Water Quality of  the Ohio  Rivei
Louisville,  Ky. - Evansville,  Ind.
             Prepared by the
      National  Field  Investigations Center

                   for
        Division  of  Technical Support
     Federal  Water Quality  Administration
    United  States Department of the  Interior

             Cincinnati,  Ohio
              September, 1970

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     WATER QUALITY OF THE OHIO RIVER
 LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY-EVANSVILLE, INDIANA
          Richard K. Ballentine

            Nelson A. Thomas
            Prepared by the
  National Field Investigations Center

                 For
     Division of Technical Support
  Federal Water Quality Administration
United States Department of the Interior

            Cincinnati, Ohio

            September,   1970

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                     No.
PREFACE .........................            1
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .................            2
       GENERAL  .....................            2
       SPECIFIC .....................            5
STANDARDS VIOLATIONS  ..................           10
INTRODUCTION  ......................           13
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND WATER USES  .........           1&
THE AREA  ........................           16
METHODS OF STUDY  ....................           19
       CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEY  .......           19
       BIOLOGICAL STUDY .................           21
SOURCES OF WASTES   ...................           2k
WATER QUALITY   .....................           25
       AESTHETICS ....................           25
       LATERAL MIXING ..................           26
       FLOW   ......................           27
       TEMPERATURE  ...................           29
       TIME-OF-WATER TRAVEL ...............           29
       BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND  ............           29
              Analyses Performed  ............           29
              Results   .................           30
              Tributary Streams .............           32
                  Salt River  ..............           32
                  Green River ..............           32

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                                                             Page No.







DISSOLVED OXYGEN	         33




       Tributary Streams	         35




           Salt River	         35




           Green River	         35




BACTERIAL POLLUTION	         36



       Observed Coliform Densities	         37




       Tributary Streams 	         40




           Salt River	         40




           Green River	         4l




       Salmonella Isolation  	         4l




OTHER CONSTITUENTS AND DETERMINATIONS   	         42




       pH	         42




       Specific Conductance  	         42



       Turbidity	         43




       Suspended Solids  	         43




STREAM BED ORGANISMS AND PIANKTON	         45




FISH OFF-FIAVOR    	         56
                            ii

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                           LIST OF TABLES
No.                                             Follows Page No.

 1     Comparison of Indiana & Kentucky
       Aquatic Life and Recreation
       Standards for the Ohio River	        14
 2     Municipal Waste Inventory .  .

 3     Summary of Ohio River Flows  .

 ^4-    Dissolved Oxygen & Biochemical
      Oxygen Demand 	
 5    Coliform Bacteria (Geometric Mean
      & Range of 80$ of the Data) . .  .
 6    Chemical Composition of Bottom
      Sediments 	
 T    Bottom Organism Data	        53

 8    Taste Panel Evaluation of Ohio
      River Catfish—1968	        60
                                 iii

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                           LIST OF FIGURES

No.                                             Follows Page No.

 1    Location Map ...............       17

 2    BOD vs. Time -of -Water Travel .......       30

 3    Least Squares Fit of k^ Rates from 2-day
      and 5-Day BOD Data ............       3!

 U    Dissolved Oxygen .............       33

 5    Dissolved Oxygen and I/h Point Stations
      Downstream from Louisville, Kentucky  ...       3!*

 6    Total Coliforra Bacteria .........       37

 7    Fecal Coliform Bacteria  .........       37

 8    Fecal Coliforras as a Percent of Total
      Coliforms ....... .  ........       37

 9    Areas of Bottom Organism Degradation  in
      the Ohio River "between Louisville, Ky.
      and Evansville, Indiana ....... .  .       k6
10    Sludge Deposits and Oxygen Consumption
      lay These Deposits in the Chio River
      Downstream of Louisville, Kentucky  .
                                            ..
11    Number of PlanJrton Cells at Various Con-
      centrations of Inorganic ritrogei  ....       52

12    Pumbers o-" Plankton Cells at Various
      Levels of Turbidity ...........       52

13    lumbers of plankton Cells at Various
      Concentrations of Total Phosphorus  .
                                              ..
lk    Fumbers of Plankton Cells at Various
      Concentrations of Soluble "Phosphorus  ...       52

15    Degree o" Off- Flavor of Caged Channel
      Catfish, ^Mo River, 1^68 ........       59
                                IV

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                        APPENDICES






Appendix A - Indiana Water Quality Standards.



Appendix B - Kentucky Water Quality Standards.



Appendix C - Lateral Mixing in the Ohio River.



Appendix D - Time of Water Travel.



Appendix E - October 1968 Survey.



Appendix F - Station Location and Description.



Appendix 0 - Data Summary Table.

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                                                 10-5-70
                    PREFACE
      State standards considered in this report



were those applicable at the time of preparation.



      Since the preparation of the report, the



State of Indiana has upgraded its standards, and



on September 29, 1970, an official agreement was



reached between the Federal Water Quality Admini-



stration and the State of Kentucky concerning



water quality standards.

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                SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS






       During October 1967 a water quality survey was made



on the Ohio River between Louisville, Kentucky and Evansville,



Indiana, to determine bacteriological quality including the



causes of high coliform densities, and the probable causes of



reported fish flesh tainting.  The study of the off-flavor of



fish was extended to January 19^9 to gain additional infor-



mation about specific waste sources.




GENERAL



       1.  Estimated average river discharges during the



           survey at Louisville and Evansville were U6,200



           and 50,800 cfs respectively.



       2.  Water temperatures averaged 20  C in the Louisville



           reach and 19° C in the Evansville reach.



       3-  Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were higher at



           all river sampling stations than the Indiana and



           Kentucky water quality standards for fish and aquatic



           life which now specify 5-0 mg/1 for 16 hours of any



           day and not less than 3*0 mg/1 at any time.



       k.  Bacterial pollution from inadequately treated sewage



           creates a health hazard in the Ohio River from

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     Louisville, Kentucky to Evansville, Indiana.




     The geometric mean total coliform densities




     ranged from 15,300 to 7^0,000 MF/100 ml, and




     the geometric mean fecal coliform densities




     ranged from 700 to 89,000 MF/100 ml.




        During the survey, the total coliform




     density at all stations exceeded state stand-




     ards for "body contact recreation "by 15 to 7^0




     times; the state standards for domestic raw




     water supplies were exceeded by 3 to 148 times.




     Both the Indiana and Kentucky total coliform




     standards specify maxima of 1,000 per 100 ml




     for body contact recreation and 5,000 per 100 ml




     for domestic raw water supply sources.  The Indi-




     ana total coliform standard for non-body contact



     recreation is 5>000 per 100 ml.   Pathogenic




     Salmonella were isolated at 9 °ut of 10 sampling




     stations.




5.   Plankton in the Ohio River is the base of the food




     web;  it can be detrimental when it imparts tastes




     and odors to domestic water supplies.   Plankton




     concentrations were usually less than 1500/ml,

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     which is considered to be a low density at



     the flow which occurred during the  survey.



     At higher flows it would be expected that the



     plankton population would decrease  as the re-



     sult of increased silt action on the algal



     population and by dilution.



          Factors other than nitrogen and phosphorus



     apparently control the plankton population because



     these elements were present in sufficient quanti-



     ties (1.6 mg/1 inorganic nitrogen and 0.06 soluble



     phosphorus) to promote abundant growth.



6.   Sludge on the Ohio River bed from organic pollution



     decreased gamefish food organisms,  increased pollu-



     tion-tolerant sludgeworms,  and removed dissolved



     oxygen from the water by decomposition.



 7.   Complaints from commercial fishermen received by the



     Evansville Field Station of the Ohio Basin Region,



     and subsequent interviews with commercial fishermen



     in both Indiana and Kentucky concerning the  un-



     marketability of fish from the Ohio River,

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           indicate that fish captured downstream from



           Louisville and Brandenburg, Kentucky are un-



           palatable .



       8.  The Ohio River contained sufficient taste pro-



           ducing substances to cause catfish to be of



           unacceptable quality (unpalatable) in July,



           1968 from Louisville to Evansville, a distance



           of 190 miles, and from Louisville to Owensboro,



           a distance of 150 miles, in October, 1968.



SPECIFIC



       1.  Within the Louisville to Brandenburg reach,



           municipal waste from Louisville,  Kentucky, New



           Albany, Jeffersonville and Clarksville,  Indiana,



           and from industrial sources pollute the  Ohio



           River.



           a.   The geometric mean total coliform density



               increased from l,6Uo MF/100 ml upstream from



               Louisville to 7^0,000 MF/100  ml 6 miles down-



               stream from Louisville,  and 396,000  MF/100 ml



               13.7 miles downstream.



           b.   The geometric mean fecal coliform density



               increased from 130 MF/100 ml  upstream from



               Louisville to 89,000 MF/100 ml 6 miles

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   downstream from Louisville, and 39,(XX) MF/100



   ml IJ.T miles downstream.



c. Pathogenic Salmonella were isolated near the



   Louisville Water Company intake.



d. There was little lateral mixing between the



   Louisville Sewage Treatment Plant effluent and



   the Ohio River.  Settleable solids formed a



   sludge bank along the Kentucky shore that was



   estimated to be 100 feet wide, 6 inches deep



   and 7-5 miles long.



e. Kinds of stream bed animals decreased from 8 to



   3 in the 7 mile reach bracketing Louisville,



   Kentucky; slime growths, Sphaerotilus natans,



   were attached to the river bottom and floated in



   the water along the Kentucky shore downstream



   from the Louisville sewage treatment plant; the



   number of pollution tolerant stream bed organisms



   was greatest along the Kentucky shore of the Ohio




   River.



f. Historically, during a 191U--1915 survey, 56 percent



   of the bottom organisms downstream from the

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   Louisville treatment plant were not tolerant



   towards organic wastes.  Behind McAlpine Dam,



   the bottom organism population and composition



   is now essentially unchanged from that found



   in 191^-1915'  Now, increased organic pollu-



   tion, over that present in 1915, is indicated



   in the 5-mile reach downstream from the



   Louisville treatment plant because no bottom



   organisms were found that were sensitive to



   organic wastes.



g. Stream bed animal kinds were reduced from 7 up-



   stream to k downstream from the discharge of



   Olln Mathieson Chemical Corporation at Branden-



   burg, Kentucky.  Pollution tolerant bottom



   organisms along the Kentucky bank increased from



   54 to 75 per square foot.  A maximum population



   of 290 sludgeworms per square foot was present 5



   miles downstream from Brandenburg (Station 7)•



   Along the Kentucky bank for 20 miles, pollution



   tolerant sludgeworms were more numerous downstream



   from the Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation than



   upstream.

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                8


n.  Channel catfish held in cages for 2 days

    and submitted frozen to professional taste

    panelists were used to assess the degree of

    off-flavor acquired in the exposed time

    period.  This test established the presence

    (X) of both off-flavor and acute toxicity as

    determined from test fish mortalities in cages.


                                       Off-
                                      Flavor  Toxicity

    1.  Mead Container Wastes,          x        x
         Louisville, Ky.

    2.  Louisville Sewage Treat-        „
         ment Plant Effluent

    3.  Reynolds Metals Company                  „
         Wastes, Louisville, Ky.

    k.  E. I. duPont de Nemours and
         Co. Wastes, Louisville,
         Ky.                            XX

    5-  American Synthetic Rubber
         Corp., Louisville,             X
         Ky.

    6.  Stauffer Chemical Company,
         Louisville, Ky.                XX

    7.  Olin Mathieson Chemical
         Corp., Brandenburg,            X        X
         Ky.

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2.  Municipal wastes from the Owensboro, Kentucky



    Sewage Treatment Plant increased the total and



    fecal coliform densities downstream from the



    waste discharge.



3.  Hear the Evansvllle, Indiana water intake the



    total coliform density had a geometric mean of



    27,700 MP/100 ml; calculations indicate that



    Louisville, Kentucky was the source of U9 percent



    of these coliform bacteria and that Owensboro was



    the source of 51 percent.  Pathogenic Salmonella



    were isolated near the Bvansville water supply in-



    take.



h.  The Salt River, tributary to the Ohio River between



    Louisville and Brandenburg, Kentucky, was extremely



    polluted at its mouth.  It supported only 3 kinds of



    bottom organisms, 92 percent of which were pollution-



    tolerant.  Geometric mean total and fecal coliform



    densities at the mouth were 1,6^0,000 MF/100 ml and



    112,000 MF/100 ml respectively.

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                     STANDARDS VIOLATIONS






1.  The State of Indiana aquatic life standard states,  "There




    shall be no substances which impart unpalatable flavor to




    food fish, or result in noticeable offensive  odors  in the




    vicinity of the water .... at any point in the stream




    except for areas immediately adjacent to outfalls.   In such




    areas, cognizance vill be given to opportunities for the




    admixture of waste effluents with river water." The off-




    flavor of fish caused by discharges in the Louisville and




    Brandenburg areas was present in the Ohio River for 190




    miles, thus negating the exclusion clause.




         Wastes from Mead Container, Louisville sewage  treat-




    ment plants, E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, American




    Synthetic Rubber Corporation, Stauffer Chemical Company, and



    Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, contribute off-flavors




    to fish, making them unpalatable.




2.  Both Indiana and Kentucky have minimal water  quality standards




    applicable to all waters at all places and at all times.  These




    are:




    a.  "Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial  or




        other discharges or agricultural practices that will settle  to




        form putrescent or otherwise objectionable sludge deposits."






                              10

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                    11





       Sludge deposits were found  downstream from the



    Louisville sewage treatment plant.  This condition



    should be corrected upon completion of plant alter-



    ations .



b.  "Free from floating debris, oil, scum and other



    floating materials attributable to municipal, in-



    dustrial or other discharges or agricultural



    practices in amounts sufficient to be unsightly or



    deleterious."



       Discharges of the wastes from the American Syn-



    thetic Rubber Corporation contained or produced



    floating pieces of "sponge rubber" material.



c.  "Free from materials attributable to municipal, in-



    dustrial or other discharges or agricultural practices



    producing color, odor or other conditions in such



    degree as to create a nuisance."



       This standard was violated by the discharges of



    Mead Container, Louisville sewage treatment plant,



    E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company, American Synthetic



    Rubber Corporation, Stauffer Chemical Company, and Olin



    Mathieson Chemical Corporation.  Channel catfish were



    unpalatable downstream beyond the  immediate vicinity



    of these  discharges.

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                    12






d.  "Free from substances attributable to municipal,



    industrial or other discharges or agricultural



    practices in concentrations or combinations vhich



    are toxic or harmful to human, animal, plant or



    aquatic life."



       The discharges from Mead Container, Reynolds



    Metals Company, E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company,



    Stauffer Chemical Company and Olin Mathieson Chemical



    Corporation were toxic to fish in U8 hours at least



    300 feet downstream from the respective discharges.

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                  IHTRODUCTION


       This report IB based on a field survey conducted

at the request of, and in cooperation with, the Ohio

Basin Region, *Pederal Water Pollution Control Admini-

stration, from October 2 to 13, 1967 and fish studies

which continued until January, 1969.

       The study was primarily designed:  (l)  to deter-

mine the bacteriological quality of the Ohio River and

the waste sources causing high coliform densities from

the Louisville, Kentucky - New Albany, Indiana metro-

politan area to Evansville, Indiana; (2) to determine the

probable causes of reported fish flesh tainting; and (3)

to determine existing water quality.  Biochemical oxygen

demand, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, and the plant

nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus, were determined and

assessments of the bacteriological and biological condi-

tions were made.
*throughout this report reference is made to Federal Water
 Pollution Control Administration which is now the Federal
 Water Quality Administration.
                      13

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         WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND WATER USES


       Both Indiana and Kentucky have submitted water quality

standards to the Department of the Interior under provisions

contained in the Water Quality Act of 1965 (P.L. 89-23^,33

U.S.C. U66 g).  Those of Indiana (Appendix A) for the Ohio

River have been approved by the Secretary; Kentucky's (Appendix

B) have been approved vith exceptions.

       The present standards of both states for various water

uses are basically the criteria proposed by the Ohio River Water

Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), as revised, in May, 1967.  The

ORSANCO water quality criteria are currently under revision.

These revisions may lead to standards modifications by the states

along the Ohio River so that all the standards are consistent and

in agreement.  The present Indiana and Kentucky standards for

recreation and aquatic life are used in this report (Table l).

For aquatic life, minimum DO's of 5 mg/1 during at least 16 hours

a day, with an absolute minimum of 3 mg/1 are specified.*  Stream

temperatures have maximum limits of 93  F in summer with Indiana

specifying 60  F in winter and Kentucky 73  F.   Bacteriological

standards* for recreational uses differ:  Indiana differentiates

between partial and whole body contact recreation, while Kentucky


  *Water quality criteria currently under consideration for
   revision by ORSANCO.


                           Ik

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                           TABLE 1

                        Comparison of

               Indiana & Kentucky Aquatic Life
                            and
                Recreation Standards for the
                         Ohio River
 Constituent
     or
Determination
      INDIANA
   KENTUCKY
Dissolved Oxygen
    pH
Temperature
Coliform bac-
teria
(partial body
 contact)

Colifonn bac-
teria
(body contact)
Not less than 5.0 mg/1
16 hrs. of any 2*4-hr.
period.  Not less than
3.0 mg/1 at any time.

Limited to pH 6.0 -
9.0 units, preferably
between pH 6.5 - 8.5
units.

Not to exceed 93* F.
during April through
November; not to ex-
ceed 60* F. December
through March.
Average density not
to exceed 5,000 per
100 ml.
Average density not
to exceed 1,000 per
100 ml.
                                                   Same
Limited to pH 5.0 -
9.0 units, prefer-
ably between pH
6.5 - 8.5 units.

Not to exceed 93" F.
during May through
November; not to ex-
ceed 73' F. during
December through
April.

      None
   specified
      Same

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                           15
has a single recreation standard.  The Kentucky recreation

standard of an average 1,000 total conforms per 100 ml is the

same as the Indiana body contact recreation standard.  Indiana

limits the coliform group to 5,000 per 100 ml for partial "body

contact recreation.

       The State of Indiana has classified the vaters of the

Ohio River for a warm-water fishery, agricultural uses,   body

contact recreation, and industrial and public water supplies.

The Commonwealth of Kentucky adopted a similar classification

with the exception of recreation.  Kentucky ". .  deferred

designation of the application of the recreation standards at

this time as it applies to the Ohio River."*
*   Anon., Report on Water Quality Criteria and Plan for
    Implementation.  Main Stem of the Ohio River and the
    Kentucky Tributary Basin Excluding the Waters of the
    Kentucky, Salt and Green Rivers," Kentucky Water
    Pollution Control Commission, December, 1966.

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                        THE AREA.






       The Ohio River originates with the confluence of the



Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,



and flows south-westerly for 981 miles to Cairo, Illinois,



where it Joins the Mississippi River.  It forms portions of



the boundaries between the states of Ohio and West Virginia;



Ohio and Kentucky; Indiana and Kentucky; and Illinois and



Kentucky.



       From the headwaters to the mouth, the riverbed eleva-



tion drops U29 feet  (about O.hh ft/mile).  Generally the river



width varies from less than one-quarter mile, between Pitts-



burgh, Pennsylvania and Wheeling, West Virginia, to about one



mile upstream from McAlpine Dam.



       The river is channelized from the headwaters to the mouth.



The original system of ^6 locks and dams is being replaced by a



new system of 19 new high level locks and dams.  Primary pur-



poses of the new dams are to improve navigation on the river



by increasing the channel depth, reduce the number of lockages



required between shipping points, and provide for larger locks



to accommodate increased tow sizes.  At the time of the survey,



two dams were under construction in the survey reach; McAlpine
                          16

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Dam at Louisville had already been completed.




       The river is used extensively for public and industrial




water supply, navigation, water-related recreation, commercial




fishing, and waste disposal.   Commercial barges transport




materials to cities located along the main stem and larger




tributaries.  Pleasure boating, especially during the cummer




months, has increased markedly since 19^-5-




       The 191-mile reach of the river considered in this




report extends from Louisville, Kentucky, to Evansville,




Indiana (Figure l).  This reach of the river forms a state




boundary with Indiana to the north and Kentucky to the south.




Six existing low level dams and two high level dams under con-



struction are located here.




       Major tributaries entering the Ohio River in this reach




are the Salt River and the Green River.  The Salt River enters




about 2^ miles downstream from McAlpine Dam.  The Green River




joins the Ohio River about seven miles upstream from the Evans-




ville Water Works intake.  The Green River is the larger tribu-




tary; it is channelized and supports commercial barge traffic.

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                 V)
             Q  LU
o
D
I-
2
ID

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                         18
       The reach is characterized as a series of pools



interspaced with high velocity currents that result in a



number of different bottom habitat types.  These habitats



range from fine silts in the slack vater areas to coarse



sands and gravels in the river's center, with clay or



bedrock along the river banks.  The diverse assemblage of



aquatic life is climaxed in an abundant fish population



supporting a fishery that is enjoyed by thousands each year.

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                   METHODS OF STUDY






CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEY



       The study reach was divided into two sections of about



equal lengths; the upstream section consisted of stations 0-1



through 0-13; and the downstream section was comprised of



stations 0-1^ through 0-30.  These 31 stations included the



Louisville sewage treatment plant effluent (0-2), the Salt



River (0-4A), the Green River (G-28), and the Owensboro treat-



ment plant effluent (0-23) (Appendix P).



       Samples from each station, with the exception of stations



0-2 and 0-23, were scheduled for collection twice daily for 10



days.  The two daily sampling runs were scheduled to start at



daybreak and late morning.  The direction of sample collection



was alternated between downstream and upstream throughout each of



the two survey reaches to obtain samples from each station at



various times throughout the day.



       Automatic samplers installed at the Owensboro and Louisville



sewage treatment plants collected 24-hour composite samples of



plant effluents for chemical analyses.  Grab samples of the treat-



ment plant effluents were collected for coliform tests twice daily.



       Since a lack of lateral mixing was suspected, sampling



stations 0-3, OA, 0-6, 0-19, 0-22, 0-2U, and 0-29 were sampled






                          19

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                           ao






at quarter points (3 points per cross section) and composited



into a single sample.  Single mid-channel samples were col-



lected from the remaining stations because the distance down-



stream from waste discharges or tributaries was sufficient to



ensure adequate lateral mixing.



        Samples were analyzed for:



        a.  Temperature



        b.  pH



        c.  Total coliform



        d.  Fecal coliform



        e.  Salmonella (from "swabs"  recovered  from 10 selected stations)



        f.  Dissolved Oxygen



        g.  BOD (2-day and 5-day at each station; at selected



            stations using the HH. Cl carbonaceous test and 2



            sets for 20-day BOD's)



        h.  Nitrogen Series (N0~*, total organic and NH,)



        i.  Phosphorus Series (total and soluble)



        j.  Total and volatile suspended solids



        k.  Turbidity



        1.  Conductivity



        Samples for coliform bacteria and dissolved oxygen



analyses were collected on each sampling run, i.e., two samples

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per station per day.  Samples for other analyses vere collected



once each day and the time of collection was alternated between



morning and afternoon.




       Separate samples were collected for DO, bacteria, and



chemical analyses.  The DO and chemical samples were collected



at a depth of 5 feet and the bacteriological samples were col-



lected near the surface.  All samples were iced in dark coolers



to eliminate sunlight effects.  Temperature, pH and specific



conductance were determined immediately after sample collection.



A summary of the chemical and bacteriological data is contained



in Appendix H.



       Two mobile laboratories were located at the Louisville,



Kentucky, sewage treatment plant.  Analyses of samples from the



upstream section were analyzed in these laboratories.  The samples



from the downstream section were analyzed at the Evansville,



Indiana, Field Station Laboratories.  Dissolved oxygen, BOD, pE,



turbidity, and collform analyses were conducted when the samples



were delivered to the laboratories.  Samples were preserved for



later determination of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids.






BIOLOGICAL STUDY



       The biological field survey was also conducted October 2 -



13, 1967.  Ninety-one Petersen dredge samples were collected with

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                          2S




three samples taken along a river cross-section.  Seventy-



four surface water samples were collected for algal nutrient



analyses and 28 for phytoplankton counts.  Twenty-four bottom



sediment samples were collected to determine phosphorus, or-



ganic nitrogen and organic carbon.  At 7 locations in the



Louisville area, the rate of oxygen demand by the sediment



was determined with an in-situ respirometer.



       To determine the compounds contaminating the fish tissue,



catfish were purchased from fishermen at Utica, Indiana, West



Point, Kentucky, and Leavenworth, Indiana.  These fish were



held in recirculating water which passed through an activated



carbon absorption filter.



       In May 1968, a new series of investigations were begun.



Channel catfish from Lake Erie were purchased from a live fish



dealer and placed in flowing well water ponds for four weeks.



The fish were then transported to Louisville, Kentucky and placed



in metal mesh baskets at various sites in the Ohio River.



Following a five day exposure period, the fish were removed from



the baskets, filleted, tagged and frozen with dry ice.  The fish



were then shipped to a professional taste panel at Oregon State



University in Corvallis, Oregon for rating as to the degree of



off-flavor and desirability.

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                           23




       In July, 1968, a cooperative investigation involving



the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, the State of



Kentucky, the State of West Virginia Bureau of Commercial



Fisheries, and the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration



was undertaken to determine the degree of off-flavor of fish



throughout the entire Ohio River.  Samples were placed at lock



and dam sites to obtain results on the general off-flavor trend



of fish rather than specific causative effluents.   To determine



if catfish held in cages would be contaminated with the same



degree of off flavor as native fish, native channel catfish were



captured from four of the test sites.  All of the test fish from



this investigation were quick frozen whole and flown to the Bureau



of Commercial Fisheries Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan for taste



panel testing.  The taste panel at the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries



Laboratory was used during this portion of the study because this



was a cooperative study.



       A third test was conducted in October, 1968, which included



32 sites extending from Pittsburgh to Cairo, with 16 of the sites



in the Louisville area.  The fish from this study were frozen whole



and shipped to Ann Arbor for taste evaluation.  Sample fish from



the intensive Louisville study were split so that fish from the



same sample basket were sent to both Corvallis, Oregon and Ann



Arbor, Michigan for taste and odor evaluation.

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                    SOURCES OF WASTES






       Using the Indiana and Kentucky inventories to augment



visits to the various plants, an estimate vas made of the dis-



charged municipal vaste strength in the reach from Louisville,



Kentucky, to Evansville, Indiana (Table 2).  This inventory was



revieved by both Indiana and Kentucky.



       Of the eight municipalities discharging sevage to the



river from Kentucky, tvo have no treatment while six provide



primary treatment.  Nine municipalities discharge to the river



from Indiana with eight providing primary and one secondary



treatment.  Kentucky sewage represents 85.8 percent of the total



sewered population within the study reach.  Discharges from both



states represent a sewered population of 555*200; the discharged



wastes had a bacterial population equivalent of 2,952,000 and a



BOD population equivalent of 717,350.



       It was estimated that of the coliform bacterial population



equivalents discharged to the Ohio River from municipal sources,



Louisville, Kentucky, contributed 90 percent and Owensboro, Kentucky



9.6 percent (Table 2).  These two communities together were re-



sponsible for 99-6 percent of the coliform bacteria discharged by



municipal waste sources.

-------
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-------
                      WATER QUALITY






AESTHETICS



       Webster's Unabridged Dictionary defines aesthetics as



"... the theories of beauty, its essential character, the



tests by which it may be recognized or judged, and its char-



acteristic relation to or effect upon the human mind."  The



appearance of pollution and the fear of pollution detract from



aesthetic values.  The knowledge that water is clean enhances



aesthet ic apprec iat ion.



       The standards submitted by Indiana and Kentucky under



the Federal Water Quality Act of 19^5 stipulate requirements



to maintain aesthetically pleasing waters.  Among other things,



these standards prohibit waste discharges that settle to form



putrescent or otherwise objectionable deposits; that cause un-



sightly or deleterious amounts of floating debris, oil, scum and



other floating materials; that produce color, odor or other con-



ditions in such degree as to create a nuisance; and which are



toxic or harmful to human, animal, plant or aquatic life.



       The Louisville sewage treatment plant discharge is readily



visible at normal pool stages.  On calm days, an objectionable



"sewage slick" can be seen for as far as one mile downstream






                            25

-------
                          26
along the Kentucky bank of the river.  The typical "musty" odor



of domestic sevage is also evident.  Along the Kentucky shore,



a sludge bank, partially composed of unremoved sevage particles,



produces odors and reduces severely the River's aesthetic value.



       Farther downstream, exposed industrial wastes and



cooling water outfalls are located high on the banks.  Wastes



enter the river by flowing directly down the banks or in flumes.



Foamy waste discharges created unsightly billows of foam on the



river and accentuated the aesthetically unpleasing situation.



       Unpleasant tastes and odors in fish taken from the Ohio



River make the river less desirable for the recreational pursuit



of fishing.






LATERAL MIXING



       The low velocity in the Ohio River during the low flow



periods and the resultant low turbulence level does not cause



effective lateral mixing of waste discharges.  This lack of



lateral mixing makes the selection of sample points on a cross



section difficult to properly locate.  A theoretical analysis of



lateral mixing was made downstream from Louisville (Appendix C).



Limited field data which were collected in the Owensboro-Evansville

-------
                           87



reach in October, 1968 illustrated the effects from low lateral



mixing rates (Appendix E).



       The results obtained from the theoretical analysis and



field observations confirmed that multiple point sampling is



required.



       In certain situations it is possible that the entire waste



load might be missed by not sampling properly.  The possibility of



this situation has been demonstrated downstream from Owensboro



(Appendix E).   Sampling problems because of the lack of lateral



mixing also undoubtedly occur in the Louisville reach.



       Lateral mixing should occur as the river flow is forced



through relatively small areas in passing the wicket dams.   At



low flow, most of the water would pass through the bear traps



which causes turbulence and mixing.






FLOW



       During low flows when the Ohio River is in pool condition,



flow measurement is difficult because of the low water velocities



that occur.  Flow estimates are available from the U.  S. Geological



Survey, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U. S. Weather Bureau



at various locations along the river.  Louisville, Kentucky,  and



Evansville, Indiana, are two such locations.

-------
       Available flow estimates for McAlpine Dam during the

survey period are presented in Appendix Table D-l.  The flow

used for Louisville was ^6,200 cfs as determined by the

Geological Survey.

       The flow estimate used for Evansville was 50,780 cfs.

This flow was determined from drainage area yield factors

(Appendix Table D-2) and was checked, approximately, by calcu-

lations using the Geological Survey rating curve for this station.*

Geological Survey flow data were used for the Green and Salt

Rivers.

       Table 3 shows the average flows during the October 2-13,

1967 survey period and the low 30-day flows with an average re-

currence frequency of once in 10 years.  Comparison of the

survey period with the 30-day low flows** indicates that the

study was not conducted during a drought period.  Flows averaged

3 to k times the drought flows.
  *The rating curve is not within the accuracy standards of the
   Geological Survey at low flows.   Five day average flows are
   published for this station in the water supply papers.

 **Anon., "Hydrology of the Ohio River Basin," Appendix C, Ohio
   River Basin Comprehensive Survey, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers,
   Ohio River Division, Cincinnati, Ohio  (August, 1966).

-------
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-------
TEMPERATURE



       Average water temperatures were 20  C at Louisville and



19  C at Evansville.  These temperatures were lower than those



that occurred during the mid-summer months of July and August,



but were still representative of warm-weather conditions.






TIME OF WATER TRAVEL



       Data for the Biochemical Oxygen Demand test and colifonn



bacteria have been graphed using time of water travel rather



than river mile.  This procedure illustrates data in a more



orderly way than plotting concentration versus distance and



shows the actual time associated relationships among the data-



Both river mile location and time of travel downstream from the



Louisville sewage treatment plant are given in the tables for



BOD and coliform bacteria.  The method used to calculate time of



travel is present in Appendix D.





BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)



Analyses Performed



       Daily analyses for 2- and 5-day BOD16 were made on samples



from all 31 stations.  This information was used to calculate the



reaction rate and the ultimate first stage or carbonaceous BOD for




each station.

-------
                           30


       Two sets of 20-day BOD's were run at selected stations

to demonstrate the applicability of calculating the ultimate

first stage BOD from the 2- and 5-day BOD data.

The 20-day BOD data were also used as a qualitative estimate of

the second stage or nitrogenous BOD.

       To evaluate the second stage or nitrogenous BOD, the

total organic, ammonia, and nitrate forms of nitrogen were de-

termined.  It was postulated that the decrease in concentration

of the total organic plus ammonia nitrogen would "be equivalent

to a decrease in the ultimate nitrogenous BOD when converted to

an oxygen equivalent. *   This postulation assumes that nitrogen

fixation from the atmosphere and denitrification of oxidized

nitrogen compounds is absent.


Results

        The ultimate first and second stage BOD's of the river

samples were calculated from the standard 2- and 5-day BOD and

nitrogen data (Table k, Figure 2).
       McMichael, F. C. and J. E. McKee, "Wastewater
       Reclamation at Whittier Narrows," State of California
       Water Quality Control Board, Pub. No. 33, 1966.

-------
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-------
                           31
       To obtain the ultimate first stage BOD, the oxidation




rates (k..) from the 2- and 5-day 30D results were calculated




for each station.  The individual rates were plotted against




river time of travel (Figure 3).  The indicated line was fitted




by the method of least squares.  From this graph, it was noted




that the k, rates decreased in the downstream direction.  The




k. rates taken from this line were vsed to calculate the \ilti-




mate first stage BOD's for the various stations.  The k. rates




determined by this procedure varied from a maximum of 0.1'iB per




day at Louisville to 0.060 per day at Bvansville.




       The profiles show the ultimate carbonaceous and ultimate




nitrogenous BOD concentrations in the river (Figure 2).  The




total ultimate BOD is the sum of these two curves.  Increases in




BOD concentrations because of waste loads and tributary inflow




are shown with broken lines or as sharp breaks in the curves where




the loads enter the river.   BOD loads are indicated for




the Louisville, Kentucky-Few Albany, Indiana, Metropolitan Area;




the Olin Mathieson Chemicals Division Plant at Brandenburg,




Kentucky; the Owensboro, Kentucky, Metropolitan Area; and the




Green River.

-------
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        Average 5-day BOD's were low and ranged from 2.4 mg/1



in McAlpine Pool to 0.9 mg/1 125 miles downstream at station



0-l8.   The concentration near the Evansville Water Works in-



take was 1.4 mg/1.





Tributary Streams



       Salt River



        The Salt River, which receives sewage discharges from



the U. S. Army Post at Ft. Knox, Ky. and several subdivisions



in the Louisville area, enters the Ohio River 17-9 miles down-



stream from the Louisville sewage treatment plant.  The 5-day



BOD near the mouth of the stream was 2.1 mg/1.  This concen-



tration was close to that found in the Ohio River and was prob-



ably affected by backwater from the Ohio River.



       Green River



         The 2- and 5-day BOD in the Green River indicated a



low rate of oxygen demand satisfaction.  The calculated Tit-



rate of 0.037 per day is indicative of either toxicity or oxi-



dation of complex compounds, either from natural or man-made



sources.  The increase in ultimate first-stage BOD in the Ohio



River downstream from the confluence with the Green River



(from 2.k mg/1 to 3-1 mg/l) possibly indicated toxicity which



is removed by dilution in the Ohio River, or possibly the Green



River furnished a critical nutrient deficient in the Ohio River



allowing further oxidation to proceed.

-------
                           33





DISSOLVED OXYGEN



       The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations at all sample



stations in the Ohio River during the October 196? survey vere



greater than the Indiana and Kentucky standards of not less



than 5.0 mg/1 for 16 hours in any 2lj—hour period and not less



than 3-0 mg/1 at any time (Table k, Figure 1)-).  The lowest



average DO of 5.9 mg/1 and the lowest minimum DO of 5.0 mg/1



for an entire cross section occurred at station 0-1 upstream



from McAlpine Dam near the Louisville Water Company municipal



intake.  The sluggish, deep waters lying behind McAlpine Dam



have a low water velocity and consequently a lower rate of re-



aeration than the pools behind the low head wicket dams down-



stream.  This fact combined with oxygen demands of residual BOD



from upstream and from the bottom muds accounted for the lover



DO's at this station.



       Downstream from McAlpine Dam, comparison of the average



DO concentrations at the Indiana quarter point with that at the



Kentucky quarter point, showed the concentration on the Kentucky



side to be "L.k mg/1 less than that on the Indiana side at station



0-3, 6 miles downstream from the Louisville sewage treatment plant,




and 1.9 mg/1 less at station 0-^, 13.7 miles downstream from the

-------
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-------
Louisville sewage treatment plant (Figure 5)«  The Kentucky



quarter point stations had minimum DO concentrations of ^.8



mg/1 at both stations 0-3 and 0-^.



        The large differences in DO observed at the quarter



points at stations 0-3 and OA are due to a lack of lateral



mixing of the oxygen demanding waste discharges from the



Louisville sewage treatment plant and non-sewered Louisville



industries with the flow of the Ohio River.  These wastes flow



along the Kentucky shore of the river for several miles and



reduce the DO (see Appendix C  for discussion of lateral mixing).



Oxygen demanding materials in the sludge bank along the Kentucky



shoreline in this same reach also reduced the dissolved oxygen.



This latter effect magnified the oxygen reduction owing to the



oxygen demanding waste discharges alone.



        Quarter point sampling was not used at station 0-5 lo-



cated 21.5 miles downstream from the Louisville sewage treatment



plant because adequate mixing of waste effluents from the Louis-



ville, Kentucky-New Albany area with the Ohio River should have



occurred following passage ortr DBA Ho. k$.



       In the Owensboro, Kentucky, reach, average DO concen-



trations increased from 7«3 mg/1 at 0-22 upstream from the city

-------
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-------
                            35




to 7.9 mg/1 at station 0-2U downstream from the city waste dis-



charges.  Reaeration of the river at Dam No. k6 in Owensboro



accounted for the increase.



       Average dissolved oxygen concentrations in the reach from



Owensboro, Kentucky, to Evansville,  Indiana, were betveen 7.9



mg/1 and 8.2 mg/1.  The average DO at the Evansville Water Works



intake was 8.1 mg/1.






Tributary Streams



    Salt River





       The Salt River, receiving subdivision and other domestic



wastes as well as being affected by backwater from the Ohio River,



had DO concentrations at the mouth that averaged k.J mg/1 with a



minimum of ^.2 mg/1.  With the small flow in the Salt River,  no



adverse effects on DO were noted in the Ohio River 3.^- miles down-



stream at station 0-5-



    Green River




       The DO concentrations at the mouth of the Green River aver-



aged 7.6 mg/1 with a minimum of 7.2 mg/1; this was only 0.6 mg/1



less than the Ohio River and caused no detectable effect on the



DO of the Ohio River.

-------
                           36


BACTERIAL POLLUTION

        Sewage contains "bacteria of the coliform group that

typically occur in the fecal discharges of humans as veil as

all other warm-blooded animals.  Bacterial results "based on

the entire coliform group (total coliforms) do have a dis-

advantage as an indicator of fecal pollution "because several

species of the group may come from sources other than sewage.

To augment the total coliform test, a more specific test to

identify and enumerate coliforms of fecal origin is used

(fecal coliforms).  This test measures coliform "bacteria of

fecal origin with a high degree of reliability.

       Densities of "both total and fecal coliforms are generally

reported as the number per 100 milliliters of water (about 1/2

cup).  Depending on the method of analysis used, coliforms are

reported as a most probable number (MPTl) for the multiple tube

technique, or as an actual colony count for the membrane filter (MF)

technique.  The membrane filter technique was used for all coli-

form determinations during this study.

       Recently, a technique for qualitatively insolating
                                          4.
Salmonella from water has been developed.     All Salmonella

   4t
       Spino, D.F., "Elevated-Temperature Technique for the
       Isolation of Salmonella from Streams," Appl. Microbiol.,
       Vol. Ik,

-------
                          37





are intestinal pathogens to man to some degree.  This test is



used to determine when a definite pathogenic bacterial group



may be present in the waters.  The source of Salmonella would



be the fecal discharges of infected persons and other warm-



blooded animals which enter the water primarily through sewage



discharges.





Observed Coliform Densities



     The geometric means, the 80 percent confidence limits of



the data, and the percentage of the coliform group that were



specifically of fecal origin are listed in Table 5 and plotted



in Figures 6, 1, and 8.



     Station 0-1 located near the Louisville Water Company



municipal water intake, was selected as a control station and



to indicate bacteriological conditions upstream from Louisville



in the lover pool areas behind McAlpine Dam.  The station also



indicated the bacteriological conditions in the raw water used



by the city for the survey period.  The geometric mean total



coliform density at this station was l,$t-0 MF/100 ml.  The



fecal coliform density was 130 MF/100 ml or 7.9 percent of the



total coliform density.  The Indiana body contact recreation



standard of 1,000 MF/100 ml total coliforms was violated at this



station.

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                          38
       Downstream from Me Alpine Dam the treated sewage discharges



from Jeffersonville, Clarksville and New Albany, Indiana, and



from Louisville, Kentucky enter the Ohio River.  In the Louis-



ville sewage treatment plant discharge (Station 0-2), the geo-



metric mean densities were 63,700,000 per 100 ml total coliforms



with IT.k percent or 11,100,000 per 100 ml fecal coliforms.



       The highest mean densities measured downstream from the



Louisville area occurred at station 0-3, 0.2 day travel time



downstream.  Densities were 7^0,000 per 100 ml total coliforms



and 89,000 per 100 ml fecal coliforms.



       Continuing downstream from the Louisville metropolitan



area, total and fecal coliform densities exhibited a generally



decreasing pattern (Figures 6 and 7)-  The percentage of fecal



coliforms also decreased (Figure 8).  Several small communities



discharged treated and untreated wastes betveen Louisville and



Owensboro, Kentucky, but their effects were masked by the high



residual coliform densities from the Louisville metropolitan



area, the variation in density in the river, and the high dilution



afforded by river flows in excess of U6,000 cfs.



       At station 0-22 located upstream from Owensboro, Kentucky,



but 1^4-0.8 miles and 5-7 days travel time downstream from the

-------
                            39
Louisville sewage treatment plant, the geometric mean total



coliform density had decreased to 15,600 MF/100 ml.  Fecal



coliforms were k-5 percent of the total coliforms and had a



geometric mean of 700 MF/100 ml.  Even at this great distance



downstream from Louisville, the total coliforms exceeded the



1,000 MF/100 ml Indiana bacteriological standard for body con-



tact sports by 15-6 times and the 5,000 MF/100 ml Indiana and



Kentucky general recreation standard and public water supply



standard by 3 times.



       The coliform density pattern downstream from the Owens-



boro sewage treatment plant discharge was not fully defined



during the October, 1967 survey.  The effect from this effluent



was not detected until the river passed over Dam kj.



       The results from a survey in October, 1968 showed the



poor lateral mixing downstream from Owensboro and indicated the



total and fecal coliform pattern (Appendix E).



       The geometric mean total and fecal coliform densities



for the October, 1967 survey were 27,700 MF/100 ml and 1,010



MF/100 ml respectively, at station 0-JO near the Evansville



Water Works Intake.  This station was i.k days travel time

-------
downstream from Owensboro and approximately 7.5 days travel



time downstream from Louisville.



       Calculations for total coliforms (based on Figure 6)



for station 0-30 indicate that of the total coliform density



of 27,700 MF/100 ml, about 13,500 MF/100 ml or 14-8.7 percent



was from sources upstream from Owensboro and primarily from



the Louisville area; and about 14,200 MF/100 ml or 51-3 percent



was from the Owensboro area.  Calculations for fecal coliforms



indicated a similar distribution.



       The total coliform densities at station 0-30 violated



the 5,000 MF/100 ml Indiana and Kentucky standards for domestic



water supply sources and for general recreation by 5.5 times.



The 1,000 MF/100 ml Indiana body contact recreation standard was



violated by 27.7 times.






Tributary Streams



    Salt River



       The Salt River contained extremely high total and fecal



coliform densities.  The geometric mean total coliform density



was 1,640,000 MF/100 ml; fecal coliforms were 6.8 percent of the



total coliforms and had a geometric mean density of 112,000 MF/



100 ml.  The principal sources of these coliforms were sewage

-------
discharges from housing subdivisions and backwater from the



Ohio River.  The effects of these high coliform densities



were not noted in the Ohio River because of the low flow in



the Salt River compared to that of the Ohio River.



    Green River



        Total and fecal coliform densities observed in the



Green River were relatively low.  The geo metric mean total



coliform density was 520 MF/100 ml; fecal coliforms were



3.5 percent of the total coliforms and had a geometric mean



of 18 MF/100 ml.  No adverse effect on the bacteriological



quality of the Ohio River was observed downstream from the



confluence with the Green River.






Salmonella Isolation



       To determine the presence or absence of pathogenic



bacteria in the Ohio River, gauze "swabs" were placed at



selected stations for a period of five days to isolate Salmon-



ella,  an intestinal pathogenic group of bacteria.  Five sta-



tions were selected to represent bacteriological conditions



for a 33-7 river mile reach downstream from the sewage dis-



charges in the Louisville,  Kentucky-New Albany, Indiana, area.

-------
                            42




       In the Owensboro, Kentucky, to Evansville, Indiana, river




reach, five stations were also selected.




       Pathogenic Salmonella were isolated at 9 out of 10 sta-




 tions tested confirming the presence of pathogenic bacteria.





OTHER CONSTITUENTS AND DETERMINATIONS





PS



       The average pH1s varied from 7.3 units at Louisville to




7.6 units at Evansville.  This level indicates slightly alkaline




conditions, and is well within the limits of pH 5 - pH 9 for




aquatic life as specified by the proposed Kentucky standards




and the limits of pH 6 - pH 9 of Indiana.  The Green and Salt




Rivers were also slightly alkaline, with pH1s of 7«^ units and




7.8 units, respectively.






Specific Conductance




       The Indiana and Kentucky public water supply standards for




dissolved solids are a maximum of 500 mg/1 for a monthly average,



and not more than 750 mg/1 at any time.  The standards note that




these requirements are met by specific conductances of 800 and




1,200 micromhos per centimeter (junho/cm), respectively.




       Average specific conductances ranged between 520 jumho/cm




at Louisville to 550 jimho/cm at Evansville.  These levels were




less than the respective states'  standards.  The  Salt and Green




Rivers had average specific conductances of 530 umho/cm and




430 ^mho/cm respectively.

-------
Turbidity

        Average turbidity levels ranged from 13 Jackson Candle
                                                         \
Units (JCU) at Louisville in McAlpine Dam Pool to 38 JCU at

Evansville.  The Salt and Green Rivers likewise had low turbidities

averaging   15 JCU and 3U JCU, respectively.


Suspended Solids

       Average total suspended solids concentrations ranged

from 11 mg/1, downstream from Louisville, to a high of 3^ rag/1

at station 0-7, downstream from the Olin Mathieson Chemicals

Division Plant at Brandenburg, Kentucky.  In the vicinity of

the Evansville Water Works, the total suspended solids averaged

29 rag/1.

       Volatile solids made up 25 to 33 percent of the total

suspended solids, which is indicative of significant organic

content in the suspended solids.  The organic fraction would

include fecal particles contained in sewage, organic sludges

from industrial operations, plankton, and natural organics from

land drainage (leaf fragments, etc.).  The inorganic fraction

would consist of silty materials from land drainage or bottom

muds stirred "by gravel and dredging operations.

-------
       Final effluents from the Louisville and Owensboro,



Kentucky, sewage treatment plants which provide primary treat-



ment, contained average total suspended solids concentrations



of 122 mg/1 and 99 mg/1, respectively.   Volatile solids were



6l and 85 percent of the total suspended solids.  These con-




centrations were higher than the 15-20  mg/1 total suspended



solids usually found in effluents from  plants providing secondary



treatment.

-------
STREAM BED ORGANISMS AND PLANKTON





       The density and kinds of bottom-associated organisms



delineate the areas that vere polluted by waste discharges, and



the extent to which the "biological community has been altered.



Bottom organisms, because they lack extensive mobility, are



subjected to all environmental changes, and they react to these



changes with population changes in the bottom organism community.



       This biological study of the Louisville reach included



a review of data from stations that were sampled in 191^ and



1915.  The 191^ and 1915 results were expressed as numbers of



organisms per 200 ml of sediment sample.  In these years, the



area upstream from Louisville (RM 600.  O-l) had an average of



12 pollution-tolerant sludgeworms, 8 intermediately tolerant and



0 Intolerant organisms per 200 ml of sediment; in 1967, this same



area supported k- pollution-tolerant sludgeworms, 2 intermediately



tolerant midges and 1 Asiatic clam, and 0 intolerant organisms per



200 ml of sediment.  Though slightly fewer organisms were present



in 1967* "the satisfactory water quality has remained relatively



unchanged.



       Sediment samples upstream from Louisville contained O.l6



percent organic nitrogen and 3-50 percent organic carbon, indicating

-------
stabilized organic materials.  The dissolved oxygen content of


the overlying waters in this reach was decreased by the oxygen


consumption of the sludge at a rate of 0.75 grams oxygen per day

                             o
per square meter (gm 02/day/m ).  Because of the slack water


created by McAlpine Dam at Louisville, there was only a small


amount of dissolved oxygen added through reaeration.


      Pollution abatement has not kept pace with the expansion


of Louisville, Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana.  In 191U-1915


the station downstream from these pollutional sources supported 20


pollution-tolerant organisms and 25 other organisms per 200 ml of


sediment; in 19&7* only pollution-tolerant sludgeworms numbering


16 per 200 ml were found, indicating that only the more pollution-


tolerant organisms now survive 6 miles downstream from the waste


sources.


      Evidence of pollution downstream from Louisville and New


Albany is further indicated in Figure 9 by the decreased number of


kinds of organisms, from 8 upstream to 3 downstream from these


sources, and the increased number of tolerant sludgeworms from 38


to 76 per square foot downstream at RM 625.7  (0-^).  The "line of


degradation" in Figure 9 depicts where the number of kinds was

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reduced to less than 5 and the number of pollution-tolerant



organisms vas increased to 75 or greater per square foot.



When either the number of pollution-tolerant organisms is greater,



or the number of kinds is less than this "line of degradation,"



organic pollution is moderate.  When both the number of pollution-



tolerant organisms is greater than, and the number of kinds is less



than, the demarcation line, organic pollution is severe.  Organic



pollution may be extremely severe when the number of tolerant



organisms is less than the demarcation line.  This could occur



vhen the organic wastes are of sufficient strength to remove all



the dissolved oxygen; in the table this would be "heavy."




No. of Tolerant

   Organisms                 No. of Kinds                T ,.  ,  ,
_    ,  j_i_  T •            T^     n i   .i.i   T •             Indicated
Exceeds the Line          Drops Below the Line        ^    .  TT
	-	          	1	_	        Organic Wastes
   Yes	No                Yes	No	        _ ^	



    x                                  x                Light Load



    x                         x                         Medium Load


                              x                         Heavy Load



                                                       Toxic  Wastes



                                        x                  Light



                              x                            Heavy

-------
                              1*8


       These values are empirical for the Ohio River and were ob-

tained "by measuring the population of bottom animals in relatively

unpolluted areas upstream from Louisville and Owensboro, Kentucky,

versus values from polluted areas downstream from Louisville and

Brandenburg, Kentucky.

       Deposition of sludges along the Kentucky shore extended for

7.5 miles downstream from the Louisville sewage treatment plant.

The sludge bank averaged 100 feet wide with an average depth of

6 inches (maximum depth, 15 Inches).  Upstream from the sewage

treatment plant, oxygen demand rates were 0.7 compared to 6.1 gm
        P
Og/day/m  0.5 miles downstream from the plant within the confines of

the sludge deposit.  At EM 615 (2.5 miles downstream from the plant),

the rate had decreased to 5.3 and at EM 6l8 the rate was 3«0 gm Op/d-ay/

(Figure 10).  Based on an integrated rate, the total oxygen consumption

for the entire sludge bank was k,267,600 gm 0^ per day (9,^00 pounds).

Downstream from McAlpine Dam at Louisville, swift currents restricted

the deposition of sludge to the Kentucky shore.  The sludge at RM

6l8 (0-3) was 0.28 percent organic nitrogen, 5«1 percent organic

carbon, and 0.15 percent total phosphorus indicating that the

sewage solids in this sludge had been only partially

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oxidized and stabilized by the sewage treatment facilities.  No

sludge was observed 6 miles downstream at RM 625.7 (0-4); however,

petroleum products were found in the bottom sediments.  The low

value of 0.09 percent organic nitrogen, l.J percent organic carbon,

and 0.08 percent total phosphorus indicates the bottom materials

had been completely oxidized (Table 6).

      Another adverse condition caused by nutrients in wastes

discharged from the Louisville area was the growth of slimes,

principally Sphaerotilus natans.  These slime growths restrict

many stream bed organisms by covering their habitat and gillsj slimes

also lower the dissolved oxygen concentration in the overlying water.

Slimes covering rocks south of mid-channel at RM 615 had an oxygen
                                    ^
consumption rate of 12.1 gm Op/day/m .  Sphaerotilus natans was also

found in the plankton samples from RM 6l8 (0-3).  The slimes were

heaviest along the Kentucky bank downstream from the Louisville sewage

treatment plant.  Chunks of "foam rubber" were observed floating on

the Ohio River for several miles downstream from the American Synthetic

Rubber Corporation (RM 613.6).

      Plankton in the Ohio River at Louisville has been studied inter-

mittently during the past 50 years.  Conclusions drawn from these

surveys indicate that the Ohio River possesses a plankton population

-------
               TABLE 6

        Chemical Composition of
     Bottom Sediments,  Ohio River
(Louisville, Ky., to Evansville, Ind.)
Station Number
0-1
0-2
0-3
0-1*
0-UA
0-5
0-6
0-7
0-8
0-9
0-10
0-11
0-12
0-13
0-lU
0-15
0-16
0-17
0-18
0-19
0-20
Percent
Phosphorus
0.11
-
0.15
0.08
0.11
0.08
0.03
0.09
-
0.07
0.07
-
0.07
0.01*
-
-
0.02
0.08
-
0.07
_
Percent Organic
Nitrogen
0.16
-
0.28
0.09
0.21
0.10
0.09
0.19
-
0.19
0.15
-
0.09
0.21
-
-
0.12
0.20
-
0.13
_
Percent
Carbon
3-5
-
5.1
1.3
1.5
1.2
2.1
3-3
-
2.9
3.8
-
1.9
2.9
-
-
2.7
3-2
-
2.8
-

-------
TABLE 6 Continued
Station Number
0-21
0-22
0-2J
0-24
0-25
0-26
0-27
0-28
0-29
0-30
Percent
Phosphorus
0.08
-
-
0.08
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.02
Percent Organic
Nitrogen
0.15
-
•»
0.14
0.01
0.09
0.04
0.00
0.13
0.00
Percent
Carbon
1.8
-
-
3.2
0.6
3-3
1.4
< 0.3
1.5
< 0.3

-------
                                50


different from that of its tributaries.  An outstanding characteristic

of the Ohio River plankton was the presence of genera not prominent in

the plankton of its tributaries.  It was also concluded that stable

flows in the fall permitted heavy plankton production, including the

fall "pulse" of diatoms.  The numbers and concentrations of plankters

has remained relatively constant during the last 50 years. The slight

decrease in 19^7 was probably caused by natural fluctuations.  The

following summary lists available data in comparable units.

                 Vol. and Counts of Algal Populations
Year
Sept. -Oct. 'Ik
Aug. -Oct. '39
Oct. '67
KM
Vol.
(ppm)
2.36
-
0.i«-5
598 (st. o-i)
Total Count
(No. per ml)
-
1,228
900
KM 619
Vol.
(ppm)
I.fc8
-
0.2
(St. 0-3)
Total Count
(No. per ml)
-
2,107
650
      The plankton concentration in the Ohio River has remained

relatively low, thus minimizing this probable cause of taste and

odor problems in water supplies.  Low plankton concentrations

have been observed for 50 years which predates much of the industrial

development.  In Table 8 of "Aquatic Life Resources of the Ohio River"*


*  Anon.  1962.  Aquatic Life Resources of the Ohio River.  Ohio River
   Valley Water Sanitation Commission, Cincinnati, Ohio.   218 pp.

-------
                          51
a listing of the tastes and odors of Ohio River water at Louis-



ville, Kentucky, is presented for the period of October through



December 1958 (as reported by the Louisville Water Company).   This



table lists the number of days that reported algal associated



tastes and odors occurred along with the relative abundance of



plankton.  A summary from this table follows:



       1.  During October, algal associated odors were present



           6l percent of the days with abundant diatoms, green



           algae and blue-green algae.



       2.  During November, algal associated odors were present



           93 percent of days with abundant diatoms and green



           algae.



       3.  During December, algal associated odors were present



           29 percent of the days with diatoms and green algae



           being scarce.



This summary reveals a strong relationship between water supply



odors and the relative abundance of algae.  The percentage of days



when algal associated odors were present in the Louisville water



supply decreased when algal abundance decreased.



       The Analytical Quality Control Laboratory, Federal Water



Pollution Control Administration, examined 20 plankton samples

-------
collected at Louisville, Kentucky, during the period from



October 2, 1962 to August 19, 1963.  The river contained from



100 to 12,900 algae per milliliter, with extreme variability



in numbers at all seasons.  Algal nutrient data collected



during the 1967 survey shov that the major nutrient concen-



trations, inorganic nitrogen and soluble phosphorus, vere not



limiting.  The samples averaged 1.6 mg/1 inorganic N and 0.06



mg/1 soluble P at Louisville.  The assumption that these



nutrients, or turbidity, were not limiting is based on the



non-dependent relationship existing between algae and soluble



phosphorus, total phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen concentrations



and turbidity (Figures 11 to Ik).  That is, the number of



plankton did not increase as the concentrations of nutrients



increased and turbidity decreased.  During the October 196?



survey, the stations possessing higher nutrient concentrations



did not support a larger number of algae, likewise stations having



less turbidity did not support greater algal populations than the



more turbid stations.



       The Salt River enters the Ohio River downstream from the



Louisville sewage treatment plant discharge at West Point, Kentucky

-------






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                                53
(RM 629.9  0-4A).  The Salt River was extremely polluted; it
supported only 3 kinds of benthic organisms numbering 22U per
square foot of -which 209 were pollution-tolerant sludgevorms
(Table 7).  Pollution of this tributary was also confirmed by
the visible presence of petroleum products.
      Evidence of pollution was found downstream from Brandenburg,
Kentucky.  As shown in Figure 9> the population of tolerant
bottom organisms increased from an average of 20 per square foot
upstream from Brandenburg (RM $f5.7  0-6) to an average of 9^
downstream from Brandenburg (RM 650.8  0-7)»  The number of kinds
of organisms decreased from 7 to k at the respective stations.
This reach was polluted by the discharges from the Olin Mathieson
Chemical Corporation.
      Upstream from the Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation (0-5),
cross sectional sampling produced 3 intermediately pollution tolerant
midges per square foot near the Indiana shore, 10 midges at mid-
channel, and 1 midge, 8 intermediately tolerant clams and 32 pollution
tolerant sludge-worms per square foot near the Kentucky shore.  Two
miles downstream (0-6) from Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, cross
sactlcnal sampling showed an increase in pollution tolerant organisms
on the Kentucky side of the Ohio River.  The population of bottom

-------
                                           TABLE 7
                                    BOTTOM ORGANISM
                                    A.  Oenaral Supnury
                                  Ohio Rirtr -  October 1967
                                   number par Square Toot
Stl
0-2
0-2
0-3
0-3
0-3
0-k
0-k
0-k
0-5
0-5
0-5
0-6
0-6
0-6
0-7
0-7
0-7
0-8
0-8
0-9
0-9
0-9
0-10
O-1O
.4.. May- Caddis -
rtlon flies flies
Ind.
Ky.
Ind.
Mid.
Ky.
Ind.
Mid. . 10 5
Ky.
Ind.
Mid.
Ky.
Ind. - 12
Mid.
Ky.
Ind.
Mid .
Ky. - 2
Mid.
Ky.
Ind.
Mid. - 3
Ky.
Ind.
Ky.
Beetles Clams
3
-
2
-
-
2
2
5
-
-
7
3
-
5
-
2
-
2
-
3
1 l
-
2

Midges Planaxia Snails
2 - -
3
2 - -
...
...
-
2
71 2 -
3
17
2
3U - -
2 - -
19
-
6
22
73
10
8
1
5
_
17
Hen*- Sludge-
todes Leeches worms
17
5 20
11*
8
216
2
5
15
.
.
32
2
-
75
6
2
287
12
12U
3
5
7 97
10
a - ?6
Total
22
30
18
8
216
1*
2k
93
3
17
ki
51
2
99
6
10
311
87
13^
Ik
11
109
12
55
*Specific identifications are listed in Table 7- B.
Ind. - 100 ft. out from the Indiana bank of the Ohio River.
Mid. - Mid-channel.
Ky•  - 100 ft. out from the Kentucky bank of the Ohio River.

-------
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       Orgwilfflu
      /sn  fnof.1
Bottom __„	
Jtunber/s^ foot

Mayflies

  Stenonsma
  Tricorythodes
  Hexiffenta.
  Caenie

CaddiifXien

  Hydropsyche
  Pnychomyia
  Cheumatopnyche
                             River Mtle    590   600.6   611.5   6l6   6S5.7   629.9   *33-5   6li5.7   650.6   663.5   667.3   £78.2   68?.9   689.8   700.9   703.f   710.5   71"'.?
                             Station
                                          0.0   0-1
                                                        0-2A    0-3   0-14
                                                                                      0-5
                                                                                              0.6
                                                                                                              0-B3
                                                                                                                              0-10    0-11    0-12    0-13    O-IU    0-15
                                                                                                                                                                              0-1'
  Cryptochlr
  Procladlus
  Polypedilum
  Coelotanypus
  CMronomua
  Pentoneura
  Harniachia
  Spaniotoma
  Tanypufi
  Pseudochlronomus
  Chaoborus
I
?
1
'-
I
16
1
-
-
1
2
-
'• » •
1
20 8
1

-
2
6
-
1
It
1
2
e
i
2 26
1 1
7
1
1
3 3
1
3
2 6
6
2
  Corblcula
  Sphaerlum
  Medlonidus

BeetleB

  Cylloepua

Snails

Umpet

Planar!an

Nematodes

leeches

Bloodworma

SludeeWQTTns
                                                   aU
                                                    6
                                                  38
                                                                 76
Number of Klnda
Total Number per Square foot
                                                   8

                                                  61
 3     10
78     32
                                                                                                          k

                                                                                                         99
                         8

                        29
Alttae - 'hi-nber per ml

     Diatoms

     Green Algae

     Flaiellates

     Blue-Greens
                                                  650

                                                  150

                                                  100
250    100    350     500

350    150     30     500

 50     50     50
                                                                                               llOO
200     150

150     200
150

It50

 50
                                                              250

                                                              200
150    600

^00    300

 50     50
150     500

1.50     250

        150
?00    100

250    f 00

        50
  Total
                                                  900
                                                                650    300    U30     1000
                                                                                              650
                                                                                                        350
                                                                                                                350     650
                                                                                                                                1.50
                                                                                                                                       600    950
                                                                                                                                                                900
                                                                                                                                                                        1.50    750
           1.  Average of  3  saaplee.

           ?.  One  Sample

           3.  Two  SanpleR

-------
                                                             Ootobmr 1967
River Mile
Bottom Organisms
Number/so foot1 Station
Mayflies
Stenonema
Tricorythodes
Hexagenla
Caenis
Caddisflies
Hydropsyche
Psychorayia
Cheumat op syche
Potamyla
Mi_dges_
Cryptochironomus
Procladius
Polype dilum
Coelotanypus
Chironomus
Pentoneura
Harnischia
Spaniotoma
Tanypus
PS eud oc h i r onctnus
Chaoborus
Clams
Corbicula
Sphaerium
Medionidus
Beetles
Cylloepus
Snails
Limpet
Planarian
Nematodes
Leeches
Bloodworms
Chironomus sp.
Sludgeworms

Number of Kinds
Total Number per Square Foot
Algae - Ifumber per ml
Diatoms
Green Algae
Flagellates
Blue- Green
Total
723.5
0-17

1

1

2
5
1
2
1

1

T
„
-
_

-

-
55

9
69

150
1*50
50
-
650
7S6.>i
O-18

-

-

1
2
2

6

-
.
-
_

-

-
6

5
17

50
250
-
50
350
730
9-19

2

2

3
U
8
l

3

-
1*
-
.

-

-
8

9
35

150
150
-
-
300
736.6
0-20

i

1
1

2
1

6
r

-
_
-
«

-

.
3

7
15

250
300
100
-
650
71.1.3
0-21

1
1
1

26
2

3
10
5

2

1
1
-
f

-

-
17

13
71
g
i
i



758.8
0-283

1

T

1
1

1

-
_
-
_

-

-
20

5
2U

150
350
-
-
500
763

-

™

9
1
3
1

1

-
_
-
.

-

₯
U6

8
6U

too
300
100
-
800
769.8 778.1 781t 785.1 786.8 79:1.5
0-25. 0-26 0-27 G-288 0-29 0-30

j. - - - - .
.... 2 -

1*6 10 1 - 1 39

3 1 - - l
1 -
6
1 - - - 2 -
2 1 - - -

1
It 6 1 20 7 25

.
- - - -
1
------
	
- - - - 1 -

1 - - - -
2 2 - 7 135 1

565277
Jl* 19 5 27 151* 70

Uqp loo 350 50 550 300
500 250 350 - "tOO 350
100 - 25 50 50
-
900 U50 700 75 1000 700
1.  Average of 3 samples.



2.  One Sample



3.  Two Samples

-------
animals near the Indiana bank was comprised of 3 clams and 2 sludge-



worms per square foot.  Mid-channel sampling produced 2 midges per



square foot.  Near the Kentucky shore, the influence of upstream



wastes was evidenced by a population of bottom organisms comprised




of 9 midges, k clams and 75 pollution tolerant sludgeworms per square



foot.  Further settling of organic wa,stes downstream from Station 0-6



was indicated by the increases in phosphorus (150 percent), organic



nitrogen (100 percent), and carbon (50 percent) content of the bottom



muds.  Five miles downstream sludgeworms numbered 887 per square foot



whereas, the population of bottom animals at mid-channel and near the



Indiana bank remained about the same as upstream.  Downstream an addi-



tional 17 miles (0-9), the number of sludgeworms was larger than up-



stream from Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation indicating that the



organic wastes from Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation settle along



the Kentucky bank of the Ohio River for 2k miles.



       The slight biological degradation at RM 703.6 (0-l4) indicated



by a decrease in the number of kinds of organisms (Figure 9) was



caused by a shifting sand stream bed.

-------
                               55





      In the 120-mile reach of river extending from Dam kk to the




confluence with the Green River, no pollutional effects on the




bottom animals population were indicated.  The population exhibited




fluctuations in both the number and kinds of bottom animals, but




all were within the variation caused by natural changes in habitat.




      In the reach from Dam kk to the Green River, phytoplankton




numbers ranged from 200 to 1,500 algal cells per ml during the




1967 survey period.  These values were similar to those observed




in October 1939.  Plankton populations in both 1939 and 1967 wers




largely diatoms, principally Melosira.




      The population of bottom organisms did not indicate the




presence of organic pollution in the Green River at RM j8k.3-0.2




(0-28).  However, it supported only sparse populations of algae and




bottom organisms.  The phytoplankton population numbered only 75 per




ml.  Low algal nutrient  concentrations accounted for this sparse



plankton population.  The population of bottom organisms was comprised




of 20 Asiatic clams and 7 sludgeworms per square foot.




      Biological degradation was observed in the Ohio River at RM 786.8




(0-29).  This station is 1.5 miles downstream from the confluence of

-------
                          56






the Green River and 5 miles upstream from Evansville.  In this



reach the bottom substrate was a mixture of silt, leaves and



sticks.  The sediments contained 0.13 percent organic nitrogen



and 1.5 percent carbon, indicating stabilized conditions.  The



population of bottom organisms was comprised of 88 percent



pollution-tolerant organisms and only 2 percent pollution-



sensitive organisms.  The population of sludgeworms, numbering



135 per square foot was the largest average population found in



the Ohio River during the 1967 survey.  Downstream at Evansville,



Indiana (RM 791-5  0-30), the population of bottom organisms was



more representative of clean water with 7 kinds of organisms of



which k~L per square foot were clean water mayflies and caddisflies.






FISH OFF-FIAVOR




       Unpalatable flavors in many fishes of the Ohio River, during



the period from late summer to spring, discourage sport-fishing and



decrease fish marketability by commercial fishermen.  Many commercial



fishermen are forced to fish part time or sell their catch live to



"pay lakes" at decreased prices.  Fish markets once favoring Ohio




River catfish and drum no longer will sell fish taken from the Ohio



River.  Many species of fish are deemed unsatisfactory for human

-------
                                 57

consumption; to the sport fisherman, off-flavor of the sauger

and catfish are particularly offensive.  Commercial fishermen

complain most about the condition of catfish, freshwater drum

and buffalo.

      The commercial catch from the Kentucky portion of the Ohio

River in 1966 was estimated to be 1,091,14-57 pounds at a value of

$185,639.  In 1959, the last year for which sport fishing data

are available, an estimated 287,000 sport fishermen harvested

522,50)4- pounds of fish as table food at a value of $130,626.

      Previous studies  of commercial fishermen complaints

that catfish from the Ohio River had an offensive taste and odor re-

vealed that the compounds producing the off-flavor were present in minute

concentrations.  In addition, it was concluded that even with the

most sensitive analytical instruments available, the compounds could

not be detected in fish tissue.

      After additional complaints were received by the Evansville,

Indiana field station of the Ohio Basin Region, a field reconnaissance

was conducted to discuss with commercial fishermen from Indiana and


   Boyle, H. W.  Report on Taste/Odor Contamination of Fish from
   the Ohio River near Tell City, Indiana.  Waste Identification
   and Analysis Activities, FWPCA, U. S. Department of the
   Interior, pg. 5-  1967«

-------
Kentucky the quality of catfish they were harvesting from the



river.  It was concluded from these discussions that the most



problems occurred downstream from Louisville, Kentucky.  In



discussions with commercial fishermen upstream from Louisville



and in the reach from Owensboro to Evansville, it was concluded



that the problem in these areas was intermittent and of short



duration.



       It is evident from the fish flavor study that contaminated



fish were found to lose most of their off-flavor in seven days



and to be completely free of all off-flavors in fourteen.  Even



with gas chromatography, the compounds could not be separated



from the natural occurring oils from the fish tissue.



       The results of the May 1968 fish taste and odor investi-



gation revealed that a taste panel could differentiate between



fish exposed to wastes in the Ohio River as compared to fish held



upstream from McAlpine Dam.  Fish held upstream from McAlpine Dam



did not acquire a significant off-flavor whereas fish placed down-



stream from RM 612 acquired a strong off-flavor.



       In July the investigation was expanded to include the entire



Ohio River, and this study showed that both caged and native fish



from the West Virginia sites generally possessed a high degree of

-------
off-flavor vhereas fish from the Ohio River near Paducah and



Cairo were of fairly acceptable quality and fish from the



Louisville area and dams k& and 50 vere of borderline quality



(Figure 15).  The remaining sites along the Kentucky borderline



vere of unacceptable quality.



       Another investigation in October indicated that three



reaches of the Ohio River contain chemicals that produced



sufficient off-flavor in catfish to make them unacceptable.



These areas were Immediately downstream from Pittsburgh,



Pennsylvania; from Parkersburg, West Virginia to Gallapolis,



Ohio; and from Louisville to Owensboro, Kentucky (Figure 15).



       Because of the large quantities of slimes resulting from



the Louisville sewage treatment plant that clogged wire mesh



baskets and suffocated the fish, wooden boxes with large holes



were employed during this October study.  Test fish were exposed



for both k& and 356 hours at 4 test sites.  It was found that U8



hours was sufficient to produce the same degree of off-flavor as



336 hours.



       The degree of off-flavor caused by individual effluents



is shown in Figure 15-  For example, the effect of the Louisville



sewage treatment plant effluent (RM 6l2 0) can be ascertained

-------
LOUISVILL


O
O
<
UJ
1
1

c
u
(.


3
j
D
L


-

j
T
5
j
j

n
ff ^ t
Q 2
z tc
1- CK
<" 3
i I
n
j


i« = i
>- x ^
UJ ~ O 5
cc uj tr <
ACCEPTABLE
•J' >#• ^ J' ^
n n
         5 2-
            6117  6119  6121  6123 6125 6127  6129  6131  6133 613.5 6137  6139 6141  6143 6145  6147  6149
                                        RIVER MILE

FIGURE  15.  DEGREE OF OFF-FLAVOR OF CAGED CHANNEL CATFISH ,
            OHIO RIVER , 1968 .

-------
                          60
from the lower portion of Figure 15.  The values at the stations



just upstream (RM 612) and dovnstream (RM 612.1) decreased from



3-7 to 2.0.  The fish held downstream from the Louisville sewage



treatment plant vere in the extreme off-flavor category.  Pish



held in the eight mile reach (RM 612 - 620) were also adversely



affected by the discharge from E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co.,



American Synthetic Rubber Corp., and Stauffer Chemical Corp.



One anomaly was noted downstream from the Air Reduction Chemical



and Carbide Company where an apparent improvement in the flavor



of fish held at river mile 6lJ occurred.  From observations, it



was apparent that materials contained in this effluent combined



with substances in the river to form a precipitate which subse-



quently settled.  It is possible that some of the substances



producing the off-flavor in fish were likewise precipitated with-



in 500 ft. downstream from the effluent (RM 615).



       Fish with unacceptable flavor occurred in the Ohio River.



The reaches of the Ohio River that produced fish with extreme off-



flavor were downstream from the Louisville sewage treatment plant



RM 612) to Dam k$ (RM 633) and downstream from the Olin Mathieson




Chemical Corporation to Owensboro, Ky.



       The results from this intensive investigation and all other



exposure studies (Table 8) led to the following conclusions:

-------
                                 Table 8-A
             Taste Panel Evaluation of Ohio River Catfish—1968

                             Mean Flavor Scores

             Scale:   7 highest; 1 lowest score possible


City
Pittsburgh
New Cumberland
Wheeling
New MartinsvUJe

Parkersburg

Pomery

Gallipolis

New Richmond
u.s. Louisville

d.s. Shell Oil
d.s. Nat'l Oil
d.s. American
Bituminous
Asphalt
d.s. Jeff.
Boat Wks.
Me Alp in Dam
Indiana Bank
May
River Desira-
Mile Flavor bility
6.2
54.4
84.3
127

185

254

276

450
597.8 4.6 3.2

602.7 5-3 3-4
602.8 3.4 2.3
602.9 4.3 3.4


604.2 3.2 2.3

606
608
July
October
Appear-
Odor
-
5-2
5.0
4.4
5-3
5-6
4.8
4.8
6.4
5-1
5.6
-
_

-
-
_


-

4.9
_
Flavor
-
4.0
3.4
2.6N
2.7
4. ON
2.1
3-3N
4.7
3- ON
4.3
-
_

-
-
_


-

4.4
-
ance
6
6
6
7

6

6

5

7
6
-
-
-
_


-

5
_
.2
.6
.6
.2

.3

.8

.5

.0
.3








A

Odor
4
6
5
6

4

5

4

5
5
-
-
-
_


-

4
_
.8
.2
• 3
.2

• 9

.2

.0

.0
.6








.9

Flavor
4
5
4
3

4

3

3

4
5
5
-
-
_


-

5
4
.0
.2
•7
• 3

.4

.8

A

• 7
.1
.2







.2
.0
Overall
4
5
4
5

4

4

5

4
4
4
-
-
_


-

4
2
.0
• 3
• 7
.5

.4

.2

.6

.9
.3
.0







.9
.9 2wk
Colgate-Palmolive
Indiana Bank
609.4 4.6 3.4
-
-
_

_

_

_

Socony Vacuum Oil
Indiana Bank
Public Service
Company
Louisville Ref.

Mead Container

6lO


611.8

611.9

-


-

_

-


_

_

5


3

5

.3


A

A

4


4

3

.7


.6

.1

3
5

3
5
2
3
•9
.0

.7
.1
.1
.8
4
4

3
3
2
2
.0
.0

.6
• 9
.4
.8
u. s. - upstream from
d. s. - downstream from
N - Native

-------


Table 8-A
(contd)
_ May July
City
Gulf Ref .
Louisville
STP
Aetna Oil
Standard Oil
Air Reduction
Chem. Carbide
Reynolds Met.
E. I. duPont
de Nemours
Rohm & Haas
Am. Synthetic
Rubber
Stauffer
Chemical
Ky. Asphalt
Indiana Bank
Dam U3
u.s. Olin
Mathieson
d.s. Olin
Mathieson
Dam kk
Leavenworth
1<5 Rome
kj Newburg
k& Henderson
50 Weston
51 Galcondia
River
Mile Flavor
612
612.1
612.2
612.5 2.k
613
613.1
613.2
613.3
613.6
61^.8 1.3
620.5
620.5
633
6^2 2.7
6kk 1.7
663
703
777
809
876.8
903
Desira- Appear-
bility Odor Flavor ance
k.2
5-5
>
1.8 - - k.l
5.5
6.5
2.1
-
k.6
1.00 -
5.5
5-8
k.2 3.14- 6.2
1.8 - - 4.8
5.0
1.2 - - k.2
k.2 2.6 6.0
5-6
k.2 3.6 6.1
5.0 k.6 6.k
5-9
5-1 k.l



October
Odor
3.2
2.7
-
3.^
5.6
2.3
2.1
-
1.3
-
2.7
5.3
U.3
2.5
l.k
k.l
3.8
6.0
5A
5.0
-
Flavor
2.8
k.6
2.0
2.1
2.2
5.0
1.9
2.5
3.3
1.9
-
1.3
1.7
-
2.0
2.6
k.2
l.k
2.3
3-9
3.9
k.2
1.3
2.2
3-2
3.6
6.2
5.3
5-1
-
Overall
2.6
3-3
1.6
1.5
2.1
3.2
2.6
1.9 2vk.
2 .k
2.1
-
1.3
1.5 2wk
-
2.1
1.6
M
3-6
2.1
3-9 2wk
2.9 2wk
3.0
1.1
1.6
3-8
3.8
6.1
5.3
k.9
-
u. s. - upstream from
d. s. - downstream fron

-------

City
52 Paducah
53 -
Salt River
Tatile 8-A
(contd)
May July October
River Desira- Appear-
Mile Flavor bility Odor Flavor ance Odor Flavor
938 - - 6.0 5.8 6.2 k.6 U.5
962.6 - - 6.1 5.6 5-9 5-7 5-7
629.8- 3.3 2.1
1.0


Overall
^•5
5-9
-

-------
                     Table 8-B



Taste Panel Evaluation of Ohio River Catfish—1969



                Mean Flavor Scores



        Tested by Oregon State University



    Scale:  7 highest; 1 lowest score possible
July
City
Pittsburgh
New Cumberland
Wheeling
New Mart ins -
ville
Parkersburg
Belleville
Racine
Gallipolis
Huntington
Green-up
Meldahl
Markland
Me Alpine
Dam 43
Dam 44
Dam 45
Dam 47
River
Mile
6.2
54.4
84.3
127
185
203.9
23T.3
279.2
305
341.4
446.2
531-5
606
633
663
710
777-7
Flavor
3-7
4.3
4.3
4.7

4.1
4.7
3.8
4.0
4.3
5.4
4.3
4.5
4.6
4.6
-
5.2
Desira-
bility
2.5
3.0
3-0
3-6

3-0
3.6
2.5
2.8
3-0
3.0
2.7
2.8
3.0
3.0
-
3-6
October
Flavor
3.8
3-8
4.5
4.6
4.9
3.6
3-8
3.0
2.8
3-1
4.3
3-6
4.7
4.3
3.8
4.3
4.6
Desira-
bility
2.6
2.7
3.8
3.2
3-7
L'.4
2.3
1.9
22.0
2.0
3.0
2.1
3.4
3.0
2.4
3.0
3.3

-------
                                 Table  8-B
                                   (contd)
                              July	           October
City
Dam 48
Dam 51
Dam 52
Dam 53
River
Mile
809.0
903.1
938.9
962.6
Desira-
Plavor bility
-
-
.
-
Flavor
k.Q
3-8
5-0
5-5
Desira-
bility
3.8
2.6
3-7
^.3
Control                     4.7      3-4            5-5

-------
                          61
1.  Caged catfish held upstream from Louisville, Kentucky




    (HM 597-9) and at McAlpine Dam (KM 606) were of




    acceptable quality.




2.  Fish held in cages downstream from Colgate-Palmolive,




    Jeffersonville, Indiana; Louisville Refinery; Gulf




    Refining Company; Aetna Oil; Standard Oil; Air Reduction




    Chemical Carbide; Reynolds Metals Company; and Kentucky




    Asphalt, all of Louisville, Kentucky, did not possess a




    higher degree of off-flavor as compared to the fish up-




    stream from each of these installations.




3«  Fish held in cages downstream from Mead Container,




    Louisville, Kentucky, had an average score of 2.9 which




    indicates a very strong off-flavor.  The quality of these




    fish was l.U units lower than fish held upstream.




    Toxicity killed sane of the caged catfish at a depth of




    one foot, 300 feet downstream from the Mead Container




    outfall.



4.  Caged catfish held 800 feet downstream from the Louisville




    sewage treatment plant were of unacceptable quality.  The




    fish scored 1.7 units lower than the fish held upstream from




    the effluent.  The compounds contained in the Louisville

-------
                           6€
    sewage treatment plant effluent lowered the quality of




    catfish more than any other pollutions! sources tested.




5.  Wastes from the Reynolds Metals Company, Louisville,




    Kentucky, killed half of the fish in cages at a depth




    of one foot, hOO feet downstream, whereas fish held in




    cages immediately upstream from the effluent were not




    killed.




6.  All fish held in cages for k-8 hours at a depth of one




    foot were killed 1^00 feet downstream from the effluents




    from E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Louisville,




    Kentucky.  Fish held in cages at other depths had a




    stronger off-flavor than fish held in cages upstream




    from the effluents.  The off-flavor of the fish was quite



    high in this area, thus making the numerical decrease in




    quality minimal.    Fish downstream from E. I. duPont de




    Nemours and Company scored .J units poorer than fish up-



    stream from the outfall.




7-  The quality of caged catfish was further deteriorated 800




    feet downstream from the American Synthetic Rubber Corporation,




    Louisville, Kentucky.  Fish held in cages here scored .25




    units poorer than fish held immediately upstream from this




    plant.

-------
                           63





    There is the possibility that wastes from Rohm and




    Haas Company and B. F. Goodrich contained substances



    that could produce off-flavors in catfish.  However,



    their effluents could not be located and any effect



    would be combined with that of American Synthetic



    Rubber.



8.  Four-hundred-fifty feet downstream from the Stauffer



    Chemical Corporation, Louisville, Kentucky, effluent,



    wastes were toxic at all depths during all surveys except



    for one occasion;  fish immediately upstream were



    not killed.  The fish that did survive were of the lowest



    quality encountered in any of these surveys.  The wastes



    from the Stauffer Chemical Corporation lowered the quality



    by .35 units.  This value is also the minimum found because



    of the accumulative effects from this and other upstream



    wastes.



9.  Wastes from the Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation,



    Brandenburg, Kentucky, impart increased off-flavor to caged



    catfish one mile downstream.  Caged catfish upstream from



    Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation had a moderate off-flavor,



    but those exposed developed an extreme off-flavor—a change of



    1.5 units.  Caged fish were killed 500 feet downstream from

-------
                            6k





     the Olin Mathieson discharge, whereas  fish  immediately




     upstream survived.  Twenty miles  downstream the  quality




     of caged catfish was still less than that of test  fish




     upstream from Olin Mathieson Chemical  Corporation.




10.  Wastes from Mead Container;  Louisville sewage treatment




     plant; E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company;  American




     Synthetic Rubber Corporation; Stauffer Chemical  Company;




     and Olin Mathieson Chemical  Corporation contained




     sufficient taste producing substances  to cause catfish




     to be of unacceptable quality  (unpalatable)  from Louis-




     ville to Evansville, a distance of 190 miles, in July,




     and from Louisville to Owensboro,  a distance of  150 miles,




     in October.

-------
APPENDICES

-------
                        APPENDIX A


               INDIANA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS



       Pursuant to due publication of notice and public hearing

required by the provisions of the Acts of 19*1-5, Chapter 120, as

found in Burns' IND. STAT. ANN., (1961 Repl.), Section 60-1501,

et seq., the Stream Pollution Control Board of the State of

Indiana at a special meeting held at 1530 West Michigan Street,

Indianapolis, Indiana, on June 5> 19^7, at which meeting a quorum

of members vas present, as provided by the Acts of 19^3, Chapter

21k, as amended by Acts of 19^5, Chapter 132, Section 2, as found

in Burns' Indiana Statutes, 1961 replacement 68-519, unanimously

adopted the following nev rules:


                    REGULATION SPC IE
      Water Quality Standards for Waters of Indiana

            MINIMUM CONDITION APPLICABLE TO
        ALL WATERS AT ALL PLACES AND AT ALL TIMES

1.  Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial,

    agricultural or other discharges that will settle to form

    putrescent or otherwise objectionable deposits.

?.  Free *rom floating debris, oil, scrim end other floating

    materials attributable to municipal, industrial, agric-ulturpl

    or other discharges in amounts sufficient to be unsightly or

    deleterious.


                            A-l

-------
3.  Free from materials attributable to municipal, industrial,




    agricultural or other discharges producing color, odor or




    other conditions in such degree as to create a nuisance.




k.  Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial,




    agricultural or other discharges in concentrations or




    combinations which are toxic or harmful to human, animal,




    plant or aquatic life.





  STREAM- Q U A L I T V  CRITERIA




FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY AFP FOOD P30CE5SI1KV INDUSTRY




       The following criteria are for evaluation of strecm quality




at the point at which water is withdrawn for treatment ?nd distri-




bution as a potable supply:




1.  Bacteria:  Coliform group not to exceed 5.>000 per 100 ml as a




    monthly-average value  (either MPN or MF count); nor exceed this




    number in more than 20 percent of the samples examined during




    any month; nor exceed 20,000 per 100 ml in more than five




     percent of such samples.




2.  Threshold-odor number;  T"ste and odor producing substances,




    other than naturally occurring, shall not interfere with the




    production of a finished water by conventional treatment con-




    sisting of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorin-




    ation.  The threshold odor number of the finished water must be




    three or less.




                          A-2

-------
3.  Dissolved solids;   Other than from naturally occurring



    sources not to exceed 500 mg/1 as a monthly-average value,



    nor exceed 750 mg/1 at any time.  Values of specific con-



    ductance of 800 and 1,200 micromhos/cm (at 25°C.) may be



    considered equivalent to dissolved-solids concentrations



    of 500 and T50 mg/1.



U.  Radioactive substances;  Gross beta activity (in the known



    absence of Strontium-90 and alpha emitters) not to exceed



    1,000 picocuries per liter at any time.



5.  Chemical constituents:   Fot to exceed the following specified



    concentrations at any time:



              Constituent            Concentration (mg/l)
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
(hexeivalent)
Cyanide
Fluoride
Lead
Selenium
Silver
FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY
0.05
1.0
0.01
0.05

0.025
1.0
0.05
0.01
0.05

       The following criteria are applicable to stream water at



the point at which the water is withdrawn for use (either with



or without treatment) for industrial cooling and processing:






                           A-3

-------
1.  Dissolved oxygen;  Not less than 2.0 mg/1 as a daily-average




    value, nor less than 1.0 mg/1 et any time.




2.  pH:  Not less than 5«0 nor greater than 9-0 at any time.




3.  Temperature;  Not to exceed 95°F. at any time.




';.  Dissolved solids;  Other than from naturally occurring sources




    not to exceed 750 mg/1 as a monthly-average value, nor exceed




    1,000 mg/1 at any time.  Values of specific conductance of




    1,200 and 1,600 micromhos/cm (at 25 C.) maybe considered




    equivalent to dissolved solids concentrations of 750 and




    1,000 mg/1.





FOR AQUATIC LIFE




       The following criteria are for evaluation of conditions




for the maintenance of a well balanced, warm-water fish population.




They are applicable at any point in the stream except for areas




immediately adjacent to outfalls.  In such areas cognizance will




"be given to opportunities for the admixture of waste effluents




with river water.



1.  Dissolved oxygen:  Not less than 5-0 mg/1 during at least 16




    hours of any 2l}.-hour period, nor less than 3-0 mg/1 at any time.




2.  pH;  No values below 6.0 nor above 9.0 and daily-averare (or




    median) values preferably between 6.5 and 8.5.

-------
3.  Temperature;   Not to exceed 93°P. at any time during the




    months of April through November, and not to exceed 60°F.




    at any time during the months of December through March.




^.  Toxic substances:  Not to exceed one-tenth of the 96-hour




    median tolerance limit obtained from continuous flow bio-




    assays vhere the dilution water and toxicant are continuously




    renewed, except that other application factors may be used




    in specific cases when justified on the basis of available




    evidence and approved by the appropriate regulatory agencies.




5.  Taste and Odor:   There shall be no substances which impart




    unpalatable flavor to food fish, or result in noticeable of-




    fensive odors in the vicinity of the water.




6.  Trout streams;  In addition, the following criteria are




    applicable to those vaters designated for put-and-take trout



    fishing:




    (a)  Dissolved oxygen;  Not less than 6.0 mg/1 as a daily-



         average value, nor less than .';-.0 mg/1 at any time.




    (b)  £H:  Not less than 6.5 nor greater than 8.5 at any time.




    (c)  Temperature;  Not to exceed 65°P.  (However, slightly




         higher temperatures may be tolerated with higher dissolved




         oxygen content than specified.





                          A-5

-------
FOR RECREATION




    The following criteria are for evaluation of conditions




at any point in waters designated to be used for recreational




purposes:




1.  Whole "body contact:  Coliform group not to exceed 1,000




    per 100 ml as a monthly-average value (either MPN or KF




    count) during any month of the recreational season;  nor




    exceed this number in more than 20 percent of the samples




    examined during any month of the recreational season; nor




    exceed 2,kQQ per 100 ml (either MPN or MP count) on any




    day during the recreational season.  The months of April




    through October, inclusive, are designated as the recre-




    ational season.




2.  Partial body contact;  Coliform group not to exceed 5,000




    per 100 ml as a monthly-average valve (either MPN or MF




    count); nor exceed this number in more than 20 percent of




    the samples examined during any month; nor exceed 20,000




    per 100 ml in more than five percent of such samples.





FOR AGRICULTURAL OR STOCK WATERIFC-




    Criteria are the same as those shown for minimum conditions




applicable to all waters at all places and at all times.
                           A-6

-------
Note 1:  Unless otherwise specified, the term average as



         used herein means an arithmetical average.



Note 2:  The analytical procedures ised as methods of



         analyses to determine the chemical, bacteriological,



         biological, and radiological quality of waters



         sampled shall "be in accordance with the latest



         edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of



         Water and Wastewater or other rrcthods approved by



         the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board and the



         Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.
                       A-T

-------
                       APPENDIX B

               KEMTUCTCr WATER QUALITY STANDARDS



    YATER QUALITY STAEBAREG FCR INTERSTATE WATERS

Relates to T^RS 22U.010 to 22^.210 and 22k.990


    Pursuant to the authority vested in the Water Pollution

Control Commission b£ ^§ 22ti.Qi-'-0, the following regulation is

adopted:

    Section 1.  MINIMUM CONDITIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL IHTERST/VEB
                WATERS.

    The following minimum conditions shall apply at all places and

at all times to the interstate rivers within the jurisdiction of

the Commonwealth of Kentucky which are as follows:  The Mississippi,

the Ohio, the Tennessee, the Cumberland (both lower and upper por-

tions) and the Big Sandy (including the Tug and Levisa Forks):

    (l)  Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial

         or other discharges or agricultural practices that will

         settle to form putrescent or otherwise objectionable

         sludge deposits.

    (2)  Free from floating debris, oil, scum and other floating

         materials attributable to municipal, industrial or other

         discharges or agricultural practices in amounts sufficient

         to be unsightly or deleterious.
                           B-l

-------
    (j)  Free tram, materials attributable to municipal,  industrial



         or other discharges or agricultural practices producing



         color, odor or other conditions in such degree  as  to



         create a nuisance.



    (U)  Free from substances attribxitable to municipal, industrial



         or other discharges or agricultural practices in concen-



         trations or combinations which are toxic or harmful to



         human, animal, plant or aquatic life.






    Section 2.  STREAM USE CLASSIFICATION.



    In addition to the minimum conditions set forth in Section 1,



the following specific stream use classifications shall  govern where



applicable.



    (l)  Public Water Supply and Food Processing Industries



    The following criteria are applicable to water at the point at



which water is withdrawn for use for a public vater supply or by a



food processing industry:



    (a)  Bacteria:  Coliform group not to exceed 5,000 per 100 ml



         as a monthly arithmetical average value (either MPN or MF



         count); nor exceed this nunber in more than 20  percent of



         the samples examined during any month; nor exceed 20,000



         per 100 ml in more than five percent of such samples.
                           B-2

-------
(b)  Threshold-odor number;   After normal treatment to "be

     less than 3> generally the value will "be less than 2k

     in the raw water.

(c)  Dissolved solids;  Not to exceed 500 mg/1 as a monthly

     average value, nor exceed 750 mg/1 at any time [Values

     of specific conductance of 800 and 1,200 micromhos/cm

     (at 25 C.) may "be considered equivalent to dissolved

     solids concentrations of 500 and 750 mg/1. ]

(d)  Radioactive Substances:  Gross "beta activity not to ex-

     ceed 1,000 picocuries per liter,, (pCi/l), nor shall

     activity from dissolved Strontium 90 exceed 10 pCi/1,

     nor sh?.ll activity from dissolved alpha emitters exceed

     3 pCi/1.

(e)  Chemical constituents:   Tot to exceed the -fcllowine speci-

     fied concentrations at any time:


     Constituents                   Concentrat ionfag/l)

     arsenic                              0.05
     Barium                               1.0
     Cadmitm                              0.01
     Chromium                             0.05
        (hexavalent)
     Cyanide                              0.0?5
     Fluoride                             1.0
     Lead                                 0.05
     Selenium                             0.01
     Silver                               0.05
                        B-3

-------
    (2)  Industrial Water Supply




    The following criteria are applicable to water at the point




at which water is withdrawn for use, either with or without




treatment, for industrial cooling and processing (other than




food processing):




    (a)  pH;  Not less than 5-0 nor greater than 9^0 at any




         time.




    (b)  Temperature;  Not to exceed 95°F. at any time.




    (c)  Dissolved Solids:  Not to exceed 750 mg/1 as a monthly




         average value, nor exceed 1,000 mg/1 at any tine.




         [ Values of specific conductance of 1,200 and 1,600




         micromhos/cm (at 25 C.) nay "be considered equivalent




         to dissolved-solids concentrations of 750 and 1,000 rogr/1.]



    (3)  Aquatic life




    The following criteria are for evaluation of conditions for t,]-e




maintenance of well balanced, indigenous fish populations.  These




criteria shall be applicable to all waters here considered except




for areas immediately adjacent to outfalls.  Tn such areas cog-




nizance will be giver by the Fater Pollution Control Commission




to opportunities for the admixture of the effluents from such out-




falls with the waters of the River.
                            B-U

-------
    (a)  Dissolved oxygen;   Not less than 5-0 mg/1 during at




         least 16 hours of any 2U-hour period, nor less than




         3.0 rag/1 at any time.




    (b)  pE;  No values below 5-0 nor above 9-0 and preferably




         between 6.5 and 8.5.




    (c)  Temperature;   Not to exceed 93°F. at any time during




         the months of May through November, and not to exceed




         73 F. at any time during the months of December through




         April.




    (d)  Toxic substances;   Not to exceed one-tenth of the t8-




         hour median tolerance limit, except that other limiting




         concentrations may be used in specific cases when justi-




         fied on the basis of available evidence and approved by




         the Water Pollution Control Commission.




    (k)  Recreation




    The following criterion is for evaluation of conditions at any




point in waters designated by the Water Pollution Control Commission




to be used for recreational purposes, including but not limited to




such water-contact activities as swimming and water skiing:




         Bacteria;  Coliform group not to exceed 1,000 per 100




         ml as a monthly arithmetical average value (either !!PN
                           B-5

-------
        or MF count);  nor exceed this number in more than



        20 percent of the samples examined during any month;



        nor exceed 2,'4-00 per 100 ml (either MPN or MF count)



        on any day.




    (5) Agricultural



    No criteria in addition to the minimum conditions emimerated



in Section I are proposed for the evaluation of stream  quality at



the point at which water is withdrawn for agricultural  and stock



watering use.
                            B-6

-------
                           APPENDIX  C


                 LATERAL MIXING IN THE OHIO RIVER


               DOWSTREAM FROM LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY



       Differences between dissolved oxygen concentrations for quarter


point samples and the occurrence of a 7-1/2 mile-long sludge bank down-


stream from the Louisville, Kentucky sewage treatment plant outfall,


indicated that lateral mixing (i.e. perpendicular to the direction of
                                                                   t

water flow) is quite limited in the Ohio River during low flow periods.


Calculation of lateral mixing concentration profiles has been performed


using a theoretical equation.


        The dispersion equation used for this analysis was developed by


Glover   .  The Equation is:                ,, Q


                                  q exp(-  !»- E  x)
                           c   =  	y                    (1)
                            Q     IT- i	   _L i-  i- —-- - -ir —

                                  ID (TV E^  U x)1/2
                                         J

        where:  c   =  concentration of conservative substance.
                 q.

                q   =  mass introduction rate of conservative substance.


                U   =  stream velocity.


                y   =  distance from bank perpendicular to the direction
                       of flow.


                x   =  distance downstream from po^'nt of introduction of
                       conservative substance.


                E   =  lateral dispersion rate coefficient.
                 \f

                D   =  mean stream depth.
                                C-l

-------
        Equation (l) was derived for streams of unlimited width but


can be adopted to natural streams.   It can be applied directly until


the quantity

                                   B

                                           -  =2              (2)
                                   «y


        where:   t  = time of flow downstream.


                 B  = stream width.


                 E  - lateral dispersion rate.
                  v


When this condition occurs, the dispersing substance has been trans-


ported from one bank to the opposite bank and the equation no longer


applies directly.  To account for boundary conditions downstream from


this point, Glover    reommends the "method of images" which he des-


cribes fully.


        In order to use Equation (l), it is necessary to evaluate the


necessary coefficients.  The lateral dispersion coefficient E  is the

                                    (2 3)
most difficult to evaluate.  Fischer^     recommended the use of an


equation developed by Elder to evaluate E .  This equation is:
                                         •J


                  E   =  0.23  D U*                             (3)
                   i7

        where U* = shear velocity.


                                   M
        In a later article, Fischer    reported that for the Missouri


River a coefficient of 0.6 rather than 0.23 in Equation (2) better fit


the observed data.  This he partially attributed to the hydraulic effects


of river bends.



                                C-2

-------
     The sheer velocity (U )  in Equation (3)  can be estimated by the
equation:
                     **"             /a2                         co
        where   /^ = fluid sheer stress  at a boundary.
                   = fluid density.
                 g = acceleration of gravity.
                 C,= Chezy friction  factor.
                 U = mean velocity.
     The Ohio River has a much lower velocity than the Missouri River
at low flows making the effects of bends not nearly as significant.
     To determine the effects of river bends and to observe the sensi-
tivity of Equation (l) to changes in E , calculations were performed
using values of 0.23, 0.46 and 0.60  in Equation (2).
     An example of the computations  for  lateral mixing in the Ohio River
downstream from Louisville, Kentucky, follows:
              Average width = 1600 ft.
              Average depth = 17.5 ft.
                                              o
              Cross Sectional Area =  26,000 ft.
              Velocity =1.8 fps.
              Hydraulic slope = 0.0000224 ft./ft.
                 (3.1 ft.  drop in 26.2 miles - C.E. gage records
                  for October 2 -  14, 1968 survey period.)
              Flow = U6?00 cfs
                                 C-3

-------
     20
     15
o

Csl

ID
O
QC.

     10
                           I
            24    6    8    10   12

            HORIZONTAL DISTANCE,  100 FT.
                                          14
                                                10
                                                   Of.
                                                   »—
                                                   2
                                                   uu
                                                   CJ
                                                   Z
                                                   O
                                                   o
                                                10°
                                                0  g
                                                   o
                                                   
-------
                          ,    /
         n =    Q    A R2/3 S1/2


                     (28,000)(17.5)2/3 (0.0000224)1/2


         n = 0.0284   -
                         "S-85^
                 n
                 i        -      15
         TT*  _  1*8
        _u_  = __
         j£  =0.23 DU* = 0.^79  FtP/sec
         j^;  = 0.^6 DU*  0.958 Ft2/sec
         E     0.60 DU   1.250 Fty/sec
     Computations were performed with an assumed loading of 100 Ibs./sec


of a conservative substance entering at River Mile 612.0 (the outfall


location of the Louisville Sewage Treatment Plant).  If this loading


were immediately diluted by the entire river flow, the average concentra-


tion would be 3^.3 rog/1.  All calculated concentrations were then ex-


pressed as a ratio to this average (Figure C-l).


     The peak concentration of the constituent decreases as the waste


moves downstream and is dispersed toward the opposite river bank. Assum-


ing that the lateral dispersion rate in the Ohio is approximated by

             o
E  = 0.958 Ft /sec, the peak concentration near the bank would still be
 i7

-------
3.5 times greater than the mean concentration 20 miles  down-



atream; the concentration out 1200 feet (the 3 A point) would



only be 0.6 percent of the mean.



       Although these curves are theoretical and neglect  density



currents, wind mixing and the mixing caused by the passage of



tows, the general form of the curves simulates the actual.
                           C-5

-------
                          BIBLIOGRAPHY
^  '  Glover,  R.E.,  "Dispersion of Dissolved or Suspended Materials



     in Flowing Streams,"  U.S. Geological Survey Professional



     Paper ^33-B,  196U.
     Fischer,  H.  B.,  "Dispersion Predictions in Natural Streams,"




     J.S.E.D.,  A.S.C.E.,  Vol.  9k,  Ho.  3.A.5,  October 1968.





     Fischer,  H.  B.,  "The Mechanics of Dispersion in Natural Streams,"




     J.  Hyd. Div., A.S.C.E., Vol.  93,  No.  Hy-6,  November 1967.





     Fischer,  H.  B.,  "The Effect of Bends  on Dispersion in  Streams,"




     Water Resources  Res., Vol.  5,  No.  g,  April 1969.
                                 C-6

-------
                            APPENDIX  D



                       TIMB-OF-WATER TRAVEL






        Calculation of the time-of-water travel from Louisville,



Kentucky, to Evansville, Indiana, was accomplished using the volume-



displacement method.  Cross-section depths were taken from maps



furnished "by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.  The width distance



"between depth readings were measured manually from the charts with



a scale.  A cross-section interval of one-half mile was used.



       The method of calculation for the cross-section area assumed



straight lines existed "between each "bottom point.  This assumption



allows the cross-section to "be dissected into a series of trapezoids.



The total area was calculated as the sum of these trapezoids.  The



water volume "between stations was calculated "by averaging the end



areas and multiplying "by the one-half mile distance "between cross-



sections.  The time-of-travel through each one-half mile segment is



the segment volume divided by the flow rate.



       The accuracy of time-of-travel estimates by this method depends



on how close actual conditions meet the necessary assumptions ."or the



calculations.  The primary assumptions are listed below:



       1.  The straight line assumed "between depth points repre-



           sents a good average of actual conditions.



       2.  The cross-sections are relatively uniform "between stations



           so that an average end-area calculation method is adequate.

-------
        3.  Calculations used an average pool elevation.   Variations




            from this assumption must be small (slope of the hydraulic




            gradeline must be small).




       U.   Longitudinal dispersion is not significant;  plug flow




            conditions are approached.





       These assumptions are reasonably well met in the Ohio River at




lav? flow conditions.  Time-of-travel predicted within a given pool




should be reasonably accurate.  Estimates for the total elapsed time




for the 190-mile reach would not be as accurate because of longitudincl




dispersion but should yield a good approximation.




       The hydraulics of the Ohio River are regulated to a large extent




by the operation of the existing navigation dams.  The reach examined




extends from McAlpine Dam to the Evartsville water works.  There are




five dams in this reach with the most downstream stations affected by a



sixth.  Depending on the wicket settings at each dam, a flow range can




occur for an average pool elevation.  Thus, no stable stage-discharge



relationship exists on the Ohio River at controlled, lent flows.  To




account for this phenomena, travel times were calculated for 5 flow con-




ditions for h separate river stages for each pool.  The time-of-travel




through each pool is presented as U curves representing the h river stages




assumed which were normal pool, 2, k and 8-feet above normal pool.



(Figures D-l and D-2.)

-------
        This presentation method allows determination of time-of-



travel for a variety of river conditions "by interpolation using



these curves.



        For the October 2 - Ik, 1967 survey period, time-of-travel



was calculated for the average stage and flow condition which pre-



vailed.  A cumulative travel tirae-river mile diagram was prepared



for this calculation (Figure D-2).



       Flow and stages used in this analysis are presented in Table D-L



The travel time downstream from the Louisville STP are presented in



the report text.

-------
   Table D-l
 OHIO RIVER FLOW
October 2-13,  1967
Date
Oct. 67
2
3
k
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Mean
cfs/sg mi
Louisville, Ky.
Corps of
Engineers
CFS
68,000
3^,000
2U,800
U5,800
35,500
^6,000
U5,100
1^,100
3^, 100
31,^00
25,100
32,000
38,800
.h26
Geological
Survey
CPS
80,300
U8,UOO
^3,700
U7,200
U2,^00
^8,700
U8,200
!;5,900
lH, 900
38,000
3U,900
3H,8oo
V6,200
0.507
Weather
Bureau
CPS
65, ceo
37,000
U5,ooo
50,000
Uo,ooo
55,000
52,000
^5,000
';0,000
35,000
30,000
27,000
i^Mt
O.KT<
Bvansville, Ind.
Corps of
Engineers
CFS
88,UOO
88,200
95,100
62,800
80,^00
'67,600
63,200
65,700
51,200
5U,?-00
kJjkQQ
^3,500
67,100
0.627
USGS
rating curve
CFS
5^,600
59,100
U6,850
^'-2,600
'19,100
M;,250
lj-9,000
U8,6oo
^1,500
in,iioo
36,000
35,750
^5,980
O.JjJO

-------
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                            APPENDIX E


                       OCTOBER 1968 SURVEY



       The Evansville, Indiana,  Field Station of the Ohio River

Basin Project conducted an intensive water quality survey of the

Ohio River in the reach from Owensboro,  Kentucky to Evansville,

Indiana, during the period October 10-17,  1968.   Ten river stations

were sampled including a station on the  Green River (Table E-l).

Seven of the ten stations were the same  as those used in this reach

during the October 1967 survey.   Data and descriptions of the survey

are available in work Document E-7 available in the Evansville office.

       River flows for the sampling dayn were estimated by the Wea-

ther Bureau in the Daily River Forecast  and averaged 18,300 cfs at

Louisville and 21,700 cfs at Evansville.
                                                    o
       Stream temperatures averaged approximately 21  C. at Evansville

and 20P C. at Owensboro.


                            SAMPLING


       The sampling routine followed during the survey has been des-

cribed in an open file report of the field station and is essentially

reproduced here.  Field data axe also contained in this open file

report.

       Samples from each station were collected each day for a six-day

sampling period.  The direction of sample collection was alternated

between upstream and downstream throughout the survey to obtain samples


                                E-l

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from each station at various tiraps ^Iwoughout the day.  Samples



were taken on November 10 and 11, 1968 and November I** to IT, 1968.



       At mile points 779 <1 and 786.8, the river was sampled at three



points per cross-section during the entire survey.  Mile point 77°-0



was sampled at three points pe,r cross-section the last three sampling



days.  Mile point 759•5 and 763.2 was sampled at three points per



cross*section the first three days of the survey.  The last three



days these two mile points were sampled at five points per cross-



section.  Mile point 752.8 was three point cross-sectioned three



times in the survey.  The purpose of the cross-sectioning was to see



what degree of lateral mixing was occurring,  A three point cross-



section at a depth of five feet, for comparison with surface samples,



was collected three times at Mile point 759•5 to determine if stratifi-



cation occurred.  Samples at other stations were collected from mid-



channel.



       Effluent samples from the Qwensboro Sewage Treatment Plant and



an Qwensboro industrial outfall were also collected.





                          ANALYSES PERFORMED
                          " i ;   	'"  '    '


       Of the several analyses performed during the field stations'



survey, only the coliform bacteria results will be included here for



analyses.  These results will be analyzed to show the effects of





                                E-2

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location and number of sample points for a cross-section.   The



variation in coliform bacteria densities over the cross-section



demonstrates the difficulty in obtaining representative samples in



a wide, slow-moving stream such as the Ohio River.






                              RESUME




        Initial effort was made to mathematically composite data



from three points per station and five points per station samples



to obtain a single, representative density for each station.  This




was accomplished by arithmetically averaging the data for each day



at a station.  The daily average values were then geometrically



averaged for each station in accordance with a logarithmic normal



distribution.  The results of this analysis (Table E-l and Figure E-3)



indicated that densities in the river were greater than could be



accounted for by the sewage plant discharge and that perhaps bacterial



growth occurred.



        Further analysis was directed toward obtaining a more repre-



sentative average of coliform densities over a cross-sectipn.  The



first three stations downstream from the Owensboro Sewage Treatment



Plant were selected for this special analysis (Stations 0-759.5, 0-763.2




and 0-770.0).  The first two stations were sampled at five points over

-------
 
OJ
                                                                                             ITN
                                                                                              •>
                                                         »     •>
                                                        H     H
                                 R    fc
                                 OJ     H
                                                                                      OJ
                          §
                            •\
                          ir\
                          H
                     •s    ' •»     *     «s     •»
                    t-    ON    VO     t-    H
                    J-    CO     t—    N"N    ON
                    OJ     CM            OJ     OJ
                                                 s    s   §    §    i
                                                            OJ
                                                            OJ
                                                                                      CO
                                                                                             ITN
                                                                   IA
                                                                         0
                                                                                                
-------
    000,000
    I 00;000
                    COMPARISON OF BACTERIAL DATA COMPOSITING
                  OHIO
                 RIVER: OUENSBORO; KY.- EVANSVILLE;  INO

                           OCTOBER;1968
                             •MATH  COMf
                                          TOTAL COLIFORMS
o
o
     10;000
ex.
o

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the cross-section for the final three survey days.  Three day geo-



metric means were obtained for each of the five cross-section points



•which were then plotted (Figure E-2).  The quarter-point samples of



Station 0-770.0 were likewise averaged and plotted.  To obtain weighted



mean densities, the stream cross-section area at each station was



plotted and the area represented by each of the cross-section sample



points were allocated.  The cross section area representing each



sampling point was determined with a planimeter.



        The mean coliform density for each cross sectional area



segment was obtained by finding the area under the coliform curve



corresponding to and divided by the distance shown on the cross-



sectional area drawing.  The coliform means for the entire cross-



section were determined by weighting the coliform density in each seg-



ment by the area of flow.



        Analysis by this method at each of the three stations yielded



mean total coliform densities for the final three sampling days of



225,500 MP/100 ml at Station 0-759-5, 119,700 MF/100 ml at Station 0-



763,2 and 107,000 MF/100 ml at Station 0-770.0.  A similar analysis was



conducted for the fecal coliforms with similar results.  Mean densities



were respectively 8,5^0 MF/100 ml, 2,960 MF/100 ml and 2,990 MF/100 ml.



        The curves plotted through these results indicate a decreasing



trend rather than the increasing one determined by the mathematical



averaging procedure (Figure E-l).  The method using the cross-sectional






                               E-U

-------
                           770
  — >-
  o *
  •a.
  at  -
  o o

M >- O
 I i- en
uj _ 1/1 f9
   ** ^ ^O
UJ 2 S OT
ff tjj ~T
=> o o ^
8*
_ a:
o o
                         753.2
                          759.5
              OUENSBORO

              SEUAGE
              TREAlflENT
              PLANT
              DISCHARGE
                          757.3  	
                               I  DAM #i6
                                                                                            .000/000
                                                                                           100.000
                                                                                           10.000
                                                                                                      o
                                                                                                      o
                                                                                            1.000,000
                                                                                            i00;ooo    ri
                                                                                              10.000


                                                                                              A.000.000




                                                                                              I ,000,000
                                                                                            100,000
                                                                                            10,000

-------
areas is the more exact method and the decreasing trend is probably




the actual one occurring.




       The major difficulty in applying this analysis method is de-




termining the densities from the stream banks to the first sampling




points.  Definition of this curve section becomes more critical to




the analysis as the vaste source is approached because of the greater




differences in bacterial densities over the section.




       Examination of the cross-section coliform density curves for




Station 0-759*5 (Figure •5-2) which is located only slightly more than



one mile downstream from the Owensboro sewage treatment plant dis-




charge illustrates this problem.  The curve was first plotted on semi-




log paper with its compressed scale.  The densities thus determined




were transferred to arithmetic paper so that the area could bo deter-




mired.  Although this method seemed the most reasonable approach, the




derived average would depend upon the judgment of the analyst in defining




the original ciirve.



       One pertinent result of this analysis is the demonstration of




the difficulty in obtaining truly representative samples in rivers




close to sources of wastes before lateral mixing occurs.  Use of the




quarter-point sample locations (three points) at Station 0-759-5 would




result in missing the pollution load almost entirely.  However, as




lateral dispersion mixes the wastes over the entire cross-section in

-------
downstream reaches, the curves determined by either of the two



analysis methods would approach one another, yielding equivalent



results.



       The results of this study clarify the bacterial contamination



pattern in the reach between Owensboro and Bvansville.  These data



indicate that Owensboro is a primary source of the high bacterial



densities occurring at the Evansville Water Works intake.
                                E-6

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                          APPENDIX F

   Ohio Pxiver:  Louisville, Kentucky-Evansville,  Indiana

                      STATION LOCATION
              RIVER
DESIGNATION    MILE
                       DESCRIPTION
   0-1
   0-2
   0-3
   0-1*A
   0-5
   0-6
   0-7
600.6      Near the Louisville Water Company municipal
           Intake.

601-617    Louisville, Kentucky-New Albany, Indiana
           metropolitan area.

607        McAlpine Dam locks.

612.0      Louisville Sewage Treatment Plant (Ft. South-
           worth Sewage Treatment Plant).

6l8.0      1.2 miles downstream from the Louisville Gas
           and Electric Company generating plant.

625.7      Near Fishtown light.

629.9-0.2  Mouth of Salt River.

630        West Point, Kentucky.

633.2      Dam No. 1*3.

633.5      0.3 miles downstream from Dam No. 1*3.

637.7      Rock Haven, Kentucky.

61*3.1*      Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation plant.

61*5.7      Buoy one-half mile upstream from Flippens Run.

61*6        Brandenburg, Kentucky.

61*8        Mauckport, Indiana.

650.8      Near Haunted Hollow Light.
                             F-l

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Ohio River:  Louisville, Kentucky-Evansville, Indiana
                   STATION LOCATION
DESIGNATION


0-8

0-9

0-10

0-11

0-12

0-13
RIVER
MILE
656
663.2
663.?
66k
667.3
677
678.2
679
682.9
686
689.8
692
700.9
DESCRIPTION
New Amsterdam, Indiana.
Dam No. kk.
0.3 miles downstream from Dam No. kk
Leavenworth, Indiana.
Near Fredonia Light.
Wolf Creek, Kentucky.
Near Morrows Daymark-Alton Bar Upper Daymark.
Alton, Indiana
Near Rono Light.
Concordia, Kentucky
Near Flint Island Light
Derby, Indiana.
Upstream from Rome, Indiana-Stephensport,
                       Kentucky.

            701        Rome, Indiana
                       Stephensport, Kentucky.

            703.0      Dam No. ^5.

,0-1^       703.6      0.6 miles downstream from Dam No. ^5.

 0-15       710.5      One-half mile upstream from Cloverport, Kentucky.

            711        Cloverport, Kentucky.
                          P-2

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Ohio River:  Louisville,  Kent uclsy-Evans ville, Indiana
                   STATION LOCATION
DESIGNATION
0-16

0-17

0-18

0-19

0-20

0-21


0-22


0-23
0-2^
RIVER
MILE
717.2
720.8
723.5
724
726.4
727
730.0
73X
736.6
738
7M.3
742
747
752.8
753-759
757.3
758.3
763.0
DESCRIPTION
Near Hog Point Light.
Connelton Locks and Dam (under construction)
Near Lincoln Trails Highway Bridge.
Hawesville, Kentucky.
Connelton, Indiana.
Near Maxon Dock Light.
Tell City, Indiana
Near entrance of Henderson Creek.
Troy, Indiana.
Corn Island Light and Daymark.
Lewi sport , Kentucky .
Near entrance of Little Sandy Creek.
Grandview, Indiana.
Rockport, Indiana.
Near Yellow Bank Island Light.
Owensboro, Kentucky metropolitan area.
Dam No. 46.
Owensboro, Kentucky sewage treatment plant.
0.2 miles upstream from Enterprise, Indiana.
                           F-3

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   Ohio River:  Louisville, Kentucky-Evansville, Indiana

                      STATION LOCATION
              RIVER
DESIGNATION    MILE	DESCRIPTION	

               763.2      Enterpri se, Indiana.

    0-25       769.8      Near French Island lower Light and Daymark.

               776.0      Newburgh Dam (under construction).

               777.7      Dam No. 47.

               778        Newburgh, Indiana.

    0-26       778,1      0.4 miles downstream from Dam No. 47.
    0-27       784.0      0.3 miles upstream from entrance of Green
                          River.

    G-28       784.3-0.2  Mouth of Green River.

    0-29       786.8      Near twin highway bridges.

    0-30                  Near Water Works Light (Evansville, Indiana),
                              F-4

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                                                                              fcrannu a


                                                                             SUtWART TABLE
                                                                            OHIO RIVER SURVEY
                                                                 LOUISVILLE, KnmjCinr-EVAllSVILLE.IllDIAH*

                                                                           October 3-13,  1967
STATION TJJMP.
DESIGNATION RIVER MILS °C
0-1
0-3
0-1.
0-5
0-6
0-7
0-8
0-9
0-10
0-11
0-12
0-13
0-14
0-15
Orl6
0-17
0-18
0-19
0-20
0-21
0-32
0-*
0-25
0-26
0-27
0-29
0-30
Tributary Strei
Salt RlYer
Green
River
600.6
618.0
625.7
633-5
61.5.7
650.8
663.5
667.3
S78. 2
682.9
689.8
700.9
703.6
710.5
717.2
723.5
726. It
730.0
736.6
71.1.3
758.8
763.0
769.8
778.1
781.. 0
786,8
791.5
uns
629.9-0.
781.. 3-0,
Sewage Treatment Plant
Louisville
Ovensboro
618.0
758.3
20
20
20
20
20
20
SO
20
20
20
20
19
19(D
19(1)
19W
19(D
„(«
19(1)
19(1)
19(1)
19(1)
19(1)
19M
19(1)
19(D
19(D
19(D
.2 20
.2 20
Effluents
-
-
PH
UNITS
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.1.
7.k
7.1.
7.1t
7.1.
TA
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7A
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7A
7.5
7.6
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.1.
7.8

TA
7.1
SPECIFIC
CONnjCTAHO!
JJMHO/CM.
520
530
520
530
530
530
520
530
530
54o
530
530
520
530
530
530
5ltO
5*0
51.0
530
51.0
550
550
550
550
- 550
550
530
1.30

-
T60
TURBIDITY
UNITS
13
15
15
20
21.
33
30
26
21
25
2ll
17
31
30
34
21.
38
35
33
31
29
33
34
36
29
33
38
15
3*

250
170
SUSPENDED SOLIDS BOD
TOTAL VOLATILE 2-DAY 5-DAY
MG/L MO/L MG/L MO/L
19
11
11
20
27
31.
32
25
21
23
16
13
26
21
25
lit
26
25
23
17
16
21
25
21
17
18
29
15
28

122
99
< It
< It
< 3
It
It
6
< 6
1.
It
5
3
< 3
< 5
6
6
< It
6
5
6
6
5
< 6
6
6
< 6
6
< 6
< 5
6

74
84
1.1
1.3
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.7
1.3
0.5

112
71
2.5
2.0
1.6
1.7
1.5
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.5
lA
1-5
1.5
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.6
lA
2.1
0.8

167
121
DO
MG/L
5.9
6.5
6.6
7.2
7.3
7.1
7.7
7A
7A
7.3
7.2
7.2
7.0
7-3
7.4
7.3
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.3
T.3
7.9
7.9
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.1
4.7
7.6

-
-
NITROGEN SERIES AS N
ORGANIC
MO/L
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.8
0-9
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.7

10.5
7.6
NH
MG/L
0.5
< oA
< 0.2
< 0.3
< 0.3
<0.3
<0.2
< 0.2
< 0.2
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.2
<0.3
0.3
0.2
< 0.2
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
<0.3
< 0.3
0.5
< 0.1

16.5
17.0
ItO.
MG/3
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.2
0.6

< 0.1
< 0.2
PHOSPHORUS AS P
SOLUBLE
MG/L
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.02

6A
8.7
TOTAL
MG/L
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.12
0.11
0.13
0.11
0.12
o.oe
0.09
0.10
0.08
0.10
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.12
0.16
0.02

8.9
10.0
TOTAL
COLIFORMS
MF/100 Kl
1,61.0
740,000
396,000
1.86,000
343,000
429,500
246,000
2lll,000
72, 300
76,200
71,500
35,400
52,000
41,1.00
38,150
21,600
28, 500
24,900
?6,liOO
22,200
15,600
19,400
15,300
28, 700
33,900
32,600
27,700
1,61.0,000
520

63,700,000
70,100,000
FFCAL
COLTFOqMS
MF/100 m.
1,130
89,000
39,000
53, Boo
33.100
ItP.'iOO
?5,ooc
?1 , 1400
8, 1.00
T.al.o
" , 960
3,21.0
3.390
2,"ii40
2,51.0
1.720
1,750
1A50
1,660
1,1. ''0
TOO
9>40
770
1,320
1,230
91.0
1,010
112,000
18

11,100,000
3,930,000
NOTE:  Difference In thermometera used between upstream section crews and downstream section crews of 1 degree centigrade.
       Downstream temperature readings were increased by 1 degree centigrade.

-------