United States
Environmental Protection
     3Ts for Reducing Lead
                 in Drinking Water

3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
                                                                                                                    ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
Why  Read
              this Guide?
This booklet is designed for small child care facilities to help them
ensure the drinking water in their buildings does not contain elevated
levels of lead. This guide uses the 3Ts (training, testing, telling) to assist
you with the steps needed to reduce children's exposure to lead in
drinking water.

>  Training: information about health effects and sources of lead

>•  Testing: simple instructions for testing water and recommended
   solutions for fixing a lead problem if one is  identified

>  Telling: sharing information with parents and  staff

If you own or direct a large child care facility you should obtain a copy
of 37s for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Schools: Revised
Technical Guidance. This guide can be downloaded at www.epa.gov/
safewater/schools or ordered by calling  the Safe  Drinking Water
Hotline at 1-800-426-4791.
Lead and Children's Health
Lead exposure is a serious health concern, especially for young children
and infants. Children's bodies absorb more of the lead they are
exposed to than do adults. For infants and children, exposure to high
levels of lead may result in delays in physical or mental development,
lower IQ levels, and even  brain damage. Because children spend so
much time in child care facilities and lead exposure is a serious health
risk for children, these facilities need to know if their drinking water is
safe. Learn more about the health effects of lead on page 4 of this
Lead in  Drinking Water

Drinking water is one possible source of lead exposure. Some drinking
water pipes, taps, solder, and other plumbing components contain
lead. Lead  in the plumbing can leach into water, putting children at
risk. Other possible sources of lead exposure include paint, dust, soil
and dirt, and pottery. Drinking water is not usually a major source of
lead but facilities that serve young children should test their water to
make sure it is safe. Read more about how lead gets into drinking
water on page 5.

Testing  for Lead

Testing water in child care facilities is important because children spend
a lot of time in these facilities, and are very likely to consume water
while there. Even though water delivered from the community's public
water supply must meet federal and state standards for lead, the
building plumbing may contribute to elevated lead levels in the
drinking water. Testing the water at each outlet is the only sure way to
find out if  the water contains too much lead.  Follow the instructions
on page 8  to test the drinking water in your facility.

       3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
                                                                                                                         ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
       Finding Help
       You may be able to find help in your efforts to ensure the drinking
       water in your facility does not contain elevated levels of lead.

       >•  Contact your local  drinking water supplier. They can provide
          information on the quality of the water and may be able to help
          with testing and analysis.

       >  Contact your state drinking water program to see if any
          requirements apply or if they can provide help.

       >•  Contact the state or local health  agency to discuss your needs.

       l*  Local community organizations may also be able to help you in your
13456789    I     23
Health  Effects
                          of  Lead
Lead is a toxic metal that is harmful to human health when it is
ingested or inhaled. Unlike most other contaminants, lead is stored in
our bones, and can be released over time into the bloodstream. Even
small doses of lead can build up and become a significant health risk.
While everyone is at risk, infants and young children are the most
vulnerable to the harmful effects of lead.
Risks to Children

Children are especially susceptible to the effects of lead because their
bodies are still developing. Children younger than six are at the most
risk. Even at low levels of lead exposure, children may experience
lower IQ levels, hearing loss, reduced attention span,  learning
disabilities, hyperactivity, and poor classroom performance. Exposure
to high lead levels can cause coma, convulsions, and even death.
                                                                                   Risks to Pregnant Women
                                                                                   Pregnant women who are exposed to lead may bear children with low
                                                                                   birth weight and slowed mental and physical development.
                                                                                   Levels of Risk

                                                                                   A variety of factors determine how harmful exposure to lead will be
                                                                                   for an individual. The amount of lead, the number of times a person is
                                                                                   exposed to elevated lead levels, and the length of exposure all affect
                                                                                   the degree of risk. Age, nutrition, and health also impact risk levels.

                                                                                   The degree of harm depends on total exposure to lead from all
                                                                                   sources in the environment—air, soil, dust, food, and water. Lead in
                                                                                   drinking water can be a contributor to overall exposure, particularly for
                                                                                   infants whose diet consists of liquids made with water, such as baby
                                                                                   food, juice, or formula.

3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
How  Lead  Gets
              into  Drinking  Water
Lead is not usually found in
water that comes from wells or
water treatment plants. More
commonly lead can enter the
drinking water when the water
comes in contact with plumbing
materials such as lead pipes or
lead solder, or when it comes in
contact with faucets, valves, and
other components made of
brass. (Brass may have lead in it.)
This interaction is referred to as

Even though your public water
supplier may deliver water that
meets all federal and state
standards for lead, or even
though the water coming from
your own well may have no lead
or low lead levels, you may end
up with  elevated lead levels in
your drinking water because of
the plumbing in your facility. The
longer water remains in contact
with leaded plumbing, the more
the opportunity exists for lead  to
leach  into water.  As a result,
facilities with intermittent water
use patterns, such as child care
facilities, may have elevated lead
concentrations. Water may sit in
the pipes of these facilities for
Sources of Lead

Lead is distributed in the environment
by natural and human activity. (Past
human activities are the major source
of lead in the environment.) Possible
sources of lead include:

>  Lead-based paint that can flake
   off into soil, window sills, or floors
>  Lead in the air from industrial
>  Dust and  soil from roadways
   and streets where automobiles
   which used leaded gas traveled
>  Lead dust brought home by
   industrial workers on their clothes
   and shoes
*•  Lead in water from the
   corrosion of plumbing products
   containing lead

Although most lead exposure occurs
when people eat paint chips and
inhale dust, EPA estimates that 10 to
20 percent of  human exposure to
lead may come from lead in drinking
                water. Lead in
                drinking water
                may be a
                significant source
                of lead exposure
                for infants who
                m ixed with water.
                                                                                                                   I Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
                                         long periods, such as overnight,
                                         weekends, and holidays, allowing lead to
                                         leach into the water.

                                         Factors Contributing to
Potential Sources of
Lead In Drinking Water
Common sources of lead in
drinking water include:
   Lead solder
   Lead fluxes
   Lead pipe and lead pipe
   Fixtures, valves, meters, and
   other system components
   containing brass
Lead dissolves more quickly in "soft"
water (i.e., water that lathers soap easily)
and acidic water (i.e., low pH). Other
factors, including the amount of time
water is in contact  with leaded plumbing,
the age and  condition of the plumbing, and certain characteristics of
the water (such as  temperature, velocity, alkalinity, and chlorine
levels), affect corrosion.

The public water supplier takes steps to reduce the corrosiveness of
the water. However, if the plumbing in  your building is made of lead
or contains lead parts, corrosion may occur once the water reaches
your building and lead may leach into your drinking water.

Your child care facility may have a lead  problem  if:

>•  The facility has lead pipes in the  plumbing. The pipes will be
   dull gray in color and will appear shiny when scratched with a
   knife or key; lead pipes have not been widely used since the 1930s
   and their use has been  banned since 1986.

>  The facility has copper pipes joined by lead solder. The solder
   joints will be dull gray in color and appear shiny when scratched
   with a knife or key. Use of lead solder in  plumbing has been
   banned since 1986, and in many communities was banned prior
   to 1986.                                       ^m

*  The facility has brass  pipes, faucets, fittings,
   and valves. These materials may contain alloys of
   lead and  may contribute lead to drinking water.

>  The water supplied to the facility is too
   corrosive. Contact your public water supplier to
   determine what steps it takes to minimize these

3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
                                                                                                                      I Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
   characteristics. Also, talk to your public water supplier about any
   questions or concerns you may have about lead levels in your
   facility's drinking water.

>•  Sediment in the screens on faucets contain lead. Debris from
   plumbing can collect on screens and may contain lead.

>•  The service line to your facility is made of lead. A service line is the
   pipe that carries water from the public water system main to the

>  Water coolers in the facility are known to contain lead parts or
   have lead-lined water tanks (see EPA's listing of water coolers in
   Appendix B).

Note: If you rent your facility, ask your landlord to help identify
potential lead in drinking water in pipes or plumbing in your building.

Some states and local jurisdictions may require lead testing in child care
facilities. Consult your state or local public health agency or drinking
water program to learn more. These organizations may help you test
your drinking water for lead.
         for Lead
You cannot see, taste, or smell lead in water; testing is the only sure
way to tell if there are elevated levels of lead in your drinking water.
This section outlines simple steps you can take to test your water and
provides information on how to interpret the  results.

If you rent your facility, notify the building owner of your testing
plans, ask for help, and provide him or her with a copy of your test
results. Encourage your landlord to participate in this testing process
and to take corrective actions if lead problems are found.
Choose a  Certified Laboratory to Test Your Samples

Most child care facilities will need to work with a certified drinking
water laboratory to analyze samples. Contact your state drinking water
program (See Appendix A for contact information) or EPA's Safe
Drinking Water Hotline at 1 -800-426-4791 for a list of certified
laboratories in your area.

Questions to  ask when choosing a  laboratory:

>•  Will  the laboratory take samples for you or will they provide
   training and 250 milliliter (ml) sample containers for you to do the
   sampling on your own?

>  What is the cost of the laboratory's services? Costs should range
   between $20 and $100 per sample, depending on the services provided.

>•  Do the samples have to  be hand delivered to the laboratory,  or can
   they be shipped? How quickly must they reach the laboratory after
   the sample has been taken?

*•  How long will it take to receive the results?

>•  When will the laboratory provide information on the results?

>  Is the laboratory willing  to  establish a written agreement or
   contract with you for services?

3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
                                                                                                                         ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
Pay Special Attention to Water Coolers

Many older (1987 and earlier) water coolers (fountains) may contain
lead parts or have a lead-lined tank. Check to see if the make and
model of your water coolers are listed by EPA as a possible lead risk (see
Appendix B for a full list). If you have a water cooler that has  a lead
                         lined tank, contact the manufacturer to
                         determine their requirements for repairing,
                         replacing, or providing a refund for your
                         water cooler, or contact the Consumer
                         Product Safety Commission for follow-up
                         steps (see Appendix A for contact
Where to Sample
It is important to test all of the drinking water outlets in your facility,
including those that provide water for drinking, cooking lunch, and
preparing juice and infant formula. Outlets include drinking fountains
and water faucets. Samples should be collected from cold water taps.
How to Handle Sample Containers

If you take the samples yourself, the laboratory will provide sampling
containers and instructions. Make sure to tell the lab you want to
collect 250 milliliter (ml) samples, not 1 liter. Carefullyfollowthe
instructions for handling the containers. Fill the container only to
the level indicated (250 milliliters).

Label each container with your name, a  unique sample number, and
the specific location where the sample was collected  ("first floor
hallway water fountain"). In your own files, keep a separate record for
each sample with the location, sample number,
date and time the sample was collected and
any other pertinent information. This
information may come in handy if you find
elevated lead levels in your drinking water. You
will want to match the result to a specific
water source so you can address the problem.
     Either mail or deliver your samples to the laboratory. The "holding" time
     on samples is usually short. Make sure you coordinate shipping with the
     laboratory receiving the samples.
     How to Collect Samples

     Initial  Samples
     The initial sample is representative of the water that may be consumed
     at the beginning of the day or after infrequent use. This is water that
     has been in contact with the faucet or drinking water fountain and the
                               section of plumbing closest to the outlet.
Helpful  Hints  for
   Don't take samples after a
   vacation or weekend
   because the water you
   collect will not be
   representative of the water
   you drink.
   Don't close the valve to a
   water fountain or sink
   before sampling. Small
   scrapings from the valves
   may get into your sample
   and produce inaccurate
   results. If you want to
   prevent use before you
   sample, place a sign over
   the unit to prevent its  use.
   You may want to collect
   repeat initial samples (first
   draw) at the same time
   you collect follow-up
   (flush) samples. A repeat
   of the initial/first draw
   sample will give you more
   confidence in the result.
   However, the trade-off is
   the cost for analysis of this
   repeat sample.
Collect cold water samples in the morning
before the facility opens for the day. Make
sure that no water has been used yet—
don't run faucets or flush toilets before
you sample. Collect the water immediately
after turning it on  without allowing any
water to run into the drain. For best
results, the outlets you are testing should
not have been used for 8 to 18 hours
prior to collection of the samples. This is
called a first draw sample. Take follow-up
samples from outlets where test results
show lead levels greater than 20 ppb
(parts per billion).

Follow-up Samples
This sample is representative of the water
that is in the plumbing upstream from the
faucet or drinking water fountain. Take
this sample before the facility opens and
before any water is used. Let the water
from the faucet  or drinking water
fountain run for 30 seconds before
collecting the sample. This is called a flush

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
    What To Do With Your Results
    Interpreting Your Results
    When the laboratory returns your test results, the concentrations of
    lead in your drinking water samples will be reported in metric form
    such as milligrams per liter (mg/L) or micrograms per liter ((Jxj/L), or they
    will be reported as a concentration such as parts per million (ppm) or
    parts per billion (ppb), respectively.

    Milligrams per liter (mg/L) is essentially the same as parts per million
    (ppm). Micrograms per liter (|^g/L) is essentially the same as parts per
    billion (ppb).

    Examples: 1 mg/L = 1000 ^g/L = 1  ppm = 1000 ppb
              .020 mg/L = 20 ^g/L = .020 ppm = 20 ppb

    Recommended Actions
    EPA recommends that child care facilities take action if samples from
    any drinking water outlets show lead levels greater than 20 parts per
    billion (ppb). Contact your state or local health agency to see if they
    have more stringent standards for  lead in drinking  water. Any drinking
    water outlet with test results above this level should not be used until
    the source of  the contamination is found and the lead levels are
    reduced to 20 ppb or less.

    Consider providing water from a known lead-free  source, such as
    bottled water, until the problem is corrected.

    If the test results from the follow-up samples show lead levels above
    20  ppb again, you will know that lead is entering your drinking water
    from the building's interior plumbing. You will  need  to take additional
    samples to pinpoint the exact sources of lead. If you plan to conduct
    such sampling yourself, consult EPA's publication 37s for Reducing
    Lead in Drinking Water in Schools: Revised Technical Guidance,
    available for download at www.epa.gov/safewater/schools. If you  rent
    your facility, ask your landlord to conduct follow-up  testing and to
    take any necessary corrective measures.
                                                                                                                      ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
                Lead  Problems
Preventing Lead Problems: Routine Steps

To minimize exposure to lead in your facility, there are several things
you can do on a routine basis. These activities include:

1. Flush all drinking water outlets.
   Flushing drinking water outlets is
   important because the longer water is
   exposed to lead pipes or solder, the greater
   the likelihood of lead contamination. At
   the start of each day, before using  any
   water for drinking  or cooking, flush the
   cold water faucet by allowing the water to
   run for 30 seconds to one minute. Do this
   at each drinking water outlet.

   Even if all your first-draw samples and flushed samples show low
   lead levels, there is still a possibility that lead may get into water
   that sits in your plumbing for long periods (such as during vacations
   or over long weekends). To be safe, on the first day back, flush all
   drinking water outlets prior to opening the facility.

2. Use only cold water to prepare food and drinks. Hot water
   dissolves lead more quickly than cold water and is therefore more
   likely to contain greater amounts of lead. If hot water is needed,
   water should be drawn from the cold tap and  heated.

   Use only thoroughly flushed water from the cold water tap for
   drinking and when making formula, juices, or foods.

3. Clean debris out of all water outlet screens on a regular
   basis. Small screens on the end of a faucet can trap sediments
   containing lead.

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
     Responding to High Lead Levels: What Can You Do?

     *  Provide an alternative and lead-free source of
        drinking water, such as bottled water. Bottled water
        should be used as a temporary measure. Make sure the
        bottled water distributor guarantees that the water
        meets federal and state bottled water standards (see
        the label or manufacturer's Web site).

     *•  Install point-of-use treatment devices, also called 'home
        treatment devices'. These devices  are installed on a faucet or other
        outlet to remove contaminants. If you are interested  in a home
        treatment device, research your options carefully. Make sure to use
        a device that is certified to remove lead and is NSF International
        approved. Some devices that claim to remove many contaminants
        do not remove lead. Maintaining a treatment device is very
        important. If not maintained properly, some treatment devices may
        actually increase lead levels. Before investing  in any such device, you
        may want to contact NSF International, an independent
        organization that evaluates the effectiveness of home treatment
        units and lists brands and models certified to remove lead (see
        Appendix A for contact information).

     *  Remove sources of lead in the plumbing system. These
        remedies are probably more appropriate for localized
        contamination problems and are best handled by a licensed

        >  Replace solder joints with lead-free joints.

        »•  Replace the outlet or fixture/faucet with  lead-free materials.

        »•  Replace piping with lead-free materials.

     Note: New brass faucets, fittings, and valves, including those
     advertised as "lead-free," may contribute lead to drinking water. Before
     purchasing any such materials, ask the manufacturer or distributor
     where to find information on the results of lead testing. Plumbing
     components 6 months old or less should not be tested for lead. The
     inside surfaces need time to stabilize.
                                                                                                                      I Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance

                With Your Community
Telling parents and staff about your lead  monitoring program will
demonstrate your commitment to protecting children and staff health.
Lead in drinking water can be an emotional and sensitive issue,
especially for parents who are concerned  about their children's safety.
Communicating early and often about your testing plans, results, and
next steps will build confidence in your facility's ability to provide a safe
When to Communicate

Whenever public health risks are involved, public communication efforts
are less complicated and generate less conflict if those potentially
affected are notified in advance of important issues and events. At a
minimum, EPA recommends providing information to parents and staff:

>  Before you begin testing.

>•  In response to questions from parents or other caretakers and staff.

>•  After you receive your testing results - Make sure to share your
   results and if a lead problem exists, your plans to correct any
What to Communicate
It is important to provide clear, accurate, and complete information
about your lead monitoring program to parents or other caretakers
and staff. Designate one staff person as a resource for parents to
contact if they have more questions.

Be sure to include the following:

>•  Your plans to test the drinking water in your facility.

>  Results from your facility and your plans for correcting any
   identified problems.

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
     *•  Information on obtaining detailed
        testing results for your facility.

     >•  Health effects of exposure to lead.

     >•  Potential sources of lead (e.g., food,
        air, dust, and soil) and the significance
        of lead in drinking water versus other

     >•  Resources for learning more about
        drinking  water (e.g., our local health
        department, state drinking water
        program, and EPA).

     >•  Information on blood-lead level
        testing, and recommendation to visit
        a physician for further assistance.
     How To Communicate

     There are a variety of effective ways to
     communicate information to parents and
     staff. Depending on the size of your
     facility, some methods may be more
     appropriate than others.  In general, it is
     a good idea to have materials available in
     languages other than English or to
     provide a contact for  non-English
     speakers, particularly  if your community
     has a large proportion of non-English
     speaking  residents. Consider the options
     below when designing a communication
     strategy for your lead monitoring

     >  Letters/Flyers - You can mail a letter
        or flyer or distribute them to
        children's parents  or other caretakers
        in person. A good  letter or flyer will
Hints for Effective

>•  Take the initiative:
   Provide information
   before you are asked.
>•  Be a reliable source of
   information: Provide
   honest, accurate, and

>•  Always speak with one
   voice: It is a good idea to
   designate one contact
   person (provide a phone
   number!) to respond to
   interest in your lead
   monitoring program.
>•  Anticipate likely
   questions: Different
   members of your
   community may have
   different concerns or
   viewpoints on the
   subject of lead testing.

*  Be positive, proactive,
   and forthcoming when
   working with the media.

>•  Keep members of the
   community up-to-date:
   Share every piece of new
   information you have
   about your lead
   monitoring program.

>•  Have materials available
   in languages other than
                                                                                                                                ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
   describe the health effects of lead, your testing plan, your results or
   when to expect results, and your planned next steps.

>  Newsletter - If you have a regular newsletter, include an eye-
   catching headline and a short description of your lead monitoring

>•  Email and Web sites - If you have an email distribution list for your
   clients and staff, email is a great way to regularly update your
   community about your lead monitoring program. If you have a Web
   site, it is a good  idea  to include regular updates about your lead
   monitoring program on your site, but also consider more direct
   outreach, such as a flyer, email, or newsletter article, to make sure
   your target community sees your lead monitoring program

>•  Presentation - If you are initiating a lead monitoring program
   because of past problems or a significant risk of lead in your
   facility's drinking water, an in-person presentation for children's
   caretakers and staff is perhaps the most effective way to
   communicate  your message. It helps to send invitations announcing
   the presentation and  asking caretakers and staff to attend to make
   sure you get your target audience in the room. An in-person
   presentation gives you a chance to directly communicate your
   commitment to safeguarding your drinking water, and it gives your
   audience a chance to ask questions.

>•  Press Release - If you  find  a significant lead contamination problem
   when you test, you may want to consider issuing  a press release. It
   is always a good idea to be proactive about communications with
   the press. If you don't tell the media first, they may be more likely
   to cast your story in a negative light.

For additional information on developing a communications strategy
and to see sample public notice materials, download  the 37s for
Reducing Lead in  Drinking Water in Schools: Revised Technical
Guidance by visiting www.epa.gov/safewater/schools.

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
     Appendix A:  Contact Information
              for State Drinking Water Programs
                   and Other Sources
     Safe Drinking Water Hotline	1 (800)426-4791

     Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)	1 (800) 638-8772

     National Lead Information Center	1 (800)424-LEAD
     Mr. Ed Hughes, Chief
     Drinking Water Branch
     Dept. of Environmental Management
     P.O. Box301463
     Montgomery, AL 36130-1463
     Fax: 334-279-3051
     E-mail: ekh@adem.state.al.us

     Dr. James Weise, Manager
     Drinking Water Program
     Division of Environmental Health
     Alaska Dept. of Environmental
     555 Cordova St.
     Anchorage, AK 99501
     Phone: 907-269-7647
     Fax: 907-269-7655
     E-mail: james_weise@dec.state.ak.us

     American Samoa
     Ms. Sheila Wiegman, Environmental
     American Samoa
     Environmental Protection Agency
     Office of the Governor
     Pago Pago, AS 96799
     Phone: 684-633-2304
     Fax: 684-633-5801
Mr. John Calkins
Drinking Water Section
Arizona Dept. of Environmental
1110 W.Washington St.
Phoenix, AZ 85007
Fax: 602-771-4634
E-mail: calkins.john@azdeq.gov

Mr. Harold R. Seifert, P.E., Director
Division of Engineering
Arkansas Department of Health
4815 West Markham Street
Little Rock, AR 72205-3867
Fax: 501-661-2032
E-mail: hseifert@HealthyArkansas.com

Dr. David P. Spath, Chief
Division of Drinking Water
and Environmental Management
California Dept. of Health Services
P.O. Box 997413
Sacramento, CA 95899-7413
Fax: 916-449-5575
E-mail: DSpath@dhs.ca.gov
                                                                                                                               ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
Mr. Chet Pauls, Manager
Drinking Water Program
Water Quality Control Division
Colorado Dept. of Public Health and
4300 Cherry Creek Drive, South
Denver, CO 80246-1530
Fax: 303-782-0390
E-mail: Chester.pauls@state.co.us

Dr. Gerald R. Iwan, Director
Drinking Water Division
Connecticut Dept. of Public Health
410 Capitol Ave. MS-51 WAT
P.O.  Box 340308
Hartford, CT 06134-0308
Phone: 860-509-7333
Fax: 860-509-7359
E-mail: gerald.iwan@po.state.ct.us

Mr. Edward G. Hallock, Program
Office of Drinking Water
Division of Public Health
Delaware Health and Social Services
Blue Hen Corporate Center, Suite 203
655 Bay Road
Dover, DE  19901
Fax: 302-741-8631
E-mail: edward.hallock@state.de.us

District  of  Columbia
Ms. Jerusalem Bekele, Chief
Water Quality Division
Department of Health
51 N Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002
E-mail: jerusalem.bekele@dc.gov
Mr. Van R. Hoofnagle, Administrator
Drinking Water Section
Florida Dept. of Environmental
Twin Towers Office Building
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, FL 32399-2400
Phone: 850-245-8631
Fax: 850-245-8669
E-mail: van.hoofnagle@dep.state.fl.us

Mr. Nolton G. Johnson, Chief
Water Resources Branch
Environmental Protection Div., Georgia
2 Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, S.E.
East Tower - Suite 1362
Atlanta, GA 30334
Fax: 404-651-9590
*Mr. Brad Addison is Manager
of the Drinking Water Program
(see address above)
Fax: 404-651-9590
E-mail: brad_addison@dnr.state.ga.us

Mr. Jesus T. Salas, Administrator
Guam Environmental Protection
Government of Guam
P.O. Box 22439 GMF
Barrigada, GU 96921
Fax: 671-477-9402

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
     Mr. Thomas E. Arizumi, Chief
     Environmental Management Division
     Hawaii Department of Health
     Room 300
     Honolulu,  HI 96814-4920
     Phone: 808-586-4304
     Fax: 808-586-4352
     *Mr. Bill Wong is the Chief of
     the Safe Drinking Water Branch
     (see address above, except Room 308)
     Phone: 808-586-4258
     Fax: 808-586-4351
     E-mail: waterbill@aol.com

     Mr. Lance E. Nielsen, Manager
     Drinking Water Program
     Idaho Dept. of Environmental Quality
     1410 North Hilton
     Boise, ID 83706
     Phone: 208-373-0291
     Fax: 208-373-0576
     E-mail: lance.nielsen@deq.idaho.gov

     Mr. Roger D. Selburg, P.E., Manager
     Division of Public Water Supplies
     Illinois EPA
     P.O. Box 19276
     Springfield, IL 62794-9276
     Fax: 217-782-0075
     E-mail: roger.selburg@epa.state.il.us

     Mr. Patrick Carroll, Chief
     Drinking Water Branch
     Office of Water Quality
     Dept. of Environmental Management
     P.O. Box6015
     Indianapolis, IN 46206-6015
     Fax: 317-308-3339
     E-mail: pcarroll@idem.in.gov
Mr. Dennis J.Alt, Environmental
Water Supply Section
Iowa Department of Natural Resources
401 SW 7th Street, Suite M
Des Moines, IA 50309-4611
Phone: 515-725-0275
Fax: 515-725-0348
E-mail: dennis.alt@dnr.state.ia.us
*Mr. Steve Hopkins is Supervisor of
the Water Supply Operations
(see address above)
Phone: 515-725-0295
Fax: 515-725-0348
Stephen.hopkins@dnr.state.ia. us

Mr. David F.Waldo, Chief
Public Water Supply Section
Bureau of Water
Kansas Dept of Health & Environment
1000 SW Jackson St. - Suite 420
Topeka, KS 66612-1367
Phone: 785-296-5503
Fax: 785-296-5509
E-mail: dwaldo@kdhe.state.ks.us

Ms. Donna S. Marlin, Manager
Division of Water - Drinking Water
Kentucky Dept. for Environmental
14Reilly Road, Frankfort Ofc. Park
Frankfort, KY40601
Phone: 502-564-3410
Fax: 502-564-5105
E-mail: donna.marlin@ky.gov
                                                                                                                                       ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
Ms. Karen Irion, Administrator
Safe Drinking Water Program
Center for Environmental and Health
Office of Public Health
Louisiana Dept. of Health and Hospi-
6867 Blue Bonnet Blvd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70810
Phone: 225-765-5046
Fax: 225-765-5040
E-mail: Kirion@dhh.la.gov

Ms. Nancy Beardsley, Director
Drinking Water Program
Maine Department of Health and
Human Services
Division of Health Engineering
11 State House Station
Augusta, ME 04333
Phone: 207-287-5674
Fax: 207-287-4172
E-mail: nancy.beardsley@maine.gov

Mr. Saeid Kasraei,  Manager
Water Supply Program
Maryland Dept. of the Environment
Montgomery Park Business Center
1800 Washington Blvd. - Suite 450
Baltimore, MD 21230-1708
Fax: 410-537-3157
E-mail: skasraei@mde.state.md.us

Mr. David Terry, Director
Drinking Water Program
Massachusetts Department of
Environmental Protection
One Winter Street, 6th Floor
Boston, MA 02108
Fax: 617-292-5696
E-mail: david.terry@state.ma.us
Mr. James K. Cleland, P.E., Chief
Water Bureau
Michigan Dept. of Env. Quality
P. O. Box 30630
Lansing, Ml 48909-8130
Phone: 517-241-1287
Fax: 517-335-0889
E-mail: clelandj@michigan.gov

Mr. Doug Mandy, Manager
Drinking Water Protection Section
Minnesota Department of Health
Metro Square Building, Suite 220
P.O. Box 64975
St. Paul, MN 55164-0975
Fax: 651-215-0775
douglas.mandy@health.state, mn.us

Mr. Keith Allen, Director
Division of Water Supply
Mississippi State Department of Health
P.O. Box 1700
570 E. Woodrow Wilson Dr.
Jackson, MS 39215-1700
Fax: 601-576-7822
E-mail: kallen@msdh.state.ms.us

Mr. Ed Galbraith, Director
Water Protection Program
Missouri Dept of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 176
Jefferson City, MO 65102
Fax: 573-751-1146
E-mail: ed.galbraith@dnr.mo.gov

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
     Mr. Jon Dillard, Bureau Chief
     Public Water and Subdivisions Bureau
     Montana Dept. of Environmental
     Box 200901
     1520 East Sixth Ave.
     Helena,  MT 59620-0901
     Phone: 406-444-4071
     Fax: 406-444-1374
     E-mail: jdillard@mt.gov

     Mr. Jack L. Daniel, Administrator
     Environmental Health Services Section
     Nebraska Health and Human Services
     301 Centennial Mall South, 3rd Floor
     P.O. Box 95007
     Lincoln,  NE 68509-5007
     Fax: 402-471-6436
     E-mail: jack.daniel@hhss.ne.gov

     Mr. Andrew Huray, Chief
     Public Health Engineering Section
     Nevada State Health Division
     1179 Fairview Drive
     Carson City, NV 89701
     Phone: 775-687-6353
     Fax: 775-687-5699
     E-mail: ahuray@nvhd.state.nv.us

     New Hampshire
     Mr. Rene Pelletier, Program Manager
     Water Supply Engineering Bureau
     Dept. of Environmental Services
     Post Office Box 95
     6 Hazen Drive
     Concord, NH 03302-0095
     Fax: 603-271-5171
     E-mail: rpelletier@des.state.nh.us
     * Ms. Sarah Pillsbury is Drinking Water
     (see address above)
     Fax: 603-271-2181
     E-mail: spillsbury@des.state.nh.us
New Jersey
Mr. Barker Hamill, Chief
Bureau of Safe Drinking Water
New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 426
Trenton, NJ 08625
Phone: 609-292-5550
Fax: 609-292-1654
E-mail: barker.hamill@dep.state.nj.us

New Mexico
Mr. Fernando Martinez, Chief
Drinking Water Bureau
New Mexico Environment Department
525 Camino De Los Marquez
Suite 4
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone: 505-827-1400
Fax: 505-827-7545

New York
Mr. Jack Dunn, Director
Bureau of Public Water Supply
New York Department of Health
Flanigan Square, Rm. 400
547 River Street
Troy, NY 12180-2 216
Fax: 518-402-7659
E-mail: jmd02@health.state.ny.us

North Carolina
Ms. Jessica G. Miles, P.E., Chief
Public Water Supply Section
North Carolina Dept. of Env. and
Natural Resources
1634 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699-1634
Fax: 919-715-4374
E-mail: jessica.miles@ncmail.net
                                                                                                                                      ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
North Dakota
Mr. Larry J. Thelen, Program Manager
Drinking Water Program
NDDept. of Health
1200 Missouri Avenue, Room 203
P.O. Box 5520
Bismarck, ND 58506-5520
Fax: 701-328-5200
E-mail: lthelen@state.nd.us

Northern Mariana Islands
Mr. John I. Castro, Director
Division of Environmental Quality
Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands
Post Office Box 501304
Saipan, MP 96950-1304
Phone: 670-664-8500
Fax: 670-664-8540
E-mail: deq.director@saipan.com
*Mr. Joe M. Kaipat is the Manager of
the Safe Drinking Water Branch
(see address above)
Phone: 670-664-8500
Fax: 670-664-8540
E-mail: joe.kaipat@saipan.com

Mr. MikeG. Baker, Chief
Division of Drinking and Ground
Ohio EPA
Lazarus Gov't Center
P.O. Box 1049
Columbus, OH 43216-1049
Fax: 614-644-2909
E-mail: mike.baker@epa.state.oh.us
*Mr. Kirk Leif heit is Assistant Chief of
Drinking Water in the
Division of Drinking and Ground
(see address above)
Fax: 614-644-2909
E-mail: kirk.leifheit@epa.state.oh.us
Mr. Jon L. Craig, Director
Water Quality Division
Department of Environmental Quality
707 North Robinson
Suite 8100
P.O. Box 1677
Oklahoma City, OK 73101 -1677
Fax: 405-702-8101
E-mail: jon.craig@deq.state.ok.us
*Mr. MikeS. Harrell is Administrator of
the Public Water Supply Program
(see address above)
Fax: 405-702-8101
E-mail: mike.harrell@deq.state.ok.us

Mr. David E. Leland, Manager
Drinking Water Program
Office of Public Health Systems
Oregon Department of Human
800 NE Oregon St.-Rm. 611
Portland, OR 97232
Phone: 503-731-4010
Fax: 503-731-4077
E-mail: david.e.leland@state.or.us

Mr. Jeffrey A. Gordon, Chief
Division of Operations Management
and Training
Bureau of Water Standards and Facility
Department of Environmental
P.O. Box 8467
Harrisburg, PA 17105-8467
Fax: 717-772-3249
E-mail: jegordon@state.pa.us

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
     Puerto Rico
     Ms. Olga Rivera, Director
     Public Water Supply Supervision
     Puerto Rico Department of Health
     Office of the Secretary
     Nacional Plaza Building
     431 Ponce De Leon Ave.
     9th Floor-Suite 903
     HatoRey, PR 00917
     Phone: 787-648-3903
     Fax: 787-758-6285
     E-mail: orivera@salud.gov.pr

     Rhode Island
     Ms. June A. Swallow, P.E., Chief
     Office of Drinking Water Quality
     Rhode Island Department of Health
     3 Capitol Hill, Room 209
     Providence, Rl 02908
     Fax: 401-222-6953
     E-mail: junes@doh.state.ri.us

     South Carolina
     Mr. Alton C. Boozer, Chief
     Bureau of Water
     South Carolina Dept. of Health &
     Environmental Control
     2600 Bull Street
     Columbia, SC 29201
     Phone: 803-898-4259
     Fax: 803-898-3795
     E-mail: boozerac@dhec.sc.gov

     South Dakota
     Mr. Rob Kittay, Administrator
     Drinking Water Program
     Division of Environmental Regulation
     SD Dept. of Env. and Natural Resources
     523 East Capital Ave, Joe Foss Bldg
     Pierre, SD 57501-3181
     Phone: 605-773-4208
     Fax: 605-773-5286
     E-mail: rob.kittay@state.sd.us
Mr. W. David Draughon, Jr., Director
Division of Water Supply
Tennessee Dept. of Environment &
401 Church Street
L & C Tower, 6th Floor
Nashville, TN 37243-1549
Phone: 615-532-0152
Fax: 615-532-0503
E-mail: david.draughon@state.tn.us

Mr. E. Buck Henderson, Manager
Public Drinking Water Section
Water Supply Division
Texas Commission on
Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 13087 (MC-155)
Austin, TX 78711-3087
Phone: 512-239-0990
Fax: 512-239-0030
E-mail: ehenders@tceq.state.tx.us

Mr. Kevin W. Brown, Director
Division of Drinking Water
Utah Dept. of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 144830
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4830
Fax: 801-536-4211
E-mail: kwbrown@utah.gov

Mr. Jay L. Rutherford, P.E., Director
Water Supply Division
Vermont Dept. of Env. Conservation
Old Pantry Building
103 South Main Street
Waterbury, VT 05671 -0403
Fax: 802-241-3284
E-mail: jay.rutherford@state.vt.us
                                                                                                                                       ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
Virgin Islands
Mr. Leonard Reed, Assistant Director
Division of Environmental Protection
Dept. of Planning & Natural Re-
Wheatley Center 2
St. Thorn as, VI 00802
Phone: 340-777-4577
Fax:  340-774-5416
* Mrs. Christine M. Lottes is Supervi-
sor of Public Water System Supervi-
sion  (PWSS)
Dept. of Planning & Natural Resources
Water Gut Homes 1118
Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 00820-
Phone: 340-773-0565
Fax:  340-773-9310

Mr. Jerry Peaks, Director
Office of Drinking Water
Virginia Department of Health
109 Governor St.
Richmond, VA 23219
Phone: 804-864-7488
Fax:  804-864-7520
E-mail:  jerry.peaks@vdh.viginia.gov

Ms. DeniseAddotta Clifford, Director
Office of Drinking Water
WA Department of Health
7211 Cleanwater Lane, Bldg. 9
P.O. Box 47828
Olympia, WA 98504-7828
Fax:  360-236-2253
E-mail:  denise.clifford@doh.wa.gov
West Virginia
Mr. Walter Ivey, Director
Environmental Engineering Div.
Office of Environmental Health
West Virginia Dept. of Health and
Human Services
815 Quarrier Street, Suite 418
Charleston, WV 25301
Fax: 304-558-0289
E-mail: walterivey@wvdhhr.org

Ms. Jill D. Jonas, Director
Bureau of Drinking Water and
Wisconsin Department of Natural
P.O. Box7921
Madison, Wl 53707
Phone: 608-267-7545
Fax: 608-267-7650
E-mail: jill.jonas@dnr.state.wi. us

Mr. John Wagner, Administrator
Water Quality
Dept. of Environmental Quality
Herschler Building
4th Floor West
Cheyenne, WY 82002
Phone: 307-777-7055
Fax: 307-777-5973
E-mail: jwagne@state.wy.us
*Wyoming's Drinking Water Program
is managed by EPA Region VIII

     3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
     Appendix B:  Water Cooler

     The Lead Contamination  Control Act (LCCA), which amended the Safe
     Drinking Water Act, was signed into law on October 31,1988 (RL. 100
     572). The potential of water coolers to supply lead to drinking water in
     schools and child care centers was a principal focus of this legislation.
     Specifically, the LCCA mandated that the Consumer Product Safety
     Commission (CPSC) order the  repair, replacement, or recall and refund
     of drinking water coolers with lead-lined water tanks. In addition, the
     LCCA called for a ban  on  the manufacture or sale in interstate
     commerce of drinking water coolers that are not lead-free. Civil and
     criminal penalties were established under the law for violations of this
     ban. With respect to a water cooler that may come in contact with
     drinking water, the LCCA defined the term "lead-free" to mean:

        "not more than 8 percent  lead, except that no drinking water
        cooler which contains any solder, flux, or storage tank interior
        surface which may come in contact with drinking water shall be
        considered lead free if the solder, flux, or storage tank interior
        surface contains more than 0.2 percent lead."

     Another component of the LCCA was the requirement that EPA
     publish and  make available to the States  a list of drinking water
     coolers,  by brand and model, that are not lead-free. In addition, EPA
     was to publish and make available to the states a separate list of the
     brand and model of water coolers with a lead-lined tank. EPA is
     required to revise and republish these lists as new information or
     analyses become available.

     Based on responses to a Congressional survey in the winter of 1988, three
     major manufacturers, the  Halsey Taylor Company, EBCO Manufacturing
     Corporation, and Sunroc Corporation, indicated that lead solder had been
     used in at least some models of their drinking water coolers. On April 10,
     1988, EPA proposed in the Federal Register (at 54 FR 14320) lists of
     drinking water coolers with lead-lined tanks and coolers that are not lead-
     free. Public comments were received on the notice, and the list was
     revised and published on January 18, 1990 (Part III, 55 FR 1772). See
     Table B-2 for a list of water coolers and lead components.
                                                                                                                               ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
Prior to publication of the January
1990  list,  EPA determined that Halsey
Taylor was the only manufacturer of
water coolers with lead-lined tanks.1
Table B-1 presents a listing of model
numbers of  the Halsey Taylor drinking
water coolers  with lead-lined tanks
that had been identified by EPA as of
January 18,  1990.
Experience indicates that
newly installed brass plumbing
components containing 8
percent or less lead, as
allowed by the SDWA, can
contribute high lead  levels to
drinking water for a
considerable period after
installation. U.S. water cooler
manufacturers have notified
EPA that since September
1993, the components of
water coolers that come in
contact with drinking water
have been made with non-
lead alloy materials. These
materials include stainless steel
for fittings and water control
devices, brass made of 60
percent copper and 40
percent zinc, terillium copper,
and food grade plastic.
Since the LCCA required the CPSC to
order manufacturers of coolers with
lead-lined tanks to repair, replace, or
recall and provide a refund of such
coolers, the CPSC negotiated such an
agreement with Halsey Taylor through
a consent order published on June 1,
1990 (at 55 FR 22387). The consent
agreement calls on Halsey Taylor to
provide a  replacement or refund program that addresses all the water
coolers  listed in Table B-2 as well as "all tank-type models of drinking
water coolers manufactured by Halsey Taylor, whether or not those
models  are included on the present or on a future EPA list." Under the
consent order,  Halsey Taylor agreed to notify the public of the
replacement and  refund program for all tank type models. Currently, a
company formerly associated with Halsey Taylor, Scotsman Ice
Systems, has assumed responsibility for replacement of lead-line
coolers  previously marketed by Halsey Taylor.  See below for the
address of Scotsman  Ice Systems.
Scotsman Ice Systems
775  Corporate  Woods Parkway
Vernon  Hills, IL 60061
PH: (800)  SCOTSMAN or 800-726-8762
PH: (847)  215-4500
1Based upon an analysis of 22 water coolers at a US Navy facility and subsequent data
obtained by EPA, EPA believes the most serious cooler contamination problems are
associated with water coolers that have lead-lined tanks.

      3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revi
                                       Table B-1
                Halsey Taylor Water Coolers With Lead-Lined Tanks2

      The following six model numbers have one or more units in the model series with lead-
      lined tanks:

      WM8A         WT8A        GC10ACR        GC10A      GC5A         RWM13A

      The following models and serial numbers contain lead-lined tanks:

      WM14A Serial No. 843034     WM14A Serial No. 843006     WT11A Serial No. 222650

      WT21A Serial No. 64309550    WT21A Serial No. 64309542    LL14A Serial No. 64346908
      2Based upon an analysis of 22 water coolers at a US Navy facility and subsequent data
      obtained by EPA, EPA believes the most serious cooler contamination problems are
      associated with water coolers that have lead-lined tanks.
                                                                                                                                                     ater in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance
                                 Table B-2
              Water Coolers With  Other Lead Components

EBCO Manufacturing

+  All pressure bubbler water coolers with shipping dates from 1962 through 1977 have
   a bubbler valve containing lead. The units contain a single, 50-50 tin-lead solder joint
   on the bubbler valve. Model numbers  for coolers in this category are not available.

>  The following models of pressure bubbler coolers produced from 1978 through 1981
   contain one 50-50 tin-lead solder joint each.
                                                                                                     CP3     DP15W     DPM8

                                                                                                     DP16M   DP5S       C10E

                                                                                                     WTCIO   DP13M-60  DP14M

                                                                                                     DP20-50 DP7SM     DP10X

                                                                                                     CP3-50   DP13M     DP3RH

                                                                                                     CP10    DP20       DP12N
                           7P       13P

                           PX-10     DP7S

                           CP10-50   CP5

                           DP13A    DP13A-50

                           DP5F     CP3M

                           DP7WM   DP14A-50/60
            DPM8H   DP15M   DP3R   DP8A

            DP13SM   DP7M    DP7MH DP7WD

            CP5M     DP15MW DP3R   DP14S

            EP10F     DP5M    DP10F  CP3H

            EP5F      13PL     DP8AH  DP13S
                                                                                                     Halsey Taylor

                                                                                                     *  Lead solder was used in these models of water coolers manufactured between 1978
                                                                                                        and the last week of 1987:



                                                                                                     »•  The following coolers manufactured for Haws Drinking Faucet Company (Haws) by
                                                                                                        Halsey Taylor from November 1984 through December 18, 1987, are not lead free
                                                                                                        because they contain 2 tin-lead solder joints.  The model designations for these units
                                                                                                        are as follows:

                                                                                                     HC8WT  HC14F   HC6W     HWC7D   HC8WTH   HC14FH    HC8W   HC2F     HCI4WT

                                                                                                     HC14FL  HC14W  HC2FH     HCI4WTH HC8FL    HC4F      HC5F   HC14WL  HCBF7D

                                                                                                     HC4FH   HC10F   HCI6WT   HCBF7HO  HC8F     HC8FH     HC4W   HWC7

                                                                                                     If you have one of the Halsey Taylor water coolers noted in Table B-2, contact Scotsman
                                                                                                     Ice Systems (address and phone noted on page 26) to learn more about the
                                                                                                     requirements  surrounding their replacement and rebate program.

      December 2005
Office of Water (4606)