Clean Lakes Program

1987 Annual Report
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  Clean Lakes Program
      1987 Annual Report
Office of Water Regulations and Standards
          Office of Water
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
          Washington, DC

            Prepared by the North American Lake Management Society under Coopera-
            tive Agreement No. CX 814969-01-0 for the U.S. Environmental  Protection
            Agency.  Project officer:  Frank Lapensee, Criteria & Standards Division,
            Nonpoint Sources Branch, Washington, DC 20460.  Publication does not
            signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the En-
            vironmental Protection Agency, nor does mention  of trade names or com-
            mercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
EPA Regional Clean Lakes coordinators contributed the information for this Clean Lakes Program Annual
   Report. Tom Davenport of Region V compiled the report, which was reviewed by Frank Lapensee,
       head of the Clean Lakes Program, Carl Myers, chief of the Nonpoint Sources Branch, and
        Headquarters staff members Terri Hollingsworth and Susan Ratcliffe. Lura K. Taggart
                     of the NALMS office designed and produced the report.


Introduction  	1
Fiscal Year 1987: New Directions for Water Quality and the Clean Lakes Program .  .  3
  A Year of Progress	4
  Program Implementation	4
Region I   	8
Region II	   10
Region III   	12
Region IV  	14
Region V	16
Region VI  	18
Region VII	19
Region VIII	21
Region X	22

Widespread  public  support for preserving and
protecting our Nation's lakes gave rise to the Clean
Lakes Program in 1972. Initiated under the Federal
Water  Pollution  Control Act,  the  Clean  Lakes
Program  set ambitious  goals for defining  the
causes  and  extent  of  pollution problems in  the
lakes of each  State and for developing and  im-
plementing effective techniques to  restore and
protect  lake resources. The Clean Lakes Program
provided financial assistance to the States to carry
out the provisions and objectives of the Act.
   Early EPA grants  provided funding for a number
of research and development activities, as well as
for local demonstration projects. As a result, in-lake
monitoring and restoration  techniques as well as
watershed best  management  practices  were
developed to meet  the needs  of lake restoration
planners nationwide. In addition, initial research ac-
tivities provided  important  baseline data against
which the  effectiveness of lake restoration projects
later could be judged.
   Promulgation of the Clean Lakes Regulations in
1980 focused the program by establishing a com-
prehensive grant assistance program that included
grants to  the States for the preparation of Clas-
sification Surveys, as well as for Phase I diagnos-
tic/feasibility studies and Phase II implementation
projects. The purpose of the State  lake classifica-
tion survey was to identify and classify the publicly-
owned lakes within each State according to trophic
conditions. This activity set the stage for the award
of Phase I grants by defining a universe of potential
lake water quality projects in each State and by
serving  to assist in prioritizing lakes for potential
funding  assistance.
  Phase I studies were intended to determine the
causes and extent of pollution in particular lakes of
each State, to evaluate possible pollution control
mechanisms for them, and to recommend the most
feasible and cost-effective methods for  restoring
and protecting lake water quality. Up to 70 percent
of the total cost of the project could be awarded by
the Federal  government, with a maximum  of
$100,000 awarded to any one study.
  The award of Phase II Federal assistance grants
translated  Phase I  lake restoration and protection
recommendations into action. Funds provided for
Phase  II projects  were intended for actual  im-
plementation of in-lake restoration practices and
best management  practices  (BMP's) in the lake's
watershed. Phase II projects  required at least a 50
percent non-Federal match. Since 1976, EPA has
funded over 350 projects at $102 million.
  With  the passage of the Water Quality Act of
1987, new directions for the Clean Lakes Program
were  established within the  broader  context of
State water quality management. The next section
of this report discusses these new directions and
program activities  in 1987. The remainder of the
report provides region-by-region status.

Fiscal Year 1987: New Directions for Water
Quality  and the Clean Lakes Program	
The Water Quality Act of 1987 (WQA) offers a spe-
cial opportunity for regulatory agencies, the regu-
lated community, and the public to implement the
ambitious new initiatives in concert with ongoing
core Clean  Water  Act (CWA)  programs. States
have  been  actively  involved  in  water quality
management planning since before the 1972 CWA,
and, under the amendments, need to address im-
portant new  responsibilities in the areas of surface
water toxics,  nonpoint source pollution, clean
lakes, and estuaries. In  addition, wetlands and
groundwater represent very important resources
that merit protective efforts. The U.S. Environmen-
tal Protection Agency (EPA) is actively encouraging
States to meet the  goals and requirements of the
WQA to the fullest extent possible, and to do so in
an open, consultative framework using the latest
techniques of problem assessment  and  manage-
ment. This framework is generally referred to as the
State Clean Water Strategy Process.
   As each State addresses its ongoing  and new
responsibilities,  it has the opportunity to  integrate
its Clean Lakes Program  into its  overall water
quality management efforts. The  Clean  Lakes
Program is  particularly conducive to a highly in-
tegrated and unified approach to water restoration
and protection by the States. The natural linkages
between Clean  Lakes management activities and
other environmental programs, is the flexibility af-
forded both EPA and the States by Section 314;
Section 314 and the cross-program and cross-
agency relationships,  established  just  recently,
combine to encourage an integrated approach.
  Specifically, Section 315 of the Water Quality Act
of 1987 reauthorized the Clean Lakes Program and
mandated a number of new initiatives and require-
ments.  First, in order to remain  eligible for Clean
Lakes Program grant funds,  each State is required
to submit biannually to EPA the following:
  • Revised Lake Classification Report;
  • List of lakes not meeting water quality
     standards or that will require controls to
     maintain standards;
  • Lake pollution control procedures;
  • Restoration plan for degraded lakes;
  • Methods and procedures to mitigate the
     harmful effects of acidity in lakes;
  • Assessment of the status and trends of lake
     water quality; and
  • A list of threatened and impaired lakes.
  As required by the Act, the 305(b) Report will be
the  mechanism for reporting this information, as

well as for reporting information concerning non-
point sources of pollution and toxics.
   Second, under the new Act, EPA is required to
establish a  Clean Lakes demonstration program
that will enhance the  current scientific  database
regarding the causes of lake degradation and the
effectiveness  of  various lake  restoration  techni-
ques.  This  initiative will include a study of the
causes and extent of lake acidification nationwide,
resulting in the development of  mitigation techni-
ques for affected lakes. However, no funds were
either requested  or provided for this program. As
such,  demonstration projects will be incorporated
within  the framework  of  the  existing  program
guidance and regulations.
   Third, EPA was required to develop a lake res-
toration guidance manual and distribute it to the
States. This manual  must be revised and updated
every two years.  The manual has been completed
by EPA's Office of Research and  Development and
published and distributed by the Office  of Water;
subsequent updates will be the responsibility of the
Office of Water.
   Finally, in accordance with Section 518(e) of the
Water Quality Act of 1987, EPA's administrator is
authorized to treat qualified Indian tribes as States.
Therefore, a special effort will be made to involve
Indian tribes in Clean Lakes Program activities and
initiatives in the future.
A Year of Progress

During fiscal year 1987, the Clean Lakes Program
made significant progress toward meeting the new
goals set forth  by the reauthorized Water Quality
Act. In May 1987, EPA convened a Clean Lakes
Work Group that included representatives of the
States, Regional EPA Offices, Indian tribes, a lake
managers' association, and others. From these dis-
cussions  evolved  the   Clean   Lakes  Program
Guidance   document  (December   1987)   that
describes procedures for complying with the re-
quirements of the new Act. The Guidance stresses
an integrated program approach and development
of a State Clean Water  Strategy integrating the
Clean Lakes Program into the States overall water
quality management efforts. As outlined in several
of the  success  stories  in   this report,  cross
programs and cross agency relationships were es-
tablished providing an  integrated  Clean  Water
Strategy approach.
   EPA funded several projects that will expand the
base  of  scientific  knowledge  in  lake  restora-
tion/protection methodology  for  subsequent up-
dates  to the  Lake  Restoration and Reservoir
Guidance Manual. Projects included funds to con-
duct a National Conference on State Lake Manage-
ment   Programs,   remote  sensing  studies  of
nonpoint source impact on lakes, production of the
Monitoring Section of the Technical Supplement to
the  Lake  &  Reservoir  Restoration  Guidance
Manual, research  on  how grass carp  reduces
aquatic vegetation in lakes, and  further develop-
ment  of a computer model (AGNPS) to  estimate
nutrient loadings  from watersheds  to lakes and
 Program Implementation

 In fiscal year 1987, $4.5 million was appropriated
 for the Clean Lakes Program. These funds were al-
 located to the EPA Regions based  upon two fac-
 tors: the number of active Clean Lakes projects and
   To ensure that projects were designed to attain
 program goals, the Regions were given  three
 specific objectives:
   1. Select  projects that maximize  benefits to the
   2. Select  projects that maximize  benefits to the
 public; and
   3. Follow  an integrated program approach.
   The Regions then selected projects  submitted
 by the States that met these objectives.  Forty-nine
 applicants   qualified:  32   Phase  I  diagnos-
 tic/feasibility studies  totalling $2,220,716,  and 17
 Phase II projects totalling $2,477,284.  Figures 1
 and  2 show the distribution of funds and projects
 by Region. Figure 3  shows the distribution of the
 Clean Lakes restoration activities funded for 1987.
 Figure 4 shows the States which received Clean
 Lakes grants in 1987.

                    Clean Lakes 1987 Funding
 Figure 1.
                Clean Lakes 1987 Projects
                                         Phase I
                                         New  Phase II
                                   *£*•*•;! Amended Phase
   0    1
  Figure 2.

                             FY 87 Restoration Activities







Threemile, ME
Hills, MA
Sluice/Flax, MA
Hopatcong, NJ
Saratoga, NY
Van Cortlandt Park, NY
Nockamixon, PA

Wallenpaupack, PA
Como, MN
Big Stone, MN
Clear, MN
Medicine, MN
Springfield, IL
Delevan, Wl
Blackhawk, IO
Deer Creek, VT
Devil's, OR
Watershed Management







to c
0) o






* *-
CD 0)





In -lake Activities













_ S
0) 0)
,_ 05
0) CO
m C














  Includes detention/sedimentation basin, wetlands, diversion culverts, waterways,
  filtration, porous pavement
Figure 3.

                                                                      fe"oAirf?lM^5*/ _.
Figure 4.   States receiving FY 87 Clean Lakes grants indicated by shaded area.

                                      Region I
During fiscal year 1987, Region 1 received nine
Clean Lakes applications. Two applications were
rejected at the regional level because they did not
meet the regional guidance criteria established for
all projects  requesting  fiscal  1987 Clean  Lakes
  The Region requested and received approval to
award  seven Clean Lakes grants for the following
Threemile Pond, ME
Long Lake, ME
Sluice, Flax and Floating
Bridge Ponds, MA
Hills Pond, MA
Mendums Pond, NH
Webster Lake, NH
Olney Pond, Rl
Type of Project

The Region now has 17 active projects.

Success  Story: Lake


An example of  a successful lake  restoration
program in Region I is Lake Morey, a 218.62-hec-
tare  lake  in Fairlee, VT.  The lake, an important
recreational site, had  a long-standing problem of
excessive algae  growth that often severely  inter-
fered with  recreational use of the lake. At times,
blooms of blue-green  algae and other algal types
formed extensive scum on the surface of the lake.
In 1985, collapsing algal bloom caused a major fish
kill involving yellow perch.
   Early studies  indicated that  phosphorus leach-
ing into the lake  from failing shoreline septic  tanks
caused  Lake Morey's  eutrophication problem.
However, subsequent  modeling analyses indicated
that internal  phosphorus loading from lake  sedi-
ments might be a significant contributor. Uncertain-
ty over the cause of the excessive  phosphorus
levels led to a Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility  study
on Lake Morey by the State of Vermont.
   Central to the study,  which was completed  in
1984,  was an extensive sampling program that
directly measured phosphorus inputs to the lake
                                                                              A Threemile

                                                                             ' Long Lake
                              Sluice, Rax
                              and Roating
                              Bridge Ponds
                               • Phase I projects
                               A Phase II projects

Figure 5.  Region I FY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.

from  tributary  streams, groundwater (including
septic systems), and  precipitation. In addition, in-
ternal phosphorus loading was evaluated through
detailed mass balance calculations.
   The results clearly indicated  that internal phos-
phorus loading from anoxic hypolimnetic lake sedi-
ments was the  main  cause  of  the  elevated
phosphorus levels in the lake.  Paleolimnological
analysis of a dated sediment core from the  lake
suggested  how the problem might have started.
Evidence preserved in the core  indicated that from
1880-1920, when  most of the lakeshore develop-
ment  took place, soil  erosion and sewage dischar-
ges  may  have contributed a  massive load of

phosphorus to the lake that had been recycled in-
ternally ever since.
   Feasibility  studies  for  restoring  Lake  Morey
focused on techniques to break the cycle of inter-
nal phosphorus loading. Treatment of the hypolim-
netic sediments with alum and sodium aluminate
was chosen as the preferred restoration method
because it provided the best opportunity to control
the problem over the long term.
   A Phase II  lake restoration project began on
Lake Morey in 1986 by treating the entire 133.8-ha
sediment area with 175,000 gallons of liquid alum
and sodium aluminate at a cost of $177,000. The
chemicals were injected during a 19-day period in
May-June 1986 at a depth of 8 meters from a barge
equipped with chemical storage tanks, adjustable
booms,  and a spray manifold.
   The   two-year    post-treatment    monitoring
program showed a dramatic improvement in the
lake's water quality. Total phosphorus concentra-
tions  in surface  waters  remained below  10 mil-
ligrams  per liter  (mg/L) during most of 1986 and
1987, compared with previous levels averaging 20-
40 mg/L. During the summers of 1986 and 1987,
hypolimnetic  phosphorus  concentrations  were
below 50 mg/L, down sharply from pre-treatment
levels of 200-500 mg/L. The spring 1987 level was
only 9 mg/L, compared with average annual spring
phosphorus levels of 37 mg/L before treatment.
  Algae  levels  and water  clarity also  improved
after treatment. Average chlorophyll concentrations
during the summer of 1986 were the lowest in nine
years, and no significant algal  blooms have oc-
curred since treatment. Water clarity reached all-
time highs during 1987.
  Aluminum levels in the lake, while somewhat
elevated   immediately  after   treatment,   soon
returned to pre-treatment levels. No deaths of fish
or other aquatic life were observed following ex-
posure, although a decline in the condition of yel-
low  perch  was  observed.   Fisheries  data  are
currently being examined to determine whether
temporary aluminum exposure caused the decline.

                                     Region II
During fiscal year 1987, the State of New York sub-
mitted two applications and the State of New Jer-
sey   submitted   one   application.   All  three
applications were for amendments to Phase  II
Lake Hopatcong, NJ

Saratoga Lake, NY

Van Cortlandt Park
  Lake, NY
Grant     Type of Project
$265,000    Restoration/Protection

$154,241    Restoration/Protection

 $52,759    Restoration/Protection
   The grants for New Jersey's Lake Hopatcong
and New York's Saratoga Lake, multi-year projects
that  involve  weed  harvesting  and  watershed
management, complete Federal funding for those
projects. The grant for New York's Van Cortlandt
Park Lake $7 million project includes stormwater
diversion,   dredging,  and  upstream  detention
basins.  Locations  of these projects  within the
Region are shown in Figure 6. Fourteen projects
are now active in Region II.
         Lake Hopatcong
 • Phase I projects
 A Phase II projects
 Figure 6.  Region IIFY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.
Success  Story:  Iroquois

Lake and Duck  Pond

Iroquois Lake  and the Duck Pond  are  shallow,
urban bodies  of water located in Central Park,
Schenectady, NY. The lake provides the means for
several water-related activities, such  as  boating,
fishing, and swimming in the summer months; and
ice-skating and ice-hockey in the winter. Surround-
ing the lake are many walkways, grassy areas and
picnic tables which allow for a variety of recreation-
al activities around the lake.
   Historically,  recreational uses of the lake  had
been impaired  by a deterioration of the lake water
quality.   Macrophyte   growth  was   extensive
throughout   the  summer  due to organic  and
nutrient-rich sediments. The sediments also stimu-
lated the overgrowth of plankton and  algae in the
summer. Odors,  as a result of the seasonal die-off
of aquatic plants, and repeated winter fish kills also
diminished the aesthetics  of the lake and  impaired
its use.
   A Phase I diagnostic/feasibility study indicated
that  urban  stormwater runoff was  the  primary
source of nutrients to the lake and pond. As a result
of this study, the Phase  II restoration project in-
cluded the following:
   1.  Drawdown and  excavation  of  nutrient-rich
sediments from the lake and pond;
   2.  Bottom  sealing of  the  lake  and pond  with
clay-soil  liner  to prevent excess exfiltration  of
   3.  Development of a stormwater retention  area
for control of watershed drainage to the lake/pond
   4.  Installation of a seepage pit to control street
runoff to the lake;
   5.  Rehabilitation of the Iroquois Lake Fountain
to recirculate  lake water, and make  operable by
direct water line connection to the City Water Supp-
ly, to enable periodic dilution and flushing of the
   Post-restoration monitoring began in  January
1986. The results of the sampling indicated the level
of success of  the restoration project. Total phos-
phorus, Kjeldahl nitrogen, suspended solids, and
chlorophyll  a  concentrations were reduced  as  a

                                                   result of the project. Total phosphorus concentra-
                                                   tions of Iroquois Lake fell 63.4 percent; Kjeldahl
                                                   nitrogen   concentrations  fell   54.4   percent;
                                                   suspended  solids  dropped  59.6  percent;  and
                                                   chlorophyll  a concentrations were 27.4 percent
                                                   below pre-restoration levels. Similar patterns were
                                                   noted in Duck Pond.
                                                     Dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that
                                                   oxygen  levels were at or near saturation values
                                                   throughout the 11 -month monitoring period in both
                                                   surface and bottom waters; at no time was there
                                                   any indication of a return to the depleted oxygen
                                                   conditions of the past.  Measurements also indi-
                                                   cated the absence of significant photosynthetic ac-
                                                   tivities. As a result, no fish kills or algal blooms have
                                                   occurred since the restoration.
                                                     The project also successfully reduced  the den-
                                                   sity of  macrophyte species.  Some macrophytes
                                                   have recurred in shallow portions of the  lake and
                                                   pond which provide a suitable habitat for the new
                                                   fish population but have  not impaired the recrea-
                                                   tional aspects of the lake.
   > Water quality samples
Figure 7.  Sampling stations for Iroquois Lake and Duck Pond

                                    Region III
During fiscal  year  1987,  Region  III  received
$530,400 in allocated funds. Two Phase I studies
were funded: Silver Lake in Dover, DE at a cost of
$21,000 and Big Cherry Reservoir in Big Stone
Gap, VA  at a cost of $30,000. Two Pennsylvania
restoration  efforts received Phase  II funding of
$239,000 each: Lake Wallenpaupack in Paupack,
and Lake Nockamixon in Quakertown. The partial
funding will permit implementation  of the highest-
priority restoration  methods,  which are mostly
agricultural  best  management  practices.  Four
projects are active in Region III.
Grant     Type of Project
Silver Lake, DE         $21,000

Big Cherry Reservoir, VA  $30,000

Lake Nockamixon, PA   $239,700

Lake Wallenpaupack, PA $239,700



                          Lake Nockamixon
                      Silver Lake-Dover
   Big Cherry
           • Phase I projects
           A Phase II projects
 Figure 8.  Region III FY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.
Success Story: South

Fork Rivanna  Reservoir
The South Fork Rivanna Reservoir is located in the
Upper James River Basin near Charlottesville, VA in
Albemarle County.  The  reservoir covers  1.58
square kilometers and  receives  drainage from a
629-square-kilometer watershed.  The  mean depth
is 4.5 meters and the mean residence time is eight
  Algal blooms, fish kills, and problems with taste
and odor commonly occur in this reservoir. A 1977
watershed management study concluded that the
lake was highly eutrophic. Of the land around the
watershed, 61 percent is undeveloped; of the rest,
4 percent is developed,  8 percent is cropland, and
27 percent is pasture land. Nonpoint sources were
found to contribute nearly all of the suspended
solids and 76 percent of the phosphorus load to the
   Reports funded through the Section 314 Clean
Lakes  and Section 208  programs have recom-
mended the  following  activities to  restore and
manage the reservoir:
   1. Implementation of a strict  runoff control or-
   2. Implementation of agricultural, roadway, and
other best management practices;
   3. Implementation of streambank  erosion con-
   4. Construction of a regional detention basin;
   5. Employment of a watershed manager.
   The  Rivanna Water  and Sewer Authority, Al-
bemarle County, and  the City  of Charlottesville,
together with funding and support from EPA and
the Virginia State Water Control Board, have imple-
mented almost all of these recommendations.
   EPA provided an $800,000 Clean Lakes Phase II
grant in 1981, which has helped to finance comple-
tion of 85 percent of the project. Most of the imple-
mented BMPs have been agricultural and represent
about  75 different contracts; the highway  BMP
program has been limited by budget restrictions in
the  Virginia  Highway   Department. A watershed
manager has been hired  and  a  runoff control or-
dinance was developed  and implemented. The

regional detention basin remains under considera-     pre-restoration levels. The project is  expected to
tion due to rising construction costs.                  continue for up  to  four  more  years, and more
   Monitoring of the reservoir is showing positive     reductions in algae  growth and loadings are ex-
results. Total phosphorus, suspended  solids and     pected.
chlorophyll levels are down 10 to 25 percent from

                                      Region  IV
This  southeastern  Region  encompasses  eight
States:  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  North  and  South
Carolina,  Georgia,  Alabama,  Mississippi,  and
Florida. The Region is  managing three  active
projects, and this year, funded four Phase I diag-
nostic/feasibility studies.
Grant     Type of Project
Lake Edgar A. Brown, SC $64,048    Diagnostic/Feasibility
Wolf Lake, MS         $100,000

Moon Lake, MS        $100,000

Lake Washington, MS    $100,000


   • Lake Washington
       Wolf Lake
 • Phase I projects
 A Phase II projects
 Figure 9.  Region IV FY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.

 Success Story:  Lake


 Lake Jackson is a 1,619.4-ha solution lake located
 near Tallahassee, FL. Comprehensive  studies of
 the water quality of Lake Jackson during 1974 and
 1977 led to increased awareness of pollution in the
 lake resulting from stormwater drainage. Rapid ur-
banization in the Megginnis Arm watershed (902.8
ha) of the lake resulted in greater drainage with in-
creased  nutrient  and sediment  loads, and sub-
sequently accelerated the eutrophication  of both
the watershed and the lake.
   As the result of a cooperative effort  by EPA
(which provided $1.6 million in Section 314 fund-
ing), the Florida  Department  of Environmental
Regulation,  and  the  Northwest  Florida  Water
Management  District, a  stormwater treatment
facility was built along a natural inflow stream to
Megginnis Arm. This facility, which began operat-
ing in the fall of 1984, incorporates proven and in-
novative techniques to  treat  the  stormwater
drainage that enters the watershed.
   Stormwater drainage  enters  a 163,000 cubic
meter  detention pond  (Fig. 10),  and  passes
through a 1.8-ha intermittent underdrain filter that
removes  solids  and   nutrients.    Immediately
downstream, the flow is diverted  into a 2.5-ha
marsh, which has an average depth 0.5 meters, ex-
cept for a 2.5-meter deep settling basin  near the
outfall. The  marsh  impoundment  is divided  into
three cells, each of which contains a different kind
of macrophyte.
                                                         Megginnis Arm Lake
                                                            Megginnis Creek
                                                                    -Lakeshore Drive
                                                    Stoplog weir
                                                                Heavy sediment
                                                                                    collection basin
                                  Intermittent fill
                                                                 Mall Side Villas
                                                   Megginnis Creek
                                 Lake Jackson Project
                                   Cedars Executive Center
                                Figure 10.  Location of detention pond.

  Based on  three  years  of  post-project water    the remaining load. All other loading parameters
quality monitoring  by Florida  State University's    show reductions  ranging from 37 to 90 percent
Department  of  Oceanography,  the  impound-    under normal operating conditions.
ment/filter bed can remove 91 to 98 percent of the       In 1987, the project was named the Outstanding
suspended  solid  load  from  the  stormwater    Restoration  Project  of  the  year by  the  North
drainage while the  marsh removes 75 percent  of    American Lake Management Society (NALMS).

                                      Region V
In April 1987,  Region V issued fiscal year 1987
Funding Guidance for the  Clean Lakes Program.
This Regional Guidance was based on the National
Guidance, and Regional priorities.
   In response to this guidance, over 50 potential
projects were identified. Five States submitted ap-
plications  for a total of 17 projects  for possible
Clean  Lakes funding, of which 16  received ap-
proval. Of the approved projects, 10 were Phase I
studies and  six were Phase II restoration projects
(see Fig. 11).
  I MINNESOTA ^^—-J       ^O
  \               ^^           S
         Lakes   /^Chicago Park
       Lake Ripley f Lagoons I
 Big Kandiyohi Lake (          I
      LakePittsfield*   Lake Springfield
 • Phase I Projects
 * Phase II Projects

 Figure 11.  Region V FY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.

   In addition to the 16 grant actions mentioned
 above, the Region continued to manage 35 active
 projects. The Region conducted field reviews of 20
 active  and  new projects as well as three potential
 projects during fiscal year 1987.
   To ensure efficient and effective management of
 its Clean Lakes projects, the  Region developed a
 data management system to facilitate the tracking
 of projects and to assist in responding to inquiries
 concerning the Clean  Lakes  Program and water
 quality problems.  Regional personnel also  par-
 ticipated in the Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin Annual
 State Lake Association Meetings, and cosponsored
 and participated  in the first Regional NALMS meet-
 ing in Columbus, OH.
Lake               Grant
Chicago Park Lagoon, IL  $50,000

 Chain, Ml

Lake Ripley, MN

Lake Pittsfield, IL

Tanner's Lake, MN

Indian Lake, OH

Lake Sallie & Detroit
 Lakes, MN

Lake Springfield, IL

Clear Lake, MN

Medicine Lake, MN

Delavan Lake, Wl

Upper & Lower Prior
 Lakes, MN









Type of Project







Resto rati o n/Protectio n



Big Kandiyohi Lake, MN
Como Lake, MN
Sauk River Chain, MN
Big Stone Lake, MN
Success Story:  Lake


Lake Le-Aqua-Na, located in Lake  Le-Aqua-Na
State Park in Stephenson County, IL, was formed in
1956 by the damming of Waddams Creek. Of the
lake's 951.4-ha watershed, 31  percent is owned by
the State; the rest is in small private holdings, most
of which are agricultural.
   The  lake  and surrounding  State  park  are
managed by the  Illinois Department of Conserva-
tion (IDOC) for a wide variety  of recreational uses,
including fishing, boating, canoeing, camping, pic-
nicking, hiking, water sports, and swimming. Park
attendance peaked at 530,000 in 1976; by 1981, at-
tendance had declined by approximately 43.4 per-
cent. This decline seemed partially related to the
lake's deteriorating water quality.
   A 1981-83 Phase I study identified the following
major problems in the lake:
   1. High nutrient levels;
   2. Nuisance algal blooms;
   3. Excessive aquatic macrophytes;

  4. Dissolved oxygen depletion;
  5. Turbidity and sedimentation.
  Since  most of the lake's  problems  stemmed
from excessive nutrient and sediment loading from
the  watershed,  the  State  decided not to pursue
Phase II funding until watershed controls were im-
  Using the results of the Phase I study as the key
component of a public awareness and information
program, the local Soil Conservation Service, Soil
and Water Conservation District, and Cooperative
Extension Service developed interest in the project
among watershed  landowners.  The  Agricultural
Stabilization and Conservation  Service (ASCS)
County Committee determined that there was suffi-
cient landowner interest to propose a special na-
tional conservation  tillage land treatment project
within the watershed. The objective of the project
was to cut cropland soil  erosion by 42 percent,
using a variable cost-share rate as an incentive.
  Within six months, all landowners in the project
area had  signed either "no-till"  or reduced tillage
contracts for 1984. Consequently, soil erosion fell
46 percent, and sediment yield to the lake fell 31
  The successful  implementation  of the  special
conservation tillage project helped the State obtain
a Phase II grant. The grant helped finance installa-
tion of a lake destratification system,  harvesting of
aquatic macrophytes, algal control, lake shoreline
stabilization,  lake monitoring,  and installation of
resource management systems designed to con-
trol priority nonpoint source areas within the water-
  Additional ASCS  and  supplemental  Phase  II
funding financed completion of the watershed work
and supported another year of lake  water quality
monitoring. After implementation of all watershed
management activities, soil losses  were down 69
percent and sediment yields had fallen 57 percent
from pre-restoration  levels. Continued monitoring
of dissolved  oxygen data and visual examination in-
dicates that in-lake water quality is continuing to

                                    Region VI
During fiscal year 1987, Clean Lakes Program fund-
ing for  Region VI totaled  $400,000. All  of the
projects were Phase I diagnostic/feasibility studies;
each  received  $100,000 of funding. Two  of the
projects were located in Oklahoma, the other two
in Texas.

                        Lake Ellsworth
 • Phase I projects
 A Phase II projects

Figure 12. Region VI FY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.
Lake Houston, TX
Lake Worth, TX
Lake Ellsworth, OK
Grand Lake of the
Cherokees, OK
Type of Project

   The Region also conducted field reviews of ex-
 isting Clean  Lakes projects. During fiscal year
 1987, the region managed five Phase II projects:
 four in Oklahoma and one in Louisiana. Regional
 personnel visited the Louisiana project during the
 fiscal year. The Region also participated  in the
 Regional  Workshop  sponsored  by the  North
 American Lake Management Society in Austin, Tex.
   States  in  the  Region also  identified  several
 potential Clean Lakes projects. One is Beaver Lake,
 AR, which was identified in Section 315 of the 1987
 Water Quality Act  as a demonstration project.
 However, no commitment for local matching funds
has yet been secured. Other potential projects in-
clude two  in  Oklahoma, Grand  Lake of the
Cherokees and Lake Ellsworth, and two in Texas,
Lake Houston and Lake Worth.
Success Story: Ada City


Ada City Lake, part of Wintersmith Park in Ada, OK,
is  a  popular recreational lake among  local resi-
dents. But residential development from the mid-
1950s through the  early 1970s accelerated  the
aging of the 4.7-ha lake, speeding up the growth of
weeds  and algae that eventually died,  decom-
posed, and settled with the sediments at the bot-
tom of the lake. Construction around the lake also
displaced  soil, which  ran down  into the  lake.
Nitrogen fertilizers  applied to  new lawns  ac-
celerated the growth of macrophytes, resulting in
algae and aquatic plants that choked the lake and
its tributaries.
   In 1981, the City of Ada established restoration
of the lake as a priority in its budget, and pledged
$80,000 as its share  of cleanup costs. The  Ok-
lahoma Water Resources Board completed prelimi-
nary studies and secured approval of a  restoration
plan for the lake.
   In  February 1984, dredging  to increase the
depth of the lake began, after pipelines and pumps
were installed  and pits prepared for storing  and
dewatering the thick,  black slurry from the lake.
Dredging was completed in June 1985, and water
drained from  the sediments was returned to the
   Sampling by State personnel for  one year after
completion of the restoration indicates  that the
quality of the lake water has improved dramatically.
The now-clear water replaces vast patches of algae
and  weeds, and fish stock has been added to the
lake. The success  of the Ada City Lake cleanup
process was the subject of an article in  the April
1987 edition of Oklahoma Water Quality News.

                                     Region VII
During fiscal year 1987, Region VII received a target
allocation of $311,000 for the Clean Lakes Program.
This amount funded three projects in the Region:
two new Phase I studies and extension of an ongo-
ing Phase II project. The two Phase I projects are lo-
cated in Iowa and Missouri; the Phase II is in Iowa.
                         A Blackhawk Lake
                          Iowa Lake •
                             Springfork Lake

 • Phase I projects
 A Phase II projects

Figure 13.  Region VIIFY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.

The  two  Phase  I projects, Iowa  Lake in  IA  and
Springfork  Lake  in  MO,  are  evaluating nonpoint
source controls.  The Iowa Lake project includes a
substate  agreement with  Iowa State University's
Center for Agricultural Resource Development; the
Springfork  Lake  watershed has been selected for
special State funding for implementing erosion con-
trol measures.
Grant     Type of Project
Spring fork Lake, MO     $35,000

Iowa Lake, IA          $10,600

Blackhawk Lake, IA     $265,400


   The Phase II  project,  Blackhawk Lake  in  IA,
probably will be completed for substantially less than
the $1 million estimated cost to the Federal govern-
ment. Watershed nonpoint source  controls have
been targeted more directly than was believed pos-
sible to  critical  areas,  and the actual costs of
management practices have been below the original
                                  The Region manages nine projects, and Regional
                               personnel are assisting with preparations for NALMS
                               Regional Workshop in Denver.
Success  Story:  Green

Valley Lake

Effective use of best management practices has sub-
stantially improved the water quality of Iowa's Green
Valley Lake since 1980.
   Built in 1952 as an impoundment near the head-
waters of the Platte River, the 390-acre Green Valley
Lake began to demonstrate major problems in the
1970's that affected both aquatic life and recreational
use. Sedimentation had reduced the lake area by
about 10 percent, and nutrients in watershed runoff
stimulated excessive algal growth (the blue-green
   The runoff from the 5,198-acre watershed — more
than 72 percent  in cropland—was found to be the
source of these water quality problems.
   A Clean Lakes grant of $569,100 in 1980 ad-
dressed three goals:
   • Reduce sediment/nutrient delivery to the lake
     to acceptable levels by installing best
     management practices on croplands in the
   • Reduce resuspension of nutrients within the
     lake bed by deepening shallow water areas.
   • Monitor chemical, physical, and biological
   The landowner contracted the construction of the
approved BMP's  and was reimbursed for 75 percent
of the cost using 50 percent Federal funds and 25
percent State funds.
   The Iowa Department of Natural Resources coor-
dinated the project,  whose participants included (in
addition to the landowners and  EPA  Region VII),
U.S. Soil Conservation Service in Des Moines, Iowa
Department of Agriculture and Land  Stewardship,
Union  County  Soil  Conservation  District,  Union
County Agricultural  Stabilization and Conservation
Service, Area Extension Office (Creston),  and the
University Hygienic Laboratory (Iowa City).

Table 1.-Practices constructed at Green Valley
         Watershed 1981-1987.
Grade Stabilization Structures
Tile Intake Terraces
Grassed Waterways
Water Sediment Control Basins


Total Cost
   Analysis of data from six years of monitoring at
Green Valley Lake revealed  significant improve-
ment in the annual means for the following key
water quality parameters:
   • Total phosphate concentration
     systematically declined to nearly one-fourth
     of that found in 1981 at the deep water
     station and about half at the shallow water
                  • Chlorophyll a was markedly
                    reduced at both stations to
                    nearly one-third that recorded in
                  • Dissolved oxygen fell by nearly
                    50 percent at both stations.
                    No summer  fish kills attributable
                  to dissolved oxygen sags have oc-
                  curred since 1981.   Algal blooms
                  have been noticeably less intense in
                  recent years,   nor  has  the  public
    complained  of taste and odor problems in fish
    during 1985  and 1986.  However, water clarity has
    declined  during   the  six-year  project  period,
    probably because of the lake's expanding popula-
    tion of bottom-feeders, such as bulkhead and carp.
       Conservation practices in  the watershed has
    reduced delivery of sediments to the lake by 5,500
    tons annually,  reducing loss in lake volume by half,
    from approximately 7 acre-feet per year pre-project
    to about 3 1/2 acre-feet at this time.

                                   Region  VIII
During fiscal  year 1987, Region VIII received a
$319,893 for its grants. The Region received four
applications for Clean Lakes Program funding, of
which three were approved. The three projects ap-
proved  were  Bear  Creek  Reservoir,  Pineview
Reservoir, and Deer Creek Reservoir. Deer Creek is
a Phase II project that received $149,493; the other
two  are  Phase I  studies that  received $100,000
each. The Region manages eight projects.
 • Phase I projects
 A Phase II projects

Figure 14.  Region VIIIFY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.
Bear Creek Reservoir,
Grant     Type of Project
$100,000     Diagnostic/Feasibility
Pineview Reservoir, UT  $100,000

Deer Creek, Reservoir, UT$119,893

Success Story:
Spiritwood Lake
Spiritwood Lake is a deep natural lake located in
east central North  Dakota. The lake, which is ap-
proximately 1  1/2  miles long and 1/2 mile wide,
drains a large land  area of 6,032.3  ha, of which
runoff from about 3,846.2 ha goes directly into the
  Approximately  80 percent of the  land area
around the watershed is farmed intensively for row
crops and small grains. In the past,  much  of this
land was tilled following harvest, leaving bare soil
which then washed  from the fields during  spring
  Primarily because of nutrient and sediment load-
ing,  Spiritwood  Lake  was  subject  to   severe
eutrophication by the mid-1970s. During the sum-
mer, algal  blooms restricted recreational use of the
lake. Under a Section 208 plan, the lake was iden-
tified as one of 10 in the State to be  given priority
for nonpoint source controls.
  In 1980, the North Dakota State Department of
Health began a two-year diagnostic study to iden-
tify  the causes of the lake's eutrophication. The
study concluded that agricultural runoff and inter-
nal loading from sediments were the principal sour-
ces of the  nutrients.
  Tests performed during the diagnostic study in-
dicated that nitrogen was the chief nutrient  for the
algae, but nitrogen control  was believed to  be dif-
ficult because of its solubility, input from the atmos-
phere, and the presence of algal species capable of
nitrogen fixation. In contrast, the largest portion of
the  phosphorus input to the  lake came from soil
particles; thus, reducing soil erosion was viewed as
a way to significantly diminish phosphorus loading.
  Implementation of agricultural best management
practices to control soil erosion and nutrient runoff
began in 1981 and were essentially completed  by
the  end of 1983. The principal BMPs  implemented
were tree planting, grassed waterways, no-till crop-
ping, protected fallow land, and techniques to com-
bat  wind erosion.
  Using Clean Lakes Program funds, a pipeline
and  pump house to draw water from the lake's
hypolimnion were constructed in 1982.
  Monitoring  of the project indicated  reduced
levels  of  phosphorus,  nitrogen,  and   algae.
However,  the long-term success  of the  project
depends on  the  success of agricultural  BMPs.
Some of the BMPs employed thus far have proven
inadequate for water quality  protection  and are
being modified.

                                     Region  X
During fiscal year 1987, Region X received seven
applications: four for Phase I studies, one for a new
Phase  II project,  and two  amended Phase  II
projects. All but the new Phase II and one amended
Phase II project were approved (see Fig. 15). The
Region now manages nine projects.
Lake Pend Oreille, ID
Mauser, Lake, ID
Winchester Lake, ID
Garrison Lake, OR
Devil's Lake, OR
Type of Project

                             Lake Pend Oreille

                             Mauser Lake
• Phase I projects
A Phase II projects

Figure 15.  Region X FY 87 Clean Lakes project grants.

   The State of Idaho responded to the Region's
call for new Clean Lakes applications by submitting
three Phase I proposals in fiscal year 1987, after a
three-year  absence  from program activity.  The
State also  has  published  a  lake  management
manual, initiated a citizen's  monitoring program,
and is overseeing an aerial survey of seven north-
ern Idaho lakes. The survey, which was completed
in January 1988,  received a $65,000 grant.
   Other accomplishments  by Region  X include
participation by  Regional personnel in the newly-
formed  Washington Lakes Protection Association,
negotiation of an interagency work plan for a Con-
gressionally-mandated study of Lake Pend Oreille
and the Clark Fork River System; and, receipt of a
$30,000 research grant to study feeding preferen-
ces of sterile white amur in northwestern habitats.
Success  Story:  Lake


Lake Ballinger is a 40.5-ha eutrophic lake located
within the City of Mountlake Terrace, just north of
Seattle. In the past, the lake has suffered from ex-
cessive nutrient loading, particularly phosphorus,
which has resulted in algal growth that has reduced
the recreational value and beauty of the lake.
   Studies conducted on the  lake by the City and
other government agencies since the mid-1970s
concluded that the best way to restore the lake was
to reduce  phosphorus loading  from both internal
sediment loading and external loading from Hall
Creek, the main inflow to the lake.
   A two-part project was  undertaken. Part  I en-
tailed the restoration of Hall Creek through the es-
tablishment of two sedimentation basins. Part II
involved  construction   of a  hypolimnetic dis-
charge/withdrawal system to  facilitate the removal
of phosphorus-rich  hypolimnetic  waters and en-
hance the dissolved oxygen levels.
   Restoring Hall Creek reduced erosion and flood-
ing, and cut the phosphorus and sediment loading
of the lake. Construction of the two sedimentation
ponds resulted in the removal of paniculate phos-
phorus and suspended solids. The improvement in
the creek  generated an oxidizing environment in
which the ammonia in the creek was converted to
nitrate-nitrogen, and the water  had  high dissolved
oxygen concentrations.
   Hypolimnetic    injection    and    withdrawal
prevented hypolimnetic anoxia  and  limited internal
loading of phosphorus from lake sediments. The in-
jection and withdrawal system cut internal  phos-
phorus  loading  86  percent  from pre-treatment
levels and contributed  greatly to overall  water
quality improvement through  1985.
   However,  phosphorus loading from  the  creek
basin began to increase dramatically in late  1984,
resulting in a  substantial decline in water quality in
1985 and 1986. This deterioration reflected the ef-
fects of accelerated watershed development and
stormwater runoff throughout  the  Lake  Ballinger
basin. It became clear that long-term  improve-
ments in the  lake's water quality depended  upon
successful enhancement of the water quality  of the
runoff and Hall Creek.
   Although the  Clean Lakes project for the lake
ended monitoring and implementation funding sup-

port in 1986, the City of Mountlake Terrace con-     grassland   swales  and  erosion  control.  Lake
tinued the effort. In 1986, the City hired a full-time     monitoring  and stream rehabilitation are continu-
watershed manager to identify and control poten-     ing, and a citizen's watch phone number has been
tial  and actual sources of nutrient loading to the     established  to facilitate  citizen  reporting  and
lake. Three ordinances have been passed requiring     government response to nutrient loading and toxic
development construction projects to take steps to     spills.
reduce nutrient loading through strategies such as

Clean Lakes Program Regional Coordinators
    Warren Howard
    John F. Kennedy Federal Bldg.
    Boston, MA 02203

    Terry Faber
    26 Federal Plaza
    New York, NY 10278
    (212) 264-8708

    Randy Waite
    841 Chestnut St.
    Philadelphia, PA 19107

    Leonard Nowak
    345 Courtland St. NE
    Atlanta, GA 30365

    Don Roberts
    230 S. Dearborn
    Chicago, IL 60604
Doug Holy
1445 Ross Avenue
Suite 1200
Dallas, TX 75202

Lynn Kring
726 Minnesota Ave.
Kansas City, KS 66101

Tom Braidech
999 18th St.
Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202
(303) 293-1572

Wendell Smith
215 Fremont St.
San Francisco, CA 94105

Sally Marquis
1200 Sixth Ave.
Seattle, WA 98101

  North American Lake Management Society

1000 Connecticut Avenue, NW • Suite 202 • Washington, DC 20036 or
      P.O. Box 217 • Merrifield, VA 22116 • (202)466-8550