f-AKK ERIE BASIN
Problems
 Actions
N
e
e
d
s
                Water
                 Quality

                 IF YOU
                 MUST

                 SWIM
                       } <
                 KtVER SWIM ALONE
     KMTTfWM IF YOU H* Hn Tm'f!
     SWIM OMtY AT PATROUED r '
        JOHN -^

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  MUST OUR PROGRESS ENGULF US?
SHALL WE CHOKE ON OUR OWN SUCCESS?
DOES OUR SOCIETY NEED TO TOLERATE FILTHY
RiVERS... TOO FEW PARKS? TOO FEW BEACHES?
TOO LITTLE WILDLIFE? TOO MUCH UGLINESS
AND TOO LITTLE  BEAUTY?
  WELL, I THINK THERE IS ONLY ONE ANSWER.
NO. KO, WE WILL  NOT.
                   PRESIDENT  JOHNSON

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OOOR67119
    P80GBK?   FOi  WATER    POLLUTION   CONTROL
                     November 1967
                U.S: DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                    Stewart L. Udall,  Secretary
            Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
                    James M Quigley,  Commissioner

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TTOTv ~R!AA/'ORT>)       JAMES M-  PULLEY,  Commissioner
^ vy-LV-L^  TT  vy-LVJ_y       Federal  Water Pol I ution Control  Administration
                                    U.  S. Department of  the Interior


      Lake  Erie is  the economic lifeblood of  a  region  of  eleven  million
 persons, and it is one of the most seriously polluted bodies  of water in
 the  nation.   The lake suffers from the continual  outpouring of  industrial
 and  municipal  wastes and from runoff  from urban  and agricultural  lands
 within the basin.   This pollution limits the lake's recreational  values,
 plagues its  f jSherman, per i3i)| ly ) SFi !ffip dime fit  t its  eemffiefdsl,
 and  occasionally causes unpleasant tastes and  odors In  its waters even
 after treatment for domestic consumption.

      The abuses which the lake suffers certainly are  not new.   What is
 new, is a  strong desire of the people  of the basin  to halt the  continuing
 degradation  of the lake and the tools  required to restore it  to its past
 useful ness.

      Amendments to the Federal Water  Pollution Control  Act in 1965, and
 the  supporting amendments enacted in  1966,  gave  new urgency,  support, and
 direction  to the cooperative work underway  in  Lake  Erie  since 1963.  Ex-
 plicitly affirmed, as a statutory declaration, was  the  policy that  the
 purpose of the national pollution control effort is the  management  of
 future water quality to prevent pollution as well as  the abatement  of pol-
  lution which has occurred.  To accomplish this historic  shift in national
 policy, the Congress required, for interstate  and coastal waters, the
 establishment of water quality standards, containing  plans for  their imple-
 mentation.  Congress also stipulated  that pollution control planning at all
  levels of  government henceforth be directed toward  effecting  the aims of
 the  water  quality  standards program.   Because  of this requirement,  the  five
 States in  the Lake Erie Basin have devoted substantial  and commendable
 effort to  the development of sound water quality standards and  implementa-
 tion plans for the interstate waters  of the Lake Erie Basin.  They  also are
 moving to  establish comparable standards for their  intrastate waters in the
 basi n.

      It is the achievement of these standards  toward  which pollution con-
 trol programs in the Lake Erie Basin  must be directed in the  years  ahead.
 Success in this effort, however, will  require  integration of  the States'
 plans for  implementing water quality  standards with programs  of Federal
 water resource agencies and the periodic updating of  the standards.

      Needed, is an intergovernmental  organization in  the Lake Erie  Basin
 through which this continuing updating of water  quality  standards and
  implementation plans, and the coordination  of  the programs of Federal,
 State and  local agencies, can take place.  To  meet  this  need, this  report
 recommends that this responsibility be undertaken by  the Great  Lakes Basin
 Commission,  a river basin planning commission  newly-created under the
 Water Resources Planning Act of  1965.
      The Federal  Water Pollution Control  Administration,  having  recognized
 the needs,  intends to pursue the clean-up of Lake Erie and its tributary
 streams by  directing its many and varied  programs toward  that objective.
 We further  urge all  other concerned governments and agencies to  make a  sim-
 ilar commitment,  and to jofn with us in a coordinated program to once again
 making Lake Erie suitable for all of the  uses the inhabitants of its basin
 need and desire.

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                    CONTENTS
FOREWORD
SCOPE
THE BASIN AND IT'S PROBLEMS                                 2
       Characteristics                                      2
       Population and Economic Activity                     2
       Lake Erie                                            8

       Subbasin Areas                                      27

              Southeastern Michigan                        27

              Maumee River Basin                           32

              North Central Ohio                           37

              Greater Cleveland-Akron                      Ul

              Northeastern Ohio                            1*7

              Pennsylvania                                 1*9

              New York                                     52


CORRECTIVE REQUIREMENTS                                    58

       Current Needs                                       58

       Long-Range Needs                                    67


BASIN COORDINATING ARRANGEMENTS                            69

       \
APPENDI/ES                                                 72

       Appendix A    Municipal Waste Inventory (Sample  Table  & Map)

       Appendix B    Industrial Waste Inventory (Sample Table)

                          ii

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FIGURES
Figure
Number
1
2
3
k

5

6

7

8

9
10

11
12
13
li*
15
16
17

Title


Value Added By Manufacture 	
Lake Erie Basin - Total Projected BQD5 Load and Effect of
Reduction - Industrial and Municipal Sources 	
Present and Projected BOD^ Load Discharged in the Lake
Erie Basin 	
Present and Projected Chloride Discharges in the Lake
Erie Basin 	
Projected Chloride Load to Lake Erie and Loads With

Projected Dissolved Solids Concentration in Lake Erie
and Effect of Various In-Basin Input Reductions 	

Present and Projected Phosphorous Discharges in the
Lake Erie Basin 	

Areas of Water Recreation Impairment - Lake Erie Basin. . .

Maumee River Basin - Water Quality Situation 	
North Central Ohio Area - Water Quality Situation 	
Greater Cleveland - Akron Area - Water Quality Situation.
New York Area  Water Quality Situation. 	 	
Page
Number
3
k
6

11

12

Ik

15

16
18

19
20
25
28
33
38
k2
53
    ill

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                                TABLES
Table                                                               Page
                                Title                               Number
  1      Percent Contributions of Pollutants from Major Areas	     8

  2      Waste Loads to Lake Erie Basin Waters - 1966	     9

  3      Present and Projected Phosphorous Discharges to Lake
           Erie, Exclusive of Lake Huron Input	    21

  k      Bathing Beaches on Lake Erie that are Unsafe for
            Swimming	    2k
  5      Summarization of Current Water Pollution Control Needs...    65

  6      Summarization of Long Range Water Pollution Control
           Needs	    68
                                  iv

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  SCOPE
   This report  is a review  of  the
problems still confronting the basin
and a  guide  to the  restoration of
Lake Erie J~Efforts along these lines
began in 1963 when the  Federal Gov-
ernment ,  in  cooperation  with  the
States, local  units of  government,
and  private   interests,  began  an
intensive program to define the pol-
lution problem in  Lake Erie and its
tributary watersheds.   The continu-
ing objective  has been the develop-
ment of a cooperative Federal-State-
local  program  which  would provide
for immediate abatement  of existing
pollution  and  would  also  provide
plans for the long-range  management
of the Lake and its tributaries.

   Early findings  in  this  program
pointed to the  need  for  immediate
enforcement  actions  in  Lake Erie,
under  provisions  of   the  Federal
Water  Pollution   Control  Act,  to
abate existing and preventable  dis-
charge of pollutants. At the request
of the Governor  of  Ohio, an inter-
state enforcement conference,  which
remains in  force, was held in 1965*
Earlier, in 1962, a request from the
Governor  of  Michigan  had been the
basis for convening a Federal intra-
state  enforcement conference cover-
ing Michigao',s  waters  in the  Lake
Erie Basin.
   The  problems  and damages to the
varied water uses are described both
in terms  of the Lake proper and the
seven major subbasins.   The  inputs
to  these sections have been derived
from the wealth  of  technical  data
accumulated over  the years  through
selected  studies  of  the Lake, its
tributaries  and  the  waste sources
themselves.   The sheer magnitude of
these data dictate  their incorpora-
tion into separate technical reports,
available to all in need of the col-
lected information.   An itemization
of the  specific pollutional sources
iltr^ however,  included as tables in
Appendices A and B.
   The current needs of the basin to
obtain effective pollution abatement
and to assure continual water quali-
ty management are  discussed  in the
Chapter on Corrective  Requirements.
It is also here that long range goals
toward which  all  detailed planning
should be directed are discussed.
   Since we  clearly  recognize that
the  finest  of  plans  are rendered
useless   unless   implemented,  the
Chapter  on  Basin  Coordinating Ar-
rangements centers  around a discus-
sion of  the mechanism now available
to carry  out  cooperative  planning
and coordinated action at all levels
of concern.   The  particular entity
responsible for correction of speci-
fic problems  in  the basin has been
identified.   Only through concerned
public  and  responsive governmental
agencies  will the matter be handled
satisfactorily.

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   THE  BASIN  and  ITS' PROBLEMS
                             CHARACTERISTICS
       The area of the  Lake  Erie Basin including Lake St. Glair covered in
this report is 39,900 square miles of which the lake itself contains 9,900
square miles,  Figure 1.   The basin basically reflects the bedrock structure
overlain with glacial debris and lake outwash.  The flatness of the basin
is responsible for low  gradient streams which have sluggish flows in all
but the southeastern part.   Although precipitation is relatively uniform
during all months,  the  consumptive use in the summer months plus poor
ground water reservoirs result in many intermittent tributaries and low
flows in most of the major rivers.  The few reservoirs often add to the
pollution problem since they usually store the entire flow for municipal
water supply purposes only.

       Lake Erie has the smallest volume of any of the Great Lakes.  Its
mean depth of 60 feet  (216 maximum) provides a volume of 113 cubic miles.
Eighty percent of the basin  inflow, 187,000 cfs, enters through the St.
Glair River while 202,800 cfs exit through Niagara River and another 7,000
cfs are passed through  the Welland Canal.  The average flow through time
is approximately 920 days.

       The lake has many peculiarities in the behavior of the water mass
and these have been the subject of intensive studies over the years.  From
the data which are available, it can be summarized that:  the lake under-
goes thermal stratification  resulting in oxygen deficient areas of the
lake, surface currents  are significant in accumulating the pollutants
along the western and southern shores, wave action is significant in
adding silt and maintaining  turbidity, seiches or internal waves contribute
to the turbidity by resuspending sediment but also serve to redistribute
shoreline wastes throughout  widespread areas of the lake.

       The short flow through time, temperature, natural runoff and water
movements all contribute to  making Lake Erie the most naturally enriched
lake of the five Great  Lakes.  Because of this unique status, the activities
of man in the recent years have increased this rate of enrichment signifi-
cantly and unless checked will ruin this great natural resource.
                  POPULATION AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
       The most familiar measure  of basin activity is population growth.
In I960 more than 10 million persons lived in the U. S. portion of the
basin and 1.2 million lived in Canada, nearly a threefold increase over
the 1910 population.  It is estimated that the U. S. population may exceed
23 million by 2020.   Figure 2 shows the  current and projected populations

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for subareas.  The trend toward increased urbanization, currently at 85
percent, will continue.

       Municipal water use in the basin is 1,347 MGD of which 11 percent
(158 MGD) is from inland sources, and 41 percent (551 MGD) is from Lake
St. Glair and the Detroit River.  The 2020 demand in the basin for 4,100
MGB will require, 1,400 MSD from f*k* fturea fop the Detroit r& and
2,500 MGD from Lake Erie since the inland sources are almost completely
developed.

       The industrial activity associated with the population growth has
also been a significant factor in the pollution of Lake Erie.  The availa-
bility of waters of Lake Erie for processing, cooling.and navigation was
a major reason for industry to locate in the basin.  Figure 2 shows a
total of $17 billion as the current value added by manufacture.  This is
expected to at least double by 2020 with some areas such as chemicals
increasing up to four times the current rate.  The self-supplied water
requirements, currently 8,300 MGD will increase to 21,000 MGD.  Most of
this water is used for cooling, but will require treatment before returning
to the lake.

       Although the rural population in the basin is only 15 percent of the
total, agricultural production is an important and stable part of the basin
economy.  The flatness and depth of soils plus climate make the area highly
productive.  Crop and livestock sales presently are $610 million and
represent a wide variety of crops from dairy to truck crops.  Areas devoted
to agriculture should decrease slightly, but production will increase.  The
effects of land erosion, nutrient runoff, chemical pollutants and livestock
wastes are major problems arising from the agricultural activity.

       Trade at the major ports in      was     million tons.  This major
factor in the economy creates pollution from spills and illegal discharges
of wastes.  The need for dredging of harbors to sustain this shipping
should be substantially reduced by proper waste treatment and agricultural
practices.

       Within the last 20 years, the fishing industry on the United States
side of Lake Erie has suffered an almost disastrous decline because of the
disappearance of prized species, such as walleye, blue pike, and whitefish,
upon which the industry depended so heavily.  Reluctance of the industry
to adapt to less desirable types of fish also contributed to this decline.
There is still about 20 million dollars of capital investment in the Ohio
commerical fishing industry, but this is only about one-third of the
investment in sport fishing.

       Total catch in Lake Erie, in pounds, appears to be tenuously holding
its own; but dollar value is decreasing.  For example, in the 1950-59 decade,
an average annual catch of 53 million pounds of fish brought 7.5 million
dollars, while between I960 and 1964, a catch of 52 million pounds brought
only 3-9 million dollars.

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FIGURE 3

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       An increasingly important segment of the basin economy is tourism
and recreation which adds hundreds of millions of dollars.  The value of
these opportunities for water based recreation far exceeds the economic
impact.  In the Lake Erie basin, most of this activity is directly related
to the Lake and centered around the major cities.  The development of
facilities is not rapidly expanding except in a few local areas where
                  el? la^ge pfiva^e efr&efpifeefc a-fe
       Large numbers of boats are trailered to Lake Erie on summer week-
ends, many from 100 or more miles away.  Twenty thousand boats have been
counted in the Ohio waters of Lake Erie on a warm summer weekend.  This
number may be equaled or exceeded in Lake St. Glair and the Detroit River.
The reduction of pollution will stimulate tourism leading to an increase
in the establishment of facilities.  Even under present circumstances, the
total tourism industry should double its present activity by the year 2020
due to increasing available leisure time.  Certain facets of the industry,
especially those centered around small boating activities, are now expending
rapidly and should increase at a significantly greater rate than the popula-
tion growth.
                     i                                 '-f
       Sport fishing is a major recreational attraction in Lake Erie.  In
Ohio waters the sport fishing catch of yellow perch frequently exceeds the
commercial catch.  The heaviest sport fishing activity occurs in the western
basin and particularly in the island area.  Ice fishing has also become an
increasingly popular form of recreation, with good catches being reported.
It is imperative that there be action taken to prevent further decline in
the sport fish species if this form of recreation is to be maintained.

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                             LAKE ERIE


       The  principal  pollutional materials  discharged  into Lake  Erie
       iuc  pi Aiiv- j-p" *  f                     ttsa-j a, i  ,i^.fiFr-lB.   Ttt>RP  Wft&l
       Other significant contributors to the pollution problem are
wastes from commercial and pleasure craft, harbor dredging operations,
urban runoff and shore erosion.  All of these combined are now poten,
tially disastrous to Lake Erie water quality.  The most obvious signs
of pollution occur in the tributaries and around the lake shoreline
where recreational and water supply uses are greatest   An enigma as
menacing as a cancerous growth is also taking its toll in the entire
lake, the seemingly inexorable onslaught of premature aging.

       Three geographical areas are  primarily responsible for the
present condition of  Lake Erie  (Table  1).  These areas, in order  of
decreasing  effect on  the overall quality  of Lake Erie water  are.
 (1)  Detroit. Michigan and its  surrounding municipalities,  iz;
the  Cleveland-Cuyahoga  River basin,  and  (3)  the Maumee River  basin.
Many other  areas have problems  which are  primarily  local;  but
cumulatively,  they  also have a  profound  effect  on the general water
quality.   Table 2 is  a  summary of  the  wasteloads  to the Lake  from the
different  sources.


                                 TABLE 1

       PERCENT  CONTRIBUTIONS OF POLLUTANTS FROM MAJOR AREAS IN THE
                             LAKE ERIE BASIN
                   Detroit and           Cleveland-           Toledo-
 	Southeast Michigan	Akron - Cu yahoga	Maumee  River

 Phosphorus           40.0                   18.6                15.3
 BOD5                 60.3                   11.0                15.5
 Chloride             51.0                   10.6                 4.7
                                    8

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                 TABLE  2

WASTE LOADS TO LAKE KRIF. BASIN WATERS  -  1966
               Pounds/Day

Western Basin
Industrial
Municipal
Rural Runoff
Urban Runoff
Lake Huron outflow
U. S. (undifferentiated)
Canada (undifferentiated)
Subtotal
Central Basin
Industrial
Municipal
Rural Runoff
Urban Runoff
U. S. (undifferentiated)
Canada (undifferentiated)
Subtotal
Eastern Basin
Industrial
Municipal
Rural Runoff
Urban Runoff
U. S. (undifferentiated)
Canada (undifferentiated)
Subtotal
GRAND TOTAL
BOD 5

261,000
632,000


950,000


1,81*3,000

110,700
11*9,300




260,000

160,000
72,1000




232,100
2,335,100
Chlorides

6,200,000
1,060,000
"I 1,600,000

6,500,000 ;

1,1)00,000
16,760,000

i*, 500, ooo
61+6,000
f 1,220,000
J

.1,000,000
7,366,000

280,000
128,000
"\ 291*, ooo
J

500,000
1,202,000
25,328,000
Total
Phosphorus

1* ,000
55,000
13,000
1*,000
20,000

5,000
101,000

1,1*00
27,000
1*,000
1*,000

8,000
5u,UoO

500
l*,ltOO
1,220
760

5^000
ll,8tio
157,280
Suspended
Solids





3,000,000
27,000,000
1,300,000
31,900,000





H5,000,000
50,000,000
95,000,000





1,000,000
6,000,000
7,000,000
133,900,000

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       The waste substances  that are discharged to the lake from
municipal and industrial outfalls, tributaries,  and land drainage are
many; and their effects on water uses are varied.   Those substances
that have the most damaging effects on the total waters of the lake are
phosphorus, carbonaceous oxygen-consuming materials and suspended        ,
solids (sediment).  Phosphorus is the principal  contributor to the   /  /\/ C
       Chlorides and dissolved solids have not reached damaging concen-
trations, but their dramatic increases are indicative of the rate at
which water quality is being degraded.  Many substances such as acid,
oil, cyanide, iron, coliform bacteria, phenol, and other oxygen-
consuming materials exhibit severe effects on water uses in the
localities of the discharge.

       Carbonaceous Oxygen-Consuming Materials - Carbonaceous oxygen-
consuming materials, usually measured by the 5-day biochemical oxygen
demand (BODS) depress the levels of dissolved oxygen.  The immediate
effect is not as pronounced in lakes such as Lake Erie because of its
tremendous oxidative capacity.  Carbonaceous BODc of wastes are most
effectively removed by secondary or tertiary treatment.

       The present and projected daily BOD$ loading for the entire
basin is shown in Figure 4 along with the loading after various degrees
of reduction.  Figure 5 shows projected loadings for each of the sub-
basins.  As this figure indicates, the Detroit area contributes more
BOD- to Lake Erie than all other known sources combined.


       Suspended Solids - Damages to Lake Erie resulting from suspended
matter entering from waste discharges and tributaries are dependent on
the nature of the material.  Suspended matter from municipal discharges
is primarily organic, and its deposition results in enriched bottom muds
or sludge banks.  Effects of these wastes are largely local and can be
corrected by proper treatment.  Suspended matter from certain industries
and the material from tributaries originating as land runoff are largely
inorganic and serve to fill harbors, embayments, ship channels, and the
lake.
                              i
                              ;
       The principal sources of suspended solids discharged to Lake Erie
are the Detroit, Maumee, Cuyahpga, and Grand Rivers which represent a
total of 12,700,000 pounds per day of known discharges.  A significant
portion of the suspended solids of the Detroit River discharges are from
industrial and municipal sources.  The Maumee discharges are largely
silt from land runoff with the greatest quantities being released during
periods of heavy rain and high runoff.  The Cuyahoga and Grand River
(Ohio) discharges are largely a combination of land runoff and from
industrial and municipal wastes.  This load on Cleveland's harbor and
channels results in severe discoloration and the need for frequent
dredging.
                                  10

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                      LAKE  ERIE BASIN
                       (U.S.  PORTION)
TOTAL PROJECTED DAILY BOD5 LOAD AND  EFFECT OF REDUCTION
                    INDUSTRIAL SOURCES
  2,000,000
          19*0
                  1970
                          1980
                                         2000
                                                2010
                      LAKE ERE  BASIN
                        (U.S. PORTION)
TOTAL PROJECTED DALY BOD5 LOAD  AND EFFECT OF REDUCTION
                     MUNICIPAL SOURCES
   9,000,000
   1,000,000 I'
Q
o
CD

CO
O
   100,000
    100,000
    50,000
             CANADIAN LOADING CAN BE EXPECTED TO AVERAGE 20V. OF U.S. LOADING.
           I960
                                                        2020
                             n
FIGURE

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FIGURE 5

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       Chlorides - Lake Huron discharges 6.5 million pounds of chlorides
per day, accounting for 26 percent of the total chloride load to Lake
Erie and the Detroit-Windsor area discharges 9.5 million pounds per day
or 38 percent.  Thus, nearly two-thirds of the chloride load to Lake
Erie enters at the mouth of the Detroit River.  The Grand River (Ohio)
contributes another 3.9 million pounds, or 15 percent, and the Cuyahoga
and Maumee Rivers contribute 1.5 million pounds per day or about 6 percent
of the total to Lake Erie.

       Exclusive of the Lake Huron input, chlorides contributions are
as follows:  industry - 43 percent, municipal wastes - 7 percent, and
street deicing (runoff) - 12 percent.  The remaining 12 percent is
derived from undifferentiated Canadian sources.

       Historical data indicate that the concentration of chloride in
Lake Erie was 7 mg/1 at the beginning of this century.  At that time a
noticeable increase began and in 60 years the concentration has tripled.

       Figure 6 shows the projected chloride loadings by subbasin, and
Figure  7 shows projected total lake loading and the effects of various
degrees of reduction.

       Dissolved Solids - Dissolved solids concentrations at the head
of the St. Clair River average 110 mg/1,at the head of the Detroit River
126 mg/1, and in Lake Erie at Buffalo, New York, 180 mg/1.  These levels
represent daily inputs of 116 million pounds per day to the Niagara River
from Lake Erie.  Most of the increase within Lake Erie actually is derived
from the Detroit area.

       The concentration of dissolved solids in Lake Huron has remained
fairly constant at 110 to 115 mg/1 since 1900; whereas the increase in
Lake Erie as measured at Buffalo in the same period has risen from 115
to 180 mg/1 (FigureS )  If unchecked, the dissolved solids level will
reach 230 mg/1 by 2020.

       The fact that Erie's waters are still useable is due to its
tremendous capacity for dilution and natural purification.  While the
wastes cause problems of lesser degrees, there are now two areas which
are critical, not because of incurability, but because of inattention.
These problems are (l) over-fertilization of the entire lake which is
serious throughout the western basin and along the shore and
(2) bacterial contamination near shore which is most serious in the
vicinity of metropolitan centers.
                                  13

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FIGURE 6

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                90% INPUT-REDUCTION
                 INPUT  (ASSUMED  CONSTANT)
1970
          1980
                    J90
                              2000
                                        2010
                                                 2020
 PROJECTED  CHLORIDE  LOAD  TO  LAKE  ERIE
 AND  LOADS  WITH  VARIOUS  IN-BASIN  LOAD
 REDUCTIONS.
              15
FIGURE 7

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EZO
210
                  LAKE  HURON  INPUT  (ASSUMED  CONSTANT)
140
  1900
            I9ZO
                      1940
                                 I960
                                           I960
                                                     2000
         PROJECTED  DISSOLVED SOLIDS  CONCENTRATION  IN
         LAKE ERIE 8  EFFECT  OF VARIOUS  IN-BASIN  INPUT
         REDUCTIONS.       j
                                                               2020
                          16
FIGURE 8

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    LAKE ENRICHMENT
       Lake Erie is naturally the most productive of the Great Lakes,
meaning that even without the presence of man, it would be in a more
advanced state of fertilization or enrichment.  Proof of this lies in
the quantity and variety of fish which inhabited the lake at the turn
of the century, a result of the high productive capacity of the waters.
At that time, Lake Erie had reached the ideal in its ability to support
a prolific, varied, and balanced aquatic life, while at the same time
providing for all the uses which man might then make of it.

       The ideal level of quality should have held in Lake Erie so that
a change would be practically immeasurable in a man's lifetime.

       Such is not the case.  Since the turn of the century the
population and economic activity turned sharply upward.  With the coming
of many people and the industrial boom a corresponding change in the
pollution level began.  An indication of the increase that began at
this time in the chemical characteristics of Lake Erie is shown in
Figure 9.  Within two generations man has dumped enough fertilizing
refuse into the lake to make the change not only measurable, but to
make it glaringly obvious.  The refuse contains excessive quantities of
every nutrient known to be necessary to biological production, especially
the crucial ones of nitrogen and phosphorus.  These two nutrients are
not being effectively controlled and in fact are increasing at an
alarming rate (see Figure lOandll and Table 3).

       The present inbasin phosphorus load of 132,000 Ibs/day is expected
to increase to 337,000 Ibs/day by 1990, if this waste discharge goes
unchecked.  The phosphorus contribution from within the Lake Erie basin
is composed of 72 perdent from municipal wastes, 17 percent from rural
runoff, 4 percent from industrial wastes and 7 percent from urban runoff.
In municipal wastes, 66 percent of the phosphorus come from detergents.
This one source, detergents, accounts for nearly half of the total
phosphorus load going to the lake from all major sources.  The Detroit
and Maumee Rivers contribute 55 percent of the total load to Lake Erie.

       Much evidence exists to show both directly and indirectly the
state of enrichment of Lake Erie.  Profuse alga growths occur in the
Western basin and along the southern shoreline where nutrient levels
are highest.  For its size, Lake Erie's algae-producing capacity is
among the highest in the world and its rate of algae production is
increasing.  The varieties of algae are changing to those which are more
suitable to highly enriched environments.
                                  IT

-------
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                18
                        FIGURE 9

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                                FIGURE  11

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                         TABLE  3

PRESENT AND PROJECTED PHOSPHORUS DISCHARGES TO LAKE ERIE,
               EXCLUSIVE OF LAKE HURON INPUT
                          Ibs/day
Subbasins
Present Loading
Southeast Michigan
Maumee River Basin
North-Central Ohio
Ore at er-C leveland-
Akron area
Northeast Ohio
Pennsylvania
Western New York
Ontario

Projected 1990 Loading
Southeast Michigan
Maumee River Basin
North-Central Ohio
Greater-Cleveland-
Akron area
Northeast Ohio
Pennsylvania
Western New York
Ontario

Projected 2020 Loading
Southeast Michigan '
Maumee River Basin
North-Central Ohio
Greater-Cleveland-
Akron area
Northeast Ohio
Pennsylvania
Western New York
Ontario
Municipal
Waste

U6.000
9,000
3,800
22,000

1,100
1,1*00
3,000
11,900
98,200

85,000
1 12,000
8,000
1*0,000

3,700
3,100
6,100
21,1+00
179,300

111,000
19,000
17,000
58,000

5,1*00
1+,700
8,600
 1+0,500
Industrial
Waste

3,000
1,000
500
800

100
100
500
unknown
6,000

^,500
1,500
750
1,200

200
180
750
_ 	
9,080

6,000
2,000
1,000
1,600

1+00
270
1,000


Urban
Runoff

3,000
1,000
1,600
2,000

500
110
650
1+50
9,310

1*,500
2,000
2,1+00
3,000

700
160
1,000
810
11+.570

6,000
3,000
3,liOO
1+,000

1,000
220
1,300
1,200
Rural
Runoff

3,000
10,000
2,600
700

750
220
1,000
5,500
23,770

3,000
10,000
2,600
700

700
210
1,000
6,500
2l+,710

3,000
10,000
2,600
700

700
200
1,000
8,000
Total

55,000
21,000
8,500
25,500

2,1+50
1,830
5,150
17,850
137,280

97,000
25,500
13,750
1+1+,900

5,300
3,650
8,850
28,710
227,660

126,000
3!i,000
2l(,000
61t,300

7,500
5,390
11,900
1+9,700
                26H,200
12,270     20,120    26,200  322,790
                             21

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       When these organisms die and sink to the bottom, they decompose,
thereby utilizing the water's life-giving oxygen.   During summer/ temper-
ature^tratification periods in Lake Erie, the oxygen is consumed at a
rate faster than it is replenished, leading to the annual occurrence of
low dissolved oxygen (DO) in bottom waters.  The length of time of
existence of low oxygen levels is also increasing.

       Low DO in turn has changed the aquatic food  chain by killing
off certain bottom dwelling organisms, such as the mayfly, which are
important food for the desirable carnivorous fishes.  Thus, these fishes
are suffering for lack of food, and scavenger type fishes are replacing
them.  Low DO and undesirable habitat are also killing young fish and
fish eggs.  Stated simply, select fishes are vanishing from the lake
because of undesirable alteration of their environment by water pollution.

       Commercial fish catch statistics, gathered by the U. S. Bureau
of Commercial Fisheries, have provided a long record of the relative
abundance of desirable fish species in Lake Erie.   In recent years,
continuing surveys have been introduced by federal and state agencies
on the reproduction phase of the life cycles of fishes and limited
predictions of near-future populations are now possible.

       The sturgeon almost disappeared from catch statistics at about
the turn of the century.  The cisco, once the dominant species of the
commercial catch, experienced a sudden decline in 1926, showed a slight
recovery, and declined to insignificance in 1957.   Whitefish declined
drastically in the commercial catch in 1955.  The walleye began a
drastic decline in 1957, and is still in great distress.  The blue pike,
which formerly produced several million pounds per year, became nearly
extinct in 1958.

       The yellow perch has managed to hold its own, but it also shown
signs of weakening in the commercial catch.  It is the only plentiful
fish remaining of the former many prized varieties.  The smelt is now
commercially exploited and it, along with yellow perch, is sustaining
the commercial fishing industry in Lake Erie.

       Other evidences of over-enrichment are the increasing, problems
of surface algal scums, algal littering of beaches (with a subsequent
decrease in shoreline property values), algae-produced bad taste and
odor in drinking water supplies, and the clogging of intakes by algae.
In spite of this, Lake Erie, even though it contain^ the lowest quality
water of the five Great Lakes, remains a highly satisfactory source of
raw water supply when compared with inland and groundwater supplies.
                                  22

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   NEARSHORE BACTERIAL AND BLIGHT PROBLEMS
       Many bathing beaches in Lake Erie are plagued by pollution
problems.  A danger to health is caused in the nearshore water by
bacterial loading derived primarily from sewage discharges and combined
sewer overflows.  The greatest bacterial problems are found nearest
the metropolitan centers where many beaches are rendered unsafe for
water contact recreation, Table 4.  In fact, even though there is a
high demand for water contact recreation on Lake Erie from its
11,000,000 residents, much of this goes unsatisfied because water
pollution limits the use.

       The nearshore waters of Lake Erie are generally unattractive,
being polluted by debris, silt, and decaying aquatic life and occa-
sionally oily wastes,  Nearshore waters are ordinarily*'very turbid in
all of Lake Erie and in the western basin turbidity may extend from
shore to shore.  Turbidity in Lake Erie is high compared to the other
Great Lakes.  The turbidity is caused by silt washing in from the land,
suspended solids from municipal and industrial wastes, plant life
suspended in the waters, and lake shallowness which lets wave action
stir up bottom muds.  Total silt load to the lake is estimated at
134 million Ibs/day.  The problem of polluted nearshore waters is
compounded by surface currents.  In the Toledo area, an eddy from the
Detroit River causes the accumulation of contaminants along the western
shore.  The prevailing winds move the surface waters in a general
easterly direction over the rest of the lake, and then parallel to the
shore towards1 the Niagara River.

       Harbors in Lake Erie are now characteristically and continuously
foul, unpleasant, and odorous becuase of waste discharges.  Industrial
and municipal discharges at Detroit and Monroe, Michigan; Cleveland,
Ohio; Erie, Pennsylvania; Buffalo, New York, are particularly obnoxious
in this respect.  So much waste is added to major harbors that annual
dredging is required to maintain them.  Up to this time, dredged
material has been dumped into the lake, further adding to the polluted
condition.

       Mid-lake waters, beyond a mile or so from shore, are generally
Ibacterially jScceptable,\ but in many shore locations, the waters are
unfit a great deal of the time.  In general, the most severe contami-
nation fronts metropolitan areas, and the larger the metropolitan area,
the more severe the condition.  The offshore water intakes have generally
provided a good raw water source for municipalities and industry.  There
have been an increasing number of taste, odor and bacterial problems in
recent years.  The control of the discharge of contaminants is necessary
to prevent degradation of the water supplies.  The problem of bacterial
contamination extends up the many tributaries of the lake.  Figure 'Si 12
shows the problem of recreational water use impairment.
                                  23

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                                TABLE 4
BATHING BEACHES ON LAKE ERIE THAT ARE UNSAFE FOR SWIMMING DUE PRIMARILY
              TO BACTERIAL POLLUTION FROM SEWAGE DISCHARGES
MICHIGAN

       Estral Beach

       Maple & Millev!lie Beach

       Sterling State Park

       Stony Point Beach

NEW YORK

       Hamburg

       Silver Creek

       Westfield
OHIO

   Little Cedar Point, Toledo

   Lakeview Park, Lorain

   Century Park, Lorain

   Rocky River Park

   All Cleveland beaches

   Euclid Beach

   Reno Beach, Toledo

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FIGURE 12

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       Sources of bacterial contamination are treated or untreated
sewage discharges, industrial wastes,  combined sewer overflows,  storm
sewer discharges, and general land runoff.  Usually, however,  the most
severe contamination is associated with storm sewer overflow and sewage
discharges although at Sterling State  Park in Michigan  paper  mill
wastes are a significant cause.
                                  26

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                            SUBBASIN AREAS

     SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN
       In the southeastern Michigan basin, the wastes from municipalities,
industry, Federal installations, stormwater overflow, and in some areas
navigation and Dredging, eause the meat eeneepn,  These wagtes include,
organic material, suspended solids, nutrients and bacteria.  These depress
oxygen levels an$ cause sludge beds, bacterial/contamination, and nutrient-
stimulated slime and algal growths.  Figurel3 summarizes the general water
quality situation for this area.
      St.  Clai r River Basi n
       The St. Glair River drains Lake Huron at an avepge rate of 187,000
cfs.  Water leaving Lake Huron is of exceptionally high'-quality and remains
satisfactory in the passage down the St. Glair River.

       The only indication of degradation occurs from occasional high values
of coliform and phenol.  The cause of the high phenols is the petroleum
complex in Canada at Sarnia, Ontario; the coliforms are caused by polluted
water entering the St. Glair River from its tributaries.
      Lake St.  Clair
       Discharges of storm water from the heavily populated Michigan shore-
line and tributary inflow endanger swimmers in the lake.  Metropolitan Beach,
a recreational area, located on the west shore of Lake St. Clair near
Mt. Clemens, Michigan, has had coliform densities occasionally as high as
8,600 organisms/100 ml.
      Clinton  River
       The Clinton River is the major source of pollution in Lake St. Clair.
All sewage treatment plants on the Clinton River are secondary, but some
are inadequately operated or overloaded and a few small areas have no treat-
ment.  This fecal matter and bacterial pollution exclude water contact
recreation.  Most of the major industries on the river have treatment rated
as adequate by the Michigan Water Resources Commission and cause few problems.
                                  27

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               LEGEND
            BACKGROUND (RELATIVELY UNPOLLUTED)


            MODERATE-EXCESSIVE ENRICHMENT


            POLLUTED


            MOSSLV POLLUTED
        AKE

       HURON
                                                 LAKE    ERIE
9    0       8)3   to   fit   30  S> MILCt
                                                 SOUTHEAST MICHIGAN  AREA
                                                  WATER QUALITY SITUATION
                                         28
FIGURE 13

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       The City of Pontiac's two sewage treatment plant effluents cause
severe pollution problems in the upper Clinton River.  From the City of
Rochester all the way to the mouth, the lower river is also polluted by
inadequately treated wastes from numerous cities.  Red Run, a notoriously
polluted Clinton River tributary, traverses a heavily populated area of
suburban Detroit and receives large quantities of raw sewage through
discharges from overloaded sewer systems.
      Detroit River


       The water quality of the Detroit River is discussed in detail in
the "Report on Pollution of the Detroit River, Michigan Water of Lake
Erie, and Their Tributaries," by the Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration.

       Since the study of the Detroit River, the Michigan Water Resources
Commission has obtained stipulations or agreements with 23 individual
municipal and industrial polluters to facilitate control of their effluents
to recommended levels by 1970.

       More than 1600 MOD of waste water flow into the Detroit River  ,,
0.100 MGD from industry and 540 MOD from municipal sewage) and change the
Detroit River from a basically clean stream at its head to a polluted one
as it enters Lake Erie.

       The City of Detroit's main sewage treatment plant, serving more than
90 percent of the people in the Detroit area contributes 95 percent of the
municipal waste to the Detroit River and is also the major source of sus-
pended solids, phenols, oil, inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and biochemical
oxygen demand material in the river.  Overflow from combined sewers in
Detroit and its suburbs, carrying both stormwater and raw sewage, contributes
greatly to the pollution load in the river.

       In the upper Detroit River, the Great Lakes Steel Company and the
Allied Chemical Corporation are the major sources of industrial wastes.
The Ford Motor Company is the principal contributor of inorganic wastes
to the Rouge River, and the Scott Paper Company is the principal contributor
of organic wastes.  Downriver industries contributing significant quantities
of wastes are the Great Lakes Steel Corporation, the McLouth Steel Corpora-
tion, Pennsalt Chemical Corporation, and the Wyandotte Chemical Corporation.

       Two municipal water intakes, the City of Detroit's Fighting Island
supply and particularly that of Wyandotte, are endangered by the high
bacterial counts of the river and the rising chloride levels indicate
potential future problems for industrial water usage.
                                   29

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       Pollution in the lower Detroit River makes all forms of water
contact sports hazardous.  Dissolved oxygen levels are approaching the
danger point in the part of the river entering Lake Erie.  The low DO
levels together with bottom sludge deposits, oils, and toxic materials
threaten fish, migratory birds, and other wildlife.  In order to maintain
navigation, extensive annual dredging is required in the Rouge River and
ai the rneuih e the Detroit
     Huron River
       The Huron River in Michigan empties into Lake Erie south of Detroit.
Its source is a series of recreational lakes in southeast Michigan and
because of this and ground water storage, flows during drought periods are
sustained.  The average discharge is approximately 4-45 cfsj the once-in-
10 year, 7 day low flow is 30 cfs.  Water quality in the Huron River and
lakes upstream from Ann Arbor is reasonably good and is used by numerous
bathers in the summer and ice fishermen in the winter.  The Cities of Ann
Arbor and Flat Rock use the Huron River for water supply.  Eight secondary
sewage plants and three primary plants within the watershed serve a popula-
tion of 132,000 of a total 24.7,000.  The primary plants are located at
Dexter, Flat Rock, and Rockwood.  Most of the area has separate sewer
systems.  Below the secondary sewage plant at Ann Arbor, the river begins
to show signs of degradation and remains unsatisfactory the rest of the
way to Lake Erie.

       This is noticed in a series of manmade impoundments farther down-
stream where the lakes are continually choked with algae being fed by the
nutrients from Ann Arbor and other sewage treatment plants.
                             i
       Bacterial problems exist in most of the Huron River from Ann Arbor
to the mouth during periods of heavy storm runoff and non-chlorination of
sewage effluents and are-inestsevere- below Ann Arbor, in the Ypsilanti
area and the Flat Rock-Rockwood area.

       Four industries in the watershed have unsatisfactory treatment and
the effect of their wastes can be observed in the river.  Longworth Plating
Company at Chelsea discharges toxic compounds.  The General Motors Corpora-
tion, Fisher Body Division, discharges a variety of waste materials (oils,
toxic compounds, and sewage) to Willow Run, a small tributary of the Huron
River.  Peninsula Paper Company in Ypsilanti discharges large quantities
of oxygen consuming wastes and Huron Valley Steel Corporation at Belleville
does not adequately control suspended solids.
                                  30

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       River Raisin
       The River Raisin watershed had a I960 population of 131,000.  Four
        to&ge ire&ti&eirb feletfrSS serve S9j4?9 peefiej flVfe see'enaary plants
serve 32,563 people, and 68,958 are without puHif? pewer-age
       The River Raisin discharges an average of 714- cfs to Lake Erie.  It
rises in a series of small recreational lakes which partly sustain its
flow in drought periods.  The water quality in the river upstream from
Manchester is generally good and the recreational lakes are safe for
bathing.  Above Monroe, the river is able to absorb most of the wastes
dumped into it without creating serious impairment of existing water uses.
Concentrations of phosphorus sufficient to cause algal blooms are noticed
throughout the river below Manchester.

       In the Monroe area the river becomes grossly polluted.  This area
was included in the Detroit River-Lake Erie enforcement conferences
because of the severe effect the lower few miles of the River Raisin has
on recreational uses of the Lake Erie shoreline.  In its last three miles,
the river receives the primary sewage plant effluent of Monroe (serving
22,000 persons), the effluents from five paper mills with a BOD population
equivalent of 225,000, and 1,000 Ibs/day of cyanides from the Ford Motor
Company.  These sources are under orders of the Michigan Water Resources
Commission to stop polluting.

       The Brest Bay beach area, a series of unsewered communities with a
population of 4-, 000, just north of the River Raisin mouth, discharges
septic tank wastes to Brest Bay and the effect of these wastes is intensi-
fied when heavy rains fall.

       The lower Raisin River is frequently devoid of dissolved oxygen,
resulting in a continuous state of putrefaction during the summer months.
Consequently, the lower Raisin River can only be used now for waste dis-
posal and navigation, and deposits of settleable solids at the mouth even
interfere with ship movement to the extent that annual dredging is required
to remove bottom material.

       The combined effect of the City of Monroe municipal wastes, paper
mill wastes (containing coliform bacteria in the 100,000/100 ml level) and
the Brest Bay beach area discharge have resulted in the unsafe bathing
conditions at Sterling State Park.  Pollution-stimulated algae growths have
forced Monroe to move its water intake point to avoid unpleasant tastes
and odors in the water.
                                  31

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    MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
       Industry, cities, and agriculture are all major sources of wastes
      pollute ifeny df the basin's BlI'StoBi  The effluents ffoia the Cities'
sewage treatment plants seriously depress the peoeiving water-a sf e^ygen
and contribute to the algal growth in many areas.  Industrial waste dis-
charges also depress the basin's rivers of oxygen, cause taste and odor
problems in domestic water supplies, and interfere with the esthetic
enjoyment of the basin's water in a number of areaBt  The runoff from
agricultural areas causes turbidity in waters of the area, requires
extensive dredging of the shipping channel, and helps to produce the
abundant algal growths.

       A population growth projection made by project economists indicates
that the Maumee Basin's population will increase from 1,14.0,000 to 1,600,000
in 1980 and 2,700,000 by 2020.  Industrial activity is also projected to
increase by a substantial quantity in the basin over the same period.  It
is apparent that the existing degraded conditions will become much worse
unless extensive control measures are taken now and continued into the
future.

       Figure 14 depicts water quality in the Maumee Biver Basin.
      St. Marys  River
       A pollution problem occurs on the St. Marys River below the City of
St. Marys, caused by the discharges of the St. Marys sewage treatment plant,
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Beatrice Foods Company, and Weston Paper
Manufacturing Company.

       At Willshire, Ohio, a large dump along the St. Marys River just above
the Indiana line spills garbage, trash, and other deleterious refuse into
the St. Marys River.

       Another pollution problem occurs downstream from the Decatur, Indiana
secondary treatment plant.  The loading from the plant is relatively low,
but the river cannot accommodate these loads during the low flow months.
      Upper  Maumee  River
       The Upper Maumee River varies in water quality from extensively
polluted in the upper reaches below Fort Wayne to enriched above the Defiance
area.


                                  32

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N
                                                                             LAKE
                                                                             /?/
                                                           SCALE M MILES
          LEGEND
    MMMUM DISSOLVED OXYGEN M



        Illllllll   1.1-3.0

        MIHUIWIMHI   3.1-4.0

        :WAV.   4.1 A OVCH
                                                      LLU-
                                                                        *oft
GENERAL   WATER  QUALITY
 MAUMEE   RIVER  BASIN
                                        33
                   FIGURE

-------
       Bacterial, dissolved oxygen and enrichment problems occur in the
upper Maumee primarily caused by municipal wastes from the Fort Wayne area.
High concentrations of phenols occur below Fort Wayne, with a maximum con-
centration 12.6 miles below the Fort Wayne sewage treatment plant.  The
source of these phenols is the General Electric Company which discharges
through the Fort Wayne sewage treatment plant, and the Essex Wire Company.
In winter months, phenols persist for many miles downstream adding to the
extensive taste and odor problems in the City of Defiance's water supply.
       Auglaize River Basin


       The main stem of the Auglaize River above the confluence with the
Ottawa River is of good quality except in a stretch below Wapakoneta.  In
the lower areas, the Auglaize is severely degraded by wastes entering from
the Ottawa and Blanchard Rivers.  At Wapakoneta, the Auglaize receives the
effluent from the sewage treatment plant, two packing companies, a Pepsi-
Cola bottling plant, and the Monarch Battery Company.  The stream bottom
which is scoured clean of silt and organic deposits during the spring becomes
covered with black, septic, malodorous sludge by July.  Below this point,
the Auglaize River recovers and for over 50 miles, gives little evidence
of organic pollution, although algae and other aquatic plants prevail.

       As the Ottawa River nears Lima, its water quality is degraded by
the effluent from septic tanks and agricultural runoff.  All the flow,in
this stretch of the river during low flow months is utilized by Lima to
augment its water supply.

       Below Lima, the low flow in the Ottawa River is composed entirely
of the effluent from Lima's secondary sewage treatment plant, discharge
from Sohio's chemical and petrochemical plants and refinery, and phenol
contaminated effluent from Republic Creosote.

       Severe bacterial pollution exists along the Ottawa River.  The stream
bottom is rock and shale which in the spring is scoured clean of any silt
or sludge.  During low flow, a black, oily sludge with a strong petrochemical
odor accumulates over the stream's bottom.  Below Lima, the Ottawa River
usually shows no signs of recovery.  The only aquatic life are a very
sparse population of sludgeworms and midge larvae near the mouth.  The
complete absence of attached algae and bottom-dwelling animals indicate
not only severe oxygen deficits, but the presence of highly toxic chemicals.

       The water quality in the Blanchard River varies from good to ex-
cessively polluted.  Samples collected reveal two critical areas.  The
first is immediately below the City of Findlay's sewage treatment plant
where sewage solids have been observed floating in the water.

-------
       The other area is below Ottawa, Ohio, where in addition to the
municipal effluent, the Buckeye Sugar Company discharges high oxygen
demanding wastes.
             Maumoe


       The water quality of the Lower Maumee River (confluence of the
Tiffin River to the navigation channel) is moderately to severely polluted.
Taste and odor problems are prevalent throughout most of the year in the
water supplies at Defiance, Napoleon, Bowling Green, and other cities
that use this source.  At Defiance, during periods of low temperatures
and ice cover, problems are encountered with phenolic compounds which
impart a medicinal taste and odor enhanced by chlorination.  During spring
runoff, the water has an intense earthy or musty taste.

       The taste and odor problems at Napoleon are similar to those in
Defiance with the exception of additional interference from ammonia com-
pounds from the Auglaize River.  Campbell:Soup Company has reported
excessive taste and odor problems at times in their raw water supply, but
they are able to remove it in their extensive treatment plant.  Large con-
centrations of ammonia at the plant have created peak chlorine demands.
The company reports that the quality of its raw water supply has deterio-
rated in recent years.

       The main sources of ammonia, nitrates and phenols to the waters in
this area are surface runoff from agricultural sources and the industrial
discharges from General Electric, Essex Wire, Sohio, and Johns-Manville
Fiberglass.

       Below the City of Defiance, Ohio, another pollution problem occurs
in the Maumee caused by the addition of the highly polluted Auglaize River
and the Defiance sewage treatment plant effluent.

       Municipal wastes are also discharged to the lower Maumee by communi-
ties of Perrysburg and Waterville.  Perrysburg has only primary,treatment
while Waterville has a secondary plant.
       Toledo Channel,  Harbor, and Lakefront
       Lake level fluctuations have been found to affect the Maumee River
as far as 15 miles upstreamj therefore, pollution which enters the Maumee
at one point in this lake-affected area may degrade the water quality for
some distance upstream as well as downstream.
                                  35

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       The waters in the channel and lakefront areas are severely polluted.
Very high bacterial densities were found confirming the health hazard to
persons exposed to these waters.

       Sediment is a problem in the navigation channel and it must be
continuously dredged.  The suspended sediment is extremely fine and stays
in suspension for long periods of time.  The Maumee discharges over
2 million tons of sediment a year to Lake Erie.
                                  36

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      NORTH CENTRAL OHIO


       The principal cities are Lorain, Elyria, and Sandusky, "but by 2020 it
is projected that the entire shoreline region from Toledo to Cleveland will be
a continuous population unit.

       Most of the area's major waterways are either polluted or enriched.
Figure |5  shows the present water quality situation during critical flow periods.
        Portage River
       Dissolved oxygen deficits are the major pollutional problems in this
basin.  Throughout a large part of the year, algae problems exist on the lower
portions of most tributaries.

       Cities such as McComb, North Baltimore, Fostoria, Bowling Green,
Gibsonburg, and Bradher are located on small tributaries which have virtually
no flow for over half the year.  Therefore, no capacity exists for absorbing
wastes and the receiving waters become septic.  Areas such as Elmore, Pemberville,
and Woodville, presently do not even have septic tanks, but discharge their raw
sewage directly to the Portage River through misused storm drains.

       The Seneca Wire and Manufacturing and Swift and Company, both located in
 lostoria, discharge oil, color, metals, BOD, and solids.  The river is often
an^oily-turbid-white and rust color within Fostoria.  Two other industries,
Foster Duck Farm and Hirzel Canning Co. require reduction of their effluent BOD.
         Sandusky  River


       The Sandusky River, Lake Erie's second largest tributary, has the dubious
distinction of being polluted from its headwaters to where it enters Lake Erie.
Sixty percent of all reported fish kills in the North Central area occur in the
Sandusky basin.  With the present waste treatment and storm runoff provided by
municipalities and industries the river is never allowed to completely recover
before it receives further waste loadings.  Algal growths are prolific through-
out this system.  The Lower Sandusky River and Harbor is bacteriologically
polluted.

       The Northern Ohio Sugar Co., the Pioneer Rubber Co., and the Pennsylvania
Railroad all contribute significant wastes to this basin.  Oil slicks are found
below Crestline and in Fremont.
                                      37

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FIGURE 15

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       Dumps for trash and garbage are common along the banks, and in places
the streams are clogged with logs and debris.

       Since the Sandusky is used almost throughout its length as a municipal
vater supply, and since numerous areas are suitable for whole or partial body
contact recreation, a major effort is necessary to remove existing health hazards.


          Huron River


       Through the majority of its course the Huron River and its tributaries
are of fair to good water quality.  Pollution problems exist below Willard,
Munroeville, and Norwalk, and in the City of Huron.  This degraded water quality
is mostly from inadequately treated sewage, except at Willard where industrial
wastes are also important.  The cities of Plymouth and North Fairfield have a
less critical pollution situation, but their effluents do produce algae growths.

       Both bacteriological and biological problems exist below most built-up
areas near the lake.  In the lake-affected portion, siltation and local waste
sources degrade the waters.  Oil slicks from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
yards at Willard are at times found all the way to the lake-affected area.  The
Clevite Corporation at Milan discharges wastes containing heavy metals, acids,
and solids.
          VermiI ion River
       Except for several of its tributaries and the lake-affected portion the
Vermilion River has good water quality.  There are only three municipalities
which discharge significant wastes to the Vermilion River; these are Greenwich,
New London, and the City of Vermilion.  In times of low flow a dissolved oxygen
deficit exists in all three of these areas.  Below these locations and at Wakeman
and Birmingham nuisance algae conditions exist.
          Black River
       Below Lodi and Grafton on the East Branch moderate enrichment is caused
by the discharge from treatment plants.  In its lower reach it is completely
degraded by septic tank and other wastes as it enters Elyria.  The Buckeye
Pipeline Co. has had several breaks in its transmission lines across this area,
spilling oil to the waters.
                                     39

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       Wellington and LaGrange pollute two small tributaries to the West
Branch of the Black River.  The City of Oberlin's discharge to Plum Creek also
affects the main stem of the West Branch.  Between Oberlin and the mouth of
the Black River, "biological conditions typical of a polluted stream are found.
Numerous fish kills have occurred in this area.  The General Motors Co.,
Ternstedt Division, and the Republic Steel Co., Steel & Tube Division contribute
       The main stem of the Black River is polluted by the / wastes discharged to
the two branches -and-by the Elyria waste treatment plan t| ("septic tanks in
Vincent, North Ridgeville, Avon, and Elyria, and the discharges from U. S, Steel's
Tubular Operations in Lorain.  From Elyria to Lake Erie the river is at times
depleted of oxygen, covered with oil slicks, particularly in Lorain, and multi-
colored from industrial and other wastes.  Upstream the rivers are green with
algae and often covered with the scum of aquatic plants.  Several dumps are
located along the river's banks and debris choke its flow.  In the late summer,
the entire flow in the river is from waste discharges.
         SmaI I  Tributaries


       The small tributaries discharging direct to Lake Erie vary in water
quality from excellent to grossly polluted.  Particularly in the Sandusky,
Amherst, and Sheffield-Avon areas, heavy pollution is in evidence.  This pollu-
tion not only causes local oxygen and bacteriological problems, but it also
interferes with the use of nearby bathing beaches where the streams enter the
lake.

       The City of Bellevue is a special case in that it discharges untreated
domestic and industrial wastes to underground caverns.  The ground water in
this and the downstream area is heavily polluted.

       The five major industries discharging to small tributaries are Bechtel-
McLaughlin, Central Soya, G. E. Bellevue Lamp Plant, Hirzel Canning, Lake Erie
Canning and the Norfolk & Western Railroad.  These industries discharge BOD,
COD, oil, solids, chrome, etc.
         Direct to  Lake Erie
       High recreational use is made of a number of sections of the lakefront,
Most noticeable of these are Cedar Point, Kelleys and the Bass Islands, and
East Harbor State Park.

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       The beaches immediately adjacent to Toledo are polluted by the Maumee
River, storm and combined sewer overflows, and the effluent and bypassing from
the Toledo treatment plant.  The county health department does not recommend
swimming at any of the beaches in Lucas County except at Crane Creek State Park.

       The Lorain City Health Department has recommended that Lakeview Park and
Century Park beaches be closed due to high coliform concentrations.  The Lorain
County Health Department recommends against swimming in the Sheffield Lake-Avon
Lake area.  Near river and stream mouths high pollution is expected.  Enteric
pathogens were isolated from the lower sections of all major rivers in this area
with the exception of the Portage.

       The two major industries discharging directly to the lake are the Cleveland
Electric Illuminating Co. (solids), and the U. S. Gypsum Co. (BOD, color, and
solids).
        GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA


       The Greater Cleveland-Akron Area covers 1,^90 square miles and includes
the Rocky, Cuyahoga, and Chagrin Rivers and several minor streams.  The popula-
tion of Cleveland and Akron is 876,000 and 290,000 respectively, and the total
population in the area is presently 2,270,000.  It is projected to increase to
k,200,000 by 1990 and to 6,000,000 by 2020.  Cleveland is one of the great steel
producing and fabricating areas in the country and Akron is the country's main
supplier of rubber.

       Figure  16depicts the present water quality of the Rocky, Cuyahoga, and
Chagrin Rivers.
          Rocky River


       The present water quality in most parts of the Rocky River system is
degraded.  The reason there are not more major problems is because of the steep
slope and, therefore, high reaeration rate of this watercourse.  The major
sources of pollution are the many small municipalities which dot its course.
The river contains high BOD and total coliform concentrations below most sewer
outfalls.  Excessive algal growths occur throughout its course and high turbidity
and sediment problems exist in many locations.  In the summer, the stream bottom
is covered with rotting masses of algae which are unsightly and produce foul odors.

       The West Branch of Rocky River receives the discharge from five major treat-
ment plants and from a number of small package plants.  There are several dumps

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N
;;:;;;; BACKGROUND (RELATIVELY UNPOLLUTED}

J-*. MODERATE-EXCESSIVE ENRICHMENT

   POLLUTED

   GROSSLY POLLUTED


       SCALE  IN  MILES
                                     GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON  AREA
                                        WATER  QUALITY  SITUATION
                                                                FXOWRE 16

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along the stream banks and flood plains in the Columbia Station area and
numerous septic tanks and misused storm drains which pollute the waters in
Olmsted Palls.  The City of Olmsted Palls has been tinder orders from the Ohio
Water Pollution Control Board for several years to treat their wastes, and has
recently moved to remedy this situation.
                ?
its municipal water supply.  The reservoir and nearby Wallace Lake are also used
for swimming, boating, and fishing.  The East Branch flows through Cleveland's
Metropolitan Park from near the Cuyahoga County line to its confluence with the
West Branch.  Extensive recreational use is made of this scenic area.

       Six municipal waste treatment plants discharge treated sewage to the river
within this reach.  These discharges contribute organic wastes and nutrients to
the river.  Excessive nuisance algal growths are produced by these effluents and
by septic tank effluents.  Coliform counts show that a potential health hazard
exists for visitors to the park.  The extensive algal blooms cause taste and
odor problems in Berea's water supply.  Such algal growths are also offensive
to recreational use of the river.

       Hinckley Lake is extensively used for swimming, boating, and fishing,
but is adversely affected by nutrients and sediments.  The Cleveland Metropolitan
Park Board has had to perform extensive dredging on this lake to maintain depth.
The source of this sediment is mainly from highway construction and subdivision
development, and in the past from the testing grounds of the Cleveland Tank
Plant.  In new contracts being let, the Ohio Department of Highways now includes
provisions which require the prevention, control, and active abatement of pollu-
tion during construction.

       The discharge from the Berea sewage treatment plant reduces the oxygen
content of the receiving waters to near zero in the summer.  These anaerobic
conditions produce foul odors in the East Branch which make part of the park
esthetically undesirable.  This problem has also occurred below Middleburg
Heights which in part is served by inadequate septic tanks.

       The main stem of the Rocky River flows entirely in Cleveland's Metro-
politan Park.  The Cities of Lakewood, Brook Park, and Middleburg Heights, and
the Astoria Plating Co. discharge wastes to this area of the stream.  Near the
mouth tof Rocky River, several small boat harbors, yacht clubs, marinas, and
boat launching facilities exist.  The water quality in this area is seriously
degraded at low flows andr^to-mauy instances, contains disease causing organisms.
           Cuyahoga  River


       The waters of the Cuyahoga River Basin are seriously degraded in quality

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in many sections.  The effects of pollution are particularly evident below
Kent, Stow, and Akron, and in Cleveland.  All water uses in these areas both
actual and potential,  are influenced by this pollution.

       The first major source of pollution enters the Cuyahoga River at Break-
neck Creek (Congress Lake Outlet).  This creek is degraded by the discharge or
bypassing of Ravenna's sewage treatment plant and the numerous businesses, motels,
and homes in this area.  Below Breakneck Creek, during low flow, the river is
colored gray-brown with an abundance of aquatic plants along the shoreline and
floating algae on the surface.  These are indicative of the nutrients added by
Ravenna's discharge and the inadequately treated wastes from the other sources.

       Above the Kent treatment plant, the discharge from Lamson & Sessions Co.
enters the river.  This discharge is reddish and has a high oil content.  A
bridge abutment at this point is stained red from the wastes and the stream bank
is oily.

       Below Kent, the river deteriorates to such an extent that only sludge-
worms, midge larvae, leeches, and pulmonate snails can be found.

       Firestone Tire and Rubber Co., General Tire Co., B. P. Goodrich Co.,
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Tire Division, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.,
Aerospace Division, and Diamond Salt Co., in Akron, Ohio, all discharge wastes
to the Little Cuyahoga River which seriously degrade its water quality.

       During low flow the odor imparted to the receiving waters can be detected
as far downstream as Peninsula.  The wastes from the four rubber plants contain
color, odor, oils, solids, complex organics, high temperature, and oxygen demanding
materials.  The discharge from the Aerospace Division of Goodyear contains heavy
metals, cyanides, and other toxic materials.  Diamond Salt Co. discharges wastes
containing chlorides to the Ohio Canal.  They also discharge large concentrations
of chlorides to the Akron treatment plant which cannot treat this waste.

       Below, as in many areas above Akron, the river is often blocked with trees,
brush, and junk.  There are dumps along the river at Independence, Boston Mills,
Jaite, Akron and other towns.

       The waste materials discharged from the Akron area are noticeable even
in the lower sections of the Cuyahoga above the navigation channel.  Numerous
anaerobic sludgebanks exist along the river banks throughout this reach.  When-
ever any appreciable fall occurs in the river, detergent foam is produced which
gives the river the appearance of "white water."

       The first major waste entering the Cuyahoga in the Cleveland area is from
Tinkers Creek, which contains the wastes of the Cities of Streetsboro, Twinsburg,
Solon, Bedford Heights, Bedford, and Walton Hills.  Master Anodizer, Weathertite,
and other industries also discharge to this creek.  Tinkers Creek is degraded
throughout most of its course by wastes from these sources.

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       Heavily polluted Big Creek enters the lower Cuyahoga just above
the navigation channel, carrying wastes from the Bailey Wallpaper Co.,
Cuyahoga Meat Co., E. W. Perry Screw Co., and Ford Motor Co.

       The oil content of the bottom muds increases within the Cleveland
industrial area.  The extremely high concentrations in the muds near the
mouth of Big Creek indicate It aa a major source of oil pollution.

       The major source of municipal pollution to the Lower Cuyahoga is
the Cleveland Southerly Sewage Treatment Plant, which discharges an average
of 80 mdg of wastes.  Five times in the last five years there has been a
break in the main interceptor sewer to this plant.  This break has resulted
in the discharge of billions of gallons of raw sewage to the Cuyahoga.

       In the Cleveland industrial complex, the water quality becomes very
poor and remains so until the river disperses along the lakeshore.  Sixteen
industries, an undetermined number of storm water overflows, and three
creeks discharge into this section of the river.  Oil scum and lack of
turbulence compound the effects of pollution and the oxygen content often
drops to zero.  Studies conducted in this reach revealed lU different
species of disease causing organisms.  The major wastes discharged in
this section are solids, acid, phenol, oil, iron, sulfates, and heavy
metals.

       The major industries discharging wastes to this lower reach of the
Cuyahoga River are:  Republic Steel, U. S. Steel, E. I. DuPont, Jones &
Laughlin Steel, and Harshaw Chemical.
      Chagrin  River
       Except for reaches near the cities of Chagrin Falls, Willoughby,
and Eastlake, the water quality of the Chagrin River is presently good to
excellent.

       During periods of low flow, the Chagrin River above Chagrin Falls
is completely degraded by waste materials discharged by the Chase Bag Co.
The water below Chase's effluent is highly colored and is oxygen deficient.
Sediment and sludge banks are also prevalent.  The pooled water behind the
low head dam above the falls presently acts as a treatment lagoon for these
wastes.  This pooled area is severly degraded with no fish present, and
produces excessive odors in the late summer.

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       The effluent from the City of Chagrin Falls sewage treatment plant
degrades the river for approximately 2 miles below the City, but the most
polluted stretch of the river exists near the mouth caused by wastes from
inadequate sewers in the Willoughby and Eastlake areas.
      Lakefront
       The major pollutant in the Greater Cleveland area lakefront with an
immediate effect on the area's water quality is microbiological organisms.
Unlike many cities which are able to rid themselves of their wastes by
discharging them to a nearby river which carries them out of the area,
Cleveland's wastes are discharged at its own front door.

       Only Huntington Park outside the western city limits is generally
within the accepted level for full body contact recreation.  Even though
all bathing beaches within the Cleveland city limits are microblologically
polluted far in excess of the recommended limits for full body contact
recreation, the Cities of Cleveland and Rocky River still do not prohibit
swimming in these areas.

       The effluent from the following sewage treatment plants contribute
significant amounts of microbial pollution to the shoreline region:  Rocky
River, Lakewood, Cleveland Westerly, Cleveland Southerly, Cleveland Easterly,
Euclid, and Willoughby-Eastlake  Besides their microbiological content,
the wastes from these seven plants contain a BOD loading with a population
equivalent of over 500,000.

       Other major sources of pollution are the numerous combined sewers
and storm sewer overflows along the lakefront and tributaries which during
period of rainfall discharge raw sewage to the area.  Even during periods
of several weeks of no rain, raw sewage from overflows of the combined
sewers is observed along the shoreline between the Guyahoga and Chagrin
Rivers.  These dry weather discharges are caused mainly by the overloading
of sewers in the central city area.

       Debris, color, suspended solids, oxygen-consuming materials, oil,
odor, and nutrients also cause problems along the lakefront.  The dis-
colored water and floating debris which hang along the shoreline, and
particularly behind the Federal Breakwater, reduces the esthetic value.
Discarded lumber, tree limbs, sewage, metal cans, paper products, dead fish,
old car bodies, oil slicks, grease, and scum have been observed.  The lumber
and tree limbs are also a navigation hazard to boaters, since these materials
tend to collect in the small boat harbors as well as behind the Federal
Breakwater.  The sources of the debris and waste are dumps, industries,
municipal treatment plants, storm water overflows, stream bank erosion,
and dredging.

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   NORTHEASTERN OHIO AREA
       The Northeastern Ohio area drains 1,04.0 square miles in Ohio and 170
square Mls in Pennsylvania i   It extends 53 miles along the I&ke Erie shore-
line and includes the Qpand f&vep, Asfrfeateula 83-Vep, and QgHRpau^ feeefc
       These streams flow through rural areas except near Lake Erie where
the larger urban areas are located such as Ashtabula (25,449),  Painesville
(16,116) and Gonneaut (10,557).

       Northeastern Ohio is a major industrial area.  Two of Ohio's seven
salt plants which account for half of the state's salt production are located
in this area.  The large salt deposits have attracted many chemical indus-
tries, which are now predominant.
     Grand River
       In the lower stretch, the Grand River is one of the most chemically
polluted streams in the Lake Erie Basin due to the extremely high solids
load discharged by the Diamond Alkali Company.  Occasionally, the river is
brightly colored with hues ranging from bright green and yellow to black.
The green and yellow colors result from the chemical discharges while the
black color is attributed to fly ash discharges.

       The Diamond Alkali Company, which has several outfalls to the Grand
River, discharges approximately 6.5 million pounds of dissolved solids and
4 million pounds per day of chlorides.  The chloride discharge is 15 per-
cent of the total lake input.  For all practical purposes, this is being
discharged entirely from -the overflew of the waste settling basin.

       In addition to the large chemical waste discharges, the lower reach
of the Grand River receives the inadequately treated effluent of the
Painesville and Fairport sewage treatment plants and secondary effluent
from Chardon and Jefferson.

       The A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company located in the municipality
of Grand River discharges soybean processing wastes directly to the Grand
River.

       Microbiological problems also prevail in the lower reaches of the
Grand River.  During periods of rain, much organic matter is carried into
the storm sewers and is discharged to the streams without any treatment.
Bacterial pollution also occurs in the stream during dry weather.  This can
be attributed to the unsewered areas of Grand River and Painsville North-
east as well as inadequate disinfection procedures at the Painsville and
Fairport sewage treatment plants.

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     Astabula River
       The Ashtabula water quality varies from very good in the upper
reaches to polluted in the lower reaches.  The water quality in the har-
bor area and navigational portion of the river is degraded by pollution
from vessels and corresponding dock activities and unsewered residential
areas.  Definite bacterial contamination exists in the harbor.

       Fields Brook, a small tributary near the mouth of the Ashtabula
Eiver, carries wastes from a large industrial complex outside Ashtabula
into the lake-affected portion of the River.  The industries are primarily
chemical industries whose effluents contain both organic and inorganic wastes.
The effect of Fields Brook on the Ashtabula River is reduced because lake
waters dilute the constituents which are discharged into the river.

       The waters of Fields Brook are normally milky white from wastes of
the Cabot Titania Corporation plants.  The color is caused by small amounts
of titanium dioxide, which is used as a white color base for paint and
paper.  Another contributor of high suspended solids is the Reactive Metals,
Inc. - Metals Reduction Plant.  A storm sewer, which discharges the wastes
of several industries into Fields Brook, receives large loads of suspended
solids from Detrex Chemical Industries, Inc. - Chlorinated Solvents Plants,
and Reactive Metals, Inc. - Sodium and Chlorine Plant.  In addition to the
discoloration problem, there is a strong chemical or medicinal odor that
is always present.
     Conneaut Creek
       The water quality of the upper reaches of Conneaut Creek above
Springboro, Pennsylvania is good.

       Conneautville, Pennsylvania, a municipality of 1,200 (i960 popula-
tion), contributes nutrients as well as bacterial pollution to Conneaut
Creek.  Although this municipality has several storm sewers, it does not have
a sewage treatment plant.  The Corps of Engineers in a flood control study
reported the discharge of raw sewage into Conneaut Creek from three sewer
pipes in Conneautville.  Most of the sewage from Conneautville receives
minimal treatment in septic tanks.

       Below Conneautville, Conneaut Creek has very little flow for dilu-
tion of waste discharges in the summer months.  Because of this low flow,
small waste loads have a degrading effect on the stream in this location.

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       At Springboro, Pennsylvania, the water quality of Conneaut Creek
becomes seriously degraded due to wastes tributary inflow from the Albro
Packing Company and the effluents of many septic tanks.  Sludge deposits
are found on the bank and beds of Conneaut Creek and throughout the entire
length of the unnamed tributary.

       The water quality of Conneaut Creek is very good as it flows across
the Pennsylvania-Ohio line.

       Conneaut Creek becomes turbid as it flows through the City of Conneaut,
Ohio, a condition caused by dredging operations just upstream from the navi-
tation channel.  Dredged materials have been deposited along the east bank
of Conneaut Creek for about 100 feet.  Behind these deposits is a dumping
area which may adversely affect water quality in Conneaut Creek during the
high flow season.

       A large storage area for the Pittsburgh-Conneaut Docking Company is
across the creek from the dump and dredging deposits.  Large slugs of coal
have spilled into Conneaut Creek. According to the Ohio Division of Wild-
life,  there could be an adverse effect on fish if this spill-over occurs
with any frequency.  Drainage through the stored coal may also have a
degrading effect on the water quality, of Conneaut Creek.

       Near the mouth of Conneaut Creek in the lake affected portion of
the stream, the Conneaut sewage treatment plant discharges inadequately
treated wastes.  Conneaut Creek in this stretch is overenriched as evi-
denced by the abundant growths of algae.
   PENNSYLVANIA AREA
       The streams of Pennsylvania that flow to Lake Erie are generally
small and, except for those in Greater Erie, pass through relatively
unpopulated areas.
     SmalI  Tributaries
       Elk Creek, the largest of the Pennsylvania tributaries, drains 100
square miles and receives discharges from two sewage treatment plants,
Lake City and Girard.  Elk Creek is classified by the Pennsylvania Health
Department as a "complete treatment stream," which means that all munici-
pal and industrial waste discharges to the stream have a minimum of at
least adequate secondary treatment.  The Girard sewage treatment plant
does not meet this requirement and has been placed under orders by the
Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board.  The Lake City plant also discharges
inadequately treated wastes to Elk Creek.

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       Another water quality problem in KLk Greek is caused by the dis-
charges from the Gunnison Brothers Tannery located in Girard Township and
discharging to Brandy Run, a tributary of ELk Creek.  Although this discharge
is quite small, the flow in the receiving stream is also small, especially
in the late summer months.

       The greatest pollution problems in the Pennsylvania streams are in
Cascade Creek, Garrison Hun and Mill Creek which flow through Erie to the
harbor and receive the combined sewer overflow and storm sewer discharges
from the Erie collection system.  Hill Creek flows under the City of Erie
through a large tube.  Erie Brewing Company, which previously discharged
to Mill Creek, has connected to the municipal sewer system and their wastes
are now treated by the Erie sewage treatment plant.  Bottom deposits in the
harbor are a brownish-black combination of mud, silt, and detritus.  Sewage
and chemical odors are present from some deposits inside and outside the
harbor.
       Direct to Lake Erie
       Hammermill Paper Company is the largest source of paper mill wastes
in the Lake Erie basin.  Wastes from the bleaching process impart foam and
color to the waters which, with westerly winds, have been detected along
the shoreline for 20 to 30 miles.  Sometimes, winds from the east cause
wastes discharged by Hammermill to get into the Erie water supply and to
foul the beaches at Presque Isle State Park.  The color and foaming creates
esthetically undesirable conditions especially for swimmers, boaters and
fishermen.  These wastes were to have been removed from the discharge to
Lake Erie, and the spent liquors disposed of by deep well injection.  How-
ever, these materials are still present in appreciable quantities.
Pennsylvania's Health Department has Hammermill under orders to improve
their treatment.

       Just west of Hammermill  Paper Company's outfalls and east of the
harbor is the Erie sewage treatment plant outfall.  The Erie plant provides
secondary treatment but operates near capacity and frequently by-passes
raw sewage to Mill Creek near Erie Bay.
       Lakefront
       An unsewered area exists along the lake and bay front.  Houses,
cabins, motels, restaurants, etc. are located at the foot of the bluff
atop which the City of Erie is located.  The sanitary wastes from this
area have been discharged directly to Lake Erie or Presque Isle Bay/and
affect the water quality of the nearby beaches of Presque Isle State Park.
                                  50

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        Although there are  several  small beaches along  the  Lake  Erie
 shoreline  in Pennsylvania,  the major area is Presque Isle  State Park,
 located on the peninsula separating Lake Erie from Presque Isle Bay.
 There are  eleven main beaches on Presque Isle, all located on the  Lake
 Erie side  of the peninsula.  The water quality of these beaches is generally
Excellent  with the  exception of Beach 11. This;  pollution  comes from the
 sgvsral aouroes previously mentioned.  Another source  of pollution to Beach
 11  is the  bird sanctuary located to the north.  A large total coliform  and
 fecal streptococci  concentration can be attributed to  this sanctuary area.

        All beaches  east of Presque Isle are affected by algae.  Also
 under normal conditions the effluent from Hammermill adversely  affects
 beaches for over ten miles east of Erie.  Besides the  color, odor,
 taste,  and foam problems associated with their wastes, wood chips  are
 also found on beaches adjacent to  their plant.  Several of the  small
 beaches east of Erie have  excessive coliform concentrations, others are
 of  unknown quality.

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    SEW YORK AREA
       The Nev York Area comprises the eastern ad of th Lake
drainage basin.  Us haa a ayaiaagt wcea of 8,900 efu&re oU
extends 67 miles along Lake Erie from the Pennsylvania-New York line
to, and including, the Buffalo River.  The general water quality of
the New York streams is shown in Figure 17 .

       Except for the Greater Buffalo Metropolitan Area, this area is
predominately rural.  The present population of 500,000 is projected
to increase to 790,000 by 1980 and to 1,100,000 by 2020.  The majority
of the population growth will take place in the rapidly developing
southern and eastern suburbs of Buffalo.  The City of Buffalo sewage
treatment plant discharges to the Niagara River rather than Lake Erie
and is not included in this report.  However, the City does contribute
a large share of the pollution loads to the Buffalo River through storm
water and combined sewer overflows.
     Buffalo  River
       The Buffalo River is formed by three tributaries:  Buffalo Creek,
Cayuga Creek, and Cazenovia Creek.  The Buffalo River drains ^36 square
miles as it flows to Lake Erie through the City of Buffalo.  The West
Branch of Cazenovia Creek and the East Branch above East Aurora generally
have good water quality; however, several areas show limited enrichment
from septic tank effluents.  Waste materials discharged by the Village of
East Aurora, septic tank effluents, and misused storm drains seriously
degrade the water quality below East Aurora.  The waste discharge from
the secondary treatment plant at East Aurora is much higher than can be
adequately assimilated by the stream.  The lower 0.7 mile is affected by
backwater pollution from Buffalo River Industries during low flow.

       Above Lancaster both Cayuga Creek and its tributary, Little Buffalo
Creek, contain excellent quality.

       In the lower nine miles of its length, Cayuga Creek receives the
poorly treated effluents from Depew and Lancaster, septic tank effluents
from several rural communities, storm water overflows, untreated industrial
wastes from the Symington Wayne Corporation, garbage and drainings from the
village of Depew1 s dump, and garbage and debris from other sources.  Con-
ditions typical of severe pollution exist throughout this stretch.  The
water varies from grey to brown to black and normally is turbid and has
a strong sewage odor during low flow periods.  In many pooled areas the
stream bottom is covered with a black, oily, septic sludge; and fecal matter
has been observed floating in the water.

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FIGURE 17

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       Except for the lower two miles, Buffalo Creek is of excellent
water quality with only a minimal amount of nutrients from wastes.
In the early spring trout can be caught in the upper reaches of the
Buffalo Creek watershed.

       When Buffalo Creek enters the Gardenville area, the first notice-
able signs of pollution become evident.  Attributable to septic tanks in
this area.  Below Gardenville, additional waste inputs continue to de-
grade the water quality of the stream.  Oil wastes from the Pennsylvania
Railroad shops enter Buffalo Creek at the New York Central Railroad bridge.
These wastes accumulate in a swamp during dry periods, and fires have
occurred here.  The accumulated oils discharge rapidly to Buffalo Creek
during heavy rainfalls, and even contribute to the oil films present on
the Niagara River.

       The Buffalo River originates at the confluence of Buffalo and
Cayuga Creeks.  The flow in the river is negligible during dry periods.
More than 70 days is required during low flow to supply the volume of
water in the dredged portion of the river.  At low flow both the rate
and direction of movement of water in the dredged channel is primarily
influenced by the rise and fall of Lake Erie levels at the river mouth.

       The waters entering the Buffalo River at the confluence of
Buffalo and Cayuga Creeks are poor in quality.  One tenth mile down-
stream from the junction, the effluent from one of the Cheektowage
sewage treatment plants causes additional degradation.

       The West Seneca treatment plant discharges its effluent to the
Buffalo River at milepoint 7.7.  The river continues to deteriorate from
this point to Lake Erie.

       Several overflows from the combined sewer system in the Buffalo
discharge to the river during periods of rainfall.  About one mile above
the mouth, raw sanitary sewage from the area between the Buffalo River
and West Canal discharges to the river.  Industrial wastes from chemical,
coke, steel, refinery and grain malting plants also discharge to these
waters.

       Prior to March 1967 five major industries on the Buffalo River
pumped 100 mgd (155 cfs) from the river for process and cooling water.
During low flow periods they were literally recirculating their waste
waters and increasing the concentration of many polluting constituents.

       Thick films of oil are present on the Buffalo River at all times
except during flood flows.  Although Mobil Oil's refinery has reduced
the concentration of oil in its effluent they still contribute to the
oil pollution.  Oils are also discharged from the Republic Steel Plant,
Donner Banna Coke Plant, and the Pennsylvania Railroad shops.  Other
oil sources are sanitary wastes and combined sewer overflows.  The

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heavy oil films on the Buffalo River and its oil-coated shores effectively
prevent boating or any recreational activity on its waters.  The largest
polluter in the Buffalo River is Republic Steel.

       Because of the prevailing winds the oils on the Buffalo River tend
to move upstream rather than downstream during periods of low flow.  A
large increase in river flew moves most of these oils out into the Niagara
River within a period of two to four days.  This results in noticeable oil
films along the United States shore of the Niagara River down to the Falls.
At times oil has been observed from Lewlston to the mouth of the Niagara.

       Except during  low flow, the river contains relatively little sus-
pended solids as most of the solids from land erosion and municipal and
industrial wastes settle rapidly to the bottom of the dredged section.

       The residential area on each side of Cazenovia Creek, extending
0.7 mile upstream of its mouth, is affected by Buffalo River backwater.
Residents of this area complain vociferously each summer about the dis-
agreeable odors emanating from the stream and the heavy oil film present.
It is apparent that during the six month or longer period of low flow, the
Buffalo River water is basically concentrated waste and is an extreme
example how waters can be turned into a virtual cesspool.  The Buffalo
River ranks on a par with the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland as the most
polluted major river in the Lake Erie basin.

       The five major industries on the Buffalo River, Allied Chemical-
Buffalo Chemical, Allied Chemical-Buffalo Dye, Donner-Hanna Coke, Mobil
Oil, and Republic Steel, have recently placed in operation a water supply
system which cost over $9,000,000.  This system pumps Lake Erie water to
the industries for their use, and eventual discharge to the Buffalo River
which will provide greater flow in the lower section.  The industries have
committed themselves to discharge a minimum of 100 MOD to the stream dur-
ing low natural flow whether or not they require the total quantity for
their operations.
       Cattaraugus Creek


       Cattaraugus Creek varies in water quality from excellent to grossly
polluted.

       The first sources of pollution are near the headwaters.  In the
village of Arcade, several industries and the municipal sewage treatment
plant discharge inadequately treated wastes to Cattaraugus Creek.  The
principal problem is from the Arcade sewage treatment plant which receives
domestic wastes from approximately 1,900 people and sewage and industrial
wastes from industries, employing approximately 1,000 people.  The plant
                                  55

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provides secondary treatment; however, the plant is adversely affected
by the Industrial wastes which contain cyanides, zinc, copper, and
cadmium.

       The Arcade sewage treatment plant is under orders by the New York
Health Pejp&ftfcest *6 iftp'dVe thai* $?eatm&t.  iifcas th jp&a&t is &ea*
the headwaters of the creek, an even more acute problem occurs because
little water is available for dilution.

       In its upper reach, Cattaraugus Creek has an extremely high reaera-
tion rate due to its steep slope and swift flow.  This aids materially in
the natural self-purification of the waters.  The waters recover to a
natural condition as they flow through the Zoar Valley.

       As Cattaraugus Creek flows through Gowanda, the water quality
changes from a relatively clean water to a grossly polluted open sewer.
Oils, toxic wastes, organic loadings, suspended and dissolved solids,
and inadequately treated domestic wastes pour into the creek in the
vicinity of Gowanda.  The Peter Cooper Corporation and Moench Tanning
Company are the principal sources of these wastes.

       In addition, the sewage treatment plants at Gowanda State Hospital
and the Village of Gowanda discharge inadequately treated sewage to
Cattaraugus Creek.  Both plants provide only primary treatment for the
7,200 people served.  The plant at the state hospital also receives can-
nery wastes which increase the organic solids load during the canning
season.
       BlasdelI and Smoke Creeks
       Blasdell Creek, also known as South Ditch, is a small stream which
would normally be dry most of the year.  Bethlehem Steel plant wastes,
entering at various points along the creek from the mouth to one mile
upstream, maintain a considerable flow in this sector.  At its mouth the
creek is essentially a Bethlehem Steel waste outfall entering Lake Erie.
In addition to other materials, large amounts of oil are continually dis-
charged to the lake.  During winter periods the ice holds much of the
oil near the mouth.  The oil is suddenly released when the ice moves
out and this Is probably one of the major causes of the slug discharges
of oil to the Niagara River which occur each spring.

       Smoke Creek extends through an urban area throughout most of its
length.  At the junction of the south and north branch, the stream is
markedly degraded by organic wastes entering upstream.  It contains con-
siderable fatty matter of the type normally present in sanitary wastes,
indicating the probability that septic tank effluent or other sanitary
wastes are entering upstream of the junction.

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       The one mile length of stream from the Junction of the branches
to its mouth on Lake Erie receives industrial waste discharges.  The
South Buffalo Railway shops contribute some oil.  The Buffalo Brake
Beam Company discharges a small quantity of oil and sanitary wastes
to the stream.

       The principal flow at the mouth of Smoke Creek is Bethlehem
Steel's wastes.  The combined effect of the Blasdell and Smoke Creek
discharges create  an oil film and red discoloration of approximately
two square miles on Lake Erie.  The continuing oil discharge from
Bethlehem is one of the principal if not the major source of oils
causing damage to certain water uses of the Niagara River and in fact,
is the largest single source of pollution in the entire basin discharg-
ing directly to Lake Erie.  In addition, the discharge contains approxi-
mately 1.1 MGD of Lackawanna sewage treatment plant effluent.

       The Bethlehem Steel Company is presently under orders from the
New York State Health Department to remove an appreciable amount of
their waste products.

       Other small tributaries throughout western New York have localized
problems but singly have little effect on Lake Erie.  Most of the pollu-
tion problems are associated with grape processing industries.
       Bathing Beaches
       The beach with the most serious problem is that of Hamburg Town
Park.  Several storm sewer overflows are located near this beach with
one overflow immediately adjacent to it.  This beach has been closed
by the Erie County Health Department.  Also local bathing areas at
Silver Creek and Westfield have been closed by the Chautauqua County
Health Department.  Periodically Miller's Beach, Evangola State Park,
and Evans Town Park have experienced pollution problems but to a lesser
degree.

       Other similar beaches in Chautauqua County such as the two at
Dunkirk also have serious problems.  Pollution enters these beaches from
septic tank effluents; inadequately treated sewage discharged to Canadaway
Creek from the Fredonia sewage treatment plant; inadequately treated sewage
from the Dunkirk sewage treatment plant; and combined sewer overflows from
both Dunkirk and Fredonia.
                                  57

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  CORRECTIVE   REQUIREMENTS


                            CURRENT NEEDS

     STANDARDS IMPLEMENTATION
       Passage of the water quality standards provisions of the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act created an effective new institution  for the
control of water pollution.  The standards, once established,  bring into
focus actions needed both to abate existing pollution and to prevent fur-
ther pollution.
                                 _-  i     '     ' 
       The plans to implement the water quality standards are  of  primary
significance, since they  describe what must be done, by whom,  and by what
date to meet the quality  criteria.  These plans are based on present and
anticipated uses of the waters, and on criteria associated with such uses.
A major consideration in  developing and evaluating the standards  is the
realistic proposition that what is needed is not the highest possible
standard but the highest  standard^posSTble at this time.  Without excep-
tion, this characterizes  the standards proposed by the five States in
the Lake Erie basin.

       In general, the implementation plans cover many areas which can be
characterized as a basic  ingredient to any pollution abatement program,
whether of a long-range blueprint type or a shorter-range plan for correct-
ing current needs.  Some  of these elements incorporated in these  plans, and
to which the States as a  consequence of the standards-setting  process are
committed, Include:                                  A

       1.  The identification of significant sources of municipal and
           industrial wastewater and an estimate of the general level
           of treatment now being obtained from the principal  treatment
           facilities.

       2.  A time schedule for completion of remedial facilities  which
           will provide for the abatement of all existing conventional
           municipal and  industrial pollution by mid-1972.  In some
           cases, the time schedules contain detailed checkpointsj in
           others, a typical schedule is provided against which com-
          sliance can be  measured.

       3.  The establishment of secondary biological treatment as a
           minimum treatment for all significant municipal wastes, and
           equivalent treatment as the minimum for industrial  wastes.

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       k.  Recognition of the need, before 1977, of treatment over and
           above secondary at specific installations.  Also provided
           is an expression of intent on the part of the State agencies
           to require nutrient removal to the greatest extent possible,
           consistent with available technology.

       5.  The establishment of satisfactory bacteriological criteria
           for the primary and secondary type body contact.  These uses
           are applied to various sections of the interstate waters so
           as to further these uses in the basin, coniistent with long-
           range objectives .

       6.  General recognition and acceptance of the recommendations of
           the Detroit River and Lake Erie enforcement conferences along
           with the results of the evaluation by the latter 's Technical
           Committee on nutrients and their effects.  This evaluation
           provides the baseline for determining the total allowable
           loading of phosphorjfas to the Lake itself, a level toward
           which all efforts tfust be directed.
                            ,-fe
       In some cases, the water- quality standards proposed by the States
include requirements in addition to the above, or include other expressions
of intent.  As an example, the standards proposed by the Ohio Water Pollu-
tion Control Board recognize and support the elements of Northwest Ohio
Plan developed by the Ohio Water Resource Board.  This plan recognizes,
among other requirements, the need within the next decade for establishing
sewer systems and advanced waste treatment in areas that are presently
unsewered.

       For intrastate waters in the basin, water quality standards are not
a direct requirement under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  The
Act, however, does contain provisions which make it advantageous to the
States to also promulgate standards in these waters.  All of the Lake Erie
States recognize these advantages  i.e., the resulting larger contribu-
tions of Federal construction grant funds  and are proposing to establish
enforceable standards.

       New York has had a system of standards for all of its waters and is
now pledged to a continuing program of upgrading and improving the classi-
fication system and associated criteria.
       Pennsylvania in I9kk adopted a system of standards for all of its
streams.  These have been subjected to periodic review and upgrading, where
necessary.  The State has indicated that this updating will continue, with
priority on updating streams which at present are adversely affected by
pollution.
                                  59

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       The State of Ohio plans to develop water quality standards on all
intrastate waters during fiscal year 1968   This program will begin with
public hearings on tributaries to the western end of Lake Erie; hearings
on tributaries to the eastern end of the lake will follow,  flans provide
for correlation of the interstate and intrastate standards by using the
basic criteria for water utilized in developing standards for interstate
waters.  Schedules for abatement will follow the establishment of the
uses.

       In establishing the interstate water quality standards in Indiana,
the Stream Pollution Control Board at the time adopted standards for all
intrastate waters.  The criteria for the intrastate waters are identical
to those approved by the Secretary of the Interior.  The plans of imple-
mentation are also essentially the same, being modified to the situations
present within a particular basin.

       Michigan also has indicated an Intent to establish standards on
intrastate waters consistent with those already approved for interstate
waters.  This effort is to begin with public hearings in the southeastern
portion of the State in the spring of 1968.
     IMPERATIVE ACTIONS


       Besides the need to expeditlously implement the water quality
standards, there are other needs which must receive immediate attention
if success is to be achieved.  These needs relate to:

       1.  The establishment of priorities.    Priorities for abating
pollution must be established so as to provide for an orderly and efficient
effort consistent with National goals.  It is the responsibility of con-
cerned Federal agencies to evaluate the relationship of various basin
standards throughout the country to those of the Lake Erie basin so as to
optimize the return on the Federal investment in water pollution control.
Similarly, State and interstate agencies are required to evaluate these
standards in their area of jurisdiction as required to meet local area as
well as National goals.  The primary mechanism for accomplishing an effective
program through the establishment of priorities is the State Program Plans
required under provisions of Section 7 of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act.  These plans, developed through intergovernmental cooperation, will
insure the effectiveness of the massive investment in water pollution control.
Emphasis in the establishment of priorities should first be directed toward
pollution control in Southeast Michigan, the Greater Cleveland-Akron area
and the Maumee River basin.

       2.  Intrastate Water Pollution Control Institutions.    The water
quality standards established by the States pointed to some areas where
more positive control over certain waste sources is required.  These include
wastes from marinas and vessels, dredging operations, mining operations, feed
                                  60

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lots, agricultural runoff, and flood plain zoning.  These omissions
indicate the necessity for changes in the State Statutes to permit
more efficient control over all sources of water pollution.
                     .rt
       In a similar V&in, enabling legislation should be sought which
would provide for the establishment of effective methods of dealing with
the complexity ef problems i $he wetyap^itaja astae 0? $ht fe&itfc,  ffci
state pollution control agencies should provide the leadership in these
areas in relating waste treatment to the broader planning of the total
urban environment.  A pilot study known as Erieland 2000 recently con-
ducted in Erie County, Pennsylvania provides an insight to the overall
planning requirements.

       The States of Ohio and New York should improve their programs to
more effectively control industrial wastes, either through waste effluent
requirements or other means.

       3.  Surveillance.    Adequate water quality surveillance is essen-
tial in order to quickly identify compliance with water quality standards,
document violations for corrective actions, and to identify new pollution
trends, sources, and types before problems develop.  The State agencies
of the basin, acting in their own behalf, through local governments, and
the private sector have the primary responsibility for maintaining a
surveillance network capable of handling emergency pollution problems,
locating and defining new problem areas and reporting on scheduled progress.
Where such surveillance is not sufficient, the Federal Water Pollution Con-
trol Administration and other Federal agencies are responsible for filling
the void.                    	  

       k.  Review of Progress and Updating.    To give meaning to surveil-
lance action, the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration and the
affected interstate, State and local agencies must review progress, assess
its adequacy and make necessary revisions in the implementation plans.  A
continuously updated plan is^absolute^ necessity to the attainment of the   '
goal for a clean Lake Erie basin.  The need for this action cannot be
overemphasized.
       5.  Dredges  Spoils and Erosion Control.    The dredging of ports
and waterways for the maintenance of navigation results iff a. problem of
disposal of large quantities of dredged spoils.  The current practice of
disposal in Lake Erie results in pollution of large areas of the lake by
redistribution of dredged sludges and silt.  The Corps of Engineers and
the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration should continue joint
efforts in determining ways and means for curbing this pollution.

       Additionally, control of soil erosion would aid measurably in
reducing the need for dredging.  The Soil Conservation Service should
concentrate and expand its activities in this field and support research
to assist in preventing silt deposits in navigable waters.  Similarly all
                                  61

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agencies, Federal, State and local, Involved in construction should invoke
measures to prevent erosion occuring in conjunction with construction pro-
jects.  Such a recognition of this problem has recently been made by the
Bureau of Public Roads in connection with highway construction in the
Cleveland Metropolitan area.                       ,? .4iiV- ;    . <    t    

       6.  Research and Development.    Snphasls In research and develop.
ment programs on efficient, economical methods of>tejrtiary treatment and
nutrient removal, especially phosphorus is needed now.  The water quality
standards Implementation plans call for maximum practicable phosphorus
removal consistent with available technology.  Some advances in modifica-
tion of secondary treatment plants to achieve better phosphorus removal
have been made in recent years, However, much more attention needs to be     s
focused on this problem if the aging of Lake Erie is to be stopped.  The
Federal responsibility for this work rests with the Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration.  In the private sector, industry in concert with
government must accelerate the search for a solution to the phosphorus
problem associated with detergents.  Another research need of Federal Water
Pollution Control Administration or by contract with universities or other
groups is a more closely defined role of the bottom sediments in the overall
lake pollution problem.                                .  ,,
                                                      M": r-
       Research should be carried out to define more exactly the causes
behind fish mortalities in Lake Erie \tioh. manifested in^sudden and dramatic  -'
fish kills and the slow unperceived disappearance of desirable species.  The
Federal responsibility for this rests with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
                                           r-.  J-v*'n
       The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration should consider in
its research needs, a 
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     FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ACTION
       The cost for obtaining the desired water quality in the Lake Erie
Baaia vili fe@ HlgB,  fHi iillmlit fii$4fal4i@t Sffl8tt&i SiSfc ft? e*Hg
the current need* of the water quality standards implementation plans
and additional areas on the intrastate streams in the basin is $78,000,000.
This cost is exclusive of that required for either sewer separation or the
treating of the combined sewage flows by other means.  Of this amount,
160,000,000 is for municipal sewerage and treatment systems and $18,000,000
is for industrial treatment or equivalent process modification.

       The basis in fact for the success of water pollution control in
Lake Erie is the availability of these funds for its implementation.
Intergovernmental action in financing needed improvements rests largely
with the basin population.  The Federal Government, through grants in aid
administered through the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Department of Commerce,
and the Department of Agriculture provides incentive for proper basin action.
In some instances pollution abatement results as a consequence of flood con-
trol programs administered by the Corps of Engineers.  The administration
of these funds by the responsible agencies must take into account the basin
approach to water pollution control to be effective in optimizing the Federal
investment.

       Similarly the States, through grants made available in concert with
the implementation plan, serve to increase the Federal contribution under
Section 8 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

       None of these plans can succeed without the backing of affected local
interests both governmental and private.  Municipalities must be willing to
undertake capital improvement programs in waste treatment through bonding,
taxing or other means.  Industries likewise must make substantial capital
investments in waste treatment or equivalent process modifications.

       Features contained in the 1966 Amendments to the Act provide for
Federal participation up to 55 percent of the eligible cost of a grant
for treatment works construction.  Since the size of projects in the
future will be larger than in the past, a smaller number of projects will
be funded with the available funds.  In order to accomplish the greatest
good from this program it is recommended that the Lake Erie Basins States
proceed with deliberate speed in improving their capability to provide grants
to local governments in order to take full advantage of Federal Grants for
Construction.  Local governments should in turn proceed with the necessary
bonding or other means for providing the local share of investment in water
pollution control.
                                  63

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       The objective of basin-wide pollution control and water quality
management programs in ail of the major watersheds was given new support
and urgency by the Congress by authorizing planning grants to State-
designated agencies.  These grants are for the purpose of developing the
necessary programs for the implementation and further improvement of the
water quality standards.  They are also available to the State-designated
agencies seeking to develop an action program to control pollution through-
out an intrastate basin or to a group of States wishing to develop such an
action program throughout an interstate basin such as the Maumee.  These
grants also may be used to support the preparation of a regional plan for
the provision of programs and facilities through which the communities and
industries of a metropolitan or multi-community area in a basin can most
effectively and economically control and abate pollution1.

       Table 5 is a summary of the current water pollution control needs.

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                                 TABLE 5

                            Sumrnarizatfo^i of
                 Current Water Pollution Control  Needs
                                                       Responsjbility
Implementation
  of Water Quality
  Standards
Intrastate Control
  Institutions
Standards -
  Intrastate
Surveillance
Evaluation
Dredging Control
Erosion Control
Obtain minimum of
  Secondary treatment
  or its equivalent
Enabling Legislation for
  complete pollution
  control, basin compacts,
  and Metropolitan area
  entities.
Establishment of enforce-
  able water quality
  standards on intrastate
  waters.
Development of data base
  to assess progress,
  compliance and new
  problem areas.
Review and make revisions
  in abatement schedules.
Develop alternatives to
  lake di'sposal of dredged
  materials.
Reduce urban and agricul-
  tural soil erosion.
Basin Municipalities
Basin Industries
Basin States
Great Lakes Basin
  Commission
Basin Metropolitan
  areas
Basin States.
State Water Pollution
  Control agencies
P.W.P.C.A.
U.S.G.S.
State Water Pollution
  Control agencies
U.S. Corps of Engineers
F.W.P.C.A.
Soil Conservation Ser-
  vice
Bureau of Public Roads
U.S. Corps of Engineers
Other Federal, State
  and local Construction
  agencies

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                            TABLE 5 Continued
      Category
       Requirement
Research and
  Development
Industrial Waste
  Reduction
Training
Financial
Improve upon pollution con-
  trol techniques and basin
  management arrangements.
Employment of water reuse
  techniques, joint treat-
  ment, process change.
Train additional personnel
  in the field of water
  pollution control and
  abatement.
Improvement in financial
  areas relative to pollu-
  tion abatement facilities.
F.W.P.C.A.
Industry
Universities
Basin States
Basin Industries
Basin States
Basin Industries
Basin Municipalities
F.W.P.C.A.
Private and public
  institutions
Federal Government
  F.W.P.C.A.
  Dept of Agric.
  Dept of Commerce
  Dept of H.U.D.
  Corps of Engineers
Basin States
Basin Municipalities
                                  66

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                            LONG RANGE NEEDS
       The projected increasing population and economy of the Lake Erie
Basin will intensify water pollution problems through time.  Some of the
long range needs to insure that the prospering basin community is able to
cope with growing water pollution control problems are as follows:

       1.  Long range water pollution control goals in terms of water uses
           to be protected must continue to be updated.  As presently fore-
           seen maximum waste load limits for Lake Erie are 320,000 Ib/day
           of oxygen demanding substances and 8,OOO Ib/day of phosphorous.

       2.  Water quality standards, both their criteria and implementation
           plans must be refined and revised with time.  Technological and
           social changes that occur must be incorporated or this prime
           mechanism for action will certainly become impotent.

       3.  Intergovernmental relationships in the basin must be developed
           and strengthened.  Multi-level agreements both formal and
           informal, are important in securing arrangements for water
           pollution control.  Included are all levels of government in
           the United States portion of the basin as well as appropriate
           governmental units in the Canadian subbasin.  Water pollution
           in the Lake Erie Basin can be controlled only tbr ough such
           coordinated efforts.

       More specifically, additional needs for construction of waste col-
lection and treatment works in terms of today's technology are expected
to be required.  Included in these needs are (l) tertiary municipal works
and appurtenances capable of removing in excess of 95 percent of the oxygen-
demanding pollutants and phosphates; (2) Industrial treatment or equivalent
measures capable of reducing the industrial pollutant load comparably to
that attained by municipalities; (3) Separation of storm and sanitary sewage
or satisfactory handling of this problem by other means; and (k) Control of
rural runoff.  The present worth of the capital investment required for these
works is estimated to be $33 ^iiiipn.  This value is based on a 5 percent   ^
interest rate, 25 year project life,~"including operation and maintenance
and is discounted from the time of need.  Based on current basin population,
the present annual percapita cost of meeting these long-range needs is about
$3-30.

       A summary of long-range needs Is shown in  Table 6.

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                                 TABLE 6

                       Summarization of Long Range
                   Water Pollution Control Requirements
                            R&awifreftie'flt
Goals
Standards
Intergovernmental
  Cooperation
Pollution Control
Update long-range goals
  in terms of uses to be
  protected in light of
  available technology.
Refine and revise criteria
  and abatement plans as
  required.
Further develop arrangements
  for continued planning and
  implementation of alterna-
  tive methods of abating
  pollution.
Provide treatment and con-
  trol measures commen-
  surate with pollution load
  limits calculated for Lake
  Erie.
Great Lakes Basin
  Commission
F.W.P.C.A.
Basin Water Pollution
  Control agencies
F.W.P.C.A. in coopera-
  tion with G.L.B.C.
  and State Pollution
  Control agencies
G.L.B. Commission
International agencies
Federal agencies
Metropolitan agencies
Municipalities
Basin Municipalities
  Industries
  Federal Installations
  Agricultural Interests
                                  68

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    BASIN  ARRANGEMENTS  FOR  COORDINATING

          WATER  QUALITY   MANAGEMENT  PROGRAMS
       Enactment of the Water Quality Act of 1965 marks the important policy
      is the ft&tienal water pollution aefttrel program from an emphasis on
the abatement of pollution to the controlled management of 'future water
quality.   By Congressional mandate, water quality standards were made the
central and key institutional arrangement for effecting that change.
Planning,  by a similar mandate, is to detail the means for achieving the
water uses protected by standards established for that purpose.

       All of the five States in the Lake Erie basin have responded to the
opportunity afforded the States by the Congress to initiate proposals
leading to the establishment of the water quality criteria and implemen-
tation plans which are at the heart of the water quality, standards program.
                  '^e
       These proposed criteria and plans, which were generally discussed
in the previous section, thus are the foundation for a concerted program
by the States to abate present pollution in Lake Erie and its tributaries
and to initiate controlled management of the quality of the basin's water
resources. As such, they will provide, after approval by the Secretary of
the Interior, the essential elements of immediate and long-range action
programs to guide pollution control and water quality management in these
basins.

       Authority and responsibility to manage the quality of the waters of
the Lake Erie basin, however, today remain widely dispersed among Federal,
State and local agencies.  Because of this widely dispersed authority, an
urgent need  along with essential improvements in State and local pollu-
tion control programs  is intergovernmental arrangements through which
all levels of governments will coordinate their separate programs in the
basin to achieve the water use and water quality objectives established in
the water quality standards program.

       The specifics of these arrangements include the following essential
functions or features:

       1.  The arrangements are to provide means for coordinating water
          quality management programs within the Lake Erie basin as a
          whole, within individual water sheds tributary to the lake,
          and within major metropolitan areas in the basin.

       2.  The arrangements are to involve all of the Federal, State and
          local governments in the basin managing the quality of the
          basin's water resources  and where appropriate, industries
          and other private activities as well  as participants.

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           Initial emphasis is to be given to the development of coordinated
           programs to implement standards already established in the Lake
           Erie basin and then to serve as the vehicle for joint and contin-
           uing development of intergovernmental action programs to improve
           these standards.
                elements ts be included in these ooordiftated implementation
programs are:

       a.  Identification of and agreement on priorities among the various
           technological, financial, or institutional problems and needs
           in the Lake Erie basin.

       b.  The particular waste treatment or other water quality management
           activities which each level of government, or other participating
           entity, will undertake with respect to the planning of new or
           improved continuing programs.

       c.  Methods of funding planned projects and programs in the Lake
           Erie basin, including cost-sharing arrangements where these
           are necessary for a particular project or activity.

       d.  Arrangements for the flow and exchange of data which are
           necessary for a coordinated and basin-wide approach to water
           quality management program in the Lake Erie basin.

       e.  Procedures for initiating or continuing needed studies and
           planning to develop technological, financial, or institutional
           solutions to existing impediments to effective basin-wide
           management of water quality in the Lake Erie basin.

       f .  Arrangements for consultation with civic and other groups
           interested in the quality of the waters of the Lake Erie basin
           and for the dissemination of information to the citizens of
           the basin and their elected representatives in order that the
           latter may understand and properly guide the basin's water
           quality management programs.

       g.  Methods for reviewing progress under a particular action program
           and, based on such review, the adjustment of the current program
           or formulation of a new action program.

       The vehicle for developing this needed intergovernmental coordination
of water quality management programs throughout the Lake Erie basin is the
newly-established Great Lakes.. Basin Commission.  Including representatives
from all States in the basin and from all Federal water resources agencies,
this entity is Ghargd-^by-^fche-4feter-^Resources Planning Act of 1965 with
serving as the principal agency for the coordination of Federal, State,
local, and private plans for the development of the water and related land
resources of the Great Lakes basin.  As one phase of this role, the
                                  70

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Commission also will develop, if needed, more permanent organizational or
procedural arrangements for managing the water and related land resources
of the Great Lakes basin.

       The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, accordingly, urges
all other Federal agencies, the States and local governments in the Lake
E?i
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APPENDICES

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