AERIAL INFRARED  SURVEY OF PORTIONS
                            OF THE MONONGAHELA, OHIO, AND
                            ALLEGHENY RIVERS;  PITTSBURGH,
                                PENNSYLVANIA VICINITY
                                       JUNE 1973
                                  PROJECT NO. N89.6
Regional Center for Em ironmcnl.il Inform,*
      US EPA Region III
       ld504lthSt
     Philadelphia, P* I"""
                                     Prepared for
                         SURVEILLANCE AND ANALYSIS DIVISION
                                   EPA - REGION III
                                      Prepared by
                                  ALBERT E. PRESSMAN
                           MONITORING OPERATIONS DIVISION
                                 EPA - NERC-LAS VEGAS
                                                                NERC-LAS VEGAS

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In furnishing the Surveillance and Analysis Division - Region III
with the data and the  interpretation from NERC-Las Vegas services,
it must be understood  that  the results stated and conclusions drawn
represent NERC-Las Vegas1 best judgment.  Any action that the
Surveillance and Analysis Division - Region III takes based on the
data and reports will  be the  Surveillance and Analysis Division's -
Region III own responsibility.
                                                         NERC-LAS VEGAS
                                    ii

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 A
$222
                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS
           Section

              I

             II

            III

             IV

              V
             Title

INTRODUCTION

RESULT SUMMARY

DATA COLLECTION

DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Page

  1

  2

  3

  5

 13
           Number;

              1

              2
           Appendix

               A

               B
                                           FIGURES
             Title
Index Map
Infrared imagery examples;
Discharges 1 through 14

Infrared imagery examples;
Discharges 15 through 20

Infrared imagery examples;
Discharges 21 through 28

Infrared imagery examples;
Discharges 29 through 34

Infrared imagery examples;
Discharges 35, 36
           APPENDIXES


             Title

 PROJECT PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT (#N89.6)

 QUADRANGLE MAPS; DISCHARGES SHOWN; 11 MAPS
Page

  4

  6
                                                                               8


                                                                               9


                                                                              10
                                                                   NERC-LAS VEGAS
                                               iii

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                                SECTION I
                              INTRODUCTION
     National Environmental Research Center (NERC)  - Las Vegas under
Project N89.6 conducted an aerial remote sensing survey for the
Surveillance and Analysis Division - Region III.  The work was
initiated by a memorandum from_Mr. J. Gary Gardner to Mr. L.  Dunn on
March 21, 1972, requesting..."IR coverage of portions of four major
rivers to support enforcement activities and to provide information on
waste discharge locations for possible surveillance investigations."
Based on this and other communication, aerial infrared and other data
were collected on August 25,  1972, over portions of the Monongahela,
Ohio, and Allegheny Rivers in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, vicinity.
     The objective of this survey was to locate and provide information
on waste discharges into the rivers covered.  Results of this effort
are presented in Section II of this report.
     Section III describes the data collection operations; details of
the data processing and analysis are covered in Section IV.  Comments
and recommendations regarding utility of this information are found in
Section V.  Appendix A lists the personnel, major items of equipment
and functions involved in the conduct of this survey; and Appendix B
is a set of eleven U.S.G.S. Quadrangle Maps (7-1/2 minute series) on
which the discharge information has been plotted.
                                                         NERC-LAS VEGAS

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                               SECTION II
                             RESULT SUMMARY
     Thirty-six discharges evidenced by  their warmer  surface  temper-
ature were located and mapped along the  150  linear  mile  (approx)
section of river flown.  The locations of the discharge  points have
been plotted on maps and listed to the nparp.st  second.   Total surface
area of the mixing zones, furthest extent of the  thermal influence
(downstream), time of data recording and other  related information
have been mapped and tabulated.  Area of thermal  influence  ranged from
40,000 to 1,360,000 sq. ft.  Downstream  extents varied between 400 and
3400 ft. from the discharge points.  Where two  thermal levels within
a single mixing zone were observed, these have  been mapped  and noted.
In several locations notations are made  of mixing zones  spanning the
river between both shores.  Occasionally, discharges  could  not be
mapped with sufficient confidence and these  are appropriately noted.
                                                         NERC-LAS VEGAS

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                               SECTION III
                             DATA COLLECTION
     Airborne remote sensor data for this project were collected on
August 25, 1972; 1158-1358 EDT.  Approximately 150 linear miles of
river segments were flown (figure 1).  Thermal infrared (8-14 micron
wavelength) imagery obtained with a HRB-Singer AN/AAS-14A optical/
mechanical scanner was the primary data resulting from this effort.
The aircraft altitude varied between 4000-8700 ft. above terrain.
Ground coverage obtained by this scanner, of interpretive value, is a
ground swath along the flight path approximately 80  wide, i.e.,
6700-14,600 ft. for this project.
     Figures 2 through 6 are examples of imagery resulting from this
survey.  To produce these images, strip film is exposed, line by line,
by light, the intensity of which is controlled by the output of an
infrared sensitive detector.  This detector is mercury-cadmium-telluride
which is cooled to a temperature of 77 K during '>poration to provide
high temperature sensitivity.  In normal operations, this scanner
records temperature variations of the terrain surface on the order of
several tenths of a degree centigrade.
     Quality of the resultant imagery is affected by primarily;
1) condition of scanner, 2) operation of the scanner, 3) flight
procedures, and 4) weather conditions.  These variables are controllable
or can be scheduled around.
     Quality of infrared data collected for this project is considered
fair to poor.  It does, however, contain information believed to be of
value to the Surveillance and Analysis Division - Region III and has
therefore been analyzed and reported.
                                                         NERC-LAS  VEGAS

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                               SECTION IV
                      DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS
     Data processing for this project consisted totally of film
negative and positive development and duplication at a reconnaissance-
type photographic laboratory at NERC-Las Vegas.  Detailed examination
of the infrared imagery for water discharge information uas performed
with the use of paper positive images and film positives backlighted
by a simple photo interpretation light table.   Interpreted discharge
points and mixing zone outlines were delineated on film positive
images then transferred to paper positives (figures 2 through 6) and
Quadrangle Maps (Appendix B).  Film and paper  positives used and
presented herein were photographically scaled  to 1:24,000 (1 in =
2,000 ft.) to facilitate transfer of the discharge information to the
maps and to minimize confusion to the reader due to scale variations
in the original data.  Scale variations were introduced into the data
by altitude changes (above terrain) during the survey, by distortions
inherent to this type of scanner recorder and  by sinuous flight lines
which attempted, on occasion, to follow the river courses.  The
combination of these three resulted in a distorted, scale varying
image which presented serious difficulty in attempting to position the
interpreted discharge points and aerial discharge outline to the maps,,
Although care was taken, it is estimated that, on occasion, the dis-
charge points presented on the maps will be over 1,000 ft. removed
from their true position, and discharge boundaries may be even more
poorly located on the maps.  Table 1, Discharge Data, is a tabulation
of all pertinent discharge information resulting from this survey.
                                                          NhRC-LAS VEGAS

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         Although it was not possible to determine the absolute surface water
         temperature of the mixing zones or receiving water, an attempt was  made
         to indicate relative discharge temperatures.  The discharges inter-
         preted as being warmer are noted "two thermal levels" under Remarks.
         Both thermal levels of these mixing zones are delineated on the quadrangle
         maps.
              Infrared images of each thermal discharge are shown as figures 2
         through 6.  These were included in the report to assist in any possible
         follow-up ground investigation where accurate positioning may be
         required.  (Distortions and inaccuracies associated with the data and
         subsequent map transfers have been discussed above.)  Each discharge is
         key numbered to the maps and tabulated data are in Table 1.
              Close examination of these infrared images should reveal warmer
         water areas (lighter toned) sourcing at the tip of each arrow.
         Although the "originals" of the imagery were slightly better quality
         than the report copies, the reader should be able to realize the
         relative confidence to place in the actual presence of each discharge.
         (This is the "raw" data.)  Compare for example discharge #9 (Figure 2)
         which carries the notation in Table 1 "Questionable if discharge is
         actually present" with #29 which presents little detection or mapping
         problem.  Again, it is stressed that data collected for this project
         was of marginal quality, not representative of unclassified state-of-
         the-art infrared scanning for thermal mapping purposes, and finally,
         not representative of future results to be produced by NERC-LV.
                                                                   NERC-LAS VEGAS
                                             11

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                                                                     12

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                                 SECTION V
                       COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.  Aerial infrared surveying^jcan readily detect and delineate the
presence and surface extent of discharges into rivers by displaying
on permanent film record a map-like presentation of surface temperature.
2.  This technique can be applied day or night but is limited in
inclement weather conditions.
3.  Documentation of this type can be obtained in a confidential
manner.
4.  Absolute water surface temperature to 1 F accuracies in contour
map presentation is attainable by this method.
5.  Large areas can be screened rapidly via infrared surveillance.
6.  The equipment and techniques utilized are quite sophisticated,  and
good quality data are not obtained easily.  Attaining and maintaining
operational status is difficult and costly.
     It is recommended that personnel from Region III,  Surveillance and
Analysis, share available or newly acquired information related to
these interpreted discharges with NERC-LV.   A short field check to
selected sites, made jointly, would be helpful toward improving future
similar efforts.
     Any recommendations by Regional personnel geared to improving
these aerial reconnaissance surveys are solicited and necessary for
development of a viable technique.
                                                          NERC-LAS VEGAS
                                    13

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55S
                                        APPENDIX A
                          PROJECT PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT (//N89.6)
                  Name




         R. Landers




         M. Smith




         J. Schmidt




         C. Lake, W. Fowler




         B. Spavin, W. Fowler




         G. Niles




         A. Pressman
        Function




Mission Manager




Pilot




IR Scanner Engineer




Film Processing, Printing




Graphics




Data Compilation




Data Analysis, Report
          Grumman Mohawk OV-1C




          HRB Singer AN/AAS-14A




          Kodak Versamat 11C-M




          LogEtronic SP10/70-B




          Miller-Holzworth EN88A
Aircraft




Infrared Scanner




Roll Film Processor




Roll Paper Printer




Image Scale Adjustment
                                                                  NERC-LAS VEGAS

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                             APPENDIX B
             QUADRANGLE MAPS SHOWING DISCHARGES;  11 MAPS
             Discharge No.




1, 2, 3,  4,  5,  6, 7, 8, 22, 27, 28,




9, 10
29
11, 12,  13,  14




15, 16,  19




17




18




20, 21




23, 24




25, 26,  30,  32, 34




31, 33,  35




36
          Map




Pittsburgh East,  PA




Ambridge, PA




Baden, PA




Beaver, PA




Midland, PA




Hookstown, PA




New Kensington West, PA




Braddock, PA




McKeesport, PA




Glassport, PA




Monongahela, PA
                                                        NERC-LAS VEGAS

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         UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTBR10R
      OEOLOOICAL SURVEY
                                                                                                                                                                           @Q@(3)
                                                                                                                                                                               PITTSBURGH  EAST QUADRANGLE      j$
                                                                                                                                                                                  PENNSYLVANIAALLEGHENY CO         fi?
                                                                                                                                                                                 75 MINUTE SERIES (TOPOGRAPHIC)
Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Survey
Contool br USGS USC4GS USCE nd the City et Pittsburgh
Toooi'iphy by plinettble lumys 1925-1941, and 1948

phulolnphJ UHn 1959  Fitld chKk 1960

IP.OOCMoot fid tMMd < Pmniylvinit OMidinit* lyiltm, jouth nxi(
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                                                                                                                                                                                        ROAD CL*SSIFICATION
Rd tint indictW
                                                                                    THIS MAP COMPLIES WITH NATIONAL MAP *CCUS*C STNMBDS
                                                                                 FDR SALE BY U S GEOLOGICAL SURVEY WASHINGTON, 0 C 20242
                                                                                                                                                                                          PITTSBURGH  EAST, PA
                                                                                                                                                                                           NV.t P1TTSBUROH 1)' OUIOBAMOU
                                                                                                                                                                                              N40225-W79525/75

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       UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
     GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
   STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA
DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS
TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC SURVEY
    AMBRIDGE QUADRANGLE
        PENNSYLVANIA
75 MINUTE SERIES (TOPOGRAPHIC)

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                                                                                                                                                                                           @@
         UNITED STATES
   PARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
      GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
  COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA
          STATE PLANNING  BOARD
,TOPOGRAPHIC AND OEOLOQIC SURVEY
  BADEN QUADRANGLE
       PENNSYLVANIA
5 MINUTE SERIES [TOPOGRAPHIC)
  HW/i SEWICKLEf 15 QIUQMNCIE
Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Sui

Contml br USGS intl USCiGS


fetal photographs taken 1952  field check 1953
                                                                                                     ROAD CLASSIFICATION

                                                                                          Heavy duty             Light duty     _=



                                                                                          Q Interstate Route              Q Stale F
                                                                                                CONTOUR INTERVAL 20 FEET
                                                                                        E BY U S GEOLOGICAL SURVEY WASHINGTON C
                                                                                                                                                                                                N40375-W80075/75

                                                                                                                                                                                                       1953

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                                                                                                                                                                                         @@
                                                                                                                                                                                         BEAVER QUADRANGLE
                                                                                                                                                                                          PENNSYLVANIA-BEAVER CO
                                                                                                                                                                                        5 MINUTE SERIES  (TOPOGRAPHIC!   "^
               UNITED STATES
     DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
"           GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
  8022 30"
40-45
Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Survey
Control by USGS and USC4GS
Topography |fom Mnal photographs by multiplei methods,
    photoarphs tiKcn 1952  Field check 1953

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        UNITED STATES
  DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
      GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
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              UNITED STATES
     DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
           GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
   80-3CT
ITXr
HOOKSTOWN  QUADRANGLE
   PENNSYLVANIA-BEAVEl? CO
 75 MINUTE SERIES (TOPOGRAPHIC)
     Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Survey

     Control by USCS and USC&GS

     Topogiiphr from M<\>\ photographs by multiple! methods
     PDtycomc pnxKfaon 1927 North American dalum
     10,000 loot grid brad on Pennsylvania

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                                  STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA
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  GLASSPORT  QUADRANGLE
        PENNSYLVANIA
7 5 MINUTE SERIES
       UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
     GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
   STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA
 DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS
TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC SURVEY

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i,             UNITED STATES
"4-V    DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
 

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