DNR

UPPER GREAT LAKES

CONNECTING CHANNELS

STUDY
Volume
                     FINAL REPORT
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    FINAL REPORT
       of the
  UPPER GREAT LAKES
CONNECTING CHANNELS
       STUDY
     VOLUME II
    DECEMBER   1988

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   Environment
   Ontario
                      ef Engfemn
                       LETTER OF TKANSMITTAL
Valdas A. Adamkus
Regional Administrator, Region V
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Elizabeth Dowdeswell
Regional Director General, Ontario Region
Environment Canada
David F. Hales
Director
Michigan Department of Natural Resources
j. Walter Giles
Associate Deputy Minister
Ontario Ministry of the  Environment
On behalf of the Management Committee we are pleased  to  submit

the final report and executive summary of the Upper Great

Lakes Connecting Channels Study.  The report is a

comprehensive and detailed review of the project studies and

their results.

Respectfully submitted, February 1989.
Ron Shimizp
Co-Chair  \J
Environment Canada
Carol Finch
Co-Chair
U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency

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                ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many people contributed to the completion of this document. There
were over a hundred principal investigators and associated staff
who contributed the most essential ingredient to the study - the
data and preliminary interpretations.   Although too numerous to
mention, the Management Committee of the Upper Great Lakes Con-
necting Channels Study extends thanks to all.

Members of the numerous committee, workgroup, task force and
synthesis writing teams are listed in Appendix I,  The Management
Committee would especially like to acknowledge the members of the
Activities Integration Committee.  This committee co-ordinated
the technical studies, chaired individual workgroups, and
assisted with and directed the writing of the final report,
These people include: Daryl Cowell (Canadian Co-chair),  Vacys
Saulys  (U.S. Co-chair}, A.S.Y. chau,  Tom Edsall, Yousry Hamdy,
Tom Fontaine, John Moore,  Paul Horvatin, Griff Sherbin,  Rick
Lundgren, Don Williams, Keith Rodgers, Wayne Wager and Bill
Richardson  (Appendix I).

The principal writers of the final report are: Yousry Hamdy,
Diana Klemens,  Barry Oliver, Pranas Pranckevicius, Paul Bertram,
Paul Hamblin, David Kenaga, Cynthia Fuller, Daryl Cowell, Vacys
Saulys and Wayne Wager.  The overall editing of the final report
was conducted by the Activities Integration Committee.  The prim-
ary editor was Daryl Cowell with the assistance of Wayne Wager
and Vacys Saulys.  Again,  the Management Committee extends their
appreciation.

The Management Committee and editors would also like to specif-
ically acknowledge the work of George Ziegenhorn  (technical sec-
retary to the Management and Activities Integration Committees),
Tonya Moniz  (word processing), Brent Hosier  (drafting),  Deepak
Dath (hardware/software assistance),  Donna Schmidtmeyer  (Appendix
II),  Darrell Piekars  {executive summary editing), and John
Forwalter and Cynthia Fuller (editing support).

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                          PREFACE
This Report provides the major findings and recommendations of
the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study  (UGLCCS).  The
study was first announced as a U.S. Program in November, 1983 by
then United States Environmental Protection Agency  (U.S.EPA)
Administrator, William Ruckelshaus.  In July, 1984 it became a
multi-agency U.S./Canada investigation of toxic chemicals and
other environmental concerns in the Upper Great Lakes Connecting
Channels.  The study area included the Detroit, St. Clair and St.
Marys Rivers and Lake St. Clair.  The principal agencies involved
were the U.S.EPA, Environment Canada, the Ontario Ministry of the
Environment, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the
City of Detroit, Fisheries and oceans Canada and the Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources.

The UGLCC Study was organized such that the participating agen-
cies could focus and co-ordinate their on-going studies in the
four areas and identify priorities- for new studies.  All programs
and individuals benefited from working together and sharing their
individual strengths.  The total cost of this study     approxi-
mately $20 million.  This included existing agency program funds
as well as "new" money allocated to additional studies in the
channels.

The Impetus for this study was specifically for the improved
regulatory management of point and nonpoint pollution sources in
the four study areas.  As such, the technical and management
recommendations identified for each area are the key outputs of
the study.  It should be pointed out, however, that the regula-
tory agencies have not waited for the final release of this study
before implementing controls.  Numerous actions have been under-
taken throughout the course of the study whenever investigations
uncovered significant pollution sources and problems.  For ex-
ample, the total loadings of certain organic chemicals from Sar-
nia area chemical companies have been drastically reduced since
late 1985 following the discovery of perchloroethylene puddles on
the bed of the St. Clair River,

This report is volume II of a three volume set containing the
complete output of the UGLCC Study.  Volume I is an executive

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                                VI

summary describing the major study findings and recommendations.

Volume III is a compilation of the many principal investigator
reports, workgroup reports and other supporting documents,  Cop-
ies are on file with each of the participating agencies and with
the International Joint Commission in Windsor, Ontario.

This volume  (II) is the main report describing the results of the
UGLCC Studies.   It consists of five introductory chapters and
four area  chapters (one for each study area).  The introductory
material covers study purpose and organization, characteristics
of the four study areas, regulatory guidelines and programs, the
data quality management program, and modeling activities.  The
last four chapters present the findings for each study area using
a comparable reporting format.

Detailed study area maps are provided in Chapter II.  These,
along with tables and other information in Chapters III, IV, and
¥, are intended as reference material for the reader in support
of the area chapters.

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                               Vli
                TABLE
O P
CONTENTS
LETTER OP T1ANSMITTAL	, ,  iii
                 	,	 iv
PREFACE 	 ...... 	  ...    v


CHAPTER I

           1.  Purpose and Objectives	.  .  . . .    1
           2.  Study Approach ...............    2
           3.  Management Structure  ...........    4
           4.  Schedule	 .    5
           5,  Technical Activities  ......  	    6
           6,  Parameters of Interest	    6
           7,  References	,  , , ,    8


CHAPTER II     OVERVIEW OP     UPPEE       LAKES CONNECTING
               CHANNELS

           1.  Introduction ...............   11
           2.  St. Marys River." ,...,.....,..   18
           3.  St. Glair River.	  , . .   20
           4.  Lake St. Clair	   22
           5,  Detroit River, .,,,.,.,,..,.,   25
           6.  References	,	   28


CHAPTER III    REGULATORY         OUTLINE

     A,   Introduction   .... 	  ........  29
           1.  Binational Agreements	  29
           2.  Federal,  State and Provincial
               Environmental Control  ..........  30

     B.   Environmental Media Standards, Criteria,
          Objectives and Guidelines   ..........  35
           1.  Water Quality. ,...,..'..,....  35
           2.  Sediment  Quality 	  ........  39
           3.  Aquatic Biota  ......  	  ...  41

     c.   Point Source Contaminant Controls  .......  44
           1.  Industrial Point Sources	  44
           2.  Municipal Point Sources	  47

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                              vili

     D.    Nonpoint Source Contaminant Control   	   50
           1.   Agricultural Runoff	50
           2.   Pesticides 	 ......   50
           3.   Shipping	52
           4.   Spills	53
           5.   Urban Runoff and combined Sewer Overflows,   54
           6.   Atmospheric Deposition	   54
           7,   In-place Pollutants	  .   55

     E.    Solid,  Liquid and Hazardous Waste Controls  .  .   57

     F.    Reference   	  .........   59


CHAPTER IV     DATA QUALITY MANAGEMENT

     A.    Data Requirements and Procedures	61
           1.   Intended Use of Data	61
           2.   Field and Laboratory Procedures	62

     B.    Data Quality Management	63
           1.   Activities	63
           2,   Project Plan Review Findings 	   65

     C.    Interlaboratory Performance Evaluations ....   67
           1.   Background	67
           2.   Approach	,	67

     D.    UGLCCS Quality Assurance Results  .......   70
           1.   Percent Recoveries 	   70
           2.   Overall Laboratory Performance ......   74

     E.    Findings and Conclusions	78

     F.    References	80


CHAPTER V      INTRODUCTION TO MODELING ACTIVITIES

     A.    Introduction	81

     B.    Methods	84
           1.   Mass Balance Calculations	84
           2.   Process Models		86

     C.    Recommendations	89
     D.    Reference   	90

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                           ix

   VI     ST. MARYS RIVER

A,   Status of the Ecosystem	  91
      1.  Ecological Profile 	  91
      2.  Environmental Conditions 	  99

B,   Specific Concerns .	154
      1.  Water.	154
      2.  Sediment ,	157
      3,  Biota.	157
      4,  Uses Impaired	158

C.   Sources	,....161
      1.  Point Source	161
      2.  Nonpoint Sources	170
      3.  Atmospheric Deposition  	 176
      4.  Contaminated Sediments	  . 178
      5.  Groundwater Contamination/Waste Sites   .  . 178
      S.  Navigation	180
      7.  Spills	180
      8,  Summary.	182

D.   Data Quality Assessment	184

E.   Process Modeling  	 185
      1.  Physical:  Hydrodynamics, Wind, Waves
          and Currents	185
      2.  Physical-Chemical-Biological: Fate and
          Transport Models  	 189

F.   Goals and Objectives for Remedial Programs   .  . 194

G.   Adequacy of Existing Programs and Remedial
     Options	196
      1.  Existing Regulatory Programs 	 196
      2.  Actual Discharges vs. Control Requirements 200
      3.  Adequacy of Control Mechanisms  	 201
      4,  Ontario Regulatory Initiatives  	 202

H.   Recommendations	204
      A.  Industrial and Municipal
          Point Source Remedial Recommendations   .  . 204
      B.  Nonpoint Source Remedial
          Recommendations   	  ........205
      C.  Surveys, Research and Development  .... 206

I.   Long Term Monitoring	209
      1.  UGLCCS vs. Other Monitoring Programs  .  .  . 209
      2.  System Monitoring  for Contaminants .... 210
      3.  Sources Monitoring 	 213
      4,  Habitat Monitoring 	 214

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     J.   References	216
CHAPTER ¥11    ST..CLAIR RIVER

     A.  Status of the Ecosystem	.  223
          1.   Ecological Profile 	  223
          2.   Environmental Conditions 	  231

     B.  Specific Concerns  	  251
          1.   Conventional Pollutants	251
          2.   UGLCCS Toxic Organics and Heavy Metals   .  253
          3.   Other Specific Contaminants	254
          4.   Habitat Alterations.  ...... 	  255

     C.  Sources	256
          1.   Municipal and Industrial Point Sources  . .  256
          2.   Urban Nonpoint Sources	  262
          3.   Agricultural Nonpoint Sources  	  264
          4.   Atmospheric Deposition	268
          5.   Groundwater Contamination/Waste Sites   . .  269
          €.   Spills	283
          7.   Contaminated Sediments 	  284
          8.   Navigation	  289

     D.  Data Requirements and Assessments  .......  290

     E.  Modeling and Mass Balance Considerations .   .  . .291
          1.   Dispersion Models  	  291
          2.   Hydrodynamic Model 	  295
          3.   Chemical Transport Models	295
          4.   Unsteady Flow Model	296
          5.   Other Models	297
          6.   Model Applications	 .  297

     F.  Objectives and Goals for Remedial Programs  .  . .300
          1.   Water Quality, Sediment and Biota	300
          2.   Habitat Goals.	304
          3.   Uses to be Maintained and Restored ....  305

     G.  Adequacy of Existing Programs and Remedial
         Options	306
          1.   Projection of the Ecosystem Quality.   .  . .  306
          2.   Assessment of Technical Adequacy of
               Control Programs  	  308
          3.   Assessment of Regulatory Adequacy	311

     H.  Recommendations	313
          A.   Industrial and Municipal
               Point Source Remedial Recommendations   . .313
          1.   Nonpoint source Remedial Recommendations .  315
          C.   Surveys, Research and Development  .  .  . .316

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                          xi

I.  Long Term Monitoring	.319
     1.   UGLCCS vs. Other Monitoring Programs ...  319
     2.   System Monitoring for Contaminants .  .   . .  323
     3.   Sources Monitoring 	  324
     4.   Habitat Monitoring 	  325

J,  References .......... 	  325
   VIII        ST. CLAIR

A.  Status of the Ecosystem   	335
     1.   Ecological Profile   	 335
     2.   Environmental Conditions 	 342

B.  Specific Concerns  	 375
     1*   Conventional Pollutants	375
     2.   Toxic Organics and Heavy Metals	377
     3.   Habitat Alterations	382

C.  Sources	'»,..,.. 385
     1.   Municipal Point Sources	385
     2.   Industrial Point Sources 	 392
     3.   Urban Nonpoint Sources   	 392
     4.   Rural Nonpoint Runoff    	 393
     5.   Atmospheric Deposition	395
     6.   Groundwater Contamination/Waste Sites   .  . 397
     7.   Spills	401
     8.   Contaminated Sediments	401
     9.   Navigation	402

D.  Data Limitations   	403
     1.   Sediment Surveys 	 403
     2.   Tributary Loadings 	 403
     3.   Point Sources	.405
     4.   Fish Consumption Advisories	405

E.  Modeling and Mass Balance Considerations . .  .  .406
     1.   Mass Balance Models	406
     2.   Process-Oriented Models	 410
     3.   Summary.	420

F.  Objectives and Goals for Remedial Programs .  .  . 421
     1.   Water Quality	421
     2.   Sediment Quality 	 422
     3.   Biota and Habitat	423
     4.   Management Issues	424

G.  Adeciuacy of Existing Programs and Remedial
    Options	.426
     1.   Projection os Ecosystem Quality	426

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                          xii

     2.   Assessment of Technical Adequacy of Control
          Programs	,.426
     3.   Regulatory Control Programs  	 429

H,  Recommendations	431
     A.   Industrial and Municipal
          Point Source Remedial Recommendations  .   .431
     B.   Nonpoint Source Remedial Recommendations  . 431
     C.   Surveys, Research and Development  .   . .   .433

I.  Long Term Monitoring   ,	436
     1.   UGLCCS vs. Other Monitoring Programs   .   . 436
     2.   System Monitoring for Contaminants .... 437
     3.   Sources Monitoring .  .  ,  .'	 440
     4.   Habitat Monitoring 	 441

J.  References	442
   IX     DETROIT RIVER

A.  Status of the Ecosystem  ............ 447
     1.   Ecological Profile	 447
     2.   Environmental Conditions 	 456

B.  Specific Concerns	492
     1.   Conventional Pollutants  	 492
     2.   Organic Contaminants 	 492
     3.   Metals   	494
     4.   Habitat Alterations  . .	• . .  . 495

C.  Sources	497
     1.   Point Sources	497
     2.   Urban Nonpoint Sources   	 513
     3.   Groundwater Contamination/Waste Sites  .  .517
     4.   Spills   	527
     S.   Rural Runoff and Tributary Input  ..... 527
     6.   Atmospheric Deposition .....  	 530
     7.   Integrated Contaminant Input  .  	 534

D.  Data Quality Assurance and Control	537
     1.   Limitations	537
     2.   General Observations 	 537

E.  Modeling and Mass Balance Considerations  . . .  .538
     1.   Mass Balance Models  .....  	 538
     2.   Process Modeling 	 551

F.  Objectives and Goals for Remedial Programs . .  . 555
     1.   Water Quality	555
     2.   Sediments	557
     3.   Biota and Habitat	.558

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                              xiii

          4.    Other Issues   	,	560

     G.  Adequacy of Existing Programs and Remedial
         Options  ..... 	 561
          1.    projection of Ecosystem Quality	561
          2.    Assessment of Technical Adequacy of Control
               Programs	562
          3.    Assessment of Regulatory Adequacy	565

     H.  Recommendations	, 568
          A,    industrial and Municipal
               Point source Remedial Recommendations  . .568
          B.    Nonpoint Source Remedial Recommendations . 571
          C.    Surveys, Research and Development  . .  . . 573
          D.    Management Strategy for Remedial Programs  575

     I.  Long Term Monitoring	 . 577

          1.    UGLCCS  vs. Other Monitoring Programs  . . 577
          2.    System Monitoring for Contaminants .... 577
          3.    Habitat Monitoring 	 580
          4.    Sources Monitoring 	 581

     J.  References	. .  . . 583
APPENDIX  I    Lists of Committee, Workgroup, Task Force
               and Area Synthesis Team Members	593

APPENDIX II    Glossary and Units of Measure  	 607

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                            CHAPTER I
                           INTRODUCTION
The Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels  (UGLCC), for the pur-
pose of this report, includes the St. Marys River, St. Clair
River, Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River, They are important
components of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem and a valuable
resource.  They serve as commercial transportation corridors, as
a source of drinking water and industrial water, as historical
and recreational resources, and as habitat for a wide diversity
of fauna and flora.

The intensive use which has taken place throughout this system
has resulted in serious environmental degradation in many areas.
As early as the 1940s concern existed about bacterial contamina-
tion,  phenol problems and excessive levels of metals, phosphorus
and mercury.  Attention is currently being focused on toxic
substances in water, sediment and biota throughout the system and
their effects on human health and the ecosystem.

Since 1974 the Detroit, St. Clair, and St. Marys Rivers have been
designated as "Problem Areas" and, more recently, as "Areas of
Concern" by the International Joint Commission.  Despite massive
clean-up efforts and the expenditure of millions of dollars by
industry and government there remain areas in which general or
specific objectives of the 1978 Great Lakes Water Quality Agree-
ment  (GLWQA) are exceeded  (1). There have been noticeable im-
provements since the 1960s; however/ significant environmental
degradation and continuing impairment of beneficial uses occur.


1.  Purpose and objectives

Although there have been numerous investigations and reports on
the environmental quality of the Connecting Channels, there has
previously been no attempt to integrate the information and focus
the scientific studies to produce recommendations for specific
action or identify remedial needs.  This study was a landmark

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tdnational efforts in the continuing restoration of the Great
Lakes system.  This report, by the Management Committee of the
UGLCC Study to the sponsoring agencies, is intended to provide
guidance for the remediation of these degraded waters and a
framework for long term monitoring to assess the effectiveness of
pollution controls.  The vehicle for the delivery of the recom-
mendations ,  options and implementation will be the Remedial
Action Plan  (RAP) process,  RAPs are currently being prepared for
all 42 "Areas of Concern".  These plans will identify problems,
goals for remediation, and remedial actions as well as
responsible agencies for implementation, a schedule for implemen-
tation,  and necessary monitoring programs  (1).

Specifically, the objectives for the study were as follows:

1)   To determine the existing environmental condition of
     the St. Marys River, St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair
     and the Detroit River at its influx into the Western
     Basin of Lake Erie and to identify information gaps.

2}   To undertake additional, needed studies to:

a)   identify and quantify the impacts of conventional and
     toxic substances from point sources, nonpoint sources
     (both runoff and contaminated groundwater) and tribu-
     taries, on beneficial human uses and on plant and
     animal populations in, along, and below these waters?

b)   determine the adequacy of existing or proposed control
     programs to ensure or restore beneficial uses,- and

c)   recommend appropriate control and surveillance programs
     to protect and monitor these waterways and the
     downstream lakes.


2,  Study Approach

In establishing this study, certain concepts were identified
based on the 1978 GLWQA and experience gained from earlier bina-
tional efforts.  Of particular importance to the overall study
design were the concepts: ecosystem approach, enhanced data
quality management, mass balance requirements,  and regulatory
management focus.

i)   Ecosystem Approach.  The Connecting Channels and Lake
     St. Clair are complex ecosystems characterized by high
     volumes and flows, strong currents and circulation
     patterns, deposition and re-suspension of sediments,
     diverse biota, extensive wetlands, and atmospheric and
     terrestrial interactions. Superimposed on this system
     are human activities in terms of physical alterations

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     and pollutant loadings.  In order to identify impacts
     to the system and develop management scenarios for
     control and remediation, all factors and their interac-
     tions have to be evaluated and taken into considera-
     tion.  This effectively is the ecosystem approach as
     defined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
     between Canada and the United States, (1978, amended
     1987} (1).

ii)   Enhanced Data Quality Management.  The experience of
     earlier interagency, multi-media studies on the Great
     Lakes has demonstrated the need to recognize and incor-
     porate data quality assurance and quality control
     (QA/QC)  which are crucial to the overall utility of
     study results.   These considerations need to be taken
     into account at the beginning of the study and not
     viewed in hindsight.  This concept was given consid-
     erable priority within the UGLCC Study and respon-
     sibility was vested in a Data Quality Management
     Workgroup,  Responsibilities of this workgroup included
     reviewing analytical and field protocols; reviewing
     internal quality assurance programs of participating
     laboratories; assessing the statistical validity of
     program results; and running a series.of "round robin"
     analyses based on controlled mixtures.  In addition,
     investigators were encouraged to exchange split
     samples.

iii)  Mass Balance Requirements.  In setting-up the UGLCC
     Study emphasis was placed on providing data that could
     be directly applied to identify remedial strategies and
     develop regulatory actions.  In order to relate the
     potential source data to the environmental conditions,
     study participants agreed to explore the use of pol-
     lutant mass balance models. This was considered to be
     the most comprehensive approach for the study design
     and was also compatible with the ecosystem approach
     noted earlier.  If mass balance models could be develop-
     ed and verified, aquatic ecosystem objectives could
     easily be related to pollutant loads.

     Ecosystem complexity and a general lack of historical
     data for some areas, along with the limited time frame
     of the UGLCC Study have limited the use of complex
     models.  Preliminary models have been developed and will
     be utilized to provide a guide to the development of
     management options where possible,

iv)   Regulatory Management Focus.  Previous binational stu-
     dies of the Great Lakes tended to emphasize baseline
     descriptions along with identification of stresses to
     the overall environment. Rarely have specific regula-

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     tory options and strategies been identified and agreed
     to by the participating jurisdictions. From the outset
     the UGLCC Study has emphasized regulatory management
     recommendations (i.e. control and abatement) as the key
     output for the study. This is particularly timely as
     given the request by the Great Lakes Water Quality
     Board of the International Joint Commission and the
     recently updated GLWQA for specific RAPs in the Areas
     of Concern.

These four concepts formed the framework to the study, although
it should be noted that in all cases time and resource con-
straints prevented their complete implementation.  However, their
identification and subsequent guidance to the study were extreme-
ly valuable,


3.  Management Structure

To oversee planning, implementation and reporting,  a three-tier
management structure was established consisting of the Management
Committee, the Activities Integration Committee and eight specif-
ic activity workgroups.  Resources necessary to undertake and
maintain the planning and administration of the study were pro-
vided by the participating agencies.  Secretarial support was
provided by the U.S.EPA's Great Lakes National Program Office
       .

i)   Management Committee.  This committee consisted of
     representatives of the principal U.S. and Canadian
     agencies.  It was co-chaired by U.S.EPA and Environment
     Canada.   Members were agency managers who were in a
     position to ensure follow-up to study priorities and
     needs.  In addition to the regular members, the chair-
     person of the International Joint Commission's UGLCC
     Task Force was an observer on this committee.  He
     provided a formal link with the Great Lakes Water
     Quality Board.

     The Management Committee provided overall guidance to
     the study by identifying issues, establishing the
     study's structure, approving the work plans, and ap-
     proving the final report.  This committee was also
     responsible for identifying environmental management
     requirements in the study area with regard to appro-
     priate regulatory options.

ii)  Activities Integration Committee.  The AIC was a sub-
     committee of the Management Committee.  It was respon-
     sible for preparing and overseeing implementation of
     the study work plans and for the final report. The AIC
     was co-chaired by Environment Canada and the U.S.EPA.

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     Members were workgroup chairpersons plus 2 scientific
     coordinators.

iii) Study Workgroups.  Eight workgroups were established
     for this study: biota, sediment, water quality, data
     quality management, modeling, point source, nonpoint
     source, and long-term monitoring. A regulatory task
     force was established to review existing regulatory
     measures and help evaluate proposed remedial measures.
     The results of this review have been incorporated
     directly into the final report  (Chapter III).  Members
     of workgroups were technical experts from among the
     participating agencies.  Each workgroup operated under
     the guidance of a single chairperson.
4.   Schedule

The UGLCC Study was conducted in 3 phases.  Phase 1 was the
planning stage which included the development of work plans,
quality assurance programs and preliminary models.  This phase
was initiated with a planning workshop for 60 key participants,
A comprehensive technical literature review was also carried out
during the planning phase in order to identify gaps and plan the
next phase (2).

Phase II included the two field seasons  (1985 and 1986).  A'mid-
course workshop was held between the two study years for the
benefit of about 100 of the principal investigators. This work-
shop was established to prepare work plans for the 1986 activ-
ities; exchange information from the previous field season;
identify progress to date and additional needs; and identify and
resolve logistics of ship support and equipment sharing.

The final phase - the report writing phase - began in January
1987 at a writers workshop held in Windsor.  This workshop pro-
vided 40 workgroup participants, both chairmen and principal
investigators, the opportunity to discuss and finalize reporting
formats, writing process, logistics, and timing as well as iden-
tify inter and intra workgroup co-ordination needs.   A workshop
was held in Ann Arbor in January 1988 for six of the workgroups
to present their results and information to those synthesizing
workgroup reports into the four area reports. A final workshop,
held in Burlington in June 1988, was conducted for the AIC to
review each of the four area reports prior to submission of the
draft final report to the Management Committee.

The report writing was carried-out in four stages.  The first
stage consisted of the preparation of the approximately 170
individual project reports by the principal investigators.  The
second stage consisted of 26 media specific workgroup reports  (3)
which were prepared from the project reports.  Area synthesis

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writing constituted the 3rd stage.  Four teams  (1 for each geo-
graphic area),  each with Canadian and U.S. co-leads, integrated
the workgroup products into a single report for each of the
geographic areas.  The 4th stage of writing was the drafting of
the final report and executive summary.  At this stage the key
conclusions and recommendations of the study were identified and
prepared by the AIC,  The draft final report was presented to the
Management committee on July 20, 1988 for final review.  The
technical comments that were received were used to prepare the
final report which was formally submitted to the sponsoring
agencies.


5.  Technical Activities

In order to meet the objectives of the UGLCC Study a number of
activities were identified with regard to technical data needs.
These were grouped according to workgroup subject areas (eg.
point source, biota, sediment, etc.) and formed the basis for
defining specific projects or investigations.  Activities in-
cluded, for example, assessing combined sewer overflows, tribu-
tary monitoring, describing circulation patterns and sediment re-
suspension, and estimating nonpoint source loadings of nutrients
and toxics.  For the 1986 field season, 72 activities were de-
fined and approximately 170 specific projects were undertaken.

The technical activities were designed particularly to: (1)
describe the nature and abundance of macrophytes, benthos and
fish in order to establish baseline conditions to which future
monitoring of habitat and population structure could be compared;
and (2} identify pollutant sources     loadings in order to drive
the models and develop remedial strategies.


6.  Parameters of Interest

The Activities Integration Committee identified a number of
contaminants including heavy metals, organic contaminants and
conventional pollutants which are known or suspected to be in
exceedence of criteria or at high levels in portions of the study
area.   These are listed in Table 1-1.  For additional information
on the selection of these parameters and their occurrence in the
study area, the reader is referred to the report outlining pre-
      Study conditions (2).

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                                  1-1

                 UGLCCS  parameters  of concern.
COMMON
ABBREVIATIONS
    PARAMETERS
Organics

PCBs
HCB
OCS
PAHs
Polychlorinated biphenyls
Hexaehlorobeniene
Octachlorostyrene
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Oil     Grease
Phenols (total phenolics)
Chlorinated phenols
Metals

Cd
Pb
Zn
Hg
Cu
Ni
Co
Fe
Cr
Cadmium
Lead
2inc
Mercury
Copper
Nickel
Cobalt
Iron
Chromium
Conventional/Other

P
NH3
Phosphorus
Ammonia
Chlorides
Residule chlorine
Cyanide
Chioramines

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7.   References

1.   International Joint Commission,  1988,  Revised Great Lakes
     Water Quality Agreement of 1978. IJC, Windsor, Ont. 130 p.

2.   Limno-Tech.  1985.  Summary of the existing status of the
     Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels data, unpub. manu-
     script prepared for the UGLCC Study.  March, 1985. Limno-
     Tech Inc.  156 p. plus appendices and bibliography.

3.   a.  Water Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  St. Clair and Detroit
     Rivers.  Prepared by Water Workgroup.  D.J. Williams,  Chair.
     Level II unpublished Mss., 89 pp.

     b.  Biota Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Detroit River Biota and
     Their Habitats: A Geographic Area Report.  Prepared by
     Edsall, T.A., P.B. Kauss, D. Kenaga, J. Leach, M. Munawar,
     T. Nalepa and S. Thorney.  Level II unpublished Mss.,  90 pp.

     c.  Biota Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  St. Clair River Biota
     and Their Habitats: Geographic Area Report.  Prepared by
     Edsall, T.A., P.B. Kauss, D. Kenaga, J. Leach, M. Munawar,
     T. Nalepa and S. Thornley.  Level II unpublished Mss., 90
     pp.

     d.  Biota Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Lake St. Clair Biota and
     Their Habitats: A Geographic Area Report.  Prepared by
     Edwall, T.A., P.B. Kauss, D. Kenaga, J. Leach, M. Munawar,
     T. Nalepa, G. Sprules and S. Thornley.  Level II unpublished
     Mss.,  80 pp.

     e.  Biota Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  St. Marys River Biota
     and Their Habitats: A Geographic Area Report.  Prepared by
     Edsall, T.A., P.B. Kauss, D. Kenaga, T. Kubiak,  J. Leach, M.
     Munawar, T.  Nalepa and S. Thornley.  Level II unpublished
     Mss.,  80 pp.

     f.  Modeling Workgroup, UGLCCS,  1988.  Modeling workgroup
     Geographic Area Synthesis Report.  Prepared by Modeling
     Workgroup, T.D, Fontaine, Chair.  Level II published Mss.,
     193 pp.

     g.  Point Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Geographic Area
     Report; Detroit River.  Prepared by Point Source Workgroup,
     P, Horvatin, Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss.,  160 pp.

     h.  Point Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Geographic Area
     Report; St.  Marys River.  Prepared by Point Source
     Workgroup, P. Horvatin, Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss,,
     65 pp.

-------
i.  Point Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Geographic Area
Report: St. Clair River.  Prepared by Point Source
Workgroup, P. Horvatin, Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss.,
125 pp.

j.  Point Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Geographic Area
Report: Lake St. Clair.  Prepared by Point Source Workgroup,
P. Horvatin, Chair,  Level II unpublished Mss., 95 pp.

k.  Data Quality Management Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987,
revised.  Report of the Data Quality Management Work Group.
Prepared by the Data Quality Management Workgroup, A.S.Y.
Chau,  Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss., 182 pp.

1.  Data Quality Management workgroup, UGLCCS, 1988.
Interlaboratory performance evaluation study integrated
report Part II: trace metals.  Prepared by W.c. Li, A.S.Y.
Chau and E. Kokotich, NWRI, Environment Canada, Burlington,
Ont: 11 p + Tables and Figures.

m.  Data Quality Management Workgroup, UGLCCS, 1988.
Interlaboratory performance evaluation study integrated
report Part I: organic Parameters,  prepared by W.c. Li,
A.S.Y. Chau and E. Kokotich, NWRI, Environment Canada,
Burlington, Ont: 19 p + Tables and Figures.

n.  Sediment Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987.  Sediments of the
Detroit River.  Prepared by A.G. Kizlauskas and P.E.
Pranckevicius.  Level II unpublished Mss., 224 pp.

o.  Sediment Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987.  Current and
Historical Contamination of Sediment in the St. Marys River.
Prepared by R.J, Hesselberg and Y. Hamdy.  Level II
unpublished Mss,, 42 pp.

p.  Sediment Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987.  St. Clair River
Sediments.  Prepared by B.G. Oliver.  Level II unpublished
Mss.,  54 pp.

q.  Sediment Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988,  Lake St. Clair Bottom
Sediments.  Prepared by Sediment Workgroup, Y. Hamdy, Chair.
Level II unpublished Mss., 80 pp.

r.  Sediment Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Integrated Study of
Exposure and Biological Effects of In-Place Sediment
Pollutants  (Interim Results).  Prepared by Kreis, Jr., R.G.
Level II unpublished Mss., 1038 pp.

s.  Nonpoint Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987.  Contaminants
in Urban Runoff in the Great Lakes Connecting Channels Area.
Prepared by J. Marsalek and H.Y.F. Ng.  Level II unpublished
Mss.,  71 pp.

-------
                           10
t.  Nonpoint Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987.  Agricultural
Sources of Pollution; Detroit River.  Prepared by Wall,
G.J., E.A. Pringle and T. Dickinson.  Level II unpublished
Mss., 11 pp.

u.  Nonpoint Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987.  Agricultural
Sources of Pollution: Lake St. Clair.  Prepared by Wall,
G.J., E.A. Pringle and T. Dickinson.  Level II unpublished
Mss., 224 pp.

v.  Nonpoint Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1987.  Agricultural
Sources of Pollution; St. Clair River.  Prepared by Wall,
G.J., E.A. Pringle and T. Dickinson.  Level II unpublished
Mss., 12 pp.

w.  Nonpoint Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Waste Disposal
Sites and Potential Ground Water contamination: St. Clair
River,  Prepared by Nonpoint Source Workgroup, G. Sherbin,
Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss., 77 pp.

x.  Nonpoint Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Waste Disposal
Sites and Potential Ground Water Contamination: St. Marys
River.  Prepared by Nonpoint source Workgroup, G. Sherbin,
Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss., 39 pp. •

y,  Nonpoint Source Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Waste Disposal
Sites and Potential Ground Water Contamination: Detroit
River.  Prepared by Nonpoint Source Workgroup, G. Sherbin,
Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss., 75 pp.

z,  Nonpoint Source workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Waste Disposal
Sites and Potential Ground Water Contamination: Lake St.
Clair.  Prepared by Nonpoint Source Workgroup, G. Sherbin,
Chair.  Level II unpublished Mss., 45 pp.

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                            CHAPTER II
      OVERVIEW OF THE
1. Introduction

The Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels serve as conduits for
the waters of the upper lakes (Superior, Michigan and Huron) to
feed into the lower lakes (Erie and Ontario - Figure 11-1}»

The setting for the Connecting Channels is the Great Lakes Basin.
This basin is the product of complex geological, hydrological,
climatological, biological and sociological processes operating
over various scales of time^.  These processes are not static but
dynamic and thus, the system will continue to evolve.  This rep-
ort is, therefore, very much a snapshot in time. However, its
implications are far reaching.  Implementation of the recommen-
dations will influence the nature and quality of our Great Lakes
Ecosystem as it evolves.

The Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels are integral components
of the Great Lakes Basin,  They function as the plumbing system
of the lakes' basins funnelling large volumes of water, sediment
and nutrients through relatively narrow channels.  As such they
have been an attraction to both wildlife     humans.

Nutrients and diverse habitat conditions have provided sustenance
to large populations of numerous species of flora and fauna,
particularly fish     waterfowl.  The abundance of      as well
as fresh drinking water attracted native Indian settlements,
Europeans, in turn, were attracted to these channels for the
additional benefits related to shipping,- relative      of
     1  For an overview of these process and additional referen-
ces, the reader is referred to {!).

-------
                                           FIGURE 11-1
MICHIGAN
                        MS/H
                  H-Jf }
              j$t, Mtfn Rfftf i
                                    GREAT   LAKES


                                          BASIN

                                     SHOWING UPPIH CONN1CTINC
                                          CMANNILS
       MICHIGAN
                           ONTARIO
                                                    KIIe*n«tr*« i I .  ^^.

                                                      Ma* oi  io  "is

-------
                                13

crossing (each river is currently a. major international crossing
point);  large volumes of water for cheap power, industrial proce-
sses and waste receiving; and recreational pursuits.

The vastness of the Great Lakes' water and fisheries resources
must have appeared limitless to the early Europeans.  However,
physical damages as a result of dredging (channelsj, filling
(wetlands),  increased sedimentation and water temperature  (re-
lated to forest clearing for agriculture),  and over-fishing,
along with pathogen loadings (from human waste) quickly impacted
the ecosystem.  In less than 100 years of settlement, by the
early 1900s, these impacts were considered very serious and re-
sulted in disease and death among dwellers along the channels,

Physical and chemical disruptions continued through the liOOs
resulting in crashes of certain native fish populations and in-
creasing occurrences of oil films,  human waste, dead, fish, algae
and other visible problems.  Less visible but just as serious
types of pollutants - heavy metals and organic chemicals - were
released into the ecosystem virtually uncontrolled during the
mid-190Os.   Mercury, lead, DDT, PCBs, and others were released as
products of the rapidly growing North American industrial com-
plex.  The Great Lakes Connecting Channels (including the Niagara
and St.  Lawrence Rivers) were      to many of the industries
manufacturing, utilizing, and discarding these contaminants.

Since about 1970 environmental concern and actions by federal,
state and provincial governments have resulted in dramatic im-
provements.   Industrial and municipal sources of contaminants
have been controlled to various degrees.  However, we have the
legacy of historical pollution manifested in river and lake sedi-
ments (in-place pollutants) and groundwater contributions from
active and inactive waste sites.

Continued improvements to the Great Lakes ecosystem must consider
these, along with ongoing discharges, and inputs from diffuse
sources such as urban and agricultural runoff and atmospheric
deposition,1

The remainder of this chapter will summarize characteristics of
the St.  Marys, St. Clair     Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair.
Each area is portrayed in Figures II-2 through II-5 and specific
information is provided in Tables ll-l through II-4,  These ta-
bles summarise watershed characteristics (II-l),  water uses {II-
2),  land uses (II-3),  and environmental concerns {II-4)  compara-
tively for each of the 4 study areas.  Each area is discussed in
detail with regard to study findings and recommendations for
remedial measures in Chapters VI through IX,

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                             TABLE Il-i




Watershed characteristics of the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels.


Inlet
Outlet
Length (Area!*
llevation Fall(m)*
Flow m3 /s x 1000*"
Minimum
Average
Maximum
Average Plow Vel. m/s*
Depth (ml*

Width (km)*
Retention Times
Controlled Flow
Land Drainage Area***
km2 x 1 , 000
(cummulative total)
* LTI document (2).
** David Cowgill, U.S.
»** Calculated from (1)
St. Marys
River
L. Superior
L. Huron
101-121 km
6.75

1.2
2.2
3.7
0.6-1.5
Shallow-30

0.3-6.4
" 2 days
Y

49.3


Army Corps of
and (2).
St. Clair
River
L, Huron
L. St. Clair
64 kB
1.5

3.0
5.2
6.7
0.6-1.8
9-21

0.25-1.2
21 hrs
N

146.6 .


Engineers, pers.

Lake
St. Clair
St. Clair R.
Detroit River
1,115 k«2
-

-
-
-
0.02-0.08 0
3.4 avg.
8.2 Max.
39 0
2-9 day a
N

159.0


coma.

Detroit
River
Lake St. Clair
L. Erie
51 km
1.0

3.2
i.3
7. 1
.3-0.fi
6-15

.66-3.0
21 hrs
N

160.9





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                                               15
                                     TABLE  II-2

                     u»e  of  the  Upper  Qre«t b«ke» Cemneetini Ch«nn«ii,


                               St.  Marre     St.  Clair     Luke          Detroit
                               !iv*r         Riv«r         St. Clair     River


Shipping                          S            I             S             S
Coamereiail Fishing                L            M             F             N
Sport  Fiihinf                     S            I             S             S
Bo*ting/Sailin<                   F            i             I             S
Swimming                          L            F             S             0


S01FACI KftTSl SUPPIUS TO:

 Drinltinf W«t«r  Intalw
  - M«nicip»l                     S            I             I             X
  - Cannunai./Private              K            X             X             X
            1 n £ a ke s
  -  Iron 4 Steel           "      X                                          X
  -  Pulp 4 Paper                 X
  »  Peireeh««ie»l                               X                            X
  -  Refining                                    X                            X
  —  Ttwrital Generating                          X
  -  Hydroelectric                X
  -  Mavisation (LoekiI           X
  -  Mineral (Salt i Li»«I        X


lieITvise WATER FOR:

 Municipal STP                   X              X              X             X

 Industri al
  -  Iron 4 Steel                 X                                          X
  -  Pulp 4 Paper                 X
  -  Petrochenicai                               X                            X
  -  Refining                                    X
  -  Th«r«*i G*n«r«tinf                          X                            X
  -  Mineral (Salt It Linn)                                                   X
  -  Fabrication (Auto I                                                      X
 Ship Ballast                    X              X              X             X
N - Neflifible Use
L - Limted Us*
0 - Occasional Use
F - Frequent Uae
S - Significant - High Use
X - Present

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                                  TABLE  11-3

  Land use within 5 km of the Upper Great Lakes  Connecting Channels*  shoreline


                              St. Harys     St. Clair     Lake         Detroit
                              River         River        St. Clair   River
Urban
Rural Residential
Agricultural
Recreational
( Marinas/Beaches 1
Wildlife Habitat/Open Space
Industrial
Waste Disposal
Native Lands
F
O
N
O

S
O
X
X
F
S
O
F

F
S
X
X
O
O
S
S

F
N
X
X
S
F
O
S

L
S
X
N
N - Negigible Use
X - Present
L - Limited Use
O - Occasional Use
F - Frequent Use
S - Significant - High

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Contaminant
                                                  TABLE II-4

                         of contaninant concern* In the Upper Great Lakei Connecting Channels,
                                   Water
                                                        Sed merit
* SH - St.  M«ry» River   LSC - Lake St. Clair
   D - Detroit River     SC - St. Clair River
                                                                                Biota

Nutrients
- Phosphorus
- Nitrogen
Bacteria
Chlorides
Oil and Grease
Phenols
Pesticides
PCBs
PAHs
Other Organic!
Heavy Metals
Mercury
Cyanide
Habitat Alteration
SM* SC LSC 0
SN LSC 0
SM LSC D
SM SC D
SC D
SM SC D
SM SC D
LSC
D
SM D
SC D
SM SC LSC D
SC
SH
LSC
SM SC LSC D SM SC
SM
D SM
SO
SC
SM SC D SM SC
SM SC
LSC
SH SC LSC II SH SC
SH SC LSC D SM SC
SC LSC D SC
SH SC LSC D SM SC
SM SC LSC SM SC

SC LSC D SC
LSC
LSC
LSC


LSC

LSC
LSC
LSC

LSC
LSC

LSC
11
D
D

D
D
D
D
P
0
D
D
D

D

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                                18

2.  St. Marys River2

The St. Marys River delivers the outflow of Lake Superior to Lake
Huron  (Figure II-2),  It is partially controlled by locks and
compensating structures to allow navigation and power generation.
Thus,  the river is not subject to large unpredictable fluctua-
tions in flow rates.  Sediments in the river range from sands and
gravels, particularly in the upper reaches and near the rapids,
to silts and clays.  The finer material generally occurs in down-
stream locations and in embayments.   The St. Marys River has an
active sports fishery based primarily on trout, salmon, walleye,
yellow perch, pike, and smelt.  It formerly supported a major
whitefish commercial fishery.  The river is known to have 75
species of fish.

Water is withdrawn to provide the major source of drinking water3
for a U.S. population of approximately 15,000 as well as process
water for the steel industry  (Algoma Steel Co.), pulp and paper
processing (St. Marys Paper) and other smaller industries.  Most
of the industrial development is found on the Canadian side of
the River which is also home to the largest population along the
river  (85,000).  Other primary water uses include navigation and
recreational boating.

The watershed draining into the river is predominantly forested
with low intensity agriculture occurring on the relatively flat-
lying plains or either side of the river.

Industrial and municipal effluents have resulted in contaminant
problems in sediment and water related to phenols, cyanide, PAHs,
PCBs,  iron, zinc, phosphorus     ammonia.  Contaminant problems
have also resulted in impaired benthic fauna.  Physical disrup-
tion related to power generation     navigation has also adverse-
ly impacted fish habitat.  Past surveys of sediment, benthos and
water quality indicate that conditions along the U.S. shore and
in Lake Nicolet are good and these areas can support a variety of
water uses.  The zone of greatest impact in the St. Marys River
is along the Canadian shore downstream of industrial and munici-
pal discharges.  This zone includes the Algoma slip, the area
below the rapids, the Sault Ste. Marie waterfront and downstream
of the East End Sewage Treatment Plant in the channel feeding
Lake George.
     *•  Primary sources for sections 2 to 5 are  (2,3).

     3  Wells provide the primary source of drinking water for
the Canadian population.  It is supplemented with St. Marys River
water as necessary.

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FIGURE  11-2
St. Marys River
         KILOMETERS
    2468  tfl  12 14  16
      2345678*510
            MILES
GREAT LAKES INFORMATION SYSTEM
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT DIVISION

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                                20

3.  St. Clair River

The St. Clair River is not controlled in any manner.  It serves
as the natural outlet of Lake Huron and drains into Lake St.
Clair where it has formed the only major riverine delta on the
Great Lakes - the St. Clair delta,  also known as the St. Clair
flats  (Figure 11-3}.   The conditions which have contributed to
the formation of this delta include: rapid deceleration of the
flow from the river as it disperses into the wide shallow basin
of Lake St. Clair; very high suspended sediment loads carried by
the river from sources in the Lake Huron watershed; stable condi-
tions at the river/lake interface since the channel was first
established; and the straight channel of the St. Clair River with
few islands or other depositional sites.

The bed of the river is characterized by relatively coarse frac-
tions consisting of sand and gravel and by an erosional surface
of clay till.  This reflects the high energy environment of the
river which acts as a conduit to Lake St. Clair and the delta for
the finer material (fine sands, silts, and clays) originating in
the Lake Huron watershed.

The St. Clair River provides a corridor for fish between Lakes
Huron and Erie jbut also supports an indigenous fishery.  Promin-
ent species include walleye, muskellunge, rainbow trout, lake
sturgeon, smelt, salmon, bass, catfish, yellow perch and fresh-
water drum.  The St.  Clair River and its delta are known to serve
as habitat for fish during their sensitive life stages  (spawning,
rearing).  The delta is unique, serving not only as an important
fish habitat but also as habitat .for other wildlife including
waterfowl, reptiles,  amphibians, fur-bearing mammals and plant
species.  This diversity is due, in large part, to the remaining
extensive wetlands and wetland-upland complexes of the delta and
its environs.

The St. Clair River serves as a major shipping channel; as a
recreational resource (including boating, fishing, hunting, and
swimming); a food source for native Canadians; a source of drink-
ing water for U.S. and Canadian citizens; industrial process
water for Canada's largest petro-chemical complex; and a recep-
tacle for treated municipal and industrial effluents.  Clearly,
these uses conflict in terms of maintaining good water, sediment
and biota quality.

The immediate shores of the river are used for a mixture of
urban,  industrial and recreational  uses.  Inland, the predominant
land use is intensive agriculture.

Contaminant problems specific to the St. Clair River include
sediment contaminated with PCBs, oil and grease, mercury,  and
other metals; and fisheries impacted by PCBs and mercury.   Con-
taminants -characteristic of the petro-chemical industry and found

-------

FJGURf II-3
Q+ /"•!«:..  n:

-------
                                22

in elevated levels in biota, sediment and water include; hexa-
chlorobenzene,  hexachlorobutadiene, octaehlorostyrene, carbon
tetraehloride,  perehloroethylene,  and hexachloroethane.  These
chemicals are confined to a band of water approximately 100 m
wide along the Ontario shoreline adjacent to the industrial area
at Sarnia,

In addition to direct point discharges from industrial and mun-
icipal sources, concern for ongoing and potential contamination
of the river has been identified for such nonpoint sources as:
surface landfill sites, liquid waste disposal zones in deep geo-
logical strata ("deep wells"), urban runoff, and agricultural
runoff.  Even though the petrochemical industry is concentrated
on the Canadian side of the river, municipal outfalls and similar
nonpoint sources occur on the U.S. side.

Recent surveys of benthic organisms in the St. Clair River indi-
cate that the benthic community is impaired in the immediate
vicinity of the petro-chemical industry.  However, the zone of
impairment has decreased significantly since the late 1960s.
This reflects improvements in industrial and municipal effluent
duality throughout the 1970s and 1910s.  Significant reductions
of organic contaminants {80 to 90%} in certain outfalls have been
achieved even since the initiation of the Upper Great Lakes Con-
necting Channels Study (4},


4.  Lake St. Clair

Lake it. Clair is not considered     of the five Great Lakes,
however, it is a large lake (Figure II-4 and Table 11-3).   It is
a very shallow lake compared to its surface area, resulting in
extreme variability in water levels over       and time due to
short term climatic changes (winds, barometric pressure) and
hydrologic flow regime (inflow-outflow),

The shallow character of the lake also influences sediment dynam-
ics. The primary source for sediments is the Lake Huron watershed
via the St. Clair River.   Deltaic formation at the mouth of the
river has, in a relatively short geologic time (post-glacial),
resulted in the in-filling of approximately one-fifth of the lake
area.  Fine grained sediments, particulary clays, are deposited
in the deeper portions of the lake.  The majority of the lake
bottom, however,  consists of relatively coarse sands and gravels
reflecting the high wave-energy environment.  Sediment depth in
the main body of the lake, in fact, averages only 7 cm overlying
the glacial till.  Thus,  much of the material entering the lake
from the delta and its major tributaries (the Clinton, Sydenham
and Thames Rivers)  ultimately moves out of the lake, through the
Detroit River and into Lake Erie.

-------
FIGURE  11-4

Lake  St.  Clair
                                            OMM UXES IMFO»«t!OH WStEN
                                            DEnWTHDtr Of MSTUBK. BESOUBCES
                                            LM« «») WMIII mmCEMEXT onisrw

-------
                                24

Over 70 species of fish are known to reside in or migrate through
Lake St. Clair.  The lake is particularly known for its muskel-
lunge fishing.  Other warm water species common to the lake in-
clude pike, bass, perch, crappie, and bluegills.  Walleye, sal-
mon, trout, whitefish, smelt, and suckers are also part of the
sport fishery.  The delta area and Anchor Bay are known to be the
most active spawning areas of the lake.  Generally, the near
shore areas and tributaries to the lake provide habitat which is
crucial to the lakes' fishery.  The impressive fisheries and
other wildlife resources (both indigenous and migratory) owe
their existence, in large part, to the extensive wetland com-
munities in the delta and along most of the undeveloped shoreline
of Lake St. Clair.

Direct uses of the lake are primarily recreational.  This in-
cludes the largest number of registered boats on the Great Lakes
as well as fishing, and hunting for fur-bearing animals and
waterfowl.  Other uses include drinking water and commercial
shipping.  Lake St. Clair is unique among the other UGLCCS areas
in that there are no significant industries or major urban cen-
tres located on its shores  (except for the northern portion of
the Detroit Metropolitan area).  However, several large com-
munities are found on the tributaries which feed into the lake.

Surrounding land uses are primarily natural (wetlands) and inten-
sive agriculture.  Large expanses of the original wetlands have
been drained for agricultural purposes.  In Ontario, for example,
over 90% of the original wetland area surrounding Lake St. Clair
has been converted to agriculture (5),  In fact, over 400,000 ha
of wetlands in three contiguous counties have been converted
since the late 1800s.  This has undoubtedly exerted a very
significant impact on the wildlife resources of Lake St. Clair
and its environs.

Lake St. Clair is the only UGLCCS area which is not also clas-
sified by the IJC as an "Area of Concern".   There is a lack of
direct point sources of contaminants and/or heavily contaminated
sediments.  The lake does,  however,  act as a mixing zone for
various organic and inorganic contaminants originating from up-
stream sources and from atmospheric deposition. These include
industrial and municipal sources from 2 Areas of concern  (St.
Clair and Clinton Rivers) and nutrients and pesticides from agri-
cultural drainage via drainage ditches and the tributary rivers.
Phosphorus loadings  (primarily agricultural)  and mercury contam-
ination of the fishery are primary concerns in Lake St. Clair.
Levels of mercury in fish have declined since the early 1970s and
conservation authorities in southwestern Ontario (particularly
the Thames River C.A.) have developed programs to reduce sediment
loads derived from agricultural lands  (and hence adsorbed nu-
trients/pesticides} .

-------
                                25

5.  Detroit River

The Detroit River is the furthest downstream Connecting Channel
of this study.  It connects Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie  (Figure
11-5},   Flow in the Detroit River is complex due to numerous
islands and channels,  particularly in the lower half of its
reach,  and to unique effects from  fluctuating water levels in
Lake Erie,  Wind set-up and barometric pressure changes can cause
the western portion of Lake Erie to rise 2 to 2.5 m during
storms.  This is greater than the total elevation change of the
Detroit River from head to mouth (< i m),   When such conditions
occur,  the river flow slows down and actually reverses for short
distances.

Bottom sediments in the Detroit River vary from clay to boulders
and bedrock.  Overall, sediments tend to be coarse  (sand and
gravel) due to medium to high current velocities which transport
most of the suspended materials into the western portion of Lake
Erie.   Minor depositional zones for fine material  (clays, silts)
occur in the river adjacent to islands  (particulary downstream of
the islands) and the near shore (mostly along the Canadian side),
Bedrock forms the river bed in some portions of the lower channel
such as in the 10 km reach between Fighting and Bois Blanc Is-
lands ,

Although fish spawning and nursery habitats are less .available in
the Detroit River than in Lake St. Clair,  the river sustains a
diverse fishery.  Both resident (rainbow smelt, alewives and
gizzard shad) and migratory species are known to be present.
Species common to this river include walleye, bass, and yellow
and white perch.  The river is considered to have a fairly
healthy fishery in terms of numbers and diversity given its his-
tory and degree of pollution and habitat alterations (dredging,
filling, bulkheading,  etc).  However, these activities, due to
large scale urbanization, have clearly restricted plant and other
wildlife abundance and diversity relative to the study areas.
During spring and fall migrations, the lower Detroit River, en-
compassing the Wyandotte National Wildlife Refuge, is especially
critical as a feeding and staging area for several waterfowl
species.

The Detroit River watershed is the most urbanized of the four
areas covered in this study.  It is home to a population greater
than 5  million and is one of the world's most heavily industrial-
ized areas.  This industry includes a vast automotive complex
including fabrication and assembly as well as many metal and
plastic based support industries.  Numerous other types of manu-
facturing also occur.   Water uses include drinking water, recrea-
tional activities (boating and fishing), shipping, industrial
cooling and process water withdrawals, and municipal and indus-
trial waste discharges.

-------
  GREAT LAKES INFORMATION SYSTEM
  DEPARTMENT OF NATUFWL RESOURCES
  LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT DIVISION
FIGURE 11-5
Detroit  River

-------
                                27

Surrounding land uses are principally urban  (U.S.) and agricul-
tural (Canada)  although numerous recreational areas are present
{e.g. Belle Island, Boblo Island and Dieppe Park).  A particular
concern is the restricted river access due to urban and indus-
trial developments along the waterfront, particularly on the U.S.
side.

Contamination problems in the Detroit River include: sediments
contaminated with PCBs, oil and grease, mercury, and other
metals;  water quality violations for phenols, iron, and fecal
coliform; and an impacted fishery {particularly by PCBs), water-
fowl and benthic community.  Surveys of benthic communities show
a zone severely impacted by contamination off-shore and just
downstream of Zug Island.  The remainder of the river downstream
of this island, but confined to the U.S. shore, also shows evi-
dence of severe impairment.  Normal communities are found up-
stream of Zug Island and along the entire Canadian shore.

Contaminants originate from point and nonpoint sources including
numerous municipal and industrial outfalls, urban runoff, combin-
ed sewer overflows, agricultural runoff, and shallow groundwater
contributions impacted by many waste sites.  In addition to
these, the river receives contaminants from upstream sources
including 3 IJC Areas of Concern (St. Clair River, Clinton River
and Rouge River),

-------
                                28

6.    References

1.    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada,
     1987.   The_Great lakes: An Environmental Atlas ,_and..Resource
     Book... U.S. EPA,  Env. Can., Brock U, and Northwestern U. ,
     Toronto and Chicago. ISBN 0-662-15189-5, 44p plus wall map.

2,    Limno-Tech. 1985. 1985 Summary of the existing status of the
     Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels data,  unpub.
     manuscript prepared for the UGLCC Study, March 1985, Limno-
     Tech Inc.  156 p. plus appendices and bibliography.

3.    Great Lakes Water Quality Board. 1987.  1987 Report on Great
     Lakes Water Quality.  GLWQB, International Joint Comm.,
     Windsor,  Ontario. 236p.

4.    Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada.
     1988.   Status report of the recommendations of the 1986 St.
     Clair River Pollution Investigation Report.  OMOE and DOE,
     Toronto.

5.    Snell, E.A, 1987.  Wetland distribution and conversion in
     southern Ontario.  Lands Dir,  Env. Can., Ottawa, working-'
     Paper #48. 53p.  .

-------
                           CHAPTER III
        REGULATORY BASIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CONTROL
A.   INTRODUCTION

Environmental quality of the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels
is influenced by major environmental regulations, agreements and
programs which have been developed at several governmental levels.
The Canadian and United States federal governments, the State of
Michigan, the Province of Ontario, and their regulatory agencies
have promulgated acts and regulations to protect and enhance the
environmental quality of the Great Lakes,  Binational agreements
at both the federal, state and provincial level have also been
made.  As a result, an extensive and comprehensive base of legis-
lation and agreements exists to protect environmental quality of
the connecting channels.

This chapter provides an overview of existing regulatory and
administrative programs which act to protect and enhance the en-
vironmental quality of the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels.
A more extensive review of existing regulatory programs pertinent
to these shared waterways is presented in Appendix 3.


1.   Binational Agreements

The governments of Canada and the United States have long shared
a concern for the environmental quality of the Great Lakes Basin.
To confirm their commitment to restore and enhance the water
quality of the Great Lakes both federal governments entered into
the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972  (GLWQA).   The
GLWQA and its associated Annexes were subsequently amended in
1978, 1985 and 1987.  The Agreement contains general and specific
objectives to maintain and augment water quality by ensuring the
Great Lakes are free from substances resulting from human ac-
tivity, are unsightly or deleterious, or interfere with benefi-
cial uses of the water.  The seventeen Annexes of the GLWQA
outline specific objectives and programs aimed at maintaining and

-------
                                30

improving the quality of these shared waters.   For many para-
meters, the Annexes provide numerical ambient water quality and
fish contaminant objectives, as well as narrative guidelines for
other categories of contaminants and discharges.  The GLwQA,
while outlining objectives which both governments strive to
achieve, is an agreement only and has no regulatory authority in
and of itself.

Ontario and Michigan have also entered into binational agreements
regarding Great Lakes water quality issues.  Recently, in April
1988, two Memoranda of Understanding were signed; one concerning
accidental discharges of contaminants into the Great Lakes and
the other, an associated Joint Notification Plan for such dis-
charges .


2.   Federal, State and Provincial Environmental Control Legisla-
     tion and Programs - An Overview

Numerous legislative acts, regulations and programs exist at the
federal, state and provincial levels which regulate point and
     nonpoint source discharges, and affect ambient water, sedi-
ment and biota quality.  Table III-l lists major environmental
acts from which specific environmental regulations and programs
are derived.  In most cases, a variety of regulations and pro-
grams are developed from each act, making their effect far-
reaching.  These major acts provide a comprehensive framework
with which to control or reduce inputs of contaminants to the
Great Lakes basin, and are discussed below.

-------
                                        31
                               fABLi III-l

    Environmental Legislation affecting Great Lakes ecosysten quality.
BTNATIQNAL
LEGISLATION
Great Lakes Water
Quality Agreement (GLWQA J
Ontario-Michigan Memorandum
of Understanding an
Notification
Ontario-Michigan Declaration on
Partnership and Memorandum on
Cooperation
MEDIA 01 ACTIVITY
A; B

2

*



2

2





2
C

2





2
D

2





1
E

2





2
p

2






G

2





2
H

1





2
I

2


2


$
J

2





1
K

*>


i


i
L

2


•



M

2





1
EEI TO., CODES;.

A;  Anbient Surface Water and Ground Water Quality and Management
B:  Sediment Quality and Management
C;  Biota Quality and Habitat Management
D;  Industrial Point Source Discharge Control
I:  Municipal Point Source Discharge ControL
F:  Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
G:  Pesticide Manufacture and Management
H:  Urban Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflow Management
I:  Air Point Source Discharge and Ambient Air Quality Control
J:  Agricultural Land Management
K;  Spills and Shipping Activities
L:  Drinking Water Quality Control and Management
M;  Fish Consumption Guidelines or Advisories

1;  Legislation  is  responsible  for  legally  enforceable  standards
    and/or has direct  authority over the media or activity.
2i  Legislation provides non-enforceable  guidance  or  authority over
    media or activity,
3:  Legislation is  not directly  applicable to the media or activity,
    but media/activity may be impacted by execution of its legislative
    mandate,

-------
                                        32
TABLE TIT-1.   (cont'd  2\
CANADA
LEGISLATIOM
Fisheries Act
Canada Water Act
Canadian Environmental
Protection Act (CEPA)
Food and Drug Act
Canada Shipping Act
Transportation of Dangerous
Goods Act (TDGA)
Pest Control Products Act
(PCPAi
Canadian Clean Air Act
Environmental Contaminants Act
MEDIA OR ACTIVITY ADDRESSED
A
1
n
3

3




3
3
2
3

3
*l



C
1
3
3

3
3



D
1

1






E

2
1






F
3

1





1
G


1



1


H


2






I


1




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J






3


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3


1





.^ _ _ .,
v /IN I M ft J. U
LEGISLATION

Ontario Water Resources
Act CQWRA)
Ontario Environmental
Protection Act (EPA!
Dangerous Goods Act
Drainage Act
Pesticides Act
MEDIA OR ACTIVITY ADDRESSED
A
P---I

'I

3



B
.--•i

3

2



C
.— — .

1

3



D
(•--•<

1

1



E
k-^H

l

1



F
».— - .



1
i


G
k 	 H






1
g
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2

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k — — H



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-------
TABLE III-l.   (cont'd 3)
                                       33
UNITED Sf ATIS
LEGISLATION
Clean Water Act (CWA)
Safe Drinking Water Act ( SDWA 1
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
Clean Air Act ( CAA )
Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation and
Liability Act JCERCLAJ
Solid Waste Disposal Act ( SWDA )
Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA)
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide
and Rodent icide Act (FIFRA)
Agricultural, Rural Development
and Related Agencies
Appropriations Act
Soil Conservation and Domestic
Allotment Act
Endangered Species Act
National Environmental Policy
Act (NEPA)*
MEDIA OR ACTIVITY ADDRESSED
A
1
1


1



"%
"3

*?
B( C
1



3






2
1



3





I
2
D
i










2
E
1










2
F
3
1

3
1
1
1



3
2
O


3


1
1
1



2
H
2










2
I



1







*y
£*
J







3
2
2

2
K
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1




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&
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2 '
*• i
    NEPA is discussed in Appendix 3.

-------
TABLE ITI-1.   (cont'd 4)
                                       34
t
MICHIGAN
LEGISLATION
Water Resources Commission Act
(Act 245)
Safe Drinking Water Act
(Act 399!
Michigan Air Pollution Act
Watercraft Pollution Control Act
(Act 167!
Michigan Hazardous Waste
Management Act lAct 641
Michigan Liquid Industrial
Waste Disposal Act (Act 136)
Michigan Solid Waste Management
Act ( \ct 641 )
Michigan Environmental Response
Act (Act 307!
Inland Lakes and Streams Act
(Act 3461
Great Lakes Submerged Lands
Act (Act 247)
Michigan Resource Recovery Act
{Act 366)
Michigan Underground Storage
Tank Act (Act 423)
Michigan Wetlands Protection Act
Michigan Shorelines Protection
and Management Act
Michigan Motor Vehicle Emissions
Inspection Act (Act 83)
Michigan Oil & Gas Act (Act 611
Michigan Act 98
MEDIA OR ACTIVITY ADDRESSED
A
1

1




rl



*J



-I







1
1



3

B
3














1

Z





1




3

C
1














j*








1



"•t

D
1





























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P


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-------
                                35

B.   ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA STANDARDS, CRITERIA, OBJECTIVES AND
     GUIDELINES

Media quality is often evaluated by comparing media contaminant
concentrations with numerical concentration limits, set by regu-
lation or agreement.  Point source discharges are often con-
trolled by the imposition of contaminant concentration or loading
limits on effluent or stack air emissions.  Various regulations
and agreements have developed "standards", "criteria", "objec-
tives" or "guidelines" to specify these concentration or loading
limits.  In general, standards, and in some cases criteria, are
enforceable by law.  These limits are usually based on regulatory
agency policies (e.g., state water quality standards), but may be
derived from scientific principles or studies (e.g., concentra-
tion and loading limits achieved by the use of best available
technology).

Objectives, guidelines and, in most cases, criteria are suggested
limits established by regulatory agencies, such as the United
States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA), Michigan De-
partment of Natural Resources (MDNR) or Ontario Ministry of the
Environment (OMOE), as well as by other non-regulatory agencies,
such as the International Joint Commission  (IJC).  These limits
are often based upon known or suspected impacts on human, animal
or aquatic life, and may be used to establish legally enforceable
limits as agency standards, or by incorporation into specific
agency documents,  such as Certificates of Approval.


1.   Water Quality Regulations and Guidelines

Numerical ambient water quality limits have been established by
federal, state and provincial statutes, as well as by binational
agreement.  Parameter-specific ambient water quality standards,
criteria or objectives applicable to the UGLCC Study parameters
of concern are summarized in Table III-2; a comprehensive list of
ambient water quality limits is contained in the Regulatory Task
Force Report (I).   These limits establish maximum concentrations
allowable in surface waters for the protection of human health,
animal and aquatic life and recreational use.  These limits are
continually being reviewed and updated by state, provincial and
federal agencies.   Regulatory agencies may adopt objectives set
by other regulatory or nonregulatory agencies on an interim basis
for parameters for which agency objectives have not been es-
tablished.

GLWQA specific objectives are nonenforceable goals for water
bodies within the Great Lakes Basin, in both the US and Canada.
Ontario Provincial Water Quality Objectives  (PWQO), developed
under the authority of the Ontario Water Resources Act, and
U.S.EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC), developed under
the authority of the Clean Water Act, are similar in that they

-------
                                                      TABLE III-2

      Ambient  water  quality criteria,  guidelines,  or objectives for parameters of concern  in the  UQLCC  (ug/Ll.
PARAMETER





AM MONT A
KABMFDM
CHUWAMINES
CHLORIDES
CHI.OHINK
GREAT LAKES
WATER QUALITY
AGREEMENT
SPECIFIC
OUJKCTIVE

0.02
0.2
-
_
_
ONTARIO
WATER
QUALITY
OBJECTIVE
< PWQO )

O.02
0.2
-
_
0.002
U.ij . EPA
ACUTE AMBIENT
WATER QUALITY
CKfTKKIA
( AWQC 1

U.S. EPA
CHRONIC AMBIENT
WATEK QUALITY
CHITKHIA
1 AWtJC 1

U.S. EPA AWQC
HUMAN!
HEALTH
CRITERIA
(Water (,
Fish)1
U.S. EPA AWQC
HUMAN
HEALTH
CRITERIA
(Fiah only)«

pH/terop dependent - -
3 . 9 +
-
-
0.019
1 .1 +
-
-
0.011
10
-
-
-
—
-
-
-
cHi.oHi MATED PHENOLS- - - - -
CHROMIUM ( TOTAL 1
CHROMIUM (HEXAl
riWOMTHN (THI \
COBALT
COPPER
CYANIDE
HOB
IRON
Lfc'AD
MERCURY
NU'KEL
01 L/URCASE
CK'S
PHKNOI,
PHOSPHORUS < LAKES 1
PHOSPHORUS { RIVERS )
PHH
PAH
ZINC
50
~
-
-
5
-
-
3OO
25^
0,2
25
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
30
100
-
-
-
5
5
0.0065
300
25
0.2
25
-
-
-
0.02
0.03
0,001
-
30
-
16
1700+
-
18+
22
-
-
82 +
2.4
1400 +
-
-
10,200»
~
-
2.0
-
120 +
-
11
210 +
-
12 +
5.2
-
1000
a, 2 +
0.012
ISO*
-
-
2560*
-
-
0.014
-
1 10 +
-
SO
170mg/L
-
-
200
0.72ng/L
300
50
144n«/L
13.4
-
-
3500
-
-
0.079r>S/L
2.8ng/L
-
-
-
3,433mg/L
-
-
-
0.74ng/L
-
-
14finf /L
100
-
-
-
-
—
O.O79nf/L
31 , Ing/L
-
MICHIGAN
RULE ft?m
GUIDELINE
LEVELS2


20* coldwater J
0.4 +
-
-
6
_t
52+
6
-
-
21 +
5
0.0019
-
3+
0,6ng/Ls
78 +
-
-
230
-
-
O.OlZng/L
-
98
                                                                                                                                   OJ
                                                                                                                                   Ch
Criteria is hardness-dependent,.  Value  shown  is  based  on a calcium carbonate hardness of 100 ntg/L,
V«lue shown is not criteria, but is  lowest  observed  adverse effect level (LOAEL),
U.S.EPA Ambient  Wst-er Quality  Criteria  for  Human Health ia based on either consumption of 2 liters of water per  day  and
6.5 gm of fish per day, or consumption  of 6. ft g   of  t'isih per day only.  Guidance for carcinogens  ia based on a  1E-06 risk
level, using the U.S.EPA-adopted risk extrapolation  method,
Michigan Rule  57(21 Guidelines  apply  to   contaminant concentrations  at the edge of a defined mixing zone  (values as of
Jnnuary 19HB, subject to chunge)
Not, applicable to Lakes Huron or Superior.
Owirleiines do exist  for specific chlorinated  phenols;  see Appendix 3,
Guideline is for methyt mercury.

-------
                                37

are also goals for water quality.  However, both PWQO and AWQC
are often the starting point for the development of point source
effluent limitations, and in the case of AWQC, become enforce-
able state water quality standards in states which have not pro-
mulgated more stringent state standards.  U.S.EPA AWQC Human
Health Criteria are criteria for water quality, based on the
potential human health effects resulting from consumption of 2
liters of water and 6.5 g of fish per day, or consumption of  6.5
g fish per day only.

In Michigan, criteria for ambient water concentrations of toxic
contaminants are based on Rule 57(2),  which is based on Part 4 of
the Michigan Water Resources Commission rules.  Rule 57(2) was
developed to protect human health,  fish and wildlife from ex-
posure to toxicants in surface water.   It is a narrative rule for
the calculation of "edge-of-the-mixing-zone" concentrations for
toxics and is intended to be used in determining allowable levels
for point source discharges.  However, MDNR uses Rule 57(2) al-
lowable levels as goals, particularly where ambient concentra-
tions are in excess of these values.  Rule 57(2) values are water
body-specific, where appropriate, and are based on the most re-
strictive of human health, fish or wildlife criteria.  Use of
Rule 57(2) values may not be appropriate if ambient water quality
exceeds Rule 57(2) allowable levels.  In such cases, Rule 98,
Antidegradation,  may be more appropriate.

Both federal governments and the province have also established
drinking water quality limits to protect human health.  These
limits for the UGLCC Study parameters of concern are summarized
in Table III-3; a comprehensive list of drinking water limits is
provided in the Regulatory Task Force Report  (1).   These require-
ments are based on known or suspected human health effects, but
may include consideration of other factors such as treatment
techniques, cost and available laboratory analyses.  Drinking
water limits may also be promulgated for nonhealth based para-
meters, such as odor and color, which are used to judge the ac-
ceptability of surface water supplies and treated water quality
for drinking water purposes.  Drinking water quality limits may
be more or less stringent than ambient water quality objectives,
standards or criteria, depending on the parameter considered.

The U.S.EPA National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, devel-
oped under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water_ Act_, include
Maximum Contaminant Levels  (MCLs) and Maximum Contaminant Level
Goals  (MCLGs).  MCLs are enforceable drinking water standards
with which drinking water supplies must comply.  MCLs are based
on health effects, but also consider economic and technical fac-
tors.  MCLGs are entirely health-based and are not enforceable.
A chemical's MCLG serves as a starting point for the.development
of its MCL, which is set as close to the MCLG as feasible.  U.S.
EPA Secondary Drinking Water Regulations  (also called MCLs) are
recommended limits for aesthetic qualities of drinking water,

-------
                                               TABLE I11-3

   Drinking irater standards,  objectives  and  criteria for parameters of concern  in  the  UQLCO  (mg/L),
PARAMETER U.S. EPA
MAXIMUM
CONTAMINANT
LEVEL
f MCLI1 -a
AMMON1 A
CADMIUM 0.01
CHLORAMINES
CHLORIDE
CHLORINE
CHLORINATED PHENOLS
CHROMIUM 0.05
COBALT
COPPER
CYANIDE
HCB
IRON
LEAD 0.05
MERCURY 0.002
NICKEL
OIL/GREASE
DCS
PHENOLS
PHOSPHORUS
PCB t total!
PAH ItotalJ
ZINC
U.S. EPA U.S. EPA HEALTHAWELFAHE ONTARIO ONTARIO
MAXIMUM SECONDARY CANADA MAXIMUM MAXIMUM MAXIMUM
CONTAMINANT DRINKING WATER ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE DESIRABLE
LEVEL GOAL REQUIREMENT CONCENTRATION CONCENTRATION CONCENTRATION
(MCLO»».a IMCLI* (MAC)2 (MAC>2 (MDC)*
0,005 - 0.005 0.005
_ -
250 250 - 250
_ _ _ _
_ •
0.12 - 0,05 0.05
_ _ -
1.3 1.0 - 1.0 1.0
0.2 0.2
_ _ _
0.3 - 0.3 O.3
0.02 - 0.05 0.05
0,003 - 0,001 0.001
_ - -
_ _ -
_ _
- - - - 0,002
_ - _
- - - 0.003
_ _ _ _
5 - 5
                                                                                                                 CO
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
Enforceable drinking water requirement.
Nonent'orceable heaJ th-based drinking water  guidance.
Nonenforceable guidance for aesthetics.

-------
                                39

such as color, taste and odor, and are not federally enforceable.
There are no state-developed drinking water standards, however,
Michigan uses the federal standards by reference in the state's
Drinking Water Act.

The Health and Welfare Canada Maximum Acceptable Concentration
(MAC) is the enforceable drinking water requirement in Canada.
Ontario has adopted most of these MACs for the provincial stan-
dards, which are developed under the authority of the Ontario
Water__Resources Act.  The Ontario MACs are based on known or
suspected human health effects, and are enforceable standards for
drinking water supplies in Ontario.  The Ontario Maximum Desira-
ble Concentration  (MDC) is based on aesthetics, and is a nonen-
forceable goal.

Other statues which can impact on surface water quality include,
in Canada, the Fisheries Act and the Canadian Environmental Pro-
tection Act__ (CEPA) , and in Michigan, the Michigan Wetlands Pro-
tec tion Act_(Act_2Q3), the Inland Lakes and Streams Act (Act
346), the Michigan Shorelines Protection and Management Act (Act
245)_ and the Great Lakes Subm_erged,_Lands_ Act  (Act 247) .


2.   Sediment Quality Regulations or Guidelines

The GLWQA, in Annexes 7 and 14, addresses sediment quality from
the perspective of studying, evaluating and monitoring dredging
activities and in-place, contaminated sediments within the Great
Lakes, but has not derived specific objectives for contaminants
in sediments.

Guidelines for the disposal of dredged material,  based on con-
taminant concentrations in sediments, have been established by
the OMOE 1978 revised Guidelines for Dredged Spoils for Open
Water Disposal and the U.S.EPA Guidelines for the Pollutional
Classification of Great Lakes Harbor Sediments.  The OMOE allows
open water disposal of dredged materials that meet or are lower
than the established guidelines, providing existing water uses
are not affected.  The U.S.EPA Region V Guidelines were developed
under pressure for the need for some guidance, but have not been
adequately related to the impact of sediments on lakes,  and
should be considered interim guidelines until more scientifically
sound guidelines are developed.  The U.S.EPA is in the process of
developing sediment criteria.  Dredging guidelines are summarized
in Table 111-4.  Table III-4 also shows the guidelines for eva-
luation of Great Lakes Dredging Projects, developed by the Dredg-
ing Subcommittee of the Great Lakes Water Quality Board.  These
guidelines are average concentrations of surficial sediments in
Lakes Huron and Erie {guidelines for the other lakes have also
been developed).  Sediment concentrations exceeding these levels

-------
                                                      TABLE II1-4

USKPA, OMOE and Great Lakes Water  Quality Board sediment dredging guidelines I Big/kg |.
PARAMETER



Total Phosphorus
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Ammonia
Volatile Solids
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Oi I ft Grease
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Cyani de
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
PCB
S i 1 ver
Se leniura
Z i nc
ONTARIO HOE
GUlDELlNESl


1000
2000
100
60,000
50 , 000
1500
8
-
1
25
SO
25
0,1
10,000
50
_
0.3
25
0,08
0,5
-
100
U.S. EPA
GUIDELINES*
Nonpol luted

<420
<1000
<7S
< 50, 000
<40,000
1 {"Polluted"!
20-50
> 10 1 "Pol luted" )
-
-
90-200
U.S. EPA
GUIDELINES*
Heavily
Polluted
>650
>2000
>200
>80,000
>80,000
>2000
>8
>60
>6
>75
-
>50
>0.26
>25,000
>60
>500

>50
GLWQB
DREDGING
OUT RELINKS'
Lake Huron
5TO
-
-
«
-
-
1.1
-
1.4
32
-
32
_
-
49
_
0.22
39
0.009-0.033 0
_
-
>200
-
0.9
62
GLWQB
DREDGING
GUIDELINES*
Lake Erie
960
-
-
_
-
-
3.2
-
2.5
53
-
39
_
-
112
_
0.58
49
.074-0,252
-
0. 79
177
                                                                                                                                 *»•
                                                                                                                                 o
     Ontario Ministry of the Environment  Guide tines for  Dredge Spoils for Open Wat.er Disposal
     U.S. EPA Guidelines for the Pol Int. ions I  Classification of (ireat. l.nkea Harbor Sediments
     Guide lines   for   the  Evaluation   of  fireat  Lakes   Dredging Projects,  Dredging Subconni t.tee,  Great Lakes Water
     Quality Board,  International Joint Commission,

-------
                                41

are considered degraded and should not be disposed in the open
lake.  Since guidelines for contaminant concentrations in in-
place sediments have not been derived, these dredging guidelines
are often used in place of sediment criteria.

Contaminated sediments constitute a significant environmental
concern in the Great Lakes Basin, and these guidelines are under
review by most agencies.  Special advisory groups, such as the
Polluted Sediment Subcommittee under the Canada-Ontario Agree-
ment, have been established to review sediment guidelines and
assessment criteria, to evaluate dredging activities and in-place
remedial options, and to provide expert advice on infilling prac-
tices.

Regulations which address dredging or remediation of contaminated
sediments are discussed in a later section.
3.   Aquatic Biota Quality Regulations or Guidelines

Many of the ambient water quality limits and guidelines were
developed from an understanding of the effects of contaminants on
aquatic life.  Therefore, such limits and guidelines directly
affect the health of aquatic biota. . There is considerable legis-
lation, not directly related to environmental quality, which
exists to protect terrestrial and aquatic species, such as the
U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973, which identifies threatened
and endangered species and their habitats.  A more complete dis-
cussion on such legislation is contained in the Regulatory Task
Force Report (1).

The quality of aquatic biota is also important from a human
health perspective, when biota are consumed as a food source.
Pish consumption advisories are developed by different regulatory
agencies to provide guidance to the public on the safety of con-
suming fish which are, or may be,  contaminated.  These advisories
are usually based on the concentration of contaminants contained
in the edible portion of fish, and restrict consumption to vary-
ing degrees when contaminant concentrations exceed these levels.

Different concentration limits have been established by the
GLWQA, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Ontario Mini-
stry of the Environment, Health and Welfare Canada, and the
Michigan Department of Public Health.  Table III-5 summarizes
these limits.  Some of the sampling and analytical techniques
associated, with determining contaminant concentrations may vary
from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.  For example, Ontario employs
a skinless fillet as an edible portion, whereas Michigan employs
a skin-on fillet for some fish and a skin-off fillet for others.

-------
                                                       TABLE III-5

Fish consumption guidelines, objectives, tolerances and action levels applicable  to  the  UQLOG  Iug/gI.
PARAMETER
GREAT LAKES
WATKR QUALITY
ABHKKMENT
SPECIFIC
OBJECTIVE1
                                   U.S.FDA
                                 ACTION LEVEL!A I
                                     OR
                                 TOLERANCEft)*
HEALTH i,
WELFARE
CANADA
FISH
CONSUMPTION
ONTARIO
FISH
CONSUMPTION
GUIDELINES4
( Restricted
ONTARIO
FISH
CONSUMPTION
GUIDELINES*
{No
                                                ADVISORIES*   Consumption! Consumption)
                       MICHIQAM
                    PUBLIC HEALTH
                    FISH CONSUMPTION
                      AIWISORY
                      TRIGGER
                       LEVELS*
                       0.3
A Idr i n
Oh 1ordane              -
f'hlordecane
2 ,4D
DDT                    1 .0
Dieldrin               0.3
Diquat
Kndrin                 0,3
FIur idone              —
GIyphosate             -
Heptachlor * H.Epoxide I). 3
L e « d                   ~
I in.Jane                0.3
Mercury                0.5
Mi rex                   

-------
                                43

FDA action levels and tolerances are contaminant limits in edible
fish flesh developed by either the PDA or the U.S.EPA, and apply
only to fish in interstate commerce.  The authority for the de-
velopment of action levels and tolerances comes from the Federal
Food, Drug .and Cosmetic_Act.   FDA action levels and tolerances
differ in that tolerances apply to registered chemicals in cur-
rent use and action levels to chemicals for which legal use has
been prohibited.  FDA action levels and tolerances are not in-
tended to be used to regulate sport-caught fish.  Michigan Trig-
ger Levels, which do apply to sport-caught fish, are, in many
cases, identical to FDA action levels and tolerances; however,
the Trigger Levels were derived independently.

Health and Welfare Canada, under the Fooa_and Drug,.Act, has es-
tablished some federal fish consumption advisories,  with res-
tricted consumption being advised for fish exceeding the guide-
lines.  The Ontario Fish Consumption Guidelines, developed by
OMOE and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, based on guidance
from the federal Food and Drug Act, have adopted many of the
federal consumption guidelines,  and provide restricted consump-
tion guidelines below which consumption may be unrestricted and
above which restricted consumption is advised  {or no consumption,
in the cases of women of child-bearing age and children under 15
years of age).   Mercury also has a No Consumption guideline,
above which no consumption is advised for all populations.

Both Ontario and Michigan publish readily available fish consump-
tion advisory guides identifying consumption advisories in effect
for various fish species, sizes and water bodies.   The GLWQA has
established specific objectives for several contaminants in the
edible portion of fish for the protection of human health,  in
addition to contaminants in whole fish for the protection of
fish-consuming wildlife and aquatic birds.

-------
                                44

C.   POINT SOURCE CONTAMINANT CONTROLS

Much of the focus of federal, provincial and state legislation
and the GLWQA is directed towards the control and reduction of
excessive contaminant input from point source dischargers.  The
regulatory basis for these control programs is discussed below.


1.   Industrial Point Sources

Surface and Groundwater

Article VI of the GLWQA requires the governments of Canada and
the U.S. to develop and implement programs to abate,  control and
prevent pollution resulting from industrial point sources by
establishing effluent limits and effective enforcement programs.

Environment Canada, through industry-specific regulations under
the Fisheries .Act-, regulates the discharge of conventional con-
taminants and acute toxicity (defined by bioassays)  from petro-
leum refineries, pulp and paper mills and other specific in-
dustrial sectors.  These federal regulations and guidelines for
effluent quality are based on the application of best practicable
technology.  Regulations and guidelines have not been promulgated
for some major industrial sectors,  such as organic chemical, iron
and steel industries.

Ontario establishes and enforces effluent requirements at least
as stringent as that established by the federal government.  In
addition, provincial objectives are implemented under the En^
vironmental Protection Act (EPA) and the Ontario_Water Resources
Act (OWRA), using voluntary measures, formal programs, Control
Orders, Directions and Requirements, Certificates of Approval and
prosecution.  Industrial effluent objectives for conventional
parameters, metals, phenols and some toxic substances are es-
tablished under OWRA, which sets out desirable effluent discharge
characteristics necessary to protect receiving water quality.
These industrial effluent objectives are shown in Table III-6,
Enforceable effluent limits,  such as Control Orders,  may require
the attainment of the industrial effluent objectives and. may also
require compliance with additional parameters.

A recent initiative is being taken in Ontario to reduce toxic
substance discharges to surface waters; the Municipal and In-
dustrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA).  MISA will require, by
regulation, each of nine industrial sectors and the municipal
sector to implement a comprehensive monitoring program to charac-
terize its effluent and then to implement the best available
technology economically achievable  (BATEA) to reduce the dis-
charge of toxic contaminants.  If,  after installation of BATEA,
any environmental impacts resulting from a facility's discharge

-------
                                    45
                                    TAIL! III-6

                     Ontario industrial effluent objectives1•
PARAMIT11
     ONTARIO
INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT
     OBJ1CTIVI
Ammonia-Nitrogen mg/L
BGBs ing/L2
Cadmium mg/L

Chromium mg/L
Copper mg/L
Fecal Coliforms MF/100mL

Lead rag/L
Mercury ng/L
Nickel mg/L
Oil and Qrease
P«
Phenols mg/L
Phosphorus mg/L
Suspended Solids mg/L
Tin ng/L

Totai Residual Chlorine mg/L
2 i ne mg / L
     10
     15
     0.001

     1,0
     1,0
     1.0
     0.001
     1.0

     IS
     5.5-9.5
     0.01
     15
     1.0
     1.0
   Established under Ontario Water Resources Act.
   5-day biological oxygen demand

-------
                                46

persist, the facility will be required to implement additional
effluent treatment.  Implementation of MISA monitoring and ef-
fluent limit regulations will occur over the next two years.

The U.S. Clean Water Act authorizes the U.S.EPA to delegate, to
state regulatory agencies, regulatory authority over the dis-
charge of contaminants from municipal and industrial point sour-
ces.  Michigan was delegated this authority in 1973, and directs
the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) per-
mit program for point sources in the state.  Under this program,
discharge permits are issued to facilities, and stipulate the
extent of allowable contaminant discharge. Effluent limits are
often based on best available technology  (BAT) for unconventional
anc toxic pollutants and on best conventional technology  (BCT)
for conventional pollutants, and may be expressed as a concentra-
tion, a mass loading limit or both.  Often, effluent limitations
are placed on only a few parameters, usually conventional pol-
lutants.  Industries may discharge to the sewer system of a muni-
cipal waste treatment facility, rather than discharging directly
to a surface water body.  In such cases, the municipal facility
may issue an Industrial Pretreatment Program  (IPP) permit to the
industry, specifying acceptable industrial effluent quality.
Alternately, states may issue the IPP permit to the industrial
facility.

In both Ontario and Michigan, site-specific effluent requirements
are frequently based on protection of the receiving water.  In
Ontario, this is done by way of requirements and Direction, or
Certificates of Approval, both under the Ontario Water Resources
Act, or by Orders  (e.g., Control or Directors Orders)  under the
Environmental Protection Act.  In Michigan, this is accomplished
under the NPDES permit program.
Air

Annex 15 of the GLWQA instructs the two governments to conduct
research, surveillance and monitoring, and to implement control
measures to reduce atmospheric deposition of toxic substances to
the Great Lakes Basin.  The Agreement calls for the development
of control measures and technologies to reduce the sources of
atmospheric emissions.

Under Canada's Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), industrial
emission standards, regulations and guidelines have been es-
tablished for several substances.  The provincial Air Pollution
Control  (General) Regulations prescribe the maximum concentration
of a contaminant at a point of impingement.

In the U.S., the Clean Air Act (CAA) gives authority to the U.S.
EPA to develop programs affecting air quality.  The U.S.EPA has
developed ambient air standards and emission standards for speci-

-------
                                47

fic pollutants.  National Ambient Air Quality Standards  (NAAQS)
have been developed for several chemicals.  Control of these and
other "hazardous" air pollutants  (as defined) is obtained by
regulating their emission from point sources.  The basic point
source emission standard developed under the CAA is the National
Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants  (NESHAP).  NESHAPs
are applied to different industrial categories.  For certain
classes of new industrial sources, New source Performance Stan-
dards (NSPS),  based on best demonstrated technology, also apply.
In addition, other emission permits may be needed.

Under the CAA, primary control over point source air emissions
and other air programs occurs at the state level through state
air programs.   In 1973, Michigan submitted, and subsequently
received approval for, their State Implementation Plan (SIP).
Through the SIP, Michigan's Air Quality Division has delegation
of authority from the U.S.EPA for compliance and enforcement of
NESHAPs.  Inspection of NESHAP sources are required to be rou-
tinely performed.


2.   Municipal Point Sources

Article VI and Annex 3 of the GLWQA support the adoption of con-
trols to reduce pollution resulting from municipal waste treat-
ment facilities.  Goals include the development of programs and
measures to ensure proper facility construction and operation,
development of pretreatment requirements, establishment of effec-
tive enforcement programs, and the reduction of most effluent
phosphorus concentrations to 1 mg/L or below.

In Canada, control over municipal waste treatment facilities lies
primarily with the provincial government, under the authority of
the Ontariq_Water Resources Act and the Ontario Environmental
Protection Act.  The federal government does, however, restrict
the phosphorus content in detergents to 0.5% (as phosphorus pen-
toxide on a weight/weight basis) as a method of reducing phospho-
rus discharges from municipal facilities, and has recommended
municipal effluent objectives.  The provincial government es-
tablishes minimum treatment requirements for municipal facili-
ties, which limit concentrations of total phosphorus in effluent
to 1 mg/L, as well as specifying minimum removal rates or maximum
concentrations for biological oxygen demand  (6005) and total
suspended solids (TSS), based on the level of treatment performed
at the facility (Table III-7).  Municipal waste treatment facili-
ties will also be regulated under the MISA program..

In the U.S., the NPDES program of the Clean Water Act regulates
municipal facilities, and permits are issued to individual

-------
                                          48
                                  TABLE It 1-7

Revised Ontario  effluent guidelines  for wastewater treatment facilities (OMOE
policy 08-01 I.
TREATMENT
BIOLOGICAL
OXYGEN
DEMAND
SUSPENDED
 SOLIDS
  TOTAL
PHOSPHORUS
  Img/L)
PRIMARY
   without P removal
   with P removal
30% removal
50% removal
50% removal
70% removal
   1.0
SECONDARY
   withoyt P removal        25 mg/L
   with P removal           25 mg/L

CONTINUOUS DISCHARGE LAGOON
   without P removal        30 mg/L
   with P removal           30 mg/L

SEASONAL DISCHARGE LAGOON
   with P removal,           30 rtg/L
   continuous P removal     30 mg/L
   batch P removal          25 mg/L
                    25 mg/L
                    25 mg/L
                    40 mg/L
                    40 mg/L
                    40 mg/L
                    40 mg/L
                    25 mg/L
                   1.0
                   1.0
                   1.0
                   1 .0
Note:   "Where warranted,  a higher  degree of  treatment shall  be required to
        nest  the   site-specific  effluent  requiremetits  developed  for  each
        particular receiving water."

Table Adapted from "Report to the Great Lakes Water Quality  Board, Guidance on
Characterization of  Toxic Substances Problems in Areas of Concern in the Great
Lakes Basin.", March, 1987.

-------
                                49

facilities specifying concentration and/or mass loading discharge
limits on specific parameters, usually conventional pollutants.
As mentioned, Michigan has obtained primacy for control of this
program, and NPDES permits are issued by the MDNR.  Among other
previously mentioned legislation, Michigan's Act 98, as amended,
provides for the classification, specification, certification and
supervision of municipal waste treatment systems by the state
health commissioner, as well as providing penalties for viola-
tions .

Municipal facilities which receive waste water from industrial
facilities usually operate an industrial pretreatment program
{JPP}.  In this program, permits are issued by either the munici-
pal waste treatment facility or the state to industries which
discharge to sewer systems, and specify pretreatment requirements
for the effluent.  The pretreatment requirements are either local
limits developed for the protection of the waste treatment faci-
lity, or federally promulgated categorical pretreatment require-
ments, whichever are more stringent.

-------
                                50

D, NONPOINT        CONTAMINANT CONTROL

1.   Agricultural Runoff

The GLWQA identifies agriculture as an activity which requires
management programs to reduce contaminant and nutrient loading
and soil erosion to adjacent surface waters.  The Agreement sup-
ports the implementation of programs which are consonant with
these goals, including improved fertilization and manure manage-
ment practices, conservation tillage practices and others.

Agriculture Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and
Food (OMAF)  have instituted programs to educate farmers on new
technologies,  crop rotation and soil conservation practices
through the Soil and Water Environmental Enhancement Program
(SWEEP).   OMAF provides soil testing services for farmers to
determine appropriate application rates for fertilizers and lime.
The Agricultural Code of Practices for Ontario (1973} promotes
proper application of livestock manure to cropland in order to
reduce nutrient loads to ground- or surface water.  The Ontario
Ministry of the Environment has outlined restrictions or. applica-
tion rates and times and contaminant concentrations in sewage
sludges applied to agricultural land, as shown in Table III-8.

In the U.S., control of pollution from agricultural activities is
also based on a management approach.  The U.S. Department of
Agriculture  (USDA) can reduce funding benefits to farmers who
produce agricultural commodities on highly erodiJole lands or
wetlands as an indirect incentive to reduce erosion and preserve
wetlands.  The USDA and the U.S. EPA also use programs developed
under the Agricultural, Rural Development ..and Related Agenci_e_g
Appropriations,,Act and the Soil Conservation and Allotment^ Act to
protect against soil erosion, and to prevent and/or abate water
pollution for agricultural sources.  Michigan's Nonpoint Sources
Management Program, the Michigan Phosphorus Reduction Strategy
and the Michigan Energy Conservation Program are all intended to
provide management, technical, or financial support to minimize
erosion and the loss of fertilizers, pesticides and manure to
rural surface waters.  Michigan's Guidance for Land Application
of Wastewater Sludge is shown in Table ITT-8.


2.   Pesticides

Article VI of the GLWQA calls for measures to inventory, control
and research the impacts of pesticides used in the Great Lakes
Basin,  and to ensure they are used in a correct and legal manner.
The GLWQA has also developed specific objectives for several
pesticides in both water and biota.

-------
                                              TABLE II1-8

              Guidelines and criteria for agricultural application of wastewater sludge.
PARAMETER ONTARIO MAXIMUM MICHIGAN GUIDELINES
PERMISSIBLE CONCENTRATION CLASS 1*
(mg/kg solids!1 Sing/kg)
Arseni c
Cadmium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Mo 1 ybdenun
Nickel
PCB
Selenium
Zinc
170
34
2800
340
1700
1100
11
94
420
34
4200
100
6
50
250
250
2
10
25
1
10
750
                                                                 FOR APPLICATION
                                                                 CLASS 23
                                                                 (rag/kg)
OP WASTEWATER SLUDGE
         CLASS 3*
         ting/kg |
                                                                 100-2000
                                                                   5-125
                                                                  50-5000
                                                                 250-2000
                                                                 250-2000

                                                                   2-10
                                                                  10-50
                                                                  25-1000

                                                                   1-10
                                                                  10-80
                                                                 750-5000
         200O
         125
         5000
         2000
         2000

         10
         50
         1000

         NA
         80
         5000
For all aerobic sewage sludge and dried/dewatered anaerobic sewage sludge; other regulations apply for
liquid anaerobic sludge.
May be applied to ull manner of crops with little restrictions on use.
May be applied to crops in accordance with computed site limitations on annual and lifetime metal a
accumu lation.
May onLy  be applied  to crop  lands under  carefully controlled  rates which  are consistent with computed
site assimilation rates;  sludges containing greater than 10 ppm PCB may not be land-applied.

-------
                                52

Canada's federal Pest Control Products,.Act, and the Ontario Pes-
ticides Act regulate the manufacture, registration and use of
pesticides in. Canada.  Nonregulatory programs at the federal
level include the Integrated Pest Management Program, currently
being developed by Agriculture Canada,  Its aim is to develop a
management scheme to reduce reliance on chemical pest control,
The Provincial Pegticides Act prohibits the harmful discharge of
pesticides and requires the licensing of commercial pesticide
applicators.  The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food  (OMAF)
is also involved in the Integrated Pest Management Program.

In the U.S., the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide
Act., IFIFRA) regulations address the manufacture, distribution,
storage, disposal and use of approximately 50,000 pesticide pro-
ducts and devices.  FIFRA also provides standards for the cer-
tification of commercial and private applicators of restricted
use pesticides.  Regulations under the Federal, Food, Drug and
Cosmetic Act establish allowable limits (residues) of pesticides
in food or feed crops prior to pesticide registration.  The Re-
source Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRAj regulates the treat-
ment, storage and disposal of some pesticides.  Many aspects of
Michigan's Nonpoint Source Management Program address the use of
pesticides used on agricultural land.


3.   Shipping

Article VI and Annexes 5 and 6 of the GLWQA contain provisions
for the control of contaminants from shipping activities.  Of
primary concern are discharges of oily waste water, bilge water
and untreated sewage, along with garbage and other hazardous
substances in washings or spills.

The Canada Shipping Act (CSA) has spawned regulations directed at
shipping that control discharges of oil and vessel wastes.  The
CSA .requires ships to either treat their sewage before discharge
or install holding tanks.   The Transportation of Dangerous Goods
Act (TOGA) prescribes safety requirements and standards for all
means of transportation across Canada, including shipping.  On-
tario's Environmental JProtectLio,n Act requires pleasure craft to
be fitted with sewage holding tanks to contain waste water, which
are emptied in a controlled manner at marinas.

In the U.S., the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution
Contingency Plan  (NCP) under the Comprehensive Environmental
Response.Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) is, in part,
concerned with the discharge of oil to navigable waters of the
U.S.  Michigan's Watercraft Control Act of 1970 prohibits the
activities of littering or polluting the state's waters with
sewage, oil or other liquid or solid material.  Violators are
fined and are responsible for cleanup of wastes.

-------
                                53

4,   Spills

Annex 9 of the GLWQA calls for a coordinated and integrated res-
ponse to pollution incidents in the Great Lakes by responsible
federal, state, provincial and local agencies through a Joint
Contingency Plan.  The objectives of this plan include develop-
ment of preparedness measures, adequate cleanup response and
extent, and other factors,  Ontario and Michigan entered into
such an agreement in April 1988, with the signing of the Ontario-
Michigan Letter of Intent on Notification and Consultation Proce-
dures for Unanticipated or Accidental Discharges of Pollutants
into Shared Waters of the Great Lakes and Interconnecting Chan-
nels,

In Canada, control over spills lies primarily with the provincial
government.  The "Spills Bill", part IX of Ontario's Environmen-
tal Protection Act, deals with spills of pollutants into the
natural environment, and establishes notification requirements,
response procedures and compensation mechanisms,  Ontario's
Spills Action Centre (SACJ coordinates the Ministry's response
network and other emergency respenders,

In the U.S., regulations under CERCLA identify "hazardous sub-
stances", reportable quantities of these substances and notifica-
tion requirements in the event of a release, . CERCLA created the
NCP, which is concerned with oil and hazardous material spills in
navigable waters and the environment.  The Clean Water Act also
prohibits discharge of oil in harmful quantities, and requires
owners and/or operators of facilities which present a threat of
an oil discharge to surface water to prepare a Spill Prevention
Control and Countemeasure (SPCC) plan.   The Solid Waste Disposal
Act  (a.k.a, RCRA) requires transporters of hazardous substances
to take appropriate action in the event of a spill, and to notify
the National Response Center,  The Emergency_Planning and Right-
To-Know Act requires participation by certain facilities in emer-
gency planning procedures for spills.  The Toxic Substances Con-
trol Act  (TSCA) contains the PCB spill cleanup policy.

Michigan's Water Resources Commission Act rules  (Part 5, Rules
151-169) regulate oil loading and unloading and storage, and
specifies emergency response procedures for spills,  Michigan Act
§]., referred to as the Oil and Gas Act,  requires operation of
production and. disposal wells in the state in such a -manner as to
prevent the escape of oil, gas, saltwater, brine or oil field
wastes which would pollute, damage or destroy freshwater resour-
ces.  Michigan DNR's Pollutional Emergency Alert System (PEAS)
investigates and responds to emergency spill occurrences and
coordinates with other concerned agencies.

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                                54

5.   Urban Runoff and Combined. Sewer Overflows

Annex 13 of the GLWQA calls for the development of programs to
abate, control and prevent contaminants from being discharged
from nonpoint sources, including runoff from urban land.  Article
¥1 calls for, in part, control of contaminants from combined
sewer systems.

In Canada, Guidance for Urban Drainage Design, Erosion and Sedi-
ment Control for Urban Construction Sites is developed under the
provincial Drainage Act, while stormwater is informally con-
trolled through reviews and comments on official plans and ap-
plications for development of subdivisions.  No control strate-
gies exist for treatment of combined sewer overflows  (CSOs);
however, the province has worked with municipalities  to segregate
sanitary and storm sewers.  The MISA program will consider abate-
ment requirements for CSOs.  Guidelines for Snow Disposal and
Deicing Operations in Ontario minimize impacts on surface and
groundwaters,

The U.S.EPA Region ¥  {ChicagoJ     developed a two-phased manage-
ment program of CSOs under the authority of the CWA through the
municipal waste treatment facility NPBES permit process.  The
purpose of the Region ¥ NPDES Permit Strategy for Combined Sewer
Systems is to incorporate planning and management procedures into
combined sewer system operations to result in a more  effective
management of the system.  The program initially institutes man-
agement controls on the existing combined sewer system, in an
attempt to reduce receiving water impacts.  If satisfactory re-
sults are not achieved, rehabilitation of the sewer system, or
other more extensive steps, may be required.  In addition, Mi-
chigan has drafted a CSO policy which may contain limitations
much like any other point source discharge.


6,   Atmospheric Deposition

Annex 15 of the GLWQA calls for research, surveillance and moni-
toring, and implementation of control measures to reduce at-
mospheric deposition o£ toxic substances to the Great Lakes
Basin,  Annex 15 also requires that measures to control emission
sources which significantly contribute to pollution of the Great
LaK.es be studied, developed and implemented.  The Memorandum of
Understanding between Ontario and Michigan, recently  signed,
contains the Ontario-Michigan Joint Notification Plan for Unan-
ticipated or Accidental Discharges of Airborne Pollutants, out-
lining steps and actions to be taken by both governments in the
event of such an incident,

In Canada, National Ambient Air Quality Objectives have been
established under the Canadian Clean Air Act as a guide in devel-
oping programs to reduce the damaging effects of air  pollution.

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                                55

These national objectives assist in establishing priorities for
reducing contaminant levels and the extent of pollution control
needed, provide a uniform yardstick for assessing air quality in
all parts of Canada, and indicate the need for and extent of
monitoring programs.  CSPA, in addition to regulating point sour-
ces of air emissions, also has the authority to regulate fuel and
fuel additives, which may impact on atmospheric deposition of
combustion products and lead.  Provincial Ambient Air Quality
Criteria are developed under the Ontario Environmental Protection
Act.  QMOE, often in conjunction with other groups and agencies,
prepares a yearly summary of transboundary air contaminant move-
ment and conducts studies on the long range transportation and
deposition of contaminants to the Great Lakes.

In the U.S., the clean Air Act (CAA)  gives authority to the
U.S.EPA to approve programs affecting air quality, implemented at
the state level.  National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
have been developed by the U.S.EPA,  and consist of both primary
and secondary standards, to protect public health and welfare,
respectively.  A few atmospheric nonpoint source programs have
     implemented at the federal level.   The CAA provides the
U.S.EPA with authority to control and/or prohibit fuels and fuel
additives used in motor vehicles which have been determined to
endanger public health.  To this end,  the U.S.EPA requires regis-
tration of fuel and fuel additives,  and prohibits the production
or importation of gasoline containing an average lead concentra-
tion of 0.1 g lead/gallon fuel or greater.  The CAA regulations
stipulate emission requirements for new motor vehicles as a
method of controlling air quality.  Michigan manages its own air
program, adopting and adhering to the federal NAAQS.  Ambient air
monitoring is conducted in Michigan in some industrial areas
known or suspected of having significant releases of toxic air
pollutants.  An Air Quality Index is reported to the public
daily.


7.    In-place Pollutants

Article ¥1 and Annex 7 of the GLWQA provide for the development
of a Subcommittee on Dredging to review the existing practices in
the U.S. and Canada relating to dredging activities, and to
develop guidelines and criteria for dredging activities in boun-
dary waters of the Great Lakes.   Annex 14 of the GLWQA calls for
parties to develop a standard approach and agreed upon procedures
for the management of contaminated sediments.

In Canada, federal authority over contaminated sediments in the
Great Lakes is limited; the province of Ontario is primarily
responsible.  However, under the Canada-Ontario Agreement,  a
Polluted Sediment Subcommittee has been formed, charged with
developing a standardized assessment procedure for assessing
contaminated sediments and their remedial options.  Under the

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                                56

Environmental Protection Act., the Ontario Minister of Environment
can order the removal of contaminated sediments.

In the U.S., the Clean Water Act authorizes funds to identify
areas containing contaminated sediments and to develop plans for
sediment removal and disposal from critical ports and harbors.
Section 404(b)  of the CVA empowers the U.S. Army Corps of En-
gineers to issue permits to govern dredging and fill operations
for the purposes of navigation.  Control over the discharge of
dredged and fill material at specified disposal sites is main-
tained through a permitting process.  In some instances, con-
taminated sediments may be regulated under RCRA,  such as in in-
stances when dredged sediments exhibit one or more of the hazar-
dous waste characteristics defined under RCRA, or if a release
occurs at a Treatment, Storage and Disposal facility, as defined
under RCRA.  All dredging projects in Michigan are subject to
review and certification under the CWA.  Dredging permits may
also be required under Michigan's Inland Lakes and,Stream Acts
(Act 346)_ and the Gre_at Lakes Submerged Lands Act (Act 247).

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                                57

E.   SOLID, LIQUID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTROLS

The GLWQA, in Annex 13, calls for the development of programs to
abate and reduce pollution resulting from land use activities,
including waste disposal sites.  At the present time, no specific
guidelines are developed for siting or management of solid or
hazardous waste sites.

Regulations concerning the use, handling, storage and disposal of
hazardous wastes in Canada are primarily developed at the provin-
cial, rather than federal, level.  Some federal statutes do,
however, offer some control.  The federal Environmental Con-
taminants Act restricts the use, handling and/or disposal of
selected hazardous substances: PCB and PCB products, mirex, poly-
chlorinated terphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls.  The recent
passed Canadian Environmental Protection Act  (CEPA) provides
control over the manufacture, transportation, use, disposal,
importation and exportation of chemicals and wastes where not
adequately controlled by regulation in other legislation.  The
federal Transportation of Dangerous Goodjs Act prescribes safety
requirements, standards and safety marks on all means of trans-
port across Canada, including the transport of hazardous
material.

At the provincial level, solid and hazardous waste programs are
regulated under the Environmental Protection Act  (EPA).  The EPA
develops standards for siting, maintenance and operation of waste
sites, and operates a paperwork manifest system to monitor the
transport and handling of hazardous wastes.  Under EPA, all waste
sites are required to have a Certificate of Approval-prior to
operation.  In addition, Ontario regulations prohibit deep well
injection of any liquid industrial waste into the Detroit River
Group geological formation in Lambton County, and prohibits the
deep well injection of brines within 8 km of the St. Clair River,

In the U.S., the federal Solid Waste Disp_osal_Act_(SWDA) , as
amended  (which includes the Resource Cons_ervat_ion__and Recovery
Act and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments), develops regu-
lations to manage solid and hazardous wastes.  Three distinct
programs have been developed: the Solid Waste Program, the Hazar-
dous waste Program and the Underground Storage Tank Program.  The
Solid Waste Program defines both technical and management crite-
ria for the proper operation of a solid waste facility.  The
Hazardous Waste Program defines certain wastes or characteristics
as "hazardous",  describes the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest
System for the tracking of hazardous waste movement, and develops
requirements for generators, transporters and owner/operators of
Treatment, Storage and Disposal facilities.  The Underground
Storage Tank program develops construction criteria, performance
standards and notification requirements for underground storage
tanks.  Michigan has obtained primacy for most of these solid and
hazardous waste programs, with regulations being developed under

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                                58

Michigan Act 64  (Michigan Hazardous Waste Management Act), Act
136  (Michigan. Liquid Industrial Waste Disposal_AcT:)_, Act  641
(Michigan Solid Waste Management Act), Act 423  (Michigan  Under-
ground_Storage Tank Act) and Act__3_66  (Michigan  Resource Recovery
Act) .  Michigan Act ..61, referred to as the Oil  and Gas Act, which
generally addresses permitting, drilling, production and  abandon-
ment of production and disposal wells, specifically requires
operation of the wells in such a manner as to prevent the escape
of oil, gas, saltwater, brine or oil  field wastes which would be
damaging to fresh water resources.

The U.S. federal Comprehensive Environmental,.Response, Compensa-
tion and. Liability Act_jCERCLA), colloquially referred to as
"Superfund", was amended in 1986 by the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization .Act._(SAgA).  (which contains the  Emergency ^ Planning
andt,Community Right__To Know_Act of 1986  (Title  III) and the Radon
Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research Act of 1986  (Title IV)}.
CERCLA identifies an extensive list of substances as "hazardous",
and authorizes the remediation of uncontrolled  waste sites con-
taining hazardous materials, involving a stepwise evaluation of
the hazards present.  CERCLA, sharing a dual authority with the
Clean Wate_r Act, is also concerned with uncontrolled releases of
oil and hazardous materials to navigable waters  to the U.S.  The
Michigan _Eny_ironmental_Response Act  (Act 307) provides for the
prioritization of hazardous waste sites in the  state, and recom-
      state funds for remediation.  Michigan may, through this
regulation, remediate sites not being addressed by the federal
Superfund program.

The U.S. Toxic _S_ub stances ..Control _Act  (T5CA) provides the U.S. EPA
with broad authority over the manufacturing, importation  and
processing of about 63,000 chemical substances  intended for com-
mercial purposes.  TSCA has effectively banned  the manufacture
    use of PCB and PCB products, prohibited chlorofluorocarbon
use as a propellant, and has proposed a phased-in ban on  the use
and importation of asbestos,


Summari z at ion

This chapter has provided an overview of existing environmental
legislation and programs within the U.S. and Canadian federal
governments, the State of Michigan and the Province of Ontario.
Considerable legislation exists to control and  influence  environ-
mental quality in the Great Lakes Basin, along  with mechanisms to
effect further improvements in Great Lakes ecosystem quality.
Discussion of each Act, or program mentioned within this chapter,
along with, others, is expanded upon in a more comprehensive re-
view of regulatory programs in the Regulatory Task Force  Report
(1) which is included in Volume III.

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                                59

P. REFERENCE
1.    Regulatory Task. Force Report, UGLCCS.  1988. Summarization
     of environmental regulations, agreements and programs in the
     United States,  Canada, Ontario and Michigan,  C, Fuller
     (chairperson).  Final Kept June, 1988.

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                            CHAPTER TV
                     DATA QUALITY MANAGEMENT
A.  DATA REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES

1.  Intended Use of Data

The UGLCC study's main objectives were to assess the current
status of the ecosystem and recommend remedial action where nece-
ssary.  Parameters were selected for study based on historical
problems in the various study areas and to provide information on
a range of chemicals with different properties.  Analytical
methods for most of the study parameters are well established.
The only exception to this was the analysis of trace organics at
ambient concentrations in water.  For the most part, only re-
search laboratories have the capability to perform these analyses
because of the low detection limits (parts per trillion)
required.

The data generated for the study needed to be of sufficient qua-
lity to provide the approximate concentrations of the study para-
meters in the various media so that these concentrations could be
related to ecosystem objectives.  The data also needed to be of
sufficient quality to show whether a particular study area was a
net source or sink for the study parameter.  The UGLCC Study was
not intended to provide accurate loadings of the contaminants to
the system or precise concentrations in all media; however, esti-
mates of loadings and concentrations permit relative comparisons
between contaminant sources.

A secondary study objective was to identify additional toxic
contaminants that could be causing problems in the study areas.
Thus, the laboratories must be able to identify the presence of
these contaminants and to estimate their approximate concentra-
tion in the media analyzed..

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                                62

2.  Field and Laboratory Procedures

Sample collection procedures followed by all agencies are well
documented in the principal investigator reports.  For the most
part, sampling was conducted according to established protocols,
For specialized sampling, such as ambient waters, thoroughly
tested published procedures were used.  Water and effluent
samples were stored at 4^C with the addition of appropriate pre-
servatives (for example, acid for metal analyses).   Sediment and
biota samples were kept frozen until analysis.

Samples of effluent for the point source survey were 24 hour
(U.S.) or 3 to 6 day (Canada)  composites.  Most other samples
collected were grab samples.  The samples collected were appro-
priate to address the objectives of the study.  For all studies
the number of samples collected was limited.

Field blanks and replicates comprised over 10% of the analytical
output of the study.  In general, most parameters were not de-
tected in the field blanks.  In most cases the percent deviation
between field replicates was less than 20%.

U.S.EPA methods were used by most laboratories for the analyses.
These methods specify frequencies of calibration, blanks, spikes,
duplicates, and surrogate spikes.  The achievement of lower de-
tection limits by some research laboratories required the use of
large volume samples (up to 200 litres),  larger than are speci-
fied in the U.S.EPA methods. Proportionally larger volumes of
extraction solvents were used for these samples.  The final de-
terminations were usually by U.S.EPA or comparable methodology.

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                                63

B,  DATA QUALITY MANAGEMENT

The experience of earlier international multi-media studies in
the Great Lakes Basin, particularly the Niagara River Toxic Com-
mittee Report  (NRTC)  (1),  demonstrated the need for a careful and
systematic program to ensure data quality and the utility of
analytical results.  Those involved in the NRTC Study strongly
recommended the establishment of a data quality management pro-
gram as one of the first actions of the Upper Great Lakes Con-
necting Channels Study,

The earlier studies found that commercial, government, and aca-
demic laboratories use different analytical methods, instruments,
standards, levels of detection and reporting formats. Without
external checks,  there are no means to ensure that data generated
by two or more laboratories would generate comparable data.
Furthermore/  agreement had to be reached among representatives
from agencies having differing missions, goals and study require-
ments for a common protocol or strategy for data quality manage-
ment.  As part of such a strategy,  the Management Committee agr-
eed that, wherever possible, the number of laboratories providing
analytical support would be minimized and laboratory facilities
would be shared by the agencies in the study.  This was an impor-
tant step in minimizing potential variability in the data.


1,  Activities

The Management Committee formed a Quality Management Workgroup
(QMWG) from the agencies providing field and analytical service
support.  Consulting personnel experienced in statistical design
and data quality analyses were also identified.  The terms of
reference for the Workgoup were as follows:

1)   establish a quality management system for the UGLCC Study;

2}   review and evaluate the suitability, completeness and com-
     petence of individual project quality assurance plans;

3)   recommend quality assurance requirements for sampling, sam-
     ple handling, analysis, management of project data and qua-
     lity control data;

4)   compile, review and report on the appropriateness of analyt-
     ical and field protocols identified in the Quality Assurance
     Project Plan, as they became available;

5)   provide guidance to other workgroups in the analysis and use
     of historical data as required by the Activities Integration
     Committee;

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                                64

6)   require and review periodic Quality Assurance (QA) reports
     from the individual workgroups; and

7)   review draft project reports with respect to QA issues,

Throughout the Study, the QMWG maintained close contact with the
Management Committee and the Activities Integration Committee,
The QMWG Chairman or a representative participated in their meet-
ings and provided verbal and written briefings on issues as they
arose.  A data quality management strategy was agreed upon  (2).
This included a project data quality plan document which was
given to each project leader.  This project plan was submitted to
the workgroup by the principal investigators and was then re-
viewed by the QMWG.  The review assessed the proposed project
quality assurance and quality control procedures as well as,
where feasible, the statistical design of the project.  The data
quality management strategy also included a series of thirteen
interlaboratory "round robins" consisting of the analyses of
"standardized" samples of blind concentration and composition.
The results of the studies were provided to the Activities  In-
tegration Committee and the Management Committee such that  cor-
rective action could be taken as necessary.

It must be recognized that each agency has its own criteria for
determining suitable field and laboratory procedures.  In most
cases these are chosen to meet the agencies' specific mandates.
Within the time available to UGLCCS, it was not possible, and
probably not advisable, to institute method changes to achieve
standard procedures among the participants.  The most that  could
be achieved was to:

a)   encourage good project planning, including all necessary
     quality assurance activity;

b)   encourage documentation of methods; and

c)   initiate a limited number of round-robins, using such  stand-
     ards as were readily available to evaluate the accuracy of
     participating laboratories.

It was known from the start that many of the field techniques
employed for sampling and sample handling were relatively un-
tested, especially for the organic constituents, because they
were part of exploratory research programs.  There were questions
about analytical procedures that might be employed, in terms of
their ability to identify and quantify the many chemical con-
stituents of interest in the water, sediment, biota and effluent
samples.  These issues were recognized early on by the other
workgroups, and were the topic of much discussion.

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                                65

Some difficulty was anticipated because the different jurisdic-
tions employed a variety of control practices to a greater or
lesser degree.  There was concern that existing field and labora-
tory methods might not include the quality control and quality
assurance protocols needed to verify proper application, and to
document the level of quality achieved for UGLCCS.  In the past,
the impact of ongoing laboratory quality control activity in all
these areas had been limited by the absence of a "top-down" ma-
nagement system to define responsibilities and ensure adequate
documentation.  Hence, Management Committee formally endorsed a
modified U.S.EPA guidance document (3) as the basis for a quality
assurance project plan to be filed for each project for initi-
ating a verifiable QA process.  The documentation and procedures
required by the UGLCCS Project Plan guidance document is shown in
the workgroup report {2}.


2.  Project Plan Review Findings

The magnitude of the study required intensive effort on the part
of all workgroup chairmen to keep projects on track.  Ultimately,
most projects were implemented without adequate prior QA review,
however, laboratory support for one project often provided data
to serve other activities.  A total of 30 project plans (out of
170 projects) were received from the workgroups, the majority
dealing with biota and sediment. The workgroup QA project plans
were distributed as received for review by teams of one or two
QMWG members based on their expertise in field, laboratory, QA,
sampling design, and related statistical factors.  Project plans
tended to follow the guidelines but were not necessarily complete
in defining or justifying their methodology, data quality needs,
or relationships to methodologies used by the other related pro-
jects.

Many project leaders had difficulty in providing detailed up-to-
date descriptions of their field, laboratory or QA/QC procedures.
This is not due to the absence of defined procedures, nor the
lack of appropriate QA/QC activities: but,  simply because the
necessary documentation was not readily available. Some provided
excellent documentation in one or more areas; but, there was not
always a clear link between project needs and the specific tech-
nology used.  Not all plans were evaluated for sampling
design or other statistical aspects because some projects were
essentially exploratory or were already in progress or even com-
pleted.

In general, the concept of a centralized quality assurance review
on a project by project basis was new to many of the partici-
pants.  Most project leaders had never experienced such a respon-
sibility for providing the type of detail required in the QA
review protocol.  The normal relationship for most project
leaders to their supporting analytical laboratories was that of a

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                                66

client to a service organization.  As a result, significant dif-
ficulty was encountered in providing not only the requested de-
tail but the type of material to be provided, its actual rel-
evance to the UGLCCS, and the volume of material that was needed
for review.  Due to the large scope of the project, not all the
members of the QMWG were fully familiar with specific laboratory
practices,  the analytical methods or the statistical methodology
used by various organizations.

Delays in QA project plan reporting were encountered due to in-
complete reports and the large volume of background information
that had to be gathered, compiled and reviewed by disparate
groups of professional individuals in both the field study and
the QA review process.

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                                67

C.  INTERLABORATORY PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS

1.  Background

Field sampling procedures, sample handling and preservation,
delays initiating analyses, sample matrix effects on the analyt-
ical process all affect data quality.  However, there is no ques-
tion that the analytical measurement is especially critical to
the validity of project data.  Traditionally, the single most
serious source of variation between results from different labor-
atories is the control of standards and the instrument calibra-
tion process.  For this reason the QMWG agreed to place most
emphasis on the distribution of a series of check standards co-
vering all of the UGLCCS parameters for which checks were avail-
able.


2.  Approach

The QMWG recommended that interlaboratory performance evaluation
quality control studies should be designed and carried out at
least three times with test materials containing all constituents
at low, medium, and high concentrations.  Such studies would be
presented and evaluated before, during and at the close of all
analytical and field related activities.  These studies were
carried out in conjunction with a quality management strategy and
in concert with an interagency split-sample program, and allowed
management full control and assurance of data quality for the
UGLCC Study.  It was evident that this comprehensive program
could not be issued in a timely manner  (2).  A reduced program
was adopted that involved less frequent studies, use of only
standard solutions, surrogate spikes and a limited number of
natural reference materials.

The samples for the thirteen studies listed in Table IV-1 were
prepared and distributed to twenty-six laboratories in different
portions of the "round robins".  The laboratories were requested
to analyze for 36 inorganic and 50 organic parameters (see Table
IV-1}.   Three reports for each interlaboratory study were gener-
ated by the QMWG:

a)   a raw data summary to the participants  (for verification);

b)   a final data summary when the study was closed; and

c)   a final laboratory performance evaluation report.

In addition, 3 status reports were prepared to advise MC and AIC
chairpersons on extreme results.  Extreme results were those
results that deviated significantly from target values.   Brief
advisory reports reviewing the results of each interlaboratory
performance assessment study from the QMWG to the MC/AIC, were

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                                                  TABLE  IV - 1

                                  study parameters for interlaboratory performance
                                        evaluation of UOLCCS QC studies.
Study
QH-1
OM-2
QN-3
ON- 4
8W-5
QM-8
QH-7
QH-8
QM 3
OM-10
QM-ll
QM-12
t>H-13
Teat Samples
4 arapu 1 a
4 ampuls
4 amp j I a
4 ampul a
6 sediments
4 water*
4 waters
4 sediments
2 ampuls
2 ampul*
2 ampul a
4 ampuls
4 ampuls
4 a»puls
4 waters
2 ampuls
4 ampuls
4 waters
4 waters
2 ampuls
2 oils
'i tissues
Parameters
Aroclors
O,C. Insecticides*
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons**
16 PAHS
10 Metal*
23 Major Ions fc Nutrients
7 Metals
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons**
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons**
Aroclors
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons**
Aroclors i Chlorinated
Hydrocarbons**
Chlorinated Insecticides*
Chlorinated Insecticides*
Hereury
16 PAHa
IS PAHs
Cyanide
Total Phenol
5 Chioro phenols
Substrate
std solutions
atd solutions
£td solutions
std solutions
sediment CRN or RH
water CRN
water CRM
sediment CRN or UN
ntd solutions
std solutions
std solutions
spiking solutions it
natural water
std solution
spiking solutions I
natural water
water RM
std solution
spiking solutions t
natural water
water RH
water RH
std solutions
fish oils
fish tissues
*  HCB, talph*, gamna) BHC' Mirex, pp'- DDE'  pp  -  ODD,  pp*-DDT,  heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin,  ialpha,
   Chlordane, oxychiordane,

** (1, 4,  1, 3, 1. 2t dichlorobenzene, U, 3,  S, 1,  2,  4,  1,  2,  Si trichlorobenzene
   

  • -------
                                    69
    
    used by the UGLCCS management to Implement the QA. management
    strategy and to ensure that appropriate corrective action could
    be taken.
    

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                                    70
    
    D.  UGLCCS QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS
    
    1.  Percent Recoveries
    
    The following results have been summarized from QMWG integrated
    reports evaluating interlaboratory performance for organics  (4)
    and trace metals (5).  As part of the QMWG recommendation for a
    QA/QC program for UGLCCS, values determined for samples should
    fall within a window of +/-25% of the design values,
    
    
    Trace jvietals
    
    Figures IV-1 and IV-2 present graphically condensed results of
    the range and average values of percent recoveries of interlabor-
    atory medians for all elements analyzed and all samples reported
    in sediments and waters, respectively.
    
    For the sediment samples analyzed in QM-3, results for seven out
    of 10 elements, namely Pb, Zn, Hg, Cu, Ni, Co and Pe, were satis-
    factory because average recoveries for all samples tested were
    within +/-25% of the design values and the ranges of recoveries
    for all samples were within +/-25% of the design values.  The
    performance for Cd and Se in these sediment samples were also
    satisfactory with average recoveries for all samples falling
    within +/-25% of the design values. However, the ranges of re-
    coveries for all samples tested showed wide variations and fell
    outside the limits  (+/-25%) of the design values (Figure IV-1).
    The interlaboratory results for Cr were less satisfactory with
    average recovery for all samples exceeding +/-25% of the design
    value.   This was assumed to be due to incomplete digestion of the
    sediment samples.
    
    For the water samples analyzed in QM-5 and QM-9 as shown in Fig-
    ure IV-2, the interlaboratory comparability was excellent.  All
    seven elements,  (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Fe), determined in
    QM-5 and Eg in QM-9 were satisfactory with the ranges and aver-
    ages of interlaboratory medians for all samples within +/-25% of
    the design values. The ranges of recoveries among test samples
    had wider variations for Zn and Hg than those obtained for the
    remaining elements.
    
    Overall, comparing the precision of interlaboratory results for
    sediment and water samples, the less scattered results among test
    samples were obtained for water samples than those obtained for
    sediment samples, except for Hg.  The wider variations of rela-
    tive standard deviation  (RSD) for Hg among test samples for water
    samples as compared with those for sediment samples, perhaps, was
    attributed to the lower concentrations of Hg in these water sam-
    ples.  In general, the interlaboratory comparability for the
    accuracy and precision of trace metals in sediment and water
    samples was satisfactory in most cases.
    

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    Cd   Pb   2n  Hg  Cu   Ni   Co  Fe   Cr   Se
                 TM's Parameters
      Cd   Pb   Zo   Hg    Cu   Ni    Co    Fe    Cr   S«
                  TM s Parameters
                                                    0 Max,  • Avg.  D Mifl.
    FIGURE  IV-1. Percent recovery for  trace
                     metals  (sediments).
    FIGURE  IV-2, Percent recovery for  trace
                     metals  (waters).
    

    -------
                                    72
    
    Organic Parameters
    
        i)  OCs (Organochlorines)
    
    The QMWG had set results within +/-25% of the design values for
    organic parameters as satisfactory.  The agreement of interlabor-
    atory medians for organochlorines was excellent.  The results for
    all the samples were satisfactory within +/-25% of the design
    values for all OC parameters except sample 108 in QM-1 for p,p-
    DDD.
    
    In order to detect the bias of interlaboratory results,  the range
    and average of interlaboratory medians for all OC parameters in
    various studies were summarized.  Figure IV-3 presents condensed
    results of average recoveries of interlaboratory medians for all
    samples in various studies.  As can be seen from this figure, the
    interlaboratory results were compatable and satisfactory for all
    OC parameters in ampules of both QM-1 and QM-8.  Furthermore, the
    interlaboratory results in QM-8 were more accurate than those in
    QM-1 for all OC parameters in most cases.
    
    The percent average recoveries of OCs in spiked water samples in
    QM-8 were less accurate as compared with ampule samples in both
    QM-1 and QM-8 studies.  However, the interlaboratory results for
    all OCs in QM-S were still satisfactory within +/-25% of design
    values except for HCB.
    
        ii)  PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls)
    
    The agreement of interlaboratory medians in PCS test samples was
    excellent and percent recoveries of interlaboratory results were
    all satisfactory  (within +/-25% of the design values) in both
    studies.  The accuracy of interlaboratory comparability for PCBs
    in ampules and spiked water     very satisfactory in both stud-
    ies.
    
        iii)  CHs (Chlorinated Hydrocarbons)
    
    The results of CH analyses suggest that interlaboratory perfor-
    mance by participating laboratories, in most cases, improved in
    QM-6 and QM-7 as compared with the earlier QM-1 using      ident-
    ical samples in various studies.  In QM-1,      CHs were dif-
    ferent by more than +/-25% of the design values; while all CHs
    were satisfactory within +/-25% of the design value in sample 606
    of QM-6 and samples 703 and 704 of QM-7,  These results suggest
    that the earlier interlaboratory studies helped the participating
    laboratories correct their internal quality control and that the
    quality of the test samples used for these evaluations was veri-
    fied.
    
    In order to evaluate the interlaboratory comparability,  the range
    and average of percent recoveries of interlaboratory medians in
    

    -------
    14O
                                                    180
        0
                        i
    468
     OC Parameter  No.
                 QM-I (ampules)
    QMS (ampules)    • QM-8 (waters)
                                                                           140
                                                                         
    -------
                                    74
    
    various studies were summarized. Condensed results of average
    recoveries of interlaboratory medians for all 13 CH parameters
    are shown in Figure IV-4.
    
    As expected, the interlaboratory results for spiked waters  (QM-7)
    and sediments (QM-6) were less satisfactory as compared with the
    ampule samples  (QM-1, QM-6 and QM-7).  Overall, only six out of
    thirteen parameters  (1,4-DCB; 1,2-DCB; 1,2,4,5-TeCB; PeCB; HCB;
    and OCS}  in water samples (QM-7) were within +/-25% of the design
    values.  The performance of spiked waters for CHs  (QM-7) was less
    satisfactory as compared with those of spiked waters for OCs (QM-
    8) and PCBs  (QM-7).  However, the interlaboratory results for
    sediments were less satisfactory as compared with ampule samples
    but were better than those in spiked water.  Overall, seven out
    of 12 CH parameters were satisfactory within +/-25% of design
    values (HCE was not evaluated since a reference value was not
    available),
    
    Poor quantitative recoveries of CHs from spiked waters were ex-
    pected because of the volatility of most CHs, resulting in evapo-
    rative losses.  In addition, the high water solubilities of some
    CHs also cause poor extraction recoveries.
    
        iv)  PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
    
    Figure IV-5 presents graphically the condensed results of percent
    average recovery of interlaboratory medians for all 16 PAHs in
    various studies.  For the ampule samples, the interlaboratory
    results were satisfactory within -t-/-25% of the design values in
    most cases.  Only three out of 16 parameters (fluorene, phenan-
    threne and chrysene) varied by more than +/-25% of the design
    value in QM-2 while all 15 PAH parameters were satisfactory
    within +/-25% of design values in QM-10.  The performance of PAHs
    showed a significant improvement in QM-10 as compared with the
    earlier QM-2.
    
    
    2.  Overall Laboratory Performance
    
    Acceptance Criteria
    
    The key to administering information involving the laboratory
    performance data is the selection of acceptance criteria.  The
    overall performance evaluation in this integrated report is based
    on percent biased of parameters analyzed and percent flagged of
    results reported.  For the flags, the number of results reported
    by each laboratory excluding those with  "ND" (not detected), "NS"
    (not separated; 2 parameters co-eluted), and "LT"  (less than)
    codes, sum of results flagged with VH, H, L or VL,  (very high,
    high, low, very low) for all parameters, and the percentages of
    results flagged were calculated.  In addition, values less than
    detection that were flagged were included in the calculation of
    

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                                           75
          140
              0      2      4      6      8      10      12      14
           40
                                  PAH  Parameter No.
    
    
    
    
    
                              10 (»mpui»S)  • QM 10 (w»l»ri) G QM 2 (ampulas)
    FIGURE VI-5,  Average  recovery (%)  for PAH's  (various  studies).
    

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                                    76
    
    the percent flagged.  Similarly for the bias, the number of para-
    meters analyzed, by each laboratory, the sum of parameters biased
    with VH, H, L, VL based on average recovery for each set of samp-
    les and the percent of parameters biased were calculated.  Note
    that the H and L parameters biased were counted as half of a VH
    or VL parameter.
    
    To simplify the overall assessment of laboratory performance in
    various studies, the average of percent biased and percent flag-
    ged is calculated.  The criteria or performance index provides a
    simple way to compare laboratory performance in various studies
    as shown below:
    Average of Percent Biased
        and Percent Flagged                            Comments
    < 25%                                        Satisfactory  (A)
    
    26-50%  "                                     Moderate  (B)
    
    > 51%                                        Poor  (C)
    
    
    
    
    Trace _Metals
    
    Most laboratories provided consistent and satisfactory results
    for the interlaboratory studies for trace metals  (5) .
    
    
    Organic Parameters
    
        i)  ocs
    
    For the laboratory performance of OCs in various studies,  few
    laboratories have achieved consistency for producing satisfactory
    results for both ampule and spiked water samples.  Some other
    participating laboratories also produced satisfactory results but
    only participated in one study: either QM-1 for ampules or QM-8
    for both ampules and spiked  waters.  However, for these OC in-
    terlaboratory studies, only one laboratory produced  inconsistent
    and rather poor results for OCs in both ampules and  spiked
    waters.
    
        ii)  PCBs
    
    Three laboratories achieved consistency for producing satis-
    factory results for PCBs in both ampules and spiked  waters. Al-
    though the PCS results for ampules were satisfactorily generated
    

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                                    77
    
    by all participating laboratories in most cases, poor results for
    spiked waters were produced by several laboratories.  It was
    obvious that less satisfactory results for spiked waters were
    attributed to sample preparation involved with extraction, con-
    centration and clean-up steps because the results for ampules
    were satisfactory within +/-25% of design values by all partici-
    pating laboratories.
    
        iii) CHs
    
    The laboratory performance for CHs in various studies was less
    satisfactory as compared with those obtained for OCs and PCBs.
    Only one laboratory, which analyzed all the samples provided, and
    most parameters requested, achieved the consistency for satis-
    factory results in all matrices (ampules, waters and sediments).
    On the other hand, there were more poor results generated by
    participating laboratories in either matrices in these CH inter-
    laboratory studies than for other parameters,
    
        iv)
    
    Only one laboratory achieved the consistency for producing satis-
    factory results for PAHs in both ampules and spiked waters.
    However, less than satisfactory results were generated by only
    two laboratories in either ampules or spiked waters.  The per-
    formance of one laboratory in QM-10     very satisfactory for
    both ampules and spited water as compared with that obtained in
    QM-2,  This extensive improvement for this laboratory     demons-
    trated that the impact of these interlaboratory studies was very
    valuable in assisting participating laboratories to correct their
    internal QA/QC problems.
    

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                                    78                  •" -^
    
    E.  FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
    
    It is difficult to summarize the performance of laboratories
    because data quality varies with each parameter, matrix, and
    laboratory as well as over time.  Furthermore, the acceptability
    of data for each laboratory depends on project objectives.  In
    general, the large service laboratories performed consistently
    better than the smaller service laboratories and research labora-
    tories did not perform as well as the routine laboratories.
    
    It must be stressed that the QC samples in the interlaboratory
    performance evaluation studies for UGLCCS are generally easier to
    analyze than actual field samples.   Most of these quality as-
    surance samples were standard solutions at reasonably high con-
    centrations and did not require special preparation.  It is also
    recognized that many laboratories took extra care and performed
    repetitive analysis when dealing with the QC samples.   Therefore,
    unsatisfactory performance in these interlaboratory studies may
    indicate a poorer quality of data for real samples in routine
    analysis.
    
    The impact of these interlaboratory studies on laboratory opera-
    tions is illustrated by a couple of examples.  A large contract
    laboratory was identified as having severe analytical problems in
    several performance evaluatipn studies partly due to ineffective
    in-house QC.  The laboratory took corrective actions.   The data
    quality for one type of parameter (PAHs), when subsequently re-
    evaluated, drastically improved.  Three research laboratories and
    one large routine laboratory on separate occasions stated that
    the interlaboratory performance evaluation studies induced them
    to re-examine instrument calibration and the accuracy of the
    standards for chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, PCBs and octachloro-
    styrene.  Consequently, the analyst discovered poor in-house
    standards and improper calibration.  Without these interlabora-
    tory test samples, these laboratories would not have been aware
    of their internal biases.
    
    The timeliness of QMWG follow-up on the findings of these studies
    was significantly impaired by the slow response of some of the
    participating laboratories.  The reporting deadlines were fre-
    quently exceeded due to internal schedule conflicts.  The actual
    number of laboratories providing results Cor any given test para-
    meter depended on whether their UGLCCS project included that
    parameter.  Hence, where severe scatter between laboratories was
    observed,  it was not possible to decide whether this reflected
    poor control, or just the current "state of the art".
    
    Many of the check samples were standards, and one would expect
    reasonably good recoveries and precision.  In fact, for many of
    the organic tests, although a given lab frequently reported very
    similar results on the duplicate samples, the spread of results
    across labs was quite large.  There is a definite need for an
    

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                                    79
    
    intensified effort by organic analysts for better control of
    standards, and the overall calibrations and quantification pro-
    cess ,   The findings in this area complement the findings of simi-
    lar studies conducted by the Great Lakes Water Quality Board of
    the International Joint Commission.
    
    The data quality management effort required intensive record
    keeping and imposed a significant additional sample load on the
    participating project managers and supporting analytical labora-
    tories.  The effort necessary to staff and organize the process
    precluded using the review as a preventative measure in most
    cases.  However, it did flag facilities having quality assurance
    problems, precluded the use of data outside the specifications
    demanded by specific studies and allowed participating labora-
    tories to make corrections to their standards and procedure dur-
    ing the course of the study.  The data quality effort ensured
    better data for decision making both for this study and for sub-
    sequent environmental activities.  It demonstrated clearly that
    joint studies require more than a sharing of equipment, personnel
    and laboratory space but also an active, ongoing data quality
    management program between the United States and Canada,  There
    is insufficient time during the design and planning phase of
    large multi-agency co-operative studies to develop a common data
    management program that will assure a reliable and compar- able
    data base during the subsequent study.  Agencies must recognize
    the importance of quality assurance documentation as an on-going
    requirement, not only for internal laboratory reviews but also
    for external scrutiny.
    

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                                    80
    
    F.
    
    1»    Report of the Niagara River, Toxics Committee 1984.
         N.Y State Dept. Env, Cons., Env. Can,  U.S.EPA, and Ont.
         Min. Env: 630 p.
    
    2.    Quality Management Workgroup UGLCCS. 1987.  Report of
         the Quality Management Workgroup.  Revised draft, July,
         1987.  A.S.Y. Chau  (Chairman),  NWRI, Environment
         Canada, Burlington, Ontario: 26 p. + append.
    
    3.    U.S.EPA.  1983.  Guidance for preparation of combined work
         quality assurance project plans for water monitoring. OWNS
         QA1     1983.
    
    4.    Quality Management Workgroup,  UGLCCS,  1988.
         Interlaboratory performance evaluation study integrated
         report Part II:  trace metals.   Prepared by W.C. Li,
         A.S.Y, Chau and E. Kokotich, NWRI, Environment Canada,
         Burlington,  Ont; lip.  + Tables and Figures.
    
    5,    Quality Management Workgroup,  UGLCCS,  1988.
         Interlaboratory performance evaluation study integrated
         report Part I:  Organic Parameters.  Prepared by W.C.
         Li, A.S.Y. Chau and E. Kokotich, NWRI,  Environment
         Canada, Burlington, Ont: 19p.  + Tables and Figures.
    

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                                CHAPTER V
                   INTRODUCTION TO MODELING ACTIVITIES
    A.
    
    Mathematical modeling of ecosystems is a relatively young tech-
    nique which, in simplest terms, seeks to simulate actual environ-
    mental conditions in a numerically quantifiable fashion.  Ideal-
    ly, a model is a dynamic conceptual framework which enables a
    clearer understanding of major factors affecting existing states
    within an ecosystem,  under certain conditions, some numerical
    simulations offer the added advantage of using data on existing
    environmental states, coupled with ecosystem process information,
    to enable predictions of future trends and tendencies.  Quite
    logically, the predictive capability of such a tool is only as
    good as the conceptual framework of the model, the data set upon
    which it is based, the assumptions required to develop the model,
    and the extent to which the model has been both calibrated and
    verified.
    
    Two types of models were developed in the UGLCCS.  The first type
    of model is based on mass balance calculations.  The second type
    of model is a process-oriented model.  Both types of modeling
    efforts are valuable for indicating needed research, remedial and
    regulatory actions.
    
    With sufficient data, mass balance calculations are useful for
    determining (1) whether an area is a source or sink of contamin-
    ants, and  (2)  the relative importance of known and unknown con-
    taminant sources.  Mass balance calculations were made for a
    number of water quality parameters in Lake St. Clair and the
    Detroit River  (including the Trenton Channel, Table v-l).  The
         balances calculated for these systems represent order of
    magnitude  "snapshots" of contaminant fluxes since measurements
    were made during short time intervals only.  Annual mass balances
    cannot be inferred from these calculations unless specifically
    noted.
    

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                                       82
                                   TABLE V-l
    
                        balance  calculations  performed on the
                   Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels. .-
    Location             Date(s)             Parameters
    
    
    St. Clair R.       Aug., Sept., Oct.,  Organics (concentration
                       1985                profiles only)
    
    
    Lake St. Clair     July 21-29, 1986    Metals, Organics, Total
                                           Phosphorus
    
    
    Detroit River      April 21-29, 1986   Metals, Organics, Nutrients,
                       (SMB I)              Chlorides,  Suspended Solids
    
    
                       July 25 - August 5, Metals, Organics, Nutrients,
                       1986 (SMB II)        Chlorides,  Suspended Solids
    
    
    Trenton Channel    May 6-7, 1986       Metals, Organics, Nutrients,
                                           Chlorides,  Suspended Solids
    
    
                       August 26-27,        Metals, Organics, Nutrients,
                       1986                Chlorides,  Suspended Solids
      Process-oriented models are based on mechanistic relationships
      (e.g. contaminant-sediment interactions) and represent a working
      hypothesis of how a dynamic system works.  Process-oriented mo-
      dels are useful for (1) understanding the relative importance of
      processes that affect contaminant fate, and (2) given proper
      calibration and verification, for answering "what if" questions
      (e.g., if a particular contaminant is added to a system, where
      will it go, how long will it stay, what physical-chemical form
      will it be in, and what organism exposure might occur?).  Models
      describing a variety of physical, chemical and biological
      processes were developed for the St. Marys River, the St. Clair
      River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River and the Trenton Channel
      (Table ¥-2).
    

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                                      83
                                  TABLE V-2
    
                Process models developed for the Upper Great
                       Lakes Connecting  Channels  Study.
    Location
                        Type of Model
    St. Marys
    River
    St. Clair
    River
    Lake
    St. Clair
    Detroit
    River
    Trenton
    Channel
      3-D steady state finite element hydrodynamic
      (upper river)
      Steady state, depth averaged, mixing model
      (lower river)
      Contaminant fate model (driven by hydrodynamic
      models, above)
      Unsteady flow model with flow separation around
      islands
      Steady state depth averaged mixing model
      Contaminant fate model (water column only)
      Contaminant fate model (TOXIWASP-based water
      and sediments)
      Water level models (hydrodynamic and empirical)
      Currents (predicts mean and daily currents)
      Particle transport model
      3-D finite element flow field model
      Waves and sediment settling and resuspension
      Contaminant fate, 2-D model (TOXIPATE)
      Contaminant fate, 2-D model (TOXIWASP-based)
      Contaminant fate, 1 box kinetic model
      2-D plume model of water and contaminant dis-
      charge from Detroit's sewage treatment plant
    - 3-D hydrodynamic and toxicity transport model
    

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                                    84
    
    B.   METHODS
    
    1,   Mass Balance Calculations
    
    Mass is a conservative property.  As such, a material balance
    framework can be applied to a control volume (i.e., water body)
    where,  assuming conservative behaviour and steady state condi-
    tions,  the change in mass of the system can be described as:
    
    D = wout ~ win
    
    w~in is the sum of all loads (flux)  coming into the control
    volume (mass/time).   WOU£ is the mass flux leaving the control
    volume.  If all loadings into the system are accounted for and
    the mass flux leaving the system is known, then "D" should equal
    zero for a conservative substance.   In general, if D is not zero,
    then the control volume is either a sink  (D<0)  or a source  (D>0)
    of the substance.  For substances that "leave" the system through
    volatilization or degradation it is important to note that a D<0
    does not necessarily mean that the substance is accumulating in
    the control volume.   A process-oriented calculation would be
    needed to define how much substance was lost through-volatiliza-
    tion or degradation before an accurate estimate of accumulation
    could be made.  Figure V-l provides examples of mass balance
    calculations and interpretations based on various situations.
    
    In the Connecting Channels where horizontal flow (advection)
    dominates, the w terms can be computed from:
    
    W = Q * C
    Where,     w is mass flux (M/T)
              Q is the flow rate  (L.3/T) > snd
              C is the concentration (M/L^).
    
    There are two sources of error in calculating W.  First, there
    are analytical errors associated with measurement of Q and C.
    Second, errors can be introduced by inadequate temporal and spa-
    tial sampling.  Ideally, analytical errors would be non-existent
    and sampling of Q and C would be continuous at all locations.
    This is never the case, however, so W is always an estimate of
    the true load.  Annual loads would ideally be calculated based on
    continuous measurements of Q and C throughout a year period.
    However, Q and C measurements might have been taken on a weekly
    basis only. Annual loads calculated with weekly information will
    be less certain than if the measurements were continuous.
    
    Contaminant concentration data are sometimes reported as non-
    detectable or below the detection limit.  This does not imply
    that the contaminant is not present in the sample, but merely
    that it cannot be quantified.
    

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                                             85
    Situation
    
    upstream and down-
    stream flux known,
    external loaos
    unknown
                                      Cartoon
                                            Interpretation
    
                                        Study area is a source
                                        of contaminant (net
                                        flux = 5).
    Upstream ana down-
    stream flux known,
    external leads
    unknown
        10
              Study area is a sink
              for contaminant (net
              deposition » 5)
                                     10  5   2
                              case- i
                                                              Case
    Upstream anc down-
    stream flux known;
    external loads
    known,
    5
    verage: 1
    
    052
    10
    
    /\ /\ /\
    1- std, 5 15 2.5 75 1 3
                                             Net deposition- cf
                                              5, study area ;s
                                              a sink
                                             NO net deposition
                                             Net export or 3;
                                              study area is a
                                              source
                          case:
    Upstream and down-
    stream flux known;
    external  loads
    approximated,
              i    j    iui
                                 10
    Upstream and down-
    stream flux
    approximated;
    external  loads
    approximated,
                                    average
                                    »/- std,
    average
    */- std.
    average
    */- std.
              Case
                i   No deposition •
                   deposition of 5,
                II   In-place source of 2.5
                   - net deposition of
                   2.5
               iij   In-piace source of
                   4 to 2
    Can be difficult to
    interpret; deoe^ss
    on temporal resolu-
    tion of samples.
               FIGURE V-l. Mass balance calculation  examples.
    

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                                    86
    
    Given a high, flow condition and non-detectable concentrations, a
    significant portion of a contaminant mass balance can be over-
    looked if non-detectable concentrations are treated as zero con-
    centration.  Therefore, a method for handling non-detectables in
    all mass balances was devised.  Details of the method used are
    supplied in the Modeling Workgroup Report  (1),
    
    Comparability of point source sampling between Canada (3 to 6 day
    sampling composites) and the U.S. (24 hour composites) was an
    issue.  An additional issue was the use of gross loadings (U,S,-
    effluent only)  versus net loading (effluent minus influent-
    Canada) .  The loads used in mass balance calculations that follow
    were those that the Point and Nonpoint Source Workgroups fur-
    nished to the Modeling Workgroup.  No modifications or correc-
    tions to their numbers were      by the Modeling Workgroup.
    
    All      balance calculations that could be made were summarized
    as shown in Figure ¥-2,  With this type of diagram the relative
    importance of loads can be visualized, the relative contributions
    of U.S. and Canadian sources can be evaluated, unknown loads can
    be identified,  and the source-sink question can be answered for
    the time period in question.  In      balance diagrams the width
    of the arrow shafts indicate the relative importance of the
    average load and loss terms.  Average loading terms are sub-
    divided into Canadian and U.S. contributions.   A detailed break-
    down of loading figures can be obtained from the Point and Non-
    point Source Workgroup reports.  At the bottom of the figure is a
    box that provides an interpretation of the      balance data.
    Statistical conclusions are given in this box although all data.
    leading to the interpretation are not indicated.
    
    
    2,  Process Models
    
    Process-oriented models represent working hypotheses of cause and
    effect linkages.  These simulation tools can be used to inves-
    tigate the relative importance of the various processes that
    control the linkages.  As such, process models can provide a
    framework for identifying needed field measurements and experi-
    mental studies.  Process models have the potential for being used
    in more than one system because they are theoretically based.
    The process models developed in this study range from purely
    physical models of water movement to temporally and spatially
    complex contaminant fate and behaviour models.  Verification of
    the latter models have been difficult due to lack of necessary
    and sufficient data.  Nevertheless, these models are based on
    well documented cause and effect relationships.  Thus they can be
    used to speculate upon the possible fate of new contaminant in-
    troductions and related organism exposures in the Connecting
    Channels.
    

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                                    87
                SMB1  Contaminant  ABC (Kg/d)
                            Upstream Input
    U.S.A.
    Rouge R.
    WWTP
    
    
    Ecorse  R.
    Detroit
     River
                          Downstream Output
    Canada
                                                    Little R.
         Turkey C.
                                              Apparent
                                              Surplus =X
                                                 
    
                                              ....a surplus suggests
                                                an unknown source
                 FIGURE V-2, Example of mass balance model presentations,
                           (Detroit River Chapter VII only).
    

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                                    88
    
    The output from process models is subject to uncertainty.  Sour-
    ces of uncertainty for these models include loading information,
    boundary conditions,  initial conditions, parameter estimates
    (e.g., coefficient values used in process equations), and concep-
    tual problems (e.g.,  are the boxes and arrows used the correct
    ones?).  Although the Modeling Workgroup sought to conduct com-
    plete uncertainty analyses on all UGLCCS process models, time
    constraints and the computer resources needed for Monte Carlo-
    type simulations became limiting factors for most modelers.
    However, uncertainty analysis of models still may take place
    after the UGLCCS is over.  Through sensitivity analyses, modelers
    were able to identify some parameters and processes that may
    require further research in order to improve contaminant fate
    models.
    

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                                    89
    
    C.  RECOMMENDATIONS
    
    1.   The goals of the study must be clearly defined.  Recommenda-
    tions for appropriate data collection and model development de-
    pend on it.
    
    2.   Goals fall into several categories: research, regulatory,
    remedial and political.  The resource priority that each of these
    categories can expect to receive should be identified early on
    and be consistent with the goals of the study,
    
    3.   Goals must be realistic given time, personnel, financial, and
    laboratory capacity constraints.  Realistic goals may not equate
    with ideal goals, but realistic goals promulgate realistic ex-
    pectations .
    
    4.   Modelers are often asked to give direction to a study because
    models include the physical, chemical and biological processes of
    a system that are important for understanding its functioning and
    the behaviour of contaminants in it.  By understanding the sensi-
    tivity of the system's behaviour to these processes, areas can be
    identified where data collection is most important.  Modelers
    should be encouraged to develop "speculative" models as quickly
    as possible in order to perform these sensitivity analyses.
    
    5.   Monitoring and research requirements for any study should be
    identified in close cooperation with the modelers.
    

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                                    90
    
    D, • REFERENCE
    
    1.   Modeling workgroup, UGLCCS 1988.  Modeling Workgroup
         geographical area synthesis report.  Dra£t May 1988, T.D,
         Fontaine (Chairman), NCAA-Great Lakes Env, Res, Lab. Ann
         Arbor, Ml;  96 p + Append,
    

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                                CHAPTER VI
                             ST. MARYS RIVER
    A. STATUS OP THE ECOSYSTEM
    
    1. Ecological Profile
    
    Watershed Characteristics
    
    The St. Marys River connects Lake Superior and Lake Huron.  The
    river originates in Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior between Point
    Iroquois, Michigan and Gros Cap, Ontario and flows 112 km to Lake
    Huron.  The lower St. Marys River has irregular shorelines and
    contains four large islands:  Sugar, Neebish and Drummond on the
    American Side and St. Joseph on the Canadian side, as well as
    approximately 100 small islands less than 4 km^ j_n area.  Sugar
    Island separates the main river into the Lake George and Lake
    Nicolet channels (Figure II-2).
    
    The surface geology of the southwestern St. Marys River valley is
    composed primarily of lacustrine sediments and moraines.  On the
    southwestern edge of the valley, in Michigan, level lake bed
    plains are interrupted by gently rolling plateaus, low rounded
    ridges, sand dunes, bluffs, and marshlands.  In Ontario, on the
    northeastern edge of the valley, knobby Precambrian rock is
    partially covered by a thin layer of till or lacustrine clay.
    Much of the bedrock of the basin consists of volcanic and gran-
    itic rocks of Precambrian origin in the north, and Qrdovician and
    Silurian dolomites in the south.
    
    The primary influence on surficial geology of the St. Marys River
    basin during recent times has been the fluctuating water levels.
    As recently as 3,000 years ago, crustal rebound lifted up rock
    ledges at Sault Ste. Marie to a level higher than the water level
    of Lake Huron.  This changed the strait connecting Lakes Superior
    and Huron into the St. Marys River.  The influence of fluctuating
    water levels on the St. Marys valley during the last 4,000 years
    has been to erode surface deposits, leaving remnant beaches, sand
    

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                                    92
    
    dunes, and other littoral features.  Lacustrine clays form most
    of the soil of the area south of the Canadian Shield.
    
    There are a number of watersheds that drain into the St. Marys
    River.  By far the most important is the Lake Superior basin,
    which also includes the Goulais River on the Canadian side.
    Other drainage basins that discharge to the St. Marys River are
    much smaller.  On the U.S. side, these include the Charlotte,
    Little Munuscong, Munuscong and the Gogomain Rivers.  These drain
    about 64% of the immediate watershed.  On the Canadian side are
    the Big Carp, Bar, Little Carp, Root, Garden, Little Garden and
    Echo Rivers.
    Hydrology
    
    Hydrologically, the St. Marys River may be divided into three
    major reaches: the upper river, extending from Whitefish Bay to
    the St. Marys rapids; the rapids; and the lower river, extending
    from the foot of the rapids to the De Tour Passage at Lake Huron.
    The upper river rapidly decreases in width in its 22.5 km of
    length and is characterized by sandy shores, with emergent wet-
    lands occurring only in protected areas.  The rapids separate the
    upper and lower river, and in an area 1.2 km long and 1.6 km
    wide, the river drops 6.1 m.  The lower river is divided into two
    main outlets, Lake Nicolet and Lake George, and is slower moving.
    
    Water currents of the river are highly variable and influenced by
    the quantity of discharge to the river from Lake Superior and the
    water level of Lake Huron.  Current velocities are impeded by
    high surface water levels in the river's mouth at Lake Huron, by
    easterly or southerly winds, or by low barometric pressure.  High
    surface water levels in Lake Superior result in greater discharge
    to the river and increased current velocities.  Discharge to the
    river has been partially controlled by compensating gates at the
    Sault Locks since 1921.
    
    Recorded outflow from the St. Marys River fluctuates greatly.
    The mean flow rate for the 124 years of record (1860 - 1984) is
    2,200 m^/sec, and have ranged from a minimum of 1,200 ni^/sec to a
    maximum of 3,700 m^/sec.  Since the completion of the Long Lake
    and Ogoki Diversions in the 1940s, in which some waters original-
    ly draining north into James Bay were diverted to Lake Superior,
    there has been an increase- in the mean discharge by about 8%.
    
    During the period April to October 1983, 74% of the total dis-
    charge measured at Sault Ste. Marie flowed through the Lake
    Nicolet reach.  The balance flowed through Lake George.
    
    Water levels of the St. Marys River are subject to three types of
    fluctuation: seasonal; long range, and short term.  Seasonal
    fluctuations are over a period of one year.  These are the most
    

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                                    93
    
    regular, with highest water levels occurring during the summer
    and lowest during the winter.  There is about a 0.3 m change in
    water level during the year.
    
    Flushing rates were calculated and found to average 1.31 lake
    (Nicolet) volumes per day.  Because of this, and the hydrographic
    features of the lower river, materials in suspension or solution
    tend to be transported through the length of the St. Marys River
    in a short period of time.
    
    
    Habitats and Biologic Communities
    
    A series of narrow channels and broad lakes exist throughout the
    St. Marys River.  The shorelines are without major areas of set-
    tlement except for the cities of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and
    Ontario.  Rocky shores characterize the narrow reaches and clay,
    sand or mixed detritus-sediment combinations are found in shallow
    areas.  The shorelines tend to be inhabited by emergent vege-
    tation, sometimes uninterrupted for 3 to 5 km or more.  The 12 km
    tract of hardstem bulrush and bur reed that extends northward
    from the Charlotte River is an example.
    
    Annual production of bioinass in these wetlands is dominated by
    three emergent plants: hard stem bulrush, giant bur reed and
    spike rush.  Submerged species occur as a diffuse understory of
    low biomass.  Growth that produces the emergent wetlands is vege-
    tative and colonial, usually in rnonotypic stands.  Areal surveys
    of the last three decades show that these stands tend to be long-
    lived, and relatively permanent features of the St. Marys shore-
    line.  Rootstocks of the dominant species are present in the
    hydrosoil year round.  They reach maximum biomass late in the
    growing season and degenerate in winter.  Live rootstocks die
    back rapidly in the spring, yielding their food and nutrient
    reserves to new shoot growth.  A tight cycling of nutrients re-
    sults from this cycle, leaving little available for invading
    species.
    
    Lake Superior and the St. Marys River are subject to important
    wind-driven forces, such as waves and seiches.  Strong prevailing
    northwesterly winds cause formation of large waves which travel
    long distances before reaching whitefish Bay and the headwaters
    of the river.  Regions of wide expanse on the lower river have
    shorelines variously exposed to waves and currents.  Shores with,
    the most exposure have no emergent vegetation; the bottom is rock
    and shifting sand,  where emergent vegetation does occur, least
    protected sites have square bulrush or spike rush as the dominant
    vegetation. Most protected sites have hardstem bulrush and bur
    reed.  The west shore of the St. Marys River lies in the lee of
    prevailing winds and emergent wetlands are more entrenched on
    this shore.
    

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                                    94
    
    Upstream of the St. Marys fork at Mission Point and throughout
    Lake Nicolet and its downstream reaches, submerged wetlands
    spread as a meadow of low growing plants over bottom sediments
    wherever the river is broad, the substratum suitable'and water
    clarity good.  Twenty-two known species of plants occur in these
    wetlands.
    
    Diatoms dominate the transient phytoplankton community and the
    species are characteristic of oligotrophic waters.  Seventy-two
    species have been identified in the Lake Wicolet reach of the
    river.  A mix of planktonic and benthic species has been found in
    the plume of the St. Marys River in Lake Huron.  Benthic popula-
    tions comprise as much as 40% of the total algal assemblage in
    terms of cell volume, while the remainder is planktonic.  Chloro-
    phyll a_ concentrations show that planktonic algal biomass varies
    only slightly from one end of the river to the other.
    
    The species composition of benthic fauna changes from the upper
    river downstream with downstream communities exhibiting increased
    oligochaete abundance.  Generally, the bottom fauna of the river
    is indicative of good water quality.  However, pollution tolerant
    species are present near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario as a result of
    contaminant loadings to the river.  Ephemeroptera, Aiuphipoda and
    Mollusca are common and abundant and contribute substantially to
    the standing stock biomass.  Mayflies may be the most abundant
    species of benthic invertebrates in the river.  However, nymphs
    of two species, Hexagenia limbata and Ephemera siraulans, are
    particularly abundant in areas of soft substrate.  Hexagenia
    limbata is most abundant in portions of lakes George and Nicolet
    and in the lower river where fine sediments occur; Ephemera
    simulans is more common in the coarser sediments of Lake Nicolet
    and the upper river.  The bottom of the shipping channel, because
    of dredging, is poor habitat for benthic niacroinvertebrates.
    
    Primary fish habitats in the St. Marys River have been classified
    as  (i) open-water and embayments,  (ii) emergent wetlands,  (iii)
    sand and/or gravel beaches, and  (iv) the rapids  (1).  Although
    most species are associated with only one habitat, some are found
    in more than one habitat and some use different habitats on a
    daily or seasonal basis.  Rainbow smelt, spottail shiners, trout,
    common white suckers, rock bass, and yellow perch were collected
    in all habitats {2,3,4}.
    
    In general, the open water fish community is dominated by demer-
    sal species although two pelagic species, lake herring and rain-
    bow trout, are abundant.  Other  fish found in open water areas
    are yellow perch, white sucker, lake whitefish, northern pike,
    and walleye,  Smallmouth bass, Chinook and pink salmon, and lake
    sturgeon are seasonally abundant in open water areas,
    
    Liston et al.  (4) collected 49 species of fish in the wetlands of
    the river which serve as spawning, nursery and feeding areas for
    

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                                    95
    
    many species, particularly yellow perch, northern pike, small-
    mouth bass, bowfin, longnose gar, brown bullhead, and walleye.  A
    similar species mix was found in the sand and gravel beach zones
    together with      of the small bottom species found in the open
    water areas.  Trout, perch, shiners, and juvenile walleye are
    common in these areas.
    
    The fish community inhabiting the St.-Marys rapids is discrete
    from the fish communities of other parts of the river.  Thirty-
    eight species have been collected from the rapids (5), many of
    which are of interest to anglers, including lake whitefish, rain-
    bow trout, lake trout,  brown trout, brook trout, and'Chinook
    salmon.  Important forage species in the rapids are longnose dace
    and slimy sculpin.  Sea lamprey adults are present in the rapids
    during the spawning season  (especially July) and appear to be
    increasing in number.
    
    
    Local Ecological_jtelationships
    
        i) Food Web and Trophic Structure
    
    Emergent plants are by far the most productive component of the
    river system, some 200 times more productive than phytoplankton,
    and 40-50 times more productive than submerged plants.  Periphy-
    ton on submerged shoots of emergent wetland plants have annual
    productivity of the same order as the phytoplankton.  Thus, in
    the St. Marys system, food production for consumers is concen-
    trated along the edges of the river in emergent wetlands and
    along the bottom in submerged plant communities.
    
    Among secondary producers, zooplankton represent an important
    link between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels.  Phyto-
    plankton in pelagic zones of lakes and rivers have a low standing
    stock biomass,  but constitute the basis of pelagic food webs.
    ZooplanJcton concentrate the energy available from phytoplankton
    biomass and are then available to fish and other planktivorous
    feeders.
    
    The zooplankton community emptying into the river from Whitefish
    Bay consists of some 30 crustacean species.  The winter zcoplank-
    ton community consisted mostly of adult stages of Diap_tonvus
    cicilis, Diaptomus ashlandi, Limnocalinus micrurus, and immature
    copepodids of Cyclops bicuspidatus tomasi.  During summer, im-
    mature calanoids, adult Cyclops bicuspidatus tgmasj. and Cladocera
    dominate the open water environment.
    
    The 2ooplankton of the lower river is very similar in species
    composition to the summer community of the upper river, but far
    less abundant.   The zooplankton density in emergent wetlands is
    more than an order of magnitude greater than the maximum den-
    sities found in open water.
    

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                                    96
    
    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of emergent wetlands in
    the St. Marys River is taxonomically diverse with a total of 171
    recorded species or taxa of aquatic insects.  Chironomidae are
    the richest fauna, with 39 species, with Hemiptera, Odonata and
    Coleoptera also well represented.  However, chironomids and oli-
    gochaetes numerically dominate the benthic macroinvertebrate
    community.  Larva of the beetle Donacia sp. are phytophagus and
    develop within the stems of the macrophyte Sparganium eurycarpum.
    Larva of the moth Bellura sp. do the same in Scirpus spp. stems.
    Mayflies, Hemiptera and Odonata are found in more dense macro-
    phyte stands.
    
    Ichthyoplankton studies in the St. Marys River have identified 39
    species.  Fish larva collected in the river include larva from
    the river, the tributaries and Whitefish Bay.  Rainbow smelt
    dominate all reaches of the river, spawning in small tributaries
    or along rocky shorelines.  A marked succession of fish larvae is
    apparent and is the result of differential timing of reproduction
    by various species in response to environmental stimuli.
    
        ii) Plant Nutrients and Dissolved Gasses
    
    Data on alkalinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen are available for
    the St. Marys River from a number of sources.  Alkalinity is
    typically 40 mg CaC03/L (or 0,8 milliequivalents/L),  pH ranges
    between 1 and 8, and dissolved oxygen concentration varies sea-
    sonally.  Dissolved oxygen concentrations throughout the river
    are adequate to support all forms of aquatic life and are well
    above the 5.0 mg/L U.S.EPA recommended limit.
    
    Total nitrogen  (TN) ranges from 0.262 to 0.668 mg/L and averaged
    0.413 mg/L during 1982-83.  Total phosphorus (TP) averages 13
    ug/L,  The ratio of TN to TP in the photic zone is a useful index
    for separating lakes into N-limited and P-limited categories.  If
    the TN/TP ratio is greater than 10, algal production is likely to
    be phosphorus-limited.  The average TN;TP ratio for the St. Marys
    River is 32 but varies during the growing season and always ex-
    ceeds 10.
    
        iii) Biological Links of the Great Lakes
    
    Many of the fish species in the river undertake seasonal move-
    ments from one area to another.  For some of these species these
    movements are only dispersal into adjoining habitats.  However,
    for other species, such as Chinook salmon, lake herring and
    walleye, these seasonal movements may be characterized as sea-
    sonal migration.
    
    The parasitic     lamprey is present within the St, Marys rapids.
    Twenty percent of the adults captured from Lake Huron tributaries
    in 1983 were taken at the powerhouse near the St. Marys rapids.
    Sea lamprey spawn in the St. Marys rapids, in tributaries to the
    

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                                    97
    
    river, and probably at lesser rapids located below Lake Nicolet
    and Lake George.
    
    There are 172 known species of birds which frequent the St. Marys
    River and adjacent riparian areas  (15-  Waterfowl, colonial wa-
    terbirds and some raptors have traditionally been useful as in-
    dicators of water quality in the Great Lakes.  Of these bird
    groups, species which breed, stage or overwinter on the river are
    particularly useful.  A list of these species is included in
    Table VI-1.  Duffy et al.(1), provide a detailed list of all the
    St. Marys River bird species.
    
    Waterfowl nest along the shorelines and on islands within the St.
    Marys River.  Census data from the 1980s are not available for
    most species that breed along the river.  However, weise (6)
    estimated a density of 8.9 pairs/km2 of ducks at Munuscong Lake
    marshes during breeding season.  Common goldeneye, mallard, blue-
    winged teal and black ducks nest in munuscong lake marshes while
    common mergansers, american coots,  Canada geese and occasional
    northern pintails and common loons nest in emergent wetlands
    adjacent to the river.
    
    Recent data from aerial surveys (6) show the highest absolute
    abundance of waterfowl in the river occurs during the fall migra-
    tion period when virtually all the waterfowl species listed- in
    Table VI-1 occur in the St. Marys River,  During the October and
    November staging and migration period, the dominant species are
    redhead, scaup, ringnecked duck and mallard  (6).  The most common
    species which winter along the St.  Marys River are common gold-
    eneye, common merganser and mallard (7), and greater and lesser
    scaup.
    
    The many islands of the St. Marys River provide nesting sites to
    colonial waterbirds (8,9).  Herring and ring-billed gulls,  common
    terns and great blue heron are present during the spring/summer
    breeding season.   Nesting sites are found throughout the St.
    Marys River area, but only the herring gull winters here.
    
    Bald eagles are year-round residents of the St. Marys River area.
    There are two active nests used by bald eagles, one on Sugar
    Island and one on the Munuscong Lake shoreline.  In the winter,
    eagles are found in the area surrounding the north end of Sugar
    Island.  Approximately 15 pairs of osprey breed on the river.
    This small but significant number of birds has stabilised since
    growing rapidly from 1 breeding pair in 1973.
    
    The mammalian fauna of the St. Marys River area reflects the
    region's transitional position at the northern edge of the Great
    Lakes hardwood and the southern edge of boreal forests.  Some 55
    species of mammals inhabit the area, 46 small mammals and 9 large
    ones.
    

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                                            98
                                       TABLE VI-1
    
    Waterfowl, colonial waterbirds and raptors which  are  or could b«  used as
    important water quality indicators in the St.  Marys River.
    Scientific
    
    GAVIFORMES
    AMSEBIFORMES
                                                   SSL
                                                        n
    WATEHFOWL.
    
    Common Loon
    AfiSS
    Anna aeut
         3treper>
           eollorla
           nag,,,! Ls
    Aythya »f finis
    Sueeph^JLa clanftMlA
    Mar»ca aniericana
                eucullatua
    M«r
    -------
                                    99
    
    Associated with the river are beaver, muskrat, racoon, river
    otter, American water shrews and  the northern water shrew.  Musk-
    rat are the most common and the two species of shrews are abun-
    dant*  Nonriverine species of shrews, moles, mice, squirrels,
    chipmunks and hares abound.  Badger and gray fox occasionally
    inhabit the area.
    
    Mixed boreal forest and northern  Great Lakes forest species of
    large mammals include numerous white tail deer, moose, black
    bear, bobcat, lynx, coyotes, red  fox and gray wolves within the
    St. Marys Valley.
    Climate
    
    Area winters are cold and snowy, with total snowfall accumulation
    ranging from a minimum of 0,82 m to a maximum of 4,54 m.  On
    average, permanent snow cover begins on November 21, and remains
    until April 7th.  The 30 year  (1950-1980) averages for precipita-
    tion (water equivalent)  at Sault Ste, Marie, Michigan show an
    annual mean average of 0.85 m.  Monthly variations are signifi-
    cant, with February being the driest month, having a monthly mean
    of 4.3 mm, while September is the wetteit with a monthly      of
    9.9 mm.
    
    The coldest month of the year in the region is January, which
    averages -10.4°C, while July is the warmest, averaging 17,5°C,
    Air temperatures are moderated throughout the year by the waters
    of Lake Superior which seldom freeze.  Based on the thirty year
    period  (1951-1980) the average first day of frost is September
    27th and the average last occurrence is May 26th.  Most summers
    pass without temperatures reaching 32,2°C and the highest temper-
    ature of record is 36.7°C, which occurred in 1888.
    
    The water temperatures of the St. Marys River are near 0°C for
    four months of the year;; annual temperatures of the headwaters in
    Whitefish Bay range from 0°C to 16°C.  Ice forms on the St. Marys
    River with broad, shallow areas freezing first followed by the
    deeper, faster reaches.
    
    
    2,  Environmental Conditions
                                                       '"* ","
    Water jpualitv
    
    Water quality degradation has resulted from steel and paper mills
    and municipal sewage treatment plant discharges.  Considerable
    progress has, however, been      since 1970 by Algoma Steel Cor-
    poration Ltd. in reducing ammonia-nitrogen, free cyanide,
    phenol discharges; by St. Marys Paper in reducing suspended so-
    lids loading; and by the municipal sewage treatment plants in
    improving the removal of phosphorus and organic matter.
    

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                                   100
    A system of transects across the St. Marys River between White-
    fish Bay and the outlets of Lake George and Lake Nicolet has been
    used by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to monitor water
    quality (Figure VI-1).   Each transect was sampled at several
    locations from the Canadian shore to the U.S. shore.- Transects
    are numbered by their distance in statute miles upstream  (prefix
    - SMU) and downstream (prefix-SMD) of the Algoma Steel Terminal
    Basins' submerged diffuser outfall.  About 20 samples for each
    water quality parameter were collected across each transect.  The
    water quality parameters which were measured in most of the stud-
    ies were phenols, cyanide, ammonia, phosphorus, heavy metals
    (such as total iron and zinc),  and several polynuclear aromatic
    hydrocarbons (PAHs).   In assessing the significance of contamin-
    ant concentrations in the St. Marys River, comparison can be made
    with the Ontario Ministry of Environment  (OMOE) Provincial Water
    Quality Objectives (PWQQ), the Great Lakes Water Quality Agree-
    ment  (GLWQA) specific objectives and the Michigan Ambient Water
    Quality Standards  (Table III-2, Chapter III),
    
        i) Cross Channel Variations in Water Quality
    
    In general, contaminants such as phenols, ammonia, cyanide, iron
    and zinc, attributable to Algoma Steel discharges, were found
    along the Ontario shoreline of the river with no transboundary
    pollution in the main channel upstream of transect SMD 2.6.
    Typical distribution of contaminants across the main portion of
    the river is shown in Figure VT-2.  The cross channel variation
    at sampling transect SMD 2.6 indicates that the phenol, ammonia,
    zinc and iron concentrations increased from the stations located
    near the Michigan shoreline to those stations adjacent to the
    Ontario shoreline.  Data from 1986-87 indicate that transboundary
    movement of iron, zinc,  and ammonia did not result in exceedences
    of water quality standards in Michigan waters.  However, the mean
    phenols concentration exceeded the GLWQA specific objective of 1
    ug/L in Michigan waters.
    
    Contaminants are confined to the Ontario shoreline as far as
    Sugar Island.  The curving flow at the beginning of the Lake
    George channel creates a zone of high velocity towards the Sugar
    Island shoreline  (10) because of the division of flow between the
    Lake Nicolet Channel, west of the island and the Lake St. George,
    northeast of the island. Secondary currents enhance the trans-
    verse mixing process across the Lake George Channel (11),  Thus,
    contaminants attributable to upstream industrial discharges which
    were confined to the Ontario shoreline of the main portion of the
    river will be found along the Sugar Island shoreline of the Lake
    George Channel.  Additional inputs of contaminants from the Sault
    Ste. Marie, Ontario East End Water Pollution Control Plant  (WWTP)
    to those of upstream industrial discharges result in the persis-
    tence of contaminants in the downstream reaches.
    

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                                   SAULT STE. MARIE
                                    ONTARIO
                                  SAULT  STE. MARIE
                                  MICHIGAN
    0     1     2
         km
    MAJOR  POINT SOURCES
       1,2,4   ALGOMA STEEL
               ST. MARYS  PAPER
               WWTP
               EAST END WPCP (WWTP)
               WEST END WPCP (WWTP)
               (offshore discharge)
                  FIGURE VI-1.  Sampling transects  and  major  point source  dischargers.
    

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                                       102
         rso,
      -  1 00,
             t-
    A
                                                         maunstmi
         0.0*
         0.04.,
         9-81
                   too      400     »oo      aoo      moo     net
                                                      tUHMIlB
                   tat      400      eoo      no      moo      1200
       i
       M
         B.91
                        4,	-*
                                                      Nif i
     ...A
                   1W
                           *00      tOO
                                                   1000
         0,10 ,
         0.01.
                             .......... -*•
             o       too     4«     900      too      1000     1100
    
    
                          IX HtTIMS fRQtt U.S
    FIGURE VI-2, Distribution of contaminants  across St.  Marys River at
                    transect       2,6 (1986-87),
    

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                                   103
    
    Hamdy and LaHaye {12} documented the transboundary pollution of
    ammonia in the Lake George Channel downstream from the East End
    WWTP,  Ammonia concentrations increased, by 20% in Michigan waters
    near Sugar Island,
    
        ii)   Longitudinal Variations in Water Quality
    
    Bacteria;
    
    In 1986, analyses for fecal caliform (FC), fecal streptococci
    (FS) , E. Coll and P.  ae rugino a a in the St. Marys River indicated
    several problem areas.  Geometric mean densities of FC along the
    Canadian shoreline were greater than the  PWQO (100 organisms/
    100ml) at stations near storm sewers and  major industrial out-
    falls.  For example,  at two stations (SMD 0.8 and 1,0} immediate-
    ly below these outfalls and in the vicinity of      of the storm
    sewers, the mean FC densities over 3 days were 477 and 428/100ml,
    The corresponding densities for E. coli were 311     27I/100ml;
    for FS, 24 and 13/100ml; and for PA, 4/100ml.  At a further 1.5
    km downstream, densities of FC were below the PWQO*
    
    Bacterial densities were also elevated below the outfall of the
    Sault Ste, Marie, Ontario East End WWTP in the Lake George Chan-
    nel,   The      densities over 3 days at two stations  (SMD 5.0E
    and 7.9E3 downstream of this facility were; FC,  184 and
    182/lOOml; E. coli, 120     153/lOOml; FS, 24 and 19/100ml; and
    PA, 5 and 7/10Oml.
    
    Densities of fecal coliform     streptococci along the U.S. shore
    were below the respective PWQO at all etations,  with the excep-
    tion of immediately downstream of the Edison Sault Electric Com-
    pany Canal (SMD 1.2).  Compliance with Michigan's fecal coliform
    standard  (200 cells/100ml) is determined  on the basis of the
    geometric mean of any 5 consecutive samples taken over not more
    than a 30 day period.  Because only 3 samples were collected from
    this site, comparison with Michigan water quality standards is
    not possible.  However, the 3-day geometric means of E. coli,
    fecal coliform,  fecal streptococci     P.. aeruginosa were 1,149
    organisms, 2,2SO organisms, 233 organisms, and 20 organisms,
    respectively, per 100ml.  The sources may be combined sewer over-
    flows that discharge to the Edison Power Canal (see urban runoff
    section).
    
    Phenols:
    
    The redevelopment of the Great Lakes Power Limited hydroelectric
    generating station in 1982 resulted in changes in the distribu-
    tion of river flow at the regulating works (Figure VI-3),  The
    portion of total river flow along the Ontario shoreline increased
    from 21% to over 40% of the total river flow.  This increase in
    flow is in part responsible for the reduction of river concen-
    trations of phenols,  cyanide and ammonia  (12).
    

    -------
                    ONTARIO
    SI. Mary$ Mis
       Canal
                MICHIGAN
                                                                                       o
         FIGURE ¥1-3. Average flow distribution (%) at the  St. Marys River Rapids
                     (2.2 x ID3 m3/s  post  1982).
    

    -------
                                   105
    
    The year-to-year variations of total phenol concentrations meas-
    ured at various distances downstream from the Algoma Steel dis-
    charges are shown in Figure VI-4.   There is a downward trend of
    phenol levels over the years.  Mean phenol levels 300 m down-
    stream of the Algonia Terminal Basins outfall  (at river range SMD
    0.2) declined from 50 ug/L in 1973 to 15 ug/L in 1980 and to 1.2
    ug/L in 1986.
    
    In 1986, all stations downstream of Algoma Steel discharges had
    phenol levels approaching the PWQO and Great lakes Water Quality
    Agreement specific objective of 1 ug/L.  However, phenols ex-
    ceeded the objective in the Algoma Steel Corp. Slip  (3.6 ug/L)
    and at the mouth of the Slip (3.4 ug/L) in 1986,  The Algoma Slip
    is a ship loading and off-loading facility located upstream of
    the Terminal Basins and power canal.
    
    In 1986-87, average phenols along the Michigan shoreline were
    below the PWQO and the GLWQA specific objective of 1 ug/L.
    
    Ammonia:
    
    The ammonia concentration distribution along the Canadian shore-
    line downstream of the Algoma Steel discharge, is illustrated in
    Figure VI-5.  The 1916 levels along the Canadian shore exhibited
    significant decreases as compared to previous years.  The calcu-
    lated unionized ammonia concentrations were below the PWQO and
    GLWQA specific objectives of 0,02 mg/L,
    
    The ammonia concentration increased downstream of the Sault Ste,
    Marie East End WWTP  (see Figure VI-4,     5,0). The impact of the
    WWTP effluent is localized, as concentrations at the Lake George
    Channel outlet were the      as those observed at the beginning
    of the Lake George Channel {0,046 mg/L) upstream of this facili-
    ty.
    
    Cyanide;
    
    The distribution of free cyanide along the Canadian shore in 1974
    and 1980 indicated peak concentrations 300 m downstream from the
    Algoma Steel discharge and uniformly low concentrations further
    downstream  (Figure VI-6),   The 1986 levels indicate a decline
    from the previous years, and uniformly low concentrations from
    upstream to downstream.  All levels were in compliance with the
    PWQO of 0.005 mg/L and the U.S.EPA chronic      of 0.0052 mg/L,
    
    Heavy Metals:
    
    During 1986-87 the concentrations of total iron in the St. Marys
    River ranged between 0.018 and 0.69 mg/L and no distinct long-
    itudinal variations were noted.  Just downstream of the Terminal
    Basin's outfall (SMD 0,2), the average concentration was 0.06
    mg/L with a maximum of 0.69 mg/L,   This maximum was one
    

    -------
         180
                                       106
    
               3COM DOWNSTREAM OF ALGOMA STEEL DISCHARGE (SMD 0,2)
          60
      to
      _J
      o
      z
      LJ
      I
      O.
       01
       •3
      V)
      _l
      O
      z
      kJ
      I
      0.
            1970   1972   t974   1976   1978   1980   1986
    50
    
    
    
    40
    
    
    
    38
    
    
    
    20
    
    
    
    10
                1500M DOWNSTREAM OF ALGOMA STEEL  DISCHARGE (SMD 12)
              1970   1972   1974   1976   1978   1980   1986
                 3KM OOWNSTEAM OP ALGOMA STEEL DISCHARGE (SMO 20)
                  1948  1970
                             1974
    1978
    1986
    FIGURE Vl-4. Phenol concentrations in  the St. Marys  River at various distances
    
                 downstream of the  Algoma Steel discharge along the  Canadian
    
                 shoreline.
    

    -------
    
    0.000
    0.8OO
    _j
    "^ 0.700
    a
    s
    *^*"
    CONCENTRATION
    p p o p p
    (0 W * 01 03
    o o o o a
    o o o o o
    0.1 OO
    
    RANQCS
    1
    f
    ' . - . 1474 (APR MINF AHA )
    	 1980 (MAY, JULY, AUG. .OCT.,
    NOV.)
    j , 	 19 06 (JUNE )
    ^ \ +x
    ^
    \
    \ ^—~ 	 4. --4--- »
    
    
    5O>o ' *t * R "* <* ^ ttH
    ••'dSo eJ*-"5 •> « •» <• •
    1 *5 2 3 4 5 « '
    
    
    
    l->
    o
    -j
    
    
    
    *
    M
               DISTANCE  FROM  HEAD RANGE  ( SMU 1.S )  IN MILES
         FIGURE VI-5.  Ammonia distribution and  yearly trends  along the Canadian
                        shore.
    

    -------
    0.18
    ^0.14
    """
    |0. 12
    <
    BE 0.10
    Z
    in
    0 0.08
    0
    0
    o.oa
    0.04
    O.O2
    ; -\
    t 	 1874 ( JUNE, *UO. )
    i - - iQAn ( u A v mt v AJ in
    r i --_— — _ I wCMUP \ MAT | *IMi-« * **Uyi»||
    1 OCT.t MOV* 1
    1OHF ( JtINF )
    1 J 1 9 Vlf % Wl***** r
    m
    1
    1
    1
    \
    I
    1
    \ — — 3^" *~ ~-
    -fc 4-— " """' — ~-~~_
    .
    •4-' * j .
    ^ jr. "• " ' * i#*" I*
    
    
    
    
    
    
    ,_.
    0
    oo
    
    
    
    
    HAMOiS
                          DISTANCE  FROM HEAD RANGE ( SMU  18 )  IN MILES
                     FIGURE  VI-6. Cyanide  distribution and  yearly trends  along  the Canadian
                                     shore.
    

    -------
                                   109
    
    exceedence of the water quality objectives in 40 samples across
    the transect.  In the Algoma Slip, iron exceeded the PWQO and
    GLWQA specific objective of 0.3 mg/L  (average 0,445 mg/L with a
    maximum of 1.0 mg/L).  All samples met the U.S.EPA chronic AWQC
    of 1 mg/L for chronic toxicity.  Iron levels along the Michigan
    shoreline in 1986/87 ranged between .008 mg/L to 0.087 mg/L.
    
    The elevated iron levels during the period 1970-74 decreased to
    levels in the range of 0.11 - 0.15 mg/L during the period 1976-
    1980 (10) .
    
    Total zinc levels in the St. Marys River along the Ontario and
    Michigan shorelines in 1986-87 displayed no distinctive longitud-
    inal variations.  Concentrations ranged between 0,001 and 0.009
    mg/L» a decrease from. 1980, when concentrations of 0,01 mg/L were
    prevalent.  All these concentrations are below relevant water
    quality standards or guidelines.
    
    Phosphorus:
    
    In 1986-87, phosphorus levels along the Canadian shore ranged
    from 0.002 to 0.051 mg/L     from 0.005 to 0,014 mg/L along the
    Michigan shore.  The highest level of phosphorus (0.051 mg/L3
    along the Canadian shore     noted just downstream of the Ontario
    Sault Ste. Marie East End WWTP (SMD 5.0),  No elevated levels of
    phosphorus {relative to upstream levels) were noted downstream of
    the Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan waste water treatment plant
    (WWTP) ,  Phosphorus levels were slightly higher along the U.S.
    and Canadian shores at Pointe Aux Pins  {SMU 5.0) in 1986.  The
    levels were 0.012 and 0.014 mg/L, respectively.  However, all
    phosphorus levels in the St. Marys River     the PWQO of 0.03
    mg/L with the exception of immediately downstream of the East End
    WWTP.
    
    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs);
    
    With the exception of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons  (PAHs),
    trace organic contaminants such as chlorinated benzene     halo-
    genated volatiles are not generally found in the St. Marys River,
    The environmental significance of PAHs in the St. Marys River
    cannot be determined due to the absence of surface and drinking
    water criteria Cor PAH compounds with the exception of the inter-
    im benzo(a)pyrene Ontario drinking water Maximum Acceptable Con-
    centration (MAC) of 10 ng/L,  For the maximum protection of human
    health from the potential carcinogenic effects of PAHs due to
    ingestion of contaminated aquatic organisms which may result in
    an incremental increase of cancer risk of 1Q~6 over a 70 year
    lifetime* a criterion of 31 ng/L for total PAHs was developed by
    the U.S.EPA  (13).  This is used as a yardstick to assess the
    significance of levels found in the St. Marys River.
    

    -------
                                   110
    
    Worldwide information on PAHs (14) indicates concentrations of
    benzo(a)pyrene range from approximately 0.1 to 100 ng/L.  In Lake
    Erie, near Buffalo, Bass and Saxene  (15) found 0.3 ng/L benzo(a)-
    pyrene and 4.7ng/L total PAHs.  Williams et al.  (16) extracted
    large volumes of municipal treated drinking water taken from 12
    plants using Great Lakes water.   The winter and summer concentra-
    tions (+/- 1 standard deviation) respectively were relatively
    high for pyrene (11.2 +/-20.0 and 3.9 +/- 10,2 ng/L) and fluoran-
    thene (9.2 +/- 12.0 and 10.6 +/- 25.0 ng/L).  Eadie  (17) found 15
    (+/- 9}  ng/L of fluroanthene and 14  (•*•/- 6) ng/L of both pyrene
    and benzo(a)pyrene in filtered offshore waters of southern Lake
    Michigan.  The concentration of these compounds on suspended
    particles was 2-4 ug/g.  At a concentration of I mg/L of total
    suspended matter,  greater than 75% of these PAHs were in the dis-
    solved phase.
    
    In 1985, large volume sampling was used to determine PAHs as-
    sociated with the aqueous phase in the St. Marys river, focusing
    on the industrial and municipal areas of Sault Ste. Marie,
    Ontario  (Table VT-2 and Figure VI-7).  Total PAHs in samples
    taken from Leigh Bay (station #3) and off the Algoma Slag Site
    (station #4) were similar to the upstream background level of 4.0
    ng/L (station #2).
    
    Total PAH concentration increased downstream, reaching a peak
    concentration of 31.8 ng/L in the Algoma Slip.  Benzo(a)-
    anthracene, which was absent in the upstream samples, was found
    at levels of 0.23 ng/L at Station 17 and 0.38 ng/L at Station #5.
    Benzo(a)pyrene was found only at station #5  (0.08 ng/L).  Elevat-
    ed total PAHs, relative to the upstream site, persisted down-
    stream  (station #10) at least 1km from the Terminal Basins' dis-
    charge.   The PAH levels along the Michigan shore  (3.2 - 3.6 ng/L)
    were similar to background concentrations  (4.0 ng/L) indicating
    no transboundary pollution.
    
    In order to provide insight into the partitioning of PAHs, con-
    centrations in the whole water samples as well as those associat-
    ed with the suspended particulates were determined as part of a
    centrifuge sampling program in 1986.  Twelve stations along the
    St. Marys River from Leigh Bay to immediately downstream of the
    Sault Ste. Marie East End WWTP were  sampled  (Figure VT-8).
    
    Oliver  (18) found a significant correlation between octonol/water
    (Kow) and organic carbon corrected partition coefficients  (Koc).
    Utilizing total organic carbon levels  (Figure VI-9)» suspended
    particulate levels  (Figure ¥1-10), PAHs measured on suspended
    particulates  (Table VI-3), and appropriate partition coefficients
    and assuming that equilibrium had been reached between the PAHs
    in the aqueous and particulate phases, estimates of both aqueous
    and whole water PAH concentrations were derived  (Tables VT-4 and
    VT-5, respectively).
    

    -------
                                           TABLE VI-2
    
    
    
    PAHs associated with the aqueous phase from APLE sampling in the St. Marys River  (1'JBS).
    
    
    
    
                                                STATION
    PAHa Ing/L)
    Phenanthrene
    Anthracene
    Fluoranthene
    Pyrene
    Benzo( a ) anthracene
    Chrysene
    Benzo( b \ f luoranthene
    Perylene
    Benzo( k ) f luoranthene
    Benzo ( a Jpyrene
    Benzo [ g , h , i )perylene
    Coronene
    TOTAL PAHs
    'I
    1.4B
    0.1B
    0,83
    0,28
    -
    ~
    0.54
    0.49
    -
    -
    0.09
    0,02
    3,iS
    3
    1.
    0,
    1,
    0.
    
    0.
    0,
    0.
    
    
    0.
    o.
    4.
    90
    •IB
    33
    40
    -
    2
    OS
    096
    -
    -
    18
    02
    48
    4
    1,04
    0,06
    0.91
    0,15
    -
    -
    0.04
    0,07
    -
    -
    o.ia
    0.02
    2.4?
    5
    7,
    0.
    10
    1.
    0.
    0.
    0,
    
    0.
    0.
    
    0.
    '11
    
    80
    ay
    .00
    30
    38
    34
    34
    -
    20
    08
    -
    29
    .31
    f «
    15,90 13,58
    1.70 1.86
    11.64 8,73
    1.59 1.57
    0.23
    0.33
    0,29
    -
    -
    _
    0.12
    0.12 O.Oi
    31.8 25. 9
    10
    3,45
    0,36
    3.24
    0.54
    -
    -
    0.11
    -
    0.07
    0,02
    -
    O.04
    ?.«3
    12
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    13
    1.61
    0,22
    1.33
    0.32
    -
    -
    o.oe
    -
    0.03
    0.02
    0.05
    0.02
    3.56
    14
    i.ui
    0,15
    0.94
    0,15
    -
    -
    0,05
    -
    0,03
    -
    O.03
    0.02
    3,19
    

    -------
                                 31,8
                                                        25.9
                                                                                      ng/L
    FIGURE VI-7. Total PAHs  associated  with the aqueous phase  from APLE
                    sampling (1985).
    

    -------
                                                                                                IITTlt LAKE
                                                                                                  GfORCE
                                                                        500
    
                                                                ng/g  dry  weight
    FIGURE  VI-8.  Total PAHs  associated with  centrifuged  particulate  matter (1986),
    

    -------
                              290
                                                                                            LITTLE LAKf
                                                                                            GEORGE
    FIGURE  VI-9.  Total  organic carbon  levels  in  St.  Marys River  (1986).
    

    -------
                             35,4
                                                                                         LITTLE LAKE
                                                                                          GEOflUf
                                                                                                            I/I
    FIGURE  VI-10. Suspended  paniculate  levels  in  the  St.  Marys  River  (1986),
    

    -------
                                                                       TABLK VI-S
    
                                    PAHs  associated tilth the centrifuge*) matter  in the St.  Marys Biv*i>
    
                                                                                     STATION*
    VAtts J ng/g Dry Weight)
    HDL
    1
    ng/f i
    Naphthalene
    Ac^napht.hv) ene
    Aeenaphthene
    M H Fluarene
    fhenanthrene.
    Ant hraeene
    1-' 1 ii £> f 14 n I. he ne
    Pyr<*ne
    €hr¥sene
    fienzof s ) anthracene
    B«*ns£*l a &pvrene
    Benzol kj and Benzol b Jf luoranthene
    Dt henzoj a , h (anthracene
    Benzol g, h,t Iperylene
    Indenol 1,2, 3-e,dlpyrene
    TOTAL PAHa
    SO
    50
    50
    60
    4(>
    41)
    4()
    40
    50
    5O
    5O
    50
    50
    50
    SO
    
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    TR
    TH
    TR
    TR
    TR
    TR
    
    TR
    
    
    
    TR
    2
    T
    NB
    ND
    ND
    NO
    NB
    ND
    ND
    TR
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    TR
    4
    V
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    TR
    ND
    498
    479
    T.ass
    i, as?
    593
    1,144
    ND
    TR
    ND
    12,046
    B
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ias
    ND
    ND
    290
    233
    2B«
    ND
    330
    ND
    84
    TH
    1,412
    ft
    B
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    NO
    ND
    ND
    
    
    2
    
    1
    
    U
    2
    7
    6
    1
    t
    3
    &
    
    
    
    55
    fi
    B
    ,834
    623
    ,oat»
    aua
    ,37S
    ,444
    ,UK7
    ,310
    ,266
    , b84
    ,8B2
    ,B1S
    33B
    B22
    731
    , 6Hti
    H
    T
    au
    NO
    TR
    TR
    1U8
    120
    las
    151
    78
    109
    61
    122
    ND
    TR
    TR
    1,020
    
    T
    I.OB4
    ND
    ND
    ND
    509
    Nil
    i.ua
    Bltt
    Bin
    BUS
    465
    1 ,002
    ND
    ND
    ND
    b, 5(il
    a
    a
    801
    ND
    ND
    ND
    718
    ND
    1,377
    tiay
    B7S
    1 ,258
    660
    1,350
    ND
    TR
    TR
    7,822
    
    f
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    to
    i
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    1, 35B
    1 ,262
    TR
    1 ,036
    ND
    1,419
    ND
    ND
    ND
    5,07*
    It
    T
    1 ,1)48
    MD
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    I.94H
    B
    B40
    ND
    ND
    ND
    44?
    120
    95?
    t>90
    538
    BBC
    535
    933
    ND
    NO
    ND
    5,&40
    12
    B
    2?B
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    624
    4K9
    3fl2
    4«5
    2B3
    4H6
    ND
    ND
    ND
    2,877
    14
    B
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    111
    8?
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    198
    IS
    T
    104
    ND
    ND
    ND
    lau
    ND
    335
    295
    264
    408
    NO
    511
    ND
    NO
    ND
    2,186
    
    B
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    NO
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND - Not  Detected, TR  -  Trace
    
    *    T  -  Sftmpl £ f&k£*ft  I , & a h**l^w Ain*f~
         B  —  S a mp i** t.aken  0,5 m ct ft hfi* t-1" £*H
    

    -------
                                                                      TABLE VI-4
    
                          Estimated  concentrations of PAHa associated with the aqueous phase in the St. Msrya River  (1SB6),
    
                                                                           STATION"
    PAHa 
    B
    357.79
    NA
    NA
    NA
    Z4.9O
    HA
    8.90
    4 . 35
    2,24
    o.&s
    0,27
    NA
    NA
    NA
    399.23
    T
    NA
    HA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    HA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    10
    B
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    6.BI
    7.98
    1 ,K4
    NA
    O.28
    NA
    NA
    
    !«...
    11
    T
    870, 14
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    HA
    HA
    NA
    NA
    HA
    B70.J4
    B
    2B5.B8
    NA
    NA
    NA
    15.50
    4.26
    4.80
    4.3S
    1 -21
    0,49
    0.19
    NA
    NA
    NA
    an. MB
    12
    B
    124. 18
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    3.13
    2.96
    O.HS
    0.26
    0.10
    NA
    NA
    NA
    132-27
    14
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    0.
    0.
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    J .1
    15
    T
    82.19
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    53 1 .fit)
    55 l.Kii
    (» , 7 :t
    NA
    0.10
    NA
    NA
    NA
    1 87.15
    B
    NA
    NA
    MA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    ND - Not Detected.
    TR - Trnoe.
    NA - Not upplicahle aft PAHs were not detected  on the centrifuged part i dt J nfc*?  matter  (Table VT-CII.
    
    *    T - Samples taken 1.5 m htrlow surface.
         B - Sflmpleg tnken 0.5 m o!T bottom.
    

    -------
                                                                  TAhLE  VI -ft
    
                             £sti*nted concentrations of PAHs  in whole «ster  phase of the Si.  M«rys River I iyntil.
    
                                                                                STATION
    PAHs (ng/L)
    Naphthalene
    Aeenaphthylene
    Acenaphthehe
    9 H Klusrene
    Phe na ft t h r e ne
    Anthracene
    Fluorantheiie
    Pyrene
    Chrysene
    Benzol a lanthraeene
    Benzol a Ipy rene
    I
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    Bunzolkl 4 Benzol fa If luoranthene NA
    Di ben 20! & , h lsiȣ hracene
    Benzol g >h, i iperylene
    1 nde no 1 1 , 2 - 3 - e , d J py rene
    TOT At PAH»
    T - Saaple taken 1,6 •
    B - S&iaple taken 0.5 m
    NA
    NA
    HA
    NA
    below surface
    off hat ton
    2
    T
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    
    
    4
    T
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    3.04
    3.55
    2«,8U
    3.85
    i.iy
    1.4H
    NA
    NA
    NA
    »..>
    
    
    B
    KA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    fs.76
    NA
    NA
    2.15
    0.78
    0.82
    NA
    0.43
    NA
    0. 10
    NA
    11. U4
    
    
    S
    b
    NA 1
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    
    
    b
    ,414.
    SB.
    »y .
    33,
    5«7,
    173,
    2B5.
    283.
    273.
    285,
    140.
    207.
    12.
    2S.
    O,
    »,..!
    
    
    
    43
    SIS
    24
    71
    15
    23
    5M
    la
    4M
    BH
    Jt)
    15
    00
    IS
    02
    ...
    
    
    H
    T
    »
    T
    B
    38.33 4B3.14 301.72
    HA
    KA
    NA
    4.34
    5.15
    2,10
    2,07
    0.75
    1.00
    O.&fi
    0,93
    KA
    NA
    NA
    83. 83
    
    
    NA
    NA
    NA
    2 1 , 37
    NA
    13, H9
    12,110
    5.96
    7.S4
    3.U?
    7. HI
    NA
    NA
    NA
    bit). J8
    
    
    NA
    NA
    NA
    30.21
    NA
    17, oa
    S.45
    9.44
    11. SS
    S.40
    10.211
    NA
    NA
    NA
    4ST.12
    
    
    10
    T 8
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    
    
    11
    T
    NA B75.2U
    NA
    NA
    HA
    HA
    NA
    IB. 72
    17.18
    HA
    tt.40
    NA
    10.84
    NA
    NA
    NA
    5J.B4
    
    
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    875,20
    
    
    B
    zsi.afi
    KA
    NA
    NA
    1(1.88
    4.63
    7.76
    6.49
    2.B7
    1.32
    2,15
    3. OB
    NA
    NA
    NA
    33&.04
    
    
    B
    124.21
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    3,19
    a. 01
    0.85
    0,87
    0.2M
    0.15
    NA
    NA
    NA
    132. S7
    
    
    14
    B
    16
    T
    NA 82. as
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    0,77
    0,71
    NA
    NA
    KA
    HA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    1...
    
    
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    HA
    2.BU
    2.S2
    1 .54
    1.54
    NA
    I.M4
    NA
    NA
    NA
    94,32
    
    
    B
    NA
    MA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    
    
    ND - Not detected
    TR - Trace
    NA - Not applicable as PAHs were not detected on the centrifuged part leu late natter I Table VI-31
                                                                                                                                                       00
    

    -------
                                   119
    
    Upstream samples {station #1 and #2} exhibited trace amounts of
    PAHs on the suspended particulates implying that PAHs may only be
    in the dissolved phase as found in 1985.  In the vicinity of the
    Algoma Slag Site (station #4} the total PAHs associated with the
    suspended particulate amounted to 12,046 ng/g and 1,412 ng/g at
    1.5m below the surface and 0.5m off the bottom, respectively,
    These concentrations correspond to an aqueous phase having 27
    ng/L and 9 ng/L in the water column, resulting in a whole water
    concentration of 40 ng/L.  This level is above the criterion of
    31 ng/L for total PAHs developed by U.S.EPA for the ingestion of
    aquatic organisms.
    
    In a near-bottom sample from the Algoma Slip, in the vicinity of
    the 30" and 60" blast furnace sewer outfalls and downstream of
    East Davignon and Bennett Creeks, the total PAH concentration
    associated with the suspended particulate phase was 55,686 ng/g.
    This level, the highest observed in the study area, corresponded
    to an estimated whole water concentration of approximately 3,900
    ng/L, greatly exceeding the U.S.EPA guideline for total PAHs of
    31 ng/L.  This high concentration may be related to both ongoing
    discharges as well as past losses, such as spills of coal tar.
    
    At this location, measured concentrations for 12 PAH compounds in
    whole water (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene,
    benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo{b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)-
    fluoranthene,  benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo-
    (a,h)anthracene, and indeno(l,2,3,c,d)pyrene) ranged from 504
    ng/L to 2,520 ng/L.  The upper range of these measured concentra-
    tions is similar to the concentrations estimated from the levels
    associated with suspended particulates for the 12 PAHs  (2,258
    ng/L).   The estimated and measured concentration of benzo(a)-
    pyrene in the whole water phase in the Algoma Slip locations
    exceed the interim Ontario drinking water MAC of 10 ng/L,  There
    are no drinking water intakes downstream from the industrial
    discharges.
    
    Immediately downstream of the Terminal Basins' discharge  (station
    $9), total PAH concentrations associated with the suspended par-
    ticulates at 1.5 m below the surface  (6,561 ng/g) and 0.5 m off
    the bottom (7,822 ng/g) were similar due to vertical mixing.  The
    estimated total PAH concentrations  (naphthalene, phenanthrene,
    fluoranthene,  pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b,k)fluor-
    anthene, and benzo(a)anthracene) associated with the aqueous
    phase were 508 ng/L and 399 ng/L in the samples taken at the
    surface and 0.5 m off bottom, respectively.  The predicted total
    concentration for the 12 PAH compounds in the aqueous phase of
    surface water in 1986 was 33 ng/L.  This was similar to the mea-
    sured PAH concentration  (same 12 compounds at station #6) of 26
    ng/L in 1985.  The estimated whole water total PAH concentrations
    were 556 ng/L and 457 ng/L in samples taken at 1.5 m below the
    surface and 0.5 m off the bottom, respectively.  Both of these
    estimated levels exceed the U.S.EPA AWQC Human Health Criteria
    

    -------
                                   120
    
    (fish consumption only) for total PAHs of 31 ng/L,  The estimated
    concentration of benzo(a)pyrene associated with the whole water
    phase averaged 5 ng/L, lower than the interim Ontario MAC of 10
    ng/L.
    
    At station #11, located in a sheltered embayment, the total PAHs
    associated with the centrifuged particulate matter were much
    greater at the bottom than at the surface, reflecting the char-
    acteristics of depositional zone.  Compounds attributable to
    industrial discharges were found in the sample taken 0,5 m off
    the bottom.  The estimated concentration of total PAHS in the
    aqueous and whole water phases for this sample were 318 ng/L and
    335 ng/L, respectively.  This level greatly exceeds the U.S.EPA
    AWQC Human Health Criteria (for fish consumption) for total PAHs
    of 31 ng/L.
    
    Generally, these elevated PAH levels associated with the suspend-
    ed particulates persisted downstream of the Terminal Basin's dis-
    charge as far as the Sault Ste. Marie East End WWTP in Lake
    George Channel (Figure VI-8).  At station #15, downstream from
    the Sault Ste. Marie East End WWTP the concentration of total
    PAHs associated with the suspended particulate matter at the
    surface was 2,186 ng/L.  PAHs at 0.5 m off the bottom were not
    detected.  This reflects the buoyant nature of the WWTP effluent.
    The estimated total PAHs associated with the whole water phase
    was 94 ng/L.
    
    Along the U.S. shoreline, downstream of the Edison Sault Electric
    Company Canal, the concentration of total PAHs associated with
    the suspended particulates was 198 ng/g.  The estimated concen-
    tration of total PAHs in the aqueous and whole water phases was
    1.11 ng/L and 1.48 ng/L, respectively, considerably lower than
    levels identified along the Canadian shoreline.
    Biota
    
    The OMOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service  (U.S.FWS) have
    monitored biota from various trophic levels in the St. Marys
    River since the early 1970s with the aim of defining the health
    of the river ecosystem.  The St. Marys River Biota Workgroup
    Report synthesizes the published information together with the
    unpublished results of investigations conducted as part of the
    UGLCC Study (19,20,21).
    
        i) Phytoplankton
    
    Chlorophyll a_ showed very similar concentrations in the upstream
    and downstream reaches of the St. Marys River with a mean value
    of 0.78 mg/m^ (4).  Similarly, primary productivity studies using
    Carbon 14 techniques showed relatively low carbon assimilation,
    ranging from 5.5 to 57.9 mg C/rn^/d. Based on chlorophyll a_ con-
    

    -------
                                   121
    
    eentrationSi primary productivity and. species composition  (mainly
    diatoms) Listen et al.  (4) concluded that the phytoplanton com-
    munity of the river is similar to that of Lake Superior.
    
        ii) Macrophytes and Macroalgae
    
    Production;
    
    Unpublished estimates of total primary production for the St.
    Marys River      by Duffy et al.  (1) show the contribution of
    emergent plants (4,710 tonnes/yr), is about 20 times that of
    phytoplankton and periphyton combined but only about 3 times that
    contributed by submerged plants.  Thus, the emergent and sub-
    merged plant communities are the major primary producers in the
    St. Marys River (1,20).
    
    Biomass Drift;
    
    Observations of plant detritus drift in the St. Marys River
    (1,21,22) indicated a general pattern.  In the spring a pulse of
    plant detritus from the emergent wetlands and, from the submerged
    plant communities further offshore is initially retained and
    utilized in-situ.   Eventually, a portion of the detritus is dis-
    persed to offshore and downstream areas by currents and wave
    action*
    
    The living component of plant drift constitutes a small fraction
    of total plant biomass drift as compared to the detritus com-
    ponent.  The total living plant biomass entering the St. Marys
    River from Whitefish Bay in April to October 1986 was approxi-
    mately 1,555 tonnes wet weight and 77.7 tonnes ash-free dry
    weight.  During the      time the combined total leaving the
    river through the St. Joseph Channel below Lake George and the
    outlet of Lake Munuscong     10,362 tonnes wet     518 tonnes
    ash-free dry weight  (233.
    
    The drift of detritus and living plant material may be an import-
    ant mechanism for the redistribution of food resources within the
    river.  However, the drift of plant material containing contamin-
    ants may also facilitate the dispersal of contaminants within the
    river and their transport from the river into Lake Huron,
    
        ill)  Benthie Invertebrates
    
    The St. Marys River supports a diverse benthic invertebrate com-
    munity composed of more than 300 taxa  (1).  Chironomidae and
    Oligochaeta are the most numerically abundant.  The Ephemeroptera
    and particularly the burrowing mayflies  (Hexagenia and Ephemera)
    are also abundant, and they may be the most important benthic
    invertebrates in the river because of their central role in tro-
    phic interactions,  The Chironomidae are more strongly repre-
    sented numerically in the upper and middle reaches of the river,
    

    -------
                                   122
    
    while the Qligochaeta and Ephemeroptera are more abundant in the
    lower river (2,3,6,21,24).  Overall, the abundance of benthic
    invertebrate is highest in the middle reaches of the river, and
    slightly higher near the head of the river near whitefish Bay
    than in the lower reach near Lake Huron (1).
    
    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of the St. Marys Rapids
    and Lake Nice-let Rapids (5,25) is typical of those found else-
    where in rapids or rocky streams and differs substantially from
    communities found in other portions of the river  (1) .
    
    The navigation channels in the river are not intensively colon-
    ized by benthic invertebrates  (1,2,4).  Only Oligochaeta and
    Chironoitiidae are common in this habitat and both taxa generally
    occur only in low densities.  Vessel induced turbulence and the
    removal of soft substrates by dredging are probably responsible
    for the poor benthic invertebrate community typically observed in
    the navigation channels.
    
    Studies of impairment in the benthic communities in the St. Marys
    River were conducted in 1967  (26), 1973 (10), 1974 and 1975 (27),
    1983 (28), and 1985 (29,30).  Generally, zones with impaired
    benthic communities corresponded with the occurrence of visible
    oil and elevated levels of other contaminants in the sediment.
    Specifically,  an inverse relationship between the abundance of
    Hexagenia nymphs and visible oil in the substrate was noted.
    Impact zones were restricted to the Ontario portion of the St.
    Marys River and were found immediately downstream of the dis-
    charges of Algoma Steel, St. Marys Paper, and the East End WWTP
    and in the depositional zones of Lake George.  In Michigan waters
    and all portions of the river upstream of point source dis-
    charges, benthic communities were unimpaired. No impacts from
    transboundary transport of contaminants were apparent along the
    Michigan shoreline.
    
    To better determine zones of impact, cluster analysis was per-
    formed on the 1985 data using various physical, chemical, and
    biological components of the benthic system  (29).  Seven major
    clusters were distinguished and four pollution impairment zones
    were identified.
    
         1.   SEVERE:
    
         This zone is found in the Algoma Slip area and in embayments
         downstream from the industrial and municipal discharges
         along the Ontario shoreline of the river.  This zone is
         characterized by extreme tubificid dominance  (i.e., L.
         hoffmeisteri and immatures without capilliform chaetae),
         pollution tolerant chironomids, low numbers of taxa and high
         total densities, or communities with either very low total
         densities and low numbers of taxa, and/or high densities of
         nematodes with few other taxa.
    

    -------
                                   123
    
         2.   MODERATE:
    
         This zone,  mainly confined to the Ontario shoreline, is
         approximately 500 m wide,  extending 4 km downstream from the
         industrial  and municipal discharges.  Tubifieid_dominance
         with high densities of nematodes and facultative chirono-
         mids, absence of polychaete worms, reduced numbers of taxa
         and high total densities are the major characteristics of
         this zone.
    
         3.   SLIGHT:
    
         Some recovery was apparent with increased distance from
         industrial  and municipal discharges; however, complete re-
         covery was  not apparent until the lower section of Lake
         George.  Nematode and polychaete dominate with moderate
         densities of tubificids and some nontolerant groups are
         present.
    
         4,   UNIMPAIRED:
    
         This zone was found in the upper reaches of the river and
         along the Michigan side of the river.  Communities tended
         towards chironomid dominance, with several nontolerant
         groups  (e.g. Ephemeropterans and Trichopterans) present,
         together with low tubificid densities and high numbers of
         taxa.
    
    The macroinvertebrate community impairment zones are summarized
    in Table VI-6 and illustrated in Figure VI-11.  It is important
    to realize, however,  that areas of the St. Marys River defined as
    "unimpaired" by  benthic community structure analysis may never-
    theless be unsuitable or "impaired" habitats to Hexagenia when
    oil is present even in a physically suitable substrate.  This
    organism has a central role in the food webs.
    
    Over the years only slight improvements have been noted in the
    benthic community in the Ontario waters of the St. Marys River.
    
    Sediment Quality-Benthic Macroinvertebrate Contamination:
    
    Persaud et al.  (31) examined contaminant concentrations in ben-
    thic invertebrates and in corresponding sediments at four sta-
    tions, located downstream of the discharges of Algoina Steel, St.
    Marys Paper and the East End WWTP (Figure VI-12).
    
    The <63um size fraction of the sediments includes the very fine
    sand, silt and clay components.  This size range is normally
    ingested by benthic invertebrates (32).  Most chemical contam-
    inants were associated with this fraction.  Sequential chemical
    extractions on the <63um sediment identified six geochemical
    phases.
    

    -------
                                   TAiLl  Vl-i
    
    
    
    Characteristic* of benthie comnunity  mortem  in the  St.  Marys River 11 BBS I.
    
    Common Taxa
    
    
    
    Mean No. Taxa
    Mean Total
    Density INo/mZ}
    Substrate
    Water Bepth(Bj
    Macrophytes
    Visible Oil
    Current
    Unimpaired
    Imniat.fubif icids
    w/o chatae
    *N«»atoda
    Prog 1 ad 1 us
    Bgzzia
    Chtronomidae
    BsiyBSii turn
    ChironoBKja
    A™, «1 1 C 3 la. A i m&SA
    Hydracarina
    Va Ivata sincera
    27-40
    56,000-201,000
    Variable Sllty-
    Coarse Sand
    1-13. I
    Variable
    Absent-Very Strong
    None-Moderate
    ZONES
    Slight
    *I««i«t,Tubifieid«
    w/o chaetae
    *Wematoda
    •Manayunkia
    Hemertea
    Stvlodri lua
    PisidiuiB
    I mm at .Tub if icids
    with chaetae
    
    
    23
    192,000
    Coarse Sand
    w or w/o Silt
    2,5-14
    Absent or Sparse
    Absent-Very Strong
    Slight-Moderate
    Moderate Severe
    * lama t.Tubi fields *Immat> Tub! field*
    w/o chaetae w/o chaetae
    •Nenatoda *Nenatoda
    Najs var iabilia »ChirQnomidBe
    
    
    
    15 12
    288,000 71,000
    Organic Silt Silt
    1-18 1.5-8.5
    Variable Usually Absent
    Slight-Very Strong Absent-Very
    Strong
    None None-Strong
    * Dominant Taxa
    

    -------
    6a
                           Sault  Ste. Marie
                           Ontario
                                                                                             1,2,3   Algomi Sin.il
                                                                                             4      St Mary* p»p«r
    
                                                                                             5.6a,6b WWTPs
                           Sault Ste.  Marie
                           Michigan
                                                                                                                              to
                                                                                                                              in
                  FIGURE  VI-11.  Distribution and zones  of impairment of  benthic fauna  (1985).
    

    -------
                                                                                     * Station Location
                                                                                  NCB-No Contaminant
                                                                                       Bioconcent ration
    FIGURE  VI-12. St.  Marys  River station  locations  and parameters  showing  biocon-
                      centration factors  greater  than  1.0.
    

    -------
                                   127
    
    In the St. Marys River, 77% of the copper, 96% of the cadmium,
    94% of the lead, 84% of the zinc, 23% of the manganese, and 12%
    of the iron was in potentially available forms.  With the excep-
    tion of Fe and Mn, most of the potentially available metals were
    associated with the organic/sulphide fraction.  The largest
    fraction of Pe and Mn was held in the residual phase.
    
    Table ¥1-7 shows the levels of metals in benthic tissue and sedi-
    ment and the ratio of the tissue/sediment values referred to as
    bioconcentration factors.  The sediment metal values used in
    these tables were the "available" metal concentrations obtained
    from the sequential extraction data,  Bioconcentrations factors
    of copper, zinc and mercury were greater than one only at a
    station located in Little Lake George (station #45)  which had the
    lowest bulk sediment contaminant levels.  The uptake of these
    three metals was found to be inversely proportional to the or-
    ganic matter content of sediments,  especially the solvent extrac-
    tables (oil and grease).   In areas with high levels of organic
    matter, uptake was very low, despite the fact that the concentra-
    tions of metals were generally at their highest in the sediment.
    Also, copper and zinc concentrations in organisms appeared to be
    related to specific geochemical fractions.
    
    These data show that contaminated sediments can be a source of
    contaminants to benthic organisms.   The high levels of contamina-
    tion and the concentration of certain contaminants in the tissue
    of these organisms raises concerns related to the potential for
    transfer of these contaminants to higher organisms that feed on
    these species.  Toxic effects could also result in the complete
    elimination of benthic organisms or reduction in species diver-
    sity and individuals to a few tolerant organisms.
    
    Recently, increased emphasis has been placed on determining the
    concentrations, distribution and availability to biota of polynu-
    clear aromatic hydrocarbons {PAHs)  in river water.  In 1985 un-
    contaminated clams were exposed in cages along the nearshore of
    the St. Marys River for three weeks.  Clams placed in areas down-
    stream from the Canadian discharges accumulated significantly
    higher levels of PAHs than clams exposed at the upstream loca-
    tions  (Figure vi-13).  PAHs accumulated in clams exposed along
    the U.S. shoreline, but generally at lower levels than along the
    Canadian shoreline.  Caged clams introduced in the Algoma Steel
    Slip accumulated the highest levels of total PAHs.  The degree of
    accumulation of compounds in decreasing order of magnitude in the
    Slip were:  phenanthrene; fluoranthene;  pyrene; acenaphthene;
    fluorene; naphthalene; anthracene;  chrysene/benzo(a)anthracene;
    and benzo(a)pyrene.  Benzo(a)pyrene in clams was well below the
    proposed IJC objective (33)  of 1 ug/g for organisms serving as a
    food source for fish.(34)
    

    -------
    Concentrations of metals in gedisent 4PP& dry Me
    bioeoneentration factors In the St. M«rys River,
            TABLE Vl-T
    
    and in benthic tissue I pj>ia drv weight,  gut  corrected J  and corresponding
    SAHPLINQ STATION
    45
    46
    4T
    48
    S
    23.
    IBB.
    89,
    188,
    SAMPLINO STATION
    45
    46
    41
    48
    S =
    *
    **
    S
    6,272.
    15,043.
    a, 949,
    13,280.
    Sediment, BT = Benthic T
    Exeeedes GMGE guidelines
    Negative values are the
    BT
    1 22, i
    V* 24,0
    4* 11,4
    1* 11,0
    IKON
    BT
    3 1,030,2
    8 258,2
    2 Tl&.l
    3 104,2
    COPPER
    BCF
    1,0
    0.1
    0.1
    0.1
    
    BCF
    0,2
    0.0
    0.1
    0.0
    S
    118.7*
    73O, 3*
    493. B*
    841.3*
    
    S
    64,9
    197.1
    12B.O
    362.4
    BT
    131,3
    115,8
    107.5
    110.1
    HANGANKSE
    BT
    39. B
    12.0
    e.s
    ~1 .2**
    issue » BCF ~ Bioconcentration Factor > NA
    for the open water disposal of dredged
    result of extremely low levels of Mn in
    ZINC LEAD CADMIUM
    BCF S BT BCF S BT BCP
    1.1 54.4* 2.4 0.0 l.O O.3 0.3
    O.2 217.4* O.2 0.0 3.5* 0.3 0.1
    0.2 161.1* 1,2 0,0 2.0« 0.3 0.2
    0,1 619.3* 6.8 0.0 4,5* 0.3 0.1
    MBBCURY AKSENIG
    BCF S BT BCF S BT BCF
    0.8 0.1 0.5 5.0 NA MA NA
    O.I 0.6 0.3 0.5 34.3 18. O 0,5
    0.1 0.4 0.1 0.3 HA NA NA
    0,0 0.6 0.0 0.0 NA NA NA
    = Data Not Available
    materials,
    benthic tiasue compared with sedisent values.
                                                                                                08
    

    -------
                                                                              ITS
                              3093
    FIGURE  VI-13. Total  PAH concentrations (ng/g) in  caged clams  (Elliptic
    

    -------
                                   130
    
        iv)     Contaminants in Fish
    
    Sport fish in Ontario waters of the river are tested regularly by
    the OMOE for dorsal fillet concentrations of selected contamin-
    ants (mercury,  PCBs, mirex, organochlorine pesticides, and
    2,3,7,8-TCDD),   As shown in Table VI-8, dieldrin, heptaehlor,
    mirex and 2,3,7,8-TCDD were not detected in any fish samples.
    PCBs, DDT and lindane were below consumption guidelines.  Concen-
    trations of chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene
    were also low,  but there are no guidelines for these parameters.
    
    Only mercury is found in fish in excess of the Canadian federal
    government guideline for fish consumption in the St. Marys River,
    Usually, only large specimens of certain species of sportfish
    contained sufficient mercury to warrant the Ontario government to
    issue consumption advisories (Table VI-9).   There were no fish
    consumption advisories issued by the Michigan Department of Pub-
    lic Health for 1988,  Data for trend purposes are limited and
    indicate that trends in mean concentrations of mercury in walleye
    and northern pike since 1977 are not significant.  Mean concen-
    trations of mercury in rainbow trout declined by about 60% be-
    tween 1978 and 1985.
    
    Young-of-the-year yellow perch collected near Sault Ste. Marie,
    Ontario contained PCBs, but these concentrations (average 25 ppb)
    were well below the GLWQA specific objective (100 ppb) for the
    protection of birds and animals which consume fish  (35) and the
    Ontario and Michigan fish consumption guidelines.  No detectable
    levels of chlorophenols or chlorinated aromatics were found in
    these fish.  Preliminary analysis of whole fish  (36) indicate
    that white sucker and brown bullhead from the North Channel of
    Lake Huron contained detectable levels of naphthalene, acena-
    phythylene, acenaphthene,  phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene
    and pyrene.  These concentrations were similar to those found in
    these species from other industriali2ed areas of the Great Lakes,
    such as Hamilton Harbour and the St. Lawrence River.
    
        v)     Contaminants in Birds
    
    The early 1980s saw a marked resurgence in the number of young
    produced per active nest of both ospreys and bald eagles.  In
    1986 and 1987,  bald eagles successfully nested on the Mumiscong
    Lake shoreline and produced two young each year.
    
    Limited data are available for current contaminant levels in
    birds.   Monitoring has generally been limited to eggs, owing to
    the susceptibility of embryos to the effects of toxic organic
    compounds which bioaccumulate,  Common tern eggs that were col-
    lected in 1984 from Lime Island had very low or undetectable
    concentrations of organochlorine compounds (U.S.FWS, unpublished
    data).   The exceptions were p,p-DDE and PCBs.  The mean DDE con-
    centrations in 10 eggs was 1.8 ug/g and for PCBs, 0.9 ug/g.
    

    -------
                                      131
                                     VI -8
    
    Contaminant! in dorsal fillets of sport fish from Ontario wateri
    of the St. Marys River.
    
                                         Concentration (ppm wet wt,)
    Contaainant
    Mercury
    PCBa
    Chlordanes
    (Alpha & Gauut)
    Dieldrin
    DDT and metabolites
    Heptaehlor
    Endrin
    Lindane (Gamma-BBC)
    Mirex
    Hexaehlorobeniepe
    Octachloroityrene
    2,3,7, 8-TCDD
    Consumption
    Guideline*
    0.5
    2.0
    MA
    0.3
    5.0
    0.3
    0.3
    0.3
    0.1
    HA
    NA
    0.000020
    Observed
    Bangs
    0.4-1.30
    ND-1.260
    MD-0.04S
    ND
    ND-0.4S6
    ND
    NA
    ND-O.QQl
    SD
    ND-0.011
    ID-O.OOi
    ND
    ND-Not Detected  NA-No Data Available
    
    Note:      * Health and Welfare Canada guidelines and Great Lakes
                Quality Agreement  specific objectives for
                the protection of human consuners of fish,
    
                Ontario Ministry of the Environment (OMOEJ  data (A.
                Johnson pers.  conn.) for individual dorsal  fillets of
                various species  collected from  the St.  Marys River
                below the rapids, Lake George,  St.  Joseph Channel and
                St.  Joseph Island since 1982.
    

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                                       132
                               TABLE VI-9
    
    Species of  sportfish from  Ontario waters of the St. Marys River
    with  fillet concentrations of mercury  in  excess of  the Canadian
    Government Guideline for  Fish Consumption iO.5 ppm).
        Location
     Species*
      Size
    Hg Concentration
     Range (ppm)
    St. Marys R.
    ( below rapids )
    
    Lake George
    
    
    
    White Sucker
    >35
    Longnose Sucker >30
    Walleye
    Northern Pike
    Lake Trout
    Walleye
    Walleve
    >45
    >65
    >55
    45-55
    >55
    era
    cm
    cm
    cm
    cm
    era
    cm
    0
    0
    0
    0
    0
    0
    1
    .5
    . 5
    .5
    .5
    . 5
    . 5
    .0
    - 1
    - 1
    - 1
    - 1
    - 1
    - 1
    - 1
    .0
    ,0
    .0
    .0
    .0
    .0
    .5
    St. Joseph
    Channel
    Northern Pike
      >75 cm
       0.5 - 1,0
    St. Joseph
    'Island
    Walleye
    45-55 cm
       0.6 - 1.0
     *  from "The  1988  Guide  to  Eating  Ontario Sport  Fish"  (345.
    

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                                   133
    
    The highest PCB concentration was 7.3 ug/g, a level which could
    have subtle intrinsic (to the egg) and extrinsic effects in
    terns,   Mercury and selenium levels were not above reasonable
    background levels reported in bird eggs,
    
    The Canadian Wildlife Service collected herring gull eggs from
    Pumpkin Point in 1985 and 1986,  Only     and PCBs exceeded 1
    ug/g in 10 egg composite samples, (Dr.C. Weseloh, personal com-
    munication) ,   PCBs had the highest concentration, 22 ug/g, in
    1985 and 14 ug/g in 1986.  Although this is below the perceived
    toxicological threshold for herring gulls, it is important to
    recognize that a resistant species with a relatively high body
    (or egg) burden can be a source of significant contamination if
    consumed by other predators/ such as raptors or mammals.
    
    The concentration of 2,3»7,8-TCDD     also measured in herring
    gull eggs.  Levels were considered in the background range at 4
    pg/g in 1385 and slightly above background at 16 pg/g in 1986,
    Other dioxin-lilce compounds, including the highly toxic, non-
    ortho PCB congeners were detected in bullheads and walleye from
    the St. Marys River in 1984 (U.S.FWS, unpublished data).  It is
    thought that these dioxin-like PCB congeners account for the
    majority of toxic effects in Green Bay Forster terns (37).  Bird
    samples collected from the St. Marys River have not been analyzed
    for these congeners.
    Bottom, Sediments
    
       i)  Physical Characteristics
    
    Physical characteristics of sediment samples taken during 1985
    from the St. Marys River (38)  indicated that sediment composition
    was strongly related to flow velocities.  Sediment composition
    varied across the river according to the flow distribution.
    Upstream from the Sault locks, medium and fine sanct constituted
    80% of the particles.  This sediment texture is attributed to the
    high river velocities in the channel where coarse material set-
    tled first and fine materials (silt and clay) remained in suspen-
    sion and settled in embayments along the Ontario shoreline of the
    river.
    
    A typical sediment composition from below the rapids at transect
    SMD 2.6, 4 km downstream of the Algoma Steel discharges is il-
    lustrated in Figure VI-14.   The Michigan shoreline is charac-
    terized mainly by coarse and medium sand which represents about
    63% of the sediment composition.  Along the Ontario shoreline,
    where several embayments exist,  the sediment is composed of silt
    (82%).  In the mid-river, fine and very fine sand and silt con-
    stituted about 90% of the sediment composition.  This particle
    sorting is attributed to the river flow distribution in the lower
    river where 69% of the total river flow is along the Michigan
    

    -------
    o
    
    t-
    K
            >2000
                                                             62 US
    
    
                                                PARTICLE  SIZE  >»
                                                                      S - 63       -t - 5       < 4
                                                                                                                               Ul
                                  FIGURE  VI-14.  St.  Marys  River  typical  particle size.
    

    -------
                                   135
    
    shoreline and 31% is along the Ontario side.
    
        ii)  Sediment Transport
    
    No bedload transport study was conducted in the St. Marys River.
    However, sedimentation rates were determined using Cs-137 meas-
    urements on two 1985 core samples from Lake George  (OMOE stations
    #100 and 102) .  The peak of radionuclide Cs-137 occurred at
    approximately the 15 cm sediment depth in Lake George  (Figure VI-
    15).  The testing of large-scale nuclear weapons in the northern
    hemisphere started in. 1954, Increased significantly around 1958-
    59, and peaked during 1962-64.  Since then the fallout of debris
    has decreased markedly.  Consequently, in the dating of the sedi-
    ment, the peak of Cs-137 is referred to the 1962-64 fallout peak
    activity of the atmospheric testing.  This would correspond to a
    sedimentation rate of 0.22 g/cm^/yr  (0,7 cm/yr) and 0.19 g/em^/yr
    (0*53 cm/yr), or an average of 0,6 cm/yr.  Results for sediment
    mixing for the two samples were 1.3 g/cm^ {4.7 cm) and 1.7 g/cm^
    (5.8 cm).
    
    In 1986 a joint U.S.EPA. and OMOE seismic survey     conducted in
    portions of the St. Marys River including Lake George and Little
    Lake George.  Preliminary seismic data indicate that the combined
    thickness of glacial deposits     unconsoliflated sediments over-
    lying bedrock exceeds 30 m in Lake George.  The thickness of
    recently deposited sediment in this lake is in the order of 1 m.
    The data indicate that Little Lake George is also an active depo-
    sitional area.  There is about 0.3 m of sediment over bedrock and
    glacial deposits.
    
        ill)  History of Contamination
    
    The concentrations of PCBs and DDT in the Lake George core taken
    in 1986 at station #102 are shown in Figure VI-16 (39) together
    with sediment dates estimated from the Cs-137 profile.  The pro-
    duction of PCBs in the United States began in 1929 and peaked in
    1970.  In the core samples, PCBs are first detected in the seg-
    ment corresponding to the 1950s and reach their maximum concen-
    tration in the early to mid-1970s,  DDT usage in the U.S. began
    in 1944, peaked in 1959, and was banned in 1971.  DDT first ap-
    pears in the mid-1950s part of the core and reached its highest
    concentration in the early to mid-1960s.  The peak concentration
    of PCBs and DDT in the core occurred approximately 5 years after
    peak production or usage of the chemicals.  The major sources of
    PCBs and DDT in the area are likely remote and nonpoint, thus,
    time delays in their transfer to the St. Marys River sediment are
    likely.  The low concentrations of these contaminants in the
    cores is further support for diffuse remote sources.
    
    The concentration of total PAHs, particularly the PAH, benzo(a)-
    pyrene, in the sediment core are plotted versus depth and date in
    Figure VI-17.  The PAH concentrations are three orders-of-mag-
    

    -------
    i
    u
          4
    
    
    
    
          6
    
    
    
    
          8
    
    
    
    
        10
    
    
    
    
        1 2
    X   14
    
    H
    0.
    
    
    0   16
        1 8
    
    
    
    
        20
    
    
    
    
        22
                                       136
    
    
    
                          Cs-137   (dpm/g)
          FIGURE VI-15. Variation with  depth of    Os jn  Lake  George sediments
    

    -------
                                                137
        70-1
        80-
       SO-
       40-
        30-
        20-
       • 10-
      g
      £
    
      c
      o
      z
      o
      o
                                 19TO
                                             I960
                                                        1950
                                                                    1940
                                                                              1930
                                                            2  PCi
                                                     n. .«.
         5-
         4-
         3-
         2-
                                                            2 DOT
          0-1
                      5-6
    1C-11         19-W
    
    
     CORt  OEPTH  cm
                                                                    25-28
    FIGURE  VI-16, Total  PCBs  and  DDTs in  Lake  George  sediments (station  102,  1986).
    

    -------
                                               138
       24-,
       20-
       12-
        8-
      a .
      a. 4-
    
      z
      O
                    1980
                                 19O
                                                                             1930
                                                         Z PAH
                                                                        n n  n
     z
     UJ
     O
     Z
     O
     Q
        I -
                                                                 a  PYftENi
                                                                        f> n  P  n
                                 1
    -------
                                   139
    
    nitude higher (ppm versus ppb) than those of the chlorinated
    organics, indicating major PAH sources in the area.  The Algoma
    Steel Mill in Sault Ste. Marie is likely the principal source of
    these chemicals to the river, because PAHs are known-to be by-
    products of the coking process. Virtually the same concentration
    profile was found for total PAHs and for benzo(a)pyrene.  The
    core concentration profile shows that PAH discharges in the area
    increased substantially in the early 1940s, probably due to in-
    creased steel production during World War II.  A small lag in
    steel production occurred in the late 1940s to early 1950s, fol-
    lowed by a sharp increase in the late 1950s, peaking during the
    late 1960s or early 1970s.  The pattern of  PAH concentrations in
    the core segments is in excellent agreement with historical steel
    production in the area.  Much lower concentrations of  PAHs are
    found in the more recent sediments.   This is probably due to a
    combination of lower steel production and improved pollution
    control.
    
    Changes occurring in the relative distribution of PAH compounds
    at various core depths are illustrated in Figure VI-18.  At a
    depth of 29-30 cm, corresponding to about 1930,  indeno-
    (1,2,3,c,d)pyrene and benzo{g,h,i)perylene were the major PAHs in
    the sediment.  Benzo(a)pyrene was below the detection limit at
    this core depth.  During the peak of industrialization (1968, 11-
    12 cm)  benzo(a)pyrene was the most dominant PAH but the other 4
    and 5-ringed PAHs, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo-
    (b)fluoranthene and benzo(k)fluoranthene were also present at
    high concentrations relative to the other PAHs.   In recent sur-
    ficial sediments  (0-10 cm, 1968) naphthalene and phenanthrene
    represent a significant fraction of the total PAHs, together with
    the 4- and 5-ringed PAHs.  The concentrations of naphthalene and
    phenanthrene in the core are much less variable than benzo(a)-
    pyrene, indicating that they may originate from a different
    source.
    
    Results for heavy metals in the core from Lake George (OMOE
    station #102) are presented in Table VI-10  (40).  Only the first
    20 cm of the core were analyzed,  Distributions of Mi, Co, V and
    Cu were relatively uniform with depth but Zn, Pb and Cr were not,
    Zinc increased gradually from 185 to 410 ug/g between 4 and 12 cm
    and then decreased back to 139 ug/g at 20 cm depth (Figure VI-
    19).  Lead peaked at 94 ug/g in the 10-11 cm segment and decreas-
    ed to 39 ug/g at 20 cm of depth.  Chromium peaked at 189 ug/g in
    the 15-16 cm section.   Using the estimated sedimentation rate of
    0.7 cm/yr for this sample, zinc, lead and chromium reached peak
    concentrations in the river around 1968-70.
    
    The distribution of oil and grease in the core (Figure Vl-19) was
    different than for total PAHs and zinc.  Oil and grease increased
    gradually from 2,700 to 3,580 ug/g between 0 and 7 cm depth,
    increased drastically to 8,190 ug/g in the 7 to 8 cm segment
    (mid-1970s) and then decreased gradually to 360 ug/g at 30 cm.
    

    -------
                                     140
        500
    
    
    
        400H
        300-
    
    
    
        200-
    
    
    
         100-
           0
     ja
     i:300o^
     Z
     O
       2000-
     Z
     LLJ
       1000-
     O
     O
         80-
         60-
         40-
         20-
    0-1 cm
                DnH
                H-O i
                            n
                                             n
    29-30 cm
                         n
                AY AE  FL  PH AN F  FY KA CM Bt>F BtF BlP I"P CTA BT
    FIGURE  VI-18.  Vertical distribution of PAHs in Lake George  sediments
                   (station  102, 1986).
    

    -------
                                     141
                              TABLE VI-10
    
    Eesults from  metal analyses  in a sediment core sample collected
    during 1986  at  OMOE  station  102  in  Lake  George  (ug/g,  dry
    weight I.
    Depth cm
    0-1
    1-2
    2-3
    3-4
    4-5
    3-6
    6-7
    7-8
    8-9
    9-10
    10-11
    11-12
    12-13
    13-14
    14-15
    15-16
    16-17
    17-18
    18-19
    19-20
    Ni
    41
    41
    4S
    41
    44
    44
    44
    43
    43
    44
    45
    42
    42
    39
    41
    39
    39
    43
    41
    40
    Co
    18
    ie
    17
    91
    17
    20
    17
    li
    17
    18
    ii
    li
    17
    18
    18
    li
    17
    16
    16
    16
    Cr
    95
    107
    95
    91
    it
    98
    100
    102
    99
    104
    111
    121
    123
    141
    184
    189
    152
    117
    94
    83
    V
    59
    50
    57
    54
    60
    54
    60
    57
    57
    SO
    60
    65
    68
    63
    68
    63
    67
    62
    §3
    83
    Zn
    190
    191
    183
    IBS
    238
    259
    328
    332
    38§
    369
    384
    410
    407
    379
    334
    2§7
    227
    188
    154
    139
    Cu
    35
    34
    35
    35
    35
    34
    35
    35
    41
    38
    39
    39
    37
    33
    34
    29
    33
    33
    34
    37
    Pb
    41
    3T
    39
    35
    48
    51
    61
    61
    75
    82
    94
    89
    78
    72
    71
    eg
    57
    48
    42
    39
    

    -------
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    0
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    9
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    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
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    19
    20
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    23
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    26
    27
    28
    29
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                    0
                                                              o
                      50
     I
    100
                        i
                       150
    200   250  300
    mg/kg, dry wt
     i
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                                                                                       O
                                                                                       to"
                                                                                       a
                                                                                       3
                                                                                       CX
                                                                                       O
                                                                                       -1
                                                                                       
    -------
                                   143
    
    In summary, results from the core sample reflect the effective-
    ness of the ban on DDT and PGB and the reduction of total PAHs,
    oil and grease, zinc, chromium and lead loadings to the St. Marys
    River over the past 20 years.
    
       iv)  Spatial Distribution of Contaminants in Surficial
            (Recent) Sediments
    
    During 1985, the U.S.EPA and PWS collected sediment samples from
    125 stations (Figure VI-20) covering the entire St. Marys River
    (41).   The OKOE collected sediment samples at 71 river stations
    (Figure VI-21)  and 8 Canadian tributaries (38).
    
    In comparing the levels of contaminants in sediments, comparison
    is made to the OMOE Guidelines for Dredge Spoils for Open Water
    Disposal and the U.S.EPA Guidelines for Pollutional Classifica-
    tion of Great Lakes Harbor Sediments (Table III-4, Chapter III).
    These guidelines are not based on biological effects and, there-
    fore,  will not provide insight into impacts on the river eco-
    system.  However, their use provides a comparison of relative
    concentrations.  There are no ecologically based sediment guide-
    lines .
    
    Hesselberg & Hamdy (38) found that oil and grease, loss on igni-
    tion  (total volatile solids), cyanide (CN),  arsenic  (As), chro-
    mium  (Cr),  copper  (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)
    exceeded both U.S.EPA and OMOE guidelines in 20% or more of the
    samples in at least one group of samples  (Table VI-11).  Concen-
    trations of chromium, copper, and iron (Fe)  most consistently
    exceeded both U.S.EPA and OMOE guidelines.
    
    The percent of samples exceeding both U.S.EPA and OMOE guidelines
    in the vicinity of industrial discharges, as well as further
    downstream, are shown in Table VI-12 (33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,
    42).  Percents were calculated using the lowest of U.S.EPA moder-
    ately polluted or OMOE guidelines for each contaminant.  It is
    apparent from Table VI-12 that the area near Algoma Steel,  the
    City of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Little Lake George repre-
    sent the most contaminated areas in the St.  Marys River. However,
    as shown by the spatial distribution of zinc and oil and grease
    in surficial sediments during 1973 and 1983 (42),  both the areal
    and downstream extent of heavily polluted sediments has decreased
    (Figures VI-22 & 23).  This coincides with the core data from
    Lake George (Figure VI-19).
    
    Contaminant concentrations in Lake George sediment samples were
    lower overall.   However, over 20% of the samples exceeded the
    guidelines for most contaminants except for PCBs and cadmium.
    Lake Nicolet sediment samples exhibited a much lower frequency of
    contaminants exceeding guidelines but As, Cr,  Cu,  Fe, Ni and Zn
    still exceeded guidelines in 14% or more of the samples.  In Lake
    Munuscong and Lime Island Channel a surprising percent of samples
    

    -------
                                         144
    FIGURE  VI-20.  U.S. EPA/FWS St. Marys  River  1985  sediment sampling sites.
    

    -------
                                          SMD-0.1/O.S/1 2/2,«S,QE/«,4i
                                       1S-O08
                                                                              Sugar
    
                                                                              Island
    Punt  tut  ..
        §*r  f
    S»ult StB Mari«
    
         MI
               SMD*  Saint Marys downitream
    
    
    
               SMU*  Saint Mary* iipitr»»m
    
    
    
                   °  Sampling till
                                                                                         Ui
                     FIGURE  VI^2L  MOE  1986 St. Marys  River sediment  sampling  sites.
    

    -------
                                                           TABLI VI-11
    
    Percent of sediment sample* collected from the St. Marys Hiver during 19i6 by U.S.EPA, USPHS, or OMOI that exceeded
    noderately polluted U.S.iPA and/or OHOE sediment poilutation guidelines given in ng/kg, except where noted.
    Sources af Total
    Samples Samples
    Oil
    and
    Grease
    Percent
    Loss on
    Igni-
    tion
    X Exceeding U.S.
    Guidelines
    U.S. EPA 1985 19
    U.S.EPA/FWS 1985 125
    OHOE 1985 71
    1000
    5
    17
    42
    S
    5
    ia
    28
    X Exceeding OMOE
    Guidel ines
    U.S. EPA 19B5 19
    U.S.EPA/FHS 1885 125
    OHOE 1«J»5 71
    1500
    0
    10
    3»
    6
    5
    12
    21
    P TKM
    EPA Mode rate iy
    420 1000
    63 10
    NA NA
    45 35
    Guidelines
    1000 2000
    0 0
    NA NA
    0 NA
    Cyanide
    Polluted
    0.1
    100
    78
    NA
    
    0.1
    100
    18
    NA
    PCBs
    As Cd Cr
    Cu PeX Pb Hg Ni
    Zn
    Guidelines
    1*
    0
    1
    0
    
    0.05
    0
    21
    14
    3 <6* 25
    0 0 44
    NA 0 Sfi
    58 0 58
    
    B 1 26
    0 0 44
    NA 4 56
    31 3 58
    2S 1.7 40 1 20
    17 2« 0 0 32
    34 NA 11 0 34
    49 44 34 0 21
    
    25 1 50 0.3 25
    17 47 0 0 32
    34 MA tt 1 19
    49 60 23 1 6
    90
    0
    18
    49
    
    100
    0
    It
    46
    NA - Not analyzed or not available
    
    * - Heavily polluted
                                                                                                                                         cn
    

    -------
                                                           TABLE VI-12
    
    
    
          Percent of samples by area at or exceeding U.S.KI'A moderately polluted or OMOB sediment pollution Guidelines.
    Area Location
    Algoina Steel
    Sault Ste. Marie
    Little Lake George
    
    Lake George
    
    Lake Nicolet
    
    Lake Munuseong
    
    Line Inland Channel
    
    Agency
    Samples
    U.S.EPA/FWS
    OMOE
    U.S.EPA/FWS
    OMOE
    U.S. EPA/FWS
    OMOE
    U.S.EPA/FWS
    OMOE
    U.S.EPA/FWS
    OMOE
    U.S.EPA/FWS
    OMOE
    No.
    Samples
    8
    9
    4
    5
    24
    22
    IS
    7
    30
    NA
    21
    NA
    Oil
    and
    Grease
    25
    56
    so
    100
    21
    45
    0
    14
    0
    NA
    19
    NA
    Loss on
    Ignition
    38
    55
    50
    ttO
    12
    32
    7
    0
    0
    NA
    5
    NA
    Total
    PCfla
    12
    11
    50
    20
    I?
    a
    33
    o
    30
    NA
    o
    NA
    A»
    NA
    8'J
    NA
    100
    NA
    72
    NA
    2»
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    Cd
    0
    0
    50
    20
    0
    5
    7
    0
    0
    NA
    0
    NA
    Cr
    5O
    78
    SO
    0
    33
    64
    33
    29
    77-
    NA
    76
    NA
    Cu
    38
    67
    50
    100
    29
    59
    NA
    14
    37
    NA
    52
    NA
    Fe
    NA
    89
    NA
    100
    NA
    95
    NA
    29
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    Pb
    38
    44
    SO
    60
    21
    32
    7
    0
    0
    NA
    0
    NA
    Ni
    12
    22
    60
    4
    25
    30
    1
    H
    43
    NA
    62
    NA
    ? it
    38
    56
    50
    100
    H9'
    69
    7
    14
    0
    NA
    19
    NA
    NA = Data not available or not analyzed
    

    -------
                                              148
        Zone        Range
          mg/kg (dry w«ight! K] -
        <  60       94-S8
         60-199       81-130
        >  199       200-110O
                                                      Sault  St*  Marie
                                                            ONT
            1973
        Zone        Range
    ^^    rng/kg (dry weight)
    P]  <  60       71-58
    
        60-199       60-180
    >  199
                    200-8S4
                                                      Sault  Ste  Marie
                                                            ONT
            1983
      FIGURE VI-22.  Distribution of ziac in the St. Marys  River  surficial sediments.
    

    -------
                                              149
         Zone       flange
          fog/kg (dry weight)
                    44-800
    1000-2000
    
    >  2000
                    1000-1700
                    2000-19000
                                                      Sault Ste Marie
                                                           ONT
            1973
        Zone        Rang*
          ffli/kg (dry weight)
    f"1  <  1000     210-930
    
    ["I  1000-2000   10SO-1S70
    
    fB  *  2000     2050-17630
                                                      Sault Ste Maria
                                                           ONT
            1983
            FIGURE  VI-23. Distribution of oil and  greases  in  the  St,  Marys River
                           surficial sediments.
    

    -------
                                   150
    
    exceeded guidelines for cr, Cu, and Mi.  It appears these ele-
    ments settled out with the sediment in the slower moving waters.
    
    Most chlorinated organic contaminants had low concentrations in
    the sediment.  PCBs exceeded OMOE guidelines in the upper river;
    however, no more than 1% of the total samples exceeded the U.S.
    EPA moderately polluted guideline.
    
    The distribution of PAH compounds (Figure VI-24) indicated that
    sediment from the Algoma Slip contained the highest levels of
    total PAHs (711 ug/g).  Individual compounds, notably acsna-
    phthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, dibenzo-
    thiophene and carbazole in the Algoma Slip area were also the
    highest levels in the river as shown in Table VI-13.  A semi-
    quantitative analysis of samples collected during a coal tar
    spill investigation in Bennett Creek during 1987 indicated that
    total PAH concentrations (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acena-
    phthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene,
    pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene,
    (benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, perylene,
    indenod, 2, 3-c,d) pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)-
    perylene)  were approximately 3,300 ug/g.  Bennett creek flows
    into the Algoma Slip.  The Algoma Steel and/or Domtar Inc.
    operations are likely the major source of PAHs to the slip and
    Bennett Creek and subsequently to the St. Marys River.
    
    As a result of the strong association of PAHs with silt and clay,
    higher concentrations of PAHs were found in the embayments down-
    stream from the Terminal Basins than those observed in non-embay-
    ments immediately downstream from the discharge.
    
    Along the Michigan shore, with the exception of a location im-
    mediately downstream from the Edison Sault Electric Company
    Canal, total PAHs were similar to background levels  (Figure VI-
    24) .  Total PAH concentrations immediately downstream of the
    Edison Sault Electric Company Canal  (334 ug/g) may be the result
    of historical inputs from a coal stockpiling operation on the
    shore.
    
    Few guidelines are available for PAHs in sediments.  However, the
    IJC has (1983)  (33) proposed an objective of 1 ug/g for benzo (a)--
    pyrene.  This concentration was exceeded along the Ontario shore-
    line in samples from the east end of the Algoma slag Site to as
    far downstream as the beginning of the Lake George Channel and
    also below the Edison Sault Canal in Michigan.
    
    Tributaries may also contribute contaminants to the river system.
    In the vicinity of Algoma Steel and the City of Sault Ste. Marie
    Ontario, tributaries such as East Davignon and Fort Creeks are
    likely sources of As, Cr, Cu, Fe and oil and grease.  Fort Creek
    is also likely a source of Ni, Pb, Zn and total PCBs.  The levels
    of Cr, Hi and Fe in McFarland Creek, a tributary to Little Lake
    

    -------
                              Til
                     •LOOM*
                     LANOFIL
    FIGURE  ¥1-24. Total  PAHs in  surficial  sediments in  the  St.  Marys  River (1985).
    

    -------
                                                                TABLE VI-13
    
    
    
    
                                          PAH8 in sedieenta In the St. Harva River, 1985  lug/g),
    
    
    
    
                                                                                STATION
    COMPOUNDS
    Naphthalene
    Acenaph t hvlene
    Aeenaphthene
    Fluorene
    Phftnsn threne
    Anthracene
    Fluoranthene
    Pyrene
    Chrysene
    Benzol a ^anthracene
    Benzol b, IO flua ran these
    Benzoi j ) f luoranthene
    Denzo! e 1 py ren.e
    Banzai a 1 pyrene
    Perylene
    I ndenolt 1,2, 3-e ,d )|»yrene
    DibenzoC a, h ) anthracene
    BenscMg,h, i ^peryiene
    Benzothiophene
    Quino 1 ine
    D i be n zo t h i aphe n.e
    Af^r idine
    Carbag-ol e
    Be nzCa^fteridine
    Dimethyl benzl ft Janthraeene
    BenzoC b (chrysene
    Anthanthrene
    Cart? lie ne
    1
    HD
    0.2
    ND
    NO
    0.07
    0.1
    0.14
    0.09
    ND
    0.21
    0.44
    ND
    0.24
    0.35
    ND
    ND
    ND
    NO
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    NO
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    '£
    NO
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    NO
    ND
    ND
    Ni)
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    HO
    ND
    ND
    3
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    NB
    ND
    ND
    4
    0.06
    0.08
    ND
    No
    0.86
    ND
    4
    3
    3.4
    18
    16
    1.1
    7.4
    9.2
    2.2
    3.6
    1.5
    3.5
    ND
    ND
    ND
    0.5B
    0,28
    Z.I
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    &
    3.4
    0.93
    1.1
    2.3
    ia
    4.5
    11
    5.6
    1.1
    4.2
    4.H
    o.»
    2-fi
    3.5
    1
    1 .2
    0.55
    1.1
    0.45
    0.07
    1 .8
    0.71
    0.8
    1.2
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    0
    29
    4.8
    19.5
    28.5
    1HS
    3?
    135
    71.5
    9.3
    32
    32.5
    5.5
    16.0
    24.5
    7.3
    5.3
    2,3
    4.5
    3.S
    0.4B
    24.5
    8.7
    14
    10.2
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    7
    33
    0.42
    0.93
    1.9
    14
    3.5
    13
    7.4
    1.5
    5.S
    4.3
    O.K'4
    2,1
    2.D
    0.74
    O.U2
    0.35
    O.B2
    0.39
    0.12
    1.7
    1.3
    1. J
    l.S
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    a
    0.06
    0.42
    ND
    0.06
    0.29
    0.22
    0.53
    0.32
    0.26
    1.3
    5.5
    l.tt
    4.3
    4.3
    1.4
    0.7
    N»
    0.2
    ND
    ND
    ND
    0.08
    ND
    0.13
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    •
    5.9
    O.SS
    0.18
    0.47
    3.S
    1.4
    6.4
    3.6
    1
    4.6
    6.2
    1.1
    3
    4.4
    1.2
    1.1
    0.48
    O.B8
    0.31
    ND
    O.S9
    0.61
    0.81
    0.84
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    10
    0.69
    4.6
    0.62
    3.4
    25
    10
    30
    17
    9.9
    36
    67
    17
    37
    48
    11
    4,9
    2.5
    1 .7
    0.06
    ND
    2.3
    1.2
    2.2
    5.7
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    11
    6.6
    0.52
    0.17
    0.36
    2.2
    1.0
    3.7
    2.2
    1.0
    4.2
    11.0
    3.0
    7.0
    «. 4
    2,3
    0.69
    ND
    0.21
    0.26
    ND
    ND
    0.22
    0.3
    0,49
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    12
    1.7
    O.SS
    ND
    0.1?
    1.1
    0.52
    1.7
    1.1
    0.45
    2.1
    2.8
    ND
    2
    1.9
    0.55
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    0. 14
    0.1B
    0.1
    0.31
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    13
    0.03
    ND
    NO
    NO
    0.09
    0.03
    0.12
    0.07
    0.02
    0.09
    0.13
    ND
    O.UB
    0.11
    O.OJ2
    0,04
    ND
    0.04
    ND
    N»
    NB
    O.U8
    O.U4
    NB
    NO
    ND
    ND
    ND
    14
    0.13
    0,18
    ND
    ND
    0.4
    0.18
    0.59
    0.36
    0.14
    0.55
    0.97
    0. 16
    0.56
    0.71
    0,39
    0.34
    0.11
    0.31
    ND
    ND
    ND
    0.25
    0.28
    0. 13
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    Ifi
    0.125
    0.07
    ND
    0.03
    0.25
    0.07
    0.425
    0.27
    0.06
    0.28
    0.325
    0.06
    0,16
    0.21
    0.11
    0,07
    0.025
    0.065
    O.06
    0.03
    0.15
    0,lfl5
    0, 186
    o. lae
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
                                                                                                                                                   Ul
    Total PAHa
                                       1.84  ND
                                                   ND
                                                        71.5
                                                               67.8
                                                                       711  100,5  21.8  49.S
                                                                                                  334 55.82   17.4
                                                                                                                     1.0
                                                                                                                           6.66
                                                                                                                                  3.42
    

    -------
                                   153
    
    George* represented a moderately polluted sediment according to
    the U.S.EPA Dredging Guideline,  The levels were 38 mg/kg, 25
    mg/kg and 19,000 mg/kg, respectively,
    
    In 1985, U.S.EPA collected 19 samples of bottom sediment from 18
    Michigan tributaries.  The samples were analyzed for a broad
    range of conventional pollutants, metals, pesticides, PCBs and
    other organic chemicals (43).  Various benthic organisms were
    present in most samples and there was no obvious evidence of
    pollution.  Analyses for conventional pollutants, metals, aro-
    matics, DDT and metabolites, phthalate esters, PCBs, and PAHs
    indicated that, although      parameters resulted in the sediment
    being classified as moderately polluted  (U.S.EPA guidelines),
    most were classified as nonpolluted.  The results of this study
    indicate that Michigan tributaries are not a significant source
    of contaminants to the St. Marys River.  Samples collected from
    streams which drain the City of Sault Ste- Marie, where contamin-
    ant sources are most likely, were generally free of significant
    contaminant concentrations.  Exceedances of specific U.S.EPA
    guidelines are believed to be the result of natural sources.
    

    -------
                                   154
    
    B.  SPECIFIC CONCERNS
    
    Table VI-14 summarizes contaminants of concern in the St. Marys
    River by matrix.  The following discussion provides more detailed
    information on the areas or species impacted.  In general, where
    the same contaminant was measured in all matrices (e.g., PAHs)
    the zones of environmental impact were similar.
    
    
    1.  Water
    
    Degradation of the water quality in the St. Marys River resulting
    from industrial and municipal discharges is a concern for citi-
    zens of Sault ste. Marie, Ontario and Michigan.  Generally the
    concerns are focussed on the possible combined toxic effect of
    ammonia, cyanide and heavy metals {e.g. zinc); excessive amounts
    of oil and grease as a result of discharges or spills; phenols
    which continue to exceed the objective, albeit in a small zone
    downstream from the industrial discharges; and, PAHs because of
    the carcinogenic nature of certain PAH compounds.
    
    Water quality impairment in the St. Marys River is mainly re-
    stricted to a narrow band along the Canadian shore,  downstream of
    Algoma Steel and St. Marys Paper effluent discharges.  Partial
    recovery from the effects of these industrial inputs takes place
    throughout the St. Marys River downstream, however,  discharges
    from the Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario East End WWTP delay the com-
    plete restoration of satisfactory water quality with respect to
    several contaminants (i.e. phenols, ammonia, cyanide) until Lake
    George.  There is some transboundary pollution in the Lake George
    Channel.
    
    A band of phenols which slightly exceeds the PWQO and the GLWQA
    specific objective of 1 ug/L was noted along the Canadian shore
    for a distance of 3 km below the Terminal Basins discharge.
    Although ammonia and cyanide levels are within their respective
    objectives throughout the St. Marys River, the combined effect of
    these contaminants may result in toxic conditions.
    
    In the St. Marys River, measured. PAHs associated with the aqueous
    phase of the water column increased downstream from Leigh Bay,
    reaching a peak concentration in the Algoma Slip.  Although PAHs
    are commonly reported as a group, the toxicity and relative car-
    cinogenicity of individual substances vary greatly as shown in
    Table VI-15.  In the aqueous phase, 95% of the PAH compounds
    measured in the St. Marys River were considered to be not or
    weakly carcinogenic.  Estimated concentrations of PAHs associated
    with the whole water phase exceeded the U.S.EPA AWQC for Human
    Health Criteria (for fish consumption) of 31 ng/L for total PAHs
    from the Algoma Slag Site to downstream of the Sault Ste. Marie,
    Ontario East End WWTP.  Estimates of PAHs associated with both
    the whole water and aqueous phase that are considered noncar-
    

    -------
                                            155
                                       TABLE VI-14
    
               Summary of contaminants of concern in the St. Marys River,
    
    
    
                                       MATRIX
                       WATER  SEDIMENT
    CONTAMINANT
                                                      BIOTA
          BENTHOS
          GOMM.
    OLIGO-
    CHAETES
    CAGED
    CLAMS
    SPORT
    FISH
    Bacteria
      (Fecal coliform)     E
    Phosphorus             E
    Ammonia                P
    Cyanide                P
    Heavy Metals
      - Chromium
      - Copper
      - Lead
      - Mercury
      - Nickel
      - Zinc               P
      - Iron               E
    Phenols                E
    Oil and Grease         P
    PCBs,  total
    PAHs,  -total           P
          - Benzo(a)
            pyrene         E
    E
    E
    E
    E
    E
    E
    E
    
    E
    P
       P
    
       P
    
       P
           IS?)
               P
    
               P
    Notes:
    
    E = exceeds available guideline
    P = present above background
    I = impacted by contaminant indicated
    

    -------
                                            TABLE VI-15
    
                             Carcinogenic activity  of  individual  PAHs,
    Individual PAHs
    Carcinogeric
    Potential
    Naphthalene
    Acenaphthyiene
    Acenaphthene
    Fluorene
    Phenanthrene
    Anthracene
    Fluoranthene
    Pyrene
    Benzofa Janthracene
    Chrysene
    Benzo(b)fluoranthene(2, 3-berizf luoranthane )
    Benzo( k ) fluoranthene ( 8 , 9-benstf luoranthane )
    Benzo(a)pyrene(1,2-benzpyrene}(3,4-benzpyrene)
    Dibenzo(a,h )anthracene( 1,2,5 , 6-diben.2anthraeene
    Benzo(g,h,i tperylene
    lndenoll,2,3-c,d Jpyrene(o-phenylene pyrene)
    Benzo(e ) pyrene(4,5-benzpyrene H1>2-benzpyrene J
    Perylene
    Benzo ( j ) f 1 uoranthenet 7 , B-benzt'luoranthene )
    Coronene
    Acridine
    Dibenzol a,h)acridine(1,2,5,6-dibenzacridine)
    Carbazole
    Benzo(a)carbazoie
    Quinoline
    Benzot f)quinoline
    Dibenzthiophene
    Benzot 2,3)phenanthro(4,5-b,c »d)thiophene
                      Inactive
                      Inactive
                      Inactive
    
                      Inactive
                      Disputed
                      Disputed
                      High Active
                      Moderate
                      Moderate
    
                      Inactive
                      Slight
                      Slight
                      High
    *    Source:   National Academy of Sciences  (1972):   Particulate  Polycyclie Organic
                   Matter; Washington, D.C.
                   Indications are "-" for not carcinogenic,  "+/-"  for uncertain or weakly
                   carcinogenicr "+"  for carcinogenic   and  "++(  +++"  for strongly carcinogenic
                   from (44).
    
    **   Source:   Polynuciear Aromatic Carcinogens, Dipple,  Anthony  in Chemical Carcinogens,
                   p., 245-307.
    

    -------
                                   157
    
    cinogenic constitute greater than 80% of total PAHs at all sites
    monitored along the St. Marys River,  PAH levels along the U.S.
    shoreline were similar to the background or upstream levels in-
    dicating no transboundary pollution.
    
    
    2.   Sediments
    
    Bottom sediments of the St. Marys River exhibited contaminant
    concentrations that exceeded both the OMOE and U.S.EPA dredged
    material disposal guidelines.  The parameters of concern are
    arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, copper, iron, lead, mercury,
    nickel, zinc, nutrients, and oil and grease.  Most of these con-
    taminants, together with chlorinated organics and PAHs, are of
    concern due to bioconcentration and the potential for toxic ef-
    fects.
    
    Sediments along the Ontario shore near Algoma Steel and Sault
    Ste. Marie and in Little Lake George were the most contaminated
    in terms of percent of samples having concentrations equal to or
    greater than dredged material disposal guidelines.  The sediments
    in the St. Marys River upstream of the industrial complexes were
    uncontaminated.
    
    Sediments containing chlorinated organic contaminants,  coupled
    with external loadings, may result in excessive body burdens for
    aquatic life.  Sediment core data indicates improvements but PAH
    concentrations remain a concern.  As a result of the strong as-
    sociation of PAHs with silt and clay, higher concentrations were
    found in the embayments downstream from the Terminal Basins.
    
    
    3.   Biota
    
    Benthic macroinvertebrate distribution in a system is often used
    as an indicator of ecological health and environmental impact.
    Normal benthic communities are characterized by diverse popula-
    tions, presence of pollution intolerant taxa  (e.g. caddisflies),
    and a relatively higher number of organisms per unit area.  Ad-
    versely impacted benthic communities in the St. Marys River gene-
    rally were restricted to a narrow band approximately 500 rn wide,
    extending 3 km along the Canadian shore downstream of industrial
    discharges.  Some recovery was apparent with increasing distance
    (e.g., 5 km) downstream from the Algoma Steel and St. Marys Paper
    discharges, however, complete recovery was not realized until the
    lower section of Lake George, some 24 km downstream from these
    discharges.  Recovery was, in part, delayed by effluent from the
    East End WWTP.  Clean water fauna characterized the nonindus-
    trialized U.S. shore, the whole river upstream of pollution
    sources, and Lake Nicolet.
    
    Despite reductions in certain pollutants from Algoma steel, St.
    

    -------
                                   158
    
    Marys Paper, and the East End WWTP little improvement has been
    observed in the benthic community of the St. Marys River.  Con-
    taminants in the sediments, together with contaminants in the
    water column, are thought to severely restrict the survival of
    most macroinvertebrates in certain areas of the St. Marys River.
    It was generally observed that areas with visible oily residues
    were characterized by the absence of ephemeropteran Hexagenia.
    
    Elimination or alteration of normal populations of aquatic in-
    sects and other invertebrates and their replacement by pollution
    tolerant species (which have limited value as fish food organ-
    isms) will also result in the alteration of the suitability of
    the river for supporting game fish populations.  Further, contam-
    inated sediments are a likely source of contaminants to benthic
    organisms and can exert toxic influences on them, either com-
    pletely eliminating benthic populations or reducing the diversity
    to a few tolerant species.  Uncontaminated clams exposed to river
    water near and downstream of the discharges accumulated signif-
    icantly higher levels of certain PAH compounds, than clams intro-
    duced in the river upstream from the discharges.
    
    The effects of contaminants on the food web in the St. Marys
    River and ecosystem is a concern that should be fully invest-
    igated.  Toxic compounds that are deposited in the sediments may
    transfer to water,  biota, and the atmosphere.  Sediments may not
    be the final sink for persistent contaminants  (e.g. PCBs} but may
    rather act as a source through redistribution of compounds to
    water and the atmosphere  (45).
    
    In general, it appears that past reductions in pollutant loadings
    to the St. Marys River have not been adequate to reduce sediment
    contamination and impacts to benthic organisms.  The contaminants
    remaining in the sediment, particularly oil and grease but also
    metals and PAHs, are a major concern in this channel.
    
    
    4.  Uses Impaired
    
    Fish Consumption
    
    Fish from the St. Marys River  (collected below the rapids) do not
    currently contain levels of organochlorines  (PCBs; DDT; lindane;
    2,3,7,8-TCDD) above available consumption guidelines.  The con-
    sumption advice tables in the 1988 "Guide to Eating Ontario Sport
    Fish" indicate that mercury levels in large specimens of some
    game species  (i.e. lake trout, northern pike, and walleye) are
    between 0.5 and 1.0 ppm and thus long-term consumption should be
    restricted  to 0.226 kg/wk.  It is recommended that children under
    15 years of age and women of child bearing age should consume
    only those  fish with a mercury content of less than 0.5 ppm.
    Mercury concentrations in  fish are believed to be  the result of
    natural sources.
    

    -------
                                   159
    
    Young-of-the~year yellow perch collected from Sault Ste. Marie,
    Ontario contained PCBs, but these concentrations  (average 25 ppb)
    were well below the GLWQA Objective  (100 ppb) for the protection
    of birds and animals which consume fish.  No detectable levels of
    chlorophenols or chlorinated aromatics were found in these fish.
    
    Preliminary analysis of whole fish, showed that two bottom feeding
    species from the North Channel of Lake Huron contained detectable
    levels  (low ppb range) of some PAHs.   The only guideline for PAHs
    is the U.S.EPA      Human Health criteria of 31 ppb  (ng/L) based
    on consumption of 6,5 gm of fish per day.
    
    
    Aesthetics
    
    In recent years, the occurrence of aesthetic problems has become
    less frequent than previously observed.  Mats of oily fibrous
    material mixed with fine wood chips are noticed only occasionally
    on the Sault Ste, Marie waterfront extending as far as the Lake
    George Channel.  These intermittent problems are, in part, due to
    the decomposition of fibers and fine wood particles found to be
    prevalent in the river sediments along the Canadian shore.
    
    Occasional oil slicks resulting from spills have been sighted on
    the St. Marys River.  However, the oil slicks have lately been
    confined to the Algoma Slip area and very occasionally downstream
    of the Terminal Basins.  This suggests that the oil booms in the
    slip area are effective in containing the spills but that the oil
    separators at the Terminal Basins are not 100% effective.
    
    
    Habitat
    
    Commercial navigation, both the vessel traffic and engineering
    modifications of the river (i.e. building of locks, canals, and
    dredging), affect the aquatic biota and their habitats in the St.
    Marys River.  Important fish spawning and rearing habitats have
    been destroyed by modification for locks and channels.  Regulated
    flows for hydro power development have occasionally resulted in
    dewatering of the St. Marys Rapids with the resultant loss of
    benthic ntacroinvertebrate and fish productivity.
    
    The shipping channel is essentially a portion at the soft bottom
    habitat which has been altered by dredging.  The shipping channel
    is poor habitat for benthic macroinvertebrates as only two taxa
    are common, and both diversity and density are much lower in the
    shipping channel than in all other habitats.  Turbulence created
    by passing ships and their propeller wash and oil spills are
    likely  the reason for the lack of benthic organisms in the ship-
    ping channel.  There are, however, no indications of pronounced
    sediment bound toxicity in the St. Marys River as a result of
    navigational activities  (46).
    

    -------
                                   160
    
    The aquatic organisms in the emergent wetlands may be affected by
    ship passage which results in the temporary drawdown along the
    shore.   A study of emergent wetland invertebrate populations of
    the St. Marys river showed that 18.9% of the mortality of Lestes
    disjunctus was attributable to ship passage (47).   Drawdown in-
    duced by ship passage may also affect the survival of larval fish
    that inhabit the wetlands (48) ,  Sediment is transported and
    deposited at increased rates during ship passage,  and survival of
    aquatic organisms is threatened.
    
    The present and proposed expansion of the dredging operation by
    A.B. McLean Ltd. at the headwaters of the St.  Marys River (White-
    fish Bay) is a concern to both Ontario and Michigan citizens.
    This proposed operation may allow up to 500,000 m^ per year of
    sand and gravel to be dredged.  Because Whitefish Bay is a major
    spawning habitat for Lake Superior whitefish,  the Ontario govern-
    ment has requested A.B. McLean Ltd. to submit a detailed fisher-
    ies assessment of the current and proposed operation.
    
    A.B. McLean Ltd. has also altered the southwest shoreline of the
    Algoma Slag Site to develop a dock facility.  Development of the
    dock included the sinking of an old ore carrier and the dredging
    of the river bottom.  Concern was expressed about the resulting
    downstream siltation.
    

    -------
                                   161
    
    C.   SOURCES
    
    Pollutants enter the St. Marys River system from both point and
    nonpoint sources.  Point sources include effluents from municipal
    and industrial wastewater treatment facilities directly to the
    river and indirectly via tributaries.  Nonpoint sources include
    atmospheric deposition, intermittent stormwater discharges, com-
    bined sewer overflows, rural land runoff/ navigation, groundwater
    migration (including pollutants coming from waste disposal sites
    and landfills) and release from bottom sediments.
    
    
    1,   Point Source
    
    An inventory of direct and indirect point source discharges to
    the St. Marys River is presented in Table VI-16.  Direct point
    sources are defined as those facilities discharging directly into
    the St. Marys River, while indirect sources are those discharging
    to a tributary of the St. Marys River.  There are no indirect
    municipal sources.  The only major indirect industrial sources
    are the Algoma Steel Tube Mill and Cold Mill  (cooling water only)
    which discharge to East Davignon Creek..  The total 1986 annual
    average flow of municipal wastewater was 59 X 103 m3/d.  Indus-
    trial flows were 530 x 103 m3/d.
    
    All Ontario direct point source discharges were sampled by En-
    vironment Canada and OMOE in a 3 to 6 day survey conducted in
    August 1986  (49).  Average daily gross loadings calculated from
    the survey results are presented in Table VI-17.
    
    Loading estimates from the August 1986 UGLCCS survey were com-
    pared to estimates based on two long-term surveys,* the OMQE MISA
    pilot site study  (May to November 1986} and the effluent self-
    monitoring program  (January to December 1986).  This comparison
    revealed that loadings for phenols, total PAHs, ammonia, suspen-
    ded solids and oil and grease from Algoma Steel are quite vari-
    able and that the UGLCCS data for some parameters are probably
    not representative of the operational conditions of treatment
    facilities.  Therefore, average gross loadings calculated from
    the self monitoring or MISA pilot site data are introduced and
    included in Table VI-17.  Table VI-18 illustrates the marked
    variability in concentrations of contaminants in effluents over a
    1 year period (MISA data).
    
    The total loading of oil and grease to the St. Marys River during
    the UGLCCS survey was approximately 10,000 kg/d.  An average of
    9,488 kg/d was discharged from Algoma's Terminal Basins, far
    exceeding the Control Order limit of 1,589 kg/d which was to be
    met by December  31, 1986.  The oil and grease loading from Algoma
    during the UGLCCS survey was well above the average daily load as
    calculated from  1986  (annual) self monitoring data  {1,950 kg/d),
    the August 1986  self-monitoring data  (1,470 kg/d) and the MISA
    

    -------
    NSIBe- and Location
    
    J^irec t	Pi schargepg
    
    Munic i pai
    
    I.  Sault Ste, Marie,
        Ontario, East
        End WPCP
    
    2.  Sault Ste. Marie,
        Ontario West End
        WPCP
    
    3.  Sault Ste. Marie,
        Michigan, POTW
    4.  St. Barys Paper, Sault
        Ste. Marie, Ontario
    
    5.  The Algouia Steel Corp, ,
        Ltd., Sault Ste, Marie
        Ontario
    None
    8,  The Algoma Steel Corp.
        Ltd. ,  Sault Ste. Harie
        Ontario
                                   Type of Facility
                                                                 TABLE  VI-1B
    
                                                  St. Marys  River  point source inventory.
    
                                                         Population Served/
                                   Primary  (without
                                   phosphorus
                                   removal)
    
                                   Secondary, with
                                   continuous phosphorus
                                   removal
    
                                   Secondary, with
                                   chiorination with
                                   phosphorus removal
    Groundwood Pvi Ip
    and faper Hill
    
    Integrated Steel
    Hill
    Integrated Steel
    Hill
                                             Rece; v i na Stream
                              52,000
                              17,
                               \'j,OlMJ
                                             St.  Marys River
                                             St.  Marys River
                                             St.  Marys River
    106,000 T/yr   St. Marys River
    
    
     x 106 T/yr    St. Marys River
                                                                            TOTAL FLOW
                   East Davignon
                   Creek
                                                                                                  Outfall Name!3 >
                                                                                                   Final effluent
                                                                    Final effluent
                                                                    Final effluent
                                                                                                   Final effluent
                                                                                                  Tube Mill
                                                                                                  Outtalt
    
                                                                                                  24" Ooid Miti
                                                                                                  Ban in OTCW
                                                                      Average
                                                               ftfinual  Flgjj 103gj
                                                                                                                             41.7
                                                                      fl.l
                                                               (1986-first year
                                                                Operation)
    
                                                                      H.O
                                                                                                                              27.5
    Terminal Basin
    Bar and Strip
    Lagoon
    BO" Blast Funaca
    Sewer
    30" Slant Funace
    Sewer
    354
    §9
    4S
    29
    
    .6
    .9
    .5
                                                                                                                             676.2
                                                                                                                              6. •£
                                                                                                                              7.8
                                                                                                                                                  to
    

    -------
                                                          TABLE VT-tl
    
                                                                                                   •»
                           Loading aumnary of point source discharges  to  the  Si.  M«rya  River  (M/d),
    
    Parameter
    Flow (mJ/d)
    Oil and Grease
    
    
    Ammonia
    
    Total Phosphorus
    Suspended Sol Ida
    
    Chloride
    Cyanide
    Total Phenols
    
    Copper
    Iron
    
    Lead
    Mercury
    Zinc
    Xylene
    Sty rene
    Benzene
    Chlorof orn
    Methyl ene Chloride
    To Ltiene
    2 , 4 , 6-Tr ichlorophenoi
    2 , 4-Dimethylphenol
    Total PAH'fi < 16 )
    
    1 ,4-Diohl oro benzene
    Mono A Dichloramine
    Aigoma St
    Steel
    486,375 2
    a, 441
    (1950)+
    (3547)**
    6,254
    ( 3990>*
    20.0
    4 , 234»
    SO,7fl6
    10,035
    
    <•! I 1 M
    6,481
    (4227)
    IHH.6
    10,274
    ( 15300 |
    24,137
    73,2
    11
    (116)
    U.83
    1,889
    (2417)
    6. 18
    0.0056
    37 .3
    0,66
    O.OB4
    1.18
    O.ltt
    0.4
    0. 5«
    i .52
    I. US
    0. 72
    ( 1 . ?3 )
    0.21
    3.24
    NA * Not Analyzed, ND = Not Detected
    1 {(M>«** ** 4**°~- t-vltec-fad /i) /
    * iyy6 self monitoring
    * Loadings far Terminal
    
    data.
    Basins from
    
    
    average
    
    
    for the self
    
    
    aoni tor ing
    
    
    program
    
    
    
    
    for 1986 substituted i
    
    
    nto database
    
    
    as August.
                                                                                                                                          o\
                                                                                                                                          Ul
    loadings for those parameters considered atypical.
    
    Hepresents data of MOE Pilot Site investigation.
    
    Loadings from November 1»«ft to October ia«B facility monthly operating  report.
    

    -------
                                                      TABLE ¥1-18
    
    .Mean and range of contaminant concentrations observed  in Algoma  Steel  and  St.,  Marys  Paper effluents.
    Parameter HDL
    Oil and Grease 1.0 mg/L
    Ammonia 0.5 "
    Suspended Solids 0.1
    Cyanide 0.001 "
    Total Phenols 0.2 ug/L
    Iron 0.05 mg/L
    Lead 0.01
    Mercury 0.01 ug/L
    Zinc O.OOS mg/L
    Algoaa Steel
    30" Blast 60" Blast
    Furnace Furnace
    3.7
    (ND-40.G)
    27.17
    (ND-1,060)
    52.19
    (2.10-353)
    0.028
    (ND-0,590)
    473
    (0.4-29,000)
    8.53
    (0.55-200)
    O.O3B
    (ND-0.59)
    0.514
    (ND-19,0)
    0. 168
    CO. 007-5 ,00)
    3.6
    (ND-SG.O)
    0. 100
    (ND-l.OBO)
    30.48
    ( 1 .90-557)
    0.025'
    (ND-2,00)
    3.06
    ( .20-28.4)
    5.20
    (ND-140)
    0.016
    (NB-2.50)
    - 0.018
    (ND-.230)
    0.039
    (ND-1 .00)
    Bar & Strip
    Lagoon
    8.3
    (NB-581)
    1.356
    (ND-5.30)
    12.85
    (3.60-59.4)
    0.545
    (MD-2.BQ)
    15.5
    (0.40-144
    1 .95
    IND-43.0)
    0.076
    (ND-0.82)
    O.O09
    (ND-.050)
    O.B21
    t .10-13.00
    Terminal
    Basins
    7,6
    (ND-48)
    7.481
    (ND-16.50J
    28.04
    (2,4-121)
    0.108
    (ND-0.90)
    395
    (1.20-8750)
    a. 01
    (0.36-B4.0)
    0.018
    (Nll-0.600)
    0.045
    (ND-,700)
    0.021
    ) (ND-.500)
    St. Marya
    Paper
    18.4
    (ND-720)
    0.078
    (ND-720)
    190
    (1 .8-2150)
    0.004
    (ND-0.02)
    20.8
    (0.6-374)
    1.36
    (0.27-15.0)
    0.030
    (ND-0.830)
    0.018
    (ND-.050)
    0.063
    ( .005-. 740)
    ND  =  Not Detected at method detection limit  (MOD.
    
    Data from St. Marya River MISA Pilot Study, t«ice-weekly
    (approximately 100 sanples).
                                                                                                                          cn
    grab sampling, March 2 1987 to March 28 1987
    

    -------
                                   165
    
    pilot site investigation data (3,547 kg/d).  The reason for this
    variability is unknown.  The East End WWTP had the second highest
    loading of oil and grease (350 kg/d) during the UGLCCS survey.
    
    The Terminal Basins and the Bar and Strip Lagoon discharges of
    Algoma steel were the principal sources of ammonia during the
    UGLCCS survey, contributing an average of 5,960 kg/d and 210
    kg/d, respectively.  The average ammonia loading from Algoma
    during this survey (5,254 kg/d)  was higher than loadings based on
    the 1986 annual self monitoring data which indicated an annual
    average of 3,990 kg/d and the August 1986 average of 2,490 kg/d.
    
    The average suspended solids  (SS) loading to the St. Marys River
    during the UGLCCS survey was 10,274 kg/d.  Approximately 8,000
    kg/d was discharged by industrial and municipal facilities.
    Algoma Steel had the highest S3 loading  (4,234 kg/d), of which
    the Terminal Basins contributed 3,950 kg/d.  This load was well
    below the average SS load from the Terminal Basins as estimated
    from the 1986 annual self monitoring data  (7,790 kg/d), and the
    load       on August 1986 self monitoring data  (6,640 kg/d).
    Based on the UGLCCS data, the Terminal Basins' effluent met the
    Amending Control Order limits required by March 31, 1990.  How-
    ever, self monitoring data indicate that the loads were above
    this limit as well as the current Control Order limit  (7,355
    kg/d).
    
    St. Marys Paper contributed an average SS load of 2,830 kg/d, the
    second highest.  Although effluent concentrations exceeded the
    Ontario Industrial Discharge Objective of 15 mg/L, St. Marys
    Paper     in compliance with their Certificate of Approval.
    Suspended solids loadings from the paper plant have declined
    steadily since 1968  (Table VI-19).
    
    The average total phenols loading to the St. Marys River during
    the August 1986 UGLCCS survey was 11 kg/d.  Algoma Steel con-
    tributed 9.0 kg/d, of which 8.2 kg/d was discharged from the
    Terminal Basins.  The Point Source Workgroup Report  (49) con-
    sidered the measured loading from the Terminal Basins to be quite
    atypical and not representative of the true loadings when com-
    pared with Algoma1s 1986 annual self monitoring data  (95.7 kg/d).
    Loadings of total phenols to the St, Marys River from Algoma
    Steel, using Algoma's data and the MISA pilot site investigation
    data were 97 kg/d and 114 kg/d,  respectively.  St. Marys Paper
    had the second highest total phenols loading during the UGLCCS
    survey  (0.7 kg/d).  Average concentrations of total phenols mea-
    sured in the Terminal Basins' effluent and St. Marys Paper final
    effluent exceeded the Ontario Industrial Discharge Objective of
    20 ug/L.
    
    During the UGLCCS survey, 17 PAHs were measured in the effluents.
    An average of 0.691 kg/d of total PAHs was discharged during the
    survey.  The highest average loading of  total PAHs was from the
    

    -------
                                            TABLE VI-19
    
    
                   Historical summary of loadings to the St. Marys River  (kg/d)
    Parameter
    1968
    1973
    1983
    St. Marys Paper
    
    
    Sault
    East
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Total suspended solids
    BODg
    Ste . Marie , Ontario
    End WPCP1
    BOD&2
    Total dissolved solids
    Total phosphorus
    Total kjeidhal
    Nitrate
    Ammonia
    Chlorine
    23,800 13
    68,800 5
    
    
    2,146 2
    14,220 IB
    -
    1
    -
    -
    — 2
    ,400
    ,600
    
    
    ,150
    ,227
    163
    ,000
    10
    700
    ,500
    3,400
    5,300
    
    
    3,500
    ~
    194
    -
    -
    -
    _
    1  Water Pollution Control Plant.
    
    2  Five-day biochemical oxygen demand
                                                                                                     CTi
                                                                                                     m
    

    -------
                                   167
    
    East End WWTP (0.417 kg/d).   However, this average was skewed by
    high results on the first day of sampling, presumably due to an
    industrial spill to the sanitary sewer system.  On the remaining
    5 days of the survey those compounds were not found, indicating
    that, under normal conditions, PAHs would not be detected at 1.0
    ug/L in the East End WWTP effluent.  During the August 1986 sur-
    vey, an average of 0.2 kg/d total PAHs was discharged by Algoma
    Steel.  All PAH compounds analyzed for were detected in the
    Algoma Steel coke plant effluent which discharges to the Terminal
    Basins.  However, only 3 compounds were detected in the Terminal
    Basins* effluent and only at trace concentrations, close to the
    analytical detection limits.  As with other loading data pre-
    sented thus far, there is substantial variability in calculated
    PAH loadings from Algoma Steel.  Based on the MISA pilot site
    data, an average of 1.14 kg/d total PAHs was discharged from the
    Terminal Basins alone.
    
    Total phosphorus loads during the UGLCCS survey were greatest
    from the Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario East End WWTP, averaging 90
    kg/d.  Effluent concentrations from this primary treatment fa-
    cility exceeded the GLWQA objective of 1 mg/L.  Historical data
    presented in Table VI-19, indicate that total phosphorus loadings
    from the East End WWTP increased from 1968 to 1983, probably due
    to overloading the system because of population growth.  This
    problem may be alleviated by the new West End WWTP which, came on-
    line in 1986.
    
    Comparisons of the point source loadings during the UGLCCS survey
    (Table VI-17) indicates that Algoma Steel had the highest loading
    of oil and grease  (9,441 kg/d), ammonia  (6,254 kg/d), suspended
    solids (4,234 kg/d), chloride  (18,885 kg/d), cyanide  (72.9 Kg/d),
    total phenols (90 kg/d), total metals (4,535 kg/d), total vola-
    tiles  (1.95 kg/d) and chlorinated phenols  (2.69 kg/d).
    
    In the Algoma complex, the Terminal Basins' outfall is the major
    source of pollutants, followed by the Bar and Strip Lagoon for
    lead, zinc and cyanide  (Table VI-20).  The Terminal Basins ef-
    fluent comprises about 80% of Algoma Steel's effluent flow.
    yearly trends in the Terminal Basins effluent quality  (Figure VI-
    25) indicate a steady decline in ammonia, cyanide and phenols
    during the last decade.  These trends are based on data collected
    through Algoma's self-monitoring program.
    
    During the August 1986 UGLCCS survey, the Sault Ste. Marie,
    Ontario,  East End WWTP had the highest loadings of total phos-
    phorus (89.9 kg/d), mono and dichloramine  (2.64 kg/d), and chlor-
    inated benzenes - chloroethers  (0.341 kg/d).  The East End WWTP
    was also the second highest contributor of oil and grease  (350
    kg/d), ammonia  (196 kg/d), chloride  (2,011 kg/d), total metals
    {47 kg/d), volatiles  (1.06 kg/d), PAHs  (0.42 kg/d) and  chlorina-
    ted phenols  (1.31 kg/d).
    

    -------
                                                   TABLE Vl-20
    
    
                    Loading summary ot Algoma Steel effluents to the St. Marys River {k«/d|.
    Parameter
    Flow m3/d
    Oil and Or ease
    Ammonia
    
    Total Phosphorus
    Suspended Solids
    
    Chloride
    Cyanide
    Total Phenols
    
    Copper
    Iron
    
    Lead
    Mercury
    Zinc
    Xylene
    Styrene
    Benzene
    Chloroform
    Methylene Chloride
    Toluene
    2,4, 6-Trichlorophenoi
    2 , 4-Din>e thyl phenol
    Total PAH s
    
    1,4 Dichlorobenzene
    MDL
    
    0.1 tng/1
    0.1
    
    0.1
    1.0 "
    
    0.5 "
    0.001 "
    1.0 ug/1
    
    0.005 mg/1
    0.005 "
    
    0.005
    0.025 ug/1
    0.005 mg/i
    1.0 ug/1
    1.0 "
    1.0
    1.0
    1.0 "
    1.0
    2.0 "
    2.0
    1-2.0 "
    
    1.0
    30" Blast
    Furnace
    22, 100
    N
    N
    
    ND
    ND
    
    504
    4.9
    NA
    
    0. 147
    12. 8
    
    ND
    N
    0.33
    N
    ND
    ND
    0 . 002
    0.013
    N
    ND
    N
    0.007
    (0.038)**
    N
    CO" Blast
    Furnace
    67,980
    N
    tt , 3
    
    4,5
    N
    
    759
    9.8
    NA
    
    0.136
    48.7
    
    0.08
    0.002
    2.1
    N
    ND
    NO
    ND
    N
    N
    ND
    N
    0
    (0.006)**
    N
    Bar & Strip
    Lagoon
    80,395
    9.9
    290
    
    ND
    347
    
    6,726
    sa. a
    0.8
    
    N
    507
    
    2.93
    0.007
    2«.8
    ND
    ND
    ND
    0.0014
    0.019
    ND
    ND
    0,367
    0 . 024
    (0.022)**
    0.02
    Terminal
    Basins
    315,900
    9.4BB
    5.95S
    (3090 J*
    15.5
    3,946
    (7790)t»
    10, 895
    H8.4
    8, IB
    (95.7 )«
    N
    1,178
    { 1685 >**
    2.6
    0.003
    3.2
    0.41S
    0.084
    1 , 12
    ND
    0.10?
    0.277
    1.48
    0.892
    0.157
    ( 1.14 )**
    0-135
    N = Negative Net Loading,  ND = Not Detected, NA = Not Applicable, MDL = Method Detection Limit
    
    
    **   June 1986 OMOE MISA pilot site investigation (MDL=10 ng/L).
    %    1986 average self monitoring program of Algoma Steel.
                                                                                                                      a\
                                                                                                                      00
    

    -------
                                         169
      18-
      14
    o>
      12-
    o
    X
    
    O 10
    z
    o
    
    g
    
    ^  8
    8  6
    cc
    UJ
                             A   Ammonia
    
    
    
                             O   Phenols
    
    
    
                              *   Cyanide
    
    
    
                              •     Terminal basin
    
    
    
                             	Algoma Steel total
          1972
    1975
    1978
    1981
    1984
            FIGURE VI-25. Annual  average  daily loading from  Algoma  Steel
    

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                                   170
    
    No loadings were obtained for the Sault ste. Marie, Michigan
    Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) for 1986 as the plant was being
    upgraded.  Average suspended solids, total phosphorus and BOD
    loadings calculated from the facility's monthly operating reports
    (November 1986 to October 1987) were 47.3 kg/d, 6.3 kg/d and 53.6
    kg/d, respectively.  For the period of June 1987 to June 1988,
    inclusive, the reported average monthly loading (and ranges) for
    these three parameters were 79,9  (27.7 - 303}, 13.6 (4.6 - 11.4)
    and 58.4  (11.5 - 102)  Kg/d, respectively with flows averaging
    10,754  (6,232 - 15,390) m3/d.
    
    In general, the three Ontario tributaries {East Davignon, Port
    and Bennett Creeks) do not appear to be significant sources of
    industrial contaminants to the St. Marys River when compared to
    the other sources.  However, East Davignon Creek had the highest
    loadings for all parameters monitored.  Total PAH loadings from
    East Davignon Creek (0.04 kg/d) during the 1986 MISA pilot study
    were comprised mainly of benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a»h)-
    anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, indeno{l,2,3-c,d}pyrene and
    benzo(g,h,i)perylene.  These compounds are related to the Algoma
    Steel operations.  Although total PAH loadings from Bennett Creek
    in 1986 were an order of magnitude lower than from East Davignon
    Creek,  the detection of coal tar  in this creek during 1987 indi-
    cates the potential for additional inputs from this area.
    
    
    2. Nonpoint Sources
    
    Nonpoint pollutant loads are more difficult to assess than point
    sources.  Nonpoint source pollutant loads are introduced into the
    environment from diffuse sources which enter the water system
    through a wide range of pathways.  Furthermore, nonpoint pol-
    lutant  loads are dependent on many uncontrollable natural phenom-
    ena  such as rainfall, wind events, soil types and geological
    conditions.  Due to the nature of nonpoint source pollutant
    loads,  assessment of their magnitude and impacts is often dif-
    ficult.
    Urban Runoff
    
        i)  Michigan
    
    The City of Sault ste. Marie, Michigan has  a combined  storm  and
    sanitary sewer  system with  ten Combined  Sewer  Overflows  (CSOs) at
    the Edison Sault Electric Company  Power  Canal  and along  the
    river.  A study completed in  1978  indicated that  there were  no
    adverse impacts from these  CSOs  on river water giiality.   The WWTP
    has since been  upgraded  and expanded (1986) and impacts  are
    therefore expected  to be minimal.   However, the presence of  CSOs
    indicates the occurrence of sporadic loadings  to  the river.
    Also, there are 8 storm  drains discharging  into the St,  Marys
    

    -------
                                   171
    
    River, 15 to Edison Sault Electric Company Power Canal, and 11 to
    three minor tributaries {Seymour Creek - 2; Ashmun Creek - 7; and
    Mission Creek - 2),  No loading estimates are available.
    
        iij  Ontario
    
    Surface drainage in the City of Sault Ste, Marie is provided by
    storm sewers which discharge either directly into the St. Marys
    River or into one of several creeks draining into the river.
    Stormwater also enters the sanitary sewer system and has caused
    hydraulic overloading of the Sault Ste. Marie East End WWTP.
    Three stormwater outfalls were sampled (50) in each of the sub-
    areas  (residential, industrial and commercial)  as shown in Figure
    ¥1-26.  The mean concentrations of measured parameters are sum-
    marized in Table VI-21.
    
    A methodology for estimating loadings of contaminants has been
    developed and applied to the City of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
    (50).  Annual contaminant loading estimates  (Table VT-22) were
    obtained by multiplying the annual flow volumes by the mean con-
    centrations.  The loading calculations were done separately for
    the land use types studied and the total loading was obtained as
    the     of individual components.  A summary of total stormwater
    loadings to the St. Marys River is given in Table VI-23, and
    where applicable, the low and high estimates are given.
    
    In terms of loading magnitudes, there is a great deal of consis-
    tency among all three subareas.  In general, ,the loadings can be
    ranked in a descending order as follows:  chloride, iron, oil and
    grease, ammonia, phosphorus, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, phenols,
    PAHs, cyanide, cadmium, cobalt, Hg, PCBs  (total), HCB.
    
    
    Rural Runoff
    
        i)  Michigan
    
    The St. Marys River geographic area encompasses 203,546 ha with
    the predominate land use being forest  (73%).  Wetlands cover 11%
    of the area, while cropland accounts for 11% of the land use.
    Due to the agricultural base of Chippewa 'county, the nonpoint
    source pollutants of concern are sediments, nutrients and pes-
    ticides .
    
    Estimated annual  soil erosion for the St. Marys River geographic
    area  is 173,889 tonnes.  The total estimated soil loss included
    wind,  sheet and rill erosion categories.  It does not include
    cropland ephemeral gully erosion which has been documented to be
    a significant source of erosion in some flat-lying areas in the
    State of Michigan.  Nonirrigated cropland erosion accounts for
    100%  of the total estimated erosion.
    

    -------
    i   Sampling  Sites
     1  Georgina St.
     2 Station  Mall
     3 Hudson St.
    
       Storm  Sewer  Outfall
                        FIGURE Vl-26.  Storm sewer  outfalls  and sampling  locations  in
                                        Sault  Ste.  Marie,  Ontario.
    

    -------
                                                      TABLE VI-ZJ
    
                      Mean concentrations observed in urban runoff in Sault Ste.  Marie, Ontario.
    
    Parameter Units
    Ammonia (N) mg/L
    Total Phosphorus "
    Chloride
    
    Cadmium "
    
    Cobalt "
    
    
    
    Copper "
    Iron "
    
    Lead "
    Mercury " 0.
    Nickel "
    
    Zinc "
    Oil & grease "
    Phenols "
    Cyanide "
    HCfl ng/L
    
    DCS
    Total PCBs "
    17 VAUs "
    
    I Equivalent mean concentration.
    2 Mean of concentrations detected
    
    
    0
    0
    0
    
    0
    
    0
    
    
    
    0
    0
    
    0
    
    MDL
    .001
    .001
    .050
    
    .001
    
    .001
    
    
    
    .001
    .020
    
    .001
    00002
    0
    
    0
    
    0
    0
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    .001
    
    .001
    0,1
    .001
    .010
    0.4
    
    1.0
    a.o
    50
    
    
    in all
    
    Residential
    0.87
    0.36
    
    
    0,00
    0.009
    0,00
    0.02
    
    
    0.042
    5. a
    
    0.09
    0.000032
    0.012
    0.027
    0. 29
    2.5
    0.0185
    0.001?
    0.23
    0.43
    -
    26
    11,500 •
    23,900
    
    three subareas.
    Stormwater
    Commercial
    0.42
    0.23
    1421
    2B51
    0.0011
    0.008
    0.0062
    0.00
    0.02
    0.00352
    0.063
    11.4
    0.21
    0.000013
    0.000021
    0.014
    0.024
    0.29
    2.6
    0.0120
    0.002?
    O.15
    0.42
    -
    40
    4,700
    5,100
    
    
    
    Industrial
    0.49
    0.1?
    
    
    0,00
    0.009
    O.OO
    0.02
    
    0.031
    8.3
    O.li
    0.000030
    0.000033
    0.003
    O.021
    0.21
    2.8
    0,0100
    0.0030
    0.00
    0.40
    —
    13
    3,000
    3,500
    
    
    
    Note:
    
    At some  sites large  variations in  concentrations of  specific compounds  were observed  and/or a significant
    percentage of data was below the detection limits and for that reason two estimates,  low and high,  are given.
    

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                                      174
                               TABLE VI-22
    
    Summary of loadings in urban runoff from the Sault Ste. Marie,
    Ontario area.
    Parameter                 Total Stormwater     Total Stormwater
                                   (kg/yr)                (kg/d)
    Ammonia (N)
    Phosphorus
    Chloride
    
    Cadmium
    
    Cobalt
    
    Copper
    Iron
    Lead
    Mercury-
    Nickel
    
    Zinc
    Oil 4 grease
    Total Phenols
    Cyanide
    HCB
    
    Total PCBs
    
    17 PAHs
    
    9,800
    4,100
    1 ,850,000
    3,700,000
    2.0
    78.0*
    0
    263(46 )*
    572
    91, 100
    1,550
    0.4
    144
    338
    3.6SO
    33,300
    196
    27
    0,002
    0.006
    0.4
    3.2
    122
    23S
    28.8
    11.2
    S,068
    10,137
    .0055
    ,0214
    0
    0.721
    1.57
    i§2.3
    4.25
    0,0011
    0,395
    G.92S
    10,03
    91.2
    0.537
    0.074
    S.4S x 10-*
    16.43 x !Q-«
    .0011 '
    .009
    .334
    .852
    *  Loadings calculated from data above the detection
    
    Note:
    
    At  some   sites  large  variations  in  concentration  and/or  a
    significant percentage of the data was below the  detection limit
    and thus two loading estimates, low and high are given.
    
    Daiiy loadings have been calculated assuming that annual loadings
    were uniformly distributed throughout the year.
    

    -------
                                                 TABLE VI-23
    
                Loading summary of nonpoint source discharges to the St. Marys River (kg/d).
    Parameter
    Urban Runoff
    Ontario
    Rural Runoff
    Michigan
    ( 1 ivestock &
    aoii erosion)
    Atmospheric
    Deposi tion
    Ontario
    Groundwater
    Michigan
    Flow (m3/day)
    Oil and grease
    Ammonia
    Total phosphorus
    Suspended sol ids
    Chloride
    Cyanide
    Total phenols
    Copper
    Iron
    Lead
    Mercury
    Zinc
    Xylene
    Stryene
    Benzene
    Chloroform
    Methylene chloride
    Toluene
    2,4,6-Trichiorophenoi
    2,4-Dimethylphenoi
    Total PAHsUG)
    Di-n-octyIphthaiate
    1,4-Dichlorobenzene
    Mono & Dichioramine
    35,077
      91 ,2
      26.8
      11.2
    
     5,068-10,137
     0.074
     0.537
      1.5?
       252
       4.3
    0.0011
     10.03
    6.3B
                                  184,150
                                    1,400
                                                          ui
    0.334-0.652
                     0.247
    

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                                   176
    
    Major sources of nutrients, in particular phosphorus, within the
    St. Marys River drainage area are fertilizer  (commercial or
    manure spreading), livestock operations and soil erosion.  It is
    estimated that a total of 5,18 tonnes of phosphorus are delivered
    per year to the water resources from livestock operations while
    soil erosion annually contributes approximately 1.18 tonnes of
    phosphorus to the water resources.  A comparison of sources of
    phosphorus indicates that soil erosion contributes approximately
    19% of the volume contributed by livestock operations and soil
    erosion.  No estimates of pesticide loadings  to the St. Marys
    River have been made.
    
        ii)  Ontario
    
    No estimates of loadings from rural runoff are available for
    Ontario.
    3,  Atmospheric Deposition
    
    Michigan
    
    There are no estimates of atmospheric deposition available for
    the Michigan area for any of the UGLCCS parameters.
    
    
    Ontario
    
    Estimates of atmospheric loadings were attempted only  for PAHs,
    Boom and Marsalek  £51} collected 20 snowpack samples located in  a
    grid centred around the City of Sault Ste. Marie,  Ontario in
    order to establish the areal distribution of PAH depositions
     (Figure ¥1-27}.
    
    The areal distribution of PAH loadings in. the  snowpack tends to
    indicate that  industrial emissions are the main source of PAHs to
    this area, with the highest loadings observed  immediately down-
    wind from the  steel plant.  Chemical finger printing indicated
    that the westerly stations were dominated by steel plant emis-
    sions, with the easterly stations being influenced by  the other
    urban sources.  The total quantity of PAHs stored  in the snowpack
    in the study area     estimated to be about 18 kg  for  the 11 week
    accumulation period.  PAHs stored in the snowpack  are  quickly
    released during the snowmelt period and thereby create a shock
    loading on the receiving waters  (52).  The average concentrations
    of total PAHs  in fully mixed meltwater from the study  area was
    estimated to be about 3 ug/L.
    
    Although the data base refers to winter conditions, in industrial
    urban areas there are no seasonal variations in PAH depositions
     (53),  Hence,  the annual PAH loading extrapolated  from the 2.5
    month accumulation would be nearly 90 kg/yr.   Based on this
    

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      LEGEND
    
    STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
    SAMPLING STATION
    HIGHWAY
    STEEL COMPANY
    PROPERTIES
    RAILROAD
    CREEK, LAKE
    INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY
    SAULTSTE. MARIE
       ONTARIO
                                                                              Km
                 FIGURE VI-27. Snowpack PAHs sampling grid  in Sault Ste, Marie, Ontario,
    

    -------
                                   178
    
    annual loading,  estimates of annual atmospheric deposition rates
    for the most common PAHs found in the snowpack ranged from 13.6 •
    21.8 kg/yr for phenanthrene; 17.2 -27.1 kg/yr for fluoranthene;
    10.4 -16.9 kg/yr for pyrene; 1.5 - 5.2 kg/yr for both benzo{a)-
    pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene; and 2.2 - 5.7 kg/yr for benzo-
    (k)fluoranthene.
    4.  Contaminated Sediments
    
    studies have shown that polluted sediments have a direct impact
    on associated biota {29} and can be significant sources of con-
    taminants to both the water column and aquatic organisms (31).
    Furthermore, such sediments can continue to be a source long
    after the external inputs (point and nonpoint) have been elimina-
    ted (31).  However, the actual amounts of contaminants released
    from the sediment to the water column and. organisms of the St.
    Marys River have not been quantified.
    
    
    5. Groundwater Contamination/Waste Disposal
    
    Michigan
    
    Groundwater movement was investigated in an area extending 19 km
    inland along the St. Marys River from Whitefish Bay to Neebish
    Island.  An inventory of active and inactive waste sites within
    19 km of the St. Marys River was conducted as part of this inves-
    tigation (19).   Groundwater in the St. Marys River study area
    flows radially towards the St. Marys River.  Total Michigan
    groundwater discharge directly to the St. Marys River is 2,156
    L/s and contributes about 1,400 kg/d chloride  (Table VI-23).
    Groundwater discharge from outside these areas contributes to the
    stream flow of the tributaries.  Groundwater within the study
    area contributes about 47 percent of tributary flow.
    
    Twelve sites of known, or potential groundwater contamination in
    the study area were identified and ranked.  The majority of  sites
    are solid waste landfills, storage sites and  spills.  Ranking of
    sites was based on their potential for contributing contaminants
    directly to the St. Marys River via groundwater by evaluating the
    hydrogeology, nature of waste material, and the distance to  the
    St. Marys River.
    
    One round of samples for analyses were collected from four wells
    installed by the United States Geological Survey  (USGS) and  three
    private wells.  Some wells sampled by USGS were down-gradient
    from waste  or spill sites including a well down-gradient from the
    Cannelton Industries Tannery waste site.  Other locations were
    chosen  to provide  background information.
    

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                                   179
    
    Organic compounds were generally less than their limits of analy-
    tical detection,  Phthalate esters were detected at Cannelton
    Industries Tannery disposal site and downgradient from the Sault
    Ste. Marie disposal site (Union Carbide).   It is possible, how-
    ever, that the phthalates were related to shipping or laboratory
    contamination.
    
    All samples exceeded GLWQA specific objectives and PWQO for zinc
    and total phenols and most exceeded the PWQO for phosphorus.
    Several other samples exceeded U.S.EPA AWQO for acute and chronic
    effects for mercury, lead and zinc.  U.S.EPA Drinking Water Maxi-
    mum Contaminant Levels were generally not exceeded except at the
    well at Cannelton Industries for chromium (primary standards) and
    iron and zinc (secondary standards).
    
    Trace metal concentrations are based on nonfiltered well water
    and are probably not reflective of groundwater that discharges to
    the St. Marys River which is believed to be free of fine particu-
    lates.  Thus, computation of loadings to the St. Marys River of
    chemical substances transported by groundwater is not currently
    feasible.
    
    Local impacts on the water quality of the St. Marys River are
    posed by only one site in Michigan: Cannelton Industries Tannery
    disposal site.  Impacts on the St. Marys River due to this site
    may occur through a combination of groundwater discharge, surface
    runoff, and erosion of contaminated soils and waste into the
    river.
    
    State and federal regulatory file data indicate that high levels
    of chromium and other metals exist at the Cannelton Industries
    Tannery site.  Down-gradient movement of contaminated groundwater
    from this site was detected by analyses of the well water.  A
    remedial investigation/feasibility study has been initiated at
    this site under Superfund authorization.
    
    Potential minor impacts on St. Marys River water quality are
    posed by the Sault Ste, Marie Disposal  (Union Carbide) waste lime
    pile located near the river.  This site is also known to contain
    cyanide contaminated wastes.  The Superior Sanitation Landfill  (3
    Mile Road), containing municipal and light industrial refuse as
    well as sludges from the Sault Ste. Marie WWTP, is another poten-
    tial source to the river.
    Ontario
    
    Two waste disposal sites were identified in Ontario.  The Algoma
    Steel Slag Site was characterized as having a definite potential
    for impact on human health and safety.  At this site, approxi-
    mately 718,600 tonnes of solid waste and 66,800 tonnes of liquid
    waste     disposed each year.  The predominant waste  is  slag  from
    

    -------
                                   180
    
    iron and steel operations.  However, lime, industrial refuse,
    waste acid and oil, coke oven gas condensate, and sludge are also
    disposed on the site.
    
    Detailed hydrogeological investigations at the Algoma Steel Slag
    Site have established that groundwater flows toward the St. Marys
    River, either directly, or indirectly by discharge to the Algoma
    Slip.  High hydraulic conductivities in surficial slags and sands
    suggest rapid groundwater flow.  Several investigations have
    documented groundwater and surface water contamination with
    metals, ammonia, cyanide, and PAHs which may be associated with
    this site.  Work completed to date on the Algoma Slag Site has
    not conclusively proven the significance nor the magnitude of
    contaminants migrating off the site and impacting on adjacent
    groundwater, surface waters or biota.  In early 1988, OMOE
    initiated a two year intensive study to quantify loadings and
    impacts associated with leachates from the site.
    
    The other site in the area, the Sault Ste. Marie  (Cherokee) Land-
    fill is believed to have a negligible impact on surface waters of
    the St. Marys River,  This landfill is licensed to handle munici-
    pal waste composed of 60% domestic waste '(200 tonnes/d), 10%
    commercial waste (35 tonnes/d) and 30% sewage sludge  (100
    tonnes/d).
    
    As summarized in Table VI-23, the majority of data on nonpoint
    source loadings is for urban runoff in Ontario.  Therefore, few
    comparisons can be made between this source and other nonpoint
    sources of pollutants to the St. Marys River,
    
    
    6.  Navigation
    
    The average number of vessels passing through the locks has de-
    creased from 26,122 vessels in 1953 to 12,712 in 1970,  and to
    8,345 in  1986,  The vessels carry mainly crude oil, grain, steel,
    coal, petroleum products, taconite and iron ore between Lake
    Superior  and the industrial centres on the lower lakes.
    
    Significant enhancement of the primary productivity takes place
    immediately after  tanker passage  (46) .  These observations sug-
    gest that there is an absence of pronounced sediment-bound toxic-
    ity in the St. Marys River.
    
    
    7.  Spills
    
    Spills can be a significant source of contamination to  a river
    system and constitute a major concern.  The concern is  that  the
    river may, during  a  short period of  time, be subjected  to  a  shock
    contaminant loading  that may be several orders of magnitude
    greater  than the annual  loading.  A  summary of spills from Algoma
    

    -------
                                                       TABt.B VT-24
    
                          niBJttry of spills  to  the  St,  Marys  River? i^auadian sources I 1983~l£JH6)
    Dat. c o f Occu rrenee
                                         Material/Source
                                                                                    Action
    Algona Steel :
    
    March 7, »,  9/U3
    
    
    July Z6/B3
    
    Novenber i
    January K4/B4
    
    December 13/H4
    
    
    January 22/85
    
    Aprii 17/85
    
    
    August 11/86
    
    August 1S/H6
    
    
    August
                         High phenols/ Terminal  Hafiins  2,200,  1,870
                         3, 100 pp^» rtjspttct.
    
                         De-pheno11 zed liquor/Tank  Leak
    
                         De-Phenol. Itquor/ptn-hole in  tank/
                         min.  ^uant.  lost
    
                         500-1,000 Ig
    -------
                                   182
    
    Steel and St. Marys Paper (Table VI-24) indicated that the spill
    on March 7,8 and 9, 1983 from the Terminal Basins may represent a
    short-term phenol loading of about 2.4 tonnes to the St. Marys
    River which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than the normal
    loading from this discharge (Table VI-20).   This demonstrates a
    significant shock loading to the river over a short period.
    
    Over the past 50 years there have been numerous coal tar and
    product spills on Algoma and Domtar properties in proximity to
    Bennett and Spring Creeks.  The spills have been from tank over-
    flow, pipeline breaks and process leaks.  These spills have been
    up to 10,000 gallons or more into creeks and onto slag-filled
    shorelines.
    
    In May of 1987, an oil slick was observed on Spring and Bennett
    Creeks.  Upon further investigation, the creek beds were found to
    contain coal tar saturated sediments to depth in excess of .75 m
    and a dense oily free-phase liquid  (suspected of being coal tar
    and/or creosote) was flowing along the surface of the sediments.
    Both companies were directed to remove any free-phase material
    from the creek bed. and to install coffer dams and/or sandbags to
    prevent the flow of free-phase material to the St. Marys River.
    The companies were also directed to conduct studies to determine
    the extent of contamination of the creeks and adjacent soils, to
    determine the source(s), and to recommend remedial options to
    prevent further contamination of the St. Marys River.
    
    
    8.  Summary
    
    Table VI-25 summarizes the relative contributions of point and
    nonpoint source loadings of selected organics and heavy metals to
    the St. Marys River.  In general, the river is subject to a daily
    loading of 14 tonnes of suspended solids, 5 tonnes of free am-
    monia, 4.5 tonnes of oil and grease, and 3 tonnes of iron.  Load-
    ings of other contaminants such as PAHs, volatiles, phenol and
    cyanide ranged from 3 kg/d  (PAH) to 117 kg/d  (phenols),
    
    The high loadings of suspended solids and oil and grease repre-
    sent a major factor in the destruction of river habitat as re-
    flected by an adversely impacted benthic community along the
    Ontario shoreline of the river.
    
    Although loadings of contaminants from nonpoint sources were not
    sufficient to set a priority on these sources, available informa-
    tion indicated that up to 50% of PAHs, zinc and lead loadings to
    the  river may be attributed to nonpoint  sources.
    

    -------
                                                           TABLE vi-25
    
                      Loading  summary  of  point  source*  and  nonpoint  summary to the St.  Marys River (kg/di.
    Sou rce
    Parameter
    Poi i*t 	 Sourc es
    Industrial
    Munic i [>al
    Tributary
    Nonpoint
    Urban 0.
    Rural
    Atmospheric
    Grounciwater
    TOTAL
    PAH 3
    
    1 .25
    0.423
    0.051
    
    334-0. 652
    NA
    O.Z4T
    NA
    2.621
    Suspended Oil 4
    Voiatiles Solids Greaae Ammonia
    
    3.1 11,090 3,810 4,395
    1.14 9B7 3«3 21O
    ND 2,224 NA 21
    
    NA NA at 27
    NA NA NA NA
    HA NA NA NA
    NA NA HA NA
    4.24 14,301 4,264 4,«53
    Total
    Lead Zinc Iron Cyanide Phosphorus
    
    7.4 38 2,230 74.0 25
    1.2 2.3 48 NA 102
    NA 0.94 8$ 0-32 3.2
    
    4.3 10.0 2Si! 0.074 11
    NA NA NA NA fi,4
    NA NA NA NA NA
    NA NA NA HA NA
    12,9 51 2,«75 74 14fl
    Total
    Phenols
    
    115
    O.S3
    0.69
    
    0.54
    HA
    NA
    NA
    118
                                                                                                                                       00
    NA - Not Available,  ND -  Not Detectable
    *  - Various data sources (Table VI-171
    

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                                   184
    
    D.  DATA QUALITY ASSESSMENT
    
    The OMOE data for PAHs in caged clams and surficial sediments was
    generated by an external contract laboratory that performed poor-
    ly in the UGLCCS round robins (Chapter IV).   Consequently, this
    data was checked by OMOE GC/MS laboratory staff and only after
    their data quality concerns were addressed and the data declared
    qualitatively and quantitatively accurate was this information
    used in the report.
    
    Some of the effluent and river water samples analyzed, by the OMOE
    laboratory for total phenols in 1986 were flagged as possibly
    having been contaminated by phenolic substances due to an im-
    proper cap liner (i.e. concentrations may have been reported
    higher than actual).  However, this data was used when subsequent
    sampling, during the 1987 MISA pilot site surveys, revealed simi-
    lar concentrations in effluents and water.
    
    In the Canadian point source study, the federal laboratory which
    analyzed PAHs had somewhat lower method detection limits  (1-2
    ug/L) than did the OMOE lab analyzing samples for the MISA pilot
    site study during 1986  (10 ng/L).  Because this difference af-
    fected the quantification of PAH loadings from dischargers, the
    UGLCCS data set was supplemented by the MISA data.
    

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                                   185
    
    E,  PROCESS MODELING
    
    1)  Physical: Hydrodynamics, wind, Waves and currents
    
    For the purpose of the modeling study, the St. Marys River has
    been divided into an upper reach - above the regulatory works,
    and a lower reach - below the regulatory works.
    
    Upper St. Marys River
    
    The primary factors involved in the flow distribution in the
    upper river are gravity, wind, bed friction and the associated
    pressure forces.  One of the causes of water movement in the deep
    channels of the upper St. Marys River is the inertial forces
    exerted by the large inflows from Lake Superior through the nar-
    row mouth at Pointe Aux Pins.  In the localized shallows of Leigh
    Bay and Pointe Aux Pins Bay, an appreciable influence on the
    water circulation is exerted by wind stresses.
    
    One objective of the modeling was to describe the hydrodynamics
    of this area using mathematical models.   A three dimensional
    steady state finite element model was applied to this area.  The
    mathematical formulations were based on the three dimensional
    equations for conservation of mass and momentum.  The principal
    assumptions used were:
    
    i)   the pressure was assumed to vary hydrostatically;
    
    ii)  the rigid-lid approximation was made, i.e. the vertical
         velocity at the undisturbed water surface was assumed
         to be a constant value of zero;
    
    iii) eddy coefficients were used to account for the tur-
         bulent diffusion effects  (the vertical coefficient was
         assumed constant while the horizontal coefficients were
         assumed to be zero); and
    
    iv)  the dimensions of the study area were small compared to
         typical weather systems, so that the geostrophic wind
         is assumed uniform  over the entire area.
    
    The basic equations  (55,56) contain three empirical constants,
    i.e., the vertical eddy  diffusion coefficients, the wind drag
    coefficient and the bottom slip coefficient, which cannot be
    determined from theory alone but must be tuned by means of proper
    field data in such a way that agreement between the model and
    prototype is satisfactory.  A sensitivity analysis involving a
    large number of computer runs was made for these coefficients in
    order to assist with the calibration process.
    

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                                   186
    
    The model was calibrated and verified using current meter data
    from the following sources:
    
    i)   the U.S. Corps of Engineers;
    ii)  the Ontario Ministry of the Environment;
    iii) Integrated Exploration Limited; and
    iv)  aerial photographs taken of the area.
    
    The model indicates that the upper river is highly responsive to
    wind speed and direction.  Its dynamic behaviour is important in
    the shallow bays where gyres readily form.  Examples of gyres
    formed under no wind and north wind  (19 km/hr) conditions are
    shown in Figures VI-28 & 29.
    
    Some of the contaminants {e,g. PAHs) in the bays are associated
    with the movement of fine grained sediment particles; it is ex-
    pected that the gyres will play a significant role in the trans-
    port of contaminants from the area of the slag site to Leigh and
    Point Aux Pins Bays.  The model has indicated that up to two
    strong gyres can be formed simultaneously.
    
    Combined with existing field data on current measurements in this
    area, the calibrated model provides a better understanding of the
    cause and effect relationship between the, wind and the circula-
    tion patterns in the upper river.  This will eventually lead to
    the construction of more detailed fate models for management
    purposes.  In addition, the model may provide new insights to the
    complex hydrodynamics of the upper river for those who are in-
    volved in collecting field data  for the area.
    Lower St. Marys River
    
    The lower river is a nonuniform natural channel with  slightly
    over half of its width dredged to a minimum of 8.5 m  for  the
    passage of ships.  The velocity field data on the lower river  is
    available from the U.S. Corps of Engineers.  The data indicate
    the presence of some dead  zones and re-circulation zones  in the
    river due to natural or man-made protuberances from the shore-
    line .
    
    The lower river was simulated by KETOX  (57).  This is a model
    that has a steady-state depth averaged hydrodynamic submodel
    coupled to a convection-diffusion  (mixing) submodel.   KETOX model
    has the following features:
    
    i)   it provides a forward marching solution to the con-
         tinuity and momentum  equations for the river  (58);
    
    ii)  it provides solution  for the  lateral dispersion  coef-
         ficients across each  cross-section of  the river  based
         on the turbulence  transport equations  (K  and E); and
    

    -------
        3.20
       2.40 ,
    
    -------
     41
     OJ
    
     c
    
     I/I
    "f~
    Q
          3.20
          2,40
          1.60 .
         0.80
         0.00
             0.00
                                                                                                                       CXI
                                                                                                                       CO
    0.80
    1.60          2.40          3.20
           Distance  in  Miles
    4.00
                                                                                                4.80
    5.60
                            FIGURE  VI-29.  Dimensionless stream function  circulation  pattern
                                            (north  wind).
    

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                                   189
    
    iii) it can accept discharges from multiple outfalls.
    
    The hydrodynamic component of KETOX was calibrated using U.S.
    Corps of Engineers (COE) 1984 field data based on current meter
    measurements and drogue surveys,
    
    
    2.  Physical-Chemical-Biological: Fate and Transport Models
    
    The contaminant dispersion submodel of KETOX was calibrated using
    the 1974 OMOE phenol loadings and ambient measurements  (10),  The
    Model was subsequently verified with the 1983 OMOE phenol field.
    data.  The calibration and verification are illustrated in Figure
    VT-3Q which is a dimensionless plot of the measured and predicted
    phenol concentrations along the Canadian shoreline starting from
    the Terminal Basins outfall location for the years 1974 and 1983.
    
    The mixing model  {K-E model) for the lower river {including the
    Algoma Slip and Control Structure) has been calibrated  for hydro-
    dynamics.  For steady-state loading, isoconcentration maps can be
    developed with longitudinal resolution of the order of  15 m and
    lateral resolution as low as 1 % of the flow in the reach.  This
    permits a reasonably accurate zone of effect or mixing  zone to be
    defined so that various loading scenarios can be compared and
    evaluated.
    
    Table V.I-26 illustrates the longitudinal extent of the mixing
    zones associated with discharge from the Terminal Basins under
    the average summer river flow (2,450 m3/s).  The 1986 loadings
    for ammonia and cyanide (4,066 and 29 kg/d, respectively) will
    result in a mixing zone equal to or less than 100 in where the
    GLWQA and OMOE Water Quality Objectives are met.  Also, there are
    no toxic effects within the mixing zone, although the effluent is
    toxic.  The mixing zone associated with the phenol loadings from
    the Terminal Basins extends at least 7 3cm along the Ontario
    shore.  Although the frequency of occurrence of low river flow
    (1.53 x 10^ L/s) is about 0.1%, an estimate of the mixing zone
    associated with the 1986 loading is predicted to provide insight
    into the need for urgent reductions of phenol loadings.  Figure
    VI-31 indicates that transboundary pollution may occur under the
    lowest flow possible.
    
    Oil and grease within the bed sediment constitutes a major factor
    in the absence of Hexagenia.  To model the impact of discharged
    oil and grease upon bed sediment, partitioning between water and
    sediment phases must be considered.  For demonstration purposes,
    it is assumed that the concentration of oil and grease within the
    water column should not be more than 10% 'above the upstream back-
    ground level (i.e., about 0.5 ppm).  Using this guideline, the
    zone of effect is about 0.8 tan.  This same arbitrary guideline
    may be used for suspended solids, in order to minimize  the amount
    of the organic portion of solids  (which is responsible  for most
    

    -------
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    2s
    o*-
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         O
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               .01
             .001
                              O   1974 Predicted  Variable Conditions
    
                              H   1974 Measured
    
                              Q   1983 Predicted  Variable  Conditions
    
                             0   1983 Measured
                                                                                                                                  U3
                                                                                                                                  O
                                                                                          I
                                                                                                 _J	I  1 i t I  i 1
                  10
                                         wo
    1000
                                                                       FEET
    10000
                               1O
                                                     100
                                                                      METRES
                 1000
                  10000
                                   FIGURE  VI-30.  Predicted  and measured  phenol  concentrations  versus
    
                                                   distance  along tlie  Canadian shoreline.
    

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                                      191
                               TABLE ¥1-28
    Point  source   impact  zone   predictions  from   the  Terminal  Basins
    under  average  summer  river  flow.
     Parameter               Ii86  Loads          Length  of  Zone  for  1988
     _                1 kg/d 1          Terminal  Basin Loadi  < kml
     Ammnionim                 4
    
     Cyanide                     29**                   <0.1
    
     Phenoi                     114***                  >7.0
    
     Gil  4 Grease             1,413*                     0.8
    
     Suspended  Solids         7,788*                     7,0
    
    
     Note:  Loads  from  Table  VT-19
    
     *    Average  of self  monitoring program  of  Algoma Steel
     **   UGLCCS data.
     ***  1986  MISA Pilot  Site  data,
                               TABLE VI-27
    
    .Loadings  (in kg/d) required to limit point source  impact zones
    to 300  and 100  m from the Terminal Basins, under average  summer
    flow  {see text) ,
    Parameter
    Phenols
    Oil & grease
    Suspended solids
    300 m Impact Zone
    li
    950
    1,900
    100 m Impact
    12
    590
    1.200
    Zone
    
    
    
    

    -------
     Zon* of tfftct far 100 kg/a
    FIGURE  VI-31.  Zone of exceedence of phenol  concentration  of 0,002 mg/L
                     for  loads of 100  kg/d from the  terminal  basin  under the
                     St. Marys River's lowest flow  conditions.
    

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                                   193
    
    contaminants}.   Thus the concentration of suspended solids should
    not exceed about 1 ppm within the water column.  This would
    result in a zone of effect of about 7 km,
    
    These modeling tools may be used in a "regulatory mode" to derive
    the maximum effluent loads so as to meet the objectives and
    guidelines at selected distances downstream of any outfall. Table
    VI-27 summarizes these calculations for phenol, oil and grease,
    and suspended solids discharged from the Terminal Basins under
    the average summer flow in the river.
    

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                                   194
    
    P.  GOALS AND OBJECTIVES FOR REMEDIAL
    
    The goals of remedial measures in the St. Marys River should be
    the ultimate elimination of unacceptable adverse impacts on
    aquatic life and to ensure that the water is acceptable for
    drinking and recreation.  Objectives will focus on the need to
    decrease the Input, transport and biological availability of
    conventional and toxic pollutants in the St. Marys River.
    
    Exceedences of water quality objectives are mainly restricted to
    a narrow band along the Ontario shore downstream of Algoma Steel
    and St. Marys Paper effluent discharges.  Partial recovery from
    the effects of these inputs occurs downstream; however, dis-
    charges from the nonpoint sources (e.g. urban runoff) and the
    Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario East End WWTF delay complete restora-
    tion of satisfactory water quality with respect to several con-
    taminants until Lake George.
    
    Objective 1:   Reduce point source loadings of phenols, oil and
                   grease, iron, phosphorus, and fecal eoliform
                   bacteria to meet water quality objectives through-
                   out the river.
    
    Objective 2;   Eliminate point source impact zones downstream of
                   each outfall through the reduction  {to zero) o£
                   chronic and acute effluent toxieity.
    
    Although no water quality criteria exist for suspended solids,
    there is some indication that suspended solids and the associated
    contaminants may be a concern in the St. Marys River.  Contamin-
    ants adsorbed onto the particulates can be deposited locally or
    transported long distances before settling out, thereby increas-
    ing the downstream extent of their impact,
    
    Obj eetive 3:   Reduce suspended solids loadings to the river,
    
    The full environmental'significance of PAHs in the St. Marys
    River is presently difficult to evaluate due to insufficient
    data, and lack of compound specific toxicity information and
    standards.  However, concentrations of total PAHs and selected
    PAHs, such  as ben2o(a)pyrene, were above available guidelines in
    river water and surficial sediments at one or more locations in
    the Sault Ste. Marie area.  The presence of elevated levels of
    PAHs in caged clams introduced to the St, Marys River indicates
    that these  compounds are potentially available to biota.
    
    Objective 4;   Reduce PAH Point and Nonpoint Source loadings to
                   the river.
    
    The benthic macroinvertebrate community  in  the St, Marys River is
    degraded along the Ontario shoreline downstream to Lake George.
    Generally,  degraded communities exist  in the vicinity of indust-
    

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                                   195
    
    rial discharges and in areas where sediments contain high con-
    centrations of metals and organic contaminants. General reduc-
    tions in conventional pollutant loadings from the major Ontario
    point sources do not appear to have resulted in proportional
    improvements in the health of the benthic- community and may be
    related to occasional spills or persistent effects of contamina-
    ted sediments.  The correlation of high oil and grease levels in
    sediments with low densities of Hexagenia nymphs indicates that
    reductions in the levels of oil and grease may be an important
    factor in the re-establishment of a healthy benthic community.
    
    Depending on their geochemistry and organic content, polluted
    sediments may be a source of contaminants (e.g. heavy metals) to
    benthic organisms.  This availability of contaminants may affect
    the benthic community as well as higher trophic levels.
    
    Objective 5:   improve the benthic niacroinvertebrate community
                   along the Ontario shoreline by reducing contamin-
                   ant loadings and by the appropriate remediation of
                   contaminated sediments.
    
    In addition to point and nonpoint discharges of contaminants,
    manmade modifications to the upper St. Marys River have resulted
    in changes and/or destruction of important benthic habitats and
    fish spawning areas  (e.g. St. Marys Rapids),  Currently, there is
    concern that human activities  (e.g. aggregate reclamation) may
    result in further destruction of habitat due to physical removal
    and/or increased siltation.
    
    Objective 6:   Prevent further benthic and fish spawning habitat
                   degradation through the careful evaluation of
                   proposed activities and modifications in the St.
                   Marys River and upstream.
    

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                                   196
    
    G.  ADEQUACY OF EXISTING PROGRAMS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS
    
    1.  Existing Regulatory Programs  (see Chapter III)
    
    Ontario
    
      i)  Algoma Steel Operations
    
    Table VI-28 shows Algoma1s current discharge requirements.  On
    June 13, 1983, Algoma Steel was served with an Amended Control
    Order aimed at controlling contaminants such as phenols, cyanide,
    ammonia, oil and grease and suspended solids which were found to
    be in contravention of Ontario's Environmental Protection Act.
    Since the issuance of the Control Order, Algoma's economic situa-
    tion deteriorated to the point that the company could not fulfill
    all the Control Order requirements or dates of completion.  As a
    result, on November 4, 1986, the Control Order was amended to
    extend the dates for compliance.  In the spring of 1988 OMOE and
    Algoma negotiated ammendments to the 1986 Control Order to allow
    the operation of the #7 coke oven battery and to advance air
    emission requirements for the Algoma complex.  The order was
    issued September 23, 1988 and included the following require-
    ments :
    
                Action                             Deadline
    
    - Reduce oil and grease loading to
      1,023 kg/d                                 March 31, 1990
    
    - Reduce total suspended solids loading
      to 5,108 kg/d                              March 31, 1990
    
    - Reduce phenol loading to 22.7 kg/d         June 30, 1989
    
    - Reduce cyanide and ammonia to below
      level graphically illustrated by the       Feb. 15, 1989
      diagonal line shown in Figure VT-32
        ii)  St. Marys Paper
    
    The St. Marys Mill is not subject to federal requirements because
    it existed prior to 1971 when the Federal Pulp and Paper Effluent
    Regulations were first promulgated.  However, the federal limits
    may be used as a guideline and OMOE has incorporated the federal
    limit  for total suspended solids  (TSS) into the Certificate of
    Approval for the mill.  This limit is based on the production
    rate for various unit processes, which varies from day  to day.
    

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                                                            TABLE V1-2B
    
                               Comparison  of  point  source effluent levels and permit  requirements.
                                       Algoma  Steel         St.  Marys        Kast End         West  End            Michigan
    Current Requirements              Terminal  Basins        Paper           WWTP             WHTP                WHTP
    (Control Order)
    Oil and grease —                       1,413*
     1 ,58a kg/d
    Suspended solids -                     6,717*
     1,355 kg/d
    Phenols - 22.1 kg/d                      95.7
    (Compliance date OK.30.tSil)
    Cyanide -» Ammonia                  0/15  rog/L  /
     See graph (Fig. VI-32)                 11.5 mg/l,»
     (Compliance date 02.15.89}       toxic  above limit
    
    St. Marys Paper
    (Certificate of Approval)
    Suspended solids -                                          3 T/d
     10 T/d
    
    
    (Certificate of Approval)
    Suspended solids - 50X
     removal
    BODS -30X removal                                                        17X                                                       J^
    Phosphorus 1.0 og/ll                                                    it. 9 mg/L                                                   ^j
    
    Vieat End WPCP
    (Certificate of Approval)
    Suspended Solids - 20 rog/L                                                                4.8 mg/LIS
    BOD& - 2U «g/L                                                                            4.0 mg/L*
    Phosphorus - 1.0 ng/L                                                                     0.7 rog/L»
    Phenoj - 0.01 rag/1,                                                                        0.003  Big/US
    Aminonia - 8 mg/L                                           .                               1.9 mg/Mi
    Chlorine - 0.5
    (NPDES Permit I
    BODS - 30 isg/L      '                                                                                          6.4**
    pH - 6.5 to 9.0                                                                                               7.2**
    Suspended Solids - 30 mg/L                                                                                    5.5**
    Total Phosphorus - 1 oig/L                                                                                     0.76**
    *  Baaed on average annual self monitoring  data,
    ** Based on monthly operating report  from November 1386 to October 19B7.
    IS  Survey average concentration.
    I  The plant is not required to meet  this limit  until  phosphorus removal facilities cone on-line.
    

    -------
       26-
       24-
       22-
    r  «M
                                                 1986 Average for
                                                 self monitoring data
                                                                                                                            CD
    .025
    ,Q5Q          .075           .100
         FREE  CYANIDE   ma/I
                                                                              .125
    .150
    .175
                     HGURE Vl-32.  Algoma  Sleel  allowable discharge concentrations  of
                                      total ammonia  and  free cyanide from  the terminal basin.
    

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                                   199
    
         ill)  Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants
    
    Municipal WWTPs in Ontario are required to meet the general ef-
    fluent limits specified by the Ministry of the Environment in
    OMOE Policy 08-01 "Levels of Treatment of Municipal and Private
    Sewage Treatment works Discharging to Surface waters" and OMOE
    Policy 08-04 "Provision and Operation of Phosphorus Removal Faci-
    lities at Municipal, Institutional and Private sewage Works".
    This latter policy has not been applied to the Sault Ste. Marie
    East End WWTP.   However, the GLWQA, Annex 3, does call for phos-
    phorus controls of 1 mg/L on municipal waste water treatment
    facilities in the Great Lakes Basin with flows exceeding 3.7 x
    10-3 m^/d.  A primary plant (e.g. East End WWTP) without phospho-
    rus removal must achieve, on a annual average basis, a 30% remo-
    val of BODj and a 50% removal of suspended solids (see Table III-
    1,  Chapter III).
    
    The West End WWTP, which is a secondary plant with phosphorus
    removal, is expected to meet the following Certificate of Ap-
    proval requirements on the basis of arithmetic means of a minimum
    of 12 consecutive month analytical results from a minimum of one
    daily composite sample per month: BOD5 and suspended solids, 20
    mg/L; total phosphorus, 1.0 mg/L; total phenol, 0,01 mg/L; am-
    monia, 8 mg/L;  and residual chlorine, 0.5 mg/L.
    
    A model by-law ("By-Law to Control Industrial Waste Discharges to
    Municipal Sewers") was prepared by the OMOE and has been adopted
    by the city of Sault Ste. Marie.  The by-law is intended to en-
    sure the protection of WWTPs (including collection and disposal
    facilities) and to regulate the discharge of industrial wastes to
    municipal sewers.
    
    The "Sault Ste. Marie Sewer By-Law" was passed in August 1968 and
    amended in April 1969.  This by-law specifically regulates the
    discharge of conventional pollutants, metals and total phenols to
    sanitary and storm sewers.  Other materials such as radioactive
    waste, benzene, gasoline and solvents are strictly prohibited.
    Cooling water or other unpolluted industrial water cannot be
    discharged to a sanitary sewer  (City of Sault Ste. Marie, 1969).
    
    
    Michigan
    
    The effluent limitations contained in the NPDES Permit for the
    Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan WWTP are based upon application of
    regulations promulgated in accordance with the Federal Water
    Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and the State of Michi-
        Water Quality Standards.  The permit includes limits for BODj
    - 30 mg/L monthly average, 45 mg/L 7-day average; pH - minimum
    6,5, maximum 9,0; suspended solids - 30 mg/L monthly average, 45
    mg/L 7-day average; and total phosphorus -  1.0 mg/L monthly
    average.  Prom May  1 to October  15 of each year fecal coliform
    

    -------
                                   200
    
    bacteria limits are 200/100 nil on a monthly average and 400/100
    ml on a 7-day average.  Effective January 1991 the 7-day average
    total residual chlorine in the effluent must not exceed 0,03
    mg/L.
    
    
    2.  Actual Discharges vs. Control Requirements
    
    Ontario
    
         i)  Algomai Steel
    
    The levels of oil and grease and suspended solids associated with
    Algoma Steel's Terminal Basins discharges are periodically in
    excess of the Control Order's current requirements  (Table VI-28)-
    These exceedences have been referred to OMOE Investigations and
    Enforcement Branch for further action.  The self-monitoring data
    indicated that discharges of cyanide and ammonia from the Term-
    inal Basins were above the limits scheduled for February 15, 1989
    (Figure VI-32).  The combined effect of ammonia and cyanide dis-
    charging from the Terminal Basins constitutes toxic conditions.
    Bioassays on effluent samples collected from the Algoma Steel
    complex indicated that the Bar and Strip Lagoon effluent     the
    most toxic discharge to the river.  The 5€ hr LCjp for the Bar
    and Strip Lagoon effluent ranged from 2,2% to 100%.  The Terminal
    Basins' effluent 96-hr LCgg ranged from 51% to 96% effluent in
    1987.  In the first quarter of 1988 the Terminal Basins' effluent
    96-hr LC-5Q ranged from 7% to 52%.
    
    There are no limits set in the Control Order for PAH compounds
    despite their presence at appreciable amounts in Algonia dis-
    charges.  There are no zinc effluent limits set in the amended
    control order since measurement through self-monitoring or pilot
    site investigation programs indicated average concentrations less
    than the OMOE guideline of 1 mg/L.  On occasion, however, daily
    levels of zinc from the Bar and Strip Lagoon exceeded the 1 mg/L
    level.  The MISA pilot site investigation in 1986 revealed that
    12% of samples exceeded 1 mg/L,
    
        ii)  St. Marys Paper
    
    The St, Marys Paper Certificate of Approval  {C of A) contains
    limits for only suspended solids.  Currently, the suspended
    solids loading  {3 tonnes/d) is well below the C of A requirement
     (Table VI-28),
    
        iii)  Municipal WWTPs
    
    The East End WWTP must achieve, on an annual average basis, a  30%
    removal of 8005 and a 50% removal of suspended,  solids.   In  1985
    and  1986 the annual average removal  for BOD5 was  39% and 54%,
    respectively.  The annual average total phosphorus  concentration
    

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                                   201
    
    was 4,2 mg/L in 1985 and 3.4 mg/L in 1986,  Thus, the 8005 and
    suspended solids requirements were both met in 1985 and 1986;
    however, the annual average total phosphorus concentration was
    above the GLWQA objective of 1.0 mg/L.
    
    During the survey, the average BOD5 removal was 17% and the total
    suspended solids removal 65% (Table VI-280.  Effluent total phos-
    phorus ranged from 2.8 to 3.1 mg/L,  The implementation of phosp-
    horus removal facilities, currently scheduled for January 1989,
    would be necessary to bring the total phosphorus concentration
    below 1 mg/L.  Such facilities would also improve the reduction
    of BOD5 and suspended solids.  With phosphorus removal facilities
    in place, this plant would also be required to achieve 50% remo-
    val of BODs and 70% removal of suspended solids on an annual
    basis.
    
    The West End WWTP has only been on line since March 1986.  During
    the first three months of operation the average effluent con-
    centration of total phosphorus exceeded 1.0 mg/L.  However, since
    then the plant has consistently met this requirement.  The BOD5
    and suspended solids 20 mg/L limit was achieved on an annual
    basis and, except for BOD§ in March 1986, the monthly averages
    have been consistently below 20 mg/L,
    
    
    Michigan
    
    The City of Sault Ste. Marie WWTP was not surveyed for the UGLCC
    Study,  Because this plant was upgraded to secondary treatment in.
    1985  (on line 1986), historical effluent quality data collected
    prior to this period is no longer applicable.  The compliance
    evaluation based on monthly average concentrations from November
    1986 to October 1987 indicated the plant was in  full compliance
    its WPDES permit for BOD5, suspended solids, pH  and phosphorus
    (Table VI-28).
    
    
    3.  Adequacy of Control Mechanisms
    
    Control Orders
    
    Models developed for the St. Marys River were used to assess the
    adequacy of effluent requirements stated in the  Control Order  for
    Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd.  The regulatory mixing zone of 300 m is
    considered as the allowable zone beyond which no exceedence of
    water quality objectives is permitted under the  expected range of
    natural conditions.  This is based on an assessment of the sig-
    nificance of sites for aquatic, biological and/or human contact.
    The 300 m zone is recognized as a somewhat arbitrary limit and,
    after consideration by the RAP process, could be altered.
    

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    Table VI-26 indicates the existing discharges from Algoma Steel
    are exceeding a 300 m regulatory zone.  Table VI-29 indicates the
    loading requirements which will result in levels complying with
    the OMOE and GLWQA at the boundary of the regulatory zone under
    average summer river flows.  Ammonia and cyanide loadings of
    7,000 and 95 kg/d will ensure no toxic effect at the end of the
    Terminal Basins'  outfall.  Levels at the boundary of the regula-
    tory zone will be nontoxic during medium and low river flows.
    The phenol loading requirements  (19 kg/d) in the Control Order
    will result in an exceedence during low river flow conditions but
    with a frequency of 0.1%,
    
    Loadings of oil and grease and suspended solids stated in the
    Control Order may not be adequate to protect aquatic life in the
    river.  An assumption that the concentrations of oil and grease
    and suspended sediment within the water column not exceed the
    background levels by more than 10% at the edge of the regulatory
    zone is used to provide adequate protection for aquatic organisms
    (e.g. Hexagenia).  Based on this assumption, the Control Order
    requirements may have to be decreased to 950 kg/d for oil and
    grease and 1,900 kg/d for suspended solids.  These loadings
    should be reduced further by about half to meet the requirements
    of the regulatory zone during low flow conditions.  Limiting the
    oil and grease loadings to about 480 kg/d, should allow the reco-
    very of aquatic organisms that were adversely affected by oil and
    grease discharges.
    
    
    4.  Ontario Regulatory Initiatives
    
    Under Ontario's new MISA Program  (Chapter III) effluent limit
    regulations will be developed on the basis of Best Available
    Technology Economically Achievable, for Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd.,
    St. Marys Paper and the two Sault Ste, Marie WWTP's  (to be promu-
    lgated by 1990/1991).
    

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                                    TABLE VI-29
    
    
                Adequacy of effluent requirements for Algoma Steel.
    Parameters
    Control Order Loadings
    
           (kg/d)
    Loading Requirements (kg/d)
    
    to Acheive the Regulatory
    
    Zone (300 m)
    Ammonia
    Cyanide
    Phenol
    Oil and grease
    Suspended solids
    Reduce ammonia and cyanide
    to levels below the diagonal
    line (Fig.VI-32)
    
    22. 7
    1,023
    5 , 100
    7,000
    95
    19
    950
    1 ,900
                                                                                              to
                                                                                              o
                                                                                              1*1
    

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                                   204
    
    H,   RECOMMENDATIONS
    
    Surveys of sediment quality, benthic community structure and
    water quality have revealed an impacted zone along the Ontario
    shore downstream of the industrial and municipal discharges.
    This zone was characterized by an impaired benthic community,
    contaminated sediments (zinc, cyanide, oil and grease, phenols,
    PAHs) and elevated concentrations of phenols, PAHs, iron, zinc,
    cyanide, phosphorus, ammonia, and fecal coliform bacteria in
    surface waters.  Notwithstanding reductions in Algoma Steel ef-
    fluents, impacts still exist in the benthic community in the
    river.  Generally, the studies revealed that biota, sediments and
    water quality along the Michigan shore of the St. Marys River and
    in Lake Nicolet were good.
    
    Based on these findings,  the following recommendations are made
    in support of remedial programs already underway and to address
    the goals identified in Section P,
    
    
    A,  Industrial and Municipal Point Source Remedial Recommendations
    
    1.     Ontario and Michigan should incorporate the Great Lakes
          Water Quality Agreement's goal of the virtual elimination
          of all persistent toxic substances into their respective
          regulatory programs,
    
    2.     Algoma Steel which was the major contributor of ammonia,
          phenols, oil and grease, cyanide and suspended solids must
          continue to reduce loadings of these substances to meet the
          requirements of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment
          Control Order, the compliance dates of which should be
          strongly enforced.   This recommendation is subject to reco-
          mmendations 8 to 10, below.
    
    3.     The Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario East End WWTP should be equi-
          pped with phosphorus removal in order to bring the total
          phosphorus concentration in the final effluent down to the
          required 1 mg/L  (this is expected to be on-line in 1989).
    
    4.     The treatment capacity of the East End WWTP is frequently
          exceeded.  To reduce the frequency of plant overflows and
          bypasses this plant must be upgraded to provide secondary
          treatment and expanded, or a portion of the wastewater must
          be rerouted to the West End WWTP.
    
    The  Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario East End WWTP contributed the
    highest loadings of benzene-chloroethers and was the second high-
    est  contributor of oil and grease, ammonia, chloride, total me-
    tals, volatiles, PAHs, chlorinated phenols and phthalates.  Elev-
    ated levels of PAHs and chlorinated phenols were observed only on
    the  first day  of  sampling, presumably due to an  industrial  spill
    

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    into the sanitary system.
    
    5.    The municipality,  with the support of the OMOE, take steps
          to strictly enforce the Sault ste. Marie Sewer By-Law and
          thus prevent the discharge of untreated industrial wastes
          to municipal sewers.  The municipality and/or OMOE should
          also initiate an educational program to discourage home
          owners from disposing of hazardous or toxic waste in sew-
          ers.
    
    6.    Discharges of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci from
          Algoma Steel, WWTPs and combined sewer overflows must be
          reduced to meet Provincial Water Quality objectives.
    
    7.    The A.B. McLean aggregate extraction operations is poten-
          tially a significant source of suspended solids to the St.
          Marys River.  The current, permitted extraction must be
          closely monitored and the requirements must be strictly
          enforced.  Furthermore, the pending permit application must
          not be issued until a comprehensive environmental review
          indicates that the increased activity would not result in
          unacceptable adverse impacts.
    
    In moving toward the virtual elimination of persistent toxic
    substances, future toxic controls will place increased emphasis
    on the ambient conditions of the St. Marys River ecosystem.
    
    8.    Discharge limits for point sources should be based on mix-
          ing zones with all water quality objectives met at the
          boundary of the mixing zone.  This zone is expected to be
          reduced  {ultimately to zero) as advances in treatment tech-
          nology are implemented.
    
    9.    Depending on the parameter, Algoma Steel samples their
          effluent on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.  Most of the
          controlled parameters are based on 12 month averages.  Due
          to the variability in effluent characteristics* sampling
          should be more frequent.  The frequency and type of samp-
          ling should be re-evaluated and audit sampling by OMOE
          should be increased.
    
    10.   Additional parameters, such as PAHs, should be regulated
          and incorporated into Algoma's monitoring program,
    
    
    B. Nonpoint Source Remedial Recommendations
    
    Concentrations and estimates of loadings from urban runoff are
    available only for the Ontario  side.  Estimates of atmospheric
    deposition on  the Ontario side  of the river indicated that sig-
    nificant amounts of PAHs might  reach the river through the storm
    sewers.  For rural runoff, loading estimates were available only
    

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                                   206
    
    for the Michigan side.
    
    11.   Ontario and Michigan should conduct additional stud-
          ies £or both urban and rural runoff to better iden-
          tify and quantify loadings of trace inorganic and
          organic compounds.
    
    Several active and inactive waste sites in Michigan and Ontario
    were identified as having the potential for contributing con-
    taminants to the St. Marys River.  These studies have been limit-
    ed in scope and do not quantify the magnitude of the contaminant
    loadings entering the river.
    
    12.   Investigate the kinds of contaminants, the pathways of
          contamination  (surface water and groundwater), and the
          magnitude of the contaminant flux; establish monitoring
          networks as required; and undertake necessary remedial
          clean-up activities at the following waste sites:
    
          i) the Algoma Slag Site;
    
          ii) Cannelton Industries Tannery disposal site  (under CER-
          CLA authority);
    
          iii) Union Carbide and Superior Sanitation landfills (under
          Michigan Act 307).
    
    13.   Spill containment must be improved at both industrial and
          municipal facilities to minimize the frequency of shock
          loadings to the aquatic ecosystem.  This will entail spill
          prevention, development of contingency plans to deal with
          material reaching the river and following established proc-
          edures for the reporting of spills.
    
    
    C. Surveys, Research and Development
    
    14.   Many PAHs have been shown to be bioaccumulative or to have
          toxic effects on aquatic organisms and some are proven car-
          cinogens.  The absence of specific, numerical water quality
          standards makes it difficult to regulate the discharge of
          PAHs.  An accelerated effort to assess the ecological sig-
          nificance of PAHs and to develop compound specific criteria
          is required.
    
    15.   There are no regulatory guidelines 'to permit assessment of
          the biological significance of sediment associated con-
          taminants .  Development of such guidelines is required to
          aid in site-specific evaluations of contaminated sediments.
    
    16.   Impacts  to benthic macroinvertebrate communities have been
          related  to sediment quality.  Further site specific work
    

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          must be completed to prioritize sediment "hot spots" based
          on biological impacts.   In addition,  physical and chemical
          characteristics of the  sediment should be evaluated.  This
          information will be used to determine appropriate remedial
          actions for sediments.   Suggested studies include acute and
          chronic sediment bioassays as well as physical/chemical and
          bedload assessments.
    
    17.    The development of water quality based effluent limits for
          specific PAH compounds  requires additional monitoring of
          point source discharges (water as well as air)  and deter-
          mination of PAH concentrations in resident aquatic indicat-
          or species.
    
    18.    There is a paucity of data on the near-field atmospheric
          deposition of metals and organics.  This information should
          be obtained, and evaluated relative to other sources (e.g.
          effluents, urban runoff, Lake Superior)  to the river.
    
    19.    Suspended solids are of concern due to their ability to
          deposit contaminants locally or to transport them long
          distances, before settling out.  An investigation of the
          combined effects of suspended solids discharges from Algoma
          Steel, St. Marys Paper, and WWTPs should be completed.
          This may involve a sediment transport modeling effort that
          considers the sources,  transport and ultimate deposition of
          sediment and contaminants.  This study would also allow
          prioritization of sources'for remedial action.
    
    20.    The NPDES Permit for the Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan WWTP
          includes effluent limits for 8005, pH, suspended solids,
          total phosphorus, fecal coliform, and residual chlorine.
          No loadings were measured for UGLCCS parameters during the
          1986 survey period.  Although no adverse impacts on the
          river ecosystem have been observed, trace contaminant load-
          ings from this facility should be determined to verify the
          absence of environmentally significant loadings to the
          river.
    
    21,    The OMOS has issued fish, consumption advisories for many
          large game fish due to mercury contamination.  Although the
          main source of mercury is believed to be natural, there are
          potential sources in the Sault Ste. Marie urban area.
          Mercury has been detected, for example,  in all point source
          effluents and in stormwater in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.
          Therefore, it is recommended that a study to determine the
          relative contributions of background and urban source(s) of
          mercury be completed.
    
    22,    Fecal coliform bacteria densities were detected in river
          water downstream of the Edison Sault Power Canal in
          Michigan.  Further  sampling must be conducted to determine
    

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          whether Michigan's fecal coliform standard is being ex-
          ceeded and,  if so, to identify the source{s}  and appropri-
          ate remedial action.
    
    23.    For chemicals where ambient data and standards are avail-
          able,  the agencies must develop an ecosystem model.  The
          model  should provide insight into the fate of chemicals
          entering and leaving the river by various pathways as well
          as a systematic process for predicting the relative effect-
          iveness of proposed corrective actions.
    
    24.    Although the current water quality objective for oil and
          grease is narrative {i.e. no visible sheen),  a numerical
          objective should be developed that is based on no adverse
          impacts on sediment quality and associated benthos.
    

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    I.  LONG TERM MONITORING
    
    1.  UGLCCS vs.  Other Monitoring Programs
    
    A presentation of the purposes for monitoring and surveillance
    activities is included under Annex 11 of the GLWQA and a discus-
    sion of considerations for the design of a long term monitoring
    program can be found in Chapter 7 of the Report of the Niagara
    River Toxics Committee (59) .   Because the focus of the UGLCC
    Study was toward remedial actions to alleviate impaired uses of
    the Connecting Channels System, long term monitoring recommenda-
    tions will likewise focus on the evaluation of trends in environ-
    mental quality in order to assess the effectiveness of remedial
    actions.  In general, post-UGLCCS monitoring should be sufficient
    to 1} detect trends in conditions noted by the UGLCCS, and 2}
    detect changes in ambient conditions which have resulted from
    remedial actions.  Monitoring programs should be designed to
    specifically detect the changes intended by the remedial actions
    so as to ensure relevance in both temporal and spatial scales,
    
    Two major programs sponsored by the IJC also contain plans for
    long term monitoring: the Great Lakes International Surveillance
    Plan (GLISP) and the Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) for Areas of
    Concern  (AoC's) identified by the IJC.  The GLISP for the Upper
    Great Lakes Connecting channels is presently incomplete, pending
    results of the UGLCC Study, but it is expected to provide moni-
    toring and surveillance guidance to U.S. and Canadian agencies
    responsible for implementing the provisions of the GLWQA that
    include general surveillance and research needs as well as moni-
    toring for results of remedial actions.
    
    The St. Marys River is one of the AoCs, and a RAP is being devel-
    oped jointly by Michigan and Ontario.  The RAP will identify uses
    impaired, sources of contaminants, desired use goals, target
    clean-up levels, specific remedial options, schedules for im-
    plementation, resource commitments by Michigan and Ontario as
    well as by the federal governments, municipalities and industries
    and monitoring requirements to assess the effectiveness of the
    remedial options implemented.  Results and recommendations coming
    from the UGLCC Study will be incorporated extensively into the
    RAP, which will then be the document that influences federal,
    state and provincial programs for the St. Marys River,  The reco-
    mmendations for long term monitoring that are presented below are
    intended for consideration and incorporation into either or both
    the GLISP and RAP for the St. Marys River.
    

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    2.   System Monitoring for Contaminants
    
    Water
    
    Knowledge of the concentrations of the principal contaminants in
    the water of the St. Marys River should be used to indicate gene-
    ral exposure levels for the biota, to identify changes and trends
    over time in the concentration levels, and to be used for general
    assessment of contaminant impacts.  The parameters to be monito-
    red include phenols, iron, cyanide, ammonia, total PAHs, oil and
    grease, benzo(a)pyrene, and ether solubles.  Monitoring stations
    should provide information on contaminant concentrations through-
    out the river.  For continuity, these should include the sampling
    transects identified in this study (i.e., SMU 1.0 and 0,5; SMD
    0.2, 1.0, 1.2, 2.6, 4.2E, and 5,OE),   Sampling frequency should
    be influenced by the variability in contaminant sources.  Spring
    high flow conditions and late summer low flow conditions would be
    expected to bracket the normal seasonal variability in flow that
    could influence measured contaminant concentrations.
    
    A mass balance approach to contaminant monitoring will help to
    identify any changes in the contaminant mass over time, and it
    will provide the basis for targeting future remedial actions by
    providing a comparison of the magnitude of the sources.  A mass
    balance analysis should be conducted approximately once every
    five years, assuming that some effective remedial action has been
    implemented against one or more sources such that the total load-
    ings of contaminants, or the relative contribution of the sources
    to the loading, has changed.  The sources to be measured should
    include:
    
    1)     Head and mouth transects for upstre'ara and downstream bound-
          ary movements.  The number and locations of stations should
          relate to measured or predicted plume distributions.  Sug-
          gested locations include Point Aux Pins, the head of Sugar
          Island, and  the downstream end of Lake George and Lake
          Nicolet.  Both dissolved and particulate fractions should
          be analyzed.  The quantity of suspended sediment flux sho-
          uld also be  measured.
    
    2)     Municipal and industrial point sources.  During the survey,
          the sampling must be frequent enough to accurately reflect
          the likely loading fluctuations from the major point sour-
          ces.  The sources include the major outfalls of Algoma
          Steel, St. Marys Paper, and the East End WWTP, the West End
          WWTP and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan WWTP.
    
    3)     Tributaries.  Preliminary assessment has shown that con-
          tributions from  tributaries to the St. Marys River are
          secondary to the industrial and municipal point sources.
          These  findings should be confirmed periodically.
    

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                                   211
    
    4)     CSOs and Runoff,   To provide an estimate of contaminant
          mass loadings expected during storm events, occasional
          studies on selected urban drainage areas should be con-
          ducted.  Estimates should be made for all urban and agri-
          cultural runoff on both sides of the river.
    
    5)     Groundwater inflow.  Groundwater monitoring systems de-
          signed to detect potential loadings to the St. Marys River
          need to be installed at the Algoma Slag Site and at
          Cannelton Industries Tannery disposal site following re-
          mediation.  The existing monitoring system at the Cherokee
          Landfill should be utilized to detect potential loadings to
          the river.
    
    6}     Sediment transport.  Preliminary studies indicate that bed-
          load sediments moving into and out of the St. Marys River
          carry contaminant masses similar to, or exceeding the other
          sources.  The mass flux should be quantified.
    
    7}     Atmospheric deposition.  Direct atmospheric deposition of
          contaminants to the St. Marys River is expected to be
          minor.  Deposition to the drainage basin and subsequent
          runoff into the river or its tributaries, however, could be
          an important source for some contaminants.  Estimates of
          contaminant mass in both wet and dry deposition to the
          drainage basin should be made when unidentified nonpoint
          sources are found to be a major contributor of any of the
          contaminants of interest.
    Sediments
    
    Monitoring of sediments for concentrations of contaminants should
    be conducted periodically throughout the St. Marys River in order
    to assess both the trends in surficial contaminant concentrations
    and the movement of sediment-associated contaminants within the
    river.  The grid used by the U.S.FWS during the 1985 survey would
    be appropriate for consistency in sampling sites and sediment
    composition.  An analysis of sediment chemistry including both
    bulk chemistry, organic and inorganic contaminants, and particle
    size distribution should be conducted every 5 years, in conjunc-
    tion with a biota survey (see "habitat monitoring" below).  In
    the St. Marys River, particular attention should be given to
    sediment concentrations of oil and grease, phenols, cyanide, and
    PAHs.
    
    Because the grid stations are distributed throughout the river
    reach and are associated with appropriate habitat  for a sensitive
    benthic invertebrate  (Hexagenia), the periodic survey will allow
    assessment of 1) contaminant distribution throughout the river
    sediments, 2) relative movement of the contaminants within the
    river sediments between surveys, and 3} correlation of contamin-
    

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                                   212
    
    ant concentrations with benthic biotic communities.
    
    The sediment at any stations established 'at the mouths of tribu-
    taries to the St. Marys River should be monitored for organic and
    inorganic contaminants on an annual or biannual basis when sig-
    nificant remedial actions are implemented within the watershed
    for the tributary.  The remedial actions should be expected to
    measurably reduce loadings of one or more particular contaminants
    via the tributary in order to trigger the more frequent sediment
    monitoring programs.
    
    
    Biota
    
    Long term monitoring of concentrations of contaminants in biota
    will provide a time series useful to track the bioavailability of
    contaminants to selected representative organisms.  Three long-
    term monitoring programs are already in place and should be con-
    tinued:
    
        i)  Annual or bi-annual monitoring of sport fish.
    
    This program should focus especially on PAHs, mercury, and PCBs.
    The monitoring should be continued regardless of the differences
    that may be observed between acceptable concentrations or action
    levels that may be established by governmental agencies and the
    measured contaminant concentrations in the fish flesh.  As a link
    between human health concerns and integrated results of remedial
    programs to reduce contaminants in the UGLCC System, this program
    is critically important.
    
        ii)  Spottail shiner monitoring program.
    
    This program is designed to identify source areas for bioavail-
    able contaminants.  In locations where spottail shiners contain
    elevated levels of contaminants, additional studies should be
    conducted to identify the sources of the contaminants.  Some
    upstream studies  in tributaries may be required.  Spottails sho-
    uld also be employed to confirm that remedial actions have been
    effective in removing or reducing the loading of one or more
    contaminants.
    
        iii)  Caged clams contaminants monitoring.
    
    Caged clams should continue to be used at regular time intervals,
    perhaps in conjunction with spottail shiners, to monitor inte-
    grated results of remedial actions to reduce contaminant loadings
    to the water.  Clams may be located at tributary mouths and down-
    stream of suspected source areas.  Repeated assays  from the same
    locations should  confirm results of remedial actions.
    

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                                   213
    
           iv)  Benthic survey
    
    The macrozoobenthic community should be evaluated at least every
    3 years.  As a minimum, the abundance and distribution of the
    mayfly Hexagenia should be determined to serve as an indicator
    species of environmental quality.  The grid used by the U.S.FWS
    during the 1985 survey {Figure VI-20) would be appropriate for
    consistency in sampling sites each survey.  An analysis of sed-
    iment chemistry, including bulk chemistry, organic, inorganic and
    extractable (available) contaminants, and, particle-size distribu-
    tion, should be conducted for samples taken concurrently with the
    macrozoobenthic survey.  These data will provide information on
    the quality of the benthic habitat.
    
            v)  Toxicity testing
    
    Sediment toxicity tests, using whole sediment and. sediment pore
    water or elutriate should be conducted at selected sites in con-
    junction with the benthic survey.  Results will assist to dif-
    ferentiate between toxicity and substrate or dissolved oxygen
    effects.
    3,  Sources Monitoring
    
    Remedial actions intended to reduce concentrations and/or load-
    ings of contaminants from specific point sources generally re-
    quire monitoring for compliance with the imposed criteria or
    standards for permittee! contaminants.  The monitoring may be
    conducted by the facility or by the regulating agency, whichever
    is applicable, but attention must be given to the sampling sched-
    ule and analytical methodology such that mass loadings of the
    contaminants can be estimated, as well as concentrations in the
    sampled medium.  Monitoring of the "near-field" environment,
    i.e., close downstream in the effluent mixing zone, should be
    conducted regularly to document reductions in contaminant levels
    in the appropriate media and to document the recovery of impaired
    ecosystem processes and biotic communities.  Such monitoring may
    be required for a "long time", but over a restricted aerial ex-
    tent, depending on the severity of the impact and the degree of
    reduction of contaminant loading that is achieved.
    
    For the St. Marys River, four actions were recommended that would
    affect specific sources of contaminants:
    
    a}    Reduction of toxic substances from Algoma Steel effluents,
          especially at the Terminal Basins.  Reductions in loadings
          of phenol, cyanide, ammonia, oil and grease, and suspended
          solids are expected as a result of new effluent limitations
          imposed as part of the MISA program.  Monitoring of sed-
          iments and biota for contaminant concentrations and effects
          downstream of the effluent should be conducted regularly to
    

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                                   214
    
          document any improvement in environmental conditions,
    
    b)    Enforcement of the regulatory mixing zone for the Sault
          Ste.  Marie, Ontario East End WWTP.  Ontario must design a
          monitoring plan adequate to determine that all water qual-
          ity objectives are met at the boundary of the regulatory
          zone, and to determine if adverse environmental effects
          continue in the sediments and biota despite compliance with
          water quality objectives,
    
    c)    Enforcement of the Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario Sewer By-Law
          to prevent the discharge of untreated industrial wastes or
          contaminants disposed by homeowners into municipal sewers,
          Ontario will provide additional monitoring, inspection and
          enforcement tools £or implementing controls of toxic dis-
          charges to sewer systems,  The monitoring component must
          include assessment of continuing environmental effects in
          sediments and. biota downstream of the sewer outfall, as
          well as monitoring for concentrations of selected contamin-
          ants in the sewer influent.
    
    d)    Equip the Sault St. Marie, Ontario, East End WWTP with
          phosphorus removal facilities.  Frequent in-plant monitor-
          ing will be required to document that the target discharge
          limit of 1 mg/L is being met.
    
    Other recommendations for specific contaminant sources involve an
    assessment of the present conditions or a study to quantify con-
    centrations or loadings: review of PAHs for risk and hazard in-
    formation ; assess the need for further reduction of suspended
    solids from St. Marys Paper," quantify trace contaminants from the
    Sault St. Marie, Michigan WWTP, estimate loadings of trace or-
    ganic and inorganic compounds  from urban and rural runoff, and
    quantify potential releases of contaminants from waste disposal
    sites.  Each of these items requires a specific program of data
    collection and analysis.  Additional needs for longer term moni-
    toring may be identified as a  result of these studies.
    
    
    4,    Habitat monitoring
    
    Habitat monitoring should be conducted to detect and describe
    changes in the ecological characteristics of the St. Marys River
    through periodic analysis of key ecosystem elements.  In par-
    ticular, quantification of the extent of wetlands along the St.
    Marys River should be conducted every three years.  Aerial pho-
    tography or other remote sensing means would be appropriate to
    discern both emergent and submergent macrophyte beds that are
    important as nursery areas for larval fish and other wildlife.
    Verification of  aerial data should be conducted by inspection of
    selected transects for plant species Identification and abun-
    dances.  Changes in wetland areas  should be correlated with flue-
    

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                                   215
    
    tuating water levels and other natural documentable influences so
    that long term alterations in wetlands can be tracked and causes
    identified.
    

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    J.  REFERENCES
    
    1.      Duffy, W.G. and T. R. Batterson and C.D. McNabb.  1987.
            The St. Marys River, Michigan: An ecological profile,
            U.S. Serv. Biol.  Rep.  85 (7.10). 138 pp,
    
    2.      Liston, C.R.,  W.G. Duffy, D.E, Ashton, C.D. McNabb, and
            F.E. Koeler.  1980.  Environmental baseline and evalua-
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    3.      Liston, C.R.,  C.D. McNabb, W.G. Duffy, D. Ashton, R.
            Ligman, F. Koehler, J. Bohr, G. Fleischer, J, Schuette,
            and R. Yanusz. 1983.  Environmental baseline studies of
            the St. Marys River near Neebish Island, Michigan, prior
            to proposed extension of the navigation season.  U.S.
            Fish Wildl. Serv. FWS/OBS-80/62.2.  202 pp & appendix,
    
    4.      Liston, C.R.,  C.D. McNabb, D. Brazo, J. Bohr, J. Craig,
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            Ligman, R. O'Neal, M. Siami, and P. Roettger. 1986.
            Limnological and  fisheries studies of the St. Marys
            River, Michigan,   in relation to proposed extension of the
            navigation season, 1982 and 1983. Mich. State Univ.,
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            FWS/OBS-80/62.3.   764 pp & appendices.
    
    5.      Koshinsky, G.D. and C.J. Edwards. 1983.  The fish and
            fisheries of the  St. Marys Rapids "An analysis of status
            with reference to water discharge and with particular
            reference to "Condition 1(b)".  Report to the Int. Joint
            Comm.  164 pp.  & Appendices.
    
    6.      Weise, F.T, 1985. Waterfowl, Raptor, and Colonial Bird
            Records for the St. Marys River, Mich. DNR. Unpubl. Rept.
    
    7.      Robinson, W.L. and R.W. Jensen. 1980. Effects of Winter
            Navigation on Waterfowl and Raptors in the St. Marys
            River Area. U.S.   COE Rept. DACW-35-30-Y-D194.
    
    8.      Scharf, W.C. 1978. Colonial Birds Nesting on Man-made and
            Natural Sites in  the U.S. Great Lakes. U.S. COE Tech.
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    9.      Scharf, W.C. 1979. Nesting and Migration Areas of Birds
            of  the U.S. Great Lakes. U.S. FWS Rept. FWS/OBS-77/2, 363
            pp.
    
    10.     Hamdy, Y., J.D. Kinkead, and M, Griffiths.  1978.
            St. Marys  River Water  Quality  Investigations,  1973-
            74.   OMOE, Water  Resources Branch,  Toronto, Ont.
    

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    11.      Fischer,  H.B.  1969,  The Effects of Bends on Dispersion In
            Streams,  Water Resources Research, vol. 2.
    
    12.      Hamdy,  Y, and G.J. LaHaye. 1983. St Marys River
            Water Quality Investigations. OMOE, Toronto.
    
    13.      CCREM  Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines.
            1985.  Inventory on Water Quality Guidelines and
            Objectives 1984.
    
    14.      Neff,  J.M. (1979).   Polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
            bons in the aquatic environment.  Applied Sci.
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    15.      Bass, O.K. and J. Saxena  (1979).  Polynuclear arom-
            atic hydro   carbons in selected U.S. drinking
            waters and their raw water sources. Environ. Sci.
            Technol.  12: 795-798.
    
    16.      Williams, D.T., E.R. Nestmann, G.L. LeBel, P.M.
            Benoit and R.  Otson. (1982).  Determination of
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    17.      Eadie,  Brian J.  (1983).  Partitioning of polycyclic
            aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and pore waters
            of Lake Michigan.  Geochim.  Cosmochim. Acta. in
            press.
    
    18.      Oliver,B.C. (1986).   Partitioning Relationships for
            Chlorinated Organics on Particulates in the St.
            Clair,  Detroit and Niagara Rivers.  In: QSAR in
            Environmental Toxicology. K.L.E. Kaiser, ed. D.
            Reidel Publishing Co.
    
    19.      Edsall, T. A., P.B.  Kauss, D, Kenaga, T. Kubiak, J.
            Leach,  M. Munawar, T. Nalepa, S. Thornley. 1987.
            St. Marys River Biota and their Habitats: A Geo-
            graphic Area  Report of the Biota Workgroup, Upper
            Great Lakes  Connecting Channels Study.  December
            1987.
    
    20.      Edwards,  C.J., P.L.  Hudson, w.G. Duffy, S.J,
            Nepszy, C.D. McNabb R.C. Haas, C.R. Liston, B,
            Manny,  and W.D. Busch.  1988. Hydrological, mor-
            phometrical, and biological characteristics of the
            connecting rivers of the International Great Lakes:
            a review. Can. J. Fish. Aquat,  Sci. 44.  (In press).
    
    21.      Poe, T.P., and T.A. Edsall.  1982.  Effects of
            vessel-induced waves on the composition and amount
    

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                                   218
    
            of drift in an ice environment in the St. Marys
            River,   U.S.  Fish, Wildl. Serv.,  GLFL/AR-8Q/6 Ann
            Arbor.   45 pp.
    
    22.      Jude,  D.J., M, Winnell, M.S. Evan's, P.J. Tesar and.
            R. Futyma, 1986.  Drift of zooplankton, benthos and
            larval fish  and distribution of macrophytes and
            larval fish during winter and summer 1985,  Univer-
            sity of Michigan, Great Lakes Research Div. 174 pp
            + Appendices.
    
    23,      Nichols, S.J., D.W. Schloesser, T.A. Edsall and
            B.A, Manny. 1987. Drifting Submersed Macrophytes in
            the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels.  United
            States Fish and Wildlife Service.  National Fisher-
            ies Centre; Great Lakes - pp. 14,
    
    24.      Hiltunen, J.K. 1979. Investigation of Macrobenthos
            in the St. Marys River during an experiment to
            extend navigation through winter,  1974-75.  U.S.
            Fish Wildl. Serv., Great Lalces Pish. Lab. Report,
            Ann Arbor. 98 pp,
    
    25.      Schirripa, M.J. 1983. Colonization and production
            estimates of  rock basket samplers in the St. Marys
            River, 1983.   Unpub. MS. Mich. State Univ., E.
            Lansing.
    
    26.      Veal, D.M. 1961.  Biological'survey of the St.
            Marys River.  Ont". Min. Environ... Water Resour,
            Corom. and Int. Joint Coirai. 23 pp' + app.
    
    2*7.      Hiltunen, J.K. and D.W. Schloesser, 1983.  The
            occurrence of oil and distribution of Hexagenia
             (Ephemeroptera;  Ephermeridae) nymphs in  the St.
            Marys River, Michigan and Ontario  Freshwat,
            Invertebr. Biol.  2   (43:199-203.
    
    28.      McKnee,  P.M., A.J, Burt, D.R. Hart. 1984.  Benthic
            Invertebrate  and Sediment  Survey  of the  St. Marys
            River,  1983.  I.E.G./Beak report prepared  for
            Ontario  Ministry  of  the  Environment, Mississauga,
            Ontario.
    
    29,      Burt,A.  J., D.R.  Hart, and  P.M. McKee.  1988.   Ben-
            thic invertebrate  and  sediment survey  of  the St.
            Marys River 1985.  Beak  Consultants Ltd.,  Missis-
             sauga,  Ontario,  Canada Prepared  for Ontario
            Ministry of the  Environment.
    
    30.      Schloesser, D.w,  et  al.,  1988.
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    31.      Persaud,  D,,  T.D. Lomas and A. Hayton. 1987.  The
            In-Place  Pollutants Program, Volume III, Phase I
            Studies.  OMOE,  Toronto.
    
    32.      Krantzberg,  W.  and Baily, 1983.
            (Sediment Size/Invertebrates)
    
    33.      International Joint Commission,  1983.  Annual
            Report. Report of the Ecosystem Objectives Commit-
            tee to the IJC, Windsor, Ont.
    
    34.      Ministry  of the Environment/Ministry of Natural
            Resources. 1988.  Guide to eating Ontario sport
            fish. Toronto,  Ontario.
    
    35.      Suns, K., G.E.  Crawford, D.D.  Russell, and R.E.
            Clement.  1985,   Temporal trends and spatial dis-
            tribution of  organochlorine and mercury residues
            in Great Lakes  spottail shiners (1975-83).
            Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
    
    36.      Zenon. 1985.   To Devise and Implement a Revised
            Monitoring  Scheme for Persistent and Toxic Or-
            ganics in the Great Lakes Sport Fish.  Report pre-
            pared for Ontario  Ministry of the Environment
            Inc., Burlington, Ontario, October 10, 1985.
    
    37.      Kobiak, T.J., H.J. Harris, L.M. Smith, T.R.
            Schwartz, D.L.  Stalling, J.A.  Trick, L. Sileo, D.S.
            Docherty and T.C. Erdman. 1988. Microcontaminants
            and Reproductive Impairment of the Forster's Tern
            on Green Bay, Lake Michigan - 1983. Arch. Env.
            Cont. Toxic.  (Submitted for Publication).
    
    38.      Hesselberg, R.J. and Y. Hamdy. 1987.  Current and
            historical contamination of sediment in the St.
            Marys River,  1987. UGLCCS Sediment Workgroup Re-
            port. 17  pp.
    
    39.      Oliver, B.C., J.A. Robbins, and Y.S, Hamdy. 1987,
            History of PAH and PCB contamination of the St.
            Marys River by anlaysis of Lake George sediment
            core.  (In review). National Water Research In-
            stitute,  Canada Centre for Inland Waters.
    
    40.      Orchard,  Ian and A. Mudrock.  1987.  Report on sedi-
            ments, water, and  the distribution of benthic or-
            ganisms in the St. Marys River in  1986.  Environ-
            mental Protection  service.  Ontario  Region,
            Toronto.
    

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    41.      Bertram,  P.,  T.A.  Edsall,  B.A.  Manny, S.J. Nichols,
            and D.W.  Schloesser. 1987. Physical and Chemical
            characteristics of sediment in the Upper Great
            Lakes Connecting  Channels, 1985.  Sediment Work-
            group - UGLCCS.  U.S.EPA/GLNPO.
    
    42.      Kauss, P.B.  1986.   Presentation to citizens hearing
            (Great  Lakes United)  on St. Marys River water
            pollution.  August 7,  1986, Sault Ste. Marie,
            Michigan.  Ontario Ministry of the Environment,
            Toronto,  Ontario,  Canada.  24 pp..
    
    43.      Pranckevicius, Pranas E. 1987.   Upper Great Lakes
            Connecting Channels Tributary Sediments.  A prelim-
            inary Data Report. U.S.EPA.
    
    44.      DAS, B.S. 1983.  Applications of HPLC to the anal-
            ysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in en-
            vironmental samples.  In Liquid chromatography
            environmental analyses, ed. J,F. Lawrence,  The
            Humana Press.
    
    45.      Larssen,  P.  1985 "Contaminated sediments of lakes
            and oceans act as sources of chlorinated hydrocar-
            bons for release to water and atmosphere.  Nature
            Vol. 317.
    
    46.      Munawar,  M.  1987.   Bioavailability and Toxicity of
            In-Place  Pollutants in the Upper Great Lakes Con-
            necting Channels.   Fisheries and Ocean Canada,
            Great Lakes Laboratories for Fisheries and Aquatic
            Sciences, Canada Centre for Inland waters,
            Burlington,  Ontario.
    
    47.      Duffy, W.G.  1985,   The population ecology of the
            damselfly, Lestes disjunctus disjunctus, in the St.
            Mary River,  Michigan. Ph.D. Diss, Mich. State
            Univ., East Lansing. 119 pp.
    
    48.      Holland,  L.E., and J.R. Sylvester. 1983.  Evalua-
            tion of simulated drawdown due to navigation traf-
            fic on eggs and larvae of two  fish species of the
            Upper Mississippi River.  U.S. Army  Corps Eng.
            Resp. Contract No. NCR-LO-83-C9.  Rock Island 111.
    
    49.     Point Source Workgroup Report.  1988.  St. Marys
            River Geographic Area,
    

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    50.      Marsalek,  J. and H.Y.F. Ng, 1987.  Contaminants in
            Urban Runoff in the Upper Great Lakes Connecting
            Channels Area.  National Water Research Institute,
            Burlington,  Ontario, Unpublished Report No. RRB-87-
            27.
    
    51.      Boom, A. and J. Marsalek. 1987.  Accumulation of
            Polyeyelie Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an Urban
            Snowpack,   National Water Research Institute, Bur-
            lington, Ontario, Unpublished Report No. RRB-87-
            62.
    
    52.      Lygren, E.,  E. Gjesaig, and L. Berglind. 1984.
            Pollution transport from a highway.  Sci.  Total
            Environ.,  33: 147-159.
    
    53.      Seifert, B.  and E. Lahmann.  1980. Luftstaub-
            Untersuchungen mit eier Hochleistutngs-eluessigkeits-
            Chromatographie.  In: Luftverunreingung durch poly-
            eyelisclie aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, V.D.I*
            Beriehte Nr. 358, Duesseldorf, pp. 127-131.
    
    54.      Nonpoint Source Workgroup 1988.  Upper Great Lakes
            Connecting Channel Study Nonpoint Source Workgroup
            Report Waste Disposal Sites     Potential Ground-
            water Contamination St. Marys River.
    
    55.      Liggett, J.A., and Hadjitheodorou1, C, 1969.  Cir-
            culation in shallow homogeneous lakes analysis.  J.
            Hyd. Div., ASCE. pp 609-620.
    
    56.      Ibrahim, K.A. , and Mccorquodale, J.A. 1985.  Finite
            element circulation model Cor Lake St. Clair.  J.
            Great Lakes Research, vol.11(3), p 208-222,  Inter-
            national Assoc. Great Lakes Research.
    
    57,      McCorquodale, J.A., and Yuen, E.M. 1987.  IRI 18-61
            "Report on St, Marys River Hydrodynamic     Dis-
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    58.      Rastogi, A.K. and Rodi, W. 1978.  Predictions of
            Head and      Transfer in Open Channels.  J. of
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    59,      Report of the Niagara River Toxics Committee. 1984,
            U.S. EPA;      ; Env. Can.;        .
    

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                               CHAPTER VII
                             ST. CLAIR RIVER
    A. STATUS OF THE ECOSYSTEM
    
    1.   Ecological Profile
    
    Watershed Characteristics
    
    The St. Clair River flows in a southerly direction forming the
    international boundary between the United States and Canada,
    This navigable waterway physically separates Lambton and Kent
    Counties in Ontario, and St. Clair County in Michigan,  The St.
    Clair River is not a typical river system, occupying an alluvial
    valley, but must technically be regarded as a strait  (I).  This
    system is a true connecting channel or conduit which transports
    water, nutrients, sediments, and biota from Lake Huron to Lake
    St. Clair {Figure II-3).
    
    The complex connecting channel between Lake Huron and Lake Erie
    that involves the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and the
    Detroit River came into existence nearly 10,000 years ago with
    the retreat of the Pleistocene ice sheet.  As the massive weight
    of ice was removed, an uplift in the form of glacial rebound
    occurred, leaving the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair/Detroit
    River channel as the dominant outlet for the waters of the Upper
    Great Lakes.  As time passed, the actions of the moving water
    enhanced the exit mechanism, until some 3,000 years ago, when the
    complex connecting channel became a permanent feature of the
    landscape.
    
    The St. Clair system overlays 4,200 metres of sedimentary
    Paleozoic bedrock resulting from the hardening of ancient silts
    and muds to form extensive deposits of sandstones, limestones,
    dolomites, salts and shales.  This thick depositional sequence
    rests upon a foundation of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic
    rocks.  Fossil fuels have been extracted from the area  for more
    

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    than a century,  beginning with the first oil field in North Amer-
    ica developed at Oil Springs, Ontario, in 1858.  Minerals of
    evaporative origin, such as halite (rock salt), have been exten-
    sively extracted by the Morton Salt Company for decades in St.
    Clair,  Michigan.
    
    The geologic origin of the St. Clair River resulted in a river
    system which forms the single outlet for Lake Huron, conducting
    its waters approximately 64 km southward to Lake St. Clair,
    Sediments in the river consist of gravel with sand in the inter-
    stices over glacial clay.  Very little sediment deposition occurs
    along the river channel above the river delta.  Prior to entering
    Lake St. Clair,  the diminished velocities of the river with
    broadening provided an extensive depositional area.  Thus, a
    large river delta system developed containing numerous distri-
    bution channels and an extensive region of wetlands.  The shore-
    line of the St.  Clair River, including the principal delta dis-
    tribution channels, is 192 km in length.
    Hydrology
    
    As might be expected, water velocities within the St. Clair River
    are highest in the northern stretch of the river adjacent to the
    exit of Lake Huron, and lowest in the southern delta area.  The'
    total flow time from Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair is shown in
    Figure VII-1.  It has been estimated to be 21.1 hr from Lake
    Huron to Lake St. Clair  (2).  The total average fall in this
    stretch is 1.5 m in vertical height  (3).  The mean water velocity
    is 3.5 km/hr, with a minimum of 1,1 km/hr in the delta area ad-
    jacent to Lake St. Clair  (Figure VII-1}(2).
    
    The river flow ranges between approximately 3,000 m^/sec and
    6,700 m^/sec  (2).  The mean monthly discharge was 5,200 m^/sec
    between 1900 and 1981  (6).  Eight percent of this mean flow  (410
    m3/sec) passes through the Ontario channels of the St. Clair
    Delta; the remainder  (92  percent) passes through the more
    westerly main channels of the delta  (7).
    
    The river behaves like three separate panels of water: two near-
    shore sections strongly influenced by discharges; and a centre
    panel which passes through the river with minimal change.
    
    On the Michigan side of the St. Clair River, four heavy indus-
    tries are the principal users of river water for metal plating,
    paper manufacturing, and  salt processing.  By far, the heaviest
    municipal and industrial  use occurs on the Canadian  side of the
    river with ten major industrial plants in  the Sarnia area produc-
    ing refined petroleum, petrochemical and agricultural products. A
    large coal-fired power generating station  is also located on the
    Ontario shore.  A number  of studies have shown that  effluents
    

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                                        225
                                 LAi— 20.0
    MICHIGAN
                                                 Distance    Flow       Velocity
                                                 From       Tirn« (Hr)   Of Flow
                                           'UFOO Source (Km)           CKm/Hr}
                                                           0.0
    
    
    
                                                           0.1
    
    
    
                                                           0.9
                                                           44
                   6.0
    O N TA R I O
                                                           9.8
                                                          12.0
                                                          12.5
                                                52.0
                                              - 64.0
                  17.9
                  21.1
                             0.0
    
    
                             6.0
    
                             3.9
                             2.9
                             2.6
    2.4
    1.1
      FIGURE  VII-1.  St.  Clair  River  indicating approximate flow  times and
                       velocities  of flow  of  various   reaches of  the  river.
    

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                                   226
    
    from a number of these plants have degraded the quality of the
    St. Clair River system (8-12).
    
    Historically, waterborne commerce has been a very heavy user of
    the St. Clair River system.  Traditionally, iron ore, limestone,
    and coal account for 90 percent of commercial shipping on the St.
    Clair River  (13).
    
    
    Habitats and Biological Communities
    
    The St. Clair River ecosystem consists of five fundamentally
    distinct biologic zones:  (i) open-water,  (ii) submerged wetland,
    (ill) emergent wetlands,  (iv) transition or ecotone, and  (v)
    upland.  Each of these zones may be subdivided by the community
    of organisms which occupy them, or by their physical character-
    istics .
    
    The open-water zone may be subdivided into two major groups:  (i)
    the channelized flow communities, and {ii) the open-water marsh
    communities.  The channelized flow communities include such
    diverse groups as free-swimming nekton,  e.g., fish, amphibians,
    and reptiles; drift communities, e.g., uprooted submerged and
    emergent plants, phytoplankton, and zooplankton; and sessile,
    burrowing, or attached communities, e.g., immature aquatic in-
    sects, invertebrates, and mollusks.  The open-water marsh com-
    munities predominate in the St. Clair Delta area.  They are typi-
    cally either bullrush marshes, or cattail marshes.  The
    open-water bullrush marsh is prevalent in the abandoned channels
    of the St. Clair Delta, or mixed with cattail marshes where water
    depth and sandy sediments favour the development of bullrush
    communities.  Open-water cattail marshes are found in delta sec-
    tions of the river where peaty or clayey hydrosoils predominate,
    and where water depth exceeds 15 cm  (5). '
    
    The St. Clair River system contains approximately 550 ha of
    coastal wetlands.  The primary type of wetlands in the St. Clair
    River belong to the river wetland group, and are composed largely
    of submerged species  (5,14,15),  These shoreward, submerged com-
    munities may be conveniently divided by location into the delta
    channel, and the river shoulder.  The delta channel communities
    include both abandoned and active delta channels.  The river
    shoulder communities border the channelised area of the river for
    a distance of 30-40 m, and rarely exceed  2 m in depth  (2).  Emer-
    gent wetland communities occasionally occupy the river shoulder
    area, but more often, these forms are to be found on point bars
    and within the river delta structure.
    
    The transition  zone, or ecotone, may be conveniently subdivided
    into three major categories of community  types:   (i) the  island
    shoreline and transgressive beach,  (ii) sedge marshes, and  (iii)
    the  transition wet-meadow.  Long, narrow  beaches of  fine  sand
    

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                                   227
    
    which support emergent vegetation are found on the Canadian side
    of the river delta. Transgressive or stranded beaches are also
    found on the islands of the delta area which support intermediate
    or transition communities, including tussock sedge (Carex sp.),
    reed (Phragmites austral is.) ,  swamp thistle (Cirsim ntuticum) ,
    bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis),  willows  (Salix sp.),
    and the eastern cottonwood (Populous deltoides) .  The sedge marsh
    communities occupy a very narrow 2one of transition between the
    wetter cattail marshes and the more terrestrialized upland zones.
    Typical residents of this community are nearly all members of the
    tussock sedge group (Carex sp.), with the exception of bluejoint
    grass (Calamagrostis canadensis).  The transition wet-meadow
    communities represent a transition state between the sedge
    marshes and the upland communities.  This community lies above
    the water table and is infrequently flooded.  It consists of a
    mixture of grasses, herbs, shrubs, and water-tolerant trees,
    including quaking aspen  (Populus tremuloides), red ash  (Fraxinus
    pennsylvanica),  red osier dogwood  (Cornus stolon!fera), swamp
    rose (Rosa palustris), bluejoint grass (Ca1amagrostis cana-
    den si_s) ,  rattlesnake grass (Glyceria canadensis), and panic grass
    (Panicum sp.).
    
    The terrestrialized upland communities bordering the St. Clair
    River system include upland shrub, and deciduous hardwood.  The
    upland shrub community consists of mixed shrubs and water toler-
    ant trees, including eastern cottonwood and quaking aspen  (Pop-
    ulus sp.}, red ash  (Fraxinum pennsylvanica), red osier dogwood
    and gray dogwood  (Cornus sp.)/ wild grape (Vitis palmata), and
    hawthorn  (Cratae_gus sp.) . The deciduous hardwood community ad-
    jacent to the St. Clair River begins on an average of 1-3 m above
    the level of the river.  Major species in this community include
    red ash  (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and members of the genus
    Quercus,  including swamp white oak, pin oak, and burr oak.  Other
    hardwoods include silver maple  (Acer saccharinum), the American
    elm (uImus americana), eastern cottonwood (Populus_ deltoides),
    and shagbark hickory (Carva ovata).  The terrestrialized upland
    communities are chiefly found in the less industrialized portions
    of the basin, particularly in southern reaches of the river,  and
    notably in the island complex associated with the delta area.
    
         i)  Macrozoobenthos
    
    The macrozoobenthos of the St. Clair River exhibits a higher
    taxonomic diversity than Lake St. Clair,  The number of individ-
    ual species observed in the river is in excess of 300  (2).  Mem-
    bers of the Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, Gastropoda, Epheineroptera,
    Trichoptera, and Amphipoda contribute most significantly to total
    macrozoobenthic biomass.  Large numbers of Hydra sp. are present,
    but contribute little to biomass.
    
    The genera Cricotopus, Parachironpmus, Parakiefferiella, Rheo-
    tanytarsus, and Stictochironomus are  the dominant chironomid
    

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                                   228
    
    forms. The most common amphipod is Hyalella, and the common
    trichopteran genera include Cheumatopsyche,  Hydropsyche,  and
    Oecetis.  Species diversity is greatest in the Chironomidae,
    Trichoptera, and oligochaeta.  Numerous freshwater mussels are
    present in abundance in the St. Clair River, as are the common
    snail genera Amnicola and Elimia.
    
         ii) Zooplankton, Phytoplankton and Macrophytes
    
    The St. Clair River harbors relatively low densities of limnetic
    zooplankton  (16) .  Several authors report that the St. Clair
    River zooplankton community is dominated by fugitive drift com-
    munities of zooplankton from Lake Huron (2,16,17).  A total of 18
    rotifer genera,  9 calanoid copepods, 4 cyclopoid copepods, and 6
    cladocerans have been observed in the St.  Clair River (18).
    While rotifers were most frequently seen  (17), the dominant
    zooplankton species observed were Bosmina longirostris, Cyclops
    thomasi, and Diaptomus minutus.
    
    The primary production system of the St. Clair River consists of
    phytoplankton, emergent macrophytes, submerged macrophytes, and
    the periphyton community associated with the submerged portions
    of the latter two groups.  A single source of information is
    available regarding the phytoplankton composition of the St.
    Clair River.  This study was completed more than a decade ago
    (17,19), and suggests that the phytoplankton community of the St.
    Clair River is dominated by diatoms occurring in patterns similar
    to the communities of Lake Huron. Dominant species reported in
    1974 included Cyclotella sp., Fragillaria sp., Melosira sp.,
    Stephanodiscus sp., Synedra sp., and Tabellaria sp.  At the time
    of preparation of this manuscript, no published data were avail-
    able related to  native periphyton communities in the St. Clair
    River.
    
    Submerged macrophytes are a prominent feature of the littoral
    waters of the St. Clair River.  These extensive macrophyte beds
    provide food, shelter, and habitat requirements for fish and
    wildlife populations.  Not only do they support a wide variety of
    migratory waterfowl, but young fish were observed to be more
    abundant from spring to fall among the submerged macrophytes than
    in the plant-free areas of the St. Clair River islands (20).
    
    More than 20 submerged macrophyte taxa occur in the St. Clair
    River  system  (20,21).  In order of frequency of occurrence, these
    include Chara sp,, Vallisneria americana, Potamogeton sp., and
    Heteranthera dubia.  Of this group, only Chara forms  single
    species or  monotypic stands  of vegetation.  Typically, submerged
    macrophyte  stands are composed of 2-3 species; however, a  stand
    with  a maximum of 11 taxa has been reported  (2).  The greatest
    depth  of water colonized by  submerged macrophytes is  not  docu-
    mented  for  the St. Clair River system, but most stands occur in
    water  depths of  3.7  m or less.   The 3.7m depth contour accounts
    

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                                   229
    
    for 16 kiti^ of the St. Clair River shoreline.  It has been es-
    timated that 88 percent of the St. Clair River bottom is covered
    by plant material within the 0-3.7 m range of depths  (2).
    
    A total of three submerged macrophyte taxa are found in the St.
    Clair River system.  These species include Potamogeton crispus,
    Nitellopsis obtusa, and Myriophyllum spicatum.  P_._ crispus is one
    of the first aquatic plants to appear in the spring.  This plant
    serves as a host for aquatic invertebrates which are consumed by
    northward migrating waterfowl (1).  Since it is also one of the
    most abundant macrophytes in the river during April to June, P.
    crispus provides an important spawning substrate for fish  (22),
    N_._ obnusa was first reported in the St. Clair River in 1984  (23) .
    M. spicatum was first observed in Lake St. Clair in 1974  (24),
    and became the fourth most common submerged macrophyte in the St.
    Clair River system by 1978  (21).
    
    Emergent macrophyte distributions are less well understood.
    While Herdendorf e_t al.  (5) provide some discussion of the emer-
    gent forms of the lower St. Clair River, no definitive study of
    species compositions, abundance, distribution, occurrence, or
    productivity has yet been made. Estimates, however, suggest that
    as much as 3,380 ha of the St. Clair River may be  colonized by
    emergent vegetation  (25,26).  It is further estimated that 95
    percent of the stands of emergent vegetation occur in the lower
    reaches of the river (1).  Typical emergent vegetation within the
    river area proper includes cattails (Typha sp.) and reed
    (Phragmites. australis)  .  Within the delta, numerous canals,
    ponds, and abandoned channels support a wide diversity of emer-
    gent plant communities, including the yellow and white water
    lilies (Muphar advena and Nymphae_a tubejrosji, respectively) ,
    buttonbrush (Cephalanthus occidental!s) , arrowhead (Saga.tta.ri_a
    latifolia), bullrush (Scirpus sp.), and water smartweed Pplyhonum
    amphibium).
    
         iii) Fish
    
    With regard to fish populations, the St. Clair River is important
    in two respects:  (a) it supports its own native fishery, and  (b)
    it serves as a conduit, providing a means of access for movement
    of fish to both Lakes Huron and Erie.  The latter  aspect is par-
    ticularly significant in association with fish spawning.
    
    The St. Clair River is critical to the spawning and nursing of
    juvenile fish of between 23 and 41 taxa  (4,27,28,29), with larval
    fish densities averaging 296 per  1000 m^.  Fish species observed
    within the river include walleye, muskellunge, rainbow trout,
    lake sturgeon, smelt, coho and Chinook salmon, smallmouth bass,
    channel catfish, yellow perch, and freshwater drum (30).
    
    Juvenile and adult  fish were most often observed in the lower
    reaches of the river where macrophyte communities  were abundant.
    

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                                   230
    
    Forty-eight fish species are known or presumed to utilize the
    wetland areas associated with the St. Clair River,  The manage-
    ment of this system is critical to protect both the habitat of
    these fish and the fish themselves from accumulating body burdens
    of chemical contaminants.
    
    Haas e_t al. (31), conducted seven monthly surveys of fish in the
    St. Clair River which identified rock bass, yellow perch, and
    walleye as the most common forms.  Fish populations vary season-
    ally, with smallmouth bass most numerous in the fall, and white
    suckers dominating the spring populations.
    
    As was noted above,  the river serves as a corridor for fish move-
    ment between Lakes St. Clair and Huron.  Walleye are known to
    spawn in the delta area and tributaries of Lake St. Clair, and to
    move in late spring through the St. Clair River to southern Lake
    Huron.  These fish typically return through the river in the fall
    of the year (30) .  This migration pattern is  further complicated
    by walleye breeding migrations in which fish  from Lake Erie move
    into the St. Clair River complex to spawn..  Spawning areas in the
    St. Clair River area are also important for the rare lake stur-
    geon.  The lake sturgeon enters the St. Clair River to spawn in
    the north channel of the St. Clair River Delta.
    Regional Climate
    
    The St. Clair River basin is characterized by  typical  inland
    climatic patterns modified by the water mass of  the Great Lakes
    which  surrounds it.  Summer temperatures  are regarded  as warm  and
    mild,  and winter temperatures are moderately cold.  Mean annual
    temperature regimes range from  a high of  23.6°C  in July, to a  low
    of -4.4°C in January.  Periodic cyclonic  storms  of varying inten-
    sity occur throughout the year, with the  general exception of  the
    high summer months  (June, July, and August).   During this period,
    thunderstorms are common as a function of atmospheric  convection-
    al uplift.
    
    The modifying influence of the  adjacent Great  Lakes provides the
    St. Clair River region with the second longest frost-free season
    in the Great Lakes basin.  On an average, the  interval between
    the last vernal frost and the first autumnal frost is  160 days.
    The fall warming effect provided by the surrounding water masses
    retards the occurrence of autumn frost, thus extending the grow-
    ing season.  The spring cooling effects of  the lakes also prevent
    premature vegetational growth,  lessening  the chances of crop and
    plant  loss to late  spring frosts  (32). The  length and  intensity
    of the growing  season may also  be estimated from the accumulation
    of growing degree-days.  This value is an index of the amount  of
    heat available  during a given growing  season.   The growing
    degree-day index is normally defined as the number of  degrees  of
    mean daily temperature above a  threshold  value of 5.6°C for  the
    

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                                   231
    
    period in which that limit is exceeded,  A normal year in the
    Port Huron/Sarnia area consists of 2,Q56°C (2).
    
    Average annual water temperature values describe a classic sig-
    moidal curve, with winter minima occurring in mid-February (ap-
    proximately 0.5°C),  and the annual maxima being achieved in
    mid-August at values approaching 21°C  (4),   Mean water tempera-
    ture recorded for the St. Glair River  for the years 1967-1982 was
    11.8°C (5) .
    
    Characteristically,  the climate of the Great Lakes region is
    marked by a lack of major seasonal fluctuations in precipitation
    patterns.  Extensive records for three adjacent weather stations
    - Mount Clemens, Michigan (1940-1969); Detroit City Airport,
    Detroit,  Michigan (1940-1069); and Windsor, Ontario Airport
    (1941-1970)  - indicate that the mean annual precipitation is
    77,83 cm  (33) .
    2. Environmental Conditions
    
    Water Quality
    
    Despite the highly industrialized character of the upper reaches
    of the St. Clair River, water clarity in the river is exception-
    ally high.  This exceptional clarity is largely because Lake
    Huron is the primary source for the waters of the river.  As a
    result, the suspended sediments are largely silicate in nature,
    derived from southern Lake Huron shoreline sands  (1,2).
    
    Urban centres are found along the length of the St. Clair River,
    and a major petrochemical complex is concentrated along the
    Ontario side in the Sarnia-Corunna area.  Concerns relating to
    bacterial contamination, phenols, metals  (particularly iron and
    mercury) and phosphorus were identified as early as the 1940s
    (34).  Mercury  (35) and lead (10) have been the metals of most
    concern.  Phenols, oil and grease, and a variety of chlorinated
    organics including PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene,
    hexachlorobutadiene, and volatile organics were considered the
    major problem organics in the river  (8,12,36).
    
    Many of these inputs have been reduced significantly as a result
    of implemented control programs.  Over the years, the focus of
    attention has shifted from nutrients and conventional pollutants
    to toxic substances that have been detected throughout the
    system, and concern for their effects on human health and the
    ecosystem.
    
    The high flows in the St. Clair River are conducive to dilution
    of material inputs from sources along the river.  But it should
    be kept in mind that, because of the flow pattern of the river,
    contaminant plumes tend to hug the shoreline, and thus, only a
    

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                                     232
    
      portion of the total flow (perhaps 5%)  is available for dilution.
      Nonetheless,  the concentrations of many of the contaminants of
      concern in the water column are extremely low, often from un-
      detectable to the low ng/L range.   This requires the use of
      state-of-the-art sampling and analytical methodologies to provide
      accurate results.   Higher concentrations are often found in close
      proximity to sources.   It should be recognized, however, that
      even low concentrations coupled with the high flow still produce
      loadings that are often significant.  Table VII-1 illustrates
      approximate loadings for several UGLCCS parameters at typical
      concentrations and flows found in the river.  While organisms
      respond in the short term to concentrations (e.g., acute tox-
      icity), the system as a whole is ultimately responsive to load-
      ings.   This is particularly critical for persistent toxic organic
      pollutants and toxic metals, since these contaminants can have a
      severe impact on downstream lakes.
                               TABLE VII-1
    
        Loading  Ranges  for  UGLCCS  Parameters  in  the  St.  Clair River.
    Parameter
    Concentration
       Range	
    
    1-10    ppm(mg/L)
    10-100  ppb(ug/L)
    0.1-1.0 ppb(ug/L)
    10-100  ppt(ng/L)
    1-10    ppt(ng/L)
    0.1-1.0 ppt(ng/L)
      Associated
      Loading Range
        (kg/yr)
    
    1.7xl08-1.7xl09
    1.7xl06-1.7xl07
    1.7xl04-1.7xl05
    1.7xl03-1.7xl04
    1.7xlQ2-1.7xl03
        17-170
    _ Chemical
    
     Chloride
     Phosphorus,  Iron
     Lead,Cobalt,  Copper
     Mercury
     PCBs,  PAHs,  Cadmium
     HCB,  OCS
      Even though considerable dilution does occur, the lack of lateral
      mixing leads to a considerable concentration gradient across the
      St. Clair River.  For example, at Port Lambton  (a distance of 34
      km downstream of point sources in Sarnia), 95% of the contamin-
      ants still remain in Canadian waters.  To illustrate, on
      September 23, 1985, HCB and OCS concentrations at Port Lambton
      were 1.6 and 0.05 ng/L, respectively, near the Canadian shore,
      and 0.02 ng/L and not detected near the U.S. shore.  Similar gra-
      dients were found on three other occasions for samples collected
      at 100 m intervals across the river  (37).  These results show
      that contaminant inputs along each shoreline travel  downstream in
    

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                                   233
    
    plumes which tend to hug the shoreline with limited lateral,
    cross-stream mixing.  This fact has implications for locating
    water intakes for communities downstream of industrial sources
    using st, Clair River water for drinking purposes,
    
    A comparison of typical ambient concentrations of UGLCC Study
    chemicals in the river and concentrations near point sources to
    water quality and drinking water guidelines for 1986 are shown in
    Table VII-2.  Hexachlorobenzene {HCB) concentrations in the river
    near point sources below Sarnia are far in excess of both the
    Canadian water quality and WHO drinking water guidelines.  Am-
    bient water samples collected near the Canadian shoreline at Port
    Lambton are about one-tenth of the guideline values.  No guide-
    lines are available for octachlorostyrene (OCS), but an estimated
    water quality guideline can be calculated by multiplying the HCB
    guideline by the ratio of the bioconcentration factors of the two
    substances, BCFjjcB/BCFgcS•  This procedure assumes that HCB and
    OCS have similar toxicities.  Comparing the OCS water concen-
    trations to this estimated guideline suggests that OCS would
    exceed this calculated value in the river near point sources, but
    mean ambient values would be below this guideline.  On the other
    hand, PCBs do not appear to present such an acute problem in the
    St. Clair River, even in the industrialized Sarnia area.
    
    Benzo-a-pyrene  (BaP) was assessed as a representative polynuclear
    aromatic hydrocarbon  (PAH).  No direct measurement of water con-
    centrations was made for BaP.  The BaP water concentration was
    estimated by using the Ontario Ministry of Environment's  (OMOE)
    caged clam data  (38) downstream of Imperial Oil (20 ng/g) and
    dividing by the bioaccuiaulation factor for invertebrates found by
    Frank et al., 680 (39) . Near Sarnia and downstream at Port
    Lambton,  the estimated BaP water concentration appears to exceed
    the guidelines by a factor of 3 or 4.
    
    All metals, with the exception of lead near Sarnia and near Ethyl
    Corporation in Corunna, are well below the guidelines.  The lead
    values near point sources slightly exceed the Canadian water
    quality objectives, but are well below drinking water standards.
    
    Some other significant St. Clair Eiver organic contaminants are
    compared to the guidelines in Table VII-3.  All parameters exceed
    guideline values near point sources.  Exceedences were particu-
    larly evident for perchloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, hexa-
    chlorethane, hexachlorobutadiene, and pentachlorobenzene.  Am-
    bient mean concentrations are well below guidelines for all para-
    meters .  Maximum concentrations found well downstream of the
    sources are within an order of magnitude of the guidelines for
    benzene,  perchloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride.
    
    Table VII-4 compares  the concentrations of chemicals in suspended
    solids and unfiltered water at the head and mouth of the St.
    Clair River.  The data clearly show  that major sources of
    

    -------
                                                              TABLE VIT-2
    
    Comparison  of  UG1.CC par«ineter   concentrations in  unfiltered1 water   to water  quality and drinking water  guidelines  (all
    concentrations ug/l. I.
    c,
    ILWQA
    Spec i t i
    Ontar io+ +
    c Water Qua 1 i ty Dr
    WHO+++
    i nit i ng Water
    Chemical Objectives* Objectives Guide) i ne«
    tiexach 1 oi*obenzene
    Oc tachiorostyrene
    P(*B
    Benzo-a-Vyren*
    Lead
    Cadmium
    Wereyry (Filtered)
    Coj>per
    I ron
    Cobalt
    
    » From (36,37,41
    + International
    _.
    --
    —
    --
    25
    0. 2
    0.2
    5
    300
    _„
    
    .511.
    Joint
    0. 0065
    t 0.0006 1*
    0.001
    --
    25
    0.2
    0.2
    5
    300
    
    "
    
    Conniaa ion , Canada and
    0.01
    --
    3
    0.01
    50
    6
    1
    1000
    300
    
    "
    
    the United States,
    
    Near 1
    Mean
    0.4
    0 .027
    < 0,02
    Amtiisnt Near
    ndustrial Outfalls
    Maxi muni
    K.4
    0.14
    < 0.02
    (0.03 »** --
    1 .5
    --
    0.01 1
    --
    140
    
    ""
    
    , (Sreat
    2.7
    —
    __
    --
    __
    
    ..
    
    l.akea Water Quality f
    Canad i an
    Shore
    DoHnstre»ni of Sources
    Mean
    l). 0008
    O.OOO2'
    0.0015
    HAX ioiMiB
    O.tlOlfi
    1 G.OQQiy
    0.0022
    10.041**
    0. 'A3
    0.01
    0.007
    0.42
    240
    
    o.ia
    
    igreei»ent
    2.0
    0.09
    0.04
    1 .3
    310
    
    0,18
    
    at 1978 («« Ameadet
                                                                                                                                             *»•
         I9B71.
    + *   Ontario  tProvincinl ) Water Quality  Objectives (fW()O K101 J.
    ++t  Uorld Health  Organization  (WHOH1OKJ.
    *    Estimated using the ^mdeline  0.1)065 uij/l. for Hf'H  and  multiplying  by  RCFn e«/ BCFocs ( 22 ,000/240,000)1103 ).
    **   EstimatKil from Ontario Min. of the  Env.  imaged ol«m Btudiea J3B).
         M«rc.»ry  - (-'iltered.
         All other roet.als - Total.
    

    -------
                                                               TABLE VI1-3
    
    Comparison of other  organic compounds found  in  the  St.  Clair River1 to water  quality and drinking water guidelines
    (all concentrations  in  ug/L).
    Ontario WHO** Near
    Water Quality Drinking Water Industrial
    Chemical
    Benzene
    Toluene
    Perch loroethylene
    Carbon Tetrachloride
    Hexachlo roe thane
    Hexach L orobutad i ene
    Pentach 1 oro benzene
    1 From (36,37 ,73,74 J,
    * Estimated using the
    Objective Guideline hiea.n
    251 interim 1
    2&OI interim}
    -
    -
    -
    -
    0.03
    
    guideline U.I ug/L
    10 5.3
    __
    10 HI
    3 38
    0. 2
    0.40
    0.005
    
    for HHBD and roui t i pi y i ng
    Outfalls
    Maximum
    23
    --
    1120
    665
    0.83
    1.3
    0.15
    
    by BCFKTBB
    Ambient Near Canadian Shore
    Downstream of Sources
    Mean
    0,56
    0.71
    0,21
    0.33
    0.004
    0.002
    0.00007
    
    /BCFuri (17,000/1
    Haximun
    4,3
    2,2
    2.4
    2.0
    0,007
    0.006
    0.00001
    
    ,200|C75t.
    ** World Health Organization {WHOK102}.
    

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                                           236
                                   TABLE VII-4
    
    Comparison of chemical concentrations  in unfiltered  water  (UW)  and
    suspended sediments ISS> at the head and mouth  of  the  St.  Clair River.
    Compound
                 UGLCCS Parameters
            Head                  Mouth
    Hexaehlorobenzene
    Ocrt.ach 1 orostyrene
    PCBs
    Lead
    Cadmium
    Mercury
    Copper
    Iron
    Cobalt
    Chloride
    SStng/ft.)
    
       2.0
       0.7
    SSUig/g>
    
        23
       1 .0
      0.04
        24
     16000
        17
    UW( ng/L 1.
    
      0.03
     0.008
       2.3
    
    UW(ug/41
    
        <3
     (0.01)*
     0.002
     I 0.24)*
       110
     (0.17)*
      6200
                                                        SSI
                             130
                              23
                              42
                             0.8
                            0.28
                              25
                           16000
                              16
     0.8
    0.12
     L.5
    
    UW(yg/Li
    
       <3
    10 .008 )*
    0.011
    f0.25 >*
      140
    (0.17)*
     8400
    Co unsound
                 Other Parameters
            Head                  Mouth
                                 SS>ng/g>
    Benzene
    To Luene
    Perchloroethylene
    Carbon Tetrachioride
    Hexachloroethane
    Hexachl orobutadiene
    Pentach I oro benzene
    * Estimated assuming
    10 mf/L.
    —
    --
    —
    -.-»
    0.5
    1 .0
    2.2
    an average suspended
    
    ND
    ND
    ND
    ND
    0, 16
    0.09
    0.012
    sed iment
    
    --
    —
    --
    —
    0. 5
    20
    4.5
    concent rat
    
    560
    710
    210
    330
    3.6
    2.3
    0.072
    ion of
    
    

    -------
                                   237
    
    chemicals such as HCB, OCS and mercury occur along the river.
    There is no water or compound solids data for PAHs, but other
    media (caged clams and sediments) show that there are significant
    PAH sources in the Sarnia area.  The chloride concentration also
    increases over the river's course.  Marginal increases occur in
    lead and mercury concentrations; whereas, cadmium, copper, and
    cobalt do not exhibit significant concentration differences bet-
    ween uhe head and mouth.  There is no apparent change in PCB
    concentrations along the river based on this very limited data
    set.
    
    Some chemicals not on the UGLCCS contaminant test list that show
    significant sources along the river are the volatiles benzene,
    toluene, perchloroetheylene, and carbon tetrachloride, Hexa-
    chloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, and pentachlorobenzene also
    display significant positive changes in concentration between the
    head and mouth of the river.
    
    The partitioning of chemicals between the suspended solids and
    dissolved phase has a considerable impact on the ultimate fate of
    the contaminant.  The more volatile organics such as benzene,
    toluene, perchloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexa-
    chloroethane exhibit little tendency to bind to suspended sedi-
    ments.  These compounds will be subjected to continual dilution
    as they move downstream, and will also be lost from the water by
    the process of volatilization.  The other organics and the metals
    in Table VII-4 exhibit a much stronger tendency to become ad-
    sorbed to suspended particulates.  This adsorption reduces the
    tendency of the chemicals to volatilize from the system. The
    ultimate fate of the particle-bound organics and metals will be
    temporary storage in Lake St. Clair followed by transport via the
    Detroit River to Lake Erie.
    
    Once the particle-bound material reaches these lakes, it is par-
    tially available to benthic organisms.  These organisms serve as
    a food, source for fish, so the presence of these chemicals in the
    lake sediments causes an increase in the contaminant burden in
    consumable sport fish through the process of bioaccunmlation,
    Details of the sediment/water partitioning of some of the per-
    sistent organics have been documented as part of the UGLCC Study
    (37,40).
    
    In addition to concerns about the effect of effluent discharges
    on water quality, serious consideration must also be given to the
    effects of intermittent spills on aquatic life and drinking water
    quality in the river and in downstream areas, including Lake St.
    Clair and the Detroit River.  Between 1974 and 1986, there were a
    total of 32 spills involving  10 metric tonnes or more of deleter-
    ious materials discharged directly to the St. Clair River  (36).
    The most studied spill was that of 9,400 gallons of perchloro-
    ethylene (August 13 to  16, 1985) by Dow Chemical Company of
    Sarnia  (36).  Drinking water  supplies in the downstream towns of
    

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                                   238
    
    Wallaceburg, Walpole Island, Windsor, Amiierstburg, and
    Marysvllle, Michigan, were analyzed twice weekly after the spill.
    As would be expected because of the lack of lateral mixing of the
    river no perchloroethylene was detected in the Marysville treat-
    ment plant on the U.S. side of the river.  The highest concentra-
    tion observed was 7 ppb in raw water at Wallaceburg and Walpole
    Island,  Perchloroethylene concentrations of 2-3 ppb were found
    much further downstream at Windsor and Amherstburg on the Detroit
    River.  The former values approach the World Health Organization
    (WHO) drinking water standard for lifetime exposure of 10 ppb.
    
    Some water sampling conducted during the UGLCC Study indicated
    that higher concentrations of such chemicals as hexaehlorobenzene
    and octachlorostyrene in unfiltered water and suspended sediments
    were associated with rainfall events  (41,42),  Further studies
    are required to assess the importance of such events to water
    quality.
    
    
    Biota Impairments
    
    A number of studies of various biologic components of the St.
    clair River ecosystem,  (phytoplankton, wetlands, submerged maero-
    phytes, macrozoobenthos, and fish), suggest that the river is
    increasing in biological productivity in formerly impaired habi-
    tats  (9,15,19,21,43,44),  This increase in productivity is ap-
    parently a function of remedial actions to control the input of
    conventional pollutants and toxic substances and to improve the
    quality of the river water.
    
    The distribution of macrozoobenthos in an aquatic ecosystem is
    often used as an index of the impacts of contamination on that
    system. Undisturbed benthic populations are normally character-
    ized by very diverse populations with a relatively high number of
    organisms per unit area.  Frequently, these populations -include
    significant numbers of pollution intolerant organisms. Perturbed
    or impaired areas will demonstrate a characteristically reduced
    diversity of species, an absence of pollution intolerant forms,
    and typically a reduced number of organisms per unit area, except
    in the case of pollution with organic materials  (e.g., sewage),
    where certain species tolerant of these conditions can thrive at
    incredible densities,
    
    Distributions of macrozoobenthos in the St. Clair River have been
    well documented  (1,2,9,45,46,47,48).  In 1968, the Canadian
    shoreline exhibited macrozoobenthic populations characteristic of
    degraded conditions, compared with the U.S. shoreline.  By 1977,
    however, it was clear that  significant improvement had occurred,
    apparently  in response  to improved effluent treatment initiated
    some years prior.
    

    -------
                                   239
    
    Currently, benthic health along the U.S. shore is good (49,50),
    although there have been some historical problems downstream of
    the Black. River (46).  Figure VII-2 shows the water quality zones
    along the Canadian side of the river based on benthic inverte-
    brate community structure.  Term definitions in the figure are;
    toxic = no benthic organisms; degraded = large numbers of pol-
    lutant tolerant organisms; impaired = lower numbers of pollutant
    tolerant organisms plus facultative species; fair = atypical
    community structure; good = normal benthic community structure.
    
    The benthic community begins to be impacted at km 5 near Sarnia*s
    industrial complex.  Conditions deteriorate to toxic downstream
    of Dow Chemical (km 6.5),  The ecological status gradually im-
    proves until Talfourd Creek (km 10) where the water quality
    changes adversely to a degraded state.  Following this 1 km zone,
    the benthic community along the Canadian shoreline gradually
    improves and reaches a "good" condition at km 20,
    
    Historically, conditions along this river shore were much worse.
    In 1968, the toxic and seriously degraded zone extended over the
    entire portion of the river surveyed  (at least 44 km)„  This
    major impact zone decreased to 21 km in 1977.  A further improve-
    ment is evident from the above 1985 data which showed a major
    impact zone of 12 km (46).
    
    Direct contaminant toxicity impacts to benthic fauna in the St.
    Clair River appear to be confined to the Sarnia industrial water-
    front and a few km downstream.  Recent studies (51) have shown
    that the sediments from the industrial area are lethal to Hexa-
    genia, Hydallela, and fathead minnows.  This confirms earlier
    work that showed only pollution-tolerant benthic organisms could
    survive in this region of the river  (9).
    
    A wider ranging problem is the bloconcentration and bioaccumula-
    tion of chemicals in biota at all trophic levels in the river and
    in downstream Lake St. Clair.  Elevated concentrations of several
    contaminants with known sources in the St. Clair River have been
    found in plankton  (51), macrophytes  (51), benthic organisms  [in-
    cluding native (36) and introduced clams  (52)], young-of-the-
    year spottail shiners (36,53), and sportfish  (36) in the river.
    
    Of the UGLCCS contaminants, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene,
    and mercury are of greatest concern in the St, Clair River.
    Concentrations of between 50 and 100 ng/g of HCB and DCS have
    been found in various sportfish from the river (36), although
    some species contain little or no HCB or pcs.  Elevated concen-
    trations of chlordane, G-BHC and mercury were found in young-of-
    the-year spottail shiners at the mouth of Perch Creek on Lake
    Huron near the head of the St, Clair River  (36).  No fish con-
    sumption guidelines exist for these compounds, but the World
    Health Organization (WHO) has set a very low drinking water
    

    -------
                                                      240
                                            Black River
                        \
                                     Marysvllle
                                        St. Cfair
                 Michigan
                                                             Lake Huron
                                                                 Sarnia
             Talfourd Creek
    
    
       Corrunna
     Mooretown
    
    
    Courtright
    
    
          Bowmans Creek
                              Roberts LandingC
    
                                      Algonac
                                                                              Ontario
                                                                                  ZONES OF IMPAIRMENT
    
    
    
                                                                                 f^Yj:.'S'.U-.;| Moderate
    
    
                                                                                 |~     I Unimpaired
        Channel
    
        Seaway
                                                                 Chenal Ecarte
                                      SCALE (km)
             Lake St. Clair
                                  Goose Lake
    NOTE:
    Zones of impairment refer to the relative occurrence of pollution tolerant species and to the
    diversity of benthie species in general-
    
    Figure VII - 2. Zones of benthle fauna Impairment in the St. Clair River.
    

    -------
                                   241
    
    guideline of 10 parts per trillion for HCB,  OCS is probably of
    comparable concern since it has a higher bioconcentration factor
    than HCB.
    
    The University of Windsor (54) studied waterfowl and muskrats on
    Walpole Island in the St. Clair River.  Their data show that the
    nonmigratory ducks contained consistently higher HCB and OCS
    residues than did their migratory counterparts.  Muskrats on the
    island also contained measurable HCB and OCS residues.  Weseloh
    and Struger (55)  showed that flightless Peking ducks released on
    Bassett Island in the St. Clair River rapidly accumulated HCB.
    Residues of PCS,  HCB, DDT and other chlorinated organics found in
    diving ducks in the Lower Detroit River also suggest that water-
    fowl in the St. Clair River may be a source of human toxicity
    (56) .
    
    Mercury levels in the edible portion of walleye from the Lake St.
    Clair/St, Clair River vicinity have shown a steady decline from a
    1970 maximum value of nearly 2.5 rug/kg or ppm.  Current mercury
    concentrations for walleye up to 45 cm in length are reported as
    less than 0.5 ppm and are suitable for unlimited consumption
    (57).   Walleye in the 45-65 cm length class generally contain 0.5
    to  1.0 ppm mercury, and above 65-75 cm are between 1.0 and 1.5
    ppm (57).
    
    In  1970, mercury in northern pike fillets was more than double
    that of walleye.   Levels now, however, are less than 25 percent
    of  the 1970 values.  Northern pike up to 55 cm contain less than
    0.5 ppm mercury while those larger than 55 cm contain between 0.5
    and 1.0 ppm. Similar reductions in the mercury levels in white
    bass have been observed  (57).  Individuals up to 30 cm contain
    less than the 0.5 ppm consumption guideline.  Larger fish of most
    species still contain mercury concentrations in excess of 0.5
    ppm.  This may be due, in part, to historical mercury contamina-
    tion and to mercury recycling within the system.  The PCS content
    of most fish in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair is below
    the 2 ppm consumption guideline set by the OMOE and the Michigan
    Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), as well as the U.S. Food
    and Drug Administration action level, but levels exceeding the
    Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement  (GLWQA) Specific Objective of
    0.1 ppm were found.
    
    Alkyl lead compounds have been detected in game fish near Ethyl
    Corporation (11) .  Since the organolead compounds are much more
    toxic than inorganic lead, some attention may be required to
    control loadings from this source.  There are no fish consumption
    guidelines for these compounds, although a tentative consumption
    guideline of 1.0 mg/kg was established by OMOE in 1984 for total
    alkyl lead.
    
    Elevated concentrations of several PAHs have been found in caged
    clams downstream of  Sarnia's  industrial discharges.  The data on
    

    -------
                                   242
    
    these chemicals in the river are too limited at this stage to say
    whether or not these chemicals are a problem.  Other trace metals
    on the UGLCCS parameter list, including cadmium, iron, copper,
    and cobalt do not appear to pose any problems in biota along the
    river.
    
    Other contaminants that have been found at elevated concentra-
    tions in caged clams and fish from the river are: hexachloro-
    ethane, hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, perchloro-
    ethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and benzene  (36).  These con-
    taminants may exert an individual toxicity effect.  Further, the
    potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic effects of mul-
    tiple contaminant exposure to the river's biota and to fish and
    water consumers is completely unknown.
    
    
    Bottom Sediments
    
    The St. Glair River is essentially a conduit of water between
    Lake Huron and Lake St. Glair.  Very little sediment accumulates
    because of the high current velocities in the river  (0,6 - 1.8
    m/s).  Sediments are largely a pavement of well-rounded cobbles
    and boulders, with sand or till in the interstices over cohesive
    glacial clay, and sand ripples and dunes moving as bed load.
    There was no consistent trend along the shore in sediment thick-
    ness, but variations in an offshore direction indicate a wedge-
    shaped deposit that is thickest at the shoreline.  The average
    thickness of the deposit is 9 cm, with a mean width of 100 m.
    The average texture of the samples was 63% sand, 32% gravel, and
    5% silt-clay, with a mean grain size of 1.7 mm.  (585.
    
    Based on very limited sampling, the inorganic elemental composi-
    tion of the St. Clair River sediments was: Si02» 65%; A1203,
    6.3%; F6203, 6.9%; MgO, 3.5%; CaO, 12.7%; Na20 , 1,3%; K20, 1.6%;
    Ti02, 0.4%; MnO, 0.06%; and P2Qs/ 0.05%  (59).   On average, the
    organic carbon content of the sediments is fairly low  (0.9%) as
    would be expected from the coarse nature of the river's sediments
    (60) .
    
    The most extensive recent sediment surveys of the river were
    conducted by the OMOE  (60) in 1985  (78 stations), and by Oliver
    and Pugsley  (61) in 1984  (45 stations).  In addition, a more
    limited study of 33 stations  (21 in the U.S.),  in which the only
    organics analyzed were PCBs and oil and grease, was conducted in
    1985 by the United states Fish and Wildlife Service  (62).  A more
    intensive survey covering 60 stations in the Sarnia industrial
    area was conducted by Environment Canada and Ontario Ministry of
    the Environment in 1985  (36).
    
    These  samples were collected using a variety of techniques in-
    cluding cores, Shipek dredge, and divers.  The  information deriv-
    ed  from  all  these  sampling methods is  similar in  this  river
    

    -------
                                   243
    
    because most of the surficial sediment is of recent origin (36).
    Only limited historical information is available from sediments
    in the river, since they are shallow and transitory in nature,
    
    Despite the coarseness of the sediments, some heavily contamin-
    ated deposits were found in the river.  Table VII-5 compares the
    sediment chemical concentrations to the criteria for open-water
    disposal of dredged spoils.   The contaminant range indicates that
    a sediment guideline is exceeded at some location for every para-
    meter except nitrogen and phosphorus.  In the cases of PCBs,
    mercury, lead, copper and iron, the mean contaminant concentra-
    tion in river sediments exceeds both the Ontario and several
    U.S,EPA guidelines.  Most guideline exceedances occurred along
    Sarnia's industrial waterfront, but sediment samples collected at
    several other locations along both the Canadian and United States
    shores of the river also exceeded the guidelines for some param-
    eters.
    
    No sediment objectives are available for two of the important
    UGLCCS parameters, hexachlorobenzene  (HCB) and octachlorostyrene
    (OCS). These chemicals are present at high concentrations in
    several locations along the river.
    
    The UGLCC Study shows that the mean values for all parameters are
    highest along Sarnia's industrialized waterfront and gradually
    decrease downstream.  The wide range of concentrations encounter-
    ed in each river reach shows the extreme variability of sediment
    contamination along the river.  This is likely due to the transi-
    tory nature of the sediment and their lack of homogeneity.
    
    Areas of elevated concentration for HCB and OCS are found down-
    stream of the Cole Drain  (also known as the Township Ditch) and
    adjacent to Dow Chemical's First Street sewer discharge.  Con-
    centrations of HCB and OCS are in the high ppm range at the
    latter site.  These extremely high sediment concentrations are
    caused by contamination of the area with nonaqueous waste mater-
    ial that has leaked from the Dow site in the past  (63).  The Dow
    First Street Sewer has been closed.  It should be noted that some
    HCB/OCS-containing streams have been diverted to Fourth Street
    since the time of this survey.  The HCB and OCS concentrations in
    bottom sediments diminished by one or two orders of magnitude
    downstream of Dow, but remained elevated, well above background
    levels, along the entire length of the Canadian Shoreline to Lake
    St. Clair (61).
    
    Sarnia's industrial waterfront sediments also contain high con-
    centrations of oil and grease.  For oil and grease, other high
    concentration areas along the Canadian shoreline were found ad-
    jacent to downtown Sarnia upstream of major industries  {2,200 and
    1,300 ppm), adjacent to Imperial Oil  (1,200 ppm), just above
    Talfourd Creek  (4,700 and 1,200 ppm), just north of Corunna
    {2,300 and 1,100 ppm), and below Courtright  (1,400 ppm).
    

    -------
                                                             TABLE VI1-5
    
    
    
    
    St. Clair Hiver sediments compared to various criteria for open water disposal  of  dredged material  (ing/kgl.
    
    
    Chemical
    PCBs
    Oil and Grease
    Mercury
    Lead
    Cadrn i um
    Copper
    I ron
    Phosphorus
    Kjeldahl Nitrogen
    Criteria
    
    1 Canada )
    __
    1500
    0.3
    --
    —
    —
    —
    1000
    2000
    Cr i teria
    
    (Ontario J
    0,05
    1500
    0.3
    50
    1
    25
    10,000
    1000
    2000
    Criteria U.S.KPA 1977 St. CJLaJLc .River
    Non-
    Pol luied
    __
    < 1000
    < 1.0
    < 40
    --
    < 25
    < 17,000
    < 420
    < 1000
    Moderately
    Pol luted
    __
    1000-2000
    __
    40-tiO
    —
    25-80
    17 ,000-26,OOO
    420-850
    1000-2000
    Heavi ly
    Polluted
    >10
    >2000
    >1 .0
    >60
    >B
    >60
    >25,000
    >650
    >2000
    
    Han«te
    ND-2.6
    43-5300
    ND-51
    ND-620
    ND-2.2
    3.3-190
    3,300-75,000
    100-500
    ND-1400
    Sed ^ mept. 3*
    
    Mfan
    0.13
    1000
    2.2
    Si)
    O.fil
    30
    1 2 , OOO
    230
    420
    " Data from 176).
    

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                                   245
    
    Somewhat elevated concentrations of PCBs were found in the Sarnia
    area, but this may be due to an analytical interference problem
    from other chlorinated organics (64).   The only additional PCB
    elevated concentration area was located just below Ontario Hydro,
    downstream of the industrial complex (1,900 ppb),  and could indi-
    cate a PCB source to the river at this location.
    
    In general, sediments on the U.S.  side of the river do not con-
    tain significant quantities of HCB and OCS.  PCB concentrations
    along this shoreline are also quite low, ranging from undeteet-
    able to 150 ppb (mean value, 36 ppb).   A few minor areas of ele-
    vated concentrations for oil and grease were found above the Blue
    Water Bridge adjacent to Port Huron (2,300 ppm), above the Belle
    River adjacent to Marine City (2,000 ppm), and along the North
    Channel downstream of Algonac (1,200,  1,200 and 1,300 ppm).
    
    The concentrations of metals along the Canadian shoreline from
    OMOE's complete river study  (1985) show cadmium and cobalt con-
    centrations are low and reasonably constant over the entire
    length of the river.  A few minor exceedences of dredging guide-
    lines are found for iron and copper, but in general,  the con-
    centrations of these metals in the sediments do not appear to be
    a problem.  The highest value of copper  (180 ppm)  was found just
    downstream of Sarnia's sewage treatment plant outfall.  The
    highest iron concentration  (7,5%)  was observed just'south of
    Beckwith Street, Corunna, and the Corunna Waste Water Treatment
    Plant.
    
    Total lead concentrations in the sediments were low over most of
    the river except just south of Ethyl Corporation.   The highest
    value found was 330 ppm for the site closest to Ethyl, with down-
    stream concentrations decreasing systematically (244 ppm, 180
    ppm, and 79 ppm).  Ethyl Corporation produces alkyl lead com-
    pounds which are used as anti-knocking agents in gasoline.  It is
    likely that the sediments contain a mixture of inorganic and
    organic lead forms, all of which have been shown to bioconcen-
    trate in fish  (11).  The high sediment lead concentrations at
    these sites indicate an active lead source in this location.
    
    Historically the most serious heavy metal problem in the St.
    Clair River has been mercury.  Mercury is present at significant-
    ly elevated values at and downstream from Sarnia's industrial
    complex.  The highest mercury value (51 ppm) was recorded ad-
    jacent to Dow chemical but all sites below the Cole Drain exhibit
    high concentrations.  Although these concentrations are consider-
    ably lower than peak mercury values observed in the late 1960s
    and early 1970s  (1,470 ppm)(35), they are- still quite high.  This
    suggests that continuing, albeit low level, sources of mercury in
    the area may be inhibiting reductions in sediment concentrations.
    
    Prior to 1973, Dow Chemical  operated mercury cell chlor-alkali
    plants on site.  These plants were  identified as the source of
    

    -------
                                   246
    
    mercury.  These facilities have since been decommissioned and
    replaced by new plants using the diaphragm process which does not
    use mercury.  Point source data show that low concentrations  {< 1
    ug/L) of mercury are still discharged from the Dow site  (65).
    
    For the metals on the U.S. side of the river, the only major
    anomalous value was 620     for lead for a site just downstream
    of the Canadian National Railway tunnel.  The next site  (approxi-
    mately 1 km downstream) had a somewhat elevated concentration of
    69 ppm.  This site is also downstream of .the Black River which
    had an elevated lead level in river mouth sediments.  Most of the
    other metal concentrations on the U.S. side of the river are near
    Lake Huron background values,  Sediment nutrient concentrations
    were low on both sides of the river and do not      to be a prob-
    lem  (64) .
    
    Many other organic compounds not included in the UGLCCS parameter
    list are present in St, Glair River sediments.  Hexachloro-
    butadiene, hexachloroethane, and pentachlorobenzene are other
    major components of waste byproducts from Dow's chlorinated sol-
    vent production.  These compounds are present at high concentra-
    tions in the sediments adjacent and downstream of Dow, and are
    strongly correlated with HCB and OCS distributions.  Similarly,
    the solvents perchloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride have been
    found at concentrations up to the percent range in sediments
    opposite Dow due to solvent spillage and leakage of non-aqueous
    wastes into the river at this site  (61).  Dow has taken action to
    reduce these problems since these analyses  (66).
    
    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons  (PAHs) have been found at con-
    centrations up to 140     near Sarnia's industrial complex.  The
    alkylated PAHs were present in all samples at lower concentra-
    tions than the parent compounds.  As high temperature combustion
    does not produce alkyl-PAHs, their presence indicates petroleum
    as a likely source.  The presence of n-alkane concentrations that
    correlate well with oil and grease distributions in the area
    support the contention that refineries and petro-chemical plants
    are the probable sources.
    
    A limited amount of data are available on dibenzo-p-dioxins and
    dibenzofurans in St. Clair River sediments  (363 .  Maximum con-
    centrations of total dioxins and furans found downstream of Dow's
    First Street sewers were  12 and 100 ppb, respectively.  Most of
    these compounds consisted of the octa-  and heptacongeners,  The
    2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was not  found in any of  the
    samples.
    
    Four other chemicals were found at high concentrations in sedi-
    ments collected near Sarnia; diphenylether, biphenyl, 4-ethyl-
    biphenyl, and diethyl biphenyl  (67),  The concentrations of  these
    chemicals ranged- from undetectable  (ND) to 490 ppm  for diphenyl-
    ether,  from ND to  150 ppm for biphenyl, from ND  to  5 ppm for
    

    -------
                                   247
    
    4-ethylbiphenyl» and from ND to 5.2 ppm for diethylbiphenyl.  The
    ratio of these chemicals in the sediments is similar to that
    present in heat transfer fluids.  Two such fluids, Dowtherm A
    (73.5% diphenylether/26.5% biphenyl) and Therminol VP-1, are
    produced only in the United States by Dow and Monsanto.  These
    fluids also contain ethyl and diethylbiphenyls as lesser com-
    ponents.  The sediment data indicated that heat exchange fluids
    entered the river from Sarnia's industrial complex.
    
    
    Tributary Sediments
    
    Sediment samples were collected from the mouths of tributaries
    entering the St. Clair River to identify other potential con-
    taminant sources to the river.  The analysis of the Canadian
    tributaries was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ-
    ment in 1984     1985 (68).  The Canadian tributary that con-
    tributes the greatest chemical burden to -the river is the Cole
    Drain.  While no bottom sediment samples were obtained at the
    Cole Drain during the Canadian tributary study, water quality and
    suspended sediment data reflect treated leachate and untreated
    runoff from several industrial landfill sites upstream.  Levels
    of HCB  (0-210 ng/L), HCBD (0-345 ng/L), HCE  (0-550 ng/L) and OCS
    (0-160 ng/L) in whole water were generally 1-2 orders of mag-
    nitude higher than at other tributaries  (68).  Sediment samples
    from Talfourd Creek and Murphy Drain contained HCB levels of 55
        103 ppb, respectively.  Metal contamination in tributary
    sediments resulted in provincial dredging guidelines being ex-
    ceeded at several Ontario tributaries for chromium, copper, iron
    and nickel.  Mercury guidelines were exceeded in a single sample
    obtained from the Talfourd Creek mouth  (0.76 ppm).  Mean instan-
    taneous loadings based on suspended sediment and water chemistry
    and instantaneous flow were calculated for four Ontario tributar-
    ies (Table VII-6).
    
    The U.S. tributaries were analyzed in 1985 by the Great Lakes
    National Program Office  (GLNPO) of the U.S.EPA  (69).  For the
    U.S. tributaries, a high value for lead  (270 ppm) and somewhat
    elevated copper concentrations  (160 ppm) were found in Black
    River sediments  (Table VII-7).  The Black River is potentially a
    source for anomalous lead concentrations observed south of the
    Black River confluence on the St. Clair River.  Elevated con-
    centrations for several parameters  (PCBs 76 ppb, PAHs 33 ppm, oil
    and grease 11,600 ppm, lead 230 ppm, TKN 6,600 ppm and phosphorus
    1,300 ppm) were found in an unnamed creek across the river from
    Lambton Generating Station.  The only other anomalously high
    concentrations were found for PCBs, 490 and 95 ppb, in the Belle
    River.  High levels of calcium, strontium and sodium were found
    in sediments near the Diamond Crystal Salt Company and suggest
    continuing inputs of total dissolved solids.  Otherwise the
    

    -------
                                              TAHl.K  VI 1-6
    
    
    
    L'hlo[inale() Organic!*
    HCB 0
    DCS 0
    CCBa 41
    HCKO NA*
    HCE NA
    Pesticide^ i us /see I
    Atrazine O
    alpha-BHC U
    ga..a-BHC 0
    Dieldrin o
    £ndoaul phan- I 0
    pp-UDE 0
    Hetala ( na/sec 1
    Cadniuit 0
    Chro.iu. 14
    Copper 4
    [ ron ti33«t
    Lead 5
    Herciiry o
    2 i nc 26
    J DMCA I rOFi refVr^i
    2 Th» tntmfaMcx i
    
    I'errh
    las) I wa I
    .00 O.UO
    .00 0.00
    .5 0.00
    0.00
    0.00
    . 0 186.0
    .00 o.o
    .00 5.O
    .4 0,0
    ,00 0,0
    .03 o.oo
    
    .IT 0.09
    .3 20,7
    .4 3X.B
    9163
    .02 I3.b44
    .009 0.063
    •"* "'"
    UC# ll.MI,
    on uniBFio r riisursriea' ii>r
    IJTBIH
    t S3 1 1 WH I
    17.6 6u,oO
    14. ti 20, UO
    4 , OO 0 , 00
    NA 53.0
    NA 62.0
    1 .0 8S.O
    0.04 2.5
    0.01 0.4
    0.2 0.0
    0.1. 0.0
    O.OB o.oo
    
    0.02 0.03
    1.5 0.2
    4.4 O.I
    434 37k
    1.02 2,43
    o .ooti o . u 19
    6.1 12.33
    
    
    
    Tat I'ourO
    ( uper ri>a»i
    las! I wal
    O.SO
    O.UU
    9. BO
    NA
    NA
    o.o
    0.00
    o.oo
    0.4
    o.oo
    o.uo
    
    0.07
    3.4
    2.9
    2494
    1.93
    0.041
    11 .6?
    
    I
    0
    0
    0
    0
    512
    0
    0
    0
    0
    0
    
    0
    5
    7
    2648
    3
    0
    1!»
    to the
    .00
    ,00
    .00
    ,00
    ,00
    .0
    .»
    .2
    .0
    ,0
    .00
    
    .IT
    ,7
    ,3
    
    .673
    .012
    .32
    St..
    'is i i ouro Bfttiy
    »"re*-h Creek
    t *oui hi
    1 a a I I MB 1 1 11*1 I wml
    3.70
    0.05
    1.70
    NA
    NA
    0.0
    o.oo
    o.oo
    0.7
    1,1,
    0.00
    
    o.os
    7.2
    6. J
    lt>44
    2.9
    0.019
    13.22
    Clair Hiirei
    17.
    0.
    0,
    1.
    18.
    557.
    S.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0,
    
    0,
    5.
    1 .
    1124
    T.
    0,
    25.
    
    OO O.OB U.OO
    oo o,w7 o.oo
    oo 0.30 0,00
    01) NA 0.00
    0 NA 0.00
    0 0.0 271.0
    a o.oo u.o
    a o.oo u.02
    M
    0 0,02 O.O |^
    o o.oi o.o °°
    UO 0,02 0.00
    
    57 0.01 0.06
    S 0.7 1.4
    ft 1.0 2.1
    SI2 550
    442 U.42 0.364
    Oi>4 O.U01 0,004
    24 2.B7 S.83
    
    Hot.  Available.
    

    -------
                                             249
                                      TABLE VII-7.
    
    Summary of sediment quality in mouths of Michigan tributaries to the St. Clair
    River.
    
    
    
    NUMBER
    OF ANALYTICAL
    DETECTIONS
    STANDARD
    MAXIMUM
    
    MINIMUM
    
    MEAN DEVIATION
    
    
    MAJOR METALS AND TRACE METALS < n«/k« )
    CALCIUM
    MAGNESIUM
    SODIUM
    POTASSIUM
    ALUMINUM
    IRON
    ARSENIC
    BARIUM
    BERYL I UM
    BISMUTH
    CADMIUM
    CHROMIUM
    COBALT
    COPPER
    LEAD
    MANGANESE
    MOLYBDENUM
    NICKEL
    SILVER
    STRONTIUM
    VANADIUM
    ZTNC
    TIN
    LITHIUM
    SELENIUM
    YTTRIUM
    MERCURY
    NUTRIENTS AND
    COD
    OIL AND GREASE
    AMMONIA
    TKN
    PHOSPHORUS
    CYANIDE
    TOTAL SOLIDS <
    TOTAL VOLATILE
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    7
    OTHERS PARAMETERS IN
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    10
    X) 10
    SOLIDS (X) 10
    TOTAL PCBs, PAHs, PHTHALATE ESTERS
    TOTAL PCBs
    TOTAL PAHs
    TOTAL DDTs
    7
    6
    7
    TOTAL PHTHALATES 8
    SELECTED OTHER
    ORGANICS 
    -------
                                   250
    
    Michigan tributaries do not appear to be significant sources of
    contaminants to the river.
    
    Most sediments in the St. Clair River are transitory, having a
    lifetime in the river of less than one year (61).   The moving bed
    sediments constitute only a very minor component (less than 1
    percent) of total contaminant transport along the river  (64),
    The ultimate sink of this fine sand that constitutes bed load
    appears to be the St. Clair River Delta.  Sand cores taken from
    the delta area contain mercury and other contaminants to a con-
    siderable depth (54).  Because of the contaminant storage in this
    area, contaminant body burdens in wildlife could remain elevated
    for a considerable period, even after control measures have been
    implemented.  Most of the contaminants are transported via water
    and suspended solids which would be carried and dispersed further
    down the system into Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie.
    

    -------
                                   251
    
    B.  SPECIFIC CONCERNS
    
    A summary of specific concerns including contaminants and as-
    sociated use impairments, media affected jand location is provided
    in Table VII-8.
    
    
    1.   Conventional Pollutants
    
    Nutrients
    
    Phosphorous reduction programs have had a major impact on the
    discharge of phosphorus  to the St. Clair River.  Water column
    concentrations for total phosphorus  (1984) were low, ranging from
    0.009 to 0.03 mg/L (41).  These values are much lower than re-
    ported for the river in  the 1970s  (45).  Bottom sediments (64)
    and suspended sediments  (41) for the river are both below the
    1000 ppm guideline for open-water disposal of dredged sediments.
    The nitrate/nitrite concentration range found in the river
    (0.29-0,31 mg/L) is typical of that found in oligotrophic waters
    (70).  Thus, the discharge of nutrients to the St. Clair River
    seems to be largely under control.
    
    
    Chloride
    
    Chloride loadings to the St. Clair River are very high.  The
    chloride concentration changes from a mean of 6.2 mg/L at the
    head of the river, to 7,7 mg/L at the river's mouth  (41).  This
    change amounts to a daily river loading of about 585 metric
    tonnes of chloride.  Chloride is a conservative parameter that
    will not be lost from the system.  The increased salinity of the
    lower Great Lakes from these very large chloride inputs could
    potentially have a significant effect on the structure of bio-
    logical communities in the system  (71).  A shift in the organism
    diversity to more saline-tolerant species  (halophilic) could
    occur over long time scales.
    
    
    Bacteria
    
    Concentrations of bacteria increase along the course of the St.
    Clair River.  Heterotroph counts in bottom waters along the
    Canadian shore increased from 2,200 organisms/ml at the head of
    the river, to  10,500 at  the mouth  (51).  sediment bacteria in-
    creased from 1,500 bacteria/ml at the head, to 450,000 at the
    mouth.  Head to mouth changes along the U.S. shore were 110 to
    13,000 organisms/ml for  the water, and 700 to 27,000 hetero-
    trophs/ml for  the sediments.  In some  cases, swimming areas along
    the river have been closed due to bacterial contamination  (72).
    

    -------
                                                      TABLE VII-H
    
       Sppc*it"ir concerns  in thft St. Clitir  River,  UB»B impaired,  and geographic acope of the perceived probten.
    CONCERN
        IMPAIRMENT
                                                               MEDIA
                                  GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE
    Convent tonal Pollutants
    
    chl oricle
    
    
    
    bacteria
    
    
    Mfi LCC Parameters
    
    hexachlorotaenaene
    potential alteration of
    biological community
    struct lire
    
    potential human health
    hazard
    toxicity to biota
    hiimftn health
                                                               water
                                                               wster» sediment*
                                                               water,  sediments, biota
                                                               fish
                                                                                            whole river
                                                                                            lower Great  Lakes
                                  some areas along
                                  river,  increases
                                  downstream
                                                                                            below Sarnia
                                                                                            whole river
    octachlorostyrene
    
    
    PAH a
    
    
    oil and grease
    
    
    PCRs
    lead
    Other Contaminants!
    
    hexachlorobutadiene
    be xacihloroe thane
    pentachlorobenzene
    
    benz.ene
    perch!oroethylene
    carbon tetrachloride
    
    diphenyi ether
    biphenyl
    
    pheno1s
    
    i>**stini des
    toxicity to biota
    human health
    
    toxicitv to biota
    toxicitv to benthic
    communi ty
    
    human health hazard
    toxicity to fish
    
    human health
    toxicity to biota
    
    human health
    toxicitv to biota
                                 toxicity to biota
                                 toxicity to biota
                                 toxicity to biota
                                                               water,  sediments, biota
                                                               f ish
    
                                                               sediments, biota
                                                               sediment
                                                               water (?I
    
                                                               some fish
                                                               sediments,  biota
    
                                                               fish, sediment
                                                               fish
                                                               sediment
    water, sediments, biota
    water, sediments, biota
    water, sediments, biota
    
    water, biota
    water, biota
    water, biota
    
    sedi uents
    sediments
                                                               water
                                  below Sarnia
                                  whole river
    
                                  below Sarnia
                                  below Lambton
    
                                  whole river (esp.
                                  Ontario  shore!
    
                                  whole river
                                  below Lambton
    
                                  whole river Jbelow
                                  Sarnia,  eap,  near  Dow I
    
                                  below Ethyl Corp,
                                  below Ethyi Corp.
                                                                                            below Sarnia (esp»
                                                                                            near Dow I
                                                               below Sarnia
                                                               below Sarnia
                                                               be low Sarnia
    
                                                               Sarnia
                                                               Sarnia
    
                                                               Sarnia dischargers
    
                                                               whoie river
                                                                                                                          in
                                                                                                                          K)
       ? - Further studies required to determine potential  impact.
    
       * - Historical problem, however, little data available  on  present  concentrations in various media.
    

    -------
                                   253
    
    2.   UGLCCS Toxic Organics and Heavy Metals
    
    The priority contaminants in the St. Glair River found from the
    water, biota, and sediment reports are remarkably consistent.
    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene  (OCS) are the two
    chlorinated UGLCCS chemicals of most concern.  These chemicals
    are associated with Dow Chemical's Sarnia operations.  Major
    sources include Dow Chemical's direct sewer discharges, and in-
    direct leachate from Dow's Scott Road landfill via the Cole
    Drain.  HCB in the St. Clair River water exceeds water quality
    guidelines near the discharges,  and OCS exceeds an approximate
    guideline value calculated from bioconcentration considerations.
    The river sediments are contaminated with HCB  and OCS all the way
    to Lake St. Clair (59,76).  HCB and OCS are also bioaccumulated
    by all trophic levels of biota including plankton, benthic organ-
    isms, young-of-the-year fish, and sport fish.
    
    PAHs, including benzo-a-pyrene,  have been found in caged clams
    and sediments in the river.  PAHs were not detected in water
    samples obtained from the mouth of Talfou'rd Creek, Baby Creek,
    Murphy Drain or the Cole Drain in 1984.  Data  on PAHs in the St.
    Clair system are limited at present, but sufficient information
    exists to demonstrate cause for concern.
    
    The importance of PCB loadings to the St. Clair River is not a
    clear-cut issue.  PCB concentrations in bottom sediments along
    Sarnia's industrial waterfront appear to be elevated.  However,
    analytical difficulties in PCB determinations  in this area have
    been cited (64).  The presence of other halogenated organics may
    be leading to false high PCB readings  (by a factor of 4) in sedi-
    ments from this region  (64,77).   PCBs in fish  from the river may
    also be misidentified and overestimated.  Maximum PCB levels in
    sediments from Ontario tributaries were observed at the mouth of
    Talfourd Creek  (65 ppb).
    
    PCB levels appear to be somewhat elevated in sediments and young-
    of-the-year  fish downstream of Lambton Generating Station.
    Because this site is about 15 km downstream of Sarnia's indus-
    trial discharges, PCB analytical interferences may be less sig-
    nificant at this site.  Thus, a PCB discharge  to the river may be
    occurring in this region.  The PCB residues in fish from the
    river and Lake St. Clair have declined by 50%  since 1976  (36).
    Except for a few of the larger fish of some species, most sport
    fish are less than the 2 ppm guideline.
    
    Because of the considerable number of refineries and petrochem-
    ical plants along the Canadian side of the river, oil and grease
    discharges to the river are of concern.  Oil and grease in sedi-
    ments are highest along Sarnia's industrial waterfront, with many
    values exceeding open-water dredge disposal guidelines.  Tar-
    saturated sediments were observed from just north of  the
    Imperial/ Polysar boundary, to south of the Suncor property  (36).
    

    -------
                                   254
    
    They occur at or just below the surface in cores collected up to
    25 meters from the shore.  The cohesion provided by the tar
    apparently stabilizes the contaminated sediments and hinders
    their incorporation into bed load transport.
    
    Additional areas on the Canadian shoreline with high sediment oil
    and grease levels were adjacent to downtown Sarnia  (upstream of
    the industrial complex), just above Talfourd Creek, just north of
    Corunna, and below Courtright.  On the U.S. side of the river,
    oil and grease sediment levels were high above the Blue Water
    Bridge adjacent to Port Huron, above the Belle River adjacent to
    Marine City, and along the north channel downstream of Algonac.
    An unnamed creek across the river from Lambton Generating Station
    also contained anomalously high oil and grease sediment concen-
    trations.  However, the creeK has no visible discharge to the St.
    Clair River and the high level here may be the result of a spill
    on Michigan Highway 29  (64).  Oil and grease levels measured at
    the mouths of Baby Creek and the Murphy Drain were generally an
    order of magnitude higher than other Ontario tributaries with a
    maximum value of 7,380 ppm observed at the Murphy Drain.
    
    Of the UGLCCS heavy metals, only mercury and lead appear to be of
    concern.  Mercury concentrations of the larger fish of some
    species still exceed the consumption guideline of 0.5 ppm.  Sedi-
    ment mercury concentrations near Dow are still elevated, indi-
    cating a continuing mercury source in the area.  The discharge of
    mercury to the river has been reduced dramatically since the
    1970s, and fish mercury concentrations may be due, in part, to
    mercury recycling in the system.
    
    Lead concentrations in sediments and biota are elevated down-
    stream of Ethyl Corporation.  Because a portion of the lead load-
    ing from this source is the more toxic alky! lead compounds (11),
    the environmental implications of this discharge to the river are
    of concern.
    3.   Other Specific Contaminants
    
    Three other contaminants associated with Dow's chlorinated sol-
    vent production that are consistently present in water, sedi-
    ments, and biota in the river are hexachlorobutadiene, hexa-
    chloroethane, and pentachlorobenzene.  The concentrations of
    these contaminants are highly correlated with HCB and OCS.  The
    discharge of volatile organics to the river is also  fairly high.
    Volatile substances of greatest concern in the area  are benzene,
    perchloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride.  Near source inputs,
    these chemicals are found at higher concentrations than recom-
    mended water quality guidelines.  They are also found in biota,
    including fish, in the river.  Diphenylether and biphenyl are
    found at very high concentrations in sediments along Sarnia's
    industrial waterfront.  The loss of heat exchange fluids to the
    

    -------
                                   255
    
    river at this location is apparent.
    
    Phenols have been a historical problem along the Canadian side of
    the river downstream from Sarnia.  Since the implementation of
    improved waste water treatment by industrial waste dischargers in
    the area, the phenol loadings to the river have been drastically
    reduced  (78).  Very little data on phenols was produced for the
    water, biota, and sediment studies.  The Point Source Workgroup
    (65) showed that discharges of phenols were still of concern in
    certain industrial and municipal discharges in Sarnia.
    
    Pesticides are common organics that have been studied extensively
    throughout the Great Lakes Basin.  Several common pesticides such
    as DDT and its breakdown products, alpha- and gamma-benzene hexa-
    chloride, and dieldrin are found in the St. Glair River (79),
    However, the concentration of these contaminants does not change
    significantly over the river's course, indicating that there are
    no significant sources along the river (37,79).  Elevated con-
    centrations of ehlordane, gamma-BHC and mercury were found in
    young-of-the-year spottail shiners at the mouth of Perch Creek on
    Lake Huron near the head of the St. Glair River (36),  Several
    pesticides were frequently detected in Ontario tributaries to the
    St. Glair River.  These included alpha-BHC, a breakdown product
    of the insecticide lindane and atrazine,  a triazine herbicide,
    found in whole water samples.  The latter compound was estimated
    to account for a nearly 1 mg/s loss to the St. Clair River, from
    Talfourd and Baby Creeks and Murphy     Cole Drains,  The pre-
    dominant pesticide occurring on suspended solids was dieldrin;
    however, total loading from these creeks was in the order of 0.9
    ug/s  (68).
    4,   Habitat Alterations
    
    Historically, humans made considerable changes in the it. Clair
    river for navigational purposes  (80).  Recent physical habitat
    alterations along the St. Clair River appear to be minimal;
    however, more information about shoreline development and its
    effects is needed before a definitive statement can be made.
    There has been periodic dredging in the lower channels of the
    river about every two years. Chemical alteration of the habitat
    is a problem for 12 km downstream of Sarnia's heavy industry, as
    indicated by benthic studies (49).
    

    -------
                                   256
    
    C.   SOURCES
    
    1.   Municipal and Industrial Point Sources
    
    A study by the UGLCCS Point Source Workgroup  (65) indicates that
    a total of 52 known point sources were discharging to the St.
    Clair River in 1986.  The total point source  flow was estimated
    at 91,800 x 103 m3/d.  Apparently, 96 percent of this total was
    utilized by electrical generating facilities  for once-through,
    noncontact cooling; of the remainder of the flow, 2,590 x 10^
    m-Vd, was contributed from industrial sources.  Eighteen of these
    sources were sampled for a total of 26 study  parameters.  The
    calculated loadings from these analyses are presented in Table
    VII-9.
    
    Industrial sources were found to be important contributors of
    most of the UGLCC Study parameters, compared  with municipal faci-
    lities.  The predominant sources were the petrochemical plants in
    the Sarnia, Ontario area, known as "Chemical Valley",  The major-
    ity of the sources were located in the upper  10 km of the St.
    Clair River.  These industrial sources were responsible for the
    majority of the loadings of HCB, QCS, PAHs, oil and grease, lead,
    mercury, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, chromium, chlorides, total
    organic carbon  (TOC), total suspended solids  (TSS), and a spec-
    trum of organic contaminants including volatile hydrocarbons,
    acid and other base neutral extractable hydrocarbons.
    
    A comparison of municipal direct and indirect sources, and in-
    dustrial direct and indirect sources by country of origin for
    each parameter of concern is shown in Table VII-10.  Direct
    sources are those discharged to the river, indirect are dis-
    charged to tributaries or drains which flow into the St. Clair
    River,
    
    The point source data are too limited (single day survey by the
    U.S., and three to six day surveys by Canada) to permit the cal-
    culation of precise annual loadings.  For more common parameters,
    the data were compared to self-monitoring data collected by the
    industries and municipalities.  This provides an indication as to
    how representative the sampling was.  For most parameters, the
    point source samples were within normal r'anges.  Despite the
    limitations, the data are adequate to make conclusions and recom-
    mendations concerning relative point source contributions, and
    identify major point sources of concern.
    
    The point source contributions of the following parameters were
    considered important by the Point Source Workgroup Report  (65),
    based on concentration alone, for the reasons indicated;
    

    -------
                                               257
                                       TABLE VI1-9
    
            summary  of principal sources of UBLCCS param*r*rs to the St. Glair River
    (based on data collected in 1986).
    PARAMETER
    fatal PCBa
    He scaehloro benzene
    Oetaehlorostyrene
    Total Phenols
    PAHS
    Total Cyanide
    Oil and Sreaa*
    Total Cadiiiwm
    Total Lead
    Total Zinc
    Total M#rc«rf
    Total Copper
    Total Nickel
    Total Cobalt
    Total Iron
    Chloride
    Phoaphorua-P
    Anmonia-N
    Total Qrfanie
    Carbon
    Total Suspended
    Solids
    Biochemical
    Qx^aen Demand
    Tot«l Chromium
    Total Volatiles
    Total Acid
    Extractablea
    Total Other
    lase/VeutcaLs ,
    i
    TOTAL !
    LOADING! PRINCIPAL
    (kf/d) ! SOURCE! S)
    0,006 [Dow Chemical
    [Port Huron WWTP
    i
    0,024? JDo« Chemical
    i
    0,0047 !Do« Chemical
    12.1 JSurnia WPCP
    j DOH Chemical
    j Pt , Edward WPCP
    0.331 ICole Drain
    IPolirsar Sarnia
    3,12 ! Marine City WWTP
    3170 ICol* Drain
    0 , 143 ! Sarnia WPCP
    i
    29.0 ! Ethyl Canada
    J
    44,9 I Sarnia WPCP
    0,0443 ',Do» Chemical
    11.8 !Do» Chenical
    4,3? ! Sarnia WPCP
    J Po 1 jrsa r Sa rn i a
    !Dow Chemical
    0.857 jPolycar S«rni«
    1
    Si! JCIL Inc.
    j Sarnia HPCP
    356,000 jDow Chemical
    Si, 8 [Sarnia WPCP
    IPort Huron WWTP
    1670 i Sarnia WPCP
    [Polysar Sarnia
    ICIL" inc.
    {St. Clair County
    !- Alzonae WWTP
    S700 {Polysar Sarnia
    ! Sarnia wpcp
    9400 ICIL Inc.
    i
    7?4Q | Sarnia WPCP
    16, 1 ICIL Inc.
    iPolvmar Corunna
    254 j Polysar Sarnia
    {Dow Chemical
    SIthvl Canada
    1.09 IPolysar Sarnia
    1.03 JDow Chemical
    % OF
    TOTAL
    S3, 3
    33.4
    >90
    '100
    39,6
    14, a
    13.9
    32,6
    30, 1
    55 . i
    41 ,0
    95.8
    65.9
    47.9
    §4 .5
    52.9
    22.3
    15.0
    14,7
    78.!
    33. 9
    L-JU-l
    78. 1
    27 ,4
    15,3
    37. i
    21 ,0
    15,3
    10, g
    34
    _il__i
    53
    26
    56
    16
    SI
    20
    17
    S6 ,4
    78
    LOADING
    I kf/d )
    0.0032
    0,002
    0,03
    0.0047
    4,32
    1.78
    1.69
    0.172
    0.163 .
    1.8
    1,300
    0.137
    19.1
    19.7
    0 ,0217
    S, 24
    O.i13
    0, 657
    0 , 844
    0.67
    209
    137
    883 ,§20
    43 , (j
    14, §
    633
    3SO
    2S6
    1§1
    2 , 200
    1.850
    4,980
    1,000
    8.96
    2,5
    124 ,0
    SI .0
    43.3
    0.74
    0, 78
    CONCSNT1A-
    TION RANGE
    (ug/Lt
    ND-Q.441*
    0.02S
    ND-0,32i
    0,024-0,094
    82-163
    3.5-4.5
    11-17BO
    1.2 ( a-vf 1
    0, 4S 1 aw« )
    270
    1 , 700 f avj i
    ND-7
    293-910
    no-Tio
    TO-0,88
    ND-1CJ7
    6-15
    2S-44
    0,88 i i¥f> )
    2S-41
    530-870
    li§0-31 SO
    211 ,000 -
    1 ,271 ,000
    580-1300
    480
    5800-20000
    1 7300-20000
    800 ( avg 1
    21,000
    4SOOO-SOOOO
    33000-dlOOO
    I70OO-24000
    41000 ( avg )
    20-21
    S58-5€7
    ND-3?,40G
    ND-1 ,500
    ND-1 , 500
    ND-7 7
    ND-tt
    1MPOH-
    TAMT
    PA SAME-
    TIB I*)1
    "
    *
    -
    «
    ™ j *
    it
    -
    -
    *
    -
    -
    —
    
    -
    —
    —
    -
    *
    ™~
    •*
    -
    *
    *
    -
    —
    1 Facilities  and
      described in the
                «r*  designated as "important" under the condition
    text and in the UGLCCS Point, Source Workgroup Report I 681 .
    1 Detected once only in 6 samples of First Street 64"  sewer IMDL O.Oi
    

    -------
                                                              TAHLR VI I- 10
                                                            for won re
     PABAHRTiilt
     KI.OW*
    I0*nj /it
      SIWVKYRD)
     DCS*
      P*H»
      TOTAL
      CYANIDE
      on. *
      ORE*SI
      TOTAL
      CAOHIUH
      TOTAL
      fcRAB
      TOTAL
      7. SHC
     TOTAL
     PHENOLS
    
    U.S.
    CDN ,
    TOTAL
    U.S.
    ri»N .
    TfiTAl*
    U.S.
    CDN,
    TOTMi
    U.S.
    (JON,
    TOTAL.
    U.S.
    CON.
    JOTA.L
    U.S.
    CBN.
    TOTAL
    U.S.
    CDN.
    TOTAL
    U.S.
    CDN,
    TOTAL*
    U.S.
    CBW.
    TOTAL
    U.S.
    CDN.
    TOTAL
    U.S.
    emu.
    IBTA.L
    HI) I.I hi
    lUlj/iil
    ..#
    -
    . DU01
    . 1
    
    .uuuul
    0.1)2
    „
    -
    0,02
    _
    to
    1
    
    1-15
    I-Z
    _
    g
    1
    _
    2,000
    100
    _
    0.1
    6
    
    1
    &
    2
    s
    
    NUN 1C! PA I.
    DIHFCT
    Mi.tt
    S3.X
    ... , 1±U 	
    O.UWZi
    o,u
    ^ II.OUUB
    O.UVIIli!
    o.uttua
    L u.odiMi:
    U.OUUUU&
    u,U
    O . jJO(JH
    	 6 35-.—,
    O.UO4il7
    tt. 131
    .. «,Hi^_,
    0.1SH
    2 . Z«
    . ;'.;»«. _.
    :».«z
    IB. a
    ...*:«. 1. _i
    HUN in PAL
    INItlKKCT
    NS»*
    a. «i
    	 !>,4.» 	
    N»"
    N**»*
    „
    NS
    NA
    .
    NS
    NA
    
    NS
    NA
    -
    NS
    NA
    -
    NS
    NA
    -
    NS
    NA
    -
    NS
    NA
    
    NS
    NA
    NS
    NA
    
    IMlMSTllI Al
    niHRCT
    BU.l
    1 , 7BO
    , 	 1 ,JtiU, ...
    CI.(M>tt21>
    O.tt032
    U.UO-tfi
    U. UUOUI4H
    u.OiJb
    g.iizJM
    NA
    U.U04U
    _
    0.0
    4.S2
    4.5Z
    (1.0
    O.U396
    u.iKmfi
    o.o
    0.1H/NA
    _
    ia. i
    HUH
    aaa
    0.0
    O.UU14
    O . OUJL4__
    0 . 02D
    SIS. 7
    .. . 2S.?.
    o.aiis
    18. ft
    J8.8 _,
    INnilSTNIAi,
    INIifHKOT
    Jil.U
    tfl
    ^ 	 11*!!....
    NA
    o.u
    U,C1
    N*
    u.ooos
    O . CHIOS
    NA
    U.OUUI
    _
    u, isa
    D.VHl
    i_ Ij-LJ
    o.o
    0. IT2
    0. 172
    O.O
    1) I, kl.i
    ._0.«MJ .
    Z94
    i ,3S!0
    1 ,«10
    u.o
    u.u
    	 U.fi
    o.o:iin>
    O.MHIi
    i1- •*( "»...
    V . 00 1 >
    2.«»
    u 	 itIS. ..J
    TOTAL
    DIBKCT
    107
    1 ,U1U
    ijiau 	
    O.(tu671
    o.ooast
    ..O.OUH97
    o.ooootu
    0 ,024 1
    L -ttiM32
    
    0.004«
    _
    V.60U
    1U.S
    !_ 11 ,0
    0.0
    0. 158
    0.168
    23?
    O.I7I/NA
    _ 4.5J+
    JilO
    1 ,170
    1 ,MU
    O,OU4S»1
    o, i :»B
    o . 1 4 :i
    0, 17U
    21.il
    . *a,i.. 	
    ;i.ia
    ;««.4
    .«iL..
    TOTAL
    THRIRKCT
    ;io.«
    itii
    _UU 	 _
    o.o
    , 0,0
    
    o.uuos
    ,^J,.OUU8
    
    o.oooi
    .
    0. 158
    0.9B3
    t 1,14
    0.0
    0.112
    o. nz
    o.o
    O.BU3
    0.8B3
    294
    1 ,320
    L I.Blft
    O.O
    U.O
    0,0
    O.U 306
    O.MHit
    	 o^tia 	 i
    O. Ott 13
    2.H«_
    2,78
    PT. SOtliCK
    TDTAL
    1 ,18
    1,1174
    .1 ».UO....
    " 4I.O0677~"
    O.ttO-li
    O-UOHfll
    0 . uuuOle
    O.OJ4B
    O.OZ47
    
    0.0041
    
    O.BST
    n.s
    i__lS-!JL-_
    O.l>
    0.131
    tt.331_
    Z.37
    41.H54 +
    3.Z2*.
    tisn
    2,490
    3^2
    41.1
    41, IL
    % OK PT.
    SOU Mil i
    TOTAL
    S,&
    91. S
    L__LOJ 	
    t)4.3
    35. 7
    1OO
    O,3
    Vtt.1
    104
    
    -
    _
    5,4
    SM.H
    ioa
    0
    100
    100
    
    -
    _
    21 . t
    5H.4
    i 	 ua 	 i
    U.J
    S8.1
    100
    0.7
    »».3
    to« 	
    B.4
    •u ,i>
    igo_.
    to
    tn
    00
    

    -------
                                                                l I-1II.  4eBnt'dl
    PAHAMKTEK
    TOTAL ;
    J TOT A"£
    jll.S.
    TOTAL !
    COPPER iCHN.
    {TOTAL
    jll.S,
    TOTAL !
    NICKEL ifiBN.
    i TOTAL
    [U.S.
    TOTAI, j
    COBALT ;cnn.
    ; TOTAL
    iU.S.
    TOTAL ]
    IRON j(TDN,
    : TOTAL
    [U.S.
    CHLORIDE jfi ON.
    .'TOTAL
    [U.S.
    PHOSPHORUS 1
    AS p '.cat.
    ! TOTAL
    [U.S.
    AHHONIA I
    AS N [CON.
    I TOTAL
    TOTAI. [U.S.
    OH11AN1C |_ 	 ,
    OAK RON ICON.
    I TOO 1 i
    i TOTAL
    TOTAL ! 11 , S .
    SUSPENDED
    SOLIDS ICON.
    iss) ;
    	 JTCTAL.
    RineHKMICAL [U.S.
    OXVflKN i
    IWHANB IC1IN.!*"
    I H01»S I |
    JTOTAl.
    Ml! I.I • )
    luc/LI
    O.O11I11
    U.UBft
    
    1
    S
    _
    4
    6
    -
    O.O01
    S
    _
    14
    i
    _
    louo
    soo
    
    til
    100
    
    to
    100
    
    to
    too
    _
    4 , OOO
    1 tUOO
    
    2,000
    2.0OO
    MUNICIPAL
    D I BKfiT
    O.I1O144
    It . lltiz I
    U.U4I3S4
    U.!)(i4
    1 . hb
    t . S 2
    a. 429
    t ,O3
    § 	 |_. JB
    0,024
    U. 1 JO
    .o.jjii
    56 .0
    151
    207
    8,6 JO
    6,724)
    IS. SOO
    51 ,8
    4B.2
    ]OU
    2.2
    bia
    .. 940
    B14
    I . aid
    2 aso
    «««
    azs
    t .4341
    1 ,22O
    5,1011
    , _ -.. .j 	 s^azy ._
    MUNICIPAL
    INO1MECT
    Ni
    NA
    „
    NS
    NA
    ^
    NS
    NA
    ^ 	 _
    MS
    NA
    -
    NS
    NA
    „
    NS
    NA
    ^
    N9
    O.4I2
    fi_ 4 I 2
    NS
    NA
    _
    NS
    NA
    _
    NS
    23.3
    23. J
    NS
    6.8k
    Sitffl .
    INOUSTMIAL
    UIMKCT
    O.OUUtNi
    W . U^fl4
    0 . 0 3 & 4
    0, I O1
    f .B4
    1.75
    IJ.U-UO
    2. 1 1
    •A. Ift
    O.OO3
    O.lilO
    O.BI:I _
    1 .S3
    33H
    ;i;ia
    4.72.1
    3 36, OHO
    341 .000
    O.fiO
    -2*.(t=
    -2li 2£
    1 .4&
    121
    1E'^
    llli
    2 , T4IO«
    Z,«T4I
    
    «,S40
    4).4>itU
    78.lt
    NA
    -
    INUII.1TKIAI.
    1NDIKECT
    NA
    	 . -
    u.o«5a
    0. 104
    1 .48
    I , Ali
    NA
    4I.THI
    ,__ K.7fiJ 	
    NA
    u.o
    41.11
    ti.Mft
    2B.3
    >___., .3ft ,a
    :»S»H
    16, :too
    | ti . TOO
    
    tt.114
    15-1
    o.iiy
    4 . fc.'
    S.^J
    s&t
    434
    SHS
    30 S
    	 	
    1 .250
    135
    NA
    -
    TOTAI,
    UIUGCT
    O.O014U
    U.U319
    0.0389
    a. ait
    y.ao
    10.1 . .
    O.408
    3.14
    3. el
    0,o2T
    O.H1O
    o.as?
    97. S
    4«y
    548
    i;s,aoo
    342,000
    3S5.OOO
    5Z.4
    21 ,4
    , 	 1J.B
    283
    1.3BO
    t .580
    SIS
    4.740*
    B.720
    1 ,240
    1> , af 41
    B^IZSL
    1 ,300
    T«TAL
    -
    o.yosa
    O.OOS3
    0.1(14
    1.4*
    1-ib
    
    0.76 1
    tt.Jlil
    
    O,0
    0.0
    ".y&
    
    IS. 3
    
    Ib, JOO
    16.7OO
    &.1»
    10.3
    IK.}
    o.ya
    4.82
    S.S1
    S51
    434
    SMS
    3Oti
    at,d
    1.Z10
    
    TOTAL.
    O.UO] 4 a
    O.U4XU
    0 y443
    1 .OK
    10. a
    t— 11. M_
    U,4t>(>
    3. SO
    4.31
    0,021
    O.B3O
    0,!ji7
    *4.«
    61T
    &BZ
    1 4,OaO
    342 ,OOO
    JtSJUQijO 	 ,
    58.2
    SI ,1
    ny . 9
    2H4
    t ,3«0
    rri jo
    1 ,530
    6 , 1 10«
    H , ?OO
    i ,$4)0
    7 ,B4«
    . a.Vuu." ..
    2.040
    i, or FT,
    TOTAL
    3.1
    »i,J
    IOO
    
    til .4}
    10. a
    US, 2
    i_UHI 	 	
    0.5
    »a,5
    11. i
    a*. a
    mo
    90. 1
    IOO
    £4.1
    38.3
    1OO
    11. a
    B3.0
    10.6
    22. a
    IT. 2
    IfiO. .
    ie.fi
    H3.4
    |04>
    	 " 	
    ! 1 I_
                                                                                                                                                                                 Ul
      I tt5 |.
      f iitant *li I ffrencres  for NOI.S.
    net  ii^«lin||H  at-  ClLt  Dc*w ChttHiC
    Ciiiiiirt i #*n  I fwiusn* i»I  »»>iiirni?H un I
    

    -------
                                   260
    
         UGLCCS Parameters:                    Non-UGLCCS Parameters:
    
    i.   Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)               vii.  Chromium
    ii.  Total Phenols                         vli±. Total Volatiles
    iii. Chrysene, Pyrene and Fluoranthene
    iv.  Cyanide
    v.   Lead
    vi.  Ammonia Nitrogen
    
    i)    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB):   the major source of HCB, the Dow
          Chemical 1st Street 42" and 54" sewers, had variable con-
          centrations {ND-0,829 mg/L).  Although effluent quality
          cannot be directly compared to ambient water quality stan-
          dards or guidance,  effluent concentrations exceeded the
          Provincial Water Quality Objective of 0.0055 ug/L.  Since
          the survey, the process streams containing HCB have been
          diverted to a spill containment pond.  The pond discharges
          to the Dow 4th Street Sewer.  The effect of this change on
          the loadings is unknown.   The total loading was 25 grams/
          day.
    
    ii)   Total Phenols:  the Ontario Industrial Discharge Objective
          of 20 ug/L was exceeded at Polysar Sarnia and Suncor.
          Effluent concentrations at the Sarnia WWTP and the Pt.
          Edward WWTP also exceeded the Ontario Municipal Effluent
          Objective of 20 ug/L.  The total loading was 12.2 kg/d of
          which about 70% was contributed by these four facilities.
    
    iii}  Chrysene, Pyrene, Fluoranthene:  these PAHs were found in
          one source and only at low concentrations.  However, these
          concentrations were in excess of the U.S.EPA AWQC Human
          Health Criteria for total PAHs for fish ingestion of 31.1
          ng/L; the only ambient water quality guidance available for
          PAHs.  This criterion is below the method detection limit
          of the analytical methods used.  This suggests that other
          point sources may too be discharging at levels of concern.
          The total loading of these three compounds was 190 g/d.
    
    iv)   Total Cyanide:  an exceptionally high concentration of
          total cyanide  (270 ug/L)  was found at the Marine City WWTP.
          The City has an industry that discharges potential cyanide
          containing waste water to the WWTP and cyanide has been
          detected in the WWTP in the past.  Other point sources
          discharged total cyanide at levels below industrial dis-
          charge objectives and often below ambient water criteria.
          The total loading was 3.22 kg/d.
    
    v)    Total Lead:  this parameter is of concern only in the Ethyl
          Canada effluent.  This is due to its presence in concentra-
          tions in excess of the GLWQA specific objective and the
          OMOE Provincial Water Quality Objective  (PWQO) of 25 ug/L.
          The total loading of  lead was 29 kg/d, 66% of which was
    

    -------
                                   261
    
          attributed to Ethyl Canada.
    
    vi)   Ammonia-Nitrogen:  concentration in excess of the 10 mg/L
          Ontario Industrial Discharge Objective were present in the
          Sarnia WWTP and the Polysar Sarnia Biox effluents.  The
          total loading was 1,67 tonnes/d.
    
    vli)  Total chromium:  high concentrations  (258 to 567 ug/L) were
          detected at Polysar Corunna.  The effluent would require
          substantial dilution to meet the GLWQA Specific Objective
          of 50 ug/L and the Michigan Rule 57 allowable level of 1,5
          ug/L at the edge of the mixing zone. The total loading from
          all sources was 16.1 Jtg/d.
    
    viii) Total Volatiles;  the total loadings of this group of com-
          pounds was 254 kg/d.  Benzene, chloroethane and toluene
          accounted for 72% of the total.  Polysar Sarnia (51%), Dow
          Chemical  (20%), and Ethyl Canada (17%) were the main
          contributors of these compounds,  Each facility had con-
          centrations of one or more volatiles well in excess  (> lOx)
          of ambient guidelines.
    
    Principal Effluent Contributors:
    
    In terms of effluent loadings, the following facilities were
    considered to be the principal contributors of one or more of the
    parameters studied.
    
         Canada:
    a.   Sarnia WWTP - phenols, nickel, phosphorus, and ammonia.
    
    b.   The Cole Drain, Sarnia - PAHs, oil and grease, and cyanide.
    
    c.   Polysar, Sarnia - benzene, phenols, cobalt, and ammonia.
    
    d.   Dow Chemical, Sarnia - HCB, OCS, PCBs,  copper, mercury, and
         volatiles,
    
    e.   Suncor, Sarnia - volatile aromatics  (associated with a pro-
         cess upset at the time of the survey).
    
    f.   Ethyl Canada, Corunna - lead, mercury,  volatiles (chloroeth-
         ane) .
    
    g.   CIL, Courtright - iron, TSS, and chromium,
    
         U.S. ;
    a.   Port Huron WWTP - PCBs, phosphorus.
    
    b.   Marine City WWTP - cyanide.
    
    c.   St. Clair  County - Algonac WWTP  - ammonia.
    

    -------
                                   262
    
    2.    Urban Nonpoint Sources
    
    Michigan
    
    There is a remarkable lack of data regarding the impacts of urban
    nonpoint sources on the water quality of the St. Clair River
    system from Michigan.  In 1986, the Michigan Department of
    Natural Resources (81) completed a stormwater discharge inventory
    of the areas adjacent to the St. Clair River.  The data within
    this inventory consisted only of location and size of discharge
    pipes within the St, Clair River study area.  No data relative to
    flows, water quality, contaminant concentration, annual dis-
    charge, or loading values were provided.
    
    The inventory reports that, on the Michigan shoreline, three
    urban areas have storm sewers which drain directly or indirectly
    into the St. Clair River.  These urban areas include: Port Huron,
    which identified 10 storm sewers discharging directly into the
    St. Clair River, and 14 which discharge into the Black River;
    Marine City, which describes three storm sewer outlets discharg-
    ing into the Belle River; and Algonac, which reports two storm
    sewers discharging directly into the St. Clair River.  The cities
    of Marysville and St. Clair, Michigan, have no stormwater dis-
    charges .
    
    Ontario
    
    No data were available for contaminants in U.S. sources of urban
    stormwater and combined sewer overflow.  But a comparison of
    Canadian discharges due to urban nonpoint sources, with indus-
    trial/municipal point sources is shown in Table VII-11.  In most
    cases, the point source to nonpoint source ratio is much greater
    than one, suggesting that most materials are derived from in-
    dustrial and municipal point sources.
    
    While the total number of stormwater discharges on the Ontario
    side of the St. Clair River were not identified, considerably
    more information is available from the study of Marsalek and Ng
     (82) for the urban runoff for the city of Sarnia.  The 50,200
    residents of the City of Sarnia are served by combined and separ-
    ate sewers, and in some of the less developed areas, by open
    channels.  Combined sewers serve the older areas of the city  (540
    ha) and discharge into an interceptor which runs along the St,
    Clair River.  The interceptor has four overflow structures which
    allow direct dumping of untreated combined sewage into the St.
    Clair River when interceptor capacities are exceeded. In nonover-
    flow periods, the sewage is conducted to the sewage treatment
    plant.
    
    Available resources prevented Marsalek and Ng  (82) from directly
    measuring combined sewer flow rates.  Instead, they used the U.S.
    Army Corps of Engineers STORM model  (83) to estimate urban runoff
    

    -------
                                          263
                                   TABLE VII-11
    
    Comparison of induatrial/munic ipai  point  source discharges with
    urban stormwater and combined  sewer overflow8a (kg/yr,  Canadian
    sources only).
    
    PARAMETER
    Ammoni a-Nitrogen
    Phosphorus
    Chloride
    Cadmium
    Cobalt
    Copper
    I ron
    Lead
    Mercury
    Nickel
    Zinc
    Oil and Grease
    Total Phenols
    Cyanide
    HCB
    DCS
    Total PCBs
    1 7 PAHs
    
    POINT
    505,000
    27,000"
    131,000,000
    50.4
    0.84
    3,930
    189,000
    10,500
    15,6
    1 ,420
    15,000
    907,000
    4,200
    311"
    8.9
    1 .7
    1.2
    120
    ST. CLAIR RIVE
    URBAN NON-
    POINT SARNIA
    7,300
    18,600
    2,200
    5, 100
    1 ,180,000
    2,360,000
    8.6
    4B.2
    150
    460
    43,100
    48,800
    2,030
    0,8
    1.5
    149
    242
    2,430 •
    47,200
    73,400
    121
    136
    23
    0.8
    0.015
    1.4
    1 .5
    52
    74
    R
    FS/NPS RATIO
    69
    37
    12
    5,3
    111
    56
    5.9
    1 .05
    0.0054
    11
    4.4
    3.9
    5,2
    19
    10
    9.5
    5.9
    6.2
    19
    12
    35
    31
    13
    11
    113
    0.86
    0.80
    2,3
    1.6
        Based on  Canadian Industrial/Municipal Point  Source  Survey  Data  idaily
        average multiplied  by 365),  and results  reported by   Harsalek  and  Nf
        (82).  Some urban runoff values have upper/lower estimates.
        Industrial  point sources only.
    

    -------
                                   264
    
    and combined sewer overflow.  Using this model, they calculate
    annual surface runoff in Sarnia to be 6.7 x 10" m-Vyr, snd a
    combined sewer overflow value of 1.0 x 10 6 m.3/yr, for a total
    annual average of 7,7 x 10^ m
    Contaminant concentrations in Sarnia stormwater and combined
    sewer overflows were measured in samples collected during storm
    events .   Mean values for these parameters are presented in Table
    VII-12.   For parameters with a significant percentage of data
    below detection limits, a low estimate where undetected values
    are considered zero, and a high estimate, where they are set
    equal to the detection limit, are reported.
    
    The concentrations for the various contaminant parameters meas-
    ured in field studies were multiplied by annual flow volumes to
    yield annual contaminant loading estimates.  The results of these
    calculations are presented in Table VII-13.  Where applicable,
    both low and high loading estimates are given.
    
    When loadings derived from stormwater and' sewer overflows are
    compared, overflow incidents are a major source of ammonia and
    phosphorus.  Both sources are apparently equal in their contribu-
    tions of loadings of oil and grease, zinc, and mercury; but for
    all remaining parameters, stormwater is the dominant source.
    Marsalek and Ng (82) estimate that stormwater contributes ap-
    proximately 80 percent of total loadings of industrial chemicals
    derived from urban runoff.
    3.  Agricultural Nonpoint Source
    
    The watershed of the St. Clair River region includes a geographic
    area of approximately 340,000 ha, of which approximately 6 per-
    cent, 20,976 ha, are located within Lambton County, Ontario.
    Within this drainage area, major tributary watersheds include
    Talfourd Creek in Canada, and the Belle, Pine, and Black Rivers
    in Michigan  (84).
    
    A total of nearly 70 percent of the St. Clair River geographic
    area is agricultural land.  More than  60 percent of the total
    cropland in both Canada and the U.S. is under intensive cultiva-
    tion.  The chief cash crops grown are  corn and soybeans.  Live-
    stock operations are dominated by beef and dairy farming, fol-
    lowed by swine and poultry husbandry.
    
    Nonpoint sources of aquatic pollution  associated with agricult-
    ural operations  have traditionally included the additions of
    nutrient compounds, increases in particulate burdens from land
    erosion, and the inputs of fugitive pesticides and herbicides
     (84) .
    

    -------
                                          265
                                TABLE VII-1 2
    
    Mean concentrations observed  in  stormwater  and  combined  sewer overflows
    in Sarnia  ( 82) ,
    Parameter
                  Unit
                                       Stormwater
    Residential Commercial  Industrial
    Combined
      Sewer
    Overflows
    Ammoni a ( N )
    
    Phosphorus
    ( total )
    Chloride
    
    Cadmium
    
    Cobalt
    
    Copper
    T ron
    
    Lead
    Mercury
    
    Nickel
    
    Zinc
    
    Oil 4 Grease
    
    Phenols
    
    Cyanide
    HCB
    
    DCS
    PCBs 1 total 1
    17 PAHs
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    
    mg/L
    ng/L
    
    ng/L
    ng/L
    ng/L
    
    0.4
    
    0,37
    
    --
    --
    0,00
    0.006
    0.00
    0,02
    0,009
    3. 1
    —
    0,066
    0.00006
    0,000063
    0.018
    0.026
    0.18
    —
    2.1
    --
    0.0170
    —
    0 . 0035
    1,55
    --
    —
    75
    8 , 500
    12,000
    0,27
    
    0.16
    
    172"
    343*
    0,0023
    0.008
    0.00
    0.02
    0,051
    5.0
    —
    0.28
    0.00004
    --
    0.005
    0.025
    0.33
    —
    4.1
    —
    0.0107
    --
    0.0017
    4,4
    —
    2
    146
    2,800
    3,300
    0.70
    
    0.22
    
    —
    —
    0.0007
    0.009
    0.00
    0.02
    0.087
    9,4
    —
    0.45
    0.00018
    --
    0.030
    0.039
    0,48
    --
    10,3
    —
    0.0188
    —
    0.0030
    257
    --
    —
    324
    6,700
    7,000
    3.9
    15.7"
    0.4
    3.4
    32.9
    65.3
    0.005
    0.008
    0,00
    0.02
    0.14
    2.5
    8.4
    0.29
    0,00005
    0.00075
    0.005
    0.023
    0.24
    1 .64
    7.5
    34.8
    0.0099
    0.0255
    0.0030
    12
    43
    2
    ISO
    5,000
    15,400
    * For parameters with a significant percentage of data below detection
      limits, a low estimate where non-detected values are considered  zero,
      and a high estimate, where they are set equal to the detection limit,
      are reported.
    
    * Equivalent mean concentration.
    

    -------
                                         266
                                   VII-13
    Summary of annual loadings in urban runoff  from  the  Sarnia  area
    fkg/yr*) (82).
    Parameter
    Storiwater
    Overflows
    Total
    Ammonia (Nl
    
    Phosphorus
    
    Chloride
    
    Csdmiuit
    
    Cobalt
    
    Copper
    Iron
    
    Lead
    Mercury
    
    Nickel
    
    Zinc
    Oil ft Grease
    
    Phenols
    < total I
    Cyanide
    HCB
    OCS
    PCBs ( total 1
    
    I? PAHs
    
    3,600
    —
    1 ,800
    —
    1,190,000
    2,300,000
    3.8
    40.2*
    0
    131(23)*
    326
    40, 700
    --
    1 ,750
    0.7
    0.8
    144
    220
    2,200
    40,000
    
    111
    —
    20
    0.8
    0.013
    1 .3
    —
    47
    59
    3,700
    15,000*
    400
    3,300
    31 ,600
    62,700
    4.8
    8.0*
    0
    19(3)*
    134
    2,400
    8, 100
    280
    0.1
    0.7
    5
    22
    230
    7 , 200
    33 ,400
    9
    24
    3
    0.0
    0.002
    0.1
    0.2
    5
    15
    7
    18
    2
    5
    1 , 180
    2,363
    
    
    
    
    
    43
    48
    2
    
    
    
    
    2
    47
    73
    
    
    
    
    0
    
    
    
    
    ,300
    ,600
    ,200
    , 100
    ,000
    ,000
    8,6
    48.2*
    0
    150i 26 i*
    460
    ,100
    ,800
    ,030
    0.8
    1 . 5
    149
    242
    ,430
    ,200
    ,400
    121
    136
    23
    0.8
    .015
    1 .4
    1 .5
    52
    74
    * Where applicable, both low and high loading estimates are given.
    
    * Loadings calculated from data above the detection limit.
    

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                                   267
    
    Nutrient Additions
    
    The use of commercial fertilizers and livestock manure as soil
    builders potentially contributes to the pollution of adjacent
    aquatic resources by adding excessive burdens of bacteria, nitro-
    gen, and phosphorus.  On the U.S. side of the St. Clair River,
    commercial fertilizers are applied to approximately 78 percent of
    tillable land, while livestock wastes are added to 8 percent.
    The total quantity of phosphorus generated from manure has been
    estimated at 3,800 tonnes/yr (85).  In Canada, croplands receive
    an estimated 3,800 tonnes of commercial fertilizer per year.
    This value translates to 376 kg/ha. Analysis of soil fertility
    and crop requirements indicate that as much as two times more
    phosphorus fertilizer is being used than is required in both the
    U.S. and Canada.  Livestock operations on the Canadian side of
    the river generate a further 6.3 tonnes/yr of phosphorus, ul-
    timately disposed of on farm land.
    
    Studies of the Black River  (84,85), a U.S. tributary to the St.
    Clair River, noted that phosphorus concentrations ranged from
    0.03 to 0.73 rag/L, and averaged  0.14 mg/L.  The PWQO for phos-
    phorus in rivers is 0.03 mg/L.   In Ontario, several creeks were
    monitored with similar results.  Phosphorus concentrations ranged
    from 0.033 to 0.665 mg/L in Talfourd Creek, Baby Creek, Murphy
    Drain and the Cole Drain (68,84,86).  All samples from the
    Ontario tributaries exceeded provincial water quality standards
    for phosphorus.
    Pesticide Additions
    
    Agricultural pesticides are used extensively in  the St.  Clair
    River basin for the control of weeds, plant diseases,  and  in-
    sects.  Wall et al. (84,85) estimate that  some 500,000 kg  were
    used annually on the U.S.  side.  The majority  (75 percent) of the
    compounds used were herbicides, with atrazine, alachlor  (now
    banned in Canada), cyanazine, and inetolachlor being the  most
    frequently used. Additionally, nearly 9,000 kg of restricted-use
    pesticides were sold in four counties of the St. Clair River area
    (84).  In this category, parathion and other organophosphorus
    insecticides were highest  in sales.  In Canada,  approximately
    30,000 kg of pesticides were applied annually  (2,3 kg/ha).  At
    the time of the study, the most common herbicides used were iden-
    tical to those used on the U.S. side.
    
    The Belle and Black rivers on the U.S. side were monitored for
    pesticides between April and August of 1985  (84) .  The loads to
    the Black River for atraziae, alachlor, cyanazine, and metola-
    chlor were reported as 0.3, 0.22, 0.99, and 0.07 g/ha» respec-
    tively.  Loadings  for the  same compounds to the  Belle  River were
    reported as 0.12,  O.Q3r 0.03, and 0.07 g/ha, respectively.
    

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                                   268
    
    Analysis of sedimentary materials from the St. Clair River tribu-
    taries yielded the observation that restricted-use pesticides
    were present in 70 percent of the samples.  Chlordane and meta-
    bolites of DDT were most frequently observed.
    
    Ontario tributaries were monitored for pesticides including
    organochlorine,  organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides as
    well as phenoxy acid and triazine herbicides.
    
    Atrazine was detected in 47% of all water samples from Ontario
    tributaries of the St. Clair River at concentrations up to
    8,450 ug/L. Additional pesticides which were detected less fre-
    quently, included gamma-BHC, pp-DDE and endrin.  Alpha-BHC was
    detected in 62% of water samples but typically at levels below 5
    ng/L.
    
    The frequency of sampling was insufficient to estimate annual
    loadings; however, mean instantaneous loadings for atrazine indi-
    cate that Talfourd Creek is discharging approximately 0.5 mg/sec
    to the St. Clair River.
    
    Industrial organic compounds were detected primarily on suspended
    solids and were consequently observed in bottom sediments at the
    tributary mouths.  Concentrations of HCB, OCS and PCBs were ob-
    served in whole water, suspended solids and bottom sediments from
    Ontario.  Several elevated levels were measured on suspended
    solids at the Cole Drain (HCB - 5,800 ng/g; OCS - 5,400 ng/g) and
    at Talfourd Creek  (PCBs - 77,840 ng/g)(68,84,85).  The signifi-
    cance of these intermittent peaks cannot be determined based on
    the limited data available.
    4.  Atmospheric Deposition
    
    Direct atmospheric deposition of contaminants to the St, Clair
    River is likely to be negligible because of the relatively small
    surface area of the river.  However, atmospheric deposition may
    be defined as the sum of the contaminants deposited from the
    atmosphere on a stream or lake surface  (direct input), plus that
    material which has fallen on upstream areas and is transported
    through the connecting channels to downstream bodies of water.
    This phenomenon is likely the mechanism responsible for the regu-
    lar observation of common pesticides observed in the St. Clair
    River  (87).  Such compounds as the metabolites of DDT, alpha- and
    gamma-benzene hexachloride, and dieldrin are routinely reported
    in water samples from the St. Clair River, but the concentration
    of these contaminants does not change significantly over the
    length of  the connecting channel.  This fact suggests that there
    are no active sources along the St. Clair River  (37,79).
    

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                                   269
    
    5. Groundwater Contamination/Waste Sites
    
    Three different groundwater flow systems contribute to the over-
    all groundwater discharge, or flux, including discharge from
    surficial aquifers, from intermediate flow systems and from deep
    bedrock systems.  Groundwater in the unconsolidated surficial
    deposits generally flows to the St. Clair River.  Locally, how-
    ever, the direction of groundwater flow is influenced by surface
    water drainage and glacial landforms.  Groundwater flow direc-
    tions in the deeper units are as yet not well defined.
    
    Total groundwater seepage directly to the St. Clair River was
    estimated by three independent teams of investigators to range
    between 645 L/s and 741 L/s and to average about 700 L/s.  The
    U.S. Geological Survey estimated total groundwater discharge to
    the river from groundwater discharge areas, based upon tributary
    baseflow information.  The University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
    used a combined geophysical and hydrological method to compile
    continuous measurements of groundwater flow passing through the
    St. Clair River bed.  The University of Windsor Great Lakes
    Institute deployed seepage meters and mini-piezometers to measure
    seepage in the sarnia area (88).
    
    Shallow groundwater in the study area, which does not discharge
    directly to the St. Clair River, contributes about 10% of stream
    flow to the tributaries of the St. Clair River.  Rates of ground-
    water seepage to the St. Clair River generally decreased down-
    stream, with higher fluxes noted in the Sarnia and Port Huron
    area, and between stag island and Courtright coinciding with
    areas having the largest number of sources of groundwater con-
    tamination.
    
    Although the total amount of discharge to the St. Clair River is
    small relative to the St. Clair River's water budget, the hetero-
    geneities that are apparent in the nature and the distribution of
    groundwater flux suggest that inputs of contaminated groundwater
    may be locally significant.
    
    
    Surface Runoff from Landfills,
    
    Groundwater is not a principal route of contaminant transport
    from many waste sites in the St. Clair study area.  Low hydraulic
    conductivities of surficial materials here restrict infiltration
    and groundwater movement.  Surface runoff from waste sites to
    storm drains, and small tributaries which flow to major surface
    water bodies appears to be of greater importance as a contaminant
    transport pathway.
    

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                                   270
    
    Michigan's Potential Groundwater Contamination Sources
    
    Groundwater movement was investigated in an area extending 19 km
    inland along the St. Clair River.  An inventory of active and
    inactive waste sites within this area was conducted as part of
    this investigation.  Twenty-six sites of known, or potential
    groundwater contamination were identified and ranked.  The major-
    ity of sites are solid waste landfills, regulated and unregulated
    hazardous waste disposal sites, storage sites and spills.  Other
    potential sources that were reviewed included leaking underground
    storage tanks, contaminated well water, and underground injection
    wells.  Underground injection wells were not ranked for potential
    contributions to contaminant burdens and are treated separately
    below.
    
    Those sites in areas which discharge directly to the river were
    ranked and assigned priorities for potential impacts upon the St.
    Clair River.  Ranking of sites, using a modification of U.S.EPA's
    DRASTIC ranking system, was based on their potential for con-
    tributing contaminants directly to the St. Clair River via
    groundwater by evaluating the hydrogeolog-y, the nature of waste
    material as described in state and federal files, and the dis-
    tance to the river  (89).  The 7 highest ranked sites had the
    greatest potential for impact upon the St. Clair River  (Table
    VII-14).  The water table in this region was generally less than
    4.6m below the land surface and the individual sites had prior-
    ity pollutants and/or inorganic contaminants.
    
    
    Evaluation of Potential_Impacts
    
    One round of samples were collected from 8 observation wells that
    were installed by the U.S. Geological Survey  (USGS3 in each
    groundwater discharge area.  Actual locations of wells depended
    upon the number of up gradient waste sites, the size of the
    groundwater discharge area, and on permission for drilling from
    landowners.  It was possible to locate two wells near waste
    sites, including a well installed down gradient of both A and B
    Waste Disposal and the Hoover Chemical Reeves Company, and a well
    installed down gradient from the Wills Street Dump Site.  Other
    locations were chosen to provide background information.
    Analyses were made for 72 volatile, base neutral, acid extract-
    able, and chlorinated extractable hydrocarbons, and 24 trace
    metals and other chemical parameters.  These analyses were com-
    pared to both surface water quality criteria and objectives, and
    drinking water standards,
    
        i) Organic
    
    The pesticide endosulfan was detected in one  sample.  Phthalate
    esters were found  in four of eight samples.  N-nitrosodiphenyl-
    ainine, was detected in a well  at a level in excess of U.S.EPA
    

    -------
                                                          271
                                                  TABLE VTT-14
    
                          Confirnnd or possible Michigan contamination sites within the
                                  St.  dair River groundwater discharge areas* ,
     1.       Grand  Trunk  Ba,iJlrqpd ! CE8CLIS /RCftA/Act 307)
     The Grand   Trunk  Railroad   site is  an oil  pipeline leak.  There is a perched water table about  2  feet
     below  the  surface that  is  underlain by about 100 feet of lake clays and a gravel aquifer.  Oil  may  have
     discharged  to   a  sever   and  ditch  ( MDNR > .    Groundwater contamination  is not indicated  in  the Act  307
     listing.  There are  no  monitoring wells.  The upper, perched aquifer is contaminated  with diesel fuel.
     Sandy  soils  on site are  saturated  with  oil and may contribute oils to the shallow aquifer  (observed,
     1979,  from  PA I .   Oils and  *2 diesal fuel flowed to WTP via storm drain on aite (observed  19"8 - 1$79,
     from PA I .   Note:    CERCLA  authorities were  not applied  because the  observed release was  limited  to
     petroleum products which are covered  under the Clean Water Act.
    
     2.       A and  B Waste Disposal  ( CERCLIS/ftCRA/Aet 307)
     The A  and B waste Disposal site is a  transfer facility where wastes are  sorted for  resale/cycling  and
     disposal.       Soil   and    groundwater   staples   contain   toluene,  xylene,  trichioroet hylene   and
     tet rachloroe t by 1 ene .  There  are  alleged incidents  of dumping  paint thinner  on the  ground,  Ground-
     water  contamination  is  not indicated  in the Act 301 listing.  There are no monitoring wells,
    
     3.       Hoover  Chemical  Reeves  Coaoany ( CERCLIS/RCRA/Act 307)
     The  Reeves  Company buys  and  distributes  paint  products locally.  In the past , th* facility byilt
     fiberglass  buildings for Port-a-john.   Hoover Chemical manufactures adhesives.   Drums containing paint
     and adhesive   wastes are  stained on   site.    Groundwater contacination is not indicated in  the Act  30?
     listing.  There are  5 monitoring  wells.
    
     4.       Eltra Corp.  Prestolite  Wiring ICERCLIS/RCRA/Aet 307)
    This company is a RCRA  generator  and  treatnent/storage/disposal facility.  Various h«io?enated  and  non-
     halogenated solvents,   electroplating wastes, lead and ketones are stored in containers on site.  There
     are no moni to ring wel Is,
            Hills Street  Dump  Site  < CESCLIS/Act 307
    The site was not submitted  to  MPL  for  the  following reasons:   Marvsviiie's drinking water surface, water
    intake is   iocated  I 4 5 mi .  upstream  of the Wills St.  Dump and 90 s  of clay overlies the aquj ter used  for
    drinking water.  None thelefts,  the  site is  near a wetland*  On-ai te soil samples contained low  levels of
    1 , J-dichloroethane,  I , I f i-trichloro*thane   and tol ue/ne ,    Also found were el evated levels ot phenol  and
    Arochlor -  1^60.
    
    6.      General Technical Costings  (Act 307}
    Paint and solvents  are stored  in barrels at the General  Technical  Coatinfs  site,    The site   is within
    one-quarter mile  of  the  S t •  Clair  River.   Ground-««te r cent aminati on is not indicated in the Act  30"
    iistinCr  The site  vas removed  from  the Act 3O7 list  after cleanup*
    
    7,      Winchester  Disposal Area £C£RCLl5/Acl 307}
    The "inchester Di sposal Area site  is an unlicensed  refuse dump,    It  is located  in a  4ow marshy area
    near Port   Huron,   The site is unfenced and  con t i nued dy taping i s  possible •   So records ot" the types or
    amounts of vastea present exist.   Drums have  been seen  on  the  site and  acre may  be buned (NDNR1,
    Ground-water contamination  is  not  indicated in the  Act 30? listing*  There are no mom tori ng wells *
    
    The fill on-mite im at least ten feet  thicJe in »ome areas, No csvsr was *%'er applied^  Bruias, eoncret*
    and househe id appllances are exposed.   Tens of thousands of tir*s  are  staffed on  site up  to ten fe*t
    hjrh in  areas .   In  I9rfl three mon i tor i us wel is in this »rea were sampled -   Dovij-f r ad lent wel 1 s in the
    vicinity of Winchester Disposal Ares,  showed  hi gher concentrations of phenolics,  cadmium,  copper,  lead,
    2 i n.c and iron than  were found  in an  up tf radi ent well  in  the vicinity of the Wi nchester Di aposal Area.
    
    CERCLIS:  Site is   listed within   the  info rmat ion  system for  Superfund and i a considered for clean-up
              under the Compren*n3ive  Envi ronmental Compensation  and Recovery Act of 1980 *
    RCRA:      Facility  has a Resource  Conservation and  Recovery Act  identification number*
    Act 307:  Site 13 ii sted on  Michigan's compi. i at ion   of  sitc^   of  known  and  possible environmental
              degradat i on,
    • In format ion front  f 8$ 1 -
    

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                                   272
    
    Human Health Criteria for carcinogens at a 10-^ risk level.  It
    is possible that phthalate esters were introduced during sampling
    or shipment,
    
        ii) Inorganic
    
    U.S.EPA Drinking Water Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels  (MCL)
    were exceeded for chromium at one well, for lead at six of eight
    wells and for barium at two wells„
    
    Table VII-15 contains a summary of groundwater quality in these
    wells based on unfiltered samples (88).  The metals are generally
    associated with finely-divided particulates,   Groundwater that
    discharges to the St. Glair River is thought to be free of fine
    particulates, and thus of lower trace metals concentration than
    determined for these samples.  Thus, a computation of the loading
    of the St. clair River by chemical substances transported by
    groundwater does not      feasible at the current time.
    
    Several sites that were selected as priorities for investigation
    by the USGS may have potential for local impacts upon the St.
    Clair River.
    
    Elevated levels of barium, cobalt, copper, lead, sine, and nickel
    contamination, as well as the n-Nitrosodiphenylamine contamina-
    tion in"well G3 appear to be related to discharges from A and B
    Waste disposal, or Hoover Chemical Reeves Company, or a combina-
    tion of the two.  The proximity of well G3 and of the two sites
    to the St. Clair River suggests that seepage of contaminated
    groundwater originating from the sites may result in local im-
    pacts upon St. Clair River biota or water quality.
    
    Elevated lead, mercury, and zinc in well G4 might be attributable
    to the Wills Street Dump Site.
    
    Elevated chromium, lead, iron, zinc and phosphorus concentrations
    in well Gl, and elevated, barium, copper, "iron, lead, nickel,
    total organic carbon, and oil and grease concentrations in well
    G8 had no identifiable source.
    
    Generally, it       that environmental problems of waste, stor-
    age, treatment and disposal facilities are associated with over-
    land flow or runoff, rather than through groundwater discharge.
    Low hydraulic conductivities, and hydraulic gradients suggest
    that groundwater is not a major route of contaminant transport to
    the St. Clair River from these sites.  Nonetheless, the possible
    presence of unidentified discontinuous stringers of sand and
    gravel may aerve to enhance contaminant transport locally.
    

    -------
                                                           TABLE VlI-15
    
                   y of St.  Clair River- area  groiindwat.er quality1  in  Michigan U.S.GS wells*.
    NUMBER MAXIMUM
    OF ANALYTICAL
    DETECTIONS
    Antimony, t.otai ( u g / L )
    Arsenic, total (ug/LI
    Barium, dissolved tug/1,)
    Beryllium, dissolved lug/LJ
    Cadmium, total (ug/LJ
    Chromium, total lug/LI
    Cobalt, total lug/LJ
    Copper, total (uij/Ll
    Iron, total Img/LJ
    Lead, total (ug/L. 1
    Mercury, total lug/1,)
    Niokel , total ( ug/L J
    Selenium, total (ug/L)
    Zinc, total Img/LI
    Carbon, total organic (mg/LJ
    Chloride (mg/I. k
    Cyanide, totat ( mg/I, )
    Dissolved solids (mg/Lk
    Oil-grease, t.otai (mg/L)
    Nitrogen, total ling/1,)
    pH { nn its)
    Phenols, total lug/ 1.)
    Phosphorus, total Img/L)
    Specific conductance (us/cm)
    ECndosu 1 f an tug/1,)
    Bis ( 2-ethyl hp\y) Iphthal ate {ug/L!
    Butyl henzy! pht.hnlnte Itig/L)
    ri — N i t r osod iphenylamine ( ug /[. )
    8
    8
    «
    H
    a
    8
    8
    8
    8
    8
    8
    8
    8
    H
    £
    8
    8
    8
    B
    7
    8
    H
    8
    8
    ]
    a
    2
    1
    13
    IS
    2100
    21
    <1
    S9
    200
    730
    500
    tiiiOO
    0,5
    1300
    <1
    390
    1 90
    250
    <0.01
    1560
    18
    2.5
    11,2
    6
    0.5?
    2380
    0.08
    1500
    e
    10
    MINIMUM
    <1
    <1
    51
    <1
    <1
    
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                                   274
    
    Ontario's Potential Groundwater Contamination Sources
    
    On the Ontario side of the -St. Clair River, a total of 16 design-
    ated waste disposal sites were identified in Lambton County,  The
    Ontario sites were prioritized to determine those sites that
    require monitoring or remedial investigations.  In designing
    criteria for this evaluation, emphasis was placed on identifying
    sites which lack specific information that, is important in
    assessing environmental impacts.  Thus, sites lacking particular
    information could rank higher than sites having evidence of im-
    pact.  Seven main groups of criteria were selected:
    
    1.   Geologic Information
    1,   Hydrologic Information
    3.   Hydrogeologic Information
    4.   Geochemical Information
    5.   On Site Monitoring
    6.   Waste Characterization and Containment
    7.   Health and Safety
    
    Specific questions within these groups, that are significant in
    assessing the site environmental impact were used to derive a
    quantitative score.  Three categories of priorities were develop-
    ed, including;
    
    Priority 1 Sites; those sites with a definite potential for im-
    pact on human health and safety,*
    
    Priority 2 Sites: those sites which require immediate investiga-
    tion in order to determine the potential for impact either on the
    environment or human health and safety," and
    
    Priority 3 Sites: those sites requiring additional monitoring,
    but with lesser potential to impact their surrounding environ-
    ment ,
    
    The Nonpoint Source Workgroup  (88) reported that three sites in
    Lambton County were categorized as Priority 1 Sites.  Included in
    this category were;
    
    1)   Dow Chemical, Scott Road
    2)   Polysar Limited, Scott Road
    3}   P and E Oil Recyclers, Petrolia.
    
    Ten  sites in Lambton County were identified as Priority 2 Sites,
    These locations included;
    
    1)   K and E Solid Waste, Sarnia Township
    2)   Unitec, Inc., Moore Township
    3)   C.I.L., Inc., Lambton Works, Sombra Township
    4)   City of Sarnia Landfill,  Sarnia Township
    5)   canflow Services,  Petrolia
    

    -------
                                   275
    
    6}    Dow Chemical,  La Salle Road, Moore Township
    7)    Ladney, Moore Township
    8}    Sun Oil Company, City of Sarnia
    9}    Fiberglass Canada, Ltd.,  City of Sarnia
    10)   DuPont of Canada,  Ltd., Moore Township.
    
    Priority 3 sites in Lambton County included three listings.
    These were;
    
    1)    Walpole Island, Walpole Island Indian Reserve
    2)    Esso Petroleum, Scott Road, City of Sarnia
    3}    Johnson Construction, Sarnia Township.
    
    It is important to note that the ranking schemes for U.S. and
    Canadian sites are not strictly comparable.  Site characteristics
    of the four highest priority sites are provided in Table VII-16.
    
    Most contamination problems associated with waste sites are cen-
    tered in the Scott Road area of Sarnia.  Shallow groundwater and
    surface water drainage here is to the Cole Drain,  In addition to
    Dow and Polysar landfills, other waste disposal sites may be
    contributing contaminants to the Cole Drain and are situated
    adjacent to the Dow and Polysar landfills.  These include the
    City of Sarnia sludge lagoons, Fibreglas Canada's landfill site,
    and further south the Esso  Petroleum Landfill site.  Due to the
    uncertainty of the origin of contaminants in the Cole Drain, the
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment has undertaken a study of
    surface runoff within the Scott Road watershed.  Preliminary
    findings to date indicated  the presence of slightly elevated
    levels of hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in surface
    water draining from the landfill area.
    Underground Injection Wells
    
        i) Michigan
    
    In the United States, the U.S.EPA has the primary responsibility
    to establish and enforce protection of underground sources of
    drinking waters through its Underground Injection Control  (UIC)
    program.  This program regulates five classes of injection wells:
    
    
    Class 1:  Industrial and municipal disposal wells which inject
              below the lower most formation containing underground
              sources of drinking water.
    
    Class 2:  Injection wells associated with oil and gas production
              and liquid hydrocarbon storage.
    
    Class 3:  Special process wells used in conjunction with solution
              mining of materials.
    

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                                                  TABLE VII-IK
    
            Site characteristics  of Ontario  high  priority waste sites in the St. Clair  River area*.
    I,      Pew. Chemical,   Scprt.Hpfld   -  The   site  has  he-en in  operation since  liHH.   Disposal  operations
    consisted of controlled land  ' flTling and   clav capping  haa«rdoua and  nan~hafcardous  solid  and liquid
    waste that,  originated  from   the  production  of vinyl  chloride.  Included were  varioiia oily sludges and
    solvents containing chlorinated hydrocarbons,   spec i f i ca L t y  hexachlorobutadiene.    Also,  contaminated
    aoila ami  equipment  from  around  the production facilities have been transported  to the  waste  disposal
    site.  Approximately  1000  tonnes  of waste  (i!HX  non-hazardous, £t>X liquid and  4ti%  hazardous  waste, HOE
    19H4 } were  disposed  annually.    Surface   and groundwater  moni toring systems   have  been  in place since
    I9KO, as wo i i as a  leachate control and treatment, system.  The  Jeacnate control   system  consists  of" a
    col lecrt ing/)><'> I rii ng  ditch   along the  north boundary of the site.  The contents  of  the  ditch are treated
    with activated carbon beds and released to the  Scott  Komi ditch, which drains to   the  Cole   Drain,   The
    pffeetiveness  of   a  steel   aheet pile   wall   to  contain  off  site  arountiwater  flow  has  not  been
    d^ffioftst. rat ed ,  Surface  runol'f is  the  most  likely pathway tor movement off site.  Surface  runoff  is not
    properly contained  and mav   be migrating   towards the  adjacent Fibreglas  Canada site.    Ground water
    pounding within the landfill  is likely to  create a large hydraulic gradient across the sheet pile  wall
    resulting in  short circuiting  of the wall,  and  increased off  site ground   water flow.   The present
    monitoring program  ia inadequate  and  needs to be improved.   Pow haa also found  and removed  contaminants
    from the Cole Drain.
    
    2.      f'ojygar Limited  J.Scot.t Road I - The   Polyaar Limited  disposal site  off  Scott  Road in Sarnia
    serves tfie nearby PoTvsar  manufacturing facilities.   The  site has  been in  operation since  1942 and
    consists  of  industrial   wastes   and fly ash  areas.  Disposal operations  consist of controlled  land
    filling of various  inert   sludges,  plastic resins and  alkali, inorganic  and  rut»toer-&ccoffij>anied waste
    over an  area of  approximat.e1y ll hectares.   At present*  approximately 25,000 m^ of  liquid wastes are
    received per year.  Land filling   is  waste with fly   ash or  imported clay   and silted  clay material,
    Surface  runoff  and  wasste   leachate are directed   into  surface Storage lagoons where  monitoring and
    treatment is required.   Monitored parameters  include  pH,   total organic  carbon, phenctiE,   copper and
    ammonia.  Off site  releases of surface waters has ceased, and all surface waters are now  treat*3 at the
    company's biological  oxidation treatment plant.    In  general,  groundwater monitoring   in thi«   site ia
    inadequate to  aetermine whether   or  not   contamination is   leaving the  site.   The company   is* in the
    process of retaining  a  consultant who_ will  be  charged with  the tank ^ot initiating a_nore  detailed
    hydrofeologicai investigation of  the  site,  including  mor.e frequent sampling of  existing piezometers.
    
    3.      £	S>	E O i 1_.  Re c_v_c I e r s -   The  P *  E Oi I  Recyciera site stores used oil  in  underground tanks and
    disposes of oTlTTeTa Bnnes  in two deep disposal wells.  In  laBZ, 51)  nj < 10,GOO  8*13  ot  waste  were
    accepted at the site.  The major  industries served are:  Dome Petroleum, Imperial  Oil|  Polyaar  Liiaitedj
    and uniroyal.  No surface  water of groundwater   monitoring   programs  are  in   effect.    The  site was
    developed in the latter part  of the 19th centxiry by the Canaaian Oil Company  for the subaurf&e^ storage
    of crude oil in underground cedar-lined tanks.   The tanks were excavated in heavy  clay soil  to depth*
    ranging from  4m   (13  ft)  to 18  m (60 ft I below grade.  In 1S)B5 and 19K9 two  deep  disposal  wells  were
    drilled into the Detroit River Group  arid were used for  the  disposal  of liquid  industrial  wastes until
    1974,  when  the  Ontario  Ministry   of  the   Environment  regulated against  the disposal of  industrial
    wastes, except for  oil  field  brine, in this fashion.   This  regulation led to  the storage  of  indtistrial
    waste in the subsurface st.orarte tanks.  The underground storage tanks have capacity  to hold  over 13,650
    a3  (3.000.000 gall,  and the  last  documented   reports  indicate  that all  tanks are  full.    The liquid
    contents of  the tanks  were  determined  to contain oil, brine, water,  caustic  and/or  acidic  compounds,
    phenolic compounds, nineral salts  and heavy  metals,  including  lead and  chromium.    The potential for
    off-site  migration   exists   and   has been  documented.    At  present,  there is virtually no on-site
    containment for the off-site  migration.  In addition,  many  of  the tanks  are uncovered,  or  those  that
    are  covered  have  weakened,  rotting wooden   roofa.  therefore allowing infiltration of precipitation
    which will cause overflows of the  contents.   A  Control  Order has been proposed  by the Ministry of the
    Env i rorsraent
    
    4.      GlLt	Lftglhbon  Works -  The Canadian Industries  Limited Piant near Courtright,  produces  chemical
    fertilizers.  There is  iiFEie topographic  relief, but  surface drainage  is either  directed  to   the St.
    ftlair River,  or eastward  to Clav Creek.    Prior to   the  decommiasloriina  of  the phosphate  plant,  the
    facility used phosphate rock  which naturally  contains  minor amounts of radioactive radium  and  uranium.
    These eleaieiits  appear  in  waste  gypsum  slurry which  was dischurged into two SO hectare  holding ponda.
    The ponds also contain phosphate,  ammonia,  and  fluoride, with a water pH  of  1.0.    Due  to  the  use of
    sulphuric acid  originating from   one of the  company's  other facilities in Quebec, the  pond waters  have
    become contaminated with dinitrotoiuene (DNT | .   From  I'JTS to tHBl, separation filters  containing radium
    concentrations as   high as  12,000 pCi/t; from the CIL  murvut'acturing process were disposed at  the Sombra
    Township (Wilhesport  Landfill Site).   This disposal resulted  in areas  of elevated  radiation  exposure
    rate and  localiecd hot  spots.   Under tho  direction  of the Ontario Ministry of the  Environment and the
    Ministry of Labour, CI1. removed several truck  loads of  contain!noted soil from the  landfill   for storage
    in the berm of one of CH.'s gypsum ponds,   The  waste  soil  and debris are presently contained  inside the
    walls of the gypsum pond, all radioactive  materials are now stored in a concrete: bunker on  site,
    
    *  Information from  IBHI.
    

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                                   277
    
    Class 4:  Hazardous waste wells which inject into or above under-
              ground sources of drinking water (wells in this categ-
              ory were banned in 1985).
    
    Class 5:  Wells not falling into one or more of the above cate-
              gories; including heat exchange wells, domestic waste
              wells, and cesspools.
    
    A total of 72 injection wells are presently rule authorized or
    permitted on the U.S. side of the St. Clair River.  Of this
    total, 63 are in current operation, two are temporarily aban-
    doned, and seven are permanently plugged and abandoned.
    
    Class 1 Wells:
    
    Consumers Power Company Facility in Marysville, Michigan current-
    ly has two temporarily abandoned Class I Non-Hazardous Industrial
    Waste wells.  These wells will be reclassified as salt water
    disposal wells  (2D) per clarification of 1986 Safe Drinking Water
    Act Amendments.  The wells are designed to inject brine associat-
    ed with the hydrocarbon storage operations at their facility.
    The injection zone for these fluids are the Eau Claire and Mt.
    Simon Formations at a depth greater than 1,380 m at a pressure of
    12,757 kPa  (1,850 psi).
    
    Class 2-D Salt Water Disposal Wells:
    
    Eleven Class 2-D salt water disposal wells are currently operat-
    ing in the St. Clair area.  One additional salt water disposal
    well is temporarily abandoned, and two others have been permanen-
    tly plugged and abandoned.  Disposal intervals for Class 2-D
    wells in this area range from the Detroit River Group of forma-
    tions at a depth of 267 m to the Eau Claire Formation at a depth
    of 1,350 m.  Permitted injection pressures range up to 8,960 kPa
    (1,300 psi).  All Class 2-D wells in the area with one exception
    have passed mechanical integrity tests:  one of the ANR Pipeline
    Co. wells had failed its mechanical integrity test on April 9,
    1986 and was shut down, but has since been reworked and retested
    for mechanical integrity, and is functioning properly as of June
    6, 1986.
    
    Class 2-H Hydrocarbon Storage Wells:
    
    Class 2-H, Hydrocarbon storage Wells service natural gas storage
    reservoirs, or are used for storage of refined petroleum prod-
    ucts, or liquified petroleum gas  (LPG).  Gas storage reservoirs
    for natural gas are depleted gas fields into which gas produced
    in other areas is stored for future marketing.  Injection and
    withdrawal of gas is typically through former gas production
    wells which have been converted to storage.  Injection and with-
    drawal may be through the same well, or through separate wells.
    Observation wells are used to monitor  reservoir pressures, reser-
    

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                                   278
    
    voir capacity and other parameters.
    
    Currently there are 11 hydrocarbon storage fields-or facilities
    located in the St. Glair River area with an average surface area
    of 406 acres.  These fields have all been converted to hydrocar-
    bon storage since 1970.  Most gas storage reservoirs in St. Clair
    County are in the Middle Silurian Niagaran Reefs, and salina
    Carbonates and Evaporites.  Depths to the gas storage reservoirs
    range from 659 to 884 m and the thickness of the reservoirs
    ranges from I to 92 m.  The Middle Silurian Reefs are used prin-
    cipally for the storage of natural gas that is produced elsewhere
    and stored for future marketing.  This activity is carried out
    principally by the Consumers Gas Company,  The Salina Evaporites
    are primarily used for the storage of LPG and other refined
    petroleum products,
    
    Amoco Productions company operates a LPG storage  facility having
    seven wells in the Salina-A Evaporite.  The depth to these
    caverns ranges from 690 to 750 m and the estimated capacity of
    all the caverns is 2,265,000 L.  Consumers Power Company operates
    9 wells completed in the Salina-B Salt for the storage of refined
    petroleum, products.
    
    Class 2-R Enhanced Oil Recovery Well;
    
    Five Class 2-R, enchanced oil recovery wells, operate in the St.
    Clair River area in the Detroit River Group of Formations and the
    Niagaran Dolomite.  One well, formerly operated by Vans Tank
    Truck Service, failed  its mechanical integrity test in April of
    1986 and is no longer  in operation.
    
    Class 3-G Solution Mining Wells:
    
    Solution mining wells  operate through production of artificial
    brines by wells completed a hundred m or more apart in the
    salt bed.  Salt is dissolved by pumping water through     well
    into the bedded salt,  and out through the second well.  The brine
    that is produced is processed to recover bromine, iodine, and
    sodium, calcium and magnesium chlorides. " The Salina Group
    evaporltes presently produce brines, but the Devonian Detroit
    River Group has also been used in the past for production.
    
    Eight Class 3-G solution mining wells are operated by Diamond
    Cryital Salt Co.  Four additional solution mining wells have been
    operated in the past by Morton Salt Co. but have  since been
    plugged and abandoned.
    
    Other Wells;
    
    No Class 4 wells operate  in the St. Clair River  area.  Seventeen
    Class 5 wells  operate  in  the St. Clair River area.
    

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                                   279
    
    The impacts of Michigan Underground Injection wells in the area
    upon the St. Clair River are uncertain.  However, it appears
    that, with the exception of short-term mechanical integrity prob-
    lems for a salt water disposal well and an enhanced oil recovery
    well, all wells are operating in an environmentally sound manner.
    
        ii)  Ontario
    
    In Lambton County, Ontario, deep injection wells were used to
    dispose of industrial wastes during the period 1958-1972 and are
    still used for the disposal of cavern brines and oil field brines
    (88). There are about 35 deep wells in Lambton County  {Figure
    VII-3),   The Lucas formation of the Detroit River Group was heav-
    ily utilized prior to 1976 for the injection of industrial waste.
    The freshwater aquifer lies above this bedrock, therefore the
    potential exists for wastes to flow upwards into the aquifer and
    thus migrate to the St. Clair River,
    
    The industrial waste wells were located in three areas.  The most
    heavily utilized area was the industrialized section south of
    Sarnia,  adjacent to the St. Clair River.  In this location wells
    were used by Imperial Oil Ltd. (5 wells), Shell Canada Ltd.  {2
    wells),  Sun Oil Company (1 well), Polymer Corp.  (I well), and Dow
    Chemical Ltd.  (2 wells to the Salina formation)  (Figure VII-3).
    
    The second area is located inland from the river and included the
    well of Marcus Disposal (1 well), Thompson Wright Co.  (2 wells),
    and Tricil-Goodfellow  (2 wells).   A third area is found in Court-
    right adjacent .to the St.  Clair River, and consists of 2 wells
    belonging to Canadian Industries Ltd.  (CIL) (Figure VII-3).
    
    The Primary waste types disposed into the wells were spent
    caustics, acids, phenols,  minor hydrocarbons,  and brine.  The
    volumes of industrial wastes disposed of into the Detroit River
    Group total 7,513,722 m3.   In the industrial area of Sarnia, it
    was usually necessary to inject waste under pressure to achieve
    the required injection rate.  The wells close to the St. Clair
    River often required pressures up to 3,103 kPA {450 psi) at
    surface to inject the waste. The average injection pressure was
    2,758 kPa  (400 psi).
    
    Cambrian Disposal Ltd., owned and operated 7 wells in Lambton
    County,  for the disposal of cavern-washing brine waters.  Between"
    1971 and 1985  the total volume of waste injected under gravity
    into these wells, was 10,194,889 m^ t  All wells used for the
    disposal of brine materials have established monitoring well
    networks on adjacent properties to determine water quality in the
    freshwater aquifer.  The company is also required to pay a levy
    for each cubic metre of waste injected for the perpetual care of
    the well once  it is abandoned.
    

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                                            280
                                                              Plympton
                                   J   Sarnia
      Cavern  Washing
      Brine Injection
      Oil Field Brine
      Injection
    Enniskillen
    
             MARCUS
      Oil Field Brine
    - Injection  to
      Guelph Fm
    
                           19  Somore
                           __
                                                Chatham
                             FIGURE VII-3. Injection  wells.
    

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                                   281
    
    Of concern to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and the
    Federal Department of the Environment is the past practice of
    injection of industrial wastes into the Detroit River geologic
    formation, and the potential for contamination of the freshwater
    aquifer.  Because of high pressures used for injection and the
    large volumes of wastes disposed, the potential exists for con-
    taminants to migrate from the disposal unit to the freshwater
    aquifer and hence, to the St. Clair River.  The possible pathways
    of migration include the following:
    
    1.   Numerous bore holes, many of them abandoned and unplugged,
         provide open conduits through the bedrock confining units;
    
    2.   Poorly constructed injection wells could allow waste to
         migrate along the outside of the casing;
    
    3.   Faults, fractures and joints are likely to exist in the
         bedrock confining units.  It is possible the pressurized
         waste could travel great distances via these fractures; and
    
    4.   The permeability of the confining shale and limestone units
         may be of sufficient magnitude to allow pressurized wastes
         to migrate via pore spaces to the shallow aquifer.
    
    In view of the possible migration pathways and the fact that
    there were documented cases of upwelling in the Sarnia area,
    which occurred between 1966 and 1972, there was the possibility
    that the groundwater system had been pressurized above its nat-
    ural state.  This being the case, it was possible that the dis-
    placement of formation fluids, or the upwelling of industrial
    wastes, may have contaminated the freshwater aquifer in the St.
    Clair River area or have migrated across the St. Clair River to
    Michigan.
    
    Detailed studies of the fresh water aquifer and the movement of
    injected wastes were undertaken from 1986 to late 1988 by the
    federal and provincial governments, and industry.  The prelimin-
    ary results of these studies were reported by Intera Technologies
    Inc. (90).  The executive summary of this report is reproduced
    below:
    
         "This report .... describes the results of a hydrogeologic
         study of the fresh water aquifer and deep geologic forma-
         tions in the Sarnia Ontario area.  The study was undertaken
         to assess the extent to which the St. Clair river and a thin
         sand and gravel aquifer  (fresh water aquifer) located at the
         bedrock surface have been impacted by past practices of
         industrial waste disposal to the Detroit River Group of
         Formations located at 150 to 200 m below bedrock surface.,..
         this study included: drilling, testing and installation of
         fifteen groundwater monitoring wells to the fresh water
         aquifer; drilling, testing and installation of one 300 m
    

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                              282
    
    deep borehole to the disposal formation in the Detroit River
    Group of formations; and quarterly groundwater sampling and
    hydraulic head monitoring of a 29 point monitoring well
    network of the fresh water aquifer and of the deep borehole,
    The computer modeling included a numerical simulation of
    groundwater flow in the fresh water aquifer and simulation
    of waste migration within the disposal zone.  The potential
    size of contaminant plumes that may result from vertical
    migration through an open abandoned borehole between the
    disposal zone and the fresh water aquifer was also simulated
    using a computer model.
    
    "The results of this study show that the fresh water aquifer
    is a thin, discontinuous aquifer located at or near the
    bedrock surface with an average hydraulic conductivity of 5
    x 10^6 m/s.  A buried bedrock valley of depth 60-80 m below
    ground surface and 30-40 m below surrounding bedrock is
    located about 500-1000 m east of the current channel of the
    St. Clair River.  The fresh water aquifer has a higher
    hydraulic conductivity of about 1 x 10~4 m/s within the
    bedrock valley due to the presence of alluvial sands and
    silts.  The freshwater aquifer is generally overlain by 30-
    70 m of low permeability clay till; however, below the St.
    Clair River the thickness of confining till in places may be
    a thin as 3 m.
    
    "Groundwater flow within the fresh water aquifer toward the
    bedrock valley averages 0.57 m^/yr per unit aquifer width.
    Within the bedrock valley some flow is directed down to
    deeper geologic formations and some of the flow is discharg-
    ed to the St. Clair River.  No groundwater flows under the
    St. Clair River within the fresh water aquifer to the U.S.
    
    "Phenol contamination of the fresh water aquifer by injected
    industrial waste is evident on the Esso Petroleum Canada
    property near the St. Clair River and below the St. Clair
    River in the area of the CN Railway tunnel.  Loading to the
    St. Clair from this 800 m by 600 m contaminated zone is
    calculated at 5.2 g/d which, given the volume of flow in the
    St. Clair River, is rapidly reduced to below detection
    levels.  Chloride contaminant loading to the River from the
    same area is calculated at 50 kg/d.
    
    "It is recognized that some undetected contaminant plumes
    may exist in the vicinity of disposal wells due to waste
    migration up abandoned boreholes.  Assuming such plumes did
    exist adjacent to the St. Clair the total potential phenol
    loading to the River is estimated at 25 g/d.  This would
    result in an increase in phenol concentration in the River
    of 1.9 ng/L which is about 500 times less than the minimum
    detection limit of  1 ug/L.
    

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                                   283
    
         "Industrial Waste characterized by Phenol (30,000 - 40,000
         ug/L)  volatile organics (e.g.,  benzene,  toluene, etc.,  200 -
         5,800  ug/L)  and naphthalenes (50 ~ 829 ug/L)  is restricted
         to a narrow 11 m interval between 185.9 and 196.6 m depth in
         the upper section of the Lucas  dolomite.   Vertical migration
         of this waste through the pore  space of the overlying and
         underlying rocks has been negligible and measured hydraulic
         heads  show fluid flow in the adjacent rocks is now to the
         disposal zone.  This study suggests that there is a rela-
         tively active flow system within the disposal formation
         today  and that understanding the fate of 8,000,000 m^ of
         waste  disposed to the Detroit River Group will require
         knowledge of the current rates  and directions of flow within
         the disposal zone.
    
         "The hydraulic head within the disposal zone is now 14 to 15
         m below that in the fresh water aquifer and 8 m below the
         level  of the St. Clair River.  Therefore current flow direc-
         tions  are from the fresh water aquifer and St. Clair River
         to the disposal zone.
    
         "A significant finding of this  study was the occurrence of
         high hydraulic conductivity limestone layers in the Hamilton
         Group  of formations at 74 and 123 m depth that likely con-
         tain industrial waste at phenol concentrations of 6000 -
         10,000 ug/L and hydraulic heads above those in the fresh
         water  aquifer.  The 2 in thick limestone layer at 74 m depth
         is of  particular concern to this study because groundwater
         from, this horizon likely discharges to the fresh water
         aquifer within the bedrock valley and this horizon flowed
         industrial waste in 1967 and 1969 at rates of 10 to 238
         L/rain.  The extent of contamination in this and the 123 m
         depth  horizon is not known but is likely significant as the
         only two monitoring wells to these horizons (from this and
         an earlier study) detected industrial waste.  This waste was
         likely introduced to these limestone horizons from improper-
         ly completed disposal, cavern or abandoned wells,"
    
    
    6.  Spills
    
    A recent, well-publicized spill of perchloroethylene in the
    Ontario waters of the St. Clair River underscored the potential
    for accidental loss of large quantities of materials in this
    river system  (36) .  This incident prompted a major investigation
    on the biological effects of spills and related discharges (91).
    The results of the study demonstrated that the waters, sediments,
    and biota of  the St. Clair River system were adversely affected
    by discharges of contaminants to the river, and that the per-
    chloroethylene spill aggravated an existing condition.
    

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                                   284
    
    The perchloroethylene spill was not an Isolated event.  Rather,
    it was simply another incident in a long history of accidental
    spills. The data presented in Table VII-17 indicate that, on the
    Canadian side, 11 major oil spills of 10 tons or more  (a total of
    1,282 tons) and 21 major spills of other hazardous compounds (a
    total of 10,390 tons) occurred between 1974 and 1985.
    
    The Michigan shoreline is considerably less industrialized than
    the Ontario portion of the river.  However, between 1973 and
    1979, there were 120 spills of petroleum related compounds from
    land based facilities and vessels which released over  18,500 L of
    these materials into the St. Glair River.  An additional spill
    released 208 L of other hazardous substances to the river during
    this period.
    
    Tables VII-17a and 18 provide information on spill occurrences
    during 1986,  In 1986, a total of 48 surface water spills to the
    St. Clair River were reported.  There were 17 U.S. spills includ-
    ing 3 chemical, 4 non-PCB oil, and 10 raw sewage.  Sixteen chemi-
    cal, and 22 non-PCB oil spills to the Canadian waters  of the St.
    Clair were reported.  Very recently, (May IS883 a spill of
    acrylonitrile  (maximum 12,000 kg) occurred at Polysar  Saxnia, but
    the chemical was not detected in the St. Clair River,
    
    Although improvements in water and sediment quality have been
    made in the St. Clair River system in recent years, spills from
    vessels and land-based facilities continue to threaten the suita-
    bility of the river for fish and wildlife populations,
    
    7,   Contaminated Sediments
    
    The sediments along the Canadian shore are significantly con-
    taminated with a variety of chemicals (58,59,67),  But compared
    to chemicals in water and           sediments, much less than one
    percent of the contaminants moving along the river are transport-
    ed by bed sediment movement  (67),  The total      of contaminants
    such as HCB and OCS in Canadian shoreline sediments in the river
    is comparable to the annual loadings of these contaminants
    (37,59).  Unless a significant percent of this material is being
    desorbed each year, it is unlikely that contaminated sediments
    contribute significantly to the loading in the water column.
    However, because no measurements have been made, it is not pos-
    sible to come to a definite conclusion at this time.
    
    Another way sediments can act as source of contaminants is
    through the biological community,  Benthic organisms have been
    shown to accumulate contaminants from sediments in the river
    (50).  These organisms serve as a food source for higher trophic
    levels such as fish.  Thus contaminated sediments can  act as a
    source of  higher body burdens of chemicals in biota in the
    system.  Sediments  from the Sarnia  industrial area are lethal  to
    Hexagenia, Hydallela, and  fathead minnows.
    

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                                          285
                                    TABLE vu-i?
    
    Spills of  hazardous materials in excess of 10 tons into the Ontario
    waters of the St, Clair River and its tributaries, 1974 - 1985*.
    Source
    Suncor
    Suncor
    CNR
    Esso Petroleum
    Hall Corp. (Vessel)
    CNR
    Esso Petroleum
    Esso Petroleum
    Esso Petroleum
    Imp. Bedford (Shell)
    Esso Chemical
    Total
    Polysar
    Polysar
    Polvsar
    Po L vsar
    Total,
    Dow
    Polvsar
    Total
    Dow
    Dow
    Dow
    Dow
    Polvsar
    Suncor
    Esso Chemical
    Esso Petroleum
    Total
    Pol ysar
    Esso Petroleum
    Suncor
    Eagle Transport
    Dow
    Esso Petroleum
    Dow
    Total
    Substance
    Spilled
    Bunker 4 oil
    Bunker & oil
    Bunker & oil
    Gas Oil
    Bunker & Oil
    Bunker & Oil
    Gasoline
    No, 2 fuel Oil
    No. 2 fuel Oil
    Catalytic cracker
    Slop Oil
    
    Latex
    Latex
    Latex
    Latex
    
    Styrene
    Styrene
    Hvdrochloric Acid
    Sodium hvdroxide
    Sodium chlorate
    Sodium chloride
    Sulphuric acid
    Hydrochloric acid
    Sodium hvdroxide
    Brine
    Lienin liquor
    Phenolic wastewater
    Process water
    Xylene
    Ethviene Glycol
    Waste Water
    Perchloroethyiene
    Year
    1976
    1976
    1977
    1978
    1980
    1981
    1981
    1984
    1984
    1985
    1985
    
    1975
    1976
    1980
    1980
    
    1974
    1978
    1974
    1975
    1979
    1981
    1981
    1982
    1983
    1984
    1975
    1975
    1975
    1975
    1976
    1982
    1985
    Amount ( Tons )
    Spilled Unrecovered"
    150
    300
    86
    29
    21
    21
    348
    116
    16
    75
    120
    1 . 282
    17
    18
    87
    20
    T4~2
    4,504
    411
    21
    28
    4,080
    379
    13
    16
    19
    164
    159
    239
    91
    11
    13
    46
    54
    FTJ
    30
    0
    17
    0
    13
    4
    0
    23
    3
    1
    0
    91
    17
    18
    87
    20
    TT2
    2,700
    2,780
    21
    28
    4,000
    76
    13
    0
    4
    4, 175
    33
    239
    73
    2
    0
    46
    7WT
    a-Datafrom(36).
    b - Estimate based  upon reports of percent recovered.
    

    -------
    "DATE"
    SOURCE"
                           TABLE Vll-Ua
     Spills from Canadian sources to  the  St.  Clair River (IDSfi).
                             I chemicals)
    "  1   "CHEMTCSt   r~~VOtUBE '"! RECETVTKG WATER""! l.OCATTON   f
                                             I
                                                          I1
                                                               i1
                                                                                                      AMOUNT
    186/03/28 !I)ow Chemical !~Polvethvene
    j | j Powder
    JB6/015/29 [CIL [30fc Phosphoric
    j j j Powder
    { 86/05 / IT" {Suncor "Refinery {Toluene
    [efi/Ofi/12 'Dow Chemical [ Styrene
    I J [Benzene
    j 86/06/12 'Bow Chemical J35X Ethylene
    J | {filycol
    Jfl8/07/I2 J!>owT?hemieal " jUnknown ""
    J86/07725 iTmperiarTJil Ue- {Diesel 'Fuel
    J finery Fueling !
    | jtock j
    [86/07/30 j Dow "Chemical ' {"ElhvT Benzene H
    j j [Styrene
    JB6/07/3I [imperial Oil Re-{0iesel Fuel
    ! finery Fueling !
    [ [Dock ' J
    [86/Oa/07~ {polvsar {"Tertiary Butyl
    j j [Alcohol
    jfifi/08/12 JFibergJas Canada {pheno I ic Seairi
    J8S/08/1Z JDow Chemical JBenzene
    [ee/oa/liT 'Polysar Jffalo-Butvl
    j 1 j Rubber
    'gB/n/24 [Piberglfts Canadafphenol Dyes
    j j [Formaldehyde
    JBfi/ll/ZS 'Polvsar j Calcium & Zinc
    j | [St.earates
    J86/12/18 [Polysar [stearic Acid H
    I __
    150 kg phos-
    phorus
    204IT"
    2 'kg eacFT
    2273 L
    
    IIBODHL
    h' 1 SI L H
    '204 L
    272 L
    227 L
    25 ktj
    900-1360 L
    90 1,
    ' 5-10'kg
    20 L
    "St.
    St.
    St.
    
    St.
    St.
    St.
    ^SFT
    St.
    St.
    
    St.
    St.
    St.
    tit.
    St.
    Clair River jSarnia
    1
    Clair River JCourtright
    t
    Clair River Sarnia
    Clair River ISarnia
    j
    Clair River I Sarnia
    1
    Clair River [Sarnia
    Clair River [Sarnia
    I
    Ciair River [Sarnia
    1
    Clair River jSarriia
    I
    1
    Clair River [Sarnia
    1
    j Drain j Sarnia
    Clair River j Sarnia
    Clair River 'Sarnia
    1
    Clair River jSarnia
    I
    Clair River JSarnia
    1
    Clair River JSarnia
    i
    i
    _
    j
    i
    i
    1
    I
    J Samples
    ! taken 	 ,
    ! feooms
    [deployetl
    1
    .Plume
    j mode 11 ing
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    Plume
    j model linj?
    [Booms
    1 deployed
    I
    1
    1
    J Booms
    [deployed
    I _ 1
    1 1
    , — ... ^.. .
    
    —
    Storm
    overflow
    
    —
    Tug
    f ue 1 ing
    leak
    
    100*' '
    
    *~
    _
    
    
    100%
    
                                                                                                                            CO
    

    -------
    
    j Tiate [ Source
    1 1
    
    ] 86/0471 0 j SheTT~RefTnery
    J86/04/lH|Suncor Refinery H
    1 1
    [8B/05/07JShell Refinery
    1 1
    | 8 S7Wlfit Imperial Oil
    [ Ref inery
    ,8fi/0!>/lHJPolySar
    jftfi/06/05 jOntnrio Hydro
    [86706/11 [Shell Refinery
    1 1
    JBG/06/11 [Shel 1 Refinery
    1 1
    1 1
    j i i
    86/07/02 Imperial Oil
    j Re f i nery
    Hfi/OT7ff7 [Imperial Oil'
    [ Re ri nery
    88/07/12 Imperial Oil
    [ j Re V i nery
    ] ftf)/07/12[Polygar
    1 1
    JBG/07/12[SheIl Hefinery
    t 1
    |86/07/20JPolysAr
    1 1
    [86/tra/02J Shell Hefinery
    1 1
    J86/08/07J Shell Refinery
    ] 86/08/08 j Shell Refinery
    j 06/08/29 [ Polysar ""
    jflfi/08705[ Polysar
    J86/09/22J Polyaar
    1 1
    J BG/10/03J Polysar 	
    i I
    86/ro/26 Imperial Oil
    j ] Refinery
    
    Volume
    
    
    45.4 L
    9TW C
    3,08 T; —
    
    10 L
    13.5 L
    1818 L
    0\ i V
    water
    
    -
    4.5 L
    4773 L
    '
    40y6 L
    4091'L
    (J
    3'g'TT 	
    2. 2" L' 	
    ^000 L~*
    ^STTH^TX1
    
    45-S!) L
    
    TARI-E VIT-17a. ii
    Cnon-POB oi
    Receiving Water j Location
    
    Tal Fourd Creek JCorunna
    St. Clair River|Sa'rnia" 	
    1
    St. Clair RiverjSarnia
    1
    St. Ulair RiverjSarnia
    1
    St. CUir RiverjSarnia
    St. Clair Ri ver J Courtright
    Talfourd Creek {Corunna
    I
    Talfourd Creek JCorunna
    1
    St.. CI«ir River|sarnia
    1
    St. Clair RiverjSarnia
    1
    St. Clair RiverjSarniA
    1
    St. Clair HiverjSarnia
    1
    Tallourd Creek JCorunna
    1
    St. Glair RiverjSarnia
    1
    Talfourd ^Creek JGbrunna
    1
    Talfourd Creek JCorunna
    Talfourd Creek JCorunna
    St. Clair RiverjSarnia
    hSt. Clair RiverjSarnia
    St. Clair RiverjSarnia
    I
    St. Clair RiverjSarnia
    St. Clair RiverjSarnia
    t
    -ont'd j
    ls« 1
    Resolution
    
    Booms deployed
    Booms deployed
    Booms deployed
    
    
    
    Boons deployed
    Booms deployed
    Booms deployed
    Rooms deployed
    Booms deployed
    Boons deployed
    Hooraa deployed
    
    Boons deployed
    Boons deployed
    Boons deployed
    ~
    ™
    Boons deployed
    Booms deployed
    Clean up
    initiated
    
    Recovered; Comments |
    Amount
    i t
    
    I
    36.3 a litres loat
    j to River
    9. OB JA11 materials
    j recovered
    jOil not
    j recoverable
    i
    I
    1
    JOverflow due to
    j heavy rain
    j Overt" low due to
    j heavy rain
    1
    I
    1
    _ 1 Z
    I
    i
    - j De-oiler heat
    j exchanger l«ak
    - {Overflow due to
    heavy rain
    I Overt low due to
    j heavy rain
    jBiox bypass due
    j to heavy rain
    1
    :overriow due to
    j heavy rain
    iStorrawater
    runoff
    :st ornwater
    runoff
    j Pumps failed
    i
    j Power failure
    [Overflow due to
    j heavy rain
    
    i i
                                                                                                                           to
                                                                                                                           CD
    1  There were no reported apilJa of PCB contaminated oils.
    *  fn addition there were 3 reports of oil sheens on the  river.
    

    -------
                                                             TAHI.E VII-1K
    
                                                   U.S. raw  sewage spills  ( 19BB) ,
    PP-KS
    I'Bat'iT
    Source
    ! ResoIiTtion
     I Hecove reiTj Comments
    _l_Ainau_nt	I
    2922-86 6/1 5/86 Ifiitv Of p0"ft
    j j Huron WWTP
    1 1
    293J-86 '8/16/86 J~Citv of Port
    { | Huron WWTP
    1 j
    { JwWTp"e 1 y
    2392-B"6~ [TTB'/lT786~frritv of Por€
    j j Huron WWTP
    i 1
    2931-86 jOS/tli/ftfetcitv or Port
    { |H»iron WWTP
    i 1
    D-tiOl-86!0B/23726jMarine City
    ] [WWTP
    i i
    06-H6~ [Ol/OIT/86 [Mueller Brass
    t 1
    1 1
    1 1
    1 1
    1 1
    1 1
    1 Sire"- 86 j05/24/86JDetroit
    j ( Edison
    Ol 66-86 !l 1/1 S/86J Detroit
    1 [Edison
    i, ... i i
    !2<) hrs. at
    jfiDOU gal
    [per hr
    ,24 hrs". "at"'
    200 gal
    j per mi n .
    ^ Hh
    ! via
    1
    , St .
    [via
    1
    i 1 900 cpm foriSt.
    {' 24 hr |
    74 "hr"" aT St.
    tiOOt) gal via
    [per hr [
    24 hr at
    200 gal
    j per nin.
    1l9<)0 gpm
    j 24 hr
    1
    [IO-I5 gal
    1
    1
    jl g«l
    t
    i
    j 120 gal
    I
    X™ 	 „ 	 ™- 	
    St.
    [via
    1
    ]"st.
    1
    1
    +Z?—
    Jvia
    1
    1 via
    I
    I
    1
    [St.
    1
    [
    jst.
    t
    CTTair RiverlSt. CLair Co.
    Black River Port Huron
    1
    Clair Riverjst. Clair Co.
    Black River Port Huron
    1
    Clair River St. Clair Co,
    Mari ne Ci t.y
    Clair Riverjst. Clair Co.
    Black RiverjPort Huron
    1
    Clair RiverjSf. Clair Co.
    Black River Port Huron
    1
    Clair Riverjst. Clair Co.
    j Marine City
    1
    CLair Riverjst. Clair Co,
    Black RiverjPort Huron
    1
    Clair Riverjst. CTair Co.
    Black River [Port Huron
    1
    1
    1
    Clair River] St. Clair Co
    ] St. Clair
    Clair Riverjst. Clair Co.
    jst. Clair
    t
    1
    t
    1 	
    t
    [Spill controlled
    [and cleaned up.
    1
    1
    1
    Station got
    flooded.
    1
    I
    1
    1
    {Pauls Road
    iOiling contacted
    j for clean-up.
    Pauls Road
    [Oiling contacted
    [ for clean-up.
    1
    1
    jBoota in place,
    J ( Barrel tipped
    ! over)
    { Partially
    contat necl .
    luSCQ notified.
    none j
    1
    1
    1
    I
    I
    t
    80 gals J
    I
    none ]St,ormwa€er
    ! caused partial
    [ bypass.
    none jstormwater
    [caused partial
    1 bypass.
    none [Stor«wat*r
    [caused partial
    j bypass .
    20 gals IClean up
    {supervised
    jby USCG,
    5 gala j Company inail-
    ! tuted jn-plftnt
    [controls to
    reduce f of
    j spi 11 8.
    none j
    1
    80 gals j
    1
                                                                                                                                     to
                                                                                                                                     oo
                                                                                                                                     00
             TOTAL
                                       IHfc  gal
                                       (704.91)
                                                                                               105 gals
                                                                                               (39B.1t
    

    -------
                                   289
    
    8.   Navigation
    
    As  stated earlier, ship traffic through the St. Clair River is
    considerable.  These ship movements cause some minor sediment
    resuspension but should have little impact on the movement and
    effects of contaminants in the river.  Periodic dredging is
    required in the lower channels of the river for navigation pur-
    poses.  The material dredged from the Canadian channels is placed
    in  a confined disposal facility (the Southeast Bend Cutoff Site,
    Seaway island),  because it exceeds open water disposal guidelines
    for oil and grease, and mercury.  Periodic U.S. shoal removal in
    the upper reaches of the river of a few hundred m^ of sediment
    are disposed in Lake Huron.  A few hundred thousand m^ of
    sediments are removed by the U.S.  in the lower reaches of the
    river approximately every three years.   These materials are
    placed in the Dickinson Island Confined Disposal Facility.
    

    -------
                                   290
    
    D.  DATA REQUIREMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS
    
    In answering the source/sink question for the St. Clair River,
    data sets from single laboratories were used.  Thus, even if the
    analyses were biased high or low, the relative changes in con-
    centrations would still be apparent.  Some of the bottom sediment
    data for several parameters were combined and averaged.  The
    laboratories that generated these data performed acceptably in
    the round-robins conducted by the Data Quality Management Work-
    group (Chapter IV),  and comparable data for the different studies
    were found for overlapping sampling stations.
    
    For the point source study, the United States methods provided.
    much lower detection limits (DL) for three organics than did the
    Canadian methods.  For most chemicals, this did not impact the
    study because of the lower concentrations found in the U.S.
    sources for most organic parameters.  However, for PCBs  (U.S. DL
    0.0001 ug/L? Canadian DL 0.1 ug/L),  the difference in detection
    limits could affect the ranking of the PCS sources along the
    river.  Fortunately, PCS discharges to the St. Clair River appear
    to be fairly low, so remedial measures for PCBs may not be re-
    quired.
    
    While sensitivity analyses were applied to most of the models
    used to simulate conditions in the St. Clair River, the quality
    of the initial data utilized in most modeling exercises is dif-
    ficult to judge.  Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations and other
    uncertainty analyses are almost entirely lacking for the process
    models developed to date.  These shortcomings render existing
    modeling tools less than fully useful for management authorities.
    Additional resources will undoubtedly be a priority to overcome
    these deficits.
    

    -------
                                   291
    
    E.           AMD              CONSIDERATIONS
    
    1.  Dispersion Models
    
    The St, Clair River, like the other connecting channels of the
    Great Lakes is the recipient of large volumes of effluents. Under
    normal circumstances, the apparent impact of these additions
    would be less noticeable because of the large volume of water
    conducted through this channel.  However, because of the neces-
    sity to maintain broad channels for navigation, shore based dis-
    charge structures must be maintained relatively close to shore-
    ward margins of the river.  This fact dictates that only a rela-
    tively small portion of the total river flow is available for
    waste dispersal.
    
    In an early study of lateral dispersion, Hamdy and. Kinkead  (92)
    adapted an existing numerical dispersion model to predict
    in-streaia concentration of a conservative substance (chloride)
    from shore based discharge outfalls to the St, Clair River, These
    authors found that the nondimensional dispersion coefficient
    measured in the field was in a range of 0.93 - 1.0, based upon a
    shear velocity of 0.042 m/s     a depth of 10 m.  This coeffi-
    cient observed in the St, Clair River     substantially greater
    than the classic value of 0,23 normally used in dispersion pre-
    dictions.
    
    A simultaneous parallel study conducted by Akhtar and Hathur  (93)
    used equations identical to Hamdy and Kinkead, but incorporated
    the classic 0.23 value for the nondimensional dispersion coeffi-
    cient.  When Akhtar and Mathur reran their model using the Hamdy
    and Kinkead value of 0,96, the transverse chloride distribution
    predicted by the model agreed reasonably well with observed
    values.  The reported data suggest that the bulk of chlorides
    were contained close to the Canadian shoreline. Shoreward con-
    centrations of 80 mg/L were observed, while concentrations de-
    clined to levels approaching zero 50 m off shore. Validation of
    the model was      against 1976 chloride data for the St. Clair
    River at the      sites.  In this case, shoreward concentrations
    of nearly 100 mg/L were shown to decrease laterally to concentra-
    tions approaching zero 45 m off shore.  The 1976 verifications
    were      against a point source loading for Cl~~ of 2,6 kg/s, a
    function of a discharge rate of 3 m3/s and an initial concentra-
    tion of 860 mg/L.
    
    In a report to the Water Resources Branch of the Ontario Ministry
    of the Environment, McCorquodale and Bewtra (94) provide a users
    manual for a model designed to assess the convection-dispersion
    and decay of vertically mixed pollutants from multiple outfalls.
    The authors state that this model was developed using OMOE field
    data on chlorides and phenols in the St. Clair River,  While the
    model was intended to simulate phenol concentrations along the
    entire length of main channel of the St, Clair River, neither
    

    -------
                                   292
    
    data nor model simulations are provided.  No evidence of calibra-
    tion, verification, or application of this model is available.
    
    In the same short report to OMOE, McCorquodale and Bewtra  (95)
    consider the dispersion and transport of phenols in the St. Glair
    River.  These authors describe adapting a previously existing
    model (characterized only as "The Detroit River Model") to condi-
    tions existing in the St. Clair River.
    
    Although this modified far-field model was used to simulate
    phenol concentrations in the St. Clair River from outfall A to
    the Delta, only estimations of pollutant loadings in the channels
    of the St. Clair River delta are provided.  The authors report
    that 5 percent of the total flow and 14 percent of the total
    phenol load exit the St. Clair River by way of Chenal Ecarte.
    This loading approximates 4 kg/d of phenol.  The South Channel is
    responsible for conducting 42 percent of the total flow and 81
    percent of the total phenolic load (23 kg/d, phenol) from the St.
    Clair River.  A total of 20 percent of the river flow, but less
    than 5 percent of the total phenolic load exists the St. Clair
    River via the Middle Channel.  This burden represents only about
    1.4 kg/d of phenol.  While the North Channel is responsible for
    conducting 33 percent of the total river flow, only a trace of
    the total phenol loading is found in this channel.  The authors
    note that these values represent loadings without consideration
    for decay.  If degradation rates were added, the phenol loadings
    to the channels could be reduced by as much as 30 percent.
    
    Chan et al. (37) modeled the fluxes and the concentration dis-
    tribution profiles in water column transects across the upper and
    lower St. Clair River for the contaminants hexachlorobenzene
    (HCB), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), pentachlorofaenzene  (QCB) ,  and
    octachlorostyrene  (DCS).  The data they derived clearly demon-
    strated a plume of these contaminants for the Sarnia Industrial
    Area.  Dieldrin concentrations, on the other hand, were quite
    consistent for all stations sampled, fluctuating about a mean of
    approximately 0.25 ng/L.  The ubiquitous distribution of this
    contaminant suggests long-range transport as the likely mechanism
    involved in this widespread contamination.  The authors report
    that similar concentration distributions to dieldrin were ob-
    served for several other organic substances including alpha and
    gamma BHC and PCBs.
    
    A marked plume of contaminants was apparent, originating for the
    Sarnia area.  This plume was observed for HCB, HCBD, QCB, and
    OCS.  Very little of these compounds are present at the head
    waters of the St. Clair River.  At Port Lambton, however, peak
    values were observed near the Canadian shoreline, with decreasing
    concentrations across the river.  This observation corroborates
    the lateral distribution calculated for chloride by Hamdy  and
    Kinkead  (92).  Chan et  al.  (37)  report that downstream, however,
    Chenal Ecarte contained the highest concentrations, the South
    

    -------
                                   293
    
    Channel was described as having significant levels, and very low
    concentrations were observed in the North Channel.  Unfortunate-
    ly, no flow data are provided to enable an exact comparison of
    channel burdens with the various values provided by McCorquodale
    and Bewtra (95).   However, if the normal flow value of 5,100 m3/s
    for the St. Clair River provided by McCorquodale et al. (86) is
    used, and if the percent of total flow  reported by HcCorquodale
    and Bewtra (95) for Chenal Ecaxte {5 percent of total), South
    Channel (42% of total),  and the North Channel (33 percent of
    total) are accepted, a comparison of values may be made.  This
    comparison is presented in Table VII-19 below,
    
    An order of magnitude agreement between the percentage contribu-
    tions of the contaminants in the two data sets exists when the
    differences in methodologies are considered,  Chan et al.  (37)
    measured HCB in centrifuged water samples at the Port Lairtbton
    stations.   These samples represented "dissolved phase* HCB,  since
    the majority of suspended solids had been removed.  The authors
    note that 41 percent of the HCB observed at Port Lambton was in
    the dissolved phase.  When the percentage contributions to total
    HCB loadings are adjusted for suspended solids concentrations,
    the sum of the channel values approach 10-0 percent of the total
    HCB loading rate of 1.63 Kg/d reported by Nettleton (96).
    
    Chan et al. (37)  also used the observed contaminant concentra-
    tions and water depths to calculate the flux of each compound
    across the river cross section at Port Lambton.  Good agreement
    of values was obtained when compared with Environment Canada and
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment district monitoring data.
    Between August and October of 1985, HCB fluxes ranged from 59 to
    280 gm/day, QCB was observed from 22 to 31 gm/day, HCBD 240 to
    1,700 gm/day, and OCS 5 to 15 gm/day.
    
    These authors then calculated lateral mixing in the river channel
    using a transverse mixing coefficient derived by varying the
    coefficient until the calculated concentration profile matched
    the measured profile.  The original calculation of this factor
    was made against the HCB data and applied to other measured para-
    meters.  With the exception of a single HCBD data set for 23
    September  1985, excellent agreement with measured concentration
    profiles was achieved.  This single data set demonstrated no
    plume-like distribution, but rather a relatively constant con-
    centration across the river cross section.  All other calcula-
    tions demonstrated a plume which tended to remain near the
    Canadian shore of the St. Clair River,
    
    These authors also note that future studies should consider
    special sampling procedures for modeling studies.  They report
    that  the results of the water/suspended sediment partitioning
    study showed that measurements should be made on both dissolved
    and  suspended sediment phases, or on unfiltered water  samples if
    contaminant fluxes or loadings are to be calculated.
    

    -------
                                            294
                                  TABLE VTI-19
    
    4 eimtsari son  of burdens of chemical contaminants  in  the  various channels
    of the St. Clair River Delta  Ikg/d>.
    Distributary
    Channel
    Chenal Ecarte
    South Channel
    Middle Channel
    Morth Channel
    Phenol
    Burden*
    4.0
    23.0
    1.4
    Trace
    %^ of
    Total Phenol
    Load
    14
    81
    <5
    Trace
    HCB
    Burden"
    0,286
    0. 740
    --
    0.073
    % of
    Total HCB
    Load<=
    17
    45
    —
    4
         Data from (86 I.
         Data from (371.
         A total of * 45% of HCB loadings are unaccounted  for,  since  Chan et
         al.  (371  used centrifuged  water  to measure  HCB  at  the  Port  Lambton
         stations.  They note that 41%  of  the  HCB  observed   at  Port  Lambton
         was  in the 'dissolved phase'.
    

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    2.  Hydrodynamic Model
    
    A river transport model has been constructed by McCorquodale et
    al. (86) which has potential for application to the St. Clair
    River.  This model has been variously referred to as the Univer-
    sity of Windsor K-E model and the University of Windsor K-E River
    Mixing Model (96).  This model is a steady state, depth average,
    turbulent mixing model designed to simulate complex river systems
    with multiple outfalls.  Nettleton (96) reports that velocity
    distributions and dispersion characteristics of the St. Clair
    River were computed with this model.   The model divides the St.
    Clair River into 14 segments, estimating the flow in each segment
    using U.S. Army Corps of Engineers data adjusted to interpolated
    sections in each segment based upon a normal flow rate of 5,100
    m3/s  (187,000 cfs),
    
    Nettleton reports that the model was calibrated by adjusting
    parameters for the lateral profile of the velocity to provide
    predicted results similar to those measured.  This author writes
    that in addition to velocities and dispersion coefficients, this
    model also provides the lateral locations of river streamlines in
    the various river segments,  Nettleton concludes that, based upon
    the results of this and other OMOE applications of the hydro-
    dynamic model,  it would appear that the model is well suited for
    use in the St.  Clair River.  At the present time, however, there
    is no report of verification of this model.
    
    
    3.    Chemical Transport Models
    
    Nettleton (96)  reports that, to date, chemical transport modeling
    for the St. Clair River has been accomplished only for the con-
    taminant hexachlorobenzene  (HCB).  Two models were used to study
    the chemical transport of HCB.  One of these models, the Univer-
    sity of Windsor Hydrodynamic Model discussed above, calculates
    the depth averaged total contaminant concentrations in two dimen-
    sions in the water column.  The U.S.EPA TOXIWASP model (97),
    estimates the dissolved, sediment sorbed,' and biosorbed concen-
    trations of the contaminant in both the water column and the
    sediment bed of the river.
    
    The University of Windsor transport model was run with both
    average and maximum loadings using both average and minimum flow
    rates. The best agreement with measured field data was achieved
    using average flows and maximum loadings of HCB.  Nettleton (96)
    reports that, under these conditions, the total loading rate of
    HCB to the St.  Clair River System was 1.63 kg/d.  He notes that
    in excess of 97 percent of this total loading results from a
    single point source, the Dow Chemical First Street sewer complex.
    
    Comparisons of the river model predictions of HCB concentrations
    with measured values were reported to be in good agreement  (86).
    

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    The magnitudes of predicted concentrations were generally within
    the probable error of field data measurement  (96).
    
    The TOXIWASP model is a multiple cell model which divides the
    water column and bed into segments both vertically and hori-
    zontally. The principal mass transfer mechanisms considered by
    this model include contaminant advection and dispersion, sediment
    settlement and resuspension, volatilization and biological degra-
    dation of the contaminant, and point and nonpoint sources of
    contaminant to the water column, including sediment bound ma-
    terials.
    
    In relation to the St. Clair River, this model was run using only
    one layer of water column and bed sediments.  The river was
    divided horizontally into four flow panels.  Both "fine" and
    "coarse" grid patterns were used.  The "coarse" grid considered
    the entire river to the Delta area, while the "fine" grid was
    used to concentrate on the analysis of the river in the vicinity
    of the outfalls.
    
    Nettleton (96) reports that comparisons between water column
    concentrations of HCB predicted by TOXIWASP with those measured
    in the field were satisfactory.  He notes that both the trends
    and the magnitudes of the predicted values are in good agreement
    with the measured field data.  Bed sediment predictions occa-
    sionally tended to over-predict both magnitudes and trends when
    compared with field data.  However, both magnitude and trend
    predictions appear to be within the estimated field measurement
    accuracy.
    
    Nettleton concludes that it would appear that both the University
    of Windsor transport model and the TOXIWASP model can predict the
    chemical transport of HCB relatively accurately within the St.
    Clair River.  He notes, however, that these results must be
    regarded as preliminary.  Confirmatory results  (and presumably
    model verification} await the final assembly of the 1986 St.
    Clair River Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement data
    base,
    
    
    4.  Unsteady Flow Model
    
    An unsteady flow model for the St. Clair River from Lake Huron to
    Lake St. Clair was developed by Derecki et al.  (98).  This model
    simulates hourly and daily flow rates of the  river.  Unlike other
    single-stem river models, the unsteady flow model provides flow
    separations in the vicinity of Stag and Pawn  Islands and in the
    North, Middle, South, and Cutoff Channels of  the St. Clair River
    Delta.  The model predicts  stage, discharge,  and velocity data
    required to simulate the  fate and transport of toxic substances.
    

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    Derecki et a1.  (98) suggest that the model has been calibrated.
    This calibration consisted of adjusting the roughness coef-
    ficients of the river channel.  These coefficients were derived
    from 14 sets of flow measurements conducted by the U.S. Army
    Corps of Engineers between 1959-1979,  No evidence of validation
    of this model is available.
    5.   Other Models
    
    In a departure from the usual academic modeling format, Nettleton
    and Hamdy (91) have created a user-oriented model for assessment
    of effects of spilled contaminants.  The modeling format is
    termed 'The St. Clair River Spill Manual'.  This device was
    developed to provide a convenient, easily used, rapid assessment
    methodology for predicting the downstream effects of spilled
    contaminants on water intakes.  A total of 21 outfalls located in
    the Chemical Valley near Sarnia are considered in this manual.
    Using this well-designed instrument, assessments of impact are
    possible all along the Canadian shoreline and at five Michigan
    intake sites, including St. Clair, East China Township, Marine
    City, Algonac, and Old Club.  The Marysville intake was found to
    lie outside of all the plumes observed, and is, therefore, not
    considered in the manual.
    
    Osers desiring to assess impacts of a spill need only know the
    type and total mass of contaminant spilled, the duration of the
    event, and the total river flow at the time of the spill.  If
    decay characteristics are known, there is a possibility to incor-
    porate this information into the analysis.
    
    With these data available, the manual is then consulted to ascer-
    tain the peak contaminant concentration expected, and times of
    arrival and departure of the spill plume at a given water intake.
    This adaptation and coupling of two mathematical models in a
    specific user-oriented fashion will undoubtedly be extremely
    useful to managers charged with the responsibility of providing
    of safe drinking water,
    
    
    6.  Model Applications
    
    A major application of these hydrodynamical dispersion models and
    fate and transport models, after calibration, is for the analysis
    of hypothetical effluent discharge scenarios proposed in remedial
    studies.  This analysis can be approached in two ways: i) ef-
    fluent loadings may be established based upon treatment tech-
    nology, and the models used to ascertain the resulting short and
    long-term changes expected in the quality of the downstream
    water/sediment/biota of the receiver; or ii) the models can be
    used to estimate appropriate effluent criteria assuming known
    ambient water quality criteria downstream of the outfall.
    

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    As an example, effluent loading criteria for HCB discharged to
    the St. Clair River from. Dow Chemical can be determined  (Table
    VII-20).   There are two important reasons to develop effluent
    criteria for HCB: i) it has been shown to impact exposed sediment
    and biota within the effluent plume due to its chemical char-
    acteristics  (e.g., large Kow); and ii) when reduced via the
    appropriate industrial treatment, other related contaminants
    should also be reduced from the effluent.
    
    For this example, three criteria are used in the analysis for
    HCB,  The first is the 6.5 ng/L freshwater aquatic life guideline
    for concentrations in the water column.  The second criterion is
    that HCB concentrations in the sediment are not to increase by
    more than 1 ng/L above the background level. The third criterion
    is that HCB concentrations in biota, as a result of bioconcentra-
    tion, is not to increase more than 50 ug/L above the background
    level.  The second and third criteria are' arbitrarily selected
    (for demonstration purposes) for protection of the sediment and
    biota under long-term steady state conditions.
    
    The calculations  (as summarised in Table VII-20) are performed
    for two selected mixing zone lengths.  The first mixing zone is
    to the south property line of Dow Chemical  (about 1,200 m down-
    stream of Dow's First Street sewer complex).  In this case, the
    total HCB load is assumed proportional among the various outfalls
    as measured in 1986.  The second mixing zone is two Dow's Second
    Street outfall (about 300 m downstream of the First Street com-
    plex) ,  In this case, all loading is assumed to be discharged via
    Dow's First Street complex.
    
    In this particular example, the arbitrary biota criterion for the
    shorter mixing zone would result in the most stringent effluent
    loading.
    

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                                          299
                                  TABLE Vir-20
    
           Loads required to limit  zones  of  effect  for  HCB discharged
                               from Dow Chemical-
    
    
    
    Criterion N'o .         Loads  fkg/d! to  limit  the  zone  of effect  to:
    
    
    
                          Dow's  south property    Second  Street  outfall
                             line ( 1 ,200  mH  '             ( 300 ro>*
    
    
    1.  Water (6.5 ng/t)          0.106                     0,065
    
    2,  Sediments (1 ppm          0.517                     0.317
        above background )
    3 .   Biota ( 50
        above background)         0.041                     0.025
    No t e s:
         1.Assumes load  is proportioned - 83,  2,  5,  10%  to  Dow's  1st,  2nd,
         3rd and 4th street outfalls, respectively.
    
         2.Assumes load is entirely  from Dow's  1st Street outfalls.
    

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                                   300
    
    P. OBJECTIVES     GOALS FOR
    
    1,   Water Quality, Sediment, and Biota Standards, Guidelines and
         Objectives
    
    Setting goals and objectives based on water quality, sediment,
    and biota guidelines is difficult because guidelines do not exist
    for many of the contaminants found in the St. Clair River,  The
    guidelines and objectives that do exist are chemical specific and
    do not take into consideration the cumulative toxicity of ex-
    posure to multiple contaminants.  However, comparing media con-
    centrations to relevant guidelines or objectives which exist
    allows the identification of areas and ecosystems likely to be
    impacted by contaminants.
    
    One of the goals of the UGLCC Study is to protect and maintain
    the channels for the highest attainable use.  If this goal is
    achieved near industrial and municipal point sources of contamin-
    ants, then impacts to the river     downstream water bodies
    should be greatly reduced.  During the study, water samples col-
    lected near point sources exceeded many of the Ontario Provincial
    Water Quality Objectives  {see Tables ¥11-2 & 3)  for the protec-
    tion of freshwater aquatic life.  Objectives are available for
    several chemicals of concern in the St. Clair River.  However,
    for some chemicals found to be impacting the river, such as
    octachlorostyrene and hexachloroethane, there are currently no
    surface water objectives.
    
    Objective 1.    Develop water quality guidelines or objectives
                    for OCS, hexachloroethane and other chemicals not
                    currently possessing water quality objectives.
    
    Objective 2.    Reduce surface water concentrations of organic
                    and inorganic contaminants found to be impacting
                    tne St, Clair River surface water quality to
                    concentrations below the most restrictive water
                    quality guidelines with virtual elimination as a
                    goal.
    
    Several sets of sediment criteria are available with which to
    compare sediment contaminant concentrations in the St. Clair
    River.  These include the Ontario Ministry of the Environment
    Guidelines for Dredge Spoils for Open Water Disposal, the GLWQA
    Guidelines for Open Water Disposal of Dredged Materials, and the
    U.S.EPA Guidelines for the Pollutional Classification of Great
    Lakes Harbor Sediments.  Even though present sediment guidelines
    are generally inadequate, a  comparison with contaminant concen-
    trations in St. Clair River  sediments indicates that there are
    several locations with which to be concerned.  Many of these
    locations are along Sarnia's industrial waterfront, although
    there are impacted areas  along  other reaches of the river, as
    well.  Guideline exceedences occur for oil and grease, lead,  and
    

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                                   301
    
    mercury (Table VII-5).   Sediment guidelines do not exist for many
    contaminants found in the sediments of the St. Clair River, in-
    cluding hexachlorobenzene,  pentachlorobenzene and octachloro-
    styrene.
    
    Objective 3.    Delineate more accurately, the extent of con-
                    taminated sediments in the St. Clair River,
                    especially along Sarnia's industrial waterfront,
                    Sediment contaminant concentrations should also
                    be determined for the major St. Clair River tri-
                    butaries; Talfourd Creek, the Black River, the
                    Cole Drain.
    
    Objective 4.    Develop sediment guidelines for organic chemicals
                    of concern in St. Clair River sediments for those
                    not currently having guidelines  (e.g. HCB and
                    OCS) .
    
    Objective 5.    Reduce the discharge  (concentration and loading)
                    of chemicals which are impacting St. Clair River
                    sediments from known point sources to the lowest
                    level achievable through the use of best avail-
                    able technology with virtual elimination as a
                    goal.
    
    Fish consumption guidelines are available for only a few St.
    Clair River contaminants.  The only exceedences occur for mercury
        PCBs in the larger fish of some species (such as carp).
    There are no fish consumption guidelines for most of the chemi-
    cals of concern in the river.
    
    Objective 6.    Reduce inputs  (with a goal of virtual elimin-
                    ation) of mercury, PCBs and other chemicals to
                    the St. Clair River which are resulting in con-
                    centrations of contaminants in fish exceeding
                    guidelines.
    
    Objective 7.    Develop fish consumption guidelines for chemicals
                    found in St. Clair River biota which do not cur-
                    rently have objectives, such as OCS and HCB, and
                    reduce, to the extent practicable, inputs of
                    these contaminants to the St. Clair River.
    
    It is necessary for regulations to move away from requirements
    and objectives based solely on concentrations towards those which
    include targets for reducing the total mass loading of pollutants
    entering the system.  Basing effluent limitations on concentra-
    tions alone does not account for the  long term effect of persis-
    tent contaminants which remain in sediments and biota.  The dis-
    charge of persistent toxic substances should be reduced to as
    close to zero as possible  (99), in keeping with the goals  of the
    Great Lakes water Quality Agreement.  The only practical way of
    

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                                   302
    
    reducing/eliminating release of toxic substances to the environ-
    ment is at the source of the release.
    
    Several point sources which were identified as providing signif-
    icant loadings of chemicals to the St. Clair River discharged in
    compliance with their concentration based discharge limitations.
    However, the magnitude of their effluent flow was such that sig-
    nificant loads were still provided to the St. Clair River.  In
    other instances, significant discharges of chemicals originated
    from point sources that were not regulated with respect to that
    chemical (e.g. HCB, OC3 and mercury from Dow Chemical and HCB and
    PAH from Polysar Sarnia).
    
    Objective 8.    Develop mass loading limitations for the point
                    source discharges of contaminants found to be of
                    concern in the St. Clair River.
    
    Several municipal waste water treatment facilities, both in
    Canada and the United States, periodically exceeded discharge
    requirements for certain parameters during the study (e.g.,
    Sarnia WWTP, Port Edward WWTP and St. Clair WWTP).   Most munici-
    pal facilities are only required to control conventional param-
    eters, such as total suspended solids, phosphorus and BOD5.
    Better control of operating conditions at these facilities and
    some upgrading may be required to ensure that they are discharg-
    ing in compliance.
    
    In some instances, municipal facilities were found to be signifi-
    cant contributors of unconventional and toxic substances which
    are not regulated, such as, phenols, PAHs, cyanide, zinc and
    iron, among others (e.g. Port Huron WWTP and Sarnia WWTP),  Iden-
    tification of the sources of these contaminants to the municipal
    facilities needs to be performed and programs to reduce such
    inputs developed if further control is required.
    
    Objective 9.    Upgrade the technology and operating procedures
                    at municipal waste water treatment facilities
                    found to be exceeding discharge limits to ensure
                    compliance with all effluent requirements.
    
    Objective 10.   Develop additional effluent requirements, in both
                    mass loading and concentration form, at waste
                    water treatment facilities identified as provid-
                    ing significant inputs of nonregulated contamin-
                    ants impacting the St. Clair River.
    
    Objective 11.   Identify the sources of unconventional and toxic
                    substances entering the municipal facilities
                     (i.e. industrial contributors) and reduce  such
                    inputs.
    

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                                   303
    
    Urban nonpoint sources in Canada, such as stormwater and combined
    sewer overflows, increase the river contaminant burden for
    several parameters including oil and grease, PAHs, lead and iron.
    A thorough evaluation of this pollution source on the United
    States side of the river was not carried out for the UGLCC Study,
    but is needed.
    
    Objective 12.   -Upgrade or redesign municipal facilities operat-
                    ing CSOs, such as the Port Huron and the Sarnia
                    WWTPs, to ensure that CSOs do not occur.
    
    Objective 13.   Identify the original sources of contaminants
                    contained in urban runoff {e.g. atmospheric
                    sources and spills) and take regulatory and man-
                    agement steps to reduce or eliminate contaminant
                    input.
    
    Rural and urban industrial nonpoint sources have been poorly
    characterized for the St. Clair River.  Contaminant loadings
    determined for the Black River and the Cole Drain showed these
    tributaries to be significant contributors of many contaminants
    including phosphorus, nitrogen, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium
    (Black: River) and PAHs, cyanide, and oil and grease (Cole Drain).
    
    Although no contaminant loadings were determined for Talfourd
    Creek, the presence of herbicides and pesticides commonly used in
    agriculture and high concentrations of some metals supports the
    supposition that Talfourd Creek may be a significant contributor
    of contaminants,
    
    Objective 14.   Develop programs within the agricultural com-
                    munity to reduce excessive use of phosphorus and
                    pesticides.  Develop new programs and support
                    existing ones which provide instruction on the
                    use of conservation tillage techniques and live-
                    stock waste management.
    
    Several waste disposal sites have been ranked as having a high
    potential to pollute the river.  Several other waste disposal
    sites appear to need additional information to assess their pre-
    sent and future hazard.  Improved contaminant and leachate con-
    trol and treatment systems may be required for some sites, others
    may require more intensive remediation.  'Sludges from municipal
    and industrial wastewater treatment plants are either incinerated
    or placed in approved land disposal facilities.  The transport of
    contaminants in surface runoff or groundwater leachate plumes
    from the disposal facilities has not been fully assessed.
    
    The ultimate fate of  injected wastes disposed in the past by
    pressurized injection in Ontario and by continuing pressurized
    injection in Michigan is unknown.
    

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                                   304
    
    Objective 15.   Determine the actual state of containment of the
                    waste sites having a potential to contaminate the
                    St. Clair River and its tributaries and monitor
                    groundwater and surface water discharges.  For
                    those sites providing contaminant inputs to the
                    St. Clair River, remedial and enforcement actions
                    should be undertaken.
    
    Objective 16.   Further delineate the impacts, location and
                    migration trends of past and present liquid waste
                    injection into disposal wells, particularly the
                    role of the buried valley in transporting wastes
                    to the St. Clair River.
    
    Chemical and oil spills into the river are a continuing problem
    which require increased diligence.  The feasibility of construct-
    ing spill containment facilities at several of the major indus-
    tries which frequently experience spills should be analyzed on a
    case by case basis.  Improved spill prevention plans and worker
    training as well as better monitoring devices are other methods
    of reducing spills at industrial sites,
    
    Objective 17.   Eliminate chemical and oil spills to the St.
                    Clair River.  Management plans and prevention
                    structures of industries regularly experiencing
                    spill events should be studied and modified, if
                    necessary.
    2.  Habitat Goals
    
    At present, portions of the river support a naturally diverse
    assemblage of aquatic organisms generally indicative of an unim-
    paired habitat, while in other portions of the river contaminant
    discharges have extirpated or reduced the abundance of pollution
    intolerant benthic invertebrates that typically have key trophic
    roles and contribute substantially to the- maintenance of fish
    populations.  Contaminant controls are required to make the entire
    river habitable.
    
    Observable negative impact on benthic communities is apparent for
    about 12 km downstream of Sarnia's industrial waterfront.
    Because most sediments in the river are transient, reduced con-
    taminant discharges should lead to fairly rapid restoration of
    the habitat.   To restore sediments along the 4-5 km industrial
    waterfront, from the Cole Drain to Suncor, may require dredging
    or suction removal.  Some of the sediments in this area are ag-
    gregated with a black tarry substance and show little tendency to
    move down the river.  There are several other smaller localized
    impact zones along the river  (described earlier) which will re-
    quire the same type of discharge control strategies for clean-
    up.
    

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                                   305
    
    Objective 18,   Maintain the existing high quality wildlife
                    habitats throughout the river and delta area.
    
    Objective 19.   Restore a healthy biotic community in the 12 km
                    reach of the St. Clair River along the Sarnia
                    industrial waterfront.
    3.  Uses to be Maintained and Restored
    
    At present, the river is inhabited by a variety of aquatic or-
    ganisms.  Because of contaminant discharges to the river, select-
    ed regions are inhabited by few, if any, species, or species that
    have a high pollution tolerance.  Pollution control improvements
    will make the entire river a suitable habitat for diverse aquatic
    species.
    
    The river is also used extensively for sports fishing.  Fish from
    the river contain a variety of contaminants for which fish con-
    sumption guidelines have not been developed.  The fish obtain
    their chemical body burden from direct uptake from water and
    through consumption of contaminated lower food chain organisms.
    Reduction of discharges to the river would result in a lowering
    of contaminant residues in fish and minimize any potential ad-
    verse impact to fish consumers.   These improvements would un-
    doubtedly lead to more recreational use of the river and down-
    stream lakes for fishing and other tourism activities.
    
    The river is used by several communities as a drinking water
    source.  Not all contaminants found in the St. Clair River have
    drinking water guidelines.  Although drinking water requirements
    are more extensive than water quality guidelines, development of
    such requirements Is needed.  The control of chemical discharges
    to the river would reduce any potential health effects to drink-
    ing water consumers.
    
    033jactive 20.   Ensure that the quality of fish, waterfowl, other
                    wildlife and drinking water is suitable for human
                    consumption by addressing the sources of con-
                    taminants .
    
    Bacteria concentrations increase along the course of the St,
    Clair River from head to mouth.   Areas along the river which are
    used for swimming have been posted, at times, due to bacterial
    contamination.
    
    Objective 21.   Reduce the bacterial contamination of the river
                    to concentrations below public health guidelines
                    for body contact.
    

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                                   306
    
    G. ADEQUACY OF EXISTING PROGRAMS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS
    
    1.   Projection of Ecosystem Quality Based on Present Control
         Programs
    
    Trend Analysis
    
    The pollution situation in the St. Clair .River has improved
    steadily over the years,   Benthic surveys conducted along the
    Canadian shoreline in 1968, 1977, and 1985 showed the seriously
    degraded zone had. decreased from, over 44 km in 1968, to 21 km in
    1977, to 12 km in 1985 (49).  Yearly sportfish analysis by the
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment in the St. Clair System has
    shown that PCS and mercury concentrations in fish have steadily
    declined since the 1970s (36).  Restrictions in use to closed
    systems, then finally banning PCBs, are the reason for the PCB
    declines.  Mercury discharges to the river have declined dramat-
    ically since Dow Chemical  (the major source} changed its chlorine
    production process from mercury electrodes to the diaphragm
    process.
    
    Phenol violation zones (water concentrations above 1 ug/L) along
    the Canadian shoreline near Sarnia's industrial waterfront and
    downstream have decreased significantly in size since 1979
    because of improved wastewater treatment  (78).  Also, the dis-
    charge of hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene have been mod-
    erated by the addition of a carbon treatment system at Dow's
    Scott Road Landfill and by dredging of the Cole Drain (78).
    
    Because of the transitory nature of bottom sediments in the St.
    Clair River, the use of sediment cores to infer historical con-
    taminant trends is difficult and perhaps impossible.  But a
    detailed radiochemical analysis of one sediment core collected
    downstream of Dow showed that some of the material had been there
    for at least 10 years. The uppermost recent layer of this study
    core was more contaminated with HCB and OCS than the deeper older
    layers.   This observation is probably due to the direct contamin-
    ation of the sediment with nonaqueous waste material lost from
    the Dow site (36).  Thus, it is possible that effluent discharges
    of these chemicals have decreased in recent years yet the sedi-
    ments are more contaminated due to this direct contaminant con-
    tact.  Dow has made several modifications to its site and have
    installed a nonaqueous waste recovery system in the river.  The
    amount of material lost to the river has decreased significantly
    since the time of the UGLCC Study  (100).
    
    Superimposed on the large  steady wastewater discharges to the
    river are intermittent discharges which likely cause considerable
    variability in water quality.  Sampling in the river for the
    UGLCC Study was too infrequent to pick up this variability.  But
    some studies showed that the concentrations of several contamin-
    

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                                   307
    
    ants in the river increased after rainfall events (41,42).   Pre-
    cipitation leads to contaminant loadings in urban runoff and
    combined sewer overflows. Also, contaminated stormwater from
    several industrial sites is discharged directly to the river.
    Stormwater at other industrial sites.goes through wastewater
    treatment lagoons prior to discharge.   This can cause overloading
    of low capacity systems.  Several industries in the area have
    increased their lagoon capacities to eliminate this problem
    (100).   Precipitation events also lead to increases in leachate
    discharge from the waste disposal sites in the area.
    
    Pollution control during rainfall events appears to require
    special measures.  Better housekeeping practices by industry
    would lead to a lowering of contaminant concentrations in storm-
    water.   Also, improved stormwater storage and treatment systems,
    and better leachate treatment for landfills would reduce con-
    taminant loadings from, these sources.   The urban pollution load-
    ings could also be reduced by better collection and treatment
    methods.
    
    Another variable source of contaminants to the river is spills.
    Forty-eight spills occurred in 1986 (65) .  Large spills can have
    a severe impact on biota near the source, and even well down-
    stream because of the panelled nature of the flow in the river.
    The regular occurrence of spills to the St. Clair must be stopped
    if the river is to be restored.
    
    The St. Clair River system should respond quickly to reduced
    chemical loadings,  The water residence time from Lake Huron to
    Lake St. Clair is only 21 hours,  Surficial bottom sediments
    remain in the river for less than one year.  There are a few
    pockets of deeper sediments over bottom undulations, and      of
    the deeper sediments along Sarnia's industrial district      to
    be congealed together with black, tarry material,       of these
    sediments may require removal, but it is possible that they will
    gradually disappear through natural weathering processes.
    
    
    Mass Balance Model Scenarios
    
    No mass balance models were constructed for the St. Clair Eiver
    because of insufficient data.  Before useful mass balance models
    can be constructed for the river, more detailed information on
    loading from various point and nonpoint sources, loadings during
    precipitation events, and loadings from ambient water measure-
    ments will be required.  Ontario's Municipal and Industrial
    Strategy for Abatement  (MISA) program should provide sufficient
    information on Ontario industrial and municipal contributions.
    However, data for the U.S. sources and tributary/ambient water
    measurements will still be required to provide sufficient data
    for a mass balance model.
    

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                                   308
    
    Calculations show that the majority of contaminant discharge to
    the river for most chemicals originates from point sources in
    Canada.  Net inputs to the river occur for HCB, OCS, PAHs,
    chloride, mercury, and lead.  Other parameters not on the UGLCCS
    list; benzene,  toluene, perchloroethylene,  and pentachloroben-
    zene, also have sources along the river.  Thus, even though a
    complete      balance model was not produced during the UGLCC
    Study, the study still provided sufficient information to priori-
    tize sources and begin the cleanup task,
    
    
    2.   Assessment of Technical Adequacy of Control Programs
    
    Adequacy, of Present Contro^ Technology
    
    The largest users and dischargers of water on the St. Clair River
    are four coal-fired power plants  (89,170 x 103 m3/d): Detroit
    Edison's St. Clair, Marysville, and Belle River Plants and
    Ontario Hydro's Lambton Generating Station.  For the most part,
    water discharged is once-through cooling water.  The effects of
    this warm-water discharge on the ecosystem was not assessed
    during the UGLCC Study,  The maximum temperature of discharge
    water was within government guidelines most of the time.  The
    cooling water at all facilities is normally chlorinated to pre-
    vent slime buildup on the condenser tubes.  The impact of the
    chlorine residuals on St. Clair River biota should be limited to
    near-field effects, because chlorine will quickly react and dis-
    appear in the river.  The impact of chlorine residuals from the
    power plants was not accessed for the UGLCC Study.
    
    Other contaminant sources from the power plants are storm runoff
    from the coal piles and stormwater losses of fly and bottom ash.
    All plants have settling basins to minimiie the losses of these
    potentially toxic solids.  The suspended solids concentration in
    the effluents was within government guidelines.  Analysis o£ the
    contaminant concentration on these suspended solids has not been
    performed, and       to be needed before a proper assessment on
    their effects on the environment can be made.  Fly ash may con-
    tain chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, and coal fines will
    contain  PAHs.
    
    PCBs were used in capacitors and transformers in the electrical
    generating industry.  Elevated PCS concentrations were found in
    the sediments downstream of Lambton Generating Station.  PCS
    loadings from this facility need further evaluation.
    
    The loadings of contaminants from the power plant effluents
    difficult to evaluate because of the large cooling water dilution
    that occurs.  More detailed studies appear to be needed to assess
    whether  or not the current minimal wastewater  treatment from
    these  facilities  is adequate.
    

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                                   309
    
    The next largest effluent discharges to the river  (1,150 x 1Q-*
    m^/d) are chemical companies.  A list of the major chemical com-
    panies, their locations, and their wastewater treatment methods
    are listed in Table ¥11-21.  Methods of treatment vary from pri-
    mary, physical/chemical treatment to secondary biological treat-
    ment, depending on the nature of the product and wastewater
    generated.
    
    In general, these companies are required to meet annual average
    discharge limits for ammonia, phenols, suspended solids, and oil
    and grease.  All facilities complied with government discharge
    limits.  But, many toxic and persistent contaminants are not
    controlled by government effluent permits.  An excellent example
    of this is Dow chemical which is the largest discharger of hexa-
    chlorobenzene to the St. Clair River.  One of the effluent
    streams at Dow is biologically treated, but the largest HCB load-
    ings are from effluents that go into the river after receiving
    only primary treatment.  Biological treatment is not an appro-
    priate method for HCB.  Decreases in HCB effluent concentrations
    which occur during biological treatment are due to adsorption of
    HCB by the sludge.  However, this simply transforms the phase of
    the material, and therefore does not really eliminate the problem
    from an ecosystem perspective.
    
    Generally, biological treatment does not adequately treat persis-
    tent chemicals.  Even though these companies are putting more
    emphasis and money into environmental control programs  (100),
    much more effort is needed to minimize the formation of persis-
    tent toxic organics and/or to destroy them on-site.  These per-
    sistent chemicals should not be discharged into the environment.
    
    The next largest dischargers  (543 x 103 m'3/d} to the St. Clair
    River are four petroleum refineries; Imperial Oil  (Sarnia),
    Suncor (Sarnia), Polysar (Corunna),  and Shell  (Corunna).  As with
    the chemical companies, these industries are regulated for am-
    monia, phenols, suspended solids, sulphide, pH and oil and
    grease.  All companies are in compliance.  The treatment for all
    companies involves oil separators, dual media filters, and bio-
    logical treatment.  Studies have shown that this treatment se-
    quence efficiently removes not only the regulated parameters, but
    also the aromatic hydrocarbons and PAHs from the wastewater (66) »
    Whether or not these chemically are biodegraded or simply
    transferred to the air or sludge is an important question that
    should be addressed.
    
    Municipal wastewater treatment plants are the next largest dis-
    chargers  (151 x 10-* m^/<3) to the river.  All plants except Sarnia
    and Point Edward have secondary biological treatment plus phos-
    phorus removal.  Sarnia and Point Edward WWTPs have only primary
    treatment plus phosphorus removal.  Upgrading of these two plants
    would reduce the discharge of some contaminants to the river.
    The municipal wastewater treatment plants were significant
    

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                                        TABLE VII-21
    
                    Major industrial facilities on the St. Clair River,
    Company
         ion
       Products
    Treatment
    a J Canada
    
    Canadian Industries Ltd
    
    Dow Chemical Canada Ltd
    Dupont Canada, Inc
    
    Esso Chemicals
    Canada Ltd.
    Ethyl Canada, Inc
    
    
    
    
    Novacor Ltd.
    
    Polvsar Ltd.
    Courtright
    
    Sarnia
    Corunna
    
    
    Sarnia
    
    
    
    
    Corunna
    
    
    
    
    Corunna
    
    Sarnia
    - fertilizer
    
    - polyethylene
    - chlorinated
      hydrocarbons
    - vinyj chloride
    - polystyrene
    - propylene oxide
    
    - polyethylene
      po)yethylene
      polyvinyl chloride
      benzene,toluene,
      xylene
    
      tetraethvl lead
      ethyl chloride
      polyethy1ene
      re sins
      synthetic rubber
      physical/chemical
    
      physical/chemical
    - secondarv biological
      treatment on
      selected streams
    
    - plastic bead skimming
      oil separators/dual
      media filters/carbon
      contactors
    - physical-chemical
      treatment on
      selected process
      streams
    
    — process water recycle
    
    - secondary biological
    - physical/chemical
      for selected streams
                                                                                                o
    b) United States
    
    Diamond Crystal
    Salt Co.
    St.  Clair  - salt
                         - sedimentation
    

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                                   311
    
    sources for some of the persistent contaminants; for example,
    PCBs and trace metals.   Since these materials are not readily
    degradable, efforts must be made to stop their discharge into the
    sanitary sewers at source,
    
    Another significant source of industrial wastewater to the river
    is the Cole Drain  (147 x 10^ m^/d).  In dry weather, the flow in
    this open municipal ditch is largely industrial  (65).  Major
    discharges to the drain were: leachates from disposal sites along
    Scott Road owned by Polysar, Dow, Fiberglas, Imperial Oil, and
    the City of Sarnia (sewage sludge); Canadian National Railway
    yard runoff; Dome Petroleum; Esso Chemical  (stormwater); Cabot
    Carbon, Fiberglas, and Polysar (stormwater).  Dow Chemical has
    carbon treatment on the Scott Road landfill leachate, but this
    seems to be inadequate to prevent the discharge of HCB, DCS, and
    other persistent chlorinated organics to the drain.  The Cole
    Drain is also a significant source of PAHs, cyanide, and oil and
    grease.  Individual discharges to the ditch will need to be quan-
    tified before the source of these chemicals can be traced.  It is
    apparent that much better treatment and control of effluents
    discharged to the ditch will be required.
    
    Urban runoff has also been shown to be a significant source for
    some contaminants  (82) .  At present, this water is completely
    untreated.  Agricultural nonpoint sources are the most signifi-
    cant contributor of phosphorus to the St. Clair River  (84,85).
    Improved tillage practices and reduced use of unnecessary
    commercial fertilizers would be the only way to reduce these
    inputs.  Such a program would require extensive education of
    farmers in modern agricultural techniques.
    
    Several waste disposal sites could potentially seriously impact
    the St. Clair River.  These sites have been ranked by the Non-
    point Source Workgroup (88).  Clay or synthetic liners, leachate
    collection systems, and monitoring well networks have not been
    required for most of the sites.  For most sites, there is minimal
    or no treatment of waste or leachate.
    3.  Assessment of Regulatory Adequacy
    
    Major industrial dischargers in the Sarnia area are subject to
    discharge limits specified in Certificates of Approval, Control
    Orders or the Ontario Industrial Effluent Guidelines.  The in-
    dustries are required to self-monitor on a regular basis and
    supply the OMQE with the data.  It is a violation of the Environ-
    mental Protection Act to "knowingly give -false information".  The
    Ministry collects audit samples to check the validity of the
    self-monitoring data.  Sampling visits are frequently arranged in
    advance.  This could be a weakness in the system because surprise
    visits would be more effective.
    

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                                   312
    
    The companies discharging to the St. Clair River are largely in
    compliance with the regulations.  Since problems in the river
    still persist, this would seem to indicate that the laws and
    regulations are insufficient to provide environmental protection,
    If tougher regulations came into force, more environmental polic-
    ing will likely be required.  More frequent auditing of the
    self-monitoring data will also be necessary.
    

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                                   313
    
    H.  RECOMMENDATIONS
    
    The UGLCC Study for the St. Clair River has revealed several
    problems which need to be addressed.  Point source discharges,
    particularly in Sarnia's Chemical Valley, need to be reduced,
    These sources represent the largest contributors of many con-
    taminants to the system, so remedial measures here will provide
    cost effective improvements in river quality.  In addition, tri-
    butary contributions and urban runoff appear to be supplying
    significant loadings of certain contaminants.  Sources of these
    contaminants need to be identified and addressed.
    
    Comparison of river media concentrations to guidelines is a quick
    way of identifying areas of probable environmental impact or
    impairment.  However, the ecosystem approach may give a better
    indication of contaminant impacts on the system as a whole,  A
    multi-media perspective must be developed so that the overall
    impact on the system is assessed.
    
    The following recommendations are designed to address the objec-
    tives identified in Section F.  As these recommendations are
    implemented, monitoring programs should be undertaken to ensure
    the objectives are being met.
    
    
    A. Industrial and Municipal Point Source Remedial Recommendations
    
    1.  - Ontario and Michigan should incorporate the Great Lakes
         Water Quality Agreement's goal of the virtual elimination of
         all persistent toxic substances into their respective regu-
         latory programs.
    
    2.   Polysar Sarnia should take action to significantly reduce
         benzene and phenols in the American Petroleum Institute
         (API) stereo separator effluent.  The operation of the Biox
         treatment system should be optimized to attain the Ontario
         Industrial Effluent Objectives for total phenols and
         ammonia-nitrogen.  Effluent requirements (in both concentra-
         tion and mass loading form) should be instated for PAHs and
         HCB at the most stringent levels attainable through the use
         of the best available technology.
    
    3.   Dow Chemical should significantly reduce its discharge of
         organic chemicals to the river.  The facility was a major
         contributor of 5 of the 7 organic groups studied.  It is
         noted that current self-monitoring data is being made pub-
         licly available to demonstrate the effect of recent remedial
         efforts at this facility.  Many improvements in operation
         have been implemented at Dow Chemical since the time of the
         UGLCCS survey.  Self-monitoring data and other sampling
         results should be reviewed to determine if additional rem-
         edial actions are needed.
    

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                                   314
    4.   The sources of ongoing mercury discharges from Dow chemical
         and Ethyl Canada should be identified and eliminated,
    
    5.   Ethyl Canada should improve the operation of its treatment
         plant to reduce concentrations of tetra ethyl lead to meet
         the GLWQA specific objective and the PWQO of 25 ug/L.  In
         addition, enforceable mass loading limitations for lead
         should be instated at this facility.  Volatiles, especially
         chloroethane, should also be significantly reduced in the
         effluent.
    
    6.   Polysar Corunna should reduce the concentration of chromium
         and zinc in the final effluent.  This facility should con-
         sider substituting less persistent additives in the recycle
         cooling water system,
    
    7.   Effluent concentrations for chloride were generally below
         drinking water objectives, but the total point source load-
         ing to the system     very large (356 tonnes/day),  Most was
         from facilities in the Sarnia area.  The extreme loadings
         may be affecting aquatic organisms downstream of these faci-
         lities.  Chloride concentration and loading limitations
         should be considered for those facilities discharging sig-
         nificant amounts of chlorides,
    
    8,   All potential sources of releases of heat exchanger fluids
         should be identified and controlled.
    
    9,   The Sarnia WWTP should be expanded and upgraded to secondary
         biological treatment with phosphorus removal.  In conjunc-
         tion with the upgrading, the Point Edward WWTP  (a primary
         plant) should be considered for use as a pretreatment facil-
         ity which would discharge to the Sarnia Plant,  The loading
         of ammonia-nitrogen, total phenols, heavy metals, and or-
         ganics to the St. Clair River would be significantly reduced
         by this action.
    
    10.  American Tape in Marysville should be evaluated to ensure
         compliance with their KPDES permit, Michigan Water Quality
         Standards and BAT requirements for toluene and xylene in its
         discharge.
    
    11,  The City of Marysville should be evaluated to ensure com-
         pliance with their NPDES permit and Michigan Water Quality
         Standards for toluene in its discharge,
    
    12,  The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit
         for the Marine City WWTP should be evaluated to ensure com-
         pliance with Michigan Water Quality Standards for cyanide.
         The pretreatment program should be reviewed to ensure that
         cyanide is adequately regulated.  Acute and chronic bio-
    

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                                   315
    
         assays for cyanide may be required at this facility.
    
    13.   A survey should be conducted at the St.  Clair County-Algonac
         WWTP to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment system.  An
         ammonia-nitrogen effluent limitation should be considered
         for the facility.   Nitrogen loading to the river and Lake
         St. Clair may be reduced by these actions.
    
    14.   The City of St. Clair WWTP should be resurveyed to ensure
         that the expanded plant is operating effectively.
    
    15.   A study of industrial contributors to the Port Huron WWTP
         should be undertaken to identify the source or sources of
         CN- and PCBs to this facility.   Pretreatment requirements
         for all industrial contributors should be examined, and
         modified if needed.  Effluent requirements for CN- and PCBs
         should be considered for inclusion in the facility's NPDES
         permit.
    
    16.   Biomonitoring studies should be conducted at the major
         dischargers to determine whole  effluent toxicity at these
         facilities.  This study evaluated the point sources only on
         a parameter-by-parameter basis, with no attempt made to
         determine the impact of any additive or synergistic effects
         the parameters may exhibit.
    
    B.  Nonpoint Source Remedial Recommendations
    
    17.   Sources of PAHs and total cyanide to the Cole Drain,  Sarnia,
         should be identified.  If the sources are exceeding applic-
         able effluent guidelines, they  should be remediated.
    
    18.   The loadings via surface water  runof.f and groundwater dis-
         charge from landfills in the Scott Road area to the Cole
         Drain need to be determined and treated as necessary.
                       w
    19.   Licensing requirements for sludge disposal facilities should
         ensure that surface water and groundwater are properly moni-
         tored and treated.
    
    20.   A and B Waste Disposal, Hoover  Chemical Reeves Company, and
         Wills St. Dump Site were all scored under the Superfund
         Hazard Ranking System  (MRS) apparently without consideration
         of groundwater quality information.  The State of Michigan
         should determine,  based upon USGS chemistry information, the
         State priority for action at each site.   Development of more
         complete groundwater information on-site would allow the
         State the options of pursuing Federal action under Superfund
         by rescoring the site under the new HRS  (when it is approv-
         ed) , or pursuing remediation under Act 307 (MERA).  Further-
         more, the facilities needs for RCRA permitting need to be
         assessed, or reassessed.
    

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                                   316
    
    21.   The proximity of Eltra Corp. Prestolite to the St. Clair
         River,  and the nature of wastes on site call for careful
         evaluation of impacts on groundwater and on the St. Clair
         River prior to facility closure under RCRA authorities.  In
         the event that a satisfactory evaluation of groundwater
         contamination and runoff impacts upon the St. Clair River
         are not secured, a Site Investigation (SI) under Superfund
         authorities should be undertaken.  The SI should include
         assessment of both groundwater and surface runoff impacts
         upon the St. Clair River.
    
    22.   The State of Michigan needs to restrict access of dumpers to
         Winchester Landfill.  The State's development of groundwater
         information for this site would assist in scoring by the
         HRS.
    
    23.   Michigan and Ontario municipal combined sewer overflows
         should be intensively surveyed to determine their contri-
         bution of pollutant loadings to the river.  In the long term
         (due to the enormous cost), combined sewers in all munici-
         palities should be eliminated.  In the interim, the munici-
         palities should institute in-system controls to minimize the
         frequency and volume of overflows.
    
    24.   The Michigan Pollution Emergency Alerting System and spill
         reports from the Ontario Spills Action Centre should be
         improved so that all information on recovery, volume (if
         known) ,  and final resolution are fed bacJc to the central
         reporting system to complete each report for inventory pur-
         poses .
    
    25.   Spill management programs at all facilities should be re-
         viewed and enhanced to reduce the frequency and magnitude of
         spills to the St. Clair River with the goal of eventually
         eliminating all spills.
                                              «*
    
    26.   Aggressive educational programs on the use of conservation
         tillage techniques and pesticide, fertilizer, and manure
         application techniques should be provided to farmers to
         reduce rural runoff contaminant contributions.  Stricter
         legislation to control such application should be developed
         and enforced.
    
    C.  Surveys,  Research and Development
    
    27.   Water quality guidance needs to be developed binationally
         for OCS, individual or total PAHs, hexachloroethane and
         chlorides.  In addition, Canada needs to develop guidance
         for hexachlorobutadiene, and the U.S. needs water quality
         guidance for hexachlorobenzene, phosphorus and pentachloro-
         benzene.  The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement needs to
         develop specific objectives for all of these parameters.
    

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                                   317
    
         Fish consumption and sediment guidance are needed for HCB,
         OCS, PAHs,  alkyl lead,  and other chemicals found to be of
         concern in this study.
    
    28.  More data are needed to assess the impact of PAHs on the St.
         Clair River.  Ambient water concentrations, and point and
         nonpoint source loadings should be measured.  Monitoring
         should be detailed enough to allow for the finger printing
         of sources.
    
    29.  The importance of contaminant loadings during rainfall
         events needs to be evaluated.
    
    30.  The loadings of all chemicals with high bioconcentration and
         bioaccumulation potential should be reduced to minimize
         contaminant body burdens in resident and spawning fish.
    
    31.  Assess the significance of mercury contamination to biota
         from sediments relative to ongoing discharges and develop
         remedial actions as necessary.
    
    32.  Industrial and municipal facilities discharging to St. Clair
         River tributaries should be surveyed to determine their
         contribution of contaminants to the St. Clair River.  In
         particular, contaminant loadings from Talfourd Creek in
         Ontario and the Black River in Michigan should be deter-
         mined.
    
    33.  The potential PCS source in the vicinity of the Lambton
         Generating Station should be investigated and quantified.
    
    34.  The loadings and sources of PCBs, PAHs, oil and grease,
         lead, ammonia, and phosphorus from the unnamed creek in
         Michigan across from the Lambton Generating Station should
         be determined and controlled to ensure compliance with
         Michigan Water Quality Standards.
    
    35.  The lead source to the Black River in Michigan should be
         located and controlled.
    
    36.  Sources of bacterial contamination to the river should be
         traced and eliminated.
    
    37.  A waterfowl consumption advisory should be considered by
         Ontario and Michigan for the St. Clair River.
    
    38.  A study on the magnitude of contaminant input to the St.
         Clair River from Michigan urban runoff should be undertaken,
         and an additional, more refined study on Canadian urban
         runoff should also be performed.  Management control options
         for urban  runoff should be developed.
    

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                                   318
    
    39.   Contamination from waste disposal sites,  identified as high.
         priority by the Nonpoint Source Workgroup (88),  need to be
         further investigated with regard to contaminant pathways,
         including surface water runoff and groundwater seepage, and
         environmental impacts.
    
    40.   Continued monitoring of water levels and water quality in
         the freshwater aquifer in the Sarnia area is required.
    
    41.   The potential for transboundary migration and contamination
         of the St. Glair River and/or the fresh water aquifer in the
         Sarnia area from industrial waste in. the 74 m and 123 m
         depth limestone layers of the Hamilton Group should be in-
         vestigated.  Of particular concern, is the 74 m depth hori-
         zon which likely flows into the fresh water aquifer in the
         deeper sections of the bedrock valley.
    
    42.   To understand the fate of the industrial waste disposed to
         the Detroit River Group, additional deep boreholes to the
         disposal formation are required to quantify the current
         directions and rates of groundwater movement,
    
    43.   Michigan should co-operate with Ontario in the deep well
         studies.  A number of deep wells are needed in St. Clair
         County to supplement the information from the Ontario
         studies.  If evidence of impacts upon Michigan groundwater
         is developed, a variety of authorities, including Superfund,
         may be applicable for remediation of identified problems.
    
    44.   The potential biological consequences of increased chloride
         concentrations in the St. Clair River and downstream should
         be examined.
    
    45.   Better methods for analysis of PCBs in the St. Clair River
         need to be undertaken.
    
    46.   Studies on the bioavailability of particle-bound contamin-
         ants , and contaminant desorption from suspended and bottom
         sediments are required to make a better assessment of the
         impact of in-place pollutants.
    
    47.   Studies on the effects of multicontaminant exposure to
         aquatic life.
    
    48.   Studies to better understand the fate and transport of sedi-
         ment-borne contaminants are needed.  These studies should
         include profiling the age and contamination of sediments in
         St. Clair River and delta depositional areas.
    

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                                   319
    
    I.  LONG TERM
    
    1.  Purposes for Monitoring and Relationships Between UGLCCS and
        Other Monitoring Programs.
    
    A presentation of the purposes for monitoring and surveillance
    activities is included under Annex 11 of the 1978 GLWQA, and a
    discussion of considerations for the design of a long term mon-
    itoring program can be found in Chapter 7 of the Report of the
    Niagara River Toxics Committee (1984).   Because the focus of the
    UGLCC Study was toward remedial actions to alleviate impaired
    uses of the Connecting channels System, long term monitoring
    recommendations will likewise focus on the evaluation of trends
    in environmental quality in order to        the effectiveness of
    remedial actions.  In general, post-UGLCCS monitoring should be
    sufficient to 1) detect system-wide trends in conditions noted by
    the OGLCCS, and 2) detect changes in ambient conditions which
    have resulted from specific remedial actions.  Monitoring
    programs should be designed to specifically detect the changes
    intended by the remedial actions so as to ensure relevance in
    both temporal and spatial scales.
    
    Two major programs sponsored by the IJC also contain plans for
    long term monitoring; the Great Lakes International Surveillance
    Plan (GLISP) and the Areas of Concern Remedial Action Plans (AoC-
    RAPs),   The GLISP for the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels
    is presently incomplete, pending results of the UGLCC Study, but
    it is expected to provide monitoring and surveillance guidance to
    U.S. and Canadian agencies responsible for implementing the pro-
    visions of the WQA that Include general surveillance and research
    needs as well as monitoring for results of remedial actions.
    
    The St. Clair River is     of the AoCs, and a RAP is being devel-
    oped jointly by Michigan and Ontario.  The RAP will present
    details of uses impaired, sources of contaminants, specific reme-
    dial actions, schedules for implementation, resources committed
    by Michigan and Ontario to the project, target clean-up levels,
    and monitoring requirements.  Results     recommendations coming
    from the UGLCC Study will be incorporated extensively into the
    RAP, which will then be the document that influences State and
    Provincial programs in the St. Clair River.  The recommenda-
    tions for long term monitoring that are presented below are in-
    tended for consideration and incorporation into either or both
    the GLISP and RAP for the St. Clair River,
    
    
    2. System Monitoring for Contaminants
    
    Water
    
    Knowledge of the concentrations of the principal contaminants in
    the water of the St. Clair River should be used to indicate
    

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                                   320
    
    general exposure levels for the biota, to identify changes and
    trends over time in the concentration levels,  and to be used for
    general assessment of contaminant impacts.  The parameters to be
    monitored include HCB, OCS,  total phenols, cyanide, mercury,
    lead, total volatiles and chlorides. Monitoring stations should
    be located where elevated concentrations of the contaminants are
    known or predicted from dispersion models.  Suggested locations
    include the head of the St.  Clair River and at Port Lambton,
    particularly on the Canadian side.  Sampling frequency should be
    influenced by the variability in contaminant sources.  Spring
    high flow conditions and late summer low flow conditions would be
    expected to bracket the normal seasonal variability in flow that
    could influence measured contaminant concentrations.
    
    A mass balance approach to contaminant monitoring will help to
    identify any changes in the contaminant mass over time, and it
    will provide the basis for targeting future remedial actions by
    providing a comparison of the magnitude of the sources.  A mass
    balance analysis should be conducted approximately once every
    five years, assuming that some effective remedial action has been
    implemented against one or more sources such that the total load-
    ings of contaminants, or the relative contribution of the sources
    to the loading, has changed.  The sources to be measured should
    include:
    
    1)   Head and mouth transects. The number and location of sta-
         tions should relate to measured and predicted plume dis-
         tributions.  Suggested locations include the head of the St.
         Clair River and at Port Lambton.  The Port Lambton transect
         will be consistent with past dispersion measurements and
         modeling work, and will help delineate contaminant loading
         into Lake St. Clair. Both dissolved and particulate frac-
         tions should be analyzed.  The quantity of suspended
         sediment flux should also be measured.
    
    2)   Municipal and industrial point sources.  During the
         survey, the sampling must be frequent enough to ac-
         curately reflect the likely loading fluctuations from
         the major point sources.  The sources include the major
         outfalls of Sarnia WWTP, Cole Drain, Polysar Sarnia,
         Polysar Corunna, Dow Chemical, suncor, Ethyl Canada,
         CIL Inc., Port Edward WWTP, and Marine City WWTP.
    
    3)   Tributaries.  Efforts should be focused on seasonal and
         storm event loadings of contaminants to the St. Clair
         River from Talfourd creek and the Belle, Pine and Black
         Rivers.  A channel near Fawn Island also diverts some
         of the Sydenham River drainage to the St. Clair River
         during severe spring runoff events.  Tributary mouth
         stations should be sampled and analyzed for both dis-
         solved and sediment-associated contaminant loadings.
    

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    4}   CSOs and Urban Runoff,  To provide an estimate of con-
         taminant mass loadings expected during storm events,
         occasional studies on selected urban drainage areas
         should be conducted.  Some estimates have been      for
         Sarnia, Ontario,  similar estimates should be      for
         other urban areas along the river,
    
    5)   Groundwater inflow.  The quantity and quality of poten-
         tial contaminant releases from waste disposal sites
         adjacent to the St. Clair River or its tributaries
         should be determined.  Permits should require ground-
         water monitoring, an assessment of surface water runoff
         and determination of overall loadings to surface water.
         Characterize the distribution, composition and movement
         of deep well injected waste.  Evaluate the impacts of
         Michigan and Ontario injection pressure regimes on the
         movement of the waste.
    
    6)   Sediment transport.  Preliminary studies indicate that
         less than 1% of the contaminants in the St. Clair River
         are transported by bed-load sediments movement.  How-
         ever, the quantity of contaminants being desorbed from
         the sediments should be determined in order to assess
         loadings from these in-place polluted sediments.
    
    7)   Atmospheric deposition.  Direct atmospheric deposition
         Of contaminants to the St. Clair River is expected to
         be minor.  Deposition to the drainage basin and sub-
         sequent runoff into the river or its tributaries,
         however, could be an important source for      con-
         taminants.  Estimates of contaminant mass in both wet
         and dry deposition to the drainage basin should be
         when unidentified non-point sources are found to be a
         major contributor of any o£ the contaminants of
         interest.
    Sediments^
    
    Monitoring of sediments for concentrations of contaminants should
    be conducted periodically throughout the St. Clair River in order
    to assess both the trends in surficial contaminant concentrations
    and the movement of sediment-associated contaminants within the
    River,      grid used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service dur-
    ing the 1985 survey would be appropriate for consistency in sam-
    pling sites and sediment composition.  An analysis of sediment
    chemistry including bulk chemistry, organic and inorganic con-
    taminants ,  and particle size distribution should be conducted
    every 5 years, in conjunction with a biota survey  {see "habitat
    monitoring" below),  In the St. Clair River, particular attention
    should be given to sediment concentrations of chlorinated or-
    ganics (PCBs, HCB, OCS, HCBD),  benzene, phenols, oil and grease,
    

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                                   322
    
    and heavy metals, including mercury.
    
    Because the grid stations are distributed throughout the river
    reach and are associated with appropriate habitat for a sensitive
    benthic invertebrate (Hexagenia),  the periodic survey will allow
    assessment of 1) contaminant concentrations in the river sedi-
    ments throughout the river reach,  2) relative movement of the
    contaminants within the river sediments between surveys, and 3)
    correlation of contaminant concentrations with benthic blotic
    communities,
    
    The sediments at any stations established at the mouths of tribu-
    taries to the St. Glair Elver should be monitored for organic and
    inorganic contaminants on an annual or biannual basis when sig-
    nificant remedial actions are implemented within the watershed of
    the tributary.  In order to trigger the more frequent sediment
    monitoring program, the remedial actions should be expected to
    measurably reduce loadings of     or more particular contaminants
    via the tributary,
    
    
    Biota
    
    Long term monitoring of concentrations of contaminants in biota
    will provide a time series useful to track the bioavailability of
    contaminants to selected representative organisms,  Three long
    term monitoring programs are already in place in the Great Lakes
    basin and should be expanded into the St. Clalr River.
    
        i) Annual or Bi-Annual Monitoring of Sport Pish,
    
    This program should focus especially on PCBs, mercury and/or
    other contaminants  (e.g. dioxins and dibenzofurans) that are
    considered to be known or suspected health hazards.  Because many
    of the fish species in the river are transitory, efforts should
    be      to identify     sample those species that have an ex-
    tended residence time in the river as well as those that are most
    sought by anglers.  The monitoring should be continued regardless
    of the differences that may be observed between acceptable con-
    centrations or action levels that may be established by govern-
    ment agencies and the measured contaminant concentrations in the
    fish flesh.  As a link between human health concerns and integr-
    ated results of remedial programs to reduce contaminants in the
    UGLCC System, this program is critically important.
    
        ii) Spottail Shiner Monitoring Program.
    
    This program is designed to identify source areas  for bioavail-
    able contaminants.  In locations where spottail shiners or other
    young-of-the-year  fish contain elevated  levels of  contaminants,
    additional studies  should be conducted to identify  the  sources of
    the contaminants.   Some upstream studies in tributaries may be
    

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                                   323
    
    required.  Spottails should also be employed to confirm that
    remedial actions upstream to a previous survey have been effec-
    tive in removing or reducing the loading of one or more contamin-
    ants.
    
        iii) Caged Clams Contaminants Monitoring.
    
    Caged clams should continue to be used at regular time intervals,
    perhaps in conjunction with spottail shiners, to monitor in-
    tegrated results of remedial actions to reduce contaminant load-
    ings to the water.  Clams may be located at tributary mouths and
    downstream of suspected source areas.  Repeated assays from the
    same locations should confirm results of remedial actions.
    3.  Sources Monitoring for Results of Specific Remedial Actions
    
    Remedial actions intended to reduce concentrations and/or load-
    ings of contaminants from specific point sources generally re-
    quire monitoring for compliance with the imposed criteria or
    standards.  The monitoring may be conducted by the facility or by
    the regulating agency, whichever is applicable, but attention
    must be given to the sampling schedule and analytical methodology
    such that mass loadings of the contaminants can be estimated, as
    well as concentrations in the sampled medium.  Monitoring of the
    "nearfield" environment, i.e., close downstream in the effluent
    mixing zone, should be conducted regularly to document reductions
    in contaminant levels in the appropriate media and to document
    the recovery of impaired ecosystem processes and biotic com-
    munities .   Such monitoring may be required for a "long time", but
    over a restricted areal extent, depending on the severity of the
    impact and the degree of reduction of contaminant loading that is
    achieved.
    
    For the St. Clair River, eleven actions were recommended that
    would affect specific sources of contaminants, and that would
    require site specific monitoring for compliance or other effects
    of the action at the following locations: Marine City WWTP
     (cyanide concentration), St. Clair County-Algonac WWTP (ammonia-
    nitrogen limits),  American Tape in Marysville  (xylene and
    toluene),  City of Marysville WWTP (toluene), Sarnia WWTP
     {phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, total phenols, heavy metals and
    organics), Cole Drain, Sarnia  (PAHs, cyanide, oil and grease),
    Polysar Sarnia  (benzene, phenols), Dow Chemical (several organic
    chemicals), Ethyl Canada (lead, volatile organics, mercury, and
    chloroethane), and Polysar Corunna  {chromium and 2inc).
    
    Other recommendations for specific contaminant sources involve an
    assessment of the present conditions or a study to quantify con-
    centrations or loadings: survey the St. Clair County-Algonac WWTP
    and the City of St. Clair WWTP to document the efficiency of the
    treatment system,  intensively  survey CSOs in Michigan and Ontario
    

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                                   324
    
    for determining the contribution of pollutant loadings to the
    River,  establish biomonitoring studies at a major point source
    contributors,  assess impact of PAHs on St. Clair River and es-
    timate their loadings,  measure contaminant loadings during rain-
    fall events, obtain better estimates of the mercury losses from
    the Dow site,  quantify loadings of contaminants from urban non-
    point sources,  evaluate contamination from waste disposal sites,
    etc.  Each of these items requires a specific program of data
    collection and analysis.  Additional needs for longer term monit-
    oring may be identified as a result of these studies.
    
    
    4,  Habitat Monitoring
    
    Habitat monitoring should be conducted to detect and describe
    changes in the ecological characteristics of the St. Clair River
    through periodic analysis of key ecosystem elements.  The
    following items are recommended:
    
    a)   The abundance and distribution of the mayfly Hexagenia
         should be determined every five years.  The grid used
         by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service during the 1985
         survey would be appropriate for consistency in sampling
         sites each survey.  An analysis of sediment chemistry,
         including bulk chemistry, organic and inorganic con-
         taminants, and particle-size distribution, should be
         conducted for samples taken concurrently with the Hexa-
         genia survey.  These data will provide information on
         the quality of the benthic habitat for a common pollu-
         tion-sensitive organism that would serve as an indica-
         tor species of environmental quality.
    
    b)   Quantification of the extent of wetlands along the St.
         Clair River should be conducted every five years, in
         conjunction with the Hexagenia survey.  Aerial photog-
         raphy or other remote sensing means would be appro-
         priate to discern both emergent and submergent macro-
         phyte beds that are important as nursery areas for
         larval fish and other wildlife.  Verification of areal
         data should be conducted by inspection of selected
         transects for plant species identification and abun-
         dances.  Changes in wetland areas should be correlated
         with fluctuating water levels and other natural docu-
         mentable influences so that long term alterations in
         wetlands can be tracked and causes identified.
    

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                                   325
    
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                                   329
    
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                                   331
    
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            U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency.   Great Lakes
            National Program Office, Chicago.
    
    70.      Edwards, C.J.,  P.L. Hudson,  W.G.  Duffy, S.J. Nepszy, C.D.
            McNabb,  R.C.  Haas, C.R.  Listen,  B.  Manny,  and W.D. Busch.
            1988. Hydrological, morphemetrical,  and biological
            characteristics of the connecting rivers of the
            international Great Lakes: A review.  Can.  J. Aquat. Sci.
            In press.
    
    71.      Tuchman, M.L. 1982.  Effects of conservative ions on
            algal assemblages.  Doctoral dissertation.  The
            University of Michigan,  School of Natural Resources.
    
    72.      Sdwardson, D.C. 1988. Ontario Ministry of the
            Environment,  Sarnia Office,  private* Communication.
    
    73.      Kaiser,  K.L.S., and M.E. Comba,  1986.   Volatile
            hydrocarbon contaminant survey of the St.  Clair River.
            Water Poll. Res. J. Canada.  21:323-331.
    
    74.      Comba, M.S.,  and K.L.E.  Kaiser.  1987.   Benzene and
            toluene levels in the upper St.  Clair River.  Water Poll.
            Res.  J.  Canada, 22: 468-473.
    
    75.      Oliver,  B.G., and A.J. Niimi. 1983.   Bioconcentration of
            chlorobenzenes from water by rainbow trout: Correlations
            with partition coefficients and environmental residues.
            Environ. Sci. Technol. 17:287-291.
    
    76.      Thomas,  R.L., and A. Mudroch. 1979.   Small craft harbours
            - sediment survey Lakes Ontario,  Erie and Lake St. Clair,
            1978. Report to Small Craft Harbours Ontario Region.
    
    77.      Oliver,  B.C., and K.D. Nicol, 1988.  Analysis of
            polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)  in St. Clair River sedi-
            ments by capillary GC/SCD and GC/MS:  Determination of
            potential SCD interferences.  Report to Ontario Ministry
            of the Environment by ELI ECO Laboratories, Inc.
            Typescript, pp.17.
    
    78.      Dochstader, J.M. 1984.  Remedial measures for the control
            of industrial discharges to the St.  Clair River.
            presented at 27th Conference on Great Lakes Research, St.
            Catherines, Ontario  (May, 1984) .
    

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    79.     Chan,  C.H.,  and J. Kohli. 1986.  A report on the St.
            Clair River trace contaminants survey 1985.  Water
            Quality Branch, Ontario Region, Burlington.
    
    80,     Derecki,  J.A.  1985.  Effect of channel changes in the St.
            Clair River during the present century.  J. Great Lakes
            Res. 11:201- 207,
    
    81.     Michigan Department of Natural Resources.  Undated. Un-
            titled. Study report related to stormwater discharges.
            Typescript.  Unpaginated.
    
    82.     Marsalek, J. ,  and H.Y.F. Ng. 1987. Contaminants in urban
            runoff in the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels area.
            Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute.
            NWRI #87-112.  pp.54 plus appendices.
    
    83.     U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,  1977. Urban stormwater
            runoff: STORM generalized computer program 723-58-L 2520.
            Davis, California.
    
    84.     Wall, G.J.,  E.A. Pringle, and W.T. Dickinson. 1987a.
            Nonpoint Source Workgroup agricultural sources of
            pollution, St. Clair River Land Resource Research centre,
            Guelph, Ontario. Typescript, pp.12  (unpaginated),
    
    85.     Wall, G.J.,  E.A. Pringle, and W.T, Dickinson. 1987b.
            Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study.  Nonpoint
            Source Workgroup agricultural  pollution sources, St.
            Clair River — Canada.  Land Resource Research Centre,
            Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Guelph, Ontario.
            pp.27 plus appendices.
    
    86.     McCorguodale, J.A., K.  Ibrahim, and E.M. Yuen.  1986b.
            Final report on transport and  fate modeling of
            hexachlorobenzene  (HCB) in the St. Clair River to the
            Ontario Ministry of the Environment, The Industrial
            Research Institute of the University of Windsor.
            Typescript, pp. 46.
    
    87.     International Joint Commission. 1987.  Summary report of
            the workshop on Great Lakes atmospheric deposition.
            Windsor, Ontario, pp.41.
    
    88.     Nonpoint Source Workgroup.  1988.  Upper Great Lakes Con-
            necting Channel Study.  Waste  disposal sites and poten-
            tial groundwater  contamination, St. Clair  River, pp.72.
    
    89.     United States  Environmental Protection Agency.  1985. A
            standardized  system for evaluating  groundwater  pollution
            potential using hydrogeologic  settings.  Cooperative
            agreement CR-  810715-01, U.S.EPA  and Natural Water  Well
    

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                                   333
    
            Association,  pp.163.
    
    90.     Intera Technologies Ltd. 1989.  Hydrogeologic study of
            the fresh water aquifer and deep geologic formations
            Sarnia,  Ontario.   Kept to OMOE, Detroit/St. clair/St,
            Marys Rivers  Proj.,  Sarnia, Ont., 3 vol.
    
    91.     Nettleton, P., and Y.S. Hamdy. 1988.  St. Clair River
            spill manual. Water Resources Branch, Ontario Ministry of
            the Environment.  ISBN-Q-7729-2670-Q.
    
    92.     Hamdy, Y.S. and J.D. Kinkead. 1979.  Waste dispersion in
            the St.  Clair River.  Ontario Ministry of the
            Environment,  Water Resources Branch, Great Lakes Unit,
            Typescript, pp.27.
    
    93.     Akhtar,  W. and G.P.  Mathur. 1974.  Models for dispersion
            of soluable wastes in the St. Clair River.  Fourth Annual
            Environmental Engineering and Science Conference,
            Louisville, Kentucky.
    
    94.     McCorquodale, J.A.  and J.K. Bewtra. 1982a,  Users guide
            to computer programme for the convection - dispersion and
            decay of a vertically mixed pollutant with multiple out-
            falls.  In: Simulation of Phenol concentrations in the
            St, Clair River.   A report to the Ontario Ministry of the
            Environment.   The Industrial Research Institute of the
            University of Windsor, pp. 8- 15.
    
    95.     McCorquodale, J.A.,  and J.K. Bewtra. 1982b.  Simulation
            of phenol concentrations in the St. Clair River.  A
            report to the Water Resources Branch of the Ontario Mini-
            stry of the Environment; Toronto Ontario.  The Industrial
            Research Institute of the University of Windsor.
            Typescript, pp. 1-7.
    
    96.     Nettleton, P. 1988.   St. Clair River modeling and mass
            balance considerations.  Great Lakes Section; Water
            Resources Branch; Ontario Ministry  of Environment.
            Typescript. Unpaginated.
    
    97.     Ambrose, R.B., S.I.  Hill, and L.A.  Mulkey. 1983.  Users
            manual for the chemical transport and fate model
            TOXIWASP.  U.S.EPA., ORD, Environmental Research
            Laboratory, Athens,  Georgia.
    
    98.     Derecki, J.A., L.L. Makuch, J.R. Brook,   1988. Unsteady
            flow model of entire St. Clair River.  Typescript.
            Unpaginated.
    
    99,     Muldoon, P.,  and M. Valiante.  1988.  Zero Discharge.  A
            strategy for  the regulation of toxic substances  in the
    

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            Great Lakes ecosystem.   Canadian Environmental Law
            Research Foundation Report,  pp.  79.
    
    100.     Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment
            Canada. 1988.  Implementation of recommendations of the
            1986 St. Clair River pollution investigation report.
            Report pp.  30  ISBN 0- 7729-3531-9.
    
    101.     Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers.
            1987, Canadian water quality guidelines. Water Quality
            Branch, Environment Canada,  Ottawa,  Canada.
    
    102.     World Health Organization. 1984.  Guidelines for drinking
            water quality: Vol.1, Recommendations.  Geneva.
    
    103.     Oliver, E.G.,  and A.J.  Niimi. 1985.   Bioconeentration
            factors of some halogenated organics for rainbow trout:
            Limitations in their use for prediction of environmental
            residues.  Environ. Sci. Techno!.  19:842-849.
    

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                               CHAPTER VIII
                              LAKE  ST.  GLAIR
    A. STATUS OP THE ECOSYSTEM
    
    1, Ecological Profile
    
    Watershed Characteristics
    
    The St, Clair system including the St. Clair River and Lake St.
    Clair is a significant waterway economically, biologically and
    physically.  Together with the Detroit River, the system forms
    the connecting channel between Lake Huron and Lake Erie,
    
    Located on the international boundary between the United States
    and. Canada, Lake St. Clair borders Lambton, Kent and Essex
    counties in Ontario, and Macomb and Wayne counties in Michigan.
    It has a shoreline length of approximately 272 km plus the delta
    shoreline area.  It possesses a maximum natural depth of 6,5 m, a
    maximum length of 43 km, a width of 40 km and an area of about
    1,115 km^.   in Ontario, wetlands and agriculture dominate the
    shoreline,  while in Michigan the entire shoreline is highly
    urbanized.   Because of its modest depth, the lake has no commer-
    cial harbors.  To accommodate heavy commercial marine traffic,
    however, a navigation channel has been dredged to a depth of 8.3
    m running in a northeast-southwest direction between the St.
    Clair cutoff in the St. Clair River Delta and the head of the
    Detroit River  (Figure 11-4}.
    
    The eastern shoreline of the lake is low lying and characterized
    by agricultural and recreational land uses.  Low barrier islands
    less than 170 m in width and probably not more than 1 m above
    lake level parallel the shoreline and are colonized by marsh
    vegetation.  The wetland zone, which is approximately 1 km wide,
    extended farther inland  (east) in the past.  Approximately 40% of
    the low plain has been ditched and drained since 1916.  The
    coastal barriers provide a line of defense from wave attack to
    

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    the lagoon and wetland zone.   The annual net erosion rates on the
    south shore of Lake St. Clair are in excess of 2 m/yr  (1).   How-
    ever, other coastal reaches on the south shore are actually
    accreting at rates of up to 0.4 m/yr.
    
    On the western shore, permanent residential homes occupy about 30
    km o£ lake shoreline, with industrial and commercial uses occupy-
    ing only 2 km of shoreline.  Most of the shoreline is in private
    ownership, but 12 km is publicly owned and dedicated to recrea-
    tion and wildlife preserves.
    
    Despite the various intensive and conflicting land and water uses
    to which the St. Clair system is subjected, the system continues
    to provide recreation to many Americans and Canadians,  Typically
    more walleye,  bass, muskellunge and centrarchid panfish are taken
    from Lake St.  Clair each year than from any of the Great Lakes or
    other Great Lakes connecting channels.  These anglers     boaters
    are served by more than 140 commercial, municipal and private
    marinas in Michigan and Ontario.
    The physics of Lake St. Clair is Important in determining the
    distribution and fate of contaminants and other substances in the
    sediment and water column.  The St. Clair River contributes 98%
    of the water to the Lake St. Clair basin, with the remaining 2%
    being contributed by other lake tributaries, including the Clin-
    ton, Thames and Sydenhaii Rivers.  The average discharge of the
    St. Clair River from 1900 through 1981 was 5,200 m3/s with a
    range from 3,000 m3/s to 6,700 ni3/s.  Outflow from the lake,
    which is through the Detroit River to Lake Erie, is only about 3%
    greater than the inflow from the St. Clair River.  Average flush-
    ing times for the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair     the Detroit
    River are 21 hours, 5-7 days and 19 hours respectively (2).
    
    Plows in the system are controlled principally by the inflows
    from Lake Huron and the outflows to Lake Erie, which in turn
    depend largely on the difference in water levels between these
    two lakes.  Fluctuations of water levels and flows do occur at
    the head and mouth of both the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers in
    response to seasonally fluctuating water levels in the upstream
    and downstream lakes as well as wind set-ups on each of the lakes
    during periods of high winds and storms.  Ice jams are a common
    occurrence on the St. Clair River and often reduce the river
    flow, thereby both raising the level of Lake Huron and lowering
    the level of Lake St. Clair.  For example, in 1984 an ice 3am
    reduced the monthly average flow to about 2,520 m3/s, which
    caused a drop of 0,4 m in lake level.
    
    Lake St. Clair has an established elevation of  174.65 m above
    level, but the average lake level from  1900 through  1983 was
    

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    174.87 m.  The lake had a maximum elevation of 175.64 m, and a
    minimum elevation of 173.71 m.
    
    The St. Clair River empties into Lake St. Clair through a large
    delta consisting of three main channels in the upper delta  (North
    Channel, South channel and Chenal Ecarte) and a number of secon-
    dary channels in the lower delta.  The delta area, commonly
    referred to as the St. Clair Flats, extends 18 km from the open
    waters of Lake St. Clair towards the St. Clair River.  Channel
    depths are extremely variable, but the three active distribu-
    taries average 500 m wide and 11 m deep.  At the mouths of the
    channels, depths decrease abruptly due to river mouth bars 2 to
    4 m below mean lake level.  The North Channel, the South Channel
    and the Chenal Ecarte contribute 53%, 42% and 5% of the river
    flow to Lake St. Clair respectively  (3).
    
    Wind forces largely determine the water mass distribution and
    circulation patterns in the lake.  In general, the main surface
    movement to the lake's outflow in the Detroit River appears to be
    along the south shore for southwest to north winds, and along the
    west shore of the lake for northeast to south winds.  Two dis-
    tinct water masses have been identified: a northwestern mass
    consisting primarily of Lake Huron water flowing from the main
    channels of the St, Clair River, and a southwestern mass of more
    stable water enriched by nutrient loadings from Ontario tribu-
    taries and shoreline development.  The margins of the masses may
    shift according to wind direction and speed, but the overall
    discreteness of the distributions is maintained.
    Habitats and Biological Communities
    
    The St. Clair system contains one of the largest coastal wetlands
    in the Great Lakes.   Topographic maps and navigation charts indi-
    cate there are 13,230 ha in Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair
    Delta.  The wetlands include the following major types:
    
         1. Open water wetlands have variable water depths and thus
         support submersed plants in deeper waters and emergent
         aquatic macrophytes in more shallow water.  They commonly
         occur in interdistributary bays and shallower waters along
         the perimeter of Lake St. Clair.
    
         2. River channel wetlands are composed largely of submersed
         species but occasionally emergent macrophytes occur on point
         bars.
    
         3. Beach and shoreline wetlands are represented by a mix of
         species.
    
         4. Cattail marsh wetlands colonize broad zones located at
         the lower St. Clair Delta and at the mouth of the Clinton
    

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         River,   Stands of hybrid cattails (Typha x glauca) are
         associated with clayey and organic sediments.  Shallow open-
         ings are colonized by floating and submersed species.
    
         5. Sedge marsh wetlands are mainly composed of tussocks of
         sedges,
    
         6. Abandoned river channel wetlands support emergent and
         submersed aquatics.
    
         7. Wet meadow wetlands contain low,  woody plants inter-
         spersed with grasses.
    
         8. Shrub wetlands are dominated by mixed shrubs, water tole-
         rant trees, and understory plants typical of wet meadows.
    
    In general,  all wetland types occur in the St. Clair Delta area,
    A sedge marsh wetland dominates the shallow regions.  Where water
    depths exceed 0.3 m the sedges are replaced by cattail marsh,
    which is extensive, especially in Ontario,  In deeper water, the
    cattail marsh gives way to open water wetlands dominated by the
    hardstem bulrush.  This zone of emergents is less dense lakeward,
    where submersed macrophytes occur in bays at low density.  The
    size, location and structure of the wetland plant communities
    shift in response to the periodic changes in water levels of Lake
    St. Clair.
    
    Benthic macroinvertebrates also exhibit spatial zones within Lake
    St. Clair,  In one recent study of benthic invertebrates and
    sediment chemistry, six community assemblages were identified.
    Two communities were associated with the periphery of the lake
    and in Anchor Bay, three communities were found in the deeper
    waters, 2 to 7.5 m deep, and one grouping was found in the lower
    reaches of the St, Clair River and Thames River.
    Local Ecological Relationships
    
        i) Nutrient Cycling
    
    Lake St Clair is a highly productive north-temperate lake.  The
    distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll within the lake are
    influenced primarily by lake currents and the flow of Lake Huron
    water through the delta system.  Concentrations of chemical vari-
    ables and chlorophyll tend to increase across the lake from
    northwest to southeast.  Because of nutrient inputs from agricul-
    tural drainage, sewage discharge and greater stability in water
    mass, the southeastern area is more eutrophic than the remainder
    of the Ontario section of the lake.  The northwestern water mass
    consists primary of Lake Huron water flowing from the main chan-
    nels of the St. Clair River.  The southeastern water mass con-
    sists of more stable water enriched by nutrient loadings from
    

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    Ontario tributaries,  and can be considered to be mesotrophie,
    bordering on eutrophic.
    
    Thermal and chemical stratification do not occur and oxygen con-
    centrations remain near 100% saturation throughout the lake.
    Moderate alkalinity,  low specific conductance and low pH vari-
    ability indicate Lake St. Clair is a well-buffered, hard water
    lake.  The input of high quality water from Lake Huron, through
    the St. Clair River,  maintains the water quality and the biota in
    the open waters of Lake St. Clair similar to conditions in south-
    ern Lake Huron.
    
        iij Food
    
    The primary producers in the St. Clair system are phytoplankton
    and iiacrophytes.  At least 71 species of phytoplankton and 21
    taxa of submersed macrophyte have been identified from the St.
    Clair system.  According to Edwards et al., (2) about 215,330
    tonnes of plant biomass are produced in the St. Clair system each
    year, of which about 25% and 75% originates in the St. Clair
    River and in Lake St. Clair respectively.  The estimated phyto-
    plankton biomass, 96,900 tonnes, represents about half the total
    plant biomass produced in the system.  Because of the short
    flushing time of the system, however, most of the phytoplankton
    probably passes into Lake Erie before it is utilized by other
    trophic levels.  Most of the periphyton and macrophytic biomass
    dies back in the fall, over-winters on the bottom, and moves
    downstream in spring just after ice break-up.  Additional alloc-
    thonous organic matter which is added to Lake St. Clair from
    municipal sewage treatment plant equals approximately 25% of the
    total annual primary production of all vegetation in Lake St.
    Clair.
    
    Lake it. Clair     relatively low densities of limnetic zooplank-
    ton,  In general, cladocera  (28 species) are present in higher
    densities than cyclopoid copepods (5 species), and cyclopoids are
    more abundant that calanoid  (7 species) or harpacticoid (4 spe-
    cies) copepods.  The overall low abundance of limnetic zooplank-
    ton in Lake St, Clair     been attributed to we11-developed
    macrophyte      and the rapid flushing time of Lake St. Clair.
    
    In excess of 300 taxa of macrozoobenthos have      reported from
    Lake St. Clair, Oligocheata, Chironomidae, Gastropoda, Ephemer-
    optera, Trichoptera and Amphipoda comprise the most significant
    biomass of macrozoobenthos.  Nymphs of the mayfly Hexagenia may
    reach densities up to 3,000 nymphs/m2.  Species richness is
    greatest among the Chironomidae, Trichoptera and Oligochaeta.
    

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                                   340
    
        iii)  Trophic Relationships
    
    Details of the relationships between the flora and fauna in the
    St. Clair system, beyond the generalized liinnological interac-
    tions commonly thought to occur, have yet to be determined.  The
    St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair are major sources for sub-
    mersed and emergent plants that provide substrate for periphyton
    and for invertebrates that are fed upon by fish and waterfowl.
    They also provide cover for young fish.  As detritus, the plants
    serve as food for macrosoobenthos,  Poe et al.,  (4) showed that a
    percid-cyprinid-cyprinodontid fish community was dominant in Lake
    St. Clair in vegetatively complex areas occupied by many plant
    species,  and that a less diverse, centrarchid community dominated
    in the areas with fewer plant species.
    
    High productivity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Anchor Bay and
    around the delta of the St. Clair River in Lake St. Clair is
    probably related to the large accumulations of macrophytes in
    those areas.  The macroinvertebrates are probably not food limit-
    ed for at least half the year.
    
        iv) Links to the Great Lakes
    
    The St. Clair system provides important spawning and nursery
    habitat for fishes that are permanent residents and for others
    from Lake Huron and Lake Erie which enter the system to spawn.
    Of the approximately 70 species of fish recorded as residents or
    migrants in Lake St. Clair, at least 45 have spawned in the St.
    Clair system.  Large numbers of lake herring and lake whitefish
    from  Lake Erie historically migrated into Lake St. Clair to
    spawn over the large Chara beds along the western side of the
    lake.
    
    Lake sturgeon were also historically abundant and supported a
    commercial fishery, but overfishing reduced the population and
    now only a limited recreational fishery is permitted.  The shal-
    low marshes of the St. Clair Flats are the only known nursery
    areas for the species in Lake St. Clair.
    
    Walleyes and yellow perch spawn in Anchor Bay of Lake St. Clair,
    along the south shore of the lake, in the Clinton, Sydenham and
    Thames Rivers, and in the St. Clair delta,  stocks that were
    depressed from historical levels have rebounded in the past
    decade and major spawning runs now occur in the St. Clair system.
    Yellow perch populations of southern Lake Huron and the St. Clair
    system are closely linked.  Many of these fish apparently over-
    winter and spawn in Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair delta, and
    then spend the rest of the year in the St. Clair River and Lake
    Huron.
    
    Smallmouth bass and muskellunge support important recreational
    fisheries in Lake St. Clair and have extensive spawning grounds
    

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                                   341
    
    in the lake.  Smallmouth bass spawn along the shoreline of the
    lake from the Thames River and the southeast edge of the lake,
    north into the St. Clair delta,  and along the north and west
    shorelines of the lake to the head of the Detroit River.  Virtu-
    ally all of the delta and the shoreline of Anchor Bay are also
    nursery areas for smallraouth bass.  Muskellunge spawning areas
    extend more or less continuously along the shoreline of the lake
    across the St. Clair delta,  into Anchor Bay, and intermittently
    along the west shoreline to the head of the Detroit River.
    Marshes of the St. Clair delta are the only recorded muskellunge
    nursery areas.
    
    Exotic fish species which now inhabit Lake St. Clair, as well as
    the Great Lakes,  include the common carp  (Cyprinus carpio), the
    alewife  (Alosa pseudoharengus),  the rainbow smelt  (Osmerus mor-
    dax) and the white perch {Morone__ajnericana) ,  The carp have re-
    cently made up much of the commercial fish catch, and the smelt
    plus alewife together are the most abundant fish larvae in the
    St. Clair system.  The white perch, first captured in Lake St.
    Clair in 1977, now provide an important recreational fishery.
    
    The extensive wetlands of Lake St. Clair are also an important
    concentration and nesting area for waterfowl.  Major concentra-
    tion areas extend from the lower St. Clair River to the middle of
    Lake St. Clair,  The coastal wetlands and shallow waters of Lake
    St. Clair make it a critical resting and feeding habitat.  Spe-
    cies whose primary migration corridor traverse Michigan with a
    resting stopover in the vicinity of lake St. Clair include the
    American goldeneye, bufflehead,  canvasback, hooded merganser,
    ruddy duck and Canada goose.  Important species of ducks that
    nest in the St. Clair area include mallards, blue-winged teal,
    black ducks, redheads and wood ducks.
    
    
    Climate_
    
    The climate of the region is characterized by mild summers and
    cold winters.  Average annual air temperatures range from a high
    of 23.6°C in July to a low of -4.4°C in January.  Monthly precip-
    itation ranges from a high of 8.10 cm to a low of 3.6 cm.  In
    winter, temperatures are commonly below Q°C and ice occurs oa
    most of the lake.  Water temperatures during the summer months
    are near 21°C.  Precipitation is mainly rain and is evenly dis-
    tributed throughout the year.
    

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    2. Environmental Conditions
    
    Water Quality
    
        i) Tributaries
    
    Because the St. Clair River provides 98% of the water to Lake St.
    Clair, the mass loading of contaminants to the Lake is mainly
    from this single input.  Additional loadings from other tribu-
    taries do occur, however, and local impacts have been observed
    due to degraded tributary water quality.  In the following dis-
    cussions, references to Lake St. Clair tributaries exclude the
    St. Clair River.
    
    Tributary water quality data from six tributaries  (Thames,
    Sydenham, Puce, Belle and Ruscom Rivers in Ontario, and the
    Clinton River in Michigan) in 1984 and 1985 indicated the
    presence of eight pollutants (PCBs, HCB, OCS, P, Cd, Cl, N and
    Pb) that were designated as parameters of concern for the UGLCC
    Study.  In these streams, P, Cd, Pb and Cl concentrations ranged
    from 0.014-0.94, 0.002-0.0022, 0.003-0.58 and 11-349 mg/L respec-
    tively (Table Vlll-l).  Estimated daily loadings from each river
    are presented in Table VTII-2.  Expression of loadings on a daily
    basis is somewhat artificial, since true loadings from tributar-
    ies have been shown to be strongly flow-dependent and seasonal.
    However,  expression in this manner should facilitate comparison
    with other sources of loadings presented in this report.
    
    The organic contaminants, PCBs, HCB and OCS were usually not
    found in quantifiable concentrations in unfiltered water samples
     (5).  PCBs associated with suspended sediments from the Belle,
    Sydenham and Thames Rivers were found in concentrations up to
    1,560 ng/g, 60 ng/g and 61,190 ng/g respectively.  Suspended
    sediments were not sampled from the other rivers.
    
    The phosphorus concentration in water from all six tributaries
    exceeded the Ontario Provincial Water Quality Objective  (PWQQ) of
    30 ug/L for rivers in all samples, except for some samples from
    the Sydenham River.  Estimates of loadings from the tributaries
    ranged from 23.5 kg/d from the Puce River to 2,021 kg/d from the
    Thames River.  All sampled Canadian tributaries together provided
    a  loading of 3,052 kg/d, while the Clinton River contributed an
    additional 340 kg/d  (Table VIII-2).
    
    The largest nitrate +• nitrite loadings to Lake St. Clair came
    from  the Thames River  (31,435 kg/d), Sydenham River  (4,542 kg/d)
    and Clinton River  (2,186 kg/d).
    
    Concentrations of chlorides  in unfiltered water ranged  from  11
    mg/L  in the Sydenham River to 349 mg/L in the Clinton River.  The
    Clinton River concentrations exceeded the 250 mg/L concentration
    set as the U.S.EPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level  for aes-
    

    -------
                                                            TABLE VIII-!
    
            Comparison of Canadian and U.S. tributary pollutant concentrations  and  loads  for the study area 11984-19851,
    
                                     Canadian Tributaries*                                        U.S.  Tributary1'
    Combined Drainage Areas (hai
    Percent of Study area
    
    Parameter
    1 u n i t s 1
    PCBs ng/L
    HCB "
    ncs "
    P mS/L
    N "
    a "
    Ph "
    Cd "
    atrazine ng/L
    alachlor "
    die to 1 ach 1 or "
    cy anaz i ne '*
    Oanadi an
    Tri butarieS
    Monitored
    T.S.B.K
    T,S,B
    T,S,B
    T , S , B , R , P , K
    T,S,B,R,P
    T , S,B, R,P,K
    T,S,B,K
    T,S,B,K
    T
    T
    T
    T
    567,310<=
    47
    
    Onneentrat ions
    Wate r
    ^<^LD
    
    0.32 " b
    0.4? " "
    Suspended
    SedtBent
    im/i)
    X
    X
    X
    X 0
    X
    X
    X
    X 0
    X
    X
    X
    X
    Average
    Loads
    {annual 1 .
    X
    X
    X
    .653kg/h.
    4.1 "
    360.5 kg/ha
    0 . 03
    .0016 "
    0.28 g/h*
    0.08 "
    0.01 "
    0.048 "
    NOTE:
    NS
          Six Canadian tributaries include the Thanes IT}] Sydenhauil S I , Belle  (B), RusconlHI,  Puce  (P)  and Pike (K!  Rivera
          U.S. tributary ia Clinton Kiver
          Excluding Pike Creek
          U.S. pesticide data for the period April 15 to August 15, 19M5 only
          Average Sydenham and Thames Rivers only
          Concentrations exceeded water quality standards
          Concentrations exceeded one or more proposed water quality  standards  for drinking  water
          Time weight mean concentrations
          No data available
          Less than quantitative limits of detection
          1 riant t i c 1 till duLn for loud calculations
    

    -------
                                                     TABLE VI11-2
    
    U.S. and Canadian tributary loading of UGLCCS parameters into Lake St. Glair (kg/d).
    TrlbutanY
    Belle River (Canada)
    Puce River (Canada)
    Ruscon River (Canada!
    Sydenham River (Canada!
    Thames River (Canada)
    Clinton River (U.S.)
    NO3-N
    516
    282
    647
    4542
    31,463
    2186
    Cadmium Chlorides Lead
    600?
    4535
    4984
    0.696 50,483 11.2
    1.82 180,318 123.1
    0.83 187,661 li.6
    phosphorus
    fl
    23
    43
    893
    2021
    340
    Note;
    
    Values are presented here in rounded form and may differ from that in
    the text.  Loadings for other U.S. tributaries mentioned in the text
    were not calculated
                                                                                                                           U)
    

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                                   345
    
    thetic effects, the Health and Welfare Canada Maximum Acceptable
    Concentration, and the Ontario Maximum and Maximum Desirable
    Concentration for aesthetics.  The greatest loadings were provid-
    ed by the Thames River (190,318 kg/d), Clinton River (182,661
    kg/d) and Sydenham River (50,483 kg/d).
    
    The range of cadmium concentrations in unf iltered water were 0 . 2-
    0.4 ug/L in the Belle River, 0.2-0,7 ug/L in the Sydenham and
    Thames Rivers, and 0.1-2.2 ug/L in the Clinton River.  These
    concentrations were generally greater than the Great Lakes Water
    Quality Agreement (GLWQA) specific objective and PVQQ of 0,2
    ug/L, and some were greater than the chronic AWQC of 1.1 ug/L
    (assuming water hardness of 100 mg/L) .  Estimated loadings from
    the Clinton, Thames and Sydenham Rivers were .83 kg/d,  1.82 kg/d
    and 0.696 kg/d respectively.
    
    The Belle, Sydenham and Thames Rivers all contained concentra-
    tions of lead in some samples that exceeded the chronic AWQC of
    3.2 ug/L (assuming a hardness of 100 mg/L-).  The Thames River
    contained concentrations which also exceeded the acute AWQC of 82
    ug/L, as well as the GLWQA specific objective and PWQO of 25
    ug/L.  Major loadings of lead were provided by the Thames River
    {123.1 kg/d), Clinton River  (15.6 kg/d) and Sydenham River (11.2
    The pesticides atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor and alachlor were
    detected in Thames River water samples between 1981 and 1985 with
    a frequency of occurrence of 99%, 16%, 7% and 4% respectively at
    concentrations from less than detection limits to 3.0, 5.0, 8.0,
    and 3.0 ug/L respectively (Table VIII-1) .  In the Clinton River
    in 1985, the pesticides as ordered above were observed with fre-
    quencies of 95%, 73%, 2.7% and 21.6% respectively at concentra-
    tions from less than detection limits to 1.9, 0.2, 0.2 and 0.9
    ug/L respectively.
    
    Some U.S. agencies have proposed drinking water standards for the
    four pesticides discussed above.  None of the measured concen-
    trations of the pesticides in either of the rivers exceeded the
    proposed standards, except for the State of Wisconsin standard
    for alachlor (0.5 ug/L).
    
        ii) Open Lake St. Clair Water
    
    Water temperature in Lake St. Clair is determined in part by the
    shallow depth and short hydraulic retention time of the water.
    Highest temperatures are reached in August, and average about
    22.5°C.  Temperatures may be 2 to 4°C lower in Anchor Bay because
    of the greater inflow from the St. Clair River, and they may be 5
    to 6°C higher in the coastal wetlands.  The lake is too shallow
    to stratify thermally,  and dissolved oxygen concentrations are
    usually at saturation.
    

    -------
                                   346
    
    In general, surface water temperatures at the outflow of Lake St.
    Glair exceed the upper limit (19°C) of the range selected for
    residence by adult rainbow trout from about late June through
    mid-September,  and they exceeded the upper limit of the range
    (17°C) selected for residence by juvenile lake whitefish in Lake
    Huron from about mid-June through late September.  Thus, Lake St,
    Clair may provide optimum thermal habitat for indigenous Great
    Lakes cold water fishes only during the cooler months of the
    year.  Anchor Bay may contain suitable thermal habitat for cold-
    water fishes for a slightly greater portion of the year than the
    rest of the lake.
    
    Because of the large contribution of water from the St. Clair
    River into Lake St. Clair and the relatively short residence time
    of water in the lake (5 to 7 days), the water quality of Lake St,
    Clair largely reflects that of the St, Clair River.
    
    Concentrations of contaminants within the water may be inferred
    by comparing those in the incoming water with those in water at
    the head of the Detroit River.  Studies of water from the St.
    Clair and the Detroit Rivers were conducted in 1935, with samples
    analyzed for a number of chemical parameters, including organo-
    chlorine pesticides  (OCs), PCBs, and a variety of other chemicals
    of industrial origin including chlorobenzenes  (CBs), hexachloro-
    butadiene  (HCBD), hexachloroethane  (HCE) and octachlorostyrene
    (OCS).  Details of the analytical procedures were provided by
    Chan et al., (6).
    
    Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs:
    
    Concentrations of total PCBs in unfiltered water at the head of
    the Detroit River averaged 0.0014 ug/L from two surveys.  This
    concentration was slightly above the Ontario Provincial Water
    Quality Objective  (PWQO) of 0.001 ug/L.  The difference in con-
    centration of PCBs between the mouth of the St. Clair River and
    the head of the Detroit River was not significant, i.e., less
    than detectable and  0.0014 ug/L in two surveys of the St. Clair
    River, 0.00139 ug/L  and 0,00144 ug/L in two surveys of the
    Detroit River.  Because the concentrations of other organic com-
    pounds (HCBD, HCB, OCS and HCE) were lower at the Detroit River
    than at the mouth of the St. Clair River  (7), however, a source
    of PCBs may exist within the Lake St. Clair basin.  At the head
    of the Detroit River, the concentration of PCBs was greater on
    the U.S. side than on the Canadian side, suggesting that a source
    of PCBs may exist on the western shore of Lake St. Clair.
    
    Concentrations for the organochlorine pesticides in the dissolved
    phase were in the low ng/L range or less along the  St. Clair
    River,  while there  were some seasonal variations noted, no
    marked spatial variation was observed, either downstream or
    cross-river.  Because concentrations were also similar at the
    head  of the Detroit  River, an argument similar to that for PCBs
    

    -------
                                   347
    
    above can be made for the possible existence of a source for
    these pesticides in the Lake St. Clair basin.
    
    Chlorobenzenes,  Octachlorostyrene:
    
    In contrast to the behaviour of the pesticides and PCBs noted
    above, increases in the concentration of HCBD, HCB, and OCS indi-
    cate significant sources of inputs of these industrial compounds
    to the St. Clair River, but the plume of contaminants remains
    close to the Canadian shore and does not disperse uniformly
    across the river.  In the upper delta, concentrations were high-
    est in the Channel Ecarte, which receives Canadian nearshore
    water.  Because this stream contributes only 5% of the total
    river flow to Lake St. Clair, however, the major loading of these
    substances to the lake would come from the South Channel.
    Diminished, but measurable concentrations of these chemicals in
    the dissolved phase were observed at the head of the Detroit
    River in 1985, showing that some contaminant carryover from the
    St. Clair River occurred, but also that some significant loss
    processes occurred within the lake.  Similar findings were re-
    ported for a survey conducted in 1984  (8).  For example, loss
    processes in Lake St. Clair may account for up to 95% reductions
    in HCB and OCS between the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers  (8).
    
    Phosphorus, Chlorides and Metals;
    
    Concentrations of total phosphorus, chlorides and metals in whole
    water and suspended solids from the mouth of the St. Clair River
    and the head of the Detroit River in 1984 are presented in Table
    VIII-3.  All measured concentrations in water were below the
    relevant surface water standards or guidelines except for some
    observations of excessive iron in the Detroit River.  Similarly,
    the mean concentrations of the following parameters that were
    measured at the head of the Detroit River, in 1985 were below all
    relevant criteria, objectives or guidelines: total phosphorus,
    8.6 ug/L; cadmium, 0.023 ug/L; zinc, 1.217 ug/L; mercury, 0.008
    ug/L; copper, 1.29 ug/L; and nickel 0.966 ug/L.   A significant
    increase  (71%) in phosphorus concentration in both whole water
    and suspended sediments was observed between the mouth of the St.
    Clair River and the head of the Detroit River, thereby indicating
    that Lake St. Clair and/or its basin are a net source for
    phosphorus.
    
    The metals and chloride exhibited variable responses across Lake
    St Clair in 1984.  The concentration of total iron in both whole
    water and in suspended solids was greater at the head of the
    Detroit River than at the mouth of the St. Clair River, while
    that of zinc was greater only associated with suspended solids.
    Lead and mercury concentrations tended to be greater in the
    Detroit River than in the St. Clair River, but cross channel
    differences were detected.  Chloride concentrations were not
    observed  to be different  in the two river reaches.
    

    -------
                                         348
                                     TABLE VIII-3
    
    Concentrations of total phosphorus, chlorides and metals in whole water and
    suspended solids from the mouth of the St. Clair River and the head of the
    Detroit River, 1384, range and (mean)a,
    
    
                                      Whole Water
    
                      Fe         Pb      Hg      Zn       TP     Chloride
    Location          mg/L       ug/L    ug/L    ug/L     ug/L   mg/L
    
    St. Clair River
    
    North Channel    0.054-0.220   <3   <0.01   0.5-3.0   6-12   5.77- 6.82
                     (0,130)                    (1.5)     18,8)  (6.30)
    
    South Channel    0.063-0.170   <3   <0,01   0.5-5,0   7-10   7,82-10.94
                     (0.0851*                   (2.4)     (8.5!  (9.06!
    Detroi_t__Eiver
    
    West side         0.088-0.380  <3   <0,0l   0.3-3.0   9-21   7.09-12.45
                                                          U4.0)   J9.Q)
    
    East side         0.130-0.920  <3   <0.01   0.5-1.0   12-20  7.34-11.93
                                                         (15,5 )* (9.1!
    
                                   Suspended Solida
    
                      Fe      Pb     Hg           Zn      TP       Sus.Solids
                      mg/g    ug/g   ug/g         ug/g    mg/g     Eg/L
    
    St. Clair River   ~"'
    
    North Channel     16-22  10-26   0.03-0.14    74-86   0,5-1.0   5,6-12.7
                      (19.0) (20.5)  (0.09!       (81.0)  (0.8)     {8.3J*
    
    South Channel    14-18   25-49   0.16-0,35    70-110  0.8-1.0   5.6-11.1
                     (16)    (40!    {0.27}       (81,5)  (0.8S     (7.1)
    Detroit River
    
    West aide        21-31   39-62   0.06-0,17   110-130  1.2-1.8   4.6-22.2
                     (25.3)  (52.5)  {0.1S>      (120)    (1.4)     (5,5)*
    
    East aide        21-34   36-40   0,17-0.47    93-130  1.2-2.2   5.3-16.3
                     (26.0)  (38.3)  !0.32)       (111)   (1.5)     (6.9)*
    
    a from Johnson and Kauss (8),
    * denotes median value instead of mean.
    

    -------
                                   349
    
    Biota
    
        i) Plankton
    
    In 1984, relatively high biomass concentrations of phytoplankton
    were recorded during early June (1.17 g/m^) compared to that in
    late July (0.27 g/m^)(9) .   In spring, the species composition was
    dominated by Diatomeae  (67-90%),  with significant contributions
    from Chrysophyceae and Cryptophyceae phytoflagellates.  During
    summer, the community structure was equally composed of Chryso-
    phyceae (34%) and Diatomeae (34%)«  From May through September,
    Chlorophyta  (greens) contributed only once substantially, during
    late July (24%).   The contribution from cyanophyta (blue-greens)
    was relatively low.
    
    Eooplankton abundance in Lake St.  Clair in June and July, 1984,
    ranged from 35 to 93 organisms/!,  and from 500 to 1,500 ug/L in
    total biomass  (10).  These densities are among the highest
    reported for the Great Lakes.   Cladocerans were proportionately
    dominant in both numbers     biomass.  This pattern of cladoceran
    predominance is in contrast to the other Great lakes in which
    copepods routinely dominate to a much greater extent.  Lake St.
    Clair is a more typical cladoceran habitat than the other lakes,
    because it is shallow,  more productive, and may not contain dense
    populations of planktivorous fish to which cladocerans are
    particularly vulnerable.  In addition, the high flushing rate of
    Lake St. Clair may favor species with shorter generation times.
    Large zooplankters such as Holopedium and Leptodora were not
    abundant.  Copepods comprised approximately 1/3 numerically and
    40-50% by biomass of the zooplankton community,
    
        ii) Macrophytes
    
    At least 12 submersed plant taxa occur in Lake St. Clair (11,12).
    Common native taxa are Chara sp,   (macroalga), Vallisneria amer-
    icana, Potamogeton richardsonii,  Elodea canadensls, Potamogeton
    sp, (narrow-leaved forms),     Najas. flexllls.  Chara sp. in-
    cludes Nitella sp, and muskgrass,  both of which overwinter as
    green plants.  Nitella is often found in deeper water to a depth
    of 27 m where few other plants are present.  Submersed plant
    stands in the lake are usually composed of 2-3 species,     most
    occur at depths less than 3,7 m.   The 0.0 to 3,7 m depth interval
    in Lake St. Clair covers approximately 628 km2, an^ plant cover-
    age of the bottom within this depth interval is 35%,  Estimated
    annual production of submersed aquatic plants in Lake St. Clair
    is 13,780 tonnes ash-free dry weight  (13).
    
    No detailed  studies on species composition, distribution and
    relative abundance of emergent macrophytes in Lake St. Clair have
    been completed.  The estimated total areai extent of emergents in
    the lake in  the late 1970s was 9,170 ha  (14).  Estimated produc-
    tion o£ emergent aquatic plants in Lake St. Clair is 60,990
    

    -------
                                   350
    
    tonnes ash-free dry weight/yr (13).
    
    The drift of live (chlorophyllous) submersed plant matter out of
    Lake St. Clair in the surface waters was measured in 1986 (15) .
    Of the 6 submersed plant and macroalgae taxa present in drift
    samples collected from April through October 1986 immediately
    below Belle Isle near the head of the Detroit River, Vallisneria
    americana,  Potamogeton richardsonii, and Myjriophyllum spicatum
    occurred most frequently.  Substantial drift occurred in all
    months.  Drift biomass was lowest in April and highest in
    September at 14 and 1,183 g wet weight/1000 m^ filtered).  The
    submersed plant biomass leaving Lake St. Clair as surface drift
    during April to October, 1986, was calcul-ated to be 32,052 tonnes
    wet weight or about 1,602 tonnes ash-free dry weight.  This cal-
    culation may underestimate the biomass of macrophyte drift
    because the Detroit River discharge in 1986 was probably greater
    than the 1900-1980 average that was used for river flow.  Concern
    exists that the drift of plant material containing contaminants
    may facilitate the dispersal of contaminants within the UGLCC
    Study area, including western Lake Erie.
    
        iii) Benthos
    
    Lake St. Clair supports a healthy and diverse community of ben-
    thic fauna.  Nematoda, Amphipoda, Diptera  (Chironomidae), Ephem-
    eroptera, Trichoptera, Gastropoda, and Pelecypoda are abundant in
    the St. Clair River system.  The taxonomic diversity of macro-
    zoobenthos in Lake St. Clair  (65 taxa) was lower than that in the
    St. Clair River  (98 taxa) and the Detroit River  (80 taxa}, how-
    ever  (12) .
    
    In 1985, a total mean density of mayfly  (Hexagenia) nymphs of 194
    nymphs/m2 was found throughout the UGLCC Study area, including
    279 nymphs/m2 in Lake St. Clair.  The maximum density was also
    found in Lake St Clair at 3,099 nymphs/m2.  Nymphal production
    ranged from 165 to 2,321 mg dry wt./m2/yr in the study area, with
    a maximum rate of 4,011 mg dry wt,/m2/yr at the single location
    studied in Lake St. Clair.  The river production values were
    similar to the range of values reported in the literature, but
    production in Lake St. Clair was about twice the highest pub-
    lished value.
    
    Macroinvertebrate taxa were identified at 47 sampling stations in
    Lake St. Clair in 1983  (16).  Six benthic invertebrate commun-
    ities were identified with different species assemblages  (Table
    VIII-4).  Two communities occurred generally in the shallow peri-
    phery of the lake, three communities were  found in the deeper
    waters, and one was present in the St. Clair River and mouth of
    the Thames River  {Figure VIII-1).  Discriminant analysis sug-
    gested that the  six communities were associated with different
    environmental conditions.  The "shallow periphery" communities
    occurred at sites with coarser,  sandy sediments and lower con-
    

    -------
                                                               TABLE VII I-4
    
    Species composition (mean number per 51*5 cm!J) of benthic communities  in  Lake St.  Ciair,  May 1983.  P denotes a we*n
    density of less than one individual per sample.  Coavunitiea are grouped by habitat type (16),
    
    
    AQUATIC CATERPILLARS!
    Pyral idae
    BEETLES:
    Dubi raph i. a
    TRUE BUGS;
    Carixidae
    CADDISFLIES:
    Che hi ui A to pyyche
    Hyd ropsyc he
    Cerac lea
    Hystac idea
    Owce t i a
    ?><; lod«ia
    Hu I nima
    Neu etc i ip& i s
    Phylocentropus
    MAYFLIES:
    Baet isca
    Caenia
    Eury loph^l la
    Serratol i a
    Ephenern
    Hexugcnia
    £tenone»a
    S 1
    LAKE— SHALLOH
    
    P
    
    P
    
    1 ,3 P
    
    P
    P
    P
    P
    P
    P
    P
    
    
    
    P
    P P
    P P
    
    
    P P
    
    BENTHIC COMHUNITY
    4 Z t, 3
    LAKE --DEEP RIVEK
    
    P P
    
    P P
    
    
    
    P
    P
    P
    P • P
    P P P
    
    P
    P
    P P P
    
    
    1.7
    
    P
    P
    Itt.y 17.0 44.2 3.3
    P
                                                                                                                                                   Ul
    

    -------
    TABLE VIII-4. (cont'd 2)
    
    
    TKUE FLIES:
    Ceratopogonidae
    Chaot>o rus
    Ch i ro jiomus
    Cl aduptoo^ 1 ad i us
    Heterotrxssocladius
    Hyd robaenus
    Cricotopub/Orthociadius
    Parkiet'teriel la?
    Monod UiEne au
    Abl abu Hniy i a
    Cl inotany[>i^a
    Coelotanypua
    
    
    
    IB
    
    P
    P
    
    1,
    P
    
    
    
    
    
    
    13
    1J
    P
    
    P
    
    
    P
    
    
    P
    P
    P
    
    
    
    P
    i 1
    LAKE—SHALLOW
    
    .3 P
    
    P
    P
    P
    a 2,4
    P
    
    
    
    P
    
    
    .0 2. a
    ,2 P
    7,5
    P
    4.0
    
    
    P
    
    P
    
    P
    1.5
    P
    P
    P
    1 .1
    BENTHIC
    4
    
    
    P
    
    5.4
    
    
    1.3
    P
    P
    
    P
    
    
    
    2,2
    
    3.3
    
    7.2
    
    5.7
    P
    P
    P
    1.1
    
    P
    
    P
    
    Z,Z
    COKM UNITY
    2
    LAKE— DEEP
    
    
    
    2.1
    
    
    1.5
    P
    
    P
    
    
    
    
    
    
    P
    
    P
    P
    P
    P
    P
    
    
    
    P
    
    2.0
    P
    6.0
    a
    
    
    1.0
    1.3
    7.2
    
    
    27.2
    ib.a
    1.7
    
    
    
    
    
    13.5
    
    
    
    6,2
    
    H.8
    P
    P
    
    1.0
    
    P
    P
    3.7
    P
    1.5
    3
    RIVEh
    
    3.2
    
    P
    
    
    2,8
    
    P
    
    
    
    P
    P
    ZS.3
    2 ,U
    24.9
    
    44.7
    
    ys.5
    
    
    
    p
    7,3
    
    P
    P
    P
    
                                                                                                                                                    LJ
                                                                                                                                                    cn
    

    -------
    TABUS VII 1-4*  (cont'd
    
    
    Djalniabat i sta
    Pruo J Hd i us
    Th 1 enemaruilBy ja-gp
    Eap i d i ilae
    CRUSTACEANS:
    Gamma rus
    HvalelJa ait ecu
    Asel lus
    L i rceus
    CLAMS;
    fisidium
    Sphii^r ium
    Uni on Idae
    SNAILS:
    Bithynia
    Amn i co 1 a
    Pi-obythinel 1&
    Soir.ato^ yrus
    Fo s s a r i a
    Lymnaea
    Physa
    Gon iobtis i &
    Pleu rocc ra
    Valvata
    LEECHES:
    Cr[Jtii>dell idae
    Glossiphonidae
    5 1
    LAKE- -SHALLOW
    
    P P
    P
    P
    
    3.4
    p
    
    
    
    Z .8
    1 .2
    P
    
    P
    P
    P
    P
    P
    
    P
    2.4
    P
    P
    
    
    
    BENTHIC
    4
    
    P
    6.8
    
    
    
    14 .5
    2.1
    4.4
    P
    
    P
    1.3
    P
    
    P
    1 .9
    P
    P
    
    
    P
    i.o
    
    p
    
    p
    p
    COMMUNITY
    2 6
    LAKE --DEEP
    P
    5.2 18. T
    
    
    
    P 2.0
    
    
    
    
    t.l 6.5
    P P
    P
    
    P
    
    P P
    P
    
    
    
    p
    P
    
    
    
    P
    3
    RIVER
    
    7.6
    P
    
    
    22.7
    2.6
    1.2
    5.3
    
    4.8
    
    
    
    
    
    P
    
    
    P
    10.3
    P
    
    P
    
    P
    P
                                                                                                                                                      u»
                                                                                                                                                      Ul
    

    -------
    TABi.E Will-*,  (conl'tf 4t
    
    
    POLVCHAETES :
    ManaynuntciB specioaa
    WORMS;
    Lumtjrlcidae
    Stylodrilus herringtanus
    N»ididae
    Aulodrilus americanua
    A. pleuriseta
    Bronehiura sowberbyi
    Jsochoet ides curvisetosua
    Ilyodriius lempletoni
    lsochoet.es freyi
    Lianodrilus angustipenia
    L . ee rv i x
    L. elttparedianus
    L. Hoffmeisteri
    L. Baumeensis
    L, udekemiAnus
    Potaoothrix noldaviensis
    P. vejdovskyi
    Oui stadrilus mu J-tiaetosus
    Spiroaperaa ferox
    NEHATOfiES
    FLATHORHS
    MEAN NUMBEH OP TAX*
    MEAN DKNSITV OP OHGANISMS
    » 1
    LAKE — SHALLOW
    
    P
    
    
    P
    P P
    
    
    
    P
    P
    P
    
    P
    P P
    P 1.8
    P
    P
    3,1 P
    P P
    
    P 8.4
    P 3.4
    P
    6.8 10.4
    60.3 6U.9
    BENTHIC
    4
    
    
    2.2
    
    P
    P
    P
    
    
    P
    
    
    
    P
    
    3,6
    5.1
    
    
    
    P
    
    21.7
    11.2
    P
    15.4
    141. a
    COMMON II V
    LAKE— DEEP
    
    P P
    
    P
    P
    P 1.3
    P
    P
    2.4
    
    P
    
    
    P
    P P
    4.Z 14.5
    5.7
    3.0
    P 1.2
    
    V.8
    P 2.tt
    11. S 12.2
    1.1 2. a
    10. z IB. a
    BO. 4 253.3
    3
    RIVER
    
    
    
    2.6
    1.8
    P
    1,3
    
    P
    
    P
    P
    
    3.9
    1.0
    10.1
    P
    1.0
    S.5
    
    10. 'i
    12.4
    P
    13. 9
    20.9
    369. &
                                                                                                                                                          01
    

    -------
                                            355
                                                         St, CMr River
                Michigan
    Detroit River
    Ontario
                                                         £
    FIGURE VIII-1.  Distribution  of  benthic  invertebrate communities  in  Lake St.
                        Clair,  Anchor  Bay and  the  St. Clair  River,  May 1983 (16).
    

    -------
                                   356
    
    Generations of metals, organic carbon and nutrients relative to
    the "deeper water" communities (Table VIII-5).  Poor correlations
    were found between the measured physieochemical variables and the
    community separations, however, implying that one or more addi-
    tional variables were influencing the community structure.
    
    Based on the distribution of the benthic communities, mesotrophic
    conditions prevailed in the central basin of the lake and Anchor
    Bay and in the lower part of the St. Clair River, while oligo-
    mesotrophic conditions were present in the shallower nearshore
    areas of the lake and Anchor Bay.  Neither the St. Clair or
    Thames rivers had any perceivable effect on the environmental
    quality of the lake.  Impairment of environmental quality was
    observed at the mouths of the Puce, Belle, and Ruscora rivers and
    near a sewer outfall from St. Clair Shores, Michigan.  The local-
    ly impaired environmental quality may be related to the discharge
    of oils and, grease into the lake.  In addition, reduced environ-
    mental quality related to organic matter enrichment was observed
    in deeper parts of the study area near the St. Clair River delta.
    
    Concentrations of lead (up to 40 ppm), cadmium  (up to 19 ppm) and
    octachlorostyrene (QCS, up to 0.15 ppm) in Lake St. Clair clams
    were generally highest in that portion of the lake which receives
    the majority of the St. Clair River discharge, i.e., adjacent to
    the South Channel outlet.  There are no Michigan or Ontario
    guidelines or objectives for DCS or Cd in fish.
    
    In contrast, the concentration of PCBs in clams, up to 0.7 ppm
    exhibited a different distribution with highest concentrations
    along the southwest shore of. the lake rather than in the St.
    Clair River  (17),  By comparison, the GLWQA includes a specific
    objective of 0.1     PCBs in whole fish.  A positive correlation
    between clam tissue and sediment concentrations     observed only
    for PCBs and OCS, however, suggesting that sediment distribution
    patterns of lead and cadmium may not provide much information on
    contaminant exposure of clams.
    
        iv) Pish
    
    The fish community of Lake St. Clair is diverse and abundant,
    consisting mainly of warm-water and mesothermic species.  Cold-
    water species are found in the lake, but not as year-round resi-
    dents.  Of the more than 70 species recorded as native or mi-
    grants, 34 use the lake for spawning  (18) .  Most of the 28 native
    species spawn in shallow water along the delta  (St. Clair Plats)
    or other shoreline areas or in tributaries to the lake.  Of the
    exotic species, rainbow smelt and     lamprey spawn in tribu-
    taries, and alewives, carp, goldfish and gizzard  shad spawn in
    bays, marshes and other shallow areas,
    
    Because of the proximity of Lake St. Clair to large urban popula-
    tions, recreational  fisheries  are  active year-round.  In Michigan
    

    -------
                                                      TABLE VTTI-5
    
    Mean values {geometric mean} of physi cocheroif^ai  sediment variables associated with  the  benthic
    communities in Lake St. Glair, May  1983.   All  units are expressed as rag/kg unless otherwise
    stated.  Communities are grouped  by habitat  type (16>.
    
    
    5
    
    1
    BENTHIC
    4
    Lake- Shallow
    Fe (g/kg)
    Al Ig/kg)
    Cd ,'
    Cr
    Cu
    Hg
    Ni
    Pb
    7,n
    Oil and Grease (g/kg)
    Loss-On-Igni tion( % )
    TotaJ Organic Carbon
    Total-P (g/kg)
    Total Kjeldahi-N tg/kg>
    Grain Size (phi units)
    6.
    2.
    0.
    8.
    2 .
    0,
    4 .
    2.
    13.
    0.
    0.
    1 .
    0.
    0,
    1 .
    14
    31
    10
    75
    89
    01
    26
    35
    69
    59
    65
    42
    20
    22
    58
    6.
    2,
    0.
    9.
    3.
    0,
    4.
    3.
    20.
    0.
    0.
    2.
    0.
    0.
    1 .
    79
    73
    12
    6?
    81
    07
    61
    62
    33
    31
    59
    36
    21
    22
    86
    8
    5
    0
    15
    10
    0
    9
    13
    41
    0
    1
    11
    0
    0
    3
    .96
    .43
    ,28
    . 2%
    .24
    , 17
    .26
    .69
    . 17
    .53
    .62
    .50
    .25
    .51
    .90
    COHMUNITY
    2
    6
    Lake-Deep
    14. 16**
    8.87
    0.41)
    23,89
    17.86
    0.49**
    15.69
    23.11
    62.03
    0.79
    2.45
    15.62
    0,48*
    0.79
    4.65
    12
    6
    O
    24
    22
    0
    15
    24
    65
    1
    3
    24
    0
    1
    4
    . S6**
    .65
    .50
    .42
    .56
    .32**
    ,97
    .46
    .68
    .09*
    .77
    .82
    .44*
    .18*
    .30
    
    3
    River
    9
    4
    O
    12
    15
    0
    9
    15
    50
    0
    3
    19
    0
    1
    
    .43
    .83
    .38
    .93
    .06
    .23
    .68
    .07
    .92
    .26
    .30
    .87
    .38
    .05*
    3.76
    Based on the U.S. EPA Guidelines for Pollution Classification of Great Lakes Harbour
    Sediments (22):
    
    *    Means that the sediment is considered  moderately polluted
    **   Means that the sediment concentration  exceeds the Ontario Ministry of the
         Environment's Guidelines for Open  Water  Disposal {22}.
                                                                                                         Ul
                                                                                                         en
    

    -------
                                   358
    
    waters, yellow perch (59%) and walleye  (18%) were the main spe-
    cies harvested by boat anglers in 1983-1984.  In Ontario waters
    in 1986, the main species 'were walleye  (59%), yellow perch (24%)
    and smallmouth bass (4.6%).  Yellow perch dominated the ice
    fishery.
    
    PCS concentrations in edible portions of walleye and yellow perch
    were approaching 0.25 ppm and 0.05 ppm, respectively, in 1985
    (7).  These concentrations are below the U.S.Food and Drug Admin-
    istration (U.S.FDA) action level of 2 ppm, but the concentration
    in walleye exceeded the GLWQA specific  objective of 0,1 ppm for
    whole fish.
    
    The concentration of mercury in the edible portions of walleye,
    northern pike, white bass and yellow perch were approaching 0.3
    to 1.0 ppm in 1985.  These concentrations of mercury do not
    exceed the U.S.FDA action level of 1 ppm, but they do in some
    cases exceed the Ontario objective.
    Habitat Alterations
    
    Of an estimated 22,366 ha of wetlands that existed in Lake St.
    Clair in 1873, more than 9,000 ha were lost to shoreline develop-
    ment by 1968.  Losses are most evident in the Clinton River, the
    St. Clair delta and the eastern shore of the lake.  In all three
    areas, the margins of the wetlands have been modified.  On the
    eastern shoreline the wetlands at one time were approximately 2.5
    km wide,  but now they are about 0.8 km in width.
    
    In Ontario, wetlands are currently being lost to agriculture.
    The wetlands from the Thames River north to Chenal Ecarte dwin-
    dled from 3,574 ha in 1965 to 2,510 ha in 1984 (19) Draining for
    agriculture accounted for 89% of the wetland loss, whereas marina
    and cottage development consumed the remaining 11%.  During the
    record high lake level in the early 1970s, about 1,000 ha of
    emergent shoreline marsh from Mitchell Bay southward to the
    Thames River were also temporarily lost  (20).  This loss was
    tempered in part by the flooding of transition vegetation which
    occurred on the upland (east) margin of the wetlands.
    
    The St. Clair delta and the Anchor Bay area in Michigan are also
    subject to flooding, but the recent wetland losses there are due
    mainly to diking and filling for urban development. In the
    Clinton River area, wetland losses occurred from both landward
    and lakeward boundaries and the remaining wetlands are now iso-
    lated from Lake St. Clair.
    
    Navigation-related dredging has also altered aquatic habitat
    within Lake St. Clair.  In the  1950s, the minimum channel depth
    in the St. Clair River, South Channel and Lake St. Clair was
    dredged to 8.2 m as part of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway.
    

    -------
                                   359
    
    Navigation dredging projects have altered the flow regimes of
    Lake St. Clair and replaced productive shoal water habitat with
    less productive channel habitat,  Bulkheading, dredging and back-
    filling by landowners has also resulted in the loss of signifi-
    cant amounts of littoral habitat in the system.  The loss of
    shoal and littoral waters, along with the removal of gravel and
    the lack, of delta growth represent loss of habitat that is uti-
    lized by many Great Lakes fishes to satisfy spawning and other
    early life history requirements,
    
    
    Bottom Sediments
    
        i) Physical Characteristics
    
    The thickness and grain size distribution of bottom sediments is
    an important aid to understanding the transport, accumulation and
    resuspension of polluted sediments in Lake St. Clair.  Based on a
    coring survey completed in 1986, the modern sediment thickness
    corresponds roughly with lake depth (21).   The maximum thickness
    of over 30 cm is generally confined to the St, Clair River delta
    and a narrow band extending from the delta southwest toward the
    head of the Detroit River (Figure VIII-2).
    
    Analysis of grain size distribution, based on 1984 data (21),
    indicated the most common size interval in sediment samples to be
    0.063 to 0,125 mm (3-4 PHI units).  This  size particle occurred
    as a band trending NW-SE across mid-basin and in the north and
    eastern portions of Anchor Bay.  Coarser unimodal sediment  (0.125
    to 0.500 mm, 1-3 PHI units) was present opposite the Chenal
    Ecarte and Clinton River mouths on the northeast and west coasts,
    and in the central portion of Anchor Bay.   Coarser bimodal sedi-
    ments with gravel and sand modes occurred along the south and
    southwest shores.  Size modes finer than  sand  (0.063 mm, 4 PHI
    units) were found only in a small area in the western part of the
    central basin.
    
    The distribution of sediment composition based on percentage
    gravel, sand and silt-clay  (mud) was similar to that observed for
    the modal size distribution.  Gravel content was generally less
    than 1% with the exception of the south and southwest margin of
    the lake where it ranged from 5 to 45%.   Sand was the major com-
    ponent of the surface sediments and ranged from 30 to 100%.  The
    highest percentages of sand occurred at the mouths of the delta
    distributary channels and in the south and southwest area of the
    lake.  Percent silt and clay  (muds) ranged from 1 to 68% with
    highest percentages in the west-central part of the basin  (Figure
    VIII-3).
    

    -------
                                   360
    t
          FIGURE  VIH-2.  Thickness of modern  sediment (cm).
    

    -------
                              361
    FIGURE  VTII-3. Distribution of sediment types.
    

    -------
                                   362
    
        ii)  Evidence of Historical Inputs of Contaminants
    
    Organic Contaminants:
    
    Distributions of hexachlorobenzene (HCB),  octachlorostyrene
    (OCS),  polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs}, hexachlorobutadiene
    (HCBD),  pentachlorobenzene (QCB) and total DDT plus degradation
    products in Lake St. Clair surficial sediments (0-1 cm) in 1985
    are shown in Figure VIII-4, The data were derived from the sam-
    pling pattern identified in Figure VIII-5. The highest contamin-
    ant concentrations were found near the centre of the lake in the
    region of greatest water depth, thickest layer of recent sedi-
    ments over glacial clay, and greatest accumulation of fine-
    grained sediment.  Some minor accumulation of contaminants also
    was found in Anchor Bay at the northern end of the lake.  For the
    most part, the sediments in the rest of the lake were sandy, and
    contained low concentrations of organic contaminants.  Although
    the mean contaminant concentrations were not particularly high
    compared to other areas in the Great Lakes Basin, with the
    possible exception of HCB, the maximum concentrations reached
    significant levels for many of the Sarnia-source contaminants
    (Table VIII-6).
    
    In most, but not all, instances, higher concentrations of PCBs
    were found at greater depths in the sediments in 1985, corre-
    sponding qualitatively with the loading history of PCBs,  The
    highest concentrations, 0,06 ppm, exceeded the Ontario Ministry
    of Environment  (OMOE) Guidelines for Dredged Spoils for Open-
    Water Disposal and the IJC Guidelines for In-water Disposal of
    Dredged Materials of 0.05 ppm.  However, these concentrations did
    not cause the lake to be classified as "polluted" by U.S.EPA
    Pollutional Classification Guidelines for Great Lakes Harbour
    Sediments where sediments containing greater than 10 ppm PCBs are
    classified as "polluted".  PCBs were also found in the cottrell
    Drain and at the mouth of the cutoff channel of the Clinton River
    at concentrations of 2.0 and 0.6 ppm, respectively.  Up to 0,03
    ppm PCBs were found in the Sydenham River, based on two samples.
    
    Two localized areas of high HCB sediment concentrations were
    found in Lake St. Clair in 1985.  One was in the central portion
    of the lake, and another was in the eastern section, northwest of
    the mouth of the Thames River.  The maximum concentration found
    was 0.17 ppm.  HCB was also detected in sediments of the Milk
    River (0.003 ppm), Marsac Creek  (0.002 ppm), Swan Creek  (0.002
    ppm}, Sydenham River (0,007 ppm) and the Thames River  (0.001
    ppm).  No specific guidelines exist for HCB in sediments.
    
    The highest concentration of OCS, 0.021 ppm, was found in the
    central portion of the lake.  OCS was detected in sediments of
    the Sydenham River  (0.001 ppm), but information on OCS in sedi-
    ments of U.S. tributaries is not available.  No specific guide-
    lines exist for OCS  in  sediments.
    

    -------
    HCBD
    DCS
    QCB
                                     Total DDT
                                                                           HCB
                                                                          Total PCB
                                                                                                                               UJ
                                                                                                                               a\
                 FIGURE  V1IJ-4.  Distribution  of contaminants  in Lake  St. Clair  surficial
                                   sediments (mg/kg).
    

    -------
                        364
               LAKE SI CLA1R
    FIGURE VIII-5. 1985 Lake St. Clair  sediment  core stations.
    

    -------
                                      365
                              TABLE VIII-6
    
    Chlorinated organic compounds in surficial !0-1 cm) sediments of
    Lake St. Clair ( ug/kg) .
    
    Compound                            Ranee            Mean
    
    
    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)           0.4-170             32
    
    Octachlorostyrene (OCS )             ND-2I            4.8
    
    PCBs                               ND-Z1             19
    
    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD)         XD-32            5.4
    
    Pentachlorobenzene {QCB5           ND-8.7           3.2
    
    Total Trichlorobenzene (TCB )        ND-28            4.3
    
    Total Tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB5    ND-20            3.7
    
    Total DDT and metabolites (SDDT)    ND-12            3.8
    

    -------
                                   366
    
    Information on PAHs in Lake St. Clair sediments or in Canadian
    tributaries was not available.  In U.S. tributaries, PAHs were
    found in surficial sediments at concentrations ranging from 0.4
    to 14.3 ppm.  The highest concentrations were found in the Milk
    River  (14.3 ppm.), Cotrell Drain (13.8 ppm), Clinton River (12.1
    ppm)  and Frog Creek (10.7 ppm).  No specific guidelines exist for
    PAHs  in sediments.
    
    Cyanide of a concentration up to 0.7 ppm was found in the Clinton
    River sediments.  In Lake St. Clair sediments, three samples near
    the southeast shore and one sample south of the Clinton River
    were  reported to contain 0.5 to 0.8 ppm cyanide, although these
    values were reported to be below the analytical criterion of
    detection.  These concentrations exceed the OMOE and IJC Guide-
    lines of 0.1 ppm, and cause a classification of "heavily pol-
    luted" by U.S.EPA classification guidelines.  Information on
    cyanide in Canadian tributaries was not available.
    
    High concentrations of oil and grease  (up to 3,700 ppm) were also
    found in the Clinton River.  This concentration exceeds the OMOE
    and IJC Guideline of 1,500 ppm, and causes a classification of
    "heavily polluted" by U.S.EPA Classification Guidelines.  Of 45
    stations sampled in Lake St. Clair in  1985, the sediments in only
    3 contained between 597 and 637 ppm oil and grease.  The rest
    contained less than 343 ppm, causing a classification of "unpolr
    luted" by U.S.EPA classification Guidelines.  Oil and grease re-
    sults  from  1984 indicated levels between 635 and 707 ppm for
    Canadian tributaries.  Somewhat elevated levels were determined
    from 1985 samples, with a peak of 3,131 ppm obtained from
    Sydenham River sediments.  Concentrations from the Belle and
    Thames Rivers and Pike Creek were 433, 792 and 1,018 ppm, respec-
    tively.
    
    Metal Contaminants:
    
    Concentrations of metals measured in surficial  (0-1 cm) layers of
    the sediment samples collected in 1985  (Figure VIII-5) indicated
    that some enrichment of cadmium and zinc has occurred over the
    average concentrations of metals in surficial sediments in Lake
    Huron  (22),  For Cd and Zn, 22 and 21  samples respectively, of 36
    samples collected, had concentrations  elevated above the Lake
    Huron averages of 1.4 and 62 ug/g respectively  (Table VIII-7).
    The concentrations generally remained  below OMOE, IJC and U.S.EPA
    guidelines, however, except for the region near to the mouth of
    the Clinton River.  Sediments from the Clinton River were found
    to contain  up to 6.3 ppm Cd and 430 ppm Zn, both of which exceed
    U.S.  Classification Guidelines for heavily polluted sediments of
    6 ppm  and  200 ppm respectively.  The Milk River sediments also
    exceeded the guidelines with  380 ppm Zn.
    
    Concentrations of chromium, copper, nickel and lead were mostly
    below  the  Lake Huron averages, and below OMOE, IJC  and U.S.EPA
    

    -------
                                                               TABLE  VIII-T
    
    
    Concentrations of n«tal* (ng/kg} and total carbon (weight percent!  in  aurfieial  se16
    . 130
    .109
    . 146
    .0578
    , ISO
    .0921
    . 137
    . 168
    . 226
    .0687
    . 152
    .0921
    .0644
    ,0734
    , 119
    .126
    .0382
    .114
    . 122
    .131
    . 125
    Total
    Carbon Cadmium
    3
    4
    4
    4
    4
    3
    4
    3
    4
    4
    3
    4
    3
    1
    2
    -
    3
    4
    2
    5
    3
    2
    3
    5
    2
    5
    2
    
    
    1
    3
    t
    2
    2
    2
    4
    .94
    .84
    .42
    .73
    .02
    .89
    , 36
    .75
    .74
    .86
    ,27
    .61
    , 78
    .06
    .96
    0
    .11
    .76
    .38
    .IB
    .30
    ,96
    .62
    .27
    .75
    . 13
    .48
    .970
    965
    .76
    .45
    .27
    .87
    .96
    .32
    .89
    z
    2
    3
    2
    2
    I
    2
    t
    2
    2
    2
    3
    1
    1
    1
    2
    2
    2
    1
    2
    1
    1
    1
    2
    2
    1
    I
    i
    1
    1
    2
    1
    3
    2
    2
    1
    .70
    .22
    ,71
    .87
    . to
    .35*
    . 34
    .93
    . 11
    .23
    .60
    .25
    .86
    .48*
    .48*
    .23
    .23
    .OB
    .<>7*
    . 74
    . 16»
    .66*
    . 66*
    . 44
    . 25
    .02*
    .22*
    . 3S*
    .23*
    .48*
    .38
    .66*
    .04
    .20
    . 2S
    .36*
    Chromium
    43.
    61 .
    54 .
    39.
    36.
    34 ,
    30.
    39.
    as.
    41 .
    38.
    41 .
    38.
    17.
    22.
    28.
    25.
    24.
    16.
    34.
    23 .
    22.
    20.
    36.
    17.
    23.
    18.
    18.
    IB.
    2J .
    21 .
    16.
    18.
    24.
    24,
    "'
    1
    3
    2
    4
    a
    3
    i
    7
    2
    5
    2
    4
    0
    7
    9
    11
    6
    <)
    3
    9
    8
    6
    9
    3
    4
    4
    7
    2
    4
    0
    1
    y
    9
    1
    9
    *
    Copper
    23.8
    34 .2
    26.4
    2(> . 1
    2tt.7
    23.5
    24.6
    19. 1
    32.2
    29.5
    20.4
    23.3
    20. 1
    5. 10
    9.46
    16.4
    14.6
    24.5
    9.08
    33.0
    14.5
    12.9
    23.3
    33.0
    10. 1
    20.6
    11.2
    6.86
    8.63
    10.3
    1 3 .8
    5, 11
    14.0
    13.8
    12.1
    15.1
    Nickel
    32
    34
    40
    33
    32
    29
    25
    33
    33
    32
    30
    32
    32
    14
    20
    25
    22
    23
    15
    31
    HO
    22
    26
    29
    15
    21
    IB
    14
    15
    17
    18
    9.
    19
    14
    Itt
    19
    .6
    .0
    .8
    .3
    .4
    .3
    .7
    .2
    .5
    .0
    .3
    .0
    .0
    .7
    ,4
    .8
    .4
    . 1
    .2
    , 2
    .8
    .9
    . 1
    . 8
    .2
    ,9
    .8
    .7
    .9
    .4
    .8
    74
    -Z
    -5
    .9
    .6
    Lead
    34
    31
    at
    37
    30
    35
    40
    13
    41
    46
    28
    29
    29
    12
    11
    26
    19
    32
    8 ,
    33
    21
    25
    29
    33
    20
    24
    11
    12
    17
    13
    17
    ,3
    .6
    .0
    .8
    ,6
    .2
    .0
    .6
    . 1
    .0
    .8
    .3
    .8
    . 2
    . 8
    .7
    .5
    ,0
    42
    ,4
    .0
    .2
    .5
    ,2
    ,9
    .5
    .4
    ,1
    .5
    .0
    .4
    -.525*
    13
    16
    14
    32
    .e
    . 5
    .4
    .6
    Ant imony
    .180
    .254
    ,281
    . 182
    .126
    . 170
    .160
    ,234
    ,173
    ,287
    .156
    . 116
    .151
    ,0707
    .0796
    .132
    .OH35
    .155
    .0921
    .211
    , 173
    .129
    .230
    .236
    .0689
    .197
    .122
    .0645
    .0052
    .0858
    ,148
    .0481
    .138
    .162
    . 144
    .110
    /Inc
    84.9
    130.
    103.
    90. 7
    81 .8
    84.4
    80.4
    60.0
    92.8
    91,8
    83.6
    B3.1
    82. 1
    41.4
    39.7
    71.7
    62.9
    73.8
    41 .5
    89. 1
    62,0
    57 . 7
    IB. 2
    90.7
    47 .6
    82.0
    47,4
    38.0
    50.4
    41.8
    55.7
    31 .8
    84.7
    67.0
    49. 1
    S3. 7
                                                                                                                                                    
    -------
                                   368
    
    Guidelines,  except for an area near to the mouth, of the Clinton
    River,  The distribution o£ the metals in Lake St. Clair sedi-
    ments did, however, indicate greater concentrations in the
    central, south and southeast areas than in the north and west
    areas.  Concentrations of lead and copper in the Clinton and Milk
    Rivers,  and of Ni in the Clinton River exceeded the OMOE and IJC
    Guidelines,  and cause a classification of "heavily polluted"
    according to U.S.EPA Classification Guidelines.
    
    Mercury (Kg) enrichment in the surface sediments was confined to
    central Late St. Clair, where up to 1.2 ug/g dry weight was
    found.  By comparison, surficial sediments in Lake Huron contain
    an average of 0.22 ug/g (22).  Except for the central area, most
    of Lake St.  Clair surficial sediments contained less than 0.3 ug
    Hg/g, the value for      and IJC Guidelines.  The concentration
    profiles of Hg in at least three cores in 1985 indicated lower
    concentrations of Hg at the surface of the cores than at a depth
    of 5-6 cm, thereby implying the deposition of less contaminated
    recent material.  The background concentrations deep in the core,
    however, were less than 0.1 ug Hg/g.  Concentrations of Hg in
    Clinton River sediments were found up to 0.7 ppm, exceeding the
          and IJC Guidelines, but not U.S.EPA Classification
    Guidelines for "polluted" sediments.
    
    The depth-integrated concentrations of metals in cores from the
    same  samples as above were generally similar to those in the
    surficial sections, except for significantly greater concen-
    trations of Cd in the composited samples  (Table VIII-8). Using
    the guidelines for OMOE evaluations of dredging projects for
    sediment contaminated by metals, which are roughly equivalent to
    U.S.EPA guidelines for moderately polluted sediments  (22), the
    guidelines ware exceeded in 100%, 75%, 36% and 8% of the cores
    for Cd,  Cr, Ni and Cu respectively,
    
    in a  separate study of surficial sediments conducted in 1985 in
    which sampling sites were selected specifically to collect fine-
    grained sediments capable of supporting mayfly  (Hexagenia)
    nymphs,  sediment at only 2 of the 45 stations were heavily pol-
    luted with mercury.  Sediments at 2-9  (4-20%) of the stations
    were  moderately polluted with nickel, copper, chromium and zinc.
    Five  to 10  (11-22%) of the stations sampled contained mercury,
    PCBs  or copper in excess of OMOE guidelines for contaminated
    sediments.  Concentrations of contaminants were generally highest
    in sediments at stations near L'anse Creuse Bay offshore of the
    Clinton River Cutoff Canal.  A 1984-85 study of Canadian tribu-
    tary  mouths indicated that Provincial dredging guidelines were
    exceeded at a number of tributaries for chromium, copper, iron
    and nickel.  An assessment of heavy metal concentrations measured
    on suspended solids  (RSP) indicated a higher frequency of guide-
    line  exceedence.
    

    -------
                            Concentrations of metals
                                                               TABLE VI Il-tt
    
    
                                                            in compoaite4 aediaent sanpl
                                                                                        «a  Tram  Lake  St.  Cluir.
    Station
    LSTri,-B5-04
    LSTCL-85- 14
    l.STCL-85-17
    LSTCJ.-85-IB
    LSTC1.-85-19
    LSTCL-85 -20
    LSTCL-B5-2I
    l,STCL-tJ5-22
    l,STCl,-B5-23
    LSTCI.-8S-24
    l.STCI. -85-25
    LSTCI.-85-26
    I.STCI. -85-27
    I.STCL-85-2B
    LSTCI.-8S-31
    I.STOI, -85-36
    I.STCL-85-37
    1.STCI.-BS-38
    LSTCI.-65-39
    LSTOI. -85-64
    I.STCL-85-65
    t,STCL-85-$7
    l.STCt-85-68
    LSTCL-85-69
    |,S1CL-ft5-70
    LSTCL-85-71
    LSTCL-85- 12
    1.STCI.-B5-73
    LSTCI.- 85- 15
    l.STCL-85-83
    I.S5TCL-B5-B*
    LSTCL-B5-8S
    LSTCI.-85-8?
    t.STCi,-8S-8tt
    l.STUL-85-89
    LSTL'l.-85-JB
    Bismuth
    .231
    , 194
    . 16B
    , 180
    , 150
    . 193
    .173
    , 179
    . 175
    ,226
    , 186
    ,132
    , 148
    . 158
    .6906
    . 133
    , 172
    . 113
    ,087
    .243
    .193
    .1S9
    . 148
    .250
    . 106
    , 120
    . lift
    .144
    . 135
    .179
    .116
    .0822
    .16?
    .116
    .221
    ,102
    Calcium
    48500.
    47000.
    49500.
    54800.
    67300.
    47200,
    42000.
    634UO.
    6-HiOO.
    57200,
    54700,
    62200.
    64700.
    71000.
    37000.
    24500.
    50700.
    69800,
    27000.
    53400.
    49HOO.
    21000.
    42200.
    5370O.
    49500.
    52000.
    21900.
    33300.
    34500.
    20700.
    37200.
    144OO.
    35800.
    36500.
    29BOO.
    20KOO.
    Cadmium
    3.11
    2.83
    4,35
    4.13
    2.56
    4.10
    3.4S
    3.46
    3.72
    4.63
    3. 91
    4.35
    6,15
    2.7*
    3.01
    4,00
    4,43
    4 .00
    3.38
    4 .00
    3. 28
    2.12
    3.92
    4 .90
    3,72
    3,27
    3.45
    4 .00
    2. 92
    ;>.s.«
    3.47
    2.11
    4.3G
    4.65
    3.20
    3.56
    ChroraiuB
    47.0
    42.8
    34. 1
    31.7
    2H.5
    33.1
    30. 2
    33.0
    29 . 5
    30. 7
    33.0
    28,1
    31 .6
    40. f,
    14.8
    23.4
    35 .0
    26.0
    15.5
    35. 1
    37 . S
    32 .«
    2H.2
    42 . 5
    21 , 7
    24.5
    25. 7
    28.8
    23.6
    39. J
    18. 1
    11.0
    28,8
    25.2
    31.3
    17.6
    Copper
    22.7
    24.3
    ia. i
    17,4
    16.5
    16.5
    19.1
    19.1
    22. 6
    2O, £>
    21,7
    15.6
    1H. 2
    21.7
    6, SB
    13,9
    18. 2
    2U.B
    7.77
    25. Z
    1»,1
    IB. 2
    15,6
    40, 1
    22.5
    16.4
    1 3. »
    13.9
    13.6
    1H.2
    13.9
    5.12
    16.5
    14.5
    15.7
    10.4
    Iron
    32100,
    2930O.
    23500.
    22400.
    23BOO.
    23900.
    22900,
    25000.
    23500.
    23HOO.
    23800.
    22300.
    Z2600,
    33000.
    12600.
    15600.
    24400.
    19000,
    10500.
    25400,
    26900.
    26SUO.
    23000.
    27800.
    ItSiiUO.
    1»«!00.
    20100.
    23500.
    20200.
    217 00 .
    1481)0.
    «590.
    21 100.
    1B100.
    21200.
    1 1400.
    Hagnesiim
    20100.
    1520U.
    2570O.
    24UOO.
    25500.
    2 5 I OO .
    2B100.
    20700.
    2330O.
    2720O.
    25500,
    2 3 BOO.
    24OOO.
    15900.
    ] 3100.
    SJ1900.
    22500.
    30100.
    14300,
    30000.
    20700.
    17900.
    20500.
    27700.
    20400,
    25700.
    1 7700.
    1 3200.
    i:)800.
    14500,
    23000.
    9710,
    20000.
    16200.
    11900.
    10500.
    Manganese
    42B.
    392.
    366.
    367.
    400.
    34B.
    360.
    300.
    339.
    347.
    353.
    358.
    373,
    446.
    260.
    234.
    33Z .
    274,
    147.
    353.
    347.
    307.
    294.
    3BO.
    213,
    236.
    239.
    2S3.
    306.
    399.
    ItH.
    120.
    240.
    237.
    281.
    134.
    Nickel
    32. tt
    31 ,2
    25.0
    24.5
    24.2
    23.8
    2S.O
    25.6
    28. 1
    29.6
    27.7
    25,8
    25.0
    30.2
    13.3
    18.8
    27 .8
    20.9
    13,3
    27.7
    29.8
    24.0
    23.6
    29,8
    17.7
    19.6
    20.8
    24.2
    20.9
    29.7
    18.3
    10.1
    22.4
    21 .6
    23.0
    15. B
    Lead
    24.3
    24.2
    17. 7
    19.*
    17.4
    18.6
    19.3
    14 .9
    23.4
    23. (1
    22.6
    10.5
    18.6
    18.6
    6,24»
    20.2
    18.9
    3O. 3
    9.69
    27.1
    12.5
    14.5
    9.29
    34.8
    21 .3
    14-5
    16.3
    12.5
    12.1
    12,1
    12.1
    4.0*
    13,7
    13.5
    32.8
    19.0
    Ant iaony
    .149
    .174
    .151
    .\titi
    .161
    .172
    . 1S5
    , 193
    . 165
    .140
    ,146
    .184
    .108
    . 121
    .078S
    .104
    .135
    .187
    ,0625
    ,219
    .220
    .193
    ,152
    .23)
    .130
    .182
    ,161
    .133
    ,07§0
    .0952
    .119
    .0407
    .20ti
    .08?
    .173
    .0887
    Zinc
    80.8
    84. 3
    67.1
    £2.9
    60.6
    63.0
    60.4
    6Z.B
    67.1
    69. S
    71,7
    58.1
    82. B
    11.6
    31. f
    49.5
    62.5
    76-8
    36.2
    80.6
    69, S
    6*, 6
    60.7
    98. S
    62.6
    64.8
    55.9
    51.6
    51 .6
    56.0
    60.8
    29.4
    62,8
    61.9
    58.5
    47.4
                                                                                                                                                   ui
                                                                                                                                                   at
                                                                                                                                                   W3
    » Below liait of detection
    

    -------
                                   370
    
    Phosphorus Enrichment:
    
    Total phosphorus concentrations in surficial sediments were
    higher in three discrete areas during the 1983 survey: the mouth
    of the cutoff channel of the Clinton river, the mouth of the
    Thames River and the south-central portion of the lake.  Con-
    centrations were below OMOE and IJC Guidelines (1,000 ppm), but
    are classified as either "moderately polluted" (420-650 ppm) or
    "heavily polluted" (>650 ppm} by U.S.EPA Classification Guide-
    lines .  In tributaries,  the highest concentrations were found in
    the Clinton River (3,100 ppm), which exceeded all relevant guide-
    lines .
    
        iii) Evidence of Current Inputs of Contaminants
    
    In sediment cores taken in 1985 from Lake St. Clair, PCBs, DDT
    and DCS exhibit higher concentrations deeper in the sediment than
    at the surface.  Reduced surface concentrations apparently ref-
    lect the decrease in loading of the chemicals which has likely
    occurred in recent years.  Both HCB and HCBD concentrations,
    however, increased near the top of the cores.  This suggests that
    loadings of these chemicals to Lake st» Clair were evidently not
    dropping, and may even had been increasing in 1935.  These
    results are consistent with those of a 1985 study within the St.
    Clair River that showed HCB and HCBD, (hexoctilorobutadlene) con-
    centrations in water to be elevated on the Canadian side of the
    mouth of the river (7).
    
    Studies of sediments from the St. Clair River have shown that the
    ratios of HCB to DCS are useful for tracking the source of con-
    taminants in that river  (23).  The HCS/OCS and HCB/QCB ratios
    were 1.3 and 4,0, respectively, for sediments near the Scott Road
    Landfill, a site which contains waste byproducts from Dow's early
    production of chlorine and chlorinated solvents.  The HCB/OCS and
    HCB/QCB ratios in sediments just below Dow's outfall and where
    nonaqueous wastes have leaked into the river were 16 and 23 res-
    pectively.  In sediment cores from the central area of Lake St.
    Clair in 1985, the ratio of HCB/OCS changed from 2 lower in the
    core to 9 at the surface,  similarly the HCB/QCB ratio increased
    from 4 near the bottom to 20 near the surface.  These trends were
    thus consistent with decreasing waste losses from the Scott Road
    Landfill and an increase in  the relative importance of Dow's
    current effluent discharge and waste losses from the plant site.
    
    Localized Hot Spots of In-place Pollutants:
    
    A  survey of metal contaminants in surficial sediments of Lake St.
    Clair conducted in 1983 included sampling  sites closer to the
    nearshore areas than were the sites  in the  1985 survey  (24) .  In
    1983, near the Cutoff Canal  of the Clinton River, relatively
    elevated concentrations of Cu, 2n» Ni, Cd,  cr, and  Pb were
    observed.  Similar concentrations were also observed  in  the
    

    -------
                                   371
    
    Chenal Ecarte near Mitchell Bay,  Distributions and concentra-
    tions of Cu, Zn,  Pb and Cr across Lake St. Clair were similar to
    the findings of the 1985 survey, the nickel and cadmium concentr-
    ations were about half of those reported for 1985 sediments. The
    reason for this discrepancy has not been defined.
    
        iv) Sediment Transport
    
    Due to the strong hydraulic circulations, sediments from either
    tributary sources or from resuspension during severe storms are
    generally transported considerable distances, on the order of
    several km from their origin, before they either deposit to the
    lake bed or enter the outflow.  Besides direct sediment transport
    by the lake circulation, it is possible that sediments are trans-
    ported from nearshore zones to the open lake depositional basins
    by gravity currents associated with heavier turbid water.  A thin
    layer of more turbid water was observed near the bottom at one
    open lake observation site.  Evidence supporting this method of
    sediment transport is seen in the sediment concentration contours
    of zinc, copper and organic carbon, which indicate a source of
    these parameters at the mouth of the Thames River.
    
        v) Sediment Burial
    
    Since only 30 cm, at most, of sediment has accumulated in Lake
    St. Clair in post-glacial times, the lake must be considered as
    nearly nondepositional.  However, the isotopic studies of bottom
    sediments (25) suggest that the burrowing activities of such
    organisms as Oligochaete worms can mix newly deposited sediment
    to an average depth of around 5 cm.  At that depth the sediment
    could be buried for long periods of time.  Mass budget studies of
    various tracers indicate residence time of sediments ranging from
    3 to 6 years with a mean of 4 +/- 1 year.  In the contaminant
    modeling studies, the burial process was quantified at a rate of
    0.1 cm/yr throughout the lake.  However, it should be noted that
    this burial rate inferred from the modeling studies leads to a
    sediment accumulation which is about two orders of magnitude too
    large.  On the other hand, it is possible that precultural rates
    of burial were much less than the present rates of burial.
    
        vi) Sediment Residence Time
    
    Two sediment residence times are of concern: 1) the residence
    time of newly suspended or tributary input sediment in the water
    column, and 2) the sediment residence times of deposited sedi-
    ments in the lake.  Estimates of the time during which contamin-
    ants bound to sediments could exchange with the water column are
    based on measured and inferred settling rates of suspended par-
    ticles in Lake St. Clair.  The settling velocities of the fine-
    sized components of suspended sediment which presumably originate
    from nearby deposits range from 2 to 5 m/d, but are mainly about
    4 m/d.  Thus once suspended, particles remain in suspension for
    

    -------
                                   372
    
    somewhat less than a day before being deposited.  This is
    probably a maximum residence time in the water column since the
    particles were separated before analysis,  Flocculation of par-
    ticles could decrease the residence time of particles to several
    hours.  This notion is supported by the application of the simple
    sediment model to five time series of suspended sediments,
    neglecting horizontal transport.  The mean settling velocity
    inferred from the model was 21 m/d.
    
    An approximate residence time for deposited sediments may be
    estimated from the strength of the hydraulic flow and the
    settling time.  If, for example, fine sediment particles are
    resuspended for 8 hours on the average, then they would be trans-
    ported by the main hydraulic flow about 2 km towards the outflow
    before being deposited as the storm event subsides.  For par-
    ticles deposited in the depositional basin, at least 12 storm
    events would be required to move them a distance of 20 km to the
    outflow area.  Because the physical measurements of suspended
    sediments were unable to distinguish between local resuspension
    in deep water and the transport by the lake circulation from
    shallower areas, it is impossible to estimate the number of
    storms per year capable of resuspending fine sediments in the
    deeper zones of the lake.  It is probably safe to say that there
    would be at least two storms per year of sufficient strength to
    initiate sediment resuspension in the deeper area.  Therefore,
    one might conclude that strongly adsorbed contaminants would take
    about 6 years to move to the outflow area.
    
    There are several processes which could lengthen this residence
    time.  As the sediments travel towards the outflow, there would
    be a progressively shorter wind fetch.  Consequently, the wave
    energy available for resuspension would decrease towards the
    outflow region in the prevailing wind direction.  This finding
    was supported by the wave, wind and sediment data of Haniblin et
    al.,   (26) who showed that suspended sediment levels are high in
    the Detroit River inflow area only during major storms from the
    northeast.  Those storms which are from the prevailing wind
    direction do not result in appreciable export of suspended sedi-
    ment  from the lake.
    
    The one-dimensional bottom sediment model of Robbins and Oliver,
     (27)   shows erosion of sediment becomes progressively more dif-
    ficult as erosion proceeds because of compaction.  Therefore,
    while there may be several storms per year capable of initiating
    sediment resuspension, it is possible that major storms occurring
    only  once in  20 years or even 100 years can erode appreciable
    amounts of bottom sediments.
    
    Due to the many uncertainties at this time in the understanding
    of the physical processes involved in estimating the residence
    time  for strongly attached contaminants on fine sediment par-
    ticles, estimates of the residence times  can be better achieved
    

    -------
                                   373
    
    through budget methods.
    
    Residence times for bottom sediments in Lake St. Clair baaed on
    long term budgets of radioactive tracers, mercury and various
    organic contaminants are given in Table VIXI-9.   Residence times
    range from 3 to 6,2 years with a mean of 4 +/- 1 years.  Some of
    these estimates were based on the assumption that there is no
    exchange with the overlying water during resuspension events,
    

    -------
                                       314
                              TABLE VIII-9
    
    Sediment  reservoir  residence  times  inferred from radiormclide
    storage as of 1985  and changes  in mean  contaminant levels  from
    1970 to 1974 (25) .
    
    Constituent                        Residence Time(yr)
    Cesium-137                                6.0
    Excess lead-210                           3.0
    Mercury                                   4 .0
    DDE                                       3,6
    TDE                                       4.6
    DDT                                       2 . 9
    Total PCBs                                6.2
    
    Mean                                     4+/-1
    

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                                   375
    
    B. SPECIFIC
    
    A summary of specific concerns for Lake St, Clair, based on the
    following discussion may be found in Table VIII-10.  Included are
    the specific concerns,  the use impairments prompting the con-
    cerns, the media affected, and the geographic scope of the use
    impairment,
    
    
    1. Conventional Pollutants
    
    Due to the agricultural base of the Lake St. Clair geographic
    area's counties, the nonpoint source pollutants of greatest con-
    cern are suspended sediments» nutrients and pesticides,  These
    concerns were documented in 1585 through the small watershed
    assessment process (28),  These pollutants can impair the use of
    Lake St, Clair area resources for drinking water  supplies, fish-
    eries and wildlife, recreation, industrial shipping and agricul-
    ture.
    
    
    Nutrients and.. Eutrophication
    
    Nonpoint source water quality problems     aggravated or pro-
    nounced by variations in stream-flow.  During high flow periods,
    most surface waters display their poorest quality, with signif-
    icant increases in biological oxygen demand, nutrients, pesti-
    cides and sediments from nonpoint sources,  "When  low flows occur,
    the nonpoint source material deposited during high flow events
    have an impact because they are no longer diluted.  Scouring and
    the deposition of sediments is also a significant nonpoint source
    impact.  Both water quality     water quantity are therefore
    important to consider in devising control and management plans.
    The input of relatively clean, low nutrient water from Lake Huron
    via the St. Clair River, and the short flushing time of Lake St,
    Clair has prevented nutrient concentrations from  increasing and
    has kept eutrophication to a minimum.
    
    Although phosphorus concentrations in Lake St, Clair per se do
    not appear to be a problem, the lake basin      contribute phos-
    phorus to the water which enters Lake Erie via the Detroit River,
    The Water Quality Agreement specifically calls for "improved
    measurement of tributary loadings to the Lower Lakes for the
    purpose of providing improved nonpoint source loading estimates".
    Because tributary loadings of nutrients have been shown to exceed
    those from atmospheric or point sources, accurate tributary load-
    ing data are important to identify total loadings from the lake
    basin,  Michigan and Ontario have target nonpoint source loadings
    of phosphorus to Lake Erie to meet as part of their phosphorus
    loading reduction program, and the contribution from the Lake St,
    Clair basin may be significant.
    

    -------
                                          376
                                   TABLE VIII-10
    
    Specific concerns in Lake St. Glair, uses impaired, media affected, and
    geographic scope of the perceived problem.
    CONCERN
    Phosphorus
    
    
    Pest icides
    Oil and grease
    
    
    Heavy metals
    
    
    Mercury
      POTENTIAL
    USE IMPAIRMENT
    use associated with
    eutrophication of
    Lake Erie
    
    potential reduction of
    plant productivity
    
    toxicity to benthic
    community
    
    toxicity to benthic
    community
    
    toxicitv to biota
    toxicity to biota
     MEDIA
     water
     water
                                             sediments
     sediments
     sediments
     water
    
     sediments
     GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE
    
    
    
     tributaries
    
    
     wetlands
    
    
     tributaries
    
    
     whole lake
    
    
     tributaries
    
    
     whole lake
    PCBs
    PAH 5
    Phthalate
    esters
    
    Habitat
    alterat ions
    human health hazard
    (when consumed)
    
    human health hazard
    (when consumed)
    
    toxicity to benthic
    community
    
    human health
     hazard
    
    human health
    hazard
    
    lowered wildlife
    production
                                             fish
     fish
     ducks
    
     sediments
    sediments
     sediments
     biota
     sediments
     water
                 whoie lake
     whole lake
     Walpole Island
    
     tributaries
    tributaries
     tributaries
     wetlands
    

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                                   377
    
    Beach Closings
    
    In 1986, there were eight U.S. bathing beaches on Lake St. Clair
    in Macomb and Wayne counties  (29) .  All were monitored, for water
    quality, and none were temporarily closed due to water quality
    problems.  This issue does not appear to be a problem.
    
    
    Aesthetics
    
    In the nearshore regions, the water is brownish-green.  Over the
    navigation channel the water colour tends to cloudy-green, but
    the water is clear green near the centre of the lake away from
    the navigation channel.  Noxious odors and floating mats of algae
    are generally not present.  Mid-summer water transparency ranges
    from. 0.6 m near the shore to about 2.6 m near the open lake.
    Aesthetics is therefore not a major issue concerning Lake St.
    Clair.
    
    
    2. Toxic Organics and Heavy Metals
    
    Ambient__Waters
    
    For compounds that persist and bioaccumulate, loadings into the
    Great Lakes are of concern regardless of the concentrations at
    which the compounds -are delivered.  Even when loadings occur at
    concentrations below detection limits, such compounds can bio-
    accumulate and exert significant ecosystem effects.  Such com-
    pounds have received extensive study within the Great Lakes.
    Most of the current generation of pesticides have short environ-
    mental half-lives and have little tendency to bioaccumulate.
    They are present, however, at much higher concentrations than
    most of the persistent organics  (30).  Their ecological effects
    have received very little study in comparison with studies of
    persistent organics.
    
    The most commonly applied agricultural pesticides were the herb-
    icides atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor and cyanazine.  Data and
    tables have been provided (5,31).  Maximum measured concentra-
    tions of these pesticides in the Thames and Clinton Rivers in
    1985 and unit area loads from the watershed to these rivers are
    summarized in Table VIII-1.   The 1985 Thames River estimated
    loading rates for atrazine,  metolachlor and alachlor were 6,892
    kg (16 g/ha) , 2,875 kg (7 g/ha) , and 299 -kg (0.7 g/ha} respec-
    tively  (Table VIII-1}.  Atrazine was detected in 93% of all sam-
    ples.  Alachlor, which was banned in 1985, was detected in
    approximately 15% of the samples collected in 1984 to 1985.
    During April through August,  1985, the Clinton River estimated
    loading rates for atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and cyanazine
    were  52.2 kg  (0.28 g/ha), 1.3 kg  (0.1 g/ha), 14.2 kg  (0.08 g/ha) ,_
    and 9,1 kg  (0.05 g/ha) respectively.  The unit area loadings of
    

    -------
                                   378
    
    atrazine and metolachlor from the Thames River watershed were
    therefore approximately 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than
    those from the Clinton River watershed.
    
    In general, the 1985 concentrations of pesticides observed in the
    Michigan tributaries would have little effect on fish or aquatic
    invertebrates, but could affect photosynthetic rates of some
    algae and rooted aquatic plants.  However, the 1985 pesticide
    loads for the Clinton River is very likely to be significantly
    less than the average load for this river, due to the near ab-
    sence of runoff events following pesticide applications in this
    watershed.
    
    Biota
    
    In edible portions of Lake St. Clair fish, PCBs have declined
    generally and with the exception of carp, channel catfish and
    muskellunge, all species have not exceeded the Health and Welfare
    Canada guideline of 2.0 ppm.  Mean PCB concentrations in mus-
    kellunge have increased since 1980 (32).
    
    Measurements of DDT in Lake St. Clair fish have not exceeded the
    Health and Welfare Canada guideline of 5 ppm in any of the 13
    species tested.  As with the PCB data, highest concentrations
    were detected in channel catfish and carp, and they were lowest
    in yellow perch.
    
    Concentrations of HCB and OCS in channel catfish from Lake St.
    Clair are greater than those from southern Lake Huron,  in carp,
    OCS concentrations are greater in fish from Lake St. Clair than
    in those from southern Lake Huron.  Chlorinated dioxins and
    dibenzofurans have been detected in Lake St. Clair channel cat-
    fish and carp, but not in walleye.
    
    A survey of contaminants in spottail shiners from 1977 through
    1986 indicated that the highest contaminant burdens were assoc-
    iated with the south channel of the St. Clair River.  Shiners
    from Mitchell Bay were less impacted, and those from the south-
    eastern part of the lake near the mouth of the Thames River and
    from the southern part of the lake near the mouth of the Detroit
    River were not measurably impacted by contaminant loadings from
    the St. Clair River.  Concentrations of PCBs, HCB, OCS, DDT and
    Chlordane in spottails from Lake St, Clair were generally similar
    to those in southern Lake Huron, except for elevated levels of
    PCBs and HCB in fish from the South Channel.
    
    Current mean concentrations of mercury in walleye, northern pike
    and carp fillets are less than  25% and yellow perch and white
    bass less than 20% of 1970  levels  (33) .  Mercury concentrations
    in muskellunge, however, did not decline between 1975 and 1985
     (32) .
    

    -------
                                   379
    
    Despite declining concentrations of contaminants in the fish, a
    Public Health Fish Consumption Advisory exists for both U.S. and
    Canadian waters.  As of 1987, the Advisory included "No Consump-
    tion" for largemouth bass over 14", muskellunge and sturgeon.
    "Restricted consumption" of no more than one meal per week for
    the general population was advised for larger specimens of
    walleye, white bass, smallmouth bass, yellow perch, carp, rock
    bass, black crappie, largemouth bass, bluegill, pumpkinseed,
    freshwater drum, carp-sucker, brown bullhead, catfish and north-
    ern pike.  Nursing mothers, pregnant women, women who expect to
    bear children and children age 15 and under were advised to not
    eat the fish listed because of the potential for effects of con-
    taminants on the infant or child.
    
    For 1988, Michigan will retain the advisory as issued for 1987.
    Ontario, however, will reduce the advisory such that no "No Con-
    sumption" category will be issued.  The advise toward pregnant
    mothers and their children will still remain in effect.
    
    A comparison of the abundance of mayfly (Hexagenia) nymphs in the
    UGLCC Study area where visible oil did and did not occur in the
    sediments indicated substantially lower densities  (Sl/m^) in the
    presence of visible oil than in the absence of visible oil
    (224/m2).
    
    The annual production of Hexagenia nymphs was measured in the
    UGLCC Study area along with sediment concentrations of oil,
    cyanide, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu» Ni, Pb and Zn.  Production averaged
    2,086 mg dry wt./m^/yr at 3 locations where sediment levels of
    contaminants were not in excess of guidelines established by the
    U.S. and Canada for distinguishing polluted sediments.  Elsewhere
    in the study area, the guidelines for polluted sediments were
    exceeded by as many as 7 contaminants at a single location, and
    production averaged only 364 ing dry wt./m^/yr.  In Lake St.
    Clair, where production was highest, only Hg exceeded the guide-
    line .
    
    Wildfowl:
    
    Recent analyses  (34) have indicated elevated levels of penta-
    chlorobenzene (QCB), PCBs, HCB and OCS in duck populations resi-
    dent in the St. Clair River marshes near Walpole Island.  Mean
    OCS concentrations of 115 ppb and PCB concentrations ranging from
    1.5 to 4 ppb were found in nonmigratory mallards in samples of
    breast and liver tissue.  At present no wildfowl consumptions
    advisories exist for HCB, OCS and QCB.  While a comparison of the
    PCB concentrations with the Wisconsin guidelines (35) of 3 ppm do
    not indicate a major health concern and consequent loss of use of
    the wetland habitat, there is considerable evidence that organic
    compounds moving down the St. Clair River are being trapped
    within the wetland  region.  Wildfowl consumption advisories are
    being considered by the appropriate governmental agencies in the
    

    -------
                                   380
    
    Lake St. Clair region (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,
    Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Canadian Wildlife
    Service).
    Sediments
    
    Results of sediment surveys in Lake St. Clair that were conducted
    within the last few years indicate that      accumulation of
    contaminants has occurred in the deeper, thicker bottom sedi-
    ments, but no particular areas or hot spots o£ highly contamin-
    ated sediments were located.  The data showed that sediments in
    several tributaries to the lake contained much greater concentra-
    tions of pollutants than were found in the open lake deposits.
    Therefore, the areas requiring further attention for possible
    remedial actions were within the regions of tributary discharge.
    
    In 1985, bottom sediments from 12 U.S. tributaries to Lake St.
    Clair were analyzed for UGLCCS parameters of concern and other
    contaminants.  The data are presented in Table ¥111-11 and sum-
    marized below.
    
        1} Pesticides
    
    DOT and its metabolites were found in 9 of the 12 tributary sedi-
    ment samples.  The maximum concentration     found in the Milk
    River  (383 ug/kg).  The p'p forms of DDT predominated, and DDT
    and DDE generally were more prevalent than ODD.  The p'p forms
    were detected in  10% of sediment samples from the mouths of
    Ontario tributaries.
    
    Other chloro-organic pesticides were also found in 9 of 12 tribu-
    tary sediment samples, Gamma-chlordane was the pesticide most
    commonly found, ranging from 2 ug/kg in the Clinton Cutoff Canal
    to 196 ug/kg in Cottrell Drain.  The sample from the Milk Eiver
    contained the greatest number of pesticide compounds identified,
    including the only occurrence of Aldrin outside of the Detroit
    River tributaries.  With exception of a single sample containing
    2, 4-D from  Pike  Creek no other pesticides or herbicides were
    measured in bottom sediments from Ontario tributaries.
    
    Hexachlorobenzene  (HCB3 was found in only 6 samples at levels of
    I to 7 ug/kg.
    
        ii) Organic Contaminants
    
    PCBs were found in 9 of 12  tributary samples with concentrations
    up to  1,974  ug/kg in the Cottrel Drain,  Most of the PCS was
    found as aroclor  1254, although in the Cottrel Drain aroclor  1248
    was dominant.  Aroclor 1260     found only from the Milk River
    sediments.
    

    -------
                                                                             i\iii.e viit-ii
                                                 C oriT aainants In Lake  St.  Clalr tributary sediaents  Ing/kg 1, 1975.
    L
    scat isn
    »
    
    
    P«ra««ter CC"t- 1 1 Ct'f-12 CCT- 1 3A CCT- 1 4 A
    Ca ic iui»
    Magnesiirfc
    Sodj iiia
    Potassium
    Arsenic
    BariuM
    Be ry 1 i uts
    B i sntu t h
    Cadffiiiim
    Chromium
    Cobalt
    Copper
    Lead
    Manganese
    Molybdenum
    Nickel
    Silver
    Strontiu»
    Van ad Ilia
    2 i nc*
    Tin
    Aluminum
    M thiuHi
    S* ( en i KM
    Iron
    ¥t triua
    Nerctiry
    COD
    Oil and Grease
    Ammonia
    TKN
    Phosphorus
    Cyanide
    To till Solids
    Tot«i Volatilea
    Total PCBs lug/ kg
    Total PAHa "
    Tot a 1 DDT "
    HCB
    <]. ChiorrtnnB
    DK-Hiity 1 pht hulate
    BISJ Z-El hyl benzy I
    phthaiate lug /kg!
    2 1 OOO
    44OO
    170
    1400
    9
    l&Q
    0, 1
    9.5
    2.2
    63
    11
    110
    410
    400
    1.6
    Si
    2,6
    45
    2S
    380
    15
    120OO
    23
    l.l
    24000
    9.7
    
    54000
    3290
    
    
    
    0. 1
    45.85
    B.07
    1 198
    14300
    383
    J
    87
    400
    
    5600
    3000O
    4300
    12O
    700
    7.S
    4B
    0. I
    11
    1 . 1
    21
    6
    39
    130
    260
    1 .2
    20
    0.3
    39
    15
    160
    6.6
    5000
    11
    0,4
    12000
    5.8
    0.2
    14OOO
    20JO
    90
    1:100
    600
    0.1
    55. 4S
    6.41
    1974
    
    
    
    I9ti
    2000
    
    4 ZOO
    22000
    4200
    100
    200
    1.6
    11
    0.1
    11
    0.3
    16
    3.1
    10
    14
    110
    1
    10
    0,3
    21
    J.2
    34
    4
    2000
    5
    0
    4000
    2.2
    0.1
    leooo
    650
    75
    BOO
    430
    O.J
    77.13
    0.14
    IM
    1 3 BOO
    271
    
    2
    200
    
    3000
    24000
    4400
    150
    1100
    7.5
    89
    O.I
    12
    1.9
    68
    1 13
    68
    130
    610
    1.2
    83
    1.2
    S3
    27
    220
    6
    13000
    26
    0. 7
    28000
    11
    i). 3
    35000
    1230
    300
    eaoQ
    3000
    0,2
    J4.01
    7,67
    596
    800
    
    
    _
    4000
    
    34OO
    
    CCT- 1 6
    38OOO
    4600
    17U
    2 UOO
    6,5
    93
    0.1
    11
    1 ,3
    45
    11
    78
    110
    460
    1.2
    40
    1
    52
    25
    190
    4.5
    14000
    29
    0.6
    24000
    11
    0.3
    B moo
    2400
    310
    4300
    1300
    0,4
    2». 12
    8.37
    226
    1400
    87
    
    -
    1600
    
    44IIO
    
    OCT-16A
    36000
    4700
    170
    1600
    8.5
    150
    0, 1
    10
    B. j
    140
    15
    130
    240
    670
    2,1
    100
    3.5
    53
    2fS
    430
    11
    13000
    27
    o.a
    32000
    11
    0.7
    38000
    3700
    2;io
    2 a oo
    3100'
    0.7
    41.1
    7.8
    185
    I 2 1 00
    30
    
    If
    -
    
    16200
    
    
    
    CCT-lflA CCT- 1 7 CCf-lHA
    17000
    41UO
    mo
    1400
    a. 4
    64
    0. 1
    B.8
    0.2
    21
    1.S
    22
    58
    360
    I .2
    31
    0.3
    32
    20
    140
    4
    9000
    16
    0
    ifiooo
    1
    0.1
    30OOO
    K50
    150
    1700
    2000
    0. 1
    53.2
    4.7
    
    3«00
    MK
    
    ti
    200
    
    BOO
    17000
    4300
    22O
    4500
    4 .»
    120
    0.1
    24
    0.8
    40
    12
    71
    81
    350
    1 .4
    37
    0.6
    46
    51
    140
    4.9
    24000
    40
    0.3
    30000
    13
    0.2
    61000
    fl50
    240
    3600
    1600
    0.3
    40.1
    7.3
    B5
    HOO
    72
    
    
    2600
    
    1200
    20UOO
    420O
    2311
    1BOO
    5. 3
    U4
    0,1
    26
    O.S
    32
    7.4
    48
    140
    270
    1,7
    19
    1
    42
    27
    170
    5.5
    11000
    19
    0.4
    18000
    a
    0.4
    30000
    2250
    190
    1700
    1500
    0.3
    44.4
    8
    635
    41)0
    H
    
    is
    laoo
    
    10400
    
    CCf-l9
    31 OOO
    4600
    130
    E10O
    6.7
    130
    0, 1
    0.7
    0.2
    32
    15
    28
    36
    650
    2.6
    43
    0.4
    66
    38
    110
    4
    19000
    42
    0.3
    38000
    13
    0.1
    33000
    860
    240
    1900
    1100
    0, 1
    45.1
    4.6
    31
    10700
    3:1
    2
    3
    
    
    
    
    CCT- 20
    1OOOO
    4500
    100
    1400
    s.s
    6ft
    0.3
    0
    0.4
    21
    11
    42
    40
    310
    1.8
    29
    o.a
    22
    26
    100
    4
    12000
    25
    0.6
    20000
    11
    0. 1
    39OOO
    650
    70
    3100
    820
    0.3
    37.4
    6.9
    
    
    26
    2
    5
    
    
    
    
    flCf-21
    5000
    3200
    100
    200
    1,3
    10
    0.1
    0
    0.2
    4.7
    3
    4.8
    10
    47
    t
    6
    0.3
    B.3
    8.5
    19
    4
    moo
    3,5
    0
    3000
    2.2
    
    11 000
    650
    17
    770
    22-0
    0.1
    65.5
    1 .8
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                                                                                                                                              CO
    Mi-Milk River,  bririgp, 12-Colt re I I  drain, Nnrt.li fhannol, I :ift-i!l inton River cur off  upstream,  14a-tfentr<* Beuf Druin/Blnck Creek,
    16-0 lint on Hiver,  t fin-Clint on  kiver  itftstrt-nm,  IK-Vase  <"r«»ek upstream,  11 -Ha It Hivftr.  «t mouth,  Ilia-Frog Creek,  upstreiiB, 19-M»rs«c  Creek
    20-SwAn Creek, mouth, 21-llnnni»*rt  trib. ,  R»st of St»«n C.Ten-k.
    

    -------
                                   382
    
    PAHs were found In 9 of the samples, with the maximum total PAHs
    being reported in sediments from the Milk River (14,300 ug/kg).
    Elevated concentrations were found also in the Cottrel Drain
    {13,800 ug/kg), Clinton River (12,100 ug/kg), and in Frog Creek
    {10,700 ug/kg).  Most samples were dominated by 3~, 4- and 5-ring
    PAHs,  Naphthalene     found, only from the Clinton River,
    Cottrel Drain, Milk River and Frog creek had the highest number
    of individual PAH compounds with 11, 9 and 8 respectively.
    
    Phthalate esters were found in 9 of 12 samples.  Occurrences of
    all the four phthalate esters that were found throughout the
    UGLCC Study area were found in the Lake St.  Clair tributary sedi-
    ments, including the 4 highest concentrations of di-n-butyl
    phthalate (in sediments from the Ventre Beuf Drain/Black Creek,
    Salt River,  Cottrel Drain and Frog Creek) and the only occur-
    rences of diethyl phthalate in the UGLCC Study area.  Bis(2-
    ethyihexyl)phthalate was found in 9 of 12 samples with
    concentrations up to 16,200 ug/kg in the Clinton River,
    
        iii) Metals and Conventional Pollutants
    
    Several tributary sediment samples contained concentrations of
    metals and conventional pollutants in excess of U.S.EPA Guide-
    lines  (22) for nonpolluted sediments.  These guidelines, number
    of tributaries with exceedences of the guidelines, and the rivers
    with maximum concentration of each parameter are presented in
    Table VIII-12.  Most of the maximum concentrations occurred in
    either the Clinton River or the Milk River.   The Ventre Beuf
    Drain/Black Creek sediments contained elevated concentrations of
    the agricultural contaminants, ammonia, TKN and phosphorus,
    
    
    3. Habitat Alterations
    
    The delta marshes, estuaries, lagoons and channel wetlands that
    fringe the shores of Lake St, Clair in both Michigan     Ontario
    are among the most biologically productive areas in the Great
    Lakes system.  Because they occur in the proximity of a densely
    populated, highly industrialized and intensively farmed region,
    the wetlands have suffered losses in both quality and quantity
     (36).  The remaining wetlands perform many important hydrological
    and ecological functions, including providing habitat for fish,
    furbearers and waterfowl.
    
    Although portions of the wetlands have been permanently lost or
    severely degraded, the prospects for future preservation ot re-
    maining wetlands and for at least partial rehabilitation of
    selected areas are reasonable good.  Wetland legislation and
    other policies designed to protect  the environment are  in place
    or under consideration.  A comprehensive discussion of  the Lake
    St.  Clair wetlands, including their ecological  features, human
    

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                                           383
                                   TABLE VII1-12
    
    Exeeedenees of U.S. guidelines for heavily polluted sediments  for metals
    and conventional pollutants in U.S. Lake St. Glair tributaries.
    Parameter  Guideline
    Cd          6 ng/kg
    Cr         75 mf/kg
    Cti         50 mg/kg
    Pb         60 mg/kg
    Me        SOO mg/kg
    
    Hi         SO mg/kg
    Ag
    Zn        200 mg/kg
    Se        0,8 mf/kg*
    Fe     15,000 mg/kg
    
    As          8 mg/kg
    8a         60 mg/kg
    Bo
    COD    iO.OOO mg/tg
    O*G     1,000 mg/kg
    NH4       200 mg/kg
    TKN     X,000 mg/hf
    * of tribs
    with
    exceedences*
         1
         1
         4
         7
         3
         3
         1
         4
    
         1
         §
         I
         i
         i
         S
     inaxifiuit measured
     concentration
       6.3 mg/hf
       140 aig/kg
       130 tig/kg
       410 mg/ki
       670 mg/kg
    
       100 ag/kg
       3.8 mg/kg
       430 mg/kg
       1.1 mg/kg
    3i,000 mg/kg
    
       S.S mg/feg
       ISO mg/kg
        IS mg/kg
    81,000 mf/kg
     3,100 mg/kg
       330 mg/kg
     i,900 ng/kg
    River with
    maximum
     Clinton
     Clinton
     Cl inton
     Milk
     Cl inton
    
     Cl inton
     Clinton
     Cl inton
     Milk
     Marsmo Creek
    
     Clinton
     Clinton
     Frog Creek
     Salt River
    
     Clinton
     Clinton
     Milk
     Ventre Beyf
     Drain/Black
     Creek
    p
    CN
    TVS
    850 mg/kg
    0,25 mg/kg
    8 *
    S
    5
    3
    . 3,100 mg/kg
    0.7 mg/kg
    8.4 %
    Cl inton
    Cl inton
    Clinton,
    • U.S.EP4  Guidelines for  the Pollution*!  Classification of  Great Lakes
    Harbour Sediments (111,
    h Lake Erie background concentration (221.
    

    -------
                                   384
    
    impacts, and management issues has been presented by Herdendorf,
    et al.  (36),  to which, the reader is referred for details beyond
    the scope of the UGLCC Study.
    

    -------
                                   385
    
    C. SOURCES
    
    1. Municipal Point Sources
    
    Ide n t i £ i c a t i o n
    
    In 1986 there were 18 major (flow > 3.7 x 103 m3/d or 1.0 U.S.
    MGD)  municipal wastewater treatment facilities and 29 minor muni-
    cipal facilities discharging to the basin (37).   Only four of
    these, however, discharged directly to Lake St.  Clair.  Several
    of the U.S plants discharged to the Clinton River, Michigan, and
    most of the Canadian plants discharged to the Syclenham and Thames
    Rivers, Ontario.  Total flow from municipal sources was 559 x 103
    m3/d.
    
    The major facilities were predominantly activated sludge systems
    with phosphorus removal, while the minor .facilities were predom-
    inantly lagoon systems or trickling filter plants.  All U.S,
    plants were served by separated sewer systems.  Three of the
    larger Canadian municipalities have some combined sewer systems
    which represent varying percentages of the total serviced area in
    each municipality  (Chatham, Wallaceburg, and London).
    
    The largest urban centre, London  (population 277,000), has 25%
    combined sewers.  Chatham, population 36,000, and Wallaceburg,
    population 12,000, each have 37% of their sewer systems combined.
    
    In the U.S., five major municipal waste water treatment plants
    (WWTP) were identified and selected for sampling; New Baltimore
    WWTP discharges directly to Lake St. Clair, while the WWTPs at
    Mt. Clemens, Pontiac, Rochester and Warren discharge to the
    Clinton River.  Three waste water treatment plants in Canada were
    selected for study: The Belle River-Maidstone WWTP discharges
    directly to Lake St. Clair, the Chatham WWTP discharges to the
    Thames River, and the Wallaceburg WWTP discharges to the Sydenham
    River.  The sources were sampled for the 18 UGLCC Study param-
    eters plus additional conventional pollutants, metals and organic
    contaminants.  One to six day surveys were conducted at each
    facility between October 1985 and November 1986.
    
    Based on the study of municipal dischargers, of greatest concern
    were the Wallaceburg WWTP, the Mt. Clemens WWTP and the warren
    WWTP.  Trace organics, heavy metals, phenols, ammonia and phos-
    phorus were the notable pollutants contributed by these plants.
    All three received industrial wastewaters as a significant por-
    tion of their influent.
    Classification
    
    In terms of effluent loading for the sources surveyed,  the   fol-
    lowing facilities were considered to be major contributors of  the
    

    -------
                                    386
    
    parameters  studied:
    
    1,   Wallaceburg WWTP: Total copper,  total  nickel,  total  Iron,
         and  ammonia-nitrogen.
    
    2.   Chatham WWTP; Chloride, ammonia-nitrogen,  lead,  total
         suspended  solids, and  oil  and  grease,
    
    3,   Warren WWTP;  PCBs, HCB, cyanide,  total cadmium,  total
         chromium,  total  zinc,  total  nickel, total  cobalt,  chloride,
         phosphorus, total organic  carbon,  and  BOD,
    
    4,   Mt.  Clemens WWTP; PCBs, phenols,  oil and grease,  total  lead,
         total  mercury, total iron, phosphorus,  ammonia-nitrogen,
         total  suspended  solids and BOD.
    
    All  sources were in compliance  with applicable  guidelines or
    site-specific limitations for the study parameters,  except  for
    the  Mt. Clemens WWTP  which  exceeded the Great Lakes Water Quality
    Agreement effluent limitation for total phosphorus  of 1.0 mg/L.
    However,  the following sources  were discharging elevated  con-
    •centrations of  contaminants which were not  subject  to site-
    specific  effluent  limitations,  requirements or  guidelines;
    
    1,   Wallaceburg WWTP,' Total cadmium,  total chromium,  total
         copper, total nickel,      ammonia-nitrogen.
    
    2.   Mt.  Clemens WWTP; PCBs, total  phenols,  total mercury.
    
    3,   Warren WWTP:  PCBs,
    
    The  Warren  WWTP and the Chatham WWTP,  although  classified as
    major  sources of the  UGLCC  Study  parameters,  were operating
    efficiently and were  discharging  low concentrations of all   para-
    meters, except  PCBs at the  Warren WWTP, Their  ranking as major
    contributors was due  to their flows being considerably larger
    than most of the other sources.   The municipal  waste water  treat-
    ment facilities at Belle River, New Baltimore,  Rochester  and
    Pontiac were considered to  be minor contributors of the param-
    eters  studied.
     Extent of Contributions  to the Problems
    
     A summary of the major municipal point source loadings of the
     UGLCCS parameters to Lake St.  Clair is presented in Table VIII-
     13,   Included is information on analytical detection limits,
     flows, average concentrations, loads,  and percentage of total
     point source contribution for each facility for each parameter.
     Municipal point source contributions of immediate concern were
     identified;
    

    -------
                                                 TABLE VJII-13
    
    
    IIGI.CCS study paint source  loadings of UGLCCS  parameters4  to  Lake St. Clair by *»ajor contributors.
    PARAMETER
    Total PCBs
    NOLI a) FACILITY
    lu^/Ll
    0 . 00 1
    0.001
    Mt. Clemens WHTP
    Warren WWTP
    MICK/
    ONT
    M
    H
    OUTFAtl, NAWK(S)
    10
    P i n » J
    Final
    effluent
    effluent
    FI.OK
    i*V4
    13.3
    109
    AVERAGE kS/d * TOTAL POINT SOURCE
    CONCENTRATION-' CONTRIBUTION
    0.54
    0.019
    TOTAL
    Hex ac hi oro™
    0.001 Warren WWTP
    0 .020 Chatham WPCP
    0.00001 Mt. Clemens WWTP
    N
    Q
    H
    Final
    Filial
    Final
    effluent
    effluent
    effluent
    109
    39. 4
    13.3
    0.0059
    0.0051
    O.0048
    TOTAL
    Octachloro-
    st y rene
    0.000001 ttt. cienena UWTP
    M
    Final
    effluent
    13
    . 3
    0. 002
    0.0073
    0.0033
    o.ooosa
    (1.00020
    O. 00005
    0.00084
    0.000044 0,00000045
    TOTAL 0.00000046
    Total Plusnola
    10
    10
    10
    1
    Mt. Cleraeni WWTP
    Pontiac WWTP
    Now Baltimore WWTP
    Uatlaceburf WPCP
    M
    M
    M
    O
    F 1 na 1
    F i na 1
    Ki nai
    et fluent
    effluent
    effluent
    effluent
    13
    4fi
    ft .
    7 .
    . 3
    . 9
    J I
    80
    77
    9
    0.
    .0
    .6
    .0
    37
    TOTAL
    PAHs
    
    Wallaceburg WPCP
    O
    Final
    effluent
    7.
    H8
    0.
    4fi
    TOTAL
    Total
    Cyanide-*
    5
    5
    5
    5
    Warren HWTP
    Mt . Clemens WWTP
    Rochester WWTP
    New Baltimore WWTP
    M
    H
    M
    M
    Fi na 1
    Filial
    F i rm 1
    Final
    effluent
    effluent
    «ff tuent
    effluent
    109
    13.3
    B.7
    5. 11
    7
    U
    5
    7
    .0
    .0
    .0
    .0
    1 .03
    0. 451
    0. J 38
    0. 030
    1.73
    0. 0036
    0.0036
    0. 76J
    0.11
    0.043ft
    0.0358
    78.6
    21 .5
    100
    10.2
    23,8
    6.0
    100
    100
    100
    59.5
    26.1
    H.I)
    6.4
    100
    100
    100
    80.0
    11.6
    4-6
    3.8
                                                                                                                                      (jj
                                                                                                                                      00
                                                                                                                                      -J
                                                                                 TOTAL
                                                                                               0.950
                                                                                                                100
    

    -------
    TABLfr: Vlll-ia.  Icont'd 21
    PARAMETER HDLI 9 \
    ('
    Total Mercurv <) .
    0.
    0.
    0.
    
    Total Copper 5,
    1
    1 ,
    i .
    S.
    
    Total Nickel 4 ,
    S,
    5.
    
    Total Cobalt 0.
    0,
    
    i|/Ll
    ,0001
    ,0001
    , 025
    .01! 5
    
    0
    ,0
    .0
    ,0
    0
    
    .0
    (I
    ,0
    
    .001
    , 001
    
    FACILITY
    
    Mt. . Clenens WWTP
    Warren HWTP
    Chatham WPCP
    Wallaceburg WPO!P
    
    Wallaceburg WPCP
    Warren WWTP
    Pontiac WHTP
    Mt . Clemens WWTP
    Chatham WPCP
    
    Warren WWTP
    Wai lacettiirg WPCP
    Chatham WPCP
    
    Warren WWTP
    Mt. Clemens WHTP
    
    H1CH/
    ONT
    M
    M
    O
    O
    
    O
    H
    H
    M
    O
    
    M
    0
    O
    
    H
    M
    
    OUTFALL NAME! SI
    
    !•' 1 IIH 1
    Final
    F i na I
    Final
    
    Final
    Final
    Final
    FinaJ
    Final
    
    Final
    Final
    Final
    
    Final
    Final
    
    
    effluent
    of fluent
    effluent
    eft I uent
    
    e f f 1 uent
    e f f I uent
    e t'f 1 uent
    effluent
    effluent
    
    el'f 1 uent
    effluent
    effluent
    
    ettl uent
    effluent
    
    FLOW
    10*«-»/d
    13,3
    1O9
    39. 4
    7. B8
    
    7.8B
    109
    46.9
    13.3
    3»,4
    
    109
    7.8H
    3».4
    
    10U
    13.3
    
    AVERACK
    kg/d X
    CONCENTRATION^
    O.B78
    0 . (12 7
    0.033
    O.02S
    TOTAL
    311
    5.7
    8.3
    29. i
    3. 6
    TOTAL
    28.4
    309
    !O.S
    TOTAL
    ,.g
    0,29
    TOTAL
    0,009
    0. OOZ3
    0.0013
    0.0002
    0.012ti
    2.45
    O.61 9
    0,404
    0.400
    0,147
    4.42
    3.09
    2.44
    0, 42
    5.95
    0, 195
    0.0041
    0, 1991
    TOTAL POINT SOURCE
    CON TH I BUT TON
    70.3
    1H.O
    10, a
    1 .5
    100
    5B.
    14 .
    9.
    9.
    a.
    95.
    51 .
    40.
    7,
    98.
    97.
    2.
    
    
    
    
    5
    8
    6
    5
    5
    9
    0
    3
    2
    3
    5
    6
    100
                                                                                                                                                        Ul
                                                                                                                                                        CD
                                                                                                                                                        00
    

    -------
    TABLE ¥111-13.  leant**! 3)
    PAKAMETTEft
    
    Oi 1 and Grease
    i
    
    
    i
    
    Total CadmiuB
    
    
    
    Total Lead
    
    
    
    
    Total Zinc
    
    
    
    
    MPLf a)
    1 uf/U
    
    100
    ! , 000
    100
    100
    !,000
    
    0,2
    5.0
    0.2
    
    S
    1
    1
    1
    
    2
    2
    2
    fi
    Z
    FACILITY
    
    Chatham WPCP
    Mt, Clemens
    Wai laceburi
    B«lle Hiver
    
    
    
    WWTP
    WPCP
    HPOP
    Rochester WWTP
    
    Warren WWTP
    Wai lacetmrg
    Mt. Clemens
    
    Chatham WPCP
    
    
    WPCP
    HHTP
    
    
    Mt. Clemen WWTP
    Warren WWTP
    Pontiac WWTP
    
    Warren WWTP
    Pontiae WWTP
    Mt-. Clemens
    Wsi 1 J aeeburls
    
    
    
    
    
    WWTP
    WPCP
    Rochester WWTP
    MICH/
    ONT
    
    O
    H
    O
    0
    H
    
    N
    O
    K
    
    O
    H
    H
    H
    
    H
    H
    H
    O
    M
    OUTFALL NANE(S)
    
    Final
    Fina 1
    Final
    f I na I
    Final
    
    F i na I
    F i na 1
    Fi na I
    
    Final
    Fi nal
    Final
    Final
    
    Final
    F i nal
    V i n« 1
    Final
    Final
    
    effluent
    effluent
    effluent
    «f f luttnt
    effluent
    
    effluent
    effluent
    effluent
    
    effluent
    effluent
    effluent
    effluent
    
    effluent
    affluent
    effluent
    effluent
    e f f 1 uent
    FLOW
    
    39.4
    13.3
    7.BB
    6.47
    8,7
    
    109
    7,88
    13.3
    
    33.4
    13.3
    108.8
    46.9
    
    109
    46.9
    13.3
    7.88
    8.7
    AVERAOE Kg/d * TOTAL POINT SQyBOI
    CONCENTRATION* CONTRIBUTION
    (Mf/J, I
    1.O90
    3, BIO
    2,190
    3.8HO
    a, 4 oo
    TOTAL
    0.6
    2.82
    0,7
    TOTAL
    11 .2
    20.3
    1.5
    2.1
    TOTAL
    52.0
    38.2
    84,0
    79.8
    28. 8
    
    82.2
    4U.O
    23.6
    21 .1
    20.0
    196
    0.0682
    0.0189
    O.OOS33
    0.0844
    0.443
    0.271
    0. 163
    0.0986
    O.U76
    5.65
    1 .79
    3.12
    0.629
    0.28
    
    41
    21
    12
    10
    10
    
    .9
    ,5
    ,0
    .H
    .7
    10O
    69
    21
    9
    .0
    . 1
    .3
    100
    42
    25
    15
    9
    93
    56
    17
    11
    6
    •i
    ,3
    .9
    ,S
    .4
    .1
    .6
    .9
    .2
    .3
    ,B
                                                                                                                                                    Ul
                                                                                                                                                    CO
                                                                                                 TOTAL
                                                                                                                 9.45
                                                                                                                               84.6
    

    -------
    TABLE VIII-13.  (cont'rt 41
    PARAMETER
    
    Amman i A as N
    
    
    
    Hlll.l a 1
    lug /I.)
    1OO
    10
    100
    10
    FACILITY
    
    Chatham
    Mt. . Clem
    Wn I tweet,
    Roches te
    
    WPCP
    ena WWTP
    uf«[ WPCP
    r WWTP
    MICH/
    ONT
    O
    M
    O
    M
    OUT FA I.
    ,1. NAME/d CONCENTRATION2
    1 u^/1. )
    Final
    Finn)
    F i na i
    F > rta 1
    effluent
    effluent
    effluent
    ef fl uenl
    39.4
    i:i.3
    7 . 88
    8.7
    5
    t
    IV!
    <*
    ,710
    ,000
    ,HOO
    ,200
    kg/tl % TOTAL POINT
    SOURCE
    CONTRIBUTION
    22f> 41.5
    133 24.5
    101 18.B
    54.0 10.0
    
    
    
    
                                                                                                TOTAL
                                                                                                                 &I3
                                                                                                                              94.6
    Total 1 ran 14 .0
    5.0
    5,0
    14 .0
    14 .0
    14 .0
    5.O
    Mt. Clemens WWW
    HH) lacttburg WPCP
    Chatham WPCP
    Warren WWTP
    Men Baltimore WWTP
    Rochester WWTP
    Belle Hiver WPCP
    M
    O
    O
    H
    M
    H
    O
    Final effluent
    Final «ff)ti«nt
    Final <*ffl**erit
    Kin»l effluent
    Final affluent
    Final eft luent
    Final effluent
    13.3
    7.88
    It 3. 4
    io»
    &. 11
    a, 7
    7.4
    1 ,030
    1,410
    23»
    60.0
    H 111
    26S»
    ii^O
    13,7
    11 .2
    9.01
    6.52
    4.29
    2. 34
    1 , 13
    27.2
    22,2
    17.9
    12.9
    8.5
    4.6
    3. 4
                                                                                                 TOTAL
                                                                                                                48.8
    *  "> 95X of total  unless sources diffuse (katttl
    *  Flow wei ({hted .
    3  Canadian sourcea  not  analyzed.
                                                             caftf-"ttd
                                                                                                                             96.7
    Chloride
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Phosphorus
    aa P
    
    
    
    
    
    I ,000
    1 ,000
    soo
    1 ,0(10
    1 ,000
    500
    
    10
    10
    1 0
    100
    100
    10
    
    Warren WWTP
    Pontiac WWTP
    Chatham WPCP
    Rochester WWTP
    Mt. Clemen* WWTP
    Wai lacetmri WPCP
    
    Wnrren WWTP
    Mt . Clemens WWTP
    Pontiar WWTP
    Chatham WPCP
    Kel l
    460
    32B
    1 , 000
    «ao
    TOTAL
    8,260
    6 ,630
    4 ,400
    4,006
    1 ,470
    1.3ZO
    25,000
    4O. 2
    32.0
    21.6
    12.9
    7.9
    5.9
    121
    31 .
    21 .
    17 .
    15.
    5.
    5.
    'Jti.
    32.
    25.
    17.
    10.
    6.
    4 .
    97.
    6
    S
    1
    3
    6
    1
    3
    4
    a
    4
    4
    4
    a
    2
    

    -------
                                   391
    
    i)     Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs);   Although detected at
          only two Michigan sources,  Mt. Clemens WWTP and Warren
          WWTP,  the loading of 9,3 g/day to Lake St. Clair was high
          compared to the loadings estimated for the other UGLCCS
          areas,   Both sources were discharging comparatively large
          concentrations, 0,019 ug/L at Warren WWTP and 0.540 ug/L at
          Mt, Clemens WWTP.  Although PCBs were not detected in the
          Canadian sources, the analytical method detection limit was
          1,000  times less sensitive for Canadian samples than for
          the U.S. samples.
    
    ii)   Total  Phenols:   The total loading was 1.73 Jcg/d.  The
          elevated concentration at Mt. Clemens WWTP, 77 ug/L,
          much higher than a comparable objective in Ontario of 20
          ug/L for industrial discharges.
    
    iii)  Total  Cadmium;   The Wallaceburg WWTP effluent exceeded the
          Ontario Industrial Effluent Objective of 1 ug/L in two of
          the three samples collected.  The concentration in both
          samples     4 ug/L.  The total loading from, all sources
          94.4 g/d.
    
    iv)   Total  Mercury:   Mt, Clemens WWTP had an unusually high
          effluent concentration of 0.178 ug/L.  The concentration
          was more than four times the Great Lakes ambient water
          quality objective for filtered mercury.  The total loading
          from all sources     small,  12.8 g/d.
    
    v)     Total Copper;  The Wallaceburg WWTP had effluent concen-
          trations of 196 to 500 ug/L, 10 times larger than any
          other point source and two orders of magnitude greater than
          the Great Lakes Agreement ambient objective of 5 ug/L.  The
          combined loading from all sources was 4.18 kg/d.
    
    vi)   Total Nickel;  The Wallaceburg WWTP had effluent concen-
          trations of 225 to 452 ug/L, well above existing ambient
          objectives such as the Great Lakes Agreement objective of
          25 ug/L,  The total loading from all sources     6.06 kg/d.
    
    vii)  Total Phosphorus;  Mt. Clemens had an effluent concentra-
          tion of 2.4 mg/L during the survey, above the 1,0 mg/L
          permit limit and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
          Effluent Objective,  Facility self-monitoring reports indi-
          cated the 1,0 mg/L objective was frequently exceeded in
          1986.   The plant's interim permit did not contain a phos-
          phorus limitation.  Total loading from all sources surveyed
          was 123 kg/d.
    
    viii) Ammonia-nitrogen;  The Wallaceburg WWTP had two of three
          effluent concentrations above the Ontario industrial objec-
          tive of 10 mg/L, i.e., 12,2 and 18.6 mg/L.  The combined
          loading from all sources was 541 kg/d.
    

    -------
                                   392
    
    No significant contributions of non-UGLCCS parameters were iden-
    tified.
    2, Industrial Point Sources
    
    There were 38 known point sources discharging to the Lake St.
    Glair Basin in 1986, and all were minor facilities.  All in-
    dustries were indirect dischargers to Lake St. Glair, except the
    Mt, Clemens, Michigan, water filtration plant, which discharged
    filter backwash directly to the Lake.  The total flow front
    industries was not available.  However, the majority of the in-
    dustrial flow was once through cooling water or storm water.
    The ten Canadian industries were predominantly food processors
    and cement plants while the majority of the 28 Michigan plants
    were automotive parts manufacturers, with process water usually
    discharging to municipal 'WWTPs and cooling waters discharging to
    surface waters.  Because there were no direct industrial dis-
    chargers to Lake St. Clair, no industrial sources were sampled as
    part of the UGLCC Study.
    
    
    3. Urban Nonpoint Sources
    
    In.termittent Stormwater Diacharges
    
    PCS concentrations on the U.S.(west) side" of the head of the
    Detroit River were found to be greater than on the Canadian side
    (28),  This finding     consistent with the observations of
    Pugsley et al. (38) that the highest concentrations of PCBs in
    clams and sediments from Lake St. Clair were found along the
    western shore,  Johnson and Kauss suggest that the single high
    value of 1,630 ng/g that was observed on a single survey may be
    related to an episodic point or nonpoint source discharge that
    occurred during the survey.  High total organic carbon  (TOO
    concentrations were also observed during the      survey, which
    may have resulted in increased adsorption of hydrophobia com-
    pounds .
    
    Some municipal storm drains exist in Michigan communities on Lake
    St. Clair (39J.  New Baltimore has a single 8" drain that enters
    Prog creek,  a minor tributary to the lake.  In Mt. Clemens, 13
    storm drains, ranging in size from 12" to 54'* in diameter, dis-
    charge into the Clinton River.  Impacts of these drains on the
    receiving water quality have not been documented.  However, seven
    of the drains in Mt. Clemens have received a preliminary "high
    priority" ranKing by Michigan Department of Natural Resources
    (MDNR),  Discharge priority ranking was based on indicators such
    as basin land use, basin area, and diameter of discharge.  The
    process included many assumptions and estimation of relative
    impacts,  Therefore, the ratings should be regarded as  only an
    indication of potential impacts.
    

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                                   393
    
    Estimates of the annual contaminant loadings to Lake St. Clair
    from Canadian urban runoff (stormwater and. combined sewer over-
    flow)  are presented in Table VIII-14.  These estimates were based
    on the mean measured concentration of contaminants in urban run-
    off from April 1985 to November 1986 in Windsor, Sarnia and Sault
    St. Marie, Ontario, and on previous estimates of the volume of
    urban runoff in the Canadian Lake St. Clair basin.  Because of
    the uncertainties involved in the data used in the calculations,
    these estimates should be considered only as approximations.  No
    similar loadings were calculated for the Michigan urban areas.
    
    
    Combined Sewer Overflows
    
    None of the U.S. municipalities have combined sewers, while three
    of the larger Canadian municipalities do have combined sewer
    systems.  The larger urban centre, London (population 277,000) is
    serviced by 25% combined sewers.  Chatham (population 36,000) and
    Wallaceburg (population 12,000) each have 37% combined sewers.
    Chatham and Wallaceburg are the largest major urban centers on
    the two largest Canadian tributaries of Lake St. Clair, Thames
    and Sydenham Rivers, respectively.  The impacts of either the
    storm water discharge or of any combined sewer overflows on the
    quality of the receiving waters have not been documented.
    
    
    4. Rural Nonpoint Runoff
    
    Nutrients
    
    Major sources of nutrients within the Lake St. Clair drainage
    area are fertilizer  (commercial and manure spreading), livestock
    operations and soil erosion.  Nutrients removed by leaching or
    transported by sediment and runoff may produce two pollution
    problems; groundwater contamination and accelerated eutrophica-
    tion of surface waters.
    
    Commercial fertilizer  (and to a lesser extent, livestock manure)
    is applied to approximately 50% of the land in the Lake St. Clair
    geographic area.  Approximately 90% of this land is situated in
    Ontario and receives approximately 300,000 tonnes (429 kg/ha) of
    commercial fertilizer annually.  Over-fertilization has been
    identified for both Michigan and Ontario agricultural areas.
    Analysis of soil fertility and crop nutrient requirements
    relative to fertilizer applications reveal that many farmers are
    applying up to 3 times more phosphorus fertilizer than required
    in Canada, and up  to two times the required rate in the U.S.
    
    Livestock, operations in the Lake St. Clair geographic area
    consist of dairy,  beef, hog, sheep, chicken and horse operations.
    Beef and dairy cattle are the biggest producers of phosphorus,
    followed by hogs.  A total of  61 tonnes/yr of phosphorus are
    

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                              TABLE VIIT-14
    
    Estimate of contaminant loading to Lake St. Glair  from Canadian  urban
    storm runoff* .
    UGLCCS Parameter              Loading kg/yr                Loading  kg/db
    PCB
    HCH
    ocs
    Pheno 1 s
    PAHsl 17 I
    Cyanide
    Oil and Grease
    Cadmium
    Zinc
    Mercury
    Lead
    Copper
    Nickel
    Cobalt
    I ron
    Chlorides
    Phosphorus
    Amman ia-N
    
    
    
    
    
    
    219
    
    15
    
    10
    2
    1
    
    378
    7,995
    12
    24
    6.4
    0.06
    0. 1 1
    693
    282
    139
    ,000
    320
    ,500
    3.3
    ,700
    ,700
    ,BOO
    1«7
    ,400
    ,000
    ,000
    ,000
    0.02
    0.0002
    0.0003
    1 .9
    0.8
    0.4
    600
    0,9
    42.5
    0.009
    29.3
    7.4
    4.9
    0.5
    1036.7
    21,904.1
    32,9
    65.7
                                                                                             I*)
         Estimates calculated from average measured concentration  in urban  runoff
         from Windsor, Sarnia and Sault Ste. Marie (51) and  from estimated  volume of
         urban runoff in Lake St. CJair basin (521.
    
         Expression of contaminant loadings from urban runoff on a daily  basis  is
         somewhat artificial, since loadings are seasonally  dependent.  However,
         expression in these terms allows comparison with daily point source  loads.
    

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                                   395
    
    estimated to be delivered to the water courses from the livestock
    operations,  65% of which comes from Ontario counties.
    
    Soil erosion contributes approximately 3.2 tonnes/yr of phos-
    phorus from Michigan to the water courses.  Based upon the
    percent of total cropland erosion occurring from wind, Macomb and
    St. Clair Counties should be targeted for accelerated conserva-
    tion assistance.
    Pesticides
    
    Lake St. Clair geographical area is a region of potential prob-
    lems regarding the movement of pesticides into the water course.
    These problems are a result of an estimated 3.5 million kg being
    applied to land in both Canada and the U.S. which has a high
    potential to transmit the chemicals via surface runoff, fine
    particulate matter carried by wind or water, and infiltration to
    groundwater.  Based on soil texture and drainage, approximately
    70% of the St. Clair geographical area in Canada has been iden-
    tified as potential problem areas with respect to surface water
    contamination, and approximately 60% of the area possesses a high
    risk for pollutant transfer to groundwater systems  (5).
    
    
    5. Atmospheric Deposition
    
    Loadings of contaminants to Lake St. Clair from the atmosphere
    are a nontrivial portion of the total estimated load of lead and
    phosphorus  (see section E» modeling and mass balance considera-
    tions, for further discussion).  The major sources of phosphorus
    are soil dust, leaf and insect debris, and industrial activity.
    A large percentage of the loading may be derived from entrainment
    of phosphorus -containing particles in agricultural areas.  Lead
    and cadmium are introduced through combustion of fossil fuel,
    including exhaust from burning leaded gasoline in automobiles.
    From measurements in urban and rural -locations close to Lake St.
    Clair, atmospheric deposition of lead was estimated to range from
    4 to 8 kg/d and for cadmium from 0.8 to 1.1 kg/d (17).
    The atmospheric loadings of P, 1*103, tJEj, cd, Pb, Zn and Cl to
    Lake St. Clair for the years 1982 - 1985 were estimated from data
    collected at the Mt. Clemens station of the Great Lakes Atmos-
    pheric Deposition network.  The thirty-year mean precipitation
    average was used to convert concentration values into loadings,
    as displayed in Table VIII-15.
    
    Quantitative estimates of loadings of organic contaminants to
    Lake St. Clair are not available.  Given the quantity of inor-
    ganic materials introduced to the lake  from the atmosphere, how-
    ever, an atmospheric source for organic pollutants is also likely
    to be important.
    

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                                          396
                                   TABLE VII1-15
    
    Atmospheric loadings of selected parameters to Lake St.  Glair for 1982 -
    1985.  Mt.  Clemens OLAD station is the source of data.   Lake surface area
    is 1101.178 km2 (430 mi2).
    
    
    1982
    1983
    1984
    1985
    AVISAGE
    1982
    1983
    1984
    1S85
    AVERAGE
    
    Nitratef NO
    301,723
    441,810
    514,250
    445,242
    425,756
    Cadmium
    228
    254
    299
    260
    
    kg/yr
    'j> Ammonia (NH
    180
    342
    427
    305
    313
    ,593
    ,466
    ,257
    ,124 '
    ,860
    Chloride
    436,067
    252
    322
    323
    333
    ,170
    ,645
    ,492
    ,594
    
    4) Total PhosphorusMTP)
    3,402
    5,952
    5,102
    3,928
    4,596
    Zinc Lead
    30,909
    14,773 5,179
    23,393 5 , 509
    13,769 3,825
    20,711 4,838
    

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                                   397
    
    6.  Groundwater Contamination/Waste Sites
    
    Surface Waste Sites
    
    Active and inactive waste sites within 19 km of the Connecting
    Channels were identified as part of this investigation.  The
    majority of sites were landfills, hazardous waste disposal sites,
    and regulated storage sites,  other waste sites included trans-
    portation spills, leaking underground storage tanks and contamin-
    ated water wells.  Underground injection wells were also iden-
    tified.
    
    Ranking of sites was based on their potential for contributing
    contaminants to the Connecting Channels via groundwater.  Sites
    in the U.S. were ranked using the U.S.EPA DRASTIC System with
    additions and minor modifications.  This system assesses the
    impact by evaluating the hydrogeology, waste material and the
    distance from Lake St. clair for each site.  Nine U.S. sites were
    ranked as confirmed or possible contamination sites within the
    Lake St. Clair groundwater discharge area  (Table VIII-16).   In
    general, these sites are in areas of sandy unconsolidated sur-
    ficial materials and are near to the Connecting Channels.  The
    water table is generally less than 4.6m below land surface and
    priority pollutants and/or inorganic contaminants are on site or
    in the groundwater.
    
    Waste disposal sites in the Ontario study area were also iden-
    tified.  Emphasis was placed on identifying sites that require
    monitoring or remedial investigations.  Criteria for ranking and
    prioritization of the sites included geologic, hydrologic,  hydro-
    geologic and geochemical information, on-site monitoring, waste
    characterization and containment, and health and safety.  No
    sites in Kent County were identified that require immediate
    investigation or that posed a definite potential for impact on
    human health and safety.  Three waste disposal sites in the area
    contain only building refuse, domestic waste and commercial gar-
    bage.  These sites are small and not close to the lake.  There-
    fore, no significant impact is expected from them,
    
    
    Deep.Well Injections
    
    The Safe Drinking Water Act  (SDWA) of 1974 requires U.S. SPA to
    provide for the safety of United States drinking water.  The act
    contains a set of requirements which involves the protection of
    underground sources of drinking water from contamination by in-
    jection well activities.  Seven U.S. injection facilities are
    presently authorized in the Lake St. Clair area, five of which
    are salt water disposal wells and two of which are hydrocarbon
    storage wells.  Of the salt water disposal wells, two are cur-
    rently in operation: Consumers Power injects to the Dundee Forma-
    tion at 957 m and Lakeville Gas Association injects to the
    

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                                           398
                                   TABLE VIII-16
    
    Confirmed or possible con.ta.mination, sites in the U.S. within the Lake St,
    Clair groundwater discharge areas.
    
    
    1. Hwy M~29 and Michigan St.  This site is a gas station with a leaking
    underground tank on sandy materials near the St. Ciatr River and a shallow
    water table.
    
    2. C1ayTownship Sanitary Landfill  This landfill has accepted household
    and commercial wastesi and  is near to the north Channel of the St. Clair
    River distributary systea,  sandy surficial deposits, and a shallow water
    table,
    
    3. Self ridge Air National..Guard Base  (CERCLIS/RCRA/ACT 307)  The Base site
    consists of ? individual groundwater contamination sites: 3 landfills, 2
    fire training areas and 2 ramps.   The landfills contain residential and
    industrial wastes, solvents, and waste oils.  The fire training areas
    contain flammable waste {JP-4 ) , solvents, strippers and thinners.  Thera
    have been fuel spills at the two ramps.
    
    4* Metro Bea_ch ..Incinerator  This closed incinerator handled general refuse
    (most likely from the Metropolitan Beach Park), and is located on the
    Clinton River Delta within one-half mile from Lake St. Clair over a shallow
    water table and on silty—sandy surficial material.
    
    5« G and L Industries   (Act 307)  Phthalate and lead are listed as
    pollutants for this fiberboard manufacturer in Mount Clemens, Mi., and
    groundwater contanination is indicated. The site is located on sandy soil
    near to a shallow water table and aquifer.
    
    6« County Line Landfill  This landfill accepted household, commercial and
    industrial wastes,
    
    7. Henning_Road .Landfill    (Act 307)  The Landfill accepts domestic waste.
    Groundwater contamination is not Indicated in the Act 307 listing.
    
    8, 5ugarbush Road purapaite  (CERCLIS/Act 307)  This site is a solid waste
    landfill with pollutants of concern being Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn.  Surface
    water, air and soil contamination are indicated in the Act 307 listing.
    Groundwater contamination is not indicated,  but there are no monitoring
    wells.
    
    9« Rosso Highwajf_SA_FB,_,- Avis Ford   This landfill accepted foundry sand.
    
    CERCLIS; Site is listed within the information system for Superfund and is
             considered for ciean-up under the comprehensive Environmental
             Compensation and Recovery Act of 1980 (CERCLA).
    RCRA:    Site has current activity under the Resource Conservation and
             Recovery Act.
    Act 307: Site is listed on Michigan's compilation of sitea of known and
             possible environmental degradation.
    

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                                   399
    
    Sylvania Sandstone at 733 m in Oakland county.  One additional
    well is presently under construction in Oakland County.  Two
    wells are temporarily abandoned: one to the Detroit River Group
    of formations at 276 m and one to the Sylvania Formation at 588 m
    Consumers Power Co, operates the two gas storage caverns in the
    Salina Formation Group.
    
    
    Estimates,of Groundwater Discharge to__Lake St. Clalr
    
    Groundwater discharges to Lake St. Clair from three hydrogeologic
    units termed the shallow glacial  (or shallow plus intermediate
    units), glacial-bedrock interface (or regional, freshwater
    aquifer), and bedrock units.  The shallow glacial unit consists
    entirely of Pleistocene Age glacial deposits.  In southeastern
    Michigan these are mostly silty-clay till and glaciolacustrine
    deposits that contain discontinuous stringers of sand and gravel.
    Base flow of perennial streams largely represents groundwater
    discharge from this unit.
    
    The glacial-bedrock interface unit occurs between the shallow
    glacial unit and the bedrock.  In general, the glacial-bedrock
    interface unit discharges leas water to the Connecting Channels
    than does the shallow glacial unit.  Environmental concerns,
    however, are that high head pressures from deep waste injection
    practices could cause waste fluids to migrate through fractures
    or more permeable horizons in the rock.  The glacial-bedrock
    interface unit could thus be     pathway by which waste fluids
    could reach the channels or contaminate adjacent groundwater.  No
    evidence exists at present that this has occurred in Michigan.
    
    The bedrock unit is defined as the first bedrock aquifer lying
    directly beneath the Connecting Channels.  In the Lake St. Clair
    study area, the bedrock unit includes all carbonate rocks of the
    Traverse Formation which lie at depths of, 30 to 91 m beneath the
    Antrim shale.
    
    Total discharge from the three units to the Lake St. Clair study
    area was estimated to be 1,315 L/s.
    
    More direct measurement of groundwater flow to Lake St Clair was
    also undertaken.  Recognizing that all flow entering the lake
    from groundwater must pass through its bed, the flow was calcu-
    lated using the lakebed area, hydraulic gradients, and hydraulic
    conductivities established by an electrical survey o£ the lake
    sediments.  The advantage of the electrical survey approach to
    calculating groundwater flux is that it produces continuous meas-
    urements of the hydraulic conductivity, as long as sediment is
    present over the bedrock, allowing both detailed resolution of
    the locations of groundwater inflow and an alternative method to
    calculate the quantity.  Summations of groundwater fluxes for the
    entire lakeshore show a total groundwater discharge of 886 L/s,
    

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                                   400
    
    This estimate agrees well with that from above, estimated from
    fluxes within geologic units,
    
    
    Groundwater^ Contamination
    
    In order to determine the concentration of contaminants in
    groundwater in the Lake St. Clair area, and subsequently to cal-
    culate loads from groundwater to the lake, eight monitoring wells
    were installed in four groundwater discharge areas on the
    Michigan shore of Lake St. Clair.  Analyses of water from the
    wells were      for volatile, base neutral, acid extractable and
    chlorinated neutral extractable hydrocarbons, trace metals, and
    other chemical substances.
    
    Volatile hydrocarbons, if present, were consistently less than
    the detection limit of 3.0 ug/L.  Benzene was detected in water
    from one well near Mt. Clemens at a concentration of 3,1 ug/L,
    Concentrations of base neutral and acid extractable compounds,
        13 chlorinated pesticides, were also generally below the
    analytical detection limits of 0,1 to  30 ug/L and 0.01 ug/L res-
    pectively.  Phthalates were found in the water from all but one
    well, with concentrations up to  170 ug/L  (for bis  (2-ethyl hexyl)
    phthalate).
    
    Some pesticides were found in four wells at levels exceeding
    U.S.EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Chronic Effects and
    the GLWQA Specific Objectives.   Lindane and total DDT were found
    down-gradient from the Clay Township Landfill near the St. Clair
    River delta.  DDT was found also in wells near New Baltimore and
    St. Clair Shores.  Heptachlor was found in a well near the
    Selfridge Air National Guard Base  (AWGB).
    
    Most wells exceeded the GLWQA Specific Objectives, the Ontario
     (Provincial) Water Quality Objectives  or the U.S.EPA Drinking
    Water Primary or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels for total
    phenols, phosphorus, pH and some heavy metals.  The elevated
    metals concentrations may have been due to the inclusion of fine
    particulate matter in the samples, and if so, the concentrations
    of metals dissolved in the groundwater may be much lower than
    those reported.  The well near the Selfridge ANGB contained the
    highest levels of phosphorus, phenols, dissolved solids and spec-
    ific conductance.
    
    A computation of the loading of  chemical substances transported
    by groundwater to Lake St. Clair does  not seem feasible based
    upon the data currently available.  Concentrations of organic
    compounds were generally  less than their respective limits of
    analytical detection, and concentrations of  trace metals were
    reported higher  than they would  have been had  the  finely divided
    particulate matter been excluded from  the analyses.
    

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                                   401
    
    7. Spills
    
    Spills reports from Michigan and Ontario information systems were
    reviewed and indicate that a limited number of spills to surface
    water occurred in 1986,  However, in many cases the volume of the
    amount spilled was not known and it is no.t possible to compare
    point source effluent loadings with the loadings due to spills.
    
    8. Contaminated Sediments
    
    Identification
    
        i) Organics
    
    Depth-integrated samples (interval composites) were prepared from
    sediment cores collected in 1985  (Figure VIII-5) and analyzed for
    organics in order to estimate the mass of contaminants stored in
    the sediments.  Horizontal distributions in total storage have
    patterns which are essentially congruent with the thickness of
    recent sediments and form the basis for estimating total storage
    in the lake by contour integration.  For the sandy nonaccumula-
    ting area, where cores were not collected, a value of 5 ng/cm^
    was used for PCBs and HCB, and a value of 0.5 ng/cm^ was used for
    OCS.  These approximations were not critical since the sandy
    areas contributed less than 5% of the contaminant mass for these
    chemicals.  Lake St. Clair sediments presently contain about 960
    kg of HCB, 870 kg of PCBs and 210 kg of OCS.
    
    These values are much higher than the contaminant masses found by
    Oliver and Pugsley  (40) for the St. Clair River sediments  (3 kg
    HCB, 20 kg OCS) indicating that Lake St. Clair is a more signif-
    icant repository for chemicals than the river itself, in part due
    to the much greater mass of sediments in the lake.  Recent load-
    ing estimates for HCB and OCS in the combined dissolved and par-
    ticulate fraction at Port Lambton in the St. Clair River were 180
    kg/yr for HCB and 11 kg/yr of OCS.  At these rates, Lake St.
    Clair sediments contain the equivalent of 5 years loading of HCB
    and 20 years loading of OCS.  Thus, the sediments retain signif-
    icant fractions of these chemicals and, given the uncertainties
    in the calculation, accumulation is consistent with sediment
    reservoir residence times derived from historical studies of
    metal and organic chemicals in the system and from the response
    of sediments to particle-associated radiomiclides.
    
       ii) Metals
    
    In order to estimate the total mass and anthropogenic mass of
    each metal stored in Lake St. Clair sediments, the sediment cores
    collected at each station in 1985 were designated to be repre-
    sentative of a region of the lake.  The anthropogenic mass of
    each metal stored in each sediment type was calculated by  sub-
    tracting background metal concentrations  from all concentrations
    

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                                   402
    
    in post-settlement sediments.  In general, metal concentrations
    increased above the glacial deposits.
    
    Within the lake and its marshes, 30 to 64% of the mass of metals
    stored in post-settlement sediments is anthropogenic,  storage of
    anthropogenic metals is highest in the silts and clays (48-70%),
    second highest in the sands  (32-35%), and lowest in the marshes
    (5-29%).   An exception to these general statements is the high
    fraction of anthropogenic lead stored in the marshes  (29%), based
    on the one core used to represent the marshes,
    
    Lake St.  Clair appears to be a temporary trap for some metals
    (Table VIII-9).  Thus, sediments and their associated contamin-
    ants, appear to be transient and will eventually be transported
    down the Detroit River to Lake Erie.
    Classification
    
    Using the OMOE and U.S.EPA pollution guidelines, the sediments
    underlying the open water of Lake St. Clair can be classified as
    only lightly polluted.  Sediments at the mouths of some tribu-
    taries are more contaminated.
    9. Navigation
    
    As a result of the Rivers and Harbors Flood Control Act of  1970,
    which authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to construct
    facilities for containment of polluted dredge spoil from the
    Great lakes harbors and waterways, two diked facilities were
    constructed on Dickinson Island adjacent to North Channel in the
    St. Clair delta.  Both sites were located on the high pre-modern
    delta deposit and did not infringe on the wetlands.  These
    disposal sites were designed to accommodate dredgings produced
    during a 10 year period, and they presently receive the materials
    dredged from the St. Clair system.  Navigation-related dredging,
    which removes contaminated sediments and deposits them in con-
    fined disposal facilities could be considered beneficial in that
    the total contaminant load within the system is reduced.  Impacts
    of the dredging due to resuspension of contaminated sediments
    during the dredging operations, and the subsequent temporary
    increase in bioavailability of the contaminants, have not been
    documented.
    
    Commercial vessel operations through the shipping channel are
    also believed to cause some local sediment resuspension.  The
    extent of influence and effects of the contaminants associated
    with the resuspended particles have not been documented.
    

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                                   403
    
    D. DATA LIMITATIONS
    
    A detailed discussion of data quality management for the UGLCC
    Study can be found in Chapter IV,  The information presented
    below reflects concern for some data quality pertaining specif-
    ically to Lake St. Clair,
    
    
    1. Sediment surveys
    
    References in the text to a "1983 sediment survey" in Lake St.
    Clair refer to a study conducted by the OMOE.  The data have not
    yet been published, nor have the methods, results or any inter-
    pretation of the data been peer reviewed.  Discussions with the
    principal investigators, however, indicate that the samples were
    obtained by bottom grab sampler, and the top 3 cm of each of 3
    grabs were composited.  The samples were then sent to a labora-
    tory for analysis by "standard techniques".  This study has the
    appearance of being a valuable contribution to the knowledge of
    the distribution of contaminants in Lake St. Clair sediments.
    However, the data must be considered "preliminary" at this time,
    and used only to support the findings of other documented
    surveys, particularly the 1985 surveys conducted by Environment
    Canada and by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
    
    
    2. Tributary Loadings
    
    Accuracy of estimates of tributary loadings of chemical param-
    eters is dependent on the responsiveness of the stream to storm.
    events and on the frequency of sampling.  Data from a program
    employing infrequent sampling will generally be biased low for
    substances which increase in concentration with increasing stream
    flow, such as nutrients from agricultural runoff  (41).  Of
    various sampling strategies, flow-stratified sampling, i.e.,
    emphasizing storm events, and calculations provide the most ac-
    curate results.  Loading data for phosphorus, nitrogen,
    chlorides, lead and cadmium from the Clinton, Thames and Sydenham
    Rivers were based on a combination of monthly and storm-event
    sampling and included from 15 to 72 samples per year.  Data for
    the Ruscom, Puce and Belle Rivers were based on only 14 or fewer
    samples per year, and may therefore be subject to considerable
    error.
    
    A recent analysis of the flow responsiveness of Great Lakes tri-
    butaries, i.e., their potential for change in rate of flow in
    relation to storm events, indicated that the Clinton River was
    "stable", the Sydenham River was "event responsive", and the
    Thames was intermediate between the other two  (42) Estimates of
    loads of phosphorus, Cd and Pb for the Thames River, with the
    greatest number of annual samples, and the Clinton River, with
    the most stable flow, may be expected to have about the same
    

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                                   404
    
    accuracy,  although confidence intervals were not reported.  The
    estimate for the sydenham, with the about the      or fewer samp-
    les and more variable flow response, may under represent the true
    load by      unknown amount.
    
    The difficulty in calculating loads from small data sets created
    the need to make loading calculations using several methods.  For
    Canadian tributaries,  the Beale Eatio Estimator was used to ar-
    rive at loads for P, Cd, Pb, and Cl,  Loading calculations for
    theie parameters plus NO3 were also made from, the      data set
    by plotting p concentration vs flow.  A "best line fit" was then
    drawn,  and concentrations were then read off the graph for days
    on which no samples were taken.  Phosphorus loads on the remain-
    ing Canadian tributaries were calculated using a two-strata
    method.  A "cut-off" line     determined by doubling the annual
    mean flow.  An average concentration was found for days when flow
    exceeded the cutoff, and another was found for days with flow
    below that value,  Loads for unsampled days were calculated by
    multiplying the average concentration by the flow for that day,
    The values presented in this report represent an arithmetic
    average of results obtained by the two methods.
    
    Concentrations of lead, cadmium, chloride and nitrogen in
    Canadian streams did not exhibit a variation with respect to
    flow.  Therefore, loads were calculated by averaging all samples
    and multiplying by the flow.
    
    For the Clinton River, loads were calculated using the
    Stratified Ratio Estimator  (43).  This method is essentially a
    modification of the Beale Ratio Estimator.
    
    The average annual loads for Canadian tributaries as displayed in
    Table ¥111-I represents a mixture of included data.  For P, the
    average unit area load is based only on data from the Sydenhani
    and Thames Rivers, which comprise 57% of the Lake St. Glair
    watershed.  Were an arithmetic average of all estimates of load-
    ings front all Canadian tributaries to be used, the unit area
    loading would have been reported as 3,18 kg/ha instead of 2,26
    kg/ha.
    
    For NOj and Cl, the loadings include an average unit area loading
    from the Ruscom River, which was approximately 10 times that of
    the other rivers in 1985,  The average unit area loading for the
    Sydenham and Thames Rivers combined for N03 and Cl was 20.5 kg/ha
    and 160 kg/ha» respectively, instead of the reported 40 kg/ha and
    287 kg/ha.  The cause for the Ruscom River concentrations and
    loads may need investigation, but the data should not be con-
    sidered typical of the unit area loads for the Lake St. clair
    watershed.
    

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                                   405
    
    3. Point Sources
    
    The point source monitoring data in general were developed with a
    rigorously defined quality assurance program.  Due to constraints
    on the sampling frequency and quantity, however, a number of
    shortcomings in the point source survey data limit the inferences
    that can be drawn from the results of the study.  Most facilities
    in the Lake St. Clair basin were not sampled.  The major facili-
    ties closest to the lake itself, as opposed to those furthest
    upstream, were surveyed, however.
    
    One deficiency, that of a small data base consisting of one day
    sampling by the U.S. and 3 to 6 day surveys by Canada, prevents
    precise determination of annual loadings.  The timing of the
    surveys reduced the comparability of the data.  The U.S. surveys
    were carried out during May and August of 1986, while the
    Canadian data was collected on October 1985 and March and
    November of 1986.  The sampling methods were also different.  The
    U.S. composited four grabs (one per six hours) for each facility.
    Canadian samples were collected by automatic composite samplers
    (one portion per 15 min.}.  Differences in the analytical methods
    and the method detection limits used by the U.S. and Canada for
    several parameters also reduced data compatibility.  This defi-
    ciency was particularly pronounced for PCB analyses.
    
    Despite these limitations, the data were considered adequate for
    identifying major sources of contaminants, and were used to make
    conclusions and recommendations concerning specific point
    sources.
    4. Fish Consumption Advisories
    
    The data upon which the fish consumption advisories for Lake St.
    Clair are based were derived primarily from Canadian analyses of
    samples of the edible portions of fish.  This method generally
    returns concentrations of contaminants less than those found in
    larger skin-on fillets that the U.S. uses for its analyses of
    contaminants in fish.  One implication, therefore, is that if the
    U.S. method for assessing contaminants in fish were used, the
    fish consumption advisories may become more restrictive.  Al-
    though the impacts to humans of contaminants other than mercury
    in fish flesh for commercially marketed fish are not quantified,
    the advisories remain useful as a general guide for use by the
    public who consume fish from Lake St. Clair.
    

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                                   406
    
    B.  MODELING AND MASS BALANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    
    1. Mass Balance Models
    
    Pour days prior to the onset of the System Mass Balance measure-
    ments in the Detroit River, measurements of contaminants entering
    Lake St. Clair from the St. Clair River were initiated.  The
    intent of starting four days before making measurements on the
    Detroit River was to allow for passage of most of the St. Clair
    River water through the lake.  By doing so, upstream and down-
    stream contaminant fluxes could be compared and conclusions could
    possibly be drawn concerning whether Lake St. Clair is a source
    or a sink of contaminants.  It must be emphasized that the valid-
    ity of comparing upstream and downstream measurements in this
    mass balance calculation depends on how well the same parcel of
    water was sampled at the head and mouth of Lake St. Clair.  Given
    winds that existed during the sampling time, and output from a
    particle transport model  (developed at the National Oceanic and
    Atmospheric Administration - NOAA) discussed below, we estimate
    that 60-80% of the water that entered the lake, exited it on day
    four.  Therefore, downstream contaminant fluxes that are 20-40%
    different from upstream fluxes cannot be argued to be signif-
    icant.  On the mass balance diagrams that follow (Figures VIII-6
    through VIII-13), best estimates of point and nonpoint source
    inputs have also been noted.  If estimates were not available,
    they are indicated with a "?" on a diagram.  Loading information
    was compiled with data provided by the Point and Nonpoint Source
    Workgroups.  Groundwater loading estimates are extremely prelimi-
    nary and should be treated as such.  These diagrams should there-
    fore be used only to suggest possible issues that may require
    further investigation.  This is because of uncertainty about time
    lags between the head and mouth of the Lake, and the "long term
    average" character of some of loading information.
    
    In most cases, the downstream contaminant fluxes do not differ
    widely from the contaminant flux entering the lake via the St.
    Clair River,  In the cases of cadmium and particularly lead, it
    appears that a significant portion of the lake's total load could
    be coming from its tributaries.  If the Thames River lead loads
    are reasonably accurate, then a regulatory problem may exist.
    Sediment records that indicate a net storage of lead over the
    years would corroborate these observations.
    
    A total phosphorus budget was developed for Lake St. Clair for
    1975-1980 (Figure VIII-13).  Phosphorus load estimates were made
    for point sources and hydrological areas  (Figure VIII-14).
    During this period Lake Huron accounted for 52% of the total
    annual load, while hydrologic area loads accounted for 43%  (13).
    The remaining load came from the atmosphere, shoreline erosion
    and direct point sources.  The Thames hydrologic area contributed
    58% of the total hydrological area load, followed by the Sydenham
     (17%), the Clinton  (9%),  the Ruscooi  (7%), and  the Black  (6%),
    

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                                                   407
         Atmosphere
    
                ,71
                      Upst ream
                      Input
                         12.3
    Point
    Sources
    .073
          .57-.77.
    
    CHnton R.
    Ground
      H2Q
              Lake
           St..  Clair
                         .02
                               1.2-2.2
     Point
     Sources
    
     Syden. R.
    
    
     Thames R.
    
    Ground
     H20
                      14.3
               Downstream output
       QUt=14.3
       slnk=l.l . 2.5?
       FIGURE  VIII-6. Lake St.  Clair
                         total cadmium  (kg/d).
                                                          Atmosphere
      IIS.
    
    
     Point
     Sources
    
          9.4-15.1
     Clinton R."
                                             Ground
                                              H20
                                   1.7
                                                                 450.2
                                                  Upstream
                                                  Input
                                                                                  CANADA
                                           Lake
                                        St.. Clair
                                                      2.67
    Point
    Sources
    
    Syden. R.
    
    
    Thames R.
                               ^    Ground
                               NH20
                                                               472. 3
                                                       Downstream  output
                                              ln=465.5-471.2
                                              OUt=472.9
                                              FIGURE VIII- 7. Lake  St.  Clair
                                                                 total  copper  (kg/d).
         Atmosphere
     SJ.
    
    
    Point
    Sources _
    
    Clinton R.
    Ground
     H2O
                       .219
                   Upst ream
                    Input
             Lake
           St..  Clair
      CANADA
    
    
    
          Point
    -1—   Sources
    
    j?	   Syden. R.
    
    
    _7	   Thames H.
    
    
     7     Ground
    	    H2O
                      252
               Downstream output
     Ins,218
     oyt=.2S2
     source=.034
    -------
                                                     408
    Atmosphere
            ?
     US.
    
    Point
    Sources _-°...
    
    Clinton R.  ?
    Ground
     H2O
                              Upst ream
                              input
    Atmosphere
      Lake
    St..  Clair
     CANADA
    
    
      Point
    - Sources
    
      Syden. R.
    
    
      Thames R,
    
    
      Ground
        H2O
               Downstream output
     ln=4.6
     out=7,1
     souree=2.3?
     FIGURE  VIII-10. Lake St.  Glair
                         total  mercury  (kg/d).
                                                                   Upstream
                                                              571   Input
     US.
    Point
    Sources 3.2
    
       24.9-16.4.
    Clinton R.^^^
                                         Ground
                                           H2O
                                                             1.7
                                                                     Lake
                                                                   St..  CSair
                                CANADA
    
                                 Point
                                 Sources
    
                                 Syden. R.
    
    
                                 Thames R,
    
    
                                 Ground
                                  H20
                                                           499
    
    
                                            in=59S.2-603.7
                                            oul=499
                                            sink=96-10S?
    
                                            FIGURE  vm-11.  Lake  St. Clair
                                                                total  nickel  (kg/d).
         Atmosphere         Upstream
                        S3    Input
    Point
    Sources
    Clinton R.  ?
    Ground
      H20
      Lake
    St..  Clair
                                CANADA
    
    
                                 Point
                                 Sources
    
                                 Syden, R.
    
    
                                 Thames R,
    
    
                                 Ground
                                  H2O
                       .85
               Downstream output
       !n=.89
       out=.8S
       stores.04?
    
    
       FIGURE  VIII-12.  Lake  St. Clair
                          total  PCS (kg/d).
                                   U.S.
                                   Hydrologic
                                   Areas
                                                              Atmospheric.
                                                              Erosion,    Lake Huron
                                                              Direct Point     1.621
                                                  Slack
                                           78
                                                  St. Clair
                                                  Complex 38,
       LAKE ST. CLAIR
    
         Net Loss = 15
                                                        Canadian
                                                        Hydrologic
                                                        Areas
                                                      L232 Sydertham
    
                                                      i 788 Thames
                                                              Detroit River OuWow 3.148
                                   FIGURE  VIII-13.  Lake  St. Clair average
                                                       phosphorus loads and  losses
                                                       during  1975-80  (mt/yr).
    

    -------
                                     409
                 83W
            Rouge
         Complex'
    42«30'
    42*00*
       FIGURE VIII-14. Hydrological  areas used in determining mass balances.
    

    -------
                                   410
    
    Over the six year period examined, the lake's total input and
    output of phosphorus were nearly equal.  Therefore, there was no
    significant net source or sink of phosphorus in the lake during
    that period.
    
    
    2. Process-Oriented Models
    
    Changes of water level caused by wind are most pronounced in
    shallow lakes such as Lake St. clair.  The ability to predict
    wind-induced water level changes would therefore be useful, since
    these changes can affect shorelines and contingent properties»  A
    hydrodynamic model was developed to investigate the effects of
    bottom drag and wind stress on computed lake setup, and to deter-
    mine the efficacy of hydro-dynamic or purely empirical approaches
    to predicting water measurements.  Empirical approaches by-pass
    many of the calculations that are used in the hydrodynamic ap-
    proach.  No essential difference between the two approaches was
    found, but for an empirical model to be developed, an adequate
    historical data base for the site of interest must exist.  The
    strength of the hydrodynamic approach is that it is transferable
    among lake systems.
    
    To predict the fate and transport of contaminants in any body of
    water, the movement of that water, as affected by winds or tribu-
    taries, must be known or predictable.  Because of this need,
    several models were developed by Canadian and U.S. scientists to
    predict and understand currents in Lake St. Clair.  In addition,
    models were developed for predicting and understanding wave dyna-
    mics in Lake St. Clair since waves can resuspend sediments and
    associated contaminants.
    
    Simons and Schertzer, {Environment Canada - EC) developed a model
    that predicts mean daily currents in Lake St. Clair.  They found
    that an important consideration in developing the model was ac-
    counting for the effects of a shallow bottom on currents.  Lack
    of information regarding these effects has been a major impedi-
    ment to the application of hydrodynamic models to  shallow lakes.
    They were able to develop a tentative relationship between eddy
    viscosity and wind stress that aided in shallow water model
    development.
    
    Schwab and elites  (NOAA) developed a particle transport model for
    Lake St. Clair to answer the following questions:  1) What path
    does water entering Lake St. Clair from one of the tributaries
    follow through the lake before leaving the Detroit River?  2)
    How long does it take?  3) How is the particle path changed by
    wind-induced circulation in the lake? 4) For the meteorological
    conditions during the summer and  fall of 1985, what are the typi-
    cal statistical distributions of  these pathways?   The model they
    developed calculates currents on  a 1.2 km grid and yields  results
    that are similar to those of Simons  and Schertzer  above.   Their
    

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                                   411
    
    model can be used to mate preliminary estimates of the spatial
    distribution, transport and residence times of conservative,
    hazardous spills in Lake St. Clair.  This model, however, only
    tracks conservative, nondispersive tracers from the mouths of the
    tributaries through the lake under various wind conditions.
    
    Even though the average hydraulic residence time for Lake St.
    Clair is about nine days, the residence time for conservative
    particles entering the lake from the individual tributaries
    ranges from 4.1 days for the Middle Channel to over 30 days for
    water from the Thames River, depending on the wind conditions.
    If significant contaminant loads were to enter the lake  from
    tributaries that have long residence times, the impact of these
    contaminants might be greater than if they entered the lake from
    other tributaries.
    
    Most of the water from the St. Clair River enters the lake
    through the North Channel (35%).  According to the calculations,
    this water tends to flow down the western shore of the lake and
    never gets into the central or eastern parts of the basin.  Water
    from the Middle Channel tends to remain in the western third of
    the lake, almost never entering the eastern half.  Water from St.
    Clair Flats and the St. Clair Cutoff can be dispersed almost
    anywhere in the lake to the south of the shipping channel which
    connects the St. Clair Cutoff with the Detroit River,  A small
    amount of the St. Clair inflow  (5%) enters through Bassett
    Channel.  This water can pass through any part of the eastern
    half of the lake depending on the wind conditions.  The  Thames
    inflow tends to be confined to the eastern and southern  shores
    before reaching the Detroit River and it can take a very long
    time to get there.  Water from the Clinton River and the Clinton
    Cutoff is most likely to follow the western shore of the lake
    southward with the most probable paths within 3 km of the western
    shore.
    
    Water quality measurements made in Lake St. Clair by Leach  (44,
    45) showed two distinctly different areas in the lake,   in the
    southeastern part of the lake, the water quality was dominated by
    the Thames inflow, which is a major source of phosphate  and other
    dissolved and suspended material.  The central and western parts
    of the lake possessed water quality similar to Lake Huron than to
    the southeastern part of the lake.  The pattern of water mass
    distribution (45) is very close to the combined patterns of the
    four main St. Clair River inflows and the Thames inflow,  Bricker
    et aJ.  (46) examined the distribution of zooplankton in  the
    western half of the lake.  They distinguished an area of biologi-
    cal and physiochemical similarity along the western shore of the
    lake that appeared to be influenced, more by the Clinton  River
    than the St. Clair River.  The shape of this area matches quite
    well with the modelled distribution pattern for water from the
    Clinton River.
    

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                                   412
    
    To verify the circulation model and. lend credulity to currents
    calculated by Schwab and elites, their model was tested by com-
    paring model output to actual current data measured in Lake, St.
    Clair in 1985.  Two separate current data bases were gathered.
    One involved the use of 5 drifting buoys which were repeatedly
    launched and tracked in the lake.   The other was the result of
    several synoptic current surveys utilizing electromagnetic cur-
    rent meters.  Currents predicted by the circulation model were
    used to simulate 16 drifter tracks.  Most of the tracks were
    about 2 days in length from various portions of the lake.  In
    most cases, the model simulated the tracks extremely well as did
    a similar study by Hamblin et al.., (26).  For the entire data
    set, the mean root mean square  {rmsj  of the drifter     25% grea-
    ter than that of the calculated current track.  The directions
    compared favorably except for a few tracks near the mouth, of the
    Bassett Channel, where the model prediction     over 90 degrees
    different in direction when compared with the observed track.
    The comparisons between current meter measurements and model-
    predicted currents were even better.   In nearly 100 comparisons,
    60% of the variance is explained by the model prediction.  The
    model again       to under-predict the current speeds, here by
    about 30%.
    
    Contaminant transport depends in large part on the movement of
    suspended particles.  Therefore, accurate computation of hori-
    zontal sediment transport should rely upon the accurate simula-
    tion of the vertical structure of the horizontal flow field.
    Hamblin et al,,  (26) developed such a three dimensional finite
    element model for Lake St, Clair,   Model agreement with observa-
    tions was good near the lake bottom but poorer near the surface
    and suggested that a more elaborate model would be needed to
    accurately model vertical velocity profiles.  The more elaborate
    model would include the effect of surface waves.
    
    An empirical model was developed to describe and understand the
    relationship between waves and sediment settling and resuspension
     (25).  The importance of these relationships to our ability to
    predict and understand the transport of contaminants is evident.
    Statistical relationship between suspended matter and concentra-
    tion and wave orbital velocity was computed.  Integration of
    computed resuspension rates provided an estimate of sedimentation
    in sediment traps.  The model-generated sedimentation rates com-
    pared rather well with the sediment trap data.
    
    
    Present Status of^Physical-Chemical-Biological Models
    
    To predict the fate and behaviour of contaminants, models that
    integrate physical, chemical, and biological processes are often
    needed.  Two  such synthesis models were developed for predicting
    contaminant fate  in Lake St. Clair,  Halfon  (EC) utilized TOXFATE
    and  Lang, Fontaine and Hull  (NOAA) utilized the U.S.EPA TOXIWASP
    

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                                   413
    
    model.  TOXFATE was used to predict the spatial distribution of
    seven halocarbons in Lake St. Clair, and the fate of perchloro-
    ethylene in the St. Clair - Detroit River system.  The TOXIWASP
    model was used to predict and understand the fate of the contam-
    inant surrogate Cs-137, as well as PCBs and DCS.  Neither of
    these models could be fully tested for Lake St. Clair applica-
    tions due to a limited test data set.  However, these models are
    based on well documented cause and effect relationships, and as
    such, could be used to forecast the fate and behaviour of con-
    taminants introduced to the lake in the future.  Representative
    results of Halfon's Lake St. Clair TOXFATE model is demonstrated
    in Figure VIII-15.
    
    Lang and Fontaine  (NOAA) developed a multi-segment, generic con-
    taminant fate and transport model for Lake St. Clair.  The
    TOXIWASP code upon which it was based was- streamlined to make it
    more specific to Lake St. Clair.  Because evidence of biological
    mixing in Lake St. Clair was extensive, this capability was added
    to Lake St. Clair version of TOXIWASP.  An extremely fast version
    was created that calculates steady state contaminant concentra-
    tions in seconds rather than hours.  Numerous programming errors
    in the original code were found, corrected and passed on to the
    U.S.EPA-Athens modeling group.
    
    Lang and Fontaine  (NOAA) calibrated the transport mechanisms of
    TOXIWASP using chloride and meteorological data that were col-
    lected during a series of cruises in Lake St. Clair during 1974.
    After obtaining reasonable agreement with the conservative
    chloride ion, calibrations of contaminant dynamics was carried
    out using Cesium-137.  Cesium-137 was used to calibrate the
    model's contaminant dynamics since Cesium-137 adsorbs to par-
    ticles in a manner similar to that of many hydrophobic, organic
    contaminants.  Most importantly, the source function of Cesium-
    137 to the lake is well known  (Figure VIII-16).  This informa-
    tion, coupled with knowledge of the spatial and depth distribu-
    tions of Cesium-137 in the sediments of the lake, provided an
    excellent calibration and verification data set.  Verification
    results are acceptable  (Figure VIII-17).
    
    Having calibrated the TOXIWASP model for Lake St. Clair, it was
    used to hindcast possible loadings of octachlorostyrene and PCBs
    to Lake St. Clair.  The model predicted that about 3.9 MT of OCS
    had to have been loaded to the lake over a period of 12 years to
    produce measured sediment concentrations  (Figure VIII-18).  This
    finding implies that OCS was first loaded in the latter part of
    1970 and is consistent with speculation to that fact.  The model
    also estimated that 3,400 kg of PCBs had to have been loaded to
    produce measured PCS sediment concentrations  (Figure VIII-19).
    The model tended to under-predict the PCB values along the east-
    ern and western segments of the main lake, which may indicate
    additional or increased PCB sources in these areas.
    

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                                  414
                       TRICHLOROETHYLENE
                  ng/L
                     OBSERVED    JUNE 18-21
                                      JUNE 21  f
                            PREDICTED
    FIGURE  VTII-15,  Modelled  and observed distributions of  trichloroethylene
                   1984.
    

    -------
                    Cs Loading to Lake Si Clair
                        Watershed
                        Watershed + Atmosphere
                        Watershed +Atmosphere
                        +Inflow from Lake Huron
       1960           1970
              Year
    1980
                                                             *>.
                                                             »-»
                                                             tn
    FIGURE VllI-16. J37Cs loadings to Lake St. Clair.
    

    -------
    Scale HI Kilometers
    
        I i  I  M
        4
    0
    8
                                        13/Cs Concentration 1985
                                        Surlicial (0-2 cm) Sediments
    <0.5 dpm/g
    
    0.5-1 dpm/g
    
    1-2 dpm/g
    
    2-3 dpm/g
             FIGURE  VIIM7.  137Cs concentration  1985  surficial  (0-2cm)  sediments.
    

    -------
                               OCS Concentration 1983
                               Surficial <0-10 cm) Sediments
    FIGURE  VIII-18.  OCS  concentrations  J983  surficial  (0-JOcm) sediments.
    

    -------
     Scale in Kilometers
     I  I I I 1-M
     0   4   B   12
    •4 2" 30'
    PCS Concentration 1974
    Sudicia! (0-2 cm) Sediments
                                     82°30'
                                               Not Sampled
                                               <5/;g/kg
                                               5-10
                                               10-20
                                               20-30
                                                                                                                  OQ
                FIGURE  VIII-19.  PCB concentration  1974 surficial  (0-2cm) sediments.
    

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                                   419
    
    TOXIWASP assumes a local equilibrium between the dissolved, par-
    ticle-adsorbed and bio-adsorbed chemical.  Hull, Lang and
    Fontaine (NOAA) modified the TOXIWASP model so that kinetic,
    instead of equilibrium, reactions were simulated.  This was done
    to determine whether the equilibrium approach was valid in all
    circumstances.  Equilibrium models assume implicitly that incom-
    ing contaminant loads are at local equilibrium between dissolved,
    adsorbed, and bioaccumulated phases.  When the same load
    conditions were assumed for the kinetic model, greatest devia-
    tions between the two models occurred when predicting the fate of
    highly hydrophobic contaminants (Kow>106)»  The kinetic model not
    only required a longer time to reach steady state contaminant
    concentrations, but also required a longer time to flush out the
    resident contaminant mass after the input load was shut off.
    Generally, one would expect problems with an equilibrium approach
    when the time to equilibrium is longer than the residence time of
    the water body in question.
    
    Halfon  (EC) used TOXFATE to predict the fate of perchloroethylene
    (PERC) in the St. Glair - Detroit River system.  The model sug-
    gested that about 82% of the PERC would be volatilized, and the
    remainder, less 1% that would remain in sediments, would enter
    Lake Erie.  Comparison of simulated and measured PERC concentra-
    tions show reasonable agreement.  Since so much of the PERC is
    volatilized before it reaches the open lake, Halfon's model does
    not realistically demonstrate what may happen to a nonvolatile
    spill entering the lake.
    
    In the case of a nonvolatile spill travelling the lake from the
    St. Clair River to the Detroit River outflow, the dilution of the
    concentration would be determined mainly by the strength of
    horizontal turbulent mixing.  There were no direct measurements
    of horizontal diffusion in Lake St. Clair reported by any of the
    UGLCCS activities.  However, two investigations  (17,53) have
    employed a vertically integrated model of transport and diffusion
    of a conservative substance, chloride, to infer an effective
    horizontal diffusion coefficient of 10"1"5 cm2/s.  Because this
    quantity has been deduced from vertically averaged concentration
    in the possible presence of current shear over the water column,
    these authors have termed the diffusion coefficient as a disper-
    sion coefficient.
    
    The particle trajectory measurements and models reported for
    August 12, 1985 by Hamblin  (47) and by the Modeling Workgroup
    Report  (53) for September 1985 demonstrated that particles would
    take about four days to cross the lake.  If a slug of contamina-
    ted river water had dispersed longitudinally to a length of 5 Km
    in the St. Clair River, then in the four day transit to the out-
    flow region it would have grown by about 7 km to a characteristic
    patch size of  12 km under the assumptions of average mete-
    orological conditions and horizontal Gaussian diffusion.  In
    turn, this patch would take about two days to pass across the
    

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                                   420
    
    water intakes near the outflow.  Finally, the average concentra-
    tion would be about 20% of the original concentration entering
    the lake.
    3. Summary
    
    The modeling work on Lake St. Clair has made much progress during
    the study period from the water level fluctuation models  (storm
    surge) to the coupled contaminant-circulation models.  However,
    more work is required before the models could be used as
    effective water management tools.  Testing of the models with
    parameters additional to PCS and OCS, more realistic treatment of
    sediment water interaction, and linkage of the models to lake
    biota are      as necessary steps before the models can reliably
    assess the ecological responses to reductions in loadings to the
    lake.  Although not developed for operational purposes,  the mod-
    els TOXFATE and TOX1WASP, with        additional effort, could be
    used to predict the trajectories and dilutions of spills of
    either volatile or nonvolatile substances occurring on the lake
    or entering from the rivers,
    

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                                   421
    
    P. OBJECTIVES AMD GOALS FOR REMEDIAL
    
    The following objectives and goals are grouped according to
    media,  However, remedial actions are likely to have multimedia
    effects.  For example, elimination of point and nonpoint sources
    of contaminants can be expected to reduce concentrations in
    water, sediments and biota, even though direct remediation of
    contaminated sediments or biota may be infeasible.  Some objec-
    tives may be reached, therefore, upon attainment of one or more
    others.
    
    
    1, Water Quality
    
    Since the water quality of Lake St. Glair is dominated by that of
    the St. Clair River, remedial programs directed towards the St.
    Clair River will also improve water quality in Lake St. Clair,
    
    Objective 1.   Full implementation of recommendations for the St.
                   Clair River presented in Chapter ¥11 of this
                   report for the elimination of industrial, munici-
                   pal and. nonpoint sources of contaminants to the
                   St. Clair River, particularly HCB, HCBD, OCS, Hg,
                   and. Pb.
    
    Excluding input from the St. Clair River, phosphorus loadings to
    Lake  st, Clair are dominated by nonpoint sources.  For example,
    in the'Thames River 93% of the loading     of the nonpoint source
    type.  In water samples from Lake St. Clair tributaries, nearly
    all contained phosphorus in        of the PWQO of 30 ug/L.
    Improved agricultural practices such as conservation tillage,
    elimination of over-fertilization and control of feedlot
    effluents are identified as actions relevant to reduction of
    nonpoint source loadings,
    
    Objective 2.   Reduction, of phosphorus loadings from point and
                   nonpoint sources in Michigan and. Ontario to assist
                   in meeting target load reductions for Lake Erie,
    
    The Mt. Clemens WWTP     identified as having average phosphorus
    concentrations in its effluent exceeding the GLWQA objective of
    1,0 mg/L for municipal water treatment facilities.  Municipal
    treatment plants discharging to the Thames River in excess of
    this  guideline in 1986 were Chatham, Ingersoll (new), City of
    London  (Adelaide, Greenway, Oxford, Pottersburg     Vauxhall) and
    the Strathroy Town Plant.
    
    Objective 3.   Necessary and sufficient technology and operation
                   procedures at all wastewater treatment facilities
                   to meet the target concentration of phosphorus in
                   the effluent of no more than 1.0 mg/L.
    

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                                   422
    
    Excessive unit area loading of pesticides from agricultural lands
    into tributaries of Lake St. Clair was identified.  Some areas
    were identified to be of particular concern.
    
    Objective 4.   Reduction in the loadings of pesticides from all
                   tributaries.
    
    Objective 5.   Identification and elimination of the source of
                   DDT and metabolites to the Milk River.
    
    water quality in several tributaries was reduced by the presence
    of heavy metals.  Cadmium concentrations generally exceeded the
    GLWQA specific objective and PWQO of 0.2 ug/L, and some were
    greater than the chronic AWQC of 1.1 ug/L in the Belle, Sydenham,
    Thames and Clinton Rivers.  Also, some lead concentrations were
    in excess of the chronic AWQC of 3.2 ug/L in the Belle and
    Sydenham Rivers, and in the Thames River some exceeded the acute
         of 82 ug/L.
    
    Objective 6.   Identification and elimination of all point
                   sources of Hg, Pb and Cd in the watersheds of the
                   Clinton, Thames and Sydenham Rivers.
    
    Objective 7.   Elimination of combined storm sewer overflows
                   which will reduce contributions of P, Pb, Cd, Hg
                   and PCBs to Lake St. Clair tributaries.
    2. Sediment Quality
    
    Reductions in industrial loadings of mercury in the St. Clair
    River have resulted in dramatic improvements since 1970 in the
    bottom sediments.  However, surface concentrations in bottom
    sediments still exceed the IJC and OMOE guidelines of 0,3 ppm and
    contain values classified as "polluted" by the U.S.EPA Classifi-
    cation Guidelines.  Since recent mercury concentrations of bottom
    sediment samples do not appear to be reducing as quickly as in
    the earlier studies there is some concern that unknown tributary
    sources exist.  The mass balance studies of Section E indicate a
    net outflow of mercury from Lake St. Clair.  Since the tributary
    loadings are not known, it is impossible to determine the source
    of the mercury.
    
    Objective 8.   Identification and elimination of continuing
                   sources of Hg to the St. Clair River.
    
    Objective 9.   Identification and elimination of point and non-
                   point,  sources of Hg to  Lake St. Clair tributaries.
    

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                                   423
    
    Of the other metals, only zinc and copper exceed the OMOE guide-
    lines in the sediments of the open lake and would result in a
    classification of sediments as moderately polluted.
    
    Objective 10.  Reduction in heavy metals concentrations in sur-
                   ficial sediments of Lake St. Clair to levels sup-
                   porting a classification of "not polluted" by
                   OMOE. U.S.EPA and IJC Guidelines.
    
    The sediment surveys revealed that PCBs did not exceed the guide-
    lines in the open lake. However, guideline concentrations were
    exceeded in some of the tributary sediments including the Cot-
    trell Drain, the mouth of the cutoff channel of the Clinton River
    and the Sydenham River.  Other organic contaminants with specific
    guidelines such as BCD, OCS and pesticides were identified in
    sediments from the open lake and tributaries.  In general, the
    sampling of all tributary sediments was incomplete, so there
    could be cases of excesses of certain compounds not reported or
    cases of compounds that were sampled which have no guidelines.
    
    Objective 11.  Elimination of DDT in sediments at the mouth of
                   the Milk River.
    
    Objective 12.  Identification and elimination of sources of PAHs
                   in sediments from the Milk River, Cottrel Drain,
                   Clinton River and Frog Creek.
    
    Objective 13.  Reduction in PCS concentrations at the mouths of
                   Lake St. Clair tributaries such that the sediments
                   would be classified as "not polluted" by OMOE,
                   U.S.EPA and IJC Guidelines.
    3.  Biota and Habitat
    
    The most significant impaired use of Lake St. Clair waters is the
    restriction in the consumption of sports fish.  A joint fish
    consumption advisory between Ontario and Michigan remains in
    effect for the larger specimens of 18 species of sports fish
    (33).  Levels of mercury in excess of Canadian governmental
    guidelines have been identified as the main contaminant respon-
    sible for restricted fish consumption.  Because the concentra-
    tions of mercury in the tissues of sports fish have declined
    dramatically since 1970, programs to control the major historical
    sources of mercury appear to be satisfactory.  However, since
    tributaries were not monitored, smaller, uncontrolled sources
    could be contributing to the loading.
    
    Objective 14.  Reduction in mercury concentration in Lake St.
                   Clair fish to less than 0.5 ntg/kg, and subsequent
                   elimination of the fish consumption advisory based
                   on mercury contamination.
    

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                                   424
    Objective 15.  Continued reduction in PCB concentrations in fish
                   to meet the GLWQA specific objective of 0,1 mg/kg
                   for protection of birds and animals which consume
                   fish.
    
    In addition to being an important sports fishery, Lake St. Clair
    is a major duck: hunting area.  The habitat necessary for wildfowl
    resting, feeding and breeding is provided by the extensive wet-
    lands around Lake St. Clair particularly in the Lake St. Clair
    Delta.  More than 9,000 km of wetlands were lost to shoreline
    development in Lake St. Clair between 1873 and 1968.  Losses are
    most evident in the  Clinton River, the St. Clair River Delta and
    the eastern shore of the lake.  In 1979 the state of Michigan
    prohibited the modification of a wetland over 5 acres in size to
    restrain encroachment into the wetland areas.  In Ontario, sub-
    sidies for engineering projects still encourage drainage of wet-
    lands and their conversion to agricultural use.  However, tax
    relief that favors retention of the wetlands has recently (1987)
    been granted to wetland owners.  Although diked Ontario wetlands
    are effectively managed for waterfowl hunting, there is a loss of
    other wetland functions, particularly those related to fish prod-
    uction.
    
    Objective 16.  Preservation of remaining wetlands surrounding
                   Lake St. Clair, and protection of then from
                   further diking, filling or other forms of destruc-
                   tion.
    4. Management Issues
    
    In the Clinton River, the concentration     impact of contamin-
    ants are sufficiently severe for the area to be recognized as an
    IJC "Area of Concern",  A Remedial Action Plan is in the process
    of being developed by the State of Michigan for restoring benefi-
    cial uses of the area.  This plan will contain details of the
    problems, their extent and causes,     a schedule for remedial
    actions to be implemented.  Plans for further monitoring for
    results of the actions will also be included.
    
    Objective 17.  Pull implementation o£ the Remedial Action Plan by
                   Michigan and other responsible agencies for clean-
                   up and restoration of uses in the Clinton River.
    

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                                   425
    
    Although the Thames River is not presently one the IJC Areas of
    Concern, many agricultural and industrial contaminants have been
    identified in the water and sediments,  and impaired uses were
    identified that are similar to those for 'the Clinton River.  The
    absence of the Thames River on the AoC list should not imply that
    the area is contaminant-free.
    Objective IS.  Preparation and implementation by Ontario of a
                   Plan for the restoration of impaired uses in. the
                   Thames River.  The Plan should address issues of
                   agricultural runoff of nutrients and pesticides,
                   CSOs in the watershed, and sources of heavy metals
                   in the tributary.
    

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                                   426
    
    G. ADEQUACY OF EXISTING          AND          OPTIONS
    
    1. Projection of Ecosystem Quality Based on Present
       Control Programs
    
    In general, the ecosystem quality In Lake St. Clair is adequate
    for the maintenance of a desirable biological community that
    includes the production of sport fish.  Impairment of the bio-
    logical communities due to contaminants appears to exist only in
    localized areas around the mouth of      tributaries  (although
    some contaminant levels in fish are sufficient to force the is-
    suance of a fish consumption advisory by Michigan and Ontario),
    and the loadings of agricultural nutrients have not caused severe
    eutrophication problems.  Loss of habitat due to wetlands de-
    struction, however, has been extensively documented.
    
    The specific concerns addressed in Section B, above, relate most-
    ly to contaminants in the Lake St. Clair basin,     can be
    grouped into three major categories: nonpoint source loading of
    contaminants and nutrients, contaminants in tributary water and
    sediments, and contaminants in fish.  Of these categories, insuf-
    ficient data exist to determine trends in the loading of con-
    taminants from nonpoint sources, including tributaries.  However,
    the concentration of mercury in the edible portions of northern
    pike, white bass and yellow perch from Lake St. Clair, and of
    PCBs in walleye from 1970 through 1984 have been declining at a
    geometric rate  {7), indicating that control programs for these
    two contaminants have been at least partially effective.  Evi-
    dence for continuing loadings of nutrients, pesticides, PCBs, and
    heavy metals implies that the rate of decline in contaminant
    burdens in fish could be greater were no additional contaminants
    entering the system.
    
    Although the impact of the loading of the UGLCCS parameters to
    Lake St. Clair directly may appear to be minimal, consideration
    musn be given to the ultimate impact on Lake Erie populations.
    Lake St. Clair may be storing HCB and HCBD, but it is a source
    for PCBs and total phosphorus,  These contaminants are then
    transported through the Detroit River and should be accounted as
    loadings to Lake Erie,
    
    
    2, Assessment of Technical Adequacy of Control Programs
    
    Present Technology
    
    In 1985, inputs of nine of the UGLCCS parameters were determined
    to be significant, resulting in impacts to either water, sediment
    or biota quality.  These were cadmium, copper, cyanide, lead,
    mercury, nickel, PCBs, phosphorus  and sine.  In general, dis-
    charge of these parameters from point sources was not controlled
    by limitations or  objectives.  All of the surveyed point sources
    

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                                   427
    
    were municipal facilities, and all were subject to discharge
    limitations mainly for conventional parameters.  However, for
    many of the parameters, point sources were not the most signifi-
    cant contributors.  Rather, the largest loading was obtained from
    unidentified sources discharging through tributaries.
    
    The control of phosphorus has been the main approach of the U.S.
    and Canada to remediating the eutrophication of the Great Lakes.
    All municipal plants surveyed in the Lake St. Clair basin had
    average concentrations less than 1 mg/L, except the Mt. Clemens
    WWTP.  The GLWQA Objective, the Canadian Municipal effluent Ob-
    jective, and the standard Michigan permit limit for phosphorus is
    1.0 mg/L monthly average in sewage plant effluent.  The Mt.
    Clemens WWTP exceeded the 1 mg/L average frequently in 1986 ac-
    cording to self-monitoring data.  An expansion and improvement of
    the facility is underway  (1987) which will enable the plant to
    meet the limitation.
    
    Excluding input from the St. Clair River, the Thames River
    provided the largest loading of phosphorus to Lake St. Clair,
    exceeding the contributions made by the point sources by a factor
    of about 16.  Similarly, the Sydenham and Clinton Rivers exceeded
    the point source loadings by factors of 7 and 3 respectively.
    Atmospheric loading to the lake was less than 5% that from the
    Clinton River.  This indicates that these rivers were receiving
    substantial inputs of phosphorus from other sources, and that
    controls were not adequate or effective.  The most probable route
    is drainage of phosphorus from agricultural uses and livestock
    operations.  The application rates in Michigan and Ontario were
    found to be 2 and 3 times the recommended rates, respectively,
    and the use of conservation tillage techniques were not
    widespread.
    
    Likewise, excluding input from the St. Clair River, the Thames
    River provided the largest loading of cadmium to Lake St. Clair,
    almost twenty times greater than all point sources combined.  Of
    the three point sources that were found to discharge cadmium,
    none did so to the Thames River.  The loading from the Sydenham
    River was 34 times greater than accounted for by the Wallaceburg
    WWTP, and the loading from the Clinton River was 11 times that of
    the two WWTPs that discharged Cd.  None of the facilities had
    site-specific permit limits or objectives for Cd.  However, the
    evidence indicates that all three rivers were receiving signifi-
    cant inputs of cadmium from other sources, perhaps from air depo-
    sition or use of cadmium-contaminated phosphate fertilizer  (48).
    Estimated loading of Cd to Lake St, Clair from the atmosphere was
    approximately the same at that from each of the Sydenham and
    Clinton Rivers.
    
    The Thames River also provided over 100 times the loading of Pb
    than all the surveyed point sources combined, and three times the
    loading from the St. Clair River.  The Clinton and Sydenham
    

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                                   428
    
    Rivers each contributed more than 10 times the quantity of lead.
    than did the point sources, and the atmospheric loading was es-
    timated to be similar to that of the Clinton and Sydenham Rivers.
    Clearly the loading of lead to Lake St. Clair from unidentified
    sources in the tributary basins was more significant than from
    the point sources, which did not have effluent limitations or
    objectives for lead,
    
    Mercury contamination in Lake St. Clair has resulted largely from
    historical inputs through the St. Clair River,  However, inputs
    may still be occurring, as evidenced by sediment surveys and by
    the mass balance calculations presented in Section E, above.
    Although none of the point sources surveyed had effluent limita-
    tions or objectives for the discharge of mercury, point source
    loadings accounted for only 0.015? Kg/6, of an estimated 2.3 kg/d
    source in the Lake St. Clair basin.  The source could include the
    contaminated sediments themselves.  Loading estimates from the
    tributaries and atmosphere were not available for this study.
    
    The Clinton River also contributed significant loads of PCBs to
    Lake St. Clair.   Both the Warren WWTP and Mt. Clemens WWTP serve
    large communities with substantial industrial bases, and both had
    industrial pretreatment programs in place.  Neither reported
    specific sources of PCB in their service areas, and neither had
    permit limits for PCB at the time of the survey.  PCBs were not
    found in three Ontario WWTPs.  Although the Canadian MDL was
    1,000 times greater than that in the- U.S.,, the PCB concentrations
    in the U.S. sources were much higher than the Canadian MDL.
    
    Michigan and Ontario both recommend zero discharge of PCB.
    Michigan is now using a water quality based effluent limit of 1.2
    X 1Q~5 ug/L in some NPDES permits, the allowable effluent guide-
    line calculated using the state's Rule 57(2).  The level is below
    any current MDL, so the permits also contain an interim limit of
    detection at 0,2 ug/L, the MDL commonly achieved with routine
    monitoring methods.  The permittee is further required to develop
    a plan to meet the water quality based limit.
    
    The Warren WWTP, Mt. Clemens WWTP, Rochester WWTP and Pontiac
    WWTP all operate an industrial pretreatment program, receiving
    waste water from industries in their area.  Due to the quantities
    of contaminants coming from these facilities, however, the pre-
    treatment requirements of these facilities and/or the compliance
    by the contributing industries with the requirements may be
    suspect.
    
    Similarly, the Chatham WWTP receives industrial waste water, and
    it provided the largest loading of oil and grease and the third
    largest loading of nickel  to the Lake St. Clair Basin.  The
    quality of the waste water it receives may also be suspect and
    not in compliance with the Ontario By-Law to control the receipt
    of contaminants from industrial sources.
    

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                                   429
    
    Best Available  Technology
    
    Discussions concerning the adequacy of "best available
    technology" (BAT) for reducing or eliminating loadings of con-
    taminants to Lake St. clair are premature until specific sources
    of the loadings are defined.  No direct industrial discharges
    occur to Lake St. Clair, but elevated levels of contaminants were
    found in the water and sediments of many tributaries,  implying
    that sources may exist upstream.  Should specific sources of
    contaminants be identified, then an assessment of the impact of
    BAT may be Made for that industry on the receiving stream and on
    Lake St. Clair.
    
    Because phosphorus is found to be coming from agricultural prac-
    tices, the implementation of conservation tillage and reduced
    fertilizer application rates should greatly reduce the magnitude
    of the loadings of P to the system.  Likewise, reductions in
    phosphorus loadings from municipal and industrial effluent, if
    needed, can be achieved with improved facility design and opera-
    tions.  Urban nonpoint source runoff, however, may be more dif-
    ficult to control.
    
    Additional efforts are needed to identify the sources of mercury
    loadings to Lake St. Clair,  If internal loadings from the con-
    taminated sediments are found to be significant, active control
    technology might be infeasible.  Techniques for dealing with in-
    place polluted sediments is a topic for current research, and
    demonstration projects are expected to be established within the
    next several years by U.S.EPA.  However, technology for treating
    contaminated sediments is expected to be applicable to localized
    areas, including harbors and restricted tributary mouths, but not
    appropriate for a whole lake basin.  Given the rather short resi-
    dence time of sediments in Lake St. Clair, in the order of 10
    years, the problem o£ contaminated sediments could be resolved
    for Lake St. Clair through natural processes.  However, continued
    problems would be expected in the western basin of Lake Erie.
    
    
    3.  Regulatory Control Programs Applicable to Lake St. Clair
    
    A detailed discussion of regulatory programs in the UGLCCS
    regions may be found in chapter III.  The following programs have
    particular impact on Lake St. Clair.  The Clinton River is one of
    the Areas of Concern as designated by the International Joint
    Commission.  As part of the effort to develop and implement a
    Remedial Action Plan (RAP) for the river basin, the State of
    Michigan has begun intensive remedial activities in the area
    (49).  All major NPDES permits in the Clinton River basin were
    reviewed and new water quality based or technology based effluent
    limits  (whichever was more restrictive) were developed in 1985.
    Metals, organics and conventional pollutants were included.  A
    pretreatment program for process industrial wastewater was im-
    

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                                   430
    
    plemented. throughout the Clinton River basin as of 1987, and
    upgrades to four WWTPs were completed in 1986 and 1987.  Pull
    details of the remedial programs and schedule for implementation
    will be included in the RAP, which is expected to be submitted to
    the IJC in 1988.
    
    Where stormwater is determined to impact water quality in
    Michigan, the stormwater provisions  (section 405) of the U.S.
    Water Quality Act of 1987 will be implemented to correct the
    problem.  The State 305 (b) report will be reviewed in 1988 to
    determine if any of the Upper Great LaM.es connecting Channels
    areas are impacted by stormwater runoff.
    
    Some technical and educational programs for farmers are in exis-
    tence.  For example, a Canadian Federal and Provincial effort
    called the Soil and Water Environmental Enhancement Program
    (SWEEP) encompasses all aspects of soil and water conservation.
    Within the SWEEP program, a provincial program called the Ontario
    Soil Conservation Environmental Protection Assistance Program
    exists which will financially assist the farmer in implementing
    soil and water conservation practices with up to 67% funding,  A
    Land Stewardship Program has also recently been announced to
    assist farmers in the implementation of conservation techniques.
    All of these programs should assist in achieving reduced phos-
    phorus and pesticide contamination in streams.
    
    The preservation of wetlands in Lake St. Clair has been assisted
    by three relatively recent laws enacted by the State of Michigan:
    1) The Great Lakes Submerged Lands Act  (1955) which prohibits
    constructing or dredging any artificial body of water that would
    ultimately connect with a Great Lake, and which requires a permit
    from      to fill any submerged lands, including Lake St. Clair;
    2) Shorelands Protection     Management Act  (1970) which desig-
    nates wetlands adjacent to a Great Lake as environmental areas
    necessary to preserve fish and wildlife,- and 3)  The Goemaere-
    Anderson Wetland Protection Act  (1979) which regulates wetlands
    through several laws relating to Shorelands     submerged lands
    (36) ,
    

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                                   431
    
    H.
    
    A. Industrial and Municipal Point Source Remedial Recommendations
    
    1.    Ontario and Michigan should incorporate the Great Lakes
          Water Quality Agreement's goal of the virtual elimination
          of all persistent toxic substances into their respective
          regulatory programs.
    
    2.    The City of Mt. Clemens should determine the source of
          PCBs, total phenols and mercury in the WWTP effluent and,
          through pretreatment or In-plant controls, reduce the con-
          centrations of these pollutants to acceptable levels,
          Effluent limitations for these parameters should be con-
          sidered.  Phosphorus concentrations in the effluent should
          be lowered to meet the 1 mg/L Great Lakes Water Quality
          Agreement objective,
    
    3.    Site specific effluent limitations for total cadmium, total
          copper, total chromium and total nickel to protect the
          water quality for the Sydenham River and Lake St. Clair
          should be developed for the Wallaceburg WWTP.  The opera-
          tion of the plant should be optimised to meet the Ontario
          industrial effluent objective of 10 mg/L for ammonia,
    
    4,    The Warren WWTP should determine the source of PCBs in its
          effluent and take the necessary steps to reduce the con-
          centration to acceptable levels,
    
    
    8, Nonpoint Source Remedial Recommendations
    
    5,    Agricultural areas with high rates of wind erosion need to
          be targeted for assistance due to the characteristics of
          wind transported soil (fine textured, high enrichment
          ratio, and high organic matter content)     its ability to
          transport nutrients and mgriehemicals,  The relatively low
          erosion rates and high percentage of wind erosion in com-
          bination      conservation tillage the most practical con-
          servation practice to be recommended.  The primary reasons
          for this are the effectiveness of residue cover in reducing
          wind erosion     the low cost of implementing the practice.
          Conservation tillage is recognized as being highly cost-
          effective and physically effective in areas of sandy soils
          where wind erosion is a problem.  If conservation tillage
          were applied to all cropland eroding over the soil toler-
          ance level, with a resulting compliance with the tolerance
          level, a 32% reduction in phosphorus loading from cropland
          could be achieved,
    
    6.    Rural landowners need to implement,' with the assistance of
          Federal, State and Provincial governments, a comprehensive
    

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                                   432
    
          soil  and water management system in order to control,  at
          source,  the  contribution of conventional and organic pol-
          lutants  including manure and  pesticides to surface and
          groundwater.  Specifically:
    
          a.  Agricultural and conservation agencies need to accele-
             rate the implementation of control technologies through
             technical,  financial and  information/education
             programs.   There is a need for extension,  education and
             incentives to persuade farmers to implement conserva-
             tion management systems including cropping, tillage and
             structural practices, nutrient and pesticide management
             technology,  thereby reducing the movement of soil,
             conventional pollutants and contaminants off their land
             into the waterways.
    
          b.  Environmental and agricultural agencies should assess
             the  ade<|uacy of existing  controls, regulations and
             permits  for the use of fertilizer and pesticide
             products.
    
          c.  Specific programs,  especially in Macomb County, MI,
             should be directed at reducing the excessive levels of
             phosphorus fertilization, improving the management of
             animal waste disposal and storage, and educating pest-
             icide users with respect  to handling, application and
             storage of pesticide products.
    
    7.     Future assessment and control of agricultural nonpoint
          sources  of pollution would be facilitated by compatible
          Federal, State and Provincial monitoring data and more
          frequent flow-weighted tributary monitoring data.  The
          small water quality monitoring data set available for tri-
          butaries indicated the need for increased sampling for all
          parameters,  especially flow weighted data.  The lack of
          samples  in high flows created difficulty in calculating
          representative loads as well  as understanding seasonal
          patterns of pollutant transport.  More samples on high flow
          days  would improve the basis  for pollution control strat-
          egies .
    
    8.     Macomb and St. clair Counties, Michigan, should be targeted
          for fertilizer management.  U.S.EPA Region V has requested
          the USDA-SCS Michigan State Office to develop standards and
          specifications for a nutrient, best management practice
          that  would protect ground and surface waters as well as
          sustain crop production.  The Michigan Departments of Agri-
          culture and Natural Resources are developing a joint action
          plan  to manage livestock waste problems that includes best
          management practices for proper animal disposal that gives
          attention to air and water pollution  from concentrated
          animal operations.  This program may  require a system of
    

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                                   433
    
          permits for concentrated feeding operations,
    
    9.    The CSOs from municipal wastewater treatment plants should
          be intensively surveyed to determine their contribution of
          pollutant loadings to the surface waters.   In the long term
          (due to enormous cost) combined sewers in all munici-
          palities should be eliminated.  In the interim, the munici-
          palities should institute in-system controls to minimize
          the frequency and volume of overflows.
    
    10.   The Michigan Pollution Emergency Alerting system and the
          Ontario Spills Action Centre spills reports should be im-
          proved so that all information on recovery, volume (if
          known) and final resolution are fed back to the central
          reporting system to complete each report for inventory
          purposes.
    
    11.   The Superfund Site Investigations to be undertaken at
          Selfridge ANGB should focus on groundwater and surface
          water runoff impacts upon Lake St. Clair and the Clinton
          River,  In the event that this site is not included on the
          U.S. National Priorities List, the 'State of Michigan should
          place high priority upon cleanup on this site,
    
    12.   Michigan should require groundwater monitoring as a permit
          condition for the Sugarbush solid waste landfill.
    
    13.   Michigan should include groundwater monitoring as part of
          the RCRA Generators permit for G and L Industries,
    
    
    C. Surveys, Research and Development
    
    14.   Data interpretation would be facilitated by the development
          of more complete water quality objectives for the organic
          pollutants     pesticides that are used extensively by the
          agricultural industry.  Currently, water quality objectives
          do not exist for many parameters that are measured.  Al-
          though meeting water quality objectives does not guarantee
          "no impact" of a contaminant, the objectives do provide a
          point of reference for assessing the relative potential for
          negative impacts of various contaminants in the aquatic
          system.
    
    15,   The presence of organic contaminants  (PCBs, HCBs     DCS)
          in the Canadian tributaries illustrates the need to locate
          the contaminant sources.
    
    16,   The cadmium content of the phosphate fertilizer that is
          being used on agricultural lands should be determined.
    

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                                   434
    
    17.    A study of atmospheric deposition of organic contaminants,
          particularly PCBs,  to Lake St.  Clair and to the tributary
          watersheds would provide quantitative information on load-
          ing of these contaminants to the lake.   The loading esti-
          mates are Important for mass balance calculations and the
          identification of unknown sources of the contaminants,
    
    18.    Urban runoff was identified as being a potentially major
          nonpoint source of many parameters,including PCBs, oil and
          grease, zinc, mercury, copper and nickel.  The loadings
          from urban runoff,  however, were based on contaminant con-
          centrations from Canadian urban areas outside of the Lake
          St. Clair basin.  Therefore, the loading information
          provide only a general potential for urban runoff to con-
          tribute contaminants to Lake St. Clair.  A study should be
          performed to determine the contribution actually      by
          urban runoff on the Michigan shore where the shoreline is
          more urbanized than is that of Ontario,
    
    19.    The sediments near the mouth of the Clinton, sydenham and
          Thames Rivers contain contaminants that may be impairing
          benthic communities.  Studies are needed to document
          possible impairment of benthic communities of these sites.
          Appropriate actions to remedy any observed, problems will
          need to be defined. Techniques     technologies for remedi-
          ating in-place polluted sediments should be developed.
    
    20.    Recognizing that the biological effects of a substance are
          dependent in part on the chemical species of that sub-
          stance, studies should be conducted' to identify the
          chemical species and valances of the heavy metals in Lake
          St, Clair and its tributaries.  For those forms which are
          present but Jor which toxicity information is lacking in
          the literature, toxicity and bioaccumulation experiments
          should be conducted on appropriate target organisms*
    
    21.    The evaluation of the point source data has been conducted
          on a parameter by parameter basis.  In order to assess the
          quality of whole effluents, it is recommended that biomon-
          itoring studies, both acute and chronic, be conducted at
          the major facilities  (Wallaceburg WWTP, Chatham WWTP,
          Warren WWTP, and Mt. Clemens WWTP).
    
    22.    An inventory of all point sources, hazardous waste sites,
          urban and rural runoff, and spills discharging or poten-
          tially discharging to the Clinton River should be col-
          lected.  These facilities, sites or incidents should then
          be examined for their potential to contribute chemicals to
          the Clinton River.
    
    23.    A more complete analysis of sediment, water and biota
          quality along the entire stretch of the Clinton River is
    

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                                   435
    
          needed.   Such information would establish the locations of
          sources  of contaminants,
    
    24.   The Thames and the Sydenham Rivers were found to be major
          contributors of phosphorus,  ammonia,  lead and cadmium.   An
          inventory of all point sources, hazardous waste sites,
          urban and rural runoff and spills discharging to these
          rivers should be collected.   These facilities,  sites or
          incidences should then be examined for their potential to
          contribute chemicals to the rivers.
    

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                                   436
    I. LONG TERM MONITORING
    
    1. Purposes for Monitoring and Relationships Between UGLCCS and
       Other Monitoring Programs
    
    A presentation of the purposes for monitoring and surveillance
    activities is included under Annex 11 of the 1978 GLWQA, and a
    discussion of considerations for the design of a long term moni-
    toring program can be found in Chapter 1 of the Report of the
    Niagara River Toxics Committee (50)«   Because the focus of the
    UGLCC Study was toward remedial actions to alleviate impaired
    uses of the Connecting Channels System, long term monitoring
    recommendations will likewise focus on the evaluation of trends
    in environmental quality in order to assess the effectiveness of
    remedial actions.  In general, post-UGLCCS monitoring should be
    sufficient to 1) detect trends in system-wide conditions noted by
    the UGLCCS, and 2) detect changes in ambient conditions which
    have resulted from specific remedial actions.  Monitoring pro-
    grams should be designed to specifically detect the changes in-
    tended by the remedial actions so as to ensure relevance in both
    temporal and spatial scales.
    
    Two major programs sponsored by the IJC also contain plans for
    long term monitoring: the Great Lakes International Surveillance
    Plan {GLISP) and the Areas of Concern Remedial Action Plans  (AoC-
    RAPs).  The GLISP for the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels
    is presently incomplete, pending results of the UGLCC Study, but
    it is expected to provide monitoring and surveillance guidance to
    U.S. and Canadian agencies responsible for implementing the pro-
    visions of the GLWQA that include general surveillance and
    research needs as well as monitoring for results of remedial
    actions.
    
    Lake St. Clair is not one of the AoCs, although the Clinton River
    in Michigan is, and a RAP is being developed by Michigan for the
    Clinton River.  The RAP will present details of uses impaired,
    sources of contaminants, specific remedial actions, schedules for
    implementation, resources committed by Michigan to the project,
    target clean-up levels, and monitoring requirements.  Results and
    recommendations coming from the UGLCC Study will be incorporated
    extensively into the RAP, which will then be the document that
    influences Michigan programs in the Clinton River.  The recommen-
    dations for long term monitoring that are presented below are
    intended for consideration and incorporation into either or both
    the GLISP for the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels, and the
    RAP for the Clinton River.
    

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                                   43?
    
    2. System Monitoring for Contaminants
    
    Water
    
    Knowledge of the concentrations of the principal contaminants in
    the water of Lake St. Clair should be used to indicate general
    exposure levels for the biota, to identify changes and trends
    over time in the concentration levels, and to be used for general
    assessment of contaminant impacts.  The parameters to be moni-
    tored include phosphorus, PCBs, mercury, lead, and cadmium,  Hear
    tributary mouths, concentrations of ammonia, total phenols, pest-
    icides, Cu, Ni and PAHs should also be determined.  Monitoring
    stations should be located to coincide with identified water use
    areas, such as biota habitat, and with contaminant entry points
    to the lake. Suggested locations include the mouth of the St.
    Clair River at Port Lambton, around the St. Clair Delta, at the
    mouth of the Clinton, Sydenham, and Thames Rivers, and at the
    head of the Detroit River. Sampling frequency should be
    influenced by the variability in contaminant sources.  Spring
    high flow conditions and late summer low flow conditions would be
    expected to bracket the normal seasonal variability in flow that
    could influence measured contaminant concentrations.
    
    A mass balance approach to contaminant monitoring will help to
    identify any changes in the contaminant mass over time, and it
    will provide the basis for targeting future remedial actions by
    providing a comparison of the magnitude of the sources.  A mass
    balance analysis should be conducted approximately once every
    five years, assuming that some effective remedial action has been
    implemented against one or more sources such that the total load-
    ings of contaminants, or the relative contribution of the sources
    to the loading, has changed.  The sources to be measured should
    include:
    
    1)    Head and mouth transects. The number and location of
          stations should relate to measured and predicted plume
          distributions.  Suggested locations include the mouth of
          the St. Clair River at Port Lambton and the head of the
          Detroit River.  Dispersion modeling and past sampling
          results should be used to predict contaminant concentra-
          tions and therefore to establish appropriate collection and
          analytical methodology.  Both dissolved and particulate
          fractions should be analyzed.  The quantity of suspended
          sediment flux should also be measured.
    
    2)    Municipal and industrial point sources.  No direct in-
          dustrial sources are considered to be major contributors of
          contaminants to Lake St. Clair.  The principal municipal
          sources all discharge  to tributaries.  Thus, special moni-
          toring consideration should be given to the Sydenham,
          Thames and Clinton Rivers to fully address municipal load-
          ings of the contaminants.
    

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                                   438
    
    3)     Tributaries.   Efforts should be focused on seasonal and
          storm event loadings of contaminants to Lake St. Clair from
          the Clinton,  Sydenham and Thames Rivers.  Tributary mouth
          stations should be sampled and analyzed for both dissolved
          and sediment-associated contaminant loadings.
    
    4)     CSOs and Urban Runoff.  To provide an estimate of con-
          taminant mass loadings expected during storm events,  oc-
          casional studies on selected urban drainage areas should be
          conducted,  particularly for the Michigan shoreline.
    
    5)     Groundwater inflow.  The quantity and quality of potential
          contaminant releases from waste disposal sites adjacent to
          Lake St. Clair or its tributaries should be determined.
    
    6)     Sediment transport.  Efforts to mea.sure and model sediment
          transport to, within and from Lake St. Clair should be
          continued.  The quantity of contaminants being desorbed from
          the sediments should be determined in order to assess load-
          ings from these in-place polluted sediments.
    
    7)     Atmospheric deposition.  Monitoring of wet and dry atmos-
          pheric deposition to Lake St. Clair should continue,  and
          should be expanded to include organic contaminants,  vola-
          tilization losses of organics should also be quantified.
    
    
    Sediments
    
    Monitoring of sediments for concentrations of contaminants should
    be conducted periodically throughout Lake St. Clair in order to
    assess both the trends in surficial contaminant concentrations
    and the movement of sediment-associated contaminants within the
    Lake.  The grid used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service during
    the 1985 survey would be appropriate for consistency in sampling
    sites and sediment composition.  An analysis of sediment chem-
    istry including bulk chemistry, organic and inorganic contamin-
    ants, and particle size distribution should be conducted every
    five years, in conjunction with a biota survey (see "habitat
    monitoring" below).
    
    In Lake St. Clair,  particular attention should be given to sedi-
    ment concentrations of PCBs and mercury.  Additional stations
    should also be established at the mouth of the Clinton, Sydenham
    and Thames Rivers and at Chenal Ecarte to track effects of
    remedial actions in the tributary watersheds to reduce loadings
    of these materials.
    
    Because the grid stations are distributed throughout the river
    reach and are associated with appropriate habitat  for a sensitive
    benthic invertebrate  (Hexagenia), the periodic survey will allow
    assessment of 1) contaminant concentrations in the river sedi-
    

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                                   439
    
    merits throughout the river reach, 2) relative movement of the
    contaminants within the river sediments between surveys, and 3)
    correlation of contaminant concentrations with benthic biotic
    communities.
    
    The sediments at any stations established at the mouths of tribu-
    taries to Lake St Clair should be monitored for organic and
    inorganic contaminants on an annual or biannual basis when sig-
    nificant remedial actions are implemented within the watershed of
    the tributary.  In order to trigger the more frequent sediment
    monitoring program, the remedial actions should be expected to
    measurably reduce loadings of one or more particular contaminants
    via the tributary.
    Biota
    
    Long term monitoring of concentrations of contaminants in biota
    will provide a time series useful to track the bioavailability of
    contaminants to selected representative organisms,  Three long
    term monitoring programs are already in place and should be con-
    tinued :
    
        i) Annual or Hi-Annual Monitoring of £port Fish,
    
    This program should focus especially on PCBs, mercury and/or
    other contaminants {e.fl*. dioxins and dibemof urans) that are
    considered to be known or suspected health hazards.  The monitor-
    ing should be continued regardless of the differences that may be
    observed between acceptable concentrations or action levels that
    may be established by governmental agencies and the measured
    contaminant concentrations in the fish flesh.  As a link between
    human health concerns and integrated results of remedial programs
    to reduce contaminants in the UGLCCS system, this program is
    critically important.
    
        ii)  Spottail Shiner Monitoring Program,
    
    This program is designed to identify source areas for bloavail-
    able contaminants.  In locations where spottail shiners contain
    elevated levels of contaminants, additional studies should be
    conducted to identify the sources of the contaminants,
    upstream studies in tributaries may be required,  Spottails sho-
    uld also be employed to confirm that remedial actions upstream to
    a previous survey have been effective in removing or reducing the
    loading of one or more contaminants.
    
        iii) Caged Clams Contaminants Monitoring,
    
    Caged clams should continue to be used at regular time intervals,
    perhaps in conjunction with spottail shiners, to monitor inte-
    grated results of remedial actions to reduce contaminant loadings
    

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                                   440
    
    to the water.  Clams may be located at tributary mouths and down-
    stream of suspected source areas.  Repeated assays from the same
    locations should confirm results of remedial actions,
    
    
    3, Sources Monitoring for Results of Specific Remedial Actions
    
    Remedial actions intended to reduce concentrations and/or load-
    ings of contaminants from specific point sources generally re-
    quire monitoring for compliance with the imposed criteria or
    standards for permitted contaminants.  The monitoring may be
    conducted by the facility or by the regulating agency, whichever
    is applicable, but attention must be given to the sampling
    schedule and analytical methodology such that mass loadings of
    the contaminants can be estimated, as well as concentrations in
    the sampled medium.  Monitoring of the "nearfield." environment,
    i.e., close downstream in the effluent mixing zone, should be
    conducted regularly to document reductions in contaminant levels
    in the appropriate media and to document the recovery of impaired
    ecosystem processes and biotic communities.  Such monitoring may
    be required for a "long time", but over a restricted areal
    extent, depending on the severity of the impact and the degree of
    reduction of contaminant loading that is achieved.
    
    For Lake St. Clair, seven actions were recommended that would
    affect specific sources of contaminants, and that would require
    site-specific monitoring for compliance or other effects of the
    action at the following locations; Macomb and St. Clair Counties,
    Michigan  (fertilizer management); Mt. Cleiaens WWTP (PCBs,
    phenols, mercury, phosphorus); Wallaceburg WWTP  (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mi,
    ammonia); Warren WWTP  (PCBs); Selfridge Air National Guard Base
    (several contaminants); Sugarbush landfili, Michigan  (groundwater
    monitoring); and G and L Industries, Michigan {groundwater moni-
    toring) .
    
    Other recommendations  for specific contaminant sources involve an
    assessment of the present conditions or a study to quantify con-
    centrations or loadings;  quantify CSOs from municipal waste
    water treatment plants, identify sources of organic contaminants
    in tributaries? determine Cd content of phosphate fertilizer,
    measure  atmospheric deposition of organic contaminants; measure
    loadings of contaminants from urban runoff; conduct biomonitoring
    studies  at WWTP's; inventory point sources and waste sites dis-
    charging to the Clinton River,* analyze sediment, water and biota
    quality  along the Clinton River; and inventory point sources and
    waste sites discharging to the Sydenham and Thames Rivers.  Each
    of these items requires a specific program of data collection and
    analysis.  Additional  needs  for  longer term monitoring may be
    identified as a result of these  studies.
    

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                                   441
    
    4.     Habitat Monitoring
    
    Habitat monitoring should be conducted to detect and describe
    changes in the ecological characteristics of Lake St. Clair
    through periodic analysis of key ecosystem elements.  The follow-
    ing items are recommended;
    
    aj     The abundance and distribution of the mayfly Hexagenia
          should be determined every five years,  The grid used by
          the U.S. Pish and Wildlife Service during the 1985 survey
          would be appropriate for consistency in sampling sites each
          survey.  An analysis of sediment chemistry, including bulk,
          chemistry, organic and inorganic contaminants, and par-
          ticle-size distribution, should be conducted for samples
          taken concurrently with the Hexagenia survey.  These data
          will provide information on the quality of the benthic
          habitat for a common pollution sensitive organism that
          would serve as an indicator species of environmental
          quality.
    
    b)     Quantification of the extent of wetlands along Lake St.
          Clair should be conducted every five years, in conjunction
          with the Hexage_ni_a survey.  Aerial photography or other
          remote sensing means would be appropriate to discern both
          emergent and subiaergent macrophyte      that are important
          as nursery areas for larval fish and other wildlife.  Veri-
          fication of areal data should be conducted by inspection of
          selected transects for plant species identification and
          abundances.  Changes in wetland areas should be correlated
          with fluctuating water levels and other natural documented
          influences so that long term alterations in wetlands can be
          tracked and causes identified.
    

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                                   442
    
    J,
    
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         Shore Damage Survey, Toronto, Ontario 97 pp.
    
    2.    Edwards, C.J., P.L. Hudson, W.G. Duffy, S.J. Nepszy, C.D.
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                                   444
    
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                                   446 -
    
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         mission,  Windsor, Ontario,
    
    50.  Niagara River Toxics Committee, 1984,  Report on the
         Niagara River Toxics Committee to U.S. U.S.EPA, Environment
         Canada,  OMOE and N.Y. DEC.
    
    51.  Marsalek, J. and H.Y.F. Ng. 1987. Contaminants in Urban
         Runoff in the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Area.
         NWRI contribution No. 87-112, National Water Research In-
         stitute,  Burlington, Ontario*
    
    52.  Marsalek, J. and H.Q. Schroeter. 1984, Loadings of selected
         toxic substances in urban runoff in the Canadian Great lakes
         Basin. NWRI Unpublished Report, National Water Research
         Institute, Burlington, Ontario,
    
    53.  Modeling Workgroup, UGLCCS. 1988.  Geographical area
         synthesis report. Draft May 1988, T.D. Fontaine  (Chairman),
         NOAA-Great Lades Env. Res. Lab. Ann Arbor, MI. 96p.
    

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                                CHAPTER  IX
                             THE  DETROIT RIVER
    A.  STATUS OP THE ECOSYSTEM
    
    1.  Ecological Profile
    
    Watershed Characteristics
    
    The Detroit River makes up the lower 51 km of the connecting
    channels between Lakes Huron and Erie.  An international boundary
    divides the Detroit River about equally into United States
    (Michigan) and Canadian (Ontario) waters  (Figures II-5 and IX-1).
    
    The Detroit River is a hydrologically and ecologically distinct
    ecosystem compared to Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River  (1),
    It is limnologically mesotrophic and supports cold water fish
    from September to June.  The Detroit River provides important
    habitat for fish, birds and the bottom dwelling life on which
    they feed.  It is also an important source of potable water, with
    drinking water intakes near Belle Isle, Windsor, Amherstburg and
    Wyandotte  (2).  Water is also used to supply a major industrial
    complex consisting of automobile, steel and chemical companies.
    
    The St. Lawrence Seaway utilizes the Detroit River for commercial
    shipping.  This portion of the Seaway is presently the busiest in
    the upper Great Lakes, involving shipments of iron ore, coal,
    limestone, gypsum, oil, and wheat.
    
    The topography of the Detroit River basin is flat, broken only by
    the valleys of the Rouge River and a few lesser tributaries.  Low
    moraine deposits and beach ridges of ancestral Lake Erie provide
    slight relief.  Land elevations range from 214 m above sea level
    near the tributary head waters to approximately 174 m along the
    Detroit River.  The relative relief of the lake plain is 1 to 5
    m/km^, and most slopes are less than 3%.
    
    The Detroit River courses through Pleistocene glacial drift
    

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                               448
                                       Port
                                      Huron
                                 Mar ys vine
                                    Marine
                                  .  •"  City
    MICHIGAN
                                 ST.  CLAIR
     UPPER
    DETROIT*-*
     RIVERA
                   W ind s or ; • ' • •" •
                               ONTARIO
                                               Statute Mnes
                                               0510
                                               0  51015
                                                K il omettf
              FIGURE  IX-1.  The Huron-Erie corridor.
    

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                                   449
    
    underlain by Paleozoic sedimentary rock.  The sedimentary rock
    beneath the river is the Detroit River Formation  (primarily dolo-
    mite) which outcrops intermittently in the navigation channels
    east of Grosse lie.  On top of the bedrock is a mantle of glacial
    drift 0 to 30 m thick.
    
    Lake plain soils are poorly drained loam and clay loams, which
    developed on former lake bottoms or lacustrine clay sediments.
    Sandy ridges mark former shorelines, and on the Michigan side, an
    isolated sand sheet marks remnants of the glaciofluvial delta of
    the post-glacial Huron River.  When drained and tiled, the loamy
    lake plain soils are agriculturally productive.  Many surface and
    subsurface soils are moderately permeable (0.25 and 1.27 cm/hour)
    with high surface runoff coefficients causing the local streams
    to be storm event responsive.
    
    The Ontario shoreline, except for the City of Windsor and its
    docks, is less disturbed than the Michigan shoreline.  North of
    the Canard River there are scattered marinas, canals, and private
    boat slips.  In places, Ontario farmers have encroached upon the
    wetland margins of the Detroit River and its tributaries.  Thus,
    a green buffer zone exists only intermittently between the farm
    fields and the riverine ecosystem.  Access to the water for com-
    mercial navigation, business, pleasure boating, fishing and hunt-
    ing is important locally on both sides of the river.
    
    
    Hydrology
    
    Nearly 98% of the Detroit River flow enters from Lake Huron via
    the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair.  The river discharge
    averages 5,300 m^/sec and ranges from a low of 3,200 m^/sec to a
    maximum discharge of 7,100 m^/sec.  The Fleming Channel in the
    upper Detroit River, north of Peach Island, accounts for 77% of
    total river flow.  Flow distribution in the lower river is rela-
    tively complex downstream of Fighting Island, as several channels
    separate or combine the flow  (2,3,4).
    
    Flow velocities average 0.49-0.88 m/sec, but mid-surface veloci-
    ties can be nearly twice that rate.  Surface currents near the
    Ambassador Bridge and in the Amherstburg channel reach 1.2 m/sec,
    while the Trenton Channel flow averages 0.6 m/sec.
    
    Detroit River water depth and velocity are directly affected by
    water levels in Lakes St. Clair and Erie, which vary seasonally
    and annually.  Lake Erie seiches and Lake. St. Clair ice jams may
    also produce changes in Detroit River water levels and currents.
    The river slope is relatively uniform, and falls  0.9 m over its
    51 km length.  The average time of passage for water through the
    Detroit River is about 19 to 21 hours.
    

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                                   450
    
    Tiie Rouge River, the main tributary to the Detroit River, drains
    about 121,000 ha in Michigan, and consists of upper, main, middle
    and lower branches.  The stream is very event-responsive and.
    frequent flooding occurs along the middle Rouge .  Its mean annual
    discharge is 26 m^/sec, with over 75 percent of it draining
    through urban areas, collecting considerable stormwater runoff,
    overflow from combined sewers during wet weather, and over 500
    million gallons per day (mgd) of waste water from municipal and
    industrial facilities.  The lower Rouge is partially lined with
    concrete, so runoff rapidly reaches the Detroit River during
    storms.
    
    Other tributaries include the Ecorse, Canard and Little rivers
    and Turkey Creek.  The Ecorse River tributary drains 11,556 ha in
    Michigan, occupied by 2 communities with a total population of
    198,000 in 1980.  The Ecorse River has two open channel tributa-
    ries, the North Branch and the South Branch  (or Sexton-Kilfoil
    Drain) .  These branches join approximately 1 km upstream from the
    confluence of the Ecorse and Detroit rivers near Mud Island.
    Ontario's Little River empties into the Detroit River at its
    mouth, by Peach Island.  It drains approximately 5,750 ha of
    agricultural and industrial land.  Turkey Creek enters the
    Detroit River just north of Fighting Island, draining 2,960 ha of
    primarily agricultural land in Ontario.  The Canard River enters
    the Detroit River in Ontario, south of Windsor and east of Grosse
    lie.  It is a turbid, slow moving stream which discharges into
    diked wetlands just north of its mouth, and drains approximately
    20,000 ha of primarily agricultural land  (5).  Other minor tribu-
    taries also exist, such as Monguagon Creek  (in Michigan, by the
    northern end of Grosse lie) and Conners Creek  (in Michigan, by
    the eastern end of Belle Isle) .
    
    Effluent from the Detroit area wastewater treatment plants
    (WWTPs) discharge over 32 m3/sec  (1985) , a volume equal to the
    combined tributaries flowing into the Detroit River.  The Metro-
    politan Detroit WWTP alone discharges 30 m^/sec near the mouth of
    the Rouge River  (6) .
    
    
    Habitats,, and Biological
    The Detroit River ecosystem can be divided into an upper  stretch
     (upstream of the Rouge River) and a lower river stretch.  The
    Detroit River's biologic zones include deep channels,  shallow
    water/nearshore zones, and terrestrial zones.  Deep channel
    environments generally have water depths exceeding 7 m, relative-
    ly high flow velocities, and coarse sediments.  Since  the river
    channels are also used for shipping,  the high  sediment load  and
    lack of anchorage prevent macrophyte  growth.   Macrophytes and
    associated periphyton and invertebrates are most  abundant in the
    shallow water-nearshore zone, seldom  occurring at depths  greater
    than 4 m.  The  terrestrial biological zone includes undeveloped
    

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                                   451
    
    island habitat, coastal wetland and riparian environments along
    such less developed tributaries as the Canard River.  The
    Wyandotte National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Detroit
    River, off the northern tip of Grosse lie.  This Refuge encour-
    ages shorebirds and waterfowl feeding, nursery and nesting activ-
    ities.  Stony, Celeron, Grassy and Mud Islands provide shoretdrd
    habitat.
    
    The coastal wetlands and large, emergent and submersed macrophyte
    beds along the Detroit River were nearly continuous in colonial
    times.  They now exist only in 31 small isolated remnants cover-
    ing 1,382 ha  (7).   Most of the remaining vegetation along the
    river consists of submersed macrophytes because the land formerly
    occupied by the swamp-scrub-meadow communities along the ter-
    restrial river margin has largely been converted to other uses.
    Fifty-four percent (748 ha) of the remaining wetlands are in
    Ontario.  The single largest wetland, immediately north of the
    Canard River, is functional only along its outer, undiked mar-
    gins.  Functional wetlands also exist along the open water mar-
    gins of a few islands.
    
    A number of biological surveys have documented the biotic com-
    munities in the river  (7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16).  Although it
    is not well understood how the various trophic levels relate to
    one another, enough information exists to describe species com-
    position, standing crop and biomass for a variety of primary and
    secondary producers.
    
         i)   Macrophytes
    
    At least 21 submersed macrophyte taxa occur in the river, domin-
    ated by Vallisnera, Chara, Potamogeton, Myriophyllunx and Heteran^
    thia.  Stands are typically composed of 2 or 3 species but as
    many as eleven have been recorded in a single stand.  Chara is
    the only taxon consistently occurring in monotypic stands.  The
    lower depth limit for plant colonization is not established, but
    most stands occur in water less than 3.7 m deep.  In the Detroit
    River, the area of the river bed between shoreline and the 3.7m
    depth contour is about 99 km^, 72% of which is occupied by sub-
    mersed plants.  The wetlands and submersed macrophyte beds con-
    stitute the most critical areas for primary and secondary produc-
    tion for plants, fish and birds, and are the most stable habitat
    in the ecosystem (17).  Their invertebrate populations include
    clams, snails, midges, caddisflies, mayflies, amphipods, spring-
    tails, and worms.   Juvenile yellow percti and adult northern pike
    have been observed feeding along the wetland shoreline among the
    submersed macrophytes.  These areas are also heavily used for
    spawning by numerous fish species.  No detailed studies of spec-
    ies composition, distribution, and relative abundance of emergent
    macrophytes have been completed, although wetland communities
    have been mapped by remote sensing.  Over 95% of the emergent
    beds occur  in the lower river.
    

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                                   452
    
    The St. Clair-Detroit River system produces about 264,000 tons of
    plant biomass each year, of which 19% originates in the Detroit
    River.  Most of the plant biomass in the Detroit River is pro-
    duced by submersed macrophytes.
    
        ii)  Phytoplankton
    
    Phytoplankton standing crop and production values is assumed to
    have phytoplankton biomass and daily production similar to Lake
    St. Clair.  Eighty two phytoplankton species are present in the
    river at low density (about 500 cells/ml),  and are dominated by
    diatoms that are common in Lake Huron in July and August,  Blue-
    green algae that are common in Lake St. Clair at that time domin-
    ate the Detroit River phytoplankton.  No periphyton studies have
    been conducted to date, but a recent study in a wave exposed
    breakwater in western Lake Erie indicates that diatoms, green
    algae and red algae may be common over-wintering taxa in the
    Detroit River.  Filamentous green algae can be expected to domin-
    ate during summer months.
    
    Current information is inadequate to determine how much of the
    planktonic production of the river is used by river biota.  If
    only moderate amounts of this biomass is retained, then the
    littoral plant complex of emergent and submersed macrophytes and
    macrozoobenthos are the main standing stock in the river.  From
    calculations of drifting macrophytic plants, it appears that the
    Detroit River is a large source of detrital organic matter that
    supports productivity in western Lake Erie.
    
        iii)  Zooplankton
    
    Detroit River zooplankton studies are not yet completed, but
    zooplankton composition and abundance seem to resemble those
    found in Lake St. Clair.  Cladocera and several species of Cyc~
    lops and Diaptomus dominate the zooplankton in Lake St. Clair.
    Difflugia is the most common protozoan, and Conochilus, Keratel^
    la, Polyarthra, Synchaeta, and Brachionus are the most common
    rotifers.  Maximum numbers of zooplankton may be expected between
    June and September.  A study of foods eaten by larval yellow
    perch during passage through the Detroit River revealed that
    zooplankton, including copepod nauplii, older cyclopoids and
    copepods, cladocera and rotifers were eaten.  Hence, zooplankton
    are likely the critical food resource for larval fish.
    
        iv)  Macroinvertebrates
    
    The Detroit River benthic macroinvertebrate community includes
    over  300  species.  Oligochaetes, chironomidae, gastropoda, ephem-
    eroptera, trichoptera and amphipoda dominate the biomass.  Chir-
    onomidae  are common throughout the system while oligochaetes are
    dominant  in the lower river.  Hydropsychid caddisflies are the
    dominant  trichoptera and Hyalella is the most common amphipoda.
    

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                                   453
    
    Hexeigenia is the most common mayfly, but density is lower in the
    Detroit River (88/m2) than the St. Clair or the St. Marys Rivers
    (95/m2 and 199/m^),  respectively.  Detroit River benthic produc-
    tion (5.4 g ash-free dry weight/m3/yr) is lower than the St.
    Clair River and Lake St. Clair (7,0 and 6.8 g ash-free dry
    weight/m^/yr) with the annual production (440 metric tons ash-
    free dry weight/yr)  equal to about 2% of the combined annual
    Detroit River phytoplankton, periphyton, maerophyte and zoo-
    plankton production  {7,14,16),
    
        v)  Pish
    
    The present Detroit River fish populations are a mixture of
    natural and introduced  (exotic) species.  Among the exotic fish
    is the common carp,  which     introduced in 1883 in western Lake
    Erie.  Prom there, it spread through the Detroit River to the
    upper Great Lakes, destroying beds of wild celery and wild rice,
    the preferred food of native waterfowl.  Large carp populations
    continue to inhabit the Detroit River.  Rainbow smelt and ale-
    wife, introduced in 1932, spread through the Detroit River and
    upper lakes.  Alewives now comprise the bulk of forage fish in
    all the Great Lakes.  The     lamprey spread through, the Detroit
    River to the upper Great Lakes in the 1940s, greatly reducing
    populations of desirable fish, such as the lake trout.  The most
    recent exotic Detroit River fish, the white perch,     introduced
    into Lake Erie in 1953 and now hybridizes with native white bass.
    The Detroit River fish community presently has approximately 60
    resident or migrant species, 32 of which use mainly the lower
    river along the islands and the mainland shoreline for spawning
    (18,19,20,21,22).
    
    The Detroit River and its tributaries are, important spawning,
    feeding and nursery areas for many species that support major
    fisheries in the river and Lakes Huron and Erie.  There are 60
    recorded resident or migrant fish species in the Detroit River,
    32 of which spawn in the river.  Townet catches of larval fish in
    the Detroit River in 1977-1978, 1983-1984 and 1986 show that the
    river is a nursery ground for at least 25 species of fish.  Most
    abundant were alewife, rainbow smelt, and gizzard shacl.  Other
    species were much less abundant.
    
    The river is part of a complex migration route for walleye and
    yellow perch, important recreational fish species, which move
    between Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie,  Large walleye spawning
    runs once occurred in the lower river, the reduction of which is
    attributed to pollution and sedimentation.  In the 1970s, spawn-
    ing was again documented, and walleye larvae were collected in
    several locations in the lower 16 km of the Trenton Channel and
    the main river.  Recently, yellow perch spawning has been ob-
    served in the Trenton Channel and near the mouth of the Detroit
    River in      areas previously used by walleye.
    

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                                   454
    
    The Detroit river once supported a large commercial fishery for
    lake whitefish, lake herring, walleye, lake sturgeon, black bass,
    northern pike, muskellunge and carp.  Overfishing, pollution and
    dredging contributed to the Detroit River commercial fishery
    decline (23,24,25).
    
    Sport fishing is still an important activity in the Detroit
    River,  In 1985, an estimated 1.4 million hours were spent har-
    vesting approximately 1.4 million fish (22).  The lower river
    harvest was 980,200 while the upper river was 440,600 annually,
    Dominant species were white bass  (63%), walleye (12%), yellow
    perch (10%),  and freshwater drum  (7%).
    
    A larval fish passage study from Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie was
    conducted along the Detroit River at  17 transects, 2.5 km apart
    (Figure IX-2)(22).  Thirteen larval fish taxa were observed.
    Larval fish densities of walleye, yellow perch and white bass/
    white perch greatly increased in the mid-Trenton Channel  (tran-
    sect 12-13),  suggesting spawning and  rearing activities in the
    vicinity.  Yellow perch showed a strong lateral distribution with
    greatest densities along the western  near-shore, decreasing
    toward the main channel with lowest densities along the eastern
    shore.  Surprisingly, the area containing the highest density of
    larval yellow perch coincides with the highest concentration of
    environmental contaminants in water or sediments.  White
    bass/white perch and rainbow smelt did not exhibit significant
    east-west density gradations.  Longitudinal distribution patterns
    were evident for larval bloaters, burbot and deep water sculpin.
    Deep water densities of these species were greatest in the upper
    Detroit River, but were present throughout, probably being trans-
    ported from Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair.  walleye and white
    bass/perch were not found, and yellow perch and rainbow smelt
    exhibited relatively low abundances in the upper river.  Yellow
    perch, white bass/white perch, rainbow smelt and walleye larval
    densities were greatest in the lower  river.
    
        vi)  Waterfowl
    
    At least 3 million waterfowl migrate  annually through the Great
    Lakes region, which, is situated at the intersection of the Atlan-
    tic and Mississippi flyways.  An estimated 700,000 diving ducks,
    500,000 dabbling ducks, and 250,000 Canadian geese migrate across
    Michigan each  fall  (1).
    
    Important species of nesting ducks in the Detroit River wetlands
    include mallards, blue-winged teal, black ducks and,  if nesting
    boxes are provided, wood ducks.   In the past, 24  species of ducks
    regularly  fed  in the river.  Each year, thousands of  waterfowl,
    including scaup, goldeneyes, canvasbacks, black ducks, redheads,
    and mergansers  congregate on the  river to forage  sediments.
    Major concentrations of feeding ducks are often found in  littoral
    waters around Belle Isle, Grosse  lie  and Mud, Fighting, Sugar  and
    

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                                       455
          MICHIGAN
    FIGURE IX-2. Detroit  River water sampling transects  and 24-hour
                     sampling locations.
    

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                                   456
    
    Celeron islands.  Preferred foods vary among species.  Mergansers
    feed primarily on fish, whereas American goldeneyes prefer crayf-
    ish, clams, and other invertebrates.  Many diving ducks feed on
    submersed aquatic plants and their associated communities.
    
    A recent survey of eelgrass tubers, a preferred food of many
    waterfowl, indicated that over the past 35 years, tuber densities
    have decreased substantially, resulting in a net loss of 4.6 x
    10^ tubers in the lower river.  This large loss of eelgrass
    tubers in the Detroit River explains in part why fewer waterfowl
    now use the Michigan migration corridor. ••
    
    
    Climate
    
    The Detroit River area enjoys a mid-continental climate, with
    cold winters and relatively short hot summers,  moderated somewhat
    by the Great Lakes.  The average first frost is on October 21 and
    the average last freezing temperature is on April 23, with an
    annual growing season of 180 days.  Precipitation averages about
    76 cm. per year, including 40 cm of snow.  Prevailing winds are
    from the southwest, and average 16 tan/hour.
    
    During late autumn and early winter, water from Lake Huron cools
    rapidly as it flows through shallow Lake St. Clair.  As a result,
    ice often enters the Detroit River from Lake St. Clair before it
    begins to form in the Detroit River itself.  Before  the 1930s,
    most of the Detroit River was ice covered in winter, but now
    large volumes of heated effluents entering the river usually
    prevent the upper river from freezing over, except between Belle
    Isle and the Michigan mainland.  Extensive slush ice still devel-
        in the lower river, especially in the broad shallow expanses
    adjacent to the islands.  In general, ice may now be found in the
    river from early December to mid-March, but main navigation chan-
    nels remain ice-free.  Minor ice jams occur in the Detroit River
    with the breakup ice moving south from Lakes Huron and St. Clair
    from late March to early May.  Easterly winds can also cause Lake
    Erie ice to reverse into the lower Detroit River.  Monthly water
    temperature data show that the highest water temperatures occur
    in August, with an average of 22.2°C.  In the shallow nearshore
    areas of the lower river, water temperatures may attain 25.2°C.
    Lowest temperatures occur in January-February, sometimes reaching
    0°C.
    2.  Environmental Conditions
    
    Water _Quality
    
    The Detroit River area  is heavily  industrialized  and  densely
    populated.  Industrial  and municipal  raw water  is taken  from  the
    river  then returned  after use.   Due to  its  varying channel  width
    

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                                   457
    
    and depth, berms and islands, the Detroit River is hydrologically
    complex, a fact which influences water quality and modifies the
    human impact on the Detroit River system.
    
    Information on water quality was obtained as part of this study
    (26).   To obtain a reliable data set which could provide a mean-
    ingful interpretation while minimizing the need for analyses,
    water sampling transects across the river were used.  Figure IX-3
    shows the location of the upper (DT 30.8W and DT 30,7E) and lower
    (DT 8.7W and DT 9.3E) transects and the major tributaries.  The
    upper transects are at Peach Island near Lake St, Clair, upstream
    of Detroit and Windsor.  The lower transects are near Grosse lie,
    upstream of the Livingston Channel and Stoney Island in the east,
    and near the lower end of the Trenton Channel on the west.  The
    lower transect was designed to avoid the influence of Lake Erie,
    and in the process was located upstream of two industrial facili-
    ties.  General Chemical at Amherstburg and McLouth Steel, Gibral-
    tar,  Therefore, water quality data for the lower transect does
    not reflect these facilities.  In addition, loadings from Frank
    and Poet Drain, which serves several permitted Michigan industri-
    al discharges, were also excluded (26).  Figure IX-4 describes
    the flow distribution in the channels of the Detroit River, and
    shows that approximately 21% of the total Detroit River flow
    passes through the Trenton Channel and approximately 26% and 47%
    through the Livingston and Amherstburg channels, respectively
    {27} ,
    
    Three additional, partial river width water quality monitoring
    transects were established in the Trenton Channel between Grosse
    lie and the Michigan shore at Point Hennepin  (A), just south and
    parallel to the Grosse lie toll bridge (C), just south and paral-
    lel to the Grosse lie Parkway Bridge off the Monsanto Breakwall
    (D).  Michigan's monthly Detroit River water sampling transect at
    the mouth of Detroit River between Bar Point and Maple Beach (DT
    3.9) is also shown (Figure IX-3).
    
        i)  Cross-Channel Variations in Water Quality
    
    Cross-channel variation of water quality occurs where large
    volumes of low concentrations or smaller volumes of higher con-
    centrations of substances are discharged to the river.  Cross-
    channel variations were demonstrated by dye studies below the
    Detroit WWTP outfall  (Figure IX-5)  (283 .  The upper Detroit River
    between Belle Isle and Fighting island has a relatively constant
    channel width and depth where little or no cross-channel mixing
    occurs.  In contrast, the lower river section is broken up into
    three major channels and several shallow embayments,  There, and
    downstream of these islands and structures, increased cross-chan-
    nel mixing may occur due to the generally  lower current veloci-
    ties,  eddies below these structures, and wind driven currents
    cross and counter to the normal current direction.
    

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                                       458
                                                               DT30.8W
                     Michigan
                       USA
              Rouge
             River
     Little
    River
           Ecorsa
          River
                                                  Ontario
                                                  CANADA
              DT12.
    Monguagon
    Creek
                                                               N
         DT8.7W
                                  •DT3.9
             FIGURE IX-3. Detroit River mass balance sampling transects.
    

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                                                459
                                                                   77%
              DETROIT
                       Ambassador Bridge
    51%
    26%
                                                                               Navigation
                                                                               Channel
                                          36%
             FIGURE IX-4. Flow distribution in the Detroit River  (27),
    

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                                                                          FIGHTING  ISLAND
            DWSD I	,
            PLANT 1	     /
    PEERLESS CEMENT
    (REMOTE 72)
                                                                                    WYANDOTTE
                                                                                    GENERAL HOSPITAL
                                                                                    (REMOTE 74)
                                                            PLANT FLOW
                                                            RIVER FLOW
                                                            C0
                                                            WIND
    1108 CFS
    221.097CFS
    3t.0ppb
    SW AT 22 MPH
                    FIGURE  IX-5. Plume from the  City of Detroit WWTP, March 1985 (28).
    

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                                   461
    
    Cross-channel variation in concentrations of some organochlorine
    contaminants (for example PCBs and chlorobenzenes) between water
    in the upper Detroit River and the Detroit River mouth has been
    shown (Figure IX-6).  Organochlorine concentrations are similar
    at the head of the river along both the Michigan and Ontario
    shores (about 0,5 ng/L at stations 399 and 379, respectively)
    (29).   Proceeding downstream, higher levels are found along the
    Michigan shore, with levels up to 209 ng/L (station 346), com-
    pared with 0.5 ng/L across the river,  station 269  (17 ng/L), on
    the Canadian side, may be influenced by U.S.  sources as this
    station is well within the 50% flow panel of the Detroit River.
    
    
        ii)   Longitudinal Variations in Water Quality
    
    The flow of the Detroit River ranges from 3,200 m3/sec to 7,100
    iti^/sec,  constituting a large water mass.  To detect statistically
    significant changes in water quality between the river head and
    mouth, inputs or sinks of such substances must be substantial.
    Due to natural fluctuations between seasons,  shipping and dredg-
    ing activities and both natural and man-induced fluctuations of
    in-coming water quality, any quantitative and even qualitative
    interpretation of data is difficult.  Only a statistical evalua-
    tion of many samples will allow definite conclusions.  That sam-
    pling intensity was not achieved in this study for most data, and
    comparisons made are primarily relative comparisons.  Evaluation
    of relative changes in water quality parameters does not require
    absolute values, but compares the relative abundance or absence
    of materials, and may indicate temporal or spatial differences.
    
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs):
    
    Qualitatively, the composition of PCBs in Detroit River water
    changes from the upper to the lower Detroit River transects  (Fig-
    ure IX-7).  For nine commonly observed PCS homolog series  {com-
    prising approximately 100 of the theoretically possible 210 PCB
    isomers), a decrease of the lower chlorinated homologs  (with one
    to four chlorines per biphenyl molecule) and an increase of the
    higher chlorinated homologs  (6 to 10 chlorines per molecule) is
    observed as one moves downstream.  Considering the stability of
    PCBs,  it can be concluded that the observed change in PCB homolog
    distribution is due to inputs of higher chlorinated PCBs along
    the river stretch  (26).
    
    The observed qualitative changes in PCB composition are also
    supported by quantitative observations.  PCB concentrations in
    water averaged approximately 0.6 ng/L at four stations above and
    below Belle Isle on both sides of the river from  a  1985 survey
     (26).  Downstream, at several locations along the Ontario side,
    PCB concentrations increased to approximately 1.0 ng/L, while PCB
    concentrations on the Michigan side in and downstream o£ the
    Trenton Channel increased to levels as high as 3.4 ng/L«  In the
    

    -------
                                                              462
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                                                   STATION NUMBEIt
    FIGURE   IX-6.  PCBs,  CBs,  PAHs and   DCS in  Detroit  River  water,  suspended  solids  and
                         surficiaJ  sediments  (29),
    

    -------
                                                           463
                                                 STATION NUMBER
    
                                                 2SS  '."   31*    3M
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                                          STATION NUMBEfi
                        Polrcltlnrlnailli bipiltntk (PC3s) in waler, susptmjtd lelldi, and surfitiat srttimmil of fhr Octrair River.
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    FIGURE  IX-6.  (Cont'd.)     PCBs,   CBs,  PAHs  and  OCS  in  Detroit  River   water,
                          suspended  solids  and  surficial  sediments  (29).
    

    -------
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                                               HOMOLOG
    
                                    UPPER TRANSECT      LOWER TRANSECT
                                FIGURE 1X-7. PCBs iii Detroit River  water.
    

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                                   465
    
    Detroit River System Mass Balance Study  (30),  total PCB concen-
    trations averaged 1.4 ng/L {plus or minus 0,6 ng/L) at the head
    of the river and 3,3 ng/L (plus or minus 1.3 ng/L) at the mouth,
    based on composite samples across the entire river at each re-
    spective transect.  Total PCB concentrations in whole water sam-
    ples from tributaries averaged 45,4 ng/L in the Rouge River, 47.9
    ng/L in Turkey Creek, 33.3 ng/L in the Ecorse River and 7,6 ng/L
    in the Little River  {Table IX-1).  In the Trenton Channel
    Balance Study (31),  total PCBs in whole river water ranged from 1
    ng/L to 385 ng/L.  The highest concentrations were found along
    the western shore of the Trenton Channel, with daily variations
    ranging from 6.8 ng/L to 15.7 ng/L.
    
    PCB concentrations throughout the Detroit River exceeded
    Michigan's Rule 57(2) allowable level of 0.02 ng/L, the Ontario
    Provincial Water Quality Objective (PWQO) of 1 ng/L and the
    U.S.EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria  (AWQC)  for Human Health
    (based on fish and water consumption} of 0.079 ng/L, and
    locations (e.g., Trenton Channel) exceeded the U.S.EPA chronic
    AWQC of 14 ng/L.
    
    In suspended solids, PCB levels were at or below 50 ng/g at most
    locations on both sides of the river, except at two stations on
    the Michigan side, below Belle Isle and at the lower end of the
    Trenton Channel, where they reached 280 ng/g.   Concentrations
    measured on suspended solids at the head of the Detroit River
    averaged 428 ng/g, largely due to     elevated measurement,  A
    single suspended sediment sample collected in 1S85 from the
    Canard River had a very high PCB concentration of 11,760 ng/g,
    but other data suggest that the Canard River is only an intermit-
    tent PCB source  {32).
    
    Chlorobenzenes;
    
    Several of the 5 possible chlorobenzene homologs are commonly
    found in aquatic systems, of which hexach'lorobenzene  (HCB) is
    probably the most widely distributed congener.  In Detroit River
    water, chlorobenzenes ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 ng/L at stations
    above Bells Isle and at all but two Ontario stations  (maximum
    approximately 2 ng/L, Figure IX-6).  On the Michigan side, chlor-
    obenzene levels were somewhat higher, particularly at the mouth
    of the Rouge River,  where chlorobenzene levels reached 25.9 ng/L
    (Figure IX-6).  However, HCB concentrations were only 0.28 ng/L,
    indicating other chlorobenzenes are present.  In a later study,
    concentrations of HCB remained virtually the      from the head
    (0.31 ng/L) to the mouth  {0.33 ng/L) of the Detroit River  (Table
    IX-1),  In another survey, HCB in water and/or suspended particu-
    lates showed essentially the      HCB concentrations on both
    shores and at upstream and downstream transects.  These results
    indicate small or intermittent sources of HCB along the Michigan
    side of the Detroit  River, perhaps from the Rouge River, with
    important background concentrations of HCB  entering the Detroit
    

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                                                              TABLE IX-1
    
    
    Mean concentrations of polychlorififtted blphenyl, hexachlorobenzene»  Major trace »ctnla, phoaphorua and choride  at  the
    
    Detroit River head and mouth, and major tributary noutha  (1984-1S86)*«
    LOCATION
    Detroit-Head
    Detroit-Mouth
    Ecors* River
    Rouge River
    Turkey Creek
    Little River
    Canard River
    i
    Z
    l
    TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
    CADMIUM COPPER MEfiCtJRY
    lug/L)  (ug/LJ
    0.023 1.29
    O.Q3S 1.64
    0.084 2.83
    2. OBI 7.09
    0.196 4.38
    (0.2-3H
    0.058 6.14
    (0.2-0.4J'
    0.2-0,4'
    0.008
    0.008
    0.002
    0.017
    0.016
    0.018
    -
    From U.S. EPA an reported in the Water Quality
    Quality Workgroup report for reported valuer,
    Upper and lower values reported by Wall e_t fl_L
    ND = not detected.
    TOTAL
    NICKEL
    <»8/L)
    0.9?
    1.18
    2.62
    TOTAL
    ZINC
    (ug/L|
    1 .22
    3.30
    14.2
    3.30 167.3
    6.70
    NO*
    -
    Workgroup
    aanpi ing
    . { 6 >.
    21.2
    73.7
    -
    TOfAl TOTAL TOTAL
    CHLORIDE PHOSPHORUS . tEAD PCB»
    (mg/tJ (ug/L) (ug/L) Ug/L)
    6.7
    8.4
    37.7
    69.2
    106.6
    (61-880
    93.8
    U6-21S
    27-12S*
    i.6 - 1.4*
    15.7 ' - 3,3*
    88.0 - 33.3*
    102.0 - 46.4*
    361.0 3-33* 47.9*
    >* < 47-7000)*
    473.0 3-13* t.5
    )J JS2-2400)2
    B7-S601 3-30*
    Report 126), except *a noted. Valuea are rounded.
    methodology and statistical information.
    No average value reported.
    HCB
    0.31*
    0.33*
    0.38*
    0.28*
    0.24*
    1.01
    -
    See Water
                                                                                                                                            £>•
                                                                                                                                            m
                                                                                                                                            a\
        Average of two surveys [28>«
    

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                                   467
    
    River from upstream.  Data from a 1984 study, however, indicated
    increased HCB concentrations on suspended sediments, from ap-
    proximately 3,5 ng/g at the river head to approximately 15 ng/g
    at the Detroit River mouth.
    
    Other Organochlorine Compounds:        •* - ~
    
    A variety of additional organochlorine contaminants  (OCs) are
    frequently observed in Detroit River water and seston samples.
    Among these are DDT and its environmental metabolites, commonly
    referred to as total DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane  (three isomers)»
    chlordane (two isomers}, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan  (two
    isomers}, dieldrin, endrin, methoxychlor, and octachlorostyrene
    (OCS}.  These compounds, collectively referred to as DCs, were
    found at concentrations of 0.3 to 0.5 ng/L in upper Detroit River
    water on both shores (Figure IX-6}.  Significantly higher OC
    concentrations were observed at many downstream  stations on the
    Michigan side, with values as high as 20 ng/L at the mouth of the
    Rouge River,  OCS levels, however, were virtually constant
    throughout the river at 0.005 to 0.008 ng/L in water and at 2.0
    to 4.3 ng/g on particulate matter as found in another survey.
    These data indicate sources of OCS are primarily upstream of the
    Detroit River but important loadings of other OC compounds occur
    along the Michigan side of the Detroit River  (26,32,33).
    
    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons:
    
    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs} are byproducts of incom-
    plete combustion of fossil energy resources.  PAHs are also as-
    sociated with petroleum refining and steel-making operations
    (coking, in particular).  Consequently, their presence in air and
    water in urban and industrial areas is not surprising.  At the
    head of the Detroit River, PAH concentrations of 100-200 ng/L
    were found in water.  Higher concentrations were observed at
    several downstream stations along the Ontario, and particularly,
    the Michigan side of the river, with values as high as 6,100 ng/L
    (Figure IX-6).  Based on the high concentrations of PAH that were
    found at the mouth of the Rouge River and sampling locations
    immediately downstream, large sources for PAHS appear to exist  in
    the Rouge River area (26,30,31).  Water samples  from the Ontario
    tributaries  (Turkey Creek, Little River and the  Canard River)
    obtained during 1984 revealed no PAHs were present at the limit
    of detection used  (34).  There is no appropriate ambient water
    quality guideline with which to compare PAH concentrations in
    Detroit River water.
    
    Total Trace Metals, Total Phosphorus and Filtered Chlorides:
    
    A 1987  survey of selected trace metals  (copper,  cadmium, mercury,
    nickel, and zinc), phosphorus and chloride concentrations result-
    ed in the following general conclusions  (.Table IX-1) (26,30).
    

    -------
                                   468
    
    Total cadmium concentrations increased from the head to the mouth
    of the Detroit River from a mean of 0.023 ug/L to a mean of 0.035
    ug/L.  In general, Detroit River water concentrations were below
    relevant ambient water quality guidelines.   The Trenton Channel
    Mass Balance Study found total cadmium concentrations ranging
    from 0.7 ug/L to 0.77 ug/L (data not shown in Table IX-1) in the
    vicinity of the Grosse lie free bridge along the western shore of
    the Trenton Channel, three of the four times it was sampled.
    These concentrations exceeded Michigan's Rule 57(2) allowable
    level of 0.4 ug/L  (assuming a water hardness of 100 mg/L calcium
    carbonate).  High cadmium concentrations were found in the Rouge
    River (2.06 ug/L}, the Canard River (0.2-0.4 ug/L), Turkey Creek
    (0.196 ug/L in one study and up to 3 ug/L in another), the Ecorse
    River (0.084 ug/L) and the Little River  (.0.058 ug/L in one study,
    and up to 0.4 ug/L in another).  Concentrations in the Rouge
    River, Turkey Creek and the canard River exceeded the Great Lakes
    Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) specific objective and the PWQO
    of 0.2 ug/L, and concentrations in the Rouge River and Turkey
    Creek exceeded Michigan's Rule 57(2) allowable level.
    
    Total copper concentrations were slightly higher at the Detroit
    River mouth than at the river head  (1.64 ug/L vs. 1.29 ug/L),
    Total copper concentrations in the tributaries were between two
    and six times higher than in the Detroit River, with the Rouge
    River levels highest at 7.1 ug/L.  In general, both Detroit River
    and tributary copper concentrations were below relevant guide-
    lines, with the exception of the Rouge and Little rivers, which
    slightly exceeded the GLWQA specific objective and the PWQO of
    5 ug/L.
    
    Total mercury concentrations in Detroit River water did not show
    any change between river head and mouth  (both 0.008 ug/L}«  Total
    mercury concentrations in the Detroit River and in the Trenton
    Channel ranged from O.Q24 ug/L to 0.449 ug/L.  Tributary mercury
    concentrations were approximately double those in the Detroit
    River, except in the Ecorse River, where they were lower. These
    concentrations generally exceeded the U.S.EPA chronic AWQC of
    0.012 ug/L.
    
    Total nickel concentrations in the Detroit River showed little
    change between upper  (0.97 ug/L) and lower  (l.l ug/L) Detroit
    River transects.  Nickel concentrations in the Ecorse and Rouge
    rivers, and Turkey Creek were from two to eight times the Detroit
    River level, with  the highest concentration in Turkey Creek  (8.8
    ug/L).  Especially high concentrations of nickel were noted in
    the Little River  (676.2 ug/L)(26).  With the exception of the
    Little River, all  Detroit River and tributary concentrations of
    nickel were below  ambient water quality guidelines.  Little River
    exceeded U.S.SPA chronic, Ontario and Michigan ambient water
    quality guidelines.
    

    -------
                                   469
    
    Total lead concentrations were all below the method detection
    limit (MDL) of <0.1 ug/L in the Detroit River head and mouth
    transects.   Several locations in the Trenton Channel contained
    total lead concentrations ranging from 3.24 ug/L to 10.61 ug/L,
    which exceeded Michigan Rule 57(2) allowable levels (3.0 ug/L)
    and the U.S.EPA chronic AWQC (3.2 ug/L).  The highest concentra-
    tion was upstream of the Grosse lie toll bridge along the western
    shore of the Trenton channel (transect A, Figure IX-3).   Tran-
    sects C and D also have total lead concentrations exceeding
    guidelines along the western shore of the channel.  Total lead
    concentrations in Ontario tributaries were determined for the
    Little River  (3-13 ug/L), the Canard River (3-30 ug/L) and Turkey
    Creek (3-33 ug/L}.  These tributaries all contain total lead
    concentrations above guidelines (26,35).  Concentrations of total
    lead in Michigan tributaries were not available for this report.
    
    Total zinc concentrations increased between upper (1.2 ug/L) and
    lower (3.3 ug/L) Detroit River transects.  Each of the tributar-
    ies also had high mean zinc concentrations, with the Ecorse River
    having the least (14 ug/L) and the Rouge River the highest  (167
    ug/L) total zinc concentrations.  With the exception of the Rouge
    River and the Little River (74 ug/L),  water concentrations were
    below ambient water quality guidelines.  Little River concentra-
    tions of total zinc exceeded GLWQA specific objectives (30 ug/L).
    Rouge River total zinc concentrations exceeded this guideline and
    also the U.S.EPA chronic and acute AWQC.
    
    Total phosphorus concentrations were nearly twice as high at the
    Detroit River mouth (15.7 ug/L) compared to the river head  (8.6
    ug/L).   Total phosphorus concentrations in the major Detroit
    River tributaries were much higher than concentrations in the
    Detroit River.
    
    Filtered chloride concentrations increased from 6.7 mg/L to 8.4
    mg/L between upper and lower Detroit River transects.  The lower
    Detroit River transect was located above General Chemical, a
    major chloride loading source discussed later, and therefore this
    loading was not reflected in the Detroit River mouth transect
    value shown in Table IX-1.  The filtered chloride concentrations
    in the Detroit River tributaries were one to two orders of mag-
    nitude greater than the Detroit River head.  Total chloride con-
    centrations  (not shown) did not increase between the head and the
    mouth.   The drinking water guideline for chlorides  (250 mg/L) was
    exceeded in Turkey Creek and North Drain.
    
    Nutrients, Dissolved Gases and Microorganisms:
    
    The basic plant nutrients in the Detroit River include
    phosphates, nitrates,  and silicates.  Dissolved oxygen and the
    metals iron, sodium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and aluminum
    are also present in sufficient quantities.  The oversupply of
    phosphate, chloride and ammonia has decreased substantially over
    

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                                   470
    
    the past 20 years.
    
    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon
    (POC)  are often many times greater than the organic carbon found
    in living plankton, macrophytes, and fauna produced in streams,
    DOC measurements available from Lake Huron, the St. Clair and
    Detroit Rivers are in the range of 2-3 g/m^.  The POC entering
    the St. Glair-Detroit liver system from Lake Huron is about 0.7
    g/m3.   An average of 1.4 g/rn^ was measured at the mouth of the
    St. Clair River, and up to 2.0 g/m? were found in Lake St. Clair.
    A single POC sample from the mouth of the Detroit River was 3.8
    g/m.3,   Suspended solids increased by a factor of six between Lake
    Huron and Lake Erie, and bed load POC has not been studied, so
    3.8 g/m3 may underestimate POC in the Detroit River.
    
    Although not measured during these studies, fecal conform bac-
    teria are of concern in the Detroit River because fecal coliform
    bacteria standards and criteria have been violated on both sides
    of the river.  The Ontario objective is 100 counts/100 ml and the
    Michigan standard is 200/100 ml fecal coliform bacteria.  Beaches
    have been closed or not developed because of this continuing
    problem.
    
    Water Bioassays;
    
    Seven day chronic bioassays measured the impacts of Detroit River
    near-bottom water on Ceriodaphnia.  Reproductive success was
    significantly reduced  (mean young produced/female) relative to
    Lake Michigan controls at all four test sites,  Station 83 near-
    bottom water collected along the  southwestern shore of Fighting
    Island produced the greatest reduction in the number of young
    produced/female  (70 to 100% reduction) followed by stations 34
    {along the west shore of the Trenton channel)» 53  (at the south-
    ern tip of Grosse He and 3OCR  (in Monguagon Creek),  These re-
    ductions were most severe from July to September  (36).
    
    Considering both exceedences of water quality and impacts on
    biota, the pollutants of concern  in water of the Detroit River,
    or that of its tributaries, include PCBs, chlorobenzenes, PAHs,
    total cadmium, total mercury, total lead, total zinc, and total
    phosphorus, in addition to fecal  coliform bacteria.
    
    
    Biota
    
        i)  Phytoplankton, Macrophytes and Zooplankton
    
    Detroit River phyt©plankton communities consist of  low densities
    (500 cells per ml) of  82 species  dominated by diatoms  (8,10,37).
    Summer blue-greens contribute to  phytoplankton community, but
    Detroit River picoplankton, a large component of  the phytoplank-
    ton biomass, were not  surveyed.
    

    -------
                                   471
    
    Activity causing habitat loss, such as filling or dredging, water
    or sediment contaminants or simply continuous elevated suspended
    solids that reduce macrophyte production, reduces desirable fish
    and wildlife production in the Detroit River and western Lake
    Erie.  Macrophyte production was estimated at 16,410 metric tons
    of ash-free dry weight/yr  (12) .  Only 25% is from emergents re-
    flecting the limited habitat presently available.
    
    Detroit River zooplankton populations (potential larval fish
    food) were 85% copepods with other zooplankton populations at
    very low relative abundances.  Zooplankton densities were greater
    during the night than the day with typically patchy distribution
    with peak numbers between June and September (36,38).  Zooplank-
    ton are a critical component in the diet of many larval and some
    juvenile fish.  Poor diversity or depressed zooplankton produc-
    tion is likely to result in poor fish year classes during natur-
    ally occurring or contaminant related stressful conditions.
    
        ii)  Benthic Macroinvertebrates
    
    Diversity and abundance of benthlc macroinvertebrates are lower
    in the deep, fast flowing areas of the river because the sub-
    strate is either difficult to adhere to or burrow into.  Shal-
    lower, uncontaminated zones containing macrophytes are likely to
    yield the greatest diversity.  The greatest densities are reached
    in strongly enriched, unconsolidated sediments where oligochaetes
    are often monotypic.
    
    The Detroit River benthic community upstream of Zug Island is
    diverse and dominated by pollution intolerant organisms with the
    exception of the Windsor shoreline.  Adjacent to Zug Island, the
    community is severely impacted, and downstream, especially in the
    Trenton Channel, the community is dominated by pollution tolerant
    oligochaetes  (13,15,39).  The Ontario shoreline is considerably
    better as evidenced by the presence of pollution intolerant may-
    flies  (11,15),
    
    Schloesser, et al.  (40) demonstrated an inverse relationship
    between Hexagenia abundance and visible oil in sediments of the
    Connecting Channels,  Edsall et al. (41) found Hexagenia averag-
    ing 2,086 mg dry wt/m3/yr at three locations where sediment con-
    taminants did not exceed sediment guidelines, but only 364 mg dry
    wt/m-vyr where as many as seven contaminants exceeded these
    guidelines.
    
    Native Detroit River Lampsilis radiada siliquoidea, at 4 stations
    along the Ontario shore, contained lead and cadmium ranging from
    3 to 9 and 3.5 to 6.2 mg/kg respectively  (42).  PCBs ranged from
    73 to 196 ug/kg at these same locations.  Octachlorostyrene  (OCS)
    in clams ranged from 31 to 57 ug/kg, 70 to 285 times higher than
    sediment concentrations.
    

    -------
                                   472
    
    Caged Elliptic compalanta placed in the Detroit River for 18
    months accumulated HCB and QCS and a variety of organochlorine
    pesticides (43) .  Highest levels were found along the western
    Detroit River shore near Conners Creek, the lower Trenton Channel
    and the Rouge River,  PCBs were the major organochlorine clam
    contaminant,  ranging from 20 to 293 ug/kg along the Michigan
    shore; clams from the Ontario shore had much lower concentrations
    (Figure IX-8),
    
    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons  (PAHs) were also reported in
    caged clams at elevated levels along the Michigan shoreline and
    downstream in the Trenton Channel ranging from 136 to 772 ug/kg.
    Along the Ontario shoreline PAHs ranged from 52 to 274 ug/kg,
    
        ill)  Fish
    
    Five fish species were collected from six sites in the lower
    Detroit River and examined for external lesions, necropsied for
    internal abnormalities and tissues removed for histological
    examination  (Figure IX-9) (44),  Several neoplasms and pre-neo-
    plastic lesions were found in Detroit River brown bullhead,
    walleye, redhorse sucker, white sucker and bowfin.  Bullhead and
    walleye were the only two species exhibiting dermal/oral neo-
    plasms at 14,4 and 4.8 %, respectively,  other species exhibited
    liver neoplasms with highest incidence observed for bowfin at
    15,4%.  In bullhead, no relationships between dermal/oral and
    liver tumors were found.  Tumor incidence     age/size related
    since tumors were present in bullheads over 25 centimeters and in
    walleye over 50 centimeters.  Of the six sites examined, bull-
    heads at Point Hennepin     Gibraltar Bay, exhibited the greatest
    tumor incidence at 36.4% and 33.3%, respectively.  Bullheads near
    Mud Island north of the Trenton Channel and in the lower end of
    the Trenton Channel did not exhibit tumors.
    
    In this study  (44), bile     analyzed for ben2o(a)pyrene  (BaP)
    and its metabolites.  All species had BaP or its metabolites in
    their bile.  Walleye and redhorse sucker contained the greatest
    BaP concentrations, with concentrations in bullhead substantially
    lower.  The greatest BaP concentrations were in bowfin     red-
    horse sucker from Point Hennepin and in brown bullhead, walleye,
    and white sucker from Mud Island.
    
    Contaminants exceeding relevant guidelines were found in the
    flesh of fish  in the Detroit River,  PCBs were found in carp,
    with concentrations exceeding the Ontario' Ministry of Environment
     (OMOE) and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources fish consumption
    guidelines and  the U.S. Pood and Drug Administration action level
    of 2 ppm, as well as the GLWQA specific objective of 0.1
     (Figure IX-10).  PCBs in young-of-the-year spottail shiners were
    found at significantly  (p<0.01) higher concentrations along the
    Michigan shoreline  than along the  Ontario, suggesting Michigan
    inputs  of PCBs  (45).  High concentrations of mercury were  found
    

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                                         473
                                         629
                                                      294
                          552
    Michigan
                                                                    58
        695
                                                                     N
                                                              Total PCS
                                                              Concentrations
                                                              ng/g. wet wt.
       FIGURE IX-8. Total PCB concentrations in Detroit River  caged clams.
    

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                                      474
    Michigan
                                                    Fish Sampling
                                                    Locations
                                                         n
           FIGURE IX-9. Fish  sampling locations  for tumor  analysis.
    

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                                                 475
    PCB^ppm
    Carp     6.7
                                                          ^_.__ ——   Spottail .006
                                                _ — _—..—.. — • — •   Spottail .007
    Spottail    03
    Carp    10.7
                                                                          Spottail ,007
    
                                                                          Spottail .009
    Spottail     2.6
           FIGURE  IX-10. PCBs and  HCB concentrations in Carp  and Spottails  shiners.
    

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                                   476
    
    in the edible portion of several species of fish  (rock bass,
    freshwater drum and walleye).   Concentrations were above both the
    GLWQA specific objective and the Ontario fish consumption ad-
    visory of 0.5     (46,47).  Other chemicals, such as HCB, OCS,
    chlordane and DDT metabolites, were uniformly distributed in
    Detroit River spottail shiners, suggesting a diffuse source  (45).
    
        iv)  Birds
    
    Thirteen wintering lower Detroit River diving ducks  (7 lesser and
    3 greater scaups and three goldeneyes) were analyzed for organic
    chemical contaminants (48).   Total PCBs ranged from 2 to 20
    mg/kg, indicating significant bioaccumulation.  Highest mean
    concentrations of other residues in ducks were 1.7 mg/kg hexa-
    chlorobenzene in goldeneyes, and trans-nonachlor  {0.33 mg/kg) and
    4,4' DDE  (1.3 mg/kg) in greater scaups.  Similar  chemical resi-
    dues were also found in some tern species.   concentrations of
    total PCBs in Detroit River seston {5.2 mg/kg} and oligochaete
    worms  (0.44 mg/kg) mg/kg) were also noted.
    
    Herring gull eggs from Fighting Island contained  high PCS and HCB
    concentrations in 1985 and 1986 studies.  Detroit River herring
    gull eggs contained the lowest concentrations of  dieldrin, hepta-
    chlor epoxide, photomirex, oxychlordane and alpha hexachloro-
    cyclohexane in the Great Lakes {49).
    
    Detroit River waterfowl surveys completed in 1982 showed dramatic
    declines in merganser and black ducks, and dramatic increase in
    canvasbacks and redheads since 1974  {50).  It was postulated that
    loss of emergent macrophytes caused by high Great Lakes water
    levels caused this reduction in dabbling ducks,
    
    In  summary, the pollutants of concern in Detroit  River biota
    include PCBs, PAHs, HCB, OCS,  mercury, lead, cadmium and oil and
    grease.  Other biota concerns include habitat alteration and fish
    tumors.
    S e diment_ _Qual_ity
    
        i)  Sediment Characteristics
    
    Sediments in the Detroit River are generally sandy, consolidated
    clay or bedrock because of the relatively high  flow velocities.
    Sediment particle size analysis conducted in 1980  revealed that
    surficial sediments were generally sand, but gravel dominated
    areas of high velocity along  the  Detroit waterfront,  the entrance
    of the Trenton Channel and the upper Amherstburg Channel.  Fine-
    grained samples were collected in slow waters near tributary
    mouths.  Silts and clays were found downstream  of  zug Island,  in
    the Rouge River, the Trenton  Channel near Trenton  and the Detroit
    River mouth  (51,52).
    

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                                   477
    
    Detroit River sediment thickness over bedrock, revealed a maximum
    sediment thickness of 33 m near Belle Isle, which declined stead-
    ily southward to nearly zero in the Trenton Channel and zero in
    the main channel  (53).   The outer and Amherstburg Channel silt
    layer averaged 0.45 to 0.50 m near Lake Erie and zero in the
    Amherstburg Channel at Bois Blanc Island and in the Ballard Reef
    Channel.
    
    The Michigan Detroit River tributaries which were not sampled in
    1982 were sampled in 1985, revealing fine-grained, anthropogenic
    sediments frequently of sludge-like consistency (54,55).  Samples
    in Monguagon Creek and downstream of the Rouge River contained
    very fine sands, silt,  and coarse sand and gravel.  The upper
    Rouge River sediments were coarser than elsewhere, consisting of
    medium to fine sands with little very fine sand sediments.
    Conners Creek sediments also had only minor amounts of fine to
    very fine sands.  Studies conducted in 1986 at 47 sites  (56,57),
    generally confirmed the earlier findings.
    
        ii)  Sediment Transport
    
    Detroit River average main channel velocities are 0.49 to 0.88
    m/sec, but surface velocities may be nearly twice that rate in
    the main channels  (0.9 to 1.2 m/sec)(58),  Sand is transported in
    the main channels when the velocity exceeds 0.42 m/sec, while
    along the shore and in shallow water areas, where velocities may
    drop to 0.25 m/sec or less, sand deposition occurs.  Navigation
    channel bottoms are scoured by currents leaving few sediments to
    resuspend, and no significant relationships between ship passage
        turbidity has been found  (59).
    
    A field portable shaker device was used to measure sediment
    resuspendability at eight Trenton Channel locations from Mon-
    guagon Creek to Celeron Island.  Lick et al. predicted that
    resuspension could occur regularly in the Trenton channel  (60).
    Direct instantaneous measurements of flow velocity, turbidity and
    sediment concentration at four locations in the Trenton Channel
    using instrumented towers assisted the above researchers  (61).
    
        iii)  Navigation and Dredging
    
    Until recently, the entire Detroit River commercial navigation
    system was dredged by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers  (USCOE) to
    a depth of 8.2 m below low water datum.  At present, the Ontario
    portion of these channels are dredged by Public Works Canada
    under contract to Transport Canada.  Before enactment of the
    Rivers and Harbors_Act of 1970, nearly 3 million m3 of dredged
    materials were disposed of in the open lake at two sites in Lake
    Erie south of the Detroit River mouth  (62).  In addition, an
    unknown amount of Detroit River dredged materials were placed in
    Lake St. Clair, near the head of the Detroit River.  Since 1970,
    about 30,100 m.3 of polluted dredged materials were placed on
    

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                                   478
    
    Grassy Island.  From 1979 to 1984, 3.1 million m^ of dredged
    material were deposited in the Pointe Mou-illee confined disposal
    facility (CDF) near the Huron River mouth  (58),  In 1985, 814,000
    m-3 of polluted Detroit River material was scheduled for disposal
    in the Point Mouillee CDF.  Rouge River sediments, since 1950,
    have been placed on Grassy Island (62) .  Some polluted dredged
    materials were also disposed of along the lower Raisin River
    prior to 1979.  Mud Island, a small containment site near Grassy
    Island, was also used for dredged material disposal.
    
        iv)  Sediment Contamination
    
    Results of the six major surveys conducted since 1982 include
    contaminant chemistry at approximately 135 sites  (51,54,55,63,64,
    65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73).  For ease of presentation, the
    Detroit River was divided up into seven subareas  (Figure IX-11).
    Because the purposes for the survey, sampling gear, analytical
    methods, depth of sample collection, compositing techniques and
    sampling locations varied considerably between the studies, com-
    parison of these data from, year to year may not be entirely
    valid.  However, an attempt was      to make      comparison.
    
    Organics - Polychlorinated Biphenyls:
    
    High total PCS concentrations were found by six surveys in all
    subareas except subarea 7  (Table IX-2, Figure IX-11).  The high-
    est mean sediment PCS concentrations were found in subarea 2,
    just below Belle Isle, where 5 of 10 samples exceeded 10,000
    ug/kg in 1986.  These were associated with sewer system outfalls,
    and indicate  that combined sewer overflows have historically
    been, and may still be, an important source of PCBs (64),
    
    The 1984 analyses of Oliver and Pugsley  (74) noted localized
    areas of high concentrations of PCBs downstream of the Detroit
    WWTP and the  Rouge River  (in subarea 3), at concentrations higher
    than reported in 1980  (75), assuming the methodologies of the
    1980 and 1984 studies were comparable.  Comparison of 1982
    1985 collections are supportive of the conclusion that subarea  2
    sources were more significant than the Rouge River.  Rouge River
    sediments collected at the mouth in 1986 revealed total PCBs up
    to 3,500 ug/kg  (76).  Samples collected downstream of the Detroit
    WWTP outfall  and off the Rouge River mouth in 1985 and 1986
    revealed PCBs up to 2,840 ug/kg near Zug Island  (28).  Concentra-
    tions up to 3,800 ug/kg were found in the Ecorse River  (subarea
    4).  The highest concentrations in the navigation channel  (sub-
    area 4) was 140 ug/kg, between Grosse lie and Fighting Island
     (77).  Sediments analyzed  from along the Windsor waterfront
    showed PCS concentrations  ranging from less than  1 ug/kg to 370
    ug/kg.
    
    Sediment collections made  in 1982 and 1985 also indicate PCB
    sources in subarea 6, the  Trenton Channel.  Highest levels were
    

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                                    479
    FIGURE IX-11. Detroit  River  sub-areas for sediment  sampling.
    

    -------
                                                     TABLt IX-2
    
    
                Po I jr chlorinated  biphamjrl IPCB1 concentrations in Patreit  River i«diiment» lug/kg)* "*«
    SUI-AREA-1
    1 MAX
    MIN
    MEAN
    n
    SD
    S MAX
    MIN
    ME AM
    n
    SP
    3 MAX
    MIN
    MEAN
    n
    SD
    4 MAX
    MIN
    MEAN
    n
    SD
    5 MAX
    MIN
    MEAN
    n
    SD
    6 MAX
    MIN
    MEAN
    n
    SD
    7 MAX
    MIN
    MEAN
    n
    SD
    HDHB
    2900
    100
    874
    9
    608
    4000
    1910
    147
    10
    10561
    4800
    870
    3007
    7
    1357
    1000
    290
    64S
    2
    355
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    OM0g
    420
    35
    110
    7
    624
    
    
    
    
    
    1815
    25
    551
    8
    524
    
    
    
    
    
    11780
    40
    5900
    2
    5860
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    BP482
    • 133
    1 16
    2361
    7
    2704
    12010
    6200
    9638
    3
    2705
    B647
    1229
    3901
    8
    2609
    12810
    0
    4095
    25
    3815
    
    
    
    
    
    13870
    2350
    7526
    6
    9988
    2B27
    22
    98B
    a
    1303
    EjEAJiJi
    2020
    9b2
    I4il
    2
    S2i
    
    
    
    
    
    2213
    968
    1538
    7
    399
    588
    206
    417
    3
    158
    
    
    
    
    
    1590
    149
    1090
    2
    440
    604
    368
    80ft
    8
    10218
    DOE
    470
    0
    91
    6
    no
    ISO
    190
    190
    1
    0
    1900
    7
    1506
    to
    2921
    8000
    41
    1462
    6
    2927
    320
    3
    86
    8
    107
    1400
    29
    642
    6
    437
    51O
    10
    188
    6
    188
    U.S. FNS
    358
    0
    79
    a
    111
    6410
    163
    1494
    4
    2261
    4000
    135
    1166
    4
    1637
    1038
    0
    274
    8
    367
    957
    0
    U61
    10
    31i
    9130
    336
    2471
    6
    3093
    369
    154
    281
    7
    87
    =  number of samples.
    
       Kizlatiskas and Pr«nnk*vieiM8  I S3 I.
       The six  surveys were performed by  th«  Michigan D*$»t,
                                                                                                                                 «*
                                                                                                                                 CD
                                                                                                                                 O
    of Natural
    IMDNR), Ontario Ministry of the
    

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                                   481
    
    in Monguagon Creek (13,870 ug/kg}, although very high PCS con-
    centrations were found near BASF/Federal Marine Terminal Prop-
    erties and below McLouth Steel, near Trenton,  Tributary data
    collected in 1985 also targets Monguagon Creek as a PCS source,
    with concentrations in the creek of up to 1,530 ug/kg (55),
    Since PCB concentrations of up to 9,130 ug/kg were reported in
    the Trenton Channel proper, other sources are contributing PCBs
    to the Trenton Channel in addition to Monguagon Creek (56) .
    
    Bottom sediments from Ontario tributaries obtained during the
    1984-1985 survey revealed PCB concentrations of 1,305 ug/kg, 248
    ug/kg and 20 ug/kg at the mouths of Turkey Creek, the Little
    River and the Canard River, respectively (5) ,
    
    Many of these PCB sediment concentrations in the Detroit River
    and its tributaries ,  in Michigan and Ontario (particularly ad-
    jacent to and downstream of Detroit, Windsor and Ambers tburg and
    in the Trenton Channel J , exceed dredging guidelines.  Guidelines
    exceeded include the OMOE dredging guidelines  (50 ug/kg) , the
    U.S. EPA dredging guidelines (10,000 ug/kg)     are higher than
    the guidelines recommended for Lake Erie by  the Dredging Sub-
    committee of the Great Lakes Water Quality Board  (up to 252
    Hexaehlorobeniene ;
    
    Sediments collected in 1982 and 1985 in subareas 3, 6 and 7 con-
    tained hexachlorobenzene  (HCB) exceeding 100 ug/kg.  Concentra-
    tions of HCB in 1985 downstream of Monguagon creek ranged from 26
    to 140 ug/kg.  Inputs from the St. Clair River are probably minor
    since loadings between the St. Clair River mouth and the head of
    the Detroit River were reduced at least 95%,  Increases noted
    within the Detroit River may arise through diffuse or unknown
    minor inputs.  The highest concentrations of HCB were found, in
    Michigan at the mouth and downstream of the Rouge River     in
    the Trenton Channel;     in Ontario adjacent to AmJaerstburg and
    east of Fighting Island,  There are no dredging guidelines for
    HCB,
    
    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons:
    
    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon  (PAH) analyses were performed on
    Detroit River sediments in 1982 and 1985,  Total PAH values
    ranged from 620 to 265,000 ug/kg along the Michigan shore down-
    stream of Belle Isle,  High total PAH levels  (up to 125,000
    ug/kg) were also reported in the lower Rouge River,  In 1985,
    PAHs were reported in the Detroit Dearborn Channel     all
    Michigan Detroit River tributaries, ranging from a low concentra-
    tion of 600 ug/kg to a high concentration of 600,100 ug/kg in
    Monguagon Creek,  Most tributary PAH samples were dominated by
    3-, 4-, and 5-ring PAH compounds.  Two-ring naphthalenes were
    found in appreciable quantities only in the Monguagon Creek and
    

    -------
                                   482
    
    the Rouge River.  There are no dredging guidelines for total
    PAHs.
    
    Phenols:
    
    Phenols ranged from, nondetectable to 44,000 ug/kg in localized
    areas within subarea 6 along the Michigan shore.  High levels
    were generally found in subareaa 1, 2, and 3 near the Edward C,
    Levy Company.  There are no dredging guidelines for total phen-
    ols.
    
    DDT and Metabolites:
    
    DDT analyses were performed on Detroit River sediments collected
    in 1982     1985.  In 1982, the highest total     concentrations
    were found near Belle Isle  (2,265 ug/kg}.  In 1985, total DDT was
    highest in subarea 1.  DDT and metabolites were found in all 1985
    samples ranging from 7 to 482 ug/kg  (Conners Creek}.  High levels
    of total DDT were also found in the Rouge River mouth and Trenton
    Channel,  suggesting recent additions that have not been degraded.
    
    Sediments from the mouths of Ontario tributaries generally con-
    tained less than 5 ug/kg p'p'-DDT, while breakdown products p'p1-
    DDE and p'p'-DDD approached maximum levels of 36 ug/kg and 20
    ug/kg, respectively.  There are no dredging guidelines for DDT or
    its metabolites.
    
    other Pesticides;
    
    Approximately 34 other pesticides were analysed in sediments in
    1985, 14 of which were found in bottom sediments,  Alpha-chlor-
    dane, gamitia-ehlordane, dieldrin and methoxychlor were most com-
    monly found.  Highest dieldrin levels were found in subarea 5, at
    the Canard River mouth (30 to S5 ug/kg).  Methoxychlor and gamma-
    chlordane were highest in sub-area 3,  Maximum levels in bottom
    sediments for methoxychlor were 86 ug/kg while ganraaa-chlordane
    levels were 10 ug/kg.
    
    Several chlorinated pesticides were found in the Detroit River
    sediments collected in 1985 with highest levels in Monguagon and
    Conners Creek sediments.  Highest levels of trifluralin  (19
    ug/kg) were present in the Frank and Poet Drain and the only
    occurrences of DCPA  (Daethai) were in the Ecorse River and the
    Detroit River Dearborn Channel, a tributary to the Rouge River,
    Dieldrin  (14 ug/kg) was highest in the Detroit-Dearborn channel,
    while aldrin was found primarily in the Rouge River and Conners
    Creek sediments.
    
    Beta-BHC concentrations were elevated at Belle Isle  (170 ug/kg)
    and near the Ecorse River  (195 ug/kg) in 1982 collections.
    Gamma-chlordane was found throughout the study area with peaks at
    Conners Creek and  the Ecorse River,  Concentrations of other
    

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                                   483
    
    pesticides in sediments showed no distinct relation to potential
    sources.
    
    Phthalate Esters:
    
    Phthalate esters were found in 14 of the 20 Detroit River tribu-
    tary samples in 1985.  Highest levels were found on the Michigan
    side in Conners Creek, the Rouge River and near the Federal
    Marine Terminals and BASF properties (17,600 ug/kg),   There are
    no dredging guidelines for phthalate esters.
    
    Volatile Organic Compounds:
    
    Volatile organic compounds were found in 15 of 20 sediment samp-
    les analyzed from the Detroit River tributaries in 1985.  Di-
    chloromethane appeared in 9 of the 20 samples ranging from 0.8 to
    6.9 ug/kg in Monguagon Creek where the great variety of volatile
    organic compounds were found.  Highest concentrations were found
    in subarea 7, in the Prank and Poet Drain.  There are no dredging
    guidelines for specific volatile compounds.
    
    Metals - Mercury:
    
    Mercury analyses were performed on sediments collected in 1982,
    1985 and 1986.  The highest levels in subarea 6  (Trenton Channel)
    were located below the mouth of Monguagon Creek near the Edward
    C. Levy Company  (55.8 ing/kg) .  However, a 1985 sample in Mon-
    guagon Creek  {1.5 nig/kg) indicated that Monguagon Creek was not a
    prominent mercury source.  Mercury analyses of sediments in sub-
    area 6 exceeded 3.0 mg/kg, while bottom sediments in subarea 1
    exceed 2.5 mg/kg.  U.S.EPA and Ontario dredging guidelines for
    mercury were exceeded at many sampled locations along the
    Michigan and Ontario shores throughout the length of the river.
    
    Lead:
    
    Lead concentrations exceeded 200 mg/kg in subareas 1, 2 and 6 in
    1982 and 1985.  Tributary sediment levels were highest in Conners
    Creek and the Detroit-Dearborn Channel of the Rouge River, rang-
    ing from 500 to 750 mg/kg, but declined downstream to less than
    100 mg/kg in subarea 1.  Sediment lead concentrations for samples
    collected in 1982 and 1985 were similar at subarea 6 above Eliza-
    beth Park Canal  {1,750 mg/kg).  Dredging guidelines were exceeded
    along most of the Michigan shore and downstream of Windsor and
    Amherstburg in Ontario.
    
    Arsenic:
    
    Sediment data for 1982 and 1985 indicate that Detroit River sedi-
    ments contain approximately 10 mg/kg arsenic throughout, with
    elevated levels of 36 and 54 mg/kg found at Elizabeth Park Canal
    and the Rouge River, respectively.  The uniformity of the data
    

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                                   484
    
    suggests no major point or nonpoint sources of arsenic to the
    Detroit River; however, dredging guidelines for arsenic were
    exceeded.
    
    Cadmium:
    
    Peak cadmium concentrations were in subareas 1, 3" and 6, ranging
    between 25 and 96 mg/kg.  Cadmium concentrations in suspended and
    bottom sediments were approximately equal, perhaps indicating a
    persistent local source.  Dredging guidelines for cadmium were
    exceeded along the full length of the Michigan shore  (especially
    adjacent to Detroit and in the Trenton Channel) and adjacent and
    downstream of Windsor and Amherstburg,
    
    Copper:
    
    Sediment data from 1986 show copper peaks exceeding 100 mg/kg in
    subareas 2,3,4, and 6.  Sediment data for 1985 showed generally
    higher copper levels in subarea 1 and 3, than in 5 or 7 (approxi-
    mately 100 mg/kg versus approximately 50 mg/kg),  In 1982 and
    1985, copper values exceeded 700 mg/kg in subarea 3, Turkey Creek
    and the Rouge River.  Dredging guidelines for copper were ex-
    ceeded along the Michigan and Ontario shores, specifically ad-
    jacent to the cities of Detroit, Windsor and Amherstburg and in
    the Trenton Channel.
    
    Zinc:
    
    Sediment data for 1986 indicate levels of zinc exceeding 500
    mg/kg in subareas 2 and 6.  The 1982 and 1985 sediment data show
    zinc exceeding 1,000 rag/kg in subareas 1, 2, 3 and 6.  The Rouge
    River, Conners, Turkey and Monguagon Creeks all appear to be
    contributing zinc to the Detroit River.  Dredging guidelines for
    zinc were generally exceeded at the same locations as Cor copper.
    
    Chromium:
    
    Sediment data for 1986 indicate chromium levels exceeding 100
    rag/kg in subareas 2 and 6.  The 1985 sediment data show tributary
    sediments as chromium sources in subareas 1 and 3, where suspen-
    ded and bottom sediments contained greater than 300 mg/kg total
    chromium, indicating a continuing source.  Chromium levels were
    nearly twice as high in the Detroit Dearborn channel of the Rouge
    River as the lower Rouge River sediments.  The 1982 chromium
    peaks were not apparent in the 1985 subarea 6 sediments samples,
    perhaps indicating some source control.  Dredging guidelines were
    exceeded at several locations in the Detroit River  (as per cop-
    per) ,
    

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                                   485
    
    Nickel:
    
    High nickel levels {500 mg/kg) were found in bottom sediments
    from the Ontario tributary in subarea 1, the Little River.  Sedi-
    ment nickel levels exceeded 50 mg/kg in subareas 2, 3 and 6 in
    1986, while 1985 data indicate subareas 1 and 3 as having high
    nickel contamination.  The high nickel levels found during the
    1982 survey in subareas 4 and 6 were not evident in 1985 data.
    Dredging Guidelines were exceeded at several locations  (as per
    copper),
    
    Manganese;
    
    Manganese levels exceeding 1,000 mg/kg were found in subareas 3,4
    and 6  (the Rouge and Ecorse Rivers and Monguagon Creek) in 1985,
    which     about the same as in 1982.  High manganese in subarea 7
    in 1982 was not reported in 1985, but 5,000 mg/kg manganese was
    reported in the Ecorse River in 1985 that was not noted in 1982.
    Dredging guidelines for manganese were exceeded along the
    Michigan shore.  Manganese concentrations in Ontario sediments
    were not determined.
    
    Iron:
    
    Sediment concentrations of iron from the 1982 survey reached
    180,000 mg/kg  above Elizabeth Park  (subarea 6),  Iron levels
    along  the Michigan shore were very high in 1982, with some sta-
    tions  in all subareas exceeding 25,000 mg/kg.  The highest iron
    concentration  found during the 1985 survey was 120,000 mg/kg from
    the Ecorse River.  Dredging guidelines were exceeded along the
    Michigan shore.  Iron concentrations were not determined  for
    sediments along the Ontario shore.
    
    Cobalt:
    
    Cobalt was analyzed in 1982, 1985 and 1986.  The 1986 cobalt
    concentrations were relatively uniform with a slight increase
    downstream.  Highest levels  (over 10 mg/kg) were found  in subarea
    6.  The 1982 samples were also relatively uniform, although
    slightly higher than 1986 samples.  The highest cobalt  levels
    were found in  the 1985 tributary  samples in subarea 3 in  the
    Detroit Dearborn Channel  (17 mg/kg).  No exceedences of dredging
    guidelines were noted.
    
    Nutrients and  Conventional Pollutants - Cyanide:
    
    In 1982, cyanide levels exceeding 10 mg/kg were present in sub-
    areas  1,3 and  6.  in 1985, high cyanide concentrations  were pres-
    ent in subareas 1 and 3  (Conners  Creek  and Detroit Dearborn
    Channel).  Lower levels were  found  in the Lower Rouge and
    Monguagon Creek, indicating  that  sources other than Monguagon
    Creek  were responsible for high levels  found in subarea 6 in
    

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                                   486
    
    1986.  Exceedence of dredging guidelines for cyanide occurred in
    Michigan and Ontario adjacent to Detroit, Windsor and Aniherstburg
    and in the Trenton Channel.
    
    Oil and Grease:
    
    The highest oil and grease levels found during the 1986 survey
    were reported in subarea 6 with concentrations over 24,000 mg/kg.
    In 1985, oil and grease levels were highest in subareas I  (44,800
    mg/kg)  and 3 (28,600 mg/kg), and generally decreased downstream
    from the Detroit River head to its mouth.  In 1982, peak oil and
    grease levels exceeding 30,000 mg/kg were present in subareas 1,
    2,3 and 6.  Dredging guidelines for oil and grease were exceeded
    in many areas,  primarily along the Michigan shoreline adjacent to
    and downstream of Detroit and in the Trenton Channel, as well as
    adjacent to the cities of Windsor and Aniherstburg.
    
    Total Phosphorus:
    
    Most total phosphorus concentrations in sediments were lower than
    5,000 mg/kg.  Along the Michigan side, phosphorus levels up to
    6,200 mg/kg in 1982 were found in subarea 6, whereas the highest
    level in 1985  (6,200 mg/kg) was found in the Detroit Dearborn
    Channel.  Exceedences of phosphorus dredging guidelines were
    noted in the majority of samples analyzed in both Michigan and
    Ontario.
    
    Ammonia:
    
    The  1982 concentrations of ammonia exceeded 500 mg/kg in subareas
    1,3,4,  and 6 with highest levels  (1,400 mg/kg) in the Rouge
    River.  In 1985, ammonia levels were below 500 mg/kg in all sub-
    areas except subarea 1, where 900 mg/kg was found in Conners
    Creek,   Dredging guidelines for ammonia were exceeded along the
    Michigan shore.  Ammonia concentrations were not determined for
    sediments from the Ontario shore.
    
        v)   Sediment Bioassays
    
    Certain Detroit River depositional zone sediments have demonstra-
    ted  a range of toxicity to various forms of aquatic life,  and
    some Detroit River sediments have been tentatively classified as
    hazardous waste.  Figure IX-12 shows the status of macrobenthic
    communities along the Detroit River.  Bacterial bioluminescence
    IPhosphobacterium phpsphoreum) assays  (MicrotoxR) conducted on
    Detroit River  sediment porewater provided dose-response relation-
    ships with degree of toxicity inferred by a decrease in light
    emission.  Figure IX-13 indicates that localized western near-
    shore Trenton  Channel stations caused a  50% reduction in bio-
    luminescence with less than 100% porewater while other stations
    elicited  lesser responses  and 30 percent of the stations were
    nonresponsive  (78).
    

    -------
                                    487
                                       Status  of M a cro b e ntft o s
                                             Commortlt les
    FIGURE IX-12. Macrobenthos distribution  in  the  Detroit  River.
    

    -------
                                         488
           rl
           ra
                     o
    
                     a
                     f">
                              CD i
    
    
                                ^_
    s
    n
    03
                                                                     o
                                                                     o
    — 42*15'
    DETROIT
    RIVER
    1986
    
           Microtox
           Toxicity
    Sjmbol Statement
                >
                •
                *
           Great
           Moderate
           Slight
           None
    — 42°05
          FIGURE IX-13.  Detroit River sediments porewater Microtox toxicity.
    

    -------
                                   489
    
    Mutagenic potential of sediment extracts were measured by the
    bacterial Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test) .  Some mutaeren-
    icity was noted at 28 of 30 Detroit River stations, with the most
    strongly mutagenic sediments from the Trenton Channel (Figure IX-
    14}.   Moderately mutagenic sediments were primarily concentrated
    in the lower river near Lake Erie (44),
    
    Bacterial and phytoplankton bioassays were conducted on control
    sediments and water along the west end of Fighting Island and the
    southern end of Grosse lie, measuring changes in the rate of food
    uptake in bacteria and phytoplankton photosynthesis.  Bacterial
    uptake rates were suppressed by control and contaminated sedi-
    ments when sediments exceeded 12 to 1,200 ppm of suspended sol-
    ids.   At 120 ppm suspended solids, control sediments inhibited
    uptake by 50% whereas contaminated Trenton Channel sediments
    inhibited uptake by 75%.  The impact of sediments on phytoplank-
    ton was similar to bacteria, but less accentuated  (36).
    
    Daphnia pulicaria feeding was generally inhibited 50 to 75% by
    Detroit River elutriate with an approximately three fold decrease
    in ingestion rate at station 34, downstream of McLouth Steel near
    Trenton.  Slight feeding suppression of the control at stations
    33 (along the west shore of Fighting Island) and 53 (at the
    southern tip of Grosse lie) were reported at high elutriate con-
    centrations (363 ,
    
    The acute toxicity of Detroit River sediment porewater to Daphnia
    magna was demonstrated in a study where ten of the thirty sta-
    tions in the Trenton Channel caused 50% mortality in a 96-hour
    exposure to 50% or less concentration of porewater  (IB).
    
    Ten day Chironomus tentans growth tests using whole sediments
    found the greatest growth inhibition (up to 95%) along the west-
    ern near-shore Trenton Channel.  Growth rates for these stations
    ranged from 0,02 to 0.08 mg/day, whereas reference stations
    three other stations ranged from 0.48 to 0.53 mg/day  (36),
    
    Stylodrilus     used to determine avoidance response to Detroit
    River sediments.  In control sediments, all worms burrowed and
    remained buried with no mortality.  At other stations, 70% of the
    worms remained buried, but a slight increase in mortality rate
    was evident.  At station 34, downstream of McLouth Steel near
    Trenton, only 10% remained buried, with a 53% mortality  (36),
    
    Chironomus tentans respiration, undulation, turning and crawling
    movements and rest responses to Detroit River sediments showed
    significant differences in escape, respiration and rest respon-
    ses ,  relative to Lake Michigan control sediments.  Escape time
    was higher and respiration and rest time were lower at these
    stations compared to the Lake Michigan sediments  (36).
    

    -------
                                        490
    Michigan
                                                     Mutaaenic  Potential
    
    
    
                                                       Strongly  mutagenic
    
    
    
                                                       Weakly mutagenic
    
    
    
                                                   v  Non mutagenic
    FIGURE  IX-14.  Mutagenic potential of Detroit River  sediments (Ames test).
    

    -------
                                   491
    
    Feeding rates of larval channel catfish exposed to Detroit River
    contaminated and control sediments and sediment porewater indi-
    cate the greatest inhibition of feeding rates occurred from ex-
    posure to Trenton channel sediments.  There were no differences
    in feeding rates when porewater and water column assays were
    completed on Trenton Channel stations (36).
    
    Late-eyed stage rainbow trout eggs were injected with serial
    dilutions of Detroit River sediment extracts; all sediment ex-
    tracts increased embryo mortality two to three fold relative to
    the solvent carrier control.  Incubated eggs and fry were moni-
    tored but increased mortality was not evident in the early sac
    fry stages.  One year after injection, 3% of the survivors'
    livers exposed to Monguagon Creek sediment extract at 100 ug/egg
    had liver neoplasms (44).
    
    Schloesser et al.  (40) demonstrated an inverse relationship bet-
    ween Hexagenia abundance and visible oil in Detroit Eiver sedi-
    ments.  Edsall et al.  {413 found Hexagenia averaging 2,086 mg dry
    wt/m^/year at three locations where sediment contaminants did not
    exceed dredging guidelines, but only 364 mg dry wt/m^/year where
    as many as seven contaminants exceeded these guidelines.  Both
    studies indicate that sediment contaminants had notable negative
    impacts on the benthie community.
    
    In summary, sediments of the Detroit River were found to be
    severely impacted by a variety of compounds, including PCBs, HCB,
    PAHs, total phenols, total cyanide, oil and grease, total phos-
    phorus, ammonia and metals  (total mercury, total lead, total ar-
    senic, total cadmium,  total copper, total line, total chromium,
    total nickel, total manganese, total iron).   In addition,
    non-uGLCCS parameters were also found in sediments  (pesticides,
    phthalate esters and volatile organic compounds),  Several tribu-
    taries appear to be sources of many of these contaminants.  Toxic
    effects of the sediments and sediment porewater on benthic biota
    were also noted by a variety of toxicity tests.
    

    -------
                                   492
    
    B.  SPECIFIC
    
    The specific chemicals which are impacting the Detroit River
    ecosystem, as determined in this study, and other concerns, are
    identified in this section.  They are summarized in Table IX-3.
    
    
    1.  Conventional Pollutants
    
    In the past, severe oxygen depletion in the Lake Erie hypolimnion
    was associated with, excessive inputs of phosphorus, and correct-
    ive action was undertaken by most Jurisdictions to reduce phos-
    phorus loadings.  Since the Detroit River Is the major tributary
    to Lake Erie, all phosphorus loadings from the Detroit River are
    considered important.  Concentrations of total phosphorus in the
    Detroit River have steadily decreased since the late 1960s and
    are presently below 20 ug/L.  Tributary concentrations, however,-
    still currently exceed ambient water quality guidelines.
    
    Chloride concentrations in the Detroit River water were relative-
    ly constant, and not excessive,' however,     industry which
    found to be discharging high levels of chlorides (i.e., General
    Chemical) was not represented by the water quality survey.  High
    chloride levels may encourage the growth of halophilie phyto-
    plankton in the Great Lakes which could cause a shift in the
    phytoplankton, community and upper trophic levels.
    
    Fecal coliform bacteria are of concern because fecal collform
    bacteria standards     criteria are routinely violated on both
    sides of the river.  Beaches along both shores have been closed
    or not developed because of this continuing problem.  Although
    not demonstrated in this study, ammonia is also problematic,
    since calculated levels of nonionized ammonia have periodically
    exceeded the chronic criteria for coldwater fisheries  (0.02 mg/L)
    along the western Detroit River shoreline.
    
    Phosphorus and ammonia concentrations in sediments exceeded
    dredging guidelines at a number of locations in the Detroit River
    and in      tributaries.
    
    
    2,  Organic Contaminants
    
    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCS) concentrations in the Detroit
    River were found at concentrations exceeding guideline levels.
    Although the levels are below acutely toxic concentrations, high
    persistence and bioaccumulative properties of PCBs may  (and in
    fact has) resulted in bioaccumulation of PCBs in aquatic organ-
    isms.  Similar  findings are      for several organochlorlne
    compounds, including hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, heptachlor,
    heptachlor epoxide, chlordane and endosulfan.  The effects of
    these contaminants may not be found in  the Detroit River itself
    

    -------
                                                                      493
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    -------
                                   494
    
    but in Lake Erie, particularly its Western Basin.  Significant
    concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons  (PAHs) enter
    the Detroit River at and near the Rouge River mouth. There is no
    water quality guideline for PAHs for aquatic life; however, many
    of these compounds are known or suspected animal or human car-
    cinogens .
    
    Fine-grained sediments in the river are excessively contaminated
    by a variety of organic contaminants.  Several areas along the
    Michigan shore contain excessive PCB concentrations.  Organo-
    chlorine contaminants other than PCBs are also found in most
    Detroit River and tributary sediments.  DDT and its metabolites,
    dieidrin,  methoxychlor, chlordane, trifluralin, hexachlorocyclo-
    hexane and hexachlorobenzene are present.  Polynuclear aromatic
    hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been found at high concentrations in
    Detroit River sediments.  Excessive phenols were present in sedi-
    ments of the Trenton Channel.  High concentrations of phthalates
    were present in many sediment samples from Detroit River tribu-
    taries, particularly Conners Creek and the Rouge River.  Exces-
    sive concentrations of oil and grease are present in many Detroit
    River depositional zone sediments, and have degraded benthic
    macroinvertebrate communities (24).
    
    Fish from several stations in the lower Detroit River had ele-
    vated levels of certain organic chemicals.  PCB concentrations
    exceed consumption guideline levels in the edible portion of
    Detroit River carp.  Consequently, the Michigan Department of
    Public Health has issued a consumption advisory for these fish.
    Several Detroit River fish species exceed the GLWQA objective of
    0.1 mg/kg  (wet weight) total PCBs in whole fish tissue.  OMOE has
    also issued a fish consumption advisory for Detroit River carp
    because of elevated body burdens of PCBs.
    
    Waterfowl contain elevated PCB levels and other persistent or-
    ganic chemicals. There are no existing criteria for a consumption
    advisory to protect children and women of child-bearing age from
    the potential effects resulting from consumption of these birds.
    Herring gull eggs collected from Fighting Island in 1985 and 1986
    contained high concentrations of PCBs and PAHs, and contained
    several other organochlorine pesticides.
    
    Native and caged Detroit River clams showed increased levels of
    PCBs, PAHs and several organochlorine pesticides.  Some PAHs
    found in Detroit River sediments are probable human carcinogens,
    and are thought to be responsible for some liver, lip and dermal
    tumors in  fish.
     3.  Metals
    
     Concentrations of metals measured  in water  during  the  study were
     generally all below  the ambient water quality guideline, with  the
    

    -------
                                   495
    
    exception of mercury, which, exceeded Michigan's Rule 57(2) allow-
    able levels throughout the river.  Generally, water in the
    Trenton Channel was of a poorer quality than other portions of
    the river.  During the 1986 Detroit River System Balance Study,
    some localized areas exceeded water quality guidelines for iron
    (GLWQA specific objective) cadmium, lead and mercury (Michigan's
    Rule 57(2} allowable level).  Water quality in the Little River,
    Rouge River, Turkey Creek, the canard River and Ecorse River is
    impaired with respect to certain metals.
    
    Heavy metal contamination of Detroit River sediments is found in
    most depositional areas, with concentrations of many metals ex-
    ceeding guidelines.  Lead, cadmium, copper and zinc levels are
    significantly elevated in the Rouge River and Turkey Creek, and in
    Detroit River sediments downstream of their confluences.  High
    levels of chromium and nickel are present in the Little River,
    Manganese and especially iron are strongly elevated in Trenton
    Channel sediments and other Michigan nearshore and sedimentary
    zones,
    
    Overall, certain Detroit River sediments are severely degraded by
    heavy metals,  especially in the Trenton Channel.  This contamina-
    tion may reduce or eliminate the viability of Detroit River and
    Lake Erie sediments as substrate for benthic organisms,  Desorp-
    tion of contaminants and re-solubilization through chemical and
    biological processes make an unknown portion of these chemicals
    available to higher aquatic organisms.
    
    OMOE has issued a fish consumption advisory on several fish
    species because mercury concentrations exceed 0.5 mg/kg in the
    edible portion of the larger sizes of these fish.  Native and
    caged Detroit River clams showed increased levels of several
    metals, particularly lead and cadmium.
    
    
    4.  Habitat Alterations
    
    Eighty-five percent of the wetlands and littoral zones along the
    Michigan Detroit River shoreline have been eliminated by filling,
    dredging and bulkheading.  Aquatic plants which live only in the
    littoral zone provide food, substrate, cover and nursery produc-
    tion for aquatic organisms, and drive the production and energy
    flow through the aquatic ecosystem.  Loss- of the littoral zone
    results in the loss of large segments of the upper trophic lev-
    els, including fish.  Habitat loss was the major factor, along
    with pollution and overfishing, in the demise of the Detroit
    River commercial fishery around the turn of the century.  Large
    areas of shallow water and marshes associated with tributaries
    are still found on the Ontario shore, below Fighting Island.
    Seventy percent of the remaining littoral zone  is occupied by
    submerged plants, macrophytes and other wetland plants.
    

    -------
                                   496
    
    In the Detroit River, upstream of Eug Island, the benthic com-
    munity is diverse and dominated by pollution intolerant organ-
    isms, except along the Windsor shoreline.  Adjacent to Zug Island
    the community is severely impacted, and downstream, especially in
    the Trenton Channel, the benthos is dominated by pollution toler-
    ant oligochaetes.
    
    Overall, aquatic biota, especially benthos, show detrimental
    responses to contamination of Detroit River sediments with or-
    ganic and inorganic substances, particularly in the lower river
    and in the Trenton Channel.  Laboratory tests with sediments and
    sediment extracts indicate higher toxicity and increased mutagen-
    icity on a variety of native species.  Fish species diversity and
    fecundity may also be negatively affected in some areas.
    

    -------
                                   497
    
    C.  SOURCES
    
    This section discusses contaminant inputs from point and. non-
    point sources in the Detroit River which were analyzed between
    1984 and 1987.
    
    
    1.  Point Sources
    
    Introduction, Qualifications and Criteria
    
    During 1985, 1986 and 1987 the Michigan Department of Natural
    Resources (MDNR), OMOE,  U.S.EPA and Environment Canada collec-
    tively monitored flow and effluent quality of major direct and
    indirect point source dischargers to the Detroit River  (direct
    sources are those which discharge directly to the river and in-
    direct sources discharge to the river via tributaries or drains),
    Nine municipal treatment plants and 20 industrial facilities were
    sampled over a 24 hour period  (Michigan sources) or 3 to 6 days
    (Ontario Sources) during 1985 and 1986.  Composite samples were
    analyzed for conventional pollutants, metals and trace organics,
    including the list of contaminants chosen for the UGLCC Study
    (Chapter I,  Table 1-1)-   Table IX-4 presents the industries sur-
    veyed and the parameters which are regulated in their effluent.
    Table IX-5 presents the municipal facilities and their regulated
    parameters.   Figures IX-15 and 16 show the locations of these,
    and other, industrial and municipal facilities along the Detroit
    River.
    
    Shortcomings limit the inferences that can be drawn from the
    survey, including the small data base, differences in survey
    timing, and differences in sampling and analytical methods.  The
    U.S. surveys were performed in May, and July through September,
    1986, while the Ontario data were collected between October and
    December, 1985.  The U.S. composited four grab samples  (1 every  6
    hrs), while Ontario samples were collected by automatic composite
    samplers  (1 portion every 15 min).
    
    Differences in detection limits further hinder comparisons.  The
    U.S. generally used lower detection limits than did Canada, al-
    lowing calculated loadings from Michigan facilities with no cor-
    responding loadings from Ontario  facilities for some parameters
    (e.g., OCS and HCB).  Consequently, the percent of the total
    point source loadings to the Detroit River for some parameters
    (depending on corresponding flow volumes) may be skewed towards
    Michigan dischargers.
    
    
    Flows
    
    There were a total of 75 known point sources discharging 9,233 x
    103 m3/d) to the Detroit River basin in  1986.  Three Detroit
    

    -------
                                                              TAHLE IX-4
    
              Surveyed U.S.  and Canadian industrial facilities in the Detroit  River area and regulated paraisetera >•*.
    y r s ,_£A_C
    
    BASF Corporation
    
    
    
    Chrysler Chemical-Trenton
    
    Chrysler-Trenton  Engine
    
    
    Detroit Coke Corp.
    
    Double Eagle Steel
    
    
    
    Ford-Wayne Assembly
    
    Great Lakes Steel
    (National Steel florpl
      BO" Mill
    
    (ireat Lakes Steel
    Ecorae Plant
    
    Great Lakes Steel
     ?,ug Island Plant
    
    McLouth Steel-Gibralter
    
    HoLout.h Steel-Trenton
    Monsanto Inorganic
     Chemical Corp
    Pennwa1t
    Rouge Steel
    Che «ica1 produc t i on
    
    
    
    Chemical compounding
    
    Auto engine manufacture
    
    
    Coke production
    
    Steel galvanization
    
    
    
    Auto assembly plant
    
    Steel »fg t processing
    
    
    
    Steel mfg and processing
    
    
    Pig iron, coke and coke-
    by—products production
    
    Steel processing
    
    Steel & pi^ iron production
    Food-grade specification
    products manufacture
                                  Chemical  production
    Steel and auto mfg
                                   BEOU M1'EB_ PABAHETEftS3
    
                                   TSS, TOO, alkalinity", aowioni a-N* ,  temperature*,  1,2-
                                   dichloroethane*f I,2-dichloropropane*,  bis(2-
                                   chloroisopropyjiether*
    
                                   TRC, pH, oil and grease, teaperature*
    
                                   BODs , TSS, total phosphorus, pH,  oil  and grease,total
                                   phenol
    
                                   pH,  temperature, oil and grease*
    
                                   TSS  t noncoiapl i ant 1 , oil and grease,  total  zinc (noncoeipl iant |,
                                   dissolved oxygen, total toxic  organica,  pH inoncoBpliantI¥
                                   temperature*. Kntered into Consent  decree  in October 1986.
    
                                   no NPDES pernit
    
                                   TSS, e>il and grease
    TSS, total  lead,  total  zinc,  acrole in (22/365), oil and
    grease
    
    pH, oil and  greaset  ai&nonia-N,  cyanide, total phenol•,
    total lead,  totai  zinc,  TRC,  TSS
    
    TSS, oil and grease,  total  lead, total zinc, total Iron*
    
    pH> TSS, oil  and  grease,  temperature* t unionized aumonia*f  free
    cyanide*, total phenol*
    
    TSS, phosphorus,  arsenic, amnonia-N,  temperature*
    alkalinity*,  total cadniiun* ,  hexavnlent chroniiia* , amenable
    cyanide" , total lead* ,  total  usercury" , total silver*
    
    TSS (lti/365), BORs,  total zinc, TRC,  total phenols, chloride,
    annonia-N, total  copper,  total  lead,  oiJ and greaae, pH, COD,
    temperature*,
    
    TSS, total lead,  total  zinc,  oil and  grease, aamonia-N, total and
    oxidizabie cyanide,  total phenol,  TRC, temperattire*
                                                                                                             M3
                                                                                                             do
    

    -------
    TABLE IX-4-  Icont'd).
    U.S. FACILITIES
    OPERATION
                                                                BiflUUTEP
    St. M»ry"8 Peerless Ce»ent
     Company-Foreman Plant
    
    St. Mary'n Peerless Cement
     Company-Brennan Plant
    
    Union Carbide-Linde Div.
    Cement production
    pH,  te»pe r a tu re*
    Clay slip production          pH, TSS,  temperature*
    
    
    Nitrogen * argon production   Phosphorus  I3/12|, TSS  (3/12),  TRC,  oil  and grease,  temperature*
    CANAPIAM PACTLITIES
                                  OPERATION
                                            PARAMETERS*
    Ford Hotor Company
    fie«er»l Chemical
    (All led Chemical>
    
    Hi ekes Manufacturing
    TSS I 23/24 ] )
    Auto parts) manufacture
    Chealcal *anufacture
    Auto/truck bumper ofg
    No regulated parameter*  (exceeded TSS and  phenol abjective* in
    198S and 1986 I.
    
    TSS, chloride*, BBBonia-N,  fluoride*
    
    
    No regulated paraaetera  (exceeded objectives  for nickel  [8/24] and
         indicates that Monitoring of the parameter is required! however, there  IB no concentration  or loading limit.
         From th* UGI.CCS Point Source Workgroup Report {£}.
         Exrwetiences of I i*ii tntiona during 1S1H6 for Michigan facilities and 1985-1988 for  Ontario  facilities are denoted in
         parontheites.  For example I IB/365) indicated that parameter's daily  limitation *>aa  exceeded IB days of 366.
         Parameters listed comprise the total  regulated by all NPDES permits  for all otitfalla.   Not  nil outfalls «t a  facility are
         necessarily regulated for all parameters.   The Point Source Workgroup Report should be  consulted  for a BOP* thorough and
         comprehensive description of the f»<-iIity'a discharge requirenenta.
         All Onturio industrial facilities are encouraged to conply with t,h*  Ontario Indu»trial  Effluent Objective*, which are
         described in Chapter III of this report.
    

    -------
                                                       TABLE IX-5
    
        Surveyed U.S. arid Canadian Municipal  facilities  in the Detroit River area and regulated  parameters  '•2 .
    U.S. FACILITIES
                                             REGULATED PARAHETF.RS
    City of Trenton WWTP
    Detroit WWTP
    BQJH (6/12), TSS  (5^121,  pH,  FC,  DO [8/121, TRO,  total phonphorun
    (5/12), ansBionia-N, cadmiu»,  silver, mercury, chloroform
    BODs, TSS, pH, FC,  DO,
    total phosphorus,   temperature
    Grosse He Township WWTP
    
    
    Walled Lake-Novi WWTP
    
    Wayne County-Trenton WWTP
    
    
    Wayne County-Wyandotte WWTP
    
    
    CANADIAN FACILITIES
    
    Amhersthurg WPCP
    
    
    Little River WPCP
    
    West Windsor WPCP
    BODs, TSS (11/12  removal;  4/12  loading), pH, FC,  DO, TRC, total
    phosphorus, ammonia-N
    
    BODs, TSS, pH, FC, DO, total  phosphorus, arowonia-N (9/ti), CBODi
    
    BODs, TSS (9/121, pH, PC  18/12tt  total  phosphorus (6/12», oil and
    grease
    
    BODs, TSS (4/12), pH, FC  (12/12),  DO, TRC,  total  phosphorus, aiwonia-N,
    phenol, oil and grease
    BODs (removal in 1S85), TSS  (removal  in 1985 and 1986), total
    phosphorus fIB/24)
    
    BODs, TSS, total phosphorus  J4/241
    
    BODs, TSS, total phosphorus  (2/24)
    Abbreviations: BODs = 5-day biological oxygen  demand;  TSS - total suspended solids; FC  =  fecal coliform
                   bacteria; DO = dissolved oxygen;  TRC  =  total residual chlorine; CBODs =  5-day carbonaceou«
                   biological oxygen demand; COD = chemical  oxygen demand.
         From the UGLCCS Point Source Workgroup Report  .
         Exceedencs at timitat iona during  1986 for Michigan  facilities and 1385-19B6 for Ontario  facilities  are
         denoted in parentheses.  For example, 12/24}  indicated that a monthly limitation was exceeded  2  times  in a
         24 mot)til period.
                                                                                         m
                                                                                         o
                                                                                         o
    

    -------
                                              501
                                          MICHIGAN
    *MS»G*N MMCUJUtM.
    CHCMCAL.
                                          IV— *UJS3 CWf iMC*L Of
                                           I	CULVERT HSTILLEFIIII OO.
                                                                              Stem
           FIGURE  IX-15.  Industrial dischargers  to  the  Detroit  River.
    

    -------
                                                      502
                                  MIC H IQ A N
                                                                        CONNCRS
                                                                        CHEEK•
                                                      W 1 N 0 i 0 R
               ormorrsTp
          AUXIUARV  OUTFALL
                      HIVEfi ROUGE
    WIST WINOSOR STP
    
       T STP OUTFALL
                                                             ONTA H 1O
             Eeacae River
          WAYNE COyNTY
            WYANOOTTI
          STP etrrewj.
          RIVEBVIiW
    THiNTON
     OUTfMJ.
                                                                                        PQNTWCS
                                                                                        LITTLE BSViR STP
                                                                                                    5km
                               •STP 1EVWOE TiREATMfNT PLANT OUTFALLS
                              — COMBNiO iEWEfi OVEHMWS
                               • SEVM«3i TSEATMENT PLANT LOCATIONS
                                                                    B SPOIL AflEA
                                                                    $MUNtC«U. WATER INTAKiS
               FIGURE  IX-16,  Municipal  dischargers  to  the  Detroit  River,
    

    -------
    TABLE IX-B. (cont'd 21.
    PARAMKTER
    
    
    
    Cobalt
    
    
    
    
    
    Phenols
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Cadmium
    
    
    
    
    
    Lead
    
    
    
    
    Zinc*
    
    
    
    
    MKTHOD
    DKTKCTION
    LIMIT
    ug/L
    5 .0
    O.O01
    5 . 0
    0.001
    5.0
    
    1 .0
    10.0
    10.0
    10.0
    10.0
    10.0
    
    0.2
    0.2
    5.0
    0.2
    0.2
    
    s.o
    1 .0
    1 .0
    1 .0
    
    2.0
    2.0
    5.0
    2.0
    2.0
    FACILITY
    
    
    
    General Chemical
    Detroit WWTP
    West Windsor WPCP
    (H.S-Zug Island
    Little River WPCP
    
    Ford Canada
    Detroit WWTP
    Rouge Steel
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    McLouth Steel -Trenton
    GLS-Zug Island
    
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    Detroit WWTP
    Ford Canada
    Rouge Steel
    McLouth Steel -Trenton
    
    Ford Canada
    Rouge Steel
    Detroit WWTP
    McLouth Steel -Trenton
    
    Detroit WWTP
    McLout.h Steel -Trenton
    Ford Canada
    Rouge Steel
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    FLOW
    10s in3 /d
    
    
    18.8
    2! 60
    142
    as. a
    52.5
    
    71 . 3
    216012695 1
    1810
    268
    227
    99.8
    
    268
    21601 2695 I
    71.3
    iaio
    60
    
    71 ,3
    1810
    21602685
    227
    
    2160(26951
    227
    71.3
    1810
    268
    AVKRAGi
    COMC .
    ug/L
    
    300
    1 . 20
    14.0
    19.0
    S.O
    Total ;
    «58
    21.0(141
    a. 53
    36 .0
    24.0
    32 .0
    Total :
    22.8
    0.65(5)
    11.2
    0.3
    O.i
    Total :
    425
    4 .7
    3.3(511
    16.6
    Total:
    103! 1061
    603
    1«50
    41 .1
    120
    LOADING
    kg/d
    
    
    5. §4
    2. 59
    1 .96
    1 .9
    0.53
    12.61
    48. 2
    45. 4(39>
    17.3
    9.7
    5.4
    3.2
    129.2
    6.1
    1.4(13)
    0. 797
    0. 55
    0.136
    8.983
    30.3
    tt.53
    7.13 ( 137 1
    3.77
    49.73
    223 |2«3)
    137
    132
    74 ,B
    32.3
    % TOTAL
    POINT SOURCE
    CONTRIBUTION2
    
    43.7
    20.1
    15.1
    14.7
    4.1
    97.7
    35.7
    33.6
    12.8
    7.2
    4.0
    2.4
    95,7
    67.0
    15.4
    B.8
    B.O
    1.5
    98.7
    58.2
    IB. 4
    13.7
    7.2
    95.5
    34.8
    21.4
    20.6
    11.7
    5.0
                                                                                                                           Ul
                                                                                                                           o
                                                                                                                           Ul
                                                                         Total:
                                                                                   599. 1
    93.5
    

    -------
    TABLE TX-fi.  (cont'd  31.
    PARAMETER
    
    
    	 - 	 .._.....; 	
    Copper
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Iron
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Chloride
    
    
    
    Ammon i a-N
    
    
    Phosphorus-P
    
    
    
    Oi l&Urease
    
    
    
    
    
    
    METHOD
    DETECTION
    LIMIT
    ug/L
    5.0
    1 .0
    1 .0
    1 .0
    5.0
    5.0
    
    14
    14
    14
    14
    5.0
    14
    
    500
    1000
    1000
    
    10
    10
    
    10
    10
    10
    
    2000
    2000
    2000
    2000
    2000
    too
    2000
    FACILITY
    
    
    
    General Chemical
    Rouge SLeel
    Detroit WWTP
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    Ford Canada
    West Windsor WPCP
    
    Rouge Steel
    Detroit WWTP
    MeLouth Steel-Trenton
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    Kord Canada
    GLS-80" Hill
    
    General Chemical
    Detroit WWTP
    Rouge Steel
    
    Detroit WWTP
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    
    Detroit WWTP
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    West Windsor WPCP
    
    Detroit WWTP
    Rouge Steel
    MoLouth Steel-Trenton
    GLS-80" Mill
    GLS-Ecorse
    West Windsor WPCP
    Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    FLOW
    1 0J m-» /U
    
    
    174
    1B1O
    21604 26951
    268
    71 .3
    142
    
    1810
    2160( 2695 )
    227
    268
    71 .3
    223
    
    18.9
    2160
    1810
    
    21«0(i!695 J
    2BS
    
    2160( 2695 )
    268
    142
    
    216012695)
    1810
    227
    223
    29.1
    142
    26H
    AVERAGE
    CIONC.
    ug/L
    
    99
    8.3
    3.3{3.3>
    IB. 4
    48
    24
    Totals
    850
    274(700)
    2380
    887
    470
    863
    Total:
    5.6%
    130,000
    20
    Total:
    9100(2458)
    12,000
    Total :
    430(750)
    910
    1060
    Total :
    4200( 52081
    7080
    31 ,100
    19,000
    125,000
    7900
    2700
    LOADING
    k«/d
    
    
    17.2
    IS. 1
    7.13(92.0)
    4.95
    3.44
    3.43
    51 .25
    1550
    592(1887)
    545
    239
    222
    215
    3363
    I ,050,000
    281 ,000
    36,400
    1,3H7,400
    19,700(6628)
    3230
    22,930
    930(2023)
    245
    150
    1325
    9090114,042)
    8090
    7060
    4260
    3850
    ) 130
    727
    X TOTAL
    POINT SOURCE
    CONTRIBUTION*
    
    31 ,4
    27.6
    13.0
    y.o
    6.2
    6,2
    93.4
    43.4
    16.6
    15.3
    6.7
    6,2
    6.0
    94.2
    73.3
    19.3
    2.5
    95.1
    79.0
    13.0
    92.0
    63.3
    16.7
    10.2
    90.2
    25.7
    22,9
    19.9
    12.0
    10.3
    3.2
    2.1
                                                                                                                            ut
                                                                                                                            o
    

    -------
    TABLE IX-ti. (cont.'d 4K
    PARAMBTEH
                 METHOD
                 DETECTION
                 LIMIT
    FACILITY
                                                     FLOW
                                                       AVERAGE
                                                       CONO.
                                                       ug/L
                   LOADING
                   kg/d
                                                                           X TOTAL
                                                                           POINT SOURCE
                                                                           CONTRIBUTION*
    Cvanide
    Total PAH
    Chromium
    5.0       Detroit WWTP
    5.0       Rouge Steel
    5.0       Wayne Co-Wyandotte WWTP
    1.0       Ford Canada
    1-15      Rouge Steel
    1-2       Ford Canada
    1-2       West Windsor WPCP
    3.0
    6.0
    Detroit WWTP
    Wickea Manufacturing
                                                     2160(2695 I
                                                     181(1
                                                     268
                                                     71.3
                              1810
                              71 .3
                              142
                        216012695)
                        2.6
                                             49!22 J
                                             3.32
                                             21
                                             20
                                                                              Total
                                                                              Total
                                                            106 (59J
                                                            6.12
                                                            5.6
                                                            2.28
    
                                                            120.0
                                                                           5.90
    7.1(30 )
    3800-6700
                                                                              Total :
    1&,3 (80.8 )
    13.8
    
    29,1
                                        87.6
                                         5.1
                                         4 .«
                                         1.9
    
                                        99.2
    2.0
    tj .0
    2.0
    5.15
    0.44
    0.311
    85.0
    7 .0
    6.0
                                                                                98.0
    29.8
    26.8
    
    ft6.6
       From Table 3-4 of the Point Source Workgroup  Report  <6J  (
       >95* of identified point source total unless  multiple  diffuse sources.
       Values in  parentheses are  based on  the City  of  Detroit  1987 Annual  Self-Monitoring Report; see text
       more inforrnation.
       Does not include zinc loadings from Double  Eagle   Steel.    Tf Double  Eagle Steel  average  loading   of  312
       kg/day  (from  4/86  to  2/87  se!f-monttori rig  data)   la   included,  Double Eagle Steel becomes the major
       contributor at 33%, with Detroit WWTP's contribution falling to 23%.  For  the period  July  1  to December
       3), 1987, Double Eagle Steel discharged an  average of  0.§8 kg/d total  zinc.
    

    -------
                                   508
    
    are placed in parentheses' to set them apart from the point source
    survey data.   in the text,  these data are referred to as "SMR"
    data.
    
    Parameters which were "of concern", (by virtue of media guide-
    lines being exceeded or by impacts upon biota)»  and the point
    sources which provided inputs, are discussed below.
    
        i)  Conventional Pollutants
    
    i)   Total Phosphorus:  The total loading for the UGLCCS survey
         was 1,470 kg/d, contributed primarily by the Detroit WWTP
          (930 kg/d; self monitoring report for 1987  (SMR) indicates
         loading of 2,023 kg/d), the Wayne County-Wyandotte WWTP  (245
         kg/d) and the West Windsor WWTP (150 kg/d).  The Wayne
         County-Trenton WWTP (1.6 mg/L) and the City of Trenton WWTP
          (4.7 mg/L),  discharged concentrations in excess of the GLWQA
         effluent objective of 1.0 mg/L.  Both the Detroit and Wayne
         County-Wyandotte facilities are generally in compliance with
         their permitted concentrations for total phosphorus.
    
    ii)  Ammonia-nitrogen:  The total loading was 25,000 kg/d, con-
         tributed primarily by the Detroit WWTP (19,700 kg/d;
         SMR=6,628 kg/d) and the Wayne County-Wyandotte WWTP  (3,230
         kg/d; 12 mg/L).  General Chemical (14.3 mg/L) discharged
         ammonia in excess of the Ontario Industrial Discharge Objec-
         tives of 10 mg/L.  The Wayne County-Trenton WWTP effluent
         concentration  for ammonia-nitrogen was 15 mg/L.
    
    iii) Chloride:  The total point source loading was 1,440,000
         kg/d, contributed primarily by General Chemical  (1,050,000
         kg/d).  Concentrations in the General Chemical North Drain
         ranged from 5.5 to 6.6%  (55-66 gm/L).  No effluent guide-
         lines exist for chlorides; but the