Sodium
National Air Data Branch
National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
National Center for Atmospheric  Research
National Computer Center
Northeast Corridor Regional Modeling  Project
                                      xiv

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NEDS
NH3
NOAA
NOX
NURF
OAQPS
PM
POTWs
PSPLIT
QA
QC
QCM
RADM
RMDHS
SAFF
SAFP
SAM
SAROAD
SCC
SFF
SIC
SM
S02
SO,
   •-2
STAPPA

SURE
TAFF
TAM
THC
TPY
TSDFs
TSP
TVA
TZF
US DOT
UTM
VMT
VOCs
WG3B
National Emissions Data System
Ammonia
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Nitrogen Oxides
National Utility Reference File
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
Participate Matter
Publicly-owned Treatment Works
Pollutant Splits Program
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Quality Control Mbdule
Regional Acid Deposition Model
Regional Model Data Handling System
Spatial Allocation Factor File
Spatial Allocation Factor Preprocessor
Spatial Allocation Module
Storage and Retrieval of Aeromatic Data
Source Classification Code
Speciation Factor File
Standard Industrial Classification
Speciation Module
Sulfur Dioxide
Primary Sulfate
State and Territorial Air Pollution Program
  Adminitrators
Sulfate Regional Experiment
Temporal Allocation Factor File
Temporal Allocation Module
Total Hydrocarbon
Tons Per Year
Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities
Total Suspended Particulates
Tennessee Valley Authority
Timezone File
United States Department of Transportation
Universal Transverse Mercator
Vehicle Miles of Travel
Volatile Organic Compounds
Working Group 3B (Inventory Planning Group)
                                       xv

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                                   ABSTRACT
     This report documents the development of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers'
Emissions Inventory Version 2.  The inventory includes emissions estimates of
air pollutants that play a key role in the formation of acidic deposition.
Emissions estimates from all of the major anthropogenic sources of acid
deposition precursors in the United States and Canada for the base year 1985
are included in the inventory.  Natural sources of particulate matter are also
included.  The inventory emissions total approximately 27,200,000 tons of SC^J
22,600,000 tons of NOX; and 24,500,000 tons of VOC.  This report discusses the
data collection and quality assurance activities associated with the
development of both the annual emissions inventory and an inventory that has
been resolved into an hourly, gridded and speciated format suitable for use in
atmospheric modeling applications.  The file formats and file structure of the
inventory data are also described in this report.  The work presented in this
report was performed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
(NAPAP) under the supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Research and Development.
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                                   FOREWORD

     An emission inventory suitable for use in acid deposition assessment
studies and regional atmospheric transport models has been prepared by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  The regional transport models are being
used to study the source receptor relationships of sources of acid rain
precursors.  These data were released to the modeling communities in the
United States and Canada in February 1989.  A separate database of utility
sources for the United States, known as the National Utility Reference File
(NURF), was also prepared by NAPAP.  The NURF database is based primarily on
the original state supplied data used in the annual and modelers' inventories.
The utility data were modified in some cases using data that were supplied
directly by the utility sources to the Department of Energy (DOE EIA reporting
forms 767, 759 and 423).  The NURF database is published as a separate volume
of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2).

     The discrepancies that remain between the two databases are attributable
to differences in data collection methodologies.  These methodological
differences are related to the treatment of start up fuels, the treatment of
peaking units and the definition of individual emissions records.  The 1985
NAPAP annual and modelers' inventories represent emissions at the emission
point level for plants that emitted more than 100 tons/year in 1985, while the
NURF represents emissions data at the generating unit level.  The NURF
represents the most appropriate database for applications related to analyses
of utility sector sources at the unit level.

Emissions Data Units

     The emissions data presented in this report are expressed in units of
U.S. short tons.  All references to tons per year, TPY, are short tons.

Database Nomenclature

     Although the purpose of this report is to describe development of the
1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2), which will be used in
the NAPAP assessment and modeling activities, this report refers to several
independent but related emissions inventory databases.  The development of the
NAPAP assessment emissions database was a cooperative effort involving the EPA
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), the EPA Air and Energy
Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL), the Department of Energy (DOE) and
Environment Canada (EC).  OAQPS refers to the NEDS annual national emissions
database as an inventory to indicate that emissions sources were counted by
the States.  Other versions or formats of that inventory produced in further
data processing, including the modelers' version, are referred to as databases
by OAQPS.  DOE, on the other hand, has historically referred to the annual
emissions files as databases and the modelers' formats as inventories.  In
general, AEERL refers to both of these emissions data formats as inventories.
To avoid confusion relating to the various databases, the following
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nomenclature is used to identify each of these emissions data formats
throughout this report:

     The 1985 NEDS Emissions Inventory refers to the database of U.S. point
sources that was submitted to the EPA by the state environmental agencies and
the U.S. area source emissions that were calculated by EPA using the standard
NEDS area source methodology.  The 1985 NEDS Emissions Inventory is an annual
emissions database.  The term NEDS inventory is used periodically in this
report in reference to the 1985 NEDS Emissions Inventory.

     The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - (Version 1) refers to the annual
emissions database that was developed by NAPAP directly from the 1985 NEDS
Emissions Inventory.  The differences include some minor adjustments to point
source emissions in response to state reviews of the final NEDS Emissions
Inventory and the addition of 10 extra area source categories of VOC
emissions.

     The 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory - (Version 1) is an edition
of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 1 that has been spatially and
temporally allocated and resolved into the detailed species components that
are required by regional atmospheric transport models.  The NAPAP Version 1
databases include only the anthropogenic emission sources from the United
States.

     The 1985 Canadian National Emissions Inventory refers to the annual
emissions inventory database that was prepared by Environment Canada in
cooperation with the Provincial Environment Ministries.  It is a national
annual inventory of stationary and area sources for all of Canada.
                                                    •
     The. 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory refers to a form of the  1985
Canadian National Emissions Inventory that was added to the U.S. inventory
data to establish the  1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emission Inventory Version 2.  The
differences between the 1985 Canadian National and the 1985 Canadian NAPAP
Emissions Inventories  are discussed  in Section 2 and in Section 7 of this
report.  The term Canadian inventory is used frequently in this report to
identify the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory.

     The 1985 United States NAPAP Emissions Inventory - (Version 2)  is the
final  form of the U.S. inventory database that was used to develop the 1985
NAPAP  Modelers' Emissions Inventory  Version 2.  Several changes were made  to
the 1985 NAPAP  Emissions Inventory Version 1 to produce the 1985 NAPAP
Emissions Inventory Version 2.  These changes are described in detail in  this
report.

     The 1985 United States NAPAP Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory is
an annual database of  U.S. county level natural particulate emissions.  These
data represent  the alkaline species, calcium, magnesium, sodium and  potassium
and total particulates from unpaved  road  travel, wind erosion and dust devils.
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     The 1985 U.S. NAPAP Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory is based on
preliminary research performed by NAPAP Task Group II.  Following the
completion of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - (Version 2), the emissions
estimation methodology was modified by Task Group II.  Therefore, the
emissions totals for U.S. natural particulate do not agree with other
published NAPAP research results.

     The 1985 Canadian NAPAP Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory is an
annual database of Canadian provincial level natural particulate emissions.
These data represent the alkaline species, calcium, magnesium, sodium and
potassium and total particulates from paved and unpaved road travel and wind
erosion from agricultural crops.  The Canadian natural particulate emissions
were calculated by Environment Canada following the same methodologies that
were applied to the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.

     The 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory - (Version 2) is the
combined United States and Canadian database that has been spatially and
temporally allocated and resolved into the various species components.  This
form of the emissions inventory includes natural particulate emissions data
for both the United States and Canada.  The 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions
Inventory Version 2 is the database that will be used for the NAPAP acid
deposition assessment studies.

     The term "annual inventory" is used periodically throughout this report
to represent the combined United States and Canadian annual database of point,
area and natural particulate sources.  The term "modelers' inventory" is used
to represent the combined United States and Canadian modelers' inventory data.
These terms are qualified as necessary to represent individual components of
the combined inventories.  This informal terminology has been adopted for
brevity and is limi'ted to instances where its use would not be confusing.
                                      xix

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                               EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

     The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was
established by Congress in 1980 (Title VII of P.L. 96-294) to coordinate and
expand research on problems posed by acid deposition in and around the United
States.  A fundamental objective of the NAPAP research was to investigate
emissions sources that may contribute to acid deposition.  Complete and
accurate inventories of acid deposition precursors are necessary to support
acid deposition assessment studies and studies of source-receptor
relationships  using sophisticated atmospheric transport and transformation
models.  The NAPAP Task Group I on Emissions and Controls has achieved this
objective by developing historical and current inventories of acid deposition
precursor emissions.  This report discusses the development of the current
emissions inventory for the base year 1985.  The Environmental Protection
Agency Office of Research and Development (EPA ORD) was responsible for
developing the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.

     The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory was developed in two phases.  The
first phase involved data collection and quality assurance of source
characteristics and emissions totals on an annual basis.  The second phase of
the inventory development involved the generation of a modelers' emissions
inventory based on statistical representations of the spatial and temporal
distribution of annual emissions and on representative chemical and physical
speciation profiles for particular source types.

     The U.S. anthropogenic emissions data were collected through the existing
EPA emissions inventory data system known as the National Emissions Data
System (NEDS').  Annual emissions estimates for natural sources of alkaline
particulates for the United States were developed- by NAPAP specifically for
application to the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  Environment Canada
provided estimates of annual emissions  for both Canadian anthropogenic and
natural alkaline particulate sources.

     The spatial, temporal and speciation allocation of the annual emissions
totals was accomplished with a computer program known as the Flexible Regional
Emissions Data System (FREDS).  The output of the FREDS processing effort was
formatted so that it can be used as input to complex regional transport and
chemical transformation models such as  the Regional Acid Deposition Model
(RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM).

     Both the annual and modelers' anthropogenic emissions inventories are
divided into two major categories, point and area sources.  Point sources have
precise location data and emit at least  100 tons per year (TPY) of any of the
criteria pollutants: sulfur dioxide (802), nitrogen oxides (NOX), volatile
organic compounds (VOC), total suspended particulates (TSP) or carbon monoxide
(CO).  The U.S.  point source emissions  and facility data were collected by
state agencies using the NEDS methodology.  In  this methodology, process-level

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emissions were estimated directly for each source.  The emissions estimates
were based on source tests, emission factors or material balance.  In some
cases, when no other information was available, engineering judgment was used
to estimate the emissions.  The assumptions upon which the emissions estimates
were based are indicated by an emissions estimation methodology code.

     In addition to the five EPA criteria pollutants, other pollutants also
play an important role in the acid deposition process.  Thus, emissions
estimates for primary sulfate particulate (S0^~^), hydrogen chloride (HC1),
hydrogen fluoride (HF) and ammonia (NH^) were developed by EPA to augment the
1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  These additional pollutant estimates were
developed through the application of emission factors, which were developed by
NAPAP specifically for this effort.  Environment Canada supplied estimates for
the emissions of S0^~^ and NHj.  Emissions estimates for HF and HC1 for
Canadian sources were calculated by EPA by the application of SCC-level
emission factors for the Canadian inventories.

     Area sources include both mobile sources and point sources too small and
too numerous to list individually.  U.S. area source emissions were calculated
by EPA using the NEDS methodology.  Environment Canada calculated area source
emissions for Canada following a similar methodology.  Total annual fuel use
or operating rate data were allocated to the county or provincial level based
on the distribution of a representative surrogate to develop the annual area
source inventories.  Population, housing and land use are examples of the
spatial surrogates that were used to allocate the national activity rate data
to the county or provincial level.  Finally, emission factors developed by EPA
were applied to the allocated activity levels to produce annual emissions
estimates for each area source category.

     Annual emissions estimates of natural sources of alkaline particulares
were developed independently by NAPAP Task Group II and Environment Canada.
The specific categories of natural particulate that are included in the 1985
NAPAP Emissions Inventory are wind erosion and unpaved roads from the United
States and Canada and dust devils in the United States.

     The point, area and natural source annual emissions files were processed
independently through the FREDS system.  The atmospheric process models
require emissions for specific geographical areas, known as grids, that
correspond to the resolution of meteorological processes represented in the
model.  The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory was allocated to grids that are
defined by 1/4° longitude and 1/6° latitude.

     The models also require emissions input for each hour of the model
simulation periods.  The FREDS system produced 24 hourly values for emissions
for each of 12 temporal scenarios.  The 12 temporal scenarios represent a
typical weekday, Saturday and Sunday in each of the four seasons.

     Models such as RADM and ADOM include chemical transformation mechanisms
that simulate the time-dependent reaction processes that convert emitted
chemical species into stable product chemical species.  The FREDS system also

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split the annual VOC emissions estimates into 32 chemical species classes; the
annual NOX estimates into nitrogen dioxide (NC^) and nitric oxide (NO); and
the TSP estimates into four reactive alkaline species components, including
sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) in three particle
size fractions (0.0 - 2.5 micron, 2.5 - 10.0 micron and total).  The total
particulate emissions were also split into fractions representing the
0.0-2.5 micron, 2.5-6.0 micron and 6.0-10.0 micron size ranges.
OBJECTIVE
     The objective of this report is to present information to assist users of
the annual inventory, the Canadian inventory and the modelers' inventory.  The
report describes the data collection efforts, emissions summaries of both the
annual and modelers' inventories, methodologies and data sources used to
estimate and allocate the annual emissions estimates to the gridded, hourly
and speciated modelers' inventory and the quality assurance and quality
control procedures that were in effect during the data collection and
processing effort.  Information concerning the formats of the modelers'
inventory data tapes and information required to access the inventory data are
presented.  Tape totals are provided so that inventory users can verify that
they are reading the inventory tapes correctly.


1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORIES
     The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory research program was conceived to
fulfill two separate but related objectives.  The first objective was to
develop an inventory of acid deposition precursor emissions to assist NAPAP
researchers in assessing acid deposition problems in and around the United
States.  The second objective was to develop an emission inventory suitable
for use as input to regional transport models.  The annual emissions inventory
and the modelers' emissions inventory were developed to achieve these separate
objectives.

Annual Emissions Inventory

     An annual inventory of emissions and facility data representing point and
area source SCC-level  operating characteristics was developed to provide
information for assessing acid deposition problems.  The annual point and area
source inventory provides a database that can be used to determine the
relative contributions of acid deposition precursor emissions from various
industries and activities within various geopolitical regions.  The 1985 NAPAP
Emissions Inventory covers the 48 contiguous states, the District of Columbia
and 10 Canadian provinces.  Emissions data were provided by Environment Canada
for the two Canadian territories (the Yukon and Northwest territories),
although those data were not subject to extensive quality assurance and
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quality control and were not processed to the resolved formats for use in the
models.

     The U.S. point source facilities and emissions data were prepared by the
state agencies and delivered to NAPAP through the EPA Regional Offices.  NAPAP
worked closely with the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS)
to process the point source data through NEDS.  The Canadian point source
facilities and emissions data were prepared by the provinces and were
delivered to NAPAP through Environment Canada.  In some cases, the provincial
governments were unable to provide VOC emissions estimates for Canadian point
sources.  Estimates of VOC emissions were calculated by EPA for those sources
from operating rate data and standard NAPAP emission factors.

     Emissions and facility data were requested for point source facilities
that emitted at least 100 TPY of S02, NOX, VOC, TSP or CO during the 1985 base
year.  An extensive quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program was
conducted during the inventory development to correct erroneous, questionable,
or missing data elements for a list of high priority point source data items.
The QA/QC effort focused on points that emitted at least 25 TPY that were
located at plants that emitted at least 1,000 TPY of any of the three NAPAP
priority pollutants S02, NOX and VOC.

     Some states were able to provide emissions data for facilities that had
emissions of the EPA criteria pollutants below the target reporting levels.
Those emissions records were removed from the point source inventory and
included as county-level area source categories 96-99 for minor point sources.
The combined U.S. and Canadian point source inventory includes emissions and
facility data for 9,175 plants and 66,308 points with positive emissions
values.

     An annual inventory of area source emissions was developed to account for
emissions from sources that were not included in the point source inventory.
The area source inventory includes emissions from true area sources, such as
mobile sources, and stationary sources that are too numerous and too small to
be treated as point sources, such as residential space heating.

     The area source inventory was developed through a process quite different
from the point source inventory.  Area source emissions estimates were
calculated by multiplying the activity rate for each area source category by
an emission factor.  The activity rate data for the United States were
developed through statistical procedures based on distributions of national
activity rate.  Activity rate data for Canadian area sources were generally
available from the surveys compiled annually by Statistics Canada on a
provincial basis.  The annual inventory includes 97 area source categories,
and the 1985 Canadian National Inventory included 156 area source categories.
Eighteen of the Canadian area source categories were inconsistent with U.S.
area source categories and were removed from the database during development
of the modelers' inventory.  An additional nine Canadian area source
categories were included in a natural sources database and treated separately.
Thus, the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory includes 129 Canadian area

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source categories.  These categories represent small stationary combustion
sources, mobile sources, solvent use, gasoline marketing, livestock management
and fertilizer application and fugitive releases from some important
industrial categories that are not completely accounted for in the point
source inventory.

     Many of the hydrocarbon speciation profiles include speciation factors
for methane.  The VOC emissions estimates were augmented to account for the
appropriate missing amount of methane to ensure that the speciation factors
were applied consistently to total hydrocarbon (THC).  Emissions estimates of
THC were also included in the annual emissions inventory.  Several of the VOC
emission factors were developed from source tests that used flame ionization
detection (FID) as the measurement technique.  The FID technique did not
respond to aldehydes in the sample and therefore the VOC estimates for those
sources represent hydrocarbons minus aldehydes.  The estimates of VOC and THC
were also augmented to account for the contribution of aldehydes when
appropriate.  Environment Canada supplied estimates of THC for the area source
categories.  The THC estimates were augmented for  aldehydes and VOC estimates
were calculated from the THC estimates.  Environment Canada was not able to
supply VOC emissions estimates for many of their point sources.  VOC emissions
were calculated by EPA for the Canadian point sources that were missing VOC
emissions.

     Annual estimates of natural alkaline particulate emissions from unpaved
roads, wind erosion and dust devils were developed for application to the 1985
NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 by NAPAP Task Group II.  Task
Group I converted these emissions estimates into formats that were consistent
with the anthropogenic area source emissions inventories.  Environment Canada
supplied estimates for the alkaline particulate for the unpaved roads and wind
erosion categories, but since dust devils are not common in Canada, emissions.
for that category were not estimated.

Modelers' Inventory

     The annual point and area source inventory was used as input to a
computer program known as the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS).
FREDS converts the annual total emissions data into a modelers' inventory of
emissions in a gridded, hourly and speciated format that can be used as input
to  regional atmospheric transport models.  The regional transport models are
used to study source-receptor relationships.  The principal regional model
developed in the United States is known as the Regional Acid Deposition Model
(RADM).  Another model known as the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM)
has been developed by Environment Canada.  Both models use the 1985 NAPAP
Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 as the basis  for emissions input data.
Both RADM and ADOM are event-specific analysis tools  that require daily inputs
of  meteorological and emissions data to simulate specific deposition events.

     Resource and logistical constraints prevented  the collection of daily
emissions data for the entire base year of record (1985).  Therefore, the  1985
NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions Inventory Version  2 was constructed  to  represent  a

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typical weekday, Saturday and Sunday for each of the four seasons.  The
modelers' inventory is divided into 12 temporal scenarios.  The 12 scenarios
are the typical weekdays, Saturday and Sunday in each of the four seasons.
Each of the 12 scenarios is resolved into a grid pattern which covers the
entire contiguous United States and Canada to the border between the Canadian
provinces and the northern territories at 60  north latitude.

     The RADM includes a chemical reaction mechanism to simulate the
transformation of primary emissions into stable product species during
transport.  Emissions are reported to the NEDS system as estimates of S02,
NOX, VOC, CO and TSP.  These aggregated emissions are speciated as discussed
previously.  The resulting modelers' inventory includes emissions estimates
for 49 chemical species and particulate size classes in addition to the 10
species included in the annual inventory.  Environment Canada provided
estimates for the four reactive alkaline species.  The FREDS program was
modified to perform only the size fraction speciation for the Canadian
particulate data.

     The original VOC, THC, TSP and NOX estimates were retained through the
execution of FREDS.  More detail concerning the chemical speciation
methodologies are presented in a later section of this report.

     Fifty-nine species are included in the modelers' inventory.  Emissions
data are distributed on grids 1/4° longitude by 1/6° latitude (approximately
20 km by 20 km).  There are 63,000 grid cells in the NAPAP domain, including
Canada.  Each temporal scenario contains 24 hourly values in Greenwich Mean
Time (GMT) for a total of 288 hourly values.  The modelers'  inventory has more
than a billion data elements.

     The spatial allocation process for point sources was based on the
location of each facility as represented by the facility's latitude and
longitude coordinates.  The location coordinates were used to place the
facility in the appropriate grid cell.  Physical stack parameters are included
for the largest point sources so that the emissions can be represented in the
appropriate vertical grid cell of the models based on plume  rise calculations.
Area sources were spatially allocated from the county or province to the  grid
system by applying a distribution function of a related activity.  Typical
surrogate spatial distributions were formulated from U.S. and Canadian census
statistics for population and housing, from national Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) employment statistics, or from land use statistics
developed from the LANDSAT satellite data.

     The annual emissions totals were temporally allocated to hourly
resolution for 12 temporal scenarios representing a typical  weekday, Saturday
and Sunday in each of four seasons.  The temporal allocation of U.S. point
sources was accomplished by applying facility or process-level operating
schedule data from the process level records.  These operating data were  used
to specify seasonal, daily and hourly temporal profiles.  Environment Canada
provided plant-level operating rate data for the Canadian point sources.
                                      XXV

-------
     Plant-specific seasonal factors were developed for U.S. utility sources
from data provided by the Department of Energy.   Average process-level
temporal allocation factors were used as defaults to represent the daily and
diurnal distribution of United States' utility emissions.  These average
temporal profiles were based on actual operating data from a subset of utility
sources from the Northeast.  These default temporal allocation factors were
based on typical diurnal load curves.  When operating schedule data were not
available, continuous operation was assumed for point sources in both the
United States and Canada.

     The temporal allocation of all U.S. area sources was based on the NAPAP
temporal allocation file.  The temporal allocation file defines typical
operating schedule data for specific area source categories.  The temporal
factors include seasonal, daily and hourly factors that were applied to the
annual gridded emissions estimates. Environment Canada provided temporal
allocation factors for Canadian area sources at the source category level.
The temporal allocation for area sources resulted in 24 hourly emissions
records for each of the 12 temporal scenarios, for each grid cell in the NAPAP
inventory region.

     Speciation of VOC, NOX and TSP for both point and area sources was based
on representative speciation profiles for each SCC category.  These speciation
profiles were developed from a variety of data sources.  Each of the profiles
is generic for a particular point source process or area source activity.
Thus, they may not truly represent the speciation distributions of individual
sources.  The use of these profiles is consistent with the level of resolution
of the other allocation factors used by FREDS but may not be applicable for
other more detailed analyses that investigate specific sources located in
specific regions of the country.

     The individual species for the particulate fractions and for NOX were
retained throughout the FREDS execution.  The speciation profile data for VOCs
include 556 individual chemical species.  These species profile data were
aggregated into profiles that include 32 representative chemical classes based
on common chemical reactivity for application to the regional models.

     To accommodate efficient data processing of this volume of data, the area
source file was separated during FREDS processing into two files, one
containing the TSP, SC>2, and additional NAPAP species, and the other
containing the NOX and VOC species.  During the aggregation of the area source
emissions estimates into the temporally resolved, gridded format, the
association of emissions magnitudes to SCC category cannot be maintained due
to file size constraints.  One of the primary contributors to VOC emissions  is
mobile sources.  Highway gasoline vehicle VOC emissions are affected by
additional evaporative  losses that are dependent on temperatures.  Since the
magnitude of evaporative emissions is heavily dependent on temperature during
very warm summer simulations, a replacement mobile source inventory was
developed in a format that allows for temperature adjustments.  To facilitate
the processing of this  additional mobile source inventory, the area source
file was further split  into mobile and nonmobile files.  The resulting
inventory was produced  in a set of 48 area source files  to cover the
12 temporal scenarios.  The point source data are in a single file.

                                     xx vi

-------
     The county-level and provincial-level estimates for natural alkaline
particulate emissions were allocated to the modelers' inventory formats by
FREDS.  Task Group II provided the temporal allocation information required
for the natural particulate emissions from the wind erosion and dust devil
categories.  These categories were spatially allocated by FREDS by the
application of the land area spatial surrogate.  Allocation factors were
already available for application to the unpaved roads categories.  The
alkaline species data were provided by Task Group II as total alkaline
fractions and these estimates were speciated into their reactive components by
the application of factors in AP-A2.

Modelers' Inventory Processing

     FREDS processing of the modelers' inventory was performed in a sequential
order starting with area sources and proceeding to point sources.  Figure 1
presents a flow diagram of the major components of FREDS.  While the component
modules of FREDS can theoretically be executed in any desired order, the
preference for area source processing is HCPREP, MDEM, SM, SAM, TAM and MIP.
The preferred order of processing for point sources is HCPREP, MDEM, TAM, SAM,
SM and MIP.

       A number of modifications have been made to the FREDS code since the
processing of the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  One set of modifications
was made to provide a more accurate resolved inventory.  Another group of
modifications was made to facilitate data processing, increase the efficiency
of the computer storage and improve the input and output aspects of the
processing.  These modifications and enhancements are described in greater
detail in Section 5 of this report.-                     ,

     Additional FREDS modifications were required to accommodate the
processing of Canadian anthropogenic emissions data and the natural alkaline
particulate data.  The specific changes that were made to accommodate these
special needs are discussed in further detail in later sections of this
report.

Quality Assurance and Quality Control

     Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities were major
efforts for both the annual and resolved inventories.  The annual inventory
was collected through a cooperative effort involving EPA and the states.
Early in the inventory planning, a decision was made to involve the state and
provincial agencies to the maximum extent possible.  The U.S. NAPAP Emissions
Inventory Version 2 was developed as a state supported national inventory.
The 1985 U.S. NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2 is the first inventory  to be
developed with significant and repeated input from state agencies.  Thus, the
inventory is considered the most complete and accurate national inventory of
air pollutants ever assembled.
                                     XXVI1

-------
1965  NEDS Annual Point  Source
           Emissions
                          1985 NEDS Annual Area Source
                                    Emissions
  • Hydrocarbon
 Adjustment  Factors'
Hydrocarbon Preprocessor
       (HCPREP)
                                   1985 NAPAP Annual
                                   Emissions Inventory
                                       Model Data
                                        Extraction
                                     Module (MDEM)
  • Spatial  Allocation
        Factors
         Spatial
        Allocation
      Module  (SAM)
  • Temporal  Allocation
         Factors
        Temporal
        Allocation
      Module (TAM)
  • Speciation Factors
      for  TSP.  NOX.
      Hydrocarbons
       Speciation
         Module
          (SM)
                                       Module  Input
                                       Preprocessor
                                          (MIP)
                                  Quality Control
                                      Module
                                      (QCM)
                                 Diagnostic / QC
                                  Report.  FREDS
                                   Intermediate
                                       Files
                                  1985  NAPAP Modelers' —I
                                    Emissions Inventory
               Figure  1.   Simplified Diagram of FREDS  Processing.
                                       XXVI11

-------
     The state annual inventories were submitted to EPA and subjected to
various automated and manual quality control checks.  As problems or questions
were identified, procedures were implemented to refer these problems back, to
the state agencies for comment and/or correction.  Each state was given two
opportunities to review its entire point source inventory.  The state-level
area source inventories developed by EPA were also returned to the states for
review on one occasion.

     Specific QA/QC procedures applied to the state annual inventories
included checks for completeness, range checks, a separate analysis of utility
records, an emissions confirmation by the facilities for the largest emitters
and identification of missing values for a list of priority data items.  All
questions were referred back to the participating state agencies for
resolution.  Although most problems were resolved through the state agencies,
EPA corrected remaining problems involving missing and erroneous data.  Many
of the additional corrections were addressed by the substitution of default
parameters.  Specifically, default values were generated for SCC-level records
for fuel parameters, stack parameters and location data.

     The Canadian emissions data were supplied to NAPAP through Environment
Canada, which was primarily responsible for the quality control and quality
assurance of the Canadian emissions data.  The QA activities in Canada
involved interaction between the provincial environment ministries and
Environment Canada, using procedures similar to the EPA-state interaction in
the United States.  Additional data quality checks were performed by EPA to
ensure that the data were formatted correctly for processing the modelers'
inventories.

     During the generation of the inventory, a comprehensive quality assurance
and quality control program was performed on the FREDS code and the FREDS
supporting data files.  As can be 'seen in Figure 1,_ the execution of FREDS
requires four external supporting files.  These supporting files contain the
information necessary to match allocation factors to the appropriate SCC
descriptors for the various processes included in the inventory.  The FREDS
intermediate output files and the final modelers' inventory were also subject
to quality assurance review.

     After each processing step, the Quality Control Module (QCM) was executed
to total the output emissions records to ensure that emissions were neither
lost nor gained during the processing step.  The results of the execution of
each step for point and area sources as well as the results of the QCM
executions are presented in later sections of this report.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS
     The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory contains point source emissions and
facility data for 9,175 plants and 66,308 points in the United States and
Canada and area source emissions estimates for 3,073 U.S. counties and
10 Canadian provinces.  Emissions estimates are also provided for natural
sources of total suspended particulate for both countries. Emissions totals
for the pollutants included in the annual inventory are summarized in Table 1
by country.  The emission totals for S(>2, NOX and VOC are listed by major

                                     xxix

-------
                  1.   198S NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY DATA SUMMARIES


                                      EMISSIONS MAGNITUDE,  103 TPY

                HIT                UNITED STATES          CANADA

r»vx
VOC
THC
TSP
CO
so/^
NH3
HC1
HF
TSP(natural)
23,146
20,541
22,072
24,848
8,383
60,938
490
1,685
693
108
50,253
4,059
2,081
2,453
2,763
2,022
11,919
100
213
12
5
29,528
          NOTE:  Emissions totals for Canada reflect emissions that
          have been included in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory -
          Version 2.  The Canadian National Emissions Inventory
          contains additional source categories and differences
          exist between the two inventories.
source categories in Table 2.  Emissions magnitudes are express'ed in units of
U.S. short tons in this report.  All references to the emissions data
expressed as tons per year TlPY) represent short tons,  f c/r  | ,* .     ;   <;
                                                                          '
     The distribution of the major criteria pollutants among point and area
sources, by country, is shown in Figure 2.  Emissions of 502 result primarily
from point sources; NOX emissions are nearly evenly split between point and
area sources; and VOC emissions result primarily from area sources.  Natural
sources of particulate represent the bulk of the TSP emissions.

     The distribution of point source emissions by plant size is shown in
Tables 3 and 4.  Large emission sources contribute most of the S02 emissions
and much of the NOX emissions, while VOC emissions are distributed more evenly
across plant size.  The large S02 and NOX emissions sources are primarily
large utilities, large industrial boilers and nonferrous smelters.  These
sources typically emit pollutants at elevated temperatures from tall stacks.
These conditions contribute to differences  in the vertical distribution of
emissions and have  important consequences related to the potential for the
transport of these  emissions over large distances.

     Complex atmospheric transport models were developed to study the
source-receptor relationships involved in acid deposition problems.  These
models are episodic analysis tools.  They are structured to simulate specific
synoptic scale events that occur on  time  scales of 3 to 4 days.  The annual
emissions inventory provides insufficient resolution for application to these
models.  The annual inventory was allocated to smaller spatial and temporal
                                      XXX

-------
                 so
   U.S.  Point
    77.8%
Canadian Area
    6.8%
                                  Canadian Area
                                     1.5%

                                Canadian Point
                                    13.5%
                         US. Area
                           7.2%
                                            U.S. Area
                                             81.2%
                 NO
X
            U.S. Area
              48.9%
                              U.S.  Point
                               41.9%
                                 Canadian Point
                                      2.4%
                  U.S.  Natural
                    55.7%
                                 VOC
                                TSP
                                             Canadian  Point
                                                 0.6%
                                                 U.S. Point
                                                   8.8%


                                                 Canadian Area
                                                     9.2%

                                               Canadian Point
                                                   0.8%
Canadian Area
    1.7%
   U.S. Area
     7.1%
   U.S. Point
      2.2%
                                          ^7 Canadian Natural
                                                  32.7%
      Figure 2.  1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Distribution of
                 Emissions by Source Category for S02, NOX, VOC and TSP.
                                 xxxi

-------
TABLE 2. 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY VERSION 2 - POINT AND AREA SOURCE
          EMISSIONS BY MAJOR CATEGORY

U.S. source
Electric utilities
Industrial combustion
Commercial /residential /other combustion
Indus trial /manufacturing processes
Transportation
Other
U.S. Total:
Canadian sources
Electric utilities
Industrial combustion
Commercial /residential /other combustion
Indus trial /manufacturing processes
Transportation
Other
Canadian total:
Emissions
S02

16,055
2,679
613
2,931
864
4
23,146

819
340
69 —
2,731
99
0
4,058
(10-* tons/yr)
NOX

6,662
3,198
790
926
8,835
130
20,541

270
272
81
84
1,323
51
2,081
VOC

40
97
1,862
3,715
8,800
7,558
22,072

3
5
88
510
1,125
722
2,453
                                   XXX11

-------
TABLE 3. DISTRIBUTION OP POINT SOURCE EMISSIONS BY
         PLANT EMISSIONS SIZE CLASSES - UNITED STATES
RANGE
POLLUTANT (TONS/YR)
S02 >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

NOX >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000.
1,000-2,500
.500-1,000
100-500
1-100

VOC >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

NUMBER OF
PLANTS
171
185
215
264
460
443
1,517
5,199
8,454
74
151
167
250
539
559
1,976
4,738
8,454
1
13
40
107
300
416
2,148
5,429
8,454
PERCENT OF
PLANTS
22
22
32
32
52
52
182
622
1002
12
22
22
32
62
72
232
562
1002
02
02
02
12
42
52
252
642
1002
EMISSIONS
(TONS/YR)
14,324,652
2,916,478
1,549,716
934,231
751,074
311,776
358,283
33,928
21,180,138
J_, 310, 724
2,348,034
1,139,474
883,377
846,718
398,127
460,776
79,731
9,466,961
33,675
173,620
281,744
371,379
470,155
289,062
474,208
65,055
2,158,898
PERCENT
OF POINT
SOURCE
EMISSIONS
682
142
72
42
42
12
22
02
1002
352
252
122
92
92
42
52
12
1002
22
82
132
172
222
132
222
32
1002
PERCENT
OF TOTAL
POINT AND
AREA
SOURCE
EMISSIONS
622
132
72
42
32
12
22
02
922
162
112
6%
42
42
22
22
02
462
02
12
12
22
22
1%
22
02
102
                      XXXI11

-------
TABLE A.  DISTRIBUTION OF POINT SOURCE EMISSIONS BY
          PLANT  EMISSIONS  SIZE  CLASSES -  CANADA

RANGE
POLLUTANT (TONS/YR)
S02 >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

NOX >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500 '
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

VOC >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

NUMBER OF
PLANTS
20
17
26
38
66
51
73
430
721
2
11
7
12
44
55
222
368
721
0
1
11
11
17
19
67
595


PERCENT OF EMISSIONS
PLANTS
32
22
42
52
92
72
102
602
1002
-02
22
12
22
62
82
312
512
1002
02
02
22
22
22
32
92
832
(TONS/YR)
2,907,014
273,405
177,487
133,191
108,372
36,115
21,133
1,899
3,658,616
100,197
176,130
49,411
44,562
66,918
36,774
55,560
3,386
532,938
0
11,829
82,346
41,742
29,510
12,439
14,086
4,723

PERCENT OF
EMISSIONS
792
72
52
42
32
12
12
02
1002
192
332
92
82
132
72
102
12
1002
02
62
422
212
152
62
72
22
PERCENT
OF TOTAL
PLANT AND
AREA
SOURCE
EMISSIONS
722
72
42
32
32
12
02
02
902
52
82
22
22
32
22'
32
02
252
02
02
32
22
12
12
12
0%
             721
1002
196,675    1002
82
                        XXXIV

-------
scales for use by the regional models.  The additional speciation was performed to
provide more detailed chemical inputs for chemical reaction mechanisms that are
used to simulate the transformation of the emitted species into deposition
species.

     Examples of the emissions magnitudes of S02, NOX and VOC from the 1985 NAPAP
modelers' Inventory are shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5, respectively.  These maps
represent emissions for the typical summer weekday at 1700 GMT.  The grid pattern
displayed in these maps represents 16 contiguous grids.  A more detailed
discussion of the inventory data and interpretations of the data are presented in
Section 2 of the report.
                                       XXXV

-------
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XXXV111

-------
                                   SECTION  1

                                 INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND

     The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was authorized
by Congress under the Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 (P.L. 95-294, Title VII).
This major research program was initiated to study the potential adverse
effects of acid deposition phenomena on aquatic systems; agriculture; forests;
fish; wildlife; materials such as metals, wood, paint and masonry; and public
health and welfare.  Congress further directed that a comprehensive 10-year
research plan be developed and guided by an Interagency Task Force consisting
of representatives of 12 agencies, the directors of four national
laboratories, and four presidential appointees.  The Congressional mandate
called for a research program to identify the sources of atmospheric emissions
contributing to acid precipitation.

     The NAPAP Task. Group on Emissions and Controls (Task Group I) was charged
with developing comprehensive and accurate inventories of sources of air
pollutants important in the acid deposition process.  To achieve this
objective, the Task Group has developed historic and current inventories of
acid deposition precursor emissions.  Information about historic emissions was
required to analyze long-term trends of the acidity of preci-pitation and dry
deposition.  Up-to-date emissions inventories were required.to assess the
impact of various source types and characteristics on the emissions and
abatement of acid deposition precursors.  Up-to-date emissions inventories
were also required to develop and verify regional atmospheric process models
that simulate source-receptor relationships.

     The development of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions  Inventory
(Version 2) involved a detailed investigation of hundreds of thousands of
sources of air pollution.  These sources included stationary or point sources
such as refineries and utility boilers as well as area or dispersed sources
such as motor vehicle emissions along highways.  Analysis of these sources
included emissions estimates and documentation of physical  parameters (such as
stack height) that affect the atmospheric transport of emissions.  Since
pollutant transport plays a critical role in acid deposition, emissions
inventories must encompass geographic areas larger than those where the
acidification and deposition effects are observed.  Thus, the investigation of
acid precipitation in the northeastern United States and Canada required
                                      1-1

-------
development of emissions inventories for all states and provinces in both
countries.

     Development of up-to-date emissions inventories across such a broad
geopolitical scale has required careful planning and coordination among the
principal agencies responsible for inventory development.  Such cooperation
was explicitly anticipated in Public Law 96-294, Sections 704(b)(l) and (11),
which described the need for joint research in the United States and in other
interested nations such as Canada.

     In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's)
Office of Research and Development is responsible for completing the detailed,
current emissions inventories for NAPAP's Task Group on Emissions and
Controls.  To accomplish this objective, EPA worked closely with both state
air pollution control agencies and the state and territorial air pollution
program administrators to plan, fund, assemble and ensure the quality of the
inventory data.  The EPA and the states have the authority to collect required
emissions data under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51,
Section 51.321 - 51.323.  Environment Canada is the regulatory agency
responsible for developing Canadian national emissions inventories.  In a
manner analogous to the State-EPA partnership in the United States,
Environment Canada works with provincial environment ministries to collect
emissions data for Canadian industries.

     The  1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory was the first comprehensive, detailed
emissions database developed for NAPAP.  The 1980 work, has been used in the
interim assessment prepared by NAPAP.  This report discusses the development
of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2), which represents
the second comprehensive detailed emissions database -on. the sources of
atmospheric emissions contributing to acid precipitation.  These data'will be
used in the final assessment at the conclusion of the NAPAP research program.

OBJECTIVES

     The  goals and specifications for the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions
Inventory were developed to meet NAPAP acid deposition assessment and
atmospheric modeling objectives.  Sophisticated atmospheric transport models,
including the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition
and Oxidant Model (ADOM) will use emissions input data based on this
inventory.  These models include chemical transformation mechanisms that
simulate  time-dependent reaction processes that convert emitted chemical
species  into  the  stable product species.  The inventory will also serve as a
baseline  for  a series of projection models developed to predict emissions
trends under  various control strategies.

     To  fulfill  the  research requirements associated with NAPAP, the 1985 U.S.
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  and  the  1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory were
developed to  include emissions of  sulfur dioxide  (SC^), nitrogen oxides  (NOX),
                                      1-2

-------
volatile organic compounds (VOC), total suspended particulates (TSP), carbon
monoxide (CO), ammonia (Nl^), primary sulfate (SO^"^), hydrogen chloride (HC1)
and hydrogen fluoride (HF).  Primary sulfate emissions reported in this
document represent the amount of particulate mass present as S0^~2 and were
developed from independent emission factors for specific source types.  The
TSP emissions represent total particulate and include the primary sulfate
component.  These emissions were spatially allocated to specific geographic
areas and temporally defined as annual, seasonal, daily and hourly emissions.
The inventory included all major anthropogenic sources, both stationary and
mobile, and major natural sources of particulate matter.  In addition, the
facility data included information on the engineering design and performance
of industrial processes.

     A preliminary Version 1 of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory was
prepared in November 1988.  The Version 1 inventory included only U.S.
anthropogenic sources and was used to develop and test inventory processing
software programs that are used to convert the inventory into model input
formats.  This report discusses the development of Version 2 of the 1985 NAPAP
Modelers' Emissions Inventory, which also includes Canadian anthropogenic
sources and natural sources of alkaline particulates from both the United
States and Canada.

DEVELOPMENT

     The 1985 NAPAP emissions inventory program activities were planned to
fulfill requirements for two separate but related research activities.  One of
these research activities was the assessment of the magnitude and location of
the major sources of acid deposition precursors.  The other research activity
involved using regional atmospheric transport models to study source-receptor
relationships.  As mentioned above, two inventories were* developed to achieve
the separate requirements of these groups.  An annual inventory was developed
to fulfill the requirements of the assessment activities. The annual
assessment inventory includes both the 1985 U.S.-NAPAP Emissions Inventory
(Version 2) and the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  These annual
inventories were then processed to develop the 1985 Modelers' Emissions
Inventory, (Version 2), which includes both countries, for use as input to the
regional models.

     Throughout this report, emissions summaries are presented in units of
tons per year to be consistent with standard emissions reporting procedures.
During the speciation of the hydrocarbons, the tons units were converted into
moles to provide direct input for chemical processes included in the
application models.  The molecular weights of each of the major species
included in the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2) are
listed in Table 1-1.  To convert the VOC species from moles to tons, weighted
species class average molecular weights were calculated for each speciation
profile.  Because of the complexity involved in converting these emissions
                                      1-3

-------
between tons and moles, tabular summaries are provided in the Appendix A
tables for both units for the 32 hydrocarbon species classes.
       TABLE 1-1.  MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF SPECIES REPRESENTED IN THE 1985
                   NAPAP MODELERS' EMISSIONS INVENTORY VERSION 2

Species
S02
NOX
MO
N02
VOC
THC
CO
S04~2
NH3
HF
HC1
Represented
as
S02
N02
N02
N02
NA
NA
CO
SOA~2
NH3
HF
HC1
Molecular
weight
64.06
46.01
46.01
46.01
NA
NA
28.01
96.06
17.03
20.01
36.46
NA not applicable see discussion above.


1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2)

     This annual inventory of emissions and facility data representing point
and area source (SCC) level operating characteristics was developed to provide
information to be used in assessing acid deposition problems.  The annual
point and area source inventories provide databases that can be used to
determine the relative contributions of acid deposition precursor emissions
from various industries and activities within various geopolitical regions.
The 1985 U.S. NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2) covers the 48 contiguous
States and the District of Columbia and the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions
Inventory covers the 10 Canadian provinces.  Emissions data were also provided
by Environment Canada for the two Canadian territories.  These data were not
subject to extensive quality assurance and quality control and were not
processed to the resolved formats for use in the models, since they are not  in
the NAPAP domain.

     The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2) was developed through  two
distinct processes.  Development of the point source inventory was a
cooperative effort between NAPAP, the state air pollution control agencies,
the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators, the EPA
                                      1-4

-------
Regional Offices, the EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
(OAQPS), the Canadian Provincial Governments and Environment Canada.  The U.S.
area source inventory was developed by EPA following standard procedures
included in the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), and the Canadian area
source inventory was developed in a similar fashion by Environment Canada.

     The U.S. point source facilities and emissions data were prepared by the
state agencies and delivered to NAPAP through the EPA Regional Offices.  NAPAP
worked closely with OAQPS to process the point source data through the
existing NEDS.  Canadian point source facilities and SC>2 and NOX emissions
data were generally prepared by the provinces and delivered to NAPAP through
Environment Canada.  In some cases, provincial governments were unable to
provide VOC emissions estimates for Canadian point sources, and in such cases,
EPA calculated VOC emissions estimates using operating rate data and standard
NEDS emission factors.

     Emissions and facility data were requested for point source facilities
that emitted at least 100 tons per year (TPY) of S02, NOX, VOC, TSP or CO
during the 1985 base year.  An extensive quality assurance and quality control
(QA/QC) program was conducted during the inventory development to correct
erroneous, questionable, or missing data elements for a list of high priority
point source data items.  The QA/QC effort focused on points that emitted at
least 25 TPY that were located at plants emitting at least 1,000 TPY of any of
the three NAPAP priority pollutants, which include S02, NOX and VOC.

     An annual inventory of area source emissions was developed to provide
estimates of emissions from sources that were not included in the point source
inventory.  The area source inventory includes emissions from true area
sources, such as mobile sources, and stationary sources that are too numerous
and too small to be treated as point sources, such as residential space
heating.

     The area source inventory was developed through a process quite different
from the point source inventory.  Area source emissions estimates were
calculated by multiplying the activity rate for each area source category by
an emission factor.  In general, the activity rate data for the United States
were developed through statistical procedures based on the distributions of  .
representative surrogate indicators.  Activity rate data for Canadian area
sources were generally available from the surveys compiled annually by
Statistics Canada on a provincial basis.  The 1985 U.S. NAPAP Emissions
Inventory (Version 2) included 97 area source categories, and the 1985
Canadian National Emissions Inventory included 156 area source categories.
Eighteen of the Canadian area source categories were  inconsistent with U.S.
area source categories and were removed from the database during development
of the  1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  An additional nine Canadian
area source categories were included in a natural sources database and treated
separately.  Thus, the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2)
includes 129 Canadian area source categories.  These categories represent
                                      1-5

-------
small stationary combustion sources, mobile sources, solvent use, gasoline
marketing, livestock management and fertilizer application and fugitive VOC
releases from some important industrial sources that are not completely
accounted for in the point source inventory.

     Annual estimates of natural alkaline particulate emissions from unpaved
roads, wind erosion and dust devils were developed for application to the 1985
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2) by NAPAP Task Group II.  Task Group I
converted these emissions estimates into formats that were consistent with the
anthropogenic area source emissions inventories.  Environment Canada supplied
emissions estimates for alkaline particulates for both unpaved and paved roads
and wind erosion, but since dust devils are not common in Canada, emissions
for that category were not estimated.

1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2)

     Annual emissions were converted into a modelers' emissions inventory in a
geographically gridded, hourly and speciated format for input to the regional
atmospheric transport models, which are used to study source-receptor
relationships.  The principal regional model developed by NAPAP is known as
the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM).  Another model known as the Acid
Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) was developed by Environment Canada in
cooperation with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the Electric Power
Research Institute, and West Germany's Umweltbundesamt (Federal Office of the
Environment).  Both the RADM and ADOM models will use the 1985 NAPAP Modelers'
Emissions Inventory (Version 2) as emissions input data.  Both models are
event-specific analysis tools that require daily inputs of meteorological and
emissions data to simulate specific deposition events.

     The Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) was developed to
convert the annual emissions inventories into a format suitable for use as
input to these regional atmospheric transport models.  This computer program
accomplishes the spatial, temporal and speciation allocation of the annual
emissions and formats the output for use in these models.  Further data
processing is required to use these emissions data in specific application for
each of these regional models.

     Resource and logistical constraints prevented the collection of daily
emissions data for the entire base year of record (1985).  Therefore, the  1985
NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2) was constructed to represent a
typical weekday, Saturday and Sunday for each of the four seasons.  The
modelers' inventory is divided  into twelve temporal scenarios, one
representing each of the day types.  Each of the twelve scenarios is resolved
into a grid pattern which covers the entire contiguous United States and
Canada to 60° north latitude.

     Each of the regional transport models includes a chemical reaction
mechanism to simulate the transformation of primary emissions into stable
                                      1-6

-------
product species during transport.  Emissions are reported in the annual
inventory system as estimates of 862, NOX» VOC, CO and TSP.  Emissions of
ammonia and primary sulfate were also reported at the annual level in Canada.
These aggregated emissions are speciated so that the modelers'  inventory
includes emissions estimates of NC*2 and NO, 32 chemical classes of
hydrocarbons and three size fractions of four reactive components of alkaline
particulate species in addition to S02 and CO.  Environment Canada provided
estimates for the four reactive alkaline species and FREDS was modified to
perform only the size fraction speciation for the Canadian particulate data.

     The original VOC and NOX estimates are retained through the execution of
FREDS, and VOC is augmented for the presence of methane and aldehydes when
appropriate to provide an estimate of total hydrocarbon (THC).  Environment
Canada provided emissions estimates for THC for the Canadian area source
categories.  Estimates of VOC emissions were calculated from these THC
estimates for the Canadian area source categories by FREDS.  Canadian THC
emissions were augmented for the presence of aldehydes as appropriate.  The
chemical speciation methodologies are discussed in greater detail later in
this report.

     The chemical mechanism included in the RADM requires inputs for four
additional species that are not included in EPA's list of criteria pollutants.
These species are hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HC1), ammonia
(NH-j), and primary particulate sulfate (S0^~ ).  Emissions estimates for these
four additional species were calculated by applying SCC-level emission factors
to the operating rate and activity rate data included in the annual point and
area source inventories.  Environment Canada provided emissions estimates for
NH^ and primary sulfate.  Emissions estimates for HF and HC1 were calculated
by EPA by the application of SCC-level emission factors to the Canadian
inventories.

     The grid pattern used to distribute the emissions data is defined by grid
cells that are 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude (approximately 20
km by 20 km).  There are 63,000 grid cells in the NAPAP grid system, including
Canada.  Each temporal scenario contains 24 hourly values that represent the
time of the day in GMT for a total of 288 hourly values for each pollutant in
each grid cell.  The complete 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory
(Version 2) includes more than one billion data elements.

ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT

     The remainder of this report describes the 1985 NAPAP Annual and
Modelers' Emissions Inventories and the methodologies used to develop them.
Section 2 presents an overview of the 1985 NAPAP emissions data.  Section 3
describes the procedures used to collect and verify the emissions and facility
data for the U.S. Annual Anthropogenic Emissions Inventory.  Section 4
discusses the development and application of emission factors used to develop
the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2).  Section 5 presents
                                      1-7

-------
an overview of the development and quality assurance of the modelers'
emissions data.  Section 6 describes the allocation methodologies and the data
sources used to develop the allocation factor files.  A discussion of the
processing performed to complete a FREDS compatible inventory of Canadian
emissions data is presented in Section 7.  Section 7 also includes a
discussion of the QA procedures applied to the Canadian inventory as well as
data summaries specific to the Canadian inventory data.  Section 8 describes
the processing performed by Task Croup I on the natural alkaline particulate
data.  Finally, Section 9 outlines the application of the FREDS processing
software.  A basic description of FREDS is presented along with summaries of
the 1985 FREDS executions.  Information concerning the final modeling
inventory tapes is presented to assist users of the inventory.  Overviews of
the QA/QC procedures performed during specific aspects of the creation of the
1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2) are included throughout
the report.  Appendices provide greater detail on the inventory data along
with descriptive tables of default values and other peripheral data files
required by the FREDS software.
                                      1-8

-------
                                   SECTION  2

                          OVERVIEW OF EMISSIONS DATA
     An overview of Che emissions data included in Che 1985 NAPAP Emissions
Inventory Version 2 is presented in this section of the report.  The Version 2
inventory represents an update and expansion of Che 1985 NAPAP Emissions
Inventory Version 1.  The updates included in the Version 2 inventory
represent improvements for the United States anthropogenic emissions data, the
inclusion of Canadian anthropogenic emissions data and the addition of U.S.
and Canadian natural source particulate data.  The Version 2 inventory
includes point source emissions estimates from 9,175 plants and 66,308 points
in the United States and Canada.  Area source emissions are included from
3,073 counties in the United States and from 10 Provinces in Canada.
Emissions estimates from 2 Canadian territories were also provided by
Environment Canada.  The Canadian territories are outside the regional domain
of the Version 2 inventory and, therefore, are not discussed in this overview.
Alkaline particulate data from several categories representing natural
emissions sources are also discussed in this overview.
SUMMARY OF TOTAL EMISSIONS
     The annual inventory includes emissions estimates for 10 anthropogenic
pollutant species.  The pollutants included in the annual inventory are sulfur
dioxide (802), nitrogen oxides (NOX), volatile organic compounds (VOC), total
hydrocarbon (THC), total suspended particulate (TSP), carbon monoxide (CO),
primary sulfate (SO^  ), ammonia (NHj), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and hydrogen
chloride (HC1).  Emissions estimates of particulate matter from natural source
categories are also included in the annual inventory.  A high priority was
associated with the collection of a consistent set of emissions data for the
base year 1985.  Over 99 percent of the emissions and facility data included
in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory represent the base year 1985.

     The U.S. combined point and area source data are presented by EPA region
in Table 2-1.  The Canadian combined point and area source data are presented
by province in Table 2-2.  Table 2-2 includes only the emissions data for the
ten Canadian provinces.  Summaries of the U.S. combined point and area source
data are presented by state in Table 2-3, and by state and broad source
categories in Tables 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 for S02, NOX and VOC, respectively.
These tables show the regional variability of emissions from these broad
source categories.
                                      2-1

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                                                                           2-3

-------
TABLE  2-4.  ANNUAL ANTHROPOGENIC SO? EMISSIONS (103 TONS)  BY CATEGORY  BY STATE
INDUST. INOUST. OTHER PT OTHER AREA
STATE UTILITIES COMB. PROCESSES TRANSPORT SOURCE SOURCE
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Oist. of Col.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
I llinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Ma i ne
Maryland
Massachusetts
M i ch i gan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missiouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York .
N. Carolina
N. Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
S. Carolina
S. Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
542
118
60
5
68
61
59
1
527
999
0
1,035
1,475
195
102
765
76
10
212
264
401
108
103
974
16
46
33
74
102
78
409
346
144
2,194
82
2
1,189
2
145
34
804
523
24
1
131
69
932
380
137
55
14
20
39
7
8
23
0
25
54
8
125
331
62
16
59
140
51
31
34
85
21
13
69.
12
3
1
5
14
15
142
90
38
251
25
13
87
2
61
3
103
342
20
2
114
20
68
102
24
98
575
16
47
4
0
32
0
58
31
21
179
70
5
26
32
132
4
16
1
30
14
46
107
50
4
1
0
15
170
6
15
30
47
28
7
80
0
16
1
42
519
18
0
27
48
50
8
36
15
10
11
128
10
6
2
1
36
24
4
27
22
11
14
14
36
3
23
12
20
14
12
17
8
10
4
2
28
6
27
18
5
33
13
15
28
1
10
4
18
90
5
2
21
19
6
13
5
0
0
0
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
0
18
23
14
0
2
0
2
5
5
6
3
0
4
0
0
0
1
3
0
23
5
1
21
0
0
8
1
1
0
4
9
1
0
9
3
1
3
0
15
1
2
6
2
9
1
2
14
4
3
8
17
3
1
6
18
9
23
24
8
6
2
6
4
. 1
1
3
22
2
59
9
3
15
1
7
37
3
4
1
6
22
4
3
11
10
2
8
3
STATE
TOTALS
725
718
110
227
93
87
118
7
660
1,113
37
1,391
1,938
288
158
878
402
79
309
340
551
166
175
1,178
91
64
40
85
183
271
665
483
221
2,561
150
45
1,429
9
237
43
977
1,505
72
7
312
169
1,058
514
206
         TOTALS
16,054
2,847
2,763
                                                   864
189
                                                                      428
23,146
                                           2-4

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TABLE  2-5.  ANNUAL ANTHROPOGENIC NOZ EMISSIONS  (103 TONS)  BY CATEGORY  BY STATE
IHOUST.
STATE UTILITIES COMB.
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Col.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
I llinois
Indiana
Iowa '
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missiouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
N. Carolina
N. Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
S. Carolina
S. Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
195
75
49
48
114
23
30
0
254
232
0
431
459
80
138
261
184
5
68
82
245
126
40
254
25
35
61
22
63
107
120
192
106
489
82
2
461
2
82
16
198
516
53
1
76
38
317
111
92
60
41
40
167
33
5
10
0
31
47
11
104
123
26
113
69
293
13
20
17
82
22
48
26
11
9
2
3
23
97
62
48
20
89
122
15
91
2
35
3
51
906
33
1
54
25
46
43
69
INOUST. OTHER PT OTHER AREA
PROCESSES TRANSPORT SOURCE SOURCE
23
2
9
58
2
0
3
0
16
17
2
44
28
7
15
13
67
2
11
1
12
	 7
13
24
9
1
1
0
18
3
2
10
1
21
21
3
32
0
7
1
26
259
12
0
19
13
20
3
9
169
122
131
903
127
86
24
16
358
270
50
341
249
142
148
165
204
42
166
148
274
180
127
214
91
114
46
26
219
71
366
232
55
372
163
136
325
23
124
47
217
788
64
20
223
166
68
171
51
0
1
0
7
5
2
0
1
1
1
0
6
5
2
0
1
1
1
3
3
5
y
1
1
0
0
0
0
4
0
16 	
2
1
9
0
0
4
0
0
0
2
9
2
0
2
3
0
1
0
13
7
8
63
11
11
2
2
21
20
25
43
21
11
10
12
14
5
14
23
38
T7
8
17
19
6
2
3
29
6
63
17
3
37
10
15
43
3
10
6
14
33
7
3
15
29
6
20
3
STATE
TOTALS
460
248^
238
1,245
293\/
128
68
20
680
588
88 u
969
885
267
423 v
520
763
67
282
274
656
354
237
536
155'-
165^
113'
55
356
283^'
628
501
185^
1,017
398"
169
956
30
258
73 •/
508
2,512
171
25 ^
390
274
457
348
224 ^
       TOTALS
6,662
3,259
865
8,835
                                                            105
816
20,541
                                            2-5

-------
TABLE 2-6.  ANNUAL ANTHROPOGENIC VOC EMISSIONS  (103 TONS)  BY CATEGORY BY STATE
SOLVENT GASOLINE RESIDENTIAL OTHER PT OTHER AREA
STATE INDUSTRIAL EVAP MARKETING WOOD TRANSPORT SOURCE SOURCE
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Col.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missiouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
N. Carolina
N. Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
S. Carolina
S. Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
61
2
22
85
5
4
8
1
12
31
1
151
85
7
30
56
108
5
13
36
89
48
33
81
7
4
0
4
41
9
47
71
1
90
23
12
67
6
25
5
93
424
12
1
84
24
73
46
.17
74
51
50
527
55
82
13
9
183
122
15
250
132
49
46
60
59
23
73
149
209
85
47
102
9
26
14
26
174
16
330
144
7
257
50
46
237
25
69
9
99
281
25 .
11
102
73
23
108
4
18
15
11
108
14
13
3
3
50
29
4
45
23
12
11
16
20
5
21
22
38
18
11
24
4
7
5
4
31
7
55
29
3
44
17
12
41
4
15 i
3
23
82
7
2
25
18
7
19
3
24
9
15
47
19
22
5
0
23
27
'13
/ 55
I W
5
5
49
10
21
5
30
66
46
21
52
13
3
4
12
34
16
89
80
1
76
23
57
100
4
18
2
69
16
8
10
66
65
27
44
5
171
134
101
997
179
91
25
16
432
256
(50';
350
209
118
109
143
174
42
147
157
317
187
106
196
57
75
51
29
221
96
401
249
35
381
152
122
325
25
132
41
180
755
93
21
210
166
59
175
44
1
2
0
2
1
1
0
0
2
1
0
5
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
3
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
0
2
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
4
1
1
1
149
28
24
420
29
19
34
1
95
137
103
92V
57
22
43
85
254
8
17
22
56
39
52
37
73
12
8
6
94
19
64
95
13
159
75
53
131
4
103
26
69
766
24
3
85
106
116
28
15
STATE
TOTALS
498
240
223
2,185
301
231
87
30
797
604
186
947
557
214
243
410
626
105
276
416
778
423
270
494
163
126
82
_ 82
595
165
989
669
62
1,008
342
302
904
68
363
87
535
2,329
168
49
572
455
307
420
89
    TOTALS
2,159
4,632
                                      99
1,459
8,800
53      3.970
22.072
     '
        £viii<-
                                            2-6
                                              11 f   u,, k.  't (•

-------
     Separate databases were developed for point sources and area sources.
The methodologies used to develop the two databases differed markedly.  The
point source database was developed by building records for individual
processes.  The area source database was developed by disaggregating State
emissions totals to the county level based on the distribution of surrogate
indicators, such as population distribution.  Area source emissions for the
Canadian provinces were estimated directly at the provincial level.  Emissions
of 862, NOX and VOC are of primary concern for applications to acid deposition
problems.  Emissions of TSP are also of major concern in studies of acid
deposition.  Since many of the large anthropogenic sources of TSP are
controlled, TSP emissions from natural sources contribute significantly to
total TSP emissions.  The distributions of the principal pollutants among
point and area sources are quite different.  The relative distributions of the
four major pollutants by major source category by country are shown in
Figure 2-1.

     The total combined U.S. and Canadian SC>2 emissions are approximately
27,200,000 TPY.  The total NOX emissions are approximately 22,600,000 TPY, and
the total VOC emissions are approximately 24,500,000 TPY.  The breakdowns of
these emissions displayed in Figure 2-1 reveal that U.S. point sources
dominate the SC*2 emissions, and U.S. area sources dominate the NOX and VOC
emissions.  Natural sources of TSP in both the United States and Canada
represent almost 90 percent of the total TSP emissions.  Overall the
contributions to the three major pollutants from the United States is
82.4 percent, 90.8 percent and 90.0 percent of the NAPAP totals, for S02, NOX
and VOC, respectively.

     Emissions of S02 , NOX and VOC are shown by major source category for the
United States in Figure 2-2 and for Canada in Figure 2-3.  The comparison of
these two figures reveals some interesting differences in the distribution of
emissipns sources in the two countries.  The distribution of S02 emissions in
the United States is dominated by utilities, while the industrial and
manufacturing processes are the largest category of S02 emissions in Canada.
Utilities also contribute a larger percentage of NOX emissions in the United
States than in Canada.  In contrast, the percentage of NOX emissions from
transportation sources is higher in Canada.  In general, the distributions of
the other major source categories for S02 and NOX are very similar between the
two countries.  The differences in the national distributions of S02 and NOX
can be explained largely by the widespread use of hydroelectric power
generation in Canada.  The differences in the distributions of VOC in the two
countries are not as apparent but are probably largely attributable to
differences in the manufacturing sectors of the economies in the two
countries.
     Tables 2-7 and 2-8 list the point source emissions of S02» NOX, and VOC
categorized by emissions magnitude ranges for the United States and Canada,
respectively.  In both national data sets, S02 and NOX emissions are dominated
by a small number of very large emissions sources.  These distributions
reflect the dominance of large fuel burning sources and industrial process
sources on total S02 and NOX emissions.  The large sources in the United
States are primarily large coal fired utilities and the large sources in
Canada are coal burning utilities and nonferrous smelters.  The plant-level
magnitude of VOC emissions is distributed more evenly across the emissions
                                      2-7

-------
                   so
   U.S. Point
     77.8%
Canadian Area
    6.8%
                                    Canadian  Area
                                        1.5%

                                  Canadian Point
                                      13.5%
                           U.S.  Area
                             7.2%
                                               U.S. Area
                                                 81.2%
                   NO
X
                                U.S. Point
                                  41.9%
                                    Canadian Point
                                        2.4%   '
             U.S. Area
               48.9%
                   U.S. Natural
                      55.7%
                                   VOC
                                   TSP
                                                Canadian  Point
                                                    0.6%
                                                     U.S. Point
                                                       8.8%


                                                     Canadian Area
                                                         9.2%

                                                  Canadian Point
                                                       0.8%
Canadian Area
    1.7%
   U.S. Area
     7.1%
    U.S. Point
      2.2%
                                                 Canadian Natural
                                                     32.7%
   Figure  2-1.   1985 MAPAP Emissions Inventory  - Distribution of U.S.  and
                  Canadian Emissions by Major Source Category.
                                          2-8

-------
                      so
  2
           Utilities
             69.42
          Other Combust.
               2.82
             Other
             0.07.

           Ind/Mfg Proc.
               12.72

       Transportation
             3.7Z
Ind. Combustion
     11.62
                                  Transportation
                                       39.92
                      NO
                                             Utilities
                                               0.22
   X.
       Ind/Mfg Proc.
            4.62
      Utilities
        32.42
Ind. Combustion
Other Combust.
   3.82
                                       Other
                                        0.62
                            Transportation
                                 43.02
VOC
                                                              Other Combust.
                                                                   8.47.
                                                                       Ind/Mfg Proc.
                                                                           16.97.
                                                                         Ind. Combustion
                                                                             0.42
                                       Other
                                      34.22
  Figure  2-2.  Distribution of U.S.  Anthropogenic  Emissions by  Source Type.
                                        2-9

-------
   Ind/Mfg Proc.
       67.3%
   Other Combust,
         1.7%
                    so
                                    Other
                                     0.07.
                                    Ind. Combustion
                                          8.4%
                                  Transportation
                                       2.4%
             Utilities
               20.2%
                    NO
              X
                                  Ind. Combustion
                                       0.2Z
                                     Ind/Mfg Proc.
                                        20.8%
voc
                             Other Combust!
                                  3.9%
                                                                Transportation
                                                                    45.9%
                                                                           Utilities
                                                                             0.1%
    Transportation
        63.5%
     Ind/Mfg Proc.
         4.0%
                   Utilities
                     13.0%
                                    Other
                                    2.5%

                                  Ind. Combustion
                                       13.1%
                Other Combust.
                     3.9%
Figure 2-3.
Distribution  of Canadian Anthropogenic  Emissions by Source
Type.
                                     2-10

-------
TABLE 2-7.  DISTRIBUTION OF POINT SOURCES EMISSIONS BY
            PLANT EMISSIONS SIZE CLASSES - UNITED STATES
RANGE
POLLUTANT (TONS/YR)
S02








NOX








voc







>25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

>25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100
*
>25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100
NUMBER OF
PLANTS
171
185
215
26A
460
4A3
1,517
5,199
8,454
74
151
167
250
539
559
1,976
4,738
8,454
1
13
40
107
300
416
2,148
5,429
PERCENT OF
PLANTS
22
22
32
32
52
52
182
612
1002
12
22
22
32
62
72
232
562
1002
02
02
02
12
42
52
252
642
EMISSIONS
(TONS/YR)
14,324,652
2,916,478
1,549,716
934,231
751,074
311,776
358,283
33,928
21,180,138
3,310,724
2,348,034
1,139,474
883,377
846,718
398,127
460,776
79,731
9,466,961
33,675
173,620
281,744
371,379
470,155
289,062
474,208
65,055
PERCENT OF
EMISSIONS
682
142
72
42
42
12
22
02
1002
352
252
122
92
92
42
52
12
1002 •
22
82
132
172
222
132
222
32
              8,454
1002
2,158,898
1002
                         2-11

-------
TABLE 2-8.  DISTRIBUTION OP POINT SOURCE EMISSIONS BY
             PLANT EMISSIONS  SIZE  CLASSES -  CANADA
RANGE
POLLUTANT (TONS/YR)
S02 >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

NOX >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100

VOC >25,000
10,000-25,000
5,000-10,000
2,500-5,000
1,000-2,500
500-1,000
100-500
1-100
NUMBER OF
PLANTS
20
17
26
38
66
51
73
430
721
2
11
7
12
44
55
222
368
721
0
1
11
11
17
19
67
595
PERCENT OF
PLANTS
3Z
2Z
4Z
5Z
9Z
7Z
10Z
60Z
100Z
OZ
. 2Z
1Z
2Z
6Z
8Z
31Z
5.1Z
100Z
OZ
OZ
2Z
2Z
2Z
3Z
9Z
83Z
EMISSIONS PERCENT OF
(TONS/YR) EMISSIONS
2,907,014
273,405
177,487
133,191
108,372
36,115
21,133
1,899
3,658,616
100,197
176,130
49,411
44,562
66,918
36,774
55,560
3;386
532,937
0
11,829
82,346
41,742
29,510
12,439
14,086
4,723
79Z
7Z
5Z
4Z
3Z
1Z
1Z
OZ
100Z
19Z
33Z
9Z
8Z
13Z
7Z
10Z
1Z
100Z
OZ
6Z
42Z
21%
15Z
6%
7%
2%
                 721
100Z
196,675
1002
                         2-12

-------
magnitude ranges than are S(>2 and NOX.  There are 191 plants in the United
States and Canada that emitted more than 25,000 TPY of S02 in 1985.  The
location of these plants is shown on a map of the NAPAP region in Figure 2-4.
All plants with reported emissions of less than 100 TPY of all five criteria
pollutants were removed from the United States point source file and
aggregated to area source emissions categories for minor point sources.  The
large numbers of plants listed with emission magnitudes between 1 and 100 TPY
of any of these three pollutants represent sources that emit more than 100 TPY
of one of the other criteria pollutants.

     The distribution of total U.S. and Canadian point and area sources by
stack height is summarized in Table 2-9.  The height at which emissions are
released is an important component related to the potential for long range
transport.  Stack height and other associated stack parameters are, therefore,
critical data elements for regional modeling applications.  For purposes of
this analysis, all area source emissions are assumed to be released into the
lowest height range.  More than 74 percent of the total S(>2 emissions and more
than 29 percent of the total NOX emissions are released from stacks exceeding
240 feet in height.  In general, the largest point emissions sources of 862
and NOX are also the sources that have the tall stacks.  The large fuel
burning sources and smelter operations are not large emitters of VOC, and the  f~~"
distribution of VOC by stack height is dominated by area sources and other   \/
small points that have low stack heights.  Thus, almost 99 percent of VOC
emissions are emitted at altitudes below 120 feet.

POINT-LEVEL EMISSIONS DATA

     The point source data are structured on a hierarchy of plants, individual
emission points located within plants and individual processes associated with
specific points.  For example, consider a utility plant, in which there are
four individual boilers.  Each of the boilers is capable of firing both'
residual oil and coal.  The hierarchical structure for this facility would
include a single plant identification number and four point identification
numbers, one for each boiler.  Each of the boilers would have two SCC process-
level identification numbers, for a total of 8 SCC-level records.

     Emissions magnitudes were reported at the point-level and allocated to
represent SCC-level emissions.  Many of the emissions estimates were based on
emission factors.  The application of emission factors and the allocation
factor files occur at the SCC level.  Default values for fuel characteristics
were also calculated at the SCC level.

     The point-level emissions estimates were reported by state agencies and
provincial governments.  The agencies were not limited to the use of standard
NAPAP emission factors to develop the estimated emissions.  The emissions
estimation methodologies that were allowed include stack tests, material
balance, standard AP-42 emission factors, engineering judgment and special
emission factors other than those included in AP-42.  The distribution of
total emissions by emissions estimation method code is presented in Figure 2-5
                                     2-13

-------
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                                                                   t-
                                                                   o


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                                                                   O.
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                                                                    in
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2-14

-------
S02
3,858,836
2,958,719
76,318,437
/14, 068, 937
NOX
14,590,198
1,4-71,426
2,225,657
4,334,638
VOC
!/i4,254,982
194,273
51,685
24,649
         TABLE 2-9.  1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY COMBINED U.S. AND
                     CANADA EMISSIONS BY STACK HEIGHT RANGE
                              Emissions  (tons/yr)

Stack Range (ft)

   0-120
 121-240
 241-480
    >480


                    27,204,929          22,621,919           24,525,589



                             Emissions  Percentages

Stack Range (ft)      S02                  NOX                 VOC

  0-120
121-240
241-480
   >480


                    100.002             100.002             100.002
Note:     Area sources were assumed to be entirely in the 0-120 foot height
          range.


and the distribution of utility emissions by emissions estimation method is
shown in Figure 2-6.  The majority of S02 and NOX emissions were estimated by
the use of an emission factor.  Most of the VOC emissions, were estimated by
either material balance or engineering judgment.


MODELERS' EMISSIONS INVENTORY
     One of the primary uses of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory
Version 2 is to serve as an input database for regional atmospheric transport
and transformation models.  These models are numerical representations of the
atmospheric and chemical processes that control the rates of transport and
chemical reactions that result in the formation and distribution of acid
deposition.  The models require emissions inputs that are speciated into
14.181
10.882
23.232
51.712
64.502
6.502
9.842
19.162
98.902
0.792
0.212
0.102
                                     2-15

-------
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                                        2-17

-------
chemical classes that are appropriate for the chemical mechanisms, resolved
spatially into a grid pattern and resolved temporally to represent hourly
emissions magnitudes.

     The details related to the procedures for the resolution of the annual
inventory are discussed in Sections 6 and 9 of this report.  The spatial
distribution of emissions and the distribution of emissions by season and by
time of day are discussed below.

     The seasonal distribution of the three principal pollutants for the
United States is shown in Table 2-10.  Increased emissions of SO2 in the
winter result from increased fuel combustion primarily associated with
heating.  The excess VOC emissions during the winter season result from wood
combustion from residential heating.  Residential wood combustion accounts for
more than 9 percent of U.S. area source VOC emissions, making it one of the
largest single area source VOC emissions categories.  The distribution of VOC
emissions from residential wood combustion by state was shown in Table 2-6.
NOX emissions are highly consistent across seasons.

     The diurnal distribution of the three major pollutants is represented for
point and area sources separately in Figure 2-7 and combined in Figure 2-8.
These distributions represent the diurnal emissions patterns for the typical
summer weekday scenario.  The hours of the day are specified in GMT.  The S02
emissions for this scenario are relatively constant throughout the day with a
small increase in emissions rates during the normal working hours from 10 to
24 hours GMT (6 A.M. to 8 P.M. Eastern Standard Time EST).  The diurnal
distributions of NOX and VOC which are related to mobile sources are highly
variable, with increased emissions when automobile traffic densities are the
highest.                      <

     Figures 2-9 through 2-11 show the spatial distribution of S02, NOX and
VOC emissions as emissions magnitudes in individual 1/6 degree latitude by 1/4
degree longitude inventory grid cells over the entire NAPAP inventory domain.
These plots are repeated in Appendix H to facilitate comparison and review
with other emissions maps.  The height of each of the spikes represents the
total annual inventory grid cell emissions magnitudes.  These plots clearly
show the concentration of high emissions magnitudes in the Ohio Valley and the
industrial eastern United States and southern parts of Ontario Canada.  The
isolated large spikes of 862 emissions in northern central Canada and along
the border between Arizona and Mexico represent large smelters and power
plants in those areas.

     Comparison of United States and Canadian data is complicated by the fact
that the industrial combustion sources for Canada were included in the
Canadian area source files.  The inclusion of industrial fuel sources in the
area source file results in the dispersion of these emissions.  The large
spikes seen in the Canadian regions  for S02 arise primarily from coal-fired
utilities and from process emissions from smelters.
                                      2-18

-------
TABLE 2-10.  198S NAPAP EMISSION INVENTORY
             OF SO2, NOZ AND VOC EMISSIONS.
                                                 - SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION
Area Sources

Winter
Spring
Summer
Fall

S02
28.39
24.55
22.31
24.76
Emissions
NOX
24.41
25.12
25.60
24.87
Percentages
VOC
25.17
25.20
24.91
24.71
Point Sources

Winter
Spring
Summer
Fall

S02
25.70
24.82
25.10
24.29
Emissions
NOX
25.71
24.80
24.99
24.50
Percentages
VOC
24.99
25.09
25.01
24.91
Area & Point Sources
                                                     Emissions Percentages

Winter
Spring
Summer
Fall
S02
26.02
24.80
24.85
24.33
NOX
24.99
24.98
25.32
24.71
VOC
25.16
25.19
24.92
24.73
                                     2-19

-------
                          Area Sources
         1  2  3  4 i 6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 12 23 24

                               Hour (GMT)
                                .VOC
       .302
                          Point Sources
      4 -
     S 3
    a.
    E-


     c -,
          1  2  3  4 5 6  ?  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

                               Hour (GMT)
                         .NOx
.VOC
.SO2
Figure 2-7.  1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory - Point  and Area Source

             Patterns  for S(>2, MOZ and VOC for a Typical Summer Weekday.
                               2-20

-------
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     The difference in the magnitude of emission sources of S02 relative to
the magnitude of emission sources of NOX and VOC is again apparent in the
scales selected to represent these data.  The S02 scale in these plots is a
factor of four larger than the scale for NOX and VOC.  The localized nature of
SC>2 emissions is also apparent in these plots.

     The 10 species represented in the annual inventory were resolved into an
additional 49 chemical species.  The speciation factors developed for the
modelers' inventory resulted in the resolution of NOX into NO and N02> THC
into 32 chemical classes based on reactivity and TSP into three size classes
of four reactive alkaline components and four size classes of the total
particulate.  The details of the speciation factors are presented in Section 6
of this report.

EMISSIONS SUMMARY MAPS
     Emissions data included  in the annual and modelers' inventories are shown
in maps on the following pages.  The data are presented in several formats to
demonstrate the various data  files that make up the inventory.  These maps
provide a comprehensive view  of the distribution and magnitude of the
emissions data and are intended to demonstrate the complexity of distributions
of the various NAPAP  species  on different spatial scales.

     County emissions density maps for S02> NOX and VOC are presented on
common scales in Figures 2-12 through 2-14.  Copies of these county emissions
density maps are also included in Appendix H.  The counties with, the highest
862 emissions densities are counties where a small number of very large
emissions sources are located.  The pattern of S02 emissions distributions is
consistent with the information presented in Table 2-7, which indicates that a
large percentage of the total S02 emissions are associated with a small number
of large sources.

     The distribution of the  highest ranges of county NOX and VOC emissions
densities are significantly different than the distribution of county S02
emissions densities.  The distributions of NOX and VOC emissions by source
size as shown in Table 2-7 verify the trend for a much more even distribution
of sources of NOX and VOC through the high population density areas in the
eastern United States.

     Total annual emissions magnitudes of S02, NOX, VOC, CO and TSP are
presented in Figures  2-15 through 2-19 on a grid cell basis.  The grid system
used in these plots consists  of four NAPAP inventory grids on a side.
Therefore, the emissions displayed in these maps are the total of the
emissions in 16 adjacent NAPAP inventory grids and the grid cell areas are
approximately 6400 square kilometers.  This larger grid cell spacing was
                                     2-25

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selected because the inventory grids are so small that plots on this scale are
unclear.  These maps and similar maps of other annual emissions species are
also included in Appendix H.  The plots of SC^, NOX and VOC are again plotted
on a common scale for consistency.  The other plots have been scaled to
represent even range breaks that approximate quartiles.

     These maps represent the result of the distribution of annual point
source emissions and county and province level area source emissions to the
grid cell level that is accomplished by processing the data through the
modeling inventory development software, FREDS.  These distributions serve as
the basis for the emissions input files that drive the regional acid
deposition models RADM and ADOM.

     The result of further FREDS processing of the inventory data is presented
in Figure 2-20.  This map represents the distribution of total VOC emissions
for hour 1700 GMT (1 P.M. EST) for the summer weekday temporal scenario
expressed in units of tons per hour.  The FREDS inventory processing system
also performs speciation of the VOC, NOX and TSP emissions to produce
emissions magnitudes of specific species for applications to modeling studies.
Figure 2-21 shows the distribution of hydrocarbon class 16 for hour 1700 GMT
of the summer weekday scenario.  The emissions represented in Figure 2-21
are expressed in units of thousands of moles per hour.  Hydrocarbon class  16
represents aromatic compounds with reactivity expressed by the reaction rate
constant with OH~^ radical of greater than 2.0.  Gridded emissions of specific
species  for specific hours of each of the twelve temporal scenarios represents
the finest resolution of the inventory data developed by the emissions
processing methodologies.  Figures 2-20 and 2-21 are also included in
Appendix  H.
                                      2-3A

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                                   SECTION 3

          DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OP THE 1985 ANNUAL NAPAP
                    U.S. ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY
BACKGROUND

     The goals and specifications for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory
(Version 2) were developed to meet NAPAP acid deposition assessment and
atmospheric modeling research objectives.  The NAPAP users had three main
requirements:  (1) a consistent baseline year for emissions and operating data
for sources of acid deposition precursors, (2) a complete database of the
highest possible quality, and (3) an audit trail to accurately track any
changes to the data resulting from problems or errors found in the data.  This
section describes the methods used to develop, collect and create the annual
inventory and the QC activities employed during all phases of the effort.

     The development of up-to-date emissions inventories requires the
investigation of literally hundreds of thousands of sources of air pollution.
These sources include stationary or point sources such as refineries and
utility boilers as well as dispersed or area sources such as motor vehicles
along highways.  Information for analysis of these sources.must include thfe
calculation of emissions and documentation of those engineering parameters
which affect release and transport of acid deposition precursors.  Collection
of these data involved a cooperative effort between the U.S. EPA, the States
and local air pollution control agencies.

     The remainder of this section is divided into four parts.  The first two
portions present detailed descriptions of the development, structure and
content of the States' annual emissions inventories and the quality control
program implemented at this stage.  The last two segments describe the
additional quality control and data manipulations necessary to complete the
annual inventory.

     The United States annual inventory was developed using an existing EPA
emissions inventory data system.  The methodologies implemented for 1985 are
documented in detail in two EPA reports:  Anthropogenic Emissions Data  for the
1985 NAPAP Inventory  and Area Source Documentation for the 1985 National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program Inventory.^
                                      3-1

-------
DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1985 ANNUAL NAPAP U.S. ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY

     The purpose of this section is to describe the methods which were used to
develop emissions inventory data for the 1985 NAPAP U.S. Emissions Inventory.
The National Emissions Data System (NEDS), an existing EPA inventory computer
system, was used to convey and store information for the NAPAP inventory.  EPA
and the states have modified, supplemented and improved the NEDS for the 1985
effort, so that the system is substantially different from the conventional
system used in previous years.  The organization of this discussion reflects
the bipartite NEDS file structure.  State-reported point source data are
discussed first, followed by area source data calculated by EPA.

     The point source emissions data were collected at the State-level, and
include emissions estimates and supporting data gathered by state air
pollution control agencies from point sources within each state.  The national
database is the sum of these State-level source inventories, collected for
each industrial process and compiled successively at the source-, State-, and
national-levels.

     The area source database is designed to represent anthropogenic emissions
from true area sources (e.g., mobile sources), from plants which emit less
than 100 tons per year (TPY), and from point sources which emit less than 25
TPY or which are too difficult to inventory individually.  Area source
emissions were calculated by EPA using category-specific emission factors and
activity indicators (e.g., published fuel deliveries) which were allocated to
the State and county levels.  County-level emissions were then estimated using
these emission factors and activity levels.  They were then summed to produce
national emissions estimates.
                                                   «              4
Point Source Data

NEDS Structure—
     Subpart Q of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51 (Sections
51.320 through 51.323) authorizes annual reporting by the States to EPA of
emissions inventory data for all stationary sources (i.e., plants) emitting
100 TPY or more of any one of five criteria pollutants (SC>2, NOX» voc> co and
TSP).  An exception to the 100-ton limit is made for carbon monoxide (1000
TPY).  For plants meeting these requirements, any points (e.g., stack or
process within the plant) emitting 25 TPY or more of any criteria pollutant
(250 tons for CO) are to be reported.  Points with lower emissions may also be
reported by the State if resources are available.

     NEDS point source data were organized into three hierarchical levels:
plant, point, and process.

     Plant level data apply to an entire facility.

     Point level data apply to individual emission points within a plant.   A
plant may contain any number of emission points.  A point is that portion of a
facility that may be considered individually for emissions purposes.  A point
                                      3-2

-------
may contain one or more processes or pieces of equipment that contribute to
Lhe emissions from the point.  In most cases, a point emits pollutants through
a single confined location such as a stack.  A point may also be an
aggregation of two or more similar pieces of equipment which, taken
separately, would not qualify for inclusion due to emissions of SC>2, NOX, or
VOC of less than 25 TPY.  In addition, defined emissions sources without
stacks may be included in NEDS as point sources (for example, fugitive
emissions from plant equipment, storage piles and lagoons).  Although points
define emission characteristics, actual emissions are calculated at the
process level.

     Process-level data apply to individual processes within a point and are
used to calculate emissions.  Each process is defined by a Source
Classification Code (SCC).  In general, for each SCC there are emission
factors which relate the quantity of pollutants generated by a process to an
annual process operating rate.   These emission factors are used to compute
emissions (see Section 4).  Multiple processes and multiple SCCs may be
grouped under one emission point, as in the cases of boilers using two fuels
or two separate processes sharing the same stack.

     Table 3-1 illustrates the hierarchical structure of the NEDS point source
data file and the individual data items at each level.  Table 3-1 has omitted
the "year of record" entries for all levels, as well as some other items not
currently in .use by the NAPAP inventory system.

Priority Data Elements/NAPAP Emissions Inventory Priorities for 1985—
4   To help guide data collection efforts-for 1985, data collection priorities
were established as summarized in Table 3-2.  In April 1986, a workshop was
held to prioritize the needs of the NAPAP research and assessment programs for
atmospheric transport, as well as EPA and state inventory needs.   Emissions
of SC>2, NOX, and VOC were assigned highest priority.  Emissions of TSP were
assigned an intermediate priority level.  The highest priority was assigned to
plants emitting at least 1000 tons of these pollutants during 1985.  The next
level of priority for these pollutants was assigned to plants emitting 100 to
1000 tons during 1985.

    Table 3-2 reflects the NAPAP/EPA consensus on the 14 highest priority data
elements from among the fifty available in NEDS.  To obtain a nationally
consistent baseline, it was critical to obtain actual 1985 data for emissions
estimates and operating rates.  The other priority data elements fell into
three categories:  emissions estimation data; spatial/temporal data; and key
source parameters (e.g., design capacity).  All these items were selected for
their importance to the acid deposition research and assessment communities.
                                      3-3

-------
       TABLE 3-1.  NATIONAL EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM (NEDS) DATA STRUCTURE
PLANT LEVEL DATA
     State, county, Air Quality Control Region, city* and UTM zone codes
     Plant identification number
     Plant name, address and contact person

POINT LEVEL DATA
     Point identification number
     Standard Industrial Classification code
     UTM coordinates
     Stack/plume data (height, diameter, temperature, flow rate)
     Points with common stack
     Boiler design capacity
     Control equipment (primary and secondary device codes for each
          criteria pollutant and overall efficiencies by pollutant)
     Operating schedule (by season, hrs/day, days/wk, wks/yr)
     Emission estimates for criteria pollutants
          (actual, with estimation method, and allowable*)
     Compliance data* (status, schedule, update, regulations)

PROCESS LEVEL DATA
     Source Classification Code
     Operating rates (annual, maximum hourly design)
     Fuel content (sulfur, ash, heat)
"'Data not used by NAPAP  inventory system
                                      3-4

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1985 Emissions Data Collection Effort—
    To meet the objectives of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory, EPA and
state air pollution control agencies developed a plan to improve the quality
and comprehensiveness of the point source database.  A major portion of the
plan covered data collection efforts.  EPA committed substantial resources to
assist the states in the data collection effort for the annual inventory.
This planning resulted in standardized data collection and emissions
estimation methods.  The data collection effort involved the following
activities:

     •    Survey by the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program
          Administrators (STAPPA) to establish realistic objectives

     •    Written guidance developed for the States and EPA prior to
          the inventory

     •    Workshops for States and contractors to standardize
          emissions estimation procedures

     •    Organization of the inventory process at the State-level

     •    Implementation of emissions confirmation procedures

     •    Reliable transfer of a complete and new 1985 NEDS submittal to
          eliminate errors in the existing NEDS database

     The elements of the data collection plan and the details of the
coordination between EPA and the states are discussed in another report.

     Guidance—Establishing a common methodology for EPA and the states for
data collection, emissions estimation, and quality control (QC) was an
important early step in assembling an adequate and consistent database.  This
step was important for two reasons.  First, the resulting state databases
would be developed on a nationally consistent basis.  Second, QC procedures
could be developed to build QC directly into the data collection process,
where errors could be located and corrected most efficiently.  Essential
elements of procedural and technical guidance were communicated to EPA, state
and contractor personnel through two workshops and companion manuals.   These
materials addressed data collection procedures, confirmation status reporting,
hydrocarbon emissions estimation and locating sources in the UTM grid.  In
addition, utility data collected by DOE were furnished to the states to aid  in
compilation of utility data in this inventory.

    One of the emissions estimation objectives for the annual inventory was  to
use calculated estimates of actual emissions during 1985.  NEDS recognizes two
general and distinct estimation procedures, one using individual source-
specific emissions data and the other using emission factors.  EPA requested
that states use standard emissions estimation methods, which are described
below, whenever applicable, and presented a hierarchy for use of the five
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acceptable methods.^  Each method is documented with a unique code in NEDS and
can be tracked over time for each emission point.

     States were asked to report estimated emissions based on individual
source data if available.  These calculations are based on continuous
emissions monitoring (CEM) data, source test data, or materials balance
information as reported by the source or calculated by the control agency.
Source-specific data are considered the most accurate data for estimating
emissions.

    If individual source data were not available, states were asked to
calculate emissions using an emission factor.  EPA recommended thap the AP-42**
emission factors and methods be reviewed in selecting an emission factor.  If
no AP-42 factor were available, emission factors appearing in the NEDS SCC and
Emission Factor Listing-* were to be used if available.  This resource lists
AP-42 factors as well as additional factors not from AP-42, and AP-42 factors
assumed to be transferable to other SCC categories.  States also had the
option of selecting state emission factors based on knowledge of the operation
of sources within the state.

     NAPAP recognized that additional emission factors would be necessary to
provide factors not yet documented by AP-42 or contained in the NEDS emission
factor listing.  These emission factors, principally for VOC sources, were
based on state and literature data and supplemented the existing published
emission factors.  These factors do not meet the requirements for development
of an AP-42 factor, but provided a means to estimate emissions from sources
having no current and available estimation method.   A complete discussion of
emission factors used in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory is presented in
Section 4.

     If a state were unable to estimate emissions with any of the methods
discussed, two options were still available.  For data from sources without
emission factors, the State could code data so that NEDS would calculate
emissions when appropriate emission factors were developed.  States could also
use this option to indicate that AP-42 factors on file in NEDS should be
applied to operating data to calculate emissions.  As a last option, the State
could use its judgment to estimate emissions based on knowledge of the
particular point (e.g., emissions test data from similar State sources).

     Inventory Process at the State Level—Point source data were collected by
State air pollution control agencies for the calendar year 1985.  The format
and logistics for the actual collection were handled by each State
individually.  A majority of states used either the NEDS or the Emission
Inventory System/Point Source (EIS/PS) system to store the collected inventory
data.

    The resources for planning and conducting this inventory varied from state
to state.  In many cases, states needed to contact all major emissions
sources.  Where states' resources permitted, the states used their normal
annual inventory procedures while emphasizing NAPAP priority data items in
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their collection effort.  Due to resource constraints, all states were not
prepared to conduct an inventory of this scope for 1985.  Financial aid and
contractor assistance were provided to states to support the development of
the 1985 NAPAP Annual Emissions Inventory.  The state assistance efforts were
devoted to data retrieval from state records, coding data in NEDS format and
screening the inventory data for errors and incomplete data.

     Confirmation—Where state resources permitted, emissions estimates for
large emitters were confirmed.  Confirmation afforded large emitters an
opportunity to review the reasonableness and acceptability of state emissions
estimates and make comments to the state.  A lower limit of 2500 TPY SC^ or
NOX emissions was chosen for confirmation.  The effort was intended to improve
the accuracy of the inventory for very large S(>2 and NOX sources without
imposing undue burden on the state.

     Confirmation was accomplished in one of two ways.  In the first,
predominantly used method, the state provided emissions estimates and
calculations for each unit process (SCC) to the facility contact for review.
After review of the state estimate, the source indicated agreement with the
estimate or provided an alternative estimate that was more accurate.  In case
of disagreement, the source provided alternative calculations for its
estimate.  State and source were to attempt to reach a final agreement on the
appropriate emissions estimate, but ultimate responsibility for selecting the
most accurate estimate rested with the state.

    A second method involved requesting the facility to provide emissions
estimates and supporting data for each unit process at the time of the yearly
inventory.  The state would then review each estimate and either accept or
reject  it.  As above, the state retairied responsibility for submitting the
most accurate estimate.

    For each facility emitting at least 2500 tons of S(>2 or NOX in 1985, a
confirmation report was prepared by the state or by the contractor assisting
the state.  This report consisted of a cover memorandum from an appropriate
state agency official and a table representing all facilities meeting the
criteria.  The table contained source name, NEDS ID number, actual 1985 SC>2
and NOX emissions and confirmation status.  The confirmation status could be
one of  the following:   (1) agreement of state and source, (2) disagreement —
State estimate chosen,  (3) disagreement —  source estimate chosen, (4) no
comment by source, or (5) no confirmation attempted.  Provisions were made for
distinguishing between major facility-level conflicts and minor point-level
disagreements.  A final confirmation report was required from the state by the
date of the final NEDS  submittal.  The confirmation process resulted  in
variable success on a state-by-state basis.

    States were encouraged to confirm estimates below the 2500  ton criterion.
Also, large sources of VOC were confirmed in a number of states.  Insofar as
states  were able to confirm emissions below levels mandated as  part of  the
effort, confidence in emissions totals was  improved.
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     Transfer to NEDS—Each state's submittal was entered into NEDS for QC
processing.  The goal was to transfer the state's data to NEDS accurately,
ensuring that NEDS reflected the data as submitted by the states.  This update
procedure was complicated by compatibility problems with the data formats
available from some states.  In some cases, these problems arose from unique
state storage and retrieval systems.  At other times, when a state had
modified EIS/PS to better serve its own needs, the change created translation
difficulties when data were transferred to NEDS.

    These problems were resolved in two ways.  First, adjustment or creation
of a translation program was attempted by OAQPS/AEERL in cooperation with the
state.  Transfer of high priority data elements was emphasized during these
procedures.  If this process was not successful, then either a data
translation was performed and corrections were made by hand, or the data were
entered directly into NEDS from NEDS forms.  In either case, the final NEDS
product faithfully transcribed the high priority data items from the state's
database.

Area Source Data

    Extensive modifications were made to the traditional NEDS area source
methodologies, which extended the inventory to sources not previously
considered (e.g., treatment, storage, and disposal facilities) to improve VOC
emissions coverage.  Area source data files developed from NEDS served as the
basis for the area source inventory.  These files included mobile sources and
point sources too numerous or difficult to classify individually.
Historically, NEDS area source data have been developed mainly by OAQPS from
data voluntarily submitted by state agencies.  More complete documentation and
references of this process are available.

    NEDS area source emissions estimates are updated annually by a series of
computer programs which multiply each current area source activity level
(e.g., fuel delivery) by the appropriate emission factor which accounts for
emissions removed by any control technology.  County emissions estimates are
then summed to produce national emissions estimates.

     County-level activity data were derived primarily from related
information published by other federal agencies, supplemented by special data
developed by EPA for the purpose of developing NEDS area source inventory.
Published data such as fuel use by state, motor vehicle miles of travel (VMT)
by state and county, and forest fire acres burned by state were used with
related data such as employment, population, and miscellaneous geographic or
economic data to derive annual county estimates of the activity levels for
each of the NEDS area source categories.  The activity levels thus derived
were adjusted to account for point source activity (such as fuel use by point
sources) so that the area source data reflect only the activity levels (and
resulting calculated emissions) that are not accounted for by point sources.

     Area source emissions estimates for five pollutants (TSP, S(>2, NOX, VOC
and CO) were calculated for each area source category using appropriate
emission factors from the NEDS area source emission factor file.  For most
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categories, emission factors were originally obtained from the EPA (AP-42).**
For many categories, the same emission factors were used for all counties;
however, for some source categories, state- or county-specific emission
factors account for local variables that affect emissions.  These more
specific factors were used in NEDS calculations for all highway motor vehicle
categories, fugitive dust categories, and for other selected categories in a
few counties where data were available to develop more applicable emission
factors than the national emission factors.  A complete list of national area
source emission factors can be found in Appendix B.  Computer-calculated
emissions can also be overridden by hand-calculated emissions that may be more
accurate than values calculated from emission factors.

     As shown in Table 3-3, area sources in the annual inventory are divided
into five major groups:  stationary sources, mobile sources, solid waste
disposal, miscellaneous area sources, and additional area sources.
Additional area sources include categories for which methodologies have been
developed to estimate emissions for the annual inventory.  Brief summaries of
the methods used for the calculation of criteria pollutant emissions from
these five major groups are provided below.  More detailed descriptions of the
area source calculation methodologies are presented in another report.

Stationary Sources—
     Many stationary emissions sources are point sources which are too small
or numerous to inventory individually and consequently were not included
individually in the point source inventory.  The stationary sources category
consists of small fuel-burning sources and is divided into three major
categories:  residential fuel, commercial and institutional fuel,- and
industrial fuel.  Each category is further subdivided into fuel types for
which consumption data are estimated using algorithms and published fuel  use
data.  Consumption estimates used as the measure of activity levels are then
multiplied by emission factors from AP-42 to obtain emissions estimates.

Mobile Sources—
     Mobile sources which contribute to area source emissions are further
categorized as highway vehicles, off-highway vehicles, railroad locomotives,
aircraft and marine vessels.

     For the purpose of calculating fuel consumption, highway vehicles are
disaggregated into four categories on the basis of use and gross vehicle
weight.  The categories include light duty gasoline vehicles, light
duty gasoline trucks, heavy duty diesel vehicles and heavy duty gasoline
vehicles.  NEDS allocates fuel consumption based on vehicle registration  data
and published average miles traveled (where available) by vehicle type.   Fuel
consumption, average fuel efficiencies and mileage by road type in each county
are used to determine vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for three road classes:
limited access roads, rural 'roads and urban roads.  This allocation separates
the total VMT for a county  into road speed classes.  Emission factors obtained
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              TABLE 3-3.  1985 NAPAP AREA SOURCE CATEGORY GROUPS
Stationary Sources
     Residential Fuel
     Commercial and Institutional Fuel
     Industrial Fuel

Mobile Sources
     Highway Vehicles
     Off-Highway Vehicles
     Railroad Locomotives
     Aircraft
     Marine Vessels

Solid Waste Disposal
     On-Site Incineration
     Open Burning

Miscellaneous Area Sources
     Evaporative Losses from Gasoline Marketing
     Evaporative Losses from Organic Solvent Consumption
     Unpaved Roads
     Unpaved Airstrips
     Construction
     Miscellaneous Wind Erosion
    . Land Tilling
     Forest Wildfires                          *
     Managed Burning/Prescribed Burning
     Agricultural Burning
     Frost Control (Orchard Heaters)
     Structural Fires

Additional Area Sources
     Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs)
     Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage,
          and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)
     Fugitive Emissions from Synthetic Organic
          Chemical Manufacturing
     Bulk Terminals and Bulk Plants
     Fugitive Emissions from Petroleum Refinery Operations
     Process Emissions from Bakeries
     Process Emissions from Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
     Process Emissions from Synthetic Fibers Manufacturing
     Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Fields
     Cutback Asphalt Paving Operations
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 from Che execution of an EPA computer model  are  applied  to  determine  emissions
 for  each vehicle type and speed class.

      The remaining categories (off-highway,  railroad  locomotives,  aircraft  and
 marine  vessels) are estimated using activity-level  data,  such  as  fuel
 consumption,  which has been allocated to  the county level.   Activity  data  are
 multiplied by AP-42  emission factors to  produce county-level  emissions
 estimates.

 Solid Waste Disposal—
      The solid waste disposal category includes  on-site  refuse disposal
 activities by residential, commercial/institutional and  industrial sectors.
 Solid waste generation for open burning and  on-site incineration  is calculated
 using population data, per capita generation factors,  and information from
 related point source categories.  Activity levels are  multiplied  by specific
 emission factors from AP-42 to obtain emissions  estimates.

 Miscellaneous Area Sources—
      NEDS area sources which are not defined by  the other categories  are
 compiled in the miscellaneous area sources category.   Miscellaneous area
 sources include gasoline marketing, organic  solvent consumption,  unpaved air
 strip use, forest wildfires, managed burning, agricultural  burning, and
 structural fires.

     In  brief, activity levels estimated using category-specific data  were
 multiplied by emission factors to obtain  emissions estimates.   Activity levels ^  /
/for  gasoline, marketing were determined using county retail  service station  """ /  '* v-
 sales data.  Activity levels for organic  solvent consumption were determined  £„./  *  -f'-
 by allocating national estimates of organic  solvent consumption by end-use4   *-V^V
 category to counties according to manufacturing  employment  data or population.   "ivj-
 The  unpaved road travel category uses unpaved road miles and rural population
 as the  basis for county allocation.  Unpaved airstrip use was  estimated by
 landing/takeoff (LTO) cycles occurring in the county.   Number  of  acres burned
 and  fuel loading factors were used as activity levels  for forest  wildfires,
 managed burning, and agricultural burning categories.   The structural fires
 category uses the number of building fires,  allocated  to the county level  by
 population.

 Additional Area Sources—
      The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory provided detailed county-level VOC
 emissions estimates for additional area sources  which previously  have not been
 included in the NEDS inventory.  Methods  have been developed for  many
 categories traditionally considered point source categories, such as bakeries
 and synthetic fiber manufacturing.  These categories  were included to
 reconcile the difference between reported total  national air pollutant
 emissions estimates for these categories  and emissions already accounted for
 by the  NEDS point source data files.  The remaining categories such as
 publicly-owned treatment works  (POTWs) and hazardous  waste treatment storage
 and disposal facilities (TSDFs) were  included as area sources  due to the
 difficulty in measuring emissions from specific  points in these facilities
                                      3-12

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(e.g., aeration basins).  Because these categories are unique to the NAPAP
inventory, they are discussed in more detail.

    In this section, methodologies for estimating VOC emissions are presented
for the following area sources:  POTWs and hazardous waste TSDFs; fugitive
emissions from synthetic organic chemical manufacturing; bulk terminals and
bulk plants; fugitive emissions from petroleum refining operations; process
emissions from bakeries, pharmaceutical, and synthetic-fiber manufacturing;
crude oil and natural gas production fields; and cutback asphalt paving
operations.

    For most categories, national VOC emissions were allocated to the county
level to produce county VOC emissions estimates.  Activity levels, emission
factors, and control efficiencies were used to determine emissions for the
remaining sources.

     Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs)—The published national VOC
emissions estimate for the worst case scenario for unacclimated treatment
systems was selected for use in the calculation of county VOC emissions in the
annual inventory.  Studies indicate that the concentration of VOCs in the POTW
influent is directly proportional to the industrial contribution to a POTW.
Because research on VOC concentrations in POTW influents and effluents
indicates that the removal mechanisms for these pollutants are relatively
constant and only a percentage- of incremental loadings  is removed by POTWs,
the national VOC emissions estimate for unacclimated treatment systems was
allocated to the county level based on the percentage of industrial flow per
county.  To eliminate double counting, emissions accounted for by point source
categories were subtracted from the national emissions  estimate before county
allocation.

     Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)—
National VOC emissions estimates were developed using facility-specific
process descriptions, waste characterization and quantities, and
process-specific emission factors.  Emissions from all  TSDFs in the United
States were summed at the county level to form the national emissions
estimates.  Emissions at a TSDF are defined as the total VOCs emitted by all
plant processes; emissions from each plant process were calculated as the
product of the quantity of a specific waste handled and a process-specific
emission  factor.  To eliminate double counting, emissions accounted for by
point source categories were subtracted from the county-level emissions
estimate.

      Fugitive Emissions from Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing-—The
fugitive emissions from synthetic organic chemical manufacturing were
estimated using OAQPS estimates of national emissions from the manufacture of
petrochemicals.  Assuming that the potential for fugitive emissions (i.e., the
number of pumps, valves, flanges, etc.) increases with  the number of
employees, the national VOC emissions were allocated  to specific counties
based on  the ratio of the county to national employment in SIC 2869
(Industrial Organic Chemicals  - Not Classified).
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     Currently, NEDS point source entries under several Source Classification
Codes (SCCs) already account for a portion of fugitive emissions, including
3-01-800 (General Processes-Fugitive Leaks), 3-01-888 (Fugitive Emissions-Not
Classified), and many chemical production-specific SCCs designated as Fugitive
Emissions: Ceneral.  The total VOC emissions for these SCCs were summed by
county and then subtracted from the national emissions estimates.  If a county
had greater point source VOC emissions reported in NEDS than the overall
emission level allocated from the national fugitive VOC emissions estimate, it
was assumed that the fugitive VOC emissions for area source emission levels
were adequately represented by point source VOC emissions data reported in
NEDS.  The national sum of all negative emissions was allocated to the
counties exhibiting positive emission levels based on the relative proportion
of employment for SIC 2869 located in each county.

     Bulk Terminals and Bulk Plants—The current methodology uses national VOC
emissions estimates for gasoline bulk terminals and bulk plants based on total
annual throughput and assumes that control is negligible at bulk plants.  The
national VOC emissions estimate was allocated to the county level based on the
county employment in SIC 5171.  The VOC county emissions totals for the point
source data files for SCC 4-04-001 (Bulk Terminals) and SCC 4-04-002 (Bulk
Plants) were then subtracted from the portion of the corresponding national
VOC emissions estimate.  Negative emissions were reallocated to the counties
as previously described, using employment data for SIC 5171.

     Fugitive Emissions from Petroleum Refinery Operations—Annual national
VOC emissions estimates for petroleum refinery operations have been developed
by OAQPS using capacity or production data.  Under the assumption that these
national VOC emissions estimates represent the sum of the fugitive and point
source emissions for refinery processes, fugitive emissions were quantified by
subtracting the total county point source VOC emissions of SCC categories
3-06-004 through 3-06-888 (Refinery Processes, excluding process heaters and
catalytic cracking units) from the total emissions estimated for petroleum
refinery processes in each county.  National emissions data were allocated to
each county based on refinery capacity.  Negative emissions were reallocated
to counties as previously described, using refinery capacity data.

     Process Emissions from Bakeries—Annual national VOC emissions estimates
for bakery operations were allocated to each county based on the county
employment census data for SIC categories 2051 and 2052.  Total county point
source VOC emissions for SCC 3-02-032 (Bakeries) listed in NEDS were
subtracted from the national VOC emissions estimate allocated to each county.
Negative emissions were reallocated to counties as previously described, using
employment data for SIC categories 2051 and 2052.

     Process Emissions from Pharmaceutical Manufacturing—Annual national VOC
emissions estimates from pharmaceutical manufacturing operations developed by
OAQPS were allocated to specific counties based on the county employment
census data for SIC category 2834.  Total point source VOC emissions for SCC
3-01-060  (Pharmaceutical Preparations) listed in NEDS for each county were
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subtracted from the national VOC emissions estimate allocated to each county.
Negative emissions were reallocated to counties as previously described, using
employment data for SIC 2834.

     Process Emissions from Synthetic-Fibers Manufacturing—The annual
national VOC emissions estimate from synthetic-fibers manufacturing operations
was allocated to the county level based on the combined county employment for
SIC categories 2823 and 2824.  NEDS point source VOC emissions for SCC
3-01-024 (Synthetic Organic Fiber Production) and 3-01-025 (Cellulosic Fiber
Production) for each county were then subtracted from the national emissions
estimate allocated to each county.  Negative emissions were reallocated to
counties as previously described, using employment data for SIC categories
2823 and 2824.

     Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Fields—Annual national VOC
emissions estimates for crude oil and natural gas production developed by
OAQPS were distributed to the State level in proportion to the volume of state
annual production.  The State VOC emissions were then allocated to specific
counties based on county employment for SIC 1310.  VOC emissions for these
sources currently accounted for in NEDS point source data files for SCC
3-10-001 (Crude Oil Production) and SCC 3-10-002 (Natural Gas Production) were
subtracted from the estimates.  If point source emissions exceeded the total
emissions estimates, then negative emissions were reallocated to counties as
previously described, using employment data for SIC 1310.

     Cutback Asphalt Paving Operations—State VOC emissions for cutback
asphalt paving operations were calculated by multiplying an emission factor by
the activity level, measured in total quantity of cutback asphalc sales.  The
State emissions totals were then allocated to specific counties based on
employment for SIC 1611.  The VOC emission factor was based on the weight of
asphalt used, assuming complete evaporation of all organic solvents used in
paving operations.

QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES FOR THE ANNUAL EMISSIONS DATA

Objectives

     A basic objective of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2) was
to compile a comprehensive and accurate inventory of emissions and facility
data for anthropogenic sources for the 1985 base year to serve several needs
articulated by EPA and NAPAP.  Both NAPAP and EPA wanted to develop point and
area source databases with emissions estimates that were confirmed by the
participating sources and states.  Additionally, NAPAP will use the inventory
developed from these databases as input to an atmospheric process model which
analyzes relationships between emissions and acidic deposition.

     A quality control (QC) program was designed to provide the NAPAP
community with a sufficiently comprehensive and accurate inventory to meet its
needs.  Specific objectives and procedures were published^ and are discussed
in this section.  These procedures provided for systematic identification and
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resolution of problems concerning both reported and missing data.  In order to
accomplish this objective, the QC program provided for communication of
problems between state, regional and EPA personnel to correct errors at the
inventory collection level.

     In order to ensure that the data quality objectives considered important
by NAPAP and EPA received the most attention, NAPAP developed guidelines for
high priority data elements and data quality objectives to help the states
effectively allocate their limited staff resources.   High priority data
elements for the annual inventory were indicated in Table 3-2.

     These procedures are referred to as quality control as opposed to quality
assurance (QA) because emissions data contained in emissions inventories are
annual estimates that have been developed by multiplying emission factors by
activity indicators such as fuel consumption, by extrapolating from short-term
test data, or by using engineering judgment.  Therefore, the fundamental
concepts of data accuracy and quality assurance (assessing the differences
between measured and true values) do not apply to emissions inventories.  The
traditional QA/QC approach developed for environmental measurements such as
emissions tests is not applicable to the inventory data, where QC procedures
are limited to verifying the reasonableness, as opposed to the accuracy, of
the emissions inventory.

     The discussion of QC has been broken into three parts:  point sources,
area sources and utilities.  Point and area source QC were fundamentally
different because of the structure and methodology of the inventory.
Utilities were treated with other point sources during QC, but additional QC
procedures unique to this sector merit separate discussion.

QC of the Annual Point Source Data

     The QC procedures focused on the largest point source emissions
categories, e.g., electric utilities, petroleum refining, cement
manufacturing, pulp and paper mills, motor vehicle coating and iron and steel
mills.  In addition, QC procedures focused on several data elements that were
identified as priorities for NAPAP research, i.e., emissions estimates, unit
process identifiers (source classification codes), control equipment and
efficiencies, fuel and operating rate data, location, throughput and temporal
profile data.  Five criteria pollutants are included in the NAPAP  inventory;
the point source QC methodology focuses on SC^, NOX and VOC because they are
expected to play major roles in the acid deposition models.

     Another major objective of the point source database QC checks was to
communicate results effectively to field inventory personnel who are most
knowledgeable about sources in  their states.  The  strategy involved
identifying existing problems in inventories and  implementating a  QC program
which would rely on input  from  field-level personnel.   For this reason, the
point source QC process for 1985 was a three-step  screening process.   The
first step, at the field  level, involved state and EPA  regional office
personnel.  The second step, which occurred after  the data were  submitted  to
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OAQPS/AEERL, was a search for systematic errors and omissions in the data.
The third step, which took place after the data were compiled into a
preliminary NEDS file, was the return of detailed QC documents outlining any
problems found with the data to the States so that they would comment and
correct the data.

Identification of Problems in Existing State Emissions Inventories—
     Early in 1986, the most recent emissions inventory file (1984 NEDS) for
each state was examined by OAQPS/AEERL for missing high priority data items,
missing estimated emissions, and any systematic errors involving invalid
coding or processing.  These reviews indicated several consistent deficiencies
in the EPA databases:  emissions estimation methods were not recorded
correctly, allowable emissions were reported instead of actual emissions, and
blanks rather than zeros were left in the spaces for control
equipment/efficiencies to indicate no control equipment.  These data problems
did not necessarily reflect problems specific to the state point source data.
For example, some of the data gaps resulted from incomplete translation of
data from the state systems to NEDS.  Subsequently, the regions and states
were able to identify many of the sources of these errors and institute
corrective measures within the data collection, coding, and transfer steps.
This action alerted EPA to potential problem areas for the 1985 NAPAP
Emissions Inventory.

The Point Source QC Loop—
     To meet the objectives of the EPA QC policy for emissions inventories, a
systematic QC loop was developed involving state agencies, EPA regional
offices, and EPA OAQPS/AEERL'.  Problem resolution, correction, and review
entailed all three levels in a cooperative process.  At each major stage in
the QC process, an option existed to refer problems back to state agencies, to
permit personnel closest to the sources to resolve problems.  The QC loop is
outlined below, with the components of each phase subsequently explained.
Figure 3-1 provides a graphic presentation of the loop.

     First Level Field Screening—For the 1985 inventory, standard NEDS
programs (e.g., NE061) were redesigned for NAPAP to focus on high priority
data elements.  The EPA regional offices and the states were provided with the
NE061 QA/QC computer programs, which generated two standard edit checking
reports (Appendix D provides a list of these messages).  The first of these
was the NE061 rejection report, which listed any computer card that was
rejected, briefly described the error, and highlighted the erroneous data
items.  Cards that were rejected may have had invalid state, county, air
quality control region (AQCR), plant, or point identifiers (IDs).  The Source
Classification Code (SCC), action code, transaction type, or card number may
have been invalid.  When data were rejected in this fashion, states corrected
the errors, and resubmitted the information.  The second standard NE061 edit
checking report was the warning report.  Warnings were generated if certain
data items were missing, exceeded limits established in the external data
files, or were internally inconsistent (Appendix D).  Example warning messages
in these areas included the following:
                                     3-17

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                      SOURCE DATA/
                      CONFIRMATION
                     STATE ANALYSIS
                     AND  CODING OF
                       PRELIMINARY
                          DATA
                         NE061
                      ANALYSIS BY
                        REGIONAL
                         OFFICES
                     COMPUTER AND
                     MANUAL CHECKS;
                    STATE QC REPORTS
                           BY
                      OAQPS/AEERL
                       PRELIMINARY
                       NEDS DATA
                         NEQ61

                         AUDIT
                         TRAIL
        SUMMARY OF
        FINAL DATA
FINAL
DATA
Figure 3-1.  QC Loop for Point Source Emissions Data.
                       3-18

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      •    Warning - annual operating rate is blank
      •    Warning - sulfur content not in range
      •    Warning - stack diameter > 0.2  x stack height

 Warning messages did not always indicate  an error; however,  EPA regional
 offices and the states were asked to verify that inventory data "flagged" by
 warning messages for facilities emitting  greater than  1000 TPY of  S02,  NOX,  or
 VOC were correct.

      Second Level Data Screening—After state air pollution  control  agencies
 and EPA regional offices screened the NEDS inventory,  they were submitted to
 the National Air Data Branch (NADB) at the U.S.  EPA's  Office of Air  Quality
 Planning and Standards (OAQPS).  At this  point a second  set  of screening
 procedures (developed for the 1985 inventory) were applied.   In this screening
 process, computerized programs were run to develop five  standard reports,
 which indicated systematic errors:

           State Emissions Summary Report
           State Fuel Summary Report
           County/Plant Emissions Report
           Quick Look Reports
           Calculation Validation Report

      The State  Emissions Summary Report was  used for large scale comparisons
 of  emissions data.   It summarized emissions  data by combustion source type- and
 fuel  type,  and  presented total statewide  emissions  for S02,  NOX and  VOC.
 These  totals were compared to the previous year's  totals and  to previous
 emissions  trends to ensure that there we're no illogical  changes.

     The State  Fuel Summary Report was  used  for  large  scale  comparison  of fuel
 consumption  data.   It was compared to the  1984  State Fuel Summary  Report  for
 each  combustion category and for each type of fuel.  Fuel consumed by electric
 utilities  was also  compared to the Department  of  Energy  (DOE)  Generating  Unit
 Reference  File  (GURF).10  State consumptions  of  coal, oil and  gas  were
 compared to  fuel  delivery data provided by DOE.11'12*13  Generally,  coal
 consumption  by  point  sources should  equal  coal delivered.  Oil  and gas
 consumption  by  point  sources should  be  less  than  the fuel deliveries because
 area and mobile sources  consume a  large part  of  these fuels.   The  most
 frequent problem encountered during  this analysis was over-reported
 consumption  of  fuels  in  the new NEDS  submittals.

     The County/Plant  Emissions  Report  gave  emissions by individual  plants
 sorted  by county.   Other  data  fields  including year of record and  location
 data were also  listed. This  report was  quickly scanned to ensure that the new
 data had a 1985  year  of  record.

     NEDS can calculate  emissions  by multiplying the annual  operating rates  by
an emission  factor  from  the  emission  factor file.  These emission estimates
are computer calculated  and  are  not as  valid as estimated emissions data
entered by the  State agency.  The Quick Look Reports were used to identify two
                                     3-19

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possible problems.  First, a check was made for instances where NEDS could
have calculated positive emissions for a source that reported zero emissions.
Small sources were ignored, but those with potential emissions exceeding
25 TPY of S02, NOX, or VOC were noted.  Second, instances where the state
requested that NEDS calculate emissions, but no emission factor existed in the
emission factor file, were noted.

     The Calculation Validation Report identified any instances where NEDS
could not allocate emissions from the point level to the SCC level.  This
generally occurred when one of the SCCs assigned to the point had no emission
factor or if operating data were missing.  If a decrease in emissions were
found during the scan of the State Emissions Summary Report, then additional
information on the possible miscalculation of emissions was found by reviewing
the Calculation Validation Report, which printed out all instances where
"Estimated point emissions differed from computed emissions by more than a
factor of 3."

     Return Of Quality Control Documents to the States—After the computer
reports described above were produced, they were reviewed to determine whether
or not the data were ready for a more extensive QA/QC procedure.  If the data
were deemed acceptable, the first QA/QC document for the state's data was
prepared.  After the QA/QC document was prepared, it was sent to the state and
EPA regional offices for corrective action or confirmation of suspect data.
The first QA/QC document included the following:

     •    Plant Level Emissions Sorting Report
     •    NE061 Edit Checking Reports
     •    NAPAP Edit Checking Report
     •    Completeness Checking Report
     •    Parameter Range Validation Report
     •    Miscellaneous QA/QC Questions

These include both computerized and manual checks and focus on the NAPAP high
priority data items.

     The Plant Level Emissions Sorting Report listed all of the facilities
sorted by SC^, NOX, and VOC.  Confirmation of any emission estimates received
to date was indicated on this report.  This report enabled the state to view
its sources ranked by emissions.  It also highlighted problems with the
confirmation status and showed which facilities had points with emissions
status calculated by NEDS.  This report was augmented with a breakdown by
facility of points that had NEDS-calculated emissions.

     The NE061 Report contained the results of  the NE061 edit checking program
(discussed above) for facilities with estimated emissions that exceeded
1000 TPY of S(>2, NOX, or VOC.  The warnings generated were reviewed manually
and categarized to ensure their validity.  An example of warnings  that did not
need to be addressed was that for data for sources of CO emissions  (a NAPAP
non-priority pollutant).
                                      3-20

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     The third section contained output from the NAPAP edit checking program.
This group of computerized checks was established to augment the NE061 checks
and searches for missing or internally inconsistent data.  The checks focused
on the NAPAP high priority data items, including stack parameters, operating
data and estimated emissions.  A report was generated only for facilities with
estimated emissions that exceeded 1000 TPY of S02, NOX, or VOC.

     The Completeness Checking Report identified plants that were missing from
a state's data submission or that reported substantially different emissions
from previous years.  Facilities emitting over 1000 tons in 1985 were compared
to 1000 ton emitters for 1984.  Plants in the 1984 listing, which were not in
the 1985 listing, were also tabulated.  Another list, the Independent
Completeness File, was compiled of plants in industries that contributed a
significant percentage to nationwide point source emissions.  References for
this list included trade association publications, current industrial
directories, EPA New Source Performance Standards files, and EPA's Best
Available Control Technology (BACT)/Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER)
Clearinghouse.  Plants in the Independent Completeness File, but not in the
1985 NEDS list, were also flagged.

     The Parameter Range Validation Report contained output from the final
computerized check.  The report compared data items to a statistical range for
the data item based on the process or SCC code.  A valid range for the data
item was arbitrarily set at 2.5 standard deviations outside the mean for a
given SCC.  Parameters of interest in this report include stack parameters,
control device efficiency, fuel parameters, and operating rate data.  Data
items included in this report did not necessarily contain* errors.  This report
identified data items that fell significantly outside the limits of what was
normally encountered for that parameter in the SCC group.  The data items were
reviewed and the items that were deemed truly questionable were flagged
manually.  Flagged items were brought to the attention of the submitting
agency for confirmation or correction and resubmission.

     The last section of the QA/QC report, titled Miscellaneous QA Questions,
listed problems encountered during the second screening of the data (described
above), including over-reported fuel consumption, miscoded SCCs, and instances
where NEDS encountered problems with computer-calculated emissions.

     The six QA/QC sections were assembled into one document, which was
returned to the state and EPA regional offices for review, comment and
corrective action.  This review process ensured that the data comprising the
annual inventory would be endorsed by both the states and EPA.  As the data
were corrected and as default values were substituted for missing data, a
computerized audit tracking system kept track of all changes to the original
state-submitted data.  In addition, state confirmation of suspect values was
tracked.  The audit trail tracked changes made to the data and ensured that
all identified problems had been addressed.
                                     3-21

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Final State Revlev
     After the final data updates to the state NEDS submittals were completed,
a final review by each state of its NEDS point and area source data was
initiated.  As part of this final review, three additional data screens were
made.  First, the largest sources were rechecked to guarantee that all errors
had been located and corrected.  In this check, the 1000 largest points for
S02, NOX and VOC were identified from the NEDS point source file.  (These
points represented 81, 68 and 47 percent of the total point source SC>2, NOX
and VOC emissions, respectively).  The data for each point source were
examined by a qualified reviewer for consistency and realistic values.  In
addition, other points emitting at least 500 tons per year were screened for
missing stack parameters.  Second, inconsistencies between state confirmation
reports and NEDS emissions were identified.  Third, NEDS-calculated emissions
were again summarized at the point-level for calculated emissions of at least
100 TPY for SC>2, NOX, and VOC, so states could explicitly review emissions
calculated by NEDS which had not been submitted by the states.  These
calculated emissions included implementation of about 900 new VOC emission
factors described in Section 4.

     The complete point and area source NEDS data and the results of these
three additional data screens were reviewed by the states.  Questionable data
were verified or corrected where possible through the same channels
established for the previous state reviews.  These changes were then updated
to the 1985 NEDS.  All changes were documented through the Audit Trail
Program.

Analysis of Quality Control Results—
     Because of the extensive QC program on the 1985 .NEDS state submittals,
the resulting point source database represents the most complete and accurate
national inventory of acid rain precursors assembled to date.  Essentially,
all high priority data were provided and have a 1985 year of record.  All
States have participated in the 1985 inventory effort and submitted current
data.

     Through cooperative work between states, regional offices, and several
branches of EPA, and through regular updates of all databases, state
inventories and the NEDS inventory should have substantial agreement.  EPA
requested confirmation of emissions with facilities emitting over 2500 tons of
S02 and NOX to assure the accuracy of the emissions data for the Largest point
sources; about two-thirds of the states responded with confirmation letters.
Computer checks served to ensure that data were within standard data ranges,
and when data did fall out of range, consultation with state or local air
pollution agencies could often confirm or resolve data issues.

     A potentially serious deficiency was recognized during the QC procedures
designed to recognize missing facilities.  Department of Defense (DOD)
facilities were reported inconsistently in the NEDS inventory, and only a low
percentage of those  listed were  identified as  large point sources.  Further
investigation with state personnel revealed that most missing DOD facilities
had not submitted data to the state.  At that  stage of the inventory effort,
no resolution of  this problem could be made for  1985.  However, DOD facilities
                                      3-22

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have been identified on a state-by-state basis to indicate those in the
inventory, as well as those potentially missing from the inventory.

Resolution of QC Problems—
     The QC program was not without problems.  Time and resource constraints,
present at all levels of QC, made it difficult to track down missing data
items and data elements outside standard ranges.  State data which had been
verified with sources sometimes fell outside the data ranges, and therefore
still evoked a warning message each time NE061 was run on the EPA database.  A
more substantial problem occurred when emissions data were confirmed between a
facility and the state, yet these confirmed emissions were still not in
agreement with the data in NEDS.  Lack of confirmation was a problem in over
one-third of the states.  It was often difficult to resolve discrepancies in
source names and emissions data between 1984 and 1985 NEDS submittals.  For
example, Illinois and Michigan renumber their NEDS data submittals each year,
making matchups between data from consecutive years especially difficult.
Problems such as these were referred to the participating state agency for
resolution, and in almost every case, the state was able to verify or correct
these questionable items.

     Several more serious problems remained in the emissions inventory.
Individual state confidentiality restrictions prevented the complete reporting
of some priority data elements (e.g., fuel use, operating rate data).  In
consideration of this problem, EPA and the" states worked together to reach
compromises respecting both the confidentiality restrictions and the need for
accurate and complete data.

QC of the Annual Area Source Data

     Quality assurance and quality control of area source emissions inventory
data, like QA/QC of point source data, do not involve checks for data
accuracy.  Because there is no measured standard with which to compare area
source emissions data nor previously defined QA/QC procedures, QC procedures
were developed which focused on completeness and reasonableness of the county
(SC>2, NOX and VOC) emissions data, in addition to various input data.

     Due to the quantity of data involved, activity level and emissions data
from significant area source categories were plotted to locate missing data,
gross errors, border discontinuities, and improper location of urban centers.
Plots (maps) of the final area source emissions were then compared with
appropriate plots of selected surrogate activity levels (e.g., population
distribution).  Direct visual comparisons of the emissions plots and plots of
the surrogate data used to develop the estimates were used to isolate
potential problems by illustrating dissimilar patterns in the data.

     Since Regional Acid Deposition Modeling activities do not include any
terrain west of the Rocky Mountains, areas in the United States east of the
Rocky Mountains received more attention, most specifically the Ohio River
Valley.  In addition, certain regions which have exhibited erroneous spatial
distributions in previous inventories received more scrutiny in the QA
process.  These areas include St. Louis, northern West Virginia, Pittsburgh,
Massachusetts, and Virginia.
                                     3-23

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     In a separate analysis, emission factors for each area source category
were reviewed for reasonableness.  Sources of the original factors and their
methods of calculation were sought to verify the factors which were used as
NEDS input data.

     Potential problems discovered during the QA analyses were recorded for
later verification.  Errors in the data were corrected when found, but in
general, area source emissions estimates, activity level data, and emission
factor data were found to be reasonable and complete.

Emission Factors—
     Emission factors for each area source category were traced back to the
reference materials.  Most emission factors for area sources were adapted from
EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42).   In some source
categories, however, data were available to develop more applicable local
factors.  In addition, ten new categories for VOC emissions were added to the
1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory that were not included in the 1980 NAPAP
Emissions Inventory.  The National Air Data Branch (NADB) and Alliance
developed emission factors for these additional categories and for ammonia
emissions categories.  Emission factors for United States area sources are
discussed in more detail in Section A.

Activity Data—
     Activity levels were derived primarily from related information published
by other federal agencies and supplemented by special data developed by EPA in
developing NEDS area source inventories.  Published data such as fuel use by
state and county and forest fire acres burned by state were used with related
data such as employment, population, and miscellaneous geographic or economic
data to derive annual county estimates of the activity levels for each of the
NEDS area source categories.  The QC of activity data focu'sed on the QC of
surrogate indicators.

     Surrogate indicators are defined as those variables used to spatially
allocate area source activity levels to the county level in NEDS.  Area source
emissions are similarly allocated to the county level by county population,
number of dwelling units, vehicle registration, and employment for various
economic sectors.  Surrogates examined in the area source QA efforts were
selected based on the magnitude of national emissions contributed by
respective area source categories.  Surrogate information plotted at the
county level  included the following:

          Population
          Dwelling Units
          Vehicle Registration
          Manufacturing Employment
          Commercial Employment
          Solvent User Category Employment

For  the most  part, allocation variables were easily  identified.  However,
default surrogates were assigned  to  those categories where  either  insufficient
surrogate data were  available or  the NEDS allocation process  used an algorithm
based  on more  than one significant variable.
                                      3-24

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     Initial comparisons of population, land use, dwelling units, employment,
and vehicle registration plots indicated the general reliability of the data,
as well as identifying potential errors early in the QC process.  Correction
of basic information before it was used to allocate state emissions to the
county reduced errors in the final emissions estimates.  Missing and incorrect
data were flagged and corrected where possible.

Emissions—
     Specific area source categories were selected for QC based on the
magnitude of emissions contributed by those particular area source categories.
For each pollutant (SC^, NOX and VOC), the categories were ranked by emissions
magnitude and the top categories were selected for detailed examination.
These categories included:

          Stationary Combustion Sources -
               Residential
               Commercial/Institutional
               Industrial

          Mobile Sources -
               Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles
               Light Duty Gasoline Trucks
               Heavy Duty Gasoline Vehicles
               Off Highway Vehicles
               Locomotives'
               Aircraft
               Marine Vessels

          Miscellaneous Sources -
               Solvents Purchased
               Gasoline Marketed

          Additional Sources -
               Hazardous Waste TSDFs
               Fugitives from Refinery Operations
               Bulk Plants/Bulk Terminals

Emissions plots were then generated using county level data from NEDS.  Each
plot was reviewed for completeness before comparison with its surrogate
activity level plot.  This review included checks for inconsistencies, missing
data, proper location of urban centers, and border problems.  Emissions plots
were then compared to the surrogate plots to ascertain inconsistencies in  the
data.

     Final comparisons of the plots showed general agreement between the NEDS
input data and the final emissions estimates for many of the significant
categories.  No major problems were found; however, potential minor concerns
were noted.  A small number of missing data items were corrected.
                                      3-25

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Electric Utility QC

     Emissions from electric utilities account for a large share of the total
acid deposition precursor emissions in the United States, representing 70
percent of S(>2 and 33 percent of NOX emissions.  In addition, the use of tall
stacks at utilities has increased the likelihood of long-range pollutant
transport.  As a result, NAPAP has placed special emphasis on the development
of accurate utility emissions and facility data.  Part of this work entailed
the development of a single, comprehensive utility-related data file:  the
National Utility Reference File (NURF).  The NURF was assembled to meet the
broad utility-related data needs of all NAPAP work groups, including
atmospheric modeling, emissions forecasting, and assessment.  It was created
by merging existing EPA and DOE databases and reconciling differences to
provide a complete generating unit-level data record for all U.S. electric
utilities.

     For the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory, the 1980 NURF data were developed
and used to provide operating data for utilities in the point source file.
Emissions of S02, NOX and TSP were generated using the NURF operating data and
AP-42 emission factors after careful matching of plants and units between the
databases.  This matching was performed again for 1985, and NURF data were
compared to 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory data, but data were substituted
only for cases where significant discrepancies were present and the NURF data
were determined to be more reliable than the NEDS data.  A list of plant-
level emissions changes that resulted from the substitution of NURF data into
the annual inventory is presented in Appendix G. The remainder of this section
details the quality control procedures applied to the .annual inventory.

Inventory Collection—
     The EPA made summaries of DOE data from Forms 767 (unit-level) and
Forms 759 and 423 (plant-level)' available to state agencies during collection
of the emissions inventory.  States used the data to supplement their own 1985
emissions inventory data, as well as to identify inconsistencies which could
be reconciled with the utility representatives.  A few states were unable to
provide all the utility data requested by NAPAP.  The states reviewed DOE
information and updated NEDS with the data best representing operations at
individual utilities.

Confirmation—
     As discussed earlier, confirmation of emission estimates was to be
attempted for all point sources of S02 and NOX emitting over 2500 TPY S02 or
NOX in 1985.  Many of these point sources were utilities.  This procedure was
implemented so that both  state or local air pollution agency and utility
personnel could review emissions estimates before finalization of the NEDS
inventory.

Comparison with Other Databases—
     In addition to QC procedures routinely implemented on all point sources,
a  comprehensive comparative analysis was completed between NEDS utility
sources and utility source data reported on DOE forms 759/423 and 767.
Utility records were extracted from  the  1985 NEDS inventory  by an algorithm
which  selected all records that met  the  following conditions.  The first  three
                                      3-26

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numbers of the SCO code were 101 or 201 and the SIC code began with 49, or the
first number of the SCC code was 1 or 2 and the SIC code was 4911.  This
procedure identified 653 utility records for external combustion utility
boilers.  Further efforts matched 542 of those utilities with specific utility
records obtained from either the DOE 759/423 reports or the DOE 767 reports.
The matching was accomplished by use of historical records and plant level
matching based on plant name, plant location and operating data.
                                                          «
     Operating data and estimated emissions data were extracted from the NEDS
inventory for the list of utilities identified by the selection algorithm.
The fuel use and operating data from the DOE database were matched to the
corresponding SCC codes from the NEDS file.  Emissions were calculated for the
DOE data set by applying the SCC emission factors to the DOE operating data.
The state estimated emissions for S02 and NOX from the NEDS file were compared
with calculated emissions of S02 and NOX based on the DOE operating data.

     The overall comparability of state-level utility fuel use between the
NAPAP inventory data and published DOE/EIA reports served as an indicator of
the reliability of utility data in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  DOE
fuel use data have historically been considered the most comprehensive and
reliable utility fuel use data available.  The presence of an analogous DOE
database for utility fuel use, reported in the 1985 Electric Power Annual  ,
permitted a comparison to state fuel use patterns in the annual inventory.
These data are considered the most accurate of the DOE databases, although
comparisons with NAPAP data are only possible at the national and state
levels.  Agreement or disagreement between the two database does' not in itself
validate or invalidate either data set.  Agreement does, however, lend
confidence to the operating rates and, therefore, to the emissions estimates
in the annual inventory.

     Fuel consumption can be matched for three fuels (coal, oil and natural
gas) as DOE maintains consumption records for the utility sector in the 1985
Electric Power Annual.    Of these fuels, coal combustion accounts for over 90
percent of S02 emissions and 75 percent of NOX emissions from utilities.
Tables 3-4, 3-5 and 3-6 list the state-level comparisons of utility fuel use
between the annual inventory and the EIA database   for coal, oil and natural
gas, respectively.

     Consumption figures for coal as reported to DOE/EIA and the annual
inventory indicate there is close agreement in the figures for total U.S.
consumption.  Furthermore, this agreement carries to the state level.  It must
be noted that the States of New Jersey, New York and Virginia had difficulty
in collecting operating rate data, including utility fuel consumption, and
were released from this requirement.  Every effort was made to include utility
data in the annual inventory, however, Texas was barred by state regulation
from reporting these data for individual plants.  A special cooperative effort
between Texas and EPA documented fuel use at the county level for the
nonutility sources.  Fuel use data from the NURF were substituted into the
annual inventory for Texas utilities.
                                     3-27

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TABLE 3-4.  COMPARISON OF COAL CONSUMPTION FOR UTILITY SOURCES, BY STATE
          STATE
    1985 COAL CONSUMPTION (10  Tons)



NAPAP          DOE/EIA*       DIFFERENCE
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
U.S. TOTAL
21,688
14,249
11,701
0
13,803
774
2,424
0
18,135
28,125
0
31,271
38,570
12,554
13,403
27,090
8,938
0
7,046
4,093
24,908
11,634
4,263
23,122 '
5,480
6,416
5,656
1,436
2,312
15,204
6,105
19,613
17,628
46,805
12,803
417
41,731
0
7,665
2,402
21,086
68,954
6,266
29
7,122
5,192
31,330
16,116
21,174
686,731
21,545
14,448
12,302
0
14,295
774
2,543
0
18,283
28,285
0
31,608
38,310
12,491
14,351
27,085
8,760
0
7,046
3,863
25,896
11,498
4%267
22,779.
5,480
6,380
5,427
1,433
3,476
14,498
7,787
19,610
17,354
46,700
12,747
418
41,713
0
7,888
2,407
20,853
71,818
6,325
28
7,166
5,192
31,367
15,876
21,173
693,545
143
(199)
(601)
0
(492)
(0)
(119)
0
(148)
(160)
0
(337)
260
63
(948)
5
178
0
(0)
230
(988)
136
(4)
343
0
36
229
3
(1,164)
706
(1,682)
3
274
105
56
(1)
18
0
(223)
(5)
233
(2,864)
(59)
1
(44)
0
(37)
240
1
(6,814)
   * DOE/EIA data from the 1985 Electric Power Annual (DOE/EIA-0348(85))
                                      3-28

-------
TABLE 3-5.  COMPARISON OP OIL CONSUMPTION FOR UTILITY SOURCES, BY STATE
         STATE
   1985 OIL CONSUMPTION (10  Gallons)



NAPAP          DOE/EIA        DIFFERENCE
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Col.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
U.S. TOTAL
12,244
13,131
4,573
201,951
46,912
714,385
121,936
10,916
991,402
7,826
0
113,956
16,456
1,639
8,117
3,653
12,686
144,972
230,135
1,028,424
28,270
1,009
4,790
7,100
0
942
16
97,262
213,406
47
1,920,618
17,541
896
20,460
9,800
0
608,762
28,319
4,742
1,153
8,071
75,369
3,345
884
66,177
375
12,596
5,094
6,086
6,828,444
3,696
14,994
882
206,850
5,082
717,738
115,542
13,272
994,476
12,264
42
126,210
17,388
4,326
9,030
11,340
8,022
145,362
250,362
1,027,614
49,056
2,058
7,098
9,198
1,596
2,604
4,368
99,246
238,056
3,612
1,849,722
18,606
3,108
27,258
3,654
126
547,890
30,576
7,728
1,680
9,954
69,594
3,360
1,428
68,922
714
15,498
10,542
6,006
6,777,750
8,548
(1,863)
3,691
(4,899)
41,830
(3,353)
6,394
(2,356)
(3,074)
(4,438)
(42)
(12,254)
(932)
(2,687)
(913)
(7,687)
4,664
(390)
(20,227)
810
(20,786)
(1,049)
(2,308)
(2,098)
(1,596)
(1,662)
(4,352)
(1,984)
(24,650)
(3,565)
70,896
(1,065)
(2,212)
(6,798)
6,146
(126)
60,872
(2,257)
(2,986)
(527)
(1,883)
5,775
(15)
(544)
(2,745)
(339)
(2,902)
(5,448)
80
50,694
 * DOE/EIA data from the 1985 Electric Power Annual (DOE/EIA-0348(85))
                                    3-29

-------
TABLE 3-6.  COMPARISON OF NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION FOR UTILITY SOURCES, BY STATE
            STATE
  1985 NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (MMCF)



NAPAP          DOE/EIA        DIFFERENCE
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Col.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
U.S. TOTAL
946
16,808
5,826
635,352
5,794
1,559
824
0
158,867
7,634
0
7,142
803
1,628
15,781
1,045
282,465
0
896
39,910
8,698
1,689
52,713
6,641
420
439
5,351
65
13,955
37,569
147,418
0
0
258
194,923
0
769
2,532
259
12
0
1,107,504
99
94
1,269
0
0
897
122
2,766,976
1,078
41,731
11,411
666,274
4,913
1,559
7,266
0
165,683
885
24
5,881
1,117
2,100
21,181
1,121
285,039
0
1,372
45,161
10,126
1,275
53,579
1,466
468
1,284
8,080
0
61,362
28,133
172,631
595
2
699
200,686
0
1,570
2,532
483
26
0
1,197,590
235
95
1,528
77
122
1,317
132
3,009,889
(132)
(24,923)
(5,585)
(30,922)
881
0
(6,442)
0
(6,816)
6,749
(24)
1,261
(314)
(472)
(5,400)
(76)
(2,574)
0
(476)
(5,251)
(1,428)
414
(866)
5,175
(48)
(845)
(2,729)
65
(47,407)
9,436
(25,213)
(595)
(2)
(441)
(5,763)
0
(801)
0
(224)
(14)
0
(90,086)
(136)
(1)
(259)
(77)
(122)
(420)
(10)
(242,913)
    * DOE/EIA data  from the  1985  Electric  Power Annual  (DOE/EIA-0348(85))
                                       3-30

-------
NAPAP oil consumption totals and DOE differ by less than one percent, however,
individual states show much greater ranges in variation.  Two factors may
explain the significant state-level discrepancies.  First, it should be noted
that during the QC effort, misreporting of units for oil use in the NEDS
inventory was a common finding.  Typically the problem involved the source or
state reporting consumption in gallons or barrels instead of 1000 gallons or
1000 barrels.   Many of these problems were resolved by substituting NURF data
into the annual inventory.  Other causes for differences between the NURF file
and the annual inventory result from differences in the treatment of start-up
fuels, peaking units and the basic structure of the two inventories.  The
annual inventory represents emissions points for plants that emit more than
100 TPY while the NURF represents emissions at the generating unit level.

     Utility consumption of natural gas displayed a significant overall
difference (8 percent) between databases.  On a state-by-state basis, the
comparison between DOE and NAPAP data appears better than that for oil, with
the majority of the nationwide discrepancy attributable to the 90,000 MMCF
differences for Texas.  However, utility fuel consumption was carefully
collected in Texas, using both state inventory records and DOE data to produce
an accurate inventory at the county level.  Under-reporting of start-up fuels
in NEDS may also affect this category, although this practice will result in
only a slight under-reporting of utility emissions.

1985 NAPAP ANNUAL EMISSIONS INVENTORY - VERSION 2

     The 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 1 was released in the fall of
1988.-  It consisted of the 1985 NEDS inventory emissions and operating data
plus calculated emissions for NH-j, HC1, HF and S0^~ .. A few point-level
adjustments as a result of the QC program are reflected in Version 1'which are
not present in the NEDS inventory.  This version was used internally within
NAPAP for trial runs of the atmospheric models.  Version 2 of the inventory
was completed January 31, 1989.  To satisfy the requirements of the modeling
community, minor modifications were made to the NEDS inventory.  Although the
U.S. anthropogenic portion of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory was based on
the 1985 NEDS inventory, the 1985 NAPAP Inventory Versions 1 or 2 have not
been reviewed or endorsed by the States.  The NAPAP data may differ materially
from 1985 State inventories and NEDS.  Table 3-7 presents a detailed summary
of U.S. anthropogenic emissions in Version 2.  This table may be compared to
the final 1985 NEDS data1 to identify emissions changes between NEDS and the
1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2.  The remainder of this section
discusses the nature and extent of these alterations.

Default Specifications

     Despite extensive QA/QC procedures in effect during the emissions data
collection effort, some point source data elements were missing in the final
annual point source inventory.  In most cases the reporting of those data
items was desirable, but was not critical in terms of the FREDS processing.
Missing data for some critical data elements, however, would result in
                                     3-31

-------
TABLE 3-7.  TOTAL U.S. ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS BY CATEGORY FOR
            SO
              2»
NO,, VOC AND TSP (103 TONS)
EMISSION CATEGORIES
FUEL COMBUSTION 	
External Combustion 	
Residential 	
Anthracite Coal 	
Bituminous Coal 	
Disti 1 late Oi I 	
Residual Oil 	
Natural Gas 	
Wood 	
Electric Generation...
Anthracite Coal 	
Bituminous Coal 	
Lignite 	
Res i dua 1 Oil 	
Distil late Oi 1 	

Process Gas 	
Other 	
Industrial ....: 	
Anthracite Coal 	
Bituminous Coal 	
Lignite 	
Residual Oil 	
Disti 1 late Oi I 	
Natural Gas 	
Process Gas 	
Coke 	
Wood 	
LPG 	
Bagasse 	
Other 	
Commerc i a 1 / 1 ns t i tut i on
Anthracite Coal 	
Bituminous Coal 	
Residual Oil 	
Distillate Oil 	
Natural Gas 	
Wood
LPG 	
Other 	
soz
1 080
1 080
179
8
30
128
1
1
11
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
672
0
356
0
242
55
1
0
0
17
NA
NA
0
230
16
25
NA
104
86
1
0
NA
NA
AREA
HO,
2 035
2,035
406
1
2
75
0
248
81
NA
NA
NA
HA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1,418
' 0
131
0
50
50
1,187
0
0
0
NA
NA
0
210
6
6
NA
31
52
115
0
NA
NA
VOC
1 501
1 501
1 476
3
8
6
0
0
1,459
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
19
0
1
0
1
3
15
0
0
0
NA
NA
0
6
0
0
NA
1
2
3
0
NA
NA
TSP
1 197
1,197
1 120
3
11
10
0
7
1,089
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
49
0
23
0
17
4
5
0
0
0
NA
NA
0
27
5
3
NA
11
5
3
0
NA
NA
so2
18,230
18,190
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
16,025
22
14,801
581
593
17
3
0
6
1,999
11
1,273
78
399
46
35
106
12
15
0
0
23
167
3
114
1
42
5
1
0
0
0
POINT
"Ox
8 529
7,804
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
6,614
12
5,604
381
169
20
419
4
6
1,127
6
434
27
136
37
274
102
7
85
1
2
18
63
1
23
0
16
3
15
3
0
2
VOC
126
101
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
39
0
29
t.
A
0
1
0
1
60
0
5
2
7
2
7
4
0
31
0
2
1
3
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
TSP
850
842
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
567
1
476
51
29
1
8
0
1
252
1
89
8
36
4
14
10
1
81
0
5
2
23
1
14
1
4
0
1
2
0
1
                               3-32

-------
                                   TABLE  3-7.  (continued)
   EMISSION  CATEGORIES
SO,
                                         AREA
                                     HO,
                   voc
                                                         TSP
SO,
                                                    POINT
HO.
                                                                                      VOC
                             TSP
  Internal  Combustion	      NA        NA        NA       NA |        39       725       25        8
    Electric Generation...      NA        NA        NA       NA |        30        48         1        3
      Distillate Oil	      NA        NA        NA       NA j         3         9         1        1
      Natural Gas	      NA        NA        NA       NA |        26        38         0        2
      Other	      NA        NA        NA       NA j         0         1         0        0
                                                               I
    Industrial	      NA        NA        NA       NA          8       654       18        3
      Distillate Oil	      HA        NA        NA       NA          1         5         0        0
      Natural Gas	      NA        NA        NA       NA          6       644       17        3
      Gasoline	      NA        NA        NA       NA          0         000
      Diesel Fuel	      NA        NA        NA       NA          0         200
      Other	      NA        NA        NA       NA          1         200

    Commercial/ Institution      NA        NA        NA       NA          2        18         3        0

    Engine  Testing	       NA        NA        NA       NA          0         631

INDUSTRIAL  PROCESS	       2         6        34       24      2,930       920     2,028     1,075
  Chemical  Manufacturing..      NA        NA        NA       NA        501       171      499       94
  Food/Agriculture	      NA        NA        NA       NA          35       50       70
  Primary Metals	      NA        NA        NA       NA        995        54       34       170
  Secondary Metals	      NA        NA        NA       NA         50        20       17       45
  Mineral Products	      NA        NA        NA _      NA        289       240       14       489
  Petroleum Industry	      NA        NA        NA       NA        521       215      202       47
  Wood Products	      NA        NA        NA       NA        131        74       41       123
  Organic Solvent Evap	      NA        NA        NA       NA          -1         8      692        2
  Petroleum Storage/Trans.      NA        NA        NA       NA          1         1      273        0
  Metal/Fabrication	      NA        NA        NA       NA          0         235
  Textile Manufacturing...      NA        NA        NA       NA          0         081
  Other/Not Classified	       2         6        34       24        437       130      194       30

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL	      15        69       368      347         20        18         4       15
  Government	      NA        NA        NA       NA          6         826
    Municipal Incineration      NA        NA        NA       NA          6615
    Open Burning	      NA        NA        NA       NA          0         000
    Other Incineration	      NA        NA        NA       NA          0         111

  Residential	      10        60       359      327         NA        NA       NA       NA
    On-site Incineration..       2         3        57      103         NA        NA       NA       NA
    Open Burning	       8        57       302      224         NA        NA       NA       NA

  Commercial/Institutional       57315          4505
    On-site Incineration..       57215          3505
    Open Burning	       0-0         11          0         000
    Other	       0000          0000

  Industrial	       1         2         66         11         524
    On-site Incineration..       0002          9414
    Open Burning	       0163          0000
    Other	       0000          1110
                                                  3-33

-------
TABLE 3-7. (continued)
EMISSION CATEGORIES
TRANSPORTATION 	
Land Vehicles 	
Gasol ine 	
Light Duty Vehicles.
Light Duty Trucks 	
Heavy Duty Vehicles.
Off -Highway 	
Diesel Fuel 	
Heavy Duty Vehicles.
Off -Highway 	
Rail 	
Aircraft 	
Mi I itary 	
Civil 	
Conroerc i a 1 	
Vessels 	
Bituminous Coal 	
Diesel 	
Residual Oil 	
Gasol ine 	
MISCELLANEOUS AREA 	
Forest Fires 	
Forest Managed Burning..
Agricultural Burning 	
Structural Fires 	
Gasoline Stn. Evap. Loss
Solvent Evap. Loss 	
Other 	
ADD I T I ONAL AREA 	
POTUs 	
Cutback A 	
SOCMI Fugitives 	
Bulk Terminals/Plants...
Refinery Fugitives
Bakeries 	

Synthetic Fiber Mfg 	
Oil/Natural Gas Fields..
TSDFs 	
GRAND TOTAL 	
so2
864
691
275
185
69
14
6
416
243
83
91
14
5
1
8
159
A
16
136
3
4
1
3
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1.966
AREA
8,835
8,549
5,139
3,368
1,320
297
153
3,410
1,825
994
590
126
37
11
78
160
0
118
22
19.
130
34
82
8
6
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
11,074
VOC
8,800
8,168
7,603
4,619
1,950
534
500
565
260
162
143
184
93
31
60
448
1
30
2
416
6,185
162
293
55
44
999
4,632
NA
3,027
10
192
169
386
728
50
35
192
94
1,171
19,914
TSP
4,195
4.088
3 479
2,651
699
107
21
609
459
110
40
81
75
2
A
27
A
13
10
NA
679
143
410
60
59
NA
NA
8
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
6,443
so2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
HA
NA
NA
NA
NA
MA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
21,180
POINT
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
9,467
VOC
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2,159
TSP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1,940
        3-34

-------
 incomplete processing  by  FREDS.  When FREDS encounters missing data for  those
 critical data elements, the  point  source record  is orphaned and the emissions
 are dropped  from  further  FREDS  processing.  The  methodology used to develop
 the county-level  area  source emissions and the format of the area  source
 records are  such  that  default data values are not required.

     The critical  point source  record data items required  to complete  FREDS
 processing are: 1)   a  valid  SCC code which is included in  the speciation
 factor file  to  allow appropriate TSP, VOC and NOX speciation, 2)   valid
 location data for spatial processing, and 3)  valid operating schedule data
 for temporal processing.   Although stack parameters are not required for  FREDS
 processing,  the modeling  applications need either stack parameters to
 calculate  plume rise or an effective emissions release height represented by
 plume height.   In addition,  the projection modelers require a complete record
 of fuel use  to  properly execute these models.  Each of these data  elements and
 the procedures  implemented to specify default values are discussed.

 Invalid SCCs—
     All cases  of invalid SCC codes were identified through the QA/QC
 procedures.  During  a  final  review of the annual inventory, a related  problem
 was discovered.   For some source process descriptions, the NEDS software  was
 unable to  completely allocate the  point source estimated emissions to  the SCC
 process level.  The  states estimated point source emissions at the point
 level.  The  speciation factors  were applied to the SCC—level records.   In
 some cases in which  multiple SCC records were associated with a particular
 point, estimated  emiss-ions could not be allocated to the SCC-level process.
 This .condition  occurred when either emission"factors or operating  rates  were
 •not available for the  SCC levels that were included for the point.  In these
 cases, the NEDS emissions allocation software could not estimate the amount of
 the point  level emissions associated with each SCC, and, therefore, the  total
 SCC-level  emissions  were  less than the total point source  emissions.

     An analysis  of  this  problem revealed that most of these missing emissions
•were associated with SCC  descriptors ending in 99 that represent general
 categories for  processes. In general, the SCC descriptors that end in 99 do
 not have emission factors.  The SCC listings for almost all of these processes
 included an  SCC descriptor ending  with 89 which  represent  general  process
 categories for  which emissions  factors were included.  The SCC desriptors for
 these process level  records  were changed from the code ending in 99 to the
 code ending  in  89.   (This procedure corrected much of the  incomplete emissions
 allocation but  resulted in some missing speciation factors.  The SCCs  ending
 in 89 were added  to  the speciation factor file and were linked to  the  same
 speciation profiles  that  were associated with the 99 category).

 Location Data—
     Each  point source record includes both the  county code for the county in
 which the  process is located and precise location data in  UTM coordinates and
 latitude/longitude.  A small number of records were missing either the UTM
 zone, the  UTM coordinates or both. When only the UTM zone was missing,  the
                                      3-35

-------
zone for the county was entered.  When the UTM coordinates were missing, the
coordinates of the county centroid were added to the record.

     Location coordinates (UTMs and latitude/longitude) were checked using the
NE061 software.  A subsequent check made in October 1988 showed 359 plants
with coordinates outside approximate county boundaries which had passed the
NE061 edit routine.  This subsequent check consisted of defining a box around
each U.S. county based on the northernmost, southernmost, easternmost and
westernmost points in the county.  Points outside this box were reviewed and
located (if possible) on a map.  These points were either 1) assigned new
coordinates, 2) assigned to the county centroid, or 3) left at the reported
coordinates.  Massachusetts was exempted from this check due to the use of Air
Pollution Control Districts (APCDs) instead of counties by the state.

Operating Schedule—
     Operating schedule data are included in point source records to represent
the temporal distribution of the annual emissions.  The temporal allocation
represented by the operating schedule data is based on an on/off assumption.
A set of seasonal, daily and hourly temporal allocation profiles for utilities
were developed for application to the 1980 NAPAP inventory.  The factors were
based on the operating schedules for a subset of utilities from northeastern
states.  Temporal allocation factors for utilities are discussed in Section 6.

     Actual 1985 operating load data were obtained for several TVA utilities.
These actual operating rate data were compared to both the NAPAP operating
schedule data for those utilities, and the averaged temporal allocation
factors.  The comparison was performed to determine whether, the operating
schedule data or the temporal factor file was more accurate in representing
actual  1985 operations.  The results of the analysis were inconclusive.  The
magnitude of errors  introduced by either assumption was nearly identical.

Stack Parameters—
     In many cases point source stack parameter data were either missing,
incomplete, or internally inconsistent.  Complete stack parameter data  include
height, diameter, temperature, and flow for a stack source, or plume height
and temperature for  a  fugitive source.  Stack data are important in modeling
applications because the large stacks can have significant plume rises.  As a
result  of the plume  rise, emissions can be injected into elevated layers of
the models where transport conditions are quite different from those for
surface layer emissions.

     The RADM modeling team  identified 7,079 U.S. and 241 Canadian
process-level records within the RADM modeling domain for which plume  rise
calculations were desired.   The  selection of these records was based on
emissions magnitude  cut-offs such  that approximately 90  percent of  the
NOX, and VOC point  source emissions would be treated in  the plume rise
calculations.  The  remainder of  the points were considered minor sources and
were handled by generic default  plume rise assumptions.
                                      3-36

-------
     The records identified for plume rise calculations were aggregated to
stack level and subjected to a series of computerized and manual checks.  The
stack data were checked for missing values and reasonable stack gas exit
velocities.

     A structured approach was used to fill in missing values for the United
States based on the most reliable related data available for each record.
Relationships between flow rate, stack diameter, stack height and boiler
capacity were developed from records having complete stack parameter
information.  These relationships were used to replace the missing values
based on reliable information that was reported for the records in question.
Default SCC median values were used only as a last resort where no related
information was available.  The median values were calculated from all points
coded with a particular SCC that had non-zero and non-missing values for stack
parameters.

     The first step was a review of the consistency of the common stack
information.  Information obtained directly from some utility companies as
part of the ACID-MODES Field Study was used to update the information
indicating which points shared a common stack and the heights and diameters of
the stacks.  Records with inconsistencies in the shared stack information were
then individually reviewed and revised.  The revised shared stack information
was used to fill in values for missing stack heights and diameters where
values were reported for at least one of the points sharing the stack.

     Any remaining missing stack diameters were calculated from the stack flow
rate using an assumed velocity of 26 meters per second. .Missing stack h'eights
were estimated to be.twenty times the stack diameter.  Missing flow rates were
estimated  from the boiler capacity data using a ratio of 400 ACFM of flow to 1
million BTU/hour of boiler capacity.  If boiler capacity was also missing a
default flow specific to the record's SCC was used.

     In some cases it was apparent from the flow-to-capacity ratios that the
total stack flow had been reported for each individual point vented to a
common stack.  In other cases a total stack flow was reported for only the
first point vented to a common stack, with all of the remaining point's  flows
reported as zero.  Alliance revised the former cases to be similar to the
latter cases by setting all but the first point's flow to zero.  Summing the
individual point flows will therefore yield the correct total stack flow.

     Information from nineteen Canadian plants participating in the ACID-
MODES Field Study was used where possible to replace missing values in the
Canadian point source file.  Default SCC median values were used to replace
missing values for all other Canadian point source records.  The resulting
file was checked for reasonable stack gas exit velocities, and  individual
revisions  were made as necessary.

     A total of 1,326 U.S. and 141 Canadian process-level records had at least
one stack  parameter revised.  Revisions are indicated by two flags included on
each record.  These flags are summarized by state or province in Tables  3-8
and 3-9.   Appendix F contains complete lists of the point-level records  which
                                      3-37

-------
                  TABLE 3-8.  U.S.  STACK PARAMETER REVISIONS
STATE
01 AL
04 AR
08 DE
10 FL
11 GA
14 IL
15 IN
16 IA
17 KS
18 KY
19 LA
20 ME
21 MD
22 MA
23 MI
24 MN
25 MS
26 MO
28 NE
31 NJ
33 NY
34 NC
35 ND
36 OH
37 OK
39 PA
42 SC
44 TN
45 TX
48 VA
50 WV
51 WI
....
A
34
0
0
16
41
13
46
0
0
22
0
0
12
11
47
0
15
32
0
0
11
4
0
116
0
17
0
25
6
46
43
18
B
0
2
0
4
0
19
0
0
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
18
0
1
0
2
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
- - - r i_^\vj
C E
6
0
0
4
3
7
66
5
3
0
6
0
0
0
10
26
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
15
3
4
5
0
0
3
1
6
0
0
0
4
3
0
0
1
3
0
1
13
1
7
6
0
2
4
3
8
0
1
25
0
5
0
L •
F
0
0
0
0
0
4
1
0
5
0
4
0
0
0
6
4
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
0
0
0
0
G
0
1
0
0
0
8
0
2
22
0
0
2
0
1
15
4
0
8
• o
0
0
1
0
2
4
0
2
2
54
0
8
0
H
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
! - f LJ\\J £. - I
M R T
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
7
0
5
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
2
3
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
24
0
7
0
0
1
0
0
0
4
1
0
5
0
5
0
0
12
15
4
0
6
0
1
8
0
0
0
3
0
4
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
8
6
0
20
20
3
0
9
0
10
0
0
36
31
0
2
4
0
0
0
0
11
- 0
19
0 '
22
0
0
10
47
rATioo IULND FVJK. ri^m>iic.u K.C,V_.UKUO
S02 NOx VOC
498,198
14,225
2,175
135,955
982,554
745,095
1,081,062
16,056
17,756
506,196
10,221
10,798
148,951
100,155
324,054
40,562
90,862
783,206
3,546
28,761
126,471
97,047
14,664
2,075,897
4,749
701,800
3,360
654,497
259,942
126,855
889,758
180,229
177,910
6,912
1,885
33,781
226,214
220,330
344,238
8,127
8,400
167,426
14,456
1,803
40,048
39,680
206,089
47,240
24,956
217,807
4,479
15,602
19,040
57,008
774
460,998
7,120
218,8-93
1,635
144,891
164,749
68,981
299,026
41,091
6,416
48
11
320
963
6,506
1,026
22
182
759
2,328
378
171
184
4,940
300
116
8,108
32
1,971
1,755
420
0
13,607
128'
738
49
690
8,407
1,165
24,665
738
TOTAL 575  66 164 102  34 136
59  73 258  10,675,656  3,291,589  87,142
KEY - FLAG 1:
   A - ACID-MODES data for common stack, height, and diameter.
   B - individual revisions to common stack to fix inconsistencies.
   C - common stack point data used to replace zero height or diameter.
   E - diameter calculated from flow using velocity - 26 meters/sec.
   F - height calculated from diameter using 20 ft/ft diameter.
   G - one or more of the four parameters are SCC medians.
   H - miscellaneous manual changes based on individual review.

KEY - FLAG 2:
   M - all four parameters are SCC medians
   R - flow calculated from boiler capacity using 400 ACFM/mil BTU.
   T - reported point flow was assumed to be total stack flow.  The
       first point in the common stack was left as reported,  all other
       points in the stack had their flow changed to zero.
                                    3-38

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were revised.  The lists are at the point-level because stack parameters vary
by point, but not by process.  A total of 893 U.S. and 135 Canadian point-
level records are listed.

Missing Fuel Parameters—
     Fuel parameters were defined as missing if fuel sulfur, ash or heat
content were blank or zero (where zero was not appropriate to the fuel) for a
fuel combustion SCC.  These SCCs include boilers, engines, heaters, and in
process uses.  In the point source file, a total of 5,578 SCC records had at
least one fuel value equal to zero where zero was not appropriate.  To replace
these missing or zero values, a set of defaults was developed for these fuel
SCCs (Appendix E).

     In order to use the most representative data, default parameters were
developed for each state to account for regional variation.  For industrial
boilers, default values for fuel sulfur, ash and heat content were based on
the median values of these parameters for the industrial boilers on a
fuel-specific basis.  The median for each state was then reviewed for
reasonableness using published AP-42 and NEDS guidance, and knowledge of the
inventory.  If the median value for a state was deemed unreasonable, then the
national median value for that fuel type was used.  This case usually occurred
if the number of industrial boilers in a state was small or there was a known
deficiency (e.g., fuel sulfur for New Jersey was frequently off by a factor of
ten due to a conversion error).

     For nonboiler combustion sources such as process heaters, defaults were
based on the median values considering all combustion SCCs on a state- and
fael-specific basis.  In general, the sample size for a particular source type
would have been insufficient at the state level to develop a set of defaults
for process heaters, kilns, in-process fuels, etc.

     Fuels such as process gas, waste oil, wood, etc. were not treated because
of the wide potential variability in fuel parameters.  Also, utility boilers
with missing fuel parameters were not included.  Missing values for utilities
were compared with the 1985 NURF file and substitutions were made where
appropriate.

     As before, each record for which a default location or fuel parameter  was
applied was flagged so that users of the annual and modelers' inventory could
identify data which were not reported by the states.

Small Point Sources

     As originally designed, the annual  inventory was  to  include point  sources
emitting 100 tons per year SC^, NOX or VOC (at  the plant-level).  These
criteria reflect  the NEDS  statutory authority  and the  1980 NAPAP Emissions
Inventory protocol.  Early in  the inventory  process,  it'was apparent that  some
states maintained inventories  of smaller stationary  sources in their
point-source inventories.  Although the  aforementioned criteria were
recommended, NEDS and NAPAP accepted  smaller stationary  sources in  the  point
source  file.  In  fact,  states  were responsible  for reviewing and verifying  the
emissions of all  sources  in  their point  source  file,  regardless of  size.
                                      3-40

-------
However, these small sources fell below the emissions criteria for review for
many other QC checks (e.g., internal consistency, missing data, valid stack
data, etc.)  In some cases, the state reported and reviewed these small
sources in accordance with NAPAP requirements, but these NAPAP standards were
not consistently applied by all states for all sources.  In order to keep a
standard baseline file, small point sources were removed from the point-source
file for Version 2 and placed in existing but unused area source categories
based on these criteria:

     (1)  All points with emissions of less than 5 TPY of each pollutant (S02,
          NOX, VOC, TSP and CO) at plants with emissions less than 1,000 TPY;

     (2)  All points at plants with emissions of less than 100 TPY of each
          pollutant (S02, NOX, VOC, TSP and CO) after step (1).

     The small points were aggregated into area source categories that had
been used in the 1980 NAPAP Emission Inventory.  The points were assigned
based on their reported SCCs to the following area source categories:

     •    096 - Coal Combustion (formerly Minor Utility Sources - Coal)
     •    097 - Oil Combustion (formerly Minor Utility Sources - Oil)
     •    098 - Natural Gas Combustion (formerly Minor Utility - Natural Gas)
     •    099 - Process Sources (formerly Minor Point Sources)

Category 099 contains combustion sources for fuels such as coke and process
gas, evaporative emissions and all process emissions.

     This shift of small point sources considerably reduced the number of
records and processing time for the point source file.  About eleven percent
of the plants reported to NEDS were removed from the point-source file.  The*
Version 2 point source file contains about 50 percent of the previous NEDS
points and SCCs, but has retained 99.95 percent of S02 emissions,
99.79 percent of NOX emissions, 98.35 percent of VOC emissions, 98.61 percent
of TSP emissions and 99.89 percent of CO emissions from the original point
source file.  Table 3-10 presents the point source profile for Version 2 by
state.  This may be compared to the NEDS point source profile previously
published.   The annual inventory contains 29,496 process-level records with
zero emissions for all pollutants that are included at points with positive
emissions for other process-level records.  These records are dropped during
the first stages of FREDS processing to reduce the execution time required to
process the data.

Record-Level Review of Questionable Data

     Missing or questionable operating data can have a significant effect on
projection of fuel consumption and emissions, especially for fuels and states
with a small number of observations.  During review of the data for use with
the industrial combustion emissions projection model, emission rates on a fuel
throughput basis were checked.  The analysis indicated that some data were
outside of expected and reasonable ranges.  Identification and correction of
these types of anomalies required a significant amount of record by record
                                     3-41

-------
TABLE  3-10.   1985 NAPAP U.S. ANNUAL POINT SOURCi: INVENTORY  PROFILE
STATE
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut •
Delaware
Dist. of Col.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missiouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
N. Carolina
N. Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
S. Carolina
S. Dakota
Tennessee
Texasb
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
TOTALS
PLANTS
162
28
114
579
93
52
27
13
116
180
22
509
362
61
145
212
310
51
120
177
233
194
125
249
28
37
20
31
143
146
383
341
43
411
202
45
402
22
121
16
288
664
64
13
257
180
170
223
70
8454
POINTS
878
103
498
4751
336
294
98
50
789
1072
76
5130
1545
815
591
609
3979
175
645
845
951
1189
277
1486
296
95
91
162
1591
670
1434
1584
108
2239
1249
102
2169
79
370
28
2210
15985
212
31
1110
769
1996
1041
388
63191
a
POINT-SCC
1060
133
535
6646
386
358
139
85
1087
1391
77
5144
2431
911
80S
813
4384
205
809
1336
1134
1987
432
1832
353
114
116
183
1606
670
1777
1823
117
2725
1425
115
2536
140
502
54
2573
16858
315
35
1652
980
2106
1274
438
74607
           3 point sec  totals presented do not include 29,496 records with zero
             emissions  for all pollutants that are in the annual inventory.

           b
             totals for Texas do not include the county level fuel use records
             with zero  throughputs.
                                        3-42

-------
review.  Due to time limitations in completing Version 2 by January 31, 1989,
the review of questionable data was prioritized.  First, a detailed analysis
of industrial boilers with state-level emission rates of SC>2 and
NOX (Ibs/MMBtu) outside of reasonable ranges on a fuel-specific basis was
made.  Second, operating rate data for the top 1000 emission points were
checked for consistency.

Industrial Boilers—
     Ten states had average emissions rates exceeding the reasonable ranges
for at least one major fuel (i.e., coal, distillate oil, residual oil, or
natural gas).  A total of fifteen state/fuel combinations were investigated.
Because emissions had received the most extensive review of any parameter, no
annual emissions totals were altered unless there was a record in the
inventory documentation that the emissions were incorrect and should be
changed.  (This case occurred once due to an undetected error in the update
process.)  In all other cases, either throughput data were altered to reflect
the reported emissions of S02 and NOX, or the reported data were verified as
the best available.

Operating Rate Consistency—
     Three checks for operating rate consistency on the top 1000 emission
points were employed during preparation of Version 2.  The first two compared
maximum design rate to boiler capacity and throughput for boilers.  The third
screened for blank or zero throughputs.

     As part of the NE061 edit process, maximum design rate and boiler
capacity were compared to indicate internal inconsistencies.  The same check
was implemented to identify where states had been unable to correct these
inconsistencies for Version 1:

     (Maximum Design Rate) * (Heat Content) < (1.2) * (Boiler Capacity)

     where:    Maximum Design Rate  =   SCC Units/Hour
               Heat Content         =   MMBtu/SCC Unit
               Boiler Capacity      =   MMBtu/Hour

If the above relationship was not met for boilers, then each point was
individually reviewed.  A total of 34 points (44 SCC records) were identified.
Changes were made to the maximum design rate where throughput, capacity and
heat content were consistent and to heat content to match fuel type.  Of these
34, 19 corrections were made based on a review of the operating data.
Five points were determined to have correct data (the reported data had failed
by only a few percent).  The ten remaining points had insufficient data to
make corrections or replacements.

     A second check analogous to an NE061 edit routine was made to compare
maximum design rate and throughputs for consistency for boilers and engines.
In this case, the criteria identified points where annual throughput exceeded
the maximum design rate by more than ten percent:
                                     3-43

-------
     (Maximum Design Rate) * (8760) * (1.1) < (Throughput)

     where:    Throughput  =  SCC Units/Year
               Hours/Year  =  8760

A total of 188 SCC records (122 points) failed this check.  In all but one
instance, failure was due to a blank or zero maximum rate, or SCC-level
emissions were zero.  One correction (to a design rate) was made.  Maximum
design rates for blank or zero values were not back-calculated based on
throughput.

     The top 1000 emission points were screened for occurrence of blank or
zero throughputs.  A total of 214 points failed this check.  Of these points,
93 had throughputs inserted based on SCC-level emissions and emission factors
in the NEDS SCC emission factor file.  Sixty-seven records reported zero
emissions at the SCC level; therefore, zero was a correct throughput.  The
remaining throughputs could not be corrected due to the lack of an emission
factor, or a significant divergence among throughput values calculated from
each of the reported pollutants.  In most cases, blank or zero throughputs
that were replaced corresponded to VOC sources such as surface coating,
solvent evaporation, etc.

NOg Emissions from Large (>100 MMBtu/Hr) Industrial and Commercial Boilers

     The emission factor reported in the NEDS emission factor file  for NOX
for large (>100 MMBtu/Hr) natural-gas fired industrial and commercial boilers
is 550 Ibs NOX/MMCF fired.  The factor listed In the NEDS emission factor file
was in use throughout the collection and processing of the 1985 NEDS and NAPAP
inventories.  This factor was taken from AP-42° and is applicable at
100 percent loading, but additional information in AP-42 indicates that the
factor should be decreased when the boiler is operating at reduced load
conditions.  In order to compensate for use of the 550 Ibs NOX/MMCF factor in
the 1985 point source inventory, records for the above SCCs were  screened by
dividing NOX emissions by annual throughput.  If the resulting 'factor1 were
above  275 Ibs NOX/MMCF, the NOX emissions were reduced to bring this
calculated  'factor' equal to 275.  This new factor is based on firing at
approximately 70 percent of capacity (on average) and was applied to the
following SCCs irrespective of estimation method code:

      10200601  Natural Gas Industrial External Combustion (>100 MMBtu/Hr)
      10300601  Natural Gas Commercial External Combustion (>100 MMBtu/Hr)

      Utility boilers were not changed.  An analysis of gas-fired  utilities
indicated a large number of these boilers would be affected and emissions
would  be reduced up to 50 percent per boiler.  Many utility emissions were
confirmed with the source and fuel use closely matched by the 1985 NURF.

      A total of 845 industrial and commercial boilers met the criteria for
change.  Boilers with blank or zero  throughputs were not  considered because  no
 'factor' could be calculated  (e.g., Texas).  A review revealed that the
majority (70 percent) of the  'factors' calculated from emissions  and
throughput were between 500 and 600  Ibs NOX/MMCF.  However, a few 'factors'
                                      3-44

-------
were over one thousand and ranged Co 2.9 million.  If the calculated 'factors'
were in excess of 700 Ibs NOX/MMCF it was assumed that some other
inconsistency existed between emissions and throughput.  Factors of this
magnitude may have been caused by 1) erroneous NEDS throughputs due in large
measure to problems in the conversion of State data to NEDS (e.g., Louisiana,
Michigan, New York) or 2) misallocation of appropriate point-level emissions
among SCCs due to miscodings of SCCs or NEDS software deficiencies.  In either
case, an emission 'factor' larger than 700 could not be assumed to be
representative of the actual factor employed by the state.  This criterion
excluded 87 boilers (10 percent) from the change.

     About 41 percent of the SCC 10200601 records were changed, producing a
21 percent reduction in emissions for that SCC.  About 19 percent of the SCC
10300601 records were changed, with a 20 percent reduction in emissions.
Considering all natural gas-fired industrial and commercial boilers
(SCCs 102006xx and 103006xx), NOX emissions were reduced by 16 percent.  The
overall reduction to point source NOX in the annual inventory was 0.5 percent.


Version 2 Mobile Source Emissions

     In both the NEDS and the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 1, mobile
source VOC emissions were based on emission factors derived from the MOBILE3
emission factor model run at the state annual average temperature.  While
completing the annual inventory, the EPA Office of Mobile Sources was also
completing the development of MOBILE4, an updated version of the mobile source
emission factor model.

     The MOBILE4 emission factor model includes additional components for the
VOC" emission factors that represent evaporative lo'sses that were not included
in the MOBILE3 emissions factors.  Figure 3-2 shows the specific components
included in the MOBILE4 emission factor model for gasoline highway vehicles
and the magnitude of each as compared to the emission factor calculated by
MOBILE3.  The emission factors that result from the updated mobile source
emission factor model are increased by 24.7 percent above the MOBILE3 value at
all state annual average temperatures.  ^'*/
                                          ;
                                          /
     MOBILE4 also includes an additional contribution from running losses at
temperatures above 60°F.  Eleven states in the NAPAP inventory region have
annual average temperatures between 60°F and 70°F.  The contribution of
running loss emissions was assumed to be zero at 60°F and to increase linearly
to 5.49 percent at 70°F.  An additional contribution to represent running loss
emissions was calculated based on that linear relationship for all states that
have annual average temperatures above 60°F.  The VOC emissions from highway
gasoline vehicles were increased by 24.7 percent for all of the states, the
District of Columbia, and Canada.  Table 3-11 lists the states that were
adjusted further to include the effect of running losses, the annual average
temperature, and the additional percent adjustments.
                                     3-45

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                                    3-46

-------
   TABLE 3-11.   MOBILE SOURCE ADJUSTMENTS  FOR  VOC  EMISSIONS  TO REPRESENT THE
               MOBILE* EMISSION FACTOR MODEL
                                      EMISSION FACTOR INCREASE IN PERCENT
EXCESS
ANNUAL AVERAGE EVAPORATIVE
STATE TEMPERATURE (°F) LOSS
Alabama
Arizona
California
Florida
Georgia
Louisiana
Mississippi
Nevada
North Carolina
South Carolina
Texas
62.5
67.5
65.1
67.3
60.7
65.4
63.2
67.5
60.1
62.7
65.7
24.7
24.7
24.7
24.7
24.7
• " 24.7
24.7
24.7
24.7
24.7
24.7
RUNNING
LOSS
1.4
4.3
2.9
4.2
0.4
3.1
1.8
4.3
0.1
1.5
3.2
TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT
26.1
29.0
27.6
28.9
25.1
27.8
26.5
29.0
24.8
26.2
27.9
NOTE:     All remaining States, the District of Columbia and all of Canada
          were based on.average temperatures below 60 degrees Fahrenheit, and
          the VOC emissions were adjusted by the factor 24.7 percent for
    •     excess evaporative loss, and 0 percent for running losses.-
             /

Audit Trail

     The 1985 NAPAP Audit Trail Program was designed to document all changes
made to the point source database.  The SCC-level NEDS data were used as the
original input to this program.  All information resulting from the execution
of this program was stored in an "electronic notebook" disk. file.  Each record
in the new version of the database was compared to the corresponding record in
the previous version of the database.

     All parameters, such as stack height, flow rate, emissions estimates,
etc., were checked for matching new and old values.  If a match were not found
for a particular source, the record was flagged and the old and new values of
the parameter were recorded.  If a record were present in the new database but
not the old database, the record was flagged as a new (added) record and was
recorded.  Similarly, if a record appeared in the old database but not in the
new database, the record was flagged as an old (deleted) record and was
recorded.  The audit trail exists as numerous computer files.  Segments of the
audit trail can be printed to track specific data items as necessary.
                                     3-47

-------
Canadian Emissions and Natural Source Emissions

     Both the NEDS inventory and the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 1
included only anthropogenic emissions sources from the United States.
Anthropogenic emissions data for point sources and area sources from
10 Canadian provinces and total particulate and speciated particulate
emissions estimates for natural sources of windblown dust were added to
develop the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2.  The emissions source
categories included in the natural particulate emissions inventory are dust
from unpaved roads in the United States and Canada; dust from paved roads in
Canada; wind erosion from industrialized land and agricultural land from the
United States; erosion from land tilling in Canada; and dust from dust devils
in the southwestern United States.

     The development of the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory is
described in Section 7 of this report and the development and processing of
the natural source emissions are described in Section 8.
                                      3-48

-------
                                   SECTION  3

                                  REFERENCES
1.   Zimmerman, D., W. Tax, M. Smith, J. Demmy, and R. Battye.  Anthropogenic
     Emissions Data for the 1985 NAPAP Inventory.  EPA-600/7-88-022
     (NTIS PB89-151419), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, North Carolina, November 1988.

2.   Demmy, J.L., W. M. Tax, and T.E. Warn.  Area Source Documentation for the
     1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Inventory.
     EPA-600/8-88-106 (NTIS PB89-151427), U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park., North Carolina, December 1988.

3.   NEDS Source Classification Codes and Emission Factor Listing.  Prepared
     by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning
     and Standards, National Air Data Branch, October 1985.

4.   Report of a Workshop to Review Requirements for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions
     Database (April 3-4, 1986, Washington, DC).  Prepared by the NAPAP
     Emissions and Controls Task Group.

5.   NEDS/NAPAP Emission Inventory Workshop Handbook.  Prepared by U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and
     Standards, National Air Data Branch, October 1985.

6.   Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I;  Stationary
     Point and Area Sources.  AP-42.  Fourth Edition (GPO No.055-000-00251-7),
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North
     Carolina, September 1985.

7.   Stockton, M.B. and J.H.E. Stelling.  Criteria Pollutant Emission Factors
     for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  EPA-600/7-87-015
     (NTIS PB87-198735), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, North Carolina, May 1987.

8.   EPA Emissions Confirmation Guide for Major Source Categories.  Approved
     by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning
     and Standards, National Air Data Branch, October 1985.

9.   Pahl, D.A. and J.D. Mobley, Quality Assurance and Quality Control Plan
     for the NAPAP 1985 Emission Inventory.  EPA-600/8-86-025 (NTIS
     PB86-237682), August 1986.

10.  Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, DOE/EIA-0095(85), U.S.
     Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, National Energy
     Information Center, Washington, DC, August 1986.

11.  Coal Distribution January - December  1985. DOE/EIA-0125(85/4Q), U.S.
     Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil
     and Gas, Washington, DC, April  1986.
                                     3-49

-------
12.  Petroleum Marketing Monthly, DOE/EIA-0380(86/07),  U.S. Department of
     Energy, Energy Information Administration, Office  of Oil and Gas,
     Washington, DC, July 1986.

13.  Natural Gas Annual 1985, DOE/EIA-0131(85), U.S.  Department of Energy,
     Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas, Washington, DC,
     November 1986.

14.  Electric Power Annual 1985. DOE/EIA-0348(85), U.S. Department of Energy,
     Energy Information Administration, National Energy Information Center,
     Washington, DC, 1986.
                                      3-50

-------
                                   SECTION 4

                          1985 NAPAP EMISSION FACTORS
 BACKGROUND

      Many of the criteria pollutant  emissions  estimates  included  in  the  1985
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2  for point  sources  result  from the
 application of emission factors.   Emission "factors  are multipliers which are
 applied to a characteristic facility operating parameter,  such  as annual fuel
 use,  to estimate total annual emissions.  The  NEDS  emission  factor file   for
 point source criteria pollutants  was used in  the  development  of the  annual
 inventory.  The NEDS emission factor file is  based  largely on the AP-42^
 emission factors.  Emission factors  for point  source categories are  typically
 based on source test measurements.  Due to  the large number  and variability of
 source categories in the inventory many emission  factors are  developed using
 technology transfer or engineering judgement.

      During the development of the 1980 NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory, it  was
 discovered that many processes had no emission factor  in this emission factor
 file.  The lack of an emission factor precludes NEDS calculation  of  emission
 estimates based on reported throughputs.  For  the 1985 inventory, a  program
 was  implemented to develop point  source factors for many processes for which
 criteria pollutant emission factors  were not  available.


      The guidance to the states for  the completion  of  the state annual
,emissions inventories stated that source tests, continuous emissions
 monitoring (CEM), or other site-specific data  were  preferred  over the  use of
 emission factors for point source emissions  estimation.   Limited  emissions
 measurement data, however, led to the use of  standard  emission  factors for  a
 large percentage of point and area sources.   The  percentages  of criteria
 pollutant emissions for point sources in the  U.S. annual inventory that  were
 calculated by the application of  the NEDS emission  factors are;  50.3% for
 S02,  56.3% for NOX, 20.6% for VOC, 33.3% for  TSP  and 35.6% for  CO.

      Nearly all of the area source emissions  estimates are based  on  the
 application of emission factors and  all of  the noncriteria NAPAP  pollutants
 are  estimated through the use of  emission factors.  National  average area
 source emission factors for criteria pollutants are presented in  Table 4-1.
 For  some are source categories the emission  factors vary by  location and
 national average emission factors are not used.  For example  mobile  source
 emissions factors are dependent on ambient  temperature and other  location
 specific factors.  The development and application  of  the area  source  emission
 factors for the five criteria pollutants was  discussed in Section 3.  A
 discussion of the development and application  of  the noncriteria  pollutant
 emission factors is presented later  in this  section.
                                      4-1

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CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSION FACTORS

     Prior to the development of the annual inventory, the existing lists of
emission factors for criteria pollutants did not cover all of the SCCs used by
the states to describe process emissions sources.  A two phase program was
initiated as part of the 1985 inventory development effort to update the VOC
emission factors in the NEDS emission factor file and to develop emission
factors for NOX and SC>2 for some additional source categories.

     The source categories that lacked emission factors for VOC, S02 and NOX
were identified in Phase I.  The major emphasis of that effort was on
processes in the manufacture and storage of organic chemicals and petroleum
products that were expected to be large VOC sources.  The second phase of the
program consisted of developing VOC emission factor estimates for all
remaining SCCs.   In addition, SCCs which previously lacked emission factors
for NOX and S02 were targeted for the development of emission factors.

     The SCCs and emission factors used in the 1985 NEDS data collection
effort included all emission factor updates through the Fourth Edition of AP-
42.  All emission factors that have been developed by NAPAP since that report
were added to the emission factor file.  The new emission factors developed
for NAPAP are not of the same quality as emission factors tabulated in AP-A2.
They represent best estimates which have not been subjected to rigorous review
or quality assurance.  These factors were generated from estimates taken from
the literature, from a review of state emissions submittals, and through
technology transfer of emission factors for SCCs from similar industries.  The
procedures followed to develop the new emission factors for application to the
1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2 are discussed briefly.

     Extensive notes and references are supplied in AP-42 explaining how the
emission factor estimates were generated.  In  some cases, these notes give an
indication of data quality by reporting the number of emission tests used to
develop a factor.  The newly developed criteria pollutant emission factors and
the noncriteria pollutant emission factors have also been assigned data
quality ratings.

     Thirteen states were contacted to obtain  emissions data from emission
inventories, test reports, and permit files.   States which have large
industrial sectors and potentially large emission sources were specifically
targeted during this effort.  Emissions data were supplied by 12 of the
states, seven through computerized emissions inventories and five through
review of permit  files.  Emission factor estimates were generated by averaging
the emission data submitted for each SCC.  In  some cases, states or industries
were recontacted  to provide more complete process descriptions and production
rates.  States provided a  substantial amount of emissions data on metal
operations (both  primary and secondary) and on mineral products operations.

     A number of  source specific documents, including Background Information
Documents (BIDs), industrial process profiles, source assessments, and
chemical-specific emission source survey documents were reviewed to gather
                                      4-10

-------
information on emissions and processes.  These documents provided useful
information on process descriptions, operating parameters, raw materials, and
end products for many source categories.  This information was used to compare
similar processes in different industries to apply technology transfer of
emission factors across industries where appropriate.  The industrial process
profiles, although somewhat outdated (published in 1977 and 1980), proved
especially useful for this exercise.

     At the completion of the Phase II effort, 99 percent (2725) of the SCCs
had VOC emission factors or emission factor estimates associated with them or
did not need emission factors due to their general description.  Of these, 37
percent (1006) were developed during this effort.  Emission factors for NOX
and S02 were included for 75 percent of the SCC's in the listing.  During this
effort, over 100 VOC emission factors were developed in each of the following
major source categories:  chemical manufacturing, primary metals operations,
and secondary metals operations.

     The NEDS emission factor file was updated to include these new emission
factors.  The updated NEDS emission factor file was used to develop emissions
estimates for all sources which required emission calculations.  The states
were sent summaries of their emissions estimates, for a -final review, in
February of 1988.  These final summaries included the new emissions estimates.
Comments from the states were reviewed and revisions to the estimates were
made as requested.

Emission Factor Data Quality Rating

     The emission factors included in AP-42 have been reviewed extensively and
'as a result of these reviews, emission factor data quality ratings have been
assigned to each of the factors. . The AP-42 emission factor data quality
ratings range from A to E, with A indicating the highest, and E the lowest
confidence in the application of the factor to the specific process.  The NEDS
emission factor file contains some emission factors that are not included in
AP-42.  Additional quality ratings were developed to characterize the data
quality of the NEDS emission factors.  The meaning of these quality ratings is
explained on page 4-13.

     Table 4-2 lists the total emission of each criteria pollutant in the
United States annual inventory that were estimated by the application of the
NEDS emission factor file.  The percent of the total emissions of each  species
by emission factor quality rating is also listed in the table.
                                     4-11

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          DATA QUALITY RATINGS               MEANIMG

                 BLANK                  No value in AP-42 and no value or a
                                        zero given as an emission factor in
                                        NEDS emission factor list.
                   U                    Unrated - Not in AP-42
                  U/D                   Unrated - Different values given in
                                        AP-42 and NEDS emission factor list
                  U/E                   Unrated - Emission factor is an
                                        approximation based on an equation
                                        presented in AP-42
                  U/R                   Unrated - Emission factor was derived
                                        from AP-42 data for another similar
                                        source category
                  U/0                   Unrated - Emission factor was derived
                                        from other EPA documents, State data
                                        or other sources
                  U/B                   Unrated - An obsolete process from an
                                        earlier version of AP-42
                   T                    Technology Transfer - Emission factor
                                        developed by NAPAP
                  T/V                   Technology Transfer but emission
                                        factor reported in AP-42
                   V                    No emission factor in NEDS emission
                                        factor list but emission factors are
                                        reported in AP-42
                                                             »

     The confidence in emission factors for SC>2 and NOjj is quite good in that
over 92% of the calculated emissions of both species resulted from the
application of emission factors with quality ratings of C or higher.  The
emission factor data quality for_the remaining criteria pollutants is less
reliable than for SC>2 and NOX with large percentages of each resulting from
non AP-42 factors or D and E rated emission factors.
PRIMARY SULFATE EMISSION FACTORS

     For the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory an emission factor report was
written to describe the development of primary sulfate emission factors.
Part of the 1985 allocation factor development work, included the development
of speciation data for total suspended particulate.   The speciation work
identified primary sulfate as a chemical constituent of TSP.  Therefore, an
analysis was undertaken to select the best methodology for determining primary
sulfate emissions.  The analysis compared the use of the speciation profiles
to that of the traditional emission factor approach.  In addition, a review of
the NEDS emission factors was undertaken to ensure that they reflect sulfur
dioxide and not sulfur oxides.  This ensured tha-t primary sulfate emissions
were not being reported twice or were not being included as S02 emissions.
                                     4-13

-------
     The particulate speciation document was developed to aggregate existing
data on particulate speciation and size classification for chemical
constituents present in particulate emissions.  After reviewing the data it
was decided that the primary sulfate emission factor document contained the
more reliable data for primary sulfate.  A review of the NEDS emission factors
for 502 found small contributions due to SOj (in the case of residual oil
firing), or SOj and gaseous sulfates (in the case of coal firing).  These
contributions amount to 0.7 percent of S(>2 emissions for utility or industrial
coal firing 1.4 percent for utility residual oil firing, and 1.0 percent for
industrial residual oil firing.  These relatively small contributions did not
justify altering the S(>2 emission estimates.

     The primary sulfate emission factor report discussed four major
activities:

     •     Primary sulfate formation mechanisms thought to be prevalent in
           combustion processes

     •     Assessment of the state-of-the-art methodology for primary sulfate
           sampling and analysis of source emissions

     •     Review of the SURE  and WG3B  primary sulfate emission inventories

     •     Collection, review, and calculation of primary sulfate emission
           factors derived from additional field studies not included in the
           SURE and WG3B inventories

     Primary sulfate emission fa'ctors recommended for .use in the annual
inventory  are presented in Table 4-3.  The factors are reported for a number
of SCCs based on an analysis of available data.  Most of the current
data set is for fossil fuel combustion in the industrial and utility sectors.
The ratings listed in Table 4-3 are similar to—the rating categories used  in
AP-42 to indicate confidence in the data.  Data reliability decreases from A
through E.
                                                                           — o
     The emission factors given in Table 4-3 reflect  sulfate emitted as SO^   .
Source test data suggest that sulfate emissions can be markedly affected by
fuel sulfur content and other parameters such as furnace oxygen levels and
trace element content of the fuel.  For source categories other than fossil
fuel combustion, sulfate emission factors are reported in standard SCC units
or as percentages of mass particulate emissions.  The reported TSP emissions
represent  all particulate emissions including the sulfate component.

     The calculation of specific  primary sulfate emission factors was based  on
the following hierarchical  selection process:

     1.    Where available,  all  field measurements using  standard measurement
           techniques were considered as the prime data set.

     2.    Sulfate emission  assessments were aggregated for  different point
           sources within the  same  source category only  if fuel composition and
           emission controls were  similar.
                                      4-14

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     3.   Emissions data acquired through the use of methods other than
          standard measurement techniques were included only if multiple
          measurements yielded data with minimal scatter.

     There are a number of source categories for which no experimental field
data exist.  However, most of the regional mass emissions of primary sulfates
should occur from those source categories for which emission factors have
already been substantiated (utility and industrial fossil fuel burning).  The
best approach to improving the sulfate component may be an expanded field
measurement activity which focuses on the source categories which have not
been characterized sufficiently, but which are potentially significant
contributors to regional emissions.  Improvements are needed in the data base
for low sulfur residual oil-fired industrial and commercial boilers.  Field
measurements are recommended for this source type which is a significant
source of sulfur emissions in major metropolitan areas in the eastern United
States.  In addition, sulfate emissions from the pulp and paper industry need
further characterization given the large emission factors reported by WG3B.
Pulp mill operations are concentrated in the acid deposition sensitive
Northeast and represent a major SO2 and particulate source contributor in the
southeastern United States.

     The following conventions were used during the calculation of primary
sulfate emissions for the annual inventory.  Separate emission factors were
listed for primary sulfate from eastern and western bituminous coal.  These
emission factors vary by a factor of three.  The NEDS system does not
distinguish between eastern and western bituminous coal.  All bituminous coals
were assumed to be eastern.bituminous.  The development of the western coal
emission factor was based on a small number of measurements.  No explanation
for the large difference in the factors was presented.. The factors for
eastern coal are considered valid for a range of sulfur content coal from 0.9
to 4.7 weight percent.

     The use of control equipment for sulfur dioxide and its impact on primary
sulfate emissions are complicated.  Primary sulfate emissions are reduced by
S(>2 control devices and the SO^ emission factors have been revised to depend
on the primary SC>2 control device as reported to NEDS.   For utility and
industrial fuel combustion SCCs, any nonblank code resulted in the use of a
lower emission factor.  For the remaining SCCs the appropriate SO^ factor was
used regardless of control device except for cement manufacturing.  The
emission factor for cement manufacturing assumes no particulate control
devices.  If a particulate control efficiency was listed in the 1985 NEDS
file, the primary sulfate emissions were reduced accordingly.
                                     4-15

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                    TABLE 4-3.  PRIMARY SULFATE EMISSION FACTORS
      Source category
Control
device
 Primary sulfate
 emission factor      Rating
Electric Utilities -
External Combustion

  Eastern bituminous coal
    (1-01-002)

  Lignite
    (1-01-003)

  Residual oil (>1Z sulfur
    content)
    (1-01-004)

Industrial - External
Combustion

  Eastern bituminous coal
    (1-02-002)
  Residual oil
    (1-02-004)
 None
 ESP and FGD

 None
 ESP

 None
 Fuel oil
 additives
 None
 Multiclones
   and FGD

 None
 Multiclones
   and FGD
0.385S Ib/ton            A
0.250S                   C

1.951S                   C
1.268

5.439S lb/1,000 gallons  B

3.535S lb/1,000 gallons
2.646S Ib/ton            B

0.462S                   C

5.296S lb/l,000^gallons  D

2.616.S                •   D
Commercial/Institutional -
External Combustion

  Residual oil (<12 sulfur
    content ) ( 1-03-004 )

Space Heating - External
Combustion

  Distillate oil
    (1-05-001-05)

Industrial Process - Chemical
Manufacturing
      - contact  process
   (3-01-023)
 Fuel oil
 additives
 None
 Demister
25.07S lb/1,000 gallons  C
5.65S lb/1,000 gallons  C
0.100 Ib/ton acid
      produced
                                  (continued)
                                     4-16

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                        TABLE 4-3.  (continued)
      Source category
Control
device
 Primary sulfate
 emission factor      Rating
Industrial Process - Primary
Metals

  Primary copper smelters        None
    total

    roaster (3-03-005-02)
    smelter (3-03-005-03)
    converter (3-03-005-04)

  Primary zinc smelters          None
    (3-03-030)

  Primary aluminum smelter       None
    (3-03-001)

  Iron production                None
    (3-03-008)

  Coke                           None
    (3-03-003)
            *       '
Industrial Process - Wood
Products
  Kraft pulp mill
    (3-07-001-04)

  Sulfite pulp mill
    (3-07-002)
  Wood/bark waste
    (1-02-009)
 None
 None
               22.5 Ib/ton
               concentrated ore
               1.08
               5.76
               15.66

               55.5 Ib/ton processed
               0.5% of S02


               2.0% of S02


               0.320 Ib/ton coal
               charged
 None
 Multic lone
85% of NEDS TSPa
70% of NEDS TSPa
for Na base
25% of NEDS TSPa
for Ca base

3.6S Ib/ton bark
2.3S Ib/ton bark
                         C
                         C
                         D
                         D
                                  (continued)
                                     4-17

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                        TABLE 4-3.  (continued)
      Source category
Control
device
 Primary sulfate
 emission factor      Rating
Industrial Process - Mineral
Product

  Cement manufacturing
   (3-05-006-06)
   (3-07-007-06)

  Gypsum manufacturing
   (3-05-015)
Industrial Process - Petroleum
Industry

  Fluid crackers
   (3-06-002)

  Sulfur recovery Glaus plants
    (3-01-032)
Uncontrolled   5.6 lb/tona»b
None
 ESP
 None
562 of NEDS TSPa
15.0 lb/1,000 barrels
          oil

2.8 Ib/ton produced
C

C
Reference 9.

 Emissions are to be calculated using the control efficiency listed for
particulate emissions.
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND HYDROGEN FLUORIDE EMISSION FACTORS

     Emission factors for hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride were
developed for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.   A literature search was
conducted to identify significant anthropogenic emission sources and to
estimate emission rates for each of those sources.  No changes to the emission
factors or methodologies were made for 1985.  The emission factors are
summarized in Table 4-4.  Emission factors based on tests performed by a sound
methodology and accompanied by adequate background data were used as a first
priority.  Emission factors were evaluated on a scale of A through E, in a
manner similar to that used in AP-42.  National emission estimates for base
year 1985 were calculated by multiplying the level of activity (production/use
rates) by the emission factor for that source.
                                     4-18

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    TABLE 4-4.  HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND HYDROGEN FLUORIDE EMISSION FACTORS
                 Source
Emission factor
Rating
Coal Combustion
  Utility Boiler
    Bituminous (1-01-002)
    Anthracite (1-01-001)
    Lignite (1-01-003)
  Industrial Boilers
    Bituminous (1-02-002)
    Anthracite (1-02-001)
    Lignite (1-02-003)
  Comm./Inst. Boilers
    Bituminous (1-03-002)
    Anthracite (1-03-001)
    Lignite  (1-03-003)

Propylene Oxide Manufacture (3-01-205-01)

Incineration (5-01-001-01,02,5-01-005-07)
    Municipal Waste (5-03-001-01,02,03,04)
    Industrial Waste (5-03-007-01)

By-product Hydrochloric Acid Production.
  (3-01-011-01) (with final scrubber)
 1.90 Ib/ton burned
 0.91 Ib/ton burned
 0.01 Ib/ton burned

 1.90 Ib/ton burned
 0.91 Ib/ton burned
 0.01 Ib/ton burned

 1.48 Ib/ton burned
 3.07 Ib/ton burned
 0.35 Ib/ton burned

 7.46 Ib/ton produced
 5.0 lb/tona
 5.35 lb/tona
 0.2 Ib/ton
     A
     A
     A

     A
     A
     A

     C
     C
     C
     E
     E
                                     —HF—
Coal Combustion
  Utility Boiler
    Bituminous (1-02-002)
    Anthracite (1-01-001)
    Lignite (1-01-003)
  Industrial Boilers
    Bituminous (1-02-002)
    Anthracite (1-02-001)
    Lignite (1-03-003)
  Comm./Inst. Boilers
    Bituminous (1-03-002)
    Anthracite (1-03-001)
    Lignite (1-03-003)

Hydrogen Fluoride Manufacture
  Tail gas vent (3-01-012r06)
    Controlled - caustic scrubber
 0.23 Ib/ton burned
 0.18 Ib/ton burned
 0.01 Ib/ton burned

 0.23 Ib/ton burned
 0.18 Ib/ton burned
 0.01 Ib/ton burned

 0.17 Ib/ton burned
 0.13 Ib/ton burned
 0.063 Ib/ton burned
 0.2 Ib/ton
     A
     A
     A

     A
     A
     A

     C
     C
     C
                                  (continued)
                                     4-19

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                           Table 4-4.  (continued)
                 Source
                                               Emission factor
Rating
Primary Aluminum Production
     Anode baking furnace (3-03-001-05)
     Prebaked reduction cell (3-03-001-01)
     Prebaked fugitive emissions (3-03-001-08)
     Vertical soderberg stud cells (3-03-001-03)
     VSS - fugitive emissions (3-03-001-10)
     Horizontal soderberg stud cells (3-03-001-02)1.9 Ib/ton
     HSS - fugitive emissions (3-03-001-09)       2.2 Ib/ton
                                                  0.52  Ib/ton
                                                  4.9 Ib/ton
                                                  1.2 Ib/ton
                                                  0.6 Ib/ton
                                                  4.9 Ib/ton
Phosphate Fertilizer Industry
  Phosphoric acid production
     Reactor   (3-01-016-01)
     Condenser (3-01-016-03)
     Gypsum ponds (3-01-016-02)
  Triple Superphosphate Manufacture
     Reactor/dryer (granulator) (3.01-029-06)
  Diammonium Phosphate Manufacture
     Dryers and coolers  (3-01-030-01)
     Ammoniator/granulator (3-02-030-02)
                                                  0.37 Ib/ton
                                                  0.043 Ib/ton
                                                  0.42 Ib/ton

                                                 21.0 Ib/ton

                                                  0.3 Ib/ton
                                                  0.3 Ib/ton
 A
 A
 A
 A
 A
 A
 A
 C
 C
 D
 A
 A
     Hydrogen chloride is emitted from coal combustion, waste incineration,
and organic chemical manufacture.  Hydrogen fluoride is emitted primarily as a
by-product of coal combustion and primary aluminum production.  Other sources
of HF include the fertilizer industry and the hydrogen fluoride manufacturing
industry.

   The rates at which HC1 and HF are emitted during coal combustion are
functions of coal composition and air pollution control techniques.  A study
of coal combustion in utility boilers conducted by the Bureau of Mines found
the majority of chlorine contained in coal to volatilize and form HC1. °
There is a need for additional scientific data to directly assess the chemical
form of fluorine emitted during coal combustion.  In lieu of such data and
because of the chemical similarity between fluorine and chlorine, it is
assumed that all fluorine in the feed coal is released as HF.
                                     4-20

-------
     Data compiled in 1979 on trace element compositions in coal obtained from
an EPA study*  were used to calculate emission factors for coal combustion in
utility and industrial boilers.  These factors were assigned an A quality
rating due to the number of tests conducted, availability of information
concerning accuracy, and type of test methods used.  Recent data developed by
the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center resulted in
emission factors which compare favorably with those developed from the EPA
study.

     Control devices were not factored into the calculation of HC1 and HF
emissions from coal combustion.  Scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators
(ESPs), cyclones, and baghouses are used frequently on coal-fired utility
boilers as flue gas control techniques.  The primary purpose of these controls
is to remove particulate matter from the flue gas stream.  Under normal
operating practices, baghouses, ESPs, and cyclones have no significant effect
on removal of HC1 or HF.  The efficiency of wet scrubbing devices has been
reported at about 80 percent for HC1 and HF emissions from bituminous
coal-fired utility boilers.  Baghouses which have sorbent or alkaline
materials introduced may remove a substantial amount of HC1 and HF.  A study
of the use of nacholite and sodium bicarbonate as dry sorbent resulted in a 95
to 98 percent HC1 removal.  Another control technique, flue gas
desulfurization, is used to remove sulfur oxides from coal combustion.  Data
have indicated that flue gas desulfurization is at least 95 percent effective
in removal of HC1.  No data are available to quantify removal efficiencies of
HF.  Since control devices were not considered in the development and
application of the emission factors for HC1 and HF, the emissions may be
overestimated for some individual sources.

     Several emission factors received low quality ratings because of limited
data.  Factors for HC1 from residential boilers, hydrochloric acid
manufacturing, and waste incineration received intermediate to low quality
ratings because of the small number of plants actually tested and the absence
of information concerning test methods.  Factors for HF emissions from
residential boilers, phosphoric acid production, and hydrogen fluoride
manufacture were assigned low quality ratings because of the low number of
tests, the absence of information concerning accuracy of test methods, and the
number of assumptions made in determining these factors.  Additional data
which address emission rates of HC1 and HF from these sources are needed.

AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS

     Ammonia emission factors for the 1980 NAPAP inventory were developed
using a methodology similar to that used for the HC1 and HF emission factors.
The methodology included a literature search, the identification of the best
available data, and the assignment of quality ratings.    Emission factors for
NH^ were assigned a quality rating on a scale of A through E, as described for
the other emission factors.
     A comparative study of four sets of NHg emission factors was conducted as
part of the 1985 NAPAP emissions inventory development effort.  The findings
of this study formed the basis for the selection of NH^ emission factors for
                                     4-21

-------
the annual inventory.  The emission factors used in the annual inventory are
presented in Table 4-5.  The majority of the emission factors were taken
from the 1980 NH^ emission factor document.  Anthropogenic sources of ammonia
emissions include field application of livestock waste management practices,
beef cattle feedlots, fertilizer manufacture and use, fuel combustion, ammonia
synthesis, petroleum refineries coke manufacture, and transportation.

     Ammonia volatilization rates from livestock wastes applied to
agricultural land are based on several data sources.  Van Dyne*-* compiled
information on amounts of manure used in land application while estimates of
ammonia volatilization for various waste management practices and for various
types of livestock were calculated from data developed by Hoff and
Westerman.  '    Ammonia emission factors were calculated from these data.
Volatilization rates are thought to vary weather conditions and waste
management practices.  The development of these emission factors, was based on
several assumptions and, therefore, these factors have a high degree of
uncertainty.

     Ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedlots were reported by Peters and
Hutchinson.  »    Emissions data based on these studies ranged over three
orders of magnitude.  An average of the data from these two studies was used
for the development of the emission factor and should also be considered
highly uncertain.

Point Sources

     AP-42 data were used to characterize emissions from .fertilizer
manufacture, ammonia synthesis, petroleum refineries, and coke manufacture.
The emission factor for fertilizer manufacture, can vary over several orders of
magnitude depending on the manufacturing process.  Emissions from petroleum
refineries are primarily from catalytic cracking operations.  Sources in the
manufacture of coke include oven charging, door leaks, coke pushing, and
quenching.  Emission factors from all of these source categories were rated at
a high level of confidence except coke manufacture, which is based on a small
amount of data from tests conducted in Poland.  Other point sources of ammonia
include combustion of fuels such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and gasoline.
Emission factors for these sources were assigned intermediate to low quality
ratings because they were based on a  small amount of reliable test data.
Several emission factors for fuel combustion were found to originate from
estimates published three decades ago that lack a published basis; despite
this deficiency, these estimates have been repeated  in numerous  subsequent
reports.  Additional data addressing  ammonia emissions from combustion sources
that use current technology are needed to properly characterize  NH-j emissions.

Area Sources

     Area sources, particularly range animal excrement and livestock waste
management, dominate anthropogenic sources of ammonia.  To estimate emissions
from these  sources, activity data were obtained  from the  1982 Census of
Agriculture.    Emission factors were developed  to reflect the  proportion of
                                      4-22

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                    TABLE 4-5.  AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS
              Source
        Emission
         factor
                                Rating
Combustion Sources
  Coal
  Fuel oil
  Natural gas
    utility boilers
    industrial boilers
    commercial boilers
  Mobile sources
    highway gasoline
    diesel
0.00056 Ib/ton coala
0.8 lb/103 gallons fuel3
                   a
3.2 lb/106 ft3 gas
3.2 lb/106 ft3 gas"
0.49 lb/106 ft3 gas

0.56 lb/103 gallons fuela
0.95 lb/103 gallons fuela
Livestock Wastes
  Beef cattle feedlots (3-02-02-002) 13 Ib/animal marketed13
  Livestock waste management
    beef cattle                      36.9
    dairy cattle                     36.4
    swine                             7.4
    sheep                             4.1
     (Ib/animal marketed)
     (Ib/animal marketed)
     (Ib/animal marketed)
     (Ib/animal marketed)
    laying hens
    broilers
    turkeys
0.34 (Ib/animal marketed)
0.04 (Ib/animal marketed)
0.29 (Ib/animal marketed)
Ammonium Nitrate Manufacture
  Neutralizer (3-01-027-04, -11, -21)
  Solids formation
    evaporation/concent rat ion (-17X-27)
    high density prill towers (-12)
    low density prill towers (-22)
    rotary drum granulators (3-01-027-07)
    pan granulator (3-01-027-08)
    high density prill coolers  (-14)
    low density prill coolers (-24)
    low density prill dryers (-25)
    rotary drum granulator coolers (-29)
Wastewater Treatment

Anhydrous Ammonia Fertilizer
  Application
     18.0 Ib/ton

     17.00 lb/tonc
     57.2 lb/tonc
      0.26 lb/tonc
     59.4 lb/tonc
      0.14 lb/tonc
      0.04 lb/tonc
      0.30 lb/tonc
      1.6 lb/tonc
      1.19 lb/tonc

     19 lb/106 gallons
D
E

C
C
C

D
E
                                  E
                                  E
                                  E
                                  E
                                  E
                                  E
                                  E
                                  A
                                  A
                                  A
                                  A
                                  A
                                  A
                                  A
                                  A
                                  A
19 Ib/ton fertilizer
                                  (continued)
                                     4-23

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                              TABLE 4-5 (continued)
              Source
                                              Emission
                                               factor
Rating
Petroleum Refineries
  FCC units (3-06-002-01)
  TCC units (3-06-003-01)
  Reciprocating engine
    compressors

Ammonia Synthesis
  Carbon dioxide regeneration
    (3-01-003-08)
  Condensate stripping
    (3-01-003-09)
                                      54 lb/103 barrels feedd
                                      6 lb/103 barrels feedd

                                      0.2 lb/103 ft3 gasa
                                      2.0 lb/tonc

                                      2.2 lb/tonc
                                      18.2 lb/tonc
Urea Manufacture
  Solution formation/ (3-01-040-02)
    concentration
  Solid formation
    nonfluidized bed prilling
    (agricultural grade) (3-01-040-08) 0.87 lb/tonc
    •fluidized bed prilling
    (agricultural grade) (3-01-040-10) 2.9 lb/tonc
    (feed grade) (3-01-040-11)
    drum granulation (3-01-040-04)
    rotary drum cooler (3-01-040-12)
                                         4.1 lb/"tonc
                                        2.2 lb/tonc
                                        0.0051 lb/tonc
Coke Manufacture
  Oven charging (3-03-003-02)
  Door leaks  (3-03-003-08)
  Coke pushing (3-03-003-03)
  Quenching (contaminated water)
    (3-03-003-04)
Ammonium Phosphate
  Manufacture (3-01-030-02)
                                       0.02 Ib/ton coal charged
                                       0.06 Ib/ton coal charged
                                       0.1 Ib/ton coal charged
                                       0.28 Ib/ton coal charged
                                                    0.14 lb/tonc
  B
  B
  A

  A
   A

   A

   A
   A
   D
   D
   D
   D
aRefers to  pounds  ammonia emitted per unit of fuel burned.

Defers to  pounds  ammonia emitted per head of cattle marketed from feedlots,

cRefers to  pounds  ammonia emitted per ton of product.

^Refers to  pounds  ammonia emitted per 103 barrels of feed to the cracking
 unit.
                                      4-24

-------
confined versus unconfined animals. ^  Two new livestock categories for turkey
and sheep waste management were added to the inventory.

     Estimates for anhydrous ammonia fertilizer application were obtained by
multiplying the emission factor by county-level activity data.  The activity
data were obtained from the National Fertilizer Development Center in the form
of fertilizer application by state.  The application on a county basis was
estimated by dividing the percentage of farmland in each county of the State
by the total fertilizer sold in the State.

     The potential for emissions of ammonia for some other source categories
was investigated as part of the NAPAP inventory development effort.  The
additional categories were wildlife excrement, forest fires, human
perspiration, human breath and cigarette smoking.  Emissions for these
categories were not included in the annual or modelers' inventories.  The
decision to exclude these categories from the inventory was based on the high
uncertainty of the emission factors, the lack of reliable activity rate data
or because the calculated emissions were very small on the national level.

     The issue of ammonia emissions from wildlife excrement is controversial.
The net contribution of ammonia from wildlife excrement was assumed to be zero
for application to the NAPAP program.  This position is in conflict with other
research results that suggest that ammonia emissions from wildlife may be
large.

     Wastewater Treatment was added as an area source category for the annual
inventory (see Section 3).  Activity data in the form of total wastewater flow
by county were obtained from the 1984 EPA study  .  Ammonia emissions were
obtained by multiplying the wastewater flow by an emission factor.

     Mobile source estimates were obtained by multiplying the total amount of
gasoline sold by an emission factor.  For this application, an average
emission factor for leaded and unleaded gasoline was used.  The emission
factor was based on the ratio of total sales of leaded versus unleaded
gasoline.
                                     4-25

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                                   SECTION  A

                                  REFERENCES
1.   NEDS Source Classification Codes and Emission Factor Listing.  Prepared
     by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning
     and Standards, National Air Data Branch, October 1985.

2.   Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors.  Volume I?  Stationary
     Point and Area Sources.  AP-42.  Fourth Edition
     (GPO No. 055-000-00251-7), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, North Carolina, September 1985.

3.   Stockton, M.B. and J.H.E. Stelling.  Criteria Pollutant Emission Factors
     for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  EPA-600/7-87-015
     (NTIS PB87-198735).  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Energy
     Engineering Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina,
     May 1987.

4.   Homolya, J.B., Primary Sulfate Emission Factors for the NAPAP Emissions
     Inventory.  EPA-600/7-85-037 (NTIS PB86-108263), U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory,
     Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, September 1985.

5.   Shareef, G. and L. Bravo.  Air Emissions Species Manual Volume II -
     Particulate Matter (PM) Species Profiles.  EPA-450/2-88-003b (NTIS
   .  PB88-225800).  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, North Carolina.  April 1988.
  *
6.   Klemm, H.A. and R.J. Brennan.  Emissions Inventory for the SURE Region,  •
     GCA Technology Division, prepared for Electric Power Research Institute,
     EA-1913, Research Project 862-5, Final Report, April 1981.

7.   Rivers, M.E. and K.W. Riegel.  Work Group 3B:  Emissions, Costs and
     Engineering Assessment, U.S./Canada Memorandum of Intent on Transboundary
     Air Pollution, Work Group 3B, Final Report, June 1982.

8.   Final Report P-3901/G, "Anthropogenic Sources and Emissions of Primary
     Sulphates in Canada,"  January 20, 1982, Ontario Research Foundation.
     PG. 57 states acidic sulfate estimated to be 832 of total sulfate; pg.  54
     estimates particulate control device efficiencies on sulfates ranges  from
     30 to 50Z.

9.    Misenheimer, D., R. Battye, M.R. Glowers, and A.S. Werner.  Hydrogen
     Chloride and Hydrogen Fluoride Emission Factors for the NAPAP Emission
     Inventory.  EPA-600/7-85-041  (NTIS PB86-134020), U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Air and  Energy Engineering Research Laboratory,
     Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, October 1985.
                                      4-26

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10.  Abernethy, R.F., F.H. Gibson and W.H.  Frederic.   Phosphorus,  Chlorine,
     Sodium, and Potassium in U.S. Coals.   Publication No.  RI  6579,  U.S.
     Department of the Interior, Bureau of  Mines,  Washington,  DC 1964.

11.  Surprenant, N.F., W. Battye, D. Roeck and S.M.  Sandberg.   Emissions
     Assessment of Conventional Stationary Combustion Systems:  Volume  V.
     Industrial Combustion Sources.  EPA-600/7-81-003c (NTIS PB81-225559).
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Research  Triangle Park, North
     Carolina, July 1981.

12.  Misenheimer, D.C., I.E.- Warn and S. Zelmanowitz, Ammonia Emission  Factors
     for the NAPAP Emission Inventory.  EPA-600/7-87-001 (NTIS PB87-152336),
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Air and Energy Engineering Research
     Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, January 1987.

13.  Van Dyne, D.L. and C.B. Gilbertson.  Estimating U.S. Livestock and
     Poultry Manure and Nutrient Production.  ESCS-12, U.S. Department  of
     Agriculture, Washington, DC, 1978.  145 pp.

14.  Hoff, J.D., D.W. Nelson and A.L. Sutton.  Ammonia Volatilization From
     Liquid Swine Manure Applied to Cropland.  Journal of Environmental
     Quality,  10:90-94, 1981.

15.  Westerman, P.W., L.M. Safley, Jr., J.C. Barker and G.M. Chescheir, III.
     Available Nutrients in Livestock Waste.  Journal of the North Carolina
     Research  Service, Raleigh, North Carolina, Paper No. 9998, 1985.  15 pp.

16.  Peters, J.A. and T.R. Blackwood.  Source Assessment:  Beef Cattle
     Feedlots.  EPA-600/2-77-107 (NTIS PB270282), U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, June 1977.

17.  Hutchinson, G.L., A.R. Mosier and C.E. Andre.  Ammonia and Amine
     Emissions from a Large Cattle Feedlot.  Environmental Quality,
     ll(2):288-293, 1982.

18.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Statistics Board Computer
     Media Files, Washington DC gives a listing of states for which there is
     data.

19.  Robbins,  J.D.W.  Environmental Impact Resulting from Unconfined Animal
     Production.  EPA-600/12-78-046, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada
     OK.  February 1978.

20.  Technical Tables to the 1984 Needs Survey Report to Congress:  Assessment
     of Needed Publicly Owned Wastewater Treatment Facilities in  the United
     States.   EPA-430/9-84-011  (NTIS PB85-172682), U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Office  of Municipal Pollution Control, Washington, DC,
     February  1985.
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                                  SECTION 5

                   DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY  ASSURANCE OF THE
              1985 NAPAP MODELERS' EMISSIONS  INVENTORY VERSION  2
BACKGROUND

     The emissions estimates included in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory
Version 2 were used as input to a series of computer programs that convert the
annual totals into a modelers' inventory of speciated, gridded, hourly
emissions data.  The modelers' inventory is made up of a series of modelers'
tapes which can be used as input to atmospheric transport models such as the
Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM).  These models, in turn, are used to
simulate source-receptor relationships and ultimately assist in the assessment
of possible control strategies.

     Table 5-1 highlights the differences in resolution between the 1985 NAPAP
annual and modeling inventories.  While both inventories encompass the same
study area, the resolved inventory is structured as a matrix of 63,000 grid
cells extending from 50 to 125 degrees west longitude and from 25 to 60
degrees north latitude.  Annual emissions estimates are disaggregated to the
hourly level for each of 12 different day types.  Finally, three of the NAPAP
pollutants (total hydrocarbons, particulates, and oxides of nitrogen) are
disaggregated into constituent species or groups of species which share
similar reaction chemistry.

     Data collection for base year 1985 at the level of resolution required by
RADM is precluded by resource and logistical constraints.  Instead, annual
data are allocated using statistical representations of the temporal, spatial,
and species distributions of the pollutants in question.  These "allocation
factors" are then applied to annual emissions data in a series of computer
programs known as the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS).  FREDS
also adjusts hydrocarbon emissions data to a consistent basis, performs
quality control checking, and reformats the data to facilitate their use as
RADM inputs.

     This section describes the development of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers'
Emissions Inventory Version 2, with an emphasis on the measures undertaken to
ensure the quality of the modelers' inventory.  The development and
application of allocation factors are described in greater detail in
Section 6, and the results of data processing for the resolved inventory are
discussed in Section 9.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1985 NAPAP MODELERS1 EMISSIONS INVENTORY VERSION 2

     The development of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2
required an analysis of the allocation factors used to develop the 1980 NAPAP
inventory and an assessment of the availability of, and need for, updated
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              TABLE 5-1.   1985  NAPAP RESOLVED  INVENTORY COVERAGE
                       Annual
                 Emissions Inventory
                                 Resolved Modeling
                                Emissions Inventory
Geographic      48 contiguous States including the District of Columbia and
domain          part of Canada
Pollutants/
Species
Resolution
S02, S04~2, CO, TSP,
HC1, HF, NOX, NH3,
VOC, THC
  S02, S0^~,  CO, TSP (reactive Ca,
Mg, K, Na: 0-2.5 microns, 2.5-10
microns, and total; TSP: 0-2.5,
2.5-6, and 6-10 microns), HC1, HF,
NOX, NO, N02,  NH3, VOC, THC, 32
hydrocarbon species classes
(see Tables 6-8 and 6-9)
Temporal
Resolution
Annual
Hourly emissions values for a typical
weekday, Saturday, and Sunday for all
four seasons (12 temporal scenarios
in all; see Table 6-3)
Spatial         Point source locations
Resolution      specified by latitude
                and longitude; area
                sources at the county
                level
                         Point and area sources assigned
                         to grid cells 1/6 degree latitude by
                         I/A degree longitude (approximately
                         20 x 20 km)
allocation data.   Concurrently, recommendations for improvements and
enhancements  to  FREDS  to  accommodate  the requirements of the modelers'
inventory were discussed  with  EPA.  Following a two-month series of integrated
tests  on the  new FREDS code  and input  files, the 1985 NAPAP Emissions
Inventory Version 1  was developed  for  U.S. anthropogenic point and area  source
data.

     Following the development  of the  1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory
Version  1, annual emissions  data from Canada were made available to NAPAP.
These  data,  provided by Environment Canada, included  information on spatial
and  temporal  emissions distributions,  as well as the  supporting information
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required to link Canadian sources to speciation profiles developed for U.S.
data.  In addition, the Canadian data included estimates of particulate
emissions for several categories of natural sources including unpaved roads
and wind erosion, which were separated into a 1985 Canadian Natural
Particulate Inventory.

     The 1985 U.S. Natural Particulate Inventory was developed from emissions
flux estimates provided by NAPAP Task Group II.  Natural particulate data were
provided at the county level for three source categories: unpaved roads, wind
erosion, and dust devils.  Appropriate temporal, spatial, and species
allocation factors were derived from information provided by Task Group II and
EPA.

     Modifications to allocation methodologies and the FREDS computer code
were made where necessary to accommodate the Canadian anthropogenic emissions
data and the U.S. and Canadian natural particulate data.  Following the
completion of all of the input files, the FREDS computer code was executed to
develop the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2. The modelers'
inventory includes the U.S. anthropogenic emissions data (1985 U.S. NAPAP
Emissions Inventory Version 2), the Canadian anthropogenic emissions data
(1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory), the U.S. natural source alkaline
particulate emissions data (1985 U.S. Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory)
and the Canadian natural source alkaline particulate emissions data (1985
Canadian Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory).

     Quality assurance of the modelers' inventory was based on the quality
assurance of FREDS input files, the FREDS computer code and the annual
emissions inventories.  The remainder of this section provides a general
description of the quality assurance/quality control activities that were
completed during the development of the modelers' inventory.

DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF ALLOCATION FACTORS

     Temporal, spatial, and pollutant species allocation factors were
originally developed for processing the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.
These factors and the methodologies developed for assigning them to emissions
records formed the starting point for the 1985 allocation factor development
effort.  The methods, data, and documentation used to develop the 1980 factors
were examined.  Limitations were identified; the availability of new data was
investigated; and recommendations for changes to existing allocation factors
were discussed with EPA.  In particular, updated hydrocarbon and particulate
speciation data were used to create entirely new NAPAP speciation factors.
Improvements and corrections were also made to the temporal and spatial
factors that were used for the development of the 1980 NAPAP inventory.

     The 1985 annual inventory contains county-level emissions estimates for
several area source categories not included in previous inventories.   In some
cases, these new source types could be adequately characterized by application
of existing allocation data.  When this was not possible, new profiles were
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developed.  Additional issues were noted and addressed on a case-by-case
basis.

     In addition, to ensure the quality of the modelers' inventory, extensive
quality control checks were performed both on the new factors and those
adopted from the 1980 database, and corrections were made accordingly. The
computer programs used to process the allocation data into a format suitable
for use with FREDS were also tested and checked for errors in logic or data
format.  Summaries of these activities are provided in the following
subsections.

Temporal Allocation Factors

     Temporal allocation factors were derived primarily from those developed
for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory development effort.  New allocation
profiles were generated for 10 new NAPAP area source categories.  Plant level
seasonal operating data were developed from DOE databases for all utilities
and point-specific operating patterns were developed for 56 electric utility
sources from TVA generation data.   Additional analyses of the temporal
allocation factors were performed to ensure the internal consistency of the
factors and to evaluate the reasonableness of factors derived from new data
sources.

     One significant improvement that affected the quality of all emissions
sources was the conversion of the temporal allocation factors from EBCDIC
files  into SAS files.  The use of SAS to represent the allocation factors
greatly improves the precision of the individual factors.  Following
normalization of the factors and creation of SAS data files, point and area
source factor files were compared with original EBCDIC fil-es to ensure'that no
factors were disproportionately receded.  As a final test of the nev files;
computer programs were developed to check that all accuracy errors were
eliminated by normalization and that new factors summed to unity at the
various aggregated levels.

     Alternative data sources were evaluated for application to the temporal
allocation of annual point source emissions.  During previous efforts  to
develop emissions inventories for modeling applications generic temporal
operating patterns were applied to specific sources.  For the 1985 NAPAP
Modelers' Emissions Inventory  Version 2, the primary source of seasonal
factors was point-specific seasonal throughput data.  Because of the
importance placed on the development of this database and the extensive QA/QC
that was performed, these data were considered more reliable than the  more
general source (SCO specific seasonal factors.
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Spatial Allocation Factors

     Spatial allocation factors were developed to apportion area source
emissions from counties to the NAPAP inventory grid cells.  The actual spatial
distributions of emissions are estimated according to the distribution of
surrogate indicators.  Fourteen unique spatial distribution surrogates were
available for application to the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory
Version 2.  The spatial factors were derived primarily from the 1980 NAPAP
inventory development effort.  The spatial factor development for the 1985
inventory was primarily a quality assurance effort with a focus on problems
that were noted in the 1980 spatial allocation factors.

     Quality control procedures for the spatial allocation factors fell into
three general categories:  evaluation of emissions losses in the FREDS Spatial
Allocation Module (SAM); analyses of counties requiring normalization for
spatial surrogates deviating by 20 percent or more; and other analyses which
are discussed below.

     The causes of the emissions losses in SAM were evaluated by comparing
county and SCC level emissions totals before and after spatial allocation,
matching state/county codes in the emissions file with the Spatial Allocation
Factor File (SAFF), and tracking specific counties through various stages of
the spatial factor processing.  Counties and surrogates identified by the
processing messages from the software that generates the SAFF were analyzed
using grid maps for each state, atlases, and data from various segments of the
spatial factor process.  In addition, segmented maps were plotted for
reference which included the locations of various towns.  Location data for.
the^se maps were obtained from the National Cartographic Information Center.
Other quality control procedures included close examination of the spatial
software and applications of these programs for other projects.

     Quality control checks applied to the 1980 NAPAP—spatial allocation
factors revealed several problems, including missing counties, missing grid
cells, incorrect county code assignments, problems with location data,
inaccurate county to APCD conversions for Massachusetts, and problematic
spatial factor processing algorithms.

     Analysis of the FREDS Quality Control Module output revealed six missing
Virginia counties (Alexandria, Chesapeake, Fairfax, Nansemond, Portsmouth, and
Richmond), a problem caused by Virginia's defining independent cities as
county equivalent geopolitical units.   Additional analyses identified five
other counties that were missing from the 1980 spatial factor database
(Sabine, LA; Barbour, WV; and Menominee, WI; Cibola, NM and Yellowstone
National Park, MT).

     Missing grid cells, incorrect county code assignments and problems with
location data in the census and land use files were discovered by analyzing
the processing messages in the Spatial Allocation Factor Preprocessor (SAFP).
The analysis showed missing grid cells in the land use file for four counties
(Monroe, FL; Alexander, IL; Queen Annes, MD; and Dare, NC).  The origin of
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this problem was traced to the county-to-grid file used for the land use data
processing.  A portion of Monroe County, FL that falls below the southern
boundary of the NAPAP inventory region was identified.  Incorrect county code
assignments were responsible for the loss of census based spatial fractions in
five counties:  Saginaw, MI; Lincoln, OR; Linn, OR; Jackson, SD; and
Washabaugh, SD.  For Saginaw, Jackson, and Washabaugh Counties, the error
resulted from incorrect code assignments in a file used for census processing.
In Oregon, county codes for Lincoln and Linn were reversed in the land use
county-to-grid file.

     Problems with location data resulted in the loss of data in three
counties:  Pulaski, VA; Rappahannock, VA; and Adams, WI.  For Pulaski, a grid
cell containing a fraction of the census data was dropped when an independent
city assigned to the county was not physically located within the county.  In
Rappahannock County, a grid cell was erroneously assigned outside the county
by the census data processing, most likely due to incorrect latitude/longitude
data for a subcounty unit.  Census data for Adams, WI were lost due to
incorrect latitude and longitude data on the county and subcounty records.

     In Massachusetts, emissions data are reported for Air Pollution Control
Districts rather than by county.  Erroneous spatial fractions resulted from
the incorrect county to APCD conversion in the program which merges census and
Landsat data.  Other minor problems with algorithms include:  calculating
column and row numbers for border grids for a subset of the NAPAP grid,
calculating column and row from grid number, and normalizing county-level
factors not summing to 100 percent.

     Corrections for all of the above problems were applied to the spatiaj.
fraction file and the spatial factor preprocessor (SAFP) was used to create a
corrected spatial allocation factor file for input to FREDS for the processing
of the modelers' inventory.  Processing messages were evaluated to assure that
all factors were correctly applied.

Speciation Factors

     Speciation data for hydrocarbons and particulate matter were reformulated
by NAPAP specifically for application to the modelers' inventory.  Hydrocarbon
data were used to construct the input files to PSPLIT, an independent Fortran
program used to create THC speciation factors.  Particulate Speciation data
were converted directly to FREDS-compatible format for the Speciation Factor
File (SFF).

     Hydrocarbon speciation—-Hydrocarbon speciation data were developed  by
NAPAP for use  in PSPLIT as a set of four files.  These four files include the
hydrocarbon profile file, the species class assignment file and the area
source and point source SCC-profile index assignment  files.  Each of  these
files was subjected to both  individual  checks and cross checks  for
completeness and consistency.  The hydrocarbon profile file lists the weight
percents of the component hydrocarbon species  included in each  of the 323
surrogate hydrocarbon profiles.  The  profile file was checked  for blank
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 records,  duplicate profile number/species  combinations, and missing  data.
 Records with the same profile number were  aggregated  to detect  profiles  whose
 species contributions did not sum to 100 percent.

      The  species class assignment file  lists  the nearly 600 species  that are
 included  in the speciation profiles and the associated class  assignment  for
 each species.   Species file checks included the detection  of  missing or
 duplicate SAROAD codes, the detection of missing or zero molecular weights,
 and  the analysis of anomalous molecular weights.

      The  point and area source SCC-profile index assignment files  list  the
 valid NAPAP SCC codes and the speciation profile code assigned  to  represent
 the  speciation of VOC emissions.   Point and area source SCC-profile  index
 assignment files were analyzed for invalid data and duplicate SCC  occurrences,
 as well as the frequency of use of industry-specific  or overall average
 default hydrocarbon profiles.

      File cross-checking was performed  to  identify any inconsistencies  between
 data in  the separate files.  The file cross checks included checking for
 SAROAD codes that were listed in the hydrocarbon profile  file but  absent in
 the  species class assignment file and checking for profiles that were listed
 in  the SCC-profile index assignment files  but not  in  the  hydrocarbon profile
 file.

      These checks identified a number of problems  and temporary corrections
 were made where necessary to permit FREDS  testing  to  proceed.  All
 inconsistencies were reported to EPA for review and correction. For example,
 duplications of species within profiles were  observed in  early  versions  of the
.files.  Since these duplications did not cause the aggregate  weight  percent of
 the  profiles to exceed 100, the individual weight  percents for  duplicate
 entries were summed to produce a total  weight percent for  each  unique species.
 Without  this modification, the files could not be  properly translated by
 inventory processing software.

      Particulate speciation—Speciation files for  particulate matter were also
 developed by NAPAP for application to the  modelers'  inventory.   These files
 were also subject to both manual and automated quality control  checks.   The
 particulate speciation database consists  of several  independent files
 including a profile-species listing and point and  area  source SCC-profile
 index files.  In addition, the PM database contains a fraction  file  that
 indicates the fraction of total particulate falling within selected  size
 ranges for each profile and a reactivity  file that specifies  the reactive
 fraction  of the various alkaline dust species.

      With the exception of the point and  profile data,  the particulate
 speciation files were small enough to permit  manual  inspection, which
 identified a number of minor inconsistencies.  The profile file was  reduced to
 the  species data of interest to permit  careful screening  of the fractions to
 be  used in the NAPAP inventory development efforts.   The  particulate matter
 speciation profiles were checked for completeness  and accuracy.  The completed
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point and area source Speciation Factor Files were also checked against
original input data to ensure the accuracy of the transformation process.

     As an additional check of the particulate speciation profiles, the
speciation fractions were applied to an early version of the 1985 annual point
source data.  Two problems were identified as a result of this analysis.
First, a total of 195 SCCs present in the NAPAP point source file were not
included in the SCC-profile assignments.  Speciated particulate emission
estimates could not be obtained for sources with these SCC codes.  In
addition, approximately 16 point source SCC codes were assigned to more than
one profile.  These problems were addressed and corrected in subsequent file
updates.

     A number of supplementary modifications to the PM data files were
required following the receipt of the final data.  These modifications
included removal of duplicate observations and addition of profile assignments
for new area source categories 66 through 70.

     During preliminary FREDS executions, Speciation Module output revealed a
previously undetected problem with PM speciation data which required
correction prior to continued FREDS processing.  NAPAP totals for speciated
particulates indicated that the mass of emissions within the fine fraction (0
to 2.5 micron) exceeded the total mass for the same alkaline component.
Analyses identified 20 of the 159 PM profiles in which the sum of the 0 to 2.5
micron fraction and the 2.5 to 10 micron fraction was greater than the
fraction designated as total mass.  Further examination of the profiles
indicated that the problem was associated with the representation of the total
species fraction.  In the absence of an algorithm with which to recalculate
the fraction,' the inconsistent total species values were replaced with
fractions representing the minimum possible total species value based on the
sum of the mass in the smaller size fractions.  For 15 of the 20 profiles, the
0 to 10 micron fraction was used; the remaining five profiles were assigned
minima based on the sums of the two smaller fractions.  A new Speciation
Factor File was then created using the new total mass fractions.

FREDS ENHANCEMENTS AND QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES

     The FREDS was originally created to process the final version of the  1980
NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  Following this effort, improvements to FREDS were
identified for application to the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory
Version 2.  This analysis formed  the basis for the FREDS enhancement effort,
described in more detail in Section 9.  As the annual inventory format  and
requirements for the modelers'  inventory became better defined, additional
modifications were made.

FREDS Quality Control Module

     One of the enhancements to the FREDS  software for the 1985 emissions
inventory development effort was  the incorporation of additional quality
control measures for  intermediate emissions  files.  Since the  inclusion of new
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quality control procedures in each module entailed a significant amount of
receding, an independent module capable of accepting and checking an emissions
file at any stage of FREDS processing was developed.  This module was designed
to supplement the checks carried out within the other FREDS modules.

     The Quality Control Module (QCM) is a SAS program which calculates
emissions sums for any specified stage of FREDS processing and compares them
to sums calculated from the emissions input to FREDS.  A diagnostic report is
printed which indicates any discrepancies found in the data.  The emissions
sums checked by QCM include national and state level sums of the ten major
pollutants (S02, S04, NOX, CO, HCl, HF, NH3, TSP, VOC, and THC), as well as
national sums of these ten pollutants for" 20 user-selected source categories.
QCM also checks seasonal, daily, and hourly temporal allocation factors, when
present, to ensure that they sum to within user-specified tolerances.

     Pollutant tolerances are defined relative to the magnitude of the
corresponding baseline emissions input to FREDS.  For example, a tolerance
factor of 1 x 10   specified for S(>2 indicates that the difference between the
baseline total of SC^ and the calculated total of S02 should not be greater
than 1 x 10   times the baseline total of SC^ •  Tolerances specified for
temporal allocation factors define how much allocation factor totals may vary
from unity.  Diagnostic reports from QCM include error messages which allow
the user to identify the source and magnitude of each error.

     QCM diagnostics were designed to complement the error trapping features
of the other FREDS modules, as well as detect inconsistencies in the emissions
data, allocation factor files, and FREDS program code.  Most FREDS modules are
equipped to detect and remove observations which fail certain basic criteria
(e.g., missing time zone data or speciation profile).  These orphan records
are retained in separate files, and orphan emission totals are checked against
QCM findings to ensure that they represent the only source of emissions
losses.  If not, more detailed analyses are undertaken to determine if the
problem lies in the emissions data set, a peripheral file, or the FREDS code
itself.  For example, during area source processing, a record was orphaned in
the Spatial Allocation Module.  Emissions losses reported in QCM matched the
emissions from the orphaned record which was determined to have been correctly
removed.  However, QCM also detected discrepancies in the TAM output files
even though there were no orphan records from this module.  A detailed
analysis was undertaken, which revealed that the discrepancy was caused by
rounding to four significant figures within the TAM program code (see
Section 9 for additional details).

FREDS Preview Program

     The creation of the modelers' inventory from the NAPAP annual inventory
files is a time and resource intensive process.  It is desirable that all
FREDS processing steps proceed as smoothly as possible to limit the number of
steps that must be repeated.  To this end, a computer program was developed to
screen the annual point and area source emissions data and supporting files
prior to the initiation of FREDS processing.  By diagnosing and correcting
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problems prior to starting FREDS, time and computer resources can be
optimized.

     In brief, the preview program performs stepwise checks of the annual file
and relevant factor files using streamlined versions of algorithms employed by
individual FREDS modules.  By match-merging data from appropriate files, the
program screens for the following:

          Duplicate process-level_(SCC or source category) records
          States outside the NAPAP study area (e.g., Alaska, Hawaii, Guam)
          Missing time zone data
          Missing temporal factors and/or incomplete operating schedule data
          Missing location data
          Row and column values outside the NAPAP grid
          SCC or source category with no corresponding speciation factors

     Outputs include a summary report listing numbers of records which failed
each check, as well as problem specific data sets which make flagged records
available for further analysis.

QUALITY CONTROL OF THE MODELERS1 INVENTORY

     It is clear that the quality of data in the 1985 NAPAP Modelers'
Emissions Inventory Version 2 is dependent on both the quality of the various
input files and the accuracy of the methodology by which the data are
manipulated (FREDS software).  Hence, the quality control procedures mentioned
above all serve a vital role in achieving and maintaining a high standard of
quality in the final inventory.  However, analysis of the first resolved
inventory (Version 1.0) was also employed to examine more subtle aspects of
the data.

     The spatial distribution of emissions were analyzed using a series of
grid level maps encompassing the NAPAP study area.  This examination
identified a number of point sources erroneously located off land.  More
refined analyses were subsequently undertaken to identify and correct sources
whose coordinates placed them outside their county boundaries.

     Additional grid level examinations of Canadian area source data
identified a problem with the conversion of Canadian spatial factors from
latitude/longitude to row/column  format.  Lack of precision in reported
longitude, coupled with an algorithm that truncates fractions when calculating
row numbers, caused emissions data to be allocated to incorrect grid rows.
The spatial fractions for Canada  were regenerated using modified algorithms
and rechecked to ensure proper grid representation.
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                                   SECTION  5

                                  REFERENCES
1.   Sellars, P.M., T.E. Fitzgerald, Jr., J.M. Lennon,  L.J. Maiocco, N.M.
     Monzione, and D.R. Neal, Jr.  National Acid Precipitation Assessment
     Program Emission Inventory Allocation Factors.  EPA-600/7-85-035 (NTIS
     PB86-104247).  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC.  September 1985.

2.   Demmy, J.L., W.M. Tax, and T.E. Warn.  Area Source Documentation for the
     1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Inventory.
     EPA-600/8-88-106 (NTIS PB89-151A27).  U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  December 1988.
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                                   SECTION 6

       DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL, SPATIAL, AND SPECIES ALLOCATION FACTORS
INTRODUCTION

     Allocation factors were originally developed to process the 1980
NAPAP Emissions Inventory into a resolved modeling inventory.  In response to
changing modeling requirements, the focus and resolution of the NAPAP factors
were expanded for processing the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emission Inventory
Version 2 (e.g., the addition of particulate size classes).  In addition, to
assure the quality of the resolved emissions estimates, extensive quality
control checks were performed on the new factors as well as those adapted from
the 1980 NAPAP database.  The remainder of this section documents the
development of the various allocation factors for the 1985 NAPAP U.S. and
Canadian anthropogenic point and area source inventories.  Information on
allocation factors specific to the Canadian anthropogenic inventory and the
U.S. and Canadian natural source inventories is provided in Sections 7 and 8,
respect ively.

TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

Form and Use of Temporal Allocation Factors

     The emissions totals reported in the annual inventory were resolved
temporally to support NAPAP modeling applications.  The temporal allocation
strategy was to apportion annual emissions totals into 24 hourly totals for a
typical weekday, Saturday or Sunday in each of the four season's -of the year.
The NAPAP temporal allocation factors were developed to accomplish this
resolution.

     The temporal allocation factors include three sets of fractional
multipliers, applied to the NAPAP annual emissions records in sequence as
follows:

     1.   Four seasonal factors divide the annual total into four
          subtotals representing emissions in each of the four seasons.

     2.   Three daily factors per season divide each seasonal total into
          three subtotals representing emissions for a typical weekday,
          Saturday and Sunday in each season.

     3.   Twenty-four hourly factors per day divide each daily total into
          24 subtotals representing emissions for each hour of that day.
          After this final step, the annual emissions total has been
          divided into 288 subtotals (four seasons x 3-day "types'Vseason
          x 24 hrs/day "type").
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     The seasonal multipliers for each record sum to unity, as do the hourly
multipliers for each season/day type combination.  Since daily emissions
totals represent emissions for one typical weekday, Saturday or Sunday in each
season the governing equation for daily allocation factors is:

     (65 x weekday factor) + (13 x Saturday factor)

                           + (13 x Sunday factor) = 1                    (6.1)

where a season is defined as 91 days (13 weeks).  For the purposes of the
NAPAP inventory, the four seasons are defined as:


          Season                 Months

          Winter         December, January, February

          Spring         March, April, May

          Summer         June, July, August

          Fall           September, October, November


     All temporal factors are defined according to local time (e.g., the
factor for "Hour 1" corresponds to the period between midnight and 1:00 a.m.,
local time).  However, modeling applications require that these factors be.
offset to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) to produce standardized allocation for all
U.S. sources.  Offset  to GMT is*accomplished in the Temporal Allocation Module
(TAM) of FREDS, which  integrates local factors with time zone data to produce
a standardized set of  factors.  Where appropriate, additional data adjust the
factors to compensate  for Daylight Savings Time during the appropriate
seasons.

Development of Temporal Allocation Factors

     Temporal allocation factors were developed for all U.S. NAPAP area source
categories.  For most  point sources, temporal allocation of emissions was
accomplished using plant- and point-specific operating data contained in the
NAPAP inventory; however, explicit state- and SCC-specific factors were
developed for a subset of all U.S. electric utilities.  The factors used in
the modelers' inventory were derived from previous studies, earlier NAPAP
inventories, and new research.  Many of the factors were based upon data from
the Northeast Corridor Regional Modeling Project  (NECRMP).1 In the NECRMP
effort, temporal patterns were  developed for point and area sources of
emissions in 15 states in the eastern United States.  In most cases, the
NECRMP factors were retained for the NECRMP states.  Other factors were often
developed for states outside the NECRMP study area.
                                      6-2

-------
U.S. Area Source Factor Development—

     Temporal allocation factors were developed for the original 88 area
source categories in the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  Many of these
factors were based on factors developed for the NECRMP effort.  Others were
derived from new research conducted for successive versions of the 1980 NAPAP
Emissions Inventory.

     The 1980 NAPAP temporal allocation factors for area sources were
developed at several different levels of resolution.  The factors for a given
area source category applied either to a single state, a group of states, or
to the entire nation.  In determining the appropriate resolution of a given
category, the relative contribution of the category to total emissions, as
well as the availability of data, was taken into account.

     All area source temporal allocation factors used in the 1980 NAPAP effort
were retained for processing of the 1985 area source inventory.  The addition
of several new emissions source categories necessitated the development of new
temporal profiles.  Some of these profiles were derived from similar, existing
area source factors.  Others were based on analyses of operating schedule data
from analogous point source categories.  A description of the development of
the area source temporal allocation factors for each category or set of
categories follows.  Source categories added for the 1985 NAPAP inventory are
identi fied.

     Residential Fuel Combustion (Categories 1-6)—Monthly average heating
degree days for a representative meteorological recording station from each
state were obtained from State, Regional, and National Monthly and Seasonal
Heating Degree Days Weighted by Population.^ The seasonaltemporalfactors for
each state- were developed from these data."  The hourly variations in
residential fuel use were developed with data from NOAA.   Monthly averages of
the 3-hour meteorological records were obtained for each meteorological
station to determine these diurnal patterns.  For each month, the. average
temperature was subtracted from 18.7°C, (the value used to calculate degree
days).  Negative values, indicating temperatures above 18.7°C, were set to
zero.  The resulting eight values were proportional to the variation in
diurnal heating for a selected station for a month.  Months were then averaged
to obtain seasonally adjusted diurnal factors for each State.

     Commercial/Institutional Fuel Use (Categories 7-12)—Seasonal, daily, and
hourly fuel use patterns for these categories were developed from EPA
Guidelines.   For the NECRMP study area, daily and hourly patterns were
developed from data collected for the Philadelphia AQCR Inventory.

     Industrial Fuel Use (Categories 13-20)—National seasonal patterns were
developed from the EPA Guidelines0,in which a uniform distribution is
recommended.  The daily pattern was based on U.S. Bureau of Laboi- statistics
on average overtime at manufacturing facilities.   The assumption was made
that all overtime hours were worked on weekends, and that three times as much
overtime was worked on Saturdays as on Sundays.  The daily patterns developed
                                      6-3

-------
from these data indicate that approximately 93 percent of emissions occur on
weekdays, 5 percent of Saturdays, and 2 percent on Sundays.  This distribution
varied slightly depending on the season.  The hourly pattern was developed
during the Philadelphia AQCR inventory effort.  In the Philadelphia study,
SO percent of industrial coal and oil fuel use emissions were allocated
uniformly from 7 a.m. to 4 p.m., to reflect greater production during business
hours.  The remaining 50 percent of emissions were uniformly allocated to the
remaining hours in a day.  This pattern was applied nationwide to all
industrial fuel use categories in the NAPAP inventory.

     Onsite Incineration and Open Burning (Categories 21-26)—Seasonal, daily,
and hourly patterns were developed from existing inventories. o»'»°,9,10

     Highway Vehicles, Light and Medium Duty (Categories 27-34)—The U.S.
Department of Transportation (USDOT) collects Continuous Traffic Count (CTC)
data from all SO states, and uses a subset of these data representing
13 states as a basis for estimating national traffic patterns.  Data from
these 13 states allow hourly temporal allocation factors to be derived for
each day of the week in each month of the year for six roadway types.  This
data set was obtained from the Federal Highway Administration U.S. DOT, and
analyzed to yield  seasonal, daily, and hourly temporal allocation factors for
light and medium duty vehicles.

     Highway Vehicles, Heavy Duty (Categories 35-38, 40-43)—These eight
categories represent gas and diesel heavy duty vehicles on limited access,
urban, suburban, and rural roads.  The NECRMP uniform seasonal pattern was
used for NAPAP after its applicability was confirmed by the U.S. Trucking
Association.

     Off-Highway Vehicles  (Categories 39, 44)—State-specific seasonal
emission patterns  were derived from data contained in Highway Statistics.
Monthly distribution of off-highway motor fuel use was calculated by         ~
subtracting monthly on-highway fuel use from total monthly fuel use.  Seasonal
allocation factors were then derived from the monthly pattern.

     Daily patterns were derived from EPA Guidelines,  and are a composite
(weighted by emissions strength) of the daily patterns for the five
subcategories of off-highway vehicles (agricultural equipment, construction
equipment, industrial equipment, lawn and garden equipment, and motorcycles)
for which factors  are separately described in the Guidelines.

     Separate hourly patterns were derived for gasoline (Category 39) and
diesel  (Category 44) vehicles using data from a variety of sources,  including
the EPA Guidelines,  the Regional Air Pollution Study^^ and several  statewide
area source emission inventories.  »

     Railroads  (Category 45)—The  temporal factors developed  for railroad
locomotives in  the NECRMP  study  were based on information  provided by Conrail
and in  the Philadelphia AQCR  inventory.  These data are probably not
representative  of  the entire nation.  Thus,  the NECRMP-developed temporal
                                      6-4

-------
profile for railroads was used only for those states within the NECRMP study
area; new seasonal, daily, and hourly patterns, developed from factors in the
EPA Guidelines,  were used for the remaining states in the NAPAP inventory.

     Aircraft (Categories 46-48, 56)—For civil aircraft, seasonal, daily, and
hourly patterns were derived from the EPA Guidelines.   For military aircraft,
patterns were derived from the Philadelphia AQCR Inventory.  For commercial
aircraft, patterns were derived from data presented in Seasonally Adjusted
Traffic and Capacity.

     Vessels (Categories A9-52)—Patterns for coal- (Category 49), diesel-
Category 50), and residual oil - (Category 51) powered vessels were developed
from the EPA Guidelines.   For gasoline powered vessels (predominately
pleasure boats), the Guidelines recommend that seasonal patterns be based on
the number of months the mean temperature exceeds 45°F: provided this
information, and seasonal patterns were created from information available in
the document State, Regional, and National Monthly and Annual Average
Temperatures Weighted by Area^.Daily and hourly patterns were developed from
the Guidelines.

     Gasoline Marketed  (Category 54)—The primary sources of information for
seasonal patterns were  the U.S. DOE Petroleum Marketing Monthly ^ and the U.S.
DOT's Highway Statistics, I960.11-  Analyses of these data yielded the
conclusion that evidence was insufficient to justify using other than a
uniform seasonal distribution.  Daily and hourly patterns were based on the
EPA Guidelines.^

     Unpaved Roads (Category 55)—The seasonal, daily, and hourly patterns for
this category were assigned those for Light Duty Vehicles on rural roads
(Category*28).

     Agricultural, Structural, and Forest Fires (Categories 60, 61, 62, 64)—
Managed burning (Category 61) and agricultural field burning (Category 62)
used the patterns developed for field/slash burning in the NECRMP study.*
Structural fires (Category 64) and forest fires (Category 60) were assumed to
occur randomly, 7 days  per week, 24 hours per day.  Structural fires were
assumed to occur uniformly throughout the year.  It was estimated that
90 percent of forest fires occur during summer or fall, and that the remaining
10 percent are split evenly between winter and spring.

     Ammonia Emissions  from Vehicular Sources (Categories 66-68) (Added for
1985 NAPAP Inventory.)—These categories contain ammonia emissions for
three vehicle types:  light-duty gasoline, heavy-duty gasoline, and heavy-duty
diesel.  Temporal profiles were taken directly from corresponding urban
vehicular categories for which emissions of other pollutants were reported
(Categories 30, 38, and 43), respectively).

     Livestock Waste Management (Categories 69-75) (Categories 69 and 70 added
for 1985 NAPAP inventory.)—Agricultural Extension Agents in 12 states across
the country (Indiana, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kansas, North Dakota, Idaho, Iowa,
                                      6-5

-------
North Carolina, Alabama, New York, Texas and Arkansas) were contacted; they
provided information on the seasonal pattern of manure application in their
states.  These patterns were extended to nearby states not contacted directly.
Daily patterns were governed by the assumption that most farm activity takes
place on weekdays and Saturdays; hourly patterns assume this activity takes
place primarily during daylight hours.

     For the 1985 effort, emissions for turkey and sheep waste management
(Categories 69 and 70) were provided in addition to the livestock categories
reported previously (Categories 71-75).  Temporal profiles for these new
sources were assumed to be similar to those used for other livestock waste
management categories, and were copied directly from Category 71 (beef cattle
waste management).
         Fertilizer Application (Category 76) — The 12 agricultural extension
agents contacted to provide information on manure spreading practices (see
above) were also asked to share their knowledge of NH^ fertilization
practices.  Daily and hourly factors were assigned under the same assumptions
which governed the selection of factors for the manure spreading categories
(see above).

     Beef Cattle Feed Lots (Category 77) — Emissions were assumed to be uniform
throughout the year and the week.

     Solvent Use Categories (Categories 78-95) — U.S. Department of Labor
statistics on 1980 working hours0 were consulted to derive seasonal and daily
temporal variation in these emission categories.  These data were broken down
by SIC code; the NAPAP emission categories were matched with the most
appropriate code in the %data set.  Monthly data on total hours worked served
as the basis for daily factors; the assumption was made that all overtime
hours were worked on weekends, and that three times as much overtime was
worked on Saturdays as on Sundays.

     Utility Point Source Emissions (Categories 96-98) — The seasonal factors
were based on electric generation data contained in the EPRI Regional
Systems . ^°  Daily factors are governed by the assumption that utility activity
is constant during the week; hourly factors assume that most activity around
these plants occurs during normal working hours.

     Minor Point Sources  (Category 99) — The temporal variation for this minor
emissions category assumes an operating "schedule" of 52 weeks per year,
5 days per week, and 8 hours per day.

     Miscellaneous VOC Categories 100-109 )— (Added for the 1985 NAPAP
inventory).  County-level VOC emissions estimates were calculated for
application to the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2 for several
categories which have not previously been included as area source categories.
Some of  these categories, such as Bakeries and Synthetic Fiber Manufacturing,
were included to reconcile  the difference between the total emissions reported
in the National Air Pollutant Emissions Estimates 19AO-198A, 17 and the
                                      6-6

-------
emissions already accounted for by the NEDS point source data files.  The
remaining categories such as Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) and
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) were
included due to the difficulty of measuring emissions from specific points
within these categories (e.g., aeration basins).

     To develop temporal profiles for these ten categories, operating schedule
data for similar point source categories in the NAPAP category were analyzed.
As a result, it was found that all but two of the new categories were best
represented by uniform profiles.  For the remaining two categories (101 and
105), factors were derived from mean operating schedule data for similar
categories in the point source file.  Data included seasonal throughput
percentages, as well as hours per day and days per week of process operation.

U.S. Point Source Factor Development—

     Point-specific temporal allocation factors were developed for a
subset of all electrical generation sources.  Operating schedule data
contained in the emissions records themselves formed the basis for the
temporal allocation of emissions for the remaining point sources
in the inventory.

     Point Source Temporal Factors for Electric Utilities—Because of the
importance of electric power plants to total U.S. emissions of S02 and NOX,
and because detailed data are available for these sources, special temporal
factors were developed for electric utilities.  Process-level (fuel- and
state-specific) profiles 'were created for the 1980 NAPAP point source
inventory, primarily on the basis of existing NECRMP factors.  During the  1985
effort, 58 point-level profiles were added to the temporal factor file.

     Point source temporal factors were originally developed during the NECRMP
study for power plants within the Northeast Corridor.  In development of the
1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventories, most of the NECRMP factors were retained,
while some were replaced by new factors derived from additional data.  For
sources outside the NECRMP region, some factors were based on NECRMP figures;
however, most were developed using other data sources.

     Seasonal factors for the temporal distribution of point source emissions
were developed on a fuel- and state-specific basis for facilities in the
NECRMP study area, using information from the U.S. DOE's 1979 Data Reports.^

     Daily factors were developed at the national level from weekly load cycle
listings in the EPRI Regional Systems. ^  These daily factors were calculated
by normalizing the averages of the daily load statistics contained in the  EPRI
report.  The factors, which were compiled on a season-specific basis, assume
75-76 percent of weekly emissions are produced on weekdays, 12-13 percent  are
produced on Saturdays, and the remainder are generated on Sundays.

     Fuel- and state-specific weekday hourly patterns for utility operation
were also developed during the NECRMP effort. *  Profiles were derived from
                                      6-7

-------
hourly power plant fuel use data collected during the development of the SURE
inventory.   The SURE database included hourly fuel use data for approximately
300 power plants within the SURE region (the eastern portion of the United
States).  These data were collected for several study periods in 1977-1978 and
included data for each season.  Fuel- and season-specific fuel use patterns
were averaged by state, then normalized to generate the NECRMP hourly
patterns.  Since there were no hourly fuel use data available for Rhode Island
or Vermont, weekday factors were assigned from Connecticut and New Hampshire,
respectively.  Outside the Northeast Corridor, hourly factors for weekdays
were developed by taking averages of the NECRMP values.  Since no weekend
hourly factors were developed during the NECRMP study, national Saturday and
Sunday hourly profiles were developed from weekly load cycle listings in EPRI
Regional Systems.   These profiles were calculated by normalizing the averages
of hourly load statistics.

     Continuing efforts to enhance the accuracy of temporal allocation for
electric utility sources led to the addition of point-level temporal profiles
for some utility sources in the 1985 NAPAP point source inventory.  Profiles
were develop on the basis of the generation data obtained from 58 TVA
coal-fired boilers.  Hourly generation values were used to calculate average
seasonal, daily, and hourly factor surrogates.

     Operating Data-Derived Factors—Most NAPAP point source emission records
contain operating schedule data which make possible the point-specific
temporal allocation of emissions.  These data consist of information on:

     •    Seasonal 'throughput percentages

     •    Days/week of process operation and

     •    Hours/day of process operation
     This  information  is  used  to  temporally apportion point source data  for
which  specific  temporal factors were not developed.

     Seasonal factors  were  taken  directly  from seasonal throughout
percentages.  Daily  factors  were  derived from the number of days per week
which  a  process operates.   Factors were calculated according to the following
schedule:
 If  the  process  operates
 	x  days/week	

           1
           2
          3-5
           6
           7
Emissions are allocated as follows

Saturdays only
Equally on Saturdays and Sundays
Equally on weekdays only
Equally on weekdays and Saturdays
Equally on all days of the week
                                      6-8

-------
     Hourly factors are based on the number of hours per day which a process
operates.  Factors were developed using the following method:

If the process operates
	x hours/day	                 Emissions are allocated as follows

     1-17                               Zero for midnight to hour 7
                                        (0600-0700 A.M.)

                                        Equally for x hours beginning with
                                        hour 8 (0700-0800 A.M.)

                                        Zero for hours remaining before
                                        midnight.

     >17                                Equally among 24 hours of day.

During development of the 1985 point source inventory, extensive updates were
made to seasonal throughput percentages on point source emissions records.
New data were developed from U.S. DOE databases that were made available to
NAPAP.  Data from Energy Information Administration Form 759 were the main
source of seasonal activity information at the plant-fuel or state-fuel level.
These data were supplemented with State-fuel data from unpublished monthly
reports developed by DOE ("R080 Report on Consumption").

Temporal Allocation Factor File Formats
                                                             »
     The temporal allocation factor files represented are organized as SAS
data sets.

     The 12 temporal scenarios in the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory
Version 2 are listed in Table 6-1.  For area sources, the allocation factor
file contains 12 records per SCC - one for each day type.  For point sources,
all 12 scenarios are processed together by the FREDS software, and are thus
accommodated by a single record.  Hence, each record in the point source
factor file contains 12 seasonal factors, 12 daily factors, and 288 (12 x 24)
hourly factors.

SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

Background

     The NAPAP grid system covers the contiguous United States and part of
Canada, extending from 50 to 125 degrees west longitude and from 25 to
60 degrees north latitude.  Figure 6-1 illustrates the NAPAP grid.  It should
be noted that this figure depicts 2/3 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude
grids for visual clarity.  The actual grids employed are 1/6 degree latitude
by 1/4 degree longitude (approximately 20 x 20 km).
                                      6-9

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   TABLE 6-1.   1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY TEMPORAL ALLOCATION SCENARIOS
                 Scenario number
             (Variable name MUM DAY)              Scenario
                       1                 Winter Weekday

                       2                 Winter Saturday

                       3                 Winter Sunday

                       4                 Spring Weekday

                       5                 Spring Saturday

                       6                 Spring Sunday

                       7                 Summer Weekday

                       8                 Summer Saturday

                       9                 Summer Sunday
                                                    •
                      10                 Fall Weekday
                                                     *
                      11                 Fall Saturday

                      12                 Fall Sunday
     Spatial allocation factors were developed for the 1980 NAPAP inventory to
apportion area source emissions from counties to individual grid cells as
required for modeling applications.  The goal of the NAPAP spatial allocation
factor development effort was to create as many surrogate values as possible
for each county, allowing the user maximum flexibility in assigning county-
level emissions to specific grid cells.  These surrogates are used to estimate
the subcounty distribution of area source emissions.

     Fourteen surrogate indicators were developed for use with the NAPAP
inventory based on housing, population, and land use data.  The categories and
sources of data are summarized in Table 6-2.  Once the subcounty distribution
of each surrogate indicator was determined, area source emissions categories
were matched to the most appropriate surrogates.  The resultant file, the
Spatial Allocation Factor File (SAFF), is input to the Spatial Allocation
                                     6-10

-------
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6-11

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           TABLE 6-2.  SPATIAL ALLOCATION SURROGATES AVAILABLE IN THE
                       1985 NAPAP SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES
Surrogate
Indicator No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Surrogate Indicator
Population
Housing
Urban Land
Agricultural Land
Range land
Deciduous Forest
Coniferous Forest
Mixed Forest and Forested Wetland
Water
Barren Land
Nonforested Wetland
Mixed Agricultural Land and Rangeland
Composite Forest
Land Area
Source
1980 Census
1980 Census
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
Landsat
EPA/Alliance
Note:  The Landsat data are for 1972-1973.
                                     6-12

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Module of the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) so that area
source emissions may be spatially distributed.

Development of Spatial Allocation Factors

     The development of spatial allocation factors for application to the 1980
NAPAP Emissions Inventory ' was based on two main sources of data:  U.S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population and Housing,
1980, and land use/classification data derived from 1972-1973 Landsat satellite
imagery and land use/cover maps.  Separate software was created to process each
type of data.  Once spatial fractions were generated from the census and Landsat
data, the files were merged to form a data set containing state, county, grid
column and row, and 14 spatial surrogates for each record. Column and row
numbers begin at the southwest corner of the grid system (e.g., 1,1) and
increase to the north and east.  Data processing up to this step utilized the
National Computer Center's (NCC) Sperry UNIVAC.  After the Census and Landsat
data were merged, the data were transferred to the NCC's IBM 3090.

     Once on the IBM, spatial fractions for land use and census surrogates
were matched to area source categories in the Spatial Allocation Factor
Preprocessor (SAFP) using a surrogate selection file.  SAFP writes an EBCDIC
file which is compatible with the Spatial Allocation Module of FREDS.

     Spatial allocation factors for the 1985 NAPAP inventory are based on those
developed for the 1980 effort.  Extensive quality control checks were performed
on the 1980 spatial factors to assure the quality of the spatially-resolved 1985
area source data.  Based on the results of the quality control procedures,
several adjustments were made to the spatial factors for use with the 1985 NAPAP
inventory.  Additional enhancements to the file were warranted due to the
development of new area source categories and the presence of a new county Iti
New Mexico.

     For 1985 NAPAP applications, 6 of the 14 surrogates are used for spatial
allocation.  Table 6-3 lists the spatial surrogates and their assignment to each
U.S. area source category.

Grid Description—

     The grid system defined for U.S. spatial factor development is made up
of 37,440 grid cells (156 rows, 240 columns) each 1/6 degree latitude by 1/4
degree longitude (approximately 20 x 20 km).  The boundaries extend from 65  to
125 degrees west longitude and from 25 to 51 degrees north latitude.  The cell
at the southwestern corner of the grid is denoted (1,1), with column numbers
increasing west to east, and rows from south to north.  Column and row numbers
are calculated from latitude and longitude as follows:
                                     6-13

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TABLE 6-3.   SPATIAL ALLOCATION SURROGATES  FOR U.S. AREA SOURCES
Category
10
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
011
012
013
014
015
016
017
018
019
020
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
028
030
031
032
034
035
036
038
039
040
Surrogate
10
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
14
14
3
14
14
3
14
14
3
14
14
Surrogate
Indicator
Hous i ng
Hous i ng
Housing
Housing
Housing
Hous i ng
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Urban Land
Housing
Urban Land
Urban Land
Housing
Urban Land
Urban Land
Land Area
Land Area
Urban Land
Land Area
Land Area
Urban Land
Land Area
Land Area
Urban Land
Land Area
Land Area
Emissions Category Description
Residential Fuel - Anthracite Coal
Residential Fuel • Bituminous Coal
Residential Fuel • Distillate Oil
Residential Fuel - Residual Oil
Residential Fuel - Natural Gas
Residential Fuel - Wood
Commercial/Institutional Fuel • Anthracite Coal
Commercial/ Institutional Fuel - Bituminous Coal
Commercial/Institutional Fuel - Distillate Oil
Commercial/ Institutional Fuel - Residual Oil
Commercial/Institutional Fuel • Natural Gas
Commercial/Institutional Fuel - Wood
Industrial Fuel - Anthracite Coal
Industrial Fuel - Bituminous Coal
Industrial Fuel - Coke
Industrial Fuel - Disti Hate Oi I
Industrial Fuel - Residual Oil
Industrial Fuel - Natural Gas
Industrial Fuel - Wood
Industrial Fuel - Process Gas
On-Site Incineration • Residential
On-Si'te Incineration - Industrial
On-Site Incineratioij - Commercial/Institutional
Open Burning - Residential
Open Burning - Industrial
Open Burning - Commercial/ Institutional
Light Duty Gas. Veh. - Limited Access Roads
Light Duty Gas. Veh. - Rural Roads
Light Duty Gas. Veh. - Urban Roads
Light Duty Gas. Trucks - Limited Access Roads
Light Duty Gas. Trucks - Rural Roads
Light Duty Gas. Trucks - Urban Roads
Heavy Duty Gas. Veh. - Limited Access Roads
Heavy Duty Gas. Veh. - Rural Roads
Heavy Duty Gas. Veh. - Urban Roads
Off -Highway Gasoline Vehicles
Heavy Duty Diesel Veh.
                               (continued)
                               6-14

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                            TABLE 6-3.   (Continued)
Category   Surrogate  Surrogate
   ID         ID      Indicator
Emissions Category Description
041
043
044
045
046
047
048
049
050
051
052
053 *
054
056
060
061
062
064
066
067
068
069
070
071
072
073
074
075
076
077
078
079
080
14
3
14
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14
13
13
4
2
14
14
14
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
Land Area
Urban Land
Land Area
Urban Land
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Land Area














Composite Forest
Composite Forest
Agricultural
Housing
Land Area
* Land Area
Land Area
Agricul tural
Agricul tural
Agricultural
Agricultural
Agricultural
Agricultural
Agricultural
Agricultural
Agricultural
Population
Population
Population
Land

Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles -
Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles -
Off-Highway Diesel Vehicles
Railroad Locomotives
Aircraft LTOs - Military
Aircraft LTOs • Civil
Aircraft LTOs - Commercial
Vessels - Coal
Vessels • Diesel Oil
Vessels - Residual Oil
Vessels - Gasoline
Solvents Purchased
Gasoline Marketed
Unpaved Airstrip LTOs
Forest Wild Fires
Managed Burning - Prescribed
Agricultural Field Burning
Structural Fires
Rural
Urban
















Roads
Roads
















Light Duty Gas Vehicles (ammonia)
Light Duty Gas Trucks (ammonia)
Heavy Duty Gas Trucks (ammonia)
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land



Livestock Waste Management -
Livestock Waste Management -
Livestock Waste Management -
Livestock Waste Management -
Livestock Waste Management -
Livestock Waste Management -
Livestock Waste Management •
Anhydrous Ammonia Fertilizer
Beef Cattle Feedlots
Degrees ing
Dry Cleaning
Graphic Arts/Printing
Turkeys
Sheep

Beef Cattle
Dairy
Swine
Cattle

Broi ler Chickens
Other
Chickens
Application








   * This category is broken down into categories 78-94
                                          (continued)
                                        6-15

-------
TABLE 6-3.  (Continued)
Category
ID
081
082
083
084
085
086
087
088
089
090
091
092
093
094
096
097
098
099
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
Surrogate
ID









1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Surrogate
Indicator
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Land Area
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Population
Emissions Category Description
Rubber and Plastics Manufacturing
Architectural Coatings
Auto Body Repair
Motor Vehicle Manufacturing
Paper Coating
Fabricated Metals
Machinery Manufacturing
Furniture Manufacturing
Flat Wood Products
Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
Electrical Equipment Manufacturing
Ship Building and Repair
Miscellaneous Industrial Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Solvent Use
Minor Point Sources - Coal
Minor Point Sources - Oil
Minor Point Sources - Gas
Minor Point Sources • Process
Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs)
Cutback Asphalt Paving Operation
Fugitive Emissions from Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing
Bulk^Terminal and Bulk Plants
Fugitive' Emissions from Petroleum Refinery Operations
Process Emissions from Bakeries
Process Emissions from Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
Process Emissions from Synthetic Fibers Manufacturing
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Fields
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)
          6-16

-------
          column = ((WLNG-Longitude) x DLON) + 1                      (6.2)

          row    = ((Latitude - SLAT) x DLAT) + 1                     (6.3)


where:    WLNG = Western boundary of the grid (125 degrees for NAPAP)
          DLON = The number of grids/degree longitude (4 for NAPAP)
          SLAT = Southern boundary of the grid (25 degrees for NAPAP)
          DLAT = The number of grids/degree latitude (6 for NAPAP)


     The resultant integer parts are the column and row numbers; fractional
parts are truncated.

Population and Housing Factors—

     The starting point of the census-based spatial allocation surrogates is
the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population
and Housing, 1980.  The file consists principally of sample data expanded to
represent the total population.  However, data pertinent to persons and
housing units are based upon 100 percent counts and unweighted sample
counts.

     Census data are summarized at the state (or state equivalent) level, and
are broken down, in hierarchical sequence, to the following levels:  counties
or county equivalents: minor civil divisions (MCDs) or census county divisions
(CCDs); places or place segments within MCDs/CCDs and remainders of MCDs/CCDs;
census tracts or block numbering areas (BNAs); and block groups (BGs) or, for
areas that are not block-numbered, enumeration districts (EDs).  In addition,
place and congressional districts (districts delineated for the 96th Congress)
are presented separately from the hierarchical summary organization.

     Housing- and population-based spatial allocation factors are based on the
State-specific data files described above.  This process involves executing
three separate Fortran programs on the Sperry UNIVAC:  CREATE7A, CREATE5A, and
VIRGINIA.

Land Use Spatial Factors—

     Development of the land use-derived spatial allocation factors uses two
data files:  land use/cover percentages for 1/6 degree latitude by I/A degree
longitude grid cells and county-grid area relationships.  The land use/cover
database was developed by Lockheed Engineering and Management Services
Company's Remote Sensing Laboratory under contract for the Meteorology and
Assessment Division of EPA's Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory
(ESRL), currently Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory
(AREAL).  The database was developed using Landsat mosaic images covering the
periods July 23 to October 31, 1972 and January 1 to March 31, 1973, and from
                                     6-17

-------
Land Use and Land Cover Maps developed in the naiddle-to-late 1970"s.  More
current Landsat data at the level of resolution required for the modelers'
inventory are not available.  The development of the land use percentages are
documented elsewhere.

     The total land use/cover in each grid cell is divided into the following
classifications:
     •    Urban Land                  •    Mixed Forest Land (includes
                                           forested wetlands)
     •    Agricultural Land
                                      •    Water
     •    Rangeland
                                      •    Barren Land
     •    Deciduous Forest Land
                                      •    Nonforested Wetland
     •    Coniferous Forest Land

     •    Mixed Agricultural Land
          and Rangeland


Each land classification percentage reported by Lockheed represents the
portion of a grid cell comprised of a specific land use category.  In addition
to the ten land use/cover categories supplied by Lockheed, two additional
categories were calculated for NAPAP:

     •    Composite Forest           •    Land Area'


     Composite Forest is made up of coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forest
lands for each grid cell (this summation is performed prior to the allocation
of grid cells to counties).  Land area is the fraction of a county's total
land area contained within a grid cell and is calculated from data in the
county-grid file.

     To process the gridded land use percentages relative to county-level
emissions, a data file containing county-grid relationships was created.  To
accomplish this, a file containing county boundaries (the County Dime File) is
used in conjunction with the NAPAP grid system and  software developed by ESRL.
County-grid relationships are calculated as the fraction of each county in
each grid cell.  An example of this process is illustrated in Figure 6-2.

     Applying the county-grid file to the land use/cover percentages allows
gridded land use fractions to.be expressed as the fraction of a county's land
use/cover in a grid cell.  The fractional totals for each county sum to 1;
fractional totals by grid cell do not sum to a particular number.
                                      6-18

-------
COUNTY B
AREA = 1000
                         COUNTY C
                         AREA = 800
                                         OVERLAP IN COUNTY A
                                         GRID CELL X
                                         AREA = 150
            OVERLAP IN COUNTY B
            COUNTY B GRID CELL X
            AREA = 50
                                                   OVERLAP  IN COUNTY  C
                                                   GRID CELL X
                                                   AREA = 200
Figure 6-2.  Example of County-to-Grid Cell Areal  Relationship
                             6-19

-------
Spatial Factors for the 1985 MAPAP Inventory

     Spatial allocation factors were originally developed for processing the
1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  To assure the quality of the
spatially-resolved 1985 area source emissions, extensive quality control
checks were performed on spatial factors adopted from the 1980 NAPAP database.
The goal of the spatial factor quality control procedures was to ensure
complete and accurate apportionment of NAPAP area source emissions.  Based on
the results of the quality control checks, adjustments were made to the
spatial fractions for use with the 1985 modelers' inventory.  Additional
modifications to the file were required for spatial allocation of the new 1985
NAPAP area source categories and Cibola County, New Mexico.

Quality Control Procedures—

     Quality control procedures for the spatial allocation factors fell into
three general categories:  evaluation of emissions losses in the Spatial
Allocation Module (SAM) based on the Quality Control Module (QCM) processing
messages; analyses of counties requiring normalization for spatial surrogates
deviating by 20 percent or more as noted in the Spatial Allocation Factor
Preprocessor (SAFP) processing messages; and other analyses including a
review of the spatial factor Fortran code and the Massachusetts county-to-APCD
conversion.  These procedures were discussed in greater detail in Section 5 of
this report.

     The quality control checks found isolated cases of missing or new
counties, missing grid cells, incorrect county codes and incorrect location
data.  In addition, some erroneous spatial factors in Massachusetts revealed  a*
problem with the Massachusetts county-to-APCD conversion.  A review of  the
spatial factor Fortran code revealed minor inaccuracies in some of the
software; these problems are discussed in greater detail in Section 5.

Adjustments to Spatial Allocation Factors—

     For 1985 modelers' inventory applications, adjustments were made to  the
1980 spatial fractions to account for missing and new counties, missing grid
cells,  incorrect county code assignments and location data, inaccuracies  in
the Massachusetts county-to-APCD conversion and the new area source
categories.  All corrections were applied to the SAFP input file (the spatial
fraction file) and are summarized in Table 6-4.  Once adjustments were  made to
the spatial fraction  file,  SAFP was executed and the processing messages  were
evaluated  to assure the factors were correctly applied.

Spatial Allocation Factor Pile Format

     The Spatial Allocation Factor File  is an  EBCDIC file  containing one
record  type.   Each record contains all of the  spatial allocation information
for a  particular SCC  code  in a  specific  county.
                                      6-20

-------
















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6-22

-------
SPECIATION FACTORS

Background

     Several pollutants in the NAPAP annual inventory represent composites of
various individual chemical species.  Modeling requirements dictate that three
of these pollutant aggregations - oxides of nitrogen (NOX), total suspended
particulates (TSP) and total hydrocarbons (THC) - be resolved into their
component species or groups of species which share similar chemistry.  For the
1985 modeling inventory, NOX was apportioned Lnto NO and N02» THC was
allocated between 32 classes of species, and TSP was split into 15 categories
based on alkalinity class and size fraction.  This resolution is accomplished
by applying speciation factors, which can be multiplied by the annual
pollutant totals to yield emission estimates for user-selected classes of
compounds.

Speciation Methodology

     Hydrocarbons/NOZ— Regional models such as RADM employ algorithms to
simulate atmospheric transformation processes.  These reaction mechanisms are
applied to classes of organic compounds, each of which may include a number of
individual species with similar reaction properties.  As an example, several
C4 through C6 olefins may be satisfactorily expressed by a single set of
reaction statements, and therefore be represented in the model by a single
species class.  The 32 hydrocarbon classes used in the 1985 NAPAP modeling
inventory are shown in Table 6-5.

     Since the speciation requirement for hydrocarbon emissions may change
depending on the model chemistry used in a particular application, it is
desirable to keep speciation as flexible as possible.  Speciated VOC data are
also required for other EPA activities including ozone and air toxics studies.
Hydrocarbon species data are therefore coded as a set of species profiles,
which provide a breakdown of the component species for a source's hydrocarbon
emissions.  The profiles can be manipulated by a user to represent any
desired classification scheme.

     For the NAPAP inventory, species profiles and class assignments are used
to create speciation factors by means of a computer program called the
Pollutant Splits Program (PSPLIT).  PSPLIT is a Fortran program that can
divide hydrocarbon emissions into a maximum of 640 discrete species based on
source category-specific profiles.  The individual species are then
reaggregated into classes based on the requirements of the selected chemical
mechanism.

   PSPLIT requires three input files.  The Hydrocarbon Profile File contains
the weight percent breakdown of the individual species that make up the
profile.  Each of these species is assigned to one of up to 32 aggregation
classes in the Species-Class File.  Finally, each point or area source SCC is
matched to a profile in an SCC-Profile Index File.  PSPLIT then uses these
                                     6-23

-------
    TABLE 6-5.  HYDROCARBON SPECIES CLASSES, 1985 NAPAP
                MODELERS' INVENTORY
Class number                   Description
      1             Methane
      2      .       Ethane
      3             Propane
      4             Alkanes (0.25 - 0.50 reactive)3
      5             Alkanes (0.50 - 1.00 reactive)
      6             Alkanes (1.00 - 2.00 reactive)
      7             Alkanes (> 2.00 reactive)
      8             Alkane/aromatic mix
      9             Ethene
     10             Propene
     11             Alkenes (primary)
     12             Alkenes (internal)
     13             Alkenes (primary/internal mix)
     14             Benzene, halobenzenes
     15             Aromatics (< 2.00 reactive)
     16             Aromatics (> 2.00 reactive)
     17             Phenols and cresols
     18             Styrenes
     19             Formaldehyde
     20             Higher aldehydes
     21             Acetone
     22             Higher ketones
     23             Organic acids
     24             Acetylene
     25             Haloalkenes
     26             Unreactive
     27             Others (< 0.25  reactive)
     28             Others (0.25 -  0.50 reactive)
     29             Others (0.50 -  1.00 reactive)
     30             Others (> 1.00  reactive)
     31             Unidentified
     32             Unassigned
aReactivity  is  defined  with  respect  to  rate  constant
 range  (with OH),  10^ ppnf1  min-1.
                            6-24

-------
files to calculate the amount of the total hydrocarbon that contributes to
each of the 32 classes for each SCC.  These "mole factors" are expressed in
units of moles of species class per ton of total hydrocarbon.  The PSPLIT
output is used by the FREDS Speciation module to produce class-level
hydrocarbon emissions suitable for input to RADM.

     PSPLIT is also used to disaggregate NOX emissions into NO and N02«  Each
species profile also contains the weight fractions of NO and N02> which are
carried through PSPLIT and become the speciation factors for these two
compounds.

     Particulates—Speciation factors for pollutants not handled by PSPLIT can
be input to FREDS using an independent Speciation Factor File (SFF).  For the
1985 resolved modeling inventory, the SFF contains factors for 15 subspecies
of particulate matter.  Since particle size is an important criterion in TSP
transport mechanisms, particulates are "speciated" by both alkalinity and size
fraction.  Each of the four alkaline dust species - calcium, magnesium,
sodium, and potassium - is expressed in terms of 0 to 2.5 micron fraction, 2.5
to 10 micron fraction, and "total species" fraction.  In addition, TSP is
speciated into 0 to 2.5, 2.5 to 6, and 6 to 10 micron components.  Speciation
fractions included in the SFF are dimensionless weight fractions which are
multiplied by TSP emissions to yield the number of tons of each species class.

     A complete listing of particulate species classes to be used in the 1985
resolved modeling inventory is shown in Table 6-6.  SAROAD codes for
alkaline particulates distinguish between chemical species, but have no
provision for size class.  In order to speciate by both species and size
fraction, a two-digit size class code was developed which is concatenated to
the front of the five-digit sp.ecies SAROAD code when the particulate
speciation data are input to the Speciation Module. ' This allows the two codes
to be interpreted as one during speciation.

Speciation Factor Development
                                             00 00
     The updated Air Emissions Species Manual  '   serves as the basis for the
1985 NAPAP speciation files for total hydrocarbons and particulate matter
(PM).  This document is the result of revisions to the "Volatile Organic
Compound (VOC) Species Data Manual - 2nd Edition" (EPA-450/4-80-015) and
updates to the "Receptor Model Source Composition Library" (EPA-450/4-85-002).

     Existing profiles in these documents were evaluated and updated as
necessary, and new profiles were developed and incorporated into the existing
VOC and PM profile databases.  The assignment of organic compound species to
classes was a collaborative effort coordinated by the National Center for
Atmospheric Research (NCAR) representing NAPAP Task Group III (Atmospheric
Transport and Modeling).

     In addition to the profiles themselves, VOC and PM profile assignments
were made for all SCCs in the National Emissions Data System (NEDS),
applicable NEDS area source codes, and additional area source codes used in
                                     6-25

-------
          TABLE 6-6.  PARTICULATE SPECIES CLASSES,  1985  MODELERS'  INVENTORY
Size
class code
10a
30
50
10
30
50
10
30
50
10
30
50
10
20
40
Species
SAROAD code
12111b
12111
12111
12140
12140
12140
12180
12180
12180
12184
12184
12184
11101
11101
11101
Description
Reactive calcium (Ca), 0-2.5 micron size range
Reactive calcium, 2.5-10 micron size range
Reactive calcium, total
Reactive magnesium (Mg), 0-2.5 micron size range
Reactive magnesium, 2.5-10 micron size range
Reactive magnesium, total
Reactive potassium (K), 0-2.5 micron size range
Reactive potassium, 2.5-10 micron size range
Reactive potassium, total
Reactive sodium (Na), 0-2.5 micron size range
Reactive sodium, 2.5-10 micron size range
Reactive sodium, total
Total particulates , 0-2.5 micron size range
Total particulates, 2.5-6 micron size range
Total particulates, 6-10 micron size range
aSize class codes are defined as follows:
     Code

      10
      20
      30
      40
      50
Size range (microns)
    0   -  2.5
    2.5 -  6.0
    2.5 - 10.0
    6.0 - 10.0
    Total
^Species SAROAD codes are defined as follows:

     SAROAD       Species

     12111     Calcium  (Ca)
     12140     Magnesium (Mg)
     12180     Potassium (K)
     12184     Sodium (Na)
     11101     Total particulates
                                     6-26

-------
NAPAP.  Ideally, a profile would be needed to represent each one of these
categories.  However, the number of categories to be characterized is much
larger than the number of available profiles.  Source categories without
original profile assignments were, therefore, assigned to existing profiles
using engineering judgment.  Industry-specific average profiles were also
developed and applied to source categories for which a satisfactory assignment
based on engineering judgment was not possible.  Finally, a "zero" profile (an
overall average based on all the profiles in the VOC or PM database) was
developed.  This profile is intended for use only as a default profile to
represent those SCCs characterized by "zero" or "negligible" emission factors,
and for which the States or any other agency may have reported nonzero
emissions.

     NOX speciation fractions represent NO and NC>2 fractions recommended by
AP-4232 and were adapted from the 1980 speciation data with little
modification.  In previous applications, profiles that were applied to an SCC
that was not expected to have NOX emissions were assigned profile splits of
zero for both NO and N02«  It was of concern that NOX emissions could be lost
during the FREDS speciation step if a source with NOX emissions were
misassigned to an SCC that does not usually report NOX emissions.  To ensure
that no NOX emissions are lost, a default split of 95 percent NO and 5 percent
N02 was substituted for every profile which did not have an explicit NO/N02
split.

Speciation Factor Data Quality Ratings

     A data quality rating was assigned for the application of each
hydrocarbon and particulate speciation profile to the point source SCCs .and
area source categories.  The development of the data quality ratings was
subjective and was implemented similarly to the assignment of emission factor
data quality ratings included in AP-42.  The data quality rating system uses
ratings of A through E, where A indicates the highest and E the lowest degree
of confidence in the profile assignment.

     A summary of the resultant hydrocarbon class assignments for the total
point and area sources in the United States is presented in Table 6-7.  The
summaries are represented as the percent of each class total emissions that
resulted from the application of profiles with the indicated profile
assignment quality rating.

     Using the current hydrocarbon speciation methodology, approximately 50
percent of the total THC is speciated by D or E rated speciation profiles.  No
hydrocarbon emissions in the modelers' inventory are speciated by A rated
profiles.
                                     6-27

-------
TABLE 6-7.   HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS IN PERCENT, BY CLASSES,  BY SPECIATION
             PROFILE  QUALITY RATING
SPECIES CLASS
HC1
HC2
HC3
HC4
HC5
HC6
HC7
HC8
HC9
HC10
HC11
HC12
HC13
HC14
HC15
HC16
HC17
HC18
^HC19
HC20
^HC21
•HC22
HC23
VHC24
HC25
HC26
HC27
HC28
HC29
HC30
HC31
HC32
SPECIES CLASS NAME
methane
ethane
propane
atkanes (0.2S-0.5 react)
alkanes (0.5-1.0 react)
alkanes (1.0-2.0 react)
atkanes (>2.0 react)
alkanes/aro mix
ethene
propene
alkenes primary
alkenes internal
alkenes pri/int mix
benzene/ha I obenzenes
aromatics (<2.0 react)
aroma tics (>2.0 react)
phenols/cresols
styrenes
formaldehyde
higher aldehydes
acetone
higher ketones
organic acids
acetylene
haloalkenes
unreactive
others (<0.25 react)
others (0.25-0.5 react)
others (0.5-1.0 react)
others (>1.0 react)
unidentified
unass i gned
A
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
B
19.5
15.5
16.2
36.4
38.9
47.5
37.9
0.0
19.0
4.3
31.2
45.9
59.7
5.4
53.8
60.9
2.8
2.9
20.1
37.2
13.1
22.0
1.1
19.8
80.9
40.3
2.2
4.6
13.3
6.1
42.2
12.5
C
17.9
24.5
12.1
28.6
26.4
19.3
7.7
11.9
20.4
16.3
21.5
27.8
6.4
2.3
16.8
21.0
1.6
0.1
19.2
• 10.6
8.8
9.5
0.0
36.6
0.9
0.0
4.2
1.9
2.4
1.9
49.1
2.4
D
35.9
29.6
9.3
15.5
8.9
14.1
31.1
75.9
44.8
40.4
25.4
4.6
20.3
55.8
22.2
9.5
0.1
4.4
25.6
0.3
31.9
27.1
2.0
25.8
0.0
5.7
17.6
82.5
72.5
61.0
6.3
2.4
E
26.8
30.3
62.4
19.5
25.8
19.0
23.3
12.2
15.8
39.1
22.0
21.6
13.6
36.5
7.2
8.5
95.5
92.5
35.2
51.9 .
46.1
41.4.
96.9
17.9
18.2
54.0
76.0
11.1
11.9
31.0
2.4
82.7
                   TOTALS
                                  0.0
32.4
17.9
                                                            26.4
23.3
                                    6-28

-------
     The result of the data quality ratings for the speciation of the more
chemically reactive species classes is of primary importance for the modeling
applications.  Ten of the species classes presented in Table 6-7 have been
identified as the most reactive for RADM modeling applications.  The 10 most
reactive species classes are:

               HC7       alkanes (>2.0 reactivity)
               HC8       alkanes/aromatic mix
               HC10      propene
               HC11      alkenes primary
               HC12      alkenes internal
               HC13      alkenes primary/internal mix
               HC16      aromatics (>2.0 reactivity)
               HC17      phenols and cresols
               HC18      styrenes
               HC20      higher aldehydes

More than 50 percent of the emissions for several of these most reactive
species classes have resulted from speciation profiles with quality ratings of
B or C.

     The effect of speciatioh factor data quality on the 10 most reactive
species classes is .presented in Table 6-8.  This table presents the area
source categories and the data quality ratings for the 30 largest contributors
to the 10 most reactive classes.  Seventeen of the 30 entries in the table
result from D or E rated profiles, 1 from a C rated profile and 12 from B
rated profiles.  The entries with B rated profiles are associated primarily
with the area source categories for highway gasoline vehicles, gasoline
marketed and architectural coatings.  The entries with E rated profiles are
associated primarily with the subcategories for solvent purchased and the 10
additional NAPAP area source categories.

     A summary of the resultant particulate class emissions for the total of
U.S. point and area sources by speciation factor quality rating is presented
in Table 6-9.  The emissions in every particulate class are dominated by D and
E rated profiles.  No particulate class emissions are speciated by either A or
B rated profiles.

Data Preparation—

     PSPLIT file—Hydrocarbon speciation data consist of the following files:

     •    "PROFILE" file - contains, for each profile, a listing of weight
          percentages for all species making up the profile (species
          identified by SAROAD code).

     •    "SPECIES" file - contains the name, SAROAD, and molecular weight of
          each of the approximately 600 species used in profile development.
                                     6-29

-------






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-------
    TABLE 6-9.   PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  IN  PERCENT, BY CLASSES, BY SPECIAT10N
                PROFILE QUALITY RATING
            COMBINED POINT AND AREA SOURCES - CLASS QUALITY RATING
SPECIES CLASS
SPECIES CLASS NAME
B
Total Participate
Particulate 0.0-2.5 microns
Participate 2.5-6.0 microns
Particulate 6.0-10.0 microns
Calcium 0.0-2.5 microns
Calcium 2.5-6.0 microns
Calcium 6.0-10.0 microns
Potassium 0.0-2.5 microns
Potassium 2.5-6.0 microns
Potassium 6.0-10.0 microns
Magnesium 0.0-2.5 microns
Magnesium 2.5-6.0 microns
Magnesium 6.0-10.0 microns
Sodium 0.0-2.5 microns
Sodium 2.5-6.0 microns 	
Sodium 6.0-10.0 microns
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.7
9.1
10.9
9.2
0.8
1.1
1.0
0.0
O.A
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
29.6
21.3
24.8
58.3
61.9
53.0
52.7
53.5
70.8
58.9
63.6
23.4
56.2
46.4
4.4
28.7
29.8
44.4
32.5
33.1
29.0
36.1
38.1
45.7
28.1
40.1
36.4
76.2
43.7
53.6
95.6
71.3
40.5
34.3
42.8
                                      6-31

-------
     •    "POINT" file - contains the point source SCCs with their respective
          hydrocarbon profile assignments.

     •    "AREA" file - contains the area source SCCs with their respective
          hydrocarbon profile assignments.

Following manual and automated quality control checking, these files served as
the basis for the PSPLIT input files.

     The data processing requirements of the modelers' inventory made it
necessary to modify the original PSPLIT computer code.  The modifications were
made and a new version of the PSPLIT code, version PSPLIT_2A, was created.
Version 2A differs from earlier versions of PSPLIT as follows:

     •    The maximum number of species per profile was increased from 75
          to 325.

     •    The maximum number of species in all classes was increased from 500
          to 640.

     •    The maximum number of SCC-profile records was increased from 1,800
          to 4,000.

     •    The maximum number of hydrocarbon profiles was increased from  175
          to 320.      —

     •    The maximum number of hydrocarbon profile records  (at the species
          level) was increased from 2,000 to 4,500.

     •    The maximum number of species classes and output records was
          increased from 30 to 32.

     •    The output file format was changed from 4 characters to 5 characters
         to increase the precision of the speciation factors.

     Speciation  factor file—Particulate speciation data consist of the
following files:


     •    "PROFILE" file - contains the 161 PM profiles, including the
          chemical species associated with each and the percent contribution
          of each  species within each size fraction of interest.

     •    "FRACTION" file - contains the mass fraction of particulate within
          each  size fraction for each of the PM profiles.

     •    "REACTIVITY" file -  contains  the reactive fraction associated  with
          Ca, Mg,  Na, and K for each profile.
                                      6-32

-------
     •    "POINT" file - contains the point source SCCs with their respective
          PM profile assignments.

     •    "AREA" file - contains the area source SCCs with their respective PM
          profile assignments.

     •    "CONTROL" file - contains the NEDS control device codes associated
          with the control device used in determining each PM profile (not
          used).

     To convert the profile data into speciation factors suitable for NAPAP,
the composition, mass fraction, and reactivity are combined to obtain
the reactive fraction of a given species within a given size fraction.  This
fraction can be expressed as
                             _
                             100
                                  
where:    SF^ y Z ~ Speciation Factor representing the reactive fraction
                              of species X within size fraction Y for
                              speciation profile Z;

          WP^ Y Z = wgight percent of size fraction Y occupied by
                              species X, profile Z;

          MFy 2   = mass fraction of total particulate occurring within
                              size fraction Y, profile Z; and

          RF^ 2   = reactive fraction of species X, profile Z.


     Two computer programs were developed to derive speciation factors from
the data.  The first program used the profile, fraction, and reactivity data
to create speciation fractions using the above equations.  The pro'file"  "
data were first reformatted and reduced to contain only the four species
relevant to NAPAP (Na, K, Mg, and Ca), at the size ranges desired.  These were
multiplied by the fraction of total TSP occurring at each size range, and then
by the reactive fractions of the four species.  The resulting "species-
profile" file was used as input to a second program, which matched the
speciation data to source categories and wrote the resulting data set in
FREDS-compatible EBCDIC format.

     Addition of profile assignments for new area source SCCs—The Speciation
Module'requires that all point and area source SCCs be assigned to speciation
profiles, regardless of whether or not the SCC is likely to report emissions
of THC, TSP, or NOX.  As a result, all new area source categories (100 through
109) were assigned to hydrocarbon and particulate speciation profiles.  The
vehicular source ammonia categories (66 through 68) were assigned to the
                                     6-33

-------
default TSP and hydrocarbon profiles (0), as no emissions of these pollutants
were included for these profiles.  Similarly, TSP and hydrocarbon profiles for
the new livestock waste management categories (69 and 70) were copied from the
related categories 71 through 75.

File Formats

PSPLIT File Format—

     The PSPLIT file is an EBCDIC file containing THC and NOX speciation data
by SCC.  PSPLIT data are contained.on two records:  Header records (type 1)
and Speciation records (type 2).  Two-digit codes appear at the end of each
line which indicate both the record type and whether the record is the first
or second of a record type.  As a result, the first two records of the PSPLIT
file constitute the Header (types 11 and 12); the remainder of the file is
comprised of Speciation records (alternating between types 21 and 22).

     To illustrate this principle, the format of the PSPLIT file is provided
in Table 6-10.  The header record contains a series of codes corresponding to
the 32 hydrocarbon species classes, with the first 16 codes on the first
header record (type 11) and the next 16 on the second (type 12).  The
Speciation records contain the SCC code and the 32 mole factors corresponding
to each SCC.  Again, 16 of these five-digit factors appear on the first
speciation record and the remaining 16 on the second (types 21 and 22,
respectively).  Type 21 records also contain the weight fraction of
formaldehyde (not used in FREDS) and the fractional split of NO and N02-  The
record type appears in the last two columns of each record.

Speciation Factor File Format—

     An example of Speciation Factor File format is shown in Table 6-11.  The
SFF can currently accommodate 20 speciation factors (10 per line), and is
formatted in a manner similar to the PSPLIT File.  Each factor is expressed  as
an eight-digit integer which is input to the Speciation Module such that all
eight digits appear to the right of the decimal.  Seven digits are allowed for
each species class code in the header record, to allow room for particulate
size class/SAROAD combinations.
                                      6-34

-------
                          TABLE 6-10.  PSPLIT FILE FORMAT
Record position
First
Header
1
6
11
16
21
26
31
36
41
46
51
56
61
66
71
76
81
114
Header
1
6
11
16
21
26
31
36
41
46
51
56
61
66
71
76
81
114
Last width
Record No.
5
1.0
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
113
115
Record No.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
113
115
1
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
33
2
2
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
33
2
Format

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
-
I

I
I
I
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I
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-
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variaDie
name

CLASS 1
CLASS2
CLASS3
CLASS4
CLASS5
CLASS6
CLASS7
CLASS8
CLASS9
CLASSIC
CLASS11
CLASS 12
CLASS 13
CLASS14
CLASS15
CLASS16
—
TYPE
•
CLASS 17
CLASS 18
CLASS19
CLASS20
CLASS21
CLASS22
CLASS23
CLASS24
CLASS25
CLASS26
CLASS27
CLASS28
CLASS29
CLASS30
CLASS31
CLASS32
—
TYPE
Description

Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Unused

code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code


for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for


THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC


Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class


No.
No.
No.
No.
No,
No.
No.
No.
No,
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Record T/pe (=11)

Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Pseudo-SAROAD
Unused

code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code
code

-
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for


THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC


Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class


No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.


17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
.30
31
32

Record Type (=12)
                                     (continued)
                                     6-35

-------
TABLE 6-10.  (continued)
Record
First
position
Last
Speciation Record
1
3
7
11
14
22
27
32
37
42
47
52
57
62
67
72
77
82
87
92
97
102

106

110

114
2
6
10
13
21
26
31
36
41
46
51
56
61
66
71
76
81
86
91
96
101
105

109

113

115
Column
width
No. 1
2
4
4
3
8
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5 "
5
5
5
5
5
5
4

4

4

2
Format

I
I
A
A
I
F5V3b
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F4V4

F4V3

F4V3

I
Variable
name

STATE
COUNTY
PLANT_ID
POINT ID
sec
TSF1
TSF2
TSF3
TSF4
TSF5
TSF6
TSF7
TSF8
TSF9
.TSF10
TSF11
TSF12
TSF13
TSF14
TSF15
TSF16
HCHOWT

TSF33

TSF34

TYPE
Description

AEROS State Code
AEROS County Code
Plant Identification Code3
Point Identification Code3
SCC Code
Speciation Factor, THC Class lc
Speciation Factor, THC Class 2C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 3C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 4C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 5C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 6C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 7C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 8C
.Speciation Factor, THC Class 9C
Speeiation Factor, THC Class 10C
Speciation factor, 'THC Class llc
Speciation Factor, THC Class 12C '
Speciation Factor, THC Class 13C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 14C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 15C
Speciation Factor, THC Class 16C
Weight Fraction Formaldehyde in
Profile (dimensionless )
Speciation Factor for N02
(dimensionless weight fraction)
Speciation Factor for N02
(dimensionless weight fraction)
Record Type (=21)
(continued)
       6-36

-------
                               TABLE 6-10.  (continued)
Record position
First Last width

Format name

Description
Speciation Record No. 2
1
3
7
11
14
22
27
32
37
42
47
52
57
62
67
72
77
82
87
92
97
102
114
2
6
10
13
21
26
31
36
41
46
51
56
61
66
71
76
81
86
91
96
101
113
115
2
4
4
3
8
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
12
2
I
I
A
A
I
F5V3b
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
• F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
F5V3
-
I
STATE
COUNTY
PLANT ID
POINT ID
sec
TSF17
TSF18
TSF19
TSF20
TSF21
TSF22
TSF23
TSF24
TSF25
TSF26
TSF27
TSF28
TSF29
TSF30
TSF31
TSF32
—
TYPE
AEROS State Code
AEROS County Code
Plant Identification Code3
Point Identification Code3
SCC Code
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Unused
Record Type

Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,
Factor,

(=22)

THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC.
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC
THC



Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
•Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class



17C
18C
19C
20C
21C
22C
23c
24C
25C
26C
27?
28C
29C
30C
31C
32c


aFor area source processing, these fields are left blank.
"Speciation factors are five-uigit numbers with an implied decimal point to
 the right of the second digit.
cUnits are moles of the THC class per kilogram of total hydrocarbons.
                                     6-37

-------
TABLE 6-11.  SPECIATION FACTOR FILE FORMAT
Record
First
Header
1
8
15
22
29
36
A3
50
57
64
71
104
Header
1
8
15
22
29
36
104
position
Last v
Record No.
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
70
103
105
Record No.
7
14
21
28
35
103
105
Jo 1 umn
fidth
1
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
33
2
2
7 '
7
7
7
7
68
2
Variable
Format name

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

CLASS1
CLASS2
CLASS3
CLASS4
CLASS5
CLASS6
CLASS 7
CLASS8
CLASS9
CLASSIC

Size
Size
Size
Size
Size
Size
Size
Size
Size
Size
Description

Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD

Code
Code
Code
Code
Code
Code
Code
Code
Code
Code

for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for

Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Unused
I .

I
I
I
I
I
TYPE

CLASS 11
CLASS12 '
CLASS13
CLASS14
CLASS 15
Record Type (=11)

Size
Size
Size
Size
Size

Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD
Class/SAROAD

Code
Code
Code
Code
Code

for
for
for
for
for

Class
Class
Class
Class
Class

No-.
No.
No.
No.
No.

11
12
13
14
15
Unused
I
TYPE
Record Type (=12)
(continued)
                  6-38

-------
                            TABLE 6-11.  (continued)
Record position

First    Last
Column          Variable
width   Format    name
Description
Speciation Record
1 2
3 6
7 10
11 13
14
22
30
38
46
54
62
70
78
86
95
103
104
Speciat
1
3
7
11
14
22
30
38
46
54
62
104
21
29
37
45
53
61
69
77
85
94
102
103
105
ion Record
2
6
10
13
21
29
37
45
53
61
103
105
No. 1
2
4
4
3
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
1
2
No. 2
2
4
4
3
8
8
8
8
8
» 8
• 41
2
I
I
A
A
I
F8V8b
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8 '

I

I
I
A
A
I
F8V8b
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
F8V8
-
I
STATE
COUNTY
PLANT_ID
POINT ID
SCC
TSF1
TSF2
TSF3
TSF4
TSF5
TSF6
TSF7
TSF8
TSF9
TSF10
—
TYPE

STATE
COUNTY
PLANT ID
POINT ID
SCC
TSF11
TSF12
TSF13
TSF14
TSF15
—
TYPE
AEROS State Code
AEROS County Code
Plant Identification
Point Identification
SCC Code
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Unused
Record Type

AEROS State

Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor

(=21)

Code

for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for




Code3
Code*

Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class

.




lc
2C
3C
4C
5C
6C
7C
8C
9C











10C








AEROS County Code
Plant Identification
Point Identification
SCC Code
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
Unused
Record Type

Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor

(=22)

for
for
for
for
for


Codea
Codea

Class
Class
Class
Class
Class





11
12
13



c
c
c
14C
15C




 For area sources, these fields are left blank.
 Speciation factors are 8-digit numbers with all 8 digits to the right of an
 implied decimal point.
cSpeciation factors are dimensionless weight fractions.
                                     6-39

-------
                                  SECTION  6

                                  REFERENCES
 1.   Sellars,  F.M.,  M.J.  Geraghty,  A.M.  Kiddie,  and  B.J.  Bosy.  Northeast
     Corridor  Regional  Modeling Project  Annual  Emission  Inventory  Compilation
     and  Formatting.  U.S.  EPA, £PA-450/4-82-013a.   Washington, DC,  1982.

 2.   U.S.  Department of Commerce.   State,  Regional,  and  National Monthly and
     Seasonal  Heating Degree Days Weighted by  Population (1980 Census)
     Historical  Climatology Series  5-1.   National Oceanic and Atmospheric
     Administration.  Asheville, NC,  1983.

 3.   U.S.  Department of Commerce.   Local Climatological  Data Published
     Stations  (1980  data),  National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic  and
     Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC,  1980.

 4.   U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency. Procedures  for the Preparation  of
     Emission  Inventories for Volatile Organic Compounds; Volume  II—Emission
     Inventory Requirements for Photochemical  Air Quality Simulation Models,
     EPA-450/4-79-018 (NTIS PB80-202229),  Research  Triangle Park,  NC, 1979.

 5.   U.S.  Department of Labor.  Supplement of  Employment and Earnings:
     Revised Establishment  Data, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington,  DC,
     1981.

 6.   Klemm,  H.A. and R.J. Brennan.  .Emissions  Inventory for the  SURE Region.
     GCA/Technology  Division for the Electric  Power Research Institute,
     EA-1913.   Palo  Alto, CA, 1981.

 7.   U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency.  Documentation of the  Regional  Air
     Pollution Study (RAPS) and Related Investigations  in the  St.  Louis Air
     Quality Control Region. EPA-600/4-79-076  (NTIS PB80-138241),  Research
     Triangle  Park,  NC  1979.

 8.   New Jersey Department  of Environmental Protection.   Emission  Inventory—
     State of  New Jersey, Trenton,  NJ, 1980.

 9.   New York Department of Environmental Conservation.   Emission  Inventory—
     State of  New York, Metropolitan New York  Region,  Albany,  NY,  1980.

10.   U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency.  Emission Inventories  for Urban
     Airshed Model Application in  Tulsa, Oklahoma,  EPA-450/4-80-021 (NTIS
     PB81-156986), Research Triangle Park, NC, 1980.

11.   U.S.  Department of Transportation.  Highway Statistics,  1980.  Federal
     Highway Administration, Washington, DC,  1980.
                                     6-40

-------
12.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Regional  Air Pollution Study;
     Off-Highway Mobile Source Emission Inventory.  EPA-600/4-77-041 (NTIS
     PB273503), Research Triangle Park, NC, 1977.

13.  Haupt, S.E., P.M. Sellars, M.J. Geraghty, A.M. Kiddie,  and B.J. Bosy.
     1982:  Northeast Corridor Regional Modeling Project Annual Emission
     Inventory Compilation and Formatting—Volume  X—Ohio Emission Inventory,
     U.S. EPA, EPA-450/4-82-013J.  Washington, DC,  1981.

14.  U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board.  Seasonally Adjusted Traffic and Capacity,
     Washington, DC, 1981.

15.  U.S. Department of Energy.  Petroleum Marketing Monthly, Energy
     Information Service, Washington, DC, 1984.

16.  Electric Power Research Institute.  The EPRI  Regional Systems, EPRI
     P-1950-SR.  Palo Alto, CA, 1981.

17.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Technical Tables to the National
     Air Pollutant Emissions Estimates, 194Q-1984.   EPA-450/4-85-014 (NTIS
     PB86-121100).  Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research
     Triangle Park, NC.  1986.

18.  U.S. Department of Energy.  Energy Data Reports, Washington, DC, 1979.

19.  Beaulieu, T.A. and L.G. Modica.  Documentation of Spatial Allocation
     Factor Procedures for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory.
     EPA-600/7-88-024a (NTIS PB89-159479), U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  December 1988.

20.  U.S. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1980;
     Summary Tape File 3 Technical Documentation.   Prepared by the Data User
     Services Division, Bureau of the Census.  Washington;  The Bureau.  pp.
     437.  1982.

21.  Page, S.H.  National Land Use and Land Cover Inventory.  Lockheed
     Engineering & Management Services Company, Inc.   Remote Sensing
     Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada.  Prepared for Office of Research and
     Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
     pp. 7.  April 1980.

22.  Shareef, G., W. Butler, L. Bravo, and M. Stockton.  Air Emissions Species
     Manual Volume I - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Species Profiles.
     EPA-450/2-88-003a (NTIS PB88-225792).  U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  April, 1988.

23.  Shareef, G., and L. Bravo.  Air Emissions Species Manual Volume II -
     Particulate Matter (PM) Species Profiles.  EPA-450/2-88-003b
     (NTIS PB88-225800).  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, NC.  April 1988.
                                     6-41

-------
24.  Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors. Volume It Stationary
     Point and Area Sources.  AP-42.  Fourth Edition (GPO No. 055-000-00251-
     7), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North
     Carolina, September 1985.
                                      6-42

-------
                                   SECTION  7
              DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF CANADIAN DATA
INTRODUCTION
     Environment Canada, provincial environment ministries, and the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency worked cooperatively to develop an Emissions
inventory for 721 plants and 129 area source categories for the 10 Provinces
to 60 degrees north latitude and from 50 to 125 degrees west longitude for use
in the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2.  An additional 9
Canadian area source categories were used to develop the 1985 Canadian NAPAP
Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory.

     Emissions data were collected by provincial environment ministries and
transmitted to Environment Canada for the compilation of the 1985 Canadian
National Emissions Inventory.  The complete 1985 Canadian National Emissions
Inventory is presented in Table 7-1.  Because the NAPAP modeling domain
extends only to the border between the 10 provinces and the northern Canadian
territories at 60 degrees north latitude, the emissions data from the Yukon
and Northwest territories which were reported to the U.S. EPA were not
processed for use by NAPAP.

     This section describes the data collection and quality assurance measures
taken to develop the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  Environment
Canada has reviewed the emissions data included in the Canadian inventory with
the provincial environment agencies.  A letter from Environment Canada
approving the use of these data in further NAPAP research efforts is included
in Appendix I.

     The emissions data included in the Canadian inventory are presented as
national, provincial, and sector-level totals.  The point and area source data
collection methodologies and differences between the Canadian point and area
source record formats and the data formats used for U.S. data are described.
An overview of the 1985 Canadian Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory is
also presented in this section.  The quality assurance and data processing
measures applied by EPA to the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory are
also described.  These activities were performed to ensure that the processing
of the Canadian data by FREDS would be complete and that the resulting
inventory would be as compatible as possible with the 1985 United States NAPAP
Emissions Inventory Version 2.

1985 CANADIAN NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

     Table 7-2 summarizes the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory by
Province for S02, S04, NOX, VOC, THC, TSP, CO, HC1, HF, and NH3.  The
                                      7-1

-------








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7-2

-------
      TABLE  7-2.   1985 CANADIAN NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY  BY PROVINCE
PROVINCE
NEWFOUNDLAND
PRINCE EDUARO ISLAND
NOVA SCOTIA
NEW BRUNSWICK
QUEBEC
ONTARIO
MAN I T08A
•
SASKATCHEWAN
ALBERTA
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TOTAL

POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
TOTAL
POINT
AREA
GRAND
so2
27,422
20,590
48,012
317
1,695
2,012
163,206
23,504
186,710
127,873
20,885
US, 758
632,688
143,186
775,874
1,457,096
136,475
1,593,571
509,949
6,213
516,162
85,883
7,198
93,081
582,656
7,317
589,973
71,526
33,045
104,571
3.658,616
400,108
4,058,724
S04
5,233
1,520
6,753
19
97
116
7,749
1,712
9,461
22,153
1,659
23,812
0
6,458
6,458
0
4,639
4,639
19,403
198
19,601
22,020
283
22,303
4,487
295
4,782
0
1,801
1,801
81,064
18,662
99,726
HO,
5,625
39,939
45,564
73
6,417
6,490
26,897
57,195
84,092
13,041
37,980
51,021
16,505
244,775
261,280
144,820
461,178
605,998
2,788
89,285
92,073
43,344
116,802
160,146
266,211
238,786
504,997
13,634
255,428
269,062
532,938
1,547,785
2,080,723
VOC
93
84,516
34,609
2
11,515
11,517
3,785
73,265
77,050
1,084
55,710
56,794
35,525
374,221
409,746
83,452
625,619
709,071
448
87,334
87,782
2,521
161,817
164,338
58,581
311,072
369,653
11,184
471 ,385
482,569
196,675
2,256,454
2,453,129
THC
124
95,462
95,586
2
14,020
14,022
5,595
82,343
87,938
1,472
62,203
63,675
42,830
417,494
460,324
93,828
683,314
777,142
492
95,116
95,608
2,900
181,858
184,758
74,045
352,414
426,459
16,126
541,158
557,284
237,414
2,525,382
2,762,796
TSP
108,516
61,845
170,361
10
8,689
8,699
24,439
53,620
78,059
48,757.
50,255
99,012
64,086
264,675
328,761
64,911
321,982
386,893
.15,753
42,526
58,279
74,332
84,730
159,062
66,498
169,497
235,995
39,242
457,637
496,879
506,544
1,515,456
2,022,000
CO
313
472,716
473,029
8
70,873
70,881
6,773
322,990
329,763
7,940
313,328
321,268
222,882
1,871,609
2,094,491
472,699
2,910,992
3,383,691
1.-46S"
491,348
492,813
63,704
827,173
890,877
107,936
1,310,905
1,418,841
72,817
2,370,291
2,443,108
956,537
10,962,225
11,918,762
HCL
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,717
0
1,717
10,009
0
10,009
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11,726
0
11,726
HF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
46
0
46
1.557
0
1,557
1,213
0
1,213
59
0
59
0
0
0
260
0
260
1,368
0
1,368
4,503
0
4,503
MH3
52
765
817
1
834
835
864
1,214
2,078
121
1,360
1,481
0
24,766
24,766
0
44,795
44,795
925
21,286 '
22,211
33
33,620
33,653
45,488
27,626
73,114
0
9,214
9,214
47,484
165,480
212,964
A complete breakdown of resolved emissions by Province and SCC for point and area sources can be found in Appendix A.
                                          7-3

-------
provinces of Ontario and Quebec show the greatest emissions magnitudes for
many of the pollutants, reflecting Canada's concentration of population and
the corresponding concentration of transportation, electricity generation, and
industrial processes in those provinces.

     Canadian emissions by category for SC^, NOX, VOC, and TSP are listed in
Table 7-3.  The data in this table show that fuel combustion and industrial
process emissions are the dominant source of SO2 emissions, whereas the
transportation sector is clearly the major source of NOX emissions.  VOC and
TSP emissions are emitted by a wide variety of sources, with industrial
process, transportation, and miscellaneous area source emissions contributing
large quantities of VOC and TSP emissions.   The data in Tables 7-2 and 7-3
are organized similarly to the data presented in Section 3 for the 1985 United
States NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2.  Emissions estimates for some
particular categories are represented in Table 7-3 as not applicable. The
emissions for these categories are included in other Canadian area source
categories because of differences between U.S. and Canadian reporting methods.

     Although the agreement between the 1985 Canadian National Emissions
Inventory and the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory is essentially
within 5%, there are minor differences between the 1985 Canadian National
Emissions Inventory (Table 7-1) and the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions
Inventory summarized in Tables 7-2 and 7-3.  The specific factors that
contribute to these differences are listed below:

     1)   The 1985 Canadian National Emissions Inventory was
          adjusted in March 1989 based on additional comments
          received from the provincial environment agencies.  These
          comments were received after the completion of the
          processing'of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions
          Inventory.  Specifically, N©2 and CO emissions from fuel
          wood combustion in British Columbia and N0£ emissions in
          Ontario from some additional industrial sources are
          included in the 1985 Canadian National Emissions Inventory
          but are absent from the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions
          Inventory.

     2)   Several emissions categories in the 1985 Canadian National
          Emissions Inventory were not included in the 1985 Canadian
          NAPAP  Inventory so that consistency could be maintained
          between the U.S. and Canadian databases.  The removal of
          selected Canadian area  source categories from the 1985
          NAPAP  Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 is discussed
          later.  In particular, TSP emissions resulting from
          pesticide application  in the Canadian prairie provinces
          are not represented in  the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions
          Inventory.
                                      7-4

-------
TABLE 7-3.  1985 CANADIAN NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY BY CATEGORY FOR SO2,
            VOC AND TSP (103 TONS)a
NO,
EMISSIONS CATEGORIES
FUEL COMBUSTION 	
External Combustion
Resident i a I
Coal
Disti I late Oi I

Natural Gas 	
Wood 	
Electric Generation...
Coal 	
Lignite.. ...... ...
Residual Oil.. .
Distillate Oil 	

Process Gas
Other (Misc Diesel).
Industrial? 	
Coal 	
Lignite .
Residual Oil .
Disti I late Oi I .
Natural Gas. . .

Coke
Uood 	
LPG
Bagasse. ...........
Other
Commerc i a I / I nst i tut i on
Coal 	
L igni te ...
Res idua I Oil
Disti I late Oi I

Uood
LPG
Other..

AREA
S02 NOX VOC
296 168
296 168
42 45
3 0
' 34 15
0 0
0 26
4 4
1 11
NA NA
NA NA
0 0
0 0
0 4
NA NA
1 7
226 83
112 13
NA NA
3 2
110 22
0 46
NA . NA
NA NA
NA NA
0 1
NA NA
NA NA
26 28
1 0
NA NA
8 4
18 4
0 20
NA NA
0 1
NA NA
82
82
78
2
4
0
0
72
1
NA
NA
0
0
0
NA
1
2
0
NA
0
1
1
NA
• NA
NA
0
NA
NA
2
0
MA
0
0
1
NA
0
NA
NA signifies not applicable
Does not include emissions from Yukon
which reported the following emissions
S02
Yukon
Northwest Terr.
0
3
TSP S02
244
244
175
2
2
0
1
170
1
NA
NA
0
0
0
NA
1
65
55
NA
o
9
1
NA
• NA
NA
0
NA
NA
3
0
NA
0
1
1
NA
0
NA
931
931
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
818
658
80
73
0
0
NA
7
114
1
NA
16
6
71
0
1
NA
0
NA
19
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
and the Northwest
(106 tons):
NOX THC
3
14
7
7
POINT
NOX
449
288
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
255
201
40
12
0
3
NA
0
32
0
NA
2
2
18
0
0
NA
0
NA
9
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
VOC
7
5
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2
1
0
0
0
0
NA
0
.3
0
NA
0
1
5
0
0
NA
0
NA
2
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
TSP
104.695
104.358
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
99
62
31
5
0
0
NA
0
6
0
NA
0
0
3
0
0
NA
0
NA
2
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Territories,
      All industrial fuel combustion is reported in the area source file except
      for petroleum refineries and natural gas processing.
                                       7-5

-------
                     TABLE 7-3. (continued)
EMISSIONS CATEGORIES
Internal Combustion*:...
Electric Generation...
Disti Hate Oi 1 	
Natural Gas 	
Other 	

Distillate Oil 	
Natural Gas 	
Gasol ine 	
Diesel Fuel 	
Other 	
Commerc i al / I nst i tut i on
Engine Testing 	
INDUSTRIAL PROCESS 	
Chemical Manufacturing..
Food/Agriculture. 	 	 	
Primary Metals 	
Secondary Metals 	
Mineral Products 	
Petroleum Industry 	
Wood Products 	
Organic Solvent Evap 	
Petroleum Storage/Trans.
Metal /Fabrication 	
Textile Manufacturing...
Other/Not Classified 	
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL 	
Government 	
Municipal Incineration
Open Burning 	
Other Incineration 	
On-site Incineration..
Commercial/ Institutional
On-site Incineration..
Open Burning 	
Other 	
Industrial 	
On-site Incineration..
Open Burning 	
Other 	

so2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
4
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
NA
4
1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1
1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

AREA
NOX
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
NA
0
7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
7
7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

VOC
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
318
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
1
0 .
25
NA
NA
292
7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
7
7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

TSP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
684
NA
87
NA
NA
15
NA
112
0
0
NA
NA
470
39
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
39
39
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

so2
0
0
o
o
NA
o
0
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
2727
66
NA
1839
209
38
187
69
0
o .
0
0
318
0
0
0
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
NA
NA

POINT
NOX
161
4
2
3
NA
157
0
157
NA
NA
NA
NA
84
12
NA
12
2
11
23
14
0
0
0
0
10
1
1
1
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
NA
NA

VOC
1
0
o
o
NA
1
0
1
NA
NA
NA
NA
189
130
NA
10
2
0
28
5
5
8
0
0
1
1
1
1
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
NA
NA

TSP
0
0
o
o
NA
o
0
o
NA
NA
NA
NA
401
9
NA
170
13
70
13
126
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
NA
NA

Internal combustion area sources are included in the external combustion
area source totals.
                               7-6

-------
                      TABLE 7-3. (continued)
EMISSIONS CATEGORIES
TRANSPORTATION 	
Land Vehicles 	

Light Duty Vehicles.
Light Duty Trucks...
Heavy Duty Vehicles.
Off -Highway 	
Diesel Fuel 	
Light Duty Vehicles.
Heavy Duty Vehicles.
Off-Highway 	
Rai 1 	
Aircraft f 	
Mi I i tary 	
Civil 	
Conmercial 	
Vesse Is 	
Coal, Oil, Diesel 	

MISCELLANEOUS AREA 	
Forest F i res 	
Forest Managed Burning..
Agricultural Burning^. ..
Structural Fires 	
Gasoline Stn. Evap. Loss
Solvent Evap. Loss 	
Concrete Batching 	
Other 	
ADDITIONAL AREA 	
POTWs 	
Cutback A 	
SOCHI Fugitives 	
Bulk Terminals/Plants...
Refinery Fugitives 	
Bakeries 	
Pharmaceutical Mfg 	
Synthetic Fiber Mfg 	
Oil/Natural Gas Fields..
TSDFs 	
GRAND TOTAl 	

so2
99
62
15
9
4
1
1
• 47
2
20
16
8
0
NA
NA
NA
37
37
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
400

AREA
NOX
1323
1304
621
429
134
27
31
683
4
280
246
152
1
NA
NA
NA
18
18
0
51
29
NA
22
0
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
o
NA
NA
NA
NA
1548

VOC
1125
1084
1009
637
250
55
66
76
1
38
25
11
7
NA
NA
NA
33
4
29
722
156
NA
139 ,
6
120
300
0
0
3
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
3
NA
NA
NA
NA
2256

TSP
106
103
49
35
8
4
3
54
1
24
22
7
0
NA
NA
NA
4
4
0
385
123
NA
242
7
0
0
4
9
58
NA
58
NA
NA
NA
o
NA
NA
NA
NA
1515

so2

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
3659

POINT
NOX

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
533

VOC

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
197

TSP

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
507

Evaporative VOC emissions from gasoline motor vehicles are not included in
these emissions sums.

Includes emissions from area source category 23260, Piston Engine-Inflight.

Slash burning is reported as agricultural burning.
                               7-7

-------
     3)   The VOC emissions reported in the 1985 Canadian National
          Emissions Inventory were augmented to account for the
          emissions of aldehydes that were not properly represented
          by the application of VOC emission factors.

     4)   Canadian mobile source VOC emissions were augmented to
          account for excess evaporative losses that were not
          included in the Version of MOBILES used by Environment
          Canada to estimate mobile source emissions.

     5)   The use of application default VOC speciation profiles for
          coal mines was inappropriate for sources in Canada which
          resulted in higher estimates of VOC and lower estimates of
          methane for these sources.

     6)   Emissions estimates for forest fires were included in the
          1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  Emissions from
          these sources were not included in the 19d5 Canadian
          National Emissions Inventory.

     7)   Emissions data were developed and reported in the 1985
          Canadian National Emissions Inventory by SIC.  The
          emissions data record format was also different for the
          1985 Canadian National Emissions Inventory relative to the
          format structure required by FREDS to process the 1985
          NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2.  Small differences
          can be expected when a complex database such as the 1985
          Canadian National Emissions Inventory'are subject to
          significant manipulations and transformations.

POINT SOURCE DATA

Point Source Data Collection

      Emissions and facility data for the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions
Inventory were collected in a cooperative effort between Environment Canada
and the provincial governments.  Provincial environment agencies collected
emissions and operating data from the sources  in their jurisdictions by
sending out a questionnaire requesting specific information or from provincial
permits.  Emissions data were obtained directly from the source or estimated
using facility operating data.  Environment Canada regional and district
offices located  in most provinces assisted  in  coordinating the data collection
effort.  Some of the  point source operating data were also obtained through
reporting channels established directly between specific industries and the
federal government.   The amount of  quality  assurance (QA) performed on these
data at the provincial  level varied  from one province to another, depending on
resources and time.
                                      7-8

-------
     These data were then transmitted to Environment Canada, the federal air
pollution control agency.  Environment Canada's Inventory Management Division
entered the emissions and operating data into a database covering all 12
provinces and territories.  Delays in the delivery of provincial emissions
data and missing background information on many sources limited the amount of
preliminary QA Environment Canada was able to perform before transmitting the
Canadian emissions and operating data to the U.S. EPA.  These emissions data
are representative of all point sources emitting 100 metric tons or greater of
SC-2, NOX, THC, CO or TSP.  Environment Canada supplied TSP data speciated into
reactive alkaline fractions of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium.
Because acid deposition modelers in the United States consider emissions of
hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HC1) to be important in modeling
chemical processes leading to acid deposition, EPA calculated HF and HC1
emissions on an SCC specific basis for the Canadian point sources.  A
discussion of HC1 and HF emission factors is presented in Section 4.

     The methods, for reporting various data items differed from province to
province.  Guidance provided to the provincial governments by Environment
Canada included requests for emissions data for all of the pollutants
identified above.  Some of the provinces, however, had very little emissions
data on THC, CO and TSP.  To provide consistency in VOC emissions estimates,
Environment Canada requested that EPA calculate VOC emissions for Canadian
point sources from reported throughput values and NEDS emission factors to
fill in the data gaps.  Environment Canada calculated the emissions for the
data gaps on the other common pollutants.  See Section A for a discussion of
VOC emission factors.

     Fuel use data for industrial sources we're not available from all
provinces.  Therefore, the emissions data for most of the industrial fuel
sources- for Canada were included in the Canadian area source file.  Fuel use
data for combustion sources at electric utilities, petroleum refineries, and
natural gas plants were available to Environment Canada and were included in
the point source file.

     The methodology for reporting location data also varied between
provinces.  Most provinces supplied values for latitude and longitude in
degree/minute/second format.  One province used its own location system,
another province reported fractional values for latitude and longitude data,
and some provinces had missing location data which had to be supplied by
Environment Canada.  All location data were standardized to fractional values.

     Stack parameter data as reported by the provinces were not complete.  The
stack parameter data for Canadian point sources were often reported as missing
or zero as was the case for sources in the United States.  Substitute stack
parameter data were developed for the largest Canadian points for use in
regional modeling applications following methodologies similar to those
described in Section 3 for U.S. point sources.

     Provinces also had individual methods for reporting throughput data.
Under Environment Canada guidelines, fuel combustion processes should have
                                      7-9

-------
indicated a fuel quantity (throughput) and a fuel quantity unit, and other
processes not related to combustion should have had a base quantity
(throughput) and corresponding base quantity units.  Significant
inconsistencies occurred in the reporting of throughput data and the
associated units.   In some cases, the fuel or base quantity units for a given
process varied widely.  Many throughput values were Deported as zero or
missing even though positive emissions values were reported.  A significant
effort was performed cooperatively between the U.S. EPA and Environment Canada
to establish as many throughput values as possible.  The resolution of
Canadian throughput values was also important for the calculation of HC1, HF,
SOA, and NH3.

Canadian Point Source Record Format

     Environment Canada used a substantially different point source record
format than that used for U.S. point sources.  The quality assurance and data
processing software programs used by the U.S. EPA were modified to accommodate
these differences  in record format.

     The point source record format used by Environment Canada is based on the
Standard Industrial Classification Code (SIC) rather than a Source
Classification Code (SCC) as in the U.S. data.  Environment Canada uses a
different SIC system than that used by the U.S. EPA.  In addition, records
were aggregated by pollutant rather than by process, meaning that for every
process record in  a Canadian plant, there may be as many as 7 individual
pollutant records.  An additional step was required to process the Canadian
data to ensure that the data for each pollutant were aggregated correctly to
the process (SCC)  level.  The aggregation of contaminant based records to
process based records required additional QA to resolve apparent duplicate
records which appeared'when the contaminant level records were combined.

     The assignment of U.S. SCCs to Canadian point source records was
completed to the extent possible by personnel at Environment Canada or the
provincial environment agencies familiar with the plants and processes in
their jurisdiction.  In many cases, the existing SCC listings did not match
exactly the processes  included in the Canadian data submittal.  Two approaches
were taken at the  provincial level to complete the forms in these cases.  Some
provinces applied  an unused SCC code for the process, and others entered
00000000 or 99999999.  The resolution of the 0 and 99999999 SCCs involved
replacing these SCCs with SCC codes that closely matched the process
description available  in the Canadian data base.   Industrial processes in
Quebec which had French process descriptions further complicated the process
of matching valid  and  appropriate SCCs to point source records.  All point
source records were eventually matched to representative SCCs.

     The Canadian  data submittals included several SCC process classifications
which had not been used in the U.S. data.  The data processing for  input  into
acid deposition models requires that a TSP and VOC speciation profile be
associated with every  SCC  included in the file.  Therefore, Environment Canada
requested that EPA make appropriate speciation profile assignments  for those
                                      7-10

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SCCs.  In some cases, the process descriptions were not easily matched to
specific profiles.  In these cases, EPA assigned industry average default
profiles or the overall average default profile.  A list of the additional
Canadian SCCs and the profile assignments that will be applied to those SCCs
follows in Table 7-4.  In some cases, the SCC-to-process matching exercise and
the assignments of speciation profiles to SCCs led to the application of
inappropriate speciation profiles as discussed earlier.

Temporal, Spatial, and Species Allocation of Canadian Point Source Data

     The temporal allocation of Canadian point sources was based on plant
level temporal operating profiles supplied by Environment Canada with their
emissions data files.  These files consisted of a year file with monthly
throughput percentages, a week file with throughput percentages for each day
of the week, and a day file with hourly throughput percentages.  This temporal
allocation scheme differs from the U.S. methodology which is based on SCC-
level allocation factors.  The Canadian temporal allocation data were
formatted to be consistent with the requirements of FREDS and FREDS was
modified to properly allocate Canadian emissions based on the Canadian
allocation factors.

     The spatial allocation of point source data is based on locating points
using latitude and longitude coordinates.  Environment Canada provided
latitude and longitude coordinates primarily in degree, minutes and seconds
format which had to be converted to decimal format for use in the Spatial
Allocation Module (SAM) of FREDS.  The SAM locates each latitude/longitude
point in a NAPAP grid cell.  Some problems encountered with variability
between provinces in reporting location data were discussed earlier.

     The species allocation is accomplished in the FREDS speciation module and
results in emissions estimates for a total of 59 species classes.  These
species are retained in the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory
Version 2.  NOX is allocated into NC^ and NO, TSP and reactive alkaline
particulates into three particle size classes, and THC into 32 chemical
classes.  Environment Canada supplied reactive alkaline fraction data for TSP
in the Canadian point source data files.

AREA SOURCE DATA

Data Collection

     Canadian area source emissions estimates were developed much like the
U.S. area source calculation methodology discussed in Section 3.  The
estimation of area source emissions in Canada was performed directly by
Environment Canada and provided to the provincial environment agencies for
their review.  The Canadian area source calculation methodologies include
several categories for which the United States does not calculate emissions.
A primary concern for the NAPAP emissions inventory was to maintain
consistency of data content and format between the U.S. and Canadian databases
to the extent possible.
                                     7-11

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              TABLE 7-4.  VOC PROFILES FOR EXTRA CANADIAN SCC's
     CANADIAN SCC

     10100104
     10200692
     10200693
     10201499
     10299999
     20100291
     20100292
     20200292
     3010229°
     30102702
     30102703
     30103005
     30300191
     30300192
     30300799
     30300905
     30501991
     30600195
     30600299
     30610099
     30700194
     30700196
     30700201
     30700208
     30700209
     30700210
     30900360
     31000306
     35001001
     40300000
     40301999
     50100103
     50100504
     50300199
VOC PROFILE

   1178
      3
      3
      0
      0
   1001
   1.001
   1001
      0
      0
      0
      0
      0
      0
      0
     16
      0
   9012
   9012
   9012
   9001
   9001
   '9001
   9001
   90Q]
   9001
      0
      0
      0
      0
   9024
    122
    122
   9022
     ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA

Based on SCC's 101001XX
Based on SCC's 102006XX
Based on SCC's 102006XX
Overall average profile
Overall average profile
Based on SCC 20100202
Based on SCC 20100202
Based on SCC 202002002/04
Based on SCC 30102201
Based on SCC's 301027XX
Based on SCC's 301027XX
Based on SCC's 301030XX
Based on SCC's 301001XX
Based on SCC's 301001XX
Overall average profile
Based on SCC 30300904
Based on SCC's 305019XX
Based on SCC 30600199
Based on SCC 30600199
Based on SCC 30610001
Based on SCC's 307001XX
Based on SCC's 307001XX
Based on SCC's 3070Q1XX
Based on-SCC's 307001XX
Based on SCC's 307001XX
Based on SCC's 307001XX
Based on SCC's 309003XX
Overall average profile
Overall average profile
Overall average profile
Based on SCC 40301299
Based on SCC's 501001XX
Based on SCC's 50100505/06
Based on SCC 50300108
     The 1985 Canadian National Emissions Inventory contains 156 area source
categories compared to the U.S. total of 97.  Some of these additional
categories represent fuel burning sources or industrial processes and were
retained in the Canadian area source file to provide consistency with similar
sources in the U.S. point source file.  Eighteen Canadian area source
categories had no corresponding category in either the U.S. point or area
source file and were extracted from the database prior to the development of
                                     7-12

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the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Emissions Inventory.  A list of the Canadian area
source categories that were extracted from the file before processing through
FREDS is presented in Table 7-5. An additional 9 Canadian area source
categories were included in the 1985 Canadian Natural Particulate Emissions
Inventory.  A complete list of the 129 Canadian area source categories that
were processed through FREDS to produce the 1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions
Inventory Version 2 can be found in Appendix C.

Temporal, Spatial, and Species Allocation of Canadian Area Source Data

     Canadian area source data files were accompanied by SCC-specific temporal
profiles.  Temporal data were reported in the form of throughput percentages
for each month of the year, day of the week, and hour of the day.  The monthly
percentages were converted to four seasonal fractions.  Throughputs for
weekdays were averaged to produce daily profiles consisting of factors for a
typical weekday, Saturday, and Sunday.  Forest fires, the only category which
had not been assigned specific temporal allocation factors by Environment
Canada, was assigned the U.S. temporal factors for forest fires.

     Spatial allocation surrogates provided by Environment Canada included
population, housing units, gas dwellings, oil dwellings, agricultural labor
force, industrial labor force, commercial labor force, and mining labor force.
These data were obtained from Statistics Canada surveys and were reformatted
to the NAPAP grid system by Environment Canada.  The statistics were for
calendar year 1981 except for population statistics, which were based on 1986
Canadian census data.  The census data were summed for each province to obtain
provincial totals, and a spatial fraction was calculated for each grid cell.
Each of the Canadian area source categories was matched to the most
appropriate surrogate based on an analysis of the 1980 allocation factors,
creating the surrogate selection file.  The Spatial Allocation Factor
Preprocessor (SAFP) used for processing U.S. area source data was modified and
run on the Canadian area source data.  The population surrogate was used as a
default category for Canadian area source categories which either lacked a
specific allocation surrogate or for which the assigned surrogate equaled zero
when summed at the province level.  SAFP matches a spatial fraction for each
grid cell to each area source category based on the appropriate surrogate
distribution.

     Species allocation for Canadian data also used the PSPLIT program,
resulting in the split of NOX into N02 and NO, TSP and reactive alkaline
particulate fractions into three particle size classes and VOC into thirty-
two chemical classes.  Environment Canada provided the reactive alkaline
fraction data.

1985 CANADIAN NATURAL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS INVENTORY

     Environment Canada supplied the natural source data developed for the
1980 NAPAP Inventory based on methodologies developed in the early 1980s.
                                     7-13

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 TABLE 7-5.  CANADIAN AREA SOURCE CATEGORIES THAT WERE MOT PROCESSED BY FREDS
          CANADIAN
      AREA SOURCE CODE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
81000
21150
23210
23230
23240
23250
26100
26200
52120

65000
43100
46100
44000
45100

45200
45300

45400

45500

Cigarette Smoking
Motorcycles
Jet Aircraft - Inflight
Piston Transport - Inflight
Helicopter - Inflight
Local Aircraft - Inflight
4-Wheeled Vehicles - Tire Wear
8-Wheeled Vehicles - Tire Wear
Crude Oil Production - Evaporation
From Ships
Pesticide Application
Wind Erosion From Land Tilling
Erosion From Tailing Piles - Fugitive
Landfill Sites - Fugitive
Construction Sites - Residential
Building
Construction Sites - Other Building
Construction Sites - Utilities, Water,
Sewer
Construction Sites - Roads, Bridges,
Tunnels
Construction Sites - Ojther Heavy
Construction
4
Environment Canada personnel felt that natural source emissions had not
changed appreciably from 1980 to 1985, and resource constraints prevented
any further research to refine natural source emissions estimates.  Because
the data were the same as those reported in 1980, the tape sent by Canada
contained annual emissions data and supporting temporal data.  EPA
recalculated biogenic hydrocarbon emissions for both the United States and
Canada using land use and land cover data and a canopy biogenic emissions
model developed by NAPAP for modeling applications.

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND DATA PROCESSING OF POINT AND AREA SOURCE DATA

Quality Assurance of Point Source Data

    Extensive quality assurance (QA) was performed on Canadian point source
data.  An adaptation of the NE061 program used on U.S. data was initially
performed.  The results of the execution of the QA program were used to rank
QA measures on the data.  Rejected records contained errors which would result
                                     7-14

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in incomplete processing of the data by FREDS.  These errors included missing
or invalid province codes, zero or missing SCCs, missing or invalid plant IDs.

     The original edit checking messages for rejected records were broken down
into the following categories:

          Plant ID is missing or invalid          201
          S02 emissions > 100,000 Metric tons       2
          TSP emissions > 100,000 Metric tons       1
          CO emissions > 100,000 Metric tons        1
          Latitude is missing                     53A
          Longitude is missing                    534
          Missing or invalid day code             141
          Missing or invalid week code            141
          Missing or invalid year code            141
          SCC code not on file                    241

Plant IDs and emissions over 100,000 metric tons per year were verified with
Environment Canada and ranges for these reject messages or field definitions
for particular variables were adjusted.  Missing latitude and longitude data
were obtained by consulting with Environment Canada personnel, as were missing
temporal codes.  Temporal codes with zero or missing values were given a
continuous operating profile reflecting continuous operation.  For SCC codes
with zero or invalid values, consultation with Environment Canada personnel
provided either valid SCC codes or process descriptions from which valid SCC
codes could be assigned.

     Whenever- Environment Canada's independent QA resulted in modifications to
the data files, the information to be deleted, added, or changed was
incorporated.  Each time changes were made or files were added, a QA check for
records which appeared to be duplicates was carried out, and any problems with
apparent "duplicate" records were resolved.  Environment Canada's point source
records are based on a sector SIC code which is not used in the processing of
the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2.  At times records may
appear to be duplicates in the modelers' inventory which are in fact unique
records when the SIC code is used.  Other apparent duplicate records resulted
from the presence of 3-digit point ID codes for Canadian points, so the field
definition for point ID was modified to accommodate the potential for these
Canadian point IDs.  As a final check, emissions totals for all pollutants by
province and by SIC were verified by Environment Canada and compared against
the 1985 Canadian National Emissions Inventory.

Point Source Data Processing and Modification

     Certain data items in the original Canadian data files sent to the United
States EPA were modified to make them consistent with U.S. data.  Latitude and
longitude values were converted from degree to decimal values.  Throughput
values were converted to English units to match corresponding NAPAP emission
factor units.  For throughputs which could not be converted to English units
because of the unavailability of specific density values, the throughputs were
                                     7-15

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reported as missing.  This measure was taken to avoid confusion on the part of
users of the data who might make calculations using throughput values without
looking at the corresponding units.

     Monthly temporal data were summed to the seasonal level, daily throughput
percentages were aggregated to the typical weekday, Saturday, and Sunday
scenarios, and hourly throughput data were retained and applied to the
Canadian emissions data.  These aggregations were used to form a temporal
factor file which was linked with a matching variable during FREDS processing
to temporally allocate emissions data.  Temporal processing resulted in a
resolved point source file with hourly emissions values for the twelve
temporal scenarios (weekday, Saturday, and Sunday in each of the four
seasons).  Where temporal profiles were not available, emissions received
uniform temporal allocation.

Quality Assurance of Canadian Area Source Data

     Quality assurance of Canadian area source data was much simpler than QA
of point source data because there were fewer area source records.  The major
problems encountered were duplicate records, miscoded SCCs, emissions
magnitudes larger than maximum values set by Environment Canada, missing or
invalid temporal codes, and throughput values not equal to 100 percent.  The
majority of these problems were quickly resolved through consultation with
Environment Canada personnel.  As a final QA check, emissions totals by
province and by area source category for each of the major pollutants were
compared with emissions totals from data files at Environment Canada.

     While reviewing Canadian data which had been processed by FREDS,
Environment Canada personnel noted that area source coal processing SCCs had
incorrect PSPLIT profiles.  These sources should reflect essentially 100
percent methane.  The impact of this change on acid deposition modeling
studies is minimal since nearly 90 percent of these emissions are 'in the
Province of Alberta, which is outside the modeling domain.

     In addition, emissions from area source category 23260, Piston Engine -
Inflight, were processed through FREDS but should have been included in  the
list of Canadian area source categories not processed by FREDS for the 1985
NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2.  The emissions from this  area
source contribute 52 tons SC>2, 78 tons NOX, 6790 tons VOC, 100 tons TSP, and
55,044 tons CO.  Again, the impact on acid deposition modeling studies is
small because the emissions contribution from the category is small.

Canadian Area Source Data Processing and Modification

     The Canadian highway gasoline mobile source categories were adjusted  to
account for the inclusion of the excess evaporative emissions following  the
same methodology used to adjust the U.S. mobile source file.  The adjustment
for Canadian mobile  sources did not consider running  losses since the MOBILE3
assumptions for Canada  included the average annual temperature for all of
Canada of 46 degrees Fahrenheit, well below the temperature range of
                                      7-16

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importance for running losses.  A separate mobile source file for the summer
scenarios was created specifically for model evaluation studies.  The separate
mobile source file can be adjusted for temperature specific cases and includes
the effects of running losses.

     Canadian area source hydrocarbon data was supplied as THC.  The FREDS
hydrocarbon preprocessor was initialized to calculate VOC from the THC
estimate and the profile methane concentration.  In contrast, all U.S.
hydrocarbon data were supplied as VOC by the States.
                                     7-17

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                                   SECTION  8

                                NATURAL SOURCES

INTRODUCTION

     A significant amount of research on natural source emissions in the
United States has been conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) for NAPAP's Task Group on Atmospheric Chemistry (Task
Group II) and EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory
(AREAL).  Estimates of emission factors, flux estimates and emissions
inventories have been developed by NOAA and AREAL for biogenic hydrocarbons,
soil NOX and alkaline particulate matter.  For the 1985 NAPAP Emission
Inventory Version 2 only emissions of alkaline particulate matter were
available in a format readily adaptable to the NAPAP inventory.

     The results of preliminary emissions estimates for U.S. natural
particulate sources were included in the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions
Inventory Version 2 to meet delivery deadlines.  Research conducted by NAPAP
Task Group II since the delivery of the modelers' inventory has resulted in
modifications to the national and state level emissions estimates.  Further
research conducted by NAPAP Task Group I has also resulted in modifications to
the county allocation methodologies.  Therefore, the emissions totals
discussed in this report do not agree with other published NAPAP research
results.

     Methodologies have been developed by EPA to apply the results of research
on biogenic hydrocarbon emissions to the RADM model input data base.
Specific temperature and solar  intensity data are used by EPA'to calculate
grid level hydrocarbon emissions for each hour of specific RADM simulations.
Soil NOX emissions are also dependent on temperature and have been calculated
by EPA following methodologies  similar to those applied for biogenic  	
hydrocarbons.

     An inventory of alkaline particulate emissions from natural sources was
developed by NAPAP for use as input to atmospheric transport models.  The
contributions from natural sources can affect the chemical composition of
atmospheric deposition.

     Emissions inventories for  alkaline particulate matter from U.S. natural
sources have been developed for three categories:  unpaved roads, wind erosion
and dust devils.  Data were provided by Task Group II for total particulate
mass and the mass of total calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and
potassium (K).  Data sources for calculation of annual and speciated natural
particulate emissions include field measurements, AP-42 , and particulate
matter species profiles .  Unpaved road emissions were calculated at the
county level by NAPAP Task Group I.  Wind erosion and dust devil emissions
estimates were provided by Task Group II for major land resource areas
(MLRAs).  These emissions estimates were resolved to the county level by Task
Group I.  Temporal, spatial and species resolution of the natural particulate
emissions were derived from information provided by Task Group II and EPA.
                                      8-1

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     Environment Canada  supplied natural source particulate emissions
estimates  from paved  roads, unpaved roads and wind erosion at the provincial
level.  Temporal,  spatial and  species resolution were supplied by Environment
Canada.  A summary of U.S. and Canadian natural particulate categories
included in  the  1985  NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 is provided
in Table 8-1.  A summary of the particulate emissions data for natural sources
for the United States and Canada is presented in Table 8-2.  The natural
particulate  emissions are speciated into the same reactivity and size
fractions  as the anthropogenic TSP  (see Table 6-9).
              TABLE 8-1.  NATURAL ALKALINE PARTICULATE CATEGORIES
                          INCLUDED IN 1985 NAPAP VERSION 2
U.S. SCC
CATEGORY DESCRIPTION
  901
  902
  903
Unpaved Road Travel
Wind Erosion Natural and Agricultural  Lands
Dust Devils
CANADIAN  SCC
CATEGORY DESCRIPTION
41110
41120
42110
42120
42210
42220
42310
42320
43200
Dust - Paved Roads
Dust - Paved Roads
bust Unpaved Roads
Dust Unpaved Roads
Dust Unpaved Roads
Dust Unpaved Roads
Dust Unpaved Roads
Dust Unpaved Roads
- Vehicles
- Trucks
- Vehicles - Treated Gravel
- Trucks - Treated Gravel
- Vehicles - Untreated Gravel
- Trucks - Untreated Gravel
- Vehicles - Earth Roads
- Trucks - Earth Roads
Agricultural - Erosion From Crops
 DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY LEVEL ALKALINE PARTICULATE  EMISSIONS
 Unpaved Roads

      Particulate emissions from unpaved  roads  are  based  on  the  flux  of
 particulate matter to the atmosphere due to the disturbance of  the road
•surface by passing vehicles.   The magnitude of the emissions depends on
 vehicle speeds  and road surface composition.
                                      8-2

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     State-level emission factors (Ib/VMT (vehicle miles traveled)) for
unpaved roads in the United States were provided by Task Group II for
particulates of 10 microns or less.  The emission factor was multiplied by the
activity level  (VMT for unpaved roads) and the weight percent of the alkaline
components to determine state level annual emissions for unpaved roads.  The
emissions from  the unpaved road category developed by EPA as part of NEDS were
removed from the anthropogenic area source inventory to avoid double counting
emissions from  this source.

     The source extent of local and nonlocal unpaved roads was obtained from
the U.S. DOT.   County level information was not readily available.  State-
level, information was used in conjunction with population data and the
methodology developed by Barnard-* to arrive at county level unpaved road VMT.
This methodology used state level VMT in rural, small urban and urban
locations to represent local unpaved roads, and a mean of rural and urban
areas for nonlocal unpaved roads.  The state-level VMT was apportioned to
counties based  on rural and urban population distributions.

     Prior to the allocation of state-level emissions to counties, the VMT
(urban and rural) for various surface types was determined for application of
the appropriate surface chemistry data.  State level road surface chemistry
data provided by for NAPAP were used to represent the chemistry of urban and
rural local, and all nonlocal unpaved roads.  Local surface soil chemistry
data  were used for rural and urban local unimproved unpaved roads.  County
level alkaline  particulate emission estimates were calculated from the state-
level totals.   The details of the procedures for calculating county-level
unpaved road emissions are presented elsewhere .

     The county-level emissions estimates developed by EPA were processed
through a series of quality contr&l checks.  The data were reformatted and a
category code (SCC) of 901 was assigned to all unpaved road emissions records
to ensure compatibility with the NAPAP annual emissions files.  Emissions of
total particulates were calculated by multiplying the PM-10 mass by the
inverse of the  size multiplier for the 10 micron fraction.  In addition, the
reactive components of Ca, Mg, Na, and K were calculated from data included  in
the Air Emissions Species Manual, Volume II  .

Wind Erosion

     Wind erosion emissions estimates for total and alkaline particulates (Ca,
Mg, Na, K) for  the United States have also been developed by Task Group II.
Wind erosion emissions include particulate emissions from soils produced by
the frictional  forces of  the wind.  Total mass for wind erosion is defined as
particles 20 microns or less in diameter.  The spatial resolution of the
annual emissions is based on MLRAs.  The methodology for calculating annual
wind erosion emissions is based on the 30-year climatological record, and
therefore, is not specific to the year 1985.
                                      8-4

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     A U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service map was used
to assign MLRA characteristics to county boundaries.  Each county was assigned
to a corresponding MLRA, and the flux for that MLRA was multiplied by the area
of the county to yield annual county-level wind erosion emissions.  The
county- level emissions were subjected to a series of quality control checks.

     The data were reformatted to make them compatible with the NAPAP annual
emissions files.  In addition, the reactive components of Ca, Mg, Na, and K
were calculated from data included in the Air Emissions Species Manual,
Volume II.

Dust Devils

     Dust devil emissions estimates for the United States were developed by
Task Group II for the total mass of particles with diameters less than or
equal to 25 microns.  Dust devils result from intense local convective
circulation in arid locations and can cause dust to rise up to high levels in
the atmosphere.  Flux estimates were based on observations made near Tucson,
Arizona during the Summer of 1987.  The field measurement program was
completed to determine the distribution of dust devils in four size
categories - small, medium, large, and extra large.  Measurements were made of
the dust concentrations and the vertical velocities within active dust devils.
Vegetation classes and climatic categories were also analyzed to determine the
potential for dust devil development in other regions of the United States.
Flux estimates were developed for each of the four points defining a grid cell
used by the RADM model.

     To arrive at annual county-level dust devil emissions, the latitude and
longitude of each grid point were matched to a corresponding county and the
emissions flux for that point was assigned to that county.  If more than one
grid point was located in a county, the county level emissions were determined
by averaging the values corresponding to those grid points.  For small
counties that lie between grid points, contour maps were used to determine if
a county should have an emissions value assigned to it.  If a positive
emissions value was indicated, the average value associated with adjacent or
nearby grid points was assigned to that county.  To assure a representative
distribution, county-level maps were compared with contour maps developed from
the gridded data.

     The county-level data were subjected to several quality control checks.
The data were then reformatted and a category code (SCC) of 903 was assigned
to all dust devil emissions records.  In addition, the reactive components of
Ca, Mg, Na, and K were estimated from values obtained in the Air Emissions
Species Manual Volume II2.  The resultant file was merged with the annual
county-level unpaved road and wind erosion particulate emissions to create the
1985 United States NAPAP Natural Particulate Emissions Inventory for use as
input to FREDS.
                                      8-5

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Canadian Natural Particuiate Emissions

     Canadian particuiate emissions for paved and unpaved roads and wind
erosion from crop lands were supplied by Environment Canada.  The categories
and their corresponding SCCs are presented in Table 8-1.  Environment Canada
supplied total particulates, Ca, Mg, Na, K, reactive Ca, reactive Mg, reactive
Na, and reactive K for paved and unpaved roads.  Only total particuiate
emissions were supplied for wind erosion.  To determine the reactive alkaline
components, several data sources were consulted.  The average alkaline
composition of Canadian soils" and the reactivity fractions in the Air
Emissions Species Manual  were used to arrive at a best estimate of the
reactive alkaline components.  The modified Canadian particuiate data were
used to create the 1985 Canadian NAPAP Natural Particuiate Emissions Inventory
for use as input to FREDS.

Quality Assurance of Annual Emissions Data

     A series of checks was performed on the data prior to creation of the
annual inventory to assure the quality of the natural source emissions data.
Quality control checks on county-level annual alkaline particuiate emissions
focused on assuring data reasonableness and compatibility with NAPAP county
codes and allocation files.

     Quality control checks on the raw data included matching the emissions
data to the Spatial Allocation Factor File (SAFF) and the Timezone File (TZF)
to identify any missing or miscoded counties.  The alkaline components were
summed and compared to total particulates emissions to ensure internal
consistency.  Although in most cases the sum of the alkaline components does
not equal the_total particuiate mass they should never exceed the total mass.
Additional checks included manual reviews of the file to identify erroneous
data.

     The counties in the SAFF and TZF files were compared with the counties
present in the unpaved road, wind erosion, and dust devil emissions.
Discrepancies were discovered in Massachusetts, Montana, South Dakota, and
Virginia.  In Massachusetts, differences occurred because of the
correspondence of the SAFF and TZF to Air Pollution Control Districts  (APCDs)
rather than to counties.  To adjust for APCDs, emissions data for the
Massachusetts counties were recalculated relative to APCDs based on  land  area
fractions.  In Montana and South Dakota, differences occurred due to
differences in NEDS and FIPS county codes.  Information for two missing
counties was  calculated and inserted into the emissions files.  In Virginia,
discrepancies occurred due to the definition of independent cities which  are
treated as county equivalents.  The Virginia counties and  independent  cities
were adjusted for compatibility with the NAPAP files following methodologies
developed for the anthropogenic area source data.

     Additional manual examination of the data files for the United  States
indicated no  apparent problems with the  file.  Visual examination of  the
Canadian data indicated  some  invalid SAROAD codes assigned  to the alkaline
components.   These  codes were subsequently corrected.
                                      8-6

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     Additional quality control checks were performed on the U.S. and Canadian
emissions data during the creation of the masterfiles and the annual FREDS
inventory.  These checks included calculation of emissions sums before, during
and after creation of the annual inventory, checks for missing values, and
visual checks for discrepancies and erroneous data.  These analyses turned up
missing data in the annual inventory for one county in Montana which had been
manually inserted into the file.  Once this error was corrected the annual
inventory was rechecked to assure that no other problems were present.

NATURAL SOURCES ALLOCATION FACTORS

Temporal Allocation Factors

     Temporal allocation factors were developed individually for each of the
natural source categories in the United States and Canada.  Temporal factors
derived for each source category at varying levels of specificity were
concatenated to form a natural source Temporal Allocation Factor File (TAFF)
for U.S. natural source particulates.  Canadian natural source temporal
profiles were supplied by Environment Canada and are included in the Canadian
area source TAFF.  The appropriate linker variable was created in the Canadian
annual natural source file for correspondence between the emissions file and
the TAFF.

     Unpaved road temporal profiles available in the U.S. area source TAFF
were used to temporally allocate U.S. unpaved road emissions.  These factors
are SCC-specific and are based on U.S. DOT data for light duty vehicles on
rural roads.

     County specific temporal -profiles for wind erosion emissions in the
United States are based on temporal information supplied by Task Group II.
Seasonal fractions were calculated for each of the alkaline species and total
particulate for each county by summing the monthly emissions for a season and
dividing the seasonal total by the annual emissions.  The seasonal values for
total particulates and the alkaline components were combined to calculate
average seasonal values for the U.S. particulate emissions from wind erosion.
The diurnal profile for wind erosion, as recommended by Task Group II, was
derived from a figure by Wigner and Peterson  showing the occurrence of
blowing dust by time of day.  Daily factors were assumed to be uniform.

     Quality control checks were performed on the county specific seasonal
profiles to assure the quality and compatibility of the factors.  County codes
were matched to those in the U.S. annual natural source emissions file.  Any
nonmatches were adjusted to assure complete temporal allocation.  In addition,
all seasonal and diurnal fractions were checked to ensure that they summed to
unity.

     Category specific seasonal factors for U.S. dust devil emissions were
based on data recommended by Task Group II.  The seasonal distribution of dust
devils are at a maximum between June 1 and September 1, decrease linearly to
zero from September 1 to October 15 and remain at zero between October 15 and
                                      8-7

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April 15.  The activity of dust devils begins a linear rise from April 15 to
reach the maximum again on June 1.  The diurnal profile recommended by Task
Group II  shows maximum activity from 11 AM to 3 PM, a linear decrease from 3
to 4 PM, zero activity from 4 PM to 10 AM, and a linear increase from 10 to
11 AM.

     The temporal profiles for each category for each scenario were
concatenated to form the natural source TAFF.  As a final check on the
temporal data, seasonal and hourly fractions were totaled to verify that they
summed to unity.

Spatial Allocation Factors

      The land area spatial distribution surrogate file was used for spatial
allocation of U.S. natural source emissions.   The gridded spatial fractions
were matched to the natural sources Surrogate Selection File to generate a
natural source Spatial Allocation Factor File (SAFF).

     Spatial allocation factors for Canadian natural particulates were
provided by Environment Canada.  Paved road particulate emissions were
allocated by the population surrogate and  the unpaved road and wind erosion
categories were allocated by  the agricultural labor force surrogates.

Speciation Factors

     The NAPAP Task Group II  research results related to natural alkaline
particulate included estimates of total mass and the total mass of alkaline
species for limited size ranges as discussed earlier.  Th.ese estimates were
divided into the appropriate  size and reactivity fractions to provide
estimates that were consistent with the anthropogenic particulate data.
Reactivity fractions were obtained from published data.  The measured data  for
unpaved road dust  indicated that 24 percent of the  total mass was included  in
the  less than  10 micron size  fraction.  The total TSP mass was estimated  by
multiplying the less than 10  micron size fraction by 4.17, the inverse of  the
24 percent fraction.

      Size fraction  data available  in AP-42 suggest  that  the less  than 10
micron  size fraction is 362.  The measured data  for unpaved road  dust,
however, indicated  24% of the particulate  mass to be less than 10 microns.
Estimates of size  fractions for unpaved road dust in size ranges  of  less  than
2.5  micron; less  than  5.0 micron;  less  than  10 micron; less than  15  micron  and
less  than 30 micron are also  included in AP-42.  The size fractions  for  the
2.5  to  6.0 and 6.0  to  10.0 micron  ranges were obtained from a linear
regression of  the  plotted AP-42 data.   The AP-42 size fractions were  scaled  by
the  ratio of 0.24/0.36 to develop  estimates of the  size  fractions required  for
the  NAPAP application.

      The same  size  fractions  were  applied  to both TSP and the individual
alkaline components.   These  size  fractions were  used in  the speciation of all
three natural  source categories.   The speciation factors applied  to  the  NAPAP
natural  source  particulate  data are  listed in Table 8-3.
                                      8-8

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     Size fractions for Canadian natural particulates were available in the
Canadian area source Speciation Factor File (SFF) and the alkaline fractions
were obtained from profiles for the natural source categories that were
included in the Air Emissions Species Manual.  The reactive alkaline fractions
for the Canadian data were supplied by Environment Canada.
                    TABLE 8-3.   SPECIATION  FACTORS  FOR U.S.
                                NATURAL ALKALINE PARTICULATES
SPECIES
TSP
SODIUM (Na)
POTASSIUM (K)
CALCIUM (Ca)
MAGNESIUM (Mg)
REACTIVE
FRACTION
N.A.
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.5
0-2.5 urn
FRACTION
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
2.5-6.0 urn
FRACTION
0.090
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
6.0-10.0 urn
FRACTION
0.129
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
2.5-10.0 urn
N.A.
0.2194
0.2194
0.2194
0.2194
    .The annual emissions files and allocation factors described above were
used in conjunction with FREDS to generate a modelers' emissions inventory.
The application and processing of FREDS are discussed in the following
section.
                                      8-9

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                                   SECTION  8
                                   REFERENCES
1.   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Compilation of Air Pollutant
     Emission Factors," Fourth Edition, AP-42 (GPO No. 055-000-00251-7),
     Volume 1, Research Triangle Park, NC, September 1985.

2.   Shareef, G. and L. Bravo.  "Air Emissions Species Manual (NTIS PB88-
     225800).  Volume II - Particulate Matter (PM) Species Profiles."
     EPA-450/2-88-003b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, NC.  April 1988.

3.   Barnard, W.R., D.F. Gatz, and G.J. Stensland.  Evaluation of Potential
     Improvements in the Estimation of Unpaved Road Fugitive Emissions
     Inventories.  Paper 87-58.1, Proceedings of the 80th Annual Meeting of
     the Air Pollution Control Association, New York, NY.  1987.

4    Boerngen, J.C. and H.T. Shacklette.  Chemical Analyses of Soils and Other
     Surficial Materials in the Coterminus United States.  USGS Report 81-197,
     U.S. Geological Survey.  1987.

5.   The Environmental Applications Group Limited.  National Inventory of
     Natural Sources and Emissions of Alkaline Particulates.  DSS Contract
     No. 05E81-00164, Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, 1982.

6.   Wigner, K. and R. Peterson.  Synoptic Climatology of Blowing Dust on the
     Texas South Plains, 1947-84.  Journal of Arid Environments, 13, 199-209.
     1987.
                                      8-10

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                                  SECTION 9

                      EMISSIONS INVENTORY DATA PROCESSING
INTRODUCTION

     One of the primary functions of the 1985 NAPAP Modelers'  Emissions
Inventory Version 2 is to support regional- and national-scale acid deposition
modeling efforts using the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM).  As
described in Section 6, the annual data must be resolved temporally (to the
hourly level for a typical weekday, Saturday, or Sunday in each season),
spatially (into grid cells 1/6 degree latitude by 1/4 degree longitude), and
by pollutant species (for hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate
matter).  This additional resolution is provided by applying the NAPAP
allocation factors to annual emissions records and creating a series of data
tapes suitable as model input.  The computer software which has been developed
to perform the required resolution is called the Flexible Regional Emissions
Data System (FREDS).1

     FREDS consists of seven primary modules written in SAS* and Fortran.
FREDS extracts desired data from the annual inventories, performs temporal and
spatial allocation, speciates selected pollutants, converts data to modeling
format, and performs quality control checking at various stages of processing.
The user can specify the parameters of execution using Control Options Files
associated with each module and can vary the allocation methodology or
speciation chemistry by changing or replacing one or more of the allocation
factor files.  This design flexibility allows FREDS to be used for processing
emission inventories for a wide variety of applications.

     FREDS was originally developed for processing the 1980 NAPAP Emissions
Inventory.   A number of enhancements arid modifications to FREDS were
undertaken to meet the requirements of the 1985 modelers' inventory.  Some of
these changes were necessary to accommodate new expanded data requirements,
while others were identified as desirable based on past experience with the
FREDS software.  These changes facilitate the timely and cost effective
processing of the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory and ensure high level data
quality while maintaining maximum flexibility for future applications.

     Following modifications and comprehensive system testing, FREDS was
executed on the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 1 to produce the first
1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 1.  Subsequent modifications
to the annual inventory and the addition of emissions estimates for Canadian
and natural sources required a second FREDS series involving six individual
sets of module runs.  The resulting modelers' inventory, including point, area
and natural sources for the United States and Canada, has been designated  The
1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2.
*SAS is a registered trademark of the SAS Institute, Gary, NC, 27511-8000.
                                      9-1

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     The remainder of this section describes the FREDS system and its
application to create the NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2.  It
includes an overview of the FREDS modules and their operation, a description
of enhancements made to FREDS for the 1985 inventory development effort, a
summary of modelers' tape processing, and information on the format and
specifications of the modelers' tapes.  Prospective system users should also
refer to the report, "Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS)
Documentation for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory,"^ for a more thorough
treatment of FREDS system operation.

FREDS SYSTEM OVERVIEW

     FREDS is a modular software system designed to process the annual
inventory and derive an emissions database suitable for input to atmospheric
pollution simulation models, such as the RADM.  The primary functions of FREDS
are to resolve annual emissions to typical hourly values, to apportion county-
level area source emissions to grid cells, and to perform speciation of
selected pollutants into user-defined species classes.

     Most of the FREDS modules are written in the SAS language.  SAS was
chosen due to its flexible file structure, its powerful "macro" commands, and
its diverse statistical and graphics capabilities which facilitate data
analysis and quality control.  Fortran is employed in some segments of FREDS
which require extensive arithmetic computations to minimize processing time
and cost.  The complete system is currently installed on the IBM 3090 at the
EPA's National Computer Center in Research Triangle Park, NC.

     A simplified diagram of FREDS processing, showing the interrelationship
of the major system components, is shown in Figure 9-1.  A brief description
of each module is provided in the following pages.

Hydrocarbon Preprocessor

     The FREDS Hydrocarbon Preprocessor  (HCPREP) is run on the preliminary
annual data to ensure a consistent basis for estimating THC and non-methane
VOC emissions.  HCPREP can interconvert  VOC and THC, deriving one given the
other, and can also compensate for the missing mass of aldehydes in emissions
estimates calculated using factors based on flame ionization detection.
Hydrocarbon adjustment for a source  is determined using the weight percentages
of formaldehyde and methane  from  the  source's speciation profile.  The
decision of whether or not to perform an adjustment depends on the settings of
aldehyde and methane augmentation flags  determined for each point and area
source category (SCC).  The  original  NEDS hydrocarbon emission estimates for
each source are retained  for later reference.  The annual  inventory that
results from the execution of  the Hydrocarbon Preprocessor is considered the
1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2.
                                      9-2

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1985 NEDS Annuc: Point Sourca
           Emissions
                          1985  NEDS Annual Area Sourca
                                    Emissions
  • Hydrocarbon
Adjustment Factors"
Hydrocarbon  Preprocessor
       (HCPREP)
                                   1985 NAPAP Annual
                                   Emissions Inventory
                                      Model Data
                                       Extraction
                                     Module  (MDEM)
 • Spatial Allocation
        Factors
        Spatial
       Allocation
     Module (SAM)
  • Temporal Allocation
        Factors
Temporal
Allocation
Module (TAM)
!
1
 • Speciation Factors
     for TSP.  NOX.
     Hydrocarbons
Speciation
Module
(SM)
1
	
                                     Module Input
                                     Preprocessor
                                         (MIP)
                                 1985 NAPAP  Modelers'
                                  Emissions Inventory
                                  Quality Control
                                     Module
                                      (QCM)
                                 Diagnostic / QC
                                  Report. FREDS
                                   Intermediate
                                      Res
             Figure  9-1.   Simplified Diagram of FREDS  Processing
                                       9-3

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Model Data Extraction Module
     The Model Data Extraction Module (MDEM) functions to reduce the volume of
emissions data to be processed and to create industry-specific emissions data
subfiles for subsequent processing.  MDEM reduces the annual emissions file
size by creating condensed point and area source records at the source
category level, extracting only the data needed to identify the emissions
source and characterize its emissions.

For point sources, the following data are retained:

     •    Identification data (State, county, plant, point, AQCR,
          SCC and SIC codes)

     •    Location data (latitude, longitude and UTM data)

     •    Operating schedule (seasonal throughput percentages;
          hours/day, days/week and weeks/year of operation)

     •    Stack parameters (temperature, height, diameter, flow
          rate, exit velocity, and plume height)

     •    Pollutant data (SAROAD codes, emissions, estimation
          methods, control equipment codes and control efficiencies)

MDEM also removes all process (SCC) level records with zero emissions
remaining in the file (point level data with no emissions are removed prior to
FREDS).  MDEM must be executed prior to the allocation and speciation modules
to ensure compatibility throughout the remainder of FREDS.

Speciation Module

     The Speciation Module (SM) will accept an output file from any of the
FREDS modules and merge the emissions data with speciation factors from  the
Pollutant Splits Program (PSPLIT) and/or fractions from a user-supplied
Speciation Factor File  (SFF).  PSPLIT is a Fortran program which disaggregates
total VOC into approximately 650 chemical species according to source category
specific profiles, and  then reaggregates the species into classes based  on  the
requirements of the model chemistry.  The PSPLIT output file contains mole
fractions for hydrocarbon species and percentage splits for NOX, while the  SFF
file contains fractions for additional pollutants not resolved by PSPLIT
(e.g., alkaline particulates).  Hydrocarbons may be apportioned into as  many
as 32 species or groups of species, and as many as 20 additional species can
be accommodated through the SFF.  Speciation is accomplished by merging  each
emissions record with a speciation profile specific to each point or area
source category.
                                      9-4

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Spatial Allocation Module

     The Spatial Allocation Module (SAM) allocates emissions data into grid
cells measuring 1/6 degree latitude by 1/4 degree longitude.  The NAPAP grid
system is comprised of 63,000 such grid cells (210 rows x 300 columns)
extending from 50° to 125° west longitude and 25° to 60° north latitude.  For
area sources, emissions are merged with spatial allocation factors to
disaggregate county level emissions to individual grid cells.  The spatial
allocation factors are based on Landsat and census data and take the form of
fractional multipliers used to apportion county total emissions into specific
grid cells.  Point source emissions are assigned to grid cells based on
latitude and longitude or UTM coordinates.

Temporal Allocation Module

     Point and area source emissions data are temporally resolved by the
Temporal Allocation Module (TAM).  This module merges emissions with seasonal,
daily, and hourly temporal fractions from the Temporal Allocation Factor File.
Allocation factors are provided for up to 12 types of days (a weekday,
Saturday, and Sunday for each season).  SCC specific allocation factors exist
for only a subset of point source categories.  If an allocation factor match
cannot be made for a particular point source SCC, TAM will generate a default
pattern based on operating data found in the point source record.  As an
exception, seasonal factors for point sources are primarily derived frcm
point-specific operating data, these being preferred over more general SCC
specific factors from the temporal factor file.  For point source records with
inadequate operating data, or for area source records with no allocation
factor match, a uniform temporal emissions distribution is assigned.  A time
zone offset  is applied to each emissions record by merging the data by State
and county with records in a separate time zone file.  Finally, TAM adjusts
all temporal data to GMT.

Model Input  Preprocessor

     The Model Input Preprocessor (MIP) accepts fully resolved, area source
files or point source files which include the appropriate spatial, temporal,
and species  factors.  MIP concatenates input files if necessary and performs
the appropriate sorts to yield a complete point or area source modelers file
in SAS format.  These SAS formatted modelers' tapes are then converted to
standard ASCII or EBCDIC format as an additional job step.

Quality Control Module

     In addition to the diagnostic checks performed within each of the FREDS
modules, data sets at any stage of FREDS processing may be examined using the
Quality Control Module (QCM).  QCM accepts any SAS formatted emissions file
and compares emissions totals with values calculated from an earlier stage of
FREDS to ensure that pollutant data are not unexpectedly altered during the
apportioning process.  QCM checks national and state level  sums for ten major
pollutants,  as well as national emissions totals for up to  20 user selected
source category codes.  Temporal allocation factors are also checked, when
present, to  ensure that they sum to unity within a user specified tolerance.
                                      9-5

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FREDS ENHANCEMENTS FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

     Version 4 of the 1980 NAPAP inventory was the first to be converted into
a format suitable for modeling applications.  Processing was accomplished
using an already existing system, the Regional Model Data Handling System
(RMDHS) .  RMDHS was originally developed for the Northeast Corridor Regional
Modeling Project (NECRMP) emissions inventory and was subsequently modified to
accommodate preliminary NAPAP requirements.  RMDHS was judged unsuitable for
use in resolving the final version (5.0) of the 1980 inventory, primarily
because of limitations on the number of pollutants which could be processed.
Instead, the FREDS was developed2 and used to create the final 1980 NAPAP
modeling inventories (Versions 5.2 and 5.3).

     Following the completion of the 1980 inventory development effort,
necessary and desirable refinements to FREDS were identified for processing
the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2.  Recommendations for
improvements were based on anticipated changes to the 1985 annual and resolved
inventories and those which, while not essential in terms of basic
functioning, would provide tangible operational benefits (ease of data
handling, reduction in processing time, etc.).  This analysis formed the basis
for the FREDS enhancement effort.  As the annual inventory file contents and
modeling inventory needs became better defined, additional modifications were
implemented.   In addition, FREDS was subjected to several system tests.
Results of these tests revealed additional minor problems, which were
subsequently corrected to yield a modified FREDS system capable of handling
the requirements of the 1985 NAPAP inventories.

New FREDS Modules
                                              »
     One of the major enhancements to FREDS for the 1985 modelers.1 inventory
development effort was the design, development, and testing of two new
modules, the Hydrocarbon Preprocessor (HCPREP) and the Quality Control Module
(QCM)  .  HCPREP is intended to ensure a consistent basis for comparison of
hydrocarbon emissions data, while QCM serves as a consolidated error checking
routine capable of inspecting emissions totals at every stage of FREDS
execution.  These modules perform a vital function in achieving and
maintaining the high level data quality essential for modeling applications.

1985 NAPAP Annual File Structure and Contents

     Changes to the structure and contents of the point and area source NAPAP
annual  files necessitated modifications affecting all the  FREDS modules.   Use
of the  Emissions Inventory System (EIS) as an annual data  handling system  was
discontinued and, as a result, several variables referencing EIS were  renamed;
other  EIS specific variables were removed entirely.

     Area source data for the 1980 inventory were included in a single file,
which  contained both the county  level header  information and emissions data  at
the source category level.  Although convenient, repetition of the
                                      9-6

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county level information on each SCC level record increased storage
requirements unnecessarily.  For the 1985 inventory development effort, the
area source data have been split into two linked files:   a file containing the
county level data and an SCC level file containing the annual emissions
totals.

1985 NAPAP Modelers* Emissions Inventory Version 2 Requirements

     In addition to annual emissions file changes, modeling requirements also
evolved, requiring code changes in FREDS.  In particular, hydrocarbon and
particulate speciation factors and class assignments were significantly
changed for the 1985 inventory.  The number of hydrocarbon classes increased
from 28 to 32, and the individual species makeup of these classes changed
considerably.  The number of discrete hydrocarbon species on which the classes
are based also increased from approximately 150 to over 500.  The number of
TSP classes increased fourfold due to resolution of the data by both chemical
species and particle size fraction.  The total number of speciated components
required for the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2 is 49, as
compared to 34 for the 1980 inventory.  The 49 speciated components developed
by FREDS are in addition to the 10 species represented in the annual emissions
database.

     Temporal and spatial allocation factor treatment was also reviewed and
improved to provide greater precision for resolved emission estimates.  For
example, the Temporal Factor File was converted from EBCDIC to SAS 8-byte
format to permit numbers to be stored with greater precision and sum more
precisely to unity within the prescribed algorithms.

   -  The increased size of the new modeling inventories (resulting from the  .
increase in speciated components) and the hardware difficulties inherent in
processing large files led to the decision to process the area source modeling
inventory in two segments, with one file containing THC, VOC, NOX, NO, N02 and
the 32 hydrocarbon classes and the other containing the remaining pollutants,
S02, SO^, CO, NH3, HC1, HF, TSP and the 15 particulate classes.  The file
split reduces the processing burden posed by the large file and also allows
alternate runs to proceed independently (e.g., differing S02 or VOC/NOX
control strategies or differing speciation methodologies) without rerunning
the entire inventory.  Significant updates to the FREDS source code,
particularly the Model Data Extraction Module and Speciation Module, were made
to accommodate this split file.

     Point-specific data on temporal operating patterns were available for
several utility sources (e.g., hourly generation data) and judged to be of
better quality than NEDS operating schedule data.  The Temporal Allocation
Module was accordingly updated to allow point specific profile matches where
data were available at this level of specificity.
                                      9-7

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Improvements to Data Processing

     Data processing improvements undertaken as part of the FREDS
modifications fall into two categories:  efforts to minimize hardware related
job failures, and attempts to streamline program code to reduce processing
costs.

     Some of the intermediate data sets generated by FREDS are so large that
they require work space not normally available to system users.  Several
dedicated disk packs were reserved for NAPAP data processing and
specifications for the use of these disk packs were incorporated into the
FREDS code.

     The area source Temporal Allocation Module (TAM) and Model Input
Preprocessor (MIP) constitute the vast majority of FREDS processing time and
cost.  These modules were the focus of cost reduction analyses.  TAM includes
programs written in Fortran and SAS, with the Fortran portion (MTPREP)
accounting for 2/3 of the execution time.  Changes to the MTPREP program code
resulted in a 50 percent reduction in CPU time and reduced the overall FREDS
execution time by approximately 30 percent.  Code modifications in MIP further
decreased processing costs by eliminating unnecessary sorting routines when
only one input file is required.  Finally, the removal of SCC level records
with no emissions by the Model Data Extraction Module has shortened processing
times in all of the FREDS modules and has also reduced space requirements for
NAPAP data sets throughout processing.

Changes Resulting From System Testing
                                                                      •

     As part of the enhancement and validation process, FREDS was subjected to
several complete system tests.  The first of these exercises was a preliminary
review using data from the 1980 NAPAP inventory, as the 1985 inventory was not
yet available.  A second series of tests were conducted using preliminary 1985
point and area source data.  Because of the time and cost associated with area
source processing, only one area source temporal scenario was processed (a
summer weekday).  An initial FREDS run was used to identify problems and
implement corrections; a followup run was then performed as a final audit of
the FREDS code.  Additional minor changes to FREDS were made as a result of
the test series.  In particular, diagnostic report output was augmented to
provide additional information necessary to verify successful execution.
Observation  limits were placed on output file printouts to ensure that they
would be valuable analytical tools during actual operation, rather than only
during tests with small input data sets.

FREDS MODIFICATIOMS FOR CANADIAN DATA PROCESSING

     Slight  differences in file structures and allocation methodologies for
Canadian data required code changes in the FREDS modules to accommodate
Canadian data processing.  A separate version of FREDS was created to handle
Canadian point and area source data processing.  Significant differences
between this version and the version used to process the United States data
are described in  the following paragraphs.

                                      9-8

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     Canadian area source hydrocarbon emission estimates were provided as THC.
The HCPREP input files were modified to prevent methane augmentation.
Canadian area source hydrocarbons were augmented, as necessary, for aldehydes
only; point source preprocessing was identical to the United States.

     The TSP area source emissions were already subdivided by reactive
alkaline particulate fractions, but not by size fractions.  At the request of
Environment Canada, particulate speciation methodology was changed so that
FREDS would disaggregate the alkaline species into size fractions.  A new
Speciation Factor File was created, and modifications were made to SM and its
Control Options File to allow this disaggregation.

     Spatial allocation for Canadian area sources occurs at the province-level
rather than the county-level.  Array sizes for spatial factor processing were
therefore increased from 160 to 900 to account for the significantly greater
number of grids possible within a province (as opposed to a U.S. county).

     TAM was changed to accommodate a Temporal Allocation Factor File with a
different format than that used to process U.S. emissions records.  The U.S.
factors are merged with emissions records at various levels of resolution
(e.g., SCC-, State-, county-, plant-, or point-level).  Canadian factors are
merged with emission records using temporal profile code numbers.  Each
profile may be applied to a number of different emissions records.  TAM was
modified to use the profile number as a means to link emissions records with
temporal profiles.  Instead of several routines which merge emissions records
with factors at different levels of resolution, the Canadian point and area
source TAM contain a single merge based on profile number.

FREDS MODIFICATIONS FOR NATURAL SOURCE DATA .PROCESSING

     Minor modifications to some of FREDS modules were required for processing
the natural source emissions data.  Changes to JCL and control options files
comprised the majority of differences between natural and anthropogenic area
source emissions processing by FREDS.  For Canadian natural source processing,
the FREDS code used for anthropogenic area source emissions was applied with
no modifications.  However, changes were made to control file options and JCL
files to reflect differences in the data being processed.  A summary of FREDS
code modifications for U.S. natural source processing follows.

MDEM Modifications

     For natural sources processing, MDEM was modified to eliminate the SAS
code for the THC/TSP file split.  All corresponding variables were removed
from the remainder of the program.  This change was implemented for
two reasons:  (1) only particulates were present in the natural source file
and therefore there was no need for a file split; and (2) the segment of the
code was not applicable to the natural source file since the alkaline
components were not coded into the variable lists.
                                      9-9

-------
SM Modifications

     The SM was modified to accept a SFF with a format of 8.7; the U.S.
anthropogenic area source FREDS code input the data with a format of 8.8.  No
other modifications were required.

TAM Modifications

     Modifications to TAM were necessary to temporally allocate natural source
emissions using the county specific temporal allocation factors for wind
erosion.  This involved an additional data step and modifications throughout
the code and diagnostic report to reflect the addition of new variables and
counters.  Additional changes to the control and JCL files were also required.
DATA PROCESSING RESULTS

     The NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 1 was produced in
September 1988 by processing the  1985 U.S. NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 1
point and area source emissions sequentially through the revised FREDS
modules.  Revised U.S. point and  area source annual emissions data (as
described in Section 3) were made available for use in the 1985 NAPAP
Modelers' Emission  Inventory Version 2.  In addition, point and area source
annual data were supplied  for Canada, and preliminary estimates of particulate
emissions from U.S. and Canadian  natural sources were derived.  The six
resulting annual emissions data sets(were each processed through FREDS to
create the Version  2 NAPAP modelers' inventory.  The results of FREDS
processing for each of these six  data types are discussed in the following
pages.

U.S. Point Sources

     The NAPAP point source data, adapted from the  1985 NEDS Emissions
Inventory, contain  annual  emission data for 72,261  observations at the process
(SCC) level, encompassing  the 48  contiguous United  States and the District of
Columbia.  The point source data  were processed through FREDS as indicated in
Table 9-1 to create the U.S. point source component of the modelers'
inventory.  Note that  for  point sources, allocation factors are appended  to
the emission records,  causing the number of variables to increase while the
number of data records remains virtually constant.

     Annual data were  provided as input to the HCPREP for adjustment of VOC
and derivation of THC.  The annual inventory, containing emissions of 10  major
pollutants, was  processed  through the MDEM, where 29,496 process-level records
with zero emissions were  removed  from the file.

     SAM was executed  on  the MDEM output file.  Seven records whose
coordinates fell slightly  outside the southern boundary of the NAPAP grid
                                      9-10

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TABLE 9-1.  FREDS PROCESSING - U.S. POINT SOURCES




                Processing Summary
FREDS Input Output Comments
Module Records Records
HCPREP
MDEM
SAM
TAM
SM
MIP
10A,103
10A,103
7A,607
7A,607
7A,607
7A,607
10A,103
7A,607
7A,607
7A,607
7A,607
7A,607
THC/VOC Adjusted

Records with zero emissions deleted
Location data validated; 7
in FL south of grid system
records
Temporal pattern basis:
Point-specific factors: 56
State/SCC-specific factors: 1,089
SCC-specific factors: 2,6A7
Operating schedule: 66,819
Uniform (default): 3,996
Hydrocarbon & participate
factors merged
speciation
SAS and ASCII formatted modelers
tapes generated
4
Execution Statistics
FREDS Output Output CPU Time Percent of EXCPS
Module Records Variables (minrsec) total CPU
HCPREP 104,103 177 0:56 A. A AA,725
MDEM 7A,607 86 0:25 2.0 15,A76
SAM 7A,607 86 0:06 0.0 5,A13
TAM 7A,607 396 A:28 33.8 61,017
SM 7A,607 5A5 0:31 2. A 3A,092
MIP 7A,607 5A5 7:22 56.9 98,26A






                       9-11

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system were identified.  All of these emitters are located in the southern
portion of Monroe County, Florida.  Because these sources are correctly
located, the records were retained in the inventory but assigned grid row
numbers of 0 or -1.

     The next processing step for point sources was TAM.  Temporal profiles
based on operating schedule were assigned to 89 percent of point source
records.  Temporal factor matches were found for an additional 6 percent of
the point source data, including 58 TVA utility source records for which
point-specific hourly generation data were used.  A uniform default profile
was employed for the remaining 5 percent of the emissions records.

     The SM for point sources was executed following TAM.  The resulting file,
containing a complete compliment of allocation factors, was passed to the MIP,
where FREDS output files were generated both in SAS and standard ASCII format.

     Output files from each of the point source modules were processed through
the Quality Control Module to identify emissions discrepancies.  A relative
tolerance limit of 1 x 10   of the baseline input emissions was selected; this
number is small enough to ensure that all errors are detected, yet of
sufficient magnitude to prevent the flagging of records whose emissions differ
within normal machine precision.  With the exception of the expected changes
to VOC and THC totals in the HCPREP, all emissions totals and temporal factor
sums checked to within QCM tolerance.

     A summary of statistics relating to point source FREDS processing is also
presented in Table 9-1.  The table includes information on file sizes,
processing times, "excps" (input/output operations) and hardware work, space
requirements.  The Model Input Preprocessor accounts fgr over half of the
point source FREDS CPU time and is the'most input/output intensive of the
modules, primarily due to the SAS-to-ASCII conversion step at the conclusion
of the program.

Canada Point Sources

     Point source data were supplied by Environment Canada and converted to
the same format as the U.S. point source NEDS data, as described in Section 7.
A summary of Canadian point source processing is presented in Table 9-2.  The
execution of FREDS on Canadian point sources followed the same module sequence
as the U.S. point source runs.  The file input to the Hydrocarbon Preprocessor
contained 3,245 SCC level observations from 10 Canadian provinces; therefore,
execution times for Canadian modules are significantly shorter than the
corresponding U.S. runs.

     The Canadian data were processed  successfully through the HCPREP and
MDEM. SAM detected 73 observations outside of the NAPAP study area,
corresponding to points  in British Columbia with longitudes greater than
125° west.  In the 1980  NAPAP Emissions Inventory, these sources were dropped,
leading to differences in annual and modelers'  inventory emissions totals.  As
in the case of sources in southern Florida, it was decided to retain the 73
observations in the file, since their  locations were correct.  Column numbers
assigned to these emitters range from  0 to -33.

                                     9-12

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              TABLE 9-2.   FREDS PROCESSING - CANADA POINT SOURCES

                              Processing Summary
FREDS Input Output Comments
Hodule Records Records
HCPREP
MDEM
SAM
TAM
SM
MIP

3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245

3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245

THC/VOC Adjusted

Records with zero emissions deleted
Location data validated;
in BC west of grid system
Temporal pattern basis:
Canada season/day/hour
Canada day /hour code3:
Uniform (default):
Hydrocarbon & particulate
factors merged
73 records
code: 3,103
10
132
speciati on
SAS and ASCII formatted modelers
tapes generated

a _
    Sources contained invalid year codes; seasonal profiles
    defaulted to uniform.

                             Execution Statistics
FREDS
Module
HCPREP
MDEM
SAM
TAM
SM
MIP
Output
Records
3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245
3,245
Output
Variables
117
75
78
393
542
542
CPU Time
(min:sec)
0:04
0:02
0:01
0:11
0:11
0:24
Percent of
total CPU
7.5
3.8
1.9
20.8
20.8
45.3
EXCPS

1,334
770
519
1,758
5,021
4,131
                                     9-13

-------
     TAM, which was revised to accommodate the Canadian temporal coding, was
run on the SAM output file.  Approximately 130 sources contained temporal
codes of zero and were assigned uniform temporal distributions.  An additional
10 sources contained an invalid seasonal code, but daily and hourly codes for
these records were present and valid.  In these cases, seasonal patterns were
set as uniform, but daily and hourly distributions were derived from the
remaining valid codes in the record.

     SM and MIP were executed to complete the Canadian FREDS processing.
Quality Control Module results indicated no emissions gains or losses within
the 1 x 10   specified tolerance through the six processing modules.

U.S. Area Sources

     Point and area source processing are conducted independently, and while
FREDS performs the same basic functions on both, the specific procedures
differ considerably.  For point sources, allocation factors are appended to
emission records, while for area sources the emissions are multiplied by the
factors and the resolved totals are retained as output.  As a result, point
source files exhibit an increase in record size; area sources show a net
increase in the number of records while record size remains fairly constant.
The large increase in number of records during SAM and TAM makes it more
efficient to execute SM as the first of the area source allocation modules.
In addition, the area source TAM must be executed once for each temporal
scenario.  Because the TAM output files for the United States and Canadian
area sources are of identical format, they are combined in the MIP to reduce
the number of modelers' tapes.

     A summary of U.S. area source FREDS processing, illustrating the
progression of the data through the six processing vnodules, is presented.in
Table 9-3.  FREDS execution is significantly more complicated and
resource-intensive for area sources than for point sources; over 100 module
runs were required to process the U.S. area source files.

     The area source FREDS input file contains data for 97 area source
categories encompassing 3,073 counties in the contiguous United States,
yielding a data set of over 260,000 observations.  This file was processed
through  the HCPREP, which derived total hydrocarbon emissions from VOC and
augmented selected source types for missing aldehydes.  The resulting annual
NAPAP emissions file contained data for eight major pollutants (estimates of
HC1 and  HF are not available for area sources).  SCC level quality control
checks were performed to confirm that the augmentation proceeded correctly.

     Due to the large number of species classes required for the RADM model,
the area source file was divided into two segments as described earlier.  The
file split reduces the data processing burden posed by the large file and
allows runs to proceed independently for the different files.  MDEM was  used
to create these split files, referred to as the THC/NOX and TSP/S02 files,
respectively.  MDEM also removed over 120,000 area source  records containing
zero emissions from the  inventory.  The two MDEM output files differ  in  the
number of records, because different numbers of zero records were removed  from
each.
                                      9-14

-------
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9-15

-------
     The MDEM output files were processed through the SM.  Hydrocarbon and NOX
speciation factors from the PSPLIT output file were merged with the THC/NOX
emissions data, while the particulate species fractions from the Speciation
Factor File were merged with the TSP/S(>2 file.  As with previous modules, no
emissions discrepancies were noted in the SM output upon examination of the
QCM diagnostic reports.

     SAM apportioned the county level emissions estimates into over 15,000
grid cells resulting in an output file that is over ten times the size of the
input file.  The SAM output file contains one observation for each grid cell
that overlaps w.ith a county.  When only a small portion of a grid falls within
a county the record corresponding to that grid cell may have zero emissions.
To minimize file size and processing cost, an optional postprocessor was
executed on the SAM output files.  In addition to removing records with no
emissions, the postprocessor separated the mobile source categories (light,
medium and heavy duty gasoline vehicles, and heavy duty diesel vehicles) from
the THC/NOX and TSP/S02 files for independent processing.  The resulting files
are referred to as mobile (containing area source categories 27 through 39 and
40 through A3) and nonmobile (containing all other categories).

     The four spatially resolved area source SAM output files were each
processed 12 times through the Temporal Allocation Module (once for each
temporal scenario) to create a total of 48 temporally resolved files.  The TAM
aggregates the emissions data by grid cell by summing all of the SCC
contributions from each county overlapping the grid.  The result of TAM
execution is 24 hourly observations for each grid-level record for each of the
12 temporal scenarios.  QCM review of the TAM output files revealed emission
discrepancies above standard tolerance for all eight major pollutants, which
are attributable to an intermediate TAM processing step which writes emission
data to an EBCDIC file using four significant figures.  Upon subsequent
reconversion to SAS, rounding errors occurred beyond four significant  figures.
While these differences exceed QCM tolerance, they do not significantly affect
the modelers' tape emissions because the tapes are written using no more than
four significant figures.

     Finally, the 48 TAM output  files were processed through the Model Input
Preprocessor, where they were each combined with the respective Canadian TAM
output files to create SAS-formatted FREDS output as well as ASCII-formatted
modelers' tapes.

     Table 9-3 contains FREDS execution statistics for U.S. area source
modelers' tape processing.  Clearly, TAM and MIP execution represent  the most
intensive data processing demands; TAM alone accounts for over 60 percent  of
FREDS CPU time requirements.  Because of differences in  the level of
aggregation of the data after each FREDS module, the number of records do  not
sum to the total number of module  input records.

Canada Area Sources

     The Canadian area  source  input  file contained data  at the province  level
for 129 source categories, yielding  a data  set of  1,019  observations.  These
data were input  to the HCPREP.   Unlike U.S. data,  Canadian area  source
hydrocarbon estimates  were expressed as THC  (i.e., including methane).

                                     9-16

-------
Methane augmentation was therefore bypassed in HCPREP.  The resulting file was
processed through the MDEM to separate THC/NOX and TSP/S02 data.  While file
size is not a critical consideration for Canada, the file split was performed
to maintain uniformity with the U.S. area source file.

     Unlike U.S. area sources, in which TSP is disaggregated by both species
and size class, Canadian data contain estimates of alkaline species emissions
which need only to be broken down by size fraction.  A modified SM was used to
process MDEM output and create speciated totals consistent with the other
NAPAP data.  Area source spatial allocation was then performed using the
allocation files and spatial surrogates developed for this purpose.

     The gridding of province level data creates SAM output files which are
larger than the input files by a factor of over 400.  The SAM postprocessor
was run to remove grid level observations with no emissions, and separate
mobile sources (categories 21000 through 21400) from the remainder of the
files.  This resulted in four Canadian area source files, each of which was
processed 12 times through TAM to create 48 fully resolved files.   Some area
source emissions in the British Columbia that were west of the NAPAP domain
were retained with negative column numbers.  There were also a small number of
grids from Quebec that are above the 60°N NAPAP boundary.  These emissions
were dropped for consistency with the remaining inventory.

     The Canadian files were combined at the grid level with their U.S.
analogs in a series of 48 MIP runs.  The complete area source modeling
inventory output, spanning 48 files, contains in excess of 26 million
observations, a 100-fold increase over the FREDS input annual files.

     A summary of Canadian area source FREDS execution is shown in Table 9~4.
As with all anthropogenic FREDS runs, the Quality Control Module was used to
verify input and output emissions data.  A loss of precision beyond the fourth
significant figure was noted upon analysis of the TAM output file, as in the
U.S. area source file.  Again, no significant error is expected to occur in
the modelers' tapes as a result of this minor discrepancy.

U.S. Natural Sources

     U.S. natural source FREDS processing did not require any hydrocarbon
adjustments, and therefore, the first module executed was MDEM.  For U.S.
natural sources, 9,216 county level emissions records for three SCCs were
input to MDEM.  The MDEM output file contained 5,017 records; 4,199 records
contained zero emissions and were therefore dropped by MDEM.  The FREDS
processing statistics for U.S. natural sources are summarized in Table 9-5.
This table shows that spatial allocation causes an expansion of the emissions
file by more than an order of magnitude and temporal allocation further
increases the number of records by another order of magnitude.  Quality
control checks were performed on the output from each module to determine any
emissions discrepancies due to allocation processes.  These checks entailed
calculating sums and manually simulating checks performed by the QCM.
                                     9-17

-------
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-------
               TABLE 9-5.  FREDS PROCESSING - NATURAL SOURCES
Module

MDEM
SM
SAM
TAM

MDEM
SM
SAM
TAM
Number Output
of Runs Records
(per run)

1 5,017
1 5,017
1 68,437
12 485,784

1 104
1 88
1 44,294
12 117,480
Output CPU Time Approx.
Variables per run Pet of
(per run) (minrsec) Total CPU
U.S.
8 0:04 *
25 0:05 *
27 0:43 0.3
23 6:13 30.2
Canada
14 0:02 *
25 0:03 *
27 3:20 1.3
23 2:15 10.9 •
EXCPS
(per run)

454
1,136
3,264
64,435

425
865
17,497
21,975
M1P
12
        U.S. & Canada Combined

601,248        23         11:46
57.2
47,561
* - These runs combine to contribute approximately 0.12 of total CPU time
    for natural source FREDS execution.
                                     9-19

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Canadian Natural Sources

     Canadian natural source FREDS processing did not require the execution of
HCPREP.  One hundred and six province level emissions for nine SCCs were input
to MDEM; 104 records were output for subsequent processing (two records
contained zero emissions values).  In the SM, 16 additional records located in
the Yukon and Northwest territories were eliminated when no matches were found
in the Timezone File.  This represents an emissions loss of less than one
percent for all natural particulates.  These areas are not considered part of
the NAPAP domain and so the records for these two territories were not
processed by FREDS.  Spatial allocation increased the size of the natural
source emissions file by a factor of almost 400; temporal allocation further
increased the number of records threefold.  Processing statistics for Canadian
FREDS processing are summarized in Table 9-5.  Data for the MIP execution to
combine the U.S. and Canadian natural source data are also provided in this
table.

1985 NAPAP VERSION 2 INVENTORY MODELERS1 TAPES

     The final step of the FREDS MIP converts the completed modeling
inventories to standard ASCII format and writes the data onto magnetic tapes
for release to the user community.  The complete 1985 NAPAP Modelers'
Emissions Inventory Version 2 consists of 62 individual files spanning 87
physical tapes.  The U.S. and Canadian annual point, area and natural source
data sets contribute an additional 6 tapes to make a total of 93 tapes that
contain the entire annual and modelers' inventories.  As shown in Table 9-6,
the tapes,include U.S. anthropogenic point and area source emissions, Canadian
anthropogenic point and area source emissions, and U.S. and Canadian natural
source particulate emissions.  Data are 'normally produced on unlabeled, 9-
track, 6250 bpi tapes written in standard ASCII format.  However, SAS
formatted files are also produced as part of FREDS processing, 'and EBCDIC
formatted files can easily be produced.

File Formats and Contents

     A complete list of the emissions data products that make up the annual
data and modelers' tapes of the  1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory Version 2 is
presented in Table 9-7.  A key to the individual files that can be used to
identify products to be ordered  is also included in Table 9-7.  Table 9-7 also
includes the number of records associated with each of the files and file
emissions summaries for S02, NOX and TSP.  File format tables are also listed
in Tables 9-8 through 9-18.  The appropriate file format table for each file
is listed in Table 9-7.

Point  Sources—
     The point  source files for  the United States and Canada are similarly
organized and contain one record, for each SCC level point source observation.
The data records  contain general identifying information, stack  parameters,
and emissions of  the ten major annual pollutants, as well as a set of 288
hourly  temporal factors and 49 speciation  factors.  This is all the  data
required to derive gridded, hourly emissions values of the 59 pollutant
species and subspecies  for  any of  12 temporal scenarios.


                                     9-20

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                 TABLE 9-6.  MAPAP VERSION 2 MODELERS'  TAPES
Source Type
Point Sources, Annual U.S.
Point Sources, Annual Canada
Area Sources, Annual U.S.
Area Sources, Annual Canada
Natural Sources, Annual U.S.
Natural Sources, Annual Canada
Point Sources, Modelers' U.S.
Point Sources, Modelers' Canada
Number of
Data Files
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Number of
Physical Tapes
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
Area Sources, Modelers'
U.S./Canada Combined:

     THC/NOX, Mobile3                 12                    24
     THC/NOX, Non-mobile3             12                    24
     TSP/S02, Mobile3                 12                    12
     TSP/S02, Non-mobile3             12                    12

Natural Sources,
U.S./Canada Combined3               	12_                  	12

Totals                                68                    93
a - One file exists for each of the 12 NAPAP temporal scenarios
    (see Section 6).


    "THC/NOX" files contain NOX, VOC, THC, and N0x/hydrocarbon species;
    "TSP/S02" files contain S02, SO^, CO, NH3, TSP and particulate species.

    "Mobile" source files contain U.S. area source categories 27 through 39
     and 40 through 43, and Canadian area source categories 21000 through
     21400.  All other source categories are stored in the "nonmobile" files,
                                     9-21

-------






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9-25

-------
TABLE 9-8. U.S. POINT SOURCE ANNUAL INVENTORY FORMAT
Record
First3
1
3
7
10
14
18
20
21
33
73
127
129

133
135
140
146
154
163
165
167
169
171
173
174
176

181
185
189
193
197
204
213
217

221
275
283
290

position
Last*
2
6
9
13
17
19
20
32
72
126
128
132

134
139
145
153
162
164
166
168
170
172
173
175
180

184
188
192
196
203
212
216
220

274
282
289
297

Column
width
2
4
3
4
4
2
1
12
40
54
2
4

2
5.1
6.1
8.4
9.4
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
5

4.1
4
4.1
4
7
9.2
4
4

54
8
7
8.3

Format
Z
Z
Z
A
I
I
A
A
A
A
A
I

I
F
F
F
F
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

F
I
F
I
I
F
I
A

A
Z '
I
F

Variable
name
STATE
COUNTY
AQCR
PLANT ID
CITY
UTM_ZONE
OWNER
CONTACT
NAMEADD
NEDPLCOM
POINT_ID
SIC

IPP
UTMX
UTMY
LAT
LON
WINTHRU
SPRTHRU
SUMTHRU
FALTHRU
HOURS
DAYS
WEEKS
BOILCAP

SPHEAT
STACK HT
STACK_DI
STACK_TP
FLOW
VELOCITY
PLUMEJiT
PTSCOMST

NEDPTCOM
sec
THRUPUT
MAXRATE

Description
NEDS State Code
NEDS County Code
Air Quality Control Region
Plant ID Code
City Code
UTM Zone
Ownership Type for Plant
Plant Contact
Plant Name and Address
NEDS Plant Comment
Point ID Code
Standard Industrial
Classification Code
IPP Code
UTM Easting, km
UTM Northing, km
Latitude, Degrees
Longitude, Degrees
Winter Thruput, 2
Spring Thruput, %
Sutnmer Thruput, 2
Fall Thruput, 2
Hours/Day in Operation
Days/Week in Operation
Weeks/Year in Operation
Boiler Design Capacity,
MMBTU/hr
Space Heat, 2
Stack Height, feet
Stack Diameter, feet
Stack Temperature, F
Flow Rate, cubic feet/min
Stack Gas Velocity, ft/sec
Plume Height, feet
Range of Points with a
Common Stack, AAZZ
NEDS Point Comment
Source Classification Code
Operating Rate, SCC units/yr
Maximum Design Rate,
SCC units/hour
                 (continued)
                     9-26

-------
TABLE 9-8 (continued)
Record
First*
298
302
306
311
312
313
367
369
372
375
379
380
390
397
400
403
407
408
418
425
428
431
435
436 -
446
453
456
459
463
464
474
481
484
487
491
492
502
509
512
515
519
520
530
position
Last3
301
305
310
311
312
366
363
371
374
378
379
389
396
399
402
406
407
417
424
427
430
434
435
445
452
455
458
462
463
473
480
483
486
490
491
501
508
511
514
518
519
529
536
Column
width
4.2
4.1
5
1
1
54
2
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
3,
3
4.1 '
1
10.5
7
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
Format
F
F
I
I
A
A
I
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
I •
F
I
F
I
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
'I
F
I
F
I
Variable
nameb
SCON
ASHCON
HEATCON
CONFID
SCECODE
NEDSCCOM
NUMPOLL
S02PRI
S02SEC
S02EFF
S02MET
S02EMF
S02EMISS
NOXPRI
NOXSEC
NOXEFF
NOXMET
NOXEMF
NOXEMISS
VOCPRI
•VOCSEC '
VOCEFF
VOCMET
VOCEMF
VOCEMISS
TSPPRI
TSPSEC
TSPEFF
TSPMET
TSPEMF
TSPEMISS
COPRI
COSEC
COEFF
COMET
COEMF
COEMISS
S04PRI
S04SEC
S04EFF
S04MET
S04EMF
S04EMISS
Description
Sulfur Concent, I
Ash Content, I
Heat Content, MMBTU/SCC unit
Confidentiality Code
Source Code, B, S, P, 0
NEDS SCC Comment
Number of Pollutants
S02 Primary Control Eq. Code
S02 Second. Control Eq. Code
S02 Control Efficiency
SC>2 Emis. Estimation Method
S02 Emission 'Factor
S02 Emissions, tons/yr
NOX Primary Control Eq. Code
NOX Second. Control Eq . Code
NOX Control Efficiency
NOX Emis. Estimation Method
NOX Emission Factor
NOX Emissions, tons/yr
VOC Primary Control Eq . Code
VOC Second. Control Eq . Code
VOC Control Efficiency
VOC Emis. Estimation Method
VOC Emission Factor
VOC Emissions, tons/yr
TSP Primary Control Eq . Code
TSP Second. Control Eq . Code
TSP Control Efficiency
TSP Emis. Estimation Method
TSP Emission Factor
TSP Emissions, tons/yr
CO Primary Control Eq. Code
CO Second. Control Eq . Code
CO Control Efficiency
CO Emis. Estimation Method
CO Emission Factor
CO Emissions, tons/yr
SO/j Primary Control Eq. Code
SO^ Second. Control Eq. Code
SO^ Control Efficiency
S04 Emis. Estimation Method
SO^ Emission Factor
SO^ Emissions, tons/yr
      (continued)
          9-27

-------
                               TABLE 9-8 (continued)
Record
First3
537
540
543
547
548
558
565
568
571
575
576
586
593
596
599
603
604
614
621
624
627
631
632
642
649
651
653
655
657
659
661
668
669
670
position
Last*
539
542
546
547
557
564
567
570
574
575
585
592
595
598
602
603
613
620
623
626
630
631
641
648
650
652
654
656
658
660
667
668
669
689
Column
width
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
7
3
3
4.1
1
10.5
•7
2
2
2
2
2
2
7
1
1
20
Format
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
I
F
I
F
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
I
A
Variable
nameb
HCLPRI
HCLSEC
HCLEFF
HCLMET
HCLEMF
HCLEMISS
HFPRI
HFSEC
HFEFF
HFMET
HFEMF
HFEMISS
NH3PRI
NH3SEC
NH3EFF
NH3MET
NH3EMF
NH3EMISS
THCPRI
THCSEC
'. THCEFF
THCMET
THCEMF
THCEMISS
YRPLANT
YRPOINT
YRCONTR
YREMISS
YRPROD
YRREC
ORIG_HC
UPDNOX
UPDLOC
UPDOP
Description
HC1 Primary Control Eq. Code
HC1 Second. Control Eq. Code
HC1 Control Efficiency
HC1 Emis. Estimation Method
HC1 Emission Factor
HC1 Emissions, tons/yr
HF Primary Control Eq . Code
HF Second. Control Eq. Code
HF Control Efficiency
HF Emis. Estimation Method
HF Emission Factor
HF Emissions, tons/yr
NH-j Primary Control Eq. Code
NHj Second. Control Eq. Code
NH3 Control Efficiency
NH} Erais. Estimation Method
NH^ Emission Factor
NH-j Emissions, tons/yr
THC Primary Control Eq. Code
THC Second. Control Eq. Code
THC Control Efficiency
THC Emi.s. Estimation Method
THC Emission Factor
THC Emissions, tons/yr
Year Plant Info Last Updated
Year Point Info Last Updated
Year Control Info Updated
Year Emissions Info Updated
Year Production Info Updated
Year Regulatory Info Updated
Original NEDS Hydrocarbons
NOX Emission Factor Update Code
(not used)
(not used)
aApplies only Co ASCII or  EBCDIC formatted files,




 Applies only to SAS  formatted files.
                                   9-28

-------
TABLE 9-9. CANADIAN POINT SOURCE ANNUAL INVENTORY FORMAT
Record
First3
1
3
7
13

17
25
34
38
42
46
53
62
66
74
81
96
100
104
109
111

120
123
126
130
131
138
141
144
148
149
156
159
162
166
167
174
177
180
184
185
position
Last3
2
6
12
16

24
33
37
41
45
52
61
65
73
80
95
99
103
108
110
119

122
125
129
130
137
140
143
147
148
155
158
161
165
166
173
176
179
183
184
191
Column
width
2
4
6
4

8.4
9.4
4
4.1
4
7
9.2
4
8
7
15
4.2
4.1
5
2
9

3
3
4.1
1
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
Format
Z
A
A
I

F
F
I
F
I
I
F
I
Z
I
A
F
F
I
I
A

I
I
F
I
I
I
I
F
I
I
I
I
F
I
I
.1
I
F
I
I
Variable
name
STATE
PLANT_ID
POINT~ID
SIC

LAT
LON
STACK HT
STACK_DI
STACK TP
FLOW
VELOCITY
PLUME HT
sec
THRUPUT
THRUPUTU
SCON
ASHCON
HEATCON
NUMPOLL
YWD

S02PRI
S02SEC
S02EFF
S02MET
S02EMISS
NOXPRI
NOXSEC
NOXEFF
NOXMET
NOXEMISS
VOCPRI
VOCSEC
VOCEFF
VOCMET
VOCEMISS
TSPPRI
TSPSEC
TSPEFF
TSPMET
TSPEMISS
Description
NEDS Province Code
Plane ID Code
Point ID Code
Standard Industrial
Classification Code
Latitude, degrees
Longitude, degrees
Stack Height, feec
Stack. Diameter, feet
Stack Temperature, F
Flow Rate, cubic feet/min
Stack Gas Velocity, feet/sec
Plume Height, feet
Source Classification Code
Operating Race, SCC units/yr
Thruput units
Sulfur Content, %
Ash Content, "L
Heat Content, MMBTU/SCC unit
Number of Pollutancs
Canadian Temporal Profile
Code
30^ Primary Control Eq. Code
S02 Second. Control Eq. Code
S02 Control Efficiency
S02 Emiss. Estimation Method
S02 Emissions, tons/yr
NOX Primary Control Eq . Code
NOX Second. Control Eq. Code
NOX Control Efficiency
NOX Emiss. Estimation Method
NOX Emissions, tons/yr
VOC Primary Control Eq. Code
VOC Second. Control Eq. Code
VOC Control Efficiency
VOC Emiss. Estimation Method
VOC Emissions, tons/yr
TSP Primary Control Eq. Code
TSP Second. Control Eq. Code
TSP Control Efficiency
TSP Emiss. Estimation Method
TSP Emissions, tons/yr
                   (continued)
                       9-29

-------
                            TABLE 9-9  (continued)
Record
First3
192
195
198
202
203
210
213
216
220
221
228
231
234
238
239
246
249
252
256
257
264
267
270
274
275
282
285
288
292
293
300
position
Lasta
194
197
201
202
209
212
215
219
220
227
230
233
237
238
245
248
251
255
256
263
266
269
273
274.
281
284
287
291
292
299
306
Column
width
3
3
4.1
1
^
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
3
3
4.1
1
7
7
Format
I
I
F
I
I
• I
I
F
I
I
I
I
F
I
I
I
I
F
I
I
I
I
F
I
I
I
I
F
I
I
I
Variable
name
COPRI
COSEC
COEFF
COMET
COEMISS
S04PRI
S04SEC
S04EFF
S04MET
S04EMISS
HCLPRI
HCLSEC
HCLEFF
HCLMET
HCLEMISS
HFPRI
HFSEC
HFEFF
HFMET
HFEMISS
NH3PRI
NH3SEC
NH3EFF
NH3MET
NH3EMISS
THCPRI
THCSEC
THCEFF
THCMET
THCEMISS
ORIG_HC
Description
CO Primary Control Eq. Code
CO Second. Control Eq. Code
CO Control Efficiency
CO Emiss. Estimation Method
CO Emissions, tons/yr
304 Primary Control Eq. Code
304 Second. Control Eq. Code
304 Control Efficiency
304 Emiss. Estimation Method
304 Emissions, tons/yr
HCl Primary Control Eq. Code
HCl Second. Control Eq. Code
HCl Control Efficiency
HCl Emiss. Estimation Method
HCl Emissions, tons/yr
HF Primary Control Eq. Code
HF Second. Control Eq. Code
HF Control Efficiency
HF Emiss. Estimation Method
HF Emissions, tons/yr
NHj Primary Control Eq. Code
NH3 Second. Control Eq. Code
NHj Control Efficiency
NH^ Emiss. Estimation Method
NH^ Emissions, tons/yr
THC Primary Control Eq. Code
THC Second. Control Eq. Code
THC Control Efficiency
THC Emiss. Estimation Method
THC Emissions, tons/yr
Original Hydrocarbons
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC formatted files.




"Applies only to SAS formatted files.
                                     9-30

-------
            TABLE 9-10.  U.S. AREA SOURCE ANNUAL INVENTORY FORMAT
Record
First3
1
3
7
15
17
27
34
44
51
61
68
78
85
95
102
112
119
129
136
146
153
position
Lasta
2
6
14
16
26
33
43
50
60
67
77
84
94
101
111
118
128
135
145
152
159
Column
width
2
4
8
2
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7 ,
7
Format
Z
Z
Z
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
I
Variable
name
STATE
COUNTY
sec
NUMPOLL
S02EMF
S02EMISS
NOXEMF
NOXEMISS
VOCEMF
VOCEMISS
TSPEMF
TSPEMISS
COEMF
COEMISS
S04EMF
S04EMISS
NH3EMF
NH3EMISS
THCEMF
THCEMISS
ORIGJiC
Description
NEDS State Code
NEDS County Code
Source Classification Code
Number of Pollutants
862 Emission Factor
S02 Emissions, tons/yr
NOX Emission Factor
NOX Emissions, tons/yr
VOC Emission Factor
VOC Emissions, tons/yr
TSP Emission Factor
TSP Emissions-, tons/yr
CO Emission Factor
CO Emissions, tons/yr
SO^ Emission Factor
SO^ Emissions, tons/yr
NH^ Emission Factor
NH2 Emissions, tons/yr
THC Emission Factor
THC Emissions, tons/yr
Original Hydrocarbons
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC formatted files.




"Applies only to SAS formatted files.
                                     9-31

-------
           TABLE 9-11.  CANADIAN AREA SOURCE ANNUAL INVENTORY  FORMAT
Record
First3
1
3
11
13

22
32
39
49
56
66
73
83
90
100
107
117
124
134
141
151
158

168

175

185

192

202

209

219

226
position
Last*
2
10
12
21

31
38
48
55
65
72
82
89
99
106
116
123
133
140
150
157 .
167

174

184

191

201

208

218

225

232
Column
width
2
8
2
9

10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5
7
10.5

7

10.5

7

10.5

7

10.5

7

7
Format
Z
Z
I
A

F
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
r
F
i
F
I
F
'
I

F

I

F

I

F

I

I
Variable
name
STATE
sec
NUMPOLL
YWD

S02EMF
S02EMISS
NOXEMF
NOXEMISS
VOCEMF
VOCEMISS
TSPEMF
TSPEMISS
COEMF
COEMISS
S04EMF
S04EMISS
NH3EMF
NH3EMISS
THCEMF
THCEMISS
ARCAEMF

ARCAEMISS

ARMGEMF

ARMCEMISS

ARKEMF

ARKEMISS

ARNAEMF

ARNAEMISS

ORIC_HC
Description
NEDS Province Code
Source Classification Code
Number of Pollutants
Canadian Temporal Profile
Code
S02 Emission Factor
SC>2 Emissions, tons/yr
NOX Emission Factor
NOX Emissions, tons/yr
VOC Emission Factor
VOC Emissions, tons/yr
TSp Emission Factor
TSP Emissions, tons/yr
CO Emission Factor
CO Emissions, tons/yr
SO^ Emission Factor
SO^ Emissions, tons/yr
NH-j Emission Factor
NH^ Emissions, tons/yr
THC Emission Factor
THC Emissions, tons/yr
Reactive Calcium Emission
Factor
Reactive Calcium
Emissions, tons/yr
Reactive Magnesium Emission
Factor
Reactive Magnesium
Emissions, tons/yr
Reactive Potassium Emission
Factor
Reactive Potassium
Emissions, tons/yr
Reactive Sodium Emission
Factor
Reactive Sodium
Emissions, tons/yr
Original Hydrocarbons
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC formatted files.




bApplies only to SAS formatted files.
                                     9-32

-------
            TABLE  9-12.  U.S. NATURAL SOURCE ANNUAL INVENTORY FORMAT
Record
First3
1
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
81
91

101

111

121

131

position
Last3
8
18
28
38
48
58
68
78
88
98

108

118

128

138

Column
width
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

8

8

8

8

Format
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I

I

I

I

Variable
name
sec
STATE
COUNTY
NUMPOLL
SAROAD1
SAROAD2
SAROAD3
SAROAD4
SAROAD5
EMISS1

EMISS2

EMISS3

EMISS4

EMISS5

Description
Source Classification Code
NEDS State Code
NEDS County Code
Number of Pollutants
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #1
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #2
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #3
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #4
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #5
Emissions for Pollutant #1,
tons/yr
Emissions for Pollutant #2,
tons/yr -
Emissions for Pollutant #3,
tons/yr
Emissions for Pollutant #4,
tons/yr
Emissions for Pollutant #5,
tons/yr
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC formatted files.




 Applies only to SAS formatted files.
                                     9-33

-------
         TABLE 9-13.   CANADIAN  NATURAL  SOURCE ANNUAL INVENTORY FORMAT
Record
First*
1
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
81
91
101
111
121
131
position
Last*
8
18
28
38
48
58
68
78
88
98
108
118
128
140
Column
width
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
Format
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
Variable
nameb
sec
STATE
NUMPOLL
SAROAD1
SAROAD2
SAROAD3
SAROAD4
SAROAD5
EMI SSI
EMISS2
EMISS3
EMISS4
EMISS5
YWD
Description
Source Classification Code
NEDS Province Code
Number of Pollutants
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #1
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #2
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #3
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #4
SAROAD Code for Pollutant #5
Emissions for Pollutant #1
Emissions for Pollutant #2
Emissions for Pollutant #3
Emissions for Pollutant #4
Emissions for Pollutant #5
Can. Temporal Profile Code
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC formatted files.




bApplies only to SAS formatted files.
                                     9-34

-------
TABLE 9-14.  U.S. POINT SOURCE MODELING INVENTORY FORMAT
Record
First3
1
9
11
15
19
21
24
28
36
45
49
53
54
55

62
66
70
74
7.8
87
93

95

















positioi
Last3
8
10
14
18
20
23
27
35
44
48
52
53
54
61

65
69
73
77
86
92
94



















i
- Column
width
8
2
4
4
2
3
4
8
9
4
4
1
1
7

4
4
. 4
4
9
6
2

5
8
2


5

6

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
Format
I
I
I
A
A
I
I
F 8.5
F 9.5
I
I
I
I
F 7.0

F 4.0
F 4.1
F 4.0
F 4.0
F 9.2
F 6.4
I

I
F 8.1
I


F 5.3

F 6.4

F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
Variable
name
sec
STATE
COUNTY
PLANT ID
POINT ID
AQCR
SIC
LAT
LON
COL
ROW
ZONE
DAYLITE
FLOW

PLUME HT
STACK_DI
STACK HT
STACK TP
VELOCITY'
HCWOWT
NUMPOLL

SAROADl-15d
EMISS1-15
NUM_DAY


SEA1-126

DAY1-12

HFGMTlf
HFGMT2
HFGMT3
HFGMT4
HFGMT5
HFGMT6
HFGMT7
HFGMT8
HFGMT9
Description
SCC Code
AEROS State Code
AEROS County Code
Plant Identification Code
Point Identification Code
Air Quality Control Region
SIC Code
Fractional Latitude (degrees)
Fractional Longitude (degrees)
Grid Column
Grid Row
Time Zone Flag
.Daylight Savings Flagc
Exhaust Gas Flow Rate
(ft3/min)
Plume Height (ft)
Stack. Diameter (ft)
Stack Height (ft)
• Stack -Temperature (°F)
Stack Gas Velocity (ft/sec)
Aldehyde Weight Fraction
Number of Pollutants
(maximum=15)
Pollutant SAROAD Code
Pollutant Emissions (tons/yr)
Number of Temporal Factor Sets
in Record (12 for modelers'
inventory)
Seasonal Temporal Allocation
Factor
Daily Temporal Allocation
Factor
Temporal Factor for Hour 1
Temporal Factor for Hour 2
Temporal Factor for Hour 3
Temporal Factor for Hour 4
Temporal Factor for Hour 5
Temporal Factor for Hour 6
Temporal Factor for Hour 7
Temporal Factor for Hour 8
Temporal Factor for Hour 9
                           (continued)
                          9-35

-------
                            TABLE 9-14 (continued)
Record position

First*   Last*
Col
width
Format
Variable
 name6
          Description
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    3
                    5
                    11
                    4

                    1
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.4
        F 6.
        F 6.
   .4
   .4
        F 6.4
          I
          I
        E 11.4
        F 4.1

          I

          I
HFGMT10
HFGMT11
HFGMT12
HFGMT13
HFGMT14
HFGMT15
HFGMT16
HFGMT17
HFGMT18
HFGMT19
HFGMT20
HFGMT21
HFGMT22
HFGMT23
HFGMT24
NUMSP
CAT1-498

CLASS1-49

SF1-49
CONEFF1-15J

ESTMET1-15

SAFk
Temporal Factor for Hour 10
Temporal Factor for Hour 11
Temporal Factor for Hour 12
Temporal Factor for Hour 13
Temporal Factor for Hour 14
Temporal Factor for Hour 15
Temporal Factor for Hour 16
Temporal Factor for Hour 17
Temporal Factor for Hour 18
Temporal Factor for Hour 19
Temporal Factor for Hour 20
Temporal Factor for Hour 21
Temporal Factor for Hour 22
Temporal Factor for Hour 23
Temporal Factor for Hour 24
Number of Speciation Factors
Major Pollutant SAROAD of
  Species
SAROAD Code of Pollutant
  Species*1
Speciation Factor of Species1
Control Efficiency of Point
  Pollutant (Z)
Estimated Method Used for
  Point Pollutant
Spatial Allocation Fraction
  (=1 for point sources)
aApplies only  to ASCII  or  EBCDIC  formatted  files.

bApplies only  to SAS  formatted  files.

C0 -  Daylight  Savings Time is not adhered to  in  this area.
  1 -  Daylight  Savings Time is adhered  to  in this area.

dSAROAD and  EMISS  are repeated  NUMPOLL (up  to  15)  times, once  for each
  pollutant.
                                      9-36

-------
                                TABLE 9-14 (continued)


eSEA, DAY, and HFGMT1 to HFGMT24 are repeated 12 times in sequence, once for
 each temporal scenario.  The variable HFGMT ranges from HFGMT1 to HFGMT288,
 where HFGMT are hourly factors expressed in GMT.

fHFGMTl is defined as 0000-0100 GMT.

8CAT, CLASS, and SF are repeated once for each species (49 times for
 the 1985 NAPAP inventory).

 For TSP classes, the size range code occupies the first two columns;
 otherwise, the first two columns are blank.

1Speciation factors:
   SF1-32 - Hydrocarbon species classes (moles/kg)
   SF33-34 - NO and N02 (dimensionless weight fraction)
   SF35-49 - TSP species (dimensionless weight fraction)

JCONEFF and ESTMET will be repeated NUMPOLL (up to 15) times, once
 for each pollutant.

 These variables included in SAS formatted output tapes only.
                                     9-37

-------
TABLE 9-15.  CANADA POINT SOURCE MODELING INVENTORY FORMAT
Record

First"
1
9
11
15
19
23
31
40
44
48
49
50

51
61
65
69
73
82
88 .

90



















positioi

Last*
8
10
14
18
22
30
39
43
47
48
49
56

60
64
68
72
81
87
89





















i
- Column
width
8
2
4
4
4
8
9
4
4
1
1
7

4
4
4
4
9
6
2

5
8
2


5

6

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6



Format
I
I
A
A
I
F 8.5
F 9.5
I
I
I
I
F 7.0

F 4.0
F 4.1
_F 4.0
F 4.0
F 9.2
F 6.4
I

I -
F 8.1
I


F 5.3

F 6.4

F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4
F 6.4


Variable
nameb
sec
STATE
PLANT_ID
POINT ID
SIC
LAT
LON
COL
ROW
ZONE
DAYLITE
FLOW

PLUME_HT
STACK DI
STACK HT
STACK TP
VELOCITY
HCWOWT
NUMPOLL

SAROADl-15d
EMISS1-15
NUM_DAY


SEA1-126

DAY1-12

HFGMTlf
HFGMT2
HFGMT3
HFGMT4
HFGMT5
HFGMT6
HFGMT7
HFGMT8
HFGMT9
(continued
9-38

Description
SCC Code
Province Code
Plant Identification Code
Point Identification Code
SIC Code
Fractional Latitude (degrees)
Fractional Longitude (degrees)
Grid Column
Grid Row
Time Zone Flag
Daylight Savings Flag0
Exhaust Gas Flow Rate
(ft3/min)
Plume Height (ft)
Stack Diameter (ft)
Stack Height (ft)
Stack Temperature (°F)
Stack Gas Velocity (ft/sec)
Aldehyde Weight Fraction
Number of Pollutants
( max i mum= 15)
Pollutant SAROAD Code
Pollutant Emissions (tons/yr)
Number of Temporal Factor Sets
in Record (12 for modelers'
inventory)
Seasonal Temporal Allocation
Factor
Daily Temporal Allocation
Factor
Temporal Factor for Hour 1
Temporal Factor for Hour 2
Temporal Factor for Hour 3
Temporal Factor for Hour 4
Temporal Factor for Hour 5
Temporal Factor for Hour 6
Temporal Factor for Hour 7
Temporal Factor for Hour 8
Temporal Factor for Hour 9
)


-------
                            TABLE 9-15 (continued)
Record position
First*
Last*
Column
width   Format
Variable
 nameb
Description
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    6
                    3
                    5
                   11
                    4

                    1
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                F 6.4
                  I
                  I

                  I

                E 11.4
                F 4.1.

                  I

                  I
                 HFGMT10
                 HFGMT11
                 HFGMT12
                 HFGMT13
                 HFGMT14
                 HFGMT15
                 HFGMT16
                 HFGMT17
                 HFGMT18
                 HFGMT19
                 HFGMT20
                 HFGMT21
                 HFGMT22
                 HFGMT23
                 HFGMT24
                 NUMSP
                 CAT1-498

                 CLASS1-49

                 SF1-49
                 CONEFF1-15J

                 ESTMET1-15

                 SAFk
              Temporal Factor for Hour 10
              Temporal Factor for Hour 11
              Temporal Factor for Hour 12
              Temporal Factor for Hour 13
              Temporal Factor for Hour 14
              Temporal Factor for Hour 15
              Temporal Factor for Hour 16
              Temporal Factor for Hour 17
              Temporal Factor for Hour 18
              Temporal Factor for Hour 19
              Temporal Factor for Hour 20
              Temporal Factor for Hour 21
              Temporal Factor for Hour 22
              Temporal Factor for Hour 23
              Temporal Factor for Hour 24
              Number of Speciation Factors
              Major Pollutant SAROAD of
                Species
              SAROAD Code of Pollutant
                Speciesh
              Speciation Fac'tor of Species1
              Control Efficiency of Point
                Pollutant (Z)
              Estimated Method Used for
                Point Pollutant
              Spatial Allocation Fraction
                (=1 for point sources)
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC formatted files.

 Applies only to SAS formatted files.

C0 - Daylight Savings Time is not adhered to in this area.
 1 - Daylight Savings Time is adhered to in this area.

dSAROAD and EMISS are repeated NUMPOLL (up to 15) times, once for each
 pollutant.
                                     9-39

-------
                                TABLE 9-15 (continued)


eSEA, DAY, and HFGMT1 to HFGMT24 are repeated 12 times in sequence,  once for
 each temporal scenario.  The variable HFGMT ranges from HFGMT1 to HFGMT288,
 where HFGMT are hourly factors expressed in GMT.

fHFGMTl is defined as 0000-0100 GMT.

gCAT, CLASS, and SF are repeated once for each species (49 times for
 the 1985 NAPAP inventory).

"For TSP classes, the size range code occupies the first two columns;
 otherwise, the first two columns are blank.

1Speciation factors:
   SF1-32 - Hydrocarbon species classes (moles/kg)
   SF33-34 - NO and N02 (dimensionless weight fraction)
   SF35-49 - TSP species (dimensionless weight fraction)

JCONEFF and ESTMET will be repeated NUMPOLL (up to 15) times, once
 for each pollutant.

^These variables included in SAS formatted output tapes only.
                                      9-40

-------
TABLE 9-16.  AREA SOURCE MODELING INVENTORY FORMAT (THC/NOZ FILE)
Record position

First*
1
5
9
11
21
31
Al
51
61
71
81
91
101
111
121
131
141
151
161

171
181
191
201
211
221
231
241
251
261
271
281
291
301

311

321


Last*
4
8
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310

320

330

Column
width*
4
4
2
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10 .

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10

10


Format
I
I
I
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10.
E10

E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10

E10

E10

Variable
nameb
COL
ROW
GMT
TOT1
TOT2
TOT3
TOT4
TOTS
TOT6
TOT 7
TOTS
TOT9
TOT 10
TOT 11
TOT 12
TOT 13
TOT 14
TOT 15
TOT16 '

TOT 17
TOT 18
TOT 19
TOT20
TOT21
TOT22
TOT23
TOT24
TOT25
TOT26
TOT27
TOT28
TOT29
TOT30

TOT 31

TOT32


Description
Grid Column
Grid Row
Hour (Greenwich Mean Time)
NOX Emissions
VOC Emissions
THC Emissions
Methane Emissions
Ethane Emissions
Propane Emissions
Alkane (0.25-0.5 react) Emissions
Alkane (0.5-1.0 react) Emissions
Alkane (1.0-2.0 react) Emissions
Alkane (>2.0 react) Emissions
Alkane/Aromatic Mix Emissions
Ethene Emissions
Propene Emissions
Primary Alkene Emissions
Internal Alkene Emissions
Primary/Internal Mix Alkene
Emissions
Benzene/Halobenzene Emissions
Aromatic (<2.0 react) Emissions
Aromatic (>2.0 react) Emissions
Phenol/Cresols Emissions
Styrenes Emissions
Formaldehyde Emissions
Higher Aldehydes Emissions
Acetone Emissions
Higher Ketones Emissions
Organic Acids Emissions
Acetylene Emissions
Haloalkenes Emissions
Unreactive Hydrocarbon Emissions
Other Hydrocarbon (<0.25 react)
Emissions
Other Hydrocarbon (0.25-0.5
react) Emissions
Other Hydrocarbon (0.5-1.0
react) Emissions
(continued)




9-41


-------
                                TABLE 9-16 (continued)
Record position

First*
331

341
351
361
371

Last*
340

350
360
370
380
Column
width*
10

10
10
10
10

Format
E10

£10
E10
E10
E10
Variable
nameb
TOT33

TOT34
TOT35
TOT36
TOT37

Description
Other Hydrocarbon (>1.0 react)
Emissions
Unidentified Hydrocarbon Emissions
Unassigned Hydrocarbon Emissions
NO Emissions
N02 Emissions
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC formatted files.

^Applies only to SAS formatted files.

Note:
Emissions of hydrocarbon species classes (TOT4 through TOT35) are
expressed as gram moles per hour; all  other pollutants are
expressed as tons per hour.
                                      9-42

-------
        TABLE 9-17.  AREA SOURCE MODELING INVENTORY FORMAT (TSP/SO2 FILE)
Record position

First3   Lasta
Column
width8
        Variable
Format   n«"">')
Description
   1441     COL      Grid Column
   5        8       4        I     ROW      Grid Row
   9       10       2        I     GMT      Hour (Greenwich Mean Time)
  11       20      10      E10     TOT1     S02 Emissions0
  21       30      10      E10     TOT2     SOA Emissions
  31       40      10      E10     TOT3     TSP Emissions
  41       50      10      E10     TOT4     CO Emissions
  51       60      10      E10     TOTS     NH3 Emissions
  61       70      10      E10     TOT6     Calcium Emissions, 0-2.5  urn
  71       80      10      E10     TOT7     Calcium Emissions, 2.5-10 urn
  81       90      10      E10     TOT8     Calcium Emissions, Total
  91      100      10      E10     TOT9     Magnesium Emissions, 0-2.5 urn
 101      110      10      E10     TOT10    Magnesium Emissions, 2.5-10 urn
 111      120      10      E10     TOT11    Magnesium Emissions, Total
 121      130      10      E10     TOT12    Potassium Emissions, 0-2.5 urn
 131      140      10      E10     TOT13    Potassium Emissions, 2.5-10 urn
 141 .     150      10      £10     TOT14    Potassium Emissions, Total
 151      160      10      E10     TOT15    Sodium Emissions, 0-2.5 urn
 161      170      10      E10     TOT16    Sodium Emissions, 2.5-10 ^um
 171      180      10      E10     TOT17    Sodium Emissions, Total
 181      190      10      E10     TOT18    Total Particulate Emissions,
                                              0-2.5 urn
 191      200      10      E10     TOT19    Total Particulate Emissions,
                                              2.5-6 urn
 201      210      10      £10     TOT20    Total Particulate Emissions,
                                              6-10 urn
aApplies only to ASCII or EBCDIC  formatted files.

bApplies only to SAS formatted  files.

'-'Note:  Emissions of all pollutants in the TSP/S02 file are
       expressed as tons per hour.
                                     9-43

-------
                TABLE 9-18.  NATURAL SOURCE MODELING INVENTORY FORMAT
Record position
First*
1
5
9
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
81
91
101
111
121
131
141
151
161
171
181

191

201

Last3
4
8
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150 .
160
170
180
190

200

210

ituiuinii
width3
4
4
2
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10

10

Format
I
I
I
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
E10
' E10 '
E10
E10
E10

E10

E10

variant, e
name6
COL
ROW
GMT
TOT1
TOT2
TOT3
TOT4
TOTS
TOT6
TOT 7
TOTS
TOT9
TOT 10
TOT 11
TOT 12
TOT 13
TOT 14
TOT 15
TOT 16
TOT 17
TOT 18

TOT 19

TOT20

Description
Grid Column
Grid Row
Hour (Greenwich Mean Time)
TSP Emissions0
Reactive Calcium Emissions
Reactive Magnesium Emissions
Reactive Sodium Emissions
Reactive Potassium Emissions
Calcium Emissions, 0-2.5 urn
Calcium Emissions, 2.5-10 urn
Calcium Emissions, Total
Magnesium Emissions, 0-2.5 um
Magnesium Emissions, 2.5-10 um
Magnesium Emissions, Total
Potassium Emissions, 0-2.5 um
Potassium Emissions, 2.5-10 um
Potassium Emissions, Total
Sodium Emissions, 0-2.5 um
Sodium Emissions, 2.5-10 um
Sodium Emissions, Total
Total Particulate Emissions,
0-2.5 um
Total Particulate Emissions,
2.5-6 um
Total Particulate Emissions,
6-10 um
aApplies only  to ASCII or  EBCDIC  formatted files.

 Applies only  to SAS  formatted  files.

cNote:  Emissions  of  all pollutants  in  the natural source file are
       expressed as tons per hour.
                                      9-44

-------
     The information provided in the format tables can be used to read point
source modelers' tapes in SAS, EBCDIC, or ASCII format.  However, not all
information is applicable to all formats.  For example, the starting and
ending positions of data elements are essential for reading EBCDIC and ASCII
tapes, but are not needed to read SAS files, which are generally referenced by
variable name.

Area Sources—
     Due to the large volume of area source data generated during FREDS
processing, the annual inventory data are subdivided three times during the
resolution process: once by pollutant; once by source category; and finally by
temporal scenario as represented in Table 9-7.  U.S. and Canadian area source
data are then combined during MIP to reduce the number of independent output
files.  As a result, a complete set of area source data for a single temporal
scenario requires four data sets, and the entire area source modeling
inventory (12 scenarios) consists of A8 data sets.

     Each area source grid level record contains emissions values for a single
hour for the selected temporal scenario.  The THC/NOX file contains 37
pollutants; the TSP/S02 file contains 20 pollutants.  Since HC1 and HF
emissions are not reported in the area source inventory, the total number of
pollutants (57) is two fewer than in the point source modelers' tapes.

Natural Sources—
     The natural particulate source data is formatted similarly to the
anthropogenic area sources.  There is one file for each of the 12 temporal
scenarios, containing hourly emissions at the grid cell level.  Since TSP is
the only major pollutant, there is no file division by pollutant, nor is there
a "mobile/nonmobile" file split.  A total of 20 pollutant species and
subclasses are reported.

Point Source Resolution

     Point source modelers' tape format differs considerably from other source
types.  It is often convenient to express all emissions on a common basis,
which requires a method for creating gridded, hourly point source files.  An
example of a SAS program to perform such a transformation is illustrated in
Figure 9-2; however, similar programs can be developed in virtually any
scientific programming language.  The point source resolution program
speciates and temporally allocates data from the FREDS output file; spatial
allocation is unnecessary since all sources have already been assigned to
grids.

     Speciation is accomplished by multiplying the appropriate major pollutant
emissions with the speciation factors appended in the SM.  The speciation
factor array consists of the 32 hydrocarbon class factors (SF1 through SF32),
two NOX species factors (SF33 and SF34), and 15 particulate class factors
(SF35 through SF49).  These factors are multiplied by the THC, NOX, or TSP
annual emissions as appropriate to yield speciated annual emissions estimates.
Factors are expressed in moles/kilogram for hydrocarbon species, therefore, a
kilogram-to-ton conversion factor is also applied to generate speciated

                                     9-45

-------
--PROGRAM RESOLVE;
*;
OPTIONS MPRINT
*'- *
 »
***** THIS PROGRAM WILL PRODUCE GRIDDED, ALLOCATED EMISSIONS FOR
      NAPAP POINT SOURCE FILES SUITABLE FOR A MODELERS' TAPE;
*»
***** TO EXECUTE PROVIDE THE NUMBER OF THE TEMPORAL SCENARIO TO BE
      ALLOCATED(1-12) TO THE MACRO ZRSOLVE (LAST PROGRAM LINE);
*;
***** THE OUTPUT FILE CONTAINS THE GRID COLUMN AND ROW (COL,ROW),
      THE GMT HOUR (GMT) AND THE FULLY RESOLVED EMISSIONS (GPOLL1-
      GPOLL59) IN TONS/HOUR FOR ALL POLLUTANTS EXCEPT THE 32 THC
      SPECIES WHICH HAVE UNITS OF GM-MOLES/HOUR.;
*;
***** NOTE THAT THE OUTFILE CONTAINS 24 TIMES AS MANY RECORDS
      AS THE INFILE, ALTHOUGH THE RECORDS HAVE FEWER VARIABLES;
*;
ZMACRO RSOLVE(TAFNO);
v**- •
*• »
%*	 CALCULATE POSITION OF HOURLY TEMPORAL FRACTIONS TO BE APPLIED;
%*	 BASED ON SCENARIO NUMBER (TAFNO);
%*;
%LET A=%EVAL((&TAFNO-1)*24+1);
ZLET B=%EVAL(&A+23);
»*«• •
" 9
*	 OPEN DATASETS AND DEFINE SAS ARRAYS;
DATA OUTFILE.DATA(KEEP=COL  ROW  GMT GPOLL1-GPOLL59);
     'SET  INFILE.DATA;
     ARRAY  SAROAD(K)  SAROAD1-SAROAD15;
     ARRAY  EMISS(K)  EMISS1-EMISS15;
     ARRAY  SF  SF1-SF49;
     ARRAY  POLL(N)  POLL1-POLL59;
     ARRAY  GPOLL(N)  GPOLL1-GPOLL59;
     ARRAY  HFGMT(A)  HFGMT&A-HFGMT&B;
     ARRAY  GHOUR(A)  GHOUR1-GHOUR2A;
*;
*	  EXTRACT  POLLUTANTS  AND SPECIATE;
*;
     DO K=l TO NUMPOLL;
          SELECT  (SAROAD);
                WHEN (42401) POLL1=EMISS  /*  S02  */;
                WHEN (12403) POLL2=EMISS  /*  S04  */;
                WHEN (11101) DO;
                     POLL3=EMISS /* TSP */;
                     DO _I_=35 TO 49;
                        POLL=POLL3*SF /* ALKALINE DUST SPECIES  */;


                 Figure 9~2.  Sample Point Source Resolution Program.


                                      9-46

-------
                    END;
               END;
               WHEN (42101) POLL4=EMISS /* CO */;
               WHEN (42302) POLL5=EMISS /* HCL */;
               WHEN (42303) POLL6=EMISS /* HF */;
               WHEN (42603) DO;
                    POLL7=EMISS /* NOX */;
                    POLL43=POLL7*SF33 /* NO */;
                    POLL44=POLL7*SF34 /* N02 */;
               END;
               WHEN (42604) POLL8=EMISS /* NH3 */;
               WHEN (43104) POLL9=EMISS /* VOC */;
               WHEN (43101) DO;
                    POLL10=EMISS  /* TOT HC */;
                    DO _I =1 TO 32;
                       N=~I_-HO;
                       POLL=POLL10*SF*907.18474 /* SPECIES(GM-MOL PER YR)  */;
                    END;
               END;
               OTHERWISE;
          END;
     END;
 »
*	 ALLOCATE TEMPORALLY AND OUTPUT 1 OBSERVATION PER HOUR;
-'- •
 1
     DO A = 1 TO 24;
          CHOUR=HFGMT*SEA*TAFNO*DAY&TAFNO;
     END;
     DO A=l TO 24;                          .       .
          GMT=A;
          DO N=l TO 59;
               GPOLL=POLL*GHOUR;
          END;
          OUTPUT;
     END;
%MEND RSOLVE;
"' 5
*	 INVOKE THE MACRO;
*;
%RSOLVE(7);
                           Figure 9-2.  (continued)

                                     9-47

-------
emissions estimates in gram moles of species class.  NOX and particulate
factors are dimensionless mass fractions which, when multiplied by the major
pollutant, yield emission estimates in tons.

     Annual emissions are temporally allocated using the seasonal, daily and
hourly factors present in each point source record.  There are 12 seasonal, 12
daily, and 288 (12 sets of 24) hourly factors.  The example in Figure 9-2 will
produce hourly emissions for scenario 7 (a summer weekday).  The seventh set
of hourly factors is, therefore, selected from the array (HFGMT 145 through
168).  These 24 factors are each multiplied by the appropriate seasonal and
daily factors (SEA 7 and DAY 7) to produce the temporal profile for the source
(GHOUR 1 through GHOUR 24).  Each of the 59 annual pollutants is multiplied by
each value of GHOUR and written to the output file in turn, creating 24 hourly
output records for each input record.

Tape Totals

     Tables 9-19 and 9-20 contain emissions information for each of the 48
area source tape data sets, which can be used to verify that a given area
source modelers' tape is being read correctly.  The total emissions in tons in
each file are illustrated.  Emissions of NOX, VOC, THC, NO, and N02 are
provided for THC/NOX files; S02, TSP, NH3, total calcium, and PM (6-10 urn)
totals are given for TSP/S02 files.  To verify tape totals, the user should
sum the values for the indicated pollutants over all hours for all grid cells.
The resulting totals in tons should match the totals indicated in the tables.

     Table 9-21 contains tape totals for five representative pollutants from
each of the 12 natural source tapes; .these can be. used to verify th'e co'rrect
reading of natural source data using the procedure described above.  Since the
point source modelers' tape emissions are unresolved, totals for major
pollutants can be verified by comparison with annual totals provided in the
tables in Section 2, as well as in Appendix A, of this report.
                                      9-48

-------
TABLE 9-19. TAPE TOTALS FOR COMBINED U.S. AND CANADIAN
            AREA SOURCES, TUC/NOX FILES
MB/NM
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Scenario
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
'2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
TOT1
21,116.72
18,098.44
16,031.41
22,004.99
19,894.91
17,858.08
23,270.56
20,826.03
18,841.64
22,081.41
19,947.77
17,352.10
15,325.39
11,161.87
9,215.85
15,160.86
10,911.62
9,375.86
14,639.98
10,499.87
8,848.25
14,780.22
10,780.61
9,074.16
TOT2
22,962.69
18,948.13
16,370.47
24,175.76
21,399.24
18,875.39
25,694.80
22,455.67
20,114.34
24,052.72
21,289.85
17,978.86
44,175.52
31,208.41
27,669.35
42,529.63
29,959.60
26,660.70
40,497.86
27,909.25
23,965.86
41,492.02
29,497.71
25,508.65
TOT3
25,338.45
20,876.68
18,022.09
26,686.17
23,601.23
20,807.11
28,372.83
24,773.78
22,183.95
26,547.79
23,478.27
19,809.68
52,855.98
39,211.74
35,143.53
47,990.20
34,744.88
30,918.68
43,742.25
30,467.22
25,985.77
46,468.31
33,789.38
29,259.91
TOT36
20,060.89
17,193.51
15,229.83
20,904.73
18,900.15
16,965.17
22,107.04
19,784.72
17,899.54
20,977.33
18,950.39
16,484.48
14,521.61
10,571.34
9,009.81
14,298.82
10,273.69
8,817.00
13,829.35
9,920.88
8,354.26
13,967.10
10,174.85
8,556.06
TOT37
1,055.83
904.92
801.57
1,100.25
994.74
892.90
1,163.53
1,041.30
942.08
1,104.06
997.39
867.60
803.77
590.54
506.03
862.02
637.96
558.87
810.61
578.99
493.99
813.12
605.77
518.10
                         9-49

-------
TABLE 9-20.  TAPE TOTALS FOR COMBINED U.S. AMD CANADIAN
             AREA SOURCES, TSP/S02 FILES
MB/NM
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Non-Mobile
Scenario
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
o
4.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
TOT1
1,504.93
1,346.61
1,222.69
1,549.38
1,440.91
1,318.87
1,623.78
1,495.55
1,375.41
1,562.40
1,450.79
1,297.30
6,683.67
4,451.04
3,711.65
5,601.60
3,395.65
2,764.11
4,914.14
2,831.81
2,206.97
5,641.13
3,496.16
2,799.15
TOT3
10,956.34
9,170.76
7,732.71
11,535.71
10,352.92
8,918.14
12,287.22
10,812.07
9,512.48
11,515.50
10,325.79
8,458.54
13,541.75
11,710.85
11,150.00 -
13,069.34
' 10,471.60
9,897.82
9,716.51
5,600.76
5,012.11
10,722.49
8,464.55
7,869.83
TOTS
8.27
6.67
5.98
8.73
7.04
6.29
8.69
7.01
6.08
8.35
' 6.74
5.83
3,751.87
3,639.32 .
1,150.64
6,836.82
6,728.43
1,278.84
3,380.66
3,269.97
1,227.08
5,729.26
5,622.34
1,207.91
TOTS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
17.13
14.73
14.01
33.32
30.73
30.11
14.68
11.99
11.41
21.06
18.52
17.85
TOT20
537.58
448.42
376.75
566.50
507.50
436.01
603.98
530.38
465.69
565.41
506.08
413.00
560.98
342.74
293.52
672.99
431.22
380.84
676.91
377.93
327.11
644.73
396.11
344.06
                            9-50

-------
   TABLE  9-21.   TAPE TOTALS  FOR COMBINED U.S. AND CANADIAN NATURAL SOURCES
SCENARIO
Scenario 01
Scenario 02
Scenario 03
Scenario 04
Scenario 05
Scenario 06
Scenario 07
Scenario 08
Scenario 09
Scenario 10
Scenario 11
Scenario 12
TOTAL 01
(TSP)
184456.75
175308.63
164692.39
239446.03
229246.01
212705.96
265478.63
254006.33
238274.80
207294.64
197013.63
182379.48
TOTAL 06
(CAD
136,3825
134.2778
132.0196
161.6149
159.2244
155.9613
152.9899
150.3061
147.0712
141.2171
138.8246
135.8567
TOTAL 10
(MG2)
222.9759
222.0965
220.7315
275.0447
274.0504
271.3589
256.6016
255.4857
253.1667
225.4996
224.5034
222.2970
TOTAL 18
(PM1)
21347.96
18626.03
16105.13
24495.34
21460.54
18556.03
27470.74
24058.13
20850.16
23975.08
20916.68
18030.82
TOTAL 20
(PM3)
23773.85
22524.50
21296.63
29627.55
28234.82
26677.85
33591.71
32026.28
30391.26
25978.02
24575.23
23088.55
Total
2550303.27
1745.7461    2923.8119
255892.63
321786.26
NOTE:  1 Metric Ton = 1.10231707 Tons
                                     9-51

-------
                                  SECTION 9

                                 REFERENCES
1.  Modica, L.G., D.R. Dulleba, R.A. Walters, and J.E.  Langstaff.  "Flexible
    Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) Documentation for the 1985 NAPAP
    Emissions Inventory."  EPA Report No. EPA-600/9-89-047
    (NTIS PB89-198816).  May 1989.

2.  Lebowitz, L.G., and A.S. Ackerman.  "Flexible Regional Emissions Data
    System (FREDS) Documentation for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory."
    EPA-600/7-87-025a (NTIS PB88-129499).  U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  November 1987.

3.  Sellars, P.M., T.E. Fitzgerald, Jr., J.M. Lennon, L.J. Maiocco, N.M.
    Monzione,  and D.R. Neal, Jr.  "National Acid Precipitation Assessment
    Program Emission Inventory Allocation Factors."  EPA-600/7-85-035
    (NTIS PB86-10A247).  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
    Triangle Park, NC.  September 1985.

4.  Wagner, J.K., R.A. Walters, L.J. Maiocco, and D. R. Neal, Jr.
    "Development of the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory."  EPA-600/7-86-057a
    (NTIS PB88-132121), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
    Triangle Park, NC.  December 1986.
                                     9-52

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                                  APPENDIX A

                         DETAILED EMISSIONS SUMMARIES

     This appendix lists Che emissions totals for the 59 species that are
included in the 1985 NAPAP Modelers' Emissions Inventory Version 2.  The tables
list emissions totals at various levels of aggregation including State and
Provincial totals, U.S. EPA Regions and SCC levels for both United States and
Canadian point and area sources.  The headings of columns in each of these
tables refer to individual species as listed below:
S02
NO
CO
HC1
NH3
PM1
PM3
CA2
Kl
K3
MC2
NA1
NA3
VOC
HC1
HC2
HC4
HC6
HC8
HC10
HC12
HC1A
HC16
HC18
HC20
HC22
HC24
HC26
HC28
HC29
HC30
HC32
      NO,
      NO 2
      S04
      HF
      TSP
      PM2
      CA1
      CA3
      K2
      MG1
      MG3
      NA2
      THC
sulfur dioxide
nitric oxide
carbon monoxide
hydrogen chloride gas
ammonia
particulate 0.0 - 2.5 urn
particulate 6.0 - 10.0 urn
reactive calcium 2.5 - 10.0 urn
reactive potasium 0.0 - 2.5 urn
total reactive potasium
reactive magnesium 2.5 - 10.0 urn
reactive sodium 0.0 - 2.5 urn
total reactive sodium
nonmethane volatile organic compounds
hydrocarbon species class 1 - methane
species class 2 - ethane           HC3
alkanes - reactivity 0.25 - 0.50   HC5
alkanes - reactivity 1.0 - 2
alkane/aromatic mix
propene
alkenes (internal)
benzene, halobenzenes
aromatics reactivity > 2.0
styrenes
higher aldehydes
higher ketones
acetylene
unreactive hydrocarbons
other species - reactivity 0
other species - reactivity 0
other species - reactivity >
Unassigned hydrocarbons
0     HC7
      HC9
      HC11
      HC13
      HC15
      HC17
      HC19
      HC21
      HC23
      HC25
      HC27
25 - 0.50
5 - 1.00
1.00  HC31
total/oxides of nitrogen
nitrogen dioxide
primary particulate sulfate
hydrogen fluoride gas
total suspended particulate
particulate 2.5 - 6.0 urn
reactive calcium 0.0 - 2.5 urn
total reactive calcium
reactive potasium 2.5 ~ 10.0 urn
reactive magnesium 0.01 - 2.5 urn
total reactive magnesium
reactive sodium 2.5 - 10.0 urn
total hydrocarbon
species class 3 - propane
alkanes - reactivity 0.5 - 1.00
alkanes - reactivity > 2.0 *
ethene                        .
alkenes (primary)
alkenes (primary/internal mix)
aromatics reactivity < 2.0
phenols and cresols
formaldehyde
acetone
organic acids
haloalkenes
other species
- reactivity < 0.25
unidentified hydrocarbons
NOTE:  the symbol urn  represents micrometers diameter for particulate size
         fractions

       the term reactivity  refers to the reaction rate constant of the
         species with HO    in  units of 10  ppm   min
                                      A-l

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