PROCEEDINGS
Volume 2
Second Session
February 25, 1969
Chicago, Illinois
Pollution of Lake Michigan
and its Tributary Basin,
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin
        U.S. Department of the Interior • Federal Water Pollution Control Administration

-------
                                    905R69103
              SECOND  SESSION




                  OF  THE






            CONFERENCE







ON THE MATTER OF  POLLUTION OF LAKE MICHIGAN




         AND ITS  TRIBUTARY BASIN
                  held  in






             Chicago, Illinois




             February 25,  1969
        TRANSCRIPT OF  PROCEEDINGS
              VOLUME  II

-------
__	 363





                    AFTMNOON^SESSION




                                     (2 o'clock  p.m.)






               MR. STEIN:  Let's reconvene.




               Calling on Wisconsin, Mr. Voigt.








                STATEMENT BY L. P. VOIGT




             SECRETARY, WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT




                  OF NATURAL RESOURCES




                   MADISON, WISCONSIN








               MR. VOIGT:  Chairman Stein, fellow Con-




ferees, and ladies and gentlemen.




               With the Chairman's indulgence, after a




very ample lunch, I feel more comfortable standing up




as compared with Mr. Klassen and some of the other




States that reported previously.



               I am contemplating making ,1ust a brief




overview of some of the happenings in Wisconsin since




the Conference met last, and for the specific response




to the questions and the recommendations, I will call on



Tom Frangos and Pat Thropnickel from our department.




               But the year that has elapsed since this




Conference last met has been an eventful one in Wisconsin

-------
	366





                        L.  P.  Voigt






 and I  thought you might be interested in  some  of  the




 happenings  that  have  a  direct bearing on  this  particular




 Conference  and on clean water and a  quality environment.




 With the  dedication of  our Governor  Knowles, our  National




 Resources Board,  and  particularly our dedicated departmen




 I  think we  have  made  progress and I  would like to call



 your attention to it.




               One of the  things that has been a  point




 of marked interest was  the creation  of our Wisconsin




 Department  of Natural Resources.  This Department was




 ordered by  the 196? Legislature, known as the Kellett




 Law, Chapter  75,  Wisconsin Laws of 1967.   It created a




 uniform department, including the pollution activities




 of the former Department of Resource  Development  and




 the  resource  management functions of  the  former Con-




 servation Department with  which I was associated.



               Although this  was accomplished only last




 July 1st, the advantages are  becoming more apparent




 every week.   For  example,  we  now have fish management




 researchers helping field  engineers  pin down the  point




 source of the dieldrin  problem, we have conservation




 wardens being backed up by sanitary  engineers in

-------
	367





                        L.  P.  Voigt






 gathering fish  kill  evidence   and we  also have  our



 people  from all the  departments, the  scientists  working



 on  water  diversion  cases  and  other  things of  concern  for



 the total environment.  The benefits  add  up to  a greatly



 improved  program support  and  management service  to  which




 this  enlarged department  can  contribute.



                Speaking on several  of the other  points



 that  might be of interest  that  aren't related to the




 specific  recommendations,  I would like to mention the



 subject of pesticide  pollution.  One  of the significant




 findings  of the Conferees  when  they last  met was that



 pesticides,  particularly  the  persistent hydrocarbons,



 are a form of interstate  pollution.   Our  department has



 long  had  a concern in this area, so much  so that several



 years ago I banned the  use of DDT on  all  our department-



 controlled and  -managed lands and stepped up reserach on



 the impact of pesticides  on the aquatic environment.



 These studies included two  reports which we issued in



 the last  six months  and they  have done much to  promote



 an  understanding of  the cumulative  effect of our pesti-



 cides on  fish and the birds and animals which feed  on




 them.

-------
	368





                       L. P. Voigt






               On  last July 31st our Board Chairman and



myself  .joined in signing a ,-foint statement of agreement




with  all  the Lake  Michigan Basin States directed at the



development of a common policy for the protection of the



lake  from economic poisons.



               Speaking to the point of the implementa-



tion  of water quality standards, our Wisconsin interstate



standards  were approved by the Secretary of the Interior




a little  over a year ago.  Since that time we have



extended  these standards to all of our intrastate waters.



These standards generally require  secondary treatment




of  sanitary sewage and the equivalent in the treatment



of  industrial wastes.  And it now is our policy on a



Statewide  basis to require year-round disinfection of



effluent.



               In  implementing these standards, our



department issued  266 pollution abatement orders in 1968,




including  150 in the Lake Michigan drainage basin.  We



also  conducted several drainage basin surveys during the



year, five of them on the Oconto, Peshtigo, Manitowoc,



Menominee  and Milwaukee Rivers within the lake basin.



               The followups on consultation and

-------
	369





                        L.  P.  Voigt






 inspection by our field engineers have been intensified



 in this  year's period.




                In the field of certification of opera-




 tors,  on January 1,  19^9^  our Wisconsin law became




 effective which requires  that municipal and industrial




 waste  treatment plants  employ certified operators.   To




 accomplish this,  an  intensive Statewide training program




 was  setablished by the  department during 1968 to give




 every  potential operator  an opportunity to  qualify  for




 certification.   The  response  and  success of the exami-




 nations  were  most gratifying  to the  department.




                In the related field  of shore land and




 flood  plain zoning,  one of  the basic features of our




 basic  law,  the  Wisconsin Water Resources Act, was the




 requirement that  counties zone  all  shore lands in unin-



 corporated areas  to  protect against  unwise  development.




 All  of our counties  have initiated steps to comply  with




 this section  of our  statutes,  and a  dozen counties  now




 have had their  zoning,  sanitary code and subdivision




 regulations fully approved  by our department.




                In the field of solid waste  disposal,




 location and  operation  of dumps and  sanitary landfills

-------
	370





                       L. P. Voigt






have a direct impact on water quality.  In a half a




dozen cases the department has issued orders directing




municipalities to abandon sites subject to periodic




flooding.  Under a new State law, our department has




drafted Solid Waste Disposal Standards which, when




approved by the Natural Resources Board, will regulate




the location and operation of disposal sites through a




required State licensing procedure.  Sites must be




selected which by natural or by sealing minimize leaching




to either ground or surface waters.




               With regard to research, in cooperation wi




State universities, research into water resource programs




is being pushed on several fronts.  Subject areas include




pesticides, nutrient removal techniques, coliform bac-




teria, spent sulfite liquors, aquatic nuisance control,



and adaptation of computers to flood plain delineation.




It might be of interest to note that we have contracted




for a mathematical model of the Fox River.  Outside of




the department, Wisconsin research projects include




joint municipal-industrial waste treatment, application




of reverse osmosis techniques to the pulp and paper




industry, and the use of holding tanks or basins to

-------
	 371





                        L.  P. Voigt






 minimize  the  by-passing which  can occur  in  combined  sewer




 systems.




               In the field  of financial  assistance,




 things  are improving in Wisconsin too, and  although  our




 construction  is at an all-time high in Wisconsin, we,as




 many other States, are  awaiting  promised  Federal and




 State funds.  The underfunding of the Federal grant




 program,  coupled with an increase in grant  eligibility




 to 50 percent of project cost, would enforce the cutback




 in our  construction pace.




               As a suggested remedy, our Governor




 established an Outdoor  Recreation Act Program Task Force,




 which recommended a .joint  recreational bonding and




 pollution abatement bonding program which we hope will




 come up for referendum  in  our State on April 1st.  If



 this advisory referendum is adopted, the  Legislature woulc




 have this advisory guidance to authorize  our department




 by a bill, which has also  been drafted, to  provide for




 direct State grants and Federal aid advance  payments to




 municipalities,  guaranteeing at least 55  percent of the




 capital cost on these approved projects.  We estimate




 that this program,  if it passes,  would stimulate at least

-------
	372






                       L.  P. Voigt






280 million  dollars  in pollution  abatement  construction




in the next  10 years.




               Now,  this  is  ,just  an  overview  of  our




efforts  in environmental  protection,  particularly  those




that have specific reference to the  Lake  Michigan  Basin.




I am going to call on Tom Frangos to make the  specific




response on  our  progress  under the recommendations of




the Conference.








               (The  following is  the document  submitted




by Mr. Voigt:)




       WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT  OF NATURAL RESOURCES




           STATEMENT OF SECRETARY L.  P. VOIGT




          LAKE MICHIGAN ENFORCEMENT  CONFERENCE



           SECOND SESSION -  FEBRUARY 25,  1969




               A year'has elapsed since the initial




sessions of  the  Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference.




It has been  an eventful year and, in many ways,  a  fruit-




ful one.  While  the  potential threat to the quality  of




Lake Michigan has not greatly diminished, awareness  of




that threat  has  been intensified.  The progress  reports




and action plans under review here give us  cause for at

-------
	373





                        L.  P. Voigt






 least  cautious  optimism.



                Many  of  the  things which have  occurred in



 Wisconsin  this  past  year bear  on the  future of Lake Michi



 gan  as well  as  the other vast  water resources of  our



 State.   They reflect the dedication of Governor Knowles,




 the  Wisconsin Natural Resources Board, and the staff  of



 our  Department  to the total cause of  clean waters and a




 quality  environment.



                To the extent that they have a bearing on



 these  proceedings, I would  like to summarize  these achiev




 ments :



                1.  Creation of the Wisconsin  Department




 of Natural Resources



                Reorganization  of all  State agencies was



 ordered  by the  196?  Wisconsin  Legislature.  This  was



 aimed  at creating a  more efficient and responsible State



 government,  and at strengthening such programs as the



 protection of Wisconsin's natural resources.



                To this  end, the pollution enforcement




 activities of the former Department of Resource Develop-



 ment were merged with the resource management functions



 of the former Conservation  Department.  Although  this was

-------
	374





                       L. P. Voigt






 accomplished  only  last July  1,  the advantages  are becom-




 ing more  apparent  each week.  Fish management  researchers




 have  helped field  engineers  pin down  the point source  of




 a  dieldrin problem;  conservation wardens have  been  backed




 up by sanitary  engineers  in  gathering fish-kill  evidence;




 ecological concepts  involved in water diversion  cases  are




 subject to earlier consideration.




                The benefits  include the program  support




 and management  services which an enlarged department  can




 also  supply.




                2.  Pesticide Pollution




                One of the significant findings of the




 Conferees was that pesticides,  particularly the  persisten




 hydrocarbons, are  a  form  of  interstate pollution.   Our



 Department has  long  had a concern in  this area.  It led




 us to ban the use  of DDT  on  all Department-controlled




 lands, and to step up reserach  on the impact of  pesticide




 on the aquatic  environment.  These studies, including  two




 reports issued  in  the past six  months, have done much  to




 promote an understanding  of  the cumulative effect of




 "hard" pesticides  on fish and the birds and animals which




 feed  on them.

-------
	,	375





                        L.  P.  Voigt






                Last July 31  our Board Chairman and I




 joined in signing a "Joint Statement of Agreement  by




 Lake  Michigan Basin States"  directed at developing a




 common policy for protection  of the  lake from economic




 poisons.




                3•   Imp1emen t a t i o n  o f_ Wate r Qua1 it y Stan-




 dards




                Wisconsin's Interstate Water Quality




 Standards were approved  by the  Secretary of the Interior




 a  little  over a year ago.   Since that time,  we have




 applied the  same  standards to all  intrastate waters.




                These standards  generally require secon-




 dary  treatment of  sanitary sewage  and the equivalent in




 treatment of  industrial  wastes.  It  is  now our policy,




 Statewide, to require year-round disinfection of effluent




                In implementing these standards, the



 Department issued  266 pollution abatement orders in 19^8,




 including 150 in  the Lake  Michigan drainage  basin.   Seven




 drainage  basin surveys were conducted during the year,




 five of them  on the  Oconto, Peshtigo,  Manitowoc, Menomine^




 and Milwaukee Rivers within the  lake  basin.




                Follow-through efforts,  including

-------
	376





                       L. P. Voigt






 consultation  and  inspection by field  engineers, have




 been  intensified.



                4.   Certification of Operators



                As  of  January 1, 19^9* Wisconsin law



 requires  that municipal  and industrial waste treatment




 plants  employ certified  operators.  An intensive  State-



 wide  training program was established by the Department



 during  1968 to give every potential operator an oppor-



 tunity  to qualify  for certification.  The  response and



 the ratio of  success  on  the examinations were gratifying



                5.   Shoreland and Flood Plain Zoning




                A  basic feature of the Wisconsin Water




 Resources Act was  the requirement that counties zone



 all shorelands in  unincorporated areas to  protect



 against unwise development.  All counties  have initiated



 steps to  comply with  this section of  the statutes, and



 a dozen of them have  had their zoning, sanitary code and



 subdivision regulations  fully approved by  our Department




                ^•   Solid Waste Disposal



                Location  and operation of dumps and sani-



 tary  landfills can have  a direct impact on water  quality



 In a  half-dozen cases, the Department has  issued  orders

-------
	^77





                        L.  P.  Voigt






 directing municipalities  to abandon sites  subject to



 periodic flooding.   Under  a new State  law,  our Department




 has  drafted Solid Waste Disposal Standards  which, when



 approved by the  Natural Resources Board,  will regulate



 the  location and operation of disposal sites  through a



 State  licensing  procedure.  Sites must be  selected which



 naturally,  or through  sealing,  minimize leaching to



 either ground or surface waters.




               7'   Research



               In cooperation with State  universities,



 research  into water resource  programs  is  being pushed on



 several fronts.   Subject areas  include pesticides,



 nutrient  removal techniques,  coliform  bacteria,  spent



 sulfite liquors, aquatic nuisance control,  and adapta-



 tion of computers to flood plain  delineation.   We have



 also contracted  for a  mathematical model  of the  Fox River



 Outside of  the Department,  Wisconsin research  projects



 include .-Joint municipal-industrial waste  treatment,



 application  of reverse  osmosis  techniques to  the pulp




 and paper industry,  and use of  holding tanks  or  basins



 to minimize  the  by-passing which  can occur  in  combined




 sewer  systems.

-------
               _ 378




                       L. P. Voigt






               . 8 .   Financial As
               Although the construction of municipal




sewage treatment facilities is at an all-time high in




Wisconsin, many projects are awaiting promised Federal




and State funds.  Underfunding of the Federal grant




program, coupled with an increase in grant eligibility




to 50 percent of project cost, could force a cutback in




this construction pace.




               To overcome this, the Governor's ORAP




Task Force has attached a pollution abatement bonding




program to a pending recreational bonding measure.  If




adopted by the Legislature, this would enable our Depart-




ment to provide direct State grants and Federal fund




advances to Wisconsin municipalities, guaranteeing at



least 55 percent of the capital cost of these vital



projects.  This program could stimulate at least $280




million in pollution abatement construction in the next




10 years .



               This is at best a partial catalogue of




Wisconsin's current efforts in environmental protection,




but it serves to illustrate the sincerity with which we




approach this challenge.

-------
                       	379




                       L. P. Voigt
               MR. VOIGT:  I would like to add my personapL




thanks for being invited here as a Conferee.  It is my




first time and I am greatly impressed, Chairman Stein,




and I think I will enjoy working with this group.




               I also would like to add the invitation




that perhaps at one of our resumed sessions you would




accept the invitation of the State of Wisconsin to hold




one of your resumed sessions in either Madison or Mil-




waukee, because we would like to have you come.




               Thank you very much.




               MR. STEIN:  Thank you.




               Why don't you wait there.   Milwaukee is




in the basin.  I am not sure, Madison isn't.  We might




be there.



               Are there any questions or comments?




               Let me make this one.   I am really very




gratified by your statement.  You had a couple of points




there.  One of these is the first I have  heard from a




State.  Now, listen to this.  Mr. Voigt said:




              "Although the construction  of municipal




sewage treatment facilities is at an  all-time  high in

-------
	380





                       L. P. Voigt






Wisconsin"--



               MR. VOIGT:  That is right.




               MR. STEIN:  And I welcome that, because



we have heard  expressions that the grant program in the



past has held  it back in Wisconsin.  I have never seen



that.  But--



               MR. VOIGT:  This is a case of us rolling



up our sleeves and getting to work.



               MR. STEIN:  Sure, I know.




               MR. VOIGT:  We don't like the Federal



underfunding,  don't misconstrue the statement to mean



that.




               MR. STEIN: I am not.  I am just reading



this.  You  say it is at an all-time high, and I love it.



               You say, "many projects are awaiting



promised Federal and State funds."  This is the first Sta|fce



I hfcve ever heard say that, "Federal and State funds."




Generally they drop that "State" out and they just say



"promised Federal funds."



               (Laughter.)



               MR. VOIGT:  We are willing to pull our



share of the load.

-------
	381





                       L.  P. Voigt





                MR.  STEIN:   I know,  but  you  are  the  first



 one who  ever  said it  in  a  Conference.   (Laughter.)  Bless



 you.



                Now  I  have  a question, and this  is for



 clarification.   On  your  point  2,  on pesticide pollution,



 you talked  about directing a common policy  for  the  pro-



 tection  of  the  lake from economic poisons.  I am intereste



 in that  adjective.  What do you mean by economic poisons?



                MR.  VOIGT:   We  are thinking  of any poisons



 that  are used commercially.



                MR.  STEIN:   You know, I  don't want to take



 the name of my  namesake  in vain,  but it seems to me a



 poison is a poison  is a  poison.   What is this economic



 poison?



                (Laughter.)



                MR. VOIGT:   We  are thinking  of commercial



 applications, is what we are referring  1:0 there.



                MR.  STEIN:   Right.



                MR. VOIGT:   Perhaps  the  term is  a misnomer



 but I hope  that clarifies  it for  you.



                MR.  STEIN:   Right.   Thank you, it does.



                MR. VOIGT:   Tom, do  you  want to  lead off?

-------
	382





                       T. Frangos






              STATEMENT BY THOMAS G. FRANCOS




           DIRECTOR,  BUREAU OF WATER RESOURCES




         WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES




                    MADISON, WISCONSIN








               MR. FRANGOS:  Mr. Chairman, fellow Con-



ferees, ladies and gentlemen.




               One of the things that we in Wisconsin




never totally get used to is the fact that whenever we




appear at one of these interstate programs with other




States we always end up being the last one on the roster,




unless we happen to be participating with the State of




Wyoming, and that doesn't happen too often.  So much  of




what you heard we will be repeating here in our presen-



tation, and I will ask your indulgence and we will try




to go through this as rapidly as possible.



               The following is a summary report that




outlines the response of the Wisconsin Department of




Natural Resources to the recommendations of the first




session of the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference and




details actions that have been taken in Wisconsin to




achieve compliance with the several recommendations.

-------
	383





                       T. Frangos






This report is deliberately brief so that the Conference



may proceed with the business before the second session.



However, we felt that it would be useful to expand on



some of the materials previously submitted to the Con-



ference and to summarize the status of the Wisconsin



abatement program.  Additionally, we have several pro-




posals to make to the Conference in the nature of clari-



fication of the interpretation of several of the



recommendations of the first session of the Conference.



               The following comments have been itemized



to correspond with the recommendation numbers as they




appear in the Summary of Conference (first session).






Recommendation #1 - General Waste Treatment Requirements
               The interstate water quality standards for



Lake Michigan that have been established and approved by



the Secretary of Interior provide for secondary treatment



for all municipal wastes.  Implementation of this require-



ment will be substantially accomplished by December 1972.



               The requirement that "...waste treatment




is to be provided by all municipalities to achieve at




least 80 percent reduction of total phosphorus..." if

-------
	384





                       T. Prangos





literally interpreted and applied is particularly



inflexible and has produced administrative problems,



especially with our smaller communities.  Upon review



of the Wisconsin phosphorus contribution from municipal



sources, it seems to us that the objectives of this



recommendation could better be met by accounting for



the total phosphorus load to the drainage basin against



which a reduction of 80 percent could be made.  An



analysis of population distribution of communities



within the Wisconsin portion of the Lake Michigan



drainage basin shows that 11 out of 177 listed municipal



sources account for 83 percent of the population in the



basin.  A total of 15 communities account for almost



86 percent of the population while 33 communities account



for 92 percent of the population.  There follows a table



which indicates the population distribution.



               In arriving at conclusions as to the



application of phosphorus removal requirements, the



following items were seriously and extensively reviewed



and considered:



               1.  A review of research activities and



information available from other investigations over the

-------
                       T. Frangos





past twelve months leads us to conclude that it is very




likely that phosphrous removals considerably in excess



of 80 percent can be achieved at large, well operated



sewage treatment plants.  On the other hand, it is



unrealistic to expect to obtain this same kind of closely



supervised operation that present technology requires




for high efficiencies of smaller facilities.



               2.  Recent surveys of sewage treatment



plant operations throughout the State indicate that, on



an average, phosphorus reductions obtained by conventional.




treatment plants appear to be in the 20-40 percent range.



               3.  The Wisconsin Department of Natural




Resources is presently considering the issuance of a



Statewide policy to cover phosphate removal at municipal



treatment plants.  This policy would take into account



eutrophication problems on our inland waters.  The curren



proposal would require phosphorus removal at those facili-



ties where the receiving water body has severe problems



of overfertilization.  It is hoped that the newly proposed



algal growth potential test presently being developed by



the Joint Industry-Government Task Force will provide all




regulatory agencies with a tool that will permit assessme

-------
	386





                       T. Frangos






of benefits that can be achieved by reducing phosphorus



contributions from point source discharges.  As the policy



requirements are implemented, it can be expected that a



number of smaller communities will need to remove phos-



phorus .



               In view of the population distribution in



Wisconsin and in light of the various factors presently



at work as described above, it is suggested that the



Conference consider and adopt an approach that considers



phosphorus reduction requirements against the total



phosphorus load in each State that is tributary to Lake



Michigan.  This approach would be comparable to that taker



in the Lake Erie Enforcement Conference.



               If this approach is acceptable to the



Conference, the phosphorus reduction requirement will be



applied to all Wisconsin municipalities with a population



of 5,000 or greater.  There is a listing of these munici-



palities in Attachment A.  In consideration of removals



achieved at these 33 communities, reductions obtained at



conventional treatment plants in smaller communities and



the application of a general Statewide policy, it is felt



that the Wisconsin phosphorus reduction will substantially

-------
	387





                        T. Frangos






 meet  the  objectives  of  the  Enforcement  Conference  by



 December  1972.



               And I  might  add  that we  came  to  this



 recommendation without  consultation with  our friends  in



 Indiana and  we were  glad to see  that  they were  suggest-




 ing something along  this line today.



               Recommendations  Nos. 2 and 8  deal with



 industrial wastes.   I think the  statement speaks for



 itself and I will not read  that.



               Recommendation No.  3,  abatement  schedules.



               In accordance with  the recommendations




 of the Lake  Michigan  Enforcement Conference,  Wisconsin's



 Division  of  Environmental Protection  has  prepared  and



 submitted to all Conferees  two  lists  of municipalities



 and industries discharging  wastewater to  the Lake  Michi-



 gan Basin.   The first listed the 436  potential  waste



 sources within the basin.   The  second listed the 111



 waste sources within  the basin  which  in our  .judgment



 have  an effect upon Lake Michigan  water quality.   The



 following information was given  for each  waste  source:



 Location  of  the facility by river  basin and  receiving




 stream, type of waste,  flow, population served, existing

-------
	388





                        T. Frangos






 treatment,  required  additional  treatment,  and  the




 estimated  date  of  completion  for additional  requirements



                It  should be noted  that  the list  does  not



 specifically  comment on needs for  controlling  pollution



 from  combined sources.  This  is a  blanket  requirement for



 all communities where this problem exists  in accordance



 with  Recommendation  No. 7.  This information can be sup-



 plied through the  Conferees.



                The listing of phosphorus removal require-



 ments was  made  on  the basis of  "all"  municipalities.  The



 schedule will need to be amended on the basis  of accept-




 ance  by the Conferees of the  proposed approach for



 reducing phosphorus  discharge in the  Lake  Michigan drainajge



 basin.



                Attachment B to  this report contains a



 summary of the  status of industrial waste  sources in  the



 basin with a  brief discussion of progress.  It also con-



 tains errata  that  should be incorporated into  the history



 of Wisconsin  wastewater sources in Lake Michigan drainage



 basin affecting Lake Michigan water quality.



                Subsequent to  receipt  of the  Summary of




 Conference, the Wisconsin Department  of Natural  Resource:

-------
                                                        -
	389





                        T.  Frangos





 issued  orders  and  letters  to  all municipalities  citing



 the  need  for compliance  with  State water  quality standards



 and  the Enforcement  Conference  recommendations.   Orders



 were issued in those  instances  where public hearings  had



 been conducted immediately following the  convening of th<



 Lake Michigan  Conference.   Letters were sent  to  those



 dischargers located  in  sub-basins for which public hear-



 ings had  not been  held.  On the basis of  drainage basin



 surveys conducted  this past year, public  hearings will



 be conducted in the next  few months in much of the area



 in the  Lake Michigan  Basin.   Orders issued subsequent to



 those hearings  will  legally reinforce requirements now



 covered by letter  issued by the Department.
               Because of the interest previously express



at the first session over poor water quality conditions



of the Pox River between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay, a



brief discussion of actions under w»y is presented at



this point.  This area was the subject of a public hear-



ing some 11 months ago and orders were issued against



all municipalities and industries that are required to



meet State water quality standards  and the applicability



requirements of the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference.
                                                         ed

-------
	.	390





                       T. Frangos






 Treatment  facilities to meet water quality standards that



 relate  to  dissolved oxygen, suspended solids and  phos-



 phorus  removal  are to be substantially accomplished by



 December 1972.



                Because of the  complex water quality prob-



 lems  in this  portion of the Pox River, a number of steps



 have  been  taken by municipalities and industries  and the



 Department, all of which are in accord with several of



 the Lake Michigan Enforcement  Conference recommendations.



                Four pulp and paper industries and the



 city  of Green Bay have been undertaking a research investji-



 gation  (partially funded by the Federal Water Pollution



 Control Administration) to determine the feasibility of



 joint municipal industrial treatment facilities.  Results



 to date appear  promising.  A decision by those involved



 with  the research as to whether to proceed to a joint



 treatment  facility is expected by January 1970.



                Some 15 industries and several municipali-



 ties  at the southern end of the Fox River are cooperating



 in a  joint study undertaken by the Fox Valley Council of



 Governments to  determine the feasibility of a joint




 sewage  system at that area of  the river.  This study

-------
	391





                        T. Frangos





 is  sponsored,  in  part,  by the Department  of Housing  and



 Urban  Development.  A  decision  on whether  to  proceed on




 this proposal  is  expected by January  1970.



                Because  of the intensive use of the Fox



 River,  the water  quality conditions are complex.  In



 order  to more  accurately predict river response to



 anticipated  reductions  in waste loadings  and  to assist



 the Department  in administering its water  pollution



 control program,  the Department has contracted with  a



 consultant engineering  firm to  develop a  mathematical



 water  quality  model of  the Fox River.  It  is  expected



 that the availability  of a predictive tool will enable



 the Department  to more  precisely assess water quality



 conditions and  to more  firmly establish treatment require



 ments.  It should be noted that much  of the basic data



 that is required  to develop a mathematical model was



 provided by  the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis-



 tration as a result of  field surveys  it had conducted



 several years  ago.  The model will be available to the




 Department by  July 1,  1969.



                Although timing  of the several activities




 now under nay is critical, it is still anticipated that

-------
	392





                        T.  Frangos






 required  facilities  will be  constructed  and  operating



 by December  1972.   In  the  meantime,  the  orders  issued



 by the  Department  require  that  industries  and municipal!'



 ties  proceed immediately with whatever work  can be



 accomplished without prejudice,  pending  decisions on



 the studies  described  above.






 Recommendation  #4  -  Municipal Waste  Disinfection






                Wisconsin has accepted the  Lake  Michigan



 Enforcement  Conference  recommendation  concerning  con-




 tinuous disinfection for all municipal treatment plant



 effluents.   It  is  Statewide  policy that  throughout  the




 year  all  municipal treatment plants  must provide con-



 tinuous disinfection.   All municipal sources within the



 Lake  Michigan Basin  which  do not provide continuous dis-



 infection have  received either  orders or letters requir-



 ing preliminary reports and  tine schedules for  the



 installation or operation  of facilities  "by May  1969.



                Although most of  the  larger communities



 will  be in compliance  with the  chlorination  deadline,



 several plants  will  not have plans approved  or  facilities




 installed by May 19&9.  Additionally, we need to report

-------
	393





                        T.  Frangos





 that  the  Milwaukee  Metropolitan  Sewage  Commission  pro-



 vides chlorination  at  its  new  South  Shore  Plant.   However



 it  will not  be  providing these facilities  at  the Jones



 Island Plant by May 1969.  We  have a commitment from  the



 Commission to install  chlorination facilities  and  we  are



 presently negotiating  a time schedule.



                Recommendations Nos.  5 and  14  cover area-



 wide  sewerage systems,  and I think the  comments there



 speak for themselves.   I will  point  out that  in the



 Milwaukee metropolitan  area, the Southeastern  Wisconsin Regional



 Planning  Commission has received a grant,  again from  the




 FWPCA, to develop a detailed water quality management



 program for  the  Milwaukee  River watershed.  An important



 element of this  study  will be  the development  of alterna-



 tive  institutional  arrangements for  water  quality  manage-



 ment .



                Concurrently, SEWRPC  has also  initiated



 a study to determine the feasibility of developing an



 areawide  sewerage system for the highly urbanized  seven-



 county area  in  the  southeast part of the State.

-------
                       T.  Frangos






Recommendation #6 - Bypassing






               The major combined sewer systems in




Wisconsin have been designed and built with suitable




overflow structures which insure the full utilization



of the capacity of the intercepting sewers.  Action



is being taken to minimize bypassing whenever possible.



All orders issued by the Department contain requirements



for reducing bypassing from combined sewers or where



"clear water"problems exist.  Flow regulating devices



may be effective in an overall program of reducing pol-




lution from combined wastes.






Recommendation #1 - Combined Sewers





               Combined sewered areas are beine sepa-



rated in relation to urban renewal projects and whenever



reconstruction projects permit such separation.  No new



combined sewers are being installed; however, structural'




ly unsound existing combined seweis are being replaced



in limited instances when it is not possible to separate




the tributary sewers.



               Techniques for-handling combined sewage

-------
	395





                        T.  Frangos






 other than separation  are  being investigated.   Federal



 demonstration  grants have  been obtained  by the  cities  of




 Chippewa Falls and Milwaukee  to investigate such  tech-



 niques.   Chippev/a Falls, which is  not  in the basin,  is



 discharging high  stormwater flow to  a  holding pond where




 the  sewage will be stored  until the  flow subsides suf-



 ficiently to allow the  pond contents to  be directed  to



 the  treatment  facility.  The  city  of Milwaukee  is



 installing a tank which will  also  store  combined  sewage



 for  pumping to the interceptor sewers  when the  high  flow



 subsides.   This facility will  be provided  with  chlori-



 nation equipment  to allow  primary  sedimentation and  dis-




 infection of the  combined  sewage flow  prior to  discharge



 to the river when the  flow exceeds the capacity of the



 tank.   Provisions are  made in  both demonstration  projects



 to provide records of  flow volumes and treatment  provided






 Recommendation #9 ~ Disinfection of Industrial  Wastes






                We are  in agreement with  the  recommendatio




 that  continuous disinfection be  provided for industrial



 effluents  containing pathogens  which may have a dele-



 terious  effect on persons  coming into  contact with Lake

-------
	39.6





                       T. Frangos








Michigan waters.  However, we  are not aware  at  this



time  of any  industry in Wisconsin to which this  recom-




mendation now  applies.



               Recommendation  No. 10.  This  relates  to



nuclear discharges and thermal  pollution.  I will  defer



any comments until we see that  report.






Recommendation #11 - Dredging






               The dumping of  polluted material  into



any water of the  State is prohibited by  sections



29.288 of the  Wisconsin Statutes.  The Corps of




Engineers and  FWPGA in a joint  news release  of



January 6, 19&9,  announced that their agencies  had



work  well under way on a cooperative pilot  study  of



dredge spoil disposal methods  and had reached an



agreement on an interim disposal program.  And  we



have  participated with the Corps of Engineers in




some  of their  preliminary meetings with  our  communi-



ties  in Wisconsin.

-------
	397





                        T. Frangos





               Recommendation No.  12  covers  the  alewife




 project  of  last  summer.



               Each  of  the  four  States  contributed



 $62,500^which  was  matched by $250,000 of Federal funds,



 to  cope  with the anticipated alewife  die-off problem.



 Skimming operations  in  Wisconsin were out  of Milwaukee



 and Racine-Kenosha.   Two employees  of the  Department



 were  assigned  to observe these operations, make  beach



 checks  and  supervise the disposal  of  the alewives.  The



 municipalities involved agreed to  provide  dock facili-



 ties  and to transport and dispose  of  the alewives.



 Although the alewives didn't cooperate  and the die-off



 did not  occur, experience gained should place the par-



 ticipants in a better position to  handle the problem



 should  the  condition again  develop.





 Recommendation #13 - Watercraft  Pollution






               In  accordance with  proposals  agreed  upon




 by  representatives of the Conferees,  a  bill  has  been



 prepared for introduction in the current session of



 the Wisconsin  Legislature.  This bill will require



 holding  tanks  or incineration facilities on  all  boats

-------
	398





                       T. Frangos





 equipped with toilets and operating on inland or out-




 lying waters of  the State.  This covers all waters



 within  the  jurisdiction of the State.  All residue from



 onboard facilities is to be disposed of at shore instal-



 lations.  The Statute will apply to all boats, including



 commercial  vessels on interstate waters, until Federal



 statutes are applied.  A copy of the proposed bill that



 is  endorsed by the Department and the Wisconsin Natural



 Resources Council of State Agencies is Attachment C.






 Recommendation #15 - Pesticides






               A staff member participated in preparing




 the "Report on Insecticides in Lake Michigan."  This



 report  was  submitted to the Conferees on  November 18,



 1968. In accordance with the committee recommendation



 a bill  has  been  introduced in the State Legislature



 under the sponsorship of the Natural Resources Council



 of  State Agencies to more stringently regulate applica-



 tion of pesticides and insecticides.  A copy of the




 bill is Attachment D.



               The Department has before  it a request




 for a ruling to  ban the use of DDT  in the State where

-------
_ 399





                        T. Prangos






 such-use c6ntW.bu.ies  to  water pollution  and  violates  State




 water  quality  standards.  Since  this  matter  is  presently




 in  the public  hearing  stage,  we  will,  of course,  have to




 limit  comment  on  those  proceedings.




                It should further be  noted that  two  bills




 have been  introduced in the State  Legislature at  this




 session to completely  ban the use  of  DDT.




                Recommendation No.  16  relates to agri-




 cultural pollution.  ¥e will  pass  on  that until we  hear




 the report from the  USDA.




 Recommendation #1? - Water Quality Monitoring




                A  staff  member participated in the develop




 ment of the report,  "Water Quality Monitoring Program




 for Lake Michigan and  Tributary  Basin."   This report  was




 dated  November 15,  1968, and  submitted to the Conferees



 on  January 16,  1969. The Department  is in substantial




 agreement  with the report that has been  received  and




 supports the recommendation therein.
                In  response  to  Recommendation No.  Ib,




 field  personnel  of  the  Department  inventoried all sites

-------
	400





                       T. Frangos






where potential exists for a major spill of oils and




other hazardous materials which might affect the water




quality of Lake Michigan.  The listing, together with




suggested corrective measures and maps showing the sites,




was sent to the other Conferees on September 18, 1968.




Recent events off the California coast would dictate




that an intensive oil pollution control and protection




program be developed by all governmental agencies con-




cerned.






Recommendation #19 - Water Quality Analyses
               It has been recommended that water from




the filtration plants at Milwaukee and Green Bay be



analyzed for a broad spectrum of water quality parameters



including planktonic algae.



               The Milwaukee intake at Texas Avenue has



been used since I960 as the sampling point for FWPCA



water quality surveillance systems.  Samples are analyzed



every two we.eks for planktonic algae and weekly for chemi



cal parameters.  The city of Milwaukee also analyzes



daily for bacteriological organisms, turbidity, pH and



alkalinity.  The intake is located 7600 feet from shore

-------
	401





                       T. Frangos






at the south end of the harbor area and takes water from



a 40-foot depth.




               The city of Green Bay water intakes are




located some 20 miles east of Green Bay, near Kewaunee.




One intake is located 6000 feet from the shore and takes




water from a 50-foot depth.  A second intake, built in




1968, is 3000 feet in length and takes water from a 25-




foot depth.  Water from these intakes is chlorinated at




the lift station which is near the shoreline.  By the




time the water reaches the treatment plant, the water




has been effectively disinfected.




               Because of the difficulty in obtaining




and transporting a representative sample from the Green




Bay intake, we believe the city of Two Rivers water




intake would be a better location for the water quality




analyses recommended by the Conferees.  It is located



24 miles south of the Green Bay intakes, and has a length




of 6100 feet and takes water from a 31-foot depth.  The




intake pipe goes directly into the filtration plant so




a sample can be obtained more easily and with a lesser




time lag.   The Two Rivers plant analyzes daily for




alkalinity, pH, turbidity, and coliforms.

-------
	402





                       T. Prangos






               While the Two Rivers plant has a certified



 lab,  it  does not have the capability to take on extensive



 analytical work.  We believe that to obtain the best



 information, the station should be included with Milwauke



 in the FWPCA surveillance system as part of Federal



 responsibility in the monitoring of Lake Michigan waters.



               Examination of the data taken from the



 Milwaukee intake sample analyses shows very little



 change in most of the chemical data from week to week.



 The plankton data varies considerably, but there is not



 a large  variation in species.  Analysis of these samples



 once  monthly should provide satisfactory data.  We ask



 the Conferees to bear in mind that the water utilities ar



 doing daily monitoring for operational purposes and we



 as Conferees are primarily interested in long term trends



               We are awaiting the report from the U. S.



 Opast Guard concerning monitoring activities.



               Recommendation No. 21, again on oil




 pollution.



               All  significant controllable discharges



 of oil to Wisconsin's lakefront areas have been elimi-




 nated.   The two manufacturers along the lake who have

-------
	403





                        T. Frangos






 had  oil  disposal  problems in  the past have  implemented



 in-plant control  and  have instituted awareness programs.



 One  company  is  currently studying  the flotation-incinera-



 tion equipment  previously referred to and the other has



 submitted preliminary design  proposals for  further oil




 loss control  facilities.



                One  small, but  particularly  vexing, prob-



 lem  has  arisen  from winterizing practices on vessels that



 berth  in Lake Michigan  harbors. In the late fall, these




 vessels  place considerable quantities of grease in plumb-



 ing  and  piping  to prevent damage from freezing.  In the



 spring,  these lines are flushed out, usually by steam,



 and  the  oils  and  grease are discharged directly to the



 lake.  Although the volumes are small, we believe that



 isolated instances  of oil washing  on the shore result



 from these practices.



               We are presently pursuing this matter to



 obtain better control and explore  procedures to minimize



 the  quantities  of oils  and greases  from those sources.




 Any  comments  that the FWPCA or other Conferees may have



 on this  special problem would be appreciated.



               Recommendation No.  22 covers some of the

-------
	404





                       T. Frangos






 special  research  that  is being  sponsored by the Depart-




 ment.  An  attachment has been added to this report and I




 won't  discuss  it  at this time.




               Recommendation No. 24  deals with construc-




 tion grants.   We  recognize  that the statement that follow




 is  perhaps  out of the  purview and legal responsibility of




 the Conference, but we would like to  at least make a poin




               The State Conferees snould reiterate the




 need for full  appropriation of  grant  authorizations in




 the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and should reques




 a  change in distribution formula so that States partici-




 pating financially in  construction projects will not have




 their  control  programs adversely affected because fewer




 projects can be commenced on the 50 percent grant basis




 than on  the 30 percent basis.



               In conclusion, the Wisconsin concern for




 water  purity is best illustrated by Governor Knowles'




 recent proposal for an Outdoor  Resources Action Plan - 20




 ORAP - 200  if  endorsed by the citizens of Wisconsin and




 enacted  by the Legislature  would establish a $200 million




 bonding  program--$144  million for construction of sewage




 treatment  facilities and $56 million  for outdoor

-------
	405




                       T. Frangos






 recreational opportunities.



               Under Wisconsin law, the bonding  program



 can "be  enacted by  the Legislature without a public



 referendum.  However, the present proposal is to submit



 an advisory referendum to the electorate in April.  If




 the results are favorable, the next step would be for



 the Legislature to  enact the required legislation.  The



 program would become effective on July 1, 19^9*  or  soon




 thereafter.



               The  proposed ten-year program would




 accelerate the construction of badly needed pollution



 control facilities  by providing a direct, immediate



 payment of a 25 percent share of State funds, a  pre-



 financing of one-half of the Federal share and appli-



 cation  of annual Federal grant funds to insure that local



 communities would  receive at least 55 percent of the



 cost  of eligible construction projects.  If Federal



 grant funds are adequate, additional grants would be



 awarded to all projects to provide, over a ten-year



 period, a 75 percent contribution of non-local funds



 to the  projects. Successful implementation of the pro-



 posed Wisconsin ORAP-200 program would provide the

-------
	406





                        T. Frangos






 impetus  to  achieve  the  mutual  goals  and  objectives  of




 these  proceedings.




                That concludes  our  report.




                MR.  STEIN:   Mr.  Frangos,  without  objection




 your whole  report will  be included as  if read.




                MR.  FRANGOS:  Yes,  please.








                (The following  are  the  documents  submitted




 by  Mr. Frangos:)






         WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL- RESOURCES






     SOME HELPFUL INFORMATION  SO WE  MAY  REALIZE  THE




         INTERRELATION  WITH AND THE  DEPENDENCE




                         UPON...




                  OUR NATURAL  RESOURCES






         WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL  RESOURCES



          Division  of Environmental  Protection




                     PROGRESS  REPORT




          LAKE  MICHIGAN ENFORCEMENT  CONFERENCE




                      (Second Session)




                                     February 25, 19^9

-------
	40?





                        T.  Frangos






                The following is a summary report that



 outlines  the response of the Wisconsin Department of



 Natural Resources  to the recommendations  of  the  first



 session of  the  Lake Michigan Enforcement  Conference  and



 details actions that have  been  taken  in Wisconsin to



 achieve compliance with the  several  recommendations.



 This  report is  deliberately  brief so  that the  Conference



 may proceed with the business before  the  second  session.



 However,  we felt that it would  be useful  to  expand on



 some  of the materials previously submitted to  the Con-



 ference and to  summarize the status  of the Wisconsin




 abatement program.   Additionally,  we  have several pro-



 posals to make  to  the Conference in  the nature of



 clarification of the interpretation  of several of the



 recommendations of the first session  of the  Conference.



                The  following comments  have been  itemized



 to  correspond with  the recommendation  numbers  as  they



 appear in the Summary of Conference  (first session).






 Recommendation  #1  - General  Waste  Treatment  Requirements






                The  interstate water quality  standards for



 Lake  Michigan that  have been established  and approved by

-------
	408





                        T. Frangos






 the  Secretary  of  Interior provide  for  secondary  treat-



 ment for  all municipal  wastes.  Implementation of  this



 requirement will  be  substantially  accomplished by  Decem-



 ber  1972.



                The requirement  that  "...waste treatment



 is to be  provided by all municipalities  to achieve  at



 least 80  percent  reduction  of total  phosphorus..."  if



 literally interpreted and applied  is particularly



 inflexible and has produced administrative problems.,




 especially with our  smaller communities.  Upon review



 of the Wisconsin  phosphorus contribution from municipal



 sources,  it seems to us that the objectives  of this



 recommendation could better be  met by  accounting for



 the  total phosphorus load to the drainage basin  against



 which a reduction of 80 percent could  be made.   An



 analysis  of population  distribution  of communities  within



 the  Wisconsin  portion of the Lake  Michigan drainage basin



 shows that 11  out of 177 listed municipal sources  account




 for  83 percent of the population in  the basin.   A  total




 of 15 communities account for almost 86  percent  of  the



 population while  33  communities account  for  92 percent of



 the  population.   Population distribution is  illustrated

-------
	409


                       T. Frangos


 by  the  following  table:

                      Cumulative          Percent
                      No. of              of
     Size             Sources             Population

     20,000             11                   83.0

     10,000             15                   85.8

      5,000             33                   92.0

      2,500             48                   94-7

      all              177                  100.0

               In arriving at  conclusions as to the

 application of phosphorus removal  requirements, the

 following  items were  seriously and extensively reviewed

 and  considered:

               1.  A  review of research activities and

 information available from other investigations over the

 past twelve months leads us to conclude that it is very

 likely  that phosphorus removals considerably in excess

 of  80 percent can be  achieved  at large, well operated

 sewage  treatment  plants.  On the other hand, it is

 unrealistic to expect to obtain this same kind of closely

 supervised operation  that present  technology requires

 for high efficiencies of smaller facilities.

               2.  Recent surveys  of sewage treatment

-------
	410




                        T. Frangos






 plant  operations  throughout  the  State  indicate  that, on



 an  average,  phosphorus  reductions  obtained  by conventiona



 treatment  plants  appear to be  in the 20-40  percent  range.



                3.   The  Wisconsin Department of  Natural



 Resources  is  presently  considering the issuance  of  a




 statewide  policy  to cover phosphate removal at  municipal



 treatment  plants.   This policy would take into  account



 eutrophication  problems on our inland  waters.   The  cur-



 rent proposal would require  phosphorus removal  at those




 facilities where  the  receiving water body has severe



 problems of  overfertilization.   It is  hoped that the



 newly  proposed  algal  growth  potential  test  presently



 being  developed by  the  Joint Industry-Government Task



 Force  will provide  all  regulatory  agencies  with  a tool



 that will  permit  assessment  of benefits  that can be



 achieved by  reducing  phosphorus  contributions from  point



 source discharges.  As  the policy  requirements  are  imple-



 mented, it can  be expected that  a  number of smaller



 communities  will  need to remove  phosphorus.



                In view  of the  population distribution




 in  Wisconsin  and  in light of the various factors presentl



 at  work as described  above,  it is  suggested that the

-------
	411





                        T.  Frangos






 Conference  consider  and adopt  an  approach  that  considers



 phosphorus  reduction requirements  against  the total




 phosphorus  load  in  each State  that is  tributary to Lake



 Michigan.   This  approach  would be  comparable to that




 taken  in  the  Lake Erie  Enforcement Conference,



               If this  approach is acceptable to the



 Conference, the  phosphorus  reduction requirement will



 be  applied  to all Wisconsin  municipalities  with a popu-



 lation of 5,000  or  greater.  (See  Attachment A.)  In



 consideration of removals  achieved at  these 33  communities,



 reductions  obtained  at  conventional treatment plants  in



 smaller communities  and the  application  of  a general



 Statewide policy, it is felt that  the  Wisconsin phosphorujs



 reduction will substantially meet  the  objectives  of the



 Enforcement Conference  by  December 1972.





 Recommendation #2, #Q - Industrial Wastes^






               All industries  located  within the  basin




 shall  meet  requirements of  the approved  Wisconsin inter-



 state  water quality  standards,  as  well as  the intrastate



 standards now in effect.   Compliance by  industries with




 the  established  standards  will prevent the  degradation

-------
	412





                       T. Frangos






of water quality in Lake Michigan.



               It has been the operating practice of the




Department of Natural Resources for many years to encourake



industries to discharge wastes that are amenable to treat



ment  to municipal sewer systems when available.  This




practice is presently being maintained.






Recommendation #3 - Abatement Schedules





               In accordance with  the  recommendations  of




the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference, Wisconsin



Division of Environmental Protection has prepared ani




submitted to all Conferees two lists of municipalities



and industries discharging wastewater  to the  Lake Michi-



gan Basin.  The first listed the 436 potential waste



sources within the basin.  The second  listed  the 111



waste sources within the basin which in our  .judgment



have  an effect upon Lake Michigan  water quality.  The



following information was given for each waste source:



Location of the facility by river  basin and  receiving



stream, type of waste,  flow  (MGD), population served,



existing treatment, required additional treatment,  and



the estimated  date of completion for additional  requirements

-------
	413





                        T. Frangos






                It  should be noted  that  the  list  does



 not  specifically comment on needs  for controlling  pol-



 lution  from  combined  sources.   This  is  a blanket require-




 ment for  all  communities where  this  problem exists  in



 accordance with Recommendation  #7.   This information




 can  be  supplied.



                The  listing of phosphorus removal require-



 ments was made  on  the basis of  "all" municipalities.  The



 schedule  will need  to be amended on  the basis  of acceptan



 by the  Conferees of the proposed approach for  reducing



 phosphorus discharge  in the Lake Michigan drainage  basin.



                Attachment B to  this  report  contains a




 summary of the  status of industrial  waste sources  in the



 basin with a brief  discussion of progress.   It also con-



 tains errata that  should be incorporated into  the  history



 of Wisconsin wastewater sources in Lake Michigan drainage



 basin affecting Lake  Michigan water  quality.



                Subsequent to receipt of the Summary of



 Conference,  the Wisconsin Department of Natural  Resources




 issued  orders and  letters to all municipalities  citing



 the  need  for  compliance with State water quality standard



 and  the Enforcement Conference  recommendations.  Orders

-------
	414





                       T. Frangos






were  issued  in  those instances where public hearings



had been  conducted  immediately following the convening of




the Lake  Michigan Conference.  Letters were sent to those



dischargers  located in sub-basins for which public hear-



ings  had  not been held. On the basis of drainage basin



surveys conducted this past year, public hearings will



be conducted in the next few months in much of the area



in the Lake  Michigan basin.  Orders issued subsequent to



those hearings  will legally reinforce requirements now



covered by letter issued by the Department.



                Because of the interest previously




expressed at the first session over poor water quality



conditions of the Fox River between Lake Winnebago and



Green Bay, a brief  discussion of actions under way is



presented at this point.  This area was the subject of



a public  hearing some 11 months ago and orders were



issued against  all  municipalities and industries that



are required to meet State water quality standards and




the applicability requirements of the Lake Michigan



Enforcement  Conference.  Treatment facilities to meet



water quality standards that relate to dissolved oxygen,




suspended solids and phosphorus removal are to be

-------
	415





                        T.  Frangos





 substantially  accomplished by December  1972.



                Because  of  the complex water quality prob'



 lems  in  this portion  of the Fox  River,  a  number  of  steps



 have  been  taken by  municipalities  and industries  and the



 Department, all of  which are in  accord  with several of




 the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference  recommendations,



                Four pulp and paper industries  and the



 city  of  Green  Bay have  been undertaking a research



 investigation  (partially funded  by the  Federal Water



 Pollution  Control Administration )  to determine  the



 feasibility of  joint  municipal industrial treatment



 facilities.  Results  to date appear promising.  A



 decision by those involved with  the research as to



 whether  to proceed  to a .joint treatment facility  is




 expected by January 1970.



                Some 15  industries  and several  munici-



 palities at the southern end of  the Fox River  are



 cooperating in  a joint  study undertaken by the Fox



 Valley Council  of Governments  to determine the feas-




 ibility  of a joint  sewage  system at that  area  of  the



 river.   This study  is sponsored, in part,  by the  Depart-



 ment  of  Housing and Urban  Development.  A decision  on

-------
	416





                       T. Frangos






whether to proceed on this proposal is expected by



January 1970.




               Because of the intensive use of the Fox



River, the water quality conditions are complex.  In



order to more accurately predict river response to antici



pated reductions in waste loadings and to assist the



Department in administering its water pollution control



program, the Department has contracted with a consultant



engineering firm to develop a mathematical water quality



model of the Fox River.  It is expected that the avail-



ability of a predictive tool will enable the Department




to more precisely assess water quality conditions and to



more firmly establish treatment requirements.  It should



be noted that much of the basic data that is required to



develop a mathematical model was provided by the Federal



Water Pollution Control Administration as a result of



field surveys it had conducted several years ago.  The



model will be available to the Department by July 1, 19^9



               Although timing of the several activities



now under way is critical, it is still anticipated that



required facilities will be constructed and  Derating by




December 1972.  In the meantime, the orders issued by

-------
	417





                        T.  Frangos






 the  Department  require  that  industries  and municipalities




 proceed  immediately  with whatever  work  can be  accomplishe




 without  prejudice, pending decisions  on the studies




 described  above.






 Recommendation  #4  -  Municipal Waste Disinfection






                Wisconsin has accepted the  Lake Michigan




 Enforcement  Conference   recommendation concerning con-




 tinuous  disinfection for all municipal  treatment  plant




 effluents.   It  is  Statewide  policy that throughout the




 year all municipal treatment plants must provide  continue




 disinfection.   All municipal sources  within the Lake




 Michigan Basin  which do not  provide continuous disinfec-




 tion have  received either  orders or letters requiring




 preliminary  reports  and time schedules  for the installa-




 tion or  operation  of facilities by May  1969.






 Recommendations #5 and #15 - Areawide Sewerage^_Sys_^ems_






                For many years the  State of Wisconsin has




 promoted the installation  of unified  collection systems




 and  areawide sewage  facilities.  We have continued this




 practice in  agreement with recommendations #5  and #14

-------
	418





                        T. Frangos






 of  the  Lake  Michigan Enforcement Conference.



                It  is also appropriate  to  comment  on  two



 activities now  under way in  the  Milwaukee  metropolitan



 area.   The Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning



 Commission (SEWRPC) has received a grant  from the Federal



 Water Pollution Control Administration  to develop a  de-



 tailed  water quality management program for the Milwaukee




 River watershed.   An important  element  of this study



 will be the  development of  alternative  institution arrang



 ments for water quality management.



                Concurrently,, SEWRPC has also initiated



 a study to determine the feasibility of developing an



 areawide sewerage  system for the highly urbanized seven-




 county  area  in  the southeast part of the  State.





 R e c o mme nda t i on  #6_-_Byp a s sing






                The major combined sewerage systems in



 Wisconsin have  been designed and built  with suitable




 overflow structures which insure the full utilization



 of  the  capacity of the  intercepting sewers.  Action  is




 being taken  to  minimize bypassing whenever possible.



 All orders issued  by the Department contain requirements

-------
	419





                        T. Frangos






 for  reducing  bypassing  from  combined  sewers  or where



 "clear  water"  problems  exist.  Flow regulating devices



 may  be  effective  in  an  overall program of  reducing pol-



 lution  from combined wastes.






 Recommendation #7  -  Combined Sewers
               Combined sewered areas are being separated



                                                     1 *•   I
in relation to urban renewal projects and whenever re



construction projects permit such separation.  No new



combined sewers are being installed;  however, structurall



unsound existing combined sewers are  being replaced in



limited instances when it is not possible to separate




the tributary sewers.



               Techniques for handling combined sewage



other than separation are being investigated.  Federal



demonstration grants have been obtained by the cities of



Chippewa Falls and Milwaukee to investigate such tech-



niques.  Chippewa Falls is discharging high stormwater



flow to a holding pond where the sewage will be stored



until the flow subsides sufficiently  to allow the pond




contents to be directed to the treatment facility.   The



city of Milwaukee is installing a tank which will also

-------
	420





                        T. Frangos






 store  combined  sewage  for pumping  to  the  interceptor




 sewers  when  the high flow subsides.   This  facility will




 be  provided  with chlorination  equipment to allow  primary




 sedimentation and disinfection of  the combined  sewage




 flow prior to discharge  to  the river  when  the flow exceeds




 the capacity of the tank.   Provisions are  made  in both




 demonstration projects  to provide  records  of flow volume




 and treatment provided.






 Recommendation  #9 ~ Disinfection	-_ Industrial __Wastes






                We are  in agreement with the recommenda-




 tion that continuous disinfection  be  provided for Indus'




 trial  effluents containing  pathogens  which may  have a




 deleterious  effect on  persons  coming  into  contact with




 Lake Michigan waters.   However, we are not aware  at



 this time of any industry in Wisconsin to  which this




 recommendation  now applies.






 Recommendation  #10 - Nuclear Discharges and Thermal




 Pollution






                A staff  member  participated in the




 development  of  "Report  of the  Committee on Nuclear

-------
	421





                        T.  Prangos






 Power  Plant Waste  Disposal to  the  Conferees  of the




 Lake Michigan  Enforcement  Conference."   This report




 was submitted  to the  Conferees  on  November 27, 1968.




 Wisconsin  is in substantial agreement with the recom-




 mendations contained  in that report.






 Rec ommen dation £l!__ -  Dre^dg_in.g_






               The dumping of  polluted  material into




 any waters of  the  State is prohibited by ss. 29.288  of




 the Wisconsin  Statutes. The Corps of Engineers and




 FWPCA  in a joint news release  of January 6,  1969,




 announced  that their  agencies  had  work  well  underway  on




 a cooperative  pilot study  of dredge spoil disposal methoc




 and had reached an agreement on an interim disposal




 program.   In January, the  Department  participated  in



 meetings with  the  Corps of Engineers  and local officials



 at six of  Wisconsin's Lake Michigan port cities.  The




 discussions involved  dredging  operations and disposal




 areas.

-------
	422





                        T.  Frangos






 Recommendation  #12  -  Alewives






                Last summer,  each of  the  four  States



 contributed  $62,500 which  was  matched  by $250,000  of



 Federal  funds to  cope with the anticipated  alewife




 die-off  problem.  Skimming operations  in Wisconsin



 were  out of  Milwaukee and  Racine-Kenosha.   Two  employees



 of  the Department were assigned to observe  these opera-



 tions, make  beach checks and supervise the  disposal of



 the alewives.   The  municipalities involved  agreed  to



 provide  dock facilities and  to transport and  dispose  of




 the alewives.   Although the  die-off  did  not occur,



 experience gained should place the participants in a



 better position to  handle  the  problem  should  the con-



 dition again develop.






 Recommendation  #13  -  Watercraft Pollution






                In accordance with proposals agreed upon




 by  representatives  of the  Conferees, a bill has been



 prepared for introduction  in the current session of the



 Wisconsin Legislature. This bill will require  holding



 tanks or incineration facilities on  all  boats equipped

-------
	    423





                        T.  Frangos






 with  toilets  and operating on inland or outlying waters




 of  the  State.   This  covers all waters  within  the juris-




 diction of  the  State.   All residue  from onboard facilitie




 is  to be disposed of at shore installations.   The Statut




 will  apply  to all boats,  including  commercial vessels




 on  interstate waters until Federal  statutes are applied.




 A copy  of the proposed  bill that is  endorsed  by the




 Department  and  the Wisconsin Natural Resources Council




 of  State Agencies is Attachment  C.






 Recommendation  #13 ~ Pesticides






                A staff  member participated in "Report




 on  Insecticides  in Lake  Michigan."   This  report was  sub-




 mitted  to the Conferees  on November  18,  1968.   In




 accordance  with  the  committee recommendation  a bill  has



 been  introduced  in the  State  Legislature  under the spon-




 sorship of  the  Natural  Resources Council  of State Agencies




 to  more stringently  regulate  application  of pesticides




 and insecticides.  A copy  of  the bill  is  Attachment  D.




                The Department has before  it a request




 for a ruling to  ban  the  use of DDT  in  the State where




 such  use contributes to  water pollution  and violates

-------
	424






                        T.  Frangos






State water  quality standards.   Since this matter is




presently  in the  public hearing stage,  we will, of




course,  have to  limit  comment on those  proceedings.




                It should 1'urther be noted that two bills




have been  introduced in the  State  Legislature at this




session  to completely  ban  the use  of DDT.






Recommendation  #16 - Agri cult_ura]L_Pollut_jLon_






                Since most  of the pollution and siltation




problems arising  from  agricultural practices are non-




point sources,  and therefore more  difficult; to control,




it  appears that  a broad, multifaceted program is require<




Education  will  be an important factor.   We look forward




to  receiving the  comments  of the U. S.  Department ol




Agriculture.






Re_c_o_mme^nd,ation  #17 - Water Quality Monitgjrinjr






                A  staff member participated in the




development  of  the report, "Water Quality Monitoring




Program  for  Lake  Michigan and Tributary Basin."  This




report was dated  November 15, 1968> and submitted to




the Conferees on  January 16, 1969.  The Department is

-------
	425





                        T.  Frangos






 in  substantial  agreement  with  the  report that has been




 received  and  supports  the  recommendation therein.






 Recommendation  #l8  - Oil  Pollution






                In response to  recommendation  #18, field




 personnel  of  the Department inventoried  all  sites where




 potential  exists for a manor spill of  oils  and other




 hazardous  materials which  might  affect the  water quality




 of  Lake Michigan.   The listing,  together with suggested




 corrective measures and maps showing the sites,  was  sent




 to  the other  Conferees on  September 18,  1968.  Recent




 events off the  California  coast  would  dictate that an




 intensive  oil pollution control  and protection program




 be  developed  by all governmental agencies  concerned.






 Recommendation  #19  - Wate r_Q_ua 1 j^ty_Anal_ys_e_s_






                It has  been recommended that water from




 the  filtration  plants  at  Milwaukee and Green  Bay be




 analyzed  for  a  broad spectrum  of water quality parameters




 including  planktonic algae.




                The  Milwaukee intake at Texas  Avenue  has




 been used  since I960 as the sampling point  for FWPCA

-------
	426





                       T. Frangos






water quality surveillance systems.  Samples are



analyzed  every  two weeks for planktonic algae and




weekly for  chemical parameters.  The city of Milwaukee



also analyzes daily for bacteriological organisms,



turbidity,  pH,  and alkalinity.  The intake is located



7600 feet from  shore at the south end of the harbor



area and  takes  water from a 40-foot depth.



                The city of Green Bay water intakes are



located some 20 miles east of Green Bay, near Kewaunee.



One intake  is located 6000 feet from the shore and takes



water from  a 50-foot depth.  A second intake, built in



1968, is  3000 feet in length and takes water from a 25-



foot depth.  Water from these intakes is chlorinated at



the lift  station which is near the shoreline.  By the tim



the water reaches the treatment plant, the water has been



effectively disinfected.



                Because of the difficulty in obtaining




and transporting a representative sample from the Green




Bay intake, we  believe the city of Two Rivers water



intake would be a better location for the water quality



analyses  recommended by the Conferees.  It is located



24 miles  south  of the Green Bay intakes, and has a length

-------
	427





                       T. Prangos






 of  6100  feet  and  takes water  from  a  31-foot  depth.   The



 intake pipe goes  directly into  the filtration  plant  so



 a sample  can  be obtained more easily and with  a  lesser



 time  lag.  The Two Rivers plant  analyzes daily for




 alkalinity, pH, turbidity,  and  coliforms.



               While  the Two  Rivers  plant has  a  certified



 lab,  it  does  not  have the capability to take on  extensive



 analytical work.  We  believe  that  to obtain  the  best



 information,  the  station should  be included  with Milwauke




 in  the FWPCA  surveillance system as  part of  Federal



 responsibility in the monitoring of  Lake Michigan waters



               Examination  of the  data taken from the




 Milwaukee intake  sample analyses shows very  little



 change in most of the chemical  data  from week  to week.



 The  plankton  data varies considerably, but there is  not



 a large  variation in  species.   Analysis of these samples



 once  monthly  should provide satisfactory data.   Bear  in



 mind  that the water utilities are  doing daily  monitoring



 for  operational purposes and  we  as Conferees are primaril




 interested in long term trends.

-------
	428






                        T.  Frangos






Recommendation #20  - U. 5.	Coast Guard  Monitoring Activities






               Report  to be  received.






Recommendation #21  - Oil Polluticm






               All  significant  controllable  discharges




of  oil  to Wisconsin    lakefront areas have been  eliminate^




The  two manufacturers  along  the lake who have had oil




disposal problems in the past have implemented in-plant




control and have instituted  awareness programs.  One




company is currently studying the flotation-incineration




equipment previously referred to and the other has  sub-




mitted  preliminary  design  proposals for further  oil loss




control facilities.




               One  small,  but particularly vexing,  proble




has  arisen from winterizing  practices on vessels that



berth in Lake Michigan  harbors.  In the late fall,  these




vessels place considerable quantities of grease  in  plumb-




ing  f.hd piping to prevent  damage from freezing.  In the




sprjpg, these lines are flushed out, usually by  steam,




and  the oils and grease are  discharged  directly  to  the




lake.   Although the volumes  are small,  we believe that

-------
	   429





                       T. Frangos






 isolated  instances of  oil washing  on the  shore  result




 from  these  practices.



               We are  presently  pursuing  this matter  to




 obtain better  control  and explore  procedures to minimize




 the quantities of oils and  greases  from those sources.




 Any comments that the  FWPCA or other Conferees  may have




 on this special  problem  would be appreciated.






 Recommendation #2.2 - Research






               We agree  that there  is  a great need for




 aggressive  water pollution  research and that we cannot




 wait  until  all the answers  are  "in" before  taking action




 We must,  however, avoid  the pitfall of predicting or




 suggesting  program results  in those areas where we have




 so little knowledge  of "cause" and "effect" relationship




               The Wisconsin Legislature  has provided




 funds specifically for water resources research.  During




 the past  two years some  $1300,000 has been available to




 the Department to conduct a broad  water research program




 The investigations sponsored or  undertaken  by the Divisi >n




 of Environmental Protection span a wide range of water




 supply and  water pollution  control problems.  A summary

-------
	430






                        T. Frangos






 of  projects  undertaken  by the  Division  appears  in




 Attachment E.






 Recommendation  #24  -  Con.struction_G;rants_






                The  State Conferees  should  reiterate  the




 need  for  full appropriation  of grant  authorizations  in




 the Federal  Water Pollution  Control Act and  should




 request a change in distribution formula so  that States




 participating financially in construction  projects  will




 not have  their  control  programs adversely  affected




 because fewer projects  can be  commenced on the  50 percent




 grant basis  than on the 30 percent  basis.



                         * * *




      The  Wisconsin  concern for water  purity  is  best




 illustrated  by  Governor Knowles' recent proposal for



 an  Outdoor Resources  Action  Plan -  200.  ORAP  - 200  if




 endorsed  by  the citizens of  Wisconsin and  enacted by




 the Legislature would establish a $200  million  bonding




 program--$l44 million for construction  of  sewage treat-




 ment  facilities and $56 million for outdoor  recreational




 opportunities.




                Under  Wisconsin law, the bonding program

-------
	431





                        T.  Frangos






 can be  enacted by the Legislature without a public




 referendum.   However, the  present proposal is to submit




 an advisory  referendum to  the  electorate in April.  If




 the results  are favorable,  the next step would be for




 the Legislature to enact the  required legislation.  The




 program would become  effective on July 1, 19&9,  or soon




 thereafter.




                The proposed ten-year program would




 accelerate the construction of badly needed pollution




 control facilities by providing a direct, immediate




 payment of a 25 percent  share  of State funds,  a  pre-




 financing of one-half of the Federal share and appli-




 cation  of annual  Federal grant funds to insure that




 local communities  would  receive at least 55 percent  of




 the cost of  eligible  construct:on projects.   If  Federal




 grant funds  are adequate,  additional grants  would be



 awarded to all projects  to  provide,  over a ten-year




 period,  a 75 percent  contribution of non-local funds




 to the  projects.   Successful implementation of the




 proposed Wisconsin ORAP-200 program would provide the




 impetus  to achieve the mutual  goals  and obi'ectives of




 these proceedings.

-------
                                                     432
                       T. Frangos
                                    Attachment A.
        LISTING OF MAJOR WISCONSIN MUNICIPALITIES
               IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
Population Between
3,000 and 10,000

Cedarburg, City

Franklin San. Dist.

Germantown, Vil.

Greendale, Vil.

Hales Corners, Vil

Kimberly, Vil.

Little Chute, Vil.

Menasha, Tn. San. Dist #4

Mequon, City

New London, City

Oak Creek, City

Plymouth, City

Portage, City

Port Washington,  City

Ripon, City

Shawano, City
Population over 10,000

Appleton, City

De Pere, City

Green Bay Met. Sewer Dist

Kaukauna, City

Kenosha, City

Manitowoc, City

Menominee Falls, Vil.

Milw, Met. Sew. Comm.
(2 plants)

Neenah-Menasha, Cities

Oshkosh, City

Racine, City

Sheboygan, City

South Milwaukee, City

Two Rivers, City

West Bend, City

-------
                       	433

                        T.  Frangos
Population Between
5,000 and 10,000  (Cont'd.)

Shawano Lake San. Dist.

Sturgeon Bay, City
                                     Attachment B
                          Status

                Industrial Waste  Sources

          Lake Michigan  Enforcement  Conference

                   February  25,  19^9


               The list  titled  "WisconsinJ.Vaste_Water

S_ou_r_c_e_s	iR__^_h.e__Lake Mich i ga:n _Dr ain age .Ba_s_in__Af'f_e^tinj[

Lake Michigan Water Qualify" which  was  submitted in

November 1968 names 40 industry-owned  outfalls as

potential sources of  pollution  affecting  Lake  Michigan.

Of those named, 14 are indicated  as  not affecting the

lake quality and as not  requiring  additional treatment.

One additional industry,  the Kimberly-Clark Corporation

Lakeview Mill at Neenah,  has recently  placed in operatior

an industrial waste unit  which  may  achieve an  acceptable

level of treatment.

               There  was  one omission  from this listing.

-------
	434





                        T. Frangos






 The  name  of  the  U.  S.  Glue  Division,  Peter  Cooper




 Corporation,  located  at  Oak  Creek,  should be  added.




 Negotiations  between  this company and the city  of




 Milwaukee  Metropolitan  Sewerage  District are  in  progress




 for  connection to  the  metropolitan  sewage collection




 system.




               There  were four erroneous inclusions:




               1.   Oak  Creek Power  Plant (Wisconsin




 Electric  Power Company)  which has a  seepage lagoon in




 addition  to  a secondary plant for its sewage  treatment




 and  therefore there is  no requirement for effluent dis-




 infection  by  May of 1969.




               2.   Falls Paper and  Power Company which




 is now  the Scott Paper  Company,  Oconto Falls, has




 existing  treatment  consisting of primary clarification,




 sludge  centrifugation,  evaporation  and roadbinder haul-




 ing  in  addition  to  the  lagooning and savealls indicated.




               3.   Kimberly-Clark Corporation's  mill  at




 Niagara on the Menominee River has  discontinued  all




 chemical  pulping and  therefore does  not create  adverse




 conditions in Lake  Michigan. This  mill has in  progress




 certain improvements  which,  when completed, are  expected

-------
                       T. Prangos






to result in a significant reduction in suspended




solids discharged to the Menominee River.




               4.  Scott Paper Company at Marinette on




the Menominee River was incorrectly credited with primar




clarification, sludge centrifugation, evaporation and




ponding.  Their existing treatment should be changed to




savealls3screens and roadbinder hauling.




               Three of the forty listed industrial




sources convey inadequately treated sanitary sewage.




In two of these instances we have received responses




from the industries confirming their intent to connect




to municipal sewers.




               Of the 21 industrial process waste




pollution sources not yet mentioned, 17 are on the Fox




River.  All acknowledged orders or letters received from




this Department and have given their assurances that




they will meet the requirements of our existing State




water quality standards and the requirements of the Lake




Michigan Enforcement Conference.   Those with the less




complex problems will probably accomplish this in




advance of December 1972.



               Fifteen of the Fox River mills are

-------
	436





                        T. Frangos






 actively  exploring  connection  of all or part of  their




 wastes  to municipal  sewer systems.  Four  of these  are




 already partially connected  to city sanitary sewers. All




 but  those four  are  simultaneously  considering methods  of




 separate  treatment  which can be employed  if the  municipal




 sewer  connections are  ruled  out.




                Of the  remaining four industries, three




 have discharges  presently going to Lake Michigan and one




 is to  the Pike  River.




                Preliminary engineering  proposals have




 been submitted  for  Departmental review  by two of these




 firms,  and  one  of those proposals  has already been




 approved.  A  third  company with a  waste containing ions




 potentially detrimental to aquatic life has submitted



 results of  bioassays of treated effluent  similar to that



 which  they  would release from  proposed  treatment units.




 Once this Department determines the concentration  limits




 for  those ions  the  company plans to proceed with prepara




 tion of construction drawings.




                The  remaining corporation  has in-plant




 oil  interception and reclamation equipment.  It  is also




 studying  flotation  and incineration to  improve  control




 techniques .	

-------
	437





                        T.  Frangos






                                     Attachment  C






                         AN  ACT*






                To  repeal and recreate  30.71  (2) of  the




 statutes   relating to  boat toilet  regulations.



                The people  of the State  of Wisconsin,



 represented  in  senate  and  assembly do  enact  as  follows:



                30.71  (2) of  the statutes is  repealed  and



 recreated  to  read:




                30.71  (2) No  person shall operate  any



 boat  equipped with toilets on any  outlying waters of



 this  State,  as  defined in  Sec. 29.01 (4), unless  the



 toilet wastes are  retained for shore disposal by  means



 of facilities constructed  and operated  in accordance  with



 rules adopted by the  department of health and social



 services.  This subsection shall not apply to boats



 engaged in international or  interstate  commerce.



                This act shall take effect on January  1,



 1970.




 12/16/68   .Is



      *  Proposed bill, has not as  yet been introduced




 in the Legislature.

-------
                                                     438
                       T.  Frangos
                                    Attachment C-l
STATE OF WISCONSIN / DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
                                    L. P.  Voigt
                                    Secretary

                                    Box 450
                                    Madison,  Wisconsin 5:
                30.71  WISCONSIN STATUTES

30.71  Boats equipped with toilets

(1)  No person shall operate any boat equipped with

     toilets on inland waters of this State, except

     the Mississippi River, unless the toilet wastes

     are retained for shore disposal by means of

     facilities constructed and operated in accordance

     with the rules adopted by the state board of

     health.  "inland waters" means the waters

     defined as inland waters by s 29.01 (4).

(2)  Until October 31, 1967, sub. (1) shall not apply

     to the St. Croix River below Houlton-Stillwater.
701

-------
               	439


                       T. Prangos


                                    Attachment D


1969               STATE OF WISCONSIN
                                           LRB-980
                  1969 SENATE BILL 124     MRT:mjg:l
                                           BC:   :2

     February 6, 1969 - Introduced by COMMITTEE ON

     CONSERVATION, by request of Natural Resources

     Council of State Agencies.  Referred to Committee

     on Conservation.



               AN ACT to amend 29.60 (5) (c); to repeal

and recreate 29.29 (4); and to create 15.191 (2), 15.195,

94.69 (8), (9) and (10), 140.05 (15) and 140.77 of the

statutes, relating to the use of pesticides, creating

a pesticide review board, and granting rule-making power.
      Analy^is by_th_e_ Legis 1 a^:Ly_e_Referericj? Bureau^

               This proposal creates, in the department

of health and social services, a pesticide review board

to coordinate the pesticide control responsibilities of

all State agencies.  The council consists of three member

the secretaries of natural resources, of agriculture,

and of health and social services; each secretary may,

-------
	440





                       T. Prangos






however,  designate  somebody  else to  serve in his  stead.



               No rule regulating  the  use of pesticides



can  enter into effect without  the  approval  of  the  pesti-




cide review  board.



               The  review board will be  assisted  in




obtaining scientific data, and in  coordinating the



pesticide regulatory,enforcement,  research  and edu-



cational  functions  of the State, by  a  nine-member  counci



on which, in addition to representatives of other  govern



mental  agencies  or  the general public,  the  departments



of agriculture,  of  health and  social services,  and of



natural resources,  and the university  of Wisconsin,  will




be represented.



               For  further information,  see the fiscal




note appended to this bill.
                The people  of  the State  of Wisconsin,



 represented in senate and  assembly,  do  enact as  follows:



                SECTION 1.   15.191 (2) of the statutes




 is created to read:



                15.191 (2)  PESTICIDE  REVIEW BOARD.   The




 pesticide review board shall  have the  program

-------
	441





                       T. Frangos






responsibilities specified under ss. 29.29  (4), 94.69




(9) and 140.77.



               SECTION 2.  15.195 of the statutes is



created to read:




               15.195 SAME; ATTACHED BOARDS AND COMMISSIC
 (1)  PESTICIDE REVIEW BOARD.  There is created in the



 department of health and social services a pesticide



 review board.  The review board shall consist of the



 secretary of agriculture, the secretary of health and




 social services and the secretary of natural resources



 or their designated representatives.



               SECTION 3.  29.29 (4) of the statutes is



 repealed and recreated to read:



               29.29 (4) USE OF PESTICIDES.  The depart-



 ment of natural resources, after public hearing, may



 adopt rules governing the use of any pesticide which it



 finds is a serious hazard to wild animals, and the making



 of reports thereon.  In making such determinations, the



 department to the extent relevant shall consider the neec



 for pesticides to protect the well-being of the general



 public.  It shall obtain the recommendation of the pesti-




 cide review board and such rules are not effective until
NS

-------
	442





                       T. Prangos






 approved by the pesticide review board.   "Pesticide"



 has  the meaning designated in s. 9^.67  (1).



               SECTION 4.  29.60 (5)  (c)  of the statutes




 is amended to read:



               29.60  (5)  (c) Nothing  in this chapter




 shall  prevent the  department or its wardens from using



 dynamite or having dynamite in possession near beaver



 houses or dams for the purpose of  removing beaver dams



 when the beavers are  causing damage to  property owners.



               SECTION 5.  94.69 (8), (9) and  (10)  of




 the  statutes are created  to read:



               94.69  (b)  To govern the  conditions under



 which  containers of pesticides may be transported,  storec




 or disposed of.



               (9)  To govern the  use of  pesticides,



 including their formulations, and  times and methods of



 application and other conditions of use.



               (10)  No rule hereunder  shall be adopted




 unless the department determines that it  is necessary fo




 the  protection of  persons or property from serious  pesti



 cide hazards and that its enforcement is  feasible and



 will substantially eliminate or  reduce  such hazards.

-------
	443





                        T.  Frangos






 In  making  such  determination  the department,  to  the



 extent  relevant,  shall  consider the  toxicity,  hazard,



 effectiveness and public need for  the  pesticides,  and



 the  availability  of  less toxic or  less hazardous  pesti-



 cides or other  means  of pest  control.  It  shall  obtain




 the  recommendations  of  the pesticide review board and



 such rules  are  not effective  until approved by the pesti-



 cide review board.   Such rules shall not affect  the



 application of  any other statute or  rule adopted  there-



 under .



                SECTION  6.   140.05  (15) of  the  statutes




 is  created  to read:



                140.05 (15)  Where the use of any  pesticide



 results in  a threat  to  the public  health,  the  department



 of  health  and social  services  may  take all measures



 necessary  to prevent  morbidity or  mortality.



                SECTION  7.   140.77  of the statutes  is




 created to  read:



                140.77 PESTICIDE REVIEW BOARD.  (1)  The



 pesticide  review  board  created by  s. 15.195 shall  collect



 analyze and interpret information, and make recommendatic




 to  and  coordinate the regulatory and informational
ns

-------
	444





                       T. Frangos






responsibilities of the State agencies, on matters



relating  to  the use of pesticides, particularly  recom-



mendations for limiting pesticide use  to those materials




and  amounts  thereof found necessary  and effective in



the  control  of pests and which provide the least potential




hazard  to man, animals or plants.  Pesticide rules



authorized "by ss. 29.29 (4)  and 94.69  are not effective



until approved by the review board.



               (2)  The pesticide review board shall




appoint a council not to exceed nine members of  techni-



cal  or  professional experts  composed of one representative




each from the department of  agriculture, department of



health  and social services,  department of natural



resources, university of Wisconsin and such other



representatiges of other governmental  agencies or the



general public as the board  designates.  The council



shall generally assist the review board and shall assist



particularly in obtaining scientific data and coordinating



pesticide regulatory, enforcement, research and  educa-




tional  functions of the State.



               (3)  The pesticide review board shall



report  to the governor and the legislature any pesticide

-------
	      -  -  - -•	445





                       T. Frangos






 matters it finds are  of vital  concern for the protection




 of  the health and well-being  of people or for the pro-




 tection of fish, wildlife, plants, soil, air and water




 from  pesticide pollution.  Such report may include its




 recommendations for legislative or other governmental




 action.




                          (End)

-------
en
W
u
OS Z
3 O
O i-i
co H
Ed cj

   H 3
rJ O W
< OS M ^x
OS B-, > ON
P    W NO
H rJ OS ON
   iz o
H O OS r"

W r-l    <£
rS > X 3
c- S CJ OS
os w os ca
<    < Ed
P-i tti |jj Ltj

g°S^
   2 OS
z o

co co

O >
O r-,
CO £Z










































H
g
g
CG







































•o

C5


Ci

£
t-l
H


a
W
g

f:j
X

t
r.^
[,

1
l_f
P-,


O
z to
M W
H M
< CJ
OS Z
W W
a, o
o <
o
CJ




o
Z tij
Q <
Z Q
W


O
z
1-1 W
H H
OS <
< O
H




Q
ON W
NO CO
1 0
oo P.,
NO C
ON OS
r-l P-,
t-
Q o"
W 0
H CJ

S OS
M 0
H l-l
co os
W PJ










CO
r— ^
£_(
<;
L^
CO

H
CJ

r-)
o
a:
Cu













- OS
O
H

O
i— i
H
» CO
w

x
1 — 4

H-J
-<
1 j
-(
J

I
r;
1,








4J

0
o*
tu


r-l
CO
q
•H
Cij

1


"0
tu

tu
r-l
C.
£
O
CJ


q
o
•r-l
4J
CJ
tu
t— 1
r— 1
O
O

tu

H


•
, — i

I

31
10

1

• i;
C/l
^






















































CO
CJ

I—I
XI
3
a

J^
o
14-1

q
o
•H
4J
to
rJ
CO
ex
tu

tx q
o
q -r-l
•H 4-1
60
o c to
•H T-l 
tu tu a* ca
rH T-4 CO r-l
r— 1 rJ 4-J
q ex to
•H o. CU
- j ^
10 [,) -i t_j
4-1 4 J
.M J, ] .
•O 01 U 1 
II IU "
U-I LU lr-1 J.I '
O \i O «J



U-I
o •

CU
00
a)

i — i
0
CJ


ON
NO
ON
1-1
•
I-N
CU
fa
vO
vO
ON
,— f

•
4J
CX
OJ
en

O
o
•
f —
r^s.
i/"j
r
n


o
o
•
CM


V
J_l
O
3

U-|
o

4-1
rJ
CO


1


•o
CO
4-1
CJ
t—l
Q.
B
o
o




U-I
o

r**t
13
3
4-1
CO

 CJ
00 'H CO
q q -H












































CO
•H 1
CO r-l •
cu co C
£. ex o
H CU -H
r-l 4-1
• tx co
CJ CJ
co q -H
•H r-l
rd
rS W 3
r-l tX
>l O
xi a. s-i
tu o
13 U U-I
tu
rJ r-l q
CU CO O
> q -H
O iH 4J
CJ U-I CO
1
q r-l 1
•H OJ CO
a -^
- -a
• i—i
U -H CU
4J O 00 -H
CU to CO ^
3 co
« tu co 3
co cj co o
4-1 CO V!
q U-i U-i i— i
CU JH O O
•H 3 P-i
rJ CO T^
4-J 1 O
3 xi x: ca
q 3 -u
W CU
U-I 1 '• ^
0 X
^0 rs
r-< 0 "-I
'U (1) T-l • O
; - C>f) IJ ,"1 rJ
0 lu cj 
O
.— i

•
4J
a,
o
en
o
o
•
r-H
CO
^.J-
H
CM
£


o
o
•
•-O
r^
f— i
n
oo
CXI





i

q
3

O
3
H

1


oc
q
•T-l
^3
q
•H
4-J
q
0
o

i
CU
r-l

q


x:
CJ
rJ
CO
CO
to
tu
OS


•
en

i

m
fii

i

- 1*
tn
~"-
U-l
o
00
q r*.
H 4-1 q
!J -r< T-l
CO CO CO
co n q
c co o
H > 0
00 -H CO
c. q -H
d S 3









































I—I
CO
•H
CO r-l
r-l O 4-1
CQ 4J
•rl -O
!-l T3 I-l
4-1 CO CO
4J >H
•o o u-i
r-< 3
CO ID T3 to
•H q rJ CO
U-I O -H CO
CJ X; rJ
r-l 4-1 00
3 q o
U-I CO < rJ
CO CU CX
co xi
CO • C
CJ CO CU -H
CJ > 4J
3 co to co
CO X T! T-l





4J
q
OJ
3
r-l
U-I
U-I CO
CO r-l

CO O
oo ca
CO
^ .
co 3
CO

O U-I
-u 0
M
CO p.
u •
i: to
OJ TJ
^ q
co o
tw a,





CD
q
0





ON
NO
ON


,_("
H
r-l
o.
**

r*-
^0
ON
.—1

•
c
CO
^

o
o
•
o
o
o
*t
£


o
o

o
o
o
M
co
r-l
-co-


ijj

p
1— 1
3
tx,

}_l
0

^*s

1


T3
CO

CU
1— 1
a
g
o
o





o
•r-l
g
o
q
0
CJ
CO

q
<^



, — i

i

P-,


1


ci;
^





































































^— ^
*
TJ1
q
i—i

r-l
CU
a
CO
OH

1
co
-U
CO
rO
CO

c
o
•r-l
4-1
3
I — 1
I — 1
O
a

U-I
o

c
o
•H
4-1
ro
3
r-l
^j
^r
a






















































4-1
rJ
0
CX
CU
r-l

I— 1
CO
q
•r-l
C*j *
q
• 0
T3 -H
q -u
CO CO
x; r-i
CO
c tx
o co
r-l
CO tX
4J
ca q
O -H







•
C
•H
W
C
O
U
W aj
•(~| .y
3 o
•H
c a
• H
,
co X
4-1
CO
O co
CJ r-l
«•'•
4J
q
lU
u





0)

3
TJ-




ON
NO
ON


,_,"
H
r-l
tx


NO
NO
ON
r-l

•
4J
O
O




1
1





O
o

o
o
o
•,
O
(T^

C
•H

4J
C
CU
g
tx
•H
3
cr
w

i

«
oc
q
• r4
3
q
• H
4-1
q
o
CJ

M
CO
JJ
CO
3

CJ
•r-l
4J
CO
g
0
4J
3
<;


•
CXI

i

CX,
^ :

I

-1^
l/l
'-'•






















































,
tn co 4-J
C 3 4J l-i
 -i-l Q O.
tU r-l CU
CO CO • t<
> q
CO -r-l rJ
g 4-1 CO O
o to q u-i
co O
oo o -a
rJ NO CO CO
O ON -H N
U-I rH 3 ?-,
I-l
 00
O CO
g c
U-I
t 3
c^
00 rH
q x:
•H 0
r-l CO
O
4J
•H K
q
o
E tL.

>N
4-1 V4
•r-* r*".
r-l
CO
3
cr
                                                                                                                            446
                                                                                                                        Attach.

-------
ON
O












































E— '
t^
c
~
££•



































































w
> CO
M W


,— i

A
X
O
to
CO
S

r^
vD
ON
r— 1

>
4J
CJ
o



1
1










o
o
.
o
o
o
0
1— t


c
o

4-J
J-i
o
a
0)


r-4
q3
c
-H
En

1


TJ





4_)
^j
o
a,
QJ


r-H
cu
c
-H
r-L-

1


"O
OJ
Jj
0)
1— 1
a
p
0
CJ

U-(
o

iJ
n
a

T-.
r j
r-\
0
'^>
J
c


.
CN

t

1 ^
^

I

<£
CO
^
(D UJ i
4J O
C
(U >s
U 4J C

co co w
Hi .w c
0 O O
M > 0

o c -^
W ^j 3;

















































.
""O
cu
4J
cn

3
U
J_)
•H
(J

-o
c
CT)

T3
GJ
ij
0)
i — i
a
E
o
o

OJ
!•£
J-J
CLJ

4-1 O

J_i ^ ,
O ''^ r"
•14 O -H
r-4 'It
r-4 O "0
'J ',> ,3

o >, to X
r -f- OJ o

q CD -H
o _r: oi
•rH 4-J t— 1
u C
O 





0
o
*
o
o
o
•n
CNI
-CO-

TS

4-1
Ol
r_|
C.
e
o
o

A;
^
o
s

1


tc
q
•r-4
3
q
• H
1 i
q
o
o

CO


a

1


fJ4
.
[i]

^]



.
r~)

]

n
a:

i

**•
CO
3
• i
CO
0)

^4
3
CO

r— 4
CO
CJ
•r-l















































•a i
q i-4
CO 0)
CM
to *4-4
0) 01
> "1
• r-l
CS C
•H
y
CJ CO
O co
3S 01

v- co
0 O •
a, to ?-.
a. a -u
t> q
C 3
Ol T- O
j: o
4-1 r^
M q
C 0 C
O 3 co








q
•H
"J
r-<
D.

O
O
r— 4
M-4 QJ
O
• q r_l
D. O
0 T-l
O 4J t-'
CJ (0
;
r-4
• (JJ
o -a
i-i
01
^>
•r-4
q
p-)

3
ro
CO
3
CO
3

o
f^
ON
r— 4

Ol
q
3


00
vD
ON
rH

.
00
3
<
O
O
•
l>»
CO
m
n
^O
1-H
-u>






1
1










p*1
^J
CO
c
•r-l
e
•H
i— (
OJ
J-i
P-.

1


bC
p
•H
3
C
•H
4J
C
O
CJ

E

o
M-l
•H
r-*
O
fj

f— I
»J
fj
CJ
tl


.
,
4-1 4-1 q
q -H -H
Ol W CO
0 H q
cu o
r>> > CJ
4J -H CO
•r-l q .r4.
co rb 3














































CO
i— i
CO
•H
to
4-J

^
1-1
O
4-J
CO
^
0

CO
r-1 CO
CO
T) O
q to
ra oo
o
""C M
r-W CL
CL
•H C
*4H -H




4J
c
 'J OJ (0 C-'
t-i q jj -ri
3 QJ D. r-l
CO 00 QJ N CL,

H -H CLj
CO CO
1-4 q i-i •
01 O CU CO
> CJ tO r-4

C -H CO -r-l



o

ON


,
q
CO
•-N

00

ON


0)
q
3

O
O

o
o
o
f.
CO
m
•to-







1
1





u
.— *
0)
•H
M-I

cu
> CO
•H co
w OJ
c n
OJ CO
4J 0
X VJ
flj p,

I C


od QJ
C K
•H n]
^
C w
•H r— 1
4-1 CO
C -H
0 M
U U
CU »-H
_C i— i
4-t -H
^
LUj
o *u •—* J-i
4 j ty iU
I' . T-t U) P.
"TJ 'H O 0 0
.J -— ' P.. O-, U!
4J ;T i/l O
'Jr. ^1 -H V-i C J"<
T3 CU -H ^
-^; ru co W ^
4-1 CJ rj C i— '
 O" 4-( CO
'A O -rt -H CU


-------
ON
VD
w

1-1 in
t— i tij
< i-1
CS CJ
a 53
•^ I1-"
si



o
s w
t-< H
d <-
Z P
tJ

o
hH fl3
EH H
OS <
< O
E-H
V.

C

O C/j
I C
oo P.

^ Ci
i— i C-

•^ c/:
O o E-
c cd cr.
3 H C
« s
1 — 1 0^
H 0
tn M
H c~















cr.
^
E-4
<

X

r-1
CJ
u:

Q
*-s
H^






—
^
^

*. '•v
UJ O
--I r-i

rH O
E_i r-i
£-H
• '/,
tV1. ' • '
r i ^
T'"' ^.
" ! '- (
_ ,
f '. , \


' / . <
• j

r j ' '
rS~. r''^
£'* 1-i





QJ
C
C
J2



Ch
CTi
i— 1

0)
c
3
00
^
_c
u


s:
o
0

d

vD
n
CO
^3-




































1



*o

1-3

4-J
C
CJ

EL
•r-)
3
cr


i

. .
M
C
-i
^
c

4_j
£
Q
CJ







'—I
^

£.
o

S-j

'/,




1 -

1


[ ' .

J


'/J
Li


CO C
QJ -r-t
r-l 01
C- CD
c 22
CD
u: c
CO
CO
. -H
T3 x: ^
Q) CJ CJ
J-t *^l M

P 1 — 1
^ 3i £

CD CD Co
J_J
rH tC
u — c
£ ._, .p-i
c o

X CJ

"J ""D 5-1
C- 4_l "

^
yl
^
y_
C '~*
<__, •—
'v ~
— -_'
pr ^"
r^
C !i
•r-i -n o
0 .C
v- jc; a
CJJ 4-1 l/J
73 r? QJ
'U -.
W E 0

O r-l «
U C C
J-, C- ^
H O ^

(I)
00
CTi
^
p^
,—1

"^


O
o

o
o

p-^
<0-

















1





1
o
J-J
o

"cL

r — (
CD
— 1
J_,
QJ




'O
o

rj
I 	 1
£_
r~:
g
O



t
o

o

E

1 — 1
r;

^
QJ




.
i—<

1


[J '

1

j i)
'J ,
r*

1
J-J
QJ t
U-1 CJ
U-l K
•H
T3

oO tn
C M •
•H QJ C
V5 4J O
D i — I-H
•H 4J
>, U-4 CD
o j_j
T) CD
C C C-.
QJ Q CJ
ly J-l
"CD UD ex,
4-1 £

yj .,_( .^
— MH
C^ 4J
C -U i-i
U C G
00 QJ C-








.
'Jj
OJ


r-!

C r-l
C) 




1
1





1
Q)


QJ
i-l
3
^j
CD
M
QJ

•H
,_j

1


cr
c'
•H
P
C
•H
4J
C
0
CJ
CJ
£

U-l
o

c
o
•H
iJ
•H
c

U-l

o



.
CM

1


I' ]

1

- T(
ry.
'.-
U-l
0
30
^ j>,
H 4-1 C
J-l 'rH 'rH
CJ W W
CJ J-i C
C QJ O
H > cj
CO -rH W
q C -rH




































X
^j
CO
C
•H
E
•H
t— *
QJ
}_!
p ,
•
TJ
. QJ

QJ 4-1
4-1 -iH
CJ £
i — t _Q
C- 3
E ^
o

^_i
^ 0
CJ CL
*H QJ
> r-l


4-J
C •
Q) CO
D r-l
rH 0)
UH 4-J
MH CD
CJ 2

GJ QJ (/)
4J CJ QJ

cj '-M o"
'^. SH O
3 ^ij
V-i ui
O
U-l O -^
4J
CJ
r: T-J >-j
O nj

>-! *M
00 (ii 0
i : i ' j-i
• p^ (j cx^
X f
•r-l T-(
E ^






3
13
3
CO

CTt
J?
, — i

CJ
c:
^
CO
s
•"^
QJ


i-j


O
o
•
^J-
m
a>
m
-cyv




i
i






en
r-H
r-H
QJ
?

r-4
CO
p
QJ

QJ
CO

I


tc
£
•n
P

•H
J-J
£
O
U





C
•H

U}
QJ
j_t
C3

jj
•H
'/"-*




CO

1

r,
i,

i

• *^
r/j
:^


>^
-j
H
W
J-f J-l
QJ QJ
> 4J
H C
C CJ
—3 CJ

































1
J-* CO
CJ *J
4-1 03
C *"O
•l-l
J_(
M QJ
CO _C
r— 1 4-1
3 0
CO
QJ T3 •
S-i C 'O
CO QJ
4J -H
CD CO TJ
CJ 3

CJ X W
4J r-H
w CD 00
CJ C C
4J CD *H
QJ

G «
•H i— 1 QJ
CJ CD M
^ > CD









CO
QJ
•(-•)
rH QJ
C, CJ

3 4-J
U) 4D
PJ
r-l rJ
CJ C_)
JJ
nj
" ; ^


t; U-j
•--< o
.'^ rl
(_; D-J
•H
j-i
Q
•d
d
L

C/J

6

CO
^D

o
a>
i — *

«
^.
o
2
00
<£
r-H
OJ
q

o


o
o

o
cr
VA
-*
^




i
i



00
(^
•rH
QJ
,0

r^
J_|
O
^5

T3
rH
QJ
• H
PL,

|

• •
cc
c
• H
D
^
• H
A_)
C
O
0


5
Q
i— t

00
c
•rH
4-J
C
CO

'-h






-.T

1




t


U '
y~

4J
w C
O CJ
e
3 at
CD 00
QJ X CD
^ en C
'£•&->*£.















C
O

OJ UH" 4J
J2 O - cj
4-1 J-l QJ
• T-i 4-J
>% > > 0
PC -rH C J-J
— Q PJ C-.









1
1 JH
4-J QJ
CJ CO
QJ C
JH O
•H CJ
T3
U-t
O 0

4-J C
0
}^ •(-(
GJ tfi
'O *H
C >
2 -H
Q
4-*
3 QJ
O .C
4-1
T3 •
QJ UH Q
•H 0 O
!H «H
rJ C 4J
CD o CD
CJ -H >





X
4J
•H
[5

en
E

QJ

4-J
w

J-J
3 .
o i-i
r-l QJ
;-H 4\J
C"0

0
•q

-j
0 0

UH oo


UH
O

QJ
CO
QJ
r— I
C

O
cr»
i — »

QJ
c
3
00
vO
1—1
•
4J
O
o


o
o
•
o
o
o
f^





1
1




1
0-
•r-l
3
cr
a)

CO
c
•H
r-^
I- .
C;
^
0".

I


cr
P
• r-1
^J
C
•H
JJ
C
c
o


1
(U
^4

U]
D
J-j
0
_^
e.

0

;x



•
m

i




i


;/
D:
l^ 4 4C
oo
C >i
H J-l C
I-l -H -r-( •

O Vi C
coo
H > 0
£0 -1-4 (0
C C 'H
W 3 3

































t 	
4J
CJ
QJ
i — i y)
o E
[/< QJ
4-1
4-J W
f~", p>^
X »
T3 O
O VJ 4J
r— i QJ C
r-H J-J 4J
™ r—t yl
J-j H
« MH QJ
c x:
•H 00 J-J
C
CO -H J-J
C i — i 3
•rH ,M O
QJ U JC
,_C) -H CO
}H 2
4J 4-J O
C JH
GJ TJ X
£ QJ 4J

J-i
QJ
4J
r— 1
'r-l
UH

i-0
p
•H
T 	 i

U

M O
-Ul r-H
"-^
CO O
C ti
•H

2 J.^


O J' U- (
k . c
f— • CJ V.
; -u iH
,> ^/i
O X
U w

-------


w
£>
t-H C/]
H W
< w
04 CJ
W 25
OH W
O O
O <
CJ


2 W
O <
a Q
w

o
•z.
M W
H H
04 <
< 0
H
£/J


Q
<-T> tJ
^O CO
t O
co a.
"*O O
ON 04
—1 OH
H
W CO
O Q H
Q frj C/}
3 H O
M
H OS
co o
W M











CO
p!
<£
r—\
•j-.

'~-<
CJ
tj
*""j
o
H.Z






) ___

~^~_
<^

f •>" "
! 	 ; — i
_— , ^
-_ ^
'--4 1 	 1
— ,
" 'J~l
&-, U
['- ">
X
^'" 1 	 1
^->
» 'l I— 1
-;
i i PI-.
f j i-<

•"; I-'',
O M
p-; (v^
Q-> CL*







(U
C
0




s
"*.
4:
iS

r^-.
\,Q
j
CJ C3 G
4-J *M C-
O ~ O
'—' | '£
^ '-> ""
G C C
cj a. -H
^
'O
^
i-» UD
"_t i-i
• --
i^
V- "73
< C
0
X C
iJ 0 G
-H 1 1
U-J 4-J ;'"
C 3 ^
r-* O
0) -—I TJ
4-1 O G
r; cu — *

C/j r— l
PI •
,,: o
u i — i
« (U G •
7- ' 'H V-( !-J
,-^ ij ; ,
, r]
c LU o
'*$ Q 
QJ
fu


O
o
1
o
o
o






I
1

0)
3 GJ H
J^ H O
AJ cu c-
4-J 0)
b£ 'o O J_l
C C 3
•H r: ?>-,
" J] !-i
C .5 3 O
•r-. G O C X
C > M p ^J
C U T T— • ^
CJ ^4 > r- ^
0) MH
C C
r:
M C
Xi G
c • '^
cj v: 4-i i— <
™ )> ^ CJ
"3 CO
o -LJ a c
— ^* L^
r. " o "
0 C rj
u; u c M
•H -H -C
ii r. u
0 J.I f- • CO
r_ o >j >-,
!. 'J-i o U

CJ .— < -rH ^H
C i — i ' j •
OOP U.
U O"
• ^H •
CM 0 ^4 J-l
LI ", D ; ;
• 1 — ' 4-J J
O •.-< C ,
^|U-t 4-J 4
a)
O 1
^ £>
3 TH
O C
H ^ R
>-l <1) 4J O
0) 4-t -H O
4-» p en en
f1} GJ M *r-l
3 O 0) 3
vO
J
CU
(55
03

J\
, — 1

^"»
rH
3
i—)

0
o
«
0
^d"
ON
«
ro
Cst





1
l

l
CJ


X
s-i
CO
P
•H
e
r-l
i~l
QJ
£ 'c
CO
j-;

&£] C
C O
•r-(
^ C/J
C -H
•H
P M
C O
CJ CX
QJ
0 J^
I 4J 4J
O
•H U) C
r-l QJ -H
CX W)
C. J-i 4-J
Q C3 C
CJ U £
_C CJ
4-J 4-J CO •
n fo c
C iU t^ '^
o r^ cu co
•— * f^ tj '/.
P- , 'w 0 0
'T3 1W >> CJ t-'-.
D CJ 4J W
iJ -H -H
"j"i 'i-i , — i [" : i— - 1
O iO

?-, U' O U-l
. 4J O
(V-) .,_J J_j (]_J J_j
r— 1 QJ 4-J P-J
• -H 4J CD
O ,jQ CU -U*
x' m £ w








































































































































































































449

-------
	450





                        T. Frangos






                         ORAP  200



                The  people of  Wisconsin  have  something to



 say  about  the  kind  of  outdoors  they  want.  They  can  make



 a  commitment now  that  will  help over the next  dozen  year;



 to:   (1) fight pollution of the State's waters,  and  (2)




 further  expand recreational opportunities, making  more



 available  to more people.




 AN EARLY BOOST



                In 1961,  the legislature boosted  outdoor



 recreation when it  passed ORAP--the  Outdoor  Recreation



 Act  Program.   This  act placed a 1^ tax  on a  pack of



 cigarettes, which was  used  to speed  up  acquisition and




 development of lands.



                There has been good progress—more  chance;



 have  been  created for  fishing,  camping, hiking,  bird



 watching,  hunting,  boating, picnicking, swimming,  and



 for  just enjoying the  peace of  quiet places.



                But  the job  can  never get done  this way--



 not  at the rate we  are growing!  Another million people



 by 1980, or about 250  more  every day!   The demand  is



 already  greater than the supply, and steadily  becoming



 greater.   Overcrowding,  overu-se and  misuse even  now  are

-------
	451





                        T.  Frangos





 threatening the  very values  we  need  and want  from the



 outdoors.   Furthermore,  this growing population  is  pro-



 ducing more and  more wastes—domestic and  industrial--



 which  are  fouling  the lifeblood of the  land.




 THE NEXT STEP



               And so in 1969 there  is  a new  ORAP and a



 new challenge.   ORAP 200 is  an  Outdoor  Resources  Action



 Plan that  will probably  be presented to the voters  of



 Wisconsin  in April asking  for a bond issue of $200



 million to accelerate water  pollution control and outdoor



 recreation programs.



               ORAP 200  is a vital package.   It  deals



 with clean water,  scenery, wildlife  habitat,  wilderness,



 places  to  recreate and to  be recreated--in short, it



 involves the livability  of the  environment, as well as



 the quality of our own living.



               It  deals  with things  that matter  to  all



 people--businessmen and  housewives,  young people  and  the



 old folks,  nature  lovers and sports  enthusiasts,  resi-




 dents  and  visitors.

-------
	452
                                                        •
                       T. Prangos

THE  ORAP DOLLAR...$.72 for  pollution  control
               Wisconsin  residents use nearly half  a
billion gallons  of water  each  day for drinking,  cooking,
bathing, laundry and  dishwashing, and flushing  away of
wastes.  These waste-bearing waters are  directed  to
sewers and  treatment  plants, and ultimately back  to our
lakes and streams.  Most  of our sewage plants today

can't cope  with  this  burden.
               Most communities have  recognized their
responsibility.   They want  to  do the  .job, but they  are
counting on promised  Federal funds to help modernize

their treatment  systems,  and these dollars are  in short

supply.
               ORAP 200 can fill this gap and get work

rolling by:
DIRECT STATE AID
               Wisconsin  law permits  payment by the

State of 25 percent of the  cost of approved sewage  treat-
ment plants.   These payments must, however, be  in equal
annual installments over  a  5-  to 30-year period.  Funds
available through bonding would enable the State  to make
direct, lump-sum payments instead, easing the financial

-------
	453





                        T. Frangos






 burden  on  the  municipality.




 ADVANCE OF FEDERAL AID




                Because  of limited  funds  and  prior  commit




 ments to certified projects,  only  12  top priority  pol-




 lution  abatement  projects could  be  given Federal




 assistance in  Wisconsin  this  fiscal year.  Meanwhile  a




 backlog of some 90 applications  for Federal  aid has




 developed, and indications are that we will  need nearly




 500  pro.ject  starts in the next 6 years.




                Bonding  under  ORAP  200 would  provide




 funds to advance  at  least 25  percent  of  the  cost of




 eligible projects in anticipation  of Federal reimburse-




 ment.   At  least $50  million in new  pro.ject starts  could




 be generated each year  until  the backlog is  eliminated,




 and  continuous upgrading of facilities at a  rate of $20




 million per  year  could  be assured.




 ELIMINATING  DELAYS



                Funds from these  two sources,  together




 with Federal aids available annually, would  assure




 municipalities of at least 55 percent financial assistan




 This will:



                1.  Simplify financing and reduce

-------
	454





                       T. Frangos






     interest  costs for municipalities.




               2.  Ease the  property tax burden.




               3.  Assure all  communities of  equi-




     table  treatment.




               4.  Overcome  the  tendency to delay




     making local  commitments  until matching  funds




     are  available.




               5.  Shift emphasis from  .-Just coping




     with pollution to a positive program of  pro-




     tection of  public health, cleaner  streams,




     greater recreational potential.




 THE  ORAP  DOLLAR...$.28 for  outdoor recreation



               Money  spent  accelerating and improving  the




 outdoor recreation program  will  be directed into  three




 main efforts:



 MORE RECREATIONAL  SPACE



               Highest priority  in the  recreational




 picture is  "a  place to go."   ORAP money will  go  toward




 securing  land, developing recreational  resources,  and




 operating and  maintaining developed areas.  Additional




 recreational space will include  city,  county  and  State




 parks,  recrational areas in county forests, and  historic

-------
	     455





                        T.  Frangos






 sites.   In addition,  ORAP  will provide tax assistance




 to local governments  and technical help for recreation




 and natural resource  planning.




 A BETTER RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENT




                Some  proposed  ORAP programs are  aimed at




 producing a quality  environment for fish,  wildlife  and




 people—for example,  improvement of county forest wild-




 life habitat,  production of  coho salmon,  creation of




 new lakes and  additional access,  planting  of  shade  trees




 preservation of already designated wild rivers,  and




 acquiring of scenic  easements.




 EXPANDED JOB OPPORTUNITIES




                Other  ORAP  programs are designed  both to




 help get development  and management work  done in the




 field and,at the  same time, provide employment  and  out-



 door experiences--for example,  conservation work programs




 for Milwaukee  area residents,  and additional  conservatior




 youth camps.




 ACT NOW!




                To meet tomorrow's pressures,  today's




 money source must be  changed  so that it can grow.   The




 means of financing ORAP 200 recommended by the  Governor's

-------
                       T.  Frangos






ORAP Task Force is bonding.



               Bonding is  a  well-established practice,




and one that can speed up  water pollution control and




create additional opportunities for outdoor recreation.




The dollar will do more work at this time than it will




in the inflationary future.   Also,  the people who will




be crowding into the years ahead will be paying their




fair share towards maintaining the  quality of their




environment, and at today's  prices.



               It is not a crash program.  The legisla-




ture will be asked each session to  approve projects and




will issue enough bonds to cover them.



               But there is  a real  sense of urgency now!




It is necessary to intensify measures to clean up waters




used in waste disposal so that lakes and streams do not




become cesspools and sewers.  And it is necessary to



preserve open space and recreational areas while they




are still available—and before spiralling costs place




them out of public reach.



               About half the States in the country have




financed outdoor recreational programs through bonding,




and several have underwritten accelerated water  pollution

-------
	457.





                        T.  Frangos






 control  through  the  same  device.   The  Michigan  legisla-




 ture  and people  in referendum  have just  approved  a  $435




 million  bond  issue--$100  million for  recreation and $335




 million  for pollution  control.




               Without ORAP, there will  still be  lakes




 and streams...but will the  water be clean  enough  to drinl:




 or to  catch fish or  swim  in?



               Without ORAP, there will  still be  hunting




 and boating and  camping. . .but  will there be  space for yoik?




               Without ORAP, there will  still be  rivers.




 but will any  remain  wild  and unspoiled for your children1;




               Without ORAP, there will  still be  a  Wis-




 consin...but  will it be a  land  in  which  we can  live




 creatively?



                 THE  WISCONSIN  DEPARTMENT



                  OF NATURAL RESOURCES




                          BOX 450




                 MADISON,  WISCONSIN 53701




                        ORAP 200




           For Clean Water  & A  Finer  Outdoors

-------
	438





                       T. Frangos






               Let us  proclaim a creed  to  preserve  our



natural heritage with  rights and the duties  to  respect




those  right:



               The right  to  clean water—and



     the  duty not to  pollute it.



               The right  to  clean air--and the




     duty not to befoul it.



               The right  to  surroundings reason-



     ably free from man-made ugliness--and the




     duty not to blight.



               The right  to  easy access of places



     of beauty and tranquility where every family




     can  find recreation  and refreshment--and  the



     duty to preserve  such places clean and



     unspoiled.



               The right  to  enjoy plants and



     animals in their  natural habitats--and  the




     duty not to eliminate them from the face




     of this earth.



                             THE PRESIDENT'S  MESSAGE TO



                             THE 89th CONGRESS

-------
                        T.  Prangos
»
                MR.  STEIN:   Are  there  any comments  or

 questions?

                MR.  POSTON:   I have.

                MR.  STEIN:   Mr.  Poston.

                MR.  POSTON:   For clarification,  Mr.

 Frangos,  I  note some  of the dates which  you  have set in

 your  schedules  for  pollution abatement  measures, that

 these are extended  beyond  what  you  had  originally  set

 under your  water  quality standards  implementation  plan.

 Could you enlighten us  on  this,  what  this means?

                MR.  FRANCOS:  The December 1972  date is

 an  outside  date that  we indicated for purposes  of  this

 Conference.   In some  instances  we will  get  compliance

 ahead of  that date.

                With respect specifically to the implemen-

 tation program, some  of those are falling behind.  Others

 that  we can  meet  we are going to continue and press for

 those deadlines,  but  we have not used the December 1972

 date  to extend  the  time granted to  any  of our communities

 Any time  extensions that we will need are based on other

 factors.

                MR.  POSTON:   In  other words, you do not

-------
	460





                       T. Frangos






 intend  to have any extension of time beyond what was



 set  for the  implementation plan and the standards  set up



               MR. FRANGOS:  That is right, that Decem-



 ber  1972 date does not automatically carry anybody beyon



 what we think is  reasonable and upon which we made




 recommendations and issued legal orders.



               MR. POSTON: I wanted to be clear that



 this Conference was not  in any way going to extend any



 dates for abatement of pollution.



               MR. FRANGOS:  No, we don't look at  this




 Conference as an  excuse  for stretching any of this out.



               MR. POSTON:  The second item that I wante




 to  comment on was the removal of phosphates from indus-



 trial wastes.  And I note that there hadn't been any



 particular schedules for industry.  At what levels would



 you  propose  or are there any industries in Wisconsin



 which have phosphates that would require treatment and




 reduction?



               MR. FRANGOS:  I think our general approac^




 would be that where we find those in quantities or con-



 centrations  that  as a minimum approach the concentration



 that you have got in a,  quote, standard, unquote,

-------
	461





                        T. Frangos






 domestic waste, that we would also apply this to any of those



 sources.




                MR.  POSTON:  In other words,  industries



 would have the same requirement to remove--




                MR.  FRANGOS:  Where there is a significan



                MR.  POSTON:  Yes,  significant—



                MR.  FRANGOS: —Quantity of phosphorus in



 the  wastes that are generated.




                MR.  POSTON:  That  is  all.I have.



                MR.  STEIN: I don't want to hold this up



 because I think we  have  had recommendations  from two




 States where  they are  thinking in terms of an 80 percent



 reduction on  the basinwide or Statewide basis, and I



 think if we do this, adopt this or consider this,  maybe



 we can take care of all  these problems at one time.



                Any  other comments or questions?



                If not, Mr. Frangos,  I would like to than



 Mr.  Voigt and  you for  an excellent presentation,  and



 really excellent, because I am convinced now, hearing



 all  four States,  that  we are  going to clean  up Lake



 Michigan.   I  think,  as you know,  the Federal-State




 relations  sometimes don't run as  smoothly as you might

-------
               	462





                       T.  Frangos






think, and you just have to look at the past record to



see some of the colloquys that we  have had with Wisconsin



in the past.




               But on the basis of this, let me say for



both of you people, I can understand what you are saying




and I have almost no questions.  I can agree with the



proposal.  I think this is a great thing that has hap-



pened in Wisconsin.  Of course possibly leading to this,



as some of you may know, Tom Frangos used to work in



enforcement in one of our regions  in New York and we



hated to lose him, But now that he is in Wisconsin and




you are doing this terrific Job, as this report indicate!



possibly this is really the way to do business.  I am



very, very much encouraged with this report from Wisconsin,



because I think that the time of misunderstanding of whal



each one says is in the past, and  while we may have



differences, they will probably deal with substance.



               But as far as I can see, your program



and your approach to this and your accomplishments are



excellent and I really want to extend my compliments and




congratulations to you people there.



               MR. FRANGOS:  Thank you.

-------
	463





                        Murray Stein






                ME.  STEIN:   You are  really doing well.




                This  will  conclude  the  State  presentations




                Now  we  have  a  reoort  from the United




 States  Department of Agriculture.   It  is per Recommenda-




 tion  No.  16:




                "The  United  States  Department of Agricul-




 ture  be requested to submit to the  Conferees a  report




 within  six  months on agricultural  programs  to prevent




 pollution from  agricultural land use such as siltation




 and bank  stabilization."




                Mr.  Poston,  has  that  been presented?




                ME.  POSTON:  We  received  a copy  of




 this  report from Mr. Bathurst,  of  the  Department of




 Agriculture,  and he  was unable  to  be here himself.   I




 would ask Mr. Schneider,  of my office, to present  this




 report.   It is  some  15  oages.   If  there  are  parts  that



 it is possible  to brief down,  I would  suggest you  do




 that.




                Mr.  Schneider.




                ME.  STEIN:   Any summary would be aopre-




 ciated.

-------
	464

                     R. J. Schneider
                                                        -»
            STATEMENT OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT

                     OF AGRICULTURE
                      Presented by

        Robert J. Schneider, FWPCA, Chicago, Illinois

               MR. SCHNEIDER:  This is a statement of

the U. S. Department of Agriculture program to reduce

sediment  pollution in Lake Michigan —

               MR. STEIN:  By  the way, if you wish, this

entire report will appear into the record as if  read,

without objection.

               MR. POSTON:  Yes.

               MR. STEIN:  Would you go ahead, Mr.

Schneider,  please.
               MR. SCHNEIDER:  Our environment is now  in

jeopardy.   Pollution in the form of dirty water, foul

air,  and  contaminated  soil is  deteriorating our  sur-
roundings.  Sediment,  the major threat to clean  water, b'lt

is  defined  as solid matter, organic or mineral,  that  is

being moved from its site of  origin by water,  air, ice,

or  gravity.
               Let's discuss  its  sources, the  damage

-------
	463





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 and problems  it  creates  and possible solutions  to this




 depredator of our environment.




               The greatest volume  of pollutants  in




 surface  water is  the  sediment  produced by soil  erosion.




 Four billion  tons of  soil material  are translocated  each




 year and carried  by flowing water to other locations.




 About one quarter of  this sediment,  or 100 million tons,




 reaches  the major streams of the United States  annually.




               Sources of sediment  are sheet  erosion by




 water; gullying by concentrated runoff;  streambank




 erosion;  flood erosion by scouring  in low areas;  erosion




 from urban, industrial,  and other construction  sites;




 roadside  erosion  from cuts  and fills;  runoff  from surface




 mining areas; and pollutants from wastes  of cities and




 industries.



               Because of the  large  area  involved,



 agricultural  lands  supply the  greatest amount of  sediment




 to  the total  load carried by streams.   Land in  row crops




 produces  the  most soil loss.   This  amount is  dependent tc




 a large  extent on the crops, tillage  practices, slope




 and  climate.  While agricultural lands  produce  much




 sediment,  urban areas under construction  produce  a

-------
	466




                     R. J. Schneider






 disproportionately  large  share  of the  sediment  load.



 Many  such  areas  lie in  close proximity to major streams




 and "bodies  of water, so the massive amounts  of  sediment



 are introduced directly into the water.  Tilled agri-



 cultural lands are  scattered and, therefore, much  sedi-




 ment  is filtered out before it  reaches major water




 sources.   Grass  and forest lands, on the average,  con-



 tribute much less.



               Population centers have imposed  a tremend



 demand on  the use of land for urban development, highway



 construction, industry, parks,  airports, shopping  center




 golf  courses, reservoirs  and a  host of other uses.   Thes



 developments are taking more than one  and a  quarter



 million acres a  year, much of it valuable fruit and  vege




 table farms.



               Since World War  II, urban developments



 have  vastly increased the evidence of  land erosion and



 created untold damage.  In many of these developments



 soil  conservation is ignored and the result  is  disastero



 One  such urban area in  Maryland, of the many thousands




 in the  country,  produced  25,000 tons of sediment per




 square mile annually.   Similar  cases are occurring
)US

-------
                                                     46?
                     R. J. Schneider
around Lake Michigan where construction leaves soil




material unprotected.




               Erosion damage and silt production along




roadsides is likewise a large contributor to the total




sediment problem.  Roadside erosion defaces landscapes




and makes roads dangerous to travel.  It results in




excessive highway maintenance cost.  As much as 350 tons




of soil per acre may be lost in a single year.  This is




many times the maximum loss from a cultivated field.




               Another large source of pollution in the




United States is the 3-2 million acres of land disturbed




by surface mining.  Of this figure over two million acres




need conservation treatment.  Forty percent has eroded




enough to form rills and gullies, causing a heavy silt




load that may drain into streams and lakes and destroy




fish and natural beauty.  In many areas surface mining




is the major source of water pollution.  Disturbing the




land surface for mining also destroys wildlife habitat.




Nearly two million acres have been destroyed by surface




mining alone.




               Sand and gravel pits also pose a problem,




although not as serious or extensive.  It is difficult

-------
	468





                     R. J. Schneider






 to  establish vegetative cover  on  these  areas.   The



 uncovered  soils  are, therefore, exposed to wind and




 water  erosion  and  readily  add  their sediment  to the



 nearest water  course.



               Much  of the sediment in  many streams




 comes  from erosion of the  streambank  itself.   Because



 stream and river banks are part of the  water  and sedi-



 ment conveyance  system, soil eroded from these lands is



 immediately converted to damaging sediment.   This  is



 also true  of erosion on many lake shores which dump



 thousands  of tons  of soil  directly into the lakes  annualfLy,




 Sand dunes cause a problem in  some areas.  They are



 usually bare of  vegetation and are continually shifting



 and moving, covering roads, woodland  areas and waterways



                It  is quite likely the damages caused by



 sediment  exceed  one-half billion  dollars annually.   It



 has a  significant  and deleterious effect on water qualitjy.



 Fish are  killed  by sediment inhibiting breathing and



 by  destroying  their  habitat through  pollution of spawninjg




 beds .



                Sediment  deposited on  good land damages




 crops  and may  reduce the  productivity of the  soils.

-------
	      469





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 Deposits  in  rivers  reduce  their  capacity and  may  cause



 flooding  or  even  impair  the drainage of  adjacent  lands.



 Drainage  and irrigation  laterals  filled  with  sediment



 will  not  carry  designed  quantities  of water and are



 extremely costly  to  clean  out.   In  addition,  we lose



 the  equivalent  of 400,000  acres  of  good  land  each  year



 from  soil erosion and deterioration.   Three times  this.



 much  land is covered by  concrete  and asphalt  each  year.




 This  is an alarming  fact when we  consider there are less



 than  500  million  acres suitable  for cultivation left.




 The  tendency toward  more intensive  farming results in



 accelerated  erosion.



                Storage capacity  of  artificial reservoirs



 and  natural  lakes is  depleted by  deposition of sediment.



 This  not  only affects water supply  and hydroelectric  pow



 but  flood control as  well.   Sediment obstructs storm  sew



 and  road  ditches.  It impedes navigation in harbors and



 waterways and makes  treatment expensive  for municipal



 and  industrial  water.  It  causes  excessive wear on



 pumping equipment and irrigation  systems.  In some



 situations,  sediment  in  water has clogged underground



 aquifers.  This is  extremely important when there  is  a
;r
 rs

-------
                                              	470





                     R. J. Schneider






need to rechc-r.^e depleted water sources.




               /"•he many salts and nutrients adsorbed on




sediment particles contribute to the lowering of water




quality and the eutrophication of lak-es.  Phosphates




applied as fertilizers have a great affinity for soil




particles and are moved into streams only as soil moves.




Effectively controlling erosion has a positive effect




on controlling phosphate pollution from agricultural




fertilizers .




               The deposition of sediment on beaches




detracts from their use and affects their aesthetic value




as well.  It also has an influence on the recreation




aspects of water for swimming, boating, skiing and




fishing.



               The problem of dredging and maintaining




channels is of great magnitude, both in volume of materiajl




moved and the sum spent handling and disposing of the




material.  It is estimated that the total volume of




material dredged and excavated annually from streams,




estuaries and harbors exceeds one-half billion cubic




yards.  In many cases land must be acquired for disposal




areas which adds to the cost of equipment and labor.

-------
	471





                      R.  J. Schneider






 Effective sediment control from all erosion sources can




 greatly reduce the volume of sediment to be dredged.




                In the past the control of erosion upstreajm




 on farms has received the most attention.  But if con-




 servation measures were  applied everywhere, not just on




 farms,  much of the sediment pollution could be eliminate^,




 It is  the unwise  land use on all the acres of both urban




 and rural land that fills reservoirs with sediment, floods




 basements,  cracks foundations,  pollutes  water, damages




 roads  costing millions of dollars,  and damages wildlife




 and recreation areas indefinitely.   With the further




 concentration of  industry and people in  the watersheds,




 the problems of sediment pollution  will  be intensified




 unless  all  segments of society lend their support to




 effective sediment control programs on all land uses.




                The earth now has as much water and soil



 as it will  ever have.  What is  left needs to be properly




 treated and maintained.   The quality of  water and con-




 dition  of the soil is  dependent on  the treatment we give




 the land from the time precipitation falls on the soil




 until it reaches  the lake or ocean.   The problems facing




 us are  nothing new,  but  simply  ones  that are pyramiding

-------
	472





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 with  the  sophisticated needs  of  our society.  For  solu-



 tions,  consideration  must be  given to  all  segments  of



 our population—industrial, agricultural and urban.



 Increased pollution need not  be  the price  we pay for  an



 affluent  society.




                The control  of sediment, an absolute



 necessity for  survival,  will  be  extremely  beneficial.



 It will include the reduction in cost  of continually



 removing  sediment from channels,  harbors,  and reservoirs



 reduction in damage to wildlife;  enhancement of recrea-



 tion  facilities; lower cost in treating domestic and




 industrial water; less maintenance cost with water  dis-



 tribution systems and highways;  and prevention of  damage



 to flood  plains.  Most important of all is keeping  and



 maintaining the land  for future  resource use.



                Individual citizens control most of  the



 countryside, landscape,  and natural resources.  Here  on




 privately owned land  is  where the biggest  and most  diffi



 cult  job  of resource  management  is being performed, and



 where,  by necessity,  it  will  have to be performed  in  the



 future.



                While  much has been done to solve soil

-------
	473





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 and  water  conservation  problems  on  the  Nation's  cropland



 much remains  to  be  done.   More  than 25  million acres



 presently  farmed are  not  suitable for cropland.   Another



 49 million acres are  suitable for only  occasional or



 limited  cultivation.  A  major conservation  problem is  to



 convert  these  acres to vegetative cover or  provide the



 necessary  conservation measures  on  a continuing  basis.



               Nearly 31  million acres  expected  to be



 converted  to  cropland by  1975 will  need establishment




 of conservation  practices.



               Of the 437  million acres expected to be




 used as  cropland in 1975,  308 million acres,  or  93 per-



 cent, has   some  conservation problem that limits its use



 and  272  million  acres, or  62 percent, need  conservation



 treatment  of  some kind.   Erosion hazards are  the dominan1



 problem  on cropland with  excess  water and unfavorable



 soil being secondary  problems.   Conservation  practices



 such as  contouring, stripcropping and terracing  comple-



 mented with vegetation cover and proper rotations  would




 alleviate  much of our erosion problems.



               Nearly three-fourths of  the  pasture and



 range land needs  conservation treatment and improvement.

-------
              	474





                     R. J. Schneider






Establishment of cover, improving existing cover, water



management and protection from overgrazing are the types



of conservation treatment needed.



               Private forests and woodlands likewise



need treatment on more than half of the 55 million acres



in this country.  These acres would benefit from pro-



tection from fire, insects, disease, and animals.



Timber establishment and management would greatly aid




erosion control.



               Of all the land in the United States,



soil erosion is the dominant problem on 59 percent of




the land.



               The problem of controlling critical sedi-



ment sources on nonagricultural land exceeds that of



agricultural land because few people are aware of the



serious problem or are willing to do anything about it.



               Gullying, stream bed and streambank ero-




sion can be controlled by use of structural means such



as check dams, drop structures, streambank protection



work or gradient control.  In addition, floodwater



retarding structures, flood control and stream regulatin




reservoirs and debris basins orovide for detention of
g

-------
	475




                      R.  J.  Schneider






 sediment  that  would otherwise  reach  harbors  and other




 downstream improvements.




                There are  almost  one-half million miles




 of  roads  that  need  treatment for the control of erosion.




 The cost  of roadside erosion control varies,  but may




 run from  $200  a mile to  many times more  for  a complete




 job of  proper  sloping, vegetation, drainage  and struc-




 tures.  Road builders, developers, other builders  and




 land users  can stop erosion and  subsequent deposition




 by  (1)  exposing the smallest amount  of bare  land for the




 shortest  period of  time;  (2) using temporary ground  cove]




 and planting permanent sod  quickly;  (3)  using diversions,




 sediment  basins and terraces to  trap sediment;  (4) saving




 and using natural vegetation whenever possible;  and  (5)




 following natural topography and land drainage  when  layirjg




 out large developments.



                The  mining industry,  conservation distric




 and all levels  of government need to work together to pu




 practical principles  into surface mining operations.




 Some excellent  work has  been done in this respect, but




 much more needs to  be done.



                Before raining begins,  a plan  needs  to be

-------
                                                     476





                     R. J. Schneider






worked out to prevent the heavy sediment loads from



moving into water courses.  While mining is going on,



steps need to be taken to control erosion on the side



and on haul roads.  This would include quick-growing



plants for immediate protection and permanent cover



when mining is finished.  Surface runoff in mining areas



needs to be controlled on a watershed basis to fit streai



capacities and prevent harmful deposition.  In addition,




drainage needs to be controlled to maintain adequate



cover and keep sediment out of streams.  Many lakes coul



be created on the excavated sites.  The proper use of



vegetation and water management would control sediment



and add beauty and wildlife to the area.



               The quantity and quality of water that



reaches the estuaries is determined by land use and



treatment upstream.  We now have the technical know-how



and ability to deal with the problem.  It is, however,




limited by legislation, authorities and resources.



               Technical and financial assistance in



installing special measures for pollution control should



be expanded.  Long-term credit and cost-sharing must be




increased.

-------
	477





                     R. J. Schneider






               Local government  needs  further  assistance



 in  effective  erosion and  sediment  control  programs  in



 urban and industrial developments.  This additional



 financial and technical assistance  could aid in  the



 formulation of model regulations.   The  local organiza-



 tion would develop and maintain  the authorities  and




 regulation.



               In addition, other  authorities  to control



 erosion along highways, streambanks, lakes and strip



 mined areas are essential.  Controlling sediment has




 long been an  objective of the U. S. Department of Agri-



 culture, both in its technical assistance, cost-sharing,




 research and  credit programs.



               This Department serves  all  America,



 including those in small  communities as well as  those



 on  the farm and in the city.  USDA  offers  a wide variety



 of  money-saving, health-preserving, comfort-producing



 opportunities, creating services and technical help for



 all the people—more than any other government departmen



               A large share of  these  services consist



 of  helping individuals, communities, groups, organiza-




 tions and/or  other Federal and State agencies  preserve

-------
                                                     478
                                                     	1
                     R. J. Schneider
and maintain the soil and water resources of this countr;

This directly relates to the sediment and pollution of

our streams, lakes, ponds, reservoirs and the air we

breathe.  Uncontrolled sediment may affect every citizen

with higher taxes, electricity and water bills, higher

food and clothing prices and the necessity for more

disaster funds.  It is better to practice conservation

and hold the soil in place rather than pay to remove

sediment and silt from roads, harbors, rivers and

reservoirs.

               Mr. Chairman, the last five pages of this

report deal with some of the ongoing programs and I will

.just summarize this.

               The report goes on to say that much has

been done to correct erosion problems.  The Department

of Agriculture listed Soil Conservation Service, the

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, the

Farmers Home Administration, and the Forest Service as

their agencies that deal with these programs.

               They mention the Small Watershed Program,

Public Law  566, as a tool which they use for aiding

local organizations  in planning and carrying out

-------
	479





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 watershed projects.




                It  is  mentioned here that the National




 Inventory of  Soil  and Water Conservation needs  is  being




 updated by the  Department of Agriculture and it says  thai




 current information  will provide  data for formulating




 programs,  planning conservation work,  conducting research




 and  other purposes by public agencies  and private  insti-




 tutions .




                In  conclusion it says  that these agencies




 all  contribute  to  the overall resource  conservation and




 development in  an  area.   USDA continually endeavors to




 alleviate and eliminate  erosion and resulting sediment  ar




 pollutants.   We  have  the know-how  to  control sediment in




 all  land.   Additional effort and  legislation to carry out




 the  necessary conservation  measures are  needed.  The  wide



 variety of  services and  help USDA  offers  to  all the peopl




 will  enhance  man's  total environment  physically, socially




 and  esthetically,  for soil  erosion affects every one  and




 shapes  the  foundation of our environment.




                That concludes  the  statement.

-------
                    	480





                     R. J. Schneider
               (The following is the document submitted




by the United States Department of Agriculture:)






   STATEMENT ON U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM




      TO REDUCE SEDIMENT POLLUTION IN LAKE MICHIGAL






               Our environment is now in jeopardy.




Pollution in the form of dirty water, foul air, and




contaminated soil is deteriorating our surroundings.




               Sediment, the major threat to clean




water, is defined as solid matter, organic or mineral,




that is being moved from its site of origin by water,




air, ice or gravity.



               Let's discuss its sources, the damage and




problems it creates, and possible solutions to this




depradator of our environment.



               The greatest volume of pollutants in




surface water is the sediment produced by soil erosion.




Four billion tons of soil material are translocated each




year and carried by flowing water to other locations.




About one quarter of this sediment, or 100 million tons,




reaches the major streams of the United States annually.

-------
	481





                     R. J. Schneider






               Sources of  sediment  are  sheet  erosion  by




water; gullying by  concentrated  runoff;  streambank




erosion; flood erosion by  scouring  in low  areas;  erosion




from urban, industrial and other construction sites;




roadside erosion from cuts and fills; runoff  from surface




mining areas; and pollutants from wastes of cities  and




industries.




               There are presently  1,850 million  acres




of  cropland,  forestland  and rangeland  in  the United




States.  Of this total, approximately 50 percent  is




sub.ject to erosion.  These figures  are  indicative of




the tremendous job  that lies ahead.




               Because of  the large area involved,  agri-




cultural lands supply the  greatest  amount  of  sediment to




the total  load carried by  streams.  Land in row  crops



produces the  most soil loss.  This  amount  is  dependent tc




a large extent on the crops, tillage practices,  slope




and climate.  While agricultural lands  produce much




sediment,  urban areas under construction produce  a  dis-




proportionately large share of the  sediment load.   Many




such areas lie in close proximity to major streams  and




bodies of  water, so the massive  amounts  of sediment are

-------
	482





                     R.  J.  Schneider






 introduced  directly  into the  water.   Tilled  agricultural




 lands  are scattered  and,  therefore, much  sediment  is




 filtered out before  it reaches major  water sources.




 Grass  and forest  lands,  on  the average, contribute much




 less.




                Population centers have  imposed  a tremen-




 dous demand on  the use of land for urban  development,




 highway construction, industry,  parks,  airports, shoppin




 centers, golf courses, reservoirs and a host of other




 uses.  These developments are taking  more than  one and




 a  quarter million acres  a year,much of  it valuable fruit




 and vegetable farms.




                Since World  War II, urban  developments




 have vastly increased the evidence of land erosion and




 created untold  damage.   In  many  of these  developments



 soil conservation is ignored  and the  result  is  disastrou




 One such urban  area  in Maryland, of the many thousands




 in the country,  produced 25,000  tons  of sediment per




 square mile annually.  Similar cases  are  occurring




 around Lake Michigan where  construction leaves  soil




 material unprotected.




                Erosion damage and silt  production  along

-------
	483





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 roadsides  is  likewise a  large  contributor  to  the  total




 sediment problem.   Roadside erosion defaces landscapes




 and  makes  roads  dangerous  to travel.   It results  in




 excessive  highway  maintenance  cost.   As much  as 350  tons




 of soil per acre may  be  lost in  a  single year.  This  is




 many times the maximum loss from a cultivated field.




               Another large source of  pollution  in  the




 United States is the  3.2 million acres  of  land disturbed




 by surface mining.  Of this figure, over two  million  acr




 need conservation  treatment.   Forty percent has eroded




 enough to  form rills  and gullies,  causing  a heavy silt 1<




 that may drain into streams and  lakes  and  destroy fish




 and  natural beauty.   In  many areas surface mining is  the




 ma.jor source  of  water pollution.   Disturbing  the  land




 surface for mining also  destroys wildlife  habitat.



 Nearly two million acres have  been destroyed  by surface




 mining alone.



               Sand and  gravel pits also pose a problem,




 although not  as  serious  or  extensive.   It  is  difficult




 to establish  vegetative  cover  on these  areas.  The




 uncovered  soils  are,  therefore,  exposed to wind and




 water erosion and  readily  add  their sediment  to the
ad

-------
	484





                     R. J. Schneider






nearest water  course.




               Much of the sediment in many streams



comes from erosion of the streambank itself.  Because



stream and river banks are part of the water and sedimen



conveyance system, soil eroded from these lands is




immediately  converted to damaging sediment.  This is



also true of erosion on many lake shores which dump



thousands of tons of soil directly im;o the lakes



annually.  Sand dunes cause a problem in some areas.



They are usually bare of vegetation and are continually



shifting and moving, covering roads, woodland areas and-




waterways.



               There is some relationship between pol-



luted air and  water.  Exposed areas on dunes and mines



may be easily  eroded by air currents.  Soils left unpro-



tected are subject to wind erosion as well as water



erosion.  Pollution by dust is a serious problem where



wind, soil and moisture conditions are conducive to



blowing.



               It is quite likely the damages caused by




sediment exceed one-half billion dollars annually.  It



has a significant and deleterious effect on water qualit

-------
	485





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 Fish  are  killed by sediment inhibiting breathing and by




 destroying their habitat through  pollution  of  spawning




 beds .




                Sediment  deposited on good land damages




 crops  and may  reduce  the productivity of the soils.




 Deposits  in rivers reduce their  capacity and may cause




 flooding  or even impair  the drainage of adjacent lands.




 Drainage  and irrigation  laterals  filled with sediment




 will  not  carry designed  quantities  of water and are




 extremely costly to clean out.   In  addition, we lose




 the equivalent of 400,000 acres  of  good land each  year




 from  soil erosion and deterioration.   Three times  this




 much  land is covered  by  concrete  and asphalt each  year.




 This  is an alarming fact when we  consider there are  less




 than  500  million acres suitable  for cultivation left.




 The tendency toward more  intensive  farming  results in




 accelerated erosion.




                Storage capacity  of  artificial  reservoirs




 and natural lakes is  depleted by  deposition of  sediment.




 This not  only  affects water supply  and  hydroelectric




 power, but flood control  as well.   Sediment obstructs




 storm  sewers and road ditches.   It  impedes  navigation in

-------
              	486





                     R. J. Schneider






harbors and waterways and makes treatment expensive for




municipal and industrial water.  It causes excessive




wear on pumping equipment and irrigation systems.   In




some situations, sediment in water has clogged under-




ground aquifers.  This is extremely important when there




is a need to recharge depleted water sources.




               The many salts and nutrients adsorbed on




sediment particles contribute to the lowering of water




quality and the eutrophication of lakes.  Phosphates




applied as fertilizers have a great affinity for soil




particles and are moved into streams only as soil  moves.




Effectively controlling erosion has a positive effect on




controlling phosphate pollution from agricultural  ferti-




lizers .



               The deposition of sediment on beaches




detracts from their use and affects their aesthetic valu^




as well.  It also has an influence on the recreation




aspects of water for swimming, boating,  skiing and




fishing.



               The problem of dredging and maintaining




channels is of great magnitude, both in volume of  material




moved and the sum spent handling and disposing of  the

-------
	487





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 material.   It  is  estimated  that  the total  volume  of




 material  dredged  and  excavated annually  from  streams,




 estuaries  and  harbors  exceeds one-half billion  cubic




 yards.  In  many cases  land  must  be acquired for disposal




 areas which  adds  to the  cost of  equipment  and labor.




 Effective  sediment control  from  all erosion sources




 can  greatly  reduce the volume of  sediment  to  be dredged.




               In the  past  the control of  erosion upstream




 on farms  has received  the most attention.  But  if con-




 servation  measures were  applied  everywhere, not .just  on




 farms, much  of the sediment pollution could be  eliminate^.




 It is the  unwise  land  use on all  the acres of both urban




 and  rural  land that fills reservoirs with  sediment,




 floods basements, cracks foundations, pollutes  water,




 damages roads  costing  millions of dollars  and damages



 wildlife  and recreation  areas indefinitely.   With the




 further concentration  of industry and people  in the




 watersheds,  the problems of sediment pollution  will be




 intensified  unless all segments  of society lend their




 support to  effective  sediment control programs  on all




 land uses.



               The earth now has  as much water  and soil

-------
	488




                     R. J. Schneider






as it will  ever have.  What  is left needs to be  properly



treated  and maintained.  The quality of water and condi-



tion of  the soil  is  dependent on the treatment we give



the land from  the  time precipitation falls on the soil




until it reaches  the lake or ocean.  The problems



facing us are  nothing new, but simply ones that  are



pyramiding  with the  sophisticated needs of our society.




For solutions, consideration must be given to all seg-



ments of our population—industrial, agricultural and



urban.   Increased  pollution  need not be the price we .pay



for an affluent society.



               The control of sediment, an absolute



necessity for  survival, will be extremely beneficial.



It will  include the  reduction in cost of continually



removing sediment  from channels, harbors and reservoirs;



reduction in damage  to wildlife; enhancement of  recrea-



tion facilities;  lower cost  in treating domestic and



industrial  water;  less maintenance cost with water  dis-



tribution systems  and highways; and prevention of damage



to flood plains.   Most important of all is keeping  and




maintaining the land for future resource use.



               Individual citizens control most  of  the

-------
	489




                     R. J. Schneider






 countryside, landscape and natural resources.  Here  on



 privately  owned land is where  the biggest  and most diffi-



 cult job of resource management  is being performed,  and




 where, by  necessity, it will have to be performed in the




 future.



               While much has  been done to  solve soil



 and water  conservation problems  on the Nation's cropland,



 much remains to be  done.  More than 25 million acres



 presently  farmed  are not  suitable for cropland.  Another



 49 million acres  are suitable  for only occasional or



 limited cultivation.  A major  conservation  problem is to



 convert these  acres  to vegetative cover or  provide the



 necessary  conservation measures  on a continuing basis.



               Nearly 31  million acres expected to be corjt-




 verted to  cropland  by 1975 will  need establishment of



 conservation practices.



               Of the 437 million acres expected to  be




 used as cropland  in  1975, 308  million acres,  or 93 percent.



 has some conservation problem  that limits  its use; and




 272 million acres,  or 62  percent, needs conservation



 treatment  of some kind.   Erosion hazards are  the dominan



 problem on cropland  with  excess  water and  unfavorable

-------
              	490





                     R. J. Schneider






soil being secondary problems.  Conservation practices



such as contouring, stripcropping and terracing comple-




mented with vegetation cover and proper rotations would



alleviate much of our erosion problems.



               Nearly three-fourths of the pasture and



range land needs conservation treatment and improvement.




Establishment of cover, improving existing cover, water



management and protection from overgrazing are the types




of conservation treatment needed.



               Private forests and woodlands likewise



need treatment on more than half of the 55 million



acres in this country.  These acres would benefit from



protection from fire, insects, disease and animals.



Timber establishment and management would greatly aid



erosion control.



               Of all the land in the United States,



soil erosion is the dominant problem on 59 percent of




the land.



               The problem of controlling critical sedi-




ment sources on nonagricultural land exceeds that of



agricultural land because few people are aware of the



serious problem or are willing to do anything about it.

-------
__	    491





                     R.  J.  Schneider






                Gullying,  stream  bed and  streambank




 erosion  can  be  controlled by  use of structural means



 such  as  check dams,  drop  structures,  streambank protec-



 tion  work, or gradient  control.   In addition, flood



 water retarding structures, flood control  and stream



 regulating reservoirs and debris  basins  provide for



 detention of sediment that  would otherwise  reach harbors



 and other downstream improvements.



                There are  almost  one-half million miles



 of roads that need treatment  for the  control of erosion.



 The cost of  roadside erosion  control  varies, but may



 run from $200 a mile to many  times more  for a complete



 job of proper sloping, vegetation, drainage and struc-



 tures.  Road builders,  developers, other builders and



 land  users can  stop  erosion and  subsequent  deposition



 by (1) exposing the  smallest  amount of bare land for



 the shortest period  of  time;  (2)  using temporary ground



 cover and planting permanent  sod quickly;  (3) using



 diversions,  sediment basins and  terraces to trap sedi-



 ment;  (4) saving and using  natural vegetation whenever



 possible; and (5) following natural topography and land




 drainage when laying out  large developments.

-------
	492





                     R. J. Schneider






               The mining industry, conservation dis-



tricts and all levels of government need to work togethe:-
to put practical principles into surface mining operatioi
is .
Some excellent work has been done in this respect, but




much more needs to be done.




               Before mining begins, a  plan needs to be




worked out to prevent the heavy sediment loads from




moving into water courses.  While mining is going on,




steps need to be taken to control erosion on the side and




on haul  roads.  This would include quick-growing plants




for  immediate protection and permanent  cover when mining




is finished.  Surface runoff in mining  areas needs to




be controlled on a watershed basis to fit stream capaci-




ties and prevent harmful deposition.  In addition,




drainage needs to be controlled to maintain adequate



cover and keep sediment out of streams.  Many  lakes




could be created on the excavated sites.  The  proper use




of vegetation and water management would control sedi-




ment and add  beauty and wildlife to  the area.




               The quantity and quality of water that




reaches  the  estuaries is determined  by  land use  and




treatment upstream.  We now have the technical know-how

-------
	493





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 and  ability  to  deal  with the  problem.   It  is,  however,




 limited  by legislation,  authorities and resources.




                Technical and  financial  assistance in




 installing special measures for  pollution  control should




 be expanded.  Long-term  credit and cost-sharing  must  be




 increased.




                Local government  needs further  assistance




 in effective  erosion and sediment control  programs  in




 urban  and industrial developments.  This additional




 financial and technical  assistance could aid in  the




 formulation  of  model regulations.  The  local organizatior




 would  develop and maintain  the authorities  and regulatior




                In addition, other authorities  to control




 erosion  along highways,  streambanks, lakes  and strip




 mined  areas  are essential.  Controlling sediment has  lon




 been an  objective of the U. S. Department  of Agriculture^




 both in  its  technical  assistance, cost-sharing,  research




 and  credit programs.



                This  Department serves all  America,




 including those in small communities as well as  those on




 the  farm and  in the  city.   USDA  offers  a wide  variety of




 money-saving, health-preserving, comfort-producing

-------
	4Q4




                     R.  J.  Schneider






 opportunities,  creating  services  and  technical help  for




 all  the  people—more than any  other Government Departmenl




                A  large share of these  services consist




 of helping  individuals,  communities,  groups,  organiza-




 tions  and/or  other Federal  and State  agencies  preserve




 and  maintain  the  soil and water resources  of  this  country




 This directly relates to the sediment  and  pollution  of




 our  streams,  lakes, ponds,  reservoirs  and  the  air  we




 breathe.  Uncontrolled sediment may affect  every citizen




 with higher taxes, electricity and water bills, higher




 food and  clothing prices and the  necessity  for more




 disaster  funds.   It is better  to  practice  conservation




 and hold  the  soil in place  rather than pay  to  remove




 sediment  and  silt from roads,  harbors,  rivers  and




 reservoirs.



                Much has  been done to  correct  erosion




 problems.   The  U. S. Department of Agriculture   Soil




 Conservation  Service is  the technical  arm  of  action  with




 responsibility  for soil  and water conservation.  It




 provides  the  assistance  of  professional conservationists




 to all land users and decision makers  concerning the




 proper use  of the land.  This  'includes planning commissiojns,

-------
	493




                      R.  J.  Schneider






 land use boards,  health  officials,  county government




 and others  by providing  soil  information and technical




 assistance.   This assistance,  given through Soil Conserv^,-




 tion Districts,  includes planning conservation programs




 for the  best  possible use and  treatment  of the land and




 water.   Help  is  provided in the  application of practices




 and combinations  of  practices  for erosion and water




 control  problems,  including measures for retarding water




 flow and reduction of sediment damage in streams and




 lakes  and along  highways.




               Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation




 Service  provides  cost-sharing  in  urban areas and on farm;




 to  landowners  in  establishing  conservation practices on




 the land.   SCS furnishes technical  assistance to these




 Agricultural  Conservation Program (ACP)  participants in




 establishing  specified measures  pursuant to referrals




 received from  ASCS County Committees.  In addition,




 ASCS administers  a Cropland Adjustment Program that




 diverts  land  to  recreation, wildlife habitat,  natural




 beauty,  or  other  uses that  control  air and water pollution




               Farmers Home Administration administers




 loans  and grants  to  install or improve rural water supply

-------
	496




                     R. J. Schneider






and  service  systems, waste disposal systems, recreation



facilities,  drain farmland and carry out soil  conservation



measures for which the Soil Conservation Service has



provided technical assistance for design and layout.



There  are  also  loans for  conversion of cropland.  These



loans  help rural groups convert cropland to grazing



areas  or forest uses that promote conservation of soil



and  water.



                The Forest Service, working with the



State  forestry  agencies,  helps plan and install forestry



and  related  measures.



                Under the  Small Watershed Program, PL-566



SCS  gives  technical and financial aid to local organi-



zations in planning and carrying out watershed projects.



The  purpose  of  a small watershed project is flood preven



tion,  watershed protection, agricultural water managemen



recreation,  municipal and industrial water supply, and



fish and wildlife development.  These are community




projects.



                The Soil Conservation Service,  through




the  PL-566 program, pays  the  cost of engineering service



and  construction costs for flood prevention and up to 50

-------
	497




                      R.  J.  Schneider






 percent  of  the  construction costs  for  irrigation,



 drainage,  recreation,  fishing  and  wildlife  developments.



 All  other  costs  must  be  paid by  local  organizations. To



 help local  people  carry  their  share of watershed  project



 costs, Farmers  Home Administration makes  loans  available




 for  developing  these  projects.   Individual  farmers  may



 also get ACP  cost-share  assistance to  help  establish



 conservation  practices to  prevent  erosion and runoff  in



 the  watershed.



                The National Inventory  of  Soil and Water



 Conservation  Needs is  being updated by the  U. S.  Depart-



 ment of Agriculture in cooperation with other Federal



 agencies, States and  local  units of government.   Pre-



 liminary information  from  the  watershed segment of  the




 inventory shows  618,377  acres  of the Lake Michigan



 drainage basin  with floodwater and sediment problems.



 Urban floodwater and  sediment  damage is also significant



 in the basin.   In  addition,  417,678 acres are being



 damaged by  erosion.   A need for water  quality control



 exists in 136 of the  416 watersheds in the  basin.   This




 current information will provide data  for formulating



 programs, planning conservation work,  conducting  research

-------
               	498





                     R. J. Schneider






and other purposes by public agencies and private insti-




tutions .




               The Soil Conservation Service has leader-




ship responsibilities in Resource Conservation and




Development Projects. These projects stimulate growth




through acceleration of conservation activities and land




use adjustments.  Federal participation includes techni-




cal assistance to help landowners install conservation




measures, cost-sharing assistance on certain approved




conservation and development measures, and credit to




help landowners and local sponsores finance improvements




of the soil and water resources.  Most USDA agencies may




become involved in this total resource development efforl




which will affect the sediment and deposition in streams




and lakes over a  multi-county area.



               Soil surveys developed by SCS in coopera-




tion with State experiment stations are used increasing!;




by builders, architects, city planners, and engineers




in land use planning in urban fringe areas.  Soil maps




help planners and engineers determine where subdivisions




should go; where pipelines should be routed to avoid




unfavorable soils and underground rock formations; how

-------
	499
                     R.  J.  Schneider

 to  avoid  soils  that  are wet  and  subject  to  flooding;
 and how to  find soils  suited for airports,  recreation
 areas  and schools.   These  endeavors  have a  large  bear-
 ing on future sediment  and erosion potential.
          SCS,  through  its Plant Materials  Centers
 located throughout the  country,  carries  out field trials
 of  different plant materials.  Plant materials  are
 developed for use on areas difficult to  maintain, such
 as  sand dunes,  steep areas along highways and extremely
 wet or dry  areas.  Many of these new plant  materials are
 responsible for quelling soil  and wind erosion  and  pro-
 tecting the soil and water resource.
          Several agencies are involved  in  comprehensive
 and community resource  development which affects  erosior
 and sediment control.   SCS provides  soil, water,  resource
 engineering and other kinds  of surveys and  provides
 technical assistance in planning resource use,  develop-
 ment and  conservation.   Economic research service provides
 economic  background.  Statistical Reporting Service  helf s
 in  survey planning.  Consumer  Marketing  Service makes
 payment to  State marketing agencies  to carry out  market
 service programs.  Extension Service  provides organiza-
 tional, educational  and technical assistance to help

-------
	500





                     R. J. Schneider






 communities  analyze  and identify  community  and  area




 problems;  establish  objectives; and select,  develop  and




 use  resources  to  attain them.




               Farmers Home Administration  makes  grants




 to public  bodies  for the  preparation  of  comprehensive




 area plans for water and  sewer  systems.




               Through pooling  agreements between ASGS




 and  community  groups, costs are shared on community




 projects Tor erosion and  sediment control.



               Agricultural Research  Service supplies




 information  on techniques and facilities for processing




 farm products  and industrial use  of agricultural  commodi




 ties.   It  carries on research programs in soil  and water




 to  determine methods and  ways of  controlling soil and




 water.   Their  findings may be adopted by others to alle-




 viate or limit pollution  of  lakes,  streams  and  air.



               The SGS has Departmental  leadership in




 river basin  planning activites.   This program leads  to




 the  delineation  of problems  related to land resource




 areas for  which  project  type  solutions are  necessary.




               These agencies  all contribute to the  over




 all  resource conservation and  development  in an area.

-------
	501





                     R.  J.  Schneider






 USDA  continually  endeavors  to  alleviate  and  eliminate




 erosion and  resulting  sediment and  pollutants.  We have




 the know-how to control  sediment  on all  land.  Additional




 efforts and  legislation  to  carry  out  the necessary con-




 servation measures  are needed.  The wide variety  of




 services and help USDA offers  to  all  the people will




 enhance man's total environment physically,  socially




 and aesthetically,  for soil erosion affects  every one




 and shapes the foundation of our  environment.








               MR.  STEIN:   Thank  you,  Mr.  Schneider,  for




 reading that statement.



               Maybe this is a good start and  an  overall




 view  of the  national program,,  but I would ask  the Con-




 ferees to consider  that  what we need  here is some speci-



 fics  on how  we are  going to control agricultural  run-




 off  and  land runoff,  particularly  from  agriculture into




 the lake  if this is a problem.  We know that  this comes




 from  construction projects  and road building,  but1 that is




 something we will have to meet and  I  don't know that  it




 is  the charge of  this  group.



               What I  would suggest,  if  the  Agriculture

-------
              	502





                     R. J. Schneider






Department says they have the know-how to control sedi-




ment on all land, that we set up a group of the Conferee 5




and representatives where they specifically indicate




areas where we can put this know-how to work as it is




affecting Lake Michigan, with all deference to the great




national program or problems we have in this area, how




it affects Lake Michigan. We should tryto come up with som




specifics that we ask the State agriculture departments




and the Department of Agriculture to work with us on




this and try to get this up. I think we have had the




first go-round on this, but I do think before the Con-




ferees can have something to put their teeth into and




act on we have to get very much more specific because




what we are interested in is stopping the flow of agri-




cultural wastes into Lake Michigan.




               Are there any other comments?



               MR. KLASSEN:  Other than, Mr. Chairman,




to add, and I know you are cognizant of this, this wasn'




mentioned at all in this report and I don't know that




this affects Lake Michigan, it doesn't in Illinois, I




am not familiar enough with northern Indiana or Michigan




or Wisconsin to know whether runoff from cattle feeding

-------
	503





                      R.  J.  Schneider






 lots  is  a problem for Lake  Michigan.   It  is  definitely




 a problem that  has not been solved and one  that  the




 agricultural  people quickly brush  under the  rug  when




 you  talk to them about it,  but  there  is something  that




 can  be done about this.




                But it might not affect Lake  Michigan,




 so I  know you are aware  of  including  this in any study.




                MR. STEIN:   Yes,  we are. And  surprisingly




 enough,  in various areas  of the  country where we have




 got  these cattle feeding  lots,  no  one  mentioned  them as




 a problem. When we got out  to look at  them we found out




 that  they were  a tremendous problem in these areas.




                I think that is  a very  good suggestion, arjd




 when  we  come  up with  this group  they  should  look at the




 extent of the feed lot problem  in  the  Lake Michigan



 drainage area.   I have no way of knowing whether that  is




 or is not a problem up here.  But  increasingly that has




 become a significant  pollution  problem in many areas of




 the  country.




                Are there  any other comments  or questions?




                If not,  thank you very  much,  Mr.  Schneidei




                May we  proceed with the status  of waste

-------
	504

                          M.  Garnet

 treatment  in Federal  installations.
                Mr.  Poston.
                MR.  POSTON:   I  will  ask  Mr.  Garnet  to
 make  tHis  Statement on Federal  installations.   And I
 understand that Captain  Shepard of  the  Great  Lakes Naval
 Training  Center may wish to  comment also  on their
 particular problems at Great Lakes  and  possibly Colonel
 Warner  to  comment  on  Fort Sheridan  problems.
                And Merrill,  at an appropriate time you
 might introduce the two.
                MR. GAMET: Will do.
                MR. STEIN: Merrill  is  still here? You
 know, you have been working  in  the Government almost as
 long as I have.


                STATEMENT BY  MERRILL GAMET
         REGIONAL FEDERAL ACTIVITIES COORDINATION
              OFFICE OF FACILITIES PROGRAMS
           GREAT LAKES REGION,  CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

                MR. GAMET:  Chairman Stein and Conferees
 this will constitute  a very brief summary of waste
 treatment and disposal at the Federal installations,

-------
	503





                        M.  Garnet






 with  surface water  discharges  in  the Lake  Michigan Basin



 More  detailed  information is contained in  a  status repor



 which has been distributed  to  the  Conferees.



               We believe that  significant progress has



 been  made by Federal agencies  since the Lake Michigan



 Enforcement Conference was  held a  year ago in the direc-



 tion  of improvement of waste treatment facilities or



 planning to divert  wastes out  of  the Lake  Michigan Basin



 These are briefly as follows:



 U. S. COAST GUARD



               1.   The Chicago Harbor Station was




      closed permanently on  December 15* 19&8,



      thereby eliminating a  source  of waste to



      Lake Michigan.



               2.   The Indiana Harbor and  Charlevoix,



      Michigan  Stations have secondary package



      treatment plants plus  chlorination in opera-




      tion.



               3.   Plans have been formulated to




      unman and automate nine Light Stations,



      thereby eliminating waste  discharges.



               4.   Plans have been made to unman

-------
	__	_____	506





                        M. Garnet






      The Racine, Wisconsin Lifeboat Station.




                5.  Two  Coast Guard Cutters,



      the SUNDEW, berthed at Charlevoix,



      Michigan,  and the  MESQUITE, berthed at



      Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, have waste hold-



      ing tanks  installed with dockside connec-



      tions  to pump to municipal sewers.  These



      are in operation at the present time.




U. S. ARMY



                1.  Plans are in progress to divert




      water  treatment plant wastes and boiler blow-



      down to the sanitary sewer system at Port



      Sheridan,  and ultimately to connect these



      and the entire sanitary sewer system to the



      North  Shore Sanitary District system for



      diversion  out of the Lake Michigan Basin.  I



      will not discuss these proposed projects



      further because, as stated, Col. Warner is



      here from  the headquarters of the Fifth U.S.



      Army and he will have a statement to make.



                No plans, to our knowledge, are




      being  made at this time for nutrient removal.

-------
	507





                        M. Garnet






U. S. NAVY



               1.  Plans are being developed to



     divert water treatment plant wastes and



     boiler blowdown to the sanitary sewer system



     at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center.



     Plans are also in progress to divert all



     wastes either raw or treated from both the



     main sewage treatment plant and the Green



     Bay Plant to the North Shore Sanitary Dis-



     trict system for discharge out of the Lake



     Michigan Basin.  Five alternatives are under



     consideration.  Again, as Mr. Poston announced,



     Capt. Shepard is here from the Midwest Division,




     Naval Facilities Engineering Command, and



     will present a statement about these projects.



               2.  No progress can be reported



     at this time regarding the status of the



     proposed project to construct a sanitary



     sewer and pump station to transport wastes



     from the Naval Reserve Training Center and



     the S. S. PARLE, located in the Chicago




     Harbor, to the city of Chicago sewer system.

-------
	508





                        M. Garnet






      Present information indicates that the



      Metropolitan Sanitary District will



      advertise for bids in order to determine



      more  accurately  the total  cost of the



      project.  The Navy has allocated $25,000




      toward the  project cost.




U.  S. AIR  FORCE



               1.  Authorization has been granted



      for design  of a  contact  stabilization package



      treatment plant  plus chlorination, nutrient



      removal and polishing lagoon at the Empire



      Air Force Station, (Leelauau County), Michi-



      gan.  Anticipated completion of project June




      1972.



U.  S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR



               The Bureau of  Sport Fisheries and



      Wildlife, Charlevoix National Fish Hatchery,




      has no plans for waste treatment facilities



      since lake  water is circulated through fish-



      rearing tanks and is considered to be non-




      pollutional.



               Now, I would like to mention one  other

-------
	509





                        M. Garnet






installation  about which we have recently obtained



information and was inadvertently omitted from this reporf.




This installation is the Jordan River Fish Hatchery at



Elmira, Michigan.



               It is suspected, and is at least partially



borne out by analyses which have recently been made by



our Chicago program office, that this facility is pol-



luting the Jordan River.  The indications are that the



concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds are



in excess of those allowed and, therefore, are in viola-



tion of the Michigan intrastate water quality standards.



               However, .just two or three days ago we



received word from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and



Wildlife that they are making plans to install a settling



basin or lagoon for treatment in order to comply and that



funds are being requested for fiscal year 1971 with



anticipated completion during that fiscal year.

-------
                                                     510
by Mr. Garnet:
                        M. Garnet
               (The following is the document submitted
                SURFACE WATER DISCHARGES
                          from
                 FEDERAL  INSTALLATIONS
                         in the
                  LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
                     FEBRUARY  1969
Legend:  S




         I
         P -
                  Secondary Waste Discharges




                  Industrial Waste Discharges




                  including filter backwash,




                  boiler blowdown, etc.




                  Persons

-------






















































P
M


0








MC^>G -^ «: ^vCo«C
EJC^« tr1!'' b^ d- o •
^yCO 0)-" ft P H CQ
CTO* fBd- CD c+ rf •
O td HO H H- 3-
4 sj O P P O O
-p Bco aa?to
n-9 S g §" g £ k
gS5rf o& o Sct
£££ ? t. ? g?
ro •< p — - ct — p
< O "1 • W H
OH.O. co IP.
Xo g 1 &
o et o t-;
^ 15 S t+

01 CO
-JO O
*X) LO OJ
VI VI

If £ £
• 4 P 0
g g. g. cr
&S
a a a
o o o
P B S
PJ Q CD
1


g.











E; en co
O CD CD
On o
1 1

? ?
o o
p p
0 0
S 3
1 a
g g

















~^H" O Q S
O P 3^ 0 O
*: » » I ^ ., H

•-? H ra o a -^ -J
0 H < d- Cd CO fO
M C6 O H-
p & H- O d-
d- X 3 P

< a o d- x
CD H- O
H d- XI
P VO ^ H-
P< OO 01 3*
* o
& s
tliinenpolis Shoal Lt.
Sta. , Escanaba
(Ksnoainee Co.)

to
p
LO
VI

o
§
1
a
^
 3* P *id
D* O C71 H H- P
0* (B O 3
= HPOH-&3CQ
P 01 D" S H- *•
n d- w f d~
if to P ra d- o
D* (7) 3 0> P fD P

X P O CQ n> d-
w fP P • ^ 3
• p. r> r> P
" ?X Mrt
n> o P< M-
o 3 t a P
d- H- (ti P- a
o o a &

en d-
i
M H

ol ^1










H
r;
1
S
cf
A


































































iictallatior.
(«-ep.cy £. Location)
1
_> ** p*
g8^
D < 0)
O
T) 1
ct H. n>
O o
CR O
H
1



P3 Tt
H to
C 0

1-3
O ^
tr1 01
4 d-
(B 3
n CD
d- 3
fD d-
H-
CO
O


^
*d
O
s
d-
a
CD
fP
tn



H,

*tt
f? d
fO C
pj C/l

p
s1 i?
P C
p. 'J
£ 1
d"
H-
fD
W


O
£t ?> ".
'c] rt t-'-
t-j o n
fD p ft<

O I--' 0'

t/) fti
n- p'
pi y --,
r* ft C
	 ,



-------




















3

5"
A.
13
CJ
5

ru





























-P

QJ
P
d
OJ
C
O
U





..
H
CJ
(D
re

•i,


n
^













!-





I' - .












o



CJ

-^
-1
.H
u


r^
T3
1J

SH
O












QJ
QJ
P
C
S
QJ
O

£



LT
^
-P

H

QJ


S-,
d
CJ
-p
QJ
rH

W




£
tO d
C 5-
H +-
CO
I P-
rH O
0


r~
ft 0
M r

t-.
6






J


C'





(U O ,C
Cj O >H p
,0 PH P
^ d
CJ O C

«! O
,C 0 C C
u o

•C o; p O
c o a CJ

PL, C' C O
0 P f.
i I-, u £
_ _ . o
E a
P O
13 H p •
C P P P
O d o O
U N -H O
•H ^ bO
*M H P d
O -H P H
r^ C
w d bo
P P - G
J3 u 8;p
w P f-i i3
P CJ P -H
o d d H
o p p o
c H p,
C 0 r.
d o o 13
H H C
ft d -c d
P O H
p p - d
0 P >

cu o d H
rH -H H O


"0 -P ~-
-p a
G -P
a S C
a; -p cu

+> U h
•H h +>
d^ §
O >s
d tn 13
(*-t d P
13 3
P a
p o a
o o o
e u -H •
pupa
rt aJ O
 0 P
S O H t3
O ^. ^ OJ
S A o k
10
-H
F5 fri QJ
0 o jq
p p
W M
:>= c P
1 W H -H

'q ^ 8 o
Q LO H P
P O ^. i-
0 &^ I
^5 ° g
ft
CJ O flj u
CO O P c[

Sfc g.a
O P CO (L
W U T3 p
CJ ,Q d W
t< jj a >
(in w -H in

i



o

d
C\J
CO
9
- - - o
•H
P
P


O
O
QJ t~t '-^
0 O -
rH [JH O
O O

-HP
^ -H ^ q
f •< o a

;-' .-HO
o 01 r, o
H t • M ^
bT'

a
T3

J-,
O


13
CJ

•H

O
P
•a


•H

£
H
H
p
U
§
•H
P
0
H
?
O

[=
O




















OJ
p

o
p

p

p
r-






TH

^






p
U
0)
0

ft
<
p'

H
ft
CJ
•H

c






























8
a;

h
S

c
p
0
rH
U



































OJ


vO

n
0
P

j..



•a

d
g1

ft
u
a

to
p
a
o


o



























































































,
0
o
o

»
p +»
O1 v4
^ d •
ft ta
H -H CJ
H o u
'^•d

d a
H~t o
p -H
to o S
d t-> o
o a fi
o 3 o


•CJ » P 4>
> G >! S >= H *



•H §  d -H -r)
rH rH ft ^ 10 W D
.C ft • P ft  C P 13 H p *H
c d d o d cj x^- CJ (H
OHO ti^iHLr\do







H
•H "-**.

jrt g
S
^1
1°'

xd

^rj p c- P-. c-
OH'''
0 *H Q
4) ^ O CO
CQ W W CO PH

wS

PM W




OJ
CO



„
a
o
•a -H •—-
fn P •
ri Ti o
3 ^ 0
O W

p : ' x -H
co • ( -H O
rt 0 0 >
o ;• > o
CJ 0 0 H


JdeS









LT\

ON
H
1 CO
P O >i
- d H +>
13 O 3 -H
P vH tJ H
d 6 O -H
•H J2 ,0
O H f d
P ftj CO P
d -H
e i>> *
O £> O O
P O bO P
3 In f-.
d cy d D
,C .C P
P 10
- -H ^
w p •a o
co d
d -H ^ p
H P 0
ft d & P
P P CJ
ftf W h CO
^ p
C) P >; -H
§CJ
£>

a s bo o
O P C ^H
o p -H d


8

>> (.1 n d o 11 d ;.,' --^ p p -H 0 •H § J-, p O a H CJ c "d p "o 0 p •§ 0} O P 0) p u H d & •H ia d o w 03 QJ g •° J4 O H bO fl •H 0 P •H s


-------
Ox
                                       •n  O w  cJ O .H
                                       f3  C £.  -P     ft
                                       H  C 'C  to >  £
                                        o  o b  a o  o
                                       K  O £  -H S  o
                           O
                           •H
                           •P
  8n
  o
                                         U  "S
•g
o
0
•H
ID

Cl
H!
o

£
A

01
D


 S
d fn
S d)
,c
>i 0
H -p
O ^rl
H ^
f, Ll
C] -H
fcS ^




^,
O
i-1
•rt
g H
CJ 03

C.! O
,G C/1
— ' ri
«
r
w
H 0
CO CO


^ rt
r5 co
o
p o
b
O 0)
c
. -H
01 c;
p* D^




S
•H
O

7
a

o
^
OJ
O
-4-
0
CO


Uflg
,0 O O
f_i -H ^
W d -^

>-> to >-,
Cl • rj
P-l -P W
o a
flj • O
O P OJ
o M d
•g
a
d
oi


,-1
£3
CJ
-,H

o

E-







0)
0) •
G 0
•3 O
nl
": O
O 0)
w a


^ s
&•£,
•s
g
0
o
o
?H tJ
1 1
I s
d C
g rl
d
0 -H 0
O P O
r* KI >
O P O
p en -p
H -r-<

£ A ;l
la
;
CU ->
-p >1
-P d
3s
Cl
•d o
h 0
d ta
3^
+j
P CO
6 H
0 H


CO oj
D SJ







O*
o


0
s

-------
s; '.'. OK


o o X ro
5 P PP
~ l'°
O CO CO
4 M- 0 h*
ct ef O ct
 • 'B
4 1
PJ tj* pj rt*
EP c P
a ° a °
H- H- H- H-
SD o B
P O p
ct rt

SO
B



•* «a
§ g
n> ro














=: a
2 o

™ (j





















o ' i ^-> t-j fj H c: t!
t? ' - t" i' r B o u


c+ Q P O ' '
n n p uj S o ^
"J • o tr ;f vJ P
ct O o (-*• s; 01
O • ji O • ill rl-
0 0 P &i
W cf C-l O H Q
hJ (+ ^-- o O p
O fit • ^ 4
CT t IJ > CO
4 pj
O »-
? 8
tn en
-J O
!-• f
VI




? ° f r


TO cj; o

WWW W t^ W W
*'*SS p. &S §S
1 ' ' I '„ p" ' §
-3 x?P cr\ hJ vo \o LO P
O H V-H fO *Jl O 1


^ vii-'^ro»-j4Cq
reo focooooo"-^.q

cf4 fD -^. ^ -^v. ^ cH ^1
H-H- p^HH-HH-H- H"
OP P 0 O O »
pp o D a a P
cf ^ ct
H- H. H.
8O 0
D O





g g
(D (t














E ^


o rt











0


2
ct-
K*
(§






0 t,'
P\
o1 ^i
O M
P O
ri- 13
H-
O
—
$
n s:
P
P" 01
<; fo
o
H
I
S3

P 0
cn nj
H-
<;
i

**i
•^ 4 O


£ (!) "=]
s a g
c+ H
>-3 53
O *-( >
D" Q ET1
P P
"^ c-t M
P 3 S
no w



£ E
H- M
CO H

E
^ t-3

4 fd


W
>
CO
M




O
(t) O


PJ C
K" O
P C
n era
H- *•
k-1-
(D
C3
0
•d o i
M 0 =
n o o
H *d P
0 KJ c'
en O
p ^ -
c* Oi
C1 V "•
fcl C»
Ul
I-J
to

-------
1
Timetable for
Accomplishment
(Completion dates)

to
4>
-H
-P
jfl o
0 0).
to EL,
T3 Id
0) —t


£



4)
QJ

c
(D
S
QJ
O
ft

H





-P
OJ
E
d
4)
p
QJ
w
0)
fi



i
H n
QJ H p
K CO
H C
O
QJ ?> O
P 0
in 08 o
n) rH

fit D
^
C
o
n -p
O d
•H Cl
•4-> O
oS .-J








.;

i-i
to w% o h >•>
4) C vH .p U to £l 4* tt>
.Q .H P 4) « O H 13 U
S 4) d in -H O -p T3 4» t— C - H
4! ,O fl -P -P P -H • 4) "~3""-»v d *H P
O In (2 -H t. n P O H O-rt
•OO ^OC'iHPiyCJCJrH •• H
OP O-PU-HUCQPCJfL, X--^.,-^ -H
« CHOCJCJ UP, ,Tj P~l OJ tJ
os cj ^ d c o >, S< • -— -^ d
H .H c o to^^-PP-HvHfi, h-4>
dS - d'^)..-Hrc)f-.W(j^gU1^-,G
Pa)ir\ >rid)Xr:o-H4)pv(coc\jo
COp,H WBI-<4)d^OOi -P p 3 O >
r-j HH>^~ OOP


acim-H to r(C»n
^(^-'-H+J+JCPJi OP
bO^'t>-ric-HCJaJ 4^-Ha
-H^CJHO-P414) fl+>-H
to tH-rlrHOj"-3>-l 4)UA
OM OftfljO -H4)

U13CJ CT) cj 3 O efl
a)q,ap4)C ta CCJ-P
•o3aU3«-rt -rl
O CTO
SO>> 4)X1^4) -04JJ3
^-^4lrH O-PW A OWUi«
m^dHTJrigJfHp ^ 0
O'd«3?pc4)fd C^>*J24>
oS^OJCJH ^H4i T3-P-P
d^iat>r(Oi-l^3 3 to to
^-».&tj-Hnociocj ^-s+jo>>
Ht-ir!t-<-HVi,o,am oju^ca
'o d bO • -P
p 1-1 i  +> O g,fi u -P dp
•pqn H-H 0 sq
4) 3 -H -^-H 0) Vl 3 3
C3i~(ViW bD*H  ri
HOQ HHH OHH
rH CS OS ^X~^s.^s. T* -H
O M M bD -*J *-< O
H S S3 a &
*• d H 4) -P
>>i>g irv^Q fiq'd
r«o;> i-icvjo'i-praq
to 0 O cj H d
rd  M ri
f-t -P -P 4)
CJ Q Q -^ f3 P
OOCO OWO OOd
COM03 pqcOPn 30?

•8 -S
a a
Q
1 8


CO H

W x^
rt ^ |^0

o -p C ^i
•d o d nl
& 0 A! ti d1^
3 p O C5 i-l
O rl O f] W
rj O -N-H O
•P t^. ^^ ^» i

*; o o d ^ t-4
W o f-9 N3 ^
H U CJ d H t*
O • U 0 * f' tri
:- en -H -H w ' aj
(-1 . i c . ^
P S 31,0
Finding of project
not determined. No
Federal fundn prr-ntec
at thlG tilnc, Ban.
pint, -dll odvcrtiBt
fo?o?A5scSSt';et-ermin<:
8«
O to &
•P CO Vi to
CO P
rH C CO
jj ^ o
0) fn P O
CO O CJ to
3 4» fl
-P K H 0
CJ <, r-l S
p 0
C id o q
•P 4> -H
CO 5 4)
a 5 -P P
Project to co
serve State-o
PARLE and was
pleasure craf
1 Harbor.


.
o
•H

O
p
CJ 8
Q +*
sg.
u m

•H
^t
O

s
•5
d
CJ
i-i
S


li

Sr,^
n O 0)
o .a a
co
co"



y -o-
QJ O


*d to o



•> o o


cl O O
K -H bp
B w
. -H 0
CO ^3 i-l

tDE^
o
o LQ
rl O
O to •

a rl O
c to o
C4 -P J
•rl
TH >C -P
O -p W
° ° J3


flj o
"rl C ri
a o w
L

"H



8
•H
-P
C rH i—)
"glflf
|^LA
•V 1 1


0 ft
0) O rt
w m t;

•a
a

^

CO


n
~1-l

CO
-p •*
H Q
o d





«< 01
4)
. p >j

• c5 fjj

H
H
r^ 4)
4) H
r*» O
"S.
r ^


di3 Q*
jj-jj
H-H+^
^ a

§„
o
1 Boiler blowdo
& sedimentati
be punrped int


3
1 •
:!
O P

+i ^
«-
II
u a


w

0)
•p

-p -P
rH O
p,n
s s
•p 5
cd a
aj a
- £•"

1 rl 4)


•s


3

M




















-------
	516






                         M.  Garnet






                MR.  GAMET:   This  concludes  my  brief




 statement,  and  if  there  are no  comments  or questions,




 I  would  like  to call  upon  Col.  Warner--




                MR.  STEIN:   Let's  .just  wait a  minute, pleas




                Are  there any comments  or questions  of




 Mr.  Garnet?



                MR.  PURDY:   Yes,  sir.   Mr.  Chairman,




 could  we  have the  results  of the  testing made by  the




 FWPCA  at  the  Jordan River  fish  hatchery?   We  have had




 a  lot  of  local  interest  expressed.



                MR.  GAMET:   I don't  have  them  with me  here




                MR.  PURDY:   Yes,  but I  mean--




                MR.  GAMET:   I am sure they  can be  made




 available.  They have been  submitted to  the Bureau  of




 Sport  Fisheries and Wildlife, who requested this  study.



                MR.  STEIN:   Why  can't we  make  them availab




 to the States?



                MR.  POSTON:   We  can.




                MR.  GAMET:   I am sure we  can.




                MR.  STEIN:   0. K.




                MR.  PURDY:   Yes.




                MR.  STEIN:   That will be  done.
e.
le

-------
	317





                      E. B. Warner





               Are there any other comments or questions?



               If not,  thank you.



               MR. GAMET:   Col. Warner.








            STATEMENT BY COLONEL E. B. WARNER



               CHIEF, ENGINEERING DIVISION



        FIFTH U. S. ARMY, FORT SHERIDAN, ILLINOIS








               COL. WARNER:  Thank you, Mr. Garnet.



               Chairman Stein, Mr. Poston and Conferees.



               Mr. Garnet has essentially outlined our



 problems, but I might supplement those to a modest degree



 by  a  little more accuracy on our exact status at the




 moment.



               In the Fifth United States Army we have



 four  facilities which fall  under the  purview of the Con-



 ference,  i.e. or contributing to pollution of the lake.



 These are four NIKE sites in the northern Indiana area,



 the backwash from the water treatment plant at Fort



 Sheridan, the blowdown  and  steam plant at Fort Sheridan,



 and last  the sewage plant itself at Fort Sheridan.  As



 Mr. Garnet indicated, only three of these NIKE sites

-------
	518





                      E.  B. Warner






 remain.  We have  closed  one down.   In  addition,  one  other



 site has been  significantly reduced in  scope  so  that  it




 deals  in purely administrative matters  now, so it  is




 much smaller in scope than it was before.  The other  two



 have populations  less than 100.




               These sites came under  the  purview  of  the



 Conference in  December on the lower Lake Michigan  area,



 and at that time  sites,  to the best of  our knowledge,



 were considered to  be in full compliance with the  recom-



 mendations of  that  body.  We, therefore, concluded that



 they meet the  requirements of this  group.



               The  border plant blowdown at Port Sheridan



 is a very simple  project, it is a matter of a 30-foot



 sewer  line to  connect to the Fort Sheridan sewage  dis-



 posal  system.  We are all geared up to  accomplish  this



 as soon as the ground thaws and we  can  get to it.  It



 is within the  purview of our authority; we have  the  funds



               The  third problem is the backwash water



 from the Fort  Sheridan water treatment  plant.  We  cur-



 rently have a  combination rehabilitation and  new construe



 tion project which  we are trying to implement at the




 water  plant.   The repair portion of this project is

-------
	519

                      E. B. Warner
i
within our funding and approval authority and we are
proceeding with this portion of the work.  The portion
which will correct the backwash water discharged into
Lake Michigan, unfortunately, is in the new construction
portion of the project, which does require congressional
approval.  We had it programmed for FY1970 and it was
eliminated from the program by higher headquarters.  We
have reprogrammed it for FYi9719 and if it is approved in
this program we will be able to accomplish the work in
1972.  This will be one year later than the desired
deadline placed by the body, the Conferees.
               The Fort Sheridan sewage plant, our solu-
tion to this, of course, is to discontinue the plant and
divert all Fort Sheridan   sewage to the North Shore
Sanitary District.  This project also is included in our
FY1971 MCA construction program (Military Construction
Army) which does require Congressional approval.  If
approved by Congress and funded, we will expect to get
the funds in time to meet the December 1972 deadline
placed by the Conference on elimination of nutrients from
the lake.
               That concludes my report.

-------
	520





                      E. B. Warner






               MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Col. Warner.



               Are there any comments or questions?



               Mr. Klassen.



               MR. KLASSEN: I am particularly interested



 in Fort  Sheridan, Colonel.  Are you  putting all your




 eggs  in  one basket or are there alternatives if



 Congress  does not approve the idea of dismantling and



 diverting everything to the North Shore Sanitary District



 What  other alternate plans are you considering, if any?



               COL. WARNER:  Insofar as nutrient removal,



 Mr. Klassen^ we have not--we have our eggs in a single




 basket to divert, yes, sir.



               MR. KLASSEN:  0. K.



               COL. WARNER:  Now, to shift gears and



 meet  the  1972 deadline, we would not be able to--



 December  1972 on nutrients, that would involve treatment.



 We presently at Fort Sheridan have secondary treatment



 with  chlorination, but this falls short of the nutrient




 removal  objective.



               MR. KLASSEN:  I would say we look very



 favorably upon this idea of diverting it, and I hope




 that  Congress approves this.

-------
	521





                       E.  B.  Warner






                MR.  STEIN:   Do  you have  an  agreement  with




 the  North  Shore District  to  take your wastes  if  the




 Congress approves it?



                COL. WARNER:  Yes, sir.



                MR.  STEIN:   All right.



                COL. WARNER:  There  are  several details,



 I  presume,  that are to be  ironed out, but  in  principal




 we approached  them  several years ago on this  concept.



                MR.  STEIN:   I just have  one  other comment



 that I was  interested  in  a remark of yours.   You said



 that one NIKE  site  became  much more limited in scope



 since it was devoted to purely administrative functions.




 The  last one I ever would  expect to repeal  Parkinson's



 Law  would  be the Army,  because we can't do  it in Interior



 My view is, my experience  is,  when  we devote  anything to



 administrative functions  we  increase rather than diminish




 the  scope.



                COL. WARNER:  Well,  the  administrative



 functions  were there before, Murray.  We took away the



 operational portion of that  site.   No administrative



 functions  were eliminated,  I assure you.




                (Laughter.)

-------
	522





                       E.  B.  Warner






                MR.  STEIN:  Right.   Thank  you.




                MR.  KLASSEN:   At  the risk  of  .just  another




minute here,  I  read in the Chicago  paper  last  night  in




the  letters  to  the  editor—and I don't  know  who this




lady isr-but  it is  going  to  make her very happy when she




reads this,  because,  and  I quote, she says,  "Why  doesn't




my money  go  for cleaning  up  the  water I swim in?   I




cannot sanction giving the military half  of  my money to




find another  way to commit suicide  for  me."




                So this  probably  will answer  her question,




                (Laughter.)




                MR.  STEIN:  We have  another one.




                MR.  POSTON:   Gapt.Shepard  is  going to




describe the  waste treatment  at the  Great  Lakes Nav»l



Training  Center.








           STATEMENT BY CAPTAIN  G.  R. SHEPARD




          C.O. MIDWEST DIVISION NAVAL FACILITIES




       ENGINEERING  COMMAND,  GREAT LAKES,  ILLINOIS








                CAPT.  SHEPARD:  Mr.  Chairman, Conferees.




                I appreciate  the  opportunity  to present

-------
                       G. R. Shepard






on behalf of Admiral Renken, Commandant of the Ninth




Naval District, an up-date on the Navy's statement as




presented to the Four-State Conference about one year



ago.




               To review, the Naval Training Center has




two sewage treatment plants, both of which provide secon-




dary treatment.  One discharges effluent to the Skokie




Ditch, the other into Lake Michigan.  A military construe



tion project has been requested and is currently programmed



for fiscal year 1971.  This project provides for repair



and improvements to the existing plant which now dis-




charges the effluent into Lake Michigan.  Additionally,




this project includes collection and treatment of wastes



from the water treatment plant and from the heating



plant, which presently, on an independent basis, discharg



into Lake Michigan.



               We are also studying different plans of



removing the entire secondary effluent from the main side



plant from Lake Michigan.  The concepts we are adopting



here are similar to that which the North Shore Sanitary



District has developed for the surrounding communities.




These choices are:

-------
               	524

                      G. R. Shepard
                                                        «
               A.  To pump raw sewage into the
     North Shore Sanitary District system.
               B.  To pump the treated effluent from
     the main side plant into the North Shore
     Sanitary District system.
               And C.  To provide tertiary treat-
     ment to the effluent from the main side plant
     and then pump directly by our own route to the
     Des Plaines River.
               The ultimate choice would be based pri-
marily upon the economics of the comparison.
               This study should be completed on 31 May
1969, at which time a project will be prepared and sub-
mitted for inclusion as  a line item in the fiscal year
1972 military construction program.
               At present—and now I am going to move
into the ship area as it affects Lake Michigan—there art
four operating ships and two reserve  submarines in the
Lake Michigan area.  One operating ship is the USS PARLE
BE-708, home ported at the Naval Reserve Armory, Chicago
A sewage disposal system costing $170,000, for the ship
has been funded and should be installed by April of this

-------
                                                      525
                       G.  R.  Shepard
 year,  in  about  two  months.   The  Navy also has  provided



 $25*000 as  its  share  of  the  cost to construct  a sewage




 collection  system on  the Monroe  Street Harbor  Pier.



 This  is the project that Mr.  Garnet  stated is having  some




 funding difficulties  at  the  present time  from  the  other




 contributors.



                The  second operating ship  is  the USS  HAVRf,




PCE-877, home ported  at the Naval  Training  Center,  Great



 Lakes.  The waste from this  ship currently discharges



 into  the  Training Center's  sanitary system.



                The  third operating  unit is the USS PORTAGE,



 PCI±-902,  home ported  in  Milwaukee.   Funds have been




 requested to provide  a ship  collection system  and  it



 is  expected that  this project will  be funded with  Fiscal



 Year  1970 funds.  The  project for the shore collection



 sewage system has been submitted also for Fiscal year



 1970  funding.   We presently  are  in  Fiscal Year 1970.



                The  fourth operating unit  is  the USS  ELY,IJCE-880,



 home  ported at  Sheboygan. Funds have been requested to



 provide a ship  collection system and it is expected  that



 this  project will be  funded  with Fiscal Year 1970  funds.



 The project for the shore collection system will be

-------
                      	526





                      G. R. Shepard
submitted for fiscal year 1971 funding.
               There are two reserve submarines, USS SILV
            , home ported in Chicago, and the USS COBIA^QES-2^-5



home ported in Milwaukee.  There are no provisions for



sewage disposal for these craft, inasmuch as they pose




no problem because they are non-operating.  They are



continually alongside the pier where shoreside facilities



are available.




               I think it will be of interest to this



group to be informed regarding the latest action that



the Navy has taken with regard to shipboard sewage




disposal systems.  Quite a bit of research has been done



on this, and I will read this statement.



               A complete sewage disposal unit has been



installed on the USS FISK, which is a destroyer which



has been operating on the East Coast.  It has been



operating for over one year.  The results of this proto-



type installation have been excellent as far as the



principle of operation is concerned.  However, there



have been numerous mechanical problems which have



rendered the reliability of the operation somewhat



questionable.  However, changes in design are being
ER-

-------
	527





                       G.  R.  Shepard






 incorporated  and  it  still remains  the  best  hope  for  a




 complete  underway sewage  system.   This,  of  course, will




 have  application  to  craft and  ships  operating  on the




 Great Lakes,  particularly on Lake  Michigan  here,  when




 they  are  out  of port.




               The Navy's ships  system command is buying




 eight of  these revised units and will  install  them on a




 subtender for further  testing.  We expect that this  test-




 ing will  begin in 1970.   The ship  systems command also




 is embarked on a  cause and effect  study  to  be  completed




 in May to determine  the most advantageous method of




 handling  wastes.   In this case we  are  speaking of this




 for larger vessels,  and the  comparison is whether it




 should be by  onboard disposal  or by  holding tanks.  ¥e




 will  have the results  from this about  midyear, and fol-



 lowing the conclusions which will  be derived, an  applica-




 tion  for  appropriations for  conversions  of  various Navy




 ships  will be submitted.



               Mr. Chairman, this  concludes  my presen-




 tation.

-------
                      	528





                      G. R. Shepard
               (The following is the document submitted




by Capt. Shepard:)






               CAPTAIN SHEPARD'S STATEMENT




                  FOUR-STATE CONFERENCE




                    25 February 1969






               Mr. Chairman, Conferees, ladies and




gentlemen.




               I appreciate the opportunity to present on




behalf of Admiral H. A. Renken,  Commandant of the Ninth




Naval District, an up-date of the Navy's statement as




presented at the Four-State Conference held on 31 January




1968.



               To review, the Naval Training Center, Grea




Lakes, has  two sewage treatment plants, both of which




provide secondary treatment.  One discharges effluent to




the Skokie  Ditch, the other discharges effluent into Lake




Michigan.  A military construction pro.ject has been




requested and is currently programmed for Fiscal Year




1971.  This provides for improvements to the existing




plant which now discharges effluent into Lake Michigan.

-------
	529






                       G. R.  Shepard






 Additionally,  this  pro.ject  includes  collection  and




 treatment  of wastes  from the water treatment  and  heating




 plants  presently  discharging into Lake  Michigan.




               We are  also  studying  different plans of




 removing the entire  secondary  effluent  from the main  side




 plant from Lake Michigan.   These include:




               A.   Pumping  raw sewage into the




     North Shore  Sanitary District system.




               B.   Pumping  the treated  effluent




     from  the  main  side plant  into the  North




     Shore Sanitary  District system.




               C.   Providing tertiary treatment




     to the effluent from the  main side plant




     and pumping  to  the Des  Plaines  River.



               This  study should be  completed by  31 May




 1969 at which  time  a project will be prepared and submit"!




 for inclusion  as  a  line item in the  1972 military constri




 tion program.



               At present there are  four operating  ships




 and two reserve submarines  in  the Lake  Michigan area.




 One operating  ship  is  the USS  PARLE, DE-708,  home ported




 at the  Naval Reserve Armory, Chicago.   A sewage disposal
ed
c-

-------
               	530





                      G.  R.  Shepard






system costing $170,000,  for the ship has been funded




and should be installed by April 1969.  Twenty-five




thousand dollars has been provided as the Navy's share




of the cost to construct a sewage collection system on




the Monroe Street Harbor Pier.




               The second operating ship is the USS




HAVRE, PCE-877, home ported at  the Naval Training Center,




Great Lakes. The waste from this ship currently discharge




into the Center's sanitary system.




               The third operating unit is the USS




PORTAGE, PCE-902, home ported at Milwaukee.  Funds have




been requested to provide a ship collection system and




it is expected that this project will be funded with



fiscal year 1970 funds.  The project for the shore col-



lection sewage system has been  submitted for fiscal year




1970 funding.



               The fourth operating unit is the USS ELY,




PCE-880, home ported at Sheboygan.  Funds have been



requested to provide a ship collection system and it is




expected that this project will be funded with fiscal




year 1970 funds.  The project for the shore collection




sewage system will be submitted for fiscal year 1971

-------
               	331





                      G. R. Shepard






funding.



               The two reserve submarines, USS SILVERSID^S




AGSS-236, home ported in Chicago, and the USS COBIA,




AGSS-245,, home ported in Milwaukee, have no provision




for sewage disposal.  However, they pose no problem as




they are non-operating and pier side facilities are avai]




able.



               In conclusion I would like to state that




it has been and it will continue to be our policy to




cooperate with the PWPCA, State and local government




agencies with regard to water pollution matters.




               Copies of this presentation have been mad*




available for the record.








               MR. STEIN:  What do you mean by onboard




disposal or holding tanks?



               CAPT. SHEPARD:  Well, the onboard disposa




that I referred to would be a device, primarily an incin




eration device.



               MR. STEIN:  Oh, I see.



               CAPT. SHEPARD:  Yes, sir.




               MR. STEIN:  All right.  In other words,

-------
	332





                      G. R. Shepard






either alternative would meet the  Conference  recommenda-




tions that  no waste  is being discharged  overboard,




treated  or  untreated?




                CAPT.  SHEPARD:  Yes,  sir.




                MR. STEIN:  All right.




                CAPT.  SHEPARD:  The onboard  disposal




system would be the  same thing that  I  referred  to  as  beir




aboard the  FISK and  being  tested.




                MR. STEIN:  All right.  Thank  you very




much .



                Are there any other questions  or comments?




                If not, thank you very  much,  Captain.




                We will now go on.  And the  reason  we  are




pursuing this so hard, and I hope  you  will  bear with  us,



we  are having only,   hopefully, one intermission.   We



will  try to hit two  more items,  just to  tell  you what is




going on,  so we can  try  to get through today and enable




the  Conferees to meet their other  commitments.



                We will take "uniform  regulations to con-




trol  wastes from vyatercraft," and this  is Recommendation




No.  13 of  the Conferees.   I believe  Mr.  Klassen has  that




                Mr. Klassen.

-------
                      	533





                      C. W. Klassen
         STATEMENT OF CLARENCE KLASSEN, CHAIRMAN




        COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM RULES AND REGULATIONS




            TO CONTROL WASTES FROM WATERCRAFT




                     (REGULATION 13)








               MR. KLASSEN:  Mr. Chairman, the Committee




met and recommended a unanimously-approved set of rules




and regulations or legislation, whichever it takes.  The




Conferees approved this March 2, 1968.




               Very briefly, this provides that no marine




toilet on any watercraft discharge wastes directly or




indirectly unless the sewage has been rendered non-



pollutional by passage through a device approved by the




Department or whatever agency it is in the State.  And




the other amplifies this.



               The control devices that are acceptable




for the purposes of this act.are  holding tank, incinera-



ting devices, ashes to be disposed of, I am sure, not in




the water, or any other device determined by the Depart-




ment or agency to be effective in preventing pollution




from marine toilets.  This act as suggested here has been

-------
	534





                       C. W. Klassen






 passed  by  the State  of Michigan.  The  Illinois  Sanitary



 Water Board  adopted  these  as  rules and regulations



 effective--the  date  that it was  adopted was  July  2,



 effective  January  1970.  Michigan also adopted  this.



 Wisconsin, we have heard,  has  this proposal  ready,  I



 understand,  to  send  to the Legislature. And  Indiana,



 we have heard this morning, has  the  legislation necessarj



 passed  both  Houses and on  the  desk of  the  Governor  for




 approval.



                There is one point.   Mr. Miller, I don't




 know whether I  misunderstood  you or  not.   The effective




 date of this as agreed upon by all of  the  States  was



 January 1, 1970, and I realize you cannot  commit  a  State



 Legislature, but did I understand you  correctly that the



 effective  date  was January 1971  instead of 1970?



                MR. POOLE:   That  is correct.   That was



 a concession to include cargo-carrying vessels  as well




 as pleasure  craft.   That  covers  all  vessels.



                MR. KLASSEN:   I might say  also in  that



 respect, the uniform act  that was  recommended and



 approved by  the Conferees  excepted vessels engaged  in



 interstate commerce  and vessels  of foreign registry.

-------
                                                                                  534a
                                  PROPOSED ACT
                            (or Rules and Regulations)
                 FOR THE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE FROM MARINE TOILETS

,    Developed by Subcommittee on "Wastes from Watercraft" - Lake Michigan -
     Four State Enforcement Conference.  Approved by All Conferees, March 2, 1968.



     AN ACT (or Rules and Regulations) to regulate the disposal of sewage from

     watercraft.

 1.0  DEFINITIONS

     For purposes of this Act (or Rules and Regulations), unless the context clearly

     requires a different meaning:

     1.1  "V/atercraft" includes every description of watercraft, other than a

          seaplane, on the water, used or capable of being used as a means of

          transportation on water, except vessels engaged in Interstate Commerce and

          vessels of foreign registry.

     1.2  "Sewage" means all human body wastes.

     1.3  "Litter" means bottles, glass, crockery, cans, scrap metal, junk, paper,

          garbage, rubbish, plastic, or similar refuse discarded as no longer

          useful or useable (or use definition in own state boating law).

     }.k  "Marine Toilet" means any toilet on or within any watercraft.

     1.5  "Waters of the State" means all of the waterways on which watercraft shall

          be used or operated (or state definition).

     1.6  "Person" means an individual, partnership, firm, corporation, association,

          or other entity (or state definition).

     1.7  "Owner" means the person who has lawful possession of a boat by virtue of

          legal title or equitable interest therein which entitles him to such

          possession (or state definition).

     1.8  "Department" means the ....(name of the State agency which shall

          administer this Act).

-------
                                                                         534b
                                  -2-
2.0  LITTERING OR POLLUTING WATER   -   RESTRICTIONS

     Restrictions on placing, throwing, depositing or discharging litter

     into waters of this State are contained in .... (refer to appropriate

     State Act or Rules and Regulations).

3.0  MARINE TOILETS   -   RESTRICTIONS

     3.1  No marine toilet on any watercraft used or operated upon waters of

          this State shall be operated so as to discharge sewage into said

          waters, directly or indirectly,  unless the sewage has been rendered

          non-pollutional by passage through a device approved by the Depart-

          ment (or .... name of State Water Pollution Control Agency if

          Department and said agency are not the same).

     3.2  No person owning or operating 3 watercraft with a marine toilet

          shall use, or permit the use of, such toilet on the waters of this

          State, unless the toilet is equipped with facilities that wi11

          treat, hold, incinerate or otherwise handle sewage in a manner

          capable of preventing water pollution.

     3-3  No person shall dispose of sewage, accumulated in a holding tank or

          any other container on a watercraft, in such manner that the sev/age

          reaches or may reach the waters of this State, except through a

          sewage disposal facility approved by the  Department  (or .... name

          of Stale V/ater Pollution Control Agency if Department and said

          agency are not the same).

k.O  MARINE TOILETS   -   POLLUTION  CONTROL DEVICES

     *».1  After the effective date of  this Act, every marine toilet on water-

          craft used or operated upon waters of this State shall be equipped

          with a pollution control device  in operating condition approved by

-------
                                                                                534c
                                       "3-
          the Department  (or .... name of State Water Pollution  Control  Agency  if

          Department and said agency are not the same).

     *t.2  Pollution control devices that are acceptable for purposes of  this Act

          are:

          A.21  Holding tanks which retain toilet wastes for proper disposal

                pursuant to Rule 3.3.

          Jj.22  Incinerating devices v/hich will reduce to ash all sev/age and

                toilet wastes produced on the watercraft.  Ash is to be disposed

                of on shore - not to waters of the State.

          A.23  Any other device determined by the Department (or agency) to be

                effective in preventing pollution from marine toilets.

5.0  ENFORCEMENT

     (Refer to enforcement authority of State Boating Act).  (or Pollution Control

      Act).

6.0  EFFECTIVE DATE

     The provisions of this Act with reference to requiring watercraft with toilet

     facilities to be equipped with pollution control devices shall take effect

     January 1, 1970.

-------
               	535





                      C. ¥. Klassen






The Illinois Sanitary Water Board did not include that.




They are including all vessels and thought that if some-




one wanted to question their .jurisdiction, this is some-




thing that they could do.




               But other than this date by Indiana,and




hopefully Wisconsin will have the 1970, this constitutes




our report, Mr. Chairman, I think a real step forward.




               MR. STEIN:  So do I.




               Are there any comments or questions on




this?



               By the way, I think this is one of the




real accomplishments of the Conferees—-to get uniform




boat control legislation for control of wastes from the




boats on Lake Michigan.  I think the Conferees have or




should be given the credit of these four States for



doing this,    '. I do think that they set a precedent,



because I think the Lake Erie States have followed suit




and they have adopted about the same regulations. But




the Lake Michigan States were one of the first.




               And Mr. Klassen, I am glad to see that




you act uniformly all the way.  You are not .just picking




on us on jurisdiction; you are ready to take this

-------
	536





                       C.  W. Klassen






 jurisdiction  question  on  on all  the  fronts.




                Thank you.




                MR.  KLASSEN:  We  have  not  accepted  any




 jurisdictional  questions  that  haven't been  offered to




 us.   (Laughter.)




                MR.  STEIN:  Right.




                You  know,  that  is  my  philosophy  too.




 I  always  accept  the full  .jurisdiction.  I figure if




 anyone  is  going  to  cut us  down,  let  the Court do




 it.



                All  right,  now  we  go  on.   The next  one




 will  be nuclear  discharges and thermal pollution,  report




 of the  Committee, and  this deals  with  Recommendation  No.




 10.



                Mr.  Poston, who is handling  that?




                MR.  POSTON:  Mr.  Kittrell  is the Chairman




 of this Committee and  he  will  give a  summary of his




 report.




                Mr. Kittrell.

-------
                    	537





                     P. W. Kittrell
          STATEMENT OF F. W. KITTRELL, CHAIRMAN




     COMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR POWEfl PLANT WASTE DISPOSAL




                   (RECOMMENDATION 10)








               MR. KITTRELL:  Gentlemen, our Committee




came up with a 50-page, typewritten, single-spaced report




I had planned to read that today, but at the urgent plea




of several of the Conferees I am merely going to read




the introduction, the summary and conclusions of that




report.  I would like to enter the full report in the




record.



               MR. STEIN:  The report will be included




in the record as if read without objection.




               MR. KITTRELL:  Introduction.



               A Conference on pollution of Lake Michigan




and its tributary basin (Wisconsin-Illinois-Indiana-




Michigan), requested by Governor Otto Kerner of Illinois




and called toy Secretary of the Interior, Stuart L. Udall,




was held in Chicago, Illinois, on January 31* February




1-2, February 5-7, March 7-8,and March 12, 1968.




               Among problems discussed by the Conferees

-------
               	538





                     F. W. Kittrell






was the disposal of waste radioactive material and heat




from nuclear powey plants scheduled to be located on




the shores of Lake Michigan within the next five years.




They concluded that insufficient information was avail-




able to them at that time to judge the potential effects




of these wastes on water quality of Lake Michigan.




               The Conferees tenth recommendation, among




a total of twenty-six, was:




               "The States and the Department of the




Interior will appoint members of a special committee on




nuclear discharges and the thermal pollution aspects of




power plants and reactors.  The committee will meet with




representatives of the Atomic Energy Commission and othei




interested parties to develop guidelines for pollution




control from nuclear power plants.  The committee is to



pay special attention to thermal discharges which affect




the aquatic life environment of the lake.  Representative




of the committee will be available to appear before any



Federal or State agency considering approval of a permit




for such power plants and reactors."



               Members of the committee appointed by




the Conferees are:

-------
	539




                     F. ¥. Kittrell






               F. W. Kittrell,  Chairman,, Public




      Health  Engineer, Federal Water  Pollution




      Control Administration;




               C. T. Blomgren,  Sanitary Engineer,




      Illinois  State Sanitary Water Board;




               L. E. Stratton,  Sanitary Engineer,




      Illinois  State Sanitary Water Board;




               H. C. Briggs, Sanitary  Engineer,




      Indiana State Board  of Health;




               J. R. McKersie,  Sanitary Engineer,




      Wisconsin Department  of Natural Resources;




               J. G. Robinson,  Aquatic Biologist,




      Michigan  Water Resources Commission.




               Two members of the Committee, Messrs.



 Briggs  and Stratton, have  specialized  in radiological



 health.  A third, Mr. Robinson, has  specialized  in




 aquatic  biology.  The other three members have had




 general  experience in sanitary  engineering  and water




 resources.   Clifford Risley, Jr., Chemist,  FWPCA,




 served  as non-voting Secretary  of the  Committee, with




 W.  L. Abbott,  Chemist, as  his alternate.




               The Committee first met, for organizational

-------
	540





                     F. W. Kittrell






 purposes,  on  May 27, 1968.   It  has met  in  seven  two-day




 and  one  one-day work sessions since  that time.




               Valuable contributions have  been  made  by




 the  following agencies, which provided  speakers  on nucleajr




 power  plants  and on effects  and control of  their wastes:




               Atomic Energy Commission, Chicago




     Operations Office;




               Commonwealth  Edison Company,




     Chicago  Office;



               Federal Water Pollution  Control




     Administration, Division of  Technical  Services;




               U.  S. Public  Health Service, Nuclear




     Facilities Section.



               The Atomic Energy  Commission and  Public




 Health Service speakers dealt primarily with  radioactive



 wastes.  The  Commonwealth Edison  speakers  presented the




 results  of a  single field study of thermal  wastes from




 the  company's Waukegan fossil fuel plant that included




 temperature and biological effects on the  lake,  and




 described  plans for disposal of wastes  from the  company's




 Zion nuclear  power plant.  FWPCA  representatives provided




 information on heat losses from power plants, effects of

-------
	341






                     F. W. Kittrell






 thermal  discharges  on  aquatic  life,  and  consultation  on




 radiological wastes.




                Committee members  also have  discussed  the




 problems  involved with knowledgeable individuals,  attendejd




 National  meetings on thermal pollution and  reviewed much




 literature  on  the subject.




                Although isolated  cases of thermal  pollu-




 tion have been  recognized for  many years, only  recently




 has concern over the problem become  widespread.  This




 concern  has developed  because  of  the increase in thermal




 power  production, which is doubling  approximately  every




 ten years,  using both  nuclear  and fossil fuel,  and becaus




 of the increasing capacity of  individual  power plants.




                Because of relatively limited attention




 to thermal  pollution in the past, there  are few experts




 in the disposal of  waste heat  and many gaps in  knowledge




 of behavior of  waste heat in receiving waters,  of  its




 effects  on  water quality and uses, and of the most




 efficient and  economical methods  of  disposal without




 damage to the  aquatic  environment.   For  example, methods




 of calculating  the  patterns that  will be assumed in lake




 waters by heated water discharges, and the  rates of

-------
	542





                     F. W. Kittrell






 cooling  that  may  be  anticipated  in  the  receiving  waters




 are  in the  developmental  stage.   Much additional  researct




 will  be  necessary before  it  will  be  possible  to predict




 with  assurance what  heating  water will  do  when dischargee




 bo a  lake.



               Liquid  radioactive wastes,  on  the  other




 hand, have  received  a  great  deal  of  publicity and




 attention,  and means for  the effective  treatment  and




 acceptable  disposal  of them  are  well known.   Of all  the




 radionuclides that are most  likely  to be  constituents




 of the liquid wastes,  only tritium  is not  directly




 amenable to removal  by accepted  methods  of treatment




 such  as  evaporation  or demineralization.   This is because




 tritium  is  a  "heavy" hydrogen atom,  and  exists therefore




 as an integral part  of the water  molecule. Estimated




 quantities  (activity and  volume)  of  liquid radioactive




 wastes from the typical large nuclear plant are based on




 a limited amount  of  operating experience  since the  use




 of such  plants is a  relatively recent development.



               Summary and conclusions.   Following  the




 Conference  on pollution of Lake  Michigan  and  its




 tributary basin in early  1968,  a Committee was formed

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell






by the Conferees to consider the disposal of thermal and




radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants to be




located on Lake Michigan.




               One existing and six proposed nuclear




power plants with an electrical production capacity of




7,100,000 kilowatts will be in operation on the shores




of Lake Michigan within the next decade, with all but




one scheduled for completion by 1973-  This proposed




capacity probably will be only a little less than the




estimated 7,700,000 kwe existing fossil fuel power plant




capacity.




               Since the turn of the century, thermal




power plant production throughout the Nation has approxi-




mately doubled every 10 years.  It is anticipated that



the availability of a large source of cooling water in




Lake Michigan and the expanding industries on its shores



will support an even greater increase in power production




in this area than the national average.  Most of the




increased capacity probably will be in nuclear power




plants.



               The AEG predicts that there will be need




for an additional 6,000,000 ki-lowatts of electrical

-------
	344





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 capacity on Lake  Michigan by 1980.




                Existing  fossil  fuel plants  operating at




 full  capacity discharge  an  estimated 300,000 billion




 BTtJ's  per year in cooling water to  the  lake.  Nuclear




 reactor  power plants  discharge  40 to 50 percent  more




 waste  heat per unit  of electrical production to  the




 cooling  water than do fossil fuel plants, and it is




 estimated that the seven nuclear plants when in  full




 operation will discharge 388,000 billion BTU's per year




 to  the lake.   If  all  plants,,  both existing  and proposed,




 operated at full  capacity for a year, and if there were




 no  reduction  of the  added heat  through  evaporative cool-




 ing and  other means,  and assuming complete  mixing of the




 entire lake,  the  temperature  of the lake would be raised




 a little more than 0.06°F annually.



                The foregoing calculation assumes no



 reduction in  the  heat of the  cooling water  added to  the




 lake,  but actually there will be much reduction  through



 evaporation,  radiation and  other means.  There will,  how-




 ever,  be a residual  of the  added heat that  will  be cumu-




 lative until  an equilibrium is  reached  at a somewhat




 higher temperature than  that  due to natural causes.   It

-------
	343




                     F. W. Kittrell






is estimated that with an average annual temperature of



50°F. for the lake the added heat would raise the average



annual temperature at equilibrium by 0.05°F. to 50.05°F.



With increasing power production and no off-lake cooling,



it is estimated the average annual temperature would be



increased by 0.4°F.  in the year 2000, and by 2.0°F. in



2023.  This increase would nullify a 2.0°F. decrease in



average annual temperature of the lake that has occurred,




apparently from natural causes, in the past 100 years.



               These conservative calculations indicate




that there is minimum need for immediate concern over the



effect of temperature on  the lake as a whole.  The probable



long-range effect deserves consideration.



               Possible local effects of increased



temperature on aquatic life, including fish, are cause



for more immediate concern than the effect on the lake



as a whole.  Fish and the aquatic organisms that serve




as their food are particularly sensitive to variations



in seasonal temperature during reproductive and .juvenile



stages.  For example, abnormally high temperatures  during



the spawning and hatching season may  completely upset



the normal reproductive cycle  of fish and  thus limit  or

-------
	346





                     P. W. Kittrell





 prevent  their  production.  It  also is  possible  that



 increased  temperature  of  lake  water  locally may stimulat




 undesirable  growths  of plankton  and  filamentous algae,



 and  lead to  production of nuisances.



               Of  the  four States bordering the lake,




 Illinois and Indiana have temperature  standards, approved



 by the Secretary of  the Interior,that  require that the



 maximum  temperature  of Lake Michigan water not  exceed



 85°P. after  reasonable allowance for mixing.  The Wis-



 consin standard also approved  by the Secretary  allows up



 to 89°F. after mixing,  at the  shoreline  and in  harbor



 waters.  Some, but  not  all, of  these  standards also include




 various  provisions limiting rates of temperature increase



 and  increases over natural temperature.   The Michigan



 standard,  which has  not been approved  by the Secretary,



 establishes  no numerical  limits, but is  a general state-



 ment designed to abate or prevent injury of any kind  due



 to temperature to  any  type of  water  use  or value.



               All four States grant approval for the



 nuclear  power  plants with the  understanding that require •



 ments may  be revised if experience proves the need for




 revision.

-------
	547

                     F. W. Kittrell
                                                        i
               Most  of the plants propose to draw  cooling
water  from  some  distance  out  in the  lake where  the  tempera
ture only infrequently will be above 65°F.  Thus the
temperature of the cooling water can be increased  a
reasonable  amount without exceeding  the standards  for
the lake water.  Most of  the  plants  propose to  discharge
the cooling water through channels ending at the shore-
line;  though  one (Zion, in Illinois) plans to discharge
through a dispersion device about 700 feet from shore.
Discharge velocity at the shoreline  of two to four feet
per second  will  tend to float the warm water on the lake
surface with  a minimum of mixing.  This will allow
cooling from  evaporation  and  radiation, and minimum
addition of heat to  the lake  water,  but will permit
maximum temperature  of the floating  heated water mass
before cooling.  Since such discharges generally tend
to  travel up  or  down the  shoreline rather than  out into
the lake, the greatest damage to aquatic  life along the
shore  could result from this  method.
               Large quantities of cooling water are
required by nuclear  power plants.  The Zion plant,  for
example, will use an annual average  of 2,9^0 cfs,  with

-------
	548





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 a  maximum  of  3j400  cfs  in  summer.    If  all  plants




 anticipated by  1980  used cooling water  at the  same




 rate  as  Zion, the cooling  water use  by  then could




 average  17,500  cfs,  with a maximum of 20,000 cfs in




 summer.  If evaporative  cooling towers  had  to  be used




 for all  of this water and  there were a  two  percent loss




 of water by evaporation,  the  total water evaporated




 would be 400  cfs in  summer.   If power production con-




 tinued to  double and evaporative cooling towers were




 used  for all  cooling water, the rate of evaporation by




 the year 2000 could  be  1,600  cfs.




                Dry  cooling  towers are feasible but less




 efficient  and more  costly  than evaporative  cooling towers



                The  alternatives for  disposal of cooling




 water, and their protential advantages  and  disadvantages




 appear to  be:



                1.  Use  of  evaporative cooling  towers




      and other  off-lake  cooling devices.  Least




      thermal  effect  on  lake water quality and  uses.




     Maximum  diversion  of  lake water by evaporation.




                2.  High  velocity dispersion  through




      submerged  devices well out into lake.   Minimal

-------
	-349





                     F. W. Kittrell






     immediate  thermal effect on water quality




     and uses;  but maximum addition  of heat and




     increase in  lake temperature on  long-term




     basis.  Minimum evaporation of  heated water.




                3-  Low velocity discharge to




     surface at shoreline to float v/ater on sur-




     face.  Maximum potential for damage to aquatic




     life along the shoreline.  More  diversion of




     lake water by evaporation than  high velocity




     dispersion and mixing; but less  addition of




     heat to lake on long-term basis.




                Unfortunately, the present state of the




 art  does not allow quantitative estimates of the various




 potential effects of heated waste discharges on a body  of



 water  as complex  as Lake Michigan.




                Much can be learned of effects of heat




 on lake water by  investigations of aquatic life in the




 vicinity of existing fossil fuel power plants.




                Radionuclides are produced in reactors by




 both fission of nuclear material and by neutron activation




 of reactor materials, of minerals in the water used  as




 a  coolant to produce steam, and of the hydrogen of the

-------
	330


                      F.  W.  Ki'ttrell

•

water  itself.   The  nuclides thus  produced find their way

into the  waste  stream through  leaks  in  various types of

equipment and from  the  laboratory and  laundry.

                Treatment by detention  and decay,  sedi-

mentation,  filtration,  evaporation and  demineralization

reduces all radionuclides  except  tritium  to  very  low

levels.   Tritium  is  radioactive hydrogen  that  is  incor-

porated in  the  water,  and  is not  removed  by  any of  the

treatment processes.   Fortunately, tritium is  one of the

least  hazardous of  all  radionuclides,  and has  one of the

highest maximum allowable  limits  in  drinking water
       _ o
(3 x 10  ^uc/ml).  Estimated discharge  of  all radionuclide

except tritium, from  all proposed nuclear power plants

totals less than  one  curie  per year.   Experience  at  four

of six relatively small  plants already  in operation,  how-

ever,  has shown discharge  of radionuclides ranging  from

1.3 to 11.1 curies  per  year.   Tritium  discharged  by  the

six plants  ranged from  five to 1,300 curies  per year.

The radioactive wastes  of  the  six plants,  after treatment

were in volumes ranging  from 208  to  4,820 gallons per day

                The  treated  radioactive  wastes  will  be

diluted in  the  large  volumes of cooling water  for final

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell






disposal to the lake.  Discharge will be by batches after




each batch has been sampled and analyzed.  Dilution in




the cooling water is estimated to bring the radionuclide




concentrations, including tritium, down to 10 to 20 per-



cent of the permissible limits specified in the Atomic




Energy Commission's 10CFR20 regulations.  The States




standards generally require that radionuclide concentra-




tions comply with the Public Health Service Drinking




Water Standards.  Compliance with the AEG 10CFR20 regu-




lations will ensure compliance with the PHS Drinking




Water Standards.




               A basis for evaluation of the possible




effect on the lake as a whole is that 490,000 curies of




radioactivity would have to be present to give a concen-




tration--



               MR. STEIN:  Do you mean four hundred




ninety or forty-nine thousand?




               MR. KITTRELL:  Four hundred ninety thousanjd




               MR. POOLE:  The report says 4-9,000, Kit.




I looked it up last night.




               MR. KITTRELL:  The report says 490,000.




               MR. POOLE:  It can't be 490,000 10"8 and

-------
	352



                      F.  W.  Kittrell




 490,000  io~7.


                MR.  KITTRELL:   That would be 49,000,  then,


 I  guess.   I  have  this written report right here,  if  you


 want  me  to take a minute to look it up.   You say  how mud


                MR.  POOLE:   Last night I  looked in the


 report and it  is  49,000  of  10 to the minus 8.


                MR.  STEIN:   That is what  it says here,


 49,000 of  10~B  and  490,000  of 10 to the  "7.


                You  know, you  guys .just--


                MR.  KITTRELL:  It should be 49,000,  then.

                                       -8
                MR.  STEIN:   49,000 of 10- .   You  still


 insist on  using these factors that require advanced


 mathematics  to  understand.   I can't see  what that  adds


 to  a  whole number,  but they persist in doing that.   And


 here  we  come up with  a difference of a magnitude  of  ten


 in  two lines when you are dealing with the same figure


 when  one is  to  the  minus eight,ten to the minus eight,  and


 the other  is ten  to the  minus seven.


                Kit, I know  this  isn't you, but I  can say


 for a fellow who  is working  for the past years with the


 Committee  on Radiation Protection from the beginning, I


 cease to be  amused  by this  game  that they play with  this

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell




minus eight, minus seven and minus three to confuse


everyone with the numbers.  Why can't you come out with


a straight number on this so people can follow it?


               By the way, this is not directed at you.


               MR. KITTRELL:  Well, I agree with you,



Murray.  It took me quite a long time to get accustomed



to it.


               MR. STEIN:  I know.


               MR. KITTRELL:  Ten to the minus so on and so


forth.  But on the other hand, I think .0000008 might be


almost as confusing.



               But anyhow, let me start this sentence



over again.


               A basis for evaluation of the possible


effect on the lake as a whole is that 49,000 curies of


radioactivity would have to be present to give a concen-

             -8
tration of 10  uc/ml (10 percent of permissible level),

                                           -7
or 490,000 curies for a concentration of 10  jic/ml.


Nearly 1.5 billion curies of tritium would be required


to equal the permissible concentration for this radio-


nuclide in the lake.  There is no cause for concern for



the effects of radioactive wastes on the lake as a whole

-------
                      F. W. Kittrell
i
                There  is a  possibility  of  concentration

 of  radioactivity  locally in  the  aquatic life  that  serves

 as  the  food  chain  for fish,  with  a  potential  hazard  to

 those who  eat  fish  from the  lake.   Experience with wastes

 from smaller nuclear  power plants discharging to streams

 in  Illinois  and Wisconsin  and  to  the lake  in  Michigan

 has not revealed  such a problem,  but it is  one  that  must

 be  evaluated when  the larger plants go into operation on

 the lake.
                The  policy  of AEG  and the  States that

 radioactive  wastes  in the  environment  must  be kept to

 the lowest practical  level requires that  radioactive dis-

 charges from the  nuclear power plants  be  held to the

 minimum feasible  quantities.
                Review of available  literature,  attendance;
 at  national  symposia  on thermal  pollution,  and  discussior
 with various consultants in  the  field  have  revealed  many

 gaps in knowledge  of  the effects  of thermal wastes on
 water quality  and  uses and of  preferable  means  of  dis-

 posal.   There  is  an urgent need  for investigation,

 especially biological, of  the  effects  on  Lake Michigan

 of  heated  wastes  discharged  from  existing  fossil fuel

-------
	555

                     F. W. Kittrell
                                                        »
 power  plants.
                There also  is a need for acquisition of
 data on  present water quality and  aquatic  life  in  the
 vicinities  of  the  proposed nuclear power plants to pro-
 vide a basis for evaluation of effects of  the wastes
 after  the plants go into operation.  Various power
 companies and  consultants  and Federal and  State agencies
 presently are  making more  or less  independent investiga-
 tions.   All of  these investigations should be coordinatec
 to  the maximum  extent possible.
                    RECOMMENDATIONS
                It  is recommended that:
                1.  All  power plants, both  nuclear  and
 fossil fuel, meet  the waste disposal requirements  and
 water  quality  standards of the States in which  they are
 situated.
                2.  Design  personnel for all future power
 plants consider or evaluate the possible subsequent
 addition of off-lake cooling devices, extended  cooling
 water  effluent  lines with  submerged, high  velocity dis-
 charges, and other methods of controlling  effects  of
 thermal  wastes  on  the lake so 'that such devices can be

-------
	556





                      P.  ¥.  Kittrell






 added  if  found to be  necessary.




                3.  Radioactive  liquid  wastes  discharges




 to the lake  be kept to  the  minimum feasible.




                4.  Individual  States ensure  that  adequate




 base  line data on water  quality  and  aquatic  life  be




 obtained  at  all proposed power  plant sites,  and  that




 adequate  post-operational monitoring be  provided,  and




 results be made available to all parties  concerned.




                5.  Coordinated  study of  the  thermal




 effects on water quality and aquatic life  of  one  or more




 fossil fuel  plants  now discharging cooling water  to Lake




 Michigan,  and  of various methods of  cooling  water  dis-




 persion be undertaken by FWPCA.




                6.  FWPCA coordinate  a  comprehensive study




 of the effects on water  quality  and  aquatic  life  of



 thermal wastes from a large nuclear  power  plant  on Lake




 Michigan,  with attention to various  methods  of cooling




 water  dispersion.



                7.   FWPCA coordinate  a  study  of the effect




 on water  quality and  uses of radioactive wastes from a




 large  nuclear  power plant on Lake  Michigan,  with  especial,




 attention  to the  concentration of  radionuclides in aquati

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell
life.
               8.  The Atomic Energy Commission be reques
to coordinate the development of a plan for the State




agencies, the FWPCA, the U. S. Public Health Service, and




other appropriate agencies, for emergency methods to deal




with accidental radioactive releases (gaseous as well as




liquid) on Lake Michigan, including an inventory of




appropriate laboratory and evaluation resources.








               (The following is the document submitted




by Mr. Kittrell:)




                         REPORT



                         of the




     COMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE DISPOSAL



                         to the




  CONFEREES OF THE  LAKE MICHIGAN ENFORCEMENT CONFERENCE



                     NOVEMBER  1968






                      INTRODUCTION






               A Conference on pollution  of Lake Michiga




and  its  tributary basin  (Wisconsin-Illinois-Indiana-




Michigan),  requested by  Governor Otto Kerner of Illinois
ted

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell






and called by Secretary of the Interior, Stuart L. Udall,



was held in Chicago, Illinois, on January 31, February




1-2, February 5-7, March 7-8,and March 12, 1968.



               Among problems discussed by the Conferees



was the disposal of waste radioactive material and heat



from nuclear power plants scheduled to be located on the




shores of Lake Michigan within the next five years. They



concluded that insufficient information was available to




them at that time to .1udge the potential effects of these




wastes on water quality of Lake Michigan.



               The Conferees' tenth recommendation, among




a total of twenty-six, was:



               "The States and the Department of the



Interior will appoint members of a special committee on



nuclear discharges and the thermal pollution aspects of



power plants and reactors.  The committee will meet with



representatives of the Atomic Energy Commission and othei



interested parties to develop guidelines for pollution



control from nuclear power plants.  The committee is to



pay special attention to thermal discharges which affect



the aquatic life environment of the lake.  Representative




of  the committee will be available to appear before any

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell






Federal or State agency considering approval of a permit



for such power plants and reactors."




               Members of the committee appointed by the



Conferees are:




               F. W. Kittrell, Chairman, Public




     Health Engineer, Federal Water Pollution



     Control Administration;




               C. T. Blomgren, Sanitary Engineer,



     Illinois State Sanitary Water Board]




               L. E. Stratton, Sanitary Engineer,



     Illinois State Sanitary Water Board;




               H. C. Briggs, Sanitary Engineer,



     Indiana State Board of Health;



               J. R. McKersie, Sanitary Engineer,



     Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources;



               J. G. Robinson, Aquatic Biologist,



     Michigan Water Resources Commission.



               Two members of the Committee, Messrs.




Briggs and Stratton, have specialized in radiological



health.  A third, Mr. Robinson,  has specialized in aquati



biology.  The other three members have had general



experience in sanitary engineering and water resources.

-------
	560





                     F. W. Kittrell






 Clifford Risley, Jr.,  Chemist, FWPCA,  served as non-



 voting  Secretary of  the Committee, with W. L. Abbott,



 Chemist, as his alternate.



               The Committee  first met, for organizational



 purposes,  on  May 27, 1968.  It has met in  seven two-day




 and  one one-day work sessions since that time.



               Valuable contributions  have been made by




 the  following agencies, which provided speakers on nuclear



 power plants  and on  effects and  control of their wastes:



               Atomic  Energy  Commission, Chicago




     Operations Office.



               Commonwealth Edison Company,




     Chicago  Office.



               Federal Water  Pollution Control



     Administration, Division of Technical Services.



               U. S. Public Health Service,




     Nuclear  Facilities Section.



               The Atomic  Energy Commission and Public



 Health  Service speakers dealt primarily with radioactive



 wastes.  The  Commonwealth  Edison speakers  presented  the



 results of a  single  field  study  of thermal wastes from




 the  company's Waukegan fossil fuel plant that included

-------
	561





                     F. W. Kittrell






 temperature  and  biological effects on the  lake,  and



 described  plans  for  disposal  of wastes  from the  company1



 Zion nuclear power plant.  FWPCA  representatives  providec



 information  on heat  losses from power plants,  effects  of




 thermal  discharges on aquatic  life,  and consultation  on



 radiological wastes.



               Committee members  also have discussed  the



 problems involved with knowledgeable individuals,



 attended national meetings on  thermal pollution,  and



 reviewed much literature on the subject.



               Although isolated  cases  of  thermal pol-



 lution have  been recognized for many years, only recently



 has  concern  over the problem  become  widespread.   This



 concern  has  developed because  of  increase  in  thermal



 power  production, which is doubling  approximately every



 ten  years, using both nuclear and fossil fuel,  and



 because  of the increasing  capacity of individual power




 plants.



               Because of  relatively limited  attention




 to thermal pollution in the past, there are few experts



 in the  disposal  of waste heat and many  gaps in knowledge



 of behavior  of waste heat  in  receiving  waters,  of its

-------
	562





                     F. W. Kittrell






 effects  on water quality  and  uses, and  of  the  most




 efficient and  economical  methods  of  disposal without




 damage to the  aquatic  environment.   For example,  methods




 of  calculating the  patterns that  will be assumed  in lake




 waters by heated water discharges, and  the rates  of cool-




 ing that may be anticipated in  the receiving waters are




 in  the developmental stage.   Much additional research




 will be  necessary before  it will  be  possible to predict




 with assurance what heated water  will do when  discharged




 to  a lake.



                Liquid  radioactive wastes,  on the  other




 hand, have received a  great deal  of  publicity  and attenti




 and means for  the effective treatment and  acceptable




 disposal of them are well known.  Of all the radionuclide




 that are most  likely to be constituents of the liquid



 wastes,  only tritium is not directly amenable  to  removal




 by  accepted methods of treatment  such as evaporation




 or  demineralization.   This is because tritium  is  a  "heavj




 hydrogen atom,  and  exists therefore  as  an  integral  part




 of  the water molecule.  Estimated quantities (activity




 and volume) of liquid  radioactive wastes from  the typi-




 cal large nuclear plant are based on a  limited amount of
on,

-------
	363





                     F. ¥. KIttrell






 operating  experience since the use of  such  plants  is a




 relatively recent  development.






                       LAKE MICHIGAN






                        The  Lake




                Lake Michigan (Figure 1)  is  the  sixth




 largest  fresh-water lake  on  earth, with  a surface  area




 of  22,400  square miles, an average depth of 276 feet,




 and a volume  of 1,116  cubic  miles, or  1,230,000 billion




 gallons.   The lake surface is nearly one-third  of  the




 total drainage  area.   The lake is divided into  two basin




 by  a submerged  ridge,  averaging about  230 feet  below the




 surface, that runs roughly from Grand  Haven,  Michigan,



 to  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin.  The water surface elevation




 averages about  580 feet above sea level, and the maximum



 depth of 923  feet  in the  northern basin  extends 3^3 feet




 below sea  level.   The  coastline, with  the exception of




 Green Bay  and Little Traverse and Grand  Traverse bays,




 is  quite regular.  Much of the shoreline is sandy  and




 provides excellent beaches for bathing,  but constitutes




 poor underwater surfaces  for attachment  and growth of




 aquatic  organisms.

-------
                                          554
                   86'
                                   83'
LAKE MICHIGAN
FIGURE I

-------
	565

                     F. W. Kittrell
                                                        v
                The  greatest  portion  of  the  lake  is  in

 the  State  of  Michigan, with  12,350  square miles,,  or 55«1

 percent  of  the  total surface  area.   Wisconsin  has 7,550

 square miles, or  33-7  percent,  Illinois  2,280  square
 miles,or 10.2 percent, and Indiana  only  224 square  miles,

 or 1.0 percent.

                The  lake discharges  at its northern  and

 southern ends.  Its natural  flow, estimated to be in the

 approximate  range of 40,000  to  55,000 cubic feet  per

 second (cfs), is  through  the  straits of  Mackinac  into

 Lake Huron,  and a diverted flow of  3,200 cfs is  into

 the  Chicago  Sanitary and  Ship Canal. The combined  annual

 outflow  is  equivalent  to  about  one  percent  of  the lake

 volume.
                        Currents
                The  lake currents  are quite  variable.
 Figures  2A  and  2B show the four principal circulation

 patterns in  Lake  Michigan.   In  the  main  body of  the
      (1)   "Lake  Michigan  Currents."   Great  Lakes  Region,
 Federal Water  Pollution  Control  Administration,  Chicago,

 Illinois  (Nov.  1967).

-------
	566





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 northern basin the  currents revolve in a clockwise




 direction 25 percent of  the time and in a counterclock-




 wise  direction 25 percent of the time.  The other half




 of  the time they flow toward the south in the  middle  of




 the basin,  split near the lower end, and return in a




 northerly direction  on each side of the central southerly




 current.  In the sothern basin,  the main currents revolve




 in  a  clockwise direction 25 percent of the time,  and  in




 the opposite direction 75 percent of the time.   The prin-




 cipal importance of  these currents  in the consideration




 of  this  Committee is that they cause rather complete




 mixing of all  waters of  the lake over a period  of time.




                Of more significance in this Committee's




 considerations are  the currents  nearer shore (Figure  3)



 which flow  in  opposite direction to the main currents




 between  10  and 90 percent of the time, depending  on the




 season of the  year,  and  the point on the lake  involved,




 whether  on  the east  or west shore,  and whether  in the




 northern or southern basin.   Thirty-five percent  of the




 time  these  currents  flow in a southerly direction and




 sixty-five  percent of the time  in a northerly  direction,




 in  both  basins.

-------
                                                                                        55?
                                                                   H

                                                                   O
                                                                   O LJ
                                                                      z
                                                                   oc
                                                                   CO
z
                                                                          §?
                                                                          oi
                                                                          w
                                                                          E-"
                                                                          H
             w
             O


             I
             »
             CO

             Ei
                                                                                     •z.
        §   6   o

        s   i   ^
        ^—*   »^   . j i
        5   OJ   O
        R   ^>   M
        O   "   S
                                                                   < to

                                                                   -J O
O



or
UJ
                                                                     CO

                                                                      I
                                                                  CO
                                                                                a
                                                                                <
                                                                                >
                                                                                Figure  2A

-------
               558
     o
tn    <

d    04
W    ED
E-<    CO
z
o
M

S
o

CS
ci
»
o
          o
          M
          X
         Figure 2B

-------
                    559
< V)
-I O
3 Z
o
   V)
UJ
   CO
to
             O  l-l
                 K
             W  O
 z
 O
 o
 O UJ
    z
 o:
 2
 D
 (O
               Figure 3

-------
	570




                       F.  W.  Kittrell





                Of  still  greater  importance  in  this



 Committee's  considerations are the  currents quite near



 shore,  in water less  than 30 feet deep,  especially  in



 connection with those power  plants  that  discharge at



 the  shoreline  rather  than at some distance  out into the



 lake.   Such  shore  currents are not  necessarily subject tc



 the  main movements  of water  in the  lake,  but are greatly



 influenced by  wind  direction, the local  shape  of the



 shoreline and  by natural  and man-made  obstructions, such



 as tributaries,  coves, .jetties from harbors or tribu-



 taries, marina basins and breakwaters.   The true pattern



 of such currents can  be  determined  only  by  observations



 in the  areas involved.



                      S t_r at i_f i cat i^ojn^



                A phenomenon  that has not generally  been


                                                    (2}
 recognized was reported  in "Lake Michigan Currents."v  '



 Water along  the shore has been found to  have a different



 temperature  from that farther offshore.   For example,



 in summer shore  water out to a depth of  23  to  33 feet



 in Lake Michigan may  be  9°F.  or  more warmer than that





     (2)  ibid.

-------
	571





                     F. W. Kittrell






 offshore.  The  change in temperature is quite abrupt.



 The vertical interface where the waters with different



 temperatures meet has been called a  "thermal bar" and



 may be  likened  to a fragile partition separating shore




 waters  from the main body of the lake.  It  is stated



 that  such  a bar is intermittent and may occur at any



 time  during the year.  Although fragile, the thermal




 bar offers some resistance to mixing, and may in part



 account for reports that wastes discharged  at the shores



 of large lakes  frequently tend to travel along  shore in



 either  direction from the point of discharge, rather than



 out into the main body of the lake.  This will  be importa



 in shoreline disposal of heated wastes in those areas



 where substantial populations of aquatic life exist.



 Potential  damage to such life is greater ±n the shallow



 waters  in  the vicinity of the shore  than it would be



 farther out into the lake.



                A better known feature of Lake Michigan



 is the  typical  stratification (horizontal)  that is  found




 in most deep lakes.  The lake may stratify  in both  summer



 and winter, although winter  stratification  was  not  found



 in the  shallower and somewhat warmer southern basin
nt

-------
	572




                     F. W. Kittrell






 during  the  1961-1963 current  study.   In  summer,  the



 surface water warms up more rapidly  than  the  deeper



 water and continues to become  less dense  until  it  becomes



 separated from  the deeper water  by a transitional, hori-




 zontal  stratum  (thermocline)  between the  warm surface



 water and the colder and more  dense  water underneath.



 The  temperature  of the water  below the thermocline remairj:



 near that of the  previous winter, with only minimal



 warming as  summer advances.   This separation  of  the  two



 strata  of water  starts in lake May and persists  until



 November or occasionally into  December in the southern



 basin.  In  the  northern basin, summer stratification may



 not  begin until  late June or  early July  and likewise may



 persist into December.  The warm surface  stratum is  only



 a  few yards deep  when first formed,  but  it deepens through'



 out  the summer,  and may be as  much as 200 feet  deep  by



 late fall.  This  means that water intakes designed to



 withdraw cold water from the  depths  of the lake  would



 have to extend  into the lake  as  much as  30 miles at  the



 southern end, but as little as two miles  in limited



 reaches along the east side to ensure withdrawal of  the




 cold water  at all times.

-------
	573





                     F. W. Kittrell



                                                        i




                  NUCLEAR POWER  PLANTS






                One  small nuclear power  plant  is  already




 situated  on  Lake  Michigan.  Five others  are under  con-




 struction, or  have  had  plans  approved or plans submitted




 for  approval.   A  seventh is proposed but no plans  have




 been submitted.   Locations of the  seven  nuclear  plants




 and  of  existing major fossil  fuel  plants are  shown on




 Figure  4.  The figure includes electrical capacities  of




 the  plants.  The  7,100,000 electrical kilowatts  (kwe)




 capacity  of  the 7 nuclear power  plants  will be 52  perce.n




 more than the  4,690,000 kwe of the 6 major fossil  fuel




 plants.   However, the total present capacity  of  all




 fossil  fuel  plants  on the lake,  including those  at



 industrial plants is estimated to  exceed that of the




 existing  and proposed nuclear plants.




                     il^j^LiLL  Design



                The  Big  Rock Point plant has been in oper




 ation since  1963. It is a boiling water reactor  (BWR)




 plant,  and it, along with the Bailey plant, are  the only




 ones of this type among the seven.  The Big Rock Point




 plant is  the smallest,  with only 70,000 kwe capacity,

-------
	574





                     P. W. Kittrell






 or  less  than  one  percent  of  the  total  of  7,100,000  kwe



 for the  7  nuclear plants.  The other five  plants  will



 be  pressurized water reactors  (PWR).



               The  Point  Beach,  Kewaunee,  Zion, and



 Palisades  plants  already  are under construction.  Con-




 struction  of  the  Bridgeman and Bailey  plants has  not yet



 started.



               Of the  7 nuclear  plants  3,  with  1,500,000



 kwe capacity, will  be  located  on the shores of  the



 northern basin of Lake Michigan,  and 4  with a total of



 5,600,000  kwe, will be located on the  smaller southern



 basin.   Three plants with a  capacity of 2,970,000 kwe



 will be  in Michigan, two  with  a  capacity of 1,430,000 kwe



 in  Wisconsin, one with a  capacity of 2,200,000  kwe  in



 Illinois,  and one with a  capacity of 500,000 kwe  in



 Indiana.



               In a BWR plant  steam is  produced directly



 in  the nuclear reactor from  water circulating around and



 through  it (Figure  5).  A PWR  plant has a  closed  "loop"



 of  water,  known as  the "primary  coolant" that circulates



 under high pressure (as much as  2,500  psig) between the



 reactor  and a boiler.  The water of the primary loop

-------
                                          575
                 NUCLEAR PLANTS
                  C5~"ax
                   / MACCINAW
                 /    CITY
                           Copocity   Complafion
                          Million KW     Dote
        Big  Rock Point
             »
        Kewounee
        Point Beech Unit I
        Point Beach Unit 2
        Zion Unit I
        Zion Unit 2
        Bridgmon Unit I
        Bridgman Unit 2
        Polisodes
        Boilly
 GRA.S'D  HAVEN
  SAUGATUCK  FOSSIL  FUEL PLANTS
 0.07
 O.53
 0.45
 0.45
  1.10
  1.10
  1.10
  1.10
 0.7O
  O.5O
                         1963
                         1972
                         1971
                         1972
                         1972
                         1973
                         1972
                         1972
                         1970
                      Lc!5  197 0*s
           No.
I A N A
   Nome
Lakeside
Oak Creek
Waukegon
State  Line
Mitchell
Campbell
 Capacity
Million KW
   0.31
   1.35
   1.09
   0.88
   0 41
   0.65
   MAJOR  POWER   PLANTS
                                    Figure U

-------
                                575-

o
<
UJ
C£
                            Figure 5

-------
	577




                     F. W. Kittrell






 does  not "boil but yields its heat in the  boiler  to  a



 secondary water  cycle, under lower pressure, where  steam



 is produced.




               The nuclear reactor heat source consists



 of containers of stainless steel or zirconium alloy



 (cladding)  encasing pellets of natural uranium dioxide,



 which are enriched with uranium-235•  The nuclear chain



 reaction is  controlled by rods of neutron-absorbing



 materials such as cadmium, boron, indium  and silver. In



 the PWR, boron is added to the primary coolant to provide



 additional  control of the reaction.



               From the point of production of steam



 through the  generation of electricity, the condensation



 of the exhaust steam with cooling water,  and the return



 of the condensate to the heat source, the process in



 nuclear power plants is the same as that  in a fossil



 fuel  plant.



                   Predicted Increase



               Production of electric power has  approxi-




 mately doubled in this country every 10 years since the



 turn  of the  century, and the same rate of increase  is




 expected to  continue at least to the Year 2000.

-------
	578





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






                It  is  anticipated that Lake Michigan,




 with  large  volumes  of cooling water available and with




 rapid industrial growth  along its  shores  will experience




 a  higher  rate  of increase  than the national average.




                The  AEG Reactor Development Division has




 estimated probable  increases  in nuclear power production




 on  Lake Michigan by 19^0,  but not  beyond.   These  estimate




 based on  anticipated  increased power demands for  companie




 serving the area,  are:




      Commonwealth  Edison                 3,000,000 kwe




      Wisconsin Power  and Light             500,000 kwe




      Wisconsin Public Service              500,000 kwe




      Indiana and Michigan  Electric       i.i.9_9_9_iJ?_9_?_ kwe



                            TOTAL         6,000,000 kwe




                The  last  of  the nuclear power plants




 (Bailey)  presently  planned  for Ication on  Lake  Michigan




 is  scheduled for completion in the late 1970's.   The




 total capacity of  the seven plants is 7,100,000 kwe.  The




 total capacity of  the predicted additional plants is




 6,000,000 kwe.  This  does  not include capacities  of any




 fossil fuel plants  that  may be built.

-------
                     	579





                     P. W. Kittrell








                         WASTES






                         General
               The principal liquid wastes discharged



from nuclear power plants to receiving waters contain



radioactive materials and heat.  Both of these consti-



tuents are discharged in the large quantities of cooling



water used to condense the exhaust steam for return to



the heat source.




               Other waste materials, which were not



specified for consideration by the Committee, may include




bacteria and other constituents of sewage from employees;



residual chlorine, algicides or fungicides used to controfl



slimes in cooling water equipment; phosphates, chromates



or other corrosion inhibitors; boron from the primary



coolant of PWR's; minerals in boiler water blowdown; and



chemicals used in regenerating de-ionizing resins.



                   Had 1oa c^t_ive Wa s_t_e_s^




               The nuclear power units proposed for Lake



Michigan are larger than any currently in operation.



There are no operating experiences to indicate the




quantities of radioactive wastes from plants of these

-------
	580





                     P. W. Kittrell






 capacities.  The practice has been to  estimate  these



 wastes on the basis of  extrapolated data  from operating




 experiences  of  smaller  installations,  on  assumed values



 of  fission product leakage from  the fuel  elements into




 the primary  coolant, and on efficiencies  of various




 waste treatment processes.



 Origin



                The radioactive materials  originate in the



 reactor and  reach the waste stream by  several routes.




 Small quantities of radiorruclides produced by fission



 in  the reactor  enter the primary coolant.  Other radio-



 nuclides are formed by  neutron bombardment of the water



 and the metals  of the reactor equipment.  The latter  may



 either go into  solution in the coolant or may become



 suspended in it as soluble corrosion products.  Radio-



 active materials may escape from the high pressure pri-



 mary coolant system through leaks in valves, joints,



 pumps, and other imperfections of the  equipment.  In



 order to prevent excessive build-up of radioactive



 materials in the primary coolant system,  it is  necessary



 to  withdraw  a portion of the  coolant from time  and treat




 it  for removal  of radioactivity.

-------
_ 381





                     F. W. Kittrell






                Other sources  of  radioactive  wastes  are



 the  nuclear  fuel  storage  pool, the laboratory  and the



 laundry.



 Volumes



                Final volumes  of  the  treated  radioactive



 wastes from  the large  plants  may be  typified by  that



 estimated  for  one  of them (Zion  - 2,200,000  kwe) (Table 1



 The  total  estimated volume os 2,920,000  gallons  per year



 or 8,000 gallons  per day  (gpd).  The waste will  be  in two



 categories,  one being  6,000 gpd  with mixed radionuclides ,



 and  the other  2,000 gpd containing tritium.




                Actual  data for four  smaller  BWR  plants



 (24  to 200 kwe) show that final  radioactive  waste volumes



 ranged from  208 to 4,820  gpd. Waste volumes from two



 small PWR  plants  (163  to  185  kwe) were 24,100  and 2,330
Radio n u c lj^de_s_



                Table  1  is  an  example  of  estimated
      (3)   Blomeke,  J.  0.,  and  Harrington,  F.  E.,  "Waste



 Management at  Nuclear  Power  Stations."   Nuclear  Safety,




 Vol.  §_, No.  3  (May-June,  1968).

-------
                                                                  582
                           TABLE 1
       EXAMPLE OF ESTIMATED RADIOACTIVE HASTE DISCK/V3GS
                  FROM A NUCLEAR POVER FIA1TC
                    (Zion - 2,200,000 kwe)
RadAonuclide*
   Co 60
   Co 58
   Cs 137
   I  135
   Cs
   I  133
   I  131
   Mo 99
   *  91
   H  3
Mixed radionuclide waste discharge
Tritium waste discharge
Average annual cooling water discharge
Total mixed radioactivity
  (exclusive of tritium)
Total tritiun radioactivity
Estimated itaxiinum radioactivity of
cooling water (exclusive of tritium)
 Concentration -jac/cc
    U.3 x 10"8
    3.6 x 10"7
           ,-6
    5.6 x 10"
    3.1 x 10
    1.0 x 10
    6.3 x 10
    8.1 x 10
-6
-6
-6
-6
    1.5 x 10"5
    2.6 x 10~9
    2.5
    6,000 gpd**
    2,000 gpd
1,320,000 gpm
    0.^5 curies per year

   6,075 curies per year
      -8
    10~  /ic/cc
*Includes more than 99 percent of ^ross radioactivity.
**May all te released during one-hour period es "batch discharge.

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell

                                                        i


radionuclide release after treatment from the proposed



2,200,000 kwe PWR plant at Zion.  The 0.25 curies of



total activity per year is quite low.  Experience at



the four smaller BWR plants already in operation in the



24 to 200 kwe range, has shown that several actual dis-



charges have been considerably greater than this, with



a range of 0.01 to 5-8 curies per year.  The two PWR



plants discharged total activity of 0.01 and 11.1 curies


         (4)
per year.



               Tritium is not included in any of the



above values since it generally is considered separately.



The Zion plant is expected to discharge 6,075 curies per



year.  The four small BWR plants discharged from 5 to 20



curies of tritium per year and the two PWR plants 500


and 1,300 curies per year.(5)  Tritium is one of the leas



hazardous of the radionuclides and has a very liberal



maximum permissible concentration (MFC) of 3 x 10  juc/ml.



Even the 1,300 curies per year discharge resulted in only



about one-sixth hundredth of the -tritium MPC in the plant
     (4)  ibid.



     (5)  ibid.

-------
	384




                     F. W. Kittrell






 cooling water.   Tritium,  which  is  radioactive  hydrogen,




 is  incorporated  in  the water molecule  and  is not  removed




 by  treatment  processes.



 Proposed  Disposal



               All  liquid radioactive  wastes will be



 collected for treatment before  discharge to the lake.



 Treatment processes  may include detention  for  radioactive



 decay, settling  of  suspended solids, filtration,  deminers



 ization of soluble  radionuclides,  and  evaporation.  Solid



 removed from  the liquid wastes  and ion exchange resins



 will  be disposed of  off-site under regulation  by  AEG.




 The residual  treated liquid wastes will be held in



 tanks for analysis  before batch discharge  to the  lake in



 the cooling water.   All treatment  facilities are  designed



 to  meet liquid waste disposal  requirements of  both  AEG



 and the States in which the individual plants  will  be



 situated.  Although  designed specifically to meet  AEG



 regulation, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation part  20



 (10CFR20),  it is anticipated that  during normal operatior



 the radioactivity of the  cooling water, with the  exceptic



 of  that due to tritium, will be about  10 to 20 percent




 of  the annual average  limit of  10  Jic/ml for mixed
1-
n

-------
	585





                     P. W. Kittrell






unidentified  radionuclides established by that  regulation



                       Waste Heat



                Cooling systems must  be designed to delive



sufficient  cooling water  to condense the exhaust  steam




efficiently,  and  at  the same time meet temperature stan-




dards  for the  lake.
               Electric  steam plants  are inefficient in



 their  conversion  of  thermal  energy into electrical energy



 Modern fossil fuel  plants waste about 60 percent  of the



 thermal energy produced, and convert  only about 40 percen




 into electrical energy.  Nuclear plants are even  more



 inefficient, with only about one third of the  thermal



 energy being converted to electrical  energy.   The lost



 heat from  both types of  plants is wastes to the atmospher



 from the stack gases, the turbines, the generator and



 the pumps,  and to cooling water in the condensation of



 exhaust steam.  It  is the heat in the cooling  water that



 is of  concern to  this Committee.




               The  poorer efficiency  of nuclear power



 plants is  reflected in both  the greater thermal energy



 necessary  to produce a unit  of electric power  and the

-------
	586




                      P.  W.  Kittrell






 greater  heat  loss  to  the cooling water.   Nuclear plants



 waste  40 to 50  percent more heat to  the  cooling water



 than do  fossil  fuel plants.



 Volume



                The volume  of cooling water  for  a unit of




 electrical production varies with the designed  tempera-




 ture increase of the  cooling water.   In  general,  the



 average  reported discharge  for  large nuclear  plants is



 about  1,300 million gallons per day  (2,000  cubic feet



 per second) for a  1,000,000 kwe plant.   The Zion plant



 is expected to  discharge 2,280  cfs in winter, and 3*^00




 cfs in summer,  for an annual average of  2,9^-0 cfs.  The




 latter is very  nearly equal to  the annual average flow



 of three of the four  largest tributaries  to Lake Michigaih,



 the Grand, St.  Joseph and  Menominee  rivers  and  is nearly



 three-fourths of that of the largest,  the Fox River.



 Heat



                As noted  above,  the temperature  rise of



 the cooling water depends  on the design  of  the  cooling



 system.  The increase  may range  from  as little as  10 P.



 to as  much as 30°F.   The Zion plant  is designed to take




 cooling  water from the lake at  a reported maximum of

-------
	587





                     F. W. Kittrell






 65°F.  and  return  it at 84.6°F., a 19«6°F rise, in summer.



               A  more nearly  constant value than increase



 in  temperature is the total waste heat per unit of power




 production.



               Modern efficient fossil fuel plants can



 produce  one  kilowatt hour  (kwh) of electrical energy,



 equivalent to 3,413 BTU's, from about 8,500 BTU's of



 thermal  energy.   There has been a continuing reduction



 in  the thermal energy required as plants efficiencies



 have  been  improved.  An average of 9>000 BTU's of thermal




 energy per kw^ of electrical  energy  is a more nearly



 representative value for some older  plants.  A nuclear



 power plant  requires about 10,000 BTU's of thermal energy



 to  produce one kwh of electrical energy.  Federal Power



 Commission information indicates that the waste heat



 to  cooling water  in a nuclear plant  averages 6,250 BTU's



 per kwh.   The Zion plant estimate is 6,740 BTU's per kwh.



 A  comparable value for fossil fuel plants is 4,450 BTU's




 per kwh.



               The seven nuclear plants, operated at full




 capacity,  would  discharge  an  estimated 1,063 billion BTU'



 per day  to the lake.  The  range of heat discharges for

-------
.	388





                      P.  W.  Kittrell






 the  individual  plants would be  from  about  10  to  330




 billion  BTU's per  day.



 Proposed Disposal



                The cooling  water  from  all  plants  will be



 discharged  to the  lake  in the vicinity of  the  power plant




 Most discharges will  be  at  the  shoreline through  open



 channels.   The  Zion plant will  discharge TOO  feet off-




 shore  through a dispersion structure.  Discharge veloci-



 ties generally  are reported to  be about two to four feet



 per  second.  No off-lake cooling  facilities are  proposed,




 but  all  disposal systems are designed  to meet  the require



 ments  of the States in which the  individual plants  are



 located.  In general,  this  means  that  the  maximum tempera



 ture in  the vicinity  of  the points of  discharge  will  not



 exceed 85 F., with a  few degrees  higher temperatures



 allowed  in  some cases  for mixing  within limited  specified




 distances.



            Gen era IP at t e r n_s___g f _ Wa s_t e  P1ume s



                Calculation  of the anticipated  patterns



 of heated water that  will be produced  in the  lake by



 cooling  water is not  possible at  the present  stage  of




 development of  methods for  such calculations.  In  additior

-------
	589





                     P. W. Kittrell






 only  a  limited  number of field observations of actual




 heated  water  discharges in Lake Michigan is available.




 Therefore,  only very general  comments on probable heated




 water patterns  in  the lake are justified.




                The warm water pattern in Lake Michigan




 made  by cooling water discharged from the J. H.  Campbell




 plant (fossil fuel) of the Consumers Power Company at




 Port  Sheldon, Michigan, was observed by the Michigan




 Water Resources Commission on July 3> 1968.  At  that time




 the plant was discharging 579 cfs of water with  a tempera




 ture  of 83.5 F- at the lakeshore through a dug channel.




 Wind  was from the  west at five miles per hour(mph).




 Figure  6 shows  details of the pattern of heated  water.




 The plume was about five feet thick and had a temperature




 of less than  one degree above lake water temperature




 within  one-half to one mile offshore.  The warm  water



 extended along  shore more than one and one-half  miles




 both  north  and  south from the point of discharge.




                Observations of the pattern of heated




 water discharge in the lake were made by FWPCA Chicago




 Regional Office personnel at  the Commonwealth Edison




 Company's Waukegan Plant (fossil fuel) on May 22, 1968.

-------
	590





                      F. W.  Kittrell






Wind was  from  the  south-southeast.  Figure  7  shows  the




results of  these observations.   The warm  water  extended



about  one-half mile  offshore,  and more than one mile



north  along the shore.



               The cooling  water discharge  pattern  at




the Waukegan Plant also was  observed  by plant personnel



during April 1968.   The plant  was discharging about



1,700  cfs of cooling water  at  a  temperature of  about



60°F.  which was 12°F. above  that of the lake water. The



discharge from the plant was through  a flume emptying



at the shore with  a  velocity of  2.6 feet  per second.




The wind  was generally in a  southerly direction but varie




from slightly  east to slightly west of south, which made



it approximately parallel to the shore.   It was usually



less than 10 mph.  Figures 8  through 17 show the results



of these  observations in detail.  The plume occupied  a



roughly circular area, about 0.3 miles in diameter  at the



surface with a center about  0.4  miles offshore.   The  cent



of the area was slightly north of the discharge point.



The area  was connected to the  point of discharge  by a



neck less than 0.1 of a mile wide.  The circular  area




decreased with depth, averaging  about 0.1 of a  mile in
er

-------

-------
                                                            592
COMMONWEALTH
EDISON PLANT
                                     \   \
                                      \

                                  OU°M
                                    •14
                         Intake OLigM
                       Discharge
                        Canal
                                                    Wind
II
                            SURFACE ISOTHERMS °C
                          THERMAL POLLUTION STUDY
                        WAUKEGAN,ILLINOIS. MAY22,19SS
                      Light
                                                             WILE
                                                            .« 7

-------
                                                                          593
,-,t.r"~.J>.Jss+s0r»f \          ^•z.''^-:^>^'tt'.-'f:''r:'S'z,?,?.'''?'<+•***?
V.  fy"    |    S    {"'\i-:c  "  -v'. -;;'•-'.'j  -
                                                                   ii!
                                                              —   ' ___ i
                                                                     00

-------
              I         '                   I
                                                                              594
                                                                            CD
                                                                             CO
WjX#M?#'Wpm^*<&      ~  ^.
i^^^f^V^v^-^;^|.- ----4—





lu>J •»•**«**«. Mt^M-. *«i.U-».K «, —w^..*^,*.).* ^	„ ,.^ \ ,-*.,-m-w»v \ l^uw^ J
'/•'••;

-------
                                                                         595
frs'" *-SS" s s/  Js s

                                                                  21
                                                                  UJ;
                                                                  CO,

                                                                  fe-J
                                                                   O



                                                                   ul


-------
                                                                                 596
!m

         a? x
         o
         o
         O
         O
         O
         O
         IN?

         O

         O
                     x   J2
XX/
 /      /;





s
• s
B^
r^
«-
f i • iJ>
*

t._ --
~



•


,

i
!

                                               XX    /'
                                                          tn
                                                          «=>
                                                                 CO
                                         X


                                         X
                                                   x/
                                                                         m
                                                                         c
                                                                          CO
         ro
         CO

         8
            Cl

                                                       *   /^

-------
                                                                   o
                                                                 * o
                                                                   CD
                                                                   CVJ
                                                                                        597
CO
CO


t-M
 I.U
 cu.
^


^
                                                    «£»
                                                    tfi
                                      ^
'"/
            a/

            '4.
                         
                         Ift
                                  ' "'4(?      '
                                     f'^4   :
                             V  /

                             r
                             <
                             s
                             A
                                                        /
                                                        /
                                  *S> ....
                                        //
                                                                   O
                                                                 * O

                                                                   'c^
                                                                 / CJ
                                                  O
                                                  O
                                                  o
                                                  CO
                                          o
                                          o
                                          o

i


1 '
• -- 1 -••
1
I
^M^.^:^
:'•"•/////,•/'/:.•///',
. -T^
' i „
i i O
- ! 1 O
i "^
; i
i
) ; I
i
- \ u J,
1 '
j

I
J2
, s
i

i
1 *^ 1





o
; uj


i

1




i









to I
- ___ 	 _^ . 	 ^ _l.- — , _ J<"1«- - 	 	 	 - 	 U__ 	 T-r-
i ^ i
; t-
0 j
i co |

i
i
1
j
i..— - * _ _«.- _ _ l- - 	 __


"o
OO








.... .. 	 g
i v
>
i %k / \
s X
1 •&. S
! t-> S ! t .
f-w,*-\-- 	 ,,»«-»«„„, — ^.,;_»,, 	 _ K/J /"- . -i 	 i. 	 f^
? r ; As A i !
                                                                          I	i

                                                                          |UJ'

                                                                          IC.5!
                                                 i*"!

                                                 jo!
                                                                            OJ

-------
                                                                             •398
              IKS
ess !
                                    V)
                                    UJ
                                    CD
                                    ItJ
- O
, >—

i 
                                    li!
                                                                 O
                                                                 o
                                                                 CO
                                                                        ess
                                     CD,

                                     gj

                                    I*"   ^


                                    \	i

                                     ro
                                                                 o
                                                                 o
                                        \

-------
                                                                599
 CO
CO
'<






































k







> '^ ^
f -•-•» %

^rt ^.
*w tr>
V %-
t>_ o " •'
<» AT,
^ V
o e- c o a •'
 --D «l
•sf %- v N' ^4'

o •«.<> c ' ? «^
•i— O^;-> -r--, '--=>
«i tTiNT -," V ^,J
!
1
1 _.;-
i --'-.'
6 V, % 	
»-" 1%-J V?«
*O W!» X.*
1
> o is
h ~ o e»
10 If, t^i Y
i
i
^__J. 	 . 	
IMC2^%0 I
*> S * v
1 ^
* o ' j<5^
04 ^N. : w
"ft Ǥ^ ; ^5

> e o ! °
oS- 1> ; t-u
*» v 1 cr>
i -o~
«s
%-< i £
«* *» i PI
- ---- : o
„ <><= i «
«gs ;
wi »*-^ s
i
i
A } [
> 0 C
UJ ~ ^
o
CK
«Z
3:
c>
CO
. 1 ••
^ o
i o
T o
fO
"o
	 0
o
OJ






o
	 O
tr>



•.
O
	 o
o





"o
	 t,^
tf>






o
— o
o
>
;






                                                      o

                                                      f~
                                                      o
                                                      UJ
                                                      CO
                                                      UJ

                                                      nz
                                                      fr-
                                                      ee:
                                                      o
                                                      zz

                                                      «fr

-------
                                                                  500
©o
CO
CU.
                                                  h-
                                                  o
                                                  UJ
                                                  to
                                                  CO
                                                  52

                                                  o
                                                  u.

-------
CO
S2
                    .0? .
                                        i

                                        f
               ^  o
                _ o
                  "o
                   CO
o '  I
co  '
                                      .t
  I    °
-!—o
      U">
                    *$•
                  O   4

                  CO  «J
                    O
                    O
                    o
                                 O
                                 tu
                    o
                    o
                    10
                                 O
                                 CO
                                            O
                                            O
                                            o
                                       CJ
                   llJ
                   o
                   or
                   O
                                                            o

                                                            a
                                                            CO
                                                            UJ

                                                            or
                                                            o
                                                            CO
                                                             CD


                                                             to

-------
                                        602


CO
C'S
C?3>
««•«$
m*£
•«**=»
£&*&&
&*.-&»
ex.
eS£
m
*~2&
*£££>
*r»aa
I—
ss£
8
£*««
trf***
*^ ^
MMT^,
£v«*
«. tos-«
^»-«
cr
uv
£•
•*•"-" j
•*-*i-;m
Es
»
•
?X"

£3
£55

\*r**
<^
f . *
«^t;
«KS
•-»•»,
fe^
ts."t3!
UvJ
£-*,
t ».«
JT "*
i»U
|tt-3«T»








•*



r







!




















j<

i






•k *C
5 i:

CO
*t


0 0
O 0
*fj ^
,"
'

00«
^V?"«X rV%
^/V> v?-?
•-n-^ ^



t- 0
«n »r>

i- b
«•* in
«i
«
tr>

I 0 <
^3-
ITS

i v,
! w"J
'^0 W
'.?5 t>'j
? ._ --v
•F* it
fcf} fj
r
V
m '
^-.
t ~»^
r --1 .
M '<
1
UJ
C3
CC

<>•>
i 0 C
.  '°J Vu»
ta1 ^s-. xj1 ^J"
. . I

.-
! ' 	
fO o *o
J"W. *^\ ' Ert
f*S ^? > v?J
•^ ^ ;^t
!
!
! - - -j
V oi
sr %?|

^fe ' !
,-N(J -S? ] 	 .
$' I'
! UJ'
i ™=
^i d'
i iii'
. - -„- -
! §i
! « —
! o
i co'
i
i
i
t
(
i i
i ;
i !
I J
3 O <
~ cJ r







>
^ "o
O
"~ to
. *°
ir>
•*

"o
—8
to

"o
O
	 to
OJ


"o
0
0
C\J

"o
	 o
ur>


~O
t x*^
— — — ^7
i °
'
,
1 §
	 o
»o




"o
-—*
i 	 O
1 0
D
O













2
o
0
2-

-------
	603




                     P. ¥. Kittrell




 diameter  at  14  feet.   Part of  the  reduction  in  area was



 attributable to the  sloping  bottom of  the  lake, which



 extended  about  to  the  center of  the warm water  area at



 the  18  foot  depth.



                Information was obtained from Dr.  John


        (6)
 Edingerv   on heated water discharged  to the ocean. It



 was  stated that 1,000  cfs of heated water, 10°F.  above



 intake  water temperature from  a  1000 MW conventional


 steam plant  discharged submerged from  an open end pipe



 at a velocity of seven to eight  feet per second was



 diluted ten  times  in the receiving water in  a surface



 area of 200  acres  (0.3 sq. mile).  The temperature at


 the  "boundaries  of  the  area was within  1 F. of the sur-



 rounding  water  temperature.  The topography  of  the ocean


 bottom  did not  restrict free flow  of diluting water to


 the  discharge area.  It was  indicated  that if the same


 quantity  of  heat was discharged  with little  mixing and


 temperature  reduced  by surface cooling alone, the heated



 water would  occupy 2,300 surface acres (3.6  sq. mi.)
      (6)   Personal  Communication  from  Dr.  John  Edinger,



 Vanderbilt University,  August  and October  1968.

-------
	604-





                      F.  W. Kittrell






 before  the  boundary  temperature  was  within  1 F.  of  the




 surrounding water  temperature.   This  would  probably




 happen  for  discharges  at less  than 3-5  feet  per  second,




 but  depends on  many  features of  discharge design.




                Although  this situation  involved  ocean




 water,  it is  thought to  be applicable to heated  fresh




 water discharged to  a large  lake,  since the  main density




 difference  in both cases would be  caused by  the  differenc




 in temperature  between the cooling water and the




 receiving water.



                The relatively  unmixed plume  would result




 if the  cooling  water disposal  system were designed  to




 discharge at low velocity and  float  the heated water  on




 the  surface with minimum mixing  in order to  achieve




 maximum evaporative  cooling.   In a lake, such  as Lake




 Michigan, this  method of disposal  would entail the




 probability that the relatively  unmixed heated water




 would be carried by  wind action  to the  shore at  times.






              POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON  WATER USES






                The potential effects of the  nuclear powe:




 plant wastes are considered  on the basis of  the  lake  as

-------
                                                     605.


                     F. W. Kittrell
a whole and on that of local effects.
Radio actiy_ity


               The design of the radioactive waste treat


ment systems is such that it should be possible to hold


the concentrations of radioactive materials in the cool-


ing water, before any dilution, to one-tenth or less of


the AEG requirement for the water at the boundaries of


the exclusion areas.


               A total activity of 49,000 curies mixed


with the entire volume of the lake would be required to

                             -8  ,
give a gross beta count of 10  uc/ml above background.


Ten times as much, or 490,000 curies, would be required

                            _r7
for a gross beta count of 10  uc/ml.  It is estimated


that the seven proposed plants probably will discharge


about one curie of mixed activity, exclusive of tritium,


per year.  Nearly 1.5 billion curies of tritium would be


necessary to exceed the MFC for this radionuclide .


               Except for an accident at one of the


plants there does not appear to be any cause for imme-


diate concern as a result of the radioactive discharge


from normal nuclear power plant operation as it may

-------
	606





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 affect  the  lake  as  a whole.   However,  the  increased  size




 of  the  plants,  the  lack  of  experience  with large  reactor




 the possibility  of  human error,  the  rupture of  a  pipe  or




 even the  possibility of  deliberate  sabotage justifies




 conservatism  in  the design  and  location  of nuclear power




 plants.   In a remote area the effect of  a  reactor acci-




 dent could be largely economic,  restricting the  use  of




 a moderate  section  of land  and  requiring the rebuilding




 of  a damaged  or  destroyed plant.  However,  one  serious




 nuclear accident  on the  shore of  Lake  Michigan, although




 highly  improbable,  could release  large quantities of




 long-lived  radioactive materials  into  Lake  Michigan




 where it  would be uncontrolled  and  could have very




 serious effects  on  future use of  the lake.   Such  an  even'




 would require  immediate  evaluation  and initiation of




 measures  to protect public  health and  safety and  the



 resources of  the  lake.   A coordinated  interagency effort




 in  the  event  of  such an  unlikely  occurrence is  mandatory




 Waste Heat



               Reasonably complete data  are available




 for fossil  fuel  power plants around  the  southern  basin




 of  Lake Michigan, south  of  a line from Milwaukee  across

-------
	607





                     F. ¥. Kittrell






 to  Grand Haven, where most of the population, industry




 and  power  plants  are located.  The fossil fuel  plants




 have  a  total  power production capacity of 6,070,000 kwe.




 The  proposed  nuclear power plants around the southern




 basin will have a total capacity of 5,600,000 kwe.




               Data on fossil fuel plants around  the




 northern basin are incomplete.  The existing plus  pro-




 posed nuclear plants around  the northern basin  have a




 total capacity of 1,500,000  Kwe.  If  it may be  assumed




 that the ratio of fossil  to  nuclear fuel plants for




 the  southern  basin applies to the northern basin,  there




 would be a total  fossil fuel plant capacity of  1,630,000




 kwe  around the northern basin.



               On this basis the fossil fuel capacity




 for this lake as  a whole  would be 7,700,000 kwe,  and the



 existing plus proposed nuclear fuel capacity is 7,100,00




 kwe .



               Applying the  heat losses in  cooling water




 previously discussed,  the fossil fuel plants operating




 at  full capacity  would discharge 300,000 billion  BTU' s




 per year to  Lake  Michigan and  the nuclear fuel  plants




 would discharge  388,000 billion  BTU's per year  for a

-------
	608



                      F. W.  Kittrell




 total  of  688,000 "billion  BTU's  per year.   Assuming  none


 of  the  added  heat  to  be lost  from the  lake during the


 year the  temperature  of the 10,800,000 billion  pounds


 of  water  in the lake  would  be raised an average  of  a

                    ^o
 little  more than O.Oo F.  by the  end of the year.


               There  would, however, be significant


 loss of the added  heat by radiation, evaporation and


 other means.  Any  residual  heat, though,  could  be cumu-


 lative.   The  annual average temperature of the  lake woulc


 be  increased  by an amount that  eventually  would  reach


 equilibrium when the  higher temperature of the  water


 caused  additional  annual  heat loss by  the  lake  as a


 whole that would balance  the  annual addition  of  residual


 heat in the cooling water.


               Using  an adaptation of  the  method for


 estimating heat losses from streams and ponds described

                   (7)
 by  Velz and Gannon,    and  assuming an annual average


 temperature of 50 F.  for  Lake Michigan, a  very  conservative
      (7)   "Forecasting Heat Loss in Ponds and Streams,"


C.J.  Velz  and J.J. Gannon. Journal Water Pollution Centre


Federation, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 1960).

-------
	609




                     F. W. Kittrell






estimate of the  increase in annual average lake tempera-



ture  at equilibrium  caused by the existing fossil fuel




plants and the existing and proposed nuclear fuel plants




would be 0.05°F.  or  from 50°F.  to 50.05°?.



               The method of  calculation  (see Appendix  B




is  such that  any additional increase in annual average



temperature of the lake caused  by increased power pro-



duction would be in  direct proportion  to  the increase in



heat  added to the lake.  If it  be assumed that there



will  be about eight  times the present  plus proposed



power production by  the Year  2000, the annual average




temperature of the lake would be increased by an  estimat



0.4°F.  (8 x 0.05°F)  at that time to  50.4  F.



               Available data indicate that there has



been  a  2°F. decrease in temperature  of the lake in  the



past  80 years, presumably because of a long-term  trend



in  weather  conditions^  '.  Power production would have
      (8)   "The Climatology of  Lake  Michigan,"  John G.




 Ayers.  Great Lakes  Reserach Division,  Publication No.  12,




 Institute of Science  and Technology,  the University of




 Michigan, Ann Arbor,  Mich., 1965.

-------
	6lO




                     P.  W. Kittrell




 to  be  40  times  the  present plus  proposed  capacity  to


 cause  an  increase in average  lake  temperature  that would

            o
 equal  the  2 F.  decrease  caused by  natural  circumstances.


 This  power production  capacity would  not  be  reached


 until  about the Year 2023, if the  present  rate  of  doub-


 ling  every 10 years continued until then.


                These conservative  calculations  show that


 there  is  minimum cause for immediate  concern over  pos-


 sible  adverse effects  of heated  wastes  on  the  lake as


 a whole,  but the potential long-term  effects must  be


 considered.


                       Local Effects


                Although  there is minimum  cause  for con-


 cern  over  effects of the power plant  discharges  on the


 lake  as a  whole within the foreseeable  future,  there  mus


 be  consideration of possible  effects  on water  quality


 and uses  in the vicinity of power  plant discharges.


                There are several types  of  water  uses


 within distances that  will be reached by wastes  con-


 taining radioactive materials and  heat  from  nuclear powe:


 plants.   Several municipal water plant  intakes  are withii


 a few  miles of  proposed  cooling  water discharge  points.

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell
                                                       *
There likewise are bathing beaches within distances to
which the warmer water may extend.  Fish, and the aquati

life on which they depend for food, occur throughout the

lake.  Both sport and commercial fishermen go where the

fish are.  Pleasure boaters are limited in their travel

about the lake only by shallow water and intermittent
roughness.  Ducks and geese are common in many areas of
the lake at certain times of the year.
               Since it is anticipated that radioactive
materials will be diluted in power plant cooling water
to about one-tenth or less of the AEG 10CFR20 limit,
which is based on the maximum permissible concentration
in drinking water, and since the cooling water will
receive several-fold dilution with lake water before
reaching any municipal water supply intake, no adverse
effect on this use is anticipated.
               It is possible that temperature of the
raw water for one or two of the closer water supplies ma
be increased by a few degrees at times.  An increase in
temperature could intensify taste and odor problems,
but it is not believed that the increase will be suffici
;nt

-------
	612





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 to interfere  with  normal use  of any  municipal  water




 supply.




 Bathing  Beaches




               Radioactive  concentrations  reaching any




 bathing  beaches  will  be  far too low  to  cause any  adverse




 effect.




               Lake Michigan  waters  frequently are so




 cool,  even  in the  middle of summer,  that  they  are uncom-




 fortable for  bathing.   It has been suggested that a




 benefit  might be realized in  some  cases by controlled




 admission of  at  least some  of the  heated  water from  powej




 plants to nearby bathing areas.  The bathing season  for




 certain  beaches  conceivably might  be extended  by  this




 use of the  heated  water.  In  no case is it anticipated




 that excessive heating of nearby beaches  will  occur.



 Commercial  and P1 ejasure  goating



               The only  conceivably  adverse effect on




 commercial  and pleasure  boating would occur if the heatec




 wastes should cause excessive fog  on the  lake.  This




 Committee believes that  any potential hazard to boating




 because  of  this  would be minimal.

-------
	613

                     P. W. Kittrell
                                                        •
Fish,  Other  Aquatic  Life, and Wildlife
                No  adverse effects  on  ducks  and  geese  are
anticipated  by  either  radioactive  materials  or  heated
water.
                Aquatic  life  of  the lake  is  the  factor
most  apt  to  be  affected by waste heat.
                It  is possible that some  of  the  radioactiv
materials  in the cooling water  could  be  concentrated
successively in the  food chain  of  aquatic life  on  which
fish  depend,  and in  the fish themselves  to  become  a
radiation hazard to  humans who  eat Lake  Michigan fish
regularly and frequently. The experience of  the Illinois
Sanitary  Water  Board with the boiling water  reactor power
plant  at  Dresden on  the Illinois River,  of  the  Wisconsin
Department of Health and Social Service  with the LaCrosse
boiling water reactor  on the Mississippi River, and that
of  the Michigan Water  Resources Commission  with the Big
Rock  Point boiling water reactor on Lake Michigan, indi-
cate  that any such probability  is  extremely  remote.   Of
course, these plants are much smaller than  those planned
for Lake  Michigan., and  it will  be  necessary  to  monitor
the aquatic  life of  areas adjacent to the new power plant

-------
	614





                     F. W. Kittrell





before  this  preliminary conclusion can be verified.  The


                                                (9)
AEG has  confirmed  the need for  such  evaluation:v  '




                "The  dilution, dispersion, and



      transport  of  liquid  radioactive wastes in



      surface waters  (rivers,  lakes,  estuaries,



      bays and open ocean) are important factors



      in  the  siting of nuclear reactors.  In



      addition to these phenomena, attention



      frequently needs to  be  directed toward



      biological concentration of radionuclides



      in  aquatic life.  It may be desirable to




      review  previous work on this subject,



      including  related research on discharge



      of  municipal  and industrial liquid wastes.



      Preparation of  a state  of  the art review



      of  current knowledge, and  delineation of



      areas where further  research is needed, would



      be  useful.  A special evaluation of the



      impact  of  siting many reactors  on the



      shores  of  the Great  Lakes, in relation to
      (9)  AEC News Release No. JN-725  (Oct. 25,  1966).

-------
	615





                     F. W. Kittrell






      retention  and  flushing  characteristics




      and  to  accumulation  of  radionuclides  in




      aquatic  organisms, may  also be  desirable."




                A  more  probable  adverse  effect  is  destruc-




 tion  or serious alteration of the  aquatic  life on which




 fish  feed and possibly the killing of fish or  interferenc




 with  their normal spawning and  growth if excessive  tem-




 peratures of  lake water occur.




                The  effects of localized temperature




 increases on  the  aquatic  life in Lake Michigan are




 impossible to predict  from the  limited  information




 available.   Only  a  few observations  have been  made  to




 date  of the  effects of existing thermal discharges  on




 Lake  Michigan biota.   However,  laboratory  investigations



 and  observations  elsewhere suggest that increases in




 temperature  can result in damage to  the aquatic  environ-




 ment .



                Temperature may  activate and  stimulate




 living things,  but  it  also can  depress, restrict, control




 or  even kill  them.   It is one of the most  important of




 water quality characteristics.  Temperature  strongly




 influences the  existence  of  particular  species in water,

-------
	6l6




                     P. W. Kittrell




 it  activates  spawning  and hatching of fish,  regulates


 their  activity  and  stimulates  or  suppresses  their growth


 and development.  Heated water can attract fish and they


 may be  killed when  water becomes  heated  or chilled too


 suddenly.   Colder water usually suppresses development.


 Warmer  water  generally accelerates activity  and can be


 a primary  cause  of  aquatic plant  nuisances when other


 factors  are suitable.


                Temperature changes in water  affect


 relationships among organisms,  processes of  natural


 purification, and growth and survival of bacteria.


 Biological reaction rates increase as water  is warmed.


 An  insect  nymph  in  artificially warmed water, for example


 might  emerge  for its mating flight too early in the


 spring  and perish in the cold  air, or a  fish, under


 similar artificial  conditions,  might hatch too early


 in  the  spring and starve before its natural  food


 developed.  Organisms  in water that rarely is warmer  thar

  o                                                    ^
 70  F.  are  subject to stress by, and may  even die in,  90 F


 water.   Even  at  75  to  80°F. they  may not be  able to com-


 pete successfully with organisms  for which this tempera-



 ture range is favorable.

-------
	617



                     P. W. Kittrell




                As water temperatures  increase,  green


 algae  may  replace diatoms  as  the  predominant  algae,


 and  at high  temperatures these  may in turn  be replaced

                             (10)
 by blue-green  algae.   Cairns      found that diatoms from


 an unpolluted  stream generally  grow best  at 64-.4  to 86 P,


 Blue-green algae often cause  severe visual  and olfactory


 nuisances, and some species  can be toxic  to animals.


                One of  the  green,  filamentous,  attached


 algae, Gladophora, already grows  rather prolifically


 in certain areas of Lake Michigan, and it might be stimu-


 lated  to nuisance proportions in  warmer water.  It has


 been observed  in the laboratory that  optimum  growth of


 Cladophora occurred at 8l  to  86 P.


                The numbers and  kinds  of bottom organisms


 that serve as  food for fish  decrease  as temperatures

                 o
 increase above 90 P.,  which  is  close  to the upper limit


 for  a  balanced population.   However,  if temperatures


 are  held to  moderate levels,  the  numbers  of bottom
      (10)   Cairns, John, Jr.,  "Effects  of  Increased  Tem-


 perature on Aquatic Organisms,"  Ind. Wastes,  1^,  ^, 150-


  2  (1956).

-------
	618.





                      F.  W.  Kittrell





 organisms  are  more  apt  to be  increased  than  decreased by



 some  increase  in  temperature.



                In spite  of  the  known  adverse effects



 which temperature change can  have  on  aquatic life,  it is



 not certain  that  they will  occur in the  unique  environ-



 ment  of  Lake Michigan.   Much  of the shoreline is  seldom



 inhabited  by aquatic  animals  because  the bottom materials



 consist  of shifting sand.   There are  rocky shoals  that



 support  game fish population.   Whether  or not local



 increases  in temperatures will  accelerate the eutrophi-



 cation of  Lake  Michigan  is  uncertain  at  present.   It  is




 tempting to  speculate on this but  only  intensive  long-



 term  studies will reveal the  facts.   Local increases  in



 algal growth very probably  will develop  if sufficient



 nutrients  are  available, since  biological activity is



 greater  in warmer than  in cooler water.   The magnitude



 of these increases  must  be  known before  there can  be



 evaluation of  the potential problem.



                Pish are  attracted  to  warm water in the



 winter and fishing  may  be more  successful in such  areas



 than  in  adjacent  colder  areas.  If the  temperature



 difference is  too great, however,  the fish may  be  killed

-------
	619

                     F. W. Kittrell
                                                        *
on return to the cold water, since they are more sus-
ceptible to sudden chilling than to sudden warming.
Temperatures lethal to fish may result from heated

discharges in  summer.  Lethal temperature levels vary
rather widely  with different species, and vary to some

extent within  a species in relation to previous accli-

matization .
               TVA has had a long and varied experience
with  discharge of heated water to reservoirs.  Their
personnel report no known case of fish kills because of

return of fish from warm to cold water, and only one

fish  kill because of excessively warm water.  The latter
case  occurred  when added electrical capacity was brought
into  operation on a stream that was too small for the
added heat load imposed on it.  Cooling towers now  are
being constructed at this plant.
               A more  subtle effect on fish may be
interference with spawning and hatching if temperatures
vary  much  above natural levels which occur in spawning
areas during normal spawning periods.  It has also  been
suggested  that increasing temperatures may block the

migration  of fish or cause them to avoid inshore waters;

-------
	620





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 thus  making  them less accessible  to  fishermen.



 Atmospheric  Effects




                Since  no  cooling towers  are  included  in



 plans for  the  proposed nuclear plants,  the  effects on



 atmospheric  conditions will be minimal.   There may be



 some  local fog formation over the  lake  and  adjacent



 land  in  the  vicinity  of  the cooling  water discharges.



 The more rapid the mixing and cooling of  the warm water



 with  the lake  water,  the less will be the probability



 of fog formation.



                If cooling towers  should become necessary



 in the future,  it is  reported that fog  at ground level,



 and accompanying icing of adjacent surfaces can be



 controlled by  proper  cooling tower heights.  Further



 investigation  of this feature by  persons  specializing in



 meteorology  is  needed before the  range  of necessary  towei



 heights  can  be  specified.   This probably  will involve



 advanced investigation of local atmospheric conditions.






                         CRITERIA






                Three  sets of criteria,  standards or



 regulations  are  of interest in considering  nuclear power

-------
	621



                     F. W. Kittrell                     \




 plant wastes.  They include:  The States  standards for


 temperature  and  radioactivity^ the water quality  criteri:


 for  temperature  and radioactivity recommended by  the


 National  Technical Advisory  Committee  to the Secretary
                 if

 of the  Interior;  and the AEG  rules and regulations for


 the  disposal of  radioactive wastes to  the environment.


                         States


               The States  standards for temperature


 are  given in Table 2 and for  radionuclides  in Table 3.


 T e mp e r a t u r e _s_t and a r d s


               The limit on  maximum  temperature for pro-


 tection of aquatic life  in Lake  Michigan adopted  by two

                                          o
 of the  States, Illinois  and  Indiana, is 85  F.  Wisconsin


 permits a maximum of 89°F. in shore  waters  near waste


 discharges and in harbor waters. All States allow a


 reasonable distance for  mixing.  The maximum limits for


 the  three States with  numerical  limits appear  to  be


 quite similar,  depending on  administrative  interpreta-


 tions of  allowable mixing  zones.


                Illinois  and  Wisconsin  have  modifying


 requirements that may  limit  temperatures  to less  than


 the  85°F. maximum.   Illinois does  not  permit changes

-------
	622



                     P. W. Kittrell




 in  temperature  greater than 2 F. per hour nor  cumulative


 changes  greater than 5 F. from  natural water temperature

                                                 o
 Wisconsin  permits no abrupt change of more  than 5 F.,

                                          o
 nor an increase in  a stream of  more than 3 F.  above  the


 natural  maximum.


                Indiana does not have such modifying


 requirements.   Michigan has no  numerical limit on tem-


 perature for Lake Michigan but  bases control of heated


 discharges  on abatement or prevention of injuries caused


 by  such  discharges.


                Of the standards proposed by the States,


 those of Michigan have not been approved by the Secretar


 of  Interior.


                It is obvious that variations in enforce-


 ment of  the State standards are possible.


 Radionuclides Standards^


                All  four States  base radionuclide limits


 on  the Public Health Service 1962 Drinking  Water Standar


 Three of them incorporate the PHS standards by reference


 but Michigan paraphrases a portion of the standards


 (Section 6.22). The Wisconsin standard, based  on PHS


 standards,  is specified for-public water supplies,  and
is

-------
OJ

































CO
p

ig*
Cj
g

CO

CO

g
^
EM
Q.
J>|
P
tf

























^
O
•p
g

Jj
£3 r— I
0 03

^ -B
0 d
PH C

• p
JF=« o
V ^
CVi VH
•d o
CJ O
CJ E
CJ c3
X .q
4) CJ
• •
fc-i fci O CJ
0 6 40 >
IT* LT\ -H
CO CO -P -P
O d
C C C r-i
c5 c3 £3
rO ȣ< (JJ ^
-P -P M 2
£* O
0) O 4--
JH JH CJ •
O 0 f-t PM
E E 00
-P -P E4"^
O O OJ C
C C 4^ d •
ȣ? o
^ j-i d 4^ fj
4> CJ iH P
4^ -P 0 -P
d ri o JH c5
^5 > B 8 S
^_j fj fj O,
O G Cj S-i E
X P< X O O
CO O 0 C 4^>










C
Cj
S)
•H <^'-
f\ m
v o>
-rt CO
«*? pj

P M
A -s
?
b
CO P\
H f P<
p <
H
M
















•
0
lf\
CO

C
d!
» • CJ
P^ PH 4^
o o
tr\ tr\ d>
co CO (^

CJ CJ E
cs5 c3
^jrj ,£4 43
4^ 4^ O
C
«J CJ
».. ^ a
O O -H
E S w
c5
4-5 4^ ,O
o o
t3 C3 ? i
o
t 1 J^ jrt
O CJ k
•P -P d
d d -Q
S "* t.
V< C  "d
•H 4J O 0) c) •» ^(
+5 H -H Vt £ « CJ -H
•H Ci !U 3 f-i f>
•d c 3 •» cj o c;
O ^ --j fH fi -.-I ^ C
O C c5 H X « O
CJ O -.-i f-i >-> p C> H — !
•H pi ri -^3 -H rt ->
OJ H o ^:5 S C jd g t^
+> ^3 £• i-l -H Js t-i t"
o5 r» C P £-( C cj
O Pi o o o o j-i r; ^
^ 0 -H £0 0
CJ O fJ ll t: O '-J, 'M
.c; to r. o •-. H ^
O 4J >5 CJ -H CJ C1 ••-(
4J Cj O ^ tj 5= 'M
o s -,c> n o

4^ ^riDrtr-i^x:
•rl C-J O -r) ^ E V — >
4> pi f-i c! C O '^
fl O CJ +J $.-• c3 -P O
CJ -r-i )L< tl ^ O -H t^ fj
P ^i C5 ^ CJ ?-i O *-J
C1 pi Tj -^! 0) C; >
"-3 x! r; x J< PI v-i o
^dO-H^ci-HHX
C iH i-l ^t -u
0) jq •> (.0 rC O
•HO^r-iCiO^-i^S-)
CJ £• d M •.-! O C
i-l O ?-( -H ^ f. !.">
tkCJOO Je f>» pi C)
'HO fn f-t 4-1 O ^
pi ,O •-> O O J-i -rl -. 1 •-{
M O g ,C O H ^ i-i
r*> ^H C 4^ *H Pi
C d ri o o ••« -P -r^> o
•H S ^ o « p' r: -H
H ^ ^ r>. -P
•d f.) o *N o o ?•< cj
C3 O > 0 4^ O •< ?
O i-l H d O c1
Ho^^d^csSr!
^ o w a ? o
4J d CJ O rC r-i O M V'
d >> K •.-! u c; o c c
CJX-i'O-Ppi^,^ O
X o o ^ cj « ^ t-
•H L-, O O r"3 ^ "J
o ,c e o ^ ^-1 x c; -H ~
^ > tl 4^ O O -P f-. =-1 -P

1
4'
CJ
o
§
O
O
-d
o3 to

O c3
QJ ^£
p— ^ M'
Cj CJ
iJj j >
• d
•P ?
d
CJ t3
O -H
1
g
5 43 a,
s ^5-
H
0
^•4

-------
•d

































































^
H
CO
O
0
CO

to
CO
rt)
>> 0
P X

•2 !!
C C
3 -H
o
M "d
• 0 ^
x~ •» cJ
fc P d
>
P t| C
O p o3
•H +>
5£ d 41 •
C d ^
d) 3
A! £s • O
Cj O P^i r£3
^ fa f>
— - CH tr\ 5-t
G
C> C PH
X to cJ
g C ,C •
^H ^
ft, O O C\J
O )L|
^- o o Vi
CO {2; E 0




(3
O -H ^^
•H CU
43 QJ o
d ti c!
§3 03
O^ -P
d w ^
•H 0
0 4^ §"
rfl iH
43 CU
O fn t*>

C« ^ S
d N*->* "rH
^
P 0 ft
0 «M
iH -rl Vl
h H 0
O
o
p.
P(
^





d)
Sn

f*^
to

1
CO
C5
O
^
d p^

O ir\
C)
fj Cj
Jl J
45
d cu
to • ^
*d'~x Q
0 CJ
•H to CH
S f-i O
d
CU rC 0)
Jrf O tO
d n C
i-l -H d
«^"d P:
o
• o
to ^
> £
• o
fci f-( CJ

CT\ CJ O
CO C K



£4
D
45

^*
B
p
ffj
?
N^^
w
o
(0
^
•d

d
•H ^"^»
rj jj^
? w
O -H
O  CLi E-,
,0 COM
O oo
o
o p- a
P -;J ci
+> o -:^
CD 01
? rf 0

5-4 O
d O £:
O d
T-! -H >>
43 . P
d i-?
N Cj g
•H g ti
?-l O
o x; f-i
^3 O -P
4-5 -H 0
< f d

































-d
H
^J
Q
£j

f*
o
s
CO
4^
C
O

*~H
V


j^
-d
fl

O
"1?^
0 0
cfl C
P d

H E

?H r^J
p d
4> d
d
C C
g •H
O c>5
?~{ d
VH O
•H
'D' +>
CU ^
Jj Qj
H 0
d p<

CU 4^
p ^
0
o ^<
4^ 4^

45 4^
O 0
& ^u
CO CH
Ji d
cu
•P >?
CO f~f
> (L>
CO
^-5 ^|
3 v
O >
l_j FQ
d








-------
625
































8
(V*
^*
Q
fe^
^*
C-{
CO CD

rj ta
a B
§ a
^ o
*p
^^
o
Sri
a

c5























to
ci •
•ri -P
-P d
o o
c> S
e -P
d
4J CJ
d T i
O -P
^
£ ^
P. d
I— I •(-)
H -P
•H C
3 C>
^
-p. d
cj O
41 0
-P
to
to o
d -p
O ^H
4^
Cj tQ
to 
O O CO
4->
ti ti to
> -H O
O 4^
!-i 4J d
o d ^
43 0
w to »j
o c.
'd Si i-j
S3 "2
O -H
to p to
O P
•P -P
c^ O tVi
^ C vo
d H iH
CJ H
0*43 S
"•^ CO E
d
to
•ri
43
O
a
OJ
Jx«
5
en
t 	 i
o
i
M

1
I
W
H
d
•H
5-i
CJ
4^
^
£3

CJ
£»
•H
4^
0
d
0
•ri
-d
c3
j^

*VH
o

0
o
cj
CJ
^i
&
o
o
o

CJ
43
•P

E
p

VH
CO
+3
H
3
W
O

. — . CJ
O .X
f-i d
O 4^>
4-3 £j
C -H
CJ
H 5-t
H O














tt)
4-> nd
4^ CJ
d o co
•ri d
CO
to iH o
O i-t i-i
'd d P>
•ri 43 &
H CO
O O
PJ 10 -H
d A; o
o o c
•ri O -ri
tJ t£ iH
d H
JH CJ M
Vt -ri d
O 4^ T<
^
w o w
d o a
o w o
•H C.' -ri
4^ O 4^
d o d
£-* ?-*
-P CO 45
d H d
CJ CJ
0 >> 0
d d d
o d o
0 0
O CJ O
U > r-i
d O p
to -H
o rd w
> 0 W
d U-H
d S
O J-i ?H
43 CJ O
^d Pt
i i e

CJ to £2
4^ OJ -H
d -P X
^ t; d
^ E
M
d to o
•H d 43
'" 'rf ^

•ri "d -d
^l -H O
•d 5-1 0
'd o
d i X
•ri 1 CJ



























•
13
Vl
tJ
d
W

VH
0
•ri
4->
d
•ri
rd
rJ
r^
4^

•ri
d
to

O
O
-p
o

PW

5M
O


W
^j
0
•ri
+J
'3

t'l
0)
Cr3















d
p

%
oJ

4^
o
PH

ro

CH
rfc^
4J
O
k
O
E

V-1
O

O
0
d
o
W
"d

g
O
d
^

o
43
-p

d
•ri
'd'-p
•ri -ri
5-i r*
JJ -H
•ri Tj
to d
o
d

c 

+i
o
d

£)
Q"\
1
J3
P
•H
-P
j^j
o
4J •
CO O
H -ri
^^•P

pj ^>
d
o d
H

§4^
j"* J_l
4~>
OJ -ri
J_l f— {
g t,
41
•d Pi
d
d "
CJ

?H ?-(
-P O
•P O
'd ^J
fcn *I*"1
O P,















tj
d
•ri •
4J 4^
o d
t> o
E S
+J
-P d
C O
CJ to
^> ^_>
CJ
N
x^% r--( O
^ rri .,-(
c; T< 4^

d cj

odd
Vi 43 O
O -P 0
43

"do

d 4^> d
d
•, 5-i W
W 4^ rd
d d ?.<
•ri o d

Cj d d
p o d
O-P

0 d W
J-i CJ
o s
?4 W M
O C Q

•ri cl
•> OJ Jj
to Q tj
OJ ' Q
^j _p •— *
C; O l^
Js C VD
0\
d rH H

Pi d' 01
o -^ PC

g
&
•ri
43
O

O
^J
3

S
b
» -,
1-1
o
43
W
•H
H
o
d
4^
W
CJ

CJ
p

o
tl
r^J
to

rc^
r^
c3
+3
^BS
4
K
O
W
£j
H
c)
pi
4J

^3
O
•ri

^j
Cj
d

>>

P!
P
M

J>H
O
4^
cJ
>
J-f
0


10
CJ

(^
^
d
o

5
o
»>- •
ti
,*,

d
•ri i
N— ^ X
o
£*^
4-j n
•ri •ri
>
•ri 4^>
4^ -ri

C3 *rH
rH
d

O -ri
M5
' — s ^ Vi
O O M

P ^-)
d •

•ri O O
ri C\

d o E
T> 3

O r—* -P
E-^- d
O CJ ^(
O -ri 4J
P (i CO

d o ^d
O O d
•H O C3
^> -ri
d PH t)
E 5-i
J-i O C
d ^ii
flj
« CH
cJ O r^
" 4J Pi
O -ri iH
" E d
? -ri
rH Vi
!-i O
OJ ^
43 O O
o PI d

!-i U
O & p
V-i < d
















CJ
+>
o
rH
f-1
o
O

j>^
H

""d
o
G
•H
-P
C
o
f^
•rt

C
p

4^
to
pi
•^
^
u
•ri

t)
r-'
r~l
o

^tj
d
o
Vt

o
o
Pi


o

4J

•x
e>

o
o
o
















r [
O W
4J
d -ri
O f"
^^
d

jj O
d T^
o d

0 §
o 6
o
o o
p ^i
-p
OJ •
-P 43 H
d 4^ -ri
43 O
•p o d

-P 0 C
O p O
ri ri

o o
43 to *>
-P pi ri
Cl -ri
43 O ^
0 Pi ri
•ri X C^
H O
p H
^ o ri

to pi o
O 0
O f-i pt|
o
5-1 4 •> 43

-p d
J-i ^3
O r-! p
H
d -ri 'd

.•*-<
CO CO CO
•ri i) -H
£»-ri p

ri 'o 4'
ri d o














-------
626


























CO
q

fj
<~
tH


M
C3
a
o
»-)
^^
o
M

^?
K



















•P t3
d d
QJ -H
JH ^
p d
•H
O J-j
P O
d
•H CV
^ VD

0*H
PnCO
d P-*
>> 0
.0 ^
-p
p

-C Q)
PO

O H
P H
K -H
^
C)
P P
•H
H Cl
*~-^ rd ?-|
>s « c3
nH »^
ft >j B
0; H 0

W f>[ f^
2 o
S-l t.0
O (1)
-p t' p •
d  o d
fn 'd t<
v (D d d
-P ^ d

£ -p d o")
d d
d -H ^
o +> t>
P, e> dp
2. ^ ° -£

d
0
g
t)
M
CO
0
o
CO
g
0)

-P O
•H H

•H
^ m
w •> o
c d -r-i
0 0 G
•H -H f.
4' P O

S"^ ^
C> K d
P i-!
tS w d
C d «
CJ -H 0
d PI
01 to « n
ti O
P d d
K O 0) d
d P p O
O 0 ^1
•H a> o P
w P 41 a
to o
•d ^ ^ £»
g fL, H >
§ P.-H
O J-< Pi P
0 o d o
SH d
>> H O
U M rH -H
f^ 'd -H 'C!
o ^ > d
d d f-i
H ^ •*

o d vo d
•H P CJN
6 CO H «
O d
^ P ^ ^ O
Cl <£ O C>- -H
p K cv p
o • d
p Cl P JH !i
d ^i o P
^ • d p d
P P-i fc: 0
f— J Q Q
i-l O - 0 ~
<£. rC O 0) O
— - H H Q O











-------
	62?





                     F. W. Kittrell






 it  applies AEG  10CFR20 limits  to all water uses.  The




 Michigan  standards  apply  to municipal water  supply and




 agricultural uses only.   The Indiana and  Illinois stan-




 dards  apply  specifically  at municipal water  supply intak




 only,  in  open water and inner  harbor basin,  and  to bath-




 ing beach areas  only in shore  waters, but presumably




 would  be  applied anywhere to a heated discharge.




                 Atomic Energy  Commis
                                                        ;s
               The AEG responsibility for waste disposal




in licensing nuclear power plants presently is limited




to safe disposal of radioactive wastes, and does not




extend to control of waste heat.




Radionuelide Rejrulat:^ojns_



               The AEG requirements for control of




radionuclides discharged to surface waters are included




in the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Rules and Regula-




tions, Title 10 - Atomic Energy, Part 20, "Standards for




Protection Against Radiation," which has been abbreviate^




to 10CFR20 in most references.  This regulation covers




not only safe liquid waste disposal but is designed to




afford protection against all radiation hazards of all




persons that could be affected by the use of radioactive

-------
____________ _       628





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 materials  licensed by AEG.



                Applications for licensing nuclear power



 plants  usually state  that waste disposal will  meet the



 requirements  of 10CFR20,  without specifying what  the




 requirements  are.



                The basic  requirement  is  that the  sum  of



 the  individual radionuclide concentrations in  the liquid




 wastes  divided by  their  individual limiting concentrations



 not  exceed 1.0:



   CT     ,   G£    _|_   C-3         ^
      fY   (MPCW)2




where :




      C  sa  annual  average  concentration  of  the  individual




radionuclide




      MFC   =  10CFR29  concentration  limit for the  individu;
        W



radionuclide.



               Table  2,  Column  2 of  Appendix  Ba  10GFR20,




lists the  MFC  of  all common  radionuclides .   The concen-
             w


tration limits are based on the recommendations  of  the




National  Council on  Radiation Protection  and  Measurement




and  of  the Federal Radiation  Council.




               The determination of  all radionuclides

-------
	629



                     F. W. Kittrell





in  the wastes from  a nuclear  power plant would  be  time



consuming  and expensive,  and  10CFR20  contains an alter-



nate  requirement.   This limits  the gross radioactivity

      _'?
to  10  jnc/ml (100  pc/1)  above  natural  background  as  an



annual average,  provided  that Iodine-129 and Radium-226



and -228 are known  to  be  absent from  the wastes.



Generally  adherence to the 10CFR20 limit for unidentified



radionuclides will  necessitate  a smaller total  release



of  radionuclides than  that which would  be  permitted if



the identity and concentration  of each  radionuclide in



the mixture were determined.



                The  limits of  the permissible  radionuclid



concentrations  must be met at the boundary of  the  nuclea



power plant  "exclusion" area.  This  usually means  that



the limits apply to the waste discharge.



                The  10GFR20 gross radioactivity limit of


   -7
10   jic/ml  is  one-tenth of the PHS Drinking Water  Standarp.



gross beta count of 1,000 pc/1, but  the latter specifies



 that Strontium-90 must be absent, which the former does



not.  For  this  reason  the two limits on gross  beta count



are not  directly comparable.



                The AEG concentration limits are directed

-------
	630





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 toward  protecting  individuals  in  the  general  population




 from  exposure  to radiation  as  a result  of  Intake  of  radio




 activity  through air  and water.   In addition  to these




 limits  on concentrations in effluents,  the AEG may




 impose  limits  on the  gross  quantity of  radioactive




 material  released  in  air or water in  a  specified  period




 of  time if it  appears  likely that the daily intake of




 radioactive material  from air, water  and food by  a suit-




 able  sample of the  exposed  population group exceeds  the




 daily intake that  would  result from continuous exposure




 to  air  or water containing  one-third  the concentration




 of  radioactive material  specified for effluents.




        FWPCA Committee on Water Quality Criteria




 Tempejrature Criteria




                The  report of the  Committee on Water



 Quality Criteria      published April  1, 1968, recommends




 temperature limits  for several water uses.  Briefly
      (11)   "Water Quality  Criteria, Report  of The




National Technical Advisory  Committee  to  the Secretary




of  the  Interior," Federal  Water  Pollution Control Ad-




ministration, Washington,  D.  C.  (April  1, 1968).

-------
	631




                     P. W. Kittrell






 summarized,  they are:




                1.   In  primary  contact  (recrea-




      tion) waters,  temperature should  not




      exceed  85  F.



                2.   For aquatic biota,  including




      fish :




           a.  Temperature  of the  epliminions




           of lakes  should  not  be  raised  more




           than  3°F.



           b.  Normal  daily and seasonal  fluc-




           tuations  should  be maintained.




           c.  The following maximum  temperatures




           for various  species  of  fish  are  recom-




           mended:



                93°F.   Growth of  catfish, gar,




                white  or yellow bass,  spotted




                bass,  buffalo,  carpsucker,




                threadfin shad, and  gizzard shad.




                90°F.   Growth of  largemouth bass,




                drum,  bluegill, and  crappie.




                84°F.   Growth of  pike,  perch,




                walleye, smallmouth  bass, and

-------
	632



                     P. W. Kittrell




                sauger.


                80°F.  Spawning  and egg  develop-


                ment  of  catfish, buffalo,  thread-


                fin  shad,  and  gizzard  shad.

                  o
                75 F.  Spawning  and egg  develop-


                ment  of  largemouth bass, white,


                yellow,  and spotted bass.


                68°F.  Growth  or migration  routes


                of salmonids and for egg develop-


                ment  of  perch  and smallmouth bass.


                55°F.  Spawning  and egg  development


                of salmon  and  trout (other  than lake


                trout).


                48°F.  Spawning  and egg  development


                of lake  trout, walleye,  northern


                pike,  sauger,  and Atlantic  salmon.


 Radionuclide  Criteria


                The  recommendations of the  Committee  on


 Water  Quality Criteria  for limits on  radionuclides in


 sources  of  municipal water supply are the  same numerical


 values for  gross  beta activity  and for  Radium-226  and


 Strontium-90  as the  PHS Drinking Water  Standards.

-------
	633




                     F. W. Kittrell






               The  criteria for radionuclides  in water




 serving  as  a habitat for  aquatic life incorporate  the



 PHS  Drinking Water  Standards, but also  limit concentra-



 tions  to less  than  those  that would  require restrictions



 on use of organisms harvested from the  area in order to



 meet the Radiation  Protection Guides recommended by the



 Federal  Radiation Council.  Finally, there should  be no




 radioactive materials  in  receiving waters as a conse-



 quence of failure of an installation to exercise practi-



 cal  and  economical  control  to minimize  release.



                Criteria for essentially all other  water




 uses are based on the  PHS Drinking Water Standards,



 specifying  limits of 3 pc/1 for Radium-226, 10 pc/1 for



 Strontium-90,  and 1,000 pc/1  for  gross  beta activity  in



 the  known absence of Strontium-90  and  alpha-emitting




 radionuclides.





          EVALUATION OF PROPOSED  WASTE DISPOSAL






                       Radionuclides



                Applications to  AEG for licenses for




 installation  and operation of nuclear  power  plants state



 that methods  for disposal of  radioactive materials will

-------
	634





                     F. W. Kittrell






 be  in  compliance with AEG  10GFR20.   In fact,  it  generall




 is  indicated  that the concentrations  of  radionuclides in




 the cooling water discharge will be  only 10  to 20 percen




 of  the appropriate  10CFR20 limits.   Compliance with




 10CFR20 will  ensure  compliance with  the  standards of




 those  States  that have adopted the PHS Drinking  Water




 Standards  for radionuclides.



               The  only adverse effect that  might result




 from routine  operation is  the possible concentration of




 radionuclides through the  aquatic food chain to  fish




 that would be consumed by  humans.  This  possibility




 is  believed to be remote,  but it is  a matter that should




 be  investigated in  the vicinities of  the first large




 plants that are installed.



               More  adverse conditions could occur in




 the event  of  neglect or accident in  operation of disposa




 facilities.   The present practice of  continuous  monitor-




 ing of the cooling  water discharge is essential  to detec




 any unusual discharges of  radionuclides  that might occur




 The AEC and the power industry have  contingency  plans




 in  case of major accidents involving release of  radio-




 activity.  There is  a need to develop a  plan for full

-------
               	635


                     F. W. Kittrell



coordination of other Federal, State and local agencies


having competence in this area.


               In keeping with the policy of the States


and AEG of minimizing the discharge of radioactivity to


the environment to the greatest practical extent, the


Committee believes that all reasonable steps should be


taken to reduce radioactive wastes as much as possible.


Methods of waste reduction include detention for decay,


sedimentation, filtration, demineralization, evaporation


and recycling to the primary coolant.  Solid wastes are


disposed of off-site in accordance with AEG regulations.


                          Heat


               The adequacy of proposed methods for


disposal of heated cooling water is subject to more

questions and involves more uncertainty than does that


of disposal of radionuclides.


               Most of the proposals involve withdrawal


of relatively cool (about 65 F. in the summer) water


from the lake at some distance from shore and return of

                     o
the water at about 85 F. near shore either through a


dug channel discharging at the shoreline, or through an


appurtenance that will release the water a short distanc

-------
	636





                     F. W. Kittrell






 from  shore.  The  standard would be met  either by  limit-



 ing the temperature  of the cooling water  to that  of  the




 standard,  or by taking advantage of a specified mixing



 zone  allowance, with the temperature of the mixed cool-



 ing and lake water meeting the standard at the boundaries




 of the mixing zone.



               Available information on the potential



 impact of  large volumes of cooling water  on large lakes



 does  not provide  a sound basis for firm conclusions



 regarding  adequacy of proposed methods  of disposal or




 of possible adverse  effects on Lake Michigan.



               It appears that no issue can be taken  with



 those proposals that would maintain the maximum tempera-



 ture  of the cooling  water, before discharge to the lake,



 at the temperature of the standards.  Even here,  however,



 there conceivably could be limited adverse effects such



 as production of  excessive plankton and attached  algae,



 and interference  with the spawning, hatching and  develop-



 ment  of certain species of fish.  The latter could occur



 if the cooling water maintained the temperature of water




 in breeding areas at 85°F., or even less, at critical




 times in the life cycle of fishes.

-------
	637





                     F. W. Kittrell






Alternative  Methods  of Disposing  of Heated Wastes




                The method of  heat  disposal that  would




have  least impact on even limited  areas  of the lake




would be  the  use of  evaporative cooling  towers,  ponds




or  other  methods of  off-lake  cooling  to  reduce the tem-




perature  of  the water to or very  near  that of the shore




waters  of the  lake.  This would involve  loss of  water




from  the  lake  by evaporation.




                The nuclear power  plants  generally are




larger  than  any existing fossil fuel  plants and  require




considerably  larger  quantities of  cooling water.  The




Zion  plant,  for example, when completed  will use an




annual  average  of 2,940 cfs,  with  a maximum of 3,400




cfs in  summer.  Of all the rivers  tributary to Lake




Michigan  only  the Fox River in Wisconsin has an  average




annual  flow  significantly greater  than the Zion  summer




cooling, water  use. If all proposed plants used water  for




cooling at the  same  rate in relation  to  production capacijty




as  the  Zion  plant, the average use would be 9*500 cfs.




The proposed  power capacity plus  that  predicted  by 1980,




if  all  should  be nuclear power, could  use 17,500 cfs.




Maximum use  during summer by  1980  could  be 20,000 cfs.

-------
                     F. W. Kittrell






If evaporative cooling towers should be found necessary




by then and resulted in two percent loss of water through




evaporation, this would result in evaporation of 400 cfs




during summer.  Of course, there will be some evapora-




tive loss even if immediate dispersion into the lake is




used, but it would be considerably less than 400 cfs.




By the Year 2000, evaporation could be 1,600 cfs if powei




production continued to double and evaporative cooling




towers were necessary on all installations.



               Dry cooling towers permit cooling without




evaporation.  They are designed to transfer heat by air




cooling and radiation.




               Two different methods of heated water




discharge without off-lake cooling have been discussed




by the Committee.  A method that would have minimal



impact on water quality and uses would be the submerged




discharge of the cooling water at velocity high enough




to ensure rapid mixing, and far enough from shore to be



beyond the thermal bars that probably partly account for




the reported tendency of discharges near shore to remain




in the vicinity of the shore.  It is reported that 1,000




cfs of seawater, with a temperature 10 F. above that of

-------
	639





                     F. W. Kittrell






 the  ocean,  discharged from the open end of a pipe at a




 velocity of 7  to 8 feet per  second was diluted to 10




 times  its volume in 200 acres of the ocean   surface.




 It is  believed  that similar  dilution might be accomplishe




 in the lake.   This would minimize evaporative cooling




 and  would involve an average increase of 2 F. to 3 F.




 in the temperature of a relatively large volume of lake




 water.



                The other method would involve low velocit




 discharge with  as little mixing as possible, allowing the




 cooling water  to float on the surface of the lake in




 order  to take  advantage of as much evaporative cooling




 as possible.   It is reported that 1,000 cfs  of warm  ocear



 water  10 F. above ocean water temperature discharged to




 the  ocean in this manner would occupy 2,300  acres of the




 ocean   surface.  The total  volume of lake water in  whict



 a  temperature  rise would occur if this method were used




 would  be minimal, and heat added to the lake as a whole




 would  be minimized.  This method would involve the




 certainty,  however, that there would be times when the




 heated water would be carried by wind action to shore




 where  the greatest damage to aquatic life could occur.
y

-------
	640





                     F.  W. Kittrell






                The  Committee  has  not  considered  the




 costs  of  cooling  devices or of  submerged  discharges



 with rapid  mixing.   However,  it realizes  that  either  of



 these  methods would be  costly and recommendation that



 one or the  other  be routinely required  for  all power




 plants would have to be  supported by  firm information



 on damages  to water quality and uses  that would  result



 from failure to require  such  devices.   Available



 information on  potential damages  does not provide a



 basis  for such  a  position at  this  time.   Such  informa-



 tion can  be obtained through  studies  by aquatic  bio-




 logists of  areas  in Lake Michigan  where large  fossil



 fuel plants presently discharge large quantities  of



 cooling water.



                It is probable that the  time will come



 when more sophisticated  methods of disposing of  the



 waste  heat  than merely  discharging it to  the lake at  the



 shoreline will  become necessary.   Now is  the time to



 start  accumulating  sound information  on which  to base



 decisions regarding requirements  for  future disposal  of




 the waste heat.

-------
                    	641





                     F. W. Kittrell






                      Other Wastes
               The Committee has not evaluated disposal




of wastes other than radionuclides and heat.






                       STUDY PLAN






               Data on the effects of heated waste




discharges to Lake Michigan are needed.  Examination of




the effects of existing large fossil fuel plants on




water quality and uses can go far toward providing the




necessary information on effects of heated wastes on




aquatic life, which appears to be the potentially crucial.




aspect of heated waste discharges.




               In addition to studies of effects of




existing fossil fuel plants there is need for collection




of baseline data on present water quality and aquatic




life in the vicinities of future nuclear power plants.




An outline of a plan for such studies is presented in




the Appendix.




               Some studies already are under'wuy in the




vicinities of some of the proposed plants.  The power




companies have contracted for or are conducting most




of this work; but the States, consultants, and FWPCA

-------
                                                     642
                     F. ¥. Kittrell
also are involved to some degree.  There is a need for




coordination and possible expansion of the work now in




progress.






                SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS






               Following the Conference on pollution of




Lake Michigan and its tributary basin in early 1968, a




Committee  was formed by the Conferees to consider the




disposal of thermal and radioactive wastes from nuclear




power plants to be located on Lake Michigan.




               One existing and six proposed nuclear




power plants with an electrical production capacity of-




7,100,000  kilowatts will be in operation on the shores




of Lake Michigan within the next decade, with all but




one scheduled for completion by 1973.  This proposed



capacity probably will be only a little less than the




estimated  7,700,000 kwe existing fossil fuel power plant




capacity.



               Since the turn of the century, thermal




power plant production throughout the Nation has approxi




mately doubled every 10 years.  It is anticipated that




the availability of a large source of cooling water in

-------
	643





                     F. W. Kittrell






 Lake  Michigan  and  the  expanding industries on  its  shores




 will  support an  even greater  increase in power produc-




 tion  in  this area  than the national  average.   Most of




 the increased  capacity probably will be in nuclear power




 plants.



               The AEG predicts that there will  be need




 for an additional  6,000,000 kilowatts of e'lectrical




 capacity on Lake Michigan by  1980.




               Existing fossil fuel  plants operating




 at full  capacity discharge an estimated 300,000  billion




 BTU's per year in  cooling water to the lake.   Nuclear




 reactor  power  plants discharge 40 to 50 percent  more




 waste heat per unit  of electrical production  to  the




 cooling  water  than do  fossil  fuel plants, and  it is



 estimated that the 7 nuclear  plants  when in full opera-




 tion  will discharge  388,000 billion  BTU"s per  year to



 the  lake.  If  all  plants, both existing and proposed




 operated at full capacity for a year, and if  there were




 no  reduction  of  the  added heat through evaporative cooli-




 and  other means, and assuming complete mixing of the




 entire lake,  the temperature  of the  lake would be raised




 a little more  than 0.06 F.  annually.

-------
	644



                     P. W. Kittrell




               The foregoing  calculation assumes no


 reduction  in  the heat  of  the  cooling water  added to the


 lake, but  actually there  will be much reduction through


 evaporation,  radiation and other means.  There will,


 however, be a residual of the added heat that will be


 cumulative until an  equilibrium is reached  at a somewhat


 higher  temperature than that  due to natural  causes. It


 is  estimated  that with an average annual temperature


 of  50°F. for  the lake  the added heat would  raise the

                                                 o
 average annual temperature at equilibrium by 0.05 F.


 to  50.05°F.   With increasing  power production and no


 off-lake cooling, it is estimated the average annual


 temperature would be increased by Q.4°F. in  the year


 2000, and  by  2.0°F.  in 2023.  This increase  would


 nullify a  2.0°F. decrease in  average annual  temperature


 of  the  lake that has occurred, apparently from natural


 causes  in  the past 100 years.


               These conservative calculations indicate


 that  there is minimum  need for immediate concern over


 the effect of temperature on  the lake as a  whole.  The


 probable long-range  effect deserves consideration.


               Possible local effects of increased

-------
	645

                     F. W. Kittrell

                                                        •«
 temperature  on aquatic life, including fish, are cause

 for more immediate concern than the effect on the lake

 as a whole.  Fish and the aquatic organisms that serve

 as their food are particularly sensitive to variations

 in seasonal  temperature during reproductive and .juvenile

 stages.  For example, abnormally nigh temperatures

 during  the spawning and hatching season may completely

 upset the normal reproductive cycle of fish, and thus

 limit or prevent their production.  It also is possible

 that increased temperature of lake water locally may

 stimulate undesirable growths of plankton and filamentou

 algae,  and lead to production of nuisances.

               Of the four States bordering the lake,

 Illinois and Indiana have temperature standards, approve

 by the  Secretary of the Interior, that require that the

 maximum temperature of Lake  Michigan water not exceed

 85 F. after  reasonable allowance for mixing.  The Wis-

 consin  standard also approved by the Secretary allows

 up to 89°F.  after mixing, at the shoreline and in

 harbor  waters.  Some, but not all, of these standards

 also include various provisions limiting rates of tem-

 perature increase and increases over natural temperature

-------
	646





                     F. ¥. Kittrell






 The  Michigan  standard,  which has  not  been  approved  by



 the  Secretary,  establishes no numerical  limits,  but is



 a  general  statement  designed to abate  or prevent injury




 of any kind due  to temperature to  any  type  of water use




 or value.



                All four States grant  approval for the



 nuclear  power  plants with the understanding that require



 ments may  be  revised if experience proves  the need  for




 revision.



                Most  of  the plants  propose  to draw cool-



 ing  water  from some  distance out  in the  lake where  the



 temperature only infrequently will be  above 65 F.   Thus



 the  temperature  of the  cooling water  can be increased a



 reasonable amount without exceeding the  standards for th




 lake water.   Most of the plants propose  to  discharge  the



 cooling  water  through channels ending  at the shoreline;



 though one (Zion, in Illinois) plans  to  discharge througfi



 a  ^dispersion  device about 700 feet from shore.   Dis-



 charge velocity  at the  shoreline  of two  to  four  feet  per




 second will tend to  float the warm water on the  lake



 surface  with  a minimum  of mixing.  This  will allow



 maximum  cooling  from evaporation  and  radiation,  and

-------
	64-7




                     F. W. Kittrell






minimum  addition  of heat to the lake water, but will



permit maximum  temperature of the floating heated water



mass.  Since  such  discharges generally tend to travel



up  or down  the  shoreline rather than out into the lake,



the  greatest  damage to aquatic life along the shore



could result  from this method.



                Large quantities of cooling water are



required by nuclear power plants.  The Zion plant, for



example, will use  an annual average of 2,9^0 cfs, with



a maximum of  3,400 cfs in summer.  If all plants antici-



pated by 1980 used cooling water at the same rate as




Zion, the cooling water use by then could average 17,500



cfs, with a maximum of 20,000 cfs in summer. If evapo-



rative cooling  towers had to be used for all of this



water and there were a two percent loss of water by



evaporation,  the  total water evaporated would be 400 cfs



in  summer.  If  power production continued to double and



evaporative cooling towers were used for all cooling



water, the  rate of evaporation by the Year 2000 could be




1,600 cfs.



                Dry cooling towers are feasible but less



efficient and more costly than evaporative cooling tower

-------
	648





                     F. ¥. Kittrell






               The alternatives for disposal of cooling




water, and their potential advantages and disadvantages




appear to be:




               1.  Use of evaporative cooling




      towers  and other off-lake cooling devices.




      Least thermal effect on lake water quality




      and uses.  Maximum diversion of lake water




      by evaporation.




               2.  High velocity dispersion




      through  submerged devices well out into




      lake.   Minimal  immediate thermal effect




      on water quality and uses; but maximum




      addition of heat and increase in lake tem-




      perature on long-term basis.  Minimum




      evaporation of  heated water.




               3.  Low velocity discharge to




      surface  at shoreline to float water on




      surface.  Maximum potential for damage to



      aquatic  life along the shoreline.  More




      diversion of lake water by evaporation




      than high velocity dispersion and mixing;




      but less addition of heat to lake on long-term

-------
	649





                     F. W. Kittrell






     basis.



               Unfortunately, the present state of the




art  does not allow quantitative estimates of the various




potential  effects of heated waste discharges on a body




of water as complex as Lake Michigan.




               Much can be learned of effects of heat




on lake water  by investigations of aquatic life in the




vicinity of existing fossil fuel  power plants.




               Radionuclides are  produced in reactors




by both fission of nuclear material  and by neutron




activation of  reactor materials,  of  minerals in the watei




used as a  coolant to produce steam,  and of the hydrogen




of the water itself.  The nuclides thus produced find




their way  into the waste  stream through leaks in various



types of equipment and from the laboratory and laundry.



               Treatment  by detention and decay, sedi-




mentation, filtration, evaporation and demineralization




reduces all radionuclides except  tritium to  very low




levels.  Tritium is radioactive hydrogen that is incor-




porated in the water  and is not  removed by  any of the




treatment  processes.  Fortunately, tritium is one  of  the




least hazardous of all radionuclides and has one  of  the

-------
__	,	630


                     P. W. Kittrell



highest maximum  allowable  limits  in  drinking water

        -3
(3  x  10  jac/ml).   Estimated  discharge  of  all radionuclid


except  tritium,  from all  proposed nuclear power  plants


total less  than  one curie  per  year.  Experience  at  four


of  six  relatively  small plants  already in operation,


however, has  shown discharge of radionuclides  ranging


from  1.3 to 11.1 curies per  year.  Tritium discharged


by  the  six  plants  ranged  from  five to  1,300 curies  per


year.   The  radioactive wastes  of  the six  plants,  after


treatment,  were  in volumes ranging from 208 to 4,820


gallons per day.


                The treated radioactive wastes  will  be


diluted in  the  large volumes of cooling water  for final


disposal to the  lake.  Discharge  will  be  by batches


after each  batch has been  sampled and  analyzed.   Dilutio


in  the  cooling  water is estimated to bring the radio-


nuclide concentrations down  to 10 to 20 percent  of  the


permissible limits specified in the  Atomic Energy Com-


mission's  10CFR20  regulations.   The  States  standards


generally  require  that radionuclid'e  concentrations  compl


with  the Public  Health Service Drinking Water  Standards.


Compliance  with  the AEC 10CFR20 regulations will ensure
;s

-------
	631



                     F. W. Kittrell



 compliance with  the PHS Drinking Water Standards.


               A basis for evaluation of the possible


 effect  on the  lake as a whole is that 49,000 curies  of


 radioactivity  would have to be  present to give a  con-


 centration of  10~" uc/ml (10 percent of permissible

                                                   -v
 level),  or 490,000 curies for a concentration of  10


 uc/ml.   Nearly 1.5 billion curies of tritium would be


 required to  equal the permissible concentration for


 this  radionuclide in the lake.  There is no cause for


 concern for  the  effects of radioactive wastes on  the


 lake  as a whole.


               There is a possibility of concentration


 of  radioactivity locally in the aquatic life that serves


 as  the  food  chain for fish, with a potential hazard  to


 those who eat  fish from the lake.  Experience with


 wastes  from  smaller nuclear power plants discharging


 to  streams in  Illinois and Wisconsin and to the lake


 in  Michigan  has  not revealed such a problem, "but  it  is


 one  that must  be evaluated when the larger plants go


 into  operation on the lake.


               The policy of AEG and the States that


 radioactive  wastes in the environment must be kept to

-------
               	652





                     F. W. Kittrell





the lowest practical level requires that radioactive




discharges from the nuclear power plants be held to the



minimum feasible quantities.



               Review of available literature, attendance



at national symposia on thermal pollution, and discussior




with various consultants in the field have revealed many



gaps in knowledge of the effects of thermal wastes on



water quality and uses and of preferable means of dis-



posal.  There is an urgent need for investigation,



especially biological, of the effects on Lake Michigan



of heated wastes discharged from existing fossil fuel




power plants.



               There also is a need for acquisition of



data on present water quality and aquatic life in the



vicinities of the proposed nuclear power plants to provic



a basis for evaluation of effects of the wastes after



the plants go into operation.  Various power companies,



and consultants, and Federal and State agencies presently



are making more or less independent investigations.  All



of these investigations should be coordinated to the




maximum extent possible.

-------
	,	__	653




                     F. W. Kittrell








                    RECOMMENDATIONS






               It is recommended that:




               1.  All power plants, both nuclear and



fossil fuel,meet the waste disposal requirements and



water quality  standards of the States in which they are



situated.



               2.  Design personnel for all future power



plants consider or evaluate the possible subsequent



addition of off-lake cooling devices, extended cooling



water effluent lines with submerged, high velocity dis-



charges, and other methods of controlling effects of



thermal wastes on the lake so that such devices can be



added if found to be necessary.



               3.  Radioactive liquid wastes discharges



to  the lake be kept to the minimum feasible.



               4.  Individual States ensure that adequat




base line  data on water quality and aquatic life be



obtained at all proposed power plant sites, and that



adequate post-operational monitoring be provided, and



results be made available to all parties concerned.



               5.  Coordinated study of the thermal

-------
	654





                     F. ¥. Kittrell






 effects  on water  quality  and  aquatic  life  of  one  or



 more  fossil fuel  plants now discharging  cooling water




 to  Lake  Michigan,  and  of  various methods of cooling




 water dispersion  be  undertaken by FWPCA.



                6.  FWPCA  coordinate a comprehensive




 study of the  effects on water quality and  aquatic  life



 of  thermal wastes  from a  large nuclear power  plant on



 Lake  Michigan,  with  attention to various methods  of




 cooling  water dispersion.



                7.  FWPCA  coordinate a study of the



 effects  on water  quality  and  uses of  radioactive  wastes



 from  a large  nuclear power plant on Lake Michigan, with




 especial attention to  the concentration  of radionuclides




 in  aquatic life.



                8.  The Atomic Energy  Commission be



 requested to  coordinate the development  of a  plan for



 the State-agencies,  the FWPCA, the U.  S. Public Health



 Service   and  other appropriate agencies, for  emergency



 methods  to deal with accidental radioactive releases



 (gaseous as well  as  liquid) on Lake Michigan,  including



 an  inventory  of appropriate laboratory and evaluation




 resources.

-------
                    	655





                     F. W. KIttrell
                       APPENDIX A
                 RECOMMENDED PLANOFSTUDY
                   in t h eV ciri i t e so f
               PROPOSED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS






               The objectives of the recommended study




are to:




               1.  Obtain pre-operation data




     on water quality and aquatic life in the




     vicinities of proposed nuclear power plants.




               2.  With the pre-operation data




     as a basis, determine and evaluate the




     effects of thermal and nuclear wastes on



     water quality and uses after the plants




     go into operation.



               The recommended plan presumes the active




cooperation of interested Federal and State agencies and




of the appropriate power companies.  The Federal Water




Pollution Control Administration is considered the prope




agency to coordinate the participation of the various




agencies .

-------
	656





                     F. W. Kittrell






               An  attempt has been made  to  incorporate




 all  possible  details that might be useful in a study.




 Some  revision undoubtedly will be necessary to fit the




 plan  to  available  facilities, and to adapt  it to local




 circumstances and  conditions.  The portions of the pro-




 posed plan  involving thermal effects can be adapted to




 a  study  of  effects of fossil fuel plants on aquatic life.




 If studies  of thermal effects of fossil  fuel power plants




 should prove  that  there is no reason for concern over




 thermal  effects of nuclear power plants, the portions of




 the  outline dealing with thermal effects can be eliminate




 in studies  of nuclear plant wastes.




                       STUDY PLAN




 I.   Preliminary examination.




      A.  Determine existing currents (FWPCA has con-



         tinuous directional current records that




         may  be used).



      B.  Estimate  area that will be affected by thermal




         wastes.



      C.  Determine nature of bottom in area expected




         to be affected.




      D.  Select and mark sampling stations  by submerged

-------
	637





                     F. W. Kittrell






         floats with anchors, or some other device,




         that will ensure subsequent correct location




         when sampling.




     E.  Locate and arrange for sampling points at




         areas of special water use, such as water




         supply intakes.




II.  Bottom Samples.




     A.  General




         1.  Types of samples.




               a.  Bottom organisms.




               b.  Bottom sediments.




         2.  Station Locations.




               a.  At least 10 random stations




                   for  each type of bottom  (sana,



                   clay, gravel, rock, etc.).




         3.  Sampling Equipment.



               a.  Dredge suitable for type of




                   bottom involved (Petersen,




                   Ponar, etc.).




         4.  Sampling Frequency.



               a.  Once at each station in  May




                   and  in October of each year.

-------
                    	658





                     F. W. Kittrell
     B.  Bottom Organisms.




         1.  Determine kinds and numbers of




             each kind.




         2.  Combine bottom organisms and




             determine radioactivity.




               a.  Gross alpha and beta scan




               b.  Gamma scan.




                   (1)  Identify individual




                        radioisotopes.




               c.  Radium-226*




                   (1)  One or two samples




                        each sampling time.




               d.  Strontium-89 and -90.




     C.  Bottom Sediments.



         1.  Determine radioactivity.



               a.  Gross alpha and beta scan,




               b.  Gamma scan.



                   (1)  Identify individual




                        radioisotopes.
     *Not a reactor waste constituent,  but a factor is




natural background.

-------
	659





                     F. ¥. Kittrell






               c.  Radium-226.




                   (1)  One or two samples




                        each sampling time.




               d.  Strontium-89 and -90.




               e.  Total uranium.




                   (1)  One or two samples




                        each sampling time.




III.  Artificial Substrate Biological Samples.




     A.  Station Locations (four total).




         1.  One at point of cooling water dis-




             discharge.




         2.  Two near  shore, in opposite direc-




             tions from point of discharge.




         3.  One about one-quarter mile offshore




             opposite  point of discharge.




     B.  Sampling Equipment.




         1.  Anchored  artificial substrate of




             suitable  material floating submerged




             at uniform depth appropriate to




             avoid navigation.




     C.  Sampling Frequency.




         1.  Place substrates in April, July,

-------
	660





                     F. W. Kittrell






             October and January (if possible).




         2.  Remove about one month later (if




             some other period selected, removals




             should be at a uniform period).




     D.  Determinations.




         1.  Count and identify bottom organisms.




         2.  Identify and quantitate periphyton.




         3.  Determine radioactivity of mixed




             organisms.




             a.  Gross alpha and beta scan.




             b.  Gamma scan.




             c.  Radium-226.




                 (1)  One or two samples at




                      each sampling time.




             d.  ,Strontium-89 and -90.




IV. Plankton Samples.



     A.  Sample Locations (four total).



         1.  At same locations as artificial




             substrates.




     B.  Sampling Frequency.



         1.  At same times as artificial sub-




             strates placed or removed.

-------
	661





                     F. W. Kittrell






      C.  Determinations.




         1.  Count and identify plankton, using




             Sedgwick-Rafter cell.




         2.  Determine radioactivity.




               a.  Gross alpha and beta scan.




               b.  Gamma scan.




                   (1)  Identify individual




                        radioisotopes.




               c.  Radium-226.




                   (1)  One or two samples each




                        sampling time.




               d.  Strontium-89 and  -90.




V.   Fish Studies.




      A.  Gill  net sampling.



         1.  Station Locations.



               a.  Two, one-quarter  mile  each



                   direction from  point of cool-




                   ing water discharge.




               b.  From five-foot  depth near




                   shore,  extending  400 feet




                   into lake, perpendicular to




                   shore.

-------
      	662





            F. W. Kittrell






2.  Sampling Equipment.




      a.  Gang gill nets with follow-




          ing sections:




          (1)  200 feet of 2-1/2" mesh.




          (2)  100 feet of 1-1/2" mesh.




          (3)  100 feet of 1" mesh.




3.  Sampling Frequency.




      a.  Four times yearly (at times




          of either placing or removing




          artificial substrates for  bio-




          logical samples).




      b.  Nets in place two days between




          setting and lifting.




4.  Determinations.




      a.  Kinds and numbers of each  kind




          of fish.



      b.  Size and weight of each.




      c.  Age of each.



      d.  Radioactivity of fish flesh.




          (1)  Gross alpha and beta  scan.




          (2)  Gamma scan.



               (a)  Identify individual




                    radioisotopes.

-------
	663





                F. W. Kittrell






               (3)  Radium-226.




               (4)  Strontium-89 and  -90.




 B.  Shoreline  observations.




    1.  Area.




           a.   Along  shore, in each direction




               from point of cooling  water




               discharge, as far as warm




               water  extends or is expected




               to extend (possibly one to




               four miles, depending  on




               method of discharge of cooling




               water, whether mixed quickly or




               floated on surface of  lake).




    2.  Frequency.




           a.   Four times yearly (during gill



               net observations).




    3.  Observations.




           a.   Record kinds and estimated




               concentrations of fish visible




               from shore.




           b.   Fishing and spawning areas.

-------
	664





                     P. W. Kittrell






VI.  Wildlife Observations.




     A.  Area.



         1.  Visible from  shore in each direc-



             tion from point of discharge as far



             as warm water extends or is expected




             to extend.



     B.  Frequency.



         1.  Four times yearly.



         2.  At times of fish  studies.



     C.  Observations.



         1.  Kinds  and concentrations of water




             fowl.



               a.   Locations in regard to warm



                    water.



               b.   Feeding habits.



                    (1)  Dead fish.



                    (2)  Live fish.



                    (3)  Bottom foods.




VII.   Shoreline Observations.



     A.  Observe  shoreline at  point  of cooling water



         discharge  and in  each direction from this




         point as far as temperature change  is

-------
	665





                F. ¥. Kittrell






    anticipated.   (Suggest as much as four miles



    in  each direction if cooling water floated



    on  surface, and one mile if cooling water is



    mixed  rapidly  by high velocity dispersion.)



B.  Frequency of Observations.




    1.  Four times yearly.



    2.  Preferably in May, August, November



        and February (if possible, since these



        will be convenient times to remove



        artificial substrates).




C.  Observations.



    1.  Aquatic growths of interest.



           a.  Gladophora especially.



              (1)  Distance along shoreline



                   this filamentous algae



                   grows.



              (2)  Rough approximation of



                   quantity, as "Abundant,"



                   "Moderate," or "Sparse."



              (3)  Approximate length of



                   filaments or of massed



                   growth.

-------
              	666





                     F. W. Kittrell






VIII.  Water.



     A.  Types of Studies.



         1.  Temperature.



         2.  Radioactivity.




         3.  Other.



     B.  Temperature.



         1.  Before power plant in operation.




               a.  Continuous records.



                   (1)  Point of cooling water



                        intake.



                   (2)  Point of cooling water




                        discharge.



                        (a)  Presumably repre-



                             sentative of ambient



                             temperature of water



                             in area adjacent  to



                             power plant.




         2.  After power plant in operation.



               a.  Continuous records (FWPCA



                   has temperature recorders).



                   (1)  Influent cooling water.



                   (2)  Effluent cooling water.

-------
	667





  F. W. Kittrell






Spot determinations  (preferably




continuous  recorders if enough



instruments available).



(1)  Grid of  stations on one-



     quarter  mile  centers, per-



     manently marked, in area




     extending one mile into



     lake and four miles up and



     down shore from point of



     cooling  water discharge.




(2)  Sample once weekly until



     various  patterns of cooling



     water  plume have been estab-



     lished,  and once monthly



     thereafter (unless continuous



     recorders available).



(3)  Determine temperatures in



     cooling  water plume and



     boundary water  only, on



     day  of sampling.



(4)  Determine temperature at



     surface, five-and  ten-foot

-------
	668





                F. W. Kittrell






                   depths at each station in




                   plume, or at such depths




                   as necessary to establish



                   depth of plume.



C.  Radioactivity.



    1.  Before power plant in operation.




          a.  Sampling points.



              (1)  Point of cooling water



                   discharge.



              (2)  Point or area of any



                   special water uses.




                   (a)  Water supply.



                   (b)  Bathing beaches.



                   (c)  Other.



          b.  Sampling Frequency.



              (1)  Monthly grab sample



                   at stations.



          c.  Determinations.



              (1)  Gross alpha and beta.




              (2)  Gamma scan.



                   (a)  Identify individual



                        radioisotopes.

-------
	669




            F. ¥. Kittrell






          (3)  Radium-226.




               (a)  One or two samples



                    each sampling time.



          (4)  Total Uranium.




               (a)  One or two samples



                    each sampling time.




          (5)  Tritium.



2.  After power  plant in operation.



      a.  Sampling points.



          (1)  Influent cooling water.



          (2)  Effluent cooling water.




          (3)  Special water uses.



               (a)  Water supply.



               (b)  Bathing beaches.



               (c)  Other.



      b.  Sampling Frequency.



          (1)  Daily grab samples com-



               posited for one week.



               (a)  Ensure that grab




                    samples include



                    representative



                    portions of batch

-------
	670





                F. ¥. Kittrell






                        radioactive waste



                        discharges.




          c.  Determinations.



              (1)  Gross alpha and beta.



              (2)  Gamma scan.



                   (a)  Identify individual




                        radioisotopes.



              (3)  Radium-226.



                   (a)  One or two samples



                        each sampling time.




              (4)  Total Uranium.



                   (a)  One or two samples



                        each sampling time.




              (5)  Tritium.




D.  Other.



    1.  Studies for other constituents such as



        bacteria, boron, algicides, etc., not



        specified, but  to be fitted into pattern



        of  and coordinated with temperature and




        radioactivity studies.



    2.  One or two sets of samples should be



        analyzed for dissolved oxygen to determine

-------
       	671




                F.  W.  Kittrell






        whether Increased temperature of cooling



        water significantly affects  dissolved



        oxygen.  Discontinue if no significant



        effect is found.
                  APPENDIX B








     Temperature Increase in Lake Michigan




        Due to Thermal Discharges from




          Electrical Power Facilities








           John P. Longtin, Physicist




   Physical and Engineering Sciences Section



 Technical Advisory and Investigations Branch




        Division of Technical Services



Federal Water Pollution Control Administration




       U. S. Department of the Interior








                November  1968

-------
                                                                    572
       The following approach to predicting the temperature ele-
vation of Lake Michigan due to thermal discharges  from electrical
power facilities is based on work published by Veltz  and Gannon (l).
The calculation is intended only to provide a crude estimate of the
order of magnitude of the temperature elevation.  It  assumes instant
mixing and thus ignores localized effects.   However,  the assumption
of instant mixing does tend to make the estimate conservative.

       Essentially the method considers heat additions and losses
from various sources such as convection, radiation, and evaporation.
The nomenclature used is as follows:

      AH  =  net rate of heat gain or loss    (BTU/hr - sq.ft.)

       He  =  rate of heat loss by evaporation        "

       Hc  =  rate of heat loss by convection         "

       Hr  —  rate of heat loss by radiation          "

       HS  —  rate of heat gain by solar radiation    "

       fy   —  rate of heat addition from electrical
              power facilities                        "

       Ly  =  latent heat of vaporization for water  (BTU/lb)

       Vw  —  vapor pressure of water                (in Hg)

       V&  =  vapor pressure of water in air          "

       TW  =  water temperature                       (*F)

       Ta  =  air temperature                         (*F)

   T^, T2  =  equilibrium water temperatures          (*F)

       W   =  wind velocity                           (mph)

       C   =  a constant varying for different
              water bodies (for large deep lakes,
              C = 10)

-------
                                                                     573
                           B-2
       The various heat rates are calculated from empirical rela-
tions presented by Veltz and Gannon (l).   They are as follows:
       He  =  0.00722 CLyU + 0.1W)(VW - Va)                   (l)

       Hc  =  (0.8 + 0.16W)(TW - Ta)                           (2)

       Hr  =  1.0 (Tw - Ta)                                    (3)

       At equilibrium, the net heat gain or loss is zero, and the
rate of heat lost is equal to the heat gain.  Therefore, for an
equilibrium temperature T]_ and no thermal contributions from power
facilities,

      AH  =  HS1 - Hei - HCl - H^ = 0.                       (4)


       If now, for purposes of comparison, all conditions are kept
the same except that an addition term representing the heat added
by power facilities is included, a new equilibrium temperature T£
will be defined by


      AH  =  HS2 - He2 - HC2 - Hr,, + {>  =  0.


       The result of combining the two expressions is,


(HS1 - HS2) + (He2 - Hei) -f (HC2 - HCl) + (Hr2 - H^) - 
-------
                                                                    67^
                           B-3
       The evaporation term is given by Equation 1.   To solve for
a temperature or a temperature difference,  the temperature must  be
explicit.  This is not the case for Equation 1, but  a Taylor ex-
pansion of the temperature dependent terms  can be used.  The two
terms which are dependent on temperature are the latent heat of
vaporization for water and the vapor pressure of water.  It follows
that,
                          dL/T)
                            dT
              (T - Tj +
and,
                          dV (T)
                            w
                            dT
                                         (T - TQ)
With a small temperature change, the terms of order higher than one
in the expansion may be neglected.  Further, the following approxi-
mation can be used:
         dT
                 T = T
    T - T,
                          T  =  T
and,
       dVw(T)
         dT
                 T = T.
VW(T) - Vw(
    T - T,
                                             AT
                          T  =  T
       To obtain values for these approximations, the following
data are used (2).  Assume a water temperature of 50*F.

-------
                                                                     575
Temperature (°F)     Vw(in Hg)
thus,
                                                 (BTU/lb)
50 0.362
51.8 0.387
53.6 0.414
^ „ _L£ . -0.556
^T 1.8
T— T
~ ir>
1062.3
1061.3
1060.4
/ BTU \
r-vj
and,
        *w
      AT
               -'     =  0.0139     is
               1.8                  °F
           T = T,
therefore,
and,
       L/T)  =  - 0.556(T-50) + 1062.3  (BTU/lb)
       VW(T)  =  0.0139(T-50) + 0.362 (in Hg)
Simplifying,
              =-0.556T  +  1090.1  (BTU/lb)
 and,
        VW(T)  =  0.0139T - 0.333    (in Hg)

-------
                           B-5


       To use Equation 1, it is necessary to know the vapor
pressure of the water in air.  To arrive at this, it is necessary
to assume an air temperature and a humidity.  The assumptions used
are an air temperature of 60*F and a humidity of 60%.  The follow-
ing relation, taken from Perry's Handbook of Chemical Engineering,
page 765, can be used to determine the vapor pressure (2):

                 wP
       va -  4360 + w


where,

       w  =  moisture content of air (grains/lb)

       P  =  barometric pressure (in Hg)

Using the psycometric chart (Figure 3) on page 765 of Perry's
Handbook, for the conditions assumed, the moisture content is 46
grains/lb. dry air (2).  Thus, using the standard atmospheric pres-
sure of 29.92 in Hg,


       Va -  (46X29.92)   =  0.312 in Hg
        a     4360 + 46


       Substituting the above results into Equation 1 yields after
simplification,


       He =  (1.0 + 0.1WX-5.68 x 10~4 T2 + 1.120T - $0.76)    (7)


       Substituting Equations 2, 3, 6, and 7 into Equation 5 results
in,

 (1.040.lW)(-5.6SxlO-4(T22-T12)+1.120(T2-T1) ) +(l.8-K>.l6W)(T2-T1)- = 0


But, for small temperature changes,


       T22 - Tj2  = (T2 - TX)(T2 + T-^  -  2T1(T2 - T-^

-------
                                                                      677
                            B-6

                                                          i
Letting    AT  =  T2 - T-^ it follows that,


 (1.0 + 0.1WX-1.136 x 10~3 T-jAT + 1.120AT)  -f   (1.8 + 0.16W)AT - (J) = 0


and,


       AT  =   _  _ __
                (1.8 + 0.16V/) -f (1.0 + 0.1W)(-1.136 x  lO"3    -I- 1.120)
       The total heat input  into the  lake  from power facilities is
estimated to te 6.88 x lO1^  BTU/year.   The area of the lake is
2.24 x IcA square miles.

Thus,
                                     __ _
             365(d/yr)x24(hr/d)      2.24xlO^(sq.mi. )(5280)<:(sq.ft./sq.mi.


and,


       (})  =  0.126  BTU/hr-sq.ft.

       For a water  temperature of 50 *F and no wind,


       AT =              0.126
               1.8+1.0 (-1.136x10-^(50 Hi. 120)


and,

       AT =   O.OU °F.


       For a wind velocity of 1 mph,



                 353-39

-------
                                                                     673
                            B-7


      ,AT  =  	0.126	
               (1.840.16) -I- (1.OK).!)(-!. 136x10-3(50)+!. 120)


and,


      AT  =  0.040 *F


       The following table lists the temperature elevation for
various wind velocities (these are at equilibrium),

            Wind velocity                  T
                (mph)                    (T)

                  o                     0.044

                  1                     0.040

                  3                     0.034

                  5                     0.030

                 10                     0.023

       It should be noted that, for a given set of conditions, the
temperature elevation is directly proportional to the heat added.
Thus, if the heat addition from electrical power facilities were to
double from that used in this calculation, the temperature elevation
would be twice that shown here.  The temperature elevation is inversely
proportional to the surface area of the lake.  Thus, if only half of
the lake were to be considered, the temperature change would be
doubled.

       It should also be pointed out that, for this particular
technique, the result is not very sensitive to changes in values of
air temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure.  This means that
the assumptions used for these values were not critical.  The assump-
tions regarding the small temperature elevation are justified by the
results.

       In conclusion, the temperature elevation of Lake Michigan
resulting from the thermal addition of existing and proposed elec-
trical power facilities is crudely estimated to be 0.05 "F.

-------
                                                                     679
                            B-8
                            Note


       The assumption that, under identical meteorological con-
ditions, Hs  = Hg  can be supported by considering the Stephan-

Boltzman law of radiation between two bodies (3).


                    R  .  CCT-J4 - T24)


where,

       R   -  net radiated energy

       C   *=  constant

       T,  —  absolute temperature of the warmer body

       T£  =  absolute temperature of the colder body


       Considering that the sun has a surface temperature of about
6000* Kelvin, and the lake temperature is about 300* Kelvin, it is
seen that the temperature of the lake has little effect on the net
radiated solar energy.  Thus, the heat gained from solar radiation
is primarily dependent on meteorological conditions.

-------
	600





                      F.  W.  Kittrell








                       Bi/b^l^i^ography






                1.   Veltz,  C.  J.,  and Gannon,  J.  J.,




 "Forecasting  Heat  Loss in  Ponds  and Streams." JFPCF,




 Vol.  32_*  No-  4>  P-  392.   (I960)



                2.   Perry,  John M.  (ed.),  "Chemical




 Engineers'  Handbook."  McGraw-Hill Book Company,  Inc.,



 New York,  3rd ed.  (1950)



                3.   Richtmyer,  F.  K., Kennard, G.  H.,



 and Lauritsen,  T.,  "introduction  to Modern Physics."



 McGraw-Hill Book Company,  Inc.,  New York,  Fifth  Ed.,




 p. 110.   (1955)
                MR.  STEIN:   Thank you,  Mr.  Kittrell.




                Are  there  any comments  or questions?




                MR.  KLASSEN:   I .just want to comment




 that  this  is  quite  a  comprehensive report.  Before I




 as  a  Conferee would want  to  accept this, there would be




 a few additions that  I  think ought to  go in here.



                It  seems as  though the  Committee approached




 this  with  the idea  that thermal pollution  is something

-------
	681

                     F. W. Kittrell
                                                        «
 detrimental.  Maybe it is.  But I would like to know

 whether  there are any beneficial effects on the aquatic

 life.
               From one statement you made, you said

 the  heated water, warmer water, would encourage the

 growth of undesirable biological life.  I am no biologis

 and,  therefore,  I can't argue with you, but I am  just

 not  too  sure that this is  a conclusion.
               MR. KITTRELL:  Well, we said it might.

 We  didn't say it would.

               MR. KLASSEN:  All right, you took  my

 next point.
               All the way through here "possibly it

 could",  "it might", this isn't very helpful to those of

 us  who have got  to say yes or no to a concern.
               Another point in here, instead of  throw-

 ing  away all this heat by  suggesting other methods of

 wasting  it and dispersing  it, I think that this Committe

 could also address itself  into how are we going to use

 this tremendous  amount of  energy that is in here. It

 might sound wild, but  possibly it  could be piped  to a

 nearby town and  heat all the houses, for example.

-------
	____	      682




                      F.  W.  Kittrell






 I don't  know.   There  might  be  other  things.




                I  think  we have approached  this,  and  this



 is,  I think,  in the  category of detergents  and  a number



 of other things,  with the idea—and  I  don't  say deter-



 gents are good—but  with the idea  that thermal  pollution




 is something  bad.  Maybe it is.  We  don't  know.   But  I



 think that we  ought  to  evaluate all  aspects  of  it.



               We  have  some reason to  believe—and we




 have  had a lot of  experience with  this on  the Illinois



 River, with the largest  nuclear power  plant  in  the



 world, unless  the  Russians  have a  bigger one.--there  is




 some  evidence  that the  biological  life that  is  involved



 in the regeneration  in  a stream and  the natural  puri-



 fication is moved  up  instead of downstream,  it  has moved



 up closer to  the  outlet, a  possible  advantage of  thermal



 wastes.



               I  would  just like to  see this Committee



 address  itself to  the other side and see if  there isn't



 something good that we  can  find in this large amount  of



 heated water  that  we  are trying to find ways of  throwing




 away.



               MR. KITTRELL:   I  might  add  that  it has be
n

-------
	683





                     F. W. Kittrell






 thought  that  some of the heated water might be piped in



 there for  swimming areas, made useful for swimming pur-



 poses .



               MR. KLASSEN:  This is right.  Since you



 have  raised this question, the discharge from the Zion



 plant will be  several hundred feet north of one of our




 State parks,  and the former Director of Conservation



 said  it  could  be an advantage in that it would permit



 swimming much  later in the year than it does now.  Last



 year  there were five days when the temperature of the




 lake, even in  the summer, was suitable.  This might be




 another  advantage.



               The other thing, and this is another



 comment, I would want to restudy some of your recommen-



 dations  here.  And believe me, Mr. Chairman, I am not



 getting  into  the question of another jurisdiction.  But



 I question whether we want the Atomic Energy Commission



 to  coordinate  the development of a plan of State agencie



 in  all of  this.  I think this is kind of whistling in




 the•dark.



               We already have a plan in Illinois, we




 work  very  closely with AEC, but I think there is too

-------
                                                     684
                     F. W. Kittrell
much Federal agency coordinating some of these things




when I am not too sure that this is what they wanted to




do or it should be done.




               MR. STEIN:  Any other comment?




               Mr. Purdy.




               MR. PURDY:  Kit, in your calculations




you indicate a warming of five-hundredths of a degree




Fahrenheit per year.  It is my understanding that in




the southern basin there is complete cooling in the




wintertime. Tlhat is from top to bottom the southern




basin cools to roughly 2.3 degrees Centigrade from top




to bottom, which would indicate that any residual heat




from the summer period would be lost during the winter




period in this southern basin.



               Would your calculations indicate that



there would be enough heat added so that you wouldn't




lose this residual heat in the wintertime in the




southern basin?



               MR. KITTRELL:  Well, this was my first




opinion.  I am no expert on thermodynamics, but several




of the more recent college graduates who were involved




sat on me real hard on that and said there will be some

-------
                     F.  ¥. Kittrell






residual heat carried over and it will be accumulated




until it reaches a new equilibrium.  I have to accept




their word on this.  I felt exactly the way you do at




first.




               MR. PURDY:  I would like to lean on your




long years of experience, Mr. Kittrell.




               MR. KITTRELL:  How is that?




               MR. PURDY:  I say I would like to lean




on your long years of experience in this field.




               MR. KITTRELL:  Well, as I say, I had no




thermodynamics in college, so I bowed to the opinions




of others who have had this sort of education much more




recently.




               MR. PURDY:  I think this is a question



that needs exploring before this conclusion is made a




part of the record.



               Not as a question but as a comment, for




those of us that are faced with setting restrictions,




I think your report places this clearly in focus when




you state that, "Unfortunately, the present state of the




art does not allow quantitative estimates of the various




potential effects of heated waste discharges on a body

-------
	686





                      F.  ¥.  Kittrell






 of  water  as  complex  as  Lake Michigan."




                That  is  all  I have, Mr.  Chairman.




                MR. STEIN:   Thanks.




                Are there any other comments  or  questions?




                To take  up what  Mr. Klassen  said,  Mr.




 Kittrell,  when  you talked about the  increase of two




 degrees by 2023, two degrees Fahrenheit,  you say,  "This




 increase  would  nullify  a 2.0°F  decrease in  average




 annual temperature of the lake  that  has occurred,




 apparently from natural causes,  in the  past  100 years."




                The question again that  Mr. Klassen




 raises is, is this good or  is this bad?   Supposing




 the computations are correct.  I do  know  that we  have




 one situation that has  happened in a much shorter




 range of  time.  The  temperatures around Maine in  the



 ocean have dropped seven degrees over a much shorter




 period of  time  and because  of that the  lobsters are




 not growing  as  fast,  as  you can tell by checking  the




 price of  a lobster in a restaurant these  days.   One




 of  the projects that came in--I don't believe it  was




 approved—was to try to use the heated water from one




 of  these  thermal nuclear plants to raise  the temperature

-------
	68?





                     F. W. Kittrell






 of  the water  so  it would be more nearly the temperature




 where the  lobsters would produce flesh more rapidly.




               Again, we get to the question of whether,




 per se, in any or all environments, a lower temperature




 is  the desired condition or whether we should have it.




 I don't know.  I just raise this.  I know when you have




 a balanced environment, any change up or down is going




 to  shift that one way or the other.




               MR. KITTRELL:  I guess it was Clarence



 who  said he is no biologist.  Mackenthun was very con-




 cerned that any  significant increase in temperature




 might cause an outbreak of Cladophora.  This is one




 of  the things that Jimmy Vaughn mentioned this morning--




 that he had trouble with the Cladophora at the water



 intake already.




               MR. STEIN:  Now, if that is the case,




 again, I want to put this as delicately as I can.




What I was afraid of and the difficulty with one of




 these committees you set up is that the traditional or




 almost cliche result that they come up with, after spend-




 ing six months looking at and studying the problem, their




main conclusion is:  "What we need is a further study."

-------
	     688





                      F.  ¥.  Kittrell






 And I think in  large measure  that is what we have here.




                You say,  "There is an urgent need for




 investigation,  especially biological,  of the effects on




 Lake  Michigan."




                "There is also a need for acquisition of




 data  on  present water quality and aquatic life," and so




 forth.




                Then several of the recommendations you




 have,  "FWPCA coordinate"--! don't know who they are




 supposed to coordinate--"a  comprehensive study of the




 effects  on  water quality and  aquatic life."




                "FWPCA coordinate a study of the effects




 on  water quality and uses of radioactive wastes from a




 large  nuclear power p'lant on  Lake Michigan, with especial




 attention to the concentration of radionuclides in'




 aquatic  life."   Which may be  the same  which may be a



 little different on the  specifics.




                But what  the Committee  has come up with




 after  all this  time is a recommendation for further studije




                MR. KITTRELL:   That is  quite right.




                MR. STEIN:   Well,  again,  you see,  if




 Mackenthun,  who is about as good an aquatic biologist

-------
	689





                     F. W. Kittrell






 as  I know  of, thinks that a rise in water temperature




 or  effects from a thermonuclear plant, or any other




 powerplfcnt,   is going  to create a  condition which might




 cause  the  growth of  Cladophora, which is an algae, as




 some of  you may know,  in the  lake, and if this is the




 case and if this is  put out,  I think this is something




 that the Conferees can get their teeth into.




               But again the  notion is--and I say this




 on  the basis  of experience, and, Kit, you have been




 around at  least as long as I  have—that if we coordinate




 a  comprehensive study  or coordinate a study on the




 effects  of water quality as recommended, there is no




 assurance  that the results of this won't be a recommenda




 tion to  come  up with another  study.  This can go  on for-




 ever .



               MR. KITTRELL:   I don't have anything to




 do  with  that, Murray.  I will  be retired by then.




                (Laughter.)




               MR. STEIN:  I  understand that.  But  let




 me  ask you one more  specific  point on  this.




               Point 3.   "Radioactive  liquid wastes




 discharges to the  lake be  kept to  the  minimum  feasible."

-------
	  690





                      F.  W.  Kittrell






                Did  you  ever consider not putting any in




 at  all?




                MR.  KITTRELL:   I tried to get the Committ4e




 to  make  such  a recommendation,  but I was unable to.




                MR.  STEIN:   All  right.  I thought you




 might  have.   There  is no collusion on this.




                This is  always  a question.   The point is




 if  salt  is  going  to get  in  the  lake,  as Jim  Vaughn point*




 out, it  is  not going to  get out.     If radionuclides




 get into the  lake,  however  small they are,  given their




 long-term half life, some over  thousands of years,  we are




 going  to be stuck with  them a  very long time too.   What




 is  the notion of  putting any in2




                MR.  KITTRELL:   I don't get  your question.




                MR.  STEIN:   Well, the  problem that  I  have




 with this is  we have had a  lot  of testimony  before this



 Conference  and other conferences,before Congressional




 hearings,and  in the newspapers  about  putting dredged




 material in the lake and dredged material  that is  pre-




 sumably  inert and benign, and you might have  the point




 we  are not  cleaning up  the  lake just  to make it a  dump




 and put  it  in the lake.

-------
	691





                     P. W. Kittrell






               Now,  if we have  this  kind  of  situation




with  inert  dredged material  that  the Corps is taklrig




out,  how  do we come  up with  a notion of putting  any




radioactive discharges into  the lake at all?  If we




are keeping out  some rock or someone is making a move




to keep out some  rock that the  Corps is chipping away




from  the  outside  of  the harbor  and dumping it in the




lake  where  there  is  no demonstratable harm,  how  can we




come  up with a recommendation that there  should  be




radioactive wastes discharged to  the lake, however small?




               I  am  .just asking you  that.




               MR. KITTRELL: Well,  as I  say, I  favored




such  a  recommendation.




               MR. STEIN:  All  right.



               MR. KITTRELL: You will have  to talk to




the rest  of the  Committee.



               MR. STEIN:  Are  there any  other comments




or questions?




               If not, thank you  very much.




               We may be  into trouble with this  room,




and I am  debating two things.   We don't have too many




more  points and  we are supposed to be out of here by

-------
	692





                         M.  Stein






 5  o'clock,  but  maybe  we  can stretch  that.   I  think  the



 better  part of  valor,  though,  is  to  take a  very  short



 recess.   I  am asking  everyone  to  take  a 10-minute recess



 so we can get back  here  and not overdo our  welcome  and



 have a  battle with  them.   If we just take 10  minutes




 and come  back,  I  think we  will be  able to be  finished




 just a  little after 5.



                We will stand recessed  for 10  minutes.



                         (RECESS)



                MR.  STEIN:   Let's  reconvene.



                The  next  problem we will take  up  is  the




 pesticide evaluation,  the  report  of  the Committee.



                Mr.  Poston.



                MR.  POSTON:   Dr. Mount, Director  of  our



 National  Water  Quality Laboratory  in Duluth,  will make



 this presentation.

-------
                       	693




                       D. I. Mount
          STATEMENT OF DONALD I. MOUNT, Ph.D.,




          CHAIRMAN, LAKE MICHIGAN ENFORCEMENT




            CONFERENCE PESTICIDES COMMITTEE








               DR. MOUNT:  Mr. Chairman, and Conferees,




I have one disadvantage that Mr. Kittrell didn't have




and that is that I don't retire in a few years. (Laughte




               I have prepared a summary of the Pesti-




cides Committee report, which is some 44 pages in length




               MR. STEIN:  Without objection, that repor




will be entered into the record as if read.




               DR. MOUNT:  And I will also try to delete




some parts of the summary, even, for the sake of time.




               The Pesticides Committee created by the




Four-State Conference on pollution of Lake Michigan was



composed of representatives from each of the four States




in the drainage basin, one FWPCA representative who also




served as Chairman, one representative from the Bureau




of Sports Fisheries and Wildlife and one from the Bureau




of Commercial Fisheries.  Four regularly scheduled




meetings, three of them two days in length, were held

-------
	694





                        D.  I.  Mount






 and  substantial work was done by  the individual members




 between meetings  in order  to  formulate the  report we



 have  submitted.   Although  the charge of  this  Committee



 was  to examine the question of pesticide  pollution in



 Lake  Michigan, the Committee  limited its  report to




 insecticides  since it  could find  no evidence  that pesti-



 cides other than  insecticides were of significant impor-



 tance in  the  lake.  We  wish to emphasize  that  this



 statement  is  based on  extremely limited  information



 that  was  available regarding  the  use of  pesticides in




 the  Lake  Michigan drainage basin.  The members were




 impressed  early in their work by  the near total lack  of



 information as to what  insecticides are  being  used and



 in what quantities.  We believe that the  collection of



 this  information  is of  utmost importance  if we are to



 evaluate  the  size and  magnitude of the pesticide problem,



               Before  formulating any recommendations,



 the  Committee identified the  extant problems  that could



 be recognized at  the present  time.  These problems are:



 (a)  the presence  of insecticides, especially  DDT and



 dieldrin,  in  lake water; (b)  potential involvement of




 DDT  in coho salmon reproduction;  (c) effects  of

-------
	695

                       D. I. Mount
                                                        *
insecticides on gull reproduction;  (d) levels of  dieldrin
in  fish  flesh  approaching the limit recommended by the
Food  and Drug  Administration; and  (e)  possible involve-
ment  of  DDT in the failure  of mink  to reproduce when fed
fish  from  Lake Michigan.
               The following letter was written by the
Committee  to the United  States Food and Drug Administra-
tion  to  seek advice  regarding possible impact of  pesti-
cides in Lake  Michigan on human health.
               I will not read that letter, but in
essence  it asks advice from the Food  and  Drug Administra-
tion  as  to whether there are any  established tolerances
on  fish  used for human consumption  from Lake Michigan.
If  not,  are there any plans to establish  tolerances  and
for any  additional advice that they might have  regarding
the impact on  human  health.
               The answer,  which  is on  page 4,  I  will
not read either for  the  sake of  time, but in essence
it  says  that there are at present no  tolerance  levels
and that there have  been no applications  to establish
 tolerance  levels, but  that  there  are  provisions  under
 certain  sections  to  establish  them should they  be deemed

-------
                       D. I. Mount






necessary.




               They further state that while there are




not tolerance levels, there are levels which are recog-




nized as being sufficient to warrant legal action and




these are given as 0.3 parts per million of aldrin,




dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor or heptachlor epoxide




present in the edible portion of fish.




               The Committee was especially interested




in the comments of the Food and Drug Administration,




since by data available to the Committee that had




previously been collected we realized that the levels




were approaching those that are commonly accepted as




being in doubt.



               Each of the State representatives




attempted to gain some reasonable concept of the quantit




and type insecticides used in the Lake Michigan drainage




This information obtained is not very reliable, but we




believe it is the oest that can be obtained at this time




This information,, of course, is in the full report.




The principal insecticides of concern appear to be DDT,




.dieldrin, including ftldrin which is converted to dleldrin




CJhlordane and t'oxephene.  It is important to emphasize

-------
	697





                       D. I. Mount






that apparently less than half of the insecticides used




in the United States are used for agricultural purposes




and one must not ignore industrial and domestic use of




insecticides.  It is further important to note that the




treatment  of Dutch Elm disease with DDT undoubtedly




accounts for a very large contribution of DDT to Lake




Michigan.   It is common for as much DDT to be applied




to one elm tree as would normally be used on one acre




of cropland; and much of the area surrounding the elm




trees may  be paved, and that portion of the insecticide




that falls to the ground can be more readily washed into




the lake than when applied to cropland.



               The Committee also attempted to determine




programs already in existence regarding the measurement



of insecticides in Lake Michigan. We found that the




Bureau of  Commercial Fisheries, especially the Ann Arbor




Laboratory,  the Ontario Water Resources Commission, the




U. S. Department of Agriculture (the National Pesticides




Monitoring Program), the Wisconsin Department of Natural




Resources, and Michigan State University  all have active




programs under way which include some measurements of




 oesticides in Lake Michigan  or  the Lake Michigan biota.

-------
	698





                        D.  I. Mount






               In  selecting  the monitoring  program  for




 the  lake,  the  Committee  attempted to  stay within  practi-




 cal  limits  of  time, money, and manpower  and adopted a




 four-point  approach.  These  four points  involved  the




 measurement of changes  in  insecticide  levels  in  (1)




 major  tributaries  (2) minor  tributaries  (3)  Lake  Michi-




 gan  water  and  (4)  commercial and sport fishes  of  Lake




 Michigan.   Because insecticides of  concern  in  this




 report are  toxic at concentrations  several  orders of




 magnitude  lower than for more common  pollutants,  the




 Committee  has  recommended  in Table  2  the detection




 limits at  which pesticides should be  measured  in  various




 types  of samples.  We do not have the  information at




 this time  to say that .001 ug/1 of  DDT--which, by the




 way, would  be  one  part  per trillion — in  lake  water  is



 biologically significant,  but it is important  to  measure




 this level  in  order to  establish the  trend  of  pesticide




 contamination  in Lake Michigan.  For  purposes  of  a  surve;




 program, concentrations  reported as being less than some




 thing  are  of no value in establishing the trend  of  the




 lake.



               The Committee has further recommended  a

-------
	699





                       D. I. Mount






 continuous sampling  program for three-day periods,




 twelve times each year, on each of the major tributaries




 to Lake Michigan.  We  recognize that this may complicate




 the  sampling program to some extent but we believe that




 selecting grab  samples from such tributaries would be




 next to useless insofar as pesticide monitoring is




 concerned.  It  is generally accepted that pesticides




 are  not uniformly distributed in the water at any point-




 in-time nor during different stages of stream flow.




 One  can see, therefore, how ridiculous it would be to




 take a grab sample from each tributary on some scheduled




 basis and think that he had properly sampled the contri-




 bution of that  stream  to  the lake.



                The smaller tributaries recommended for




 monitoring are  listed  in  Table 4; because minor tribu-




 taries are numerous  and the sampling problems difficult,




 the  Committee  is recommending the use of freshwater clams




 to monitor pesticides  in  these streams.  The clam sampli ig




 method is not  an innovation of this Committee, but has




 been used by others  in estuarian situations and has  also




 been used by Michigan  State University to detect pesti-




 cide contamination in  lake tributaries.  Clams have  the

-------
	700





                       D.  I. Mount






 distinct  advantage in  that  they  represent  stream  con-



 ditions for  the  previous two to  three  weeks "before  the



 sample is  taken  and  therefore  the problems of  irregular




 discharge  of pesticides are reduced.



               The lake sampling program is recommended



 to  establish the general trend of water concentrations




 in  Lake Michigan for purposes  of the future.



               The fish sampling program as recommended



 and outlined in  Table  5 forms  the real basis of the




 monitoring program.  All of the  problems identified  in



 the Committee's  search for  existing problems were found



 to  be problems involving biological magnification of the



 pesticides in food chains  or human food.   Furthermore,



 there is  not enough  information  at this time to under-



 stand or  even estimate the  importance  of a given  concen-



 tration of an insecticide  such as DDT  in the water  or in



 the bottom sediments.  There appeared  to be absolutely nc



 basis to  say that a  certain water concentration was  too



 high or too  low  unless, of  course,, it  resulted in direct



 toxicity.  For these reasons,  the Committee decided  to



 use the concentrations of  insecticides in  the  fish



 tissues as being the best  sample for monitoring the

-------
	701





                       D. I. Mount






contamination of pesticides in the lake.  In the future,




should  research efforts establish the meaning of various




water concentrations these, then, could become the  basis




for  the monitoring program.



               The use of limiting concentrations in




the  tissues  of the fish, as recommended by  the Committee




was  selected because these  levels are practically




achievable.  They are  similar to existing concentrations




in  some of the other Great  Lakes and are safe because




no  pesticide problems  are evident in those  lakes where




these recommended concentrations are not exceeded.




               We recognize that  "standards of accept-




ability"  based on concentrations in animals,  rather than




in  water,  may be  somewhat new to  those  concerned with




pollution  control.  However, we believe  that there  is




really  little difference between  basing  standards  on




tissue  concentrations  or on water  concentrations.




               Suggestions  are  provided  in  the body of




the report as to  laboratories  or  agencies which  might




perform various  analyses.   The  Committee  also felt  that,




because the  measurement  of  insecticides  at  the  concen-




 trations  of  concern  is very difficult  and  especially

-------
	702





                       D.  I. Mount






 positive identification of  pesticides by techniques  such




 as infrared spectroscopy,  a section in the report  should




 be included concerning quality control.  We are not




 implying that quality control is not a necessary part




 of any chemical measurement program, but it is of




 extreme importance in this  particular case because very




 low limits of detection are required.  ¥e also underline




 again the importance of positive identification of the




 pesticides in at least some of the samples.  Gas chroma-




 tography is not a positive  identification but rather




 some more sophisticated, but well-established, procedure




 such as infrared spectroscopy is required.




               The research needs as outlined in the




 report are also important  if the monitoring program  is




 to be successful.  There are many questions which  must




 be answered before the data provided by the recommended




 monitoring program can be  properly interpreted and




 applied to the practical situation.  The research  needs




 should receive attention as well as the monitoring pro-




 gram.



               The following five recommendations  contai




 the essence of the Committee's opinion regarding

-------
	703





                       D. I. Mount
                                                       *





monitoring and control of pesticides in Lake Michigan. *




               Recommendation No. 1.  The  concentration




of  DDT  in the fish should not exceed 1.0 )ig/g; DDD  shoul




not exceed 0.5 ^g/gj dieldrin should not exceed 0.1




and all  other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, sing




or  combined, should not exceed 0.1 jig/g.   Limits  apply




to  both  muscle and whole body and are expressed on  the




basis of wet weight of tissue.




               Recommendation No. 2.  Each State  should




establish a regulatory authority to control and record




tyoe, quantity and place of  insecticide use.




               Recommendation No. 3.  A Lake Michigan




Interstate Pesticides Committee should be  created by




the Conferees to  attain uniformity among the States in



pesticide use controls and establish uniform pesticide




concentration limits in fish, water and other  aspects




of  the  Lake Michigan ecosystem.



               Recommendation No. 4.  The  research  needs




listed  in this report should receive  priority  equal to




that given to the monitoring program.



               Recommendation No. 5.  The  monitoring




program presented in this  report, and modified as needed

-------
    	704





-<*•                          D. I. Mount






    should be implemented at the earliest possible date and




    continue as long as the insecticide hazard exists.








                   (The following are the documents sub-




    mitted by Dr. Mount:)
                   The Pesticides Committee created by the




    Four-State Enforcement Conference on pollution of Lake




    Michigan was composed of representatives from each of




    the four States in the drainage basin,  one FWPCA repre-




    sentative who also served as Chairman,  one representa-




    tive from the Bureau of Sports Fisheries and Wildlife




    and one from the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries.  Four




    regularly scheduled meetings were held and substantial




    work was done by the individual members between meetings




    in order to formulate the report we have submitted.




    Although the charge of this Committee was to examine




    the question of pesticide pollution in Lake Michigan,




    the Committee limited its report to insecticides since




    it could find no evidence that pesticides other than




    insecticides were of significant importance in the lake.

-------
	705




                       D. I. Mount






We  wish  to  emphasize  that this  statement  is based on




extremely limited  information that was available regard-




ing the  use  of pesticides in the Lake Michigan  drainage




basin.   The  members were impressed early  in their work




by  the near  total  lack of information as  to what insect!"




cides are being  used  and in what quantities.  We believe




that the collection of this information is of utmost




importance  if we are  to evaluate the size and magnitude




of  the pesticide problem.



               Before formulating any recommendations,




the Committee identified the extant problems that could




be  recognized at the  present time.  These problems  are:




(a) the  presence of insecticides, especially DDT and




dieldrin,, in lake  water; (b) potential involvement  of



DDT in coho  salmon reproduction; (c) effects of insecti-




cides on gull reproduction;  (d)  levels of dieldrin  in



fish flesh  approaching the  limit recommended by the Food




and Drug Administration; and (e) possible involvement




of  DDT in the failure of mink to reproduce when fed fish




from Lake Michigan.



               The following letter was written by  the




Committee to the United States  Food and Drug Administrat
on

-------
	]_	705





                       D.  I. Mount






 to  seek advice  regarding  possible impact  of  pesticides




 in  Lake Michigan on human  health.




                                    May 23,  1968




 "Food and Drug  Administration




 "Washington,D.  C.  20204




 "Gentlemen:



                "As a  result  of  the  recommendations  of




 the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference  a committee  has




 been established to make  recommendations  to  the Conferee




 regarding a monitoring and control  program for pesticide




 in  Lake Michigan.  The committee met  on May  17 and




 requested me  to seek  your  agency's  advice concerning




 specific questions.   It was  the feeling of the committee



 that there is no evidence  for an adverse  effect on  human



 health  resulting from pesticide contamination in  Lake



 Michigan.  However, we realize  that we are not in a



 position to make a decision  on  this matter and we reques



 the opinion of  the Food and  Drug Administration in  regard



 to  this matter. We would  also  appreciate your recommen-



 dations regarding permissible levels  of the  important



 chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides  that are  acceptable



 as  residues in  fish used  for human  consumption. Finally,

-------
	707


                        D.  I.  Mount


 is  there  legislation  in progress  now  or  expected  which

 will  establish  residue  levels  in  fish products  used  for

 human consumption?

                "Any other  suggestions that  the  Food  and

 Drug  Administration may have  regarding either monitoring

 or  control  will  be received with  interest and carefully

 considered  in formulating  our  committee  recommendations.

                "Yours truly,

                "Donald  I.  Mount,  Ph.D.

                "Chairman,  Pesticides  Committee

                "Lake  Michigan  Enforcement Conference"


                The following  reply  was received from the

 Food  and  Drug Administration  in  response to our inquiry:


       DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND  WELFARE

              FOOD AND  DRUG ADMINISTRATION

                 WASHINGTON, D.  C.   20204

                      June 4,  1968

 "Dr.  Donald I.  Mount
  Chairman,  Pesticides Committee
  Lake Michigan  Enforcement Conference
  Federal  Water  Pollution Control  Administration
  U. S.  Department of  Interior
  6201 Congdon Boulevard
  Duluth,  Minnesota  55804

-------
	t	708





                        D.  I.  Mount






 "Dear Dr,  Mount:




                "Your letter of May 23 requests  informa-



 tion on pesticide residue  problems associated with Lake




 Michigan.   We  are not in a position to comment  on the




 effects of pesticide contamination of Lake  Michigan on




 human health.   There have  been instances  where  the




 pesticide  residue content  of  fish  caught  by commercial




 fishermen  in Lake Michigan have been  substantial  and




 consideration  was given  to appropriate legal  action.




 Tolerances for pesticide residues  as  such,  or as  food




 additives, in  fish could be established under Section




 408  or 409 of  the Food,  Drug  and Cosmetic Act.  No




 petitions  for  tolerances in fish have been  submitted,



 nor  do we  have plans to  establish  tolerances  on the



 initiative of  the Commissioner.



                "After giving  due consideration  to



 analytical problems  in sampling, sensitivity  and  reli-



 ability attainable in routine analyses, as  well as



 current knowledge on the toxicology of specific residues



 we concluded that legal  action is  warranted when  0.3 ppm



 aldrin,  dieldrin,  endrin,  heptachlor  or heptachlor



 epoxide, is present  in the edible  portion of  fish.

-------
	709


                        D.  I.  Mount


 This  guideline  will  be  reevaluated  and  changed  as

 additional  information  becomes  available  and  is not

 to  be  construed as a tolerance.

                "The  above  figures are applicable only

 where  there is  no history  of  purposeful use of  the

 pesticide which would result  in  residues  in fish.

 Furthermore,  we would not  consider  these  levels accept-

 able  if  a significant proportion of  fish  marketed con-

 tained this concentration  of  residue.

                "in addition to  the  problem of residues

 in  fish  for human consumption,  attention  should be given

 to  the use  of fishery products  in animal  feeds  which

 might  result in residues in meat, milk  and eggs.

                'V-; are  referring your letter  and a copy

 of  our reply to the  Federal Committee on  Pest Control

 for their information.  You may  wish to seek  suggestions

 from  that Committee,  if you have not already  done so.

                "if we can  be  of  further assistance or

 provide  additional information  on specific questions, we

 will  be  glad to do so."

                "Sincerely  yours,

                "R. E. Duggan
                "Deputy  Associate Commissioner
                 for  Compliance."

-------
	__________	       710





                        D.  I.  Mount






                Each  of  the State  representatives  attempts



 to gain some  reasonable concept of the  quantity and type




 insecticides  used in the Lake Michigan  drainage.   This




 information obtained is not very  reliable,  but we believe




 it is  the  best  that  can be obtained at  this  time.  The




 principle  insecticides  of  concern appear  to  be DDT,




 dieldrin (and &ldrin),  dhlordane  and toxephene.   It is



 important  to  emphasize  that apparently  less  than  half of




 the  insecticides  used in the  United States  are used for




 agricultural  purposes and  one must not  ignore  industrial




 and  domestic  use  of  insecticides.   It is  further  importan




 to note that  the  treatment of Dutch Elm disease with DDT




 undoubtedly accounts  for a very large contribution  of



 DDT  to  Lake Michigan.   It  is  common for as much DDT to



 be applied to one elm tree as would normally be used on



 one  acre of cropland; and  much of  the area surrounding



 the  elm trees may be  paved,  and that portion of the



 insecticide that  falls  to  the ground can  be  more  readily



 washed  into the lake  than  when applied  to cropland.



                The Committee  also  attempted  to determine



 programs already  in  existence regarding the  measurement



 of insecticides in Lake Michigan.   We found  that  the
d

-------
	711





                       D.  I.  Mount






 Bureau  of  Commercial Fisheries,  especially  the Ann  Arbor



 Laboratory,  the  Ontario Water Resources  Commission,  the




 U.  S. Department of Agriculture  (the National Pesticides




 Monitoring Program), the Wisconsin Department of Natural




 Resources, and Michigan State University all have active




 programs underway which include  some measurements of




 pesticides in Lake Michigan  or the Lake  Michigan biota.




               In selecting  the  monitoring  program  for




 the  lake,  the Committee attempted to stay within prac-




 tical limits of  time,  money  and  manpower and adopted  a



 four-point approach.   These  four points  involved the




 measurement  of changes in  insecticide  levels in  (1)



 ma.jor tributaries (2)  minor  tributaries  (3) Lake Michi-



 gan  water  and (4)  commercial  and sport fishes of Lake



 Michigan.  Because insecticides  of concern  in this



 report  are toxic at concentrations several  orders of  mag-



 nitude  lower than for  more common pollutants, the Com-



 mittee  has recommended in  Table  2 the  detection  limits



 at  which pesticides should be measured in various types



 of  samples.  We  do not have  the  information at this  time



 to  say  that  .001^jg/l  of DDT in  lake water  is biologi-



 cally significant, but it  is  important to measure this

-------
	712





j,                       D. I. Mount






""level in order to establish the trend of pesticide con-




 tamination in Lake Michigan.  For purposes of a survey




 program, concentrations reported as being less than




 something are of no value in establishing the history




 of the lake.



                The Committee has further recommended a




 continuous sampling program for three-day periods,



 twelve times each year, on each of the ma.jor tributaries



 to Lake Michigan.  We recognize that this may complicate




 the sampling program to some extent but we believe that




 selecting grab samples from such tributaries would be




 next to useless insofar as pesticide monitoring is con-




 cerned.  It is generally accepted that pesticides are



 not uniformly distributed in the water at any point-in-



 time nor during different stages of stream flow.  One



 can see, therefore, how ridiculous it would be to take



 a grab sample from each tributary on some scheduled basi



 and think that he had properly sampled the contribution




 of that stream to the lake.



                The smaller tributaries recommended for




 monitoring are listed in Table ^; because minor tribu-




 taries are numerous and the sampling problems difficult,

-------
	713





                       D.  I. Mount
                                                       »«L





 the  Committee  is  recommending the use  of freshwater    >*




 claras  to  monitor  pesticides  in  these streams.  The clam




 sampling  method is not an  innovation of this  Committee,




 but  has been used by  others  in  estuarian situations  and




 has  also  been  used by Michigan  State University  to




 detect pesticide  contamination  in lake tributaries.




 Clams  have  the distinct  advantage in that  they repre-




 sent stream conditions for the  previous two to three




 weeks  before the  sample  is taken and therefore the




 problems  of irregular discharge of  pesticides are




 reduced.




               The lake  sampling program is recommended




 to  establish the  general trend  of water concentrations




 in  Lake Michigan  as  a "trend indicator."



               The fish  sampling program as recommended




 and  outlined in Table 5  forms the real basis  of  the



 monitoring  program.   All of  the problems identified  in




 the  Committee's search for existing problems  were  found




 to  be problems involving biological magnification  of the




 pesticides  in  food chains  or human  food.   Furthermore,




 there is  not enough  information at  this time  to  under-




 stand or  even  estimate the importance  of a given

-------
	714





                        D.  I.  Mount






 concentration  of  an  insecticide  such  as  DDT  in  the  water




 or  in  the  bottom  sediments.   There  appeared  to  be




 absolutely no  basis  to  say that  a certain  water  concen-




 tration was  too high  or too  low  unless,  of course,  it




 resulted in  direct toxicity.  For these  reasons, the




 Committee  decided to  use  the  concentrations  of  insecti-




 cides  in the fish tissues  as  being  the best  sample  for




 monitoring the contamination  of  pesticides in the lake.




 In  the future, should research efforts establish the




 meaning of various water  concentrations  these,  then,




 could  become the  basis  for the monitoring  program.




               The use  of  limiting  concentratjons in




 the tissues  of the fish,  as  recommended  by the  Committee




 was selected because  these levels are practically



 achievable.  They are similar to existing  concentrations



 in  some of the other  Great Lakes and  are safe because




 no  pesticide problems are  evident in  those lakes where




 these  recommended concentrations are  not exceeded.



               We recognize  that "standards  of  accept-




 ability" based on concentrations in animals, rather than




 in  water,  may  be  somewhat  new to those concerned with




 pollution  control.  However,  we  believe  that there  is

-------
	713





                        D.  I.  Mount






 really  little  difference between  basing  standards  on




 tissue  concentrations  or on water concentrations.




                Suggestions are  provided  in  the body of



 the  report  as  to  laboratories or  agencies which  might




 perform various analyses.  The  Committee also felt that,




 because the  measurement of insecticides  at  the concen-




 trations  of  concern  is  very difficult  and especially



 positive  identification of pesticides  by techniques such




 as infrared  spectroscopy,  a section  in the  report  should



 be included  concerning  quality  control.  We are  not




 implying that  quality  control is  not a necessary part




 of any  chemical measurement program, but it is of



 extreme importance in  this particular  case  because very



 low  limits  of  detection are required.  We also underline



 again the importance of positive  identification  of the



 pesticides  in  at  least  some of  the samples.  Gas chroma-



 tography is  not a positive identification but rather



 some more sophisticated, but  well-established, procedure




 such as infrared  spectroscopy is  required.



                The research needs as outlined in the



 report  are  also important  if  the  monitoring program is



 to be successful.  There are  many questions which  must

-------
	716





                        D.  I.  Mount






 be  answered  before  the  data  provided by the  recommended




 monitoring program  can  be  properly  interpreted and applied




 to  the  practical  situation.   The  research  needs should




 receive  attention as  well  as  the  monitoring  program.



                The  following five recommendations  contair




 the essence  of  the  Committee's  opinion regarding monitor-




 ing and  control of  pesticides in  Lake Michigan.



                Recommendation No. 1.  The  concentration




 of  DDT  in the fish  should  not exceed 1.0 yg/g; ODD shoulc




 not exceed 0.5  .ug/gj  d-ieldrin should not exceed O.ljig/g




 and all  other chlorinated  hydrocarbon insecticides,



 singly  or combined, should not  exceed O.ljag/g.  Limits




 apply to both muscle  and whole  body and are  expressed on




 the basis of wet weight of tissue.



                Recommendation No. 2.  Each State should



 establish a  regulatory  authority to control  and record



 type, quantity  and  place of insecticide use.



                Recommendation No.	3..  A Lake Michigan




 Interstate  Pesticides Committee should be created by



 the Conferees  to attain uniformity among the States in



 pesticide use  controls  and establish uniform pesticide



 concentration  limits in fish, water and other aspects of

-------
                                                       717

                         D.  I.  Mount


  the  Lake Michigan ecosystem.

                                     *   ^e research needs
  listed in this report should receive priority equal to

  that given to the monitoring program.

                 R e c_oinmen_d_a ti_on No . _ 5_.  The monitoring

  program presented in this report,  and modified as needed

  should be implemented at the earliest possible date and

  continue as long as the insecticide hazard exists.


                 Donald I. Mount, Chairman, Pesticides

  Committee of the Lake Michigan Enf . Conference, 2/14/69-



           REPORT ON INSECTICIDES IN LAKE MICHIGAN


              Prepared by Pesticides Committee

                             of

          The Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference

                       November
                        INTRODUCTION

'                 One of the sixteen conclusions reached by
i
j  Conferees of The Four State Enforcement Conference on

!  pollution of Lake Michigan (January-March 1968) is:

-------
	__	718




                       D.  I. Mount






                "Pesticides are found in Lake




     Michigan and its  tributary  streams result-




     ing from the application of  these materials.




     The ever-increasing use of  these materials



     threatens  water uses  for recreation, fish




     and wildlife, and water supplies."



                The Conferees took positive action toward



review and  study of the pesticide problem in Lake Michi-




gan in their Recommendation No.  15:



                "A technical committee on pesti-




     cides  will be established to be chaired by




     a member of the Federal Water Pollution




     Control Administration with  representatives



     from each  State.  The committee shall eval-



     uate the pesticide problem  and recommend



     to the Conferees  a program  of monitoring



     and control.  The first report will be sub-



     mitted in  six months  to the  Conferees.  The



     States shall seek legislation to license




     commercial applicators."



                Accordingly, the  Pesticide Committee  mem-




bers were appointed, and held meetings in Chicago,

-------
	719





                       D.  I. Mount






Illinois, on May  17, June  11-12, and July  9-10,  1968,



and in Duluth, Minnesota,  on September  19-20,  1968.   The




Committee consists  of:




               Dr.  Donald  I. Mount, Federal




     Water Pollution Control Administration,




     Chairman;



               Mr.  Benn J. Leland, Illinois Sani-



     tary Water Board;




               Mr.  Stephan Kin,  Indiana Water  and



     Waste Laboratory;




               Mr.  John Favinger, Indiana  Natural




     Resources Department;



               Mr.  Carlos  Fetterolf, Michigan



     Water Resources Commission;



               Mr.  Lloyd Lueschow, Wisconsin



     Department of  Natural Resources;



               Mr.  John Carr,  Bureau of Commercial




     Fisheries;



               Dr.  Oliver  B. Cope, Bureau  of




     Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.



               The  following report of  the technical



committee on pesticides contains recommendations based

-------
	720





                        D.  I.  Mount






 on  information  obtained by the  committee  from  published




 material,  testimony  of  experts,  unpublished  data  from




 studies  not  yet completed,  and  from  the background  and




 experience of the  committee members.   Despite  this  wide




 range  of sources,  the information was  scanty on most




 aspects  of pesticides in the  Lake Michigan watershed,




 and totally  lacking  in  several  critical areas.  These




 factors  had  a pronounced effect  on the nature  and scope




 of  the committee's recommendations.




                Despite  considerably  effort by  the




 committee, information  necessary to  determine  the quan-




 tity and kinds  of  pesticides  in  Lake Michigan  was not




 obtainable,  and apparently such  information  would require




 large  expenditures of time  and  money.  The committee




 recognized a pressing need for  a system to obtain such



 information.  The  only  significant information available




 was the  levels  of  DDT and  dieldrin (both  insecticides)




 present  in Lake Michigan fish.



                This  report includes  only  insecticides




 since  there  is  no  information to suggest  that  any signif'




 icant  amount of pesticide,  other than  insecticides, has




 been detected in Lake Michigan  or its  aquatic  organisms.

-------
                                                       721


                        D. I. Mount


 Thus, the word insecticide is used henceforth.


            PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM INSECTICIDE

              ACCUMULATIONS IN LAKE MICHIGAN


                Several indications of insecticide hazards

 in Lake Michigan have been reported, some of them based

 on insecticide measurements in the basin and some based

 on situations in other parts of the country and  recog-

 nized as probable eventualities in Lake Michigan.   The

 more important ones follow.

 Pesti^cidej[ in Lake Michigan Wat_e_r

                Water samples from Lake Michigan  contain

 insecticides.  Samples collected in July 1968 at points

 five miles west of Ludington, Michigan, and twenty-five

 miles west of Saugatuck, Michigan, contained chlorinated

 hydrocarbons.  The collections were extracted, and  aliquofts

 of the extract were consigned to the Bureau of Commercial
i
 Fisheries Laboratory at Ann Arbor, Michigan; Wisconsin

 Department of Agriculture Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsifa
*
| and the Fish-Pesticide Research Laboratory, Columbia,
s
1 Missouri.  The analytical results from these three
i
r
| laboratories were in close agreement, showing the

-------
	,	.	,	722





                        D. I. Mount






 Saugatuck sample to contain approximately .002 jag/1  of




 DDT,  less than .001 jjg/1 of ODD (TDE), a trace  of DDE,




 and  approximately .OOl^ug/1 of dieldrin.  The sample




 from Ludington contained slightly greater quantities  of




 DDT  and  dieldrin and about the same quantities  of ODD




 and  DDE.   (Note that . OOl^ug/1, one part per trillion,




 of DDT «*  167,000,000,000 molecules per liter.)   These




 samples  should be representative of Lake Michigan's open




 water areas,  and the amounts of insecticides indicative




 of widespread distribution throughout the greater portion




 of the lake.   Insecticides are also found in tributary




 streams  which are likely the principal source supplying




 Lake  Michigan.




 Hazards  t_o_JF j^s_h _ R_e_gjroduc_t j^on



                The Michigan Conservation Department has




 found DDT to  be the most probable cause of  death of




 nearly one million coho salmon (0_nc_orhjrnjch_us__ki_s_utc_h_)




 fry  hatched from Lake Michigan brood stock.  New York




 studies  have  established that insecticide accumulations




 in lake  trout (S_a^v_e_l_i_n_us__namayc_ush_) brood  stock result




 in reproductive failure.  In light of the New York




 studies  and the current residue of DDT and  dieldrin in

-------
 	723


                         D.  I.  Mount



 Lake  Michigan  fish,  it  is  likely that natural reproduc-


  tion  of  lake trout  and  coho salmon in Lake Michigan is


 in  jeopardy.   Other  fish  species in Lake Michigan probabl


 face  similar reproductive  hazards although there is evi-


 dence  only  for these two  species.  Other important com-


 mercial  and sport fishery  species known to have significa


 insecticide residues include  chubs (Leucichthys spp.),


 alewives  (PoinpJLob^s_ps_ej^p_2h_arengus_) , yellow perch,


 (?££.°a._£.iLa-y_E.i£^I§.)'  and smelt ( 0_s_me_rus__mp_rdax) .  All are

 important in the bionomics of the lake.


 H a 2 a r d s  to  Bi^r d Rep r o du, c tj^on


                 Wisconsin workers have suggested an


 insecticide-induced  reproductive hazard to gulls in the


 Green  Bay area.  This does not imply  that the gull popu-


 lation in the  Great  Lakes  area is declining, but suggests


 a possibility  of failures  in  desirable bird populations.


 Indeed,  the diminishing population trends of raptorial


 birds, such as eagles,  osprey and peregrine falcons in


 the Lake Michigan drainage basin have been attributed


 to  widespread  use of DDT and  other insecticides.


' Hazards  to  Human Health

i
                 The United  States Food and Drug
nt

-------
	724





                        D.  I.  Mount






 Administration  has  established  no tolerance  level  of




 insecticides  in fish  utilized for human  consumption.




 The  presence  of residues  in fish flesh has been  estab-




 lished  by  Wisconsin,  Michigan,  and Federal investigators




 The  Bureau of Commercial  Fisheries has analyzed  approxi-




 mately  30  species of  Great Lakes fish in  the  last  three




 years and  has observed  insecticides  in all species  col-




 lected  from Lake Michigan.  The concentration  of DDT  in




 chubs from Lake Michigan  has  averaged 7.b pg/g plus




 analogs.   Other species have  lower but significant  quan-




 tities  of  DDT;  dieldrin was found in all  fish  analyzed.




 The  concentration of  residue  in Lake Michigan  fish  is




 usually two to  five times  higher than in  other Great




 Lakes fish and  is substnatially higher in fish from




 smaller Wisconsin lakes.



                Although the presence of  residues in




 Lake Michigan fish has  been established,  the  effects  of




 these residues  on human health  have  not  been  evaluated.




 The  letter of June 4, 1968, (attached) from R. E.  Dugganj




 Food and Drug Administration, states that the  FDA  has    j




 "no  petitions for tolerance in  fish" and  has  no  "plans




 to establish  tolerances on the  initiative of  the

-------
			723





                       D. I. Mount






Commissioner."  They further state,  'We  are  not  in  a




position  to  comment on the  effects  of  pesticide  contami-




nation  of Lake  Michigan on  human health,"  and  after




considering  analytical and  technological problems,




"...we  concluded  that legal action  is  warranted  when




0.3  ppm aldrin_, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor or  heptachlojr




epoxide,  is  present in the  edible portions of  fish."




The  Ann Arbor Laboratory  (Bureau of Commercial Fisheries)




has  found some  fish with  0.3 ppm dieldrin  total  body  con-




centrations .




Reproductive Failure of Mink F_ed_p_n Lake Michigan__F_ij^h_




                The Reserach Advisory Committee of the




Mink Ranchers Association has  suggested  that mink fed on




Lake Michigan fish having a high DDT level have  failed



to  reproduce.   The Association has  initiated reserach




contracts to determine if there is  a correlation between




pesticide levels  in the mink food  and the  observed




reproductive failures.




Relation of
                Evidence of numerous pollutants in Lake




 Michigan is well documented. Wastes from municipalities,




 industries, agriculture, and watercraft have contributed

-------
			726





                       D.  I. Mount






to eutrophication, bacterial contamination,  excessive




algae populations, local oxygen depletions,  heated water




and other nuisances.  The  effects of this  complex pol-




lution may be magnified by insecticide pollution either




directly or indirectly.  Insecticides may  not be toxic in




the observed concentrations themselves, but  as part of




a complex of stresses placed on organisms, they may be




much more damaging.




               The Committee views the quantities of




insecticides in Lake Michigan as an immediate problem




affecting aquatic life but not human health.  It is




essential that public officials, Industry, and the com-




munity recognize this problem and take the necessary




action to alleviate hazards caused by insecticide con-




tamination.  The higher concentration of insecticides




in Lake Michigan fishes, as compared to fishes of the




other Great Lakes, suggests that with proper control,




lower concentrations can be achieved in Lake Michigan.
      DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE




              FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION




                WASHINGTON, D. C.  2020*1

-------
 	727

                        D. I. Mount


                       June 4, 1968

 Dr. Donald I. Mount
 Chairman, Pesticides Committee
 Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference
 Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
 U. S. Department of Interior
 6201 Congdon Boulevard
 Duluth, Minnesota  55084

 Dear Dr. Mount:

                Your letter of May 23 requests informatior

 on pesticide residue problems associated with Lake Michi-

 gan.  We are not in a position to comment on the  effects

 of pesticide contamination of Lake Michigan on human

 health.  There have been instances where the pesticide

 residue content of fish caught by commercial fishermen

 in Lake Michigan have been substantial  and consideration

 was given to appropriate legal action.  Tolerances for

] pesticide residues as such,  or as food  additives,  in

 fish could be established under Section 408 or 409 of

 the Food, Drug and Cosmetic  Act.  No petitions for

I tolerances in fish have been submitted, nor do we  have
i
i plans to establish tolerances on the initiative  of the
t
: Commissioner.

!                After giving  due consideration  to analyti-

 cal problems in sampling, sensitivity  and  reliability

-------
	728





                        D.  I.  Mount






 attainable  in  routine  analyses,  as  well  as  current  knowl



 edge  on  the toxicology of  specific  residues,  we  conclude




 that  legal  action  is warranted when 0.3  ppm aldrin,



 dieldrin,  endrin,  heptachlor  or heptachlor  epoxide,  is



 present  in  the edible  portion of fish.   This  guideline



 will  be  reevaluated and changed as  additional informa-




 tion  becomes available and is not to be  construed as  a




 tolerance.



                The above figures are applicable  only




 where there is no  history  of  purposeful  use of the



 pesticide  which would  result  in residues in fish.




 Furthermore, we would  not  consider  these levels  accept-




 able  if  a  significant  proportion of fish marketed con-




 tained this concentration  of  residue.



                In  addition to the problem of  residues



 in fish  for human  consumption, attention should  be  given



 to the use  of  fishery  products in animal feeds which



 might result in residues in meat, milk  and  eggs.



                We  are  referring your letter and  a copy



 of our reply to the Federal Committee on Pest Control



 for their  information.  You may wish to  seek  suggestions



 from  that  Committee,  if you have not already  done so.

-------
 	729





                         D.  I.  Mount






                 If  we  can  be  of  further  assistance  or




  provide  additional information  on  specific  questions,




  we  will  be  glad to do so.




                 Sincerely  yours,




                 /s/ R.  E.  Duggan




                 R.  E.  Duggan




                 Deputy Associate Commissioner




                 for Compliance.






                       INSECTICIDE USE






                 The kinds  and quantities of  insecticides




  used in  the past,  those being used  now, and those  pre-




  dicted for  the  future bear directly on  the  presence  and




  distribution of insecticides in Lake Michigan and  on



  steps to be recommended to decrease the amounts  in the




  lake and its biota.  The  Committee  has  exerted effort to




  compile  information on types, amounts,  and  distribution




  of  insecticides applied in the Lake Michigan  drainage




  basin, and  has  learned that there  are no accurate, con-




  sistent compilations  of such information.   Fragmentary




(  figures  are available for some areas and for some  insect




  icides,  but extrapolation of these numbers  into realisti

-------
	730





                        D.  I.  Mount






 totals  for  the  drainage basin appears  impossible  at  the




 present time.   Even  the following general  statements  on




 usage are subject  to great error; the  values  are  only




 general indications  and should be used cautiously.




                Approximately  1.25 million  acres of




 Indiana land  drains  into Lake Michigan.  Much  of  this




 area is heavily industrialized and  urbanized  and  the




 remainder is  devoted to dairy and general  farming.




 About 58,000  acres of Illinois is in the Lake  Michigan




 watershed;  most of this area  is  highly-developed  indus-




 trial and residential area.   The Lake  Michigan drainage




 area in Wisconsin  measures about 250 miles long,  and  up




 to  about 150  miles wide; this area  has extensive  orchard




 and other farm  acreage, as well  as  forests.   Michigan




 lands in the  drainage basin are  extensive,  and include



 approximately one-half of  the entire State (approximatel;




 29,100  square miles).  In  this area are vast  forests,




 numerous Christmas tree farms, and  widespread  agricul-




 tural lands,  including the greater  part of the Michigan




 fruit belt.



                In  1964 approximately 3-8 million  pounds




 of  insecticides were used  on  crops  in  the  three lake

-------
	.	731





                       D.  I.  Mount






 States  of  Minnesota,  Michigan,  and  Wisconsin  (U.S.D.A.,




 1968).  It  is  not  known what  portion of  this was  applied




 in  the  Lake Michigan  watershed.   In the lake  States  the




 greatest amounts  of the  insecticides  were  used on  apples




 and other  deciduous fruits.   Aldrin (that  converts to




 dieldrin)  used  on the largest acreage on corn, totaled




 761,000 pounds  on approximately  1.2 million acres.  DDT




 was applied to  about  150,000  acres  and  accounted for




 511,000 pounds.




                The State of  Wisconsin estimates  that in




 its segment of  the Lake  Michigan drainage  basin  approxi-




 mately  150,000  acres  of  farm  lands  received 500,000




 pounds  of  technical insecticides in 1967.  Of this,




 86,600  pounds was DDT, 4,200  pounds was dieldrin,  103,80C



 pounds  was chlordane, and  28,000 pounds was toxaphene.



 Most  of the remainder was  composed  of non-persistent




 insecticides.



                Based  on  1966  insecticide application




 data  and 1964 crop average data,  the  agricultural  use




 of  persistent chlorinated  hydrocarbons, in the Michigan




 portion of the  drainage  basin is considerably less than




 the fungicides, phosphates and herbicides.  Of the

-------
	732





                       D. I. Mount






persistent materials, aldrin, DDT, and dieldrin were




the most frequently applied and were used primarily on




grain  crops and fruits.  Dieldrin and DDT were applied




in much greater amounts before 1966.



               The Lake Michigan drainage basin is not




typical of the rest of the United States in respect to




the distribution of insecticide use.  In the corn belt




and cotton belt States there is a much higher percentage




of insecticide use on field crops, while the basin use




is perhaps 60 percent metropolitan and 40 percent agri-




cultural.  Throughout the greater part of the Lake




Michigan drainage basin municipalities have made heavy




use of DDT for control of the lesser European elm bark




beetle, the principal vector of Dutch elm disease.  The




amount of DDT applied to a large elm tree approximates



that normally applied per acre for field crop purposes.




DDT spraying is largely municipally-sponsored and trees




in parks and along streets are sprayed mainly in the




spring.  Considerable insecticide drops to paved areas




and is washed away by stormwater directly into tribu-




taries of Lake Michigan.  Mosquito abatement programs




are also common in the resort and residential areas in

-------
 	733


                         D.  I.  Mount



  much of  the  basin.   Persistent insecticides  applied


  for the  above purposes  have  less  opportunity to become


  bonded to soil particles  than do  those  applied directly


  to  crop  areas for insect  control.


                 The  Lake Michigan  drainage  area must have


  received immense amounts  of  pesticides  in  recent years.


  Prospective  future  use, based on  present trends,  suggest


  increased emphasis  on  the  less persistent  insecticides


  and decreasing reliance on the persistent  chlorinated


  hydrocarbons.



                     MONITORING PROGRAMS



                 It is axiomatic that  a program of insecti


  cide measurements in the  Lake Michigan  environment  would


  have helped  us recognize  the  existence  of  an insecticide


  problem,  but a monitoring  program will  be  indispensable


  in  following future changes,  whether or not  a control


I  program  is  implemented.
|

|                 Some measurements  of  insecticides in this

!
  ecosystem have been made  in  recent years.  Certain  of


  these programs could be classed as monitoring activities


  but data have also  been accumulated  from individual

-------
	734





                        D.  I.  Mount






 studies  restricted  as  to  times  and  places.   All  of  these




 have  added  to  our knowledge  and helped  form  our  impres-




 sions  of  the history of insecticides  in the  water and




 the animals of  Lake  Michigan.




                During  the  past  three  years the Ann  Arbor




 Biological  Laboratory  of  the  Bureau of  Commercial




 Fisheries has  been  measuring  insecticide  levels  in  fish




 from  each of the Great Lakes.   Some results  from these




 studies  are included in Table 1.  The same laboratory




 has collected  many  water  samples  from Lake Michigan and




 has found DDT  and dieldrin in measurable  amounts.




                In the  past few  years, the Ontario Water




 Resources Commission has  analyzed fish  from  Lakes Erie




 and Ontario and other  waters.



                The  U.  S.  Department of  Agriculture  con-




 ducts  the soil  monitoring  portion of  the  National Pesti-




 cide  Monitoring Program,  including  the  Lake  Michigan




 watershed.  Sampling began on July  1, 196*8,  and  no  resul




 are yet  available.




                The  Wisconsin  Department of Natural




 Resources is studying  the  sources,  seasonal  variation,




 and residues in fish of chlorinated hydrocarbon
:s

-------
                                                                   735
                                                                17
                         Table 1
           Pesticide Kesidues in Whole Fish from
                Lake Michigan, 1965-1968*
Pesticide concentration (pr>m)
Species
Alewife
Chubs
Smelt
Perch
Lake trout
3-5"
6-9"
10-13"
16-20"
Coho salmon
10-22"
25-30"
Number
of fish
663
38U
239
200

10
61
fco
19

15
k
Dieldrin
0.11
0.2U
0.08
0.06

0.02
0.11
0.13
0.21

O.lU
0.15
Total DDT
(DDT, DDD, DDE)
3.93
10.11
3.01
3.28

1.07
2.99
I».31
6.6k

3.U5
12.59
*  Bureau of Commercial  Fisheries  data

-------
	736





                        D.  I.  Mount






 insecticides,  in  the  Milwaukee  River  and  its  tributaries.




 The  department is  also  investigating  insecticide  resi-




 dues  in  invertebrate  organisms  in  streams  tributary to




 Lake  Michigan.




                At  the Michigan  State  University,  studies




 are  in progress on the  effects  of  insecticides  on popu-




 lations  of  salmonids  in  Lake  Michigan,  on  the nature  and




 metabolic activity of lipids  associated with  insecticides




 residues in  fish  eggs,  and  on environmental and physio-




 logical  factors affecting the toxicity  of  accumulated




 insecticide  residues.




                The literature contains  recent reports




 on insecticides in the  Lake Michigan  drainage,  including




 the  Green Bay  area.   Reports  have  also  been published




 on herring  gull reproduction, occurrence of insecticides




 in the Lake  Michigan  ecosystem, and DDT and dieldrin




 levels in Great Lakes fish.   No known programs  exist  that




 will  indicate  the  contribution  of  airborne insecticides




 to the lake.

-------
              	737





                       D.  I. Mount








             RECOMMENDED MONITORING PROGRAM






               A monitoring program would provide up-to-




date information on the pesticide contamination within




the aquatic ecosystem of Lake Michigan and its drainage




basin.  Such information would be used in the management




and protection of the water resources and specifically




for the protection of sport and commercial fish.




               To stay within practical limits of time,




money and manpower, the Committee recommends a four-poinjt




approach to the monitoring program: changes in insecti-




cide levels should be measured in 1) major tributaries;




2) minor tributaries; 3) Lake Michigan water; and 4)




fish of Lake Michigan.




Monitoring



               To be of greatest value, the monitoring




program must include those insecticides of currently




acknowledged significance to human health and to growth




and reproduction of aquatic life.  It must measure




quantities at reproducible levels to establish  current




concentrations and to trace future trends.  The  Committee




has selected seven contaminants  (Table 2) and their

-------
                                                                           738

                                                                     21
                               Table  2

     Insecticides  and the  Lower Values  of  Quantitative Reporting
             Recommended for Various  Types of Monitoring.
Insecticide and
priority order
of analysis
DDT
Dieldrin
DDD
DDE
Methoxychlor*
Chlordane*
Endrin
Tributary water
Pg/1
.020
.020
.020
.020
	
	
	
Lake water
Pg/1
.001
.001
.001
.001
	
	
	
Fish tissue
VK/P,
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.01
Clam tissue
Mg/K
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
            * If detected in  fish tissue  at  concentrations greater than

0.1 pg/g, quantitative reporting should be changed  to  a 0.01 yg/g limit.

-------
	739




                       D.  I.  Mount






 levels  of  detection  for  routine  analysis  by  gas  chroma-




 tograph, to  provide  the  information  necessary  to meet




 the  objectives .




 Ma jor Tributarl_e_s_Re_co_mme_nde d _ for Sampling




               The Committee  recommends nine major




 tributaries  of Lake  Michigan  to  be sampled continuously




 for  three  days (Table  3)>  once each  month.   The  purpose




 is to determine  the  poundage  of  insecticides supplied




 by the  major tributaries  to Lake Michigan.   Sampling




 stations should  be located as close  to  the lake  as  prac-




 tical.  Two  stations are  recommended on the  Milwaukee




 River,  one near  the  mouth  and one above the  industrial




 area, to differentiate between agricultural  and  urban




 contamination.   Water  samples for pesticides are to be



 analyzed without filtration;  subsamples are  to be analyz




 for  suspended  solids and  turbidity.



               The three-day  continuous sampling method




 is recommended to detect  fluctuations in  turbidity  and




 pesticide  loads. Although the sample volume will not be




 proportional to  stream flow,  it  can  be  related to dis-




 charge  rate  to secure  quantitative information.




               The apparatus  for continuous  flow sampling

-------
                                                                          23
                                     Table  3

                    Recommended  Water Quality Monitoring Stations
                    for  Insecticides on  Major Tributaries.
River
Fox*
Grand**
Calumet
Grand
Kalamazoo
Manistee
Menominee
Proposed
station
location
Main St. Bridge,
Green Bay , Wis .
Dickey Road,
East Chicago, Ind.
Corps of Engineers ,
Grand Haven, Mich.
U. S. 31 Bridge,
Saugatuck, Mich.
Maple St. Bridge,
Manistee, Mich.
Ogden St. Bridge,
annual
flow
(cfs)
M*
86U
Moo
1,722
2,312
3,382
annual
high flow
(cfs)
12,983

23,820
5,812
5,937
15,150
annual
low flow
(cfs)
1,207

92*4
512
1,322
99^
Watershed
(sq.mi. )
6,150
37
5,570
2,060
2,130
M70
of
basin
gaged
—
—
88
78
93
93
           Marinette, Wis.
           Menominee, Mich.

Milwaukee  Machinery Bay,
  ***      Milwaukee

Milwaukee  Above urban area

Muskegon   Coast Guard,
           Muskegon, Mich.
  385
Currently unavailable

2,176        7,750
28
St. Joseph Ches. & Ohio RR Bridge   2,312        5,937
           St. Joseph, Mich.
                        1,322
  686




2,660


2,130
           * Data from Wrightstown, Wis.
          ** Data from Gary, Ind. stage-flow relationship plus industrial and
             municipal discharges.
         *** Data from six miles above mouth.
                   93

-------
	___	741





                       D.  I. Mount






 can be  a  pump with a.  capacity  to deliver about 200cc  of




 stream  water per hour into a five-gallon covered  bottle.




 Larger  pumps can be used if a  bleeder is provided to




 deliver the indicated amount.   (Suitable pumps are




 commercially available for approximately $50  each.) The




 water should be drawn through  metal  tubing from a sectior




 of stream with a visible current.




               Studies at  Michigan State University have




 demonstrated that the majority of phosphorus  is carried




 by a stream during relatively  few days  of each year.




 Insecticides are likely to behave similarly and,  because




 data on the total tributary contribution are  desired,




 grab samples are not  adequate.




 Biological Sampling of Tributaries



               The Committee recommends a one-year pro-




 gram of biological monitoring  in most tributaries during




 the ice-free season (Table 4).  The  main purpose  of the




 monitoring is to identify  sources of insecticides from




 tributaries other than the nine named in the  ma.jor




 tributary water sampling program.  Living clams will




 be used to sample water.

-------
                                                     742
     Tributary

Michigan

Galien River


Drain

St. Joseph River*


Paw Paw River

Black River


Kalamazoo River*


Black River

Pigeon River


Grand River*


Muskegon River*

White River
         D. I. Mount


           TABLE 4

Tributary Streams Recommended

  for Biological Monitoring


                      Location
              La Port Road, New Buffalo,
              Michigan

              Sawyer, Michigan

              U.S. 31 Bridge, St. Joseph,
              Michigan

              Above St. Joseph, Michigan

              U.S. 31 Bridge, South Haven,
              Michigan

              U.S. 31 Bridge, Saugatuck,
              Michigan

              Ottawa Beach, Michigan

              Lake Shore Ave., Port Sheldor
              Michigan

              Corps of Engineers, Grand
              Haven, Michigan

              Coast Guard, Muskegon, Michig

              S. Channel wall, Whitehall,
              Michigan
     * Water monitoring station for pesticide analysis
an

-------
                                                     743
                       D. I. Mount
     Tributary

Michigan (cont'd.)

Pentwater River

Pere Marquette River

Manistee River*


Betsie River

Platte River

Crystal River

Leelanau Lake outlet

Boardman River

Elk River

Lake Charlevoix outlet

Bear River

Millecoquins Creek

Manistique River

Sturgeon River

Whitefish River


Escanaba River

Ford River
        Location



Coast Guard, Pentwater, Michigan

Channel area, Ludington,Michigan

Maple St. Bridge, Manistee,
Michigan

Coast Guard, Frankfort, Michigan

M-22, Benzie State Park,Michigan

Bay Lane, Glen Arbor, Michigan

Leland, Michigan

Traverse City, Michigan

Elk Rapids, Michigan

Charlevoix, Michigan

Petoskey, Michigan

Naubinway, Michigan

Manistique, Michigan

Nahma, Michigan

U.S. Bridge, Rapid River,
Michigan

Wells, Michigan

M-35 Bridge, Ford River,
Michigan
       Water monitoring station for pesticide analysis.

-------
                       D.  I.  Mound
                                                      744
     Tributary
Menominee River*


Indiana

Grand Calumet River*

Burns Ditch


Trail Creek

W_i_s_c£_n_s_in_
Peshtigo River

Oconto River

Pensaukee River

Little Suamico River

East River

Suamico River

Mink River

Unnamed Streams  (7)

Ahnapee River

Keviaunee River

East Twin River
        Location
Breakwater, Menominee,
Michigan
East Chicago, Indiana

Midwest Steel Catwalk,
Burns Harbor, Indiana

Franklin St. Bridge,
Michigan City, Indiana

Marinette County

Oconto County

Oconto County

Oconto County

Brown County

Brown County

Door County

Door County

Kewaunee County

Kewaunee County

Manitowoc County
     * Water  monitoring  station  for  pesticide analysis

-------
                       D. I. Mount
                                                     745
     Tributary




Wisconsin (coiitld.)




West Twin River




Manitowoc River




Silver Creek




Calvin Creek




Pine Creek




Point Creek




Fisher Creek




Centerville Creek




Seven Mile Creek




Pigeon River




Sheboygan River




Black Creek



Sauk Creek




Menomonie River




Kinnickinnic River




Oak Creek




Root Creek




Pike River




Barnes Creek
        Location








Manitowoc County




Manitowoc County




Manitowoc County




Manitowoc County




Manitowoc County




Manitowoc County




Manitowoc County




Manitowoc County




Sheboygan County




Sheboygan County




Sheboygan County




Sheboygan County




Ozaukee County




Milwaukee County



Milwaukee County




Milwaukee County




Racine County




Kenosha County




Kenosha County

-------
 	 __ 	746


                         D.  I.  Mound



                 Clams  siphon and filter large volumes of


  water and concentrate insecticides to levels many times


  greater than that of  the  water.  Insecticide levels


  found in clams reflect concentrations which existed in


  the water two to three weeks  before the sampling time.


                 Only high  insecticide concentrations are


  of interest on the smaller streams; lower concentrations


  would not contribute  significantly to the total concen-


  tration in the lake.

                 This program should begin in early spring


  before the insecticide spraying season, and extend into


  the fall.  Clams should be placed in wire baskets sus-


  pended a short distance above the stream bottom.  The


  concentration of insecticide  in the clams will reach


  equilibrium in two to three weeks.  If exposure ceases,

  accumulations are lost in approximately the same period.


  Sufficient numbers of clams should be used so that sub-


  samples of three each can be  removed every four to six


i  weeks and at times such as following heavy runoff during
j

|  peak insecticide application periods.

                 The single composite sample of three


  clams may be placed in formalin or frozen before analysis.

-------
	747




                       D. I. Mount






Lamp sill s  s 111 qu o i dea, t a widely distributed clam found




in moving  and still water,  is the most desirable species




Fusconaia  is also suitable, but because concentration



rates may  vary among species, the same species should be



used for all sampling.



               The presence of the  crystalline style in




the esophagus of the clam indicates feeding activity



and that the animal has been filtering normally, accumu-



lating  extant insecticides.  The examination for this



structure  is rapid and simple and will provide useful




information.



Lake Water Sampling



               The Committee recommends two sampling




areas be established in the central portion of the  lake,



one in  the northern basin and one in  the  southern basin.



Three samples of surface water should be  collected  three



times each year at each station.  Horizontal and verti-



cal distribution of insecticide  concentrations are  not



justified  for inclusion in  this  monitoring program  since



meaningful values would require  large numbers of samples



and the data would be  difficult  to  interpret.



               It is recommended that the water intake

-------
	748





                        D.  I. Mount






 of  the  Chicago  Central  District Filtration  Plant be




 sampled weekly  for  insecticide analysis.  Information




 furnished by HWPCA's  Great  Lakes-Illinois River Basin




 Project indicates that  this  intake water is  representa-




 tive  of open lake water  on  most days of the  year.




 Unusual weather conditions  and wastes  and storm runoff




 entering the lake may alter  the quality of  this intake




 water but such  effects  will  be apparent in  the routine




 water quality analyses.   The principal purpose of  this




 sampling point  is to  provide a source  of reproducible




 samples to  furnish  data  on  long-term trends.  Such




 information is   necessary to evaluate  the effectiveness




 of  the  insecticide  control  program.




 Fish  Sampling



                Fish accumulate insecticides  to concen-




 trations many times the  levels of  their surroundings.




 Analyses of tissue  from Lake Michigan  fish  by Federal




 and State agencies  indicate  insecticide levels approach-




 ing limits  currently  suggested by  the  U.S.  Food and




 Drug  Administration.  The levels are three  to five times




 higher  than those in  the same species  of fish from the




 other Great Lakes.

-------
                                                     749
                       D. I. Mount
               The Committee recommends that four specie

of fish be collected in April and October at four sampli

stations on Lake Michigan.  Two samples of ten fish

(five of each sex) are to be examined in accordance

with the schedule in Table 5«


                         TABLE 5

        Recommended Insecticide Analysis for Fish

          to be Collected in April and October

                          Number      Composition
Station*    Species       of Samples  of Samples
Green Bay   Alewives



            Yellow perch



Waukegan,

Saugatuck,

and

Charlevoix  Alewives



            Yellow perch



            Chubs
2

2

2

2
5 males, whole bod/

5 females, whole b ?dy

5 males, muscle onjly
5 females, muscle
2

2

2

2

2
5 males, whole bod

5 females, whole b

5 males, muscle on


-------
                                                     750
                       D. I. Mount

                          Number      Composition
Station*    Species       of Samples  of Samples
                               2      5 males, whole body

                               2      5 females, muscle
mly
                               2      5 females, whole b :>dy
            Coho Salmon        2      5 males, muscle on

                               2      5 females, muscle
     * Station choice based on location of commercial

fisherman and not requiring special collecting.
                    - c -•*• de Analvs es
               The Committee has been advised that the

city of Chicago will undertake routine insecticide

analyses on Lake Michigan water withdrawn at their

intake.  We therefore recommend that the city be request

ed to perform analyses for insecticides on open water

and intake water samples in accordance with the schedule

described above.

               The U. S. Department of the Interior,

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries  Biological Laboratory

in Ann Arbor, Michigan, is already measuring insecticide

levels in Great Lakes fish, especially those from Lake

Michigan.  The Committee recommends that this laboratory
y

nly

-------
 	731





                         D. I. Mount






  assume responsibility for collecting and analytical




  work on the Lake Michigan fish monitoring  program.




  The Committee recommends that Indiana tributary  water




  and clam samples be analyzed by the cooperating  labora-




  tory nearest to the sampling site.




                 Since several laboratories  are  likely




  to be involved, a rigid  system of quality  control  is




  mandatory for comparable data.




  Quality Control



                 Positive  identification  of  all  chlorinate)}




  hydrocarbons detected, as well as reproducibility  and




  accuracy of the procedure,  is of  greatest  importance.




  Therefore, the following recommendations  are made  to




  assure a reliable quality control program  for  water,



  clam and fish samples analyzed during  the  survey:  water




  samples will be analyzed by the  Pr_o^isi_orm3LJFWPCA_




  Interim Of f_i_c i_al_Me_t:h_o_d _f_o_r _C_h_l_o_r i_n_a t_e_d _Hy_d_ r o c_a r_b_o_n




  Pesticides in Water and  Wastewater  ^r_Gas_Ch_romato_graphy
!  May 1968.  Additionally,  a  blank with the applicable




  volume of distilled  water,  as  stated in the procedure




  and an actual  sample to  check  percentage recovery of




  an added mixture  of  pesticides found in the samples

-------
                         D.  I.  Mount


  must be  determined.   One blank and one fortified sample

  should be  interspersed with each nine field samples.

                 To assist the  analyst in identification

  of suspected pesticides, two  separate gas  chromatography

  columns,  with different retention times,  should be

  employed  to check relative retention time  of pesticides

  in the samples.   Further,  infrared spectrometry should

  be employed on five  percent of the water  samples to  con-

  firm the  routine  analyses.  If individual  samples do

  not have  sufficient  concentration to make  infrared

  measurements, the residues from several samples should

  be composited, or carbon filters should be used, to

  secure sufficient quantities  of insecticide for positive

  identification.

                 Fish  and clams will be analyzed by the

  procedure  as outlined in the  U.S. Food and Drug Adminis-
!
  tration'   Pesticide  Analytical Manual, Volumes I and  II,

i  Revised January 1968.  A reagent and procedure blank,
|
j  using the  method  and number as outlined above  for water,
i

I  must be employed. Similarly, the pesticides used in
|
i  the recovery must be a mixture of those expected to  be

  found in  the test organisms and at concentrations

-------
 			753


                         D.  I.  Mount



  comparable to the actual samples.  Tissue samples of

  fish from each sampling location must be verified by

  positive identification of pesticides at least once

  each year at each location.

                 Data will be  reported in ug/1 for water

  samples andjig/g (wet weight) for the fish and clams.

  Research Needs

                 Although there is ample evidence that

  insecticides are a hazard in Lake Michigan,  the means

  of determining the exact detrimental effects, the levels

  and kinds of insecticides, their distribution in the


  Lake Michigan environment, and the way in which they

  enter the lake are not sufficiently known. The Committee

  strongly recommends that research be immediately

  initiated to provide the knowledge needed to control

  pesticides realistically at  levels not detrimental to

  the water uses of Lake Michigan.  The specific research

  needs listed below will provide knowledge needed imme-

  diately on the Lake Michigan watershed to control the
i
  use of insecticides effectively and to determine what

  remedial actions are necessary.  The Committee realizes

  that no one agency is capable of conducting all of the

-------
_ 75!

                        D.  I.  Mount

 needed  research  and  is  not, therefore,  attempting  to
 recommend who  shall  do  the work.
               The significance  of  research  on  the
 following specific problems is vital  to evaluation of
 the  effect  of  insecticides in the Lake  Michigan water-
 shed:
               1 •  The  effect of insecticide residues
                                    and  r
 Although  considerable  evidence  has  been  advanced  to
 show  that insecticide  levels  in coho  salmon,  for  example
 have  affected  their  reproduction, we  do  not  know  the
 levels  that  would  have no  effect in this  species.  There
 is  increasing  evidence that a residue value  that  is
 detrimental  in one body of water may  not  be  harmful in
 another aquatic habitat.   The research,  therefore, must
 be  done on Lake Michigan.
                2.  The m
     --.-----   At  tne  Present  tlme
 nothing is  known  about  transport  of  insecticides  into
 Lake Michigan.  Results of  the monitoring  program will
 partially answer  this question, but  detailed  studies
 are  needed  to determine the percentage  of  insecticides

-------
			753


                        D.  I.  Mount



 entering  from  streams  (both  dissolved in the  water and  •


 sorbed  on suspended  material)  and directly to the lake


 from  the  atmosphere  (rain  or  wind-carried spray).


                3 •  Tlie  e f f e c t of  I> ound iris^ec t i c i d e s


 (jiot  in solution)  on f ish. Apparently significant


 amounts of insecticides reach the lake sorbed to solid


 particles.  Whether  they have an  effect on fish or are


 simply  lost to the bottom  sediments  must be known.


                4.  History of insecticide uses, includin
amounts  and  kinds  in  the  Lake  Michigan watershed.   An


effective  control  program must be  based on  a  knowledge
                                                         i

of  past  history  and current  status  of  uses.              j
                                                         i

               5 •  The  persistence  of  insectic^ide^s^ in


the  Lake Michigan  ecosystem.   Knowledge must  be gained  !
                                                         i
                                                         j
concerning the time required for the breakdown of  toxic j
                                                         j

insecticides  into  relatively nontoxic  or biologically   j
                                                         I

inactive compounds.   This knowledge is necessary to pre-j


diet the effectiveness  of any  control  program.          i


               6.  Th e  effects o n ^t_e_r r e s_t_r i a 1 o rg a n i sm s_ I


of  insecticides	occurring in the aquatic ecosystem.     j


This knowledge is  needed  to  establish  residue levels in


fish and other aquatic  organisms to ensure  that there

-------
                          __________ 756


                         u. 1 . Mount



  wall be no adverse ei'i'ect on terrestrial organisms  such


  as fish-eating birds or mammals.  This level may be


  more critical (i.e., lower) than that needed to protect


  the food organisms itself.

                 7 .  Corr.b ine d     ctscamj^^u_r_e: _ o_f_
  insecticide compounds on organisms.  Since many insecticide
  compounds occur in Lake Michigan, it is necessary to


  determine the effects of combinations of known insecti-


  cide residues on organisms, in addition to the effects


  of single compounds.


                 ^ •   Determination of the proper methods


  o f col lee t_icm , __ storage and analysis of s ample s_ .  Th i s


  study is essential to the monitoring program recommended


  by the Committee,  and can be a part of that program.


                 The Committee recommends that immediate


  attention be given to these eight needs, but with full


j  realization that new research needs will undoubtedly
I
i
I  arise as these studies progress.
i


I                   CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS
J

!                 The Lake Michigan Technical Committee  on
i

  Pesticides recognizes the many and varied uses of

-------
	757





                       D. I. Mount






pesticides.  The  Committee feels that  each  pesticide




developed has  potentially legitimate uses which warrant




the  developmental  effort; therefore, control  over usage




should be established with regard to the unique needs




for  the  product,  its potential  side effects,  accumula-




tion potential in  the environment, and the  hazard of




accumulations.  The Committee feels that positive action




should be taken not only to  prevent the accumulation of




persistent  pesticides, but to reduce their  concentration




in Lake  Michigan  waters:




                Recommendation No.	!_.




                The concentration of DDT in  the




      fish should  not exceed  1.0 ug/gj  DDD  should




      not exceed 0.5 ug/gj dieldrin should  not



      exceed 0.1 wg/g and all other chlorinated




      hydrocarbon  insecticides,  single  or  combined,




      should not exceed  0.1 yg/g.  Limits  apply




      to  both muscle and whole body and are  ex-




      pressed on the basis  of wet weight of  tissue.




                The above values for DDT and DDD are based




 on  evidence that  Lake  Michigan  fish apparently  exceed




 these levels,  while fish  of  the other  Great Lakes  and

-------
              	758





                       D. I. Mount






inland waters do not.  Furthermore, it appears that in




coho salmon, and perhaps other fish, reproductive capa-




bilities are inhibited by levels that exceed these




values.  The 0.1 ug/g recommendation for dieldrin is




based on reducing the present level of dieldrin in




Lake Michigan fish.




               The Committee recognizes that other




chlorinated hydrocarbons apparently are not a hazard




to Lake Michigan fish at this time, but a reduction in




the use of DDT and DDD will result in a shift to other




insecticides.  It is further recognized that other




insecticides may be even less tolerable than DDT and




DDD and therefore contamination levels must be estab-




lished now before such problems develop. The Committee




recognizes that, to achieve the recommended reduction




of DDT plus analogs and dieldrin in fish, it will be
      »


necessary to reduce the concentrations of each product




in Lake Michigan waters possibly to less than .001 ug/1.




Limits of contamination are given for fish rather than




water because the permissible concentration in the water




is not known.

-------
                       D.  I.  Mount

               Recommendation No.	2_.
               Each State  should establish a
     regulatory authority  to  control  and
     record type, quantity and place  of
     insecticide use.
               This regulatory authority should have the
power to evaluate the benefits of  particular products
and their uses against the potential  damages that might
be inherent in their use.   This regulatory body should
be composed of at least one representative each from
the disciplines of agriculture, conservation, water
pollution, health  and administration.  The regulatory
body would review each known  insecticide use in light
of its benefits and hazards and subsequently approve or
disapprove its use.  It would initiate among the repre-
sentative agencies the necessary monitoring information
required to evaluate insecticide sources within the
State .jurisdiction.
               The regulatory authority should also be
provided with technical talent capable of reviewing and
evaluating the literature that is  continuously becoming
available.  Enforcement of this authority's rules
should be clearly identified  in the legislation
 creating the group.  Enforcement of policies should

-------
	      760





                       D.  I. Mount






be intensive and aggressive to adequately  protect  the




environment from insecticides deemed damaging or unwar-




ranted.




               R e c o m m en d a t ion No.	3,•



               A Lake Michigan Interstate




     Pesticides Committee  should be created




     by the Conferees to attain uniformity




     among the States in pesticide use con-




     trols and establish uniform pesticide




     concentration limits  in fish, water




     and  other aspects of  the Lake Michigan




     ecosystem.




               The Committee would review, at least




annually, the monitoring results, evaluate the  effective




ness of the program, and advise the Conferees on needed




changes in the monitoring  program.  This committee,




after evaluating the potential ecological  hazards  to




Lake Michigan, reviewing the inventory of  products used,




and evaluating uses that contribute significant quan-




tities of insecticides to  Lake Michigan, would  recommend




further action to substantially reduce the insecticide




hazard to Lake Michigan.

-------
                                                     761




                       D.  I.  Mount
               The research needs listed in




     this report should receive priority equal




     to that given to the monitoring program.




               R e c omme n da t i_ori_ N o . __ 5. •




               The monitoring program pre-




     sented in this report, and modified as




     needed, should be implemented at the




     earliest possible date and continue as




     long as the insecticide hazard exists.




               Because the insecticides dealt with in




this report are persistent, improvement in lake con-




ditions will not appear as soon as sources of contami




nation are controlled.  Only through a continuing




monitoring program can the results of the control




measures be evaluated.




Prepared by:



     Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference




     Pesticides Committee, Donald I. Mount, Ph,D.,




     Chairman, November 15, 1968.

-------
                                                     762
                       D. I. Mount






               MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Dr. Mount.




               Are there any comments or questions?




               Dr. Mount, I think this is an excellent




report.




               By the way, before we go on, I would like




to say that Mr. Richard Nelle is here for Mr. Klassen,




who had to leave.




               I think we can move on this, but I run




into some real problems with it.




               If we adopt the figures that you point




out for DDT,  dieldrin and other chlorinated hydrocarbon




insecticides--by the way, why do you use the word




"insecticide?"  Why not "pesticide?""




               DR. MOUNT:  Because we found no evidence




that fungicides,herbicides,  and so on,were a problem in




the lake,  and it is virtually impossible, without a mass




analytical program, to detect these others. It is not a




matter of running something through once and getting thi




               MR. STEIN:  Yes. Well, if you have all




other hydrocarbons.




               But the point is, supposing we find some-




thing exceeding those limits in the tissues of the fish,
Ive

-------
              	763





                       D. I. Mount






and I know we have been through this that you do the




test, what do we do with that information?   How do we




relate that to  a  point of discharge to limit it?  Now,




if we don't know what is going in or where  or whether




these limits—or the limits will be effective in cutting




it down--in other words, what happens if we find that




dieldrin or DDT exceeds this limit?  Do we  ban it




altogether or do we cut down its use or put limitations



on its application?  Where do we go from this?  How does




this give us a pollution control?




               DR. MOUNT:  I don't think that the ques-




tion you are raising is any different than  it would have




been had we recommended limits on the water in the open




lake.  The monitoring program, we feel, is  set up so as



to identify the tributaries which are making the ma/jor



contributions or at least giving an estimate of how much




each one is putting in.



               MR. STEIN:  I didn't say it was any




different than the water in the lake.  But the question-




you raised this point on the front page of your report




saying that you can't get evidence on the type of




insecticides and where they were being used.

-------
	754





                        D.  I.  Mount






                Now,  the point is, if  we  don't  have  that




 information,'  if you  have this Information  you  give  herej




 or  any  other  indication of a  measurement in  the  lake--




 unless  we  can  relate that  to  some kind of  application




 on  land, we are not  going  to  be  able  to  put  any  meaning-




 ful  control measures into  effect, are we?




                DR. MOUNT:   I  am  not sure I still com-




 pletely understand your question.




                But let  me  repeat again,  the  tributary




 sampling program should identify those areas where  the




 contributions  are coming from, the measurements.




 Secondly--



                MR. STEIN:   Supposing  you do  that--




                DR. MOUNT:   Secondly,  I would like to




 underline  that less  than half of the  insecticides are




 used on agricultural land.



                MR. STEIN:   That  is right.



                DR. MOUNT:   Which means that  industrial




 sources and municipal sources are also suspect.




                MR. STEIN:   I  didn't mention  agricultural




 lands,  purposely.  This is precisely  the point.



                Supposing,  Don, we do  identify  a  tributark

-------
	763





                       D. I. Mount






What  do  we  do?  What  I am trying  to  do  is  to  get  some




kind  of  methodology where once you have  identified  these




tributaries  we  can hopefully come up with  a program or




at  least a  recommendation for control.   Just  identifying




a tributary  that  something  comes  out of  or identifying




the material in the fish or in the water is not going




to  permit us to control the operation.




                The question is, unless  you know the




source,  and  there can be three sources,  three  possible




ones—and by the  way, I don't want to incriminate any




one of  these, I am Just doing these  kind of to exhaust




the field — either agricultural application, industrial




sources  or  municipal  sources, that something  is going




to  come  through,  and  the lady flushing  this down  her



toilet  bowl  in  the aggregate may  be  just as important




as  the  land  runoff.



                But until we know  this,  until  we are




able  to  control the source, how are  we  going  to stop thi




Do  we have  a control  program, if  we  are  going to  recom-




mend  one, which will  lead to a controlled  result?  This




is  what  I am getting  at, Don.



                DR. MOUNT:   Perhaps,we felt that the next

-------
	766





                        D.  I.  Mount






 step  was  obvious  and  maybe  it isn't. But  it  seems  to




 me  that once  you  know the  tributaries  that are most




 concerned the  next  logical  step  is  to  look at the  out-




 falls  and the  drainage  from agricultural  areas to  see




 what  the  sources  on that tributary  are.




               We have  set  up a  sampling  program on one




 of  the rivers, which  I  can't--it  is one in Wisconsin,




 and I  believe  it  is on—well,  I  believe it is on the--




 I won't say.   It  is one of  the rivers  in  Wisconsin.  We




 have  two  sampling points on that  river specifically for




 that  purpose,  to  get  some feel for  the relative contri-




 bution from agricultural runoff  as  compared  to industrial




 or  urban  area  runoff.   But  I  believe you  simply go up




 the stream and locate  the sources once you know which




 tributary it  is going in.



               MR.  STEIN:   Don,  this is what I am  getting




 at.



               By the  way,  Dr. Mount has  done some of




 the pioneering work here.   The point is what he did do,




 I think,  was  crack  the  case where we found fish dying




 by  the millions in  the  lower  Mississippi  and dis-




 covering  -tfce  CJFVB«* of what  was killing them.  The

-------
	767





                       D.  I. Mount






 difficult  job  that we had  was finding where  the  material




 came from.  We believe-:-and again I want  to  say  that  the




 people  responsible may not agree with this-;-but  we




 believe we  located this, which was a chemical  plant




 manufacturing  this,  putting it out.  We were extremely




 lucky in finding what we thought was one  source  and




 when that  stopped the fish haven't died since.   So we




 solved  the  case.  The difficulty, though,  is if  we are




 not dealing with one source-r-and in this  case  obviously




 you are not going to find  this-r-we are not going to be




 that lucky.




               What  I am wondering is, again,  Don, the




 most difficult thing we have to do is to  trace this.




 Now, do you have a technique or an approach  not  only  to



 find that  this material is coming out in  deleterious




 quantities  which should be cut down, but  really  to pin-




 point the  sources that it  is coming from?  Do  you have




 a proposal for that?  This is what I am getting  at.




               DR. MOUNT:  No, not specifically.




               MR. STEIN:  Again, I don't want to delude




 anyone  on  this insecticide control problem here. This is




 a very, very  difficult operation.  Until  we  develop  this

-------
	768





                        D.  I.  Mount






 we  are not—and  I  don't say  it  is luck where you have




 one  major  industrial  source  that you  can find  and  stop,




 but  we can't  expect that kind of control situation here.




 We  have  to expect  if  we find  that they are  coming  from




 municipalities,  cities  and industries that  we  have to




 come up  with  a split  and pinpoint them or else have a




 product  ban,  which is a very  drastic  way of handling




 things.  And  I would  suggest  that this may  be  a way of




 looking  at this  again.



               Now let  me  ask you .just one  technical




 question.   You talked in terms  of gas chromatography




 and  infrared  spectroscopy.   Let's suppose that we  knew




 what chemicals were being  applied in  the particular area




 and  you  got pure samples of  those chemicals.   If we




 checked  the products  that  were  being  used by municipali-




 ties, industries and  cities,  and you  had these pure




 samples, by using  the infrared  technique,couldn't  you




 pretty well identify  the material we  had in the water?




               DR. MOUNT:  Yes.  That is why we have




 proposed the  use of spectroscopy.



               MR. STEIN:  Again let  me give you this.




 This is  one of the new  fields that we are getting  at.

-------
	769





                       D.  I.  Mount






 Presumably, Dr.  Mount,  using  the  most  sophisticated



 machines,we can use the  infrared  spectroscopy  and  come  out




 with  a wiggle line on a sheet of  paper which  has  charac-



 teristic  ups and  downs, hills and valleys.   The  diffi-



 culty is,  with  all the tens  of  thousands  of  millions




 of  substances,you don't know what that is.   But  if  we



 can get a pure  sample  of  the substance and then  pick  up



 a little  of this  in the water or in the tissue  of an




 animal and run  it through  and you match the  wiggles,



 it  is like a fingerprint  and they match;  then you have




 it  laid down.



                It seems to me an effective control  eithei



 to  test what is coming out or to find this-r-and  we  will



 need  the  State  agriculture departments and everyone to



 work  on this if this is going to workr-we are  going to



 need  a pretty  much complete  inventory of what  is going



 into  the  stream,  who is using it and  where it  is applied



 before we can  have too much  success  in finding  that when



 we  get it in the  stream.   And I think if you are really



 serious about  controls of this  problem, the  other aspect



 that  you  point out is  going  to  be  .just as important.  I




 am  talking from the regulatory  point  of view,  not the

-------
	      770





                        D.  I.  Mount






 joy of  scientific  discovery,which is  all at the other




 end.   If we  are  going to do anything  about that,  we .just




 have  to do the hard-nosed work of finding every insecti-




 cide,  if this  is the  problem,  which is  being used in the




 Michigan Basin States,  where  they are being applied,




 how they are being used,  and  then trace them down to the




 stream  to determine whether they are  a  problem.




 Prototype of that  material will give  us the so-called




 "fingerprint"  to check  against when Don finds  them in




 the stream.




               I might  say this is a  very hard and




 expensive program,  and  if  you  want to engage in it,  we




 are ready.




               DR.  MOUNT:   The Committee was especially




 concerned in regard to  the positive identification of



 pesticides because  o:f the  recent evidence that there are



 a  number of  plasticizers   which have  peaks  corresponding




 on the  gas  chromatograph  to measures  in   chlorinated




 hydrocarbons and other  work done by the Department of




 Agriculture, I believe,  which  showed  that elemental




 sulfur  had  several  peaks  which corresponded to known




 hydrocarbon pesticides  when analyzed  on the gas

-------
	771





                        D.  I.  Mount






 chromatograph.  We  talked  with  a  number  of  chemists--




 in  fact we used many  resource people  on  this-r-and  we




 invited some  of our people from the Athens  Analytical




 Laboratory to  talk  with  us about  these problems  and we




 feel  reasonably certain  that  we are not  asking for any-




 thing especially  difficult in doing this  infrared




 analysis.  There  are   other methods of doing  this  too,




 but we felt this  was  perhaps  the  most feasible plan.




               MR.  STEIN:   This is the one  I  think that




 you can train  most  people  to  do.




               Let  me  ask  you thisi   Do  you have the




 equipment in  Duluth or are we going to have to do  this




 down  in Athens, Georgia?




               DR.  MOUNT:   Yes, we have  the equipment




 in  Duluth.



               MR.  STEIN:   Do you have people who  know




 how to do it?




               DR.  MOUNT:   Yes, sir.




               MR.  STEIN:   All  right.



               If we  have  thisr-again I  throw this open




 to  the Confereesr-if  you want to  engage  in  this  program,




 this  is going to  be a hard one.  And  by  the way, there

-------
	772






                       D.  I. Mount






 is a  lot of built-in  opposition,  as  you may  know,  to




 this  program.  You  are taking  on  another  class  of




 potential  polluters who  haven't considered themselves




 as being polluters  up to now and  they  are apt  to be a




 little  touchy  about this.   But if you  want to  do this,




 the Conferees  should  indicate  this.  We can set  this




 program up and try  to do this  with your cooperation and




 see if  we  can  trace this and crack one or two  of the




 tributary  streams and cut  this out and show  results.




 I  think the advantage of this  kind of  work is  once you




 have  isolated  this  and isolated the  source and  you have




 stopped it, the  results  are spectacular.  Everyone knows




 that.




               Are  there any other questions?




               MR.  PURDY:   Mr. Chairman.




               MR.  STEIN:   Yes.




               MR.  PURDY:   I might ask a  question  on  the




 capabilities  of  doing the  analytical work in Duluth.




 Was that answer,  say, directed towards all of  the




 monitoring specified  in  this report  or only  that




 monitoring required--




               MR.  STEIN:   Only  that monitoring,  because

-------
	773





                        D.  I.  Mount






 I  am  sure  a  lot  of  the  other  stuff  can  be  handled  by




 States  and other people.   The difficulty  is  this infrarec




 work  is  kind of  advanced.  There  are  not too  many machine




 in  the  country,  and once you  get a  machine,there are not




 too many people  who can run the  machine.




               MR.  PURDY:  Well,,  it  is  proposed in the




 report  that  a certain  part of that  monitoring  be done




 at  the  State levels, including this.




               MR.  STEIN:  Do you have  the capacity to




 do  this?




               MR.  PURDY:  Well,  that is  why I say,  in




 this  report,  I think we need  to  take a  hard  look at it




 to  see  where the capabilities lie and the  budgetary




 implications that might be--




               MR.  STEIN:  That  is  right.



               How  much does one of those machines cost,




 Don?



               DR.  MOUNT:  Well,  it  is  like  buying a




 car,  of  course.




               MR.  STEIN:  Yes.




               DR.  MOUNT:  It depends on  where you begin




 and end.   Ours was  $20,000.

-------
	774





                        D.  I.  Mount






                MR.  STEIN:   All  right.   This  will  give




 you  an  idea.




                MR.  PURDY:   I  knew what  the  price  was




 before  I  asked  it.




                MR.  STEIN:  Then  you  need a $20,000-a-year




 man  to  run  it,you know,  and it  depends  on whether the




 State \\rants to  take that on.  I wasn't  sure  we  could




 even do this  up here.   I thought we may have to ship  it




 out, but  I  am glad  to  see  we  have the capacity.




                But  we  would be  delighted if  the State




 people  can  get  that kind of capacity in the  State lab to




 do this kind  of work.




                MR.  PURDY:   I  think  the  surveillance




 proposed  in this report  will  require us to mobilize all




 of our  capabilities at various  State institutions and



 at the  Federal  level,  really.   It is not something that




 we can  accomplish tomorrow, but we  should work  towards




 that as rapidly as  possible.




                MR.  STEIN:   Are  there any others?




                MR.  FRANGOS:   Mr. Chairman, I am wonderind,




 assuming  you  bought a  medium-priced line in  this  equipmert,




 what is the capability in  terms of  numbers of analyses

-------
	775





                        D.  I.  Mount






 you might expect a day,  assuming an  eight-hour day?




                DR. MOUNT:   Are  you talking about  the




 machine  time  required  or the  preparation  time  or  both?




                MR. FRANGOS: Well, the  net effect,  how




 many results  can you produce  in a day?




                DR. MOUNT:   There are  people here  who




 probably can  answer that better than  I, but I  would




 suppose  that  we are talking about--!  am going  to  guess--




                MR. FRANGOS:   Ball park estimate.




                DR. MOUNT:   --ten samples  a day.   You




 noticed  that  in our report we have not suggested  that




 all samples be  identified  by  infrared.  We believe that




 compositing,  particularly  of  water samples,  for example,




 can be done without a  great loss of  precision.



                MR. STEIN:   By the way, on this  you can



 do  a lot of educated guessing and cutting down by more




 simplified procedures,so the  samples  you  will  be  running




 through  are your pay dirt  samples, hopefully,  because




 otherwise it  is prohibitive.




                Now, these  are the kinds of factors that




 the State has to consider  before they  consider getting




 into this on  their own.

-------
 	776





                         D.  I.  Mount






                 MR.  FRANCOS:   I just want to re-




  emphasize  the  point you are  making, because we have




  been  digging into  this  thing and there are a lot of




  questions  which are going  to take all the way down to




  this  spectroscopy.




                 MR.  STEIN:   Yes.   Again,  I don't want




  to  push  this.   My  notion is  in using these sophisticated




  machines and considering what they can do, as far as




  a regulatory program, unless  we  have a man like a Dr.




  Mount or a Dr. Grezenda *   in Athens or Page Nicholson




  who really know the field  and have a pretty good notion




  of  what  they find,  we find that  running the machine just




  produces blanks day after  day.  In other words, it takes




  an  artist  to run the machine, and this is very much part




  of  the problem.




                 DR.  MOUNT:   I  might pass  on to the Con-




  ferees again the feeling of  the  Committee that because




  the identification  of these  insecticides must occur at



  such  a low concentration and because the gas chromatograpljiy




  is  such  an indefinite identification method, we felt that




  it  was imperative  that  there  be  some positive identifi-




  cation by  some  other method  such as the  infrared techniqu*
* Dr. Alfred R. Grzenda (deceased)

-------
	777





                        D.  I.  Mount






 We  feel  that  it  would  be better  to  do  less  samples  and




 get positive  identification  on them than  to  end  up  with




 reams  of data in which  we  are not certain of  what we




 have made.  A chemist  that I  respect very much,  who is




 now with industries, once  said that knowing  the  gas




 chromatographic  pattern of a  chemical  is  about equivalen-




 to  knowing  the weight  of a man in order to  identify him,




 and I  think this is perhaps  a bit far  but it  is  something




 of  the kind of thing we are  talking about.




               MR. STEIN:  Well, maybe. That  is  for a




 chemist.  I am not sure,given the permutations and  com-




 binations, you are likely to  find too many.




               But again I think your  point  is well




 taken.   Any time we have a gas chromatographic identi-



 fication, when we get  opposition we have  a big fight.




               0. K.?   Thank you.




               May we  go on  to the  coordinated monitor-




 ing program.




               Mr. Poston.




               MR. POSTON:   Mr.  Pemberton.




               While Mr. Pemberton  is  coming  up  here, I




 have a brief  statement  on  research  activity  of the  Federdl

-------
	778





                      H.  W.  Poston






 government  in  response  to Recommendation  22,  and  I




 would  like  to  enter  it  in the  record.




                MR. STEIN:  Without  objection,  that  will




 be  entered  into  the  record as  if  read.








                (The  following  is  the document  submitted




 by  Mr.  Poston:)






                  RE C0 MMENDATION  NO. 2 2






                Recommendation  No. 22 called for a




 vigorous  pursuit  by  research into nine pressing water




 pollution problems of the Lake  Michigan Basin.  Many




 of  these  problems are similar  to  those of  other parts




 of  the  country—hence,  the summary  of research activitie;




 presented herein  has been compiled  from an accounting of




 all  research and  demonstration  grants or  contracts



 awarded in  selected  research categories since  June  30,




 1968.   Some additional  projects,  not included  in  the



 tabulation, were  initiated during the interval between




 the  Conference  adjournment on  March 12, 1968,  and the




 June 30 date.



          I.    The problem of  the control  of

-------
	779




                      H. W. Poston






 over-production  of  algae encompasses  four  distinct  break •




 downs  (or  subprograms)  of  research  as  defined  by  the




 FWPCA.   Seven  new  projects were  funded in  the  area  of




 concern  involving  191,019  Federal dollars.   Six projects




 are  of a research  nature and  one a  demonstration.




         II.   Five  subprograms  of  research  are related




 to the removal of  dissolved chemicals  (especially nutrients)




 Twenty-eight  projects were initiated  with  $1,902,671 of




 Federal  money.  Research projects accounted  for $901,93^




 and  demonstration  projects $1,000,741.




         III.   Efforts  aimed  at  the techniques for




 restoring  eutrophic  lakes  involved  eight  projects using




 $291,245 of Federal  money  for partial support. All of




 the  funds  are  being used for  research activities.



         IV.   The development of methods  relating  to  th




 ultimate disposal  of residues removed from wastewaters




 is  covered by a  single  subprogram element.  Grants  and




 Contracts  in  this  coding were awarded for five projects




 involving  $454,099.



           V.   New techniques and methods  of improved




 treatment  and handling  of  industrial  wastes  should  be




 forthcoming from 27 awards made in  the 10 applicable

-------
	780






                      H. W. Poston






 segments  of  the R & D Program.  Total Federal funds




 committed  to these projects is $4,714,992.  Demonstra-




 tion  projects account for approximately 94 percent of




 the total  expenditure.




         VI.   Demonstrations into methods of combating




 the problems associated with combined sewage and storm-




 water  discharges number 14.  Of the $2,732,769 committed




 all but 11 percent went toward the combined discharge




 problem.




        VII.   No awards have been made to date in the




 area  of effective treatment facilities for ships.  Sever




 proposals  are presently under review.




       VIII.   Improved and standardized procedures for




 water  quality tests are a function of both FWPCA in-hous




 research  and extramural research.  In the latter case,



 two Federally sponsored projects have been initiated at




 places other than FWPCA laboratories.  Funds committed




 to this work were $27,303-



          IX.   Research into improved techniques for




 water  quality monitoring takes into consideration three




 subprograms  of the R & D Program.  All together this




 subject is receiving attention from 15 projects supporte

-------
	7S1





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






in part by  1,166,202 Federal  dollars.   Demonstration




projects  received  67 percent  of  these  funds.
                MR.  STEIN:   Mr.  Pemberton.









           STATEMENT BY  CARLYSLE PEMBERTON,  JR.




              CHAIRMAN,  MONITORING  COMMITTEE









                MR.  PEMBERTON:   Mr.  Chairman,  Conferees




 and  ladies  and  gentlemen.




                In  accordance  with  Recommendation 17




 contained  in  the  summary  of the first  session of this




 Conference, a Committee of  representatives  of the five




 Conferees  was organized to  develop a recommended State-




 Federal  monitoring program  for  the Lake Michigan Basin.




 The  Committee report was  transmitted to the Conferees




 in January and  I  asfc that it  be entered into  the record




 at this  time.




                MR.  STEIN:   Without objection, that will




 be done.



                MR.  PEMBERTON:   I will  now present a

-------
	782





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 summary  of  the  Committee  report.




                     SAMPLING_PR 0 GRAM




                The  Committee  considered  the  water  pol-




 lution problems  of  the  basin,  as  developed at  the  first




 session  of  the  Conference, and concluded that  a  program




 should be designed  to monitor  the  significant  tributary




 streams  near  their  mouths, and to  monitor the  open water




 of  the lake..




                The  tributary  data  would  provide  informa-




 tion needed to  determine  the  totalloadings to  the  lake




 of  important  constituents, such as  phosphorus, nitrogen,




 dissolved solids, etc.  The data would also  provide a




 means of measuring  the  success of  pollution  control




 programs in the  tributary basins.



                The  lake data  would  be used to  measure thi>




 long-term trends in  the quality of  Lake  Michigan waters.




 FWPCA (then the  Public  Health  Service) sampled the lake




 during the years 1962-64.  The lake monitoring proposed




 herein would  utilize sampling  points for which data are




 available from  the  earlier surveys,  thus providing a




 basis for comparison.   This part of the  program  would




 also include  the water  quality data from water filtratioi

-------
	783





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






plants arranged for by the States in accordance with




Conference Recommendation 19.




               In addition, the  Committee felt that all




public beaches, and other beaches near known or sus-




pected sources of pollution,  should be monitored  during




the  recreation season.



               The Committee  considered  the long-term




monitoring needs indicated by the Thermal and Nuclear




Committee, and by the Pesticides Committee.  The  former




recommends no long-term  monitoring, while the latter has




developed a  specialized  monitoring program.  It was con-




cluded that  in those instances where the monitoring




activities could be coordinated, the individual agencies




would handle the logistics involved.



               The Committee  recommends  the following




sampling  program:



               1.  Each  State should monitor a  designate




list of  tributary  streams near the points of discharge




to  Lake  Michigan,  collecting  samples at  least monthly,




analyzing for a  uniform  list  of  ID basic parameters with




additional parameters where  needed,  and  providing relate




flow data.   Illinois will  sample one tributary,  Indiana

-------
	784





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 three,  Michigan  eighteen,  and Wisconsin  twelve.




               2.  FWPCA  should  monitor  the  open  waters




 of  Lake Michigan,  sampling a selected  list of  51  station




 at  3  depths  in spring,  summer and  fall,  and  analyzing




 for a selected list  of  22  parameters.  Analyses for  the




 same  parameters  should  be  performed  monthly  at the nine




 water plants  listed  in  Recommendation  19 of  the summary




 of  the  first  session  of the Conference.




               3-  The  States should monitor all  public




 beaches, beaches ad.jacent  to tributaries with  pollutiona .




 discharges,  and  beaches adjacent to  high density  popu-




 lation  areas, collecting  samples twice monthly from




 May 15  to September  15, and analyzing  for total coliform




 and fecal coliform.




                          METHODS



               The Committee recognized  that the  success




 of  the  proposed  coordinated effort,  involving  several




 laboratories  and many scientific and technical personnel




 would depend  on  the  ability of the participating  agencie;




 to  produce comparable data which could be used in assess-




 ing basin-wide problems.   It was considered  to be




 imperative that  techniques used  in collecting, preserving

-------
	785





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 and  analyzing  samples  should be  as  comparable  as  possi-




 ble.




                The  Committee therefore  recommends  that




 a  committee  of laboratory  directors  be  established to




 adopt  uniform  procedures.   The  Committee  recommends  that




 the  existing Calumet Area  Laboratory Directors  Committee




 be expanded  to include  the principals of  the Lake  Michi-




 gan  Conference,  and that the laboratory directors  of




 water  plants named  in  Recommendation 19 also be  invited




 to participate.




                DATA STORAGE AND EVALUATION




                In order that the data generated  by the




 proposed  monitoring program be  readily  available  to  the




 participants,  the Committee felt that it  would  be  advan-




 tageous to have  all information stored  in one  computer




 facility.  FWPCA has access to  such  a facility.,  and has




 an operational system  for  storage and retrieval  of water




 quality data.   The  Committee also felt  that each  agency




 should be  responsible  for  evaluating and  interpreting th




 data which it  collects.



                The  Committee therefore  presents  the fol-




 lowing recommendations regarding data:

-------
	      786





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                1.  FWPCA  should  provide  data  storage  and




 retrieval  services,  the data  to  be supplied monthly by




 the  States  for  storage, and all  data  to  be made availabl




 to the  States as needed.   Data collected at water  fil-




 tration plants  under Recommendation 19,  and for the




 Thermal and Nuclear,  and  Pesticides. Committees  should




 also be stored  by FWPCA.



                2.  Each State and  FWPCA  should  evaluate




 and  interpret data which  it collects,  in relation  to  wat




 quality standards, recommendations of  this Conference,




 and  long-tern; trends,  and should present results of




 such evaluation and  interpretation at  each future  prog-




 ress meeting of the  Conference.  Periodic evaluation




 should  also be  made  to determine the  adequacy of the




 sampling programs.



                      SPECIAL  STUDIES



                The Committee  recognized  the inherent  pro)




 lems associated with the  sampling  of  tributaries in urbai




 areas with  multiple  discharges,  artificial channels,




 semi-inclosed harbors, etc.



                The Committee  therefore recommends  that




 FWPCA and  the States conduct  coordinated special studies

-------
	787





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 in  problem  areas  where  the  proposed routine  monitoring




 indicates the  need  for  additional  information.




                In conclusion,  on behalf of  the  Monitor-




 ing Committee,  I  ask that  the  Conferees approve the




 recommendations contained  in the Committee  report.   I ha-




 attached the list of recommendations from the report to




 this  summary for  your reference.




                Thank you.




                MR.  STEIN:   Thank you,  Mr.  Pemberton.








                (The following  is a document  submitted




 by  Mr.  Pemberton:)






            WATER QUALITY  MONITORING PROGRAM



                            for




            LAKE  MICHIGAN  and  TRIBUTARY BASIN






                            REPORT OP THE MONITORING




                            COMMITTEE FOR THE CONFERENCE




                            IN THE MATTER OF POLLUTION




                            OF LAKE MICHIGAN AND TRIBUTA^




                            BASIN




                            November 15,  1968

-------
                                                      788
                    C. Pemberton, Jr
                        CONTENTS
Chapter

    I      INTRODUCTION	 789

   II      RECOMMENDATIONS	793

  III      TRIBUTARY MONITORING PROGRAM	

   IV      BEACH MONITORING PROGRAM

    V      MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE OPEN
           WATERS OF LAKE MICHIGAN	8l4

   VI      UNIFORM SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL
           PROCEDURES	 8l9

  VII      WATER FILTRATION PLANT DATA OBTAINED
           UNDER RECOMMENDATION 19	820

 VIII      ANALYSIS REPORTING	829

APPENDIX   SIGNIFICANCE OF ANALYTICAL
           DETERMINATIONS	 832


               LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure                                             Page

   1       Lake Michigan  Basin	7^1

   2       Lake Michigan  Basin Monitoring
           Stations	 800

   3       Bottom Topography - Lake  Michigan	817

   4       Standard Form  for Analysis Reporting... 831

-------
Table
                                                     789


                    C. Pemberton, Jr.
  1        State Tributary Monitoring
           Stations ............................... 801

  2        Lake Michigan Tributary Inflow
           Parameters ............................. 804

  3        Recommended Analytical Schedule
           for Tributary Monitoring Stations ...... 80?

  4        Tributary Gaging Station Locations ..... Qo8

  5        Lake Michigan Open Water Monitoring
           Stations ............................... 8l8

  6        Current Analytical Methods in Use
           by the States and FWPCA ................ 822
                        Chapter I

                      INTRODUCTION

               In accordance with Recommendation 17 of

the summary of the Conference in the matter of pollution

of the waters of Lake Michigan and its tributary basin

( Illinois-Indiana-Michigan-Wisconsin) , a committee was

appointed to develop specific recommendations for a

coordinated four State-Federal monitoring program in the

Lake Michigan J6asin and to submit recommendations to the

Conferees at the next progress meeting.  The committee

consisted of:

-------
	790






                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                Carlysle Pemberton,  Jr.,  Chairman,




 Federal  Water  pollution Control  Administration,  U.  S.




 Department  of  the  Interior,  Chicago, Illinois;




                Allan R. Black, Division  of  Environ-




 mental Protection,  Wisconsin Department  of  Natural




 Resources,  Madison,  Wisconsin;




                Carl T.  Blomgren, Jr.,  Illinois  State




 Sanitary Water Board,  Chicago, Illinois;



                John M.  Bohunsky, Michigan Water Resources




 Commission,  Department  of  Natural  Resources,  Lansing,




 Michigan;



                Oral H.  Hert,  Indiana Stream Pollution




 Control  Board, Indianapolis,  Indiana.



                Other individuals who assisted the  Com-




 mittee in  preparation of this report were:   Robert  J.



 Bowden,  Frederic D.  Fuller,  Almo H. Manzardo and Clifforc



 Risley,  Jr., all of the Great Lakes Region,  Federal Watei




 Pollution  Control  Administration.



                This report includes the  coordinated




 State  and Federal  monitoring program proposed by the




 Committee  for  the  Lake  Michigan  basin  (Figure 1),  and




 recommendations for its implementation.   The Committee

-------
                                                                            791
  T=!  555 in Area
Land Area
67,900 Sq.  Mi
22,400
45,500 Sq.  Mi
Land Area Occupied by States:
Michigan (63.7?)   29,000 Sq.  Mi
Wisconsin(30.8$)   14,000
Indiana  ( 5.32)    2,400
I I Iinois ( 0.2£)      100
                   45,500 Sq.  Mi
                                         TotaI Length
                                         Recreational
                                         Beach
                                         Public Recreation Areas
                                                   1,661 Miles
                                                   1,293 Miles
                                                     176 Miles
                                                      80 Miles
                                                   LAKE MICHIGAN BASIM
                                                                        Figure I

-------
	792





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 considered  the water  pollution  problems  of  the basin  and




 reviewed  existing State  and Federal monitoring programs




 as  they relate to the Lake Michigan basin needs.  The




 Committee determined  that additional  sampling stations




 and analyses were required to  provide  adequate monitor-




 ing coverage.  The  expanded program has  been designed




 to  monitor  the tributaries near their  mouths for  the




 purpose of  determining  constituent loadings, and  to




 measure the long-range  trends  in the  quality of Lake




 Michigan.   The program  also includes  the water quality




 analyses  at water filtration plants as arranged by the




 States  (Recommendation  19)•




               The  Committee considered  the long-range




 monitoring  needs of the  Thermal and Nuclear Committee




 (Recommendation 10),  and of the Pesticides  Committee



 (Recommendation 15).  The Thermal  and  Nuclear Committee




 recommends  no long-term  monitoring.   The Pesticides




 Committee has developed  a biological,  surface water,  and




 fish monitoring program  to establish  present concentra-




 tions of  pesticides in  the lake and tributary waters




 and to  trace future trends.  In reviewing the require-




 ments of  these Committees, it  was  concluded that  their

-------
	793





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






 specialized monitoring activites should not be included




 in the Monitoring  Committee Report.  It was decided that




 in those instances where monitoring activities could be




 coordinated, the individual States could determine the




 logistics of its program.






                       Chapter II




                     RECOMMENDATIONS



               It  is recommended that:




               1.  Each State monitor its tributary




 streams near the points of discharge to Lake Michigan.




 Tributary streams  to be monitored are listed in Table I




 and  shown in Figure 2.




               2.  Tributary stream samples be collected



 at least monthly and analyzed for the parameters shown




 in Table 3.



               3.  All public beaches, beaches adjacent




 to all tributaries with pollutional discharges and




 beaches adjacent to all high density population areas




 be sampled twice monthly from May 15 to September 15.




 Samples should be  analyzed for total coliform and fecal




 coliform.



               4.  The Federal Water Pollution Control

-------
	      794





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






Administration  monitor  the  open  waters  of  Lake  Michigan.




Station  locations  are listed  in  Table 5  and  shown  on




Figure 2.




                5-   The  open water  samples  be  collected




during the  spring,  summer and fall  of each year.   A list




of parameters to be  analyzed  is  tabulated  in  the report




on pages 20 and 21.



                6.  Flow data  at  all  tributary monitoring




stations "be made available  by the  States.



                7.  In consideration  of Recommendation 19.




which requires  water quality  analysis from nine water




filtration  plants,  the  twice  weekly  analysis  include  at




least alkalinity,  hardness, turbidity,  coliform bacteria




and  plankton algae.  In addition,  monthly  analysis should




include  the parameters  recommended  for  open waters.



                8.   Techniques used  in collecting,  pre-




serving  and analyzing samples be as  comparable  as  pos-




sible.   To  facilitate the adoption  of uniform procedures




a committee of  laboratory directors  representing  the




Conferees should be  established.   It is  suggested  that




the  Calumet Area Laboratory Directors Committee, which




was  created in  response to  the needs of  the  1965 Calumet

-------
	795





                     G.  Pemberton, Jr.






 Area  Enforcement  Conference, tie  expanded  to  include  the




 principals  of  the Four-State Enforcement  Conference,  and




 that  the water filtration  plant  laboratory directors  be




 invited to  participate.




                9-   The  Federal Water  Pollution  Control




 Administration act  as a central  information  center for




 the data generated  by the  State  and Federal  Lake  Michi-




 gan monitoring program  and the date be made  available fo)




 the use of  each of  the  participating  agencies.




                10.   Data collected from water intakes




 under Recommendation 19, and for the  Thermal and  Nuclear^




 and Pesticides Committees,  be entered into the  central



 information facility.   Analytical methods and reporting




 procedures  should be comparable  and consistent  with  those



 to be established by the proposed committee  of  laboratorj




 directors.



                11.   Special coordinated State and Federa"




 intensive sampling  surveys  be conducted at harbor areas




 and tributaries where routine investigations Indicate the




 need  for additional  studies.




                12.   Each State water  pollution  control




 agency and  the Federal  Water Pollution Control  Administrdtior

-------
               	796





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






evaluate and interpret data collected by that agency in




relation to water quality standards, recommendations of




the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference and long-term




trends, and present results of such evaluation and inter-




pretation at each future progress meeting of the Con-




ferees.  In addition, the data collected should be




periodically evaluated for adequacy of each station




location, parameters analyzed and sampling frequency.






                       Chapter III




              TRIBUTARY MONITORING PROGRAM




               The Tributary Monitoring Program, as




recommended by the Monitoring Committee, includes a




network of 34 sampling locations of which one is located




in Illinois, three in Indiana, eighteen in Michigan




and twelve in Wisconsin.  Water quality data obtained




from the proposed network of stations will reflect




input conditions of all major and other significant




tributaries to Lake Michigan.  The locations of the




stations are shown in Figure 2, and listed in Table  1.



               Locations of sampling stations were




selected by the individual States from their knowledge




of land base activities and its relationship to water

-------
	797




                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






quality  conditions.  Stations were located as near the



mouth  as  possible  so as to measure the quality  charac-



teristics  of  the tributary just  prior to its inflow to



Lake Michigan.  Such factors as  wind, location  of waste-



water  discharges,  flow path of effluents, flow  diversion




and other  factors  were considered during the selection



of sampling sites.



                Each  station should be sampled in



accordance with the  sampling schedule shown in  Table 3-




A list of  40  parameters (Table 2) has been developed to



define tributary water quality characteristics.  The




significance  of these parameters are summarized in the



Appendix.  Included  in the list  are 16 parameters pro-



posed  for  routine  monthly analyses for all tributaries,



11 parameters measured monthly on a "where appropriate"



basis, and 13 optional parameters.  The  "optional"



parameters are those additional  analyses presently being



analyzed by some of  the States.  The parameters identi-



fied as  "where appropriate" are  those to be measured whe(re



land based activities and high population densities




indicate the  need  for such analyses.  Stations  designate^



for  the  "where appropriate" parameters  (mostly  heavy

-------
	798





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 metals)  should  initially be  tested for  six  months  and



 then  evaluated  to  determine  if  continued  testing for



 these parameters is  warranted.



                Quantitative  benthos  analyses  should be




 performed  on  either  bottom or substrate samples,




 depending  on  the procedure selected  by  the  State,  at




 each  of  the 34  tributaries identified in  Table  1.  It



 is  recommended  that  such  samples be  collected for



 analyses during August  1  to  September 15  of each year



 to  allow direct comparison of results.



                Each  State will  sample its own tributary




 streams  and be  responsible for  the analyses.  Water



 quality  and benthic  data  obtained  for each  station will



 be  forwarded  to the  Lake  Michigan  Basin office  on  a



 monthly  basis for  storage into  the computer. Average  dai



 flow  data  for each sampling  station  will  be provided  by



 each  State agency  for each sampling  day.  Flow  informati<



 will  be  provided annually or more  frequently  depending



 on  the availability  of  such  information.  A list of



 existing and  proposed tributary gaging  stations from




 which flow data will be  developed  is shown  in Table 4.



                The Committee has considered the value

-------
	799




                     C. Pemberton, Jr.





 of  chemical analyses of bottom sediment samples for the



 Tributary Monitoring Program, but felt that the present



 sampling procedures  will not produce representative




 results at the proposed sampling points.  New methods



 are  currently being  developed and field tested which




 would quantitatively measure sediment deposition.  When



 these methods are  sufficiently developed sedimentation



 sampling should be considered as an addition to the



 Tributary Monitoring Program.

-------
                                                                    8oo
'^U         /
i\         I         I
            Evonston   / _B'sRtc°r£Or O
                                    MICfflGAN

                                    INDIANA
                                              LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
                                                           STATIONS
                                                 o Tributary Stations
                                                 • Water Intakes
                                                 a Open Water Stations
                                                  Existing Gajinj Stations
                                                  Row Data Required
Indiana Hbi.Conol
                                                          Figure 2

-------
	801





                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






                          TABLE  1




           STATE  TRIBUTARY MONITORING STATIONS




 ILLINOIS




      1.   Pettibone  Creek  (Great Lakes Training  Center




          in yacht basin).




 INDIANA




      1.   Burns  Ditch  (Midwest Steel  catwalk  at  mouth).




      2.   Trail  Creek  (Second Street  bridge in Michigan




          City).




      3.   Indiana  Harbor  (Bridge on Dickey Road  at East




          Chicago).




 MICHIGAN




      1.   Big  Cedar  River  (M-35  Bridge in Menominee  Countj




      2.   Black  River  (South wall of  channel  across  from




          State  Park in Holland).




      3-   Black  River  (Dyckman Ave. bridge in South  Haven



      4.   Boardman River  (Park Street Bridge  in  Traverse




          City).




      5.   Escanaba River  (U.S. Highway 41 and 2  bridge at




          Escanaba).




      6.   Ford River (Route 35 bridge at Ford River).




      7.   Grand  River  (South wall of  channel  below Corps

-------
	802





                C. Pemberton, Jr.






               TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)




     of Engineers office in Grand Haven).




 8.  Kalamazoo River (U.S. Highway 31 bridge in




     Saugatuck).




 9.  Manistee River (Maple Street bridge in Manistee




10.  Manistique River (West wall of channel south of




     Ann Arbor R.R. Co. Ferry Slip).




11.  Menominee River (Ogden Street bridge in




     Marinette-Menominee).




12.  Muskegon River (South wall of channel at Coast




     Guard Station in Muskegon).




13.  Pentwater River (North wall of channel at Coast




     Guard Station in Pentwater).




14.  Pere Marquette River  (North wall of channel at




     Coast Guard Station in Ludington).




15.  Pine River (North  bank at  U.S.Highway 31 bridge




     in Charlevoix).




16.  St. Joseph River (C&O Railroad Bridge below




     U.S. Highway 31 in St. Joseph).




17.  White River (South wall of channel near red




     tower near Whitehall).

-------
                    G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                    TABLE 1 (Cont'd.)




    18.  White Pish River (U.S.  Highway 2 bridge at




         Rapid River).




WISCONSIN




     1.  East Twin River (17th Street  bridge in Two Rivers)




     2.  Pox River (Mason Street bridge in Green Bay;  in




         winter at DePere Dam).




     3.  Kewaunee River (County Trunk  E bridge*).




     4.  Manitowoc River (Tenth  Street bridge in Mani-




         towoc).




     5.  Menominee River (Upper  Dam at Marinette).




     6.  Milwaukee River (Machinery Bay near mouth).




     7.  Oconto River  (Highway 41  in  Oconto).




     8.  Pensaukee River (County Trunk S bridge).



     9.  Peshtigo River (Highway 41 bridge in Peshtigo).




    10.  Root River (Marquette Street  bridge in Racine).




    11.  Sheboygan River (Eighth Street bridge in




         Sheboygan).




    12.  West Twin River (State  Highway 42 bridge in Two




         Rivers*).
     * Tentative Sampling Location.

-------
                                                     804




                    C. Pemberton, Jr.




                         TABLE 2


        LAKE MICHIGAN TRIBUTARY INFLOW PARAMETERS


           (Monthly Analyses Except as Noted)




                  ALL TRIBUTARIES (l6)


1.   Alkalinity, Total as CaCO


2.   Biochmeical Oxygen Demand, BOD._
                                   :?

3.   Chloride


4.   Coliform,  Fecal


5.   Coliform,  Total


6.   Dissolved Oxygen, DO


7.   Hardness as CaGO^


8.   Nitrate - Nitrite as N


9.   Nitrogen,  Ammonia as N


10.  Nitrogen,  Organic as N.


11.  pH (field determination)


12.  Phosphorus, Total as P


13.  Solids,  Dissolved


14.  Solids,  Suspended


15.  Solids,  Volatile Suspended


ID.  Temperature


               Visual observations should be made at the

-------
	805





                     G. Pemberton, Jr.






                     TABLE 2  (Gont'd.)




 time  of  sampling for floating  debris,  oil,  grease,  scum,




 sludge solids,  color, odor and  turbidity.






                      OPTIONAL  (13)




     (Frequency  determined by the States, see Table  3)




 17.   Alkalinity, P*, as  CaC03




 18.   Calcium




 19.   Color




 20.   Conductivity




 21.   Fluorides




 22.   MBAS




 23.   Magnesium




 24.   Phosphorus, Soluble as  P




 25.   Potassium




 26.   Radiation, Gross Alpha



 27.   Radiation, Gross Beta




 28,   Sodium




 29.   Turbidity
      *  Phenolphthalein

-------
	806





                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






                     TABLE 2  (Cent'd.)






                 WHERE APPROPRIATE_{_lp




      (Monthly  frequency  - may be  dropped  after  six




         months  if  no significant amount  found)




 30.   Cadmium




 31.   Chromium




 32.   Copper




 33.   Cyanide




 34.   Iron, Total




 35.   Lead




 36.   Manganese




 37.   Nickel




 38.   Phenolic  Compounds




 39.   Sulfate




 40.   Zinc

-------
                         807

TABLE 3
RECOMMENDED ANALYTICAL SCHEDULE FOR TRIBUTARY MONITORING
z
t/i
i
MICHIGAN
VNVIQN

J8A|a uim 4-SS^
J8A|y ue6Aoq9U,3
J9A|a 4-OOy
J8A|a o6|4.L|sac
J9A|a ea>inesuac
J8A|a O4UOOC
JSAjy 89>tneM| \^,
JeA|y 83ujuiou3t<
J8A|y 00*04. jue^.
J9A|y eauneMSx
J8A|a XO;
J9A|y U|MJ^ 4.56}
J8A|y i|Sl484mM
J9A|a 84.Jl|^
j8A|a ydesop '4s
J9Aiy euu
J9A|y 8448nbJC^3J3c
J8A|y j 94.6*14 uac
J8A|y uo6o>|sn^
jBAta •euiunuet,
jOA|a enbi4.S!ue^
J8A|a 884.s|ue^
J8A|y oozeue|e»
J8A|y pUBJ£
jeAia PJO-)
J8A|y sqeueos;
J8Aiy ueuipjaoj
UBAEH'S J8A|a >PBK
PUB||OH — !9Aia >|3B|{
-i9A|y JBpaQ 6||
JOqjBH BUB.PU,
>ieejo I1BJJ
IP4.IQ sujng
J M«eJO auoq 1 4.4.94
^*x^ Tributary
^Xw Monitoring
^NW Stations
Parameters ^"^x.
ZEE
E S E
E E E
ZEE
E E E
E E E
E E E Z
ZEE
Z Z Z Z
Z Z E
E E Z Z
ZEE
Z Z O
Z E Z O
Z Z Z O
Z Z O
z z z o
E E O-
E Z Z O
Z E E O
E E O
Z Z E O
Z Z E O
Z Z Z O
Z Z 0
Z Z O
E Z 0
E S Z 0
Z Z Z 0
Z Z O
K 1- 0
1- 1- O-
f- 1- 0-
E E E
in
o
KW S
"3 f^ »
3 o "o
10 o c
a
— c
(O O
4- 0)
o * ^*
~ OL X
+• +- ~a *
— — u * *
C c — E E
— — O) 3 3
	 O — —
SS Oi-
	 — 10 (0
< < m o o
E E
E z
E E
E Z
E E
E E
E E E E
E E
SEE E
E E
E E E E
E E
E E
E E E E
E E E E
E E
E E E E
E E
E E E E
E E E E
E E
E Z E E
E Z Z Z
E E E E
E Z
E E
E E
E E E Z
E E Z E
E E
K E 1- t- Z
1- Kl-
1- Z t- 1- E
EX S Z
•*-
* —
* >
0 E — *
T3 3 •*- *
— — * O L.
i- E u 3 a
2 25-? §
£ £ O O O
0 O O O 0
E E
E E
E E
E E
E E
E E
E Z E E E
E E
E E E E E
E E
E E E E E
E E
E E
E E E E E
E Z Z E E
E E
E E E E E
E E
E E E E E
E E E E E
E E
E E E E E
E Z Z E Z
E E E E E
E E
E E Z
Z Z
S E E E E
E E E E Z
E Z
Z 1- E 1- E
t- 1— E
Z t- 1- E
E Z Z Z Z
II Cyanide**
12 Dissolved Oxygen, DO
13 Fluorides*
14 Hardness, as CaCOj
15 Iron. Total**






ZEE

E E E

E E E

O
OE E
E OE E
O
E OE E
O
E OE E
Z OZ Z
O
Z OZ z
Z OZ E
E OE E
O
O
0
E OE E
E OE E
O
E E

Z E
E EZ Z
*
e »
3 UI *
* I/) C —
E E Z E
Z S E E
E E E E
E E E S
E E E E
E E E E
E Z E E E
E E E E
E E E EE
E S E E
E E E Z Z
Z Z Z E
S Z Z Z
E Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z E E
E Z Z E
Z E E E E
E Z E E
E E E E E
E E Z Z E
S Z Z E
Z E E E E
E Z Z Z Z
E E E E E
E Z E E
E E E E
E E E E
Z E E E E
E E E E E
E E E E
E E E 1- E
Z E E 1- Z
E Z E 1- E
Z Z Z E E
EE
E E
E E
S E
E S
E Z
E S E E
E E E E
E E
E E
E Z E E
E E
E E 0 E
E E O E
E E 0 E
Z E O E
E E 0 E
E E 0 E
E E O- E
E E O- E
E E O E
E E O E
E Z 0 Z
Z E 0 E
E E O E
E E O- E
E E O E
E E 0 E
E E 0 Z
Z Z O Z
Z O Z
E 0 Z
E 0 Z
Z E E
*
*» a.
rzzo go. »*„
tn u> * * *
I » «^> 3 3 E C C
CC— U1-U3QO
ZEE
ZEE
ZEE
ZEE
E Z Z
E E Z
E Z E
E E E E
E E E
E E Z
Z E E E
E E E
E E E E
E E E E E
S E E E E
Z Z E E
E E E E
E Z Z E
E E E E E
E E E Z Z
Z Z E E E
E E E E E
E E E E E
E E E E E
E Z Z E
E E E E Z
Z Z E E
E E Z E
E E Z E
E E E Z
Z t- t- t- Z
E t- t- f- E
E K- 1- 1- E
Z E E Z
•O
o
•o
c
a.
3
•o -o
> 5 —
— c —
Q O *-
ft a.  »
*
« * . » 9
£ in wi in +-
3 TJ T3 -O (0
E Z Z
E. E E
E E E
Z E Z
Z E Z
Z E E
Z ZEE
E E E
E E E E
E E E
E E E E
E E E
E E E E
E E E E E
Z E E E E
E E E E
E E E E E
E E E E
E E E E E
Z E E E E
E E E Z
E E E E E
Z Z E E Z
E E E E E
E E E Z
E E E S
E E E E
E E E E
E E E E
E E E E
1- 1- E 1- 1-
t— t— I— >—
1- 1- E 1- 1-
Z Z Z Z E
EE
3 >- 	
10 — Go
i- -o «
a>ioinm 	 z.c-c.coiXtni/i»-(-Nu.(-
D
D
a.
3
a.
c
D
e
D
5
a.
D
0
§
o
1
o
4-
I
8
X
1
i
X
o
c
o

-------
	808





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                          TABLE  4




            TRIBUTARY GAGING STATION LOCATIONS






 ILLINOIS




      1.   Pettibone  Creek  (flow  data required)




 I_NDIA_NA.




      1.   Burns  Ditch




          a.  USGS 0935, on  left bank on  downstream




             side of bridge on  Central Avenue,  0.4




             mile east  of Gary  and 0.4 mile  downstream




             from confluence  of Deep River  and  Little




             Calumet River.




          b.  USGS 0940, Little  Calumet River, near




             center  of  span downstream side  of  highway




             bridge,  3/4  of a mile northwest of Porter




             and 4.5 miles  upstream from Salt Creek.




      2.   Trail  Creek (flow  data required)



      3.   Indiana Harbor (flow data required)




 MICHIGAN



      1.   Big Cedar  River  (flow  data required)




      2.   Black  River, USGS  1088,  on left bank 20 ft




          upstream from  bridge on  State Road,  0.2 mile




          downstream  from  South  Branch, and  2-1/2

-------
	809




               C. Pemberton, Jr.





               TABLE 4  (Cont'd.)



     miles  south of Zeeland.



 3.   Black  River, USGS 1027,  on  left bank  50  ft



     upstream from bridge  on  66th Street,  4.9



     miles  northwest of  Bangor.



 4.   Boardman River, USGS  1270,  on  right bank



     25  ft  downstream from Brown's  Bridge,  300



     ft  downstream from  East  Creek, 0.9 mile



     downstream from Brown's  Dam, 1.0 mile  north-



     east of Mayfield, and 9»6 miles southeast



     of  Traverse City.



 5.   Escanaba River, USGS  590_, on right bank  50



     ft  downstream from  Highway  Bridge, half  mile



     downstream from Bobs  Creek, three-quarters



     of  a mile northeast of Cornell, and l6 miles



     upstream from mouth.



 6.   Pord River, USGS 595,  on right bank 40 ft



     downstream from county highway bridge, 1.4



     miles  downstream from Tenmile  Creek,  and



     1-1/2  miles north of  Hyde.
                  *


 7.   Grand  River, USGS 1190,  on  right bank  500 ft



     upstream from bridge  on  Fulton Street, 1.7

-------
                C. Pemberton, Jr.






                TABLE 4 (Cont'd.)



     miles upstream from Plaster Creek, and at




     mile 41.



 8.  Kalamazoo River, USGS 1085, on left bank 40



     ft upstream from bridge on State Highway 89,



     2.1 miles downstream from Swan Creek, 4.0



     miles downstream from Calkins Dam, and 6.1




     miles east of Fennville.



 9.  Manistee River, USGS 1260, on right bank 6-.4



     miles northeast of Manistee, 6.4 miles south



     of Onekama, 7.8 miles upstream from Manistee



     Lake, and at mile 10.8.



10.  Manistique River, USGS 5&5, on left bank 1



     mile downstream from West Branch, 6 miles



     northeast of Manistique, and at mile 19-5-



11.  Menominee River, USGS 670, on left bank at



     powerplant of Wisconsin Public Service Corp.,




     0.5 mile upstream from Little Cedar River,



     3.6 miles southeast of Koss, and at mile 24.7




12.  Muskegon River, USGS 1220, on left bank in



     tailrace of powerplant operated by Consumers



     Power Co. at Newaygo, 600 ft downstream from

-------
	811





               C. Pemberton, Jr.






               TABLE 4 (Cent'd.)




     Penoyer Creek and at mile  39-1-




13.  Pentwater River (flow data required)




14.  Pere Marquette River, USGS 1225, on right




     bank 20 ft upstream from highway bridge




     at south edge of Scottville and 5-3/4 miles




     downstream from South Branch.




15.  Pine River, State Gage, north bank at U.S.




     Highway 31 bridge in Charlevoix.




16.  St. Joseph River, USGS 1020, on right bank




     20 ft upstream from bri'dge on Indian Lake




     Road.




     Paw Paw River, USGS 1025, on right bank 200




     ft downstream from County Highway Bridge,



     three-quarters of a mile east of Riverside.




     Prior to May 10, 1966, at site 250 ft up-




     stream.




17.  White River, USGS 1222, on right bank 30 ft




     downstream from bridge on Fruitvale Road,




     6.3 miles downstream from North Branch, and




     6.9 miles northeast of Whitehall.




18.  Whitefish River  (flow  data required)

-------
                    	812





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






                    TABLE 4 (Cont'd.)
WISCONSIN
     1.  East Twin River (flow data required)




     2.  Fox River, USGS 845, at Rapide Croche Dam,




         2 miles upstream from Wrigbtstown,  and 18




         miles upstream from mouth.




     3.  Kewaunee River, USGS 852, on left bank just




         downstream from bridge on County Trunk F,




         2.3 miles west of Kewaunee.




     4.  Manitowoc River (flow data required)




     5.  Menominee River, USGS 670, on left  bank at




         powerplant of Wisconsin Public Service Corp.,




         0.5 mile upstream from Little Cedar River,




         3.6 miles southeast of Koss, and at mile 24.7-




     6.  Menominee River, USGS, 871.2, near  left bank




         on downstream side of 70th Street bridge in




         Wauwatosa, 800 ft downstream from Honey Greek,




         and 6-1/4 miles upstream from mouth.




     7.  Milwaukee River, USGS 870, on left  bank near




         northeast limits of Milwaukee in Estabrook




         park, 2,000 ft downstream from Port Washington




         Road Bridge and 6 miles upstream from mouth.

-------
	813





                 C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                 TABLE  4  (Gont'd.)




  8.   Oconto  River,  USGS  710,  on  left  bank  just




      upstream  from  highway  bridge,  2  miles  upstream




      from  Christy Brook,  2  miles  south  of  Gillett,




      and at  mile 29.




  9.   Pensaukee River (flow  data  required)




 10.   Peshtigo  River, USGS 695, on  left  bank 75  ft




      downstream  from Chicago  and  Northwestern Rail-




      way bridge, 0.5 mile downstream  from  Wisconsin




      Public  Service Corp. powerplant  in Peshtigo,




      and 11-1/2  miles  upstream from mouth.




 11.   Root  River, USGS  872.4,  on left  bank  30 ft




      downstream  from State  Highway  38 bridge in




      Racine, 350 ft downstream from Horlick Dam,  and



      5.2 miles upstream  from  mouth.




 12.   Sheboygan River,  USGS  860, on  left bank 0.7



      mile  upstream  from  bridge and  State Highway




      28, near west  city   limits of  Sheboygan, and




      4.2 miles upstream  from  mouth.




 13.   West  Twin River (flow  data required)

-------
	814

                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.
                        Chapter  IV
                 BEACH  MONITORING PROGRAM
                The  Shores  of  Lake  Michigan  are  used
 extensively  for full body  contact  water  recreational
 activities.   The Committee suggests, therefore,  that
 the  States arrange  for  a sampling  program at  least
 twice  monthly at:   1)  all  public beaches, 2)  beaches
 adjacent  to  tributaries with  pollutional discharges
 and  3) beaches  adjacent to high density  population
 areas.  The  samples  should be collected  from  May 15
 to September 15 and  be  analyzed for  total coliform
 and  fecal coliform  by  the  membrane filter technique.
 Results of these samples should be forwarded  to  the
 Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,  Chicago
 Regional  Office,  monthly for  inclusion into the  data
 storage system.

                        Chapter V
  MONITORING  PROGRAM FOR THE OPEN WATERS  OF  LAKE  MICHIGAN
                The  Federal Water Pollution  Control
 Administration  (then the Public Health Service)  surveyed
 the  open  waters of  Lake Michigan during  the 1962-1964
 Great  Lakes-Illinois River Basins  study.
                The  Monitoring Committee  proposes that

-------
	815





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






 an  open water  surveillance program be established




 utilizing some of the sampling points for which




 historical  data is available.  The sampling program




 should consist or the 51 stations shown on Figure 2




 and identified in Table 5«  Each station should be




 sampled at  least three times per year, once each




 during the  spring, summer and fall seasons.  Samples




 should be collected from near the surface, at mid-depth,




 and near the bottom at each station when the lake is




 not stratified.  Where the lake is stratified, samples




 should be collected at the surface, just above and




 below the thermocline, and near the bottom.  Tempera-




 ture profiles  should be made at each station in order to




 determine the  location of the thermocline. A map of the



 bottom topography of Lake Michigan is shown in Figure 3-




               The 22 parameters selected by the




 Committee to evaluate open water quality at each




 station are:




               1.  Ammonia




               2.  Calcium




               3.  Chloride




               4.  Color, True

-------
	8l6





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                5.   Dissolved Oxygen




                6.   Magnesium




                7.   Nitrate as N




                8.   Nitrogen,  Organic  as  N




                9.   pH




               10.   Phosphorus,  Total  as  P




               11.   Phytoplankton




               12.   Potassium




               13-   Radiation,  Gross Alpha




               14.   Radiation,  Gross Beta




               15.   Silica




               l6.   Sodium




               17.   Solids,  Dissolved




               18.   Solids,  Suspended




               19.   Sulfate




               20.   Total Plate  Count




               21.   Turbidity




               22.   Zooplankton




                The  significance of  each  parameter is




 summarized in  the Appendix.   Bottom sediments should be




 analyzed for Chemical Oxygen  Demand (COD), total phos-




 phorus, iron,  oil and grease, and percent volatile solid;

-------
                                                                    8i7
                 68'
                               er-
        46'
        45'
                                                  SCALE OF MILES
                                                  0   10   ZO  30
                 68'
                               87 •
SOURCE:   Reprinted from Geology  of the
          Great Lakes, by Jack  L.  Hough,
BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY
  LAKE MICHIGAN
                             22
                                                                  Figure  3

-------
                                                                                                                   818
    to

    CD
in
    a:
UJ  LU

CD  <
     UJ
     Q.
     O
     o

     5
to
OK

>to
LU—
CO
Q-
LU
Q
— \
— J
— —
^—
<
_)
LU
Q
ID
I 	
O
4^
O
O
1-
1 	
1
to
to
DCO
01-

>to
LU —
Q-
LU
Q
t—
J^—
«C
III
LU
Q
r~"
o
*Z.
0

z
o
1—
1 	
to



CM



o
0
l~»
^J-
o
vO
00
O
O
vD
to
O
to

1^
CM





to


O
O
O
CN
0
CO
O
o
§
o
—
^


v -





^J-



O
o
to
to
o
VO
co
o
o
VO
to
o


00
CN





^J-


0
o
12
o
co
o
o
$
o
—
"*


CM





to



0
O
,r
to
o
r"^
co
O
O
in
Q
o
5

cr>
CM





to


o
o
g
0
co
o
0
§
o
—
"*


to





CN



O
o
o
o
0
r^
co
o
0
in
Q
O


O






—


O
o
In
o
co
O
o
5
o
—
"*"


,3.




* * * * *
CN 	 CN CN CN ^1- CM 	 to — CM CN



ocnmoooooooooinoo
o — mooooocNOoo^oo
ro p~ in ^ o rf- r- — voro^mcN — o
to in *a- — o •**• — to — incNOOCM —
ooooooooooooooo
vo r*** r^* r** r^ vo *«o r^~ r^- vo vo vo r — ^o ^o
cococococococococococococococo
omoooooooooocooo
OtOCNOOOOOtOOOOfOOO
LP\ LO ^^ r*** \£\ ^~\ C3 LT^ ^o *>j~ c^ vo LO ^j* c^j
^^ ro LO ^^ ^-J~ ^^ ^~\ ^3 c^j ~~~ c~^ LO *sj~ r^*\ t^~\
ooooooooooooooo
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 S 5 5 5 % 3

_CS|fr)^J.lnv£)r^COCTlO_CNJfO^1.tn
tOtOfOlOtOtOtOtOfO^'^}-'a-'g-T3-<-




* * * *



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
ooooooooooooooo
£85£££o£SS-^£!8£!
ooooooooooooooo
oooococococococooococococococo
ooooooooooooooo
ooooooooooooooo
88--cMCNjQScQ!o!o5:555
ooooooooooooooo
CMCMCMCMCMCNCN. CMCMCMCMCNCNCNCM
^•^-^•^^^•'vi-n-^r^^-^-'a-^Nr


m^or»coo\o 	 CMtO'3-if\\or--coc7>
— 	 — — — — — 	




CM



O
O
O
^j-
o
in
CO
o
0
to
—
o
in

UD
*3-





^j-


o
o
in
o
co
O
o
5
o
CM
^


O
CM




i*O



o
o
^J-
—
o
vO
co
0
o
<£>
in
o
in

i —
-^





to


o
0
in
o
co
o
o
co
o
0
IO
^


—
CN




hO



o
o
in
CM
0
in
CO
o
o
	
to
o
in

co
•*





to


o
o
in
CM
O
oo
o
o
co
0
o
to
^


CN
CN




CN



O
O
O
CN
O
in
co
O
O
__
CM
o
in

o
••*





to


o
o
0
o
o
co
o
o
co
o
o
to
^


tO
CM




K"^



o
o
vo
to
o
in
CO
o
o
to
in
o
in

o
in





•^f


o
o
2
o
$
0
O
CO
o
o

"*


,3-
CN




K"\



o
o
in
^3-
o
^j-
co
o
o
co
^j-
o
in

	
in





to to


0 0
o o
•^ CM
•*r CN
0 0
oo co
0 0
o o
^ofo
o o
IO tO
^ ^r


in vo
CN CN

                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                   c
                                                                                                                   o

                                                                                                                   c

                                                                                                                   .c
                                                                                                                   1/1
                                                                                                                   c
                                                                                                                   O
                                                                                                                   01
                                                                                                                   O
                                                                                                                   O-
                                                                                                                    (0
                                                                                                                    1_
                                                                                                                    Q

                                                                                                                    CD
                                                                                                                    in
                                                                                                                    C
                                                                                                                    O
                                                                                                                    ui
                                                                                                                    O
                                                                                                                    CL
(0


o
(0

o


CD
                                                                                                                        CD
                                                                                                                        Q-
                                                                                                                     (f>  E
                                                                                                                     (0  (D
                                                                                                                    +-  O
                                                                                                                    —  01
                                                                                                                     01 —
                                                                                                                    —  (D
                                                                                                                     >
                                                                                                                        CD
                                                                                                                     0)  1-
                                                                                                                     C  CD
                                                                                                                     O  ~Z

                                                                                                                    — —

                                                                                                                    o "i
                                                       23

-------
	819





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 in addition to the  determination of  benthic  population.  •




                Water and  sediment  samples  should  be




 analyzed for copper,  chromium,  cadmium,  lead,  nickel




 and zinc once every five  years  to  detect any accumula-




 tion of  these elements  in the lake.  After two years




 of operation, the data  from the  open water should be




 evaluated to determine  if station  parameters can  be




 eliminated or if additional stations and parameters




 are required.




                The  proposed network  of 51  stations is




 supplemented by the 9 water intake sampling  points




 selected by the Conferees.






                        Chapter VI




       UNIFORM SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES




                In order to  properly  evaluate changes  in



 water quality throughout  the basin,  data obtained from




 monitoring stations must  be uniformly reliable.   Techniques




 used in  collecting,  preserving and analyzing samples




 should be sufficiently  comparable  so that  data are




 similar.  A review of  existing procedures indicates that




 for some  parameters  the analytical methods in  current




 use will  probably not produce consistent data.  A review

-------
	820





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 of current methods  in use by the  States  and the Federal




 Water Pollution Control Administration  is  shown in




 Table 6.




                It  is  recommended  that a  committee be




 appointed  for  the  purpose of establishing mutually




 acceptable procedures which  will  assure  that the moni-




 toring data produced  will be similar.  It is further




 recommended that the  Calumet Area  Laboratory Directors




 Committee,  which was  created in response  to the needs




 of the 1965 conference  on the Calumet Area,  be  expanded




 to include the  principals of the Four-State Enforcement




 Conference and  that the water filtration  plant  labora-




 tory  directors  be  invited to participate.






                        Chapter VII



        WATER FILTRATION PLANT DATA  OBTAINED UNDER



                   RECOMMENDATION  19




                Recommendation 19 of the  Conference




 Summary requires the  State water pollution  control




 agencies to arrange for a broad spectrum  of water




 quality analyses,  including  planktonic algae counts,




 to be performed at least  twice weekly at  the following




 water filtration plants:   Green Bay, Milwaukee,  Evanston

-------
	821


                     G.  Pemberton, Jr.
                                                        *

 Chicago  (both  plants),  Gary,  Michigan  City,  Benton

 Harbor and  Grand  Rapids  (see  Figure  2).   The  results

 are  to be reported  annually to  the  Conferees.   It is

 recommended that  the  twice weekly analyses include  at

 least alkalinity, hardness, turbidity,  coliform bacteria

 and  planktonic algae.   In addition,  monthly  analyses

 should include the  parameters recommended for  open  water

 sampling stations.

                The  Committee  considers  these  intakes

 an essential part of  the open v/ater  monitoring program,

 and  the  data collected  from the  intakes  will  be useful

 in evaluating  the long-range  water quality trends in

 Lake Michigan.  This  data should be  entered  into  bhe

 FWPCA data  bank.  Analytical  methods and reporting

 procedures  should be  consistent  with those established

 by the proposed State and Federal Laboratory  Directors

 Committee.   Since it  is  anticipated  that the  water  plant

 laboratory  directors  will be  responsible for  some of

 the  analysis,  they  should be  invited as  participants

 to the Laboratory Directors Committee.

-------
                                   822



«





*"














s
u.
Q
Z


CO
LU

«£
(—
CO

LU
£
CO
LU
vO to

LU
_J Z
CD —
«t
1— CO
Q
§
1-
LU
s:

— j
o
P—

^
i

z
LU
Or
or
~^
o































01
j£
L-
g
&
.8
g
'w
o
m

'c
g,
€
^
^
J







c
ID
O)

jC
o
.—
Z







ID
C
ID
13
C
«-





in
.—
8
.^
-~
— •





c
t—
m
c
O
0
in
.—
3;






0

D
i
L,
ID
CL
•D
—
3
O
in

in •
-I- 0
— 0
3 L.
in 01
0 ID
or




r—

i

CL
0.

<





-f-
o +•
0 C

LU O
CL

— C
O LU
•>



•
^
U +-
0 C

LU'O
— C
O LU
>




r*»
i

•*
CL
CL
^





+-
O -1-
0 c
-^ ,~
LU O
CL
• "0
— C
O LU








>*
-*-
T3

U

•f-
O T3
C —
3
>• O
g 5

in • in •
^~ 0 +~ 0
~ 0 	 0
in o) in ui
0 ID 0 £>
CL
CLI
CL <
< <





CM

i in
00 — •

JC
CL-t- T3
CL 0 0

< <

^
^^
• CJv
+- o —
0 -t- -g
0 c ^ —

LU O £ (D
Q. •- T3
• -o fe c
— C -2 ID
O LU O CO
>• o



03
CM • vO
in TJ- in
i i
CO — 0 rO
•q- >- — in
JC CL
CL-t- L. CL
CL 0 3 CL
z: a.






+~ vO
o v in
0 C 1

LU o m
CL
. -0 CL
— C CL
O LU





>.

E
C 3
— C
ID E
.* 3
< <


•o
__
3
O
JZ
in

in .
+- 0
— 0
3 L.
m 01
or




r^
in
i
vD
in
CL
CL

<





^«
in
i
^O
in

CL
CL

*




f^»
in
i

in
CL
CL

^




f*^
in
\O
in
CL
CL
^





in
i

in

CL
CL









O

0
in
u


T3 tJ
^ ^
3 3
0 0
JC JC
in in

in • in .
•1-0 -1-0
— m — 0
31- 31.
in cn in o>
or or


m —
M CM
CM T

*T in j3
1 — O
CM ft L_
CL
CL Q-


< <


.1
in — jc
*t CM CL
CM *r ID
1 t L.
^r in en

CM ^r i_ >.
ID —
CL CL 	
CL CL O ID
Q. U



in —
TT CM
CM •*•
1 1
rr in

CM TJ-
0. CL
0. CL

^ ^



CM
^
1 "O
0 in 0
c — —

CL T3
o °"^
z <




in —
CM t
1 1 0
TJ- in JD
•a- — o
CM •V L.
CL
CL CL













^ o
5 8
•D
O +-
JC C TD 13
•t- IB — —
0 •(- 3 3
t in o O
— JZ JC
0 in • in in
c c 
• — C 2 0 ID 0 ID
o oe or


,,.
—
in
i
o
in
< CL
I— CL
< Q
< UJ <



^
«,
in
(D 1
c o
O —
N m

JC < CL
•*- h- Q.
— Q
O LU <


M
_
in
i
O

in
< CL
t— Q.
< Q
< LU <



N
>k
Us
c
<
O
< < 3
^ ^C ^




.»
in
i
o

in

< CL
1— CL
< Q
< LU <







E E
3 3
'i 'u
•0 — Q
ID 'DO
o u o








































c
o

•t-
CL

o
in

0

E
p o
T* +-
< flj
< JC

Q
Q>
•(-
ID
•t-
-

P
If
T3 13
L- O
ID in
T3 —
C Q
ID
*• 1
CO
1 .

-------
823





































^
3
C

+-
C
8


>o

UJ
m












































in
+- •(- 0
























<
1
0
i

-
_l
• o
— CNCO
to *-.m
C Z *T
< CJ I
CO 2
O —
+- cn o
^X"



r^
co

CC L.

CL O
CL S
<

1
O
+-
0 c
+- O
0 ~
CL. u +-
~ ID
i£±
cn E h-







o
CA CM
ri. ">,
CO O
CL —
X








r***
co
i
CO l_
jr
CL O
CL ^

<







(D
•o
. —
L,
o
.C
CJ



•o
3
O
_c:
in

in •
+- ID
— ID
3 L_
m cn


s I'-
LL. *
O



2
3
o

m

in •
+- (D
— (D
3 l_
tn cn
ID ID
Ct


TT

^
i
CM
^
—

CL
CL
<


Tt
.^
1
CM
—

CL
CL
<



TC
~~
1
CM
_
^_
CL
CL
<





*r


1 -D
CM 
\O r^
r^~ fi
to
CL
CL CL
CL
<


co
r-
fo
i

K"\

CL
CL
<






O*
r—
m
CL
O.
<



«3

CO
r—

1 CA
vO I--
r- »^i
CL
CL CL
0.
<



«3

CO
r~
K^
1 CTi

K^
CL
CL CL
CL

^






.^
(D ID
C 3
— T3
U —
O ui
— ID
o



•a
3
O
jr
in

in •
+- ID

3 L.
in cn
C) ID
ce











$





co
i~-
^j-

CL
Q.
<






co
r-

CL
CL
<












<
<




<


«3

CO
r-
^f

CL
Q.

<







e
3
._
E
O
1_
CJ
26


+-

>•

£

l/l •
+- (D
— ID
3 1_
in cn



in
ID -*
3 in
O" ••"
rf ^~*

ID L.
cn ID

— in
•^ ^
_® *~


o>
CM
—
1
CN •
— +-
(J
CL (D
CL CL
to



OA
CN
~


CN

CL
CL
<





0t
CN

1
CN •
O
CL 
CO
CN

§
CN

CL
O.

<



^_
+.

>
, 	
•t-
L)
3

i


+-
i
>* ID
ro E •
E 0)
c; 
O Q>
in —
^x **-

CLXI
CL O
5 ~ O *• CL TT <4-

+- I- -0 — CLT3
(D ID O O CL O
— o g o. e
Q <



r-
in
1 T3
O 0
in —
^r **~
CL-D
s :g





f»»
in

1 T3
in —
^ **-
0.-0
tti
< <

co

i
o* c
r^ P~ o
TJ- in xi —
i — -t-
CL 1 O 10
CL O ID —
in —
< T O —
— -t-
«3 CL i- in
CL O —

< < "° ^








(D

0 —
CL C
CL ID
cS 5-










































c
O
•fl-
ex
L-
O
in
n
o
E
0
-f—
^

1


^C.



ir\
vO
2
«
c
O

+-

XI
LU
JI
•t-
CN


in
XI
O
.c
f
T3
L-
10
XJ
C
10
•t-

-------
                                                              824



^






*
















^
g
Q
I
CO
UJ
^_
^
t—
CO

LU

I—
T3 >-
CO CD
C LU
+^ O
c
a -

(/}
\o a

^ £

CD LU
^ y
H-
5
5
I

^__
z
LU



O


















in
V
L.
10
E

.
*^
5
c

o
LD

C
O
5"
f
o

ii






c
10
CO

jc
o

z







ID
C
ID
•—

C
—



V)
(^
8

^_
_

c
in
c
8

31

ID

i
ID

CL
-o o
— c
3
O >•
f ig
in E

in • in .
•1-0 -HO)
— ID — a>
3 L. 3 L-
in o> in o)
(D IO Q) (0
CC CC
ID
O
Q_

•^3 \O
— TJ-
^3" ~~
i i

O TT


CL CL
a. a.

^ *c

T>
O *O —
Tt 	
1 1 +-
vo ^J- in
o •fl- —


a. a.+-
CL OL O
C
< <



O (N
— —
1 .1 C
vO 	
o tr i 	
^r — to to
N 3
OL Q.— in
CL CL 	

<. <

O vO
1 1 O
*O ^f" f)
o •» o
CL
a. a.
CL CL L.
O

1
5
^_
(D
JO CL
0
a. <

ID
•o
L,
O

8 I
T3 -0

3 3
0 O
in in

in - in •
-H ID +- CD
— QJ — ID
3 L- 3 L.
in O) in CO
QJ (O QJ 10
rf rf


1
L.
CD
N
"^
— • >-
JC IO 10
in E E

in - in . in •
-HO) -H CD -H CO
— CD — CO — ID
31- 3 L- 3 L.
in cn in o) in en
QJ 10 CO 10 CD IO
cc ce ce











^
^*-
H
Q < <
LU < <


CO
ID
C CO
(0 c
>- o
0 N

< O -c
h- — +-
Q J= —
LU t- Q



_
vD CD
— C
1 *_
O> T3
in —
— L.
^K
< O- Q.

Q 1- <
UJ < <






«c
h-
Q < <
LU < <


^
< -a
o < <
LU < <

in
in
CD —
C <0
"O +- C T3
L. O O ID
ID 1— L. CO
X — -I
^

3
o
in

in •
+- CD
— CO
3 L_
m cn
CO 10
ce


i
L.
CD
N
^*
— _
10 CD
C 3

1 CO
O
+- cn
3 S










^
1-
Q
LU










<
1—
Q
LU








^



^
«3

<

e
HK
m
CO
c
CJ)
10
2

>1
g

c
IO •
cn co
— 0)
_C l_
u cn
— 10
s:














<;
<;


JS
co T
•H K1
10 r~
*• "D —
— O
3 jr o.
in -t- CL
L. CO
a> E <













^
*








^





<


s
CD
C
ID
cn
c
10
Z
                                           c
                                           o
                                           CL
                                           l_
                                           O
                                           in
                                           JO
                                           §£
                                           +-  10
                                           <  L,
                                             •o
                                           I  >•
                                              CD
                                              CO
                                           in  o
                                           \O  (0
                                           O  10



                                           gs
                                           —  CO
                                           •t-  c

                                           ^'1
                                           LU  10
                                           •4- CO
                                           CM e
                                           — ^QJ

                                           in >-
                                           •o jz
                                           O -t-
                                           CD E
                                           z: 3

                                           •o -6
                                           1- O
                                           ID in
                                           •o —
                                           C Q
                                           (0
                                              I
                                           LO

                                            I  t-
                                              Q
                                           < LU
27

-------
                                         825
      I  c en

























o
a.
0

^

co
UJ
<
1-
co

UJ
£
o> m
3
C Ul
— CO
4- ZJ
1 -

y?
*O Q
LU S
-1 1-
OD UJ
^C ^*
1-
5
»—

i
^£
2£
^£

i-j
•z
Ul
g
3




























tn
V
L
1
01
iE

—
•—
£

C
o
o*
!c
o
^~
^^
j






c
ID
cn

e-
U









ID
C
ID

T)
C
~~







in

"5
c

—



c
—
in
c
8
in





L.
4-
0

ID

Q.



>* •
ID 0
E 0
L_
tn o>
4- (o
_
3 4-
ui O
o c

1 0
3
L. —
0 m
N
— C
ID 0
C —

e-
O 4-
4- 0

<

0
3

QD

0
C
__
T3
__
3
_
1—





CM
1 TJ

O —
CXI H-
CL-D
O. Q
g
<
0
1 3
1 	
0 CD
N
>• 0
— C
ID 0
C —

.C
O 4-
4- 0
3 Z

8
CM

r- 0

CM t-
Q.-D
0. O









to

CO
TD
—
3
O
jr
in

in •
4- 0

3 L.
in CD
0 ID

,

i_
0
N

ID 0
C 4-
< ID
C
O 0
4- JZ
3 Q_
<



•
^_
ID
O
©
^_
ID
C
0
CL


C
0

ID
N
•IK
L.
(D
H 	
O l/l
0 Ul
L. 0

Q Z



to
CTV

1 ^
r^ 0)
GO —
— H-
.^
O.T3
O. Q
*

s
_
4 "O
r-~ 0
co —
— <*-
0.-0
0. Q








•^
1

2
T3
__
3
O

in

in •
4- 0
— 0
3 L-
in o)
0 (D




*f
O
1 "D
K> 0
0 —

«_
CLT3


<



^}-
O

1 "0
f"\ 0
0 —
^r •*-
•
Q. T3
CL Q






O
1 TD
K1 ffl
0 -
«T >*-
O.T3
O. Q
gl
*
in
L,
ID

ID
C S
O
0
C (J
3 ID
L. M.
4- 3
O in

O

I "^
f^i 0
0 —
^ **-
O.T)

<





z.
\



t—
0
c

>.
ID
E

in .
4- 0
— 0
3 L-
m O)
0 ID
ce



i_
0
N

ID •
C "O
< o

O 4-
4~ 0)
3 £
<

o

0 —
o —
CM C.
CO -2
O* — ~
— 3 •
in T3
o. —
o. O O
»
« ~~
1 ID
in c •
C7* ^ "O
— O
O -C
0.4- V
O. 3 0
< E
1
CO ~3
CA in

1 "0
in
~ 1
— in
ID O
C CM

Q.
O o.
4-
3 <
<






B
C
^3
L.

4-
i





co
O
CM-
i n
in 0
o —
CM •«-
Q.T3
f\ Q
g:
*



CO
o
CM
| T5
in 0
o —
CM t-
•_•
Q. O
*

CO
o
CXI
1 TJ
in 0
O —
CM •*-
o.'-5
CL Q
<







•z.
1
CXI
O
0) E —
0 0 O
1 	 C
O) 0 0
(D 3
_ _
4- ID •«-
O c c

I/)
— 00
•- 0.4-







•
C
3
L.

4-
Q
2



_
«».
IO
1 T3
•» 0

rO *4—
»_
Q.-O

<





—
1 TD
TT 0

±
Q.-0
f\ Q
g
*



_
__
fO
i -o

^5 •—
K^ «4_
,„_
O.T3
Q. Q
<





C
3
*~
4-
5









O
X)
0
o


>^
(0
£

in •
4- 0

3 l-
in O)
0 ID
Ct



rO
in —
CO CM
i —

CO CM
Kl
CL
0. 0.
CL
<
<



in
co
K^
A
co
fO

CL
CL
<





in —
00 CM
to i
i —

CO CM
o.
CL Q.
O.
^^
<


in
(O oo

CM 1

— -* oo 0
*~ fO ro *—
CM — •*-
O CL —
Q.X O.T3
<-<

s
r<-\
1
K*\
CO
K\
O.
CL
<
0
in
0
L.
O
T3
C
ID

«
O
•o
^
3
O

in

in •
4- 0

3 1-
in cn
0 «




oo
CM
CM
1
VO
CM
CM

CL
CL

<



oo
CM
CM
1
>O
CM
CM

CL
CL






CO
CM
CM

vO
cxi
CM
Q.
O.

*



00
CM
CM
1

CM
CM

O.
O.
*

00
CM
CM
1
\Q
CM
CM
Q.
O.
*










i.
                               o
                                c
                                O
                                in
                                •o

                                E


                                1
                                L.
                                ra
                                •a
                                c
                                ID
28

-------
                                825







































^
0)
D
C
•__
-f-

8


*o

LU
_l
CO
t—





























































<
o
Q_
£
Q
•*
to
LU
h-

t-
to

UJ
•~
m

Ul
to
D

Z

to
O


f—
UJ
E
<
O
K

_j
^
2^
^
,_
z
LU
ce
ce
~i
o






























in
L.
10
E

0)
o
§
c

o
CO
c
o
o>
f

—
5
J







c
10
en

e-
u
•5.









<0
c
ID

^3
C








m
*o
—
_
~~"





c
•_
I/I
c
8






L.
<0
CD
£
10
L.
ID
Q.
•o
_
3
O
JZ
I/I

I/I •
4- 0
— ID

t/> Ol
CD flu
ce
CD
£
10

— u
CM ID
in in
1 CD
•q- L. O
— a. •
m —
X —
Q.O
Q. 10 I
Z a.
•
1- C —
CL — ID 10
< ID in 4-
< O 1- 10
I E 10 u
•*






CM
in
i
^f
«_
in

a.
a.



i_
CD
— N
CM >•
in —
1 10

^ O
0.4-
a. 3
^
<




•o
LU

r~
4-
—






in
u
—
O
c
cu
r*
CL



>- •
10 (D
E CD

Ul Ol
4- 10
3 4-
Ul O



T3
CO

ID
4-

—
*-

1

r-







T3

L-
CMID

O —
C -t-
to







"O
1 CD
U
CM (D

O —

C *•
to







T3
1 ID
CM ID
— 4-
o —
C •»-
to






•
c
3.
U
I





U)
O
Q.
I

•
_>.
O
to



>~ •
10 0)
£ CD

Ul O)
4- ID

Ul O
ID c
ce












t—
L?




CD
4-
IO
H-
» 	
CNI3
— Ul
O L.
CD
c a_
to










CM
.^
(__)

C
to









CM
CJ
C
LO



PO
Q
o
j>

c\ro
— CD
t) J=
C 10
to





in
O
£

—
(D
4—
o
t—
o •
3 l/l
-H ID

>*L-
JD 0
4-
c ro
3 L-
L- O
JD
4- ro
O—
z







,
c
3
L_

4-
5






•a
1 (D

CM CD
— 4-
O —
C M-
to







*u
1 ID
L.
CMO)
— 4-
CJ —

C •<-
to







^
1 £
CM CD
0 —
C *•
to






•
c
3
I


a.
i


4-
o

•
_
o
to
*
>^ L-
JD O

C (0
5 o

4- (0
o —
Z







,
c.
^
^_

4-
O









CSI
—
o
c
to










CM

0

C









CSI
0
c
to








CM
O
c



a.

|
o
4-
L.
O

*
t-
T-,
n
3
O
£^
Ul

I/I •
4- CD
— CD
3 L.
i/i cn


.
c
o

l/l
1/1

E
0)

a>

ro
Lu






c
O

in
tui
—
— 0)







.
c
O

(/)
1) U)
E •—
(0 E
Lu











^^
<









<












*:
T3
__
3
O
jr
U)

in •
4- ~ >- >- >•
JD 1- JD L.
O O
C 4- c 4-
3 IO 3 10
1- L- L. U
0 O

— (O — (0
C — C —
0 0







. •
c c
3 3
1_ u.

4- 4-
o b




in
CM
1 1

O "D in
O CD CM
co ~o
u. c a.
co a.
in £
< <








• •
c c
3 3
L. L_

4- 4-
3 2








c c
3 3
L. U
4- 4-
o o
z z






• •
c c
3 3
L. u.
4- 4-
b o




• •
— t—
in «3
vO •
CM a.
CM Ul
3
10 ui qj
ce LO













































c
o
4-
a.
i_
O
in

^r
 ui
I- Ul
fO (U
c o
10 Q.

to i

1 i—

< CL
29

-------
                                82?








































•—
3
C
•t-
C
8


UJ
CO
p-































































O
Q.
£
o
z


CO
Ul
1—
^
l-

X
(-
m

uj
CO
3
Z


8
S
UJ

_J
«^
o
H~
Z
Z
Ul
1
CJ


































t/)
j£
U
fp
£
a:
V
o
«*•-
O
e

(A
CD
C
o
.—
y
0
5
j








c
10
CO
£.
O
z








IO
c
IO
•5
c






in
1
_-
^






c

01
c
o

in

2j







L,
0)
+-
m
Zj
U
IO
a.



>. •
(5 CD
c CD
L.
in 01
4- ro

3 4-
Ul O
c? c

1)
3
— t-
.O CD
in N
vO >• >•
CM 	
1 O 10
^r Q. c
*o ^
CM O
L- o
0.4- 4-

<













*







•
c
3
4-
o
z



U CM
T! co
+- • in
fll — CM
> CL
10 l-
l- 0 <
o







t
c
3
L,

4-

j*











CN
O
._
CO
•C)
^
3
O
.C
Ul

Ul .
4- 0)

3 1_
Ul Ol
co (o
cr


c
O

Ul
Ul
'i
CD

01
e
ID
u.






,
c
o

in
0} in
ro 'i
H *





f
c
O
in
52 in
10 "I
— <»
u.







«c












^
^













IO
z


>*
fp *
CD
Ul Ul L.
— 4-01
0—10
C 3
— Ul 4-
— Ol O
— L. c





^y
CM Ul
1 10
m —

CM L.
01
CL n
CL —
<




vO
^
CM in
1 10
in —
•sr 01
CN L_
01
CL n
CL —
„. *•




vO
CM
1 0)
in c
*r (o
CM L.
o.f
CL ffl
<



S E
CM 0
CN • •
O "0
CL — C
CL 10 O
CJ 0





•o
»-
_—
o


Ul
.«.
Q
•a
— _
3
O
^:
Ul

Ul •
4- 0)
— CD
3 l_
Ul Ol
0) <0
cr




r-
^f
CM Ul
1 10
vO ~~
*t Ol
CN L.
cu
CL n
CL —
•4-
<




r-
^
CN in
1 10

T Ol
CN L.
01
CL —
s-




^^
CN
1 O
\£) C
Tt 10
CM L,
n
CL E
CL 0)
<





C
3

0




P-
CN in
1 10
\Q — —
CM ?
CD
CL J3
CL —

^




t/)
•o
«—
—
Q
t/J

•
CL
in
3
l/l
— CD
3 CD
Ul L.
CD Ol
L. (U
Ul 4-
— o
0 c

— >*
— IO
— E





^>
CN
1
^
•a-
CN

CL
CL
<




in
^
CM
1

^
CN
CL
CL
<




in
CM
i
^
•sr
CN
CL
CL
<





ro
CNI
CL
CL




in
CN
1
^
CM

CL
CL

^







I/I
TD
.—
—
0
CO
•
1-
— 01
3 Ol
Ul L.
CD Ol
L. 10
C 4-
(0 O
Ol C

C. >.
U 10
z d




00

CM
1
p^
^j-
CN

Q.
CL
<




CD L.
•«• o
CM •*-
1
P- T3 •
T CO C
CM 4- —
CL C
;CL O1O





CO
CM
1
p^
CM
CL
CL
<





fl
CM
CL
CL




CO
CN
1
P-
CM

CL
CL

^


•o
01
•o
C
0)
CL
Ul
3 m

•••
— O
O CO

13
— 4—
3 CL
O Q)
SL U •
Ul X Ul
0) —
Ul O
4- CD C
— 01 —
3 L. —
Ul Ol —
CD 10 —
cc

^
U
10
L. X

N
>- L.
— 0
(0 >
c
< 10
H-
O —
4- 3
3 CO





f"l
Q\
CM
1

0\
CM
CL
CL
<




fO
CN
1
^
CM
CL
0.
<



•o
O
i
•
"o o
— c
3
O >•
^ IP
Ul t

Ul Ul •
4- Ol 4- Ol
— Ol — Ol
3 L. 31-
ui 01 in 01
CD IO 0) 10
ce cc
in

01
4-
10
L.
£
•^ >*
IO L. Ol
U 3 Ol
o —
~- L. ^
10 01 —
— z: 01
Q X







•d

01 0)
cn —
— c
— (0
CO O
< X








o












































C
O
H
CL
L.
s
£>
1
< o





tr o^1
3 	
O -D —
U
E
O
<
'
<


— L. C 01
— o) ro x m
— S O vO




K1
CM
1
_
o\
CM

CL
CL

^












^
O
CO

o

co

__
(D CD
T> —
i?
IO
-C CJ
U
IO •£•
< X







>»
4-
.^
T3
• t^
& t
Ol 3
t- \—
HI
«
c
O

4-
T3
LU

JI
4-
CM
^,

in
T)
O
.c
I

T3
L,
IO
r>
C
10
4-
l/l
,

<
30

-------
                                                                                                                                828
2

a



CO
UJ
t—
      UJ
~    X
TJ    K-

         10
         c
         ID


         •O
         C
               ut
               c
               I.
               CD
                       — +- C
                        3 a 10
                        o a) oi
                       jc o —
                        in x a
                          to u
                       D

                       in
                          a>
                          
-------
	829





                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






                      Chapter VIII




                   ANALYSIS REPORTING




               At present  each  of the States  and  the




Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration  tabulates




results of  its monitoring  programs  and  makes  the  data




available to interested  parties.  Samples  will  be  col-




lected from tributaries, open waters, water filtration




plants, and for  the  Thermal and Nuclear  and Pesticides




Committees  needs.   Since  this  information should  be




made  available to all parties,  It would  benefit all




agencies if one  agency had the  responsibility of  tabu-




lating the  sampling  data.



               The Department of the Interior has  a




central computer system  which is capable of storing



and  analyzing data on water quality.  The  computer can




perform calculations and present the data  -J n  almost  any




form  desired.



               The Monitoring Committee  proposes  that




information from Lake Michigan  sampling be transmitted




to the Federal Water Pollution  Control  Administration,




Lake  Michigan Basin  Office, for inclusion  into  the com-




puter.  The data should  be transmitted  monthly  on a

-------
	830





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 standard  form  to  facilitate  processing.  A  suggested




 form  is shown  as  Figure  4.   Flow  data  should be  trans-




 mitted as  it becomes  available.   The State  and Federal




 data  should then  be  made  available  semi-annually by the




 FWPCA to  each  of  the  participating  agencies.  Each State




 water pollution control  agency and  the FWPCA should




 evaluate  and interpret  data  collected  by that agency




 in  relation to water  quality standards, recommendations




 of  the Lake Michigan  Enforcement  Conference and  long-




 term  trends, and  present  results  of such evaluation and




 interpretation at  each  future progress meeting of the




 Conferees.  The data  should  also  be periodically evalu-




 ated  for  adequacy  of  each station  location, parameters




 analyzed  and sampling frequency.

-------
                                                                                        831
                              DEPARTMENT OF THE  INTERIOR
                          FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
STORET SYSTEM-WATER QUALITY DATA      STANDARD FORM FOR ANALYSIS REPORTING
LABORATORY BENCH DATA
ITATION
DESIGNATION
OATI Of 1
VR. MO.
DAY

•Tpu ...
1 1
1 I
• r
Alkalinity, Total CACO.-? UN1T mg/1
t i i
,

iTruBlo chemical
i i i i i
(X
i — 1 — 1 — j
ITPU Chloride
i i
1 I
• 7
i t i


•rru Dissolved
i i
1 	 ,

i i i


,TeM Hardness,
i t
1

ITEM
1 1
1
1 7
ITEM
1 1
1
'ITEM
i i
1
ITEM
1 t
Q

ITEM
1 1
1

» i i



r 1 1 1 1 1

Oxygen Demand-5 day UH1T_
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
OMIT

1 1 III

Oxygen
1 II 00000
CX X

Carbonate I1MIT
1 tf 0 0 0 (t O
C X

Nitrite Plus Nitrate - N UM.T
i i i
1

Nitrogen
« i i
1

n -

, Ammonia - N UNIT

t
Nitrogen, Organic - N UKIT
< i i
1
pH
i t i
1


£,=C, . . .
UNIT

| 1
'ill 01114
Temperature, Water UHIT
i i •
11 1 00100
nr~r




mq/1


mg/1



mg/1
O n



mg/1
0 0



jng/1



mg/1


mg/1



Stand



t t
°C
0 0



COMPUTER CODED DATA
STATION CODE SERIAL YR. MO. DAY »
1 t
1 1
l-t 7- 1

PARAMETER CODE VALUE EXPONENT RMKS
o o 4 i nc HDD
It'll 14-17 It It 10

0 0 3 1|0|| Ml II 1

00940 DDD
49-47 41-BI 11 M 14

£0 3 o o fi n DUD
»-tt «0-6> 14 «» ««
COLUMN 10 (BLANK)
CMC.
0 0 9 0 1 J | |||
• 7*71 71-79 70 TT It Tt
NEXT CARD . REPEAT COLUMNS 1-18 ABOVE
0 0 6 1 3 0 | [ J [ |
It-It 14-17 11 1, tO

00610 | 	 | 	 |

00605

0 0 4 0|0|| | | U || |
It-tl «0-»1 «4 *•. >«
COLUMN |0 I8LANKI
CHO.
0 0 0 1 |0 || | Ml-
«7-7t 71-7t 7t 77 7« 7»
 FWPCA-2b (9-66)(Formerly PHS-4718-2)
Figure 4
                                               35

-------
	832






                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                         Appendix




        SIGNIFICANCE OF ANALYTICAL DETERMINATIONS




                Parameters  considered  of  significance  in




 the  tributary  and  open  water  sampling of  Lake  Michigan




 have been  tabulated  in  Table  2  and on pages  815  and 8l6.




 The  definitions  and  significance  of these parameters  as




 summarized from available  information are listed below.




                        ALKALINITY




                Alkalinity  is  the  capacity of a water  to




 neutralize hydrogen  ions and  is expressed in terms of an




 equivalent amount  of calcium  carbonate.   Alkalinity




 affects the  treatment required  for waters at water treat




 ment plants  when the water is used for industrial or




 domestic purposes.




                     AMMONIA,  NITROGEN



                Ammonia  results  from the  decomposition




 of nitrogenous  organic  matter.  Ammonia,under  specific




 conditions,  is  toxic to many  forms of aquatic  life and




 is an  added  burden to water treatment and to disinfectio




 of sewage  plant  effluent because  of its  high chlorine




 demand. Its  presence in water is  an indicator  of fresh




 sewage pollution of  domestic  origin.   It  can also be

-------
	833





                    G. Pemberton, Jr.






 discharged from  chemical or gas plants, ice plants, or




 plants using  "ammonia water" for  scouring and  cleaning




 operations.




            BIO-CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND  (BOD)




               The introduction of organic waste  into




 water—whether the waste originates from domestic  sewage




 industrial processes, land runoff--results in  a reaction




 involving  organic material, micro-organisms and the




 natural  biota present in the receiving  water.  Organic




 matter is  utilized as food by the organisms with  the




 accompanying  consumption of oxygen.  The BOD test  is a




 means of measuring the amount of  unstable organic  matter




 in  water.



                         CADMIUM




               Cadmium is a metal found rarely in



 natural  water and is  generally  an indication of industrial




 pollution.  It is toxic  to man  when ingested and  is toxi :




 to  aquatic life  including fish.   It is  used in electro-




 plating, photography, ceramics,  pigmentation and  nuclear




 reactors.




                          CALCIUM




                Calcium  is an  alkaline  metal which

-------
	834





                     C.  Pemberton, Jr.






 produces hardness  in water.   Many industrial water uses




 require waters with  very  low  calcium  content.   It is




 also  an important  element in  the growth  of  algae and




 plankton.




                        CHLORIDE




               Although chlorides are present  to some




 extent in most surface waters,  they are  also associated




 with  man's  activities since the chloride anion  is a




 component of human waste  and  is widely used in  many




 industrial  processes.   Chlorides can  impart a  salty tast




 to  drinking water  and render  it unpalatable.   Chlorides




 are not removable  by conventional water  and waste treat-




 ment  methods.  An  increase in  chloride concentration




 would imply deterioration in  water quality.   Chloride




 is  a  good indicator  parameter  because it does not.




 deteriorate.  In fresh water  it may indicate the presenc




 of  animal pollution  and industrial and agricultural




 wastes.



                        CHROMIUM




               Chromium is a  heavy metal and is toxic




 to  man and  aquatic life when  present  in  either  the hexa-




 valent or trivalent  form.  It  is used in metal  pickling

-------
	835





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






and  plating operations, in anodizing alumium, in leather




industry as a tanning agent, and in the manufacture of




paints, dyes, explosives, ceramics and paper.  Its




presence in water is indication of industrial pollution.




                          COLOR




               Colored water is an indication of either




suspended matter or dissolved matter.  Color can be




natural or indicative of harmful wastes in the water,




capable of impairing the aesthetic value.




                      CONDUCTIVITY




               Conductivity is a measure of the water's




capacity to conduct a current of electricity.  Conductivity




changes in proportion to the quantity of dissolved mine-




rals in the waters.  Changes in dissolved mineral conten ;



of water could be caused by natural conditions or pollu-




tion .



                         COPPER




               Copper occurs in natural waters only in




trace  amounts.  Excessive quantities are generally




attributable to industrial wastes or to the use of




copper for the control of undesirable plankton organisms




Copper in water is detrimental for some industrial uses

-------
	836





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 and has  been found toxic  to  aquatic  organisms  including




 bacteria and fish.




                          CYANIDE




                Cyanides are  very toxic  even  at low con-




 centrations  and may occur in the effluents from gas




 works  and coke  ovens,  from scrubbing of  gases  at steel




 plants,  from metal cleaning  and  electroplating processes




 and from chemical  industries.  Its presence  in water  is




 an  indication of industrial  waste.




                     DISSOLVED OXYGEN




                Dissolved  oxygen  is one  of the  most




 important indications  of  the condition  of water.   It  is




 necessary for the  existence,  propagation and migration




 of  aquatic life.   The  knowledge  of the  oxygen  content




 is  essential for the study of  pollution  effects  on the




 receiving waters.   It  is  also  of significance  in evalu-




 ating  corrosiveness  of water.




                        FLUORIDE




                Fluorides  are  commonly used in  drinking




 water  to decrease  the  incidence  of tooth decay;  higher




 concentrations  cause mottling  of the teeth.  An  abnormal




 fluctuation  of  the fluoride  content  in water is  usually




 an  indication of industrial  wastes.  It  is used  for

-------
              	837





                    G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






preserving wood and mucilages,  for the manufacture of




glass and enamels, in chemical  industries, and as a




flux in the manufacture of steel and aluminum.




                        HARDNESS




               Hardness is a characteristic which




determines the usefulness and economic value of water




for many purposes.  Hard water  forms scale in boilers,




heaters, radiators and pipes and adversely affects the




flow and heat transfer and accelerates boiler failure.




Hard water used for domestic purposes  results in a




higher consumption of soap and  detergents.




                   IRON AND MANGANESE




               Iron and manganese at small concentration




are capable of staining laundry, porcelain and fixtures;



when waters containing iron and manganese are exposed to




the air, the water becomes turbid and unacceptable from



an aesthetic viewpoint.  Both iron and manganese inter-




fere with laundry operation.  Iron causes difficulty in




water distribution systems by supporting growths of iron




bacteria.



                          LEAD




               Lead occurs in natural waters only in

-------
	838





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 trace  amounts.   Excessive  quantities  are  generally




 attributable  to  the  action of  water  on  lead pipe  and




 industrial  wastes.   Lead is  toxic  to  man  in low  con-




 centrations and  is accumulative  in body tissue.   It  is




 also toxic  to aquatic  life,  including fish.




                        MAGNESIUM




               Magnesium,  like calcium,  is  a hardness-




 producing mineral and  contributes  to  the  problems  of




 scaling  and reduced  heat transfer  in heating and  cooling




 systems.  Magnesium  is  used  in the manufacture of  elec-




 trical and  optical apparatus and as  a constituent  of




 light  alloys.




         METHYLENE BLUE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES  (MBAS)




               Methylene Blue  Active Substances  are




 anionic  surface-active  agents  which  are a  common




 ingredient  of many commercial  synthetic detergents.



 Their  function in the  detergent  is to impart foam  and




 reduce surface tension  to  aid  in the removal of  dirt




 particles.  MBAS is  toxic  to fish, causes  undesirable




 tastes,  and produces unsightly persistent  foams.




                         NICKEL




               Nickel  occurs in  natural waters only  in

-------
	839.




                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






 trace  amounts.   It is toxic to aquatic life and harmful




 to plant  life when present in irrigation water.  Nickel




 is used in metal plating works.  Its presence in water




 is usually an indication of industrial wastes.




                 NITRATE-NITRITE NITROGEN




               Nitrates are the end product of aerobic




 stabilization of organic nitrogen and occur in polluted




 waters that have undergone nitrification.  Nitrites




 occur  as  an intermediate stage of nitrification.  Wastes




 from sewage treatment plants, chemical fertilizer pro-




 ducing plants, and land drainage are major sources of




 nitrate pollution.  Nitrates are considered one of the




 key nutrients which contribute to algae blooms.




                      OIL - GREASE



               The presence of oil and grease in water




 is aesthetically objectionable and may impart taste  and




 odor to drinking water.  Possible contributors to oil




 pollution are all industries engaged in production,




 transportation,  handling or use of oils.




                           PH



               Hydrogen ion concentration is an indicate




 as to  whether water is acid, neutral or alkaline.  Acidi

-------
	840





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 waters  disrupt biological activity,  cause  corrosion of




 steel and concrete,  intensify the  effect of toxic




 materials such as  sulfides and cyanides,  and interfere




 with  water plant  coagulation  practices.   Alkaline  waters




 also  disrupt  biological activity,  precipitate iron,




 calcium and magnesium and increase the  toxicity  of




 ammonia and amines.




                    PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS




                Phenolic material,  when  found in  water




 is  usually the result of pollution by industrial wastes.




 Phenols are widely used in the synthesis  of many organic




 compounds.  Waste  products from oil  refineries,  coke




 ovens,  and chemical  plants may contain  high concentratio




 Very  low concentrations of phenols will  impart a dis-




 agreeable taste to water when chlorinated.




                        PHOSPHORUS




                Phosphorus,  like the  nitrogen compounds,




 is  a  necessary nutrient for biological  activity  and



 algal blooms.   Phosphorus  enters the water  environment




 in  treated sewage  since it is  normally  present in  human




 and animal  waste products.  Synthetic detergents contain




 high  concentrations  of  phosphorus.   Phosphorus is  also

-------
                     	841





                    C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






present in surface runoff,  particularly from fertilized




fields.




                      PHYTOPLANKTON




               Plant micro-organisms,  such as certain




algae, living unattached in the water.   This suspended




microscopic plant life  is only slightly motile and




exists at or near neutral buoyancy.  As such they are




subject to lake currents and represent  the microflora




of the sampling site at the time of sampling.




                        RADIATION




               Gross Alpha and Gross Beta.  By estab-




lishing background levels of alpha and  beta radiation




in waters, any abnormal deviations will be indicative




of pollution from industrial sources,  such as nuclear




power plants, or of fallout.  A high concentration of




beta radioactivity is an indication of  the need for




further investigation to prevent the ingestion of or




external exposure to dangerous amounts  of specific




radioisotopes.




                  SODIUM AND POTASSIUM




               Sodium and potassium are usually found




in low concentrations in natural waters.  Sodium has a

-------
	842





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 degrading  effect  on  soil  used  for  agricultural  purposes.




 Potassium  is  used in fertilizers and  some  varieties  of




 glass.  Sodium is  a very active  metal  that  does  not  occur




 free  in nature.   They are important elements  to the




 growth  of  algae.




                     SOLIDS,  DISSOLVED




               Dissolved  solids are both organic and




 inorganic  matter,  which when excessive  render drinking




 water unpalatable  and increases cost  of water treatment




 for many other uses.   The presence of dissolved solids




 may be  an  indication  of industrial wastes.




                     SOLIDS,  SUSPENDED




               In  natural waters,  suspended solids  con-




 sist  normally of  eroded silt,  organic detritus  and  plank-




 ton.  Suspended solids  in the  stream  are all  considered




 to be settleable  solids since  time is not  a limiting




 factor.  Suspended solids impart turbidity to the water




 and may interfere  with  many  industrial  processes.




               SOLIDS,  VOLATILE SUSPENDED




               Volatile suspended  solids is a measure




 of the  organic or  oxygen-consuming matter  in  the suspend*




 solids.
d

-------
	843





                     C.  Pemberton, Jr.






                          SILICA




                The  element  silicon  is not found free in




 nature  but  occurs as  silica in sand or quartz  and  as




 silicates in  feldspar,  kaolinite, and other minerals.




 Silicon dioxide, or  silica,  is insoluble in water  or




 acids,  except hydrofluoric,  but  it  may occur in natural




 waters  as finely divided  colloidal  suspended matter.




 Silicon is  used in  metallurgy and silica is widely




 employed in industry  for  making  glass, silicates,




 ceramics, abrasives,  enamels and petroleum products.




 Silicates have been  used  in water treatment as coagu-




 lants and corrosion  inhibitors while sodium silico-




 fluoride has  been used  as a fluoridating agent.  Silicon




 is  an important nutrient  for some biota.




                        SULPATES



                Sulfate  is a component of the dissolved




 ionic solids  present  in most surface waters.   Sulfates




 in  combination with  sodium  or magnesium can produce a




 laxative effect.  Sulfates  may be discharged from  tanner




 textile mills,  and  sulfate  pulp  mills.




                        TEMPERATURE




                Temperature  affects  the biological  and
es

-------
	844





                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






 sanitary  characteristics of a  body of water.  Water at



 a higher  temperature has a lower  capacity for oxygen



 than water  at  a lower temperature.  Temperature  differ-




 entials also determine the vertical mixing characteris-



 tics of a large lake.  Variations in the temperature of




 the water can  be  caused by waste  discharges or natural



 seasonal  or air fluctuations of the temperature.



                   TOTAL PLATE COUNTS



               Total plate counts are approximate




 enumerations of total bacteria multiplying at tempera-



 tures of  35°C. or 20°G. on any one of several nutrient




 agars.  They yield useful information concerning the



 quality of  water  tested and the total bacterial  densitie




 in water  correspond  to the decomposition of organic




 matter.   Total plate counts are used in lieu of  the



 coliform  test  because past experience indicates  that



 coliform  counts usually are too low to be measurable in



 the open  waters of Lake Michigan.



                        TURBIDITY



               Turbidity is attributable to suspended




 and colloidal  matter which diminish penetration  of



 light.  The turbidity of waters for domestic use is an

-------
	845





                     C.  Pemberton, Jr.






 indicator  of  the  degree of  treatment necessary.



                          ZINC



                Zinc  is  present  in most  natural waters




 only in  trace amounts.   It  can  be toxic to  man and



 aquatic  life  and  its  presence is related to industrial



 wastes or  to  the  corrosive  action of water  on galvanized



 piping.  Zinc is  used in paint  pigments,  Pharmaceuticals




 dyes,  insecticides,  comestics and in numerous other




 products.



                      FECAL  COLIFORM



                Fecal coliform are indicators of  recent




 contamination with feces of warm-blooded animals and may




 indicate the  presence of pathogenic organisms.



                      TOTAL  COLIFORM



                The coliform group of  organisms  includes



 all aerobic and anaerobic,  gram negative, non-spore



 forming  rod shaped bacteria that ferment lactose with




 gas formation within 48 hours.   It  includes Escherichia




 coli strains  which are  usually  of fecal origin  and



 intermediate  and Aerobacter aerogenes  strains which



 are usually of soil, vegetable  or other non-fecal origir

-------
	846




                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                        ZOOPLANKTON



                Animal micro-organisms  living  unattached



 in  water.  They  include  small  Crustacea,  such  as  daphnia



 and cyclops,  and  single-celled  animals as  protozoa,  etc.




 These  suspended microscopic animal life  are only slightl




 motile and exist  at  or  near neutral  buoyancy.  As  such



 they are subject  to  lake  currents  and  represent  the



 microfauna of the  sampling site  at the time of sampling.
               MR. STEIN:  Any questions or  comments?



               If not, thank you very much,  sir, for a



very complete report.



               MR. PURDY:  Mr. Stein, one question.



               MR. STEIN:  Yes.



               MR. PURDY:  Carlysle, on No.  11, this is



the one on the special studies, where routine investi-



gations indicated the need for additional studies, did



the Committee have a recommendation on who would deter-



mine the need?  I mean how was this determined?




               MR. PEMBERTON:  I would say that we



recommended that each agency evaluate the data that it

-------
	847





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 collects  and,  therefore,  I  think  the  agency would be




 in  a  position  to  determine  that need.




                MR.  PURDY:   0.  K.




                MR.  STEIN:   Thank  you,  Mr.  Pemberton.




                MR.  POSTON:   Mr. Pemberton,  you  have  a




 contingency  plan  report.  Could we enter  that in the




 record  without a  summary  being given  at  this time?




                MR.  PEMBERTON:  Yes, if you like.




                MR.  POSTON:   To save time,  this  might  be




 helpful.




                MR.  STEIN:   If  there is no  objection,




 that  will be done.




                MR.  PEMBERTON:  In connection with my




 contingency  plan  report,  I  was going  to  ask that the




 National   Multi-agency  Oil and  Hazardous  Materials



 Contingency  Plan  be entered in the record  of this




 Conference,  if you  don't  mind.




                MR.  POSTON:   Very  good.




                MR.  STEIN:   Without ob.jection, that will




 be  done.

-------
                    	848





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.
               (The following are the documents sub-




mitted by Mr. Pemberton:)






         CONTINGENCY PLAN FOR tOLLUTIONAL SPILLS




                IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION






        CONFERENCE IN THE MATTER OF POLLUTION OF




   LAKE MICHIGAN AND TRIBUTARY BASIN - SECOND SESSION




                    FEBRUARY 25, 19^9






               People throughout the world became aware




of the destructive characteristics of oil spilled in




the environment., and the inadequacy of current measures




for dealing with a major spill when the Torrey Canyon




ran aground and broke up off the coast of England in




March of 1967.  On May 26, 19^7, the President of the




United States directed the Secretaries of the Interior




and Transportation to undertake a .joint study to deter-




mine how the resources of the Nation could best be




mobilized to counteract the pollutional effects of spill




of oil and other hazardous materials in our waterways.




One of the major needs disclosed by the study was for




the development of a contingency plan  to deal with

-------
	849





                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






 emergencies  involving Federal, State and  local  agencies




 with  due  regard  for  each  agency's statutory  responsi-




 bility  and  capability.  On June 7,  1968,  the  President




 directed  the  Secretaries  of  the Interior,  Defense,  and




 Transportation and the Director of  the  Office of  Science




 and Technology to assume  special responsibilities  in




 strengthening our preparedness to act in  the  event  of




 a  major oil  spill.   The Secretary of the  Interior  was




 directed  to  assume primary responsibility for completing




 by July 31,  1968, a  draft National  Multiagency  Contingen




 Plan  for  responding  to ma.jor pollutional  spills.   The




 National  Plan was approved by the President  on  November




 13, 1968.   At this time I ask that  the  National Multi-




 agency  Oil  and Hazardous  Materials  Contingency  Plan be




 entered in  the record.



               The National  Plan provides guidelines




 for the establishment of  regional contingency plans.




 Regional  offices of  the FWPCA have  developed framework




 regional  contingency plans and are  now  expanding  these




 plans in  accordance  with  provisions of  the National Plan




 Copies  of the framework plan for the  Great Lakes  Region




 were  distributed to  State water pollution control agenci
es

-------
	«50





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 for their review and comment in August 1968.   We have




 received comments from  only one State  in the  Lake Michi-




 gan Basin.




                The purpose  of the  Regional Contingency




 Plan is  to  present guidelines to minimize the pollutionafL




 effects  of  a major spill  of oil or other hazardous




 materials within the Great  Lakes Region.




                The objectives of this  plan are to develop




 effective systems for discovering  and  reporting the




 existence of a  pollution  incident,  promptly instituting




 measures  to restrict the  further spread  of the pollutant




 application of  techniques to cleanup and disposal of  the




 collected pollutants, and institution  of action to




 recover  cleanup  costs and effect enforcement  of existing




 statutes.



                The Regional Plan includes a Federal




 regional  reaction team  called the  Regional Operations




 Team (ROT)  and  a Regional Operations Center (ROC).  The




 ROT consists  of  a representative from  each of the sig-




 natory agencies  to the  National Plan.  The Federal Water




 Pollution Control Administration,  Coast  Guard,  Army




 Corps of  Engineers,  Public  Health  Service,  and Office

-------
                    G. Pemberton, Jr.






of Emergency Preparedness have representatives on the




Regional Operations Team.  In accordance with the Nation




Plan^ the Regional Operations Center is the regional




site for activities relative to pollution incident




situations.  The ROC will be activated at either the




Ninth Coast Guard District Office in Cleveland or the




Second Coast Guard District Office in St. Louis, depend-




ing upon the location and circumstances of a spill.




               Coordination and direction of Federal




pollution control efforts at the scene of a pollution




incident shall be accomplished through an On-Scene




Commander (OSC).  The On-Scene Commander (OSC) is the




single executive agent predesignated by the Regional




Plan to coordinate and direct such Federal pollution



control efforts.  The Coast Guard Captains of the Port




are the On-Scene Commanders for the Great Lakes and




inland navigable waterways.  The Department of the




Interior furnishes or provides for OSC's in other areas




within the Great Lakes Region.




               Recommendation 18 contained in the sum-




mary of the first session of this Conference called for




the State water pollution control agencies and the U.S.

-------
	832





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 Department  of  the  Interior  to  compile  an  inventory  of




 all  sites where  potential exists  for major  spills of




 oil  and  other  hazardous  material.   The  inventory of




 potential sources  of  pollution will be  continually




 updated  by  the FWPCA  with the  assistance  of  the States.




 In addition, FWPCA is  developing  an inventory  of re-




 sources  which  may  be  useful  in combating  spills.




               To  be  more effective in  combating the




 pollutional  effects  of  a major spill.,  further  coordi-




 nation among the various levels of  government  is needed




 and  will be  sought by FWPGA  in the  coming months.




               The Great Lakes Regional Contingency




 Plan encourages  the  development of  State  and local




 government  capabilities  and  private capabilities to




 handle major pollution  incidents.



               The response  efforts of  the various  level




 of government  must be  fully  coordinated to achieve  the




 most effective pattern  of response.  To accomplish  both




 the  development  of capabilities and coordination of




 responses,  State and  local agencies are invited to




 participate  in the regional  planning necessary to




 accomplish  the objectives of this  Plan.

-------
                    	853

                    C. Pemberton,, Jr.
                  NATIONAL MULTIAGENCY

               OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                    CONTINGENCY PLAN

                     SEPTEMBER 1968


    NATIONAL MULTIAGENCY OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

               POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN

               This National Multiagency Contingency

    ^ prepared at the direction of President Lyndon B.

Johnson^ provides a mechanism for coordinating the

Federal response to a spill of oil or other hazardous

materials.  Agencies signatory to this Plan are:

               Department of the Interior

               Department of Transportation

               Department of Defense

               Department of Health., Education,
                 and Welfare

               Office of Emergency Planning


                     September 1908

-------
	854


                  C. Pemberton, Jr.


                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                 PAGE

   ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS	  855

   INTRODUCTION	  85?

   POLICY ON FEDERAL RESPONSE TO
   POLLUTION INCIDENTS	  860

   RESPONSIBILITIES	  862

   NATIONAL INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE	  865

   JOINT  OPERATIONS CENTER	  86?

   ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS IN
   FEDERAL RESPONSE SITUATIONS	  8?0

   FEDERAL RESPONSE OPERATION -
   RESPONSE PHASES	  8?3

   PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED FOR THE
   PURPOSE OF WATER POLLUTION CONTROL	  8?7

   ADDITIONAL PROCEDURES APPLICABLE
   TO  CERTAIN POLLUTION INCIDENTS	  8?9


                   LIST OF ANNEXES

   I   SIGNATORY AGENCIES

 II   DISTRIBUTION

III   SUMMARY OF STATUTORY AND LEGAL AUTHORITIES

 IV   NATIONAL INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE (NIC)

   V   JOINT OPERATIONS CENTER (JOC)

 VI   REGIONAL COORDINATING CENTERS

-------
	855





                   C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 VII   SALVAGE




VIII   COMMUNICATION AND REPORTS




   IX   LOCAL  GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE INTERESTS




    X   FUNDS




   XI   LEGAL  CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES




 XII   PUBLIC INFORMATION




XIII   TECHNICAL INFORMATION






             Abbrevia,tio n s an d Def i n ijb i o n s




    Department and  Agency Title Abbreviations:




    DHE¥    - Department of Health, Education,




              and Welfare




    DOD     - Department of Defense




    DOI     - Department of the Interior




    DOT     - Department of Transportation




    OEP     - Office of Emergency Planning




    FWPCA    - Federal Water Pollution Control




              Administration




    USCG    - U. S. Coast Guard




    USPHS    - U. S. Public Health Service

-------
	856





                     C.  Pembertorij  Jr.






     Operation Title Abbreviations




     JOG      - Joint Operations  Center




     JOT      - Joint Operations  Team




     NIC      - National  Interagency Committee  for




               Control  of  Pollution by  Oil  and




               Hazardous Materials




     OSC      - On-Scene  Commander




     ROC      - Regional  Operations Center




     ROT      - Regional  Operations Team






     Definitions



               Pollution Incident  - is  a discharge  of




 oil  or  other  hazardous  substance of such magnitude  or




 significance  as to  require  immediate  response  to contain




 cleanup or  dispose  of the  material to prevent  a substan-




 tial threat to public health  or  welfare.



               Ma jo r Pis a st. e_r_ -  is any  flood,  drought,,




 fire, hurricane, earthquake,  storm or other catastrophe




 in any  part of the  United  States,  which, in the deter-




 mination  of the President,  is  'or threatens  to  become




 of sufficient severity  and  magnitude  to warrant disaster




 assistance by the Federal  Government  to supplement  the

-------
	857





                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






 effort  and  available  resources  of States  and  local




 governments in  alleviating  damage, hardship or  suffering




                Oil  -  is any kind or form  of oil  includin




 but not  limited  to  fuel oil, sludge oil refuse  and  oil




 mixed with  wastes other than dredged  spoil.




                Hazardous Substance -  is matter  of any




 description or  origin other than oil, which when dis-




 charged  into any waters in  substantial quantities,




 presents an imminent  and substantial  hazard to  the




 public  health or welfare, including fish,  shellfish,




 and wildlife and shorelines and beaches.






    NATIONAL MULTIAGENCY OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS




                 POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN




                      Introduction




                The  development  of a National  awareness




 and concern over the  hazards and damages  to water related




 resources from  oil  pollution can be traced in large part




 to the  sinking  of the tanker, TORREY  CANYON.  This  marin




 casualty off the south coast of England,  caused a massiv




 oil spill with  a tragic destruction of water  related




 resources along both  the English and  French coasts.  But

-------
                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






more importantly, it galvanized the United States into



action and caused us to assess our own capabilities to



cope with massive spills of oil or other hazardous sub-



stances.  President Johnson recognized this need by



directing the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretar;



of Transportation to study the Nation's capabilities for



handling such disasters.  The results of this study are



detailed in "Oil Pollution - A Report to the President."



This report documented our unpreparedness to deal with



a catastrophic oil spill, and clearly pointed to many




areas of needed Federal action.



               On June 7, 1968, the President, by memo-




randum, directed the Secretaries of Defense, Interior an
Transportation and the Director of the Office of Science



and Technology to assume special responsibilities in ord^r



to strengthen this Nation's preparedness to act in the



event of an oil spill pollution emergency along our



coasts and waterways. The President further directed the



Secretary of the Interior to assume primary responsibili



for completing, at the earliest possible date, multi-



agency contingency plans for responding to oil spill




emergencies.  This document is directed toward fulfillin;
1

-------
                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






the President's directive.




Purpose and_0bjectives




               This plan represents an agreement among




concerned Departments and agencies of the Federal Govern-




ment for a pattern of coordinated and integrated respons( :




to pollution incidents.  It establishes a National




reaction team and provides guidelines for the establish-




ment of regional contingency plans and reaction teams.




This plan promotes the coordination and direction of




Federal, State and local response systems and encourages




the development of local government and private capabili-




ties to handle such pollution incidents.




               The objectives of this plan are to develoj




effective systems for discovering and reporting the



existence of a pollution incident, promptly instituting




measures to restrict the further spread of the pollutant




application of techniques to clean up and dispose of the




collected pollutants, and institution of action to recover




cleanup costs and effect enforcement of existing Federal




statutes.  Regional contingency plans will provide furth<




detailed guidance toward the accomplishment of these




objectives .

-------
	860





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 S_c_o£e_



                This  plan will  be effective for all




 United  States  navigable waters including inland rivers,




 Great Lakes,  coastal territorial waters, and the con-




 tiguous  zone  and  high seas  beyond this  zone where there




 exists  a threat to  United States waters, shoreface,  or




 shelf-bottom.



                The  provisions  of this  National Multiagem




 Oil  and  Hazardous Materials Pollution  Contingency Plan




 are  applicable to all Federal  agencies  signatory thereto




 Implementation of this  plan will be compatible and com-




 plementary to  currently effective assistance plans,




 agreements,  security regulations,  and  responsibilities




 based upon Federal  statutes and executive orders (see




 Annex #3)•



 Policy  on Federal Resgions.e_to__Po^luti_g_n_I_nc_3_dent_s_



                The  Federal  policy to prevent, control




 and  abate water pollution has  been established by




 statute, for  the  purpose of protecting and enhancing




 the  quality and value of our Nation's  water resources.




 To  this  end,  the  discharge  of  oil under certain condi-




 tions is prescribed and the discharge  of oil from any
y

-------
	861





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






 boat  or vessel into the navigable waters of the United




 States prohibited; the Secretary of  the Interior may




 accomplish  the removal of such discharged oil if the




 person responsible fails to remove it from the navigable




 waters and  adjoining  shorelines; oil, classified as a




 refuse, may not  be discharged; and oil may not be  dis-




 charged from vessels  in international waters near  the




 shores of the United  States.  Additionally, the Presiden




 has established  the policy that appropriate Federal




 resources will be used for dealing with the pollution




 aspects of  oil spill  problems and to protect our natural




 resources from their  consequences.



               In the event that the person responsible




 for a pollution  incident does not act promptly, does not



 take  or propose  to take actions to contain, clean  up and




 dispose of  pollutants which are concurred in by the DOI




 representative or ROT, or the discharger is unknown,




 further Federal  response actions may be instituted.  A




 primary thrust of regional plans is  to  encourage  the




 person responsible for the discharge of oil or  other




 hazardous  substances  causing  the pollution  incident  to




 remove the  pollutant  or adequately mitigate its  effects.

-------
	862





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.





When  such person  is  taking adequate  action.,  the  princi-



pal thrust  of Federal  activities  shall be  to  observe  and




monitor progress  and to provide advice and counsel  as




may be necessary.



                The Federal agencies  signatory to  this




plan  possessing facilities or  other  resources  which may



be useful in a  Federal  response situation  will make such



facilities  or resources available  for use  in  accordance



with  this plan  as supplemented by  the regional plans.



Agencies making resources available  to OSC or through



JOG shall make  such  assignment consistent  with opera-




tional requirements, within  the limits of  existing



statutory authority  and without reimbursement, except



where reimbursement  is  specifically  required  by  statute




or by agreement with another agency.



Responsibilities



                Each  of  the agencies  signatory to  this



plan  has responsibilities established by  statute, Execu-



tive  Order  or Presidential Directive, which may  bear  on



the Federal response to a pollution  incident.  This plan



does  not intend to delegate  any of these  responsibilitie




but intends to  promote  the expeditious and harmonious

-------
	863





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






discharge of these responsibilities  through  the assign-




ment of authority for action to  those agencies having




the most appropriate capability  to act  in  each specific




situation.  Responsibilities and authorities of these




several agencies relevant  to the control of  pollution




incidents are detailed in  Annex  3-



               Within the  framework  of  this  plan,  each




agency also accepts certain responsibilities to promote




the effective operation  of the plan.  These  considera-




tions are spelled out in greater detail in the regional




plans.  For each agency  these are:




               The Department of the  Interior  is  respon-




sible for administering, developing  and revising  the




National Multiagency Plan  for Oil and Hazardous Material



Pollution and for developing and revising  the  regional




plans.  In  this  activity DOI will give  full  consideratio




to  the recommendations of  NIC concerning the interpre-




tation, revision and application of  the plan.  Through




the  resources of the Federal Water Pollution Control




Administration,  DOI will provide technical expertise  to




JOT and the ROT's relative to water  pollution  control




techniques.   The assessment  of  damage  to fish  and wildli
fe

-------
_ 864





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 resources  will  be  made  by the  appropriate DOI agency.



                The D e p a r t m e n t  of T r an s port at ion ,  through




 the U.  S.  Coast Guard,  supplies  expertise in fields of



 navigation,  port safety, and security, and maritime law



 enforcement.



                The  fceofegeicrPanning will
 maintain  an  awareness  of  pollution incidents as they




 develop.   The  normal OEP  procedures will be followed to




 evaluate  any request for  a major disaster declaration




 received  from  a  State.  If the  President declares a




 major  disaster under PL 8l-8?5  for the pollution inci-




 dent,  the Director, OEP,  will provide coordination and




 direction of the Federal  response in accordance with OEP




 policies  and procedures.




               ^ne  Department of Defense, consistent



 with its  operational requirements, may provide military




 assistance in  critical  pollution incidents and in the




 maintenance  of navigation channels salvage, and removal




 of  navigation  obstructions.



               Th e  D e_p a r_t men. t_of__H e_a It. h_ ,__£ du ca t i.o_n_,__an_d




 Welfare is responsible  for providing expert advice and




 assistance in  those pollution incidents that constitute

-------
	863





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






 an  immediate threat to public health.



               All of the Federal agencies signatory to



 this plan are responsible for making resources available



 to  other Federal agencies as described in the plan's



 policy for Federal response; for providing official



 representation to NIG, JOT and ROT; for making informa-




 tion available as may be necessary; and, for keeping



 JOT informed, consistent with National security  consider^-



 tions, of changes in the availability of resources that




 would affect the operation of this  plan.



 National Interagency Committee



               The National  Interagency Committee  (NIC)




 is  the principal instrumentality for plans and policies



 of  the Federal multiagency response to pollution incidents



 The Committee is composed of representatives of  the



 agencies signatory to this plan.  The representative of



 DOI will serve as chairman of NIC and the representative




 of  DOT will  serve as vice-chairman.



               NIC will  develop  procedures to  promote




 the coordinated  reaction of  all  Federal, State,  local



 government  and private agencies  to  pollution incidents,




 and will make  recommendations  to DOI concerning  the

-------
               	866




                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






interpretation, revision and application of the Rational



plan. To facilitate  the development of such procedures,



NIC may request each agency to supply pertinent data and



information on its reaction capability and operating



procedures.




               NIC will review regional contingency plan



and make recommendations for improving the effectiveness



of such plans.  NIC will also coordinate and review



reports from JOG and the ROC on the handling of major



or unusual pollution incidents for the purpose of analyz
such incidents and recommending needed improvements in



the contingency plans.




               In considering the National posture for



reaction to pollution incidents, the NIC will consider




and make appropriate recommendations relating to the



training of reaction team personnel, research, develop-



ment, test and evaluation activities needed to support



reaction capabilities, equipment and material stockpiling



and other matters as the need arises.



               NIC will establish and maintain liaison




with the U. S. National Committee for the Prevention of



Pollution of the Seas by Oil to promote a consistent
.ng

-------
	86?




                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 United  States  posture  regarding  oil  pollution  control.



 Summary reports  and  other  documents  of  an  evaluative



 nature  will  be coordinated through NIC.



 Joint 0 per a t l^on s_ C en t_e_r




                The Joint Operations  Center (JOG)  is the



 Washington,  D.  C., headquarters  site for activities



 relative to  pollution  incidents.   JOG will be  accommo-



 dated in quarters described in Annex 5, and will  provide



 communications,  information storage  and other  necessary



 physical facilities  to  promote the smooth  and  adequate



 functioning  of this  activity.




                The Joint Operations  Team (JOT)  consists



 of  representatives of  the  signatory  agencies and  shall



 act as  an emergency  response  team  to be activated in  the



 event of a pollution incident involving oil or other



 hazardous material which:  (a) exceeds the  response



 capability of  the region in which  it occurs, (b)  transec




 regional boundaries, or (c)  involves National  security



 or  major hazard  to substantial numbers  of  persons or



 Nationally significant  amounts of  property.  A repre-



 sentative of DOI shall  be  the Chairman  and a represen-




 tative  of DOT  shall  be  Executive Secretary of  JOT.  The

-------
	868





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 Executive  Secretary  shall  maintain records  of  the  JOT



 activities  along with National  and regional  plans  for



 pollution  emergency  responses.  When JOT  is  activated



 because  of  a water pollution  emergency  situation,  the



 Chairman of JOT will assume the role of principal




 coordinator of JOT activities .



               A continual surveillance of  incoming



 reports  from the ROC's  will be  maintained in JOG.  When-




 ever reports which require or appear to require  a



 iiational reaction are received, the members  of JOT will



 be  advised  of the receipt  of  such  reports and  JOT  may



 be  activated on the  request of  any member.



               During pollution incident  operations,



 JOG will act as the  focal  point for national public



 information releases and for  information  transfer  betwee|i



 the OSC  and the Washington, D.  C.,  headquarters  of the



 agencies concerned,  thereby promoting rapid  and  accurate



 information transfer and minimizing the radiation  of



 spurious and incomplete information about any  given



 situation.  Public information  activites  are considered




 in  Annex 12.



               During a pollution  emergency, JOT will

-------
	869




                    G. Pemberton, Jr.






 evaluate  reports  coming from the OSC,  requesting



 additional  information as may be indicated.  JOT will




 coordinate  the  actions of other regions or districts



 in  supplying needed assistance to the  OSC.  JOT may



 recommend courses  of action for consideration by the



 OSC but has no  operational control of  the OSC.  On the



 basis  of  reports  and information about a pollution



 incident, JOT may request other Federal, State, local



 government  or private agencies (whether or not they



 are signatory to  this document) to consider taking



 action under whatever authorities they may have to




 accomplish  needed objectives for the purpose of pollu-



 tion control.   JOT may recommend the deployment of



 personnel to monitor and observe the handling of any



 pollution incident.  Copies of all reports and documents



 developed by JOT  and ROT as a result of pollution



 incidents will  be provided to NIC for  its evaluation.




 Regional  Operations Center



                The Regional Operations Center (ROC) as



 established by  each regional contingency plan, is the




 regional  site for activities relative  to pollution



 incident  situations.  ROC will be accommodated in physicb.1

-------
	870





                     C.  Pembertorij  Jr.



 quarters  described  in  each  regional  plan  and  will  func-



 tion  at the  regional level  similarly to JOG.   The



 Regional  Operations  Team  (ROT)  will  perform functions



 within the region similar to  those performed  Nationally



 by  JOT.   Additionally>  the  ROT  shall determine when  a



 shift of  on-scene coordination  from  the predesignated



 OSC to another  agency  is  indicated by the  circumstances



 or  progress  of  a pollution  incident.   The  organization



 and functions of the ROT  are  described in  each regional




 contingency  plan.



                Organization and Functions



             in. Fede r a 1 Res p on s e Si/fcuati ons




 Geographic Areas



                This  contingency plan concerns  all  of  the



 navigable waters of  the United  States  and  areas  imme-



 diately adjacent thereto, wherein  a  massive spill  of



 oil or other hazardous  substances  would directly affect



 the navigable waters.  For  the  purpose of  the  development



 of  regional  contingency plans the  Nation's waters  are



 divided into hydrologically oriented regions  correspond-



 ing to FWPCA regional  outlines.  Such  regions  may  be



 further subdivided  into areas by the regional  plans  if

-------
                                                     871




                    G. Pemfterton, Jr.
this appears desirable.




0 n - S cen e C o r d i n a t i on
               Coordination and direction of Federal




pollution control efforts at the scene of a pollution




incident shall be accomplished through an On-Scene




Commander (OSC).  The OSC is the single executive agent




predesignated by regional plan to coordinate and direct




such pollution control activites in each area of the




region .




               (a)  In the event of a spill of




     oil or other hazardous substance the first




     responsible Federal official on the site,




     from any of the signatory agencies, shall




     assume coordination of activities under the




     plan until the predesignated OSC becomes




     available to take charge of the operation.



               (b)  The OSC shall initiate and




     direct Phase II operations and direct Phase




     III operations as hereinafter described.




               (c)  The OSC shall determine




     pertinent facts about a particular inci-




     dent, such as the nature, amount, and

-------
	872





                C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 location  of  material  spilled,  probable




 direction and  time of travel  of  the  mater-




 ial,  resources and installations  which




 may be  affected and the  priorities for




 protecting them.




           (d)   The OSG shall  call upon  and




 direct  the deployment of needed  resources




 in  accordance  with the regional  plan to




 initiate  and continue containment, counter-




 measures,  cleanup,  restoration and disposal




 functions.




           (e)   The OSC shall  provide




 necessary support  activities  and  documen-




 tation  for cost recovery and  enforcement




 functions.   (See Annex 11).



           (f)   In  carrying out this  plan,




 the OSC will report to and coordinate closely




 with  ROT  to  ensure the maximum effectiveness




 of  the  Federal effort in protecting  the




 natural resources  and environment from  pol-




 lution  damage.




           (g)   It  is  recognized  that in some

-------
	873





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






      cases  the  OSC,  particularly where  he  is  a



      Coast  Guard  Officer,  may  have other func-



      tions  such as  search  and  rescue, or fire



      control  and  safety which  must be performed



      along  with pollution  control  functions.



                The  U. S. Coast Guard  is assigned the



 responsibility  to furnish  or provide  for OSC's for the



 coastal  and contiguous  zone waters, ports  and harbor's.



 Great Lakes and ma,jor inland navigable  waterways.   The



 Department  of the Interior will furnish or provide for



 OSC's in other  areas. A major  consideration in the



 selection of  an OSC for a  particular  area  will be  that



 agency's capability and resources  for on-scene coordi-



 nation of pollution control activites.  Each  OSC and



 his  area of responsibility will be detailed in the



 regional plans.



       F e d e r a 1 Re s p on s e  0peral^onj^  - Res pon s^e^_Ph_as^e^



                The  actions taken to combat a pollution



 incident can  be separated  into four relatively distinct




 classes  or  phases.   For descriptive purposes, these are



 labeled  as:  Phase  I.   Discovery and  Notifications 5



 Phase II.  Containment  and Countermeasures; Phase III.

-------
	874





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 Cleanup,  Restoration,  and Disposal;  and Phase IV.   Re-




 covery of Damages  and  Enforcement.   It must be recognizec



 that elements  of  any one  phase  may take place concurrent



 ly with one  or more  other phases.   The following is a



 discussion of  these  phases:




                Phase I  -  Discovery and Notification are



 the first response  actions  to a pollution  incident.



 Discovery of an incident  may be through deliberate



 discovery procedures such as vessel  patrols,  aircraft



 searches  or  similar  procedures  or  through  random dis-



 covery by the  incidental  observations  of government




 agencies,  private  agencies  or the  general  public.



                In  the  event  of  deliberate  dis< :>very,  the



 incident  would be  reported  directly  to ROC and approprial



 action,  as detailed  in  the  Regional  Plan initiated.



 Reports  from random  discovery may  be intially made



 through  police departments,  telephone  operators,  port



 authorities, news  media,  etc.   Regional plans should



 attempt  to channel  such reports into ROC as promptly



 as  possible  to facilitate prompt reaction.



                The  severity  of  the pollution  incident




 will determine the  reporting procedure and the specific

-------
	«75_




                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






 persons  or  offices  to be notified of  the  spill.  The




 severity of a  spill  is determined by  the  nature and




 quantity of materials spilled, the  location  of the spill




 and  the  resources adjacent to the spill area which may




 be affected by it.   Regional plans  should  consider these




 factors  in  establishing alerting procedures, however,




 JOG  should  be  notified immediately  in the  event of a




 spill;  (a)  in  the coastal zone of 100,000  or more gal-




 lons  of  heavy  oil;  (b) in the inland  waters  of 10,000




 or more  gallons  of  heavy oil; or, (c) in  any waters of




 other material of such nature and quantity tha-t human




 health  or welfare is substantially  threatened.




 Phase II -  Containment and Counterme^asures are defensive




 actions  to  be  initiated as soon as  possible  after dis-



 covery  and  notification of a pollution incident.  After




 the  OSG  determines  that further Federal response actions




 are  needed  and depending on the circumstances of a




 particular  incident, they may include the  placing of




 physical barriers to halt or slow the spread of a pol-




 lutant,  the emplacement or activation of  booms or




 barriers to protect specific installations or areas,




 increase or reduction of the water  discharge from

-------
	876





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 upstream  impoundments and  the  employment  of  chemicals



 and  other materials  to  restrain  the  pollutant  and  its



 effects on water  related sources.



 Phase III -  Cleanup, Restoration and Disposal  include



 those actions  taken  to  remove  the  pollutant  from the




 water such as  the  collection of  oil  through  the use of



 sorbents, skimmers or other collection  devices, actions



 taken to  restore  the environment to  its pre-spill  con-



 dition such  as  removal  and replacement  of beach sand



 or reseeding of a  shallfish bed  decimated by the toxic



 effect of a  pollutant,  and non-polluting  disposal  of  the



 pollutants which  are recovered in  the cleanup  and  restor




 tion activities.



 Phase IV  - Recovery  of  Damages and Enforcement may



 include a variety  of activites depending  on  the location



 of and circumstances surrounding a particular  spill.



 Recovery  of  damages  done to Federal  property under



 Federal law  and to State or local  government property



 under State  laws  are included; however, third  party



 damage is not  considered in this phase.   Recovery  of



 the  costs of cleanup is a  part of  this  phase and enforce




 ment activities under appropriate  jurisdictions such  as
a-

-------
	877





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






 the Oil Pollution Act of 1924, the Refuse Act of 1899,



 and State and  local statutes and ordinances are also



 included.  The  collection of scientific and technical



 information of  value to the scientific community as a



 basis for research and development activities and for




 the enhancement of our understanding of the environment



 may also be considered in this phase.  It must be recog-



 nized that the  collection of samples and necessary



 data must be performed at the proper time during the



 pollution incident for enforcement and other purposes.




            Procedures to be Followed for the



            Purpose of Water Pollution Control



                The agency furnishing the OSC for a



 particular area is assigned responsibility to undertake



 and implement  Phase I activities in that area.  Other



 signatory agencies should fold Phase I activities into



 their on-going programs whenever practicable.  Upon



 receipt of information--either from directed or random



 discovery activities—that a pollution spill has occurre



 the OSC for the affected area and ROT shall be notified.




 ROT shall consider the facts and may declare that a



 pollution incident has occurred.  Information on the

-------
	8?8





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 incident  shall  then  be  transmitted through  the  ROC  to




 the  OSC,  JOG  and Federal,  State  and local agencies  in



 accordance with the  Regional  Contingency Plan.



                The OSC  is  assigned responsibility for



 the  initiation  of Phase II actions.   Continuing water



 pollution control techniques  must  receive the concurrent




 of the  DOI representative  on  ROT.   Continuing water




 pollution control techniques  employed  by OSC in Phase II



 which may cause or contribute the  dangerous navigational




 situations, affect the  public health or safety, or



 national  security must  be  concurred in by the repre-




 sentative on  ROT of  the agency having  concomitant




 jurisdiction.



                The OSC  is  assigned responsibility for




 the  conduct of  Phase III activities, utilizing  techni-



 ques concurred  in by the DOI  representative on  ROT.



 Phase III activities which may cause or contribute  to



 dangerous navigational  situations, affect the public



 health  or safety, or Hational Security must receive the



 concurrence of  the representative  on ROT of the agency




 having  concomitant jurisdiction.



                Phase IV activities shall be carried out

-------
                    G. Pemberton, Jr.






by the individual agencies in accordance with existing




statutes, with such assistance as is needed from other




signatory agencies.




            Additional Procedures Applicable




             to Certain Pollution Incidents




               Delegation of authority or concurrence in




proposed or continuing water pollution control activitie




may be either verbal or written by the DOI representa-




tive on ROT.




               In the event that a potential pollution




source moves from the area covered by one contingency




plan into another the authority to initiate pollution




control actions shall shift with the potential source.




In the event that a pollution incident affects areas




covered by two or more regional plans, the response




mechanism called for by both plans shall be activated,




however, pollution control actions shall be fully




coordinated as detailed in the regional plans.




               With regard to federally owned or operate




vessels or other facilities, in any geographical area,




the initial actions under the Reaction Phases, described




elsewhere in this report, will be taken by that departme it

-------
	880





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 or  agency  owning  or  responsible  for  operation  of  the




 vessel  or  facility.   Continuing  water  pollution control




 actions  taken under  Phases  II  and  III  must  be  concurred



 in  by the  DOI representative on  the  appropriate ROT.



                In the  event of a nuclear  pollution



 incident the procedures  of  the Interagency  Radiological




 Assistance Plan shall  apply.

-------
                                                                     881
                                 ANNEX I
                     I - 1
This plan is an agreement entered into by the heads  of the  agencies
listed below.  Any signatory agency may withdraw from the agreement
on 30 days notice to each of the other agencies.

The Plan may be modified through procedures described in the  plan  with
the written consent of the Secretaries of the Interior, Transportation,
Defense, Health, Education and Welfare, and the Director, Office of
Emergency Planning.

Annexes to the plan, detailing procedures for executing the Plan,  may
be modified by the representatives to the National  Interagency Committee
with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior.
Regional  Plans may be  modified by  the  D
the concurrence of the agencies affect
art
                                           tncnt of the IntsjrLor with
                                            such changes.    "
1.  U. S. Department of the Interior _
                                             I /Secretary

                                           •///   '  C
2.  U. S. Department of Transportation   / V / Cu-  '-J   I'
                                                 Secretary
3.  U. S. Department of Defense     ClO ifr
                                m^^*^   m  a-««
4.  U. S. Department of He a 1th,
      Education,  and Welfare
5.  Office of Emergency Planning
                                                 Uirecwr

-------
	882





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                         ANNEX  II






                   DISTRIBUTION OF  PLAN






               For the  most  effective operation  of  the




 plan,  coordination with and  the cooperation  of many




 Federal,  State,  interstate,  and local agencies will be




 necessary.   To this end,  the following  agencies  will be




 included  in  the  distribution and  other  information




 relevant  to  the  operation of this  Plan:



               1.   The  agencies signatory to this plan




 and  the offices  designated within  their agencies. These




 include:



      (a)   All FWPCA Regional Offices;




      (b)   All Coast Guard District Commanders;




      (c)   All USPHS Regional Health Directors;



      (d)   Department of Defense,  and




           (i)  All Corps of  Engineers District




               and Division  Engineers




          (ii)  All U.  S.  Navy  District  Commanders




         (iii)  All Continental Army Commands




      (e)   Office of Emergency  Planning  Regional




           Directors .

-------
	883





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                2.   All  State  water pollution  control




 agencies.




                3.   All  interstate  water  pollution  contro



 agencies.




                4.   The  Department  of  Justice.




                Formal distribution of  the  plan  and other




 relevant  information will  be  handled  by  the U.  S.  Depart




 ment  of  the  Interior, Federal Water Pollution  Control




 Administration.   Informal  distribution to  others not




 listed above may  be handled by the Department  or agency




 concerned.




                Tabulations of the  agencies receiving




 the distribution  are attached.






                        ANNEX III






        A SUMMARY OF LEGAL CAPABILITIES  AVAILABLE




      TO  THE UNITED STATES TO CONTROL  OIL  POLLUTION






                I-   Oil  Pollution Act,  1924, as  amended,




 (33 U.S.C. 431  et.  seq.) now  makes unlawful,  with  some




 exceptions,  the grossly negligent  or  willful  discharge




 of oil into  the navigable  waters and  adjoining  shoreline




 of the United States from  a vessel.   This  prohibition

-------
	884





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 applies  to  foreign  and  domestic  vessels  within  our




 territorial sea  and navigable  inland waters.  The Act




 establishes both  civil  and  criminal sanctions for vio-




 lations.  The  exceptions  are cases of  emergencies




 imperiling  life  or  property, and unavoidable accidents,




 collisions,  or strandings,  and those cases  where dis-




 charges  are permitted by  regulation.   The Act authorizes




 the Secretary  of  the Interior  to issue regulations which




               Permit the discharge of oil  from boats or




 vessels  in  such  quantities, under  such conditions, and




 at such  times  and places  as in his opinion  will not be




 deleterious to health or  marine  life or  a menace to




 navigation,  or dangerous  to persons or property engaged




 in commerce on navigable  waters  of the United States;




 and



               Relate to  the removal or  cost of removal




 or both, of oil  from the  navigable waters of the United




 States,  and adjoining shorelines of the  United  States.




               The  Act  further provides  for a coordinatec,




 action program by allowing  the Secretary of the Interior




 to make  use of the  organization, equipment  and  agencies




 of the Coast Guard  and  Army with the consent of the

-------
	885





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






 Commandant  and  Secretary,  respectively.   The  1966  amend-




 ment  to  the Act  inserted  reference  to  persons  employed



 under authority of  the Secretary  of  the  Army  for the



 better enforcement  of the  Act.




                II.  An act to  authorize  Federal assistande
 to  State  and  local  governments  in major  disastejr  an_d  for




 other  purposes  (42  U.S.C.  1855  et.  seq.).   By  Executive




 Order  104-27,  dated  January 16,  1953,  the President  has




 delegated administration  of  the Federal  disaster  assistan




 program under Public Law  81-875, cited above,  to  the




 Director,  Office  of Emergency Planning.   This  includes




 the  authority to  coordinate  and direct the  disaster




 relief activities of all  Federal agencies during  a  major




 disaster  and  when a major disaster  is declared by the



 President,  and  to administer disaster relief funds  made




 available by  dongressional appropriation to the President




 The  Disaster  Relief Act of 1966, Public  Law 89-769, re-




 affirmed  the  Office of Emergency Planning1s role  in




 planning  and  directing Federal  disaster  assistance




 activities.




                In a disaster of major proportions,  the




 Office of Emergency Planning will make damage  assessment
ce

-------
	886





                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.





 through  such  agencies  as  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  Bureau



 of  Public Roads,  Department of  Health,  Education,  and



 Welfare, and  the  Department of  Housing and  Urban  Develop




 ment.



               After the  President  declares  a  major



 disaster, the Office of Emergency  Planning  may direct



 any Federal agency  to  provide assistance  to:



               Utilize  or lend,  with or without



      compensation,  to  State and local  government,



      equipment,  supplies,  facilities,  personnel,



      and resources  other  than extension of



      credit under the  authority of  any Act.



               Distribute, through  the American




      National Red Cross or otherwise,  medicine,



      food and other consumable  supplies.



               Donate  or  lend to States,  for their



      use or distribution  surplus equipment  and




      supplies .



               Perform, on public  or private



      lands, protective  and other work  to  preserve




      life and property.



               Provide  temporary housing  or

-------
	88?





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






     emergency  shelter.




                Clear debris and wreckage, and




     make emergency repairs and temporary




     replacement of essential public facilities,




     such as roads, bridges, water and sewer




     systems, public buildings, of State and




     local governments.




                The Office of Emergency Planning may




render financial assistance to:




                State and local governments for




     work to protect life and property, to




     clear debris and  wreckage, and to make




     emergency  repairs to and temporary replace-




     ments of essential public facilities of




     State and  local governments, including




     provisions for temporary housing or emer-




     gency shelter.




                Federal agencies as reimbursement




     for disaster relief assistance directed by




     the Office of Emergency Planning.



                Statutory and Legal Authorities pursuant




to which OEP operates  are:

-------
	.	888





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                Public  Law 81-875 (42 U.S.C.




      I855~l855g).   Executive  Order Nos.




      10427  and 10737,  as  amended,  Parts  1709




      and 1710  of  Title  32 of  the Code  of




      Federal Regulations  (32  G.F.R.  Part 1709,




      1710.)




                Section  12 of  Public  Law  89-769




      (42 U.S.C. I855hh).




                The  Department of Defense cites  the  basic




 law,  42  U.S.C.  l855-l855gj  as its  principal  authority




 in  responding  to  civil  assistance  situations upon the




 determination  by  the President that  disaster assistance




 is  warranted and  a  governor's certification  of  need for




 such  assistance.




                III.  The  Rivers  and  Harbors  Act,  also




 cited as The Refuse Act of__l8.99,  (33 U.S.C.  407)  is



 administered by the Corps of  Engineers and applies  to




 both  vessels and  shore-based  facilities  with respect to




 almost every type of discharge to  a  navigable water




 except that flowing from  streets  and sewers.  A 1965




 judicial ruling construed the Act  to include  the  dis-




 charge of commercially valuable  gasoline.

-------
	889





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






               The  Corps  of Engineers also participates



 in  oil  pollution  incidents in accordance with the pro-




 visions of Public Law 81-875, as amended (42 U.S.C.  1855



 known as  the Federal Disaster Relief Act, described  abov<



               The  Corps  of Engineers can perform work



 for other Federal agencies.  This authority is  contained



 in  Section 219 of "the Flood Control Act of 1965, Public




 Law 89-298, which states,  "The  Chief of Engineers,



 under the supervision of  the Secretary of the Army,  is



 authorized to accept orders from other Federal  depart-



 ments and agencies  for work or  services and to  perform



 all or  any part of  such work or services by contract."




               IV •  Legal Authorities Under Which the



 U.  S. Coast Guard Operates Relating to Water Pollution



 Control May be Summarized as Follows^:



               A.   Primary Duties



               The  Coast  Guard  shall enforce or




      assist in the  enforcement  of all applicable




      Federal laws upon the high seas and waters



      subject to the jurisdiction of  the United



      States; shall  administer laws and promulgate




      and  enforce  regulations for the promotion

-------
	890





                G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 of  safety  of  life  and  property  on  the  high




 seas  and waters  subject  to  the  juris-diction




 of  the  United States covering all  matters




 not specifically delegated  by law  to  some




 other executive  department;  shall  develop,




 establish, maintain and  operate, with  due




 regard  to  the requirements  of national




 defense, aids to maritime navigation,  ice




 breaking facilities, and rescue facilities




 for the promotion  of safety on  and over  the




 high  seas  and waters subject  to the juris-




 diction of the United  States, and  shall




 maintain a state of readiness to function as




 a specialized service  in time of war.




 (14 U.S.C. 2).




           B•   Functions  and Activities



               Relating to Water Pollution




               Co_nt_r_o_l_.



               1.   Saving of life and  pro-




                   tecting the property




                   (14  U.S.C.  88).




               2.   Providing aids to maritime

-------
                                  891
 C. Pemberton,  Jr.






    and air navigation




    (14 U.S.C.  8l).




3.  Providing for the safety




    of naval vessels




    (14 U.S.C.  91).




4.  Administering the Merchant




    Marine Safety Program




    (Title 46 U.S.C.)




5.  Operating an effective




    port security and safety




    program (50 U.S.C. 191 and




    Executive Order 10173, as




    amended).




6.  Enforcing or assisting in



    the enforcement of Federal




    laws on the high seas or




    waters subject to the Juris-




    diction of the United States,




    for example:




    a.  Oil Pollution Act 1961




        (33 U.S.C. 1001)




    b.  Refuse Act of 1899

-------
                         	892
                    C. Pemberton, Jr.

                          (33 U.S.C. 403 et. seq.)
                       c. Oil Pollution Act of 1924,
                          as amended (33 U.S.C. 431
                          et.seq.)
                       d. "Dangerous Cargo Act
                          (46 U.S.C. 171)" activi-
                          ties now covered by 18
                          u.s.c. 278 (46 u.s.c. 171,
                          as such,  has been repealed.)
                  7-  Administering the Tank Vessel
                      Act (46 U.S.C. 391a)
               v•   The Federal Water Pollution Control
Act, as amended, (33 U.S.C.  466, et.seq.). The Secretary
of the Interior Administers  the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended,  through the Federal Water Pol-
lution Control Administration.
               The Act has as its stated policy "to
enhance the quality and value of our water resources,
and to establish a national  policy for the prevention,
control and abatement of  water pollution."
               Under section (5)(b)  of the Act, the
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration may
participate in an  oil or  other hazardous materials
pollution incident and make  recommendations for the

-------
	B93





                    G. Pemberton, Jr.






 solution of the problem, at the request of a State or



 interstate water pollution control agency.  Section  (5)




 (b)  states:



                "The Secretary may, upon request




      of any State water pollution control agency,




      or interstate agency, conduct investiga-



      tions and  research and surveys  concerning



      any specific problem of water pollution con-



      fronting any State, interstate  agency,



      community, municipality, or industrial



      plant, with a view of recommending a solu-




      tion of such problem."



                The Federal Water Pollution Control Ad-




 ministration may also  provide technical assistance to



 public and private agencies under section (5)(a) of  the



 Act.  This section states:



                "The Secretary shall  conduct in



      the Department of the Interior  and encourage,



      cooperate  with,  and render assistance to



      other appropriate public (whether Federal,




      State, interstate, or local) authorities,



      agencies,  and institutions, private  agencies

-------
	894





                     C.  Pemberton, Jr.






      and  institutions,  and  individuals  in  the



      conduct  of,  and promote  the  coordination  of,




      research,  investigations,  experiments,



      demonstrations,  and  studies, relating to



      the  causes,  control, and prevention of




      water  pollution."



                Under the  enforcement provisions  of  the




 Act  it  is stated  in  section 10  (a):



                "The  pollution of  interstate




      or navigable waters  in or  adjacent to any



      State  or States (whether the matter causing




      or contributing to such  pollution  is  dis-




      charged  directly into  such waters  or



      after  discharge into a tributary of such



      waters),  which  endangers the health or



      welfare  of any  persons,  shall be subject



      to abatement as provided in  this Act."



                In enforcement actions held under the  pro'




 cedures described in section  10,  the Secretary,  where



 appropriate,  may  make recommendations for  limits on



 various pollutants,  including oil and other hazardous




 materials.  If effective  progress toward abatement  of

-------
               _ B95





                    G.  Pemberton, Jr.






the pollution is not made in these enforcement actions,



more stringent enforcement measures may be taken under




the Act.



               Water quality standards, as provided in




section 10 of the Act,  where appropriate, have included




oil and other hazardous materials.  The Act provides



for enforcement procedures to insure compliance with the




water quality standards.



                    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands
Act (43 U.S.C. 1331-1343)> authorizes the Secretary of



Interior to require the prevention of pollution in




offshore oil or mining operations.  In the implementa-



tion of this Act, a requirement for compliance with



antipollution regulations could "be made a condition of



any lease, with failure to comply making the lease



revocable .





                        ANNEX IV






          NATIONAL INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE (NIC)






               1.  Purpose



               The purpose of the National Interagency

-------
	896





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 Committee  (NIC)  is  to  provide  an advisory  body  to  insure



 the  viability  of the operating program of  the Federal



 Government  to  deal  with  spills of  oil  and  other hazardou



 substances.




               2.   Objectives



               a.   To  review the National  and



      regional  plans  periodically for adequacy




      and effectiveness,  and to recommend



      changes to  these  plans as necessary.



               b.   To  review major and catas-



      trophic pollution incidents with  a view




      to improving the  plans and to make such



      recommendations to  the signatory  agencies



      as indicated and  appropriate.



               c.   To  encourage joint  demonstra-



      tions, projects and exercises of  forces of



      signatory agencies.



               d.  To review exercise  reports



      and to submit an annual report to the signa-



      tory agencies concerning  the readiness of



      the Kational and regional  plans and forces



      to cope with a major or catastrophic water

-------
	897

                C.  Pemberton,  Jr.


 pollution  incident.

           3.   Composition

           a.   The  representative  of  DOI

 shall  serve  as  chairman  of  the  Committee,

 and  the  representative of DOT as  vice-

 chairman.

           ID.   Membership shall  be comprised

 of representatives  of the Federal agencies

 having statutory responsibilities pertain-

 ing  directly to water pollution or its

 effects.   The  original membership shall  be

 comprised  of the following  agencies:

           Department of  the  Interior

           Department of  Transportation

           Department of  Defense

           Office of Emergency Planning

           Department of  Health, Education,
           and  Welfare

           c.   Provisions are  made for observers

 and  consultants on a nonreimbursable basis

 from other Federal, State or  local agencies

 and  industry as circumstances warrant.   The

 objective  of maintaining a  broadly-based

-------
	898






                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






      organization  and  response  is  in  consonance




      with  the  legislation  on  oil  and  hazardous




      pollution.






                         ANNEX  V






                 JOINT OPERATIONS  CENTER






                1.   The National Joint Operations  Center




 (JOG)  for  Oil  and  Hazardous Materials  Water  Pollution




 Incidents  is established at United States  Coast  Guard




 Headquarters,  Washington,  D.  C. (20591)  in Room  7133-




                2 .   P_u r P_o_s_e_




                The  purpose of the  JOG is  to  provide  an




 effective  physical  means for  coordination  and control of




 an  incident should  National level  involvement be  required




                3.   Activation




                a.   The JOG may  be  activated  by




      any interested agency through its repre-




      sentative  member  of the  JOT.




                b.   Activation may  take place




      immediately upon  receipt of  information of




      a major water  pollution  incident.

-------
	899





                C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






           c.   Immediate  notification  of




 activation to  participating  agencies  will




 be  made  by appropriate means  using  the




 words  "JOG Activated  at   (dateand  time] z"




 (Greenwich Mean  Time  or  Zulu  Time).




           ^•   Re spon s i billti e s




           a.   The  Commandant, U.  S. Coast




 Guard  will provide  the necessary  communica-




 tions  and  plotting facilities and equipment.




 This will  include:




     (1)   Telephone branch lines




     (2)   Teletype  circuits




     (3)   Adequate  charts of  U. S.  navigable




           waters,  the continental shelf  and




           the  ocean areas adjacent  to U. S.



           territorial waters.




     (4)   Technical library  on  oil  and




           hazardous materials pollution.




     (5)   Plotting and display  provisions  to




           visually depict the geographic




           position, movement  and  extent  of




           the  pollutant.

-------
                                                 9o





               C. Pemberton, Jr.






          t> .  Signatory agencies will




furnish competent representatives to




man the JOG as required and furnish




appropriate technical manuals and




materials and such administrative sup-




port as required.




          C.  The Coast Guard Duty Offi-




cer, pursuant to his standing instructions,




will provide initial notification of a




pollution incident to the Coast Guard




member who is the Executive Secretary who




will subsequently notify the members of




JOT.




          5 .  Communi cat ions Servi ces Ava j
          a.  Telephone (voice)




     (1)  AUTOVON (Automated Voice




          Network) - general purpose




          switched voice network of




          Defense Communications System.




          Serves CONUS, Alaska, Europe,




          Pacific and Panama.




     (2)  Washington Tactical  Switchboard

-------
	901





          C. Pemberton, Jr.






     Pentagon terminal of the




     tactical telephone system,




     operated by USAF.




(3)  FTS - GSA operated government




     administrative telephone system.




(4)  SARTEL - SAR COMMAND COORDINATION




     telephone network.  Leased HOTLINE




     telephone net extending from




     Halifax to New Orleans.




     b.  Teletype




(1)  AUTOVON.  A defense communications




     worldwide.  High speed user data




     communications system operated for




     and managed by the DCA to provide




     both direct user to user and store



     and forward message switching service




     for DOD and other government agencies.




(2)  SARLANT - Coast  Guard leased




     teletype system  extending from




     Massachusetts to Texas and Mis-




     souri and Ohio.  Used to control




     and coordinate SAR incidents under

-------
	902





                C.  Pemberton, Jr.






           CEA and  handles other operational




           traffic  and priority administra-




           tive communications.




      (3)   SARPAC - Same as (2) for the West




           Coast U. S.




      (4)   TWX - Teletypewriter exchange




           service  links 50,000 CONUS indus-




           try and  government offices.  Also




           has overseas capability.




           6.   Weather _. Inf_or ma t_i on_




           a.   Telephone (voice) with the




 Weather Bureau for domestic and oceanic




 weather and forecasted conditions.



           7 .   0_c_e_an__G_o_nd_i_ti_o_ns_




           a.   Telephone and teletype connec-




 tions to the  Commander, Eastern area for




 ocean surface conditions and forecasted con-




 ditions .

-------
	,	903




                     G.  Pemberton, Jr.






                        ANNEX VI






               REGIONAL OPERATIONS  CENTERS






               (Listing of Regional  Operations  Centers




 will  be  inserted  after  designation  in  the Regional  plans






                        ANNEX VII






         SHIP  SALVAGE AUTHORITY OF  THE U. S. NAVY




            AS RELATED  TO OIL SPILL EMERGENCIES






               As  set forth in Public  Law 513  (80th




 Congress, 2nd  Session,  10 USC 73ol,  et.  seq.),  the




 Secretary of the  Navy is authorized  to provide,  by




 contract or otherwise,  necessary  salvage facilities




 for both public and  private vessels  upon such  terms




 and conditions as  he may, in his  discretion, determine




 to be in the best  interests of the  United States.   In




 addition to the responsibilities  which the Navy  would




 assume in applying salvage techniques  to cope  with  a




 potential pollution  problem involving  a  U. S.  Navy




 vessel,  Public Law 80-513 authorizes the use of  Navy




 facilities for salving  public and private vessels at

-------
__ 904





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 the  request  of  competent  authority.   The following




 examples are  used  to  illustrate  the  responsiveness of




 Navy salvage  forces  to  pollution incidents  and to further




 delineate  the relationships  whereby  Navy salvage forces




 would respond to assist other  "competent authorities" in




 coping with  potential pollution  problems:



                ( a )   U _. __ §.^_N a v_y _s_h_^p__ag r p_u_n_d_ :




      p o 1 lu t
     The Navy would  acknowledge  total  responsi-




     bility  for  the  operation.   Acting in  accordance




     with  promulgated  Naval  directives,  Navy




     salvage forces  would  automatically respond




     to cope with  the  salvage  aspects  of the




     problem.  The Navy  would  seek  USCG and




     FWPGA assistance  to deal  with  a pollution




     threat  which  might  exist  during salvage




     efforts or  which  might  develop should




     initial salvage efforts prove  unsuccessful.
     As provided for  in  Naval  directives  pro-




     mulgated in response  to Public  Law 80-513*

-------
	905





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






     the Navy may, subject to the availability




     of forces, respond to a request from com-




     petent authority for salvage assistance




     to save the ship and cargo.  Provided it




     has not been abandoned, arrested, or in




     some manner come under Governmental con-




     trol, competent authority in the case of a




     merchant vessel will ordinarily be the ship's




     master, owner, agent, or authorized under-




     writer's representative.  In such cases,




     the customer is the ship's master, owner,




     agent or underwriter and the Navy provides




     salvage services that are governed by the




     appropriate Naval directives.  Due regard




     must, however, be given to the existence




     locally, or the reasonable availability, of




     privately owned salvage facilities.




               On the other hand, if a competent Govern-




mental agency, such as the USGG, FWPGA, Corps of Enginee




Office of Emergency Planning, or a Federal court has




stepped into the case, and, acting in the public interes




to  prevent or minimize pollution, requests Navy salvage

-------
	906





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 assistance  as  an  evolution  of  the  oil  pollution control




 operation,  and acknowledge  that it is  the "customer,"



 Navy  salvage assistance may be provided in consonance



 with  the  provisions  of  Public  Law  80-513-  In such cases



 the operation  will be  considered to be one of cross-




 servicing within  the government and the existence of



 local salvage  capability may be considered subordinated




 thereto.



                If the  ship  has been abandoned it may b«



 expected  that  some agency of the local, State or Federal



 government  will have assumed at least  interim possession



 and will  be in a  position to act as competent authority




 to request  salvage,  and act as "customer."  In such a



 case,  the operation  will again be  considered as one of



 cross-servicing and  it may  proceed as  above.  Similarly,



 if the ship has been arrested, the salvage assistance



 will  be governed  by  the directions of  the competent cour



                ( c )   Wr_e_c^k ed. _v_es^s e 1 of  any flag



      b^^k^g_a_U_L_SJ__Te_rrito^ry navigation




      ch_ann_el_.   Under the Rivers and Harbors



      Act  of 1889, the Army Corps of Engineers




      has  the responsibility for wreck  removal

-------
	907





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






      and  can  exercise  this  authority,,  if




      necessary,  prior  to  abandonment  of  the




      Vessel by  the  owners and  underwriters.




      Accordingly, Naval salvage  forces may




      respond  to  a request for  salvage  assistance




      from the Corps  of  Engineers which would




      act  as the  competent authority and  "cus-




      tomer" in  such  a  case.




                Even  though  the Corps  of  Engineers  can




 deal  with the Navy  or  with  commercial  salvors  for  wreck




 removal as noted above, it  does  not have  removal authorit




 solely for the  purposes of  minimizing  leakage  of oil  or




 potential oil leakage.  Antipollution  action must  be




 taken by  the  USCG or the FWPCA.



                (d)   Wrecked vessel of  any fjla.g




      in navigable waters^:	po 1 lution  threat  to_




      U.	S_.	T e_r r it or i a 1  w at e r s ; n o t _b_l o c k i n g _a




      channel.   Although current  legislation  is




      imprecise  in defining  a territorial  separa-




      tion or  overlap in the area responsibilities




      of the USCG and the FWPCA^  both  organizations




      have broad  authorities (in  effect and
y

-------
	908





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






      pending) under  the provisions  of  the




      Federal Water Pollutjon  Control Act and




      the Oil Pollution  Act of  1924  to  prevent,




      control and  correct  the  effects of oil




      pollution.   Accordingly,  it  is the policy




      of the Navy  to  respond to  requests for




      assistance from either of  these organiza-




      tions to provide salvage  assistance in




      dealing with potential or  actual  oil  pol-




      lution incidents.






                        ANNEX VIII






               COMMUNICATIONS  AND  REPORTS






               Purpose



               The communications  concerning  a  major




 oil  or hazardous  material  spill are an integral and sig-



 nificant part of  the operations.   The  same precepts goverjn




 in these instances as do  other  operations  in  which the




 Coast Guard and other operating agencies are  involved.




      Objectives



           (a)  To speed the flow  of information

-------
	9£9





               G. Pemberton, Jr.






           pertaining to an incident.




      (b)   To relay advice, instructions




           and reports pertaining to an




           incident.




      (c)   To provide for alerting,




           notification, surveillance




           and warning of a pollution




           incident.




Procedures




      (a)   Normal communications circuits




           of each signatory agency may be




           used to effectuate this plan.




           The national and district or




           regional offices and telephone



           numbers of primary alerting and




           notification offices of interested




           agencies will be maintained in




           JOG and as appropriate in ROC.




      (b)   The initial reporting of a pol-




           lution incident will be in




           accordance with the information




           and format as described in the

-------
	910





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                regional plans.




           (c)   SITREPS  (Situation  Reports)




                will  be  forwarded by  the OSG




                to his operational  commander,




                with  ROC,  or JOG, or  both, as




                appropriate, as  informational




                addresses.




                1.  Such  reports will be sub-




                   mitted in a  timely manner




                   as developments occur and




                   at 0800 and  2000  local time




                   on each day  of  the opera-




                   tion .




                2.  Participating agencies will




                   be kept advised of the infor-



                   mation contained  in such




                   reports through their




                   representatives on the JOT




                   or ROT, as applicable.




     Reports



                At the conclusion of Federal activity




resulting  from  a pollution incident, any OSC involved

-------
	911





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 will  submit  a  complete  report  of  the  incident  and  the




 actions  taken,  pursuant to  applicable  directives of  his




 own agency.  Copies  will  be furnished  to  the JOT or  ROT,




 as appropriate,  for  submission to  the  NIC,  together  with




 any other  pertinent  information available  to the forward




 ing group.   The  NIC  will  then  evaluate each  incident and




 will  make  appropriate  recommendations  as  provided  in




 Annex IV.






                         ANNEX  IX






    STATE  AND  LOCAL  GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE INTERESTS






                Under this plan, private,  State, local




 and Federal  responses  to  pollution incidents will  be



 fully coordinated  to achieve the  most  effective pattern




 of response.   Additionally,  this  plan  encourages the




 development  of  State and  local government  capabilities




 and private  capabilities  to handle such pollution  inci-




 dents .



                To  accomplish both  the  development  of




 capabilities and coordination  of  responses,  the State




 and local  agencies having response and resource capabili




 ties  are encouraged  to  participate in  the  regional

-------
                                                     912





                    G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






planning necessary to accomplish the objectives of this




plan.  The formation of State and  local action teams to




develop and participate in programs designed to handle




pollution incidents appears desirable,  and the agencies




signatory to this plan will encourage and assist in the




establishment of such teams and local alerting systems




for pollution incidents.  Additionally, the purchase of




appropriate equipment and materials by States, localitie




and private interests for use in pollution incidents is




suggested.



               The States and local agencies have primar




responsibility to enforce their own laws and regulations




relating to pollution incidents.  Phase IV activities




under this plan, will be performed so as to accommodate,




whenever possible, State and/or local requirements for




enforcement of their laws.



               The Governor of a State has the responsi-




bility to ask for the declaration of a Major Disaster,




whenever appropriate.  The regional plans will assist in




such instances by providing an orderly Federal-State-




local response to a pollution incident.



               In accordance with the established Federa

-------
	913





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 policy  for  oil  pollution  incidents,  the  person  responsib:




 for  the  discharge  of  oil  or  other  hazardous  substances




 causing  pollution  will  be  encouraged to  remove  the  pol-




 lutant  or adequately  mitigate  its  effects.   If  the  persoi




 responsible  does not  act  promptly  or does not propose to




 take necessary  and appropriate  action, as concurred in




 by the  DOI  representative  on ROT,  to contain, clean up




 and  dispose  of  pollutants, or  the  discharger is  unknown,




 further  Federal response  actions as  described in the plar




 may  be  instituted.  When such person  is taking adequate




 action,  Federal activities will consist  primarily of




 observing and monitoring  progress, and providing whatevei




 advice  and  counsel may  be  necessary.




                The specific  details  concerning  State,



 local and private  jnvolvement  in response operations for




 pollution incidents  will  be  spelled  out  in the  regional




 plans.






                        ANNEX  X






                        FUNDING






                The central thrust  of this plan  and




 existing statutes  is  that  the  cost of containment,

-------
__ 914





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 countermeasures  and cleanup with respect to spills of




 oil  or  other hazardous  materials shall be borne by the




 person  (as  defined by the Oil Pollution Act of 1924)




 permitting  or causing the spill.




               Actions  undertaken  by the agencies signa-




 tory to this plan in response to pollution emergencies




 shall be carried out under existing programs so far as




 practicable.  It is recognized,  however, that the sepa-




 rate agencies have funds  available specifically for




 dealing with pollution  and related incidents.




               Although it is not  envisioned that spe-




 cific reimbursement agreements between Federal agencies




 will be needed to insure  that the  Federal resources will




 be available for a timely response to  a pollution emer-




 gency,  this  plan does not preclude such agreements.




               Th e _Departmen t of t h_e _In t^e r i_q_r has made



 available,  through administrative  direction within FWPCA




 $10,000 per  region for  expenditure on  cleanup operations




               The^Uj. __ §_. __ 5.oast__Guar_d pollution control




 efforts are  funded under  "Operating Expenses."
                The_ De partment _of ^De_fer\s_e_.   In addition




 to having  statutory responsibility to provide assistance

-------
	915





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






in  the event of a declared disaster has two specific




sources  of funds.  These are:




               1.  Funds required for removal




     of  a sunken vessel or similar obstruction




     to  navigation are available to the Corps




     of  Engineers through Civil Functions




     Appropriations, Operations and Maintenance,




     General.




               2.  The U. S. Navy has funds




     available through its salvage operations.




               Off ice of Erne rgency Planning.  In making




a declaration of a major disaster for a stricken area,




the  President may allocate funds from his Disaster




Relief Fund.  The allocated funds are administered by



the  Director, Office of Emergency Planning.  The Directo




may  authorize reimbursement to other Federal agencies fo




disaster assistance directed by the Office  of Emergency




Planning.  Applicable policies and procedures are stated




in  Title 32, Chapter XVII, Part 1709  "Reimbursement  of




Other Federal Agencies Performing Major Disaster Relief
Functions . "
                The  Director  may  make  financial  assistanc

-------
                                                     916






                    C. Pe^berton, Jr.






available to State governments and through the States




to local governments in accordance with policies and




procedures stated in Title 32, Chapter XVII, Part 1710




Federal Disaster Assistance.






                        ANNEX XI






   PROCEDURES FOR REPORTING INFORMATION AND COLLECTING




             SAMPLES IN PHASE IV OPERATIONS




         (Recovery of Damages and Enforcement)






               The OSC in charge at the scene of a pol-




lution incident may be from any one of several agencies.




Therefore, it is necessary to establish uniform proce-




dures for notification of counsel, collection of samples




and information consistent with the several phase opera-




tions in Federal response situations.  Necessary informa




tion and sample collection must be performed at the




proper times during the Federal involvement in a pollu-




tion incident for the purpose of later use in cleanup




cost recovery, damage recovery, and civil and criminal




enforcement actions, under appropriate Federal statutes.




Thus, during the phase operations of discovery and

-------
	917





                     G. Pemberton, Jr.






notification,  containment  and  counter-measures,  and




cleanup,  restoration  and disposal,  the  OSG  must take




the necessary  action  to put  counsel  on  notice  of  the




event  and to ensure  that information, records  and




samples  adequate  for  legal purposes  are obtained  and




safeguarded for future use.




               Notification  of_ Gouns e 1




     A.   Imme di ate _Te 1ephon e__No t>i c e




               Immediately upon notice  of the




          discovery of a pollution incident,




          the ROT  and  JOT members shall  notify




          their respective  regional  and  depart-




          mental attorneys, as  provided  herein




          and as detailed in  the regional plan.




               Legal  notice  to the  ship operator




          and owner indicating  Federal interest




          and action  in an  incident  shall be




          prepared and sent,  using Form  No.




          FWPCA 207(7-68),  shown on  page XI-7,




          this  annex.  Counsel  will  advise




          regarding specific  changes  or  citations




          to be added to this notice.

-------
	916





               C. Pemberton, Jr.






          Immediate  coordination  of




    counsel of the Department  of  the




    Interior, Corps  of Engineers  and




    the Coast Guard, at  the Washington,




    D. C., level and the  regional  level,




    will be effected for  joint and




    several actions  concerning sending  of




    notices, advices regarding the hand-




    ling of evidence, preparation  of




    evidentiary statements, and referral




    of the matter to the  Justice  Depart-




    ment or the appropriate U.  S.  Attorney.




B•  Transmittal to Counsel of  Reports and




    E v i_d e_n t ijar y_ JMat e r ial. s_



          The information and  reports




    obtained by the  OSC  are to be  trans-




    mitted directly  to the ROT.   The  repre-




    sentative of the agency on ROT having




    cost recovery or enforcement  authority




    will then refer  copies of  the  pollution




    reports to his respective  departmental




    couns el.

-------
	919





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 Investigation^Collection._of  Samples  and  Reporting




                Samples  collected  are  to be  transmitted,




 using  procedures  detailed  below,  to the laboratory




 designated  in  the regional plan for analysis.   Reports




 of  laboratory  analyses  will be forwarded  to the appro-




 priate ROT  for transmittal to counsel.  The Chairman,




 ROT, will also forward  copies of  laboratory reports  to




 JOT.'   Procedures  for handling of  samples  and records




 are described  below.




     A.  Action to  be taken by OSC for Phase IV




         Activ_i_ti£s__in._Con^unct ion. wij^Actions




         in Phase I,  II and III




         (1)   Investigate  observed instances




               of  oil or other hazardous materials



               pollution in the waters  covered by




               the scope of this plan.



         (2)   Collect samples of  oil  or hazardous




               materials from  the  water and  from




               appropriate  spaces  of the  suspected




               offending vessel or vessels,  shore




               establishments, or  other sources,




               when  investigation  discloses  a

-------
                                           920





          C. Pemberton, Jr.






    reasonable basis to believe a




    violation has occurred.  (See




    B, below)




(3) Prepare Oil Pollution Incident




    Report (Form No. FWPCA 209,




    (7-68) shown on page 931.)




    together with additional documents




    or attachments, if any.




(4) Transmit the original and one




    copy of Form No. FWPCA 209




    (7-68) and attachments to the




    appropriate ROT Chairman at ROC.




    A copy of the form and attachments




    are to be forwarded to the  Chair-




    man JOT.  Samples are to be sent



    directly to the laboratories desig-




    nated in the regional plans.




(5) Such material should be mailed by




    air mail (wherever possible),




    special delivery, registered-return




    receipt requested.   Reports sent




    from the laboratories to the

-------
          C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






    Chairman  ROT should  also be




    mailed in this manner.




(6)  Chain of  Custody:  It is important




    that a chain of custody  of  the




    samples be properly  maintained




    and recorded from  the time  the




    samples are taken  until  ultimate




    use at the trial of  the  case.   In




    this regard, a record of time, place,




    and the name and title of the




    person taking the sample, and




    each person handling same there-




    after must be maintained and for-




    warded with the sample,  using  the



    Form No.  FWPCA 208 (7-68) shown on




    page 930-




(7)  If in any doubt as to whether  or




    not any particular occurrence  may




    be an oil pollution  or hazardous




    materials pollution  violation  case,




    or in any doubt as to how to pro-




    ceed in any given  case,  contact the

-------
               C. Pemberton, Jr.






         ROT for instructions and advice.




         If, however, time is a critical




         factor and/or the ROT has not yet




         assembled, proceed as if the inci-




         dent were a pollution violation.




          B.  Sj-mp; 1 e _Co 1.1 e_c_t ion_ _P r o c_e_d u re_s_




to be followed by OSC in Phase IV Activities.




     (1)  Several precautions must be observed




         when taking and handling liquid




         samples for analyses as the charac-




         ter of the sample may be affected




         by a number of common conditions.




         These precautions concern:




          a.  The composition of the container;




          b.  Cleanliness of the container;




          c.  Manner in which the sample is




              taken; and




          d.  Time elapsed between sampling




              and analysis.




     (2)  In taking such samples, the following




         procedures are to be followed in all




         cases :

-------
	9£3





      C. Pemberton, Jr.






 a.   Glass  containers  of  one quart




     size are  to be used.   The




     portion of the cap or  cap




     liner  which may come into




     contact with  the  sample in




     the container is  to  be made  of




     glass, aluminum foil,  or




     teflon.




 b.   Previously unused containers




     are preferred.  Containers that




     have been cleaned with a strong




     detergent, thoroughly  rinsed




     and dried may be  used.




 c.   Samples must  be properly labeled.



 d.   Consultation:  Consult with  the




     analysis  laboratory  personnel




     relative  to special  samples  and




     unusual problems.  In  this regard,




     Department of Interior labora-




     tories will advise on  procedures




     and unusual sampling problems.




     Inquiries may be  made  or addressed

-------
                                                924






               C. Pemberton, Jr.






              to the appropriate DOI




              laboratory in the area.




              Locations of DOI labora-




              tories are given in the




              regional plans.




          e.  Some explanatory" notes covering




              the above procedures:




          Glass containers always must be used




because plastic containers, with the exception




of teflon have been found in some cases to




absorb organic materials from water.  In other




cases compounds have been dissolved from plastic




containers.  This comment also applies to bottle




cap liners.



          It is sometimes difficult for a chemist




to analyze the impurity.  Therefore, it is



desirable to take as large a sample of the pol-




lutant as possible.  Proper skimming techniques




should be used to obtain a sufficient amount of




oil for analysis.



          When water is polluted, it is not




unusual for the pollution condition to change

-------
	923




                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






      rapidly.   Samples  should  be  taken  in  a



      timely  fashion,  and  the time  sequences



      and  place  appropriately noted.




              OIL  POLLUTION INCIDENT REPORT



                A.   The  following  information,  where



 appropriate,  for each pollution incident,  should  be



 obtained  by  the OSC and reported,  pursuant to  the instru




 tions above  and paragraph  B below.  Form No. FWPCA 209



 (7-68), to facilitate recording and processing this



 information,  will  be  supplied  to  the OSC by  the FWPCA.



 This  form appears  on  page  931  .




                B •   In s^t r u c t ^on sL_f o r _p r ep a r a, t i.on _o_ f JF o rm



 FWPCA 209 (7-68)



                (1)   The OSC shall  designate  an



      identification number, in consecutive order,



      to each  case.   This  case  number should  be



      placed  at  the top  right hand  corner of  the



      form.   The same  number should also be placed




      on the  cap of each sample obtained, as  well



      as on the  "chain of  custody"  tag or label



      affixed  to each  sample.   Each regional  area



      will be  assigned a distinguishing  letter  code

-------
                                                926





               G. Pemberton, Jr.






which will precede the case number.  The



ROT shall assign an appropriate identifi-



cation number for each case and will inform




the OSC of the assigned number.



          (2)  At least four copies of this



form are to be prepared for forwarding.  The



original and one copy are to be transmitted



to the Chairman of the appropriate ROT. One




copy is to be transmitted to JOT.  A copy



is also to be transmitted to the supervisory



headquarters authority of the OSC.



          (3)  Section III, Pollution Data.



It is not always possible to obtain signed



statements from persons directly concerned



in a violation case.  These signed statements



are desirable,  i f  reliable and obtained on



a voluntary basis.  Oral statements or com-



ments made to or in the presence of the



investigating officer also should be described



in a statement by the investigating officer




and attached to the report.  Reference to



such statements should be noted on this form

-------
                   	927





               C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






and attached as an Annex.




          (4)  Section IV,  Samples.   The




"Remarks" (item No. 31)  portion of this




section need not necessarily be brief.




Include any facts, observations,  or any




information that may be  helpful to the




reviewing official in making a determination




as to whether or not there  is sufficient




evidence for prosecution.




          (5)  In the space marked "first




endorsement" the OSC should indicate that




the original of this form has been for-




warded to the appropriate ROT Chairman.




The endorsement should also indicate that



samples, if any, have been forwarded to the




appropriate laboratory indicated in regional




plans.  When the OSC is informed by the ROT




and the laboratory that the reports and




samples have been delivered, he will then




forward the registered mail receipts to ROT




for their files.

-------
                                                                                                   928
                                      U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                      WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                       LEGAL NOTICE TO SHIP OWNER, OPERATOR, AND CAPTAIN
                                 XI -  7
FROM
^0
NAME OF VESSEL
ADDITIONAL AODRE5SC' S
        The United States, actir.g through the U. S. Department of the Inttnor, hereby notifies the vessel and

    owners of the	 and its Captain,
                            SAVE ;-  VESSE-

    through the	
                              (NA ME)

. Steamship Company local agents, of pollution
    situation created by
                                        . from the
    ~~           'NAME OP" VESSE _
    Oil from the ship in navigable waters.
                                                   (ACTION CAUSING POLLUTION

                                              .on	, with discharges of substantial  quantities of
        The United States hereby requests and demands that the vessel and its Agents forthwith contain, clean
    up, and abate the oil pollution situation created by the spill or discharge of oil.
        The United States hereby requests that the
                               Steamship Company,
    acting for and in behalf of the vessel immediately report to the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,

    U. S. Department of the Interior,	
                                                                (ADDRESS:

    as to the immediate steps so far taken nnd the immediate steps that the vessel Captain, owners, and agents will
    take to contain, clean up, and abate the oil pollution situation.

        Upon failute to remo\e the oil from the navigable waters of the United Statr-. and from the adjoining rhore-

    lines immediatley, the vessel owners, and its agents, the	;.viAMEi	
    Steamship Company are hereby notified that the Secretary of the Interior, pursuant to the provisions of the Oil
    Pollution Act of 1924, as amended, will arrange to remove the oil and that the United States shall proceed to
    hold the vessel and owners liable for all costs and expenses incurred and for all other damages caused the
    United States.

        If subject.vessel denies responsibility for the oil discharge, it is respectfully requested  that this office
    be advised immediately of the basis for such denial.
FOR Tt-E REGIONAL OIRCCTOR, U. S ZES*RTMENT OF  THE
INT6R-CR (Stfnanirc)
FWPC>i207 (7-63)    (This nonce to bo transmitted to prime addressee vii T'l.Y.  Other copies nay be dispatched as

-------
       929
XI  - 8
























a
K
o
u
UJ
K

'o
O
t-
D
U
U,
O
Z
X
u


J
o
6!
CONT
EDERAL WATER POLLUTION
ADMINISTRATION
U.





















AME OF UNIT AND ADDRESS
Z






z
Ul
^
t-
Ul
4
O


^
I
0
.c
z
UJ
y
4
t-
Ul
2
i-
AMPLE NO.
ui





















OURCE OF SAMPLE
W









~.
1

«
5
•5
'^
5

^
S
Ul
-1
a
AME OF PERSON TAKING SAM
Z











I
s
^
M
"J
-?
•c
'c

fc.

ITNESS(ES) TO TAKING SAMPt
i:























(89-/) 802 VDdMd
fa
































n
fl

,^J
^
o

•o
«
a
•8
XI
c
a
_»>
"a
o
'3
T3
41
>
41
U
41
r«l
C9

.*<
5 s
o .2
41 ^j
S*
•C 0
,-J C
Q
Ul
UJ
U
Ul
o:

Ul

H
O
Ul
Ul
u
u
IT
(DATE









FROM
n
RECEIVEI












LJ
X
D
w
SIGNA'





Ul
J
a
3

U.
o
z
o
IDISPOSl Tl
JO ldl3D3H


in
a
^
" 4
•a

ji
o
3
a
11
•3
•a
c
01
4)
"a
fl
|
•o

c
a
S
O
»_4
M

b. ?
a o
^ "S
1 hereby
shown b














Ul
SOURC
O
Ul
z
^
^_
D
o
u]
3
t-
O3NI V
H
CA TE OU





t-
z
UJ
2
a
i
in
U.
0
Q
O
I
I-
Ul
3
0
u
i-

a
in
0
Ul
3
I-
Q
ATCHE
a
IDATE DIS












Ul
K
H
Z
O











o
z
Ul
3TdWVS JO HDiVdSia
r^




























/

-------





0
z

Ul
4
U

n
1-

c
t-
«
o
u
J. COUNTRY OF Rl
u •— 	
>
'
Z.
2
j
jj
/>

(C
UJ
ffl
2
D
Z
J
<
U
u.
0
•
[t

"
z
J
Q

£
Ul
I
t-
0

-'



z
o
M
J
3
O
a:
a
u.
o
u
a.
>
h
0
~$
u
«
1
1
«•
?
s
b
^
_J
Ul
VI
VI
>
1^
0
til
Q.
t-
a




NTERNATIONAL CALL
"•


J

'
I
t
5
i
a
»
i

•
j
a
:
5->
Zo
u c
•;!
-S
iS
J2J

n

^
2
i
K
b
1
U
•»•
4
SB
«
1
I J
B <
! !
•«' i
•*"•'• 	 ' .1.-.—..— i
(
i

i
7
1
a
a
*
c
1
M
H
z
111
U
*
J
<
u
o
J
n



•
OWNERIS) OF VESSEL (name dt addrej
04
• —











U
REFU3
li.
0
U
0.
>
h

«










>
f-
J
!3
< u
3 u.
. 0
: u
J
L r>























O
1-
4
j
X.
0
u.
z
o
z
>
u.
19. OTHER IDENT
U Z 	 ••• 1 ;
x. (•
3 "
C
ft m,
Z \
D t
5 1
iAJ
irt






J
<
3
o
>
5
z
i
o
NAME AND ADDRESS OF COMPANY
0


t-
Z
4
>-
3
J

O
a
L '
o !
>• ;
AMOUt
«
bl
Q.
>
h
<
«
«



S
b

R
3
|
^ 	
0?
i-£
3 =
-iS
-"•2
22. PLACE OF PO
QeoQiuphic coot
)
•^
3jqOt10A9 JJ •
II
1)
1
Q
4
0

s
•—
M
M
iVITNE

N




PERSON REPORTING POLLUTION
O
(SI

































fi
S f
40 Q
en LJ
OX
ou
H4 u
OH U
II- >
<>•< i-i
„• Li
N











u
H
4
O

f
N





U
s
p
*l
N
Q
u
NT ATTACH
U
U
h
4
l-
M
o
Ul
z
u
M
D




o
u
1 1 SIGNED STATEMENT ATTACH

^

*

<







3
:
'

•i
<
c
j
:
.
j
j
3
Q
Ll
£
)
Z
LJ
<

W
UJ
a
3
V)
<
U
T
[28. EMERGENCY >

Ul
i_
CERTIFICA-
PONSIBLE
(CM
°£
U7
v>£
z2
0S
^Ul
ja
U.V
OO
TYPE
HELD
r»
N
V
*
5 J
• Ul
. CAUSE OF POLLUTION (explain M r
1 	 , FOUIPMENT 1 	 1 PER5ONN
0
N
i
Jo
Cv
lj!
I
u'
t
H ,
4 a
>•



llcob/ej
a.
&

v^
E
Ul
ffi
2
3
Z
U
VI
Z
Ul
u







DUTY
















M
I
1
)
|
f
k































in
Ul
J
c.
2
<
V)
Z
o
p
o
_1
_l
o
a.

>
z
o
?
u
Ul
fcO















] O3ATOANI ISNNOIiiad
ONIl¥H3dO '61
930




. XI - 9
n
U
z
t-
i





u
J
a
I
4
M
U
z
*
^
K
Z
O
VI
c
u
a
u.
0
u
2
z
d
z
ei
j
a
4,
u

Z
U
X
4
K
u
H
4
q

z
u
If
4
t-
U
;
h






u
j
a
4
n
IL
O
Ul
u
c
3
O
m
o
A



-------
                                                      XI -10
1!
*
\
0
tl
z
u
n
U
^•
0
<
A
«




K
HI
u
I
9
U
Z
<
J
ft
a
>
2
(.
O
U
E
3
<
Z
j
5
n
n






;
!
l
>
•









f-
Z
j^
&
U
B
O
O
z
UJ
Q
2
O
u
u
1/1











H
z
UJ
3
IU
v»
CC
O
Z
u
»-
vt
CE:
tL













3
.
n









0
I
e
n


>
o
«







i
;
;
931



B
<
o
*










u
2
3
^
<
Z
o
n
d
i
J
<
t







j
)
:
i
i

-------
	932




                     G.  Pemberton,  Jr.






                         ANNEX XII






                    PUBLIC INFORMATION






                Any significant spill of oil or other




 hazardous  material inevitably generates a number of




 urgent requests for information from the news  media.




 It is  important,  even crucial in many  situations,  that




 this  information  be provided promptly,  and that the




 information  be  fully coordinated with  the agencies con-




 cerned and be as  complete as possible.   Follow-up  informs




 tion  should  be  provided to all interested media as it




 becomes  available.




                During pollution emergency operations,




 the JOG  will act  as the focal point  for national public




 information  releases  and for information transfer



 between  the  OSC and the Washington,  D.  G.,  headquarters




 of the agencies concerned.




                During Federal response  operations,  the




 ROT will be  responsible for  coordinating the interagency




 information  releases  at the  regional operations  level.




 This will  be accomplished by furnishing the news media




 with information  regarding the pollution incident  directl

-------
	933





                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






from  the ROC,  or where the ROT determines the  situation



warrants,  a professional information officer will be



detailed to the scene of the  incident  to establish a



news  media contact  office.  The information officer at




the scene  of a pollution incident will  coordinate infor-



mation with the ROT prior to  release.   Information copie



of all formal  news  releases from the regional  level will



be forwarded to JOG.



               The  agency furnishing the OSC in  each



incident will  also  provide the necessary information



personnel  as determined by the ROT.  If this agency is



unable to  provide the necessary information services



from  its own information resources,, the ROT will arrange



for the detail of appropriate information personnel from



one or more of the  signatory  agencies.



               In cases where the JOT  is activated, it



may assume direction of any of the  public information



activities of  the ROT to more fully ensure the avoidance



of contradictory, overlapping, or uncoordinated national




or regional information releases on the same subject.

-------
                    C. Pemberton, Jr.






                       ANNEX XIII






                  TECHNICAL INFORMATION






               The technical literature listed in this



annex is intended to provide general background informa-



tion on the handling of spills of oil and other hazardou



substances.  It should be useful as reference informatio:



to the experienced OSC and instructional to less exper-



ienced personnel.  A complete set of the references shouJLc




be maintained in each ROC.



               1.  Information and Procedures for Sig-




nificant Spills of Oil and Other Hazardous Materials




Into the Water Environnertt (USDI-FWPCA).



               2. Chemical Data Guide for Bulk Shipment




by Water (U. S. Coast Guard CG-388).



               3.  Handbook of Toxicology (National



Academy of Sciences/National Research Council).



               4.  Natural Disaster Manual for State



and Local Applicants (OEP Circular 4000, 4, 1963)•



               5.  Federal Disaster Assistance (A




Pocket Guide to Disaster Help)(OEP Pamphlet).



               6.  Oil Spill Study, Research Report

-------
	935





                     C. Pemberton, Jr.






 (Battelle Northwest, November  1967) .




                7-   Character and  Control  of Sea  Pollu-




 tion by  Oil  (American Petroleum Institute, October  1963)




                8.   Manual  for  the Prevention  of  Water




 Pollution During Marine Oil Terminal  Transfer Operations




 (American Petroleum Institute, 1964).




                9-   Chemicals Used to  Treat Oil on Water,




 Policy - July  5, 1968, (Copy attached).




                10.   Current Regional  Oil  and  Hazardous




 Materials Pollution Contingency Plan.




                11.   Disaster Plans  Prom Regions, Dis-




 tricts or Facilities of Signatory Agencies as Appropriat




                12.   U. S.  Corps of  Engineers   Regulation




 ER  500-1-1 and ER  500-1-8  Emergency Employment of Army




 Resources (National Disaster Activities).






                DEPARTMENT  OF THE  INTERIOR




     FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  ADMINISTRATION




                   POLICY ON THE USE OF




             CHEMICALS TO TREAT FLOATING OILS




                1.   Chemicals should not be used  to




 emulsify, disperse, solubilize, or  precipitate oil

-------
	936





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 whenever  the  protection or  preservation of  (a)  fresh



 water  supply  sources,  (b) major  shellfish or  fin  fish



 nurseries, harvesting  grounds  or passage areas, or  (c)



 beaches is a  prime  concern.



                Such  chemicals  should only be  used in




 those  surface water  areas and  under those circumstances



 where  preservation  and  protection  of water  related



 natural resources is judged not  to be the highest



 priority  or where a  choice  as  to resource preservation



 may make  the  use of  such materials a necessary  alterna-




 tive .



                2.   Examples of areas and circumstances



 where  the use of such  chemicals  might be acceptable are:



                a.   Where fire  or safety hazards



     are  presented  by  the spill  of a petroleum



     product;



                b.   Where large numbers of water-



     fowl may perish because of  the proximity of



     floating oil;



                c.   Under certain conditions,  as



     a "polishing"  or  final cleanup of light



     slicks of  oil  following mechanical removal

-------
	937

                    C. Pemberton, Jr.

     of floating oils.
                                                        i
               3.  Chemicals that emulsify,, disperse,-
 solubilize or precipitate oil should be used only under
 the immediate supervision of the Federal Water Pollution
 Control Administration except where it is judged that
 fire or safety hazards require the immediate application
 of such chemicals.
               4. When chemical compounds are used in
 connection with oil cleanup, only those compounds
 exhibiting minimum toxicity toward the aquatic flora
 and fauna should be used.  The Federal Water Pollution
 Control Administration is now developing and will soon
 issue  a standard procedure for determining  the toxicity
 of such chemicals.
               5.  Materials which aid in the collection
 of floating  oils such as  sorbents, gellants and viscosit
 additives are considered  to be generally acceptable pro-
 viding that  these materials do not in themselves or in
 combination  with the  oil  increase the pollution hazard.
               6.  Research and  development to improve
 chemicals which  emulsify,  disperse,  solubilize or pre-
 cipitate  oil is  encouraged.  Whenever it  is demonstrated

-------
	938





                     C.  Pemberton,  Jr.






 to  the  complete  satisfaction  of  the Federal Water  Pol-



 lution  Control Administration, that such  a chemical,  by




 itself  and  in combination with oil is  nontoxic  its use



 may be  approved  in  the  areas  where the protection  or



 preservation of  (a)  fresh water  supply sources,  or  (b)



 major shellfish  or  fin  fish nurseries, harvesting  ground



 or  passage  areas is  a prime concern.




 July 5,  1968.
               MR. STEIN:  Mr. Poston, do you have any




more?




               MR. POSTON:  We have, in regard to




Recommendation No. 22, a report on the alewife situation




by Mr. Premetz of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries.



               Mr. Premetz indicated he could give this




report in a very few minutes.

-------
	939





                      E.  D.  Premetz








              STATEMENT  OF  ERNEST  D.  PREMETZ




            DEPUTY REGIONAL DIRECTOR,  BUREAU  OF




          COMMERCIAL FISHERIES, ANN ARBOR,  MICHIGAN








                MR. PREMETZ:  Actually we  are talking




 about  another little  polluter, the alewife,  which turns




 out  to be the anchorman of this Conference.   You are




 all  familiar  with the alewife  skimming  operation that




 was  undertaken in Lake  Michigan this  past year.  This




 was  done  cooperatively  by the  four States bordering the




 lake,  the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries  and the Federal




 Water  Pollution Control Administration, and  we believe




 that effective gear has now  been  developed to handle




 large  scale die-offs  on the  lake.  The  States now have




 equipment,  pumps, trained people  and a  cadre of  trained




 commercial fishermen  to handle any problem that  might




 come along in the future.




                A report of the entire operation  is in




 final  draft stage and being  reviewed by the  States.   It




 should be published by  the end of March.   A  copy will be




 submitted for the record of  this  Conference  and  I ask

-------
	940





                      E.  D. Premetz






 that it be entered as part of  the  Conference minutes.




               MR. STEIN:  It  will be made a part




 of  the record as Exhibit  1- and be  on file at head-




 quarters FWPCA and the Great Lakes Regional Office,




 Chicago, Illinois.




               MR. PREMETZ:  All right, fine.




               Now, the big question that is being asked




 is  what can we expect next year as far as alewife die-off




 Our biologists have been  carrying on a continuous assess-




 ment of the alewife populations in the lake and we find




 that the adult populations this year, or that is in 1968,




 were at about the same level as the previous year.




 Therefore, we expect the  same  sort of die-off we had last




 year.  In other words, a  very  minor die-off.




               We did find in  our sampling that the hatch




 this past year,  the hatch of alewives, was as large as




 any on record.  This coupled with a very large hatch the




 previous year does make us wonder as far as 1970 and




 1972.  But we will be able to  get a better fix on 1970




 this fall when we sample  the adult populations and the

-------
                      E. D. Premetz






following fall when we again sample the adult population




We have to wait until they reach adult stage before we




can tell just what sort of die-off we might expect.




               How do we treat with this problem?  Well,




we are afraid it is with us for as long as there are




alewives in the lake) there will always be die-offs of




varying magnitudes, depending upon the success of the




hatch of the alewife in any given year.




               Will predators or commercial fishing




control the alewife?  To some extent, yes, but not




completely, for the simple reason 1:hat you can't build




a commercial fishery on an extremely wildly fluctuating




population like the alewife nor can you introduce a




stable level of predators on a population which has



large ups and downs.  In other words, you plant at some



intermediate level and this will not give you complete




control.




               So the only thing we can suggest is that




during years when there are small die-offs that these be




handled on the beaches with the equipment the States




may have to take care of it.  When we have massive die-




offs, that these be handled with the gear that has now

-------
	942





                       E.  D.  Premetz






 been  developed,  that  is  the  skimming  devices  that  were




 tested  this  past year.




                That is all I have.




                MR. STEIN:  Thank  you,  Mr.  Premetz.




                Any comments  or  questions?




                If not, thank you  very, very much.




                By the  way, I think in  deference  to Ernie




 Premetz,  who  is  the Chairman of this,  and  with Mr. Prince




 from  the  Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration




 this  was  one  of  our more  successful ventures.  We  showed




 that  a  Federal-State-local cooperation program could  be




 set up.   It  is  fortunate  that we  didn't get a lot  of




 alewives  in  1968 when  we  expected them, because,while




 we had  a  program, I am not sure we could have skimmed




 them, although  we would  have made a valiant effort. But




 with  the  experience we have  I think we know how  to do




 it now.   We  know a lot more  about alewives--by the way,




 these fellows  did a very efficient operation  and we




 even  turned  money back to the States  and the  other




 governments  because we didn't have the magnitude of the




 die-off and  we  didn't  have to spend all the money, and I




 think that is  a  recommendation  in itself as to how this

-------
                      E. D. Premetz






study was done.  It was done very tight and we did get




a lot of results.




               Thank you very much.




               MR. PREMETZ:  Murray,  thank you for your




kind words.




               I will say that Murray is very dedicated




too.  A couple of weeks ago we found him down in New




Orleans in the French Quarter checking up on Klassen




and his diversion of wastewaters down the Mississippi




River.




               MR. STEIN:  I had a better story than




you.  You told me you were investigating catfish.




               (Laughter.)




               MR. POSTON:  I would like to call for




Ensign Clark,of the Coast Guard, to make a report now.




Recommendation No. 20 says that, "The Coast Guard will




be requested to report at the next progress meeting on




present and future plans for monitoring by aircraft




and reporting of pollution of Lake Michigan."

-------
                        	944





                        M.  Clark
            STATEMENT BY ENSIGN MARTIN  CLARK




       LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER,, U. S. COAST GUARD




                    CHICAGO, ILLINOIS









             ENSIGN CLARK:  Chairman Stein, distinguishec




Conferees, ladies and gentlemen.  I am  Ensign Martin  Clai




Law Enforcement Officer, Coast Guard Group, Chicago,




making this report in response to Recommendation #20




of the Enforcement Conference of February 1968 on behalf




of the Commander, Ninth Coast Guard District.  As you




are aware, it was requested at the February 1968 meeting




of this Conference that the Coast Guard report present




and future plans for monitoring by aircraft and reporting




of pollution on Lake Michigan.




               Under the authority of the Refuse Act of




1899 and the Oil Pollution Act of 1924,  the Coast Guard




is a "detecting and reporting" agency in the enforcement




of these regulations.   The Coast Guard  considers enforce-




ment of the Oil Pollution and Refuse Acts as an active




responsibility.  The funds for carrying out this function




come from the Coast Guard budget,  no additional funds

-------
                        M. Clark






have been available to extend Coast Guard activity in




pollution control.




               Coast Guard participation in the enforce-




ment of Federal water pollution laws is accomplished by




the following:




               1.  Ninth Coast Guard District air statior




conduct aircraft patrols of all the Great Lakes with the




exception of Lake Ontario, on a weekly basis. (Lake




Ontario is inspected twice weekly by Coast Guard aircraf




These aircraft patrols give the Coast Guard a quick over-




all picture of water conditions, and act as a deterrent




effect to polluters.



               2.  Surface pollution patrols are con-




ducted by the following Coast Guard units in lower Lake




Michigan:



     Coast Guard Station S. Haven, Michigan -



                         monthly patrol




     Coast Guard Station Michigan City, Indiana -




                         monthly




     Coast Guard Station St. Joseph,, Michigan -




                         weekly patrol

-------
            	946





                         M.  Clark






                         Calumet Harbor - weekly



                         patrol of Calumet and




                         Indiana Harbor areas.



                         CGC Arundel - weekly patrol



                         of Chicago area and Chicago



                         Sanitary and Ship Canal.



               3.  In addition, Coast Guard port safety



personnel from Group Office Chicago conduct pollution



patrols in the Calumet and Indiana Harbor areas and the




Chicago Sanitary & Ship Canal downstream to Henry, Illino



on a regular basis.  Daily patrols to these areas are



conducted, and the effectiveness is considered excellent.



               I will summarize by stating that the




Coast Guard will continue to actively investigate and



report all incidents of pollution which we encounter.



               MR. STEIN: Thank you.



               Are there any comments or questions?



               If not, thank you very much, Ensign.



               Are there any other comments or questions?



               If not, Mr. Boston, do you have any more?




               MR. POSTON:  That is the end of our




committee reports and Federal presentations.
is,

-------
                  EXECUTIVE SESSION                  9^7
                         Summary






               MR. STEIN:  If we may, now, let's see



if we can summarize this.  I think the report is so good




that we are in effect in a progress meeting operation.




               One, from the statements of Illinois,



Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin, I think it is evident,




not only evident but we are abundantly clear, that the



States under their own programs and the cities and



industries within their respective jurisdictions are



well on their way to meeting the requirements set by



the Conference to clean up Lake Michigan.  These largely



deal with fixed municipal and industrial sources of




wastes and the prospects look—I almost hesitate to use



the word""excellent,"but I will—excellent for substantia



compliance by the date set by the Conference.  That is



1972 that we should have this done.



               I would like to put one thing out for the



Conferees-—that on the question whether  we adopt the 80



percent phosphorus removal on a Statewide or basinwide




basis for each State, let them do that and come/up with



a schedule for reduction, to give them flexibility in



handling their small and large communities and getting



the most effective result, the most expeditious and

-------
	948





                          Summary






 economical  way.




                MR.  POSTON:  I  think  I  would be  agreeable




 to  that,  Mr.  Chairman.   I think  that  should be 80  percen




 of  the  discharged  phosphate from municipal and industrta




 sources.




                MR.  STEIN:   That  is  what  was proposedr-




 that  the  States  will  make an  estimate  or compute their




 phosphate loadings  and  then come up with their program,




 indicating  they  have  a  total  reduction of 80 percent,




 which is  what we were looking for from the beginning.




 But with  the  experience  with  the program,we have indi-




 cated that  this  could be more easily  achieved  if they




 did not have  to  apply that  80 percent  to every little




 point or  every major  point.   Some of  the major cities




 may get 90  percent; some of the  little places  may  not




 get the 80  percent. But  the reduction  will be  over 80




 percent overall.



               What do  you  think of that,  Mr.  Poole?




               MR.  POOLE:   Sounds reasonable.




               MR.  FRANGOS:   Just a clarification  on Mr.




 Poston's  comment.   He said "discharged."  Our request is




 on the basis  of  the input  to  the treatment plant.   Do

-------
	9^9





                          Summary






 we  have  a  real  problem  here?




                MR.  STEIN:   I  don't  think  so.   Do  we?




                MR.  POSTON:  No.




                MR.  FRANCOS:   All  right.




                MR.  POSTON:  I did want  to include




 industrial wastes  in  this.



                MR.  FRANCOS:   Yes, we  understand  that.




                MR.  STEIN:   It comes from  all  sources.




 I would  prefer  not to use the word — let me check  this--




 in the  summary,  Tom.




                MR.  FRANCOS:   Yes.




                MR.  STEIN:   --so  there be  no misunder-




 standing.   I would prefer not to  use  the  words "input"




 or "discharge."  We are putting'Bo  percent of the phos-




 phate loading." And I will give  you as  much flexibility




 as we can  on your computation and how you are going to




 reduce  it.



                Because  what we are  dealing with  here




 is the  reduction of the phosphates  that go into  the




 lake.  We  have  an allocation  for each State  and if you




 meet that  allocation you are  going  to do  it.   I  think




 we are  going to exceed  that 80 percent by more if wfe giv

-------
	950





                          Summary






 you  this flexibility, because  any  time you have  a  large



 city or a  large industry  with  a big  problem  and  you  can



 get  them to  do 90, we are that much  ahead in the pounds.




               Yes,  sir.



               MR. PURDY:  I have  some reservations  with



 respect to this. In  our presentation here we had a cutofi



 of populations or municipalities with populations  less



 than 2,000 and have  instituted a program to  require  80



 percent removal of the total phosphates from all above



 2,000.  This now represents roughly  92 percent of  the




 population within the Lake Michigan  Basin in those



 municipalities above 2,000 population.  To achieve a



 total basinwide reduction of 80 percent would require



 in the neighborhood, if we strictly  adhere to this,  of



 90 percent phosphate removal at those plants. And about



 one  year ago,the testimony that was  put into the record



 at that time indicated clearly that  we could look  towards



 achieving  a  consistent removal of  80 percent or  better



 with the available technology.  However, if  I remember



 that testimony by Dr. Weinberger,  he also indicated  that



 he couldn't  state that for a 90 percent removal.



               If we have to strictly adhere now to  an

-------
                         	951





                        Summary






objective where we would look at these larger communi-



ties and say we are going to achieve a 90-plus percent




phosphate removal, I don't believe that we have the



technical testimony in the record to indicate that we




can achieve this.



               MR. STEIN:  I think they put it in last



time, Ralph.  But as I understand this, the technology




has moved ahead to the point that in the larger com-



munities the thinking of the experts now is it is



going to cost you about the same to get 90 percent



removal as 80 percent removal if you are running a




good plant.



               I recognize this was set up when it




was, and your program got started.  Why don't we



work it like thisr-you evaluate it and see what comes



out.  This is just a question of judgment that if



you  can get a 90 percent for about the same as an




80 percent, this may solve itself in the Michigan




communities.



               MR. PURDY:  If we can do that within



that context, I don't see any problem.

-------
	952





                        Summary






               MR. STEIN:  Yes,  I know.



               MR. PURDY:  But where we are  this  far




 down  the  road —



               MR. STEIN:  I  recognize that.



               MR. PURDY:  --on  an  enforcement  program




 and to  change  the ground  rules at this time  and say,



 now,  we didn't mean  80  percent;  we  mean 90 percent—we




 have  difficulty.



               MR. STEIN:  Right.   I think you  have a



 point.  But  let us try  this.  Let us get a report as



 we have--and we are  going to  propose progress meetings--



 on the  kind  of phosphate  reduction  we are planning and



 in fact getting.  We  are  starting something  new and



 whatever  the prognosis  is, 80 or 90 percent, when these



 progress  reports come in,  I assume  we are going to have



 to make adjustments  to  meet experience and reality and



 then  see  what  is actually happening.  Knowing your progran



 is on the road, let's get a report  from all  with  this



 understanding  that you  will continue with your  program.



               MR. PURDY:   I think we lose  the confi-




 dence of  the people  that  are  trying to meet  our objec-



 tives if  we  can't make  up  our mind  and keep  it  over one

-------
	953





                        Summary






year.



               MR. STEIN:  Yes.  The difficulty with



these fast-moving fields is that you get overtaken




by events.  The technology, particularly in phosphate



removal, has been improving at a very rapid pace,



even as we have been meeting and refining this.



               Now, I don't view this as a substantial




differentiation.  What we are going to have to do is



gather our experience on the phosphate removal program



to see what actually happens.  Actually, what we are



dealing with here is a new process and new requirement.



In a sense, I don't want to put this that we are deal-



ing with a theory that is not going to work, but we



are dealing with a theory.  We are going to review this



from time to time to see what kind of modifications or



improvements we have to make on them.



               So I believe with that, perhaps, we can



go forward.




               Now, I have these other reports. Well, let



take the one on which we might get the most agreement. We



can more or less adopt the report of the Monitoring

-------
                        Summary






Committee, with the proviso of the consideration that



Mr. Frangos from Wisconsin made--they give considera-



tion to adjusting the monitoring point at Two Rivers,



Wisconsin, to reflect the results that he indicated



in his proposal.



               And with that I think the Monitoring



Committee is well on its way and can go further.  I have



a comment from one of the Conferees that the Lab Committee



is to meet no more often than six months intervals, which




is all right with me.  Why don't you save your fights up?



               Now, the next one on pesticides, I think




there again we have a very active program to be put into



effect.  As far as the report goes, I would say that we



can accept the report or propose that we accept the repor'
of the Pesticides Committee. But in view of the discussior



we have to ask Dr. Mount, possibly, and representatives



of the States to get together and embark on an active



pesticide monitoring program and data gathering program



for the kinds of pesticides which are being used in the



basin and where they are being used so we can make a



meaningful report.  Now, the kind of people you may want



to get to work on this other end of the field may not be
IS

-------
	955





                        Summary






the scientists that you have working on the measuring



operation.  But I think we are going to have to have



both of these if we are going to come up with meaningful




judgments on the pesticides.



               Again, I think we maybe are being over-



taken by results because various States have legisla-



tion to ban completely the use of certain pesticides.



If they do it, I guess they do it, but this is some-



thing we will have to take into consideration.



               The next point I have is the status of



agricultural pollution and the steps being taken to



alleviate it.  Now, I believe we need a report from the



States.  Again, you may want to do this individually.




But I suggest that we set up some kind of committee



where we can at least talk in terms of setting up some



ground rules for identifying what we are going to



include.  We should have a report from the States as



to l) what they regard as pollution problems from



agriculture, if any, 2) where it is and what programs, if



any, are around to alleviate it, and 3) what they would



propose or what we would have to do to come up with this

-------
	     936





                         Summary






 program.




                With the report we had today we  have



 just taken the first step on this agricultural  pro-



 gram.   We  had a very nice bird's-eye  view of the



 national picture,  but I think we  have to  get this




 down into  the Lake Michigan  Basin.



                By  the way, there  should be a report



 from the States whether cattle feed lots  do,  in



 fact,  constitute a pollution problem  in their State.



 I  don't know  what  the situation is in these States,



 but  you may be surprised if  you look  around.



                Now we come to the Thermal Pollution



 and  Nuclear Pollution report.   Again,  I think we



 should accept that report for what consideration we



 can  give it.   But  I am not sure that  we have  the



 proposals  for an action program on that report.  What



 we had—and Mr.  Kittrell who gave the  report  indicated



 this—was  a proposal  for further  study.   This should



 be considered by the  FWPCA and the States  if  they want,



 under  our  program  operations,to work  on the  study.




                But  I  do think  that we  have  to have from




 the  States  a  recommendation  as  to what the  Conferees

-------
	937





                        Summary






are to do, if anything, on controlling nuclear pol-



lution and thermal discharges.  We have to determine



whether this may be covered by your standards,



particularly on thermal pollution, or whether we




have to go further and whether we have enough require-



ments on that.




               Again, I am sure you will agree, we



have had an interesting first go-round.  Perhaps,



we don't have to do any more on this, but I don't



think we have put that one to rest.



               MR. PURDY:  Agreed.



               MR. STEIN:  Right.



               MR. PURDY:  Murray.



               MR. STEIN:  Yes.



               MR. PURDY:  When you say that we are



accepting the reports, does this mean that they are



being adopted by the Conferees?




               MR. STEIN:  No. No.  Accepted for con-



sideration.  Now, the one report that I do think--!




think we have two reports that we can move forward from.



One is that Monitoring Committee report, if they will



continue, and I am not asking you to adopt the full

-------
	958





                          Summary






 report, but  I  think  the monitoring  group  can  go  on,



 use  that as  a  basis  with  your  recommendation  to  do its



 monitoring and come  back  with  other information.



                I  think the  pesticide  group has laid out



 the  problem  and with  the  other aspect  of  the  problem




 that I indicated,what materials are being used in the



 insecticide  problem,  if you  want  to narrow it to that,



 what materials  are being  used  and where they  are being



 used, and set  up  a program  for monitoring some streams



 and  see if we  can get a cleanup.  I am not at all sure



 that we are  that  far  ahead  on  the other reports.



                As far as  nuclear  power and thermal dis-



 charges,! think we will have to ask Mr. Poston to take



 the  lead and the  States come up with a committee to



 make specific  recommendations  of  where we go  on  that.



                On agriculture  and cattle  feed lots, I



 think we are going to need  a specific  recommendation  of




 where we go  on that  if anywhere.



                Now,  I think  that  covers it all.  I think



 we have pretty well  done  a  very good job  as far  as the



 States can go  on  watercraft, and,of course,there is




 Federal legislation  pending.  The research, of course,

-------
	959





                         Summary






we will hear from,from time  to time, but I  think  that



has  to just continue.  You probably knew this was a



long-range program  and I think this about covers  all




the  items here.



               What I do think is that this has indicate




that we are really  moving very well with these  programs.



I  suggest we probably have a sense of  euphoria--we are



in the first blush  of the program and  the defects and



the  laggards haven't shown up yet.  But there are none



apparent now.     It is also  apparent that at  the  first



go-round we haven't quite got our fingers on  the  nuclear



problem or thermal  discharge problem yet, whether we



will ever get  our fingers on it; we don't quite have it



on the agricultural problem  yet; we are pretty  much



moving ahead with a solid program on monitoring;  and we



are  at least in  the batter's box on the pesticide progra



and  we may go  out to get specific results.



               And  we are well down the road, we  are




heading around the  bases on  our big problem,  and  that  is



industrial and municipal wastes, discharge  treatment,



chlorination of  the effluent and phosphorus removal,




and  this  is  a  great thing.

-------
	960





                         Summary






               Are  there any other comments or questions^




               Yes, Mr. Purdy.




               MR.  PURDY:  On the Pesticides and Monitor"




 ing  Committee  reports,  I think  that they  are in good




 shape to be adopted and that the particular surveillance




 recommendations made are programs that we  should attempt




 to implement.




               MR.  STEIN:  Right.




               MR.  PURDY:  However, say to implement




 them to the last as presented in the  report, I don't




 think that we  can commit ourselves to that.




               MR.  STEIN:  That is precisely why I held




 this back and  made  this kind of distinction.  I think




 we can move ahead on the monitoring and pesticide report




 but  I think obviously  before you would want to commit



 yourself to every word of  that  report you  would need




 a lot more time, and to get the program necessary I don1




 know that that is really necessary.



               MR.  PURDY:  In many instances I think




 that all of the States have moved forward--




               MR.  STEIN:  Right.



               MR.  PURDY:  --and are  accomplishing much

-------
	961






                         Summary






 of  the  monitoring  recommended.




                MR.  STEIN:   I  agree  with  that.




                Are  we  set?  Are there  any  other  comments




                MR.  POSTON:  You indicated  that we  had




 moved along  on  phosphate removal  and chlorination,  and




 I wondered,  is  there complete agreement  that all munici-




 pal treatment plants will  provide chlorination regardles




 of  whether they are a  stabilization pond or package plan




 or  what-have-you regardless of size? It  is my understand




 ing that  that was,  but I wanted to  kind  of clarify it.




                MR.  STEIN:   Do we  have  the  recommendation




 of  the  Conferees?   Where was  the  first Conference  record




 Didn't  we recommend chlorination?




                MR.  LELAND:  Across-the-board.



                MR.  STEIN:   That is  what  I  thought.   I




 didn't  know  that was an issue.



                MR.  POSTON:  I  don't  know  that it  is., but




 I thought I  would  get  a clarification--




                MR.  STEIN:   All right.  If  that is  an




 issue,  let's hear  about it, but I thought  that was a




 recommendation.




                MR.  PRANGOS:   Mr.  Chairman, it  is my

-------
	962





                          Summary





 recollection  that  there  was  some  question  about  this



 at  the  last Conference as  it related  to  lagoons.




                MR.  LELAND:   No. 4,  Murray.



                MR.  PURDY:  Mr.  Chairman, in  that  particu



 lar case  I think I  should  clarify our report  that our



 lagoons in Michigan are  not  flow-through lagoons,  they



 are storage lagoons discharged  twice  a year,  long de-



 tention times,  and  testing has  shown  fairly  low  coliforn



 counts  in the  effluent when  they  are  discharged  in  the



 spring  and fall and that we  have  not  at  this  point  in



 time  required  chlorination of the lagoons  where  we  can




 operate them  on a  fill and draw basis.



                MR.  STEIN:  Here is  what  it says,  and



 if  there  is any problem  on that let's--maybe  this  should



 be  taken  on a  case-by-case basis.   This  looks  like  we



 are scrambling for  inches here, but what it  says  is:



                   "Continuous disinfection is



      to be provided throughout  the  year  for  all



      municipal waste  treatment  plant  effluents.'



               Now,  I think  if there are  specific  plants



 that  you  feel  this  applies to that  the requirement  is




 not being met,  I think we should  begin dealing with

-------
	963

                         Summary


 specifics  on  this  rather than act.   I  can  see where  there

 is some  leeway  on  this if a--and we  heard  some  statement

 made, for  example, by Mr. Frangos, of  having holding

 lagoons  for stormwater or something  of that kind  in  a

 treatment  plant.   You may want to run  some of that

 through  the treatment plant when you can,  at other place

 you  don't, and  is  that a plant effluent just because it

 goes  through  the lagoon and the stormwater comes  out.

 If F¥PCA or your field crei\? have any specific plants

 where you  feel  that this 4 is not being applied,  let's

 have  a report on them if you can't resolve it and take

 it up one  at  a  time.

                MR. POSTON:  I had no particular one  in

 mind.

                MR. STEIN:  Right.  But I don't  know; we

 may  be making a problem where none exists.

                Are there any other comments or  questions?

                If  not, I thank you all for coming.   The

 hotel now  has five minutes to set this up  for their

 dinner.  We thank  them very much and we stand ad.journed.

                (Whereupon, at 6 o'clock p.m., the

 Conference was  adjourned.)
                (Permission was given to submit  for the
 record the following appended~documents.)

-------
                                                                        964
                                   March  l';, 1069

                                          Your Reference:   ^LFDG-L''J

Ccrr.andir? fiei-id:m, Illinois    60037

Dear Pir:

T}iis is  in rc^ly to a letter fron Mijor Ssrald Krcll, dot.-3 T'nrch 12,
1$7695 T"3rtaifii7i'' "to n. Rtrtvn reoort prepared "by Coloi)<^l 71. B. ^7°,rrior
en rotontir1.! I.'j1:f; ''iclii^p.n rollut,ir-..n  scui'C'j?! urdcr the  .luriS'licv'.ucn of
Headouiirtcrs Tifth U.S.  Ar:r.v, ar.d f)r>^3entecl at th^ !^.ve 'ricai™fra I'nforcG-
inert Confer or.. c£ in Chicn.ro, Tllinni",  on T-net:ria?.r'^ 25, 1?.^?.

V'e vould like to r'.ahe t^/o additionr. to  Colonel ^firmr's r-^nort, a?
follovs:

   a)  To  include the identification  of the tvo ";i:T nit OP, ITo. ''r
       vliich h?.s "boon closed, anil "o, Ji5 vhich has br?r?n reduced to
       administrative type functions.

   b)  To  include -3, projected cormlotion d^to CT" .June 30, 19^9 for
       the sever connection for ccnveyin-? the stca-1 plant "Mo'.'dc'.m
       ',ra.tei* to the sar.itar:; ne'.rer systeir. and thence to the r-evi^e
       treatrent plant.

If you concur vith the a'oove sup^er»ted  edditior.s, the amended ntatus
renort viH "he included  in the tra.nscriTvt o^ proceedings of trie reconvened
conferenc".

Your cooperation in this natter ii n-nprecicterl.

                                    Sirc-?rely vours ,

-------
ALFGD-EU
                                                                      965
                     DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
                  HEADQUARTERS FIFTH UNITED STATES ARMY
                       FORT SHERIDAN, ILLINOIS 60037
Mr. h. W. Poston
Regional Director
Federal Water Pollution Control Admin.
33 East Congress Parkway, Room
Chicago, Illinois  60605
Dear Mr. Poston:

In reply to your letter of March lU, 1969, we  advise  that  Headquarters

Fifth US Army concurs with additions a)  and b)  as  shown.

                                 Sincerely yours,
                                     1LT, ACC
                                     Asst Adjutant General

-------
                                                                     966
                    DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
                  HEADQUARTERS FIFTH UNITED STATES ARMY
                      FORT SHERIDAN, IUU1NO1S 60037
                                                         1 2 MAR i;.S3
ALFGD-3U
Conferees in the Matter of Pollution
of Lake Michigan and its Tributary Basin
ATTW:  llr. H. W. Poston, Regional Director
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
33 East Congress Parkway, Room UlO
Chicago, Illinois  60605
Gentlemen:

In accordance with a request from Mr. H. W. Poston, the Federal Conferee}
dated February 11, 1969 j Colonel 'S. B. Warner, Chief, Engineer Divi-
sion, Headquarters Fifth US Army, prepared a status report on
potential Lake Michigan pollution sources within your interest and
under the jurisdiction of Headquarters Fifth US Amy.

At the reconvened conference on February 2$, 19o2, it was determined
that a formal statement was not applicable and Colonel Warner's
report was provided extemporaneously.  Consequently, Headquarters
Fifth US Army has been requested to provide a written version of his
report.

The progress report on the four potential pollution sources under the
jurisdiction of Headquarters Fifth US Amy was as follows:

     a.  The waste from the four NIKE sites located within the State
of Indiana is chlorinated.  On December 11, 1958, the conferees of the
conference on pollution of the interstate waters of Grand Calunet
River, Little Calumot River, Calunst River, Wolf Lake, ana Lake Michi-
gan and its tributaries were advised by the Federal Water Pollution
Control Arninistration that all four of those NIK?, sites were in
compliance with th3 roconnen' ations of those conferees.  Headquarters
Fifth US Army has thus concluded that these NIK,"] sites are also in
compliance with the recommendations of this conference and no further

-------
                                                                   967
ALFGD-EU
Conferees in the Matter of Pollution
of Lake Michigan and its Tributary Basin                                «

improvement is planned.  In the interim, one of the NIKE site areas
has been closed, and the activities at another have been reduced to
merely administrative type functions.  Full-time population does not
exceed 100 persons.

     b.  Fort Sheridan steam plant blow-down water will be treated
by discharging same to ths Fort Sheridan Sewage Treatment Plant.
The approximate 30 feet of connecting sewer will be installed by
in-house forces, using local funds already available,  as soon as the
ground thaws.

     c.  The Fort Sheridan Water Treatment Plant is undergoing a
rehabilitation and construction program.  The repair portion is
being accomplished with funds and approval available to Fort
Sheridan and is currently underway.  The construction portion includes
facilities for treating the backwash water.  Unfortunately, the
construction portion can only be accomplished with- funding and approval
of the United States Congress.  This project is currently included
in the fiscal year 1971 Ililitary Construction Program.  It was origi-
nally programed for ftvnding in fiscal year 1970, but the project
was deferred to fiscal year 1971 by the Department of Defense.
Assuming that the funds are authorized as currently programmed, the
earliest possible date Fort Sheridan will be in compliance with the
conference recommendations on backwash water vail be approximately
one year beyond the date set by this conference.

     d.  Nutrient removal for the Fort Sheridan sewage effluent will
be provided by discontinuing the sewage treatment plant operation
and diverting tho sewage to the North Shore Sanitary District.
This approach also requires Congressional approval and the necessary
project was included in the fiscal year 1970 Military Construction
Army Program but was deferred by higher headquarters to the fiscal
year 1971 Program.  If Congressional approval and funding is pro-
vided as currently scheduled, the required December 1972 completion
date relative to treatment for phosphate removal can be met.

Following the vorbal presentation, the conferees asked Colonel Warner
if the Fort Sheridan effluent was chlorinated and they were advised
affirmatively.  The conferees also aslcsd if Fort Sheridan had a
commitment iron the 1I3SD to accerrt the sewage.  The conferees were

-------
                                                                       968
4 ALFGD-EU
". Conferees in the I latter of Pollution
„ of Lake Michigan and its Tributary Basin

  advised that a comnitment had been obtained from the NSSD several
  years ago and bhat  this commitnent was now in the  process of being
  updated.
                                     Sincerely yours,
   Copy furnished:
   CO,  Ft Sheridan, Illinois  60037
                                                    U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1969 O—353-398

-------