Operations Division
    Office of Pesticide Programs
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Washington, D.  C. 20460

   Standards  for  certification  of  applicators
 who plan to use "restricted  use" pesticides were
 printed in the Federal Register on October 9,
 1974. They are reprinted here as a convenient
 reference for  you.
   Authority for  the publication  of  applicator
 certification is found in Section 4, Federal In-
 secticide, Fungicide  and Rodenticide  Act,  as
 amended in 1972.
Section 171.1 	1
Section 171.2 	1
Section 171.3 	4
(Commercial Applicator Categories)
Section 171.4 	7
(Commercial Applicator Standards)
Section 171.5 	15
(Private Applicator Standards)
Section 171.6 	17
(Supervision  of  Non-Certified Applicators)
            October 1974

Section 171.1   General
   This section  deals  with the certification of
applicators of restricted use pesticides.

Section 171.2   Definitions
   Terms used in this subpart shall have the
meanings set  forth for such terms in the Act.
In  addition,  as used  in this subpart,  the fol-
lowing  terms shall  have  the  meanings  stated
   (a) The term  "accident"  means  an  unex-
pected, undesirable  event,  caused by  the use
or presence of a pesticide,  that adversely affects
man or the environment.
   (b) The term "Act" means the Federal In-
secticide, Fungicide  and  Rodenticide  Act, as
amended (86 Stat. 973), and other  legislation
supplementary thereto and amendatory  thereof.
   (c) The term "Administrator" means  the Ad-
ministrator  of the  Environmental  Protection
Agency,  or  any  office or employee  of the
Agency to whom authority has heretofore been
delegated, or  to whom authority may hereafter
be delegated, to act in his stead.
   (d) The term   "Agency,"  unless  otherwise
specified,  means  the  United  States Environ-
mental Protection Agency.
   (e) The  term   "agricultural   commodity"
means any plant, or part thereof, or animal, or
animal product, produced by  a person  (includ-
ing farmers, ranchers, vineyardists, plant propa-
gators,  Christmas  tree growers,  aquaculturists,
floriculturists,  orchardists,   foresters,  or  other
comparable  persons)  primarily for sale,  con-
sumption, propagation, or other use by  man or
  (f) The  term   "calibration  of  equipment"
means measurement of dispersal  or  output of
application equipment and  adjustment  of  such
equipment to  control the rate of dispersal, and
droplet  or particle size of a pesticide dispersed
by the equipment.
  (g) The term "certification" means  the recog-
nition by a  certifying  agency that  a  person is

competent and thus authorized to use or super-
vise the use of restricted use pesticides.
   (h)  The term "certified applicator"  means
any individual who  is certified to use or super-
vise  the  use  of any  restricted use  pesticides
covered by his certification.
   (i) The term "commercial applicator" means a
certified  applicator  (whether  or not  he  is  a
private applicator  with respect to  some uses)
who uses or supervises the use of any pesticide
which  is  classified  for restricted  use for  any
purpose or on any property other than as pro-
vided  by  the  definition of  "private  applicator."
   (j) The  term  "compatibility"  means  that
property of a pesticide which permits its use with
other   chemicals  without   undesirable  results
being caused  by  the combination.
   (k)  The  term "competent" means  properly
qualified  to  perform functions associated with
pesticide  application,  the degree of  capability
required being directly related to the nature of
the activity and the  associated  responsibility.
   (1) The  term  "common  exposure  route"
means  a  likely way (oral,  dermal,  respiratory)
by which  a pesticide may reach and/or enter an
   (m)  The term "environment"  means  water,
air,  land,  and all  plants and man  and other
animals living therein, and  the interrelation-
ships which exist among them.
   (n)  The  term  "forest" means a  concentra-
tion of trees and  related  vegetation  in non-
urban  areas sparsely  inhabited by  and  infre-
quently  used  by  humans;  characterized  by
natural terrain and  drainage patterns.
   (o) The term  "hazard" means a probability
that a given pesticide will have an  adverse ef-
fect  on man  or the  environment in  a  given
situation,  the relative likelihood of danger or ill
effect being dependent on  a number of  inter-
related  factors present at any given time.
   (p) The term "host" means  any plant or ani-
mal  on or in  which another lives for  nourish-
ment, development, or protection.
   (q) The term "non-target organism"  means a

 plant  or animal other  than the  one  against
 which the pesticide is applied.
   (r) The  term "ornamental"  means  trees,
 shrubs, and other plantings in and around habi-
 tations  generally, but not necessarily  located in
 urban and suburban  areas, including residences,
 parks,  streets, retail  outlets,  industrial and in-
 stitutional buildings.
   (s) The term "practical knowledge" means
 the possession  of pertinent facts  and compre-
 hension together with the ability to use them in
 dealing with specific  problems and  situations.
   (t)  The term "private  applicator"  means  a
 certified applicator who uses  or supervises the
 use of  any  pesticide  which is classified  for re-
 stricted use for  purposes  of producing any  agri-
 cultural  commodity   on  property  owned  or
 rented  by him  or his employer or (if applied
 without compensation other  than  trading  of
 personal  services between producers of  agri-
 cultural commodities)  on the property  of an-
 other person.
   (u) The term "protective equipment" means
 clothing or  any other materials or  devices that
 shield against unintended exposure  to  pesticides.
   (v) The term "regulated pest"  means a spe-
 cific organism considered by a State or Federal
 agency  to be  a pest  requiring regulatory re-
 strictions, regulations, or control procedures in
 order to protect the  host, man and/or his en-
   (w)  The   term  "restricted  use   pesticide"
 means a pesticide that is classified for restricted
 use under the provisions of Section 3(d)(l)(C)
 of the Act.
   (x)  The term "standard" means the measure
 of knowledge and ability which must be demon-
 strated  as a requirement for certification.
   (y)  The term "State" means a State, the  Dis-
trict  of  Columbia,   the  Commonwealth  of
 Puerto  Rico, the Virgin Islands,  Guam,  the
Trust   Territory  of   the  Pacific  Islands,  and
 American Samoa.
   (z)  The term "susceptibility" means  the  de-
gree to  which  an organism  is  affected by a

pesticide at a particular level of exposure.
  (aa) The term "toxicity" means the property
of a  pesticide  to cause  any  adverse  physio-
logical  effects.

  (bb) The term "under the direct supervision
of" means the  act or  process  whereby  applica-
tion  of  a pesticide is made  by  a  competent
person acting under  the instructions and control
of a certified applicator who is responsible for
the actions of that person and who is  available
if and when needed, even though such  certified
applicator is not physically present at the time
and place the pesticide is applied.

Section 171.3  Categorization  of Com-
   mercial Applicators of Pesticides
(a)  Procedure
  Categories of applicators (other  than private)
using or supervising the  use  of restricted use
pesticides are identified below.  State systems of
applicator identification  shall adopt these  cate-
gories as needed, along  with  such appropriate
subcategories as  are necessary to meet  the par-
ticular requirements of the State.
(b) Categories
          (i) Plant
             This  category includes  commer-
          cial  applicators using or supervising
          the use of restricted use pesticides in
          production of  agricultural crops, in-
          cluding without limiting the foregoing,
          tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains,
          soybeans  and   forage;  vegetables;
          small  fruits; tree fruits  and  nuts, as
          well  as on  grasslands and  non-crop
          agricultural  lands.
          (ii)  Animal
             This  category includes  commer-
          cial  applicators using or supervising
          the use of restricted  use  pesticides on
          animals,   including  without  limiting
          the foregoing, beef cattle, dairy cattle,
          swine,  sheep,  horses, goats, poultry

     and livestock, and to places on or in
     which animals are confined.
         Doctors of Veterinary  Medicine
     engaged in the business of applying
     pesticides  for  hire,  publicly holding
     themselves out as pesticide applicators,
     or engaged in  large-scale use of pes-
     ticides are included  in this category.

     This  category  includes   commercial
applicators using or supervising the  use of
restricted  use  pesticides  in forests,  forest
nurseries, and  forest  seed producing areas.
     This  category  includes   commercial
applicators using or supervising the  use of
restricted  use  pesticides to control  pests
in the maintenance  and  production  of  or-
namental trees, shrubs, flowers, and turf.
     This  category   includes  commercial
applicators using or  supervising  the  use
of restricted use pesticides on seeds.
     This  category   includes  commercial
applicators using or  supervising  the  use
of any  restricted use pesticide  purpose-
fully applied to standing  or running  water,
excluding  applicators  engaged  in  public
health related  activities  included in  cate-
gory 8 below.
     This  category  includes  commercial
applicators using or supervising the use of
restricted  use   pesticides in  the  mainte-
nance  of public roads, electric powerlines,
pipelines,  railway  rights-of-way  or   other
similar areas.
     This  category  includes   commercial
applicators using or supervising the  use of

    restricted use  pesticides  in, on, or around
    food   handling   establishments,   human
    dwellings, institutions, such as schools and
    hospitals, industrial establishments, includ-
    ing warehouses and  grain elevators, and
    any  other  structures  and  adjacent  area,
    public  or private; and for the protection of
    stored,   processed,    or   manufactured
         This  category  includes  State,  Fed-
    eral  or other  governmental  employees
    using or supervising  the use of restricted
    use  pesticides in public health programs
    for the management  and  control of pests
    having  medical and  public  health impor-
         This category includes  State, Federal
    or other governmental employees who use
    or supervise the use of restricted use pesti-
    cides in the control of regulated pests.
         This  category includes:  (1)  individ-
    uals who  demonstrate  to the public  the
    proper use and  techniques  of application
    of  restricted  use pesticides  or  supervise
    such demonstration, and  (2) persons con-
    ducting field  research with pesticides,  and
    in doing so,  use or supervise the use of
    restricted use pesticides.
         Included in  the first group are such
    persons as extension specialists and county
    agents, commercial representatives demon-
    strating pesticide products,  and  those  in-
    dividuals demonstrating methods used  in
    public  programs.
         The  second  group  includes:  State,
    Federal, commercial and other persons con-
    ducting field  research on or  utilizing  re-
     stricted use  pesticides.
(c)  Other Categories  and Subcategories
    Any State  submitting a plan pursuant  to
this section for the certification  of applicators,

 as provided for below, may designate such sub-
 categories within  the  above  10 categories as it
 deems  necessary.  In addition, a State may  de-
 lete a category not needed or may request the
 Administrator's approval  of  additional major

 Section  171.4   Standards for  Certifica-
   tion of Commercial  Applicators
 (a) Determination of  Competency
     Competence  in the use  and handling of
 pesticides  shall be determined on the basis of
 written examinations,  and, as  appropriate,  per-
 formance  testing,  based  upon  standards  set
 forth below  and  which  are  approved  by  the
 Administrator.   Such  examination and  testing
 shall  include  the  general  standards  applicable
 to all  categories  (Section  171.4(b)) and the
 additional  standards specifically  identified  for
 each category or subcategory  (if any) in which
 an applicator is to be classified (Section 171.4
 (c)).  State standards must conform  and be at
 least equal to those prescribed  herein. In devel-
 oping the details of standards at the  State level
 and in structuring  examinations, it is important
to recognize  and  reflect the extent of compe-
tency appropriate  and  necessary to a particular
 (b) General  Standards  for  all  Categories  of
     Certified Commercial Applicators
     (1)  All  commercial  applicators  shall de-
     monstrate   practical  knowledge  of  the
     principles  and practices of pest control and
     safe  use   of  pesticides.  Testing  shall  be
     based on  examples of problems  and situ-
     ations appropriate to the particular cate-
    gory   or  subcategory  of  the  applicator's
    certification and  the following  areas  of
       (i)  Label & Labeling Comprehension
           (a)  The general format and termi-
               nology  of  pesticide labels and
           (b)  The understanding of  instruc-
               tions, warnings, terms, symbols,

          and  other  information  com-
          monly  appearing  on  pesticide
     (c)  Classification  of  the  product,
          general or restricted; and
     (d)  Necessity  for  use   consistent
          with the  label.
 (ii) Safety—Factors  including:
     (a)  Pesticide  toxicity and hazard to
          man  and   common   exposure
     (b)  Common  types  and  causes of
          pesticide  accidents;
     (c)  Precautions  necessary  to  guard
          against injury to applicators  and
          other  individuals  in  or near
          treated areas;
     (d)  Need for and  use  of protective
          clothing and equipment;
     (e)  Symptoms of  pesticide poison-
     (f)  First aid  and  other  procedures
          to   be  followed in  case of  a
          pesticide  accident; and
     (g)  Proper  identification,  storage,
          transport, handling, mixing pro-
          cedures  and disposal methods
          for pesticides and used pesticide
          containers, including precautions
          to  be taken  to prevent children
          from having access to pesticides
          and  pesticide  containers.
(iii) Environment—The  potential  envi-
     ronmental  consequences  of  the  use
     and  misuse  of pesticides  as may be
     influenced by  such factors as:
     (a)  Weather   and  other   climatic
     (b)  Types of terrain, soil or other
     (c)  Presence of fish, wildlife and other
          non-target  organisms; and
     (d)  Drainage patterns.
(iv) Pests—Factors such as:
     (a)  Common features of pest orga-


           nisms  and  characteristics   of
           damage needed for pest recog-
      (b)  Recognition  of relevant pests;
      (c)  Pest  development  and  biology
           as it may be relevant  to prob-
           lem identification  and control.
 (v) Pesticides—Factors such as:
      (a)  Types of pesticides;
      (b)  Types of formulations;
      (c)  Compatibility,  synergism,  per-
           sistence and animal  and  plant
           toxicity of the formulations;
      (d)  Hazards and residues associated
           with  use;
      (e)  Factors which  influence effec-
           tiveness or lead to such prob-
           lems  as resistance to pesticides;
      (f)  Dilution procedures.
 (vi) Equipment—Factors including:
           (a) Types of  equipment  and
           advantages and  limitations  of
           each  type; and
      (b)  Uses,  maintenance and  calibra-
 (vii) Application Techniques—Factors
      (a)  Methods  of procedure used  to
           apply various  formulations  of
           pesticides, solutions, and gases,
           together with  a knowledge  of
           which technique of application
           to use in a given situation;
      (b)  Relationship of discharge  and
           placement  of   pesticides   to
           proper use,  unnecessary  use,
           and misuse;  and
      (c)  Prevention of  drift and pesti-
           cide loss  into the environment.

(viii) Laws  and  Regulations—Applicable
      State and  Federal laws and regula-

(c)  Specific Standards of Competency for Each
     Category of Commercial Applicators
  Some of the factors referenced  in (171.4(b))
are of particular importance because of the dif-
ferent types of activities carried out by appli-
cators in each category. Such  factors  must be
especially  stressed  and  specifically reflected in
State  certification   standards,  as  appropriate.
For  example,  practical  knowledge  of   drift
problems  should  be  required  of agricultural
applicators  but  not  of seed  treatment appli-
cators.  The latter,  however, should be  particu-
larly  knowledgeable  of  the  hazards  of  the
misuse  of treated seed  and the necessary pre-
cautionary  techniques.  Many  applicators  in
categories  171.3(b)  (8),  (9), and (10) will  have
had considerable  formal education, training and
experience  in preparation for their  positions.
Their competency  with  respect  to  the  use  and
handling of pesticides  will  have  been deter-
mined by examining boards of their professional
scientific  societies  utilizing  standards which
equal or exceed  those prescribed herein.  Such
standards should be consulted  by States in de-
veloping their State standards for certification
of  such applicators under these regulations.
   Commercial  applicators  in  each   category
shall be  particularly  qualified with respect to
the practical knowledge  standards elaborated
          (i) Plant
              Applicators  must   demonstrate
          practical  knowledge  of  the  crops
          grown  and the specific pests  of those
          crops on which  they may be using re-
          stricted  use  pesticides.  The  impor-
          tance  of  such competency is ampli-
          fied by the extensive areas  involved,
          the quantities of  pesticides  needed,
          and the  ultimate  use of many  com-
          modities as food  and feed.  Practical
          knowledge  is  required  concerning
          soil and water  problems, pre-harvest
          intervals, re-entry  intervals, phyto-


      toxicity,  and  potential  for  environ-
      mental contamination, non-target in-
      jury  and community problems result-
      ing from the  use of restricted  use
      pesticides in agricultural  areas.
      (ii)  Animal
           Applicators   applying  pesticides
      directly to animals must  demonstrate
      practical knowledge of such  animals
      and  their associated pests.  A  practi-
      cal knowledge is  also required  con-
      cerning specific pesticide  toxicity and
      residue potential,  since host animals
      will frequently be used for food. Fur-
      ther,  the  applicator must know  the
      relative hazards associated with such
      factors  as  formulation,  application
      techniques, age of  animals, stress and
      extent  of treatment.
      Applicators shall  demonstrate  practi-
 cal knowledge of the types of  forests, for-
 est nurseries, and seed  production in their
 State and the  pests involved. They  should
 possess  practical  knowledge  of the cyclic
 occurrence  of  certain  pests  and  specific
 population dynamics as a basis for pro-
 gramming pesticide applications.  A  practi-
 cal knowledge  is required of  the  relative
 biotic agents and their vulnerability to  the
 pesticides  to be  applied.  Because  forest
 stands may be large and frequently include
 natural  aquatic habitats and harbor wild-
 life, the  consequences of pesticide use may
 be  difficult to  assess. The applicator must
 therefore demonstrate practical knowledge
 of  control methods which  will  minimize
 the possibility  of secondary problems such
 as  unintended effects on  wildlife.  Proper
 use of specialized equipment must  be de-
 monstrated,  especially as it  may  relate to
 meteorological factors  and  adjacent land
     Applicators shall demonstrate  practi-

cal knowledge  of pesticide  problems asso-
ciated with the  production and maintenance
of ornamental trees, shrubs, plantings,  and
turf,  including  cognizance  of  potential
phytotoxicity due to a wide  variety of plant
material, drift,  and persistence beyond the
intended period  of pest  control. Because
of the frequent proximity of human habi-
tations to application activities,  applicators
in this category  must demonstrate practi-
cal knowledge of application methods which
will minimize or prevent hazards to humans,
pets, and other  domestic animals.
     Applicators  shall  demonstrate practi-
 cal knowledge of  types of seeds that  re-
 quire  chemical  protection  against pests
 and factors such as seed  coloration,  car-
 riers, and  surface  active agents which  in-
 fluence pesticide  binding  and  may affect
 germination. They must demonstrate prac-
 tical knowledge of hazards  associated with
 handling, sorting and mixing, and misuse
 of treated  seed  such  as  introduction of
 treated seed into  food and feed channels, as
 well as proper disposal of unused treated
     Applicators  shall  demonstrate practi-
 cal  knowledge of  the secondary effects
 which can be caused by improper applica-
 tion  rates,  incorrect  formulations,   and
 faulty application  of restricted  use pesti-
 cides  used in this  category.  They  shall
 demonstrate practical knowledge  of  vari-
 ous water use  situations and the potential
 of downstream effects.  Further,  they must
 have practical knowledge  concerning po-
 tential pesticide  effects on  plants,  fish,
 birds, beneficial insects and other organ-
 isms  which may  be present in   aquatic
 environments.   These   applicators   shall
 demonstrate practical  knowledge of   the
 principles of limited area application.

     Applicators shall demonstrate practi-
 cal knowledge of a wide variety of envi-
 ronments since rights-of-way can  traverse
 many  different terrains, including water-
 ways.  They  shall  demonstrate  practical
 knowledge  of problems on  runoff, drift,
 and excessive foliage destruction and ability
 to  recognize  target  organisms. They  shall
 also demonstrate practical  knowledge of
 the nature of herbicides and the need for
 containment of these pesticides within the
 right-of-way area, and the impact of  their
 application activities in  the  adjacent areas
 and communities.
     Applicators must demonstrate a prac-
 tical knowledge of a wide variety  of pests
 including  their  life  cycles,   types   of
 formulations   appropriate   for their  con-
 trol and methods of application that avoid
 contamination of food,  damage  and  con-
 tamination  of  habitat  and  exposure  of
 people  and  pets. Since human  exposure,
 including babies, children, pregnant women,
 and elderly people,  is frequently  a poten-
 tial problem,  applicators must demonstrate
 practical knowledge of the specific  factors
 which  may lead to a hazardous condition,
 including continuous exposure in  the vari-
 ous situations encountered in this category.
 Because health related  pest control  may
 involve  outdoor applications, applicators
 must also demonstrate practical knowledge
 of  environmental  conditions  particularly
 related to this activity.

     Applicators  shall demonstrate  practi-
cal knowledge of vector-disease  transmis-
sion as it relates to and  influences applica-
tion programs. A wide variety of pests is
involved,  and it is essential that they be

known  and  recognized,  and  appropriate
life cycles and habitats be understood as  a
basis for control strategy.  These applicators
shall have  practical knowledge of a great
variety   of  environments  ranging  from
streams to those conditions found in build-
ings.  They  should  also have  practical
knowledge  of the importance and employ-
ment  of such non-chemical  control meth-
ods  as  sanitation,  waste  disposal,  and
     Applicators shall demonstrate practi-
cal knowledge  of  regulated  pests, appli-
cable laws relating to quarantine and other
regulation of pests,  and  the potential im-
pact on  the environment of restricted use
pesticides used in  suppression  and eradi-
cation programs. They  shall demonstrate
knowledge  of factors influencing introduc-
tion,  spread, and population dynamics of
relevant  pests.  Their knowledge shall ex-
tend  beyond that  required  by  their im-
mediate  duties  since their  services are
frequently  required  in other  areas  of the
country  where  emergency  measures are
invoked  to control regulated  pests,  and
where individual judgments must be  made
in new situations.
      Persons demonstrating  the  safe and
effective use of pesticides to other appli-
cators and the public will be expected  to
meet comprehensive standards  reflecting
a  broad  spectrum  of  pesticide  uses.
Many different pest problem situations will
be encountered in  the course of activities
associated  with demonstration,  and prac-
tical  knowledge  of problems,  pests, and
population  levels  occurring  in each  de-
monstration situation is  required. Further,
they  should demonstrate an understanding
of pesticide-organism interactions  and the
importance  of  integrating  pesticide  use
with  other control  methods.  In  general,  it

    would be  expected  that  applicators  doing
    demonstration pest  control work possess
    a practical knowledge of all of the standards
    detailed  in Section  171.4(b).  In  addition,
    they  shall meet  the specific standards  re-
    quired for categories  (1) through (7) of
    this section as may be applicable to their
    particular  activity.
         Persons  conducting  field research or
    method  improvement work with  restricted
    use pesticides should be expected to know
    the general standards detailed in 171.4(b).
    In  addition, they shall be expected to know
    the specific  standards required  for  cate-
    gories  (1) through  (9)  of  this section,
    applicable to their  particular activity, or
    alternatively,  to  meet the more  inclusive
    requirements   listed  under  "Demonstra-

(d)   Special Standards—This  space reserved for
    possible issuance of Special Standards.

(e)  The  above standards do not apply  to  the
    following  persons  for purposes  of  these
    (1) Persons conducting laboratory type re-
    search  involving  restricted use pesticides;
    and (2)  Doctors of Medicine  and Doctors
    of  Veterinary Medicine applying  pesticides
    as  drugs or medication during the  course
    of  their  normal practice.

Section  171.5  Standards  for Certifica-
  tion  of Private Applicators
  (a)  Competence  in  the  use  and handling of
pesticides  by a private applicator will  be deter-
mined   by procedures  set  forth  below.  State
standards  must conform  and  be at least  equal
to those prescribed  herein.
  As  a minimum requirement for certification,
a private  applicator  must show  that he  pos-
sesses a practical  knowledge  of the pest  prob-
lems and  pest  control practices associated with
his  agricultural operations,  proper  storage, use,
handling  and  disposal  of the pesticides and


 containers,  and his related  legal responsibility.
 This practical knowledge includes  ability to:
     (1) Recognize common pests to be  con-
     trolled and damage caused by them.
     (2) Read and understand  the label  and
     labeling  information—including  the  com-
     mon name of pesticide he applied; pest(s)
     to be controlled;  timing and  methods of
     application;   safety precautions;   any pre-
     harvest or re-entry  restrictions; and  any
     specific  disposal  procedures.
     (3) Apply  pesticides in  accordance  with
     label instructions  and warnings, including
     the ability  to prepare the proper concen-
     tration of pesticide to be used under  par-
     ticular circumstances taking  into account
     such factors  as area  to be  covered, speed
     at which application equipment will  be
     driven,  and  the  quantity  dispersed  in  a
     given period of operation.
     (4) Recognize  local  environmental   situ-
     ations that must be considered during ap-
     plication to avoid contamination.
     (5) Recognize  poisoning  symptoms  and
     procedures to follow in case of a pesticide
  (b)  Such competence of each private appli-
cator shall be verified  by  the responsible State
agency through the administration of a private
applicator  certification system  which  ensures
that the private applicator is competent, based
upon the standards set forth above, to use the
restricted use  pesticides   under limitations  of
applicable  State and Federal laws and regula-
tions. A certification system shall employ a writ-
ten or oral  testing procedure,  or such  other
equivalent  system  as may be approved  as  part
of a State plan.
     (1) In any case where a  person, at  the
     time of testing for certification,  is unable
     to  read  a   label,  the  responsible  State
     agency may  employ  a testing  procedure,
     previously approved by the Administrator,
     which  can adequately  assess the  compe-
     tence of such person  with  regard to all of
     the above standards.  Certification must be

     related and limited to the use and handling
     of each individual pesticide for  which he
     desires certification at any time. Therefore,
     the applicator  will be  authorized  to use
     only  the  pesticide(s)  for  which he has
     demonstrated competence. A specific proce-
     dure  is required  for Section  171.5(a)(2)
     relating to label comprehension,  with test-
     ing designed to assure  his knowledge of
     the following:
     (i) Understanding of the label and label-
         ing  information including  those  items
         indicated in that subsection.
     (ii) Sources of  advice and guidance neces-
         sary for the safe and proper use  of each
         pesticide  related to  his certification.

Section 171.6  Standards for Supervision
   of Non-Certified  Applicators by Certi-
   fied  Private  and  Commercial  Appli-
   Certified applicators  whose activities indicate
a supervisory role must demonstrate a practical
knowledge of Federal and State  supervisory re-
quirements,  including  labeling,  regarding the
application of restricted use  pesticides by non-
certified applicators.
   The  availability  of  the  certified applicator
must be directly related  to  the hazard of the
situation. In  many situations, where the certified
applicator  is  not  required  to be physically
present,  "direct  supervision"   shall   include
verifiable instruction to the  competent person,
as follows: (1) detailed guidance for applying
the  pesticide properly, and  (2) provisions for
contacting  the certified  applicator in  the  event
he is needed.    In  other  situations,  and  as
required by the label,  the  actual physical
presence of a certified applicator  may  be re-
quired  when  application  is  made  by a non-
certified applicator.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1974-625-715/25-31


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