Report on the Benefits to Watar Supply and Pollution
Abatement Resulting from Low Flow Augmentation for
the Jubilee, London Mills, St. Mary, Mackinaw Dells,
Kenney, Oakley and Taylorville Reservoirs.
            Prepared at the request of the
         District Engineer, Chicago District
                 Corps of Engineers
               Public Health Servics
             Bureau of State Services
  Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control
                     Region V
                 Chicago, Illinois
                  September 1959

Report on the Benefits to Water Supply and Pollution
Abatement Resulting from Low Flow Augmentation for
the Jubilee, London Mills, St. Mary, Mackinaw Dells,
Kenney, Oakley and Taylorville Reservoirs.
            Prepared at the request of the
         District Engineer, Chicago District
                 Corps of Engineers
               Public Health Servics
             Bureau of State Services
  Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control
                     Region V
                 Chicago, Illinois
                  September 1959


       In a study of this type, one is necessarily bound by the accep-

ted engineering and economic practices of the day.  As a result of

these practices and of- the assumptions imposed by Public Law 500, the

conclusions of this study will perhaps seem harsh and final	this is

not the intent.

       Placing a value on present water supply benefits is difficult

at best, and the prognostication of a value for these same benefits

in 50 or 100 years is inconceivable.  We should keep in mind that if

these dams are built they will stand and be useful for more than 50

years.  Yet, we are required to amortize an investment over a period

of 50 years and to return interest after 10 years.

       For purposes of Title III, analyses are made under the assump-

tion that water supply developments will be financed wholly by the

city.  If it becomes a State or Federal policy to aid in the construe*

tion of such developments, water from a Corps of Engineers' Reservoir

might become financially more attractive to the city.

       With the above thoughts in mind this report is submitted, and

although it is bound by accepted practices it is as liberal as possible

in hopes that it will at least approach conditions of the future.

                  TABLE OF CONTENTS
















       This report was initiated at the written request of the Dis-

trict Engineer, Corps of Engineers, Chicago, Illinois, in a letter

feted August 14, 1959-

       The Corps request relates to the "Memorandum of Agreement Be-

tvten the Department of the Army and the Department of Health, Edu-

cation, and Welfare to Provide Assistance in Implementing the Water

Supply Act of 1958 (Title ill, Public Law 500, 85th Congress)."

Pertinent portions of the memorandum are:


              a.  In carrying out any authorized survey, or
       review investigation, which may lead to construction
       of projects at which provisions for municipal or in-
       dustrial water supply may be feasible and justified,
       the Corps of Engineers will consult with the ?ublie
       Health Service to obtain the views and recommendations
       of that agency on present and prospective needs for
       such water supply and the desirability of meeting those
       needs from the project or projects under consideration.
       The Corps of Engineers will include in reports sub-
       mitted to Congress, plans for the development of
       water supplies for municipal and industrial purposes
       and the views and recommendations of the Public Health

              b.  The Public Health Service will prepare and
       submit a report to the Corps of Engineers setting
       forth its ^findings and recommendations on each in-
       dividual survey or review investigation involving
       improvements which may be useful and justified in
       developing water supplies.  Upon completion of
       such survey or review investigation but prior to
       its submission to the Congress, the Chief of Engineers
       will furnish a copy of his proposed report to the
       Surgeon General, Public Health Service, for his re-
       view and comments in accordance with established
       Federal interagency procedures."

       The authority to undertake this study stems from the Public

Health Service Act of : 921 as amended, Public Law 1*10, ?8th

Congress, and from the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Public

Lav 660, 84th Congress.

       Title III of the Rivers and Harbors and Flood Control Act

of 1958, Public Law 500, 85th Congress, stipulates that storage

nay be included in reservoir projects of the Corps of Engineers or

the Bureau of Reclamation for present or anticipated future munici-

pal or industrial water supplies provided that state and local in-

terest agree to pay all costs including interest.  Payment may be

delayed vithout incurrence of interest charges until initial use of

the supply but the interest free period can not exceed ten years,

and the total cost must be repaid within the life of the projects,

which cannot exceed fifty years.


       The Illinois River watershed extends southwesterly across the

northern half of Illinois from Chicago to the Mississippi River at

Grafton, 38.7 miles above St. Louis, Missouri, northerly to just west

of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and easterly to South Bend, Indiana.  About

kO percent of the State is drained by the Illinois River.

       This report covers seven multipurpose reservoirs on tributaries

entering the Illinois River between Peoria and a point a few miles

below Beardstown.  Three of the tributary watersheds, Kickapoo Creek,

Spoon River, and La Moine River, are north of the Illinois, and the

other two, Mackinaw and Sangamon Rivers, are south of it.

       Valleys of the three northern tributaries are characterized

by meandering streams bordered by long stretches of very flat land.

Beyond the flat flood plains, the valleys ascent steeply to the up-

lands .  The valleys of the southern tributaries are narrow with low,

poorly defined sides that often merge with the flat Bordering uplands.

Interstream upland areas range fma practically flat to gently un-

dulating plains with a relief of 50 to 75 feet a mile.    The bulk

of the area is uader cultivation devoted principally to grain-legume

crop rotation.

       Glaciation resulted in the complete burial of a well develop-

ed pre-glacial drainage system.  Bedrock is revealed occasionally

in valleys, often only on one^side, where a high area of the pre-

glacial bedrock topography is crossed.

       The area is primarily agrieultrual.  Principal manufacturing

centers are Decatur, Bloomington,, Lincoln, Taylorville and Macomb.

Other communities are centers of local trading in agricultural machinery

and farm products.  Mineral resources include coal, sand and gravel,

limestone, and some oil and gas.  Coal is produced in several areas

but mining activities are being curtailed.  As a result, most mining

towns are losing population.

       However, the population of the area appears to have stablized

with larger communities experiencing a population rise counterbalanced

by decrease in the smaller communities and in the rural areas.

       Throughout the northern third of the Illinois River Basin, and

along the main stem of the river, little use is made of streams for

municipal water supply.  Wells are the principal supply source.  In

other parts of the basin many municipalities, especially the larger

cities, use streams or impoundments.  Water supplies of Springfield,

Bloomington and Decatur are obtained from reservoirs on tributary

streams.  Storage reservoirs vary considerably in capacity, the larg-

est being Lakes Springfield and Decatur in the Sangamon River Basin

and Lake Bloomington in the Mackinaw River Basin.  Reservoirs of less-

er capacity supply several small communities.  Other small communities

rely upon wells sunk in glacial drift, or sand and gravel deposits in

stream beds.


        Prior to reducing this report to writing, a number of

preliminary steps were necessary.  The first step was to determine

those communities having a present or future municipal and industri-

al need which could reasonably be supplied from the proposed re-

servoirs.  A list of communities within a 25 mile radius of the dam

was prepared for each reservoir.  The lists vere reviewed by the

Illinois Department of Public Health and the Illinois State Water

Survey to pin-point municipalities having a possible present or

future water supply need.  Many municipalities were removed from

the list because existing water supplies were considered adequate

for present and future needs.  Others were eliminated due to their

proximity to the Illinois or Mississippi Rivers where adequate

water is readily available.  Still others were eliminated because

of access to adequate ground water.

        Data from various sources concerning the remaining munici-

palities were then collected and assembled.  The principal data

sources were records and publications of the State Department of

Public Health, the State Water Survey and reports of the Corps of

Engineers.  Other sources included Bureau of the Census publications

and consulting engineers reports.  Reports prepared by consulting

engineers proved extremely helpful, especially for evaluation of

alternate water supply projects.

        In estimating future populations to year 2010 it was assum-

ed that larger communities would continue growth in accordance with

their past trends.  For smaller communities, which generally have

been losing population, it was assumed that the population would

stabilize and remain at the present levels or increase only slightly.

        In calculating future demands it was assumed that each

community, whose estimated population will not reach 2,500 in the

year 2010, would use 100 gallons per capita per day.  Water use, in

communities with populations 2,500 or more, was assumed to be 150

gallons per capita per day.  Industrial water use was added to these


        The Corps' projects have a value equal to the cost of the

most economical equivalent alternate supply, minus the cost of a

water system utilizing the Corps' projects.  In determining costs

of alternate supplies, use was made of a number of sources.

        1.  "Reservoir Construction Cost in Illinois," Corps of

        2.  "Data Book for Civil Engineers - Speifications and
            Costs," Elwyn E. Seelye.

        3.  Engineering News Record Cost Index for June 1958 (759.2).

        h.  Engineering News Record Index projected to the year 2000.

        5-  Engineering News Record unit costs.

        6.  Consulting Engineers Reports.

        Construction costs were figured on the basis of June, 1958

cost values.  Legal, engineering, administrative and contingency

costs were estimated to comprise 25$ of the project cost.  Annual

costs were determined on an annuity basis using a project life of

50 years at an interest rate of k%.  Annual power, operation and

maintenance, and miscellaneous costs, where applicable, were added

to the annuity for totrl annual costs.

        A value for low flow augmentation for pollution abatement

was fixed as the cost of a sewage treatment plant which would render

an equal degree of purification.

        Evaporation rates were secured from State Water Survey

Bulletin Ho. ^3, "1952-1955 Illinois Drought with Special Reference

to Impounding Reservoir Design/' Department of Registration and

Education, State Water Survey Division.

        Runoff, well yields, and sedimentation rates were ohtained

from "Atlas of Illinois Resources-Section 1, Water Resources and

Climate," Department of Registration and Education, Division of

Industrial Planning and Development.

        Selection of alternate sites was accomplished by using

topographic maps, State Water Bulletin No. 31 (Preliminary Data on

Surface Water Resources), and consulting engineers reports.

        The ground water sources considered as alternate supplies

were assumed to require chlorination and possibly iron removal or

other minimum treatment to produce a safe potable water.  A higher

degree of treatment, including filtration, was considered necessary

for surface supplies.

                         SJT. MARY RESERVOIR

        The proposed Reservoir is located at mile 62.0 on the La

Moine River.  The dam would be located in Hancock County about a

mile from the McDonouth County Line, and would be a rolled earth

structure 8,900 feet in length and 83 feet in height with a 570 foot

concrete spillway at elevation 5^5.  Tainter gates on the spillway

would bring the maximum pool elevation to 570 feet.  Reservoir

capacity at the top of the gates would be 296,kOO acre-feet.  Of

this, 256,1+00 acre-feet would be allocated to flood control, 33,000

acre-feet to water supply and conservation, and 7*000 acre-feet to


        Agriculture is the chief area occupation.  Main agricultural

endeavors include fattening livestock and growing cash and live-

stock grain.  Industry is small and limited primarily to creamery

and poultry processing companies.  The area is expected to retain

its rural character with very little or no industrial expansion.

        The largest city within 25 miles of the reservoir is Macomb

vith a population of 10,592.  Carthage and Rushville are the second

and third largest cities with populations of 3,214 and 2,682, re-

spectively.  Remaining municipalities have populations of about one

thousand or less.  Macomb and Carthage have shown population, increas-

es since 1910, but the counties and most of the other municipalities

have experienced population decreases.

        Major water supply potentials are the Mississippi River,

La Moine River, the East Fork of the La Moine River, and several

large creeks.  Alternate supplies evaluated in this report are on

Baptist Creek, the East Fork of the La Moine River, and the Mississippi

flood plain.

       Except in the flood plain of the Mississippi River, groundwater

is not plentiful.  However, small cities of less than one thousand

population can meet their water supply needs from groundwater sources.

       Since no large municipalities discharge sewage below the re-

servoir, water storage for low flow augmentation would not be needed

for pollution abatement.

       On the basis of consultation with the Illinois Department of

Public Health and the Illinois State Water Survey, and an analysis

Of their records, only Carthage, Macomb, Blandinsville and La Harpe

evidence water supply needs.


       The city obtains water from two wells capable of producing 200

    I/            2/
gpm,~/ or 0.29 mgd,_/ and a reservoir.  At the present time water is

drawn from the lake only two hours a day except Sunday when it is used

all day to provide soft water for Monday's wash.

       The existing reservoir had a capacity of 130 mg3/ in 1937/ hut

sedimentation reduced this to 110 mg by 195^-  It is estimated that

its capacity will be reduced to 8k mg by 1994 and 74 mg by the year


       Water use in the city increased from 21 gpcdVin 1920 to 70

gpcd in 1952.  This includes water used by a creamery and two poultry
       I/  gpm—gallons per minute
           mgd—million gallons per day
           mg° ^million gallons
           gpcd—-gallons per capita per day

processing plants.  An estimated 150 gpcd will be needed in 2010 to

supply increased industrial and municipal use.

       It is estimated that the population of the city will reach

7,500 in the year 2010.  This population, using 150 gpcd, will need

1.13 mgd.  The existing reservoir will not supply this amount for an

eight month drought such as occured in 1953-195^•

       The city engineer has determined that the existing reservoir

can be enlarged to provide 2^k mg in 199^- by raising the dam 10 feet

at a cost of $26^,000.  Assuming the same sedimentation rate as in the

past, the reservoir capacity will be 2jk mg in 2010, which would sup- .

ply the estimated water needs of the city for an 8 month drought


       Alternate water supply sources are the Mississippi River or

the City of Hamilton on. the Mississippi River.  The city engineer

estimated the cost of developing either of these sources for 0.5 mgd

to be about $1»O8,000.  This cost includes intake, pumping and trans-

portation facilities.  Facilities for 1.13 mgd would cost $720,000.

       Inasmuch as Carthage is located midway between St. Mary Reser-

voir and the Mississippi River, a water transportation system from

either of these sources would cost about $720,000.  However, if

Carthage used the St. Mary Reservoir, its proportionate cost of the

reservoir would be added to this transportation cost.

       Raising the existing dam 10 feet would supply adequate water

for the city and would be the most economical water supply develop-

ment.  It is believed that Carthage will not be a potential water

user of the St. Mary Reservoir daring the next 50 years.


       The city is located on the East Fork of the La Moine River,

about Ik miles northeast of the St. Mary Reservoir site.  Western

Illinois State College, pottery and porcelain companies, and two sheet

metal products companies are situated in Macomb.

       Macomb has had a fairly uniform population growth which is ex-

pected to climb from the present 10 ,,592 to 17,000 in the year 2010.

Water use increased from kO gpcd in 19^0 to 60 gpcd in 1955 including

industrial use.  The city's present use is 0.7 mgd.  The total expect-

ed water use in 2010 is 150 gpcd which will amount to 2.55 mgd.

       Macomb obtains water from a 150 mg reservoir on Spring Creek

and a 2.5 ing channel dam reservoir on the East Fork of the La Moine

River.  The city's Spring Greek reservoir will be filled with sedi-

ment by 1980 and the channel dam reservoir is not a reliable source.

The city would require 615 mg during an 8 month drought period in the

year 2010.


       Blandinsville is located on Baptist Creek, about 11 miles north

of the St. Mary Reservoir.  The population decreased from 1,150 in

1910 to 920 in 1914-0 at which point it leveled off and remained constant

till 1950.  The city is expected to reach 1,000 in 50 years.  Water use

is also expected to increase from a present 40 gpcd to 100 gpcd in the

year 2010, when the total water use will be 0.10 mgd.

       The city now takes O.OU mgd from a 26.8 mg reservoir and a

channel dam reservoir on Little Creek, but these supplies are not

adequate for future needs.

       La Harpe

       The city is located on the South Branch of Crooked Creek, about

13 miles north of the St. Mary Reservoir.  La Harpe'» population de-

creased from 1,3^9 in 1910 to 1,295 in 1950.  Assuming that the popu-

lation will stabilize after adequate vater becomes available, the pro-

jected population for the year 2010 is 1,300.

       La Harpe pumps water from the South Branch of Crooked Creek to

its raw water reservoir.  Present water use is 65,000 gpd of which

15,000 gpd is used by a creamery.  Water use is estimated at 0.13 mgd

for the year 2010.

                         Alternate Sources

       To utilize the St. Mary Reservoir, Macomb, Blandinsville and

La Harpe would have to construct transportation facilities.

       Macomb could construct a 16" pipe line from the St. Mary

Beservoir to the city for an annual cost of $131,000.  This includes

pumping costs but no. reservoir costs.

       Blandinsville and La Harpe could construct a common pipe line

to the St. Mary Reservoir.  This project would cost La Harpe $36,^00

per year and Blandinsville $13,500 per year.

       Alternate 1

       Macomb, Blandinsville and La Harpe could construct a common

reservoir on Baptist Creek near Blandinsville.  This reservoir must

have a capacity of 2,5^5 acre-feet to compensate for sedimentation

and evaporation.  Sueh a reservoir could be built for a total cost of

$2,5^5>000.  Based on the proportionate amount of water used by each


city, Macomb's share of the reservoir cost would be $2,336,000.  Bland-

insville and La Harpe would pay $92,000 and $117,000, respectively,

for their share of the reservoir.

       For use of this reservoir Maeomb would have to lay a 16" pipe

line 8 miles long.  Macomb's total annual cost of this alternate, in-

cluding reservoir, pipe lifoe, and pumpage, would be $178,000.

       Blandinsville would have to transport water about one mile

from this reservoir.  The total annual cost of reservoir, pipe line,

and pumpage, would be $7,^*00 for Blandinsville.

       La Harpe must lay 6 1/2 miles of 6" pipe in order to utilize

this reservoir.  The total annual project cost for La Harpe would be

$22,500, including reservoir pipe line and pumpage.

       Alternate 2

       Macomb could construct a reservoir on the East Fork of the

La Moine River ten miles below the city for a cost of $2,400,000.

Ten miles of 16" pipe from this reservoir to the city would cost

$1,110,000.  The total annual cost for this alternate would be

$209,000 including reservoir, pipe line and pumpage.

       Alternate 3

       La Harpe could lay a pipe line 10 miles northwest to wells

drilled in the Mississippi River flood plain and obtain abundant

water at an annual cost of $25,000.  This water would only need


                        ST. MARY RESERVOIR
1.  Macomb can secure 2.55 mgd from a reservoir on Baptist Creek for

    an annual cost of $1?8>OOQ or from a reservoir on the East Fork

    of the La Moine River for an annual cost of $209,000,  The annual

    cost of transporting water from the St. Mary Reservoir would be

    $131,000.  Water from the Corps of Engineers' project at St.

    Mary has an annual value of $46,900 for Macomb.

2.  Blandinsville can secure 0.10 mgd from a reservoir on Baptist

    Creek for an annual cost of $7,400.  The annual cost of trans-

    porting water from the St. Mary Reservoir would be $13,500.

    Water storage in the Corps of Engineers' project at St. Mary

    has no economic value for Blandinsville .

3»  La Harpe can secure 0.13 mg^ from a reservoir on Baptist Creek

    for an annual cost of $22,500.  The annual cost of transporting

    water from St. Mary Reservoir wculd be $36,400.  Water storage

    in the Corps of Engineers' project at St. Mary has no economic

    value for La Harpe.

k.  Carthage can raise its existing dam and develop an adequate

    water supply for less than 60 percent of the cost of a trans-

    mission line to the St. Mary Reservoir.

5«  Water storage in the St. Mary Reservoir for low flow augmentation

    would have no value for pollution abatement.


                          dAKLEY RESERVOIR

       The proposed  Oakley Dam is  located on the  Sangamon River,

approximately five miles  north of  Dscatur,  and would be 3,500 feet

long and  55 feet high.  The total  volume  of the reservoir,  as pre-

sently proposed for  all purposes,  would be 1^8,000 acre-feet with

11,000 acre-feet allocated for water  s^ply ar.d k^OO acre-feet for

sediment.  The lake  formed by  tha  '"t:"'r.',seri'e;bio:i-sed±aent pool would

be 2,^00  acres, with an average depth of  approximately 5 feet ex-

cluding the sediment pool.  I>rring a  ssvea month  maximum demand peri-

od and a  simultaneous 100 year drought^ tte yield of the Oakley Re-

servoir would be 12o2 mgd for  water supply purposes.   This  yield  is

based on  the ass'umption that Lake  Dseatur will centime to  "be credit-

ed with all runoff from the watershed.

       Areas around  Oakley are rich farm  land, prodrying abundant

soybean,  corn and wheat crops  as well as  ether crops  in smaller

quantities.  Except  for Dsoat'or. ^..Jtnmnait.ies witJnir. "":e area are

predominately rural  in chararfcar.  i71'.,® largest municipalities within

25 miles  of the dam  and their  respective  populations  ares   Decatur

(66,269), Monticello (2,612),  Bement  (1,^59),  Lovington (1,152),

Maroa (1,100), and Cerro  Gordo (1,052).   There appear to be no out-

standing  features in the  smaller towns indicative of  future indus-

trial growth.  Some  small population  growth may occur as a  result

of industrial workers from  Decatur settling in suburban towns,  but

such increase is expected to be negligible.  In general,  it may be

said that no significant  increase  in  water use is probable  within

this area, again, excepting Decatur and its  urban area,  and future


demands can be met from existing sources.


       Decatur is located on both sides of the Sangamon River,

approximately 5 miles southwest of the proposed Oakley Dam site.  It

is the only industrial center in the Oakley Project area.  Until

World War II, the major manufacturing activity centered around the

processing of agricultural products supplied from the surrounding

counties.  There were also railroad shops and metal products firms,

two of which, Wagner Malleable Iron and Mueller Company, are leaders

in their respective fields.  During and after the War period, several

large manufacturers of metal products moved into the City, employing

approximately 11,000, or about 25$ of the present labor force.  The

largest new industry in this field is the Caterpillar Tractor Company

with 3,200 employees.

       Decatur has had a continual growth since i860.  The population

increased from 3,839 in that year to an estimated "7,,000 in 1957.

This increase occurred in two ways:  (l) new people moving into the

city proper and (2) annexation of areas into the city limits.  It is

expected that annexation will continue until the city approximates the

present urban area.  It is anticipated that water needs will be

supplied through Decatur's present system and forecasts are made in

this light.  The 1957 population of this urban area, which includes

all of Decatur Township and parts of adjacent townships, was 86,400.

       The growth potential of the Decatur urban area is high.  It is

located approximately midway between Chicago and St. Louis.  It is

the trading center for an agricultural area of approximately 7>000


square miles, which provides a large market for manufacturing, commer-

cial and service establishments.  The larger industries,, such as

Caterpillar Tractor, A. E. Staley, Berg-Warner^, Pittsburgh Plate

Glass, General Electric, Mueller, Wagner and Decatur Pump, serve

national and international markets.

       Transportation facilities are very good.  Decatur is served "by

five railroads - the Wabash, Illinois Central, Baltimore and Ohio,

Pennsylvania and Illinois Terminal.  The Wabash and Illinois Central

Railroads maintain yards and shops in Dseatur.  Two Federal and four

State highways intersect in Decatur providing excellent highway

connections.  Improvements are currently underway or planned for

several of these highways which will further enhance fxeir value.

Ozark Airlines operate 12 flights daily -lonnectiug Denatiir vith

Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, Indianapolis and several other large


       Raw materials, for industry processing agricultural products,

are available in the immediate area.  Decatur is the center of the

soybean industry in the United Statas.  Corn and soybean products

account for some 35$ of earnings from manufactured goods sold outside

the immediate area.  The A. E. Staley Co., largest of this industrial

group, employs some 3fOOQ people.

       Raw materials for the metals industry, which are primarily

fabrication plants, are available from the large steel mills in the

Chicago area.

       Electric power is supplied by the Illinois Power Company which

also distributes natural gas from the Pandhandle Eastern Pips Line

Co.  Coal and oil deposits are located throughout several nearby



       The labor supply for the  Dscatur area  Is  drawn from a radius

of about 30 miles.  There is a tight labor market  in  Decatur itself>

latest unemployment figures indicate less than 2^000  unemployed out

of a total labor force of H8,OQO people.  However,  south  of Deeatur

mechanization and abandonment of coal mines has  resulted  in consider-

able unemployment.  Decatur's industries have absorbed many of  thest

workers and others will;, in all  liVali^ocr1,.; avigmett Iteeatitr's man-

power in the future.  Additional la^nr vl"..l i^douVially le attracted

from other areas,, either commuting cr moving  itito  the city.

       In addition to the direct factors affecting t&e influx of in-

dustry, such as transportation,  la"hor? markets^  fuel  and  power,  there

are many other factors.  For example^ DscjaiKT is the  borne of Milliken

University which has facilities  for about 1/JOO  fuZl-tias sclents,

and offers adult education programs.  The p'abllc school system  is re-

ported to be good,  Aboxit 11 percent of the city's  total  araa is de-

voted to parks and recreational  areas, ia addition to the recreation-

al development at Lake Decatur.  The city has a  ftill-tiaie planning

commission and an effective zoning program 'jral.x'i is providing for a

city of 200,000 people.  Public  projects are  being developed at a

rate twice that of the U. S. average.

       The firms, now located in Decatur, do  not anticipate  large

expansions in the forseeable future, with the exception of Spencer

Kellogg which is planning a new  oil refinery.  Hormal expansion at

a rate approximating that in the past is predicted for these firms.

Development of new industry is anticipated, generally in  the construc-

tion and automotive fields.  Commercial and service establishments

are expected to increase in proportion to population  growth.


       The  Deeatur area  is expected to maintain approximately the

same population growth rate as previously experienced.  Population to

be  served  with water in the year 2010 is estimated at 130,000 people.

       Total water usage from city mains in 1957 was 10 mgd for the

average day, with approximately 35 industrial and other large users

accounting  for ^.5 mgd.  Maximum daily use has reached 19 mgd.  The

average domestic and commercial use is 75 gps-.

                              TABLE I

Average Daily Water Use  by Major Water Users in Deeatur, Illinois.

Consumer                               Available Consumption  (mgd)

Archer-Daniels-Midland^/                          1.00
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad                        .01
Borg-Warner                                       .50
Citizen's Building                                 .03
Chambers-Bering-Quinlan  Co.                        .09
Caterpillar Co.                                   1.00
Checkerboard Soybean Co.                           .08
Deeatur Milling                                    .05
Decatur High Schools                               .03
Deeatur and Macon County Hospital                  .02
Empress Theatre                                    .'ig
General Electric                                   ..".2
Grigoleit Co.                                      .13
Houdaille Hersey, Decatur Division                i.02
Illinois Central Eailroad                          .05
Illinois Power Co.                                 .09
Lincoln Theatre                                    .03
Meadow Gold Dairy                                  .11
Mueller Co.                                        .22
Milliken University                                .Olj-
Normans laundry                                    .06
Orlando Hotel                                      .03
Schudel Laundry                                    .0*4-
Soft Water Service                                 .03
Spencer Kellogg                                    .26
Signal Depot                                       .12
Staley Co.i/                                       .69
Staley Co.=/                                      4.00
Standard Office Building                           .01
St. Mary's Hospital                                .01
St. Nicolas Hotel                                  .03


Sunshine Dairy
Wagner Malleable Iron
Wabash Railroad
Wabash Industrial Tract

Available Consumption (mgd)

       In addition to those using the city system, there are several

self or partially self-supplied users.  These are the Staley Co. and

Archer-Daniels-Midland Co. who take water from Lake Decatur, and sever-

al small ice companies and dairies who are supplied from individual


       The two companies supplied from Lake Decatur use and average

of 15 mgd.  About 11 mgd is cooling water which is returned to the

Lake.  The remaining self-supplied users have wells producing from 30

to 125 gpm.  The quality of the ground supply varies, but in general

has a high iron content and is hard.  However, the users of well sup-

plies do not contemplate switching their source of supply nor do they

contemplate extensive expansion.  Their existing supplies are adequate

for present and future needs.

       Per capita use is anticipated to reach 150 gpd in the year 2010,

for domestic and commercial use, due to an expected increase in the

number of water consuming devices both in the home and in commercial

establishments.  The total domestic and commercial use in 2010 is  .
I/  Self-supplied from Lake Decatur.
"2J  Portion of Staley Co. usage supplied by City.
    Total minus self-supplied industries does not equal
    figure of ^.5 mgd since consumption data are from
    different years.


estimated at 20 mgd.

       Industrial -water use is expected to increase at a rate similar

to that experienced in the past with increased use by existing and

new industry} tempered by conservation practices, and decreased use

by the railroads.  Futiire industrial demands for the year 2010 are

estimated at 18 mgd including an estimated 7-0 mgd for Staley and

Archer-Daniels-Midland over and abcvs cooling water requirements.

       Total municipal and industrial water use for the Dsctatur area

in 2010 is estimated at 38 mgd average.

       The principle source of the present water supply is Lake

Decatur, constructed in 1922 on the Sangamoc, River Just south of

Decatur.  In 1952;, the Advisory Committee .for Preservation of Lake

Decatur and for Additional Water Supplies reported that "siltation

and increased uses hare created a serious and immediate threat to

the water supply."  This "forecast" was realized during the severe

drought of 1953-5^ wfaeKj due to a reduction in capacity from silta-

tion and greatly increased water demandsP the inadequacy o? Lake

Decatur was shown.  The Committee proposed a plan of long range

development of water sources which included the Oakley site - either

in conjunction with the Corps of Engineers or by the city itself.

       After the drought experience, two stopgap measures were un-

dertaken to provide water until new sources could be developed.

Bascule gates were installed in 1955 on the original Lake Decatur

Dam to provide approximately 16,000 acre-feet of additional storage,

and two wells, with a capacity of 5 mgd, were developed in the un-

derground Mahomet Valley, 12-11* miles north of the city.  Water from


these wells is pumped  into  Sangasicn  River  and flows  into Lake Decatur.

       The quality of  the present  supply is  good.  There is  little

pollution, and, although the  reservoir was relatively shallow until

the gate installation,  few  algae problems  have been  encountered.

Treatment consists of  softening, sedimentation,  filtration,recarbona-

tion and chlorination.  The treatment plant  capacity was recently in-

creased frcsn j-h to 26  mg.'l.

       The critical drought period, for Dgee^vor,  as determined by  the

city's consulting engineer, based  on the 100 year mlo-lamai runoff  and

the maximum demand, is approximately seven months.   The  net  storage

necessary to carry over this  period  at present rates of  \ise  is approxi-

mately 4.5 billion gallons.   The net yield of the pre*aa.t Lake Dacatur

is about 5 A billion gallons  including seven months  runoff.   With

siltation progressing  at a  rats of about 1.2$ psr year,  and  increasing

use, the present source is  estimated to  be adec^uate  until 19^5-

       Ground water is located in  scattered  lenses thrc-
                             TABLE II

                     Alternate Water Supplies

                         Yield I/     Estimated Year    Initial Cost 2/
                         , (mgd).       of Inadequacy       (mil. $)

Alternate 1;
Present Lake Decatur        19. k            1965
Oakley by Corps of Engineers
  as presently proposed     £2.2
Big Creek (Stage 1) 3/      17-1      after 2010            $ U.8
Alternate 2;
Present Lake Decatur        19.3            1965
Oakley by Corps of Engineers
  with Increased capacity   25.2      after 2010
Alternate 3 A
Present Lake Decatur        17-8            1965
Oakley by City (Stage 1) J/ 17.7            1980            $ ,7.8
Oakley by City (Stage 2) 5/                 200Q               .7
Friends Creek               13.1      after 20.10              2.7
                            W%                            $11.2

Alternate h:
Present Lake Decatur        18.9            1965
Oakley by City (Stage l) k/  1.8            1980            $ 7.8
Big Creek (Stage l) 3/      0, -            2000              5-3
Big Creek (Stage 2) 3/      **•**'      after 2010             _ ._2
                            WI¥                            $13.3

Alternate ^;
Present Lake Decatur        13.0            1965
Big Creek (Stage l) 3/    -„ s            1985            $ 6.5
Big Creek (Stage 2) 3/      ^              1995               -3
Oakley by City (Stage 1) W  8.8      after 2010              JJ-.6
       I/  Estimated yield in mgd produced in the year 2010 over a
           seven month period.

       2/  Initial cost in 1958 dollars based on a projected ENR
           Construction Cost Index and returned to 1958 value at a
           k$ rate of interest.

       3/  Big Creek (stage l) consists of a pool 1,170 acres in area
           with a gross storage of 14,200 acre -feet.  Stage 2 de-
           notes the same structure increased in height by the

            addition  of five foot  gates  increasing the  lake area to
            1,520 acres and the  gross  storage  to  21,000 acre -feet.

            The design, of  Oakley Dam,  as proposed by the city's  con-
            sultants, consists of  a first  structure forming a pool
            with an area of 2^00  acres  and a  gross storage of 15,000
            acre-feet which is designated  at Stage 1.   Stage 2 en-
            tails increasing the height  of the structure five feet  "by
            means of  gates, thus providing a lake with  an area of
                  acres and a gross storage of 30>000 acre-feet.
       All of the above alternate  s-rvir-ies are  located  on the water-

shed which sirpplivBfi lake  Zfocaturj  lieref ora, all water  is of equal

quality.  All sources discharge clira rily i?rio  Lake  Daeatur, eliminat-

ing need for transmission linas and. primping.   Since all alternate

plans have a similar source, quality,, and method of delivery to the

point of treatment. Alternate 3 was selected,  on the basis of  initial

cost, as the most economical water plan for the purpose of evaluat-

ing the Corps of Engineers' project vrMch is included  as a part of

Alternate 1 and Alternate 2.

       The annual cost of Alternate 3 is $630,000 including mainte-

nance and operating costs.

       The value of watar supply storage in the Corps  of Engineers

proposed Oakley project   is $357*000 per year.

       However, if the Corps of Engineers provide storage capable of

supplying 26.2 mgd over the seven month critical period or 17,100

acre-feet of net storage  (after evaporation and seepage losses),

this storage would be worth $630,000 per year.

       The Decatur Sanitary District sewage treatment  plant is the

only large plant releasing effluent downstream of the  proposed

Oakley Dam.  Siaee all runoff in the Sangaroon  River, upstream from

this point, is needed for water supply during period of low flow,

there will be no water available for low flow augmentation.  There-

fore, no value may be assigned to storage in the Oakley Reservoir for

pollution abatement.


                         OAKLEY RESERVOIR

1.  Decatur is the only municipality in the Oakley Reservoir area

    which would have an economically justified need for this reser-

    voir.  Its needs are estimated at 38 mgd average yearly or ^5-5

    mgd average over a critical seven month period of maximum con-

    sumption and minimum runoff in the year 2010.

2.  The Corps of Engineers' proposed Oakley project would provide

    12.2 mgd which is sufficient water to supplement Decatur's

    municipally-owned supply and rest its maximum demands until 19&5'

    This project would have a value of $35T.«000 per year.

3.  A larger water supply storage in the Corps of Engineers' project

    at the Oakley site,, capable of supplying 26.2 mgd for the seven

    month critical period, would provide sufficient water to supple-

    ment Decatur's municipally-owned supply until 2010 and would

    have a value of $630,000 per year.

k.  There is no storage available for a pollution abatement benefit.

                       TAYLORVILLE RESERVOIR

       The proposed Taylorville dam and reservoir would be located

at mile 3-3 on Flat Branch of the South Fork of the Sangamon River.

The dam would consist of a rolled-earth structure, with a length of

6,300 feet and a maximum height of 55 feet.  The top of the dam

would be at El. 619.  The reservoir would have a total capacity of

109*000 acre-feet at the spillway crest (El. 605-0).  A permanent

conservation-sediment pool of 15,900 acre-feet with a surface area

of 2,^00 acres would be provided for water supply and recreation,

with 7>200 acre-feet allocated to water supply, yielding four mgd

during an 18 month drought.

       The municipalities within 25 miles of the dam, sonsidered by

the State Department of Public Health and the State Water Survey to

have possible water supply needs, as well as those which had express-

ed a desire for water from the Taylorville Reservoir, are listed be-

low with their populations.

          Municipality                   10.50 Census Population

          Taylorville                            9,188
          Pana                                   6,178
          Kincaid-Bulpitt                        1,169
          Jeiseyville                              199
          Tovey                                    593
          Morrisonville                          1,182
          Stonington                             1,120
          Hokomis-Coalton                        2,
          Edinburg                                 921
          Palmer                                   335

       Based on the Information provided by the State agencies, the

remainder of the municipalities, within the 25 mile radius,  are


considered to have sufficient water for all foreseeable future needs.


       Taylorville is located on the South Fork of the Sangamon River,

approximately one mile downstream of its confluence with Flat Branch,

and approximately three miles downstream from the proposed Taylorville


       Taylcrville is predominantly a trade center for the surrounding

agricultural area.  Industrial activities include:  processing soy-

beans and other agricultural and dairy products; poultry hatching and

packing; coal mining; railroad equipment maintenance; paper manufactur-

ing; and the manufacture of electrical tools, greeting cards, agricul-

tural implements and garment pressing equipment.  Snploymert in the

coal mining industry is decreasing rapidly due to tbs closing of sev-

eral mines and mechanization of the remaining ones.

       There is a large available labor force in the immediate area

to the south and west, created, in part, by unemployment ia the coal

industry.  Transportation facilities include three railroads, and

three paved highways.  The Wabash main line between St. Louis and

Chicago passes through Taylorville providing direct service to those


       It is thought that a small, steadily increasing, industrial

growth of medium size firms (employing 100-300 persons) will take

place over the next 50 years.

       The population has shown a continual growth, increasing from

5,1*46 in 1910 to 9,199 in 1950.  Population growth is expected to

continue at a rate similar to past trends, reaching 16,000 in the

year 2010.


       Per capita water use  in 1955 "^as  77 gpd from the city's system.

It is expected that per capita use.,  including domestic<, commercial

and small industrial users,  will  increase to 150 gpcd in 2010.  Total

water use in 1955 wa~ 8l9,?000  gallons  per day from the city system and

1-33 rogd by Allied Mills and Hopper Paper Co.,  self-supplied industries,

Total use, including self-supplied industries,  is estimated at 5-6 mgd

in 2010.  Th= twc self-supplied industries will probably be supplied

by Taylorville in t'he future.

       Taylor?ille"s present source of supply consists of several

wells.  Latest available information Indicates  that, the ?O"ir wells in

use produced 4.5 mgd when  drilled ir, 1953-  Sisce t^&t time^ however,

production has "been decrsasiag steadily,  d:u
       A surface water supply Is currently under development "by Taylor-

ville on the South Fork of the Sangamon River} upstream from its  junc-

tion with Flat Branch.  A "bond issue has been approved and about  70$

of the necessary land purchased or optioned.  It is assumed that

development of this site will be completed.  The initial reservoir will

have a storage of 1,810 mg or 5*5^-0 acre-feet and an area of 870  acres

at El. 585*  The dam is designed so it car, be rais-sd 5 ^eet-i thereby

providing for a future increase ia storage to 3; 7^5 »€ or 11 ,,150  acre-

feet with aa area of 1,300 aares.  The estimated yield from the initial

stage of development is 2.1 mgd.  TMs will supply a^ejpate water un-

til  1980-85, when, an additional sca\r£s-5 capable of supplying 3-5 ingd

in 2010, will be necessary.  This additional vatar cov.ld to obtained

from the proposed Corps of Engineers' 'fayler-rille He^arv^ir or by  rais-

ing the city dam five feet.  Raising the dam will yield an estimatad

6.3 mgd in 2010.
                         Net Yield or
                         Use in 2010
 fsar of
                          Initial Cost
                            (1958 dollars)
Alternate 1;

South Fork Res.
  by City

Taylorville Res.
  by Corps of Engrs.
Alternate 2;

South Fork Res.
  by City

Raise South Fork
  Res. 5. ft.
k.2 increase   1980

       Both alternates are approximately equal as to  quality,  treat-

ment and distance from point of use.

       The value of water supply  storage in the Corps of  Engineers'

Taylorville Reservoir capable of  supplying 3-5 ^gd to the city of

Taylorville is $51,000 per year,,  "based on the cost of Alternate 2.

       Taylorville is the only large  city discharging sewage below

the proposed Taylorville Dam.  Tb.s eonstruriion of resefc-yoirs  on both

Flat Branch and South Fork immediately upstream of their  confluence

will reduce straamflcw to almost  nctMng at tl:<.a oirtfall during drought

periods.  Since there is 0.5 njgd  available from the Taylorvllls Reser-

voir over and above Taylorville's projects! ivieds^  tJaar© would

be a benefit of $1,500 par year for poLLutier; alats^eat if the 0.5 mgd

would be released for low flew augmentation.


       Pana is located Ik miles southeast of tbe Taylorville Reser-

voir, in the extreme sorrier of Christian Gcnzrfcy.  Its industries con-

sist of a small refinery operated "by  a farmers' Cooperative Associa-

tion, the Sugar Creek and Equity  Union CreaiaeT'ies^ s.«rj'<=;ral wholesale

florists, and the Peabody Coal Co.  No large industrial growth is ex-


       Population increased from  5,OJ7 in 1890 to 6,178 in 1950.

Future growth is anticipated to continue at a fairly  uniform rate,

reaching 8,000 in 2010.

       Industrial water use in 1955 averaged 709^00  gpd  and domestic

use 791*000 gpd, for a total of 1.5 mgd.  Domestic use on a per capita

basis was almost 130 gpd.  The city's consulting engineers think this

figure represents considerable leakage and could be reduced substan-

tially.  Domestic use in the year 2010 is estimated at 150 gpcd or

1.2 mgd and industrial use at 1.0 mgd^ making a total water use of

2.2 mgd.

       The present source of supply is a lake on Beck's Creek.  The

gross capacity of this reservoir in 2010 is estimated at 2,^50 acre-

feet with a surface area of 2l8 aorss.  However,, the watershed of only square miles yields little runoff.  T&e estimated minimum yield

from this reservoir occurs ever az> 18 mcrth drought period and is l.U

mgd in 2010.  With an average demand of 2.2 mgd, an additional source

capable of yielding 0.8 mgd in 201.0 will be necessary.  There are no

favorable surface water sites in tLe vicinity of Pana.

       Ground water in the immediate vicinity of Paaa is rara, with

wells producing 10 gpin or less.  A larga acjiifer, capable of producing

over 500 gpm per well, is located about Ik miles to the east of Pana

near the Kaskaskia River.  It appears that this is tYxs ocJLy feasible

alternate to the Taylorville Reservoir.

       The two sources capable of supplying 0.8 mgd, are:

         1.  Taylorville Reservoir

         2.  Ground water source located 1^4- miles east of Pana.

       These two sources are located at equal distances from the city,

therefore transmission and pumping requirements are approximately

equal.  The quality of ground water is such that treatment would con-

sist of chlorinatlon and possibly iron removal.  Reservoir water

would require complete treatment.  The city presently has a filter

plant for its surface supply} but its capacity is insufficient for

2010 demands.

       Initial and annual costs for the alternate  sources  of water

supply are:

                              Initial Cost          Annual Cost

Taylorville Reservoir*        $1,508,000            $101,000

Ground Water Supply           $1,219,000            $ 86,500

*Cost of the water system less ijnpo::n.dffient  in tlie  S&ylorville  Reservoir.

       The cost of developing eitbsr source is  approximately the same,

excluding the cost of impoundment  in the Taylorvilla Reservoir.

Therefore, water supply  storage in the Corps of Engineers' reservoir

is not economically  justified for  Pans.
       Bulpitt, Tovey , and Jeiseyville are located within two miles

of Kincaid, which is located approximately 11 miles  northeast of  the

proposed Taylorville Dam.  Bulpitt  is served by Kizi/:aid.  Tovey and

Jeiseyville do not have municipal supplies, brrt  fcej- could "he served

by Kincaid.

       The combined 1950 population of t?ae four t/r-v.Cuf; was .1, 961.

Bulpitt and Kincaid have had a slow, steady population growth over

the past 30 years.  Tovey and Jeiseyville lost almost kOfy of their

population between 1930 and 1950, dropping from 1,263 to 792.   Estimat

ed total population of the four towns in 2010 is 3,300.  There  is no

major industrial expansion expected, either by existing industries

or by new industry.  However, a slow, steady industrial growth  similar

to that experienced in the past is  expected.

       Present water use of Kineaid and Bulpitt is about 160,000  gpd


or 80 gpcd.  Total water use for the four towns in 2C10, based on a

per capita use of 150 gpd, is estimated at 500 ,,000 gpd.

       The present supply for Kincaid-Bulpitt consists of an 89 mg re-

servoir on a tributary of the Sangamon River.  This supply proved in-

adequate during the drought of 1953-5^•  It is estimated that the re-

servoir will be completely filled with silt by 2010.  Therefore, a

source capable cf supplying the entire 500,000 gpd will be necessary

by that time.  This water could be supplied by one of the following

three reservoirs:

                Taylorville Reservoir

                Alternate 1:  Reservoir on Clear Greek.

                Alternate 2:  Ground water from tee floodplaia along
                              the South Fork of the Sangamon River.

       The two reservoirs are similar as to quality, therefore, treat-

ment costs would be similar.  Taylorville Reservoir would require a-

bout ten miles more transmission line with resulting higher pumping

costs than Alternate 1.

       Alternate 2 requires less transmission costs than the Taylor-

ville Reservoir but slightly more than Alternate 1.  Treatment costs

will be considerably less for Alternate 2 than for either of the other


     Initial and Annual Costs for Alternate Sources of Supply

                            Initial Cost       Annual Cost

Taylorville Reservoir*       $  853,000         $ 61,000

Alternate 1                  $2,550,000         $152,000

Alternate 2                  $  271,000         $ 31,000

*Includes all costs except direct cost of storage in the Corps of

Engineers' reservoir.

       The storage of water in the Corps of Engineers' Taylorville

Reservoir is not economically justified for Kineaid, Bulpitt, Tovey

and Jeiseyville.


       Nokomis serves Coalton, and both are located 17 miles south-

west of the Taylorville Reservoir.

       The population of Nokomis i^reased "by c/rlj" 9'"' persons between

1930 and 1950 to a total of 2,5^4.  Coalton !),as decreased steadily from

6ll in 1930 to 402 in 1950.  Major activities in the area are coal

mining and agriculture.  Past industrial growth has been slow and no

extensive development is anticipated.  The 2010 population of Nokomis-

Coalton is estimated at 3,«400 people.

       Present city water use averages 122;000 gpd or -'45 gallons per

person.  Per capita use in 2010 is estimated at 152 gpd, making a

total use of 510,000 gpd.

       The present source of supply consists of six wells with a

maximum production of 5^0 gpm or 778?000 gpd.  Total \ise, from the

ground water source, by self-supplied users and the city is presently

between two and three million gallons per day.  This withdrawal has

not decreased well yields to any noticeable extent.  It is believe-

ed that Nokomis-Coalton will have sufficient water through 2010 and

will not benefit from storage in the Taylorville Reservoir.


       Assumption is located approximately 13 miles east of the

Taylorville Dam.  The town is predominantly rural in character and

possesses little industry.  Future development of large industries

is improbable.  The population decreased from 1,918 in 1910 to 1,


in 1950.  Estimates indicate a slight increase to 1?600 in 1959-  The

population is expected to reach 1,800 in the year 2010.

       Per capita use is 72 gpd at the present time and is expected

to increase to 100 gpd by 2010, making a total demand in that year

of 180,000 gpd.

       The present source of supply consists of four dug wells and

two driven wells.  The water is hard and is treated by aeration, sedi-

mentation, filtration^ softening, chlorination and fluoridation.  Pro-

duction from all wells is 216,,000 gpd.  This is sufficient to meet all

estimated future demands unless production decreases.  In that event,

there are other ground water areas wittin two or three miles of the

town.  Production, in tbe general area, is between 2C and 100 gpm per

well.  It appears fairly certain that the present source ean be aug-

mented by new wells at a more economical cost thar* obtaining water

from the Taylorville Reservoir.

       It is believed that Assumption will not ceed storage in the

Taylorville Reservoir.


       Moweaqua, located 13 miles northeast of the Taylorville Dam,

is primarily a trading center for the surrounding area.  No extensive

industrial development is expected.  The 1950 population was lVf5«

The population has been fairly stable since 1900, varying slightly

above and below 1,500.  Estimated 201.0 population is 1,600.

       Water use in 1956 was 0.1 mgd, with a per capita use of 65 gpd.

Per capita use is expected to increase to 100 gpd, producing an es-

timated water use of 160,000 gpd in 2010.


       Water is presently secured, from three wells located two miles

north of the city.  Production is 150 gpm or £16,000 gpd, which will

be sufficient through 2010.  In addition to these wells, the city has

six old wells which will produce in excess of l4U,000 gpd, and more

water is available in the area of the present wells.

       It is believed that Moweaqua will have sufficient water for

2010 without storage in the Taylorville Reservoir.


       Morrisonvilla is located 14 miles southwest of the Taylorville

Dam.  It has no large industry but serves as a center for the surround-

ing agricultural area.  Past- trends indicate that, it has reached a

population equilibrium.  Bse 1950 pc^nlatiofl was I^l8g and the 2010

population is estimated at ls^00.

       Water use is presently 50,000 gpd with a per capita use of a-

bout 45 gpd.  Aa estimated per capita use of 100 gpd ±n 2010 will pro-

duce a total demand, in that year of l'4-0PvO<" gpd.

       The present source of supply co/isiat?- c.? ti*? drift veils,

located 50 feet from the bank of 'Sear Crs^-k, vhi?>, produce a total

of 300 gpm or ^32,000 gpd.  A spring well, producing l4k,000 gpd, is

used as an emergency source.

       Morrisonville will not need water from the Taylorville Reser-

voir as its present sources should be adequate through the year 2010.


       Palmer is located approximately 11 miles southeast of the

Taylorville Dam.  It is primarily a rural community with a 1950 popu-

lation of 335-  Estimated 2C10 population for this commuaity is


approximately 800 people.  At present there is no municipal water

supply.  Assuming the construction of such a system, a per capita use

of 100 gpd or a total use of 80,000 gpd would be eaepeeted in 2010.

Water could most economically be obtained by going three miles to

Morrisonville.  Morrisonville's present supply is capable of supply-

ing both municipalities through 2010.

       It is not economically justified for Palmer to obtain water

from the Taylorville Reservoir.


       Stonington is a rural rsomrujiity located six miles northeast of

the Taylorville Reservoir.  The population lias ts«A fairly constant at

about 1,100 since 1920.  The 1950 population was 1,120.  Only a small

increase is considered probable, and  the 2D10 popxtlation is estimated

at 1,1*00.

       Average water use in 1959 was 100,000 gpd whisk is about 85

gpcd.  Total water use in 2010 is estimate! at lV?_,00~' gpd, based on

a per capita consumption, of 100 gpd.

       The present source,, consisting of sever. v«.?.l,s,, is capable of

producing over 300,000 gpd.  Six of the wells now produce 288,000 gpd,

and improvements to the pumping equipment could increase this to

525>000 gpd.  The seventh well was drilled in 1959 and production

figures are unavailable.  However, based on the other six wells, it

should produce a minimum of 30 gpm.  The present well supply is capa-

ble of yielding 570,000 gpd which will be more than ample for antici-

pated uses.  Therefore, Stonington will not need water supply storage

in Taylorville Reservoir.



       Edinburg is located 10 miles northwest of the Taylorville Da».

There is no large industry and no large future development is forseen.

The population has been fairly constant at about 9^0 since 1910.  The

1950 population was 921 and the estimated 2010 population is 1,000.

       Per capita use is presently about ^5 gpd.  Total average use is

kl,kQO gpd.  An increase in per capita use to 100 gp

                   TAYLORVILLB RESERVOIR

Taylorville will need an additional 3.5 mgd "by 2010.  The annual

value of storage in the Taylorville Reservoir is $51*000.

Pana will have a need for 0.8 mgd.  This need Bay be met Bore

economically from groiind water sources t>ian from the Taylorville


The towns of Kincaid, Bulpitt, Covey and Jaiseyville will have

water demands of 0.5 ffigd by 201C which may be met more economically

from ground water sources than from the Taylorville Reservoir.

The towns of Assumption, Moweaqua,, Morrisonvilla,, Stonington,

Edinburg and Nokomis-Coalton presently !mve sources of water supply

which are believed adequate to meet fr.^ir needs through 2010.

Pal»er, which has no municipal system^ could obtain water most

economically from Morrisonville.

A value of $1^500 per year would be obtained by releasing the 0.5

mgd, not required for future water supply needs, for dilution of

the effluent from Taylorville's sewage treatment plant.  This is

the only pollution abatement benefit derived from the reservoir.

                     MACKINAW DELLS RESERVOIR

       The proposed Mackinaw Dells Reservoir is located approximately

l6 miles northwest of KLoomington at the confluence of the Mackinaw

River and Panther Creek.  Areas west and southwest of the reservoir

site include those municipalities which could be supplied by the

Illinois River or a rich groundwater belt.  Groundwater in this area

can be obtained in excess of 5@0 gpm per well.  Aquifers in the re-

maining area, within 25 miles of the reservoir, can be expected to

produce between 100 and 500 gpm per well.

       Ma,jor surface water sources in the Mackinaw area include the

Illinois, Mackinaw and Kappa Rivers.  Panther, Money and Sugar Creeks

are also important surface vater sources.

       Municipalities in the Mackinaw Dells area are generally small

farm communities with populations under 1,000.  Several cities, located

on the Illinois River west of Mackinaw, have populations from twelve

to twenty-five thousand.  The smaller towns are capable of meeting

their water supply needs from nearby groundwater sources because they

contain very little if any industry.  It is believed that towns with

a population less than 1,000 would not transport and treat surface

water when sufficient groundwater is available.

       There are no large municipalities discharging sewage below

the reservoir, therefore, water storage in the Mackinaw Dells Reservoir

for low flow augmentation would not be needed for pollution abatement.

       Records of the two State Agencies concerning present and future

domestic and industrial water requirements, and the water availability

in the area around Mackinaw Dells, indicate that only water supply

needs of Bloomington, Normal, Eureka and Towanda need be considered



       The city is a farm community of 2,^00 people located on Highway

2k, six miles northwest of the reservoir site.  Eureka College and

Libby McHeill and Libby Canning Company are located here.  Eureka

gets its water from a 100 million gallon artificial lake and five wells

capable of supplying 1.7 Jng<3.«  The city's present water use is ^00,000

gpd in ths summer months and 175;OCO gpd in the winter months.  Libby

McHeill and Libby, which operates only in the summer,, is the city's

largest water user.

       The expected popialation of Eureka in 2010 is k}kQQ, and water

use for that year is estimated to be 150 gpcd.  Based on these values,

Eureka is expected to need 0.66 mgd in fifty years.  The present water

supply facilities of the city will furnish 2.2 mgd in the year 2010.

       Considering present supply and future needs, Eureka is not ex-

pected to have a need for water from this reservoir during the period



       KLoomington is an agricultural center of Illinois, and at the

present time about a. dozen industries are located there.  The major

industrial concerns are insurance, electric power, railroad, feed,

dairy and hospital.  The Illinois Agricultural Association, which

employs 1,000 people, plans to move from Chicago to Bloomington in

the near future.

       The total industrial water use is now 630 million gallons per

year.  Existing industries will increase this use to about 1,100

Billion gallons per year by the year 2010.  New industry is expected

to increase this demand by another 9^5 million gallons per year.  Do-

mestic pumpage is expected to increase from 1,500 million gallons per

year to 2,700 million gallons per year.  The total water demand of

ELoomington, in the year 2010, will be lt-7^5 million gallons per year

or 13 mgd.

       The estjuaated population of the city in 2010 is 53,000.  The

total future water demand of 13 mgd will give a use of 250 gpcd.

       ELoomington now receives water from Lake ELoomington, which

has recently been raised six feet, and will provide 12.5 Higd in the

year 2010, excluding sedimentation.


       Normal is located on the northern edge of Bloomington.  The

Illinois Soldiers and Sailors Ghildrens School and the Illinois State

Normal University are located there.

       Nomal has a population of 11,528 and a water demand of 805^000

gallons per day.  The average use is 70 gallons per capita per day.

       The city now obtains water from seven drilled wells which have

a combined capacity of 2,360 gpm or 3 A mgd.  The estimated 2010

population and water use are 27,000 and 150 gpcd respectively.  In

50 years Normal will require a water supply of U.I mgd.

       It is believed that Normal will abandon its wells and obtain

water from ELoomington in the future.


       The village is located five miles northeast of Normal on

Highway 66.  Towanda has a population of UOO and this is expected to

increase to 1,000 by 2010.  Village water use is expected to increase

from the present 21,500  gpd,  to  150,000  gpd  in  the year 2010.   Water

is supplied to Towanda by  Bloomington.

                         Alternate Sourge_s_

       Assuming that Normal will obtain  water from Bloomington  in the

future, the total  demand of Bloosiington, Normal, and Towanda would

be 18.1 mgd in the year  2010.  The present water supply of the  area

(Lake Bloomington) ±& expe'jtc.l t.'< yield  12-5 »gd in fifty years.

This would require that,  $.6 mgd  be obtained from a source other than

Lake Bloomington.

       Mackinaw Dells Reservoir

       This Corps  Project  would  he capable of supplying 50 mgd  to the

BloomingtoE area.  A pipe  line to transport 5-6 mgd water from

Mackinaw Dells to  the treatment  plant at Lake Bloomington would have

an annual eost of  $185,000, including pumpage.  The municipalities

would also be expected to  pay their proportionate share of the  reser-

voir cost.

       Alternate 1

       An alternate reservoir could be constructed on Six Mile  Creek

which would supply an additional 2.2 mgd at an  estimated annual cost

of $10^,000.  The  annual cost of transportation and pumpage from this

reservoir to the treatment plant at Lake Bloomington would be $51,000.

For utilization of this reservoir a total  annual eost of $155,000

would be incurred.

       Alternate 2

       A reservoir could be built at this  same  site, on Six Mile

Creek, which would supply  k.k mgd at an estimated annual cost of

$132,000.  Transportation and pumpage cost to Lake Bloomington in

this case would be $51,000 per year.  A total annual cost of $183,000

would "be required for the use of this alternate reservoir.

       Alternate 3

       As a supplement to the alternates on Six Mile Creek an addition-

al, low channel dam could "be constructed on the Mackinaw River.  This

project would supply 1-7 '&£>^ at uj. aaam.1 cost of $15,000 plus the

additional cost of lifting this water to t?ae treatment plant.

       All yield figures given in the alternates above are those

figures expected in 50 years.

       A combination of the low channel dam on the Mackinaw River and

the larger alternate on Six Mile Creek would supp3.y 6.1 mgd at a total

annual cost of $198,000.  The combination of these alternates would

be attractive in that a long range plan could be adopted by which

construction is done as a water supply need arises, thereby reducing

interest and operation charges.

       As the cost of storage and transportation from an alternate

source would be only $13,000 mora than the cost cf transportation

only from the proposed Mackinaw Dells project, there would be no

practical water supply benefit from the Mackinaw Dells project.


                     MACKIKAtf DELLS RESERVOIR

1.  Eureka has no need for water storage in this reservoir.

2.  In 50 years Bloonington, Normal and Towanda will need 5.6 ugd in

    excess of the amount supplied by Lake Bloonington.

3«  This 5,6 ngd could be secured from the Mackinaw Dells Reservoir.

    The annual cost of transporting this water to the point of use

    would be $185,000.

k.  The Most economical alternate source of water supply which will

    furnish 5.6 mgd has an annual cost of $198,000.

5.  The cost of transporting water to ELoomington from the Mackinaw

    Dells Reservoir would be about the same as the cost of securing

    it from an alternate source.  The reservoir water has no practical

    value for Bloomington, Normal and Towanda.

6.  There is no economical justification for municipal and industrial

    water supply storage in the Mackinaw Dells Reservoir.

7«  Water storage in the Mackinaw Dells Reservoir for low flow augmenta-

    tion would not be needed for pollution abatement.

                         JUBILEE RESERVOIR

       The most feasible site for a dam on Kickapoo Creek (Peoria

County) is immediately downstream from Jubilee College State Park at

mile 21.5-  The Corps of Engineers concluded from its investigation

that construction of a dam and reservoir at this site should not be

included in the comprehensive plan for flood control and allied uses

in the Illinois River Basin at this time.  The Corps of Engineers

requested the Public Health Service to investigate the justification

of this reservoir based on water supply needs.

       All municipalities within the influence of Jubilee Reservoir,

including Peoria, use ground water.

       Peoria recently constructed a supplemental water treatment

plant to treat water from the Illinois River.  The State agencies

consider the quality of Illinois River water at Peoria to be satis-

factory for municipal and industrial use at the present time.  The

flow in the Illinois River is more than adequate for any anticipated

future needs in the Peoria area.

       Water supply needs were checked with the Illinois Department

of Public Health and the Illinois State Water Survey.  From the in-

formation they furnished, it was determined that ground water supplies

are adequate for all present and future needs except in the Peoria

area where the Illinois River is available.

       It is concluded from this investigation that there is no present

or future need for municipal and industrial water supply from the

Jubilee Reservoir> provided the Illinois River continues to be an

acceptable water supply source.


       There are no municipalities discharging sewage below the reser-

voir.  Water storage in the Jubilee Reservoir for low flow augmentation

would, not be needed for pollution abatement.

                      LONDON MILLS RESERVOIR

       The proposed dam and reservoir on Spoon River is located at

mile 67-0 upstream from London Mills, Illinois.  The dam would consist

of a rolled-earth structure and a gravity concrete section with spill-

way controlled by tainter gates, with a maximum height and length of

86 and 3,700 feet, respectively.  The reservoir capacity at pool eleva-

tion (585) is i)-87,000 acre-feet.  A permanent conservation-sedimentation

pool of 5^,000 acre-feet with a surface area of 5,550 acres and an

average depth of 9-7 feet would be provided for water supply and re-

creational purposes.

       The largest cities within 25 miles of the dam and their re-

spective populations are Galesburg (31,2^5); Canton (11,927); Monmouth

(10,193); Bushnell (3,317); Abington (3,300); Farmington (2,651);

Lewistown (2,630); Knoxville (2,209); Cuba (1,482), and Roseville


       Avon and Cantoa are the only municipalities in the area that

use surface water for its supply.  Other municipalities use well

water, including Galesburg which has recently developed a well field

in the Mississippi River bottoms.

       The water supply needs of the above municipalities and all

smaller communities within a 25 mile radius of the dam were reviewed

with the State Department of Public Health and the State Water Sur-

vey.  Based on information furnished by these two agencies, it is

believed that there are no present or future water supply needs for

water from the London Mills Reservoir.


       There are no municipalities discharging sewage below the reser-

voir.  Water storage in the London Mills Reservoir for low flow augmenta-

tion would not be needed for pollution abatement.

                          KEMTf RESERVOIR

       The proposed dam and reservoir on Salt Creek is located at mile

63.1 near Kenny, Illinois.  The dam will be a rolled-earth structure

with an ungated, chute spillway, with a maximum height and length of

90 and 3,800 feet, respectively.  The reservoir would have a capacity

at normal pool elevation  (687) of 201,000 acre-feet.  A permanent

conservation-sedimentation pool of 3*S200 acre-feet, with a surface

area of 2,750 acres, would be provided for water supply and recreation


       The Kenny Reservoir would be located between the proposed

Mackinaw Dells and Oakley Reservoirs.  Communities within 25 miles of

the Kenney dam but closer to one of the other dams were not considered

as possible users of Kenney Reservoir water.  The largest of the

municipalities considered and their respective populations are:

Lincoln (1^,362); Clinton (5,9^5); Le Roy (1,820); Farmer City (1,752);

Mt. Pulaski (1,527), and  Heyworth (l,072).

       Most of the Kenny  area lies over the pre-glacial Mahomet Valley

which contains one of the most important water producing aquifers in

Illinois.  The remaining  area has access to other good aquifers.  Wells

are used for all municipal water supplies in the area.

       Water supply needs in the Kenney Reservoir area were checked

with the Illinois Department of Public Health and the Illinois State

Water Survey.  From information furnished by these agencies it was

determined that all present and future water supply needs could be

satisfied by existing facilities or be developed locally from the

excellent aquifers available.


       There is no municipal or industrial water supply need from this


       Lincoln is the only major city which discharges sewage below the

reservoir.   Water storage in the Kenney Reservoir for low flow augmenta-

tion would not be needed for pollution abatement.



       A number of conclusions were evolved for each proposed reser-

voir.  In this summation, no attempt will be made to repeat anything

more than the most highly significant facts that bear directly upon

the conclusions.

                        St. Mary Reservoir

1.  Comprehensive studies were conducted on four municipalities:
    Macomb, Carthage, ELandinsville, and La Harpe.  Only Macomb evi-
    dences any economic justification on the basis of water supply
    storage of 615 million gallons with an annual value of $H6,900.
    The remaining municipalities present no economic  Justification.

2.  None of the foregoing cities need low flow augmentation water
    storage for pollution abatement.

                         Oakley Reservoir

1.  Decatur, with yearly average demands of 38 mgd, or a ^5«5 mgd
    average over a critical, seven month period of maximum use and
    minimum runoff, is the only municipality that needs water for
    future demands projected to the year 2010.

2.  The proposed Oakley Reservoir project would provide sufficient
    water, along with Decatur's municipally owned system, to meet
    peak demands until 1985-  This project would have an annual value
    of $357>000.  A project, at the Oakley Reservoir site, capable
    of supplying 26.2 mgd for the seven month critical period -would
    furnish enough water, in conjunction with the municipally owned
    supply, until the year 2010.  The annual value would total

3.  There is no water available for pollution abatement benefits as
    all will be needed for water supply purposes.

                       Taylorville Reservoir

1.  The only municipality presenting economic justification is
    Taylorville, which by 2010 will require an additional water supply
    of 3-5
2.  The annual value for a 3-5 nigd supply from the Taylorville project


 .   would "be $51,000.

3.   Annual value for pollution abatement would be $1,500.

   Mackinaw Dells, Jubilee, London Mills, and Kenney Reservoirs

1.   These reservoirs show no. economic justification for water supply

2.   The projects are not required for pollution abatement purposes.


       This study would not have been possible without the assistance

of many organizations and agencies who gave counsel and technical ad-

vice and made their files, publications, and records available.  In-

formation and data were also secured from many of their publications.

       Specific acknowledgement is made of the valuable assistance and

cooperation offered by the following organizations:

            Association of Commerce, Decatur, Illinois

            Association of Commerce and Industry, Taylorville, Illinois

            City Planning Commission, Decatur, Illinois

            City Water Department, Decatur, Illinois

            Federal Reserve Bank, Chicago, Illinois

            Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield, Illinois

            Illinois State Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, Illinois

            Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, Illinois

            U. S. Bureau of Census

            U. S. Corps of Engineers

            U. S. Geological Survey

            Warren & Van Praag, Inc., Decatur, Illinois