United States
               Environmental Protection
               Agency
               Office of
               Water Program Operations
               (WH-546)
               Washington, D.C. 20460
   Reprint of
   Department of the Army
   Hanover, New Hampshire
   November 1978
               Water
vvEPA
Wastewater
Stabilization
Pond  Linings
832R78103
                                                  7520?
                                                  MCD-54

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                                      Disclaimer  Statement
                  This  report  has  been  reviewed  by  the  Environmental  Protection
            Agency  and approved for publication.   Approval  does  not  signify  that  the
            contents necessarily  reflect  the  views and policies  of the  Environmental
            Protection Agency, nor  does mention of trade names or commercial  prod-
            ucts  constitute endoresement  or recommendation  for use.
                                              Notes
                  To  order this  publication,  "Wastewater  Stabilization  Pond  Linings"
             (MCD-54) from EPA,  write to:

                                 General  Services  Administration  (8FFS)
                                 Centralized  Mailing  List Services
                                 Bldg.  41,  Denver  Federal  Center
                                 DenVer,vColorado   80225

             Please indicate the MCD number and title of  publication.   Multiple
             copies may be purchased froin:

                                 National Technical Information Service
                                 Springfie.ld, Virginia 22151
4.

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                              EPA Comment
     This document was selected for reprinting by the US  EPA  Office  of
Water Program Operations as one of a series  of reports to help  supply
detailed information for use in selecting, developing, designing,  and
operating municipal wastewater treatment systems.

     This report provides a technical  discussion and evaluation of
procedures and materials for wastewater pond linings when seepage  control
is necessary.  The US EPA guidance on  seepage control  from ponds can be
found in the Technical Bulletin MCD-14, "Wastewater Treatment Ponds"
(EPA 430/9-74-011).  Pond lining is not necessary in all  cases, nor
should it be inferred that the procedures discussed in this report
represent the only acceptable methods.
                                   Harold P.  Cahill,  Jr.,  Director
                                   Municipal  Construction  Division
                                   Office of  Water Program Operations

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                               Abstract
     A review of the literature on wastewater stabilization lagoon
linings covering the work during the past 20 years is presented.
Design, operating and maintenance experiences are presented for  soil
sealants, natural sealants, bentonite clays, chemical treatments,
gunite, concrete, asphaltic compounds, plastics and elastomers.  The
characteristics of various materials, applicability to different wastes,
construction techniques and details of installation techniques are
presented.  Installation costs for various materials and comparative
costs are summarized.  A survey of the 50 states was conducted to
determine the requirements for liners and allowable seepage rates.
Requirements are varied and depend upon the local soil conditions and
the experiences of the regulatory agencies with various materials.  The
trend is toward more stringent requirements.  Accepted design and
installation procedures are summarized and detailed drawings of  instal-
lation techniques are presented.  Recommendations of the manufacturers
and installers of liners are also presented.

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                               PREFACE
     This report was prepared by E. Joe Middlebrooks, Catherine D.
Perman, and Irving S. Dunn  all of Middlebrooks and Associates, Logan,
Utah.

     The study was performed for the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research
and Engineering Laboratory  (USA CRREL) and was funded under DA Project
4A762720 A896,  Environmental Quality for Construction and Operation of
Military Facilities; Task 02, Pollution Abatement  Systems? Work Unit  004.

     The final scope of study was defined by Mr. Sherwood C. Reed of  USA
CRREL and he served as technical monitor during the course of the study
and his efforts in this regard contributed significantly to the success-
ful completion of this report.

     Technical review of this report was performed by Messrs. Sherwood C.
Reed, Robert S. Sletten, and John Bouzoun of USA CRREL.

     Permission to reproduce drawings, tables, promotional, and instruc-
tional materials by the following firms is greatly appreciated.

          John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
          Chemical Engineering, A McGraw-Hill Publication, New York,  N.Y.
          Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C.
          Public Works Journal Corporation, Ridgewood, New Jersey
          Water Resources Bulletin, Minneapolis, Minnesota
          Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan
          American Colloid Company, Skokie, Illinois
          Asphalt Products Oil Corp., Long Beach, California
          Burke Rubber Company, Burke Industries, San Jose, California
          B. F. Goodrich, Akron, Ohio
          Watersaver Company, Inc, Denver, Colorado
          Staff Industries, Inc., Upper Montclair, New Jersey
          Firestone Coated Fabrics Company, Magnolia, Arkansas

     The assistance of Ms. Barbara South in the preparation of this
manuscript is greatly appreciated.  Ms. Mona McDonald's editorial review
was also most helpful.

     The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising or
promotional purposes.  Citation of trade names does not constitute an
official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products.
                                iii

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                               TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                            Page

      INTRODUCTION  	    1

      LITERATURE REVIEW   	    3

           Introduction   	    3
           Types of  Lagoon Linings	3
           Synthetic Liners  	    6
           Natural Sealing and Chemical Treatment  Mechanisms                  15
.           Reviews,  General Evaluations,  Costs, and  Summary   	   24

      STATE DESIGN STANDARDS 	   35

      DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE   	   45

 :          Bentonite,  Asphalt and Soil Cement  	   45
 *          Thin Membrane Liners	52

      SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS   	   61

      LITERATURE CITED 	   63

      APPENDIX A:  STATE OF WASHINGTON LAGOON LINER  REQUIREMENTS           -67

      APPENDIX B:  STATE OF MINNESOTA LAGOON LINER REQUIREMENTS   ....   73

      APPENDIX C:  TRADE NAMES AND SOURCES OF COMMON LINING MATERIALS   .   .   79

      APPENDIX D:  BENTONITE CLAY LININGS   	   83

      APPENDIX E:  ASPHALT PANEL LININGS 	   85

      APPENDIX F:  HYPALON LINERS  	   87

      APPENDIX G:  B.  F. GOODRICH "FLEXSEAL" LINERS   	   99

 \    APPENDIX H:  POLYVINYL CHLORIDE LINERS   	  109

      APPENDIX I:  VARIOUS LINER MATERIALS  	  H3
               '.
      APPENDIX J:  FIRESTONE FABRITANK LINER   	
                                      1V
  '\
    t

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           CONVERSION FACTORS:  U.S. CUSTOMARY TO

              METRIC (SI) UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
Multiply

inch
inch
foot
yard2-
foot3
    D
yard
gallon
pound
pound/inch
pound/foot
25.4
2.54
0.3048
0.8361274
0.02831685
0.764555
0.003785412
453.6
6894.757
16.01846
 To obtain

millimeter
centimeter
meter
meter
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meterJ
meter
     r>
meterj
gram
pascal
kilogram/meter

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                            INTRODUCTION
     Many difficulties have been encountered in the application of
various types of materials as liners in wastewater stabilization lagoons.
Difficulties have been pronounced in cold climates.  Experiences have
been varied, and considerable confusion exists as to the type of mate-
rials applicable under various conditions.

     A review of the literature on lagoon liners and seepage rates is
presented in the following sections.  Experiences with various types of
liners are described and observed seepage rates are reported.  A summary
of 50 state regulatory agency standards is presented and indicated trends
are discussed.

     The types of materials available, their properties, their appli-
cability to various situations, recommended installation techniques and
failure mechanisms are discussed.  Detailed installation instructions
and designs recommended by several installation companies are presented.

     The following summary of the use of liners in wastewater stabili-
zation lagoons should be of value to design engineers, reviewers of plans
and specifications, and regulatory and planning personnel in making
decisions concerning the protection of water quality.

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                                                                   X
                          LITERATURE REVIEW
                            Introduction
     The need for a well-sealed wastewater stabilization lagoon has become
part of modern lagoon design, construction and maintenance.  The primary
motive for sealing wastewater stabilization lagoons is to prevent seepage.
Seepage has two effects on lagoon performance.  First, seepage affects the
treatment capabilities of the lagoon by causing fluctuations in the lagoon
water depth.  For consistent and sufficient treatment, lagoons require a
constant water depth at a specified design depth.  Second, seepage can
cause pollution of groundwater which can have serious effects on ground-
water uses.

     Many types of lagoon liners exist, but all can be classified into
three major categories.  These categories are (1) synthetic and rubber
liners, (2) earthen and cement liners, and (3) natural and chemical treat-
ment sealers.  Within each category also exists a wide variety of appli-
cation characteristics.  Each of the three liner categories and respective
application characteristics will be discussed in detail in a subsequent
section of this report.

     Choosing the appropriate lining for a specific lagoon is a critical
issue in lagoon design and in the improvement of seepage control.  The
criteria for lining a lagoon are highly dependent on the specific geo-
graphical location, on climate, on local hydrogeology and on materials
found in the lagoon wastewater.  In this review special attention has
been given to design criteria established for cold climates.
                       Types of Lagoon Linings
Earthen, Concrete and Asphalt Type Linings

     Concrete and earthen liners constituted some of the earliest types
of lagoon sealers.  Literature from the late fifties cited use,.of con-
crete to prevent lagoon seepage.  Sewage lagoons in Melbourne, Australia,
were built with a 2-in. thick unreinforced concrete liner (Parker et al.,
1959).  Wastewater stabilization ponds constructed in Austin, Texas, as
outdoor pilot-plant experiments (Gloyna and Hermann, 1956; Hermann and
Gloyna, 1958) were also lined with concrete.

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     Van Heuvelen et al. (1960) and Hopkins (1960) all recognized the
significance of lagoon liners in a study of lagoon design for Missouri
Basin States.  Prevention of chemical groundwater pollution and mainte-
nance of constant lagoon surface level were considered primary reasons
for preventing lagoon seepage.  Chemical contamination of groundwater
from the detergents found in lagoon wastewater was a major concern.
The seepage of biological pollutants was only a problem in infrequent
geologic situations where the major surface formation consisted of fis-
sured rock or coarse gravel.  However, in most situations, removal of
porous top soil and compaction of underlying soil provided adequate
sealing for both the bottoms and the dikes of the lagoons.  When exces-
sive percolation was still a problem, increased hydraulic loading and
removal of gravel and sand pockets were suggested as methods of partial
sealing.  Eventually wastewater solids clogged soil pores, and further
decreased lagoon seepage.  To assure a complete seal, bentonite clay and
asphaltic coatings were cited as practical lagoon liners.  Similar re-
sults were reported by Leisch (1976).

     Benson (1962) described bentonite as a typical natural earth lagoon
sealer because of its very high swelling and gelling characteristics.
As with most earthen sealers, bentonite was found to seal most effective-
ly when applied to an emptied lagoon.  A precise application procedure
was described using a 5-15 percent by volume mixture of bentonite with a
loose silty soil, which was then spread over the lagoon and compacted to
a thickness of several inches.  Unfortunately, bentonite has been shown
to be subject to piping and to diffusion through soil, sands and gravels
with large pore channels.  Lagoon site soil characteristics should there-
fore be a criterion in choosing bentonite for a lagoon sealant.  The
cited 1962 price for processed bentonite was $14-$20 per ton.

     Edge (1967) suggested that asphalt liners provided a practical
general solution to lagoon seepage.  Three types of asphaltic construc-
tion were cited and consisted of hot-sprayed asphalt membranes, asphalt
concrete (requires periodic cleaning), and prefabricated asphalt linings.
The characteristics of each of these liners are impermeability, toughness,
and durability in the presence of domestic and industrial wastes.  A de-
tailed description of each asphalt liner follows:

     "Hot-Sprayed Asphalt Membranes
          A hot-sprayed asphalt membrane developed as a low-cost
     canal lining provides a highly effective continuous waterproof
     seal.  It is a continuous blanket of asphalt cement about 1/4
     inch thick placed by a regular asphalt distributor with the
     spray bar offset to one side.  The heated asphalt is sprayed
     on the prepared subgrade, usually in two applications to insure
     a continuous water seal.

          A special blown asphalt is preferred for this type of
     construction.  However, in some areas satisfactory asphalt
     membranes can be formed using regular paving grade asphalt
     cement, 40-50 penetration grade.

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     An earth or aggregate cover is needed on the side slopes
to protect the lining from oxidation and physical damage.  A
thickness of 6 to 8 inches should be sufficient.  Sedimentation
and sludge that will eventually be deposited will provide suf-
ficient cover from the bottom.  The side slopes should not be
steeper than 2:1 with a 3:1 slope preferred.  If there is
danger of erosion from wave action, the side cover should be
an erosion resistant material such as local gravel or an
asphalt-aggregate mix.

Asphalt Concrete
     Hot-mix asphalt concrete is especially well suited to the
construction of sewage and waste stabilization lagoons.  Its
use is desirable when operating conditions make it necessary
for periodic cleaning of a storage facility by equipment and
trucks.  The asphalt concrete is similar to that used for high-
way surface courses, but it should have a higher percentage
(6.5 to 9.5 percent) of asphalt cement of a low penetration
grade and a higher percentage of mineral filler.  This insures
a practically voidless lining that is impermeable to water when
compacted.  The asphalt concrete can be placed by a regular
paving machine on a properly shaped and prepared subgrade with
side slopes no steeper than 2:1.  A compacted thickness of two
inches is sufficient for most lagoons.

Prefabricated Asphalt Linings
     Another type of lining recommended for severe operating
conditions may be constructed using prefabricated asphaltic
materials.  They vary in thickness generally from 5/32 to 1/2
inch thick, in pieces 3 to 4 feet wide and usually 10 to 15
feet long.  Some materials come in rolls similar to roofing
rolls.  The lining is fashioned by fitting pieces together to
form a continuous lining.  They may be joined together by
overlapping and cementing together or by butting together and
cementing batten strips over the seams.

     Prior to placing the lining, the subgrade must be shaped,
although it will not require the degree of compaction or smooth-
ness needed for asphalt membranes or asphalt concrete linings.
This type of lining lends itself to areas where conditions make
it difficult to operate construction equipment.

     The subgrade soil of all side slopes, where vegetation is
likely to erupt and rupture or damage the linings, should be
treated with soil sterilants.

     The only need, in most cases, for a hard-surfaced lining,
or pavement, in a lagoon is on the side slopes of embankments
to prevent erosion.  Both asphalt concrete and prefabricated
asphaltic materials are suitable for use as slope protection.
A hot-mix sand asphalt may be used for this purpose also.

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     Consideration  should be given to the use of suitable locally
     available materials.

           In all  cases, the asphalt linings should extend up the
     slope well beyond the highest point where wave wash may be
     expected.  It  is good practice to extend the pavement all
     the way across the tops of the embankments and dikes."  Edge
     (1967).*

     Two pilot scale lagoons constructed to study the treatment of milking-
parlor wastes in  Salina, Kansas (Loehr and Ruf, 1968) were constructed in
sandy-silty soil.   These lagoons were partially sealed using 150 Ibs of
bentonite  clay per  lagoon spread on the lower half of the dikes and the
bottom of  each lagoon.  The lagoons had a depth of 4 ft and a surface area
of 400 ft  .  Without labor and equipment, total cost came to $100.

     A summary of the earthen, concrete and asphaltic liners reported in
the literature is presented in Table  1.
                          Synthetic Liners
     Use  of  synthetics  to line lagoons came into practice in the  1960's.
 In Minnesota (Ling,  1963) a  lagoon treating chemical wastes with  a ca-
 pacity of 38,000 gal was lined with a 4-mil-thick polyethylene sheet to
 eliminate seepage.

     In Broken Bow, Nebraska, a  (Clark,  1965) fiber glass mat was instal-
 led  to prevent erosion  of sandy  banks of a municipal sewage lagoon.
 Forty eight  hundred  ft  of  1/4-in. Gustin-Bacon heavy duty ultra-check
 fiber glass  mat  was  placed  at the water line.  The installation  procedure
 was  clearly  defined.  After  draining the lagoon, allowing two weeks of dry-
 ing  and compacting,  the lagoon was cleared of weeds and then graded.  A
 trench was dug (2  in. wide  and 6 in. deep) to secure the upper edge of the
 mat.  "T" shaped steel  pins  were used to secure the mat.  Asphalt was then
 applied to the fiber glass mat at one gal/yd^ at 200F.  A 1/2-in. layer
 of gravel was then applied,  followed by a second layer of asphalt.  The
 securing  trench was  re-filled with soil.  After two weeks of curing time,
 the  pond  was refilled.  Costs for this procedure are shown in Table 2.

     When an oil refinery company operating in Cook Inlet, Alaska, was
 faced with strict  state water pollution control regulations concerning
 groundwater  pollution,  the  refinery designs added a liner to their oxida-
 tion pond (Baker,  1970).  The liner chosen was a combination of a  poly-
 propylene fiber mat  and asphalt. This liner consisted of a non-woven
 polypropylene fiber which was sprayed with a cationic asphalt emulsion
 which formed a thin  reinforced asphalt membrane.  The fabric was  made of
 oriented  polypropylene  fibers randomly placed on a supporting scrim.
 These fibers were  fused during production to provide omni-directional
 support.   The fibers are non-polar hydrocarbon that is readily wetted by
*Courtesy  of Public Works Journal Corp., Ridgewood, New Jersey.

                                  6

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Table 1.  Summary table of earthen and concrete liners.
  Liner
  Location
   Reference
Concrete
Unreinforced concrete
In situ compaction
Removal of porous top soil
Bentonite clay
Asphaltic coating
Hot-sprayed asphalt
Asphalt concrete
Prefabricated asphalt
Bentonite clay
Texas
Autralia
Missouri Basin
Missouri Basin
Missouri Basin
Missouri Basin
U.S.A.
U.S.A.
U.S.A.
Kansas
Hermann and Gloyna (1958)
Parker et al. (1959)
Van Heuvelen et al. (1960)
Van Heuvelen et al. (I960)
Van Heuvelen et al. (I960)
Van Heuvelen et al. (I960)
Edge (1967)
Edge (1967)
Edge (1967)
Loehr and Ruf (1968)
Table 2.  Fiber glass mat cost ($/yd ) (Clark, 1965).

Ditching
Fiber glass
Asphalt in place
T pins
Gravel
Total
0.04
0.35
0.60
0.12
0.06
$1.17
asphalt.  In this fashion, the strength of the fabric reinforces the
asphalt against compression and tension.

     Design criteria for this liner were stringent.  The liner had to
have (1) good sealing qualities, (2) high flexibility and durability,
(3) ability to withstand temperature to -40F, (4) ability to resist
abrasion and physical abuse from ice, (5) ready availability and ease of
installation, and (6) low cost.  The final design called for 11,850 yd
of fabric and 12,000 gal of asphalt emulsion.  The strips of fabric were
sewed with special polypropylene thread at a 3-in. overlap.  Enough liner
slack had to be permitted in design for the bottom configuration.  This
same liner was also used for an oxidation pond near Kenai, Alaska.  The
materials cost $3.26/yd^.  The installation cost $2.94/yd^.  Approximately
half of the installation cost was due to the remoteness of the location.

     Synthetic liners have become increasingly popular.  A black poly-
ethylene (Klock, 1971) (0.006 in. thickness) was used to line a 1,000-
ft  pilot wastewater lagoon in the southwest U.S.A. because of its
absolute sealing qualities.  Vinyl-lined pilot lagoons were also used

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in conjunction with rotating asbestos bio-disks in the U.S.A. (Boyle,
1971).

     In Oregon (Public Works, 1971), lagoons at a high-use recreation
area were lined with 10-mil-thick polyvinyl chloride furnished by Union
Carbide Corp. in folded sheets.  These sheets were overlapped and sealed
with a water-proof adhesive.  The PVC liner was covered with a 6-in. layer
of pumice followed by a 1.5-in. layer of crushed rock.  Later testing
indicated that there was no seepage through the liner.  Many references
to specific application of lining materials are available but were not
included in this review since little design and operating detail is
provided (Staff, 1967, 1971, 1973; Abelishvili, 1972; Jacobson, 1972).

     Thornton and Blackall (1976) conducted a field evaluation of plastic
film liners used to protect petroleum storage areas in Canada.  Seven
petroleum storage areas in the Mackenzie-Delta area using artificial
liners to enhance the spill retention capabilities of petroleum storage
areas were studied.  Polyurethane (20 mil), prestressed laminated poly-
ethylene, and fiber reinforced polyurethane appeared to show promise as
lining materials for the retention of oil spills.  The importance of
bedding preparation was stressed, and if the membrane had a low puncture
resistance, the need for an adequate thickness of protective overburden
was also emphasized.  Exposed membranes invariably become damaged, and
therefore it is extremely important that the installation of the membrane
be conducted carefully.  It was concluded that carefully chosen and proper-
ly installed plastic membranes can be effective and economical in the re-
tention of spills from petroleum storage areas in the Arctic.  Plastic
membranes buried during the installation of the initial construction
appear to offer promise as a means of protection from oil spills.  If
installed in existing systems, a more elaborate construction technique
would be required and would probably make the installation of plastic
membranes uneconomical.

     Erosion of slopes of an aeration pond in Lenexa, Kansas  (Staff,
1973) was prevented with a 6-ft-wide strip of a non-woven polypropylene
fabric.  The felt-like liner was sewed together on site and then sprayed
with two coats of asbestos-filled asphalt emulsion.  A final layer of
fine gravel was applied at 25 lb/yd^ and was then given a final coat of
sealant.

     A 2.5-acre synthetic rubber-lined industrial waste pond (Pelloquin,
1972) is being used by Imperial West Chemical Co. in Antioch, California,
to convert U.S. Steel pickle liquor waste.  Thirty-mil-thick Dupont
Hypalon synthetic rubber was used because it resists physical abuse, and
the effects of sun and weather as well as oil and acid contaminated fluids.

     Kumar and Jedlicka (1973) provided an excellent summary of various
synthetic liners and their properties.  This information is presented in
Tables 3a and 3b.  Physical and structural information (Ewald, 1973) is
provided in Tables 4 and 5.

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Table 3b.  Selection criteria for synthetic liners (Kumar and Jedlicka,
           1973).a
   1         High tensile strength, flexibility, elongation w/o failure.
   2         Resists abrasion, puncture, effects of wastewater.

   3         Good weatherability, manufacturer guarantees long life.

   4         Immune to bacterial and fungal attack.

   5         Specific gravity (S) > 1.0.

   6         Color:  black (to resist UV light).

   7         Minimum thickness, 20 mils.

   8         Membrane should have uniform composition, free of physical
             defects.
   9         Withstand temperature variation and ambient conditions.
  10         Easily  repairable.

  11         Economical.

      aCourtesy  of  Chemical Engineering,  New York,  N.Y.
     A capability of synthetic rubber liners which is not directly ap-
plicable to the prevention of seepage, but which may be applicable to
anaerobic lagoons in the future, is the effectiveness of these liners
as floating covers  (Rizzo, 1976).  The floating cover is a non-rigid
solution to the problem of covering the large areas of exposed water or
other liquid.  The  impermeable sheet of synthetic rubber is attached to
the berm of a reservoir and is designed with adequate slack to permit
it to rise and fall as the liquid level changes.  Floating covers com-
pare favorably with the conventional systems utilizing wood, concrete,
steel, or aluminum.  Cost for wood, concrete, steel, or aluminum may
range from $4 to $10/ft2 depending on the location.  Estimated service
life may range from 25 to 75 years for these conventional type systems.
The floating cover  offers a lower first cost in the range of $1.50 to $2.50/
ft^ and when properly compounded these systems have an expected lifetime
of from 25 to 50 years.  In addition to the economic attraction, it
appears that floating covers will provide savings in maintenance and
may reduce the quantities of disinfecting chemicals required because
of the assured protection.  Several applications are described by Rizzo
(1976), and he gives recommended procedures for preparation, manufacture,
fabrication and installation specifications.


                                  10

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              Natural Sealing and Chemical Treatment Mechanisms
         The most interesting and complex techniques of lagoon sealing,
    either separately or in combination, are natural lagoon sealing and
    chemical treatment sealing (Thomas et al., 1966; Bhagat and Proctor,
    1969) .  Natural lagoon sealing has been found to occur when the settled
    solids form a bottom layer that physically clogs soil pores.  Chemical
    treatment has changed the chemical nature of the bottom soil to incur
    sealing.  Table 6 shows classified soil types for sealing properties.
    
         Infiltration characteristics of anaerobic lagoons were studied in
    New Zealand (Hills, 1976).  Certain soil additives were added (bentonite,
    sodium carbonate, sodium triphosphate) to 12 pilot lagoons with varying
    pond depth, soil types, and compacted bottom soil thickness.  A number
    of chemical and physical additives have been used for successful pond
    sealing.  Monovalent cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium ions) chemically
    reduced the soil porosity by replacing soil multi-valent cations.  Highly
    expanding clays, such as bentonite, when wetted, effectively reduced soil
    permeability.  It was found that chemical sealing was effective for soils
    with a minimum clay content of 8 percent and a silt content of 10 percent.
    Effectiveness increased with clay and silt content.  The most commonly
    used salts for chemical sealing have been sodium polyphosphates, sodium
    carbonate, and sodium chloride.
    
         In the study mentioned above, the sodium tripolyphosphate was applied
    to silt loam at 0.46 lb/yd2 at $303/ac (1974 prices, New Zealand).  Sodium
    carbonate was applied to silt loam and sand loam at 0.70 Ib/yd^ at $162/
    ac.  For soils with less than the above percentages, chemical treatment
    was not effective.  Physical treatment with bentonite, for example, would
    have effectively sealed these soils.  Bentonite has been found to swell
    eight to twenty times its original volume.  The application for bentonite
    rate in the study was 4.6 Ib/yd^ at a cost of $502/ac.  These methods of
    sealing were found to be less expensive than synthetic or earthen liners
    (see Figures 1-5 for infiltration rates).
    
         Four different soil columns were placed at the bottom of an animal
    wastewater pond to study physical and chemical properties of soil and
    sealing of wastewater ponds (Chang et al., 1974).  It was discovered
    that the initial sealing which occurred at the top 2 in. of the soil
    columns was caused by the trapping of suspended matter in the soil pores.
    This was followed by a secondary mechanism of microbial growth that
    completely sealed off the soil from water movement.
    
         A similar study was performed in Arizona (Wilson et al., 1973).
    The double mechanism of physical and biological sealing was also found
    to occur.  Seepage rate was measured during the first 3 months.  Perco-
    lation from the lagoon was measured from 70 ft below the surface.  The
    sealing of the lagoon was also induced by the use of an organic polymer
    united with bentonite clay.  This additive could have been applied with
                                      15
    

    -------
    Table  6.  Important  physical properties of  soils and their  uses  for pond
               linings  (identifications  based on unified soil  classification
               system)    (Day et  al.,  1970).
    MAJOR DIVISIONS
    OF SOILS
    O
    O
    CSJ
    O
    31
     *-
    0 c.
    0) 0  -
    O 0
    *_ >h
    O o v
    5 -2 ^
    Z -5s -
    1  a> c
    i*? -
    O 0  4-
    1 E 0
    U . -
     o o
    K *- S
    0  =
     c 
    O 5 a,
    Uoret
    e smallest partic
    i i
    o -o
    Z o
    c ?
    tn | S
    -i .. 
    o " 5
    Si 5
    S ?? 
    " _ ^ ~
    - 2 2 ci
    < i  z
    "
    ? * t
    Ul o
    _ "o
    *-~
    0
    -
    a*
    L.
    O
    2
    S 3 -
    S 
    =  0
    H_  
     o-
    to ^. 
    s *:
    ^ c >
    5 *-  =
    a: j; 3
    0 - 
    i_ **
    , >. >
    o o ~
    ^ E =
      V >
    .2 -= S
    , V> 
    = .^ "
    SANDS
    on holf of coarse f roction
    ler than No.4 sieve size
    sual classifications, the ;
    to the No i
    o *
    E i.
    * o
    n "-
    - 
    01
    >
    2t
    o e
    0 ~
    z >
     3.
    5"
    at
    1 t
    u- E
    > *-
    2 
     0
    z ,
    2 r
    d ^
    X "^
    *- "2
    * o-
    iui 'G "S
    _iz ~ r.
    i.j  L, *-
    ir u. o. c
    1 51
    0 0
    ii
    J *
    * o
    at c
    * fe
    < .
    !5^
    *> 5
    SANDS WITH
    FINES
    (Appreciable
    amount of fines)
    o
    m
    c
    o
    .*=
    *-
    1A
    M
    *
    tn
    >
    < 0
    _i + "
    0 E c
     o
    s;t
     SrS
    z- =
    _J CT
    tn
    HIGHLY ORGANIC SOILS
    TYPICAL NAMES
    OF SOI L GROUPS
    Well-graded gravels, gravel-sand
    mixtures, little or no fines
    'oorly graded gravels, gravel-sand
    mixtures, little or no fines
    Silty gravels, poorly graded
    grovel-sand- sill mixtures
    Clayey gravels, poorly graded
    gravel-sand-clay mutures
    | Gravel with sand-cloy binder
    Well-graded sands, gravelly sands,
    little or nofines
    Poorly graded sands, gravelly
    sands, little or no fines
    Silty sands, poorly graded sand-
    silt mixtures
    Clayey sands, poorly graded
    sand-clay mixtures
    | Sand with clay binder
    Inorganic silts ond very fine sands,
    rock flour, silty or clayey fine
    sands with slight plasticity
    Inorganic clays of low to medium
    plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy
    clays, silty clays, lean cloys
    Organic silts and organic silt-
    cloys of low plasticity
    Inorganic silt, micaceous or
    diatomaceous fine sandy or silty
    soils, elastic silts
    Inorganic clays of high plasticity
    fat clays
    Organic clays of medium to high
    plasticity
    Peat ond other highly organic" soils
    
    a _i
    ra o
    O G>
    oc 2
    0 >
    u>
    GW
    GP
    GU
    GC
    GW-GC
    SW
    SP
    SM
    sc
    sw-sc
    ML
    CL
    OL
    MH
    CH
    OH
    Pt
    SOIL
    PROPERTIES
    PERMEABILITY
    I4
    16
    12
    6
    8
    13
    15
    II
    5
    7
    10
    3
    4
    9
    '
    2
    SHEARING
    STRENGTH
    16
    14
    10
    8
    13
    15
    II
    9
    7
    12
    5
    6
    2
    3
    4
    1
    COMPACTED
    DENSITY
    15
    8
    12
    ii
    16
    13
    7
    10
    9
    14
    5
    6
    3
    2
    4
    1
    -*
    SUITABILITY
    FOR LINING
    EROSION
    RESISTANCE
    	 1
    2
    3
    5
    4
    1
    8
    9
    coarse
    10
    coarse
    7
    6
    
    II
    
    
    12
    -
    COMPACTED
    EARTH
    LININGS
    
    
    6
    2
    1
    
    
    7
    Erosion
    Critical
    4
    3
    8
    Erosion
    Critical
    5
    9
    Erosion
    Critical
    
    10
    Volume
    Change
    Critical
    
    -*-*
     v- Numbers obove indicate the order of increasing values for the physical property named
     5"S Numbers above indicate relative suitability (l=best)
                                          16
    

    -------
                                                o Loam     no 4
                                                & Clcy loam  no 6
                                                a Silt loam  no 7
                                                * Sand loam no 10
                                                   soil thickness  25cm
                                                   lagoon depth   i M
                                    ^
           4   8   12   16  20   24   28   32   36   40   44   48  52  56  60
                                     Time (weeks]
    
    Figure  1.   Infiltration ratessoil type  effects  (Hills,  1976).
                Courtesy of Journal Water Pollution Control Federation,
                Washington, D.C.
      10
    o
    o
    c
    o
    s 3
     2
    
      1
                                            * 15 cm no 3
                                            o 25 cm no 4
                                            n 35cm no 5
                                               soil type    loam
                                               lagoon depth   3 M
    o*/ \   '
     'V-J
       04   8   12   16   20  24  28  32   36   40   44   48   52   56   60
                                     Time  (weeks)
    
    Figure 2.  Infiltration  ratessoil  thickness effects (Hills,  1976),
                Courtesy of Journal Water Pollution  Control Federation,
                Washington, D.C.
                                        17
    

    -------
       c
       2 3
                                                   u 4 Metres   no, 1
                                                   o 3 Metres   no 4
                                                   * 2 Metrps   no 2
                                                      soil thickness 2bcrn
                                                      '"iOil type     loam
    
                      12   ib   20   24  28  32   36   40   /.i   48  52  56   60
                                        Vime (weeks)
    Figure 3.   Infiltration  rateslagoon depth  effects  (Hills, 1976).
                Courtesy of Journal  Water  Pollution  Control Federation,
                Washington, B.C.
       - 5
        4
       B 3
       c 2
                  _J	I	I	L_
                                                    o No additive  no 7
                                                    n NacR,0.p    no 8
                                                    * Na ,CU^     no ')
                                                       soil thickness
                                                       lagoon depth
                                                   ^^
                                       _j	1	1	i	i	i    i	i_
                      12   16  20  24   28   32   36   40  44  48  52   56   60
                                        Time (weeks)
    Figure 4.   Infiltration rateseffects of  additives  in silt  loam (Hills,
                 1976).   Courtesy of Journal Water  Pollution  Control
                 Federation,  Washington,  D.C.
                                         18
    

    -------
      tr 4
      c
      o
      B 3
    
      - 2
    
       1
                                               o No additive  no 10
                                               u Bentonite   no 11
                                               A Na2C03    no 12
                                                 soil thickness   25 cm
                                                 lagoon depth      3 M
    t;J
                            *^WKsstt84^^
                    12   16  20  2A   28   32  36  1,0  44   48   52   56  60
                                    Time (weeks)
    Figure 5.  Infiltration rateseffects  of  additives  in sand loam (Hills,
               1976).   Courtesy  of Journal  Water Pollution Control Federation,
               Washington, D.  C.
    the pond  full  or  empty,  although the treatment was more effective when
    the pond  was empty.
    
         An experiment was performed by Matthew and Harms (1969) in an effort
    to relate the  sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of the in situ soil to the
    sealing mechanism of wastewater stabilization ponds.  The experiments
    were performed in South  Dakota.  No definite quantitative conclusions
    were formed.   The general observation was made that the equilibrium
    permeability ratio decreases by a factor of 10 as SAR varies from 10 to
    80.  For  7 out of 10 soil samples,  the following were concluded:  (1)
    SAR did affect permeability of soils studied;  (2) as the SAR increased,
    the probability that the pond would seal naturally also increased; and
    (3) soils with higher liquid limits would probably be less affected by
    the SAR.
    
         Polymeric Sealants  have been used to seal both filled and unfilled
    ponds  (Rosene  and Parks,  1973).  Unfilled ponds have been sealed by
    admixing  a blend  of  bentonite and the polymer directly into the soil
    lining.   Filled ponds have been sealed by spraying the fluid surface
    with alternate slurries  of the polymer and bentonite.  It has been recom-
    mended that the spraying take place in three subsequent layers:  (1)
                                      19
    

    -------
    polymer,  (2)  bentonite,  (3)  polymer.  The efficiency of the sealant has
    been  found  to be  significantly affected by the composition of the  im-
    pounded water. Most importantly, calcium ions in the water exchanged
    with  sodium ions  in the  bentonite to cause failure of the compacted
    bentonite linings.   Figures  6a and 6b indicate the effect of the calcium-
    sodium ion  exchange on both  bentonite sealant and bentonite-polymer
    sealant.  The polymer had the effect of protecting the seal from failure.
    Samples of  soil were evaluated under a 10-ft fluid head.  Untreated soil
    samples seeped at rates  between 10 and 88  in/day.   Blending bentonite
    at a  rate of  4 percent by weight into three inches of native soil  and
    compacting  reduced seepage to about 0.8 in/day.   A similar application
    using the polymer-bentonite  sealant reduced seepage to 0.02 in/day.  A
    16-acre lagoon system was sealed with the polymer-bentonite mixture.
    Seepage was estimated to be  less than 0.1 in/day.
                     10% BENTONITE
     2.5
    
     2.0
    
    
     1.5
    
     1.0
    
    
     0.5
    
      0
                                                          8% M160
    E
    
     1200
    uu
    
    Si 800
    S
    z 400
                       10% BENTONITE
                 I	i	i	i_
    1*00
    
    1200
    
    
    800
    
    400
           10   20  30   40   50   60   70
                   TIME  DAYS
                                            01-
                                                10   20   30   40   50
                                                       TIME   DAYS
                              60   70
    Figure 6a.  Effect of calcium-sodium
                ion exchange  on  seepage
                rate of compacted bentonite
                sealant (Rosene  and  Parks,
                1973).  Courtesy of  the
                Water Resources Bulletin,
                Minneapolis, Minnesota.
      Figure  6b.   Effect of  calcium-
                   sodium ion exchange
                   on compacted bentonite-
                   polymer sealant (Rosene
                   and Parks,  1973).   Cour-
                   tesy of the  Water  Re-
                   sources Bulletin,
                   Minneapolis, Minnesota.
                                      20
    

    -------
         Natural sealing of lagoons has been found to occur from three
    mechanisms:  (1) physical clogging of soil pores by settled solids,
    (2) chemical clogging of soil pores by ionic exchange, and (3) biologi-
    cal and organic clogging caused by microbial growth at the pond lining.
    The dominant mechanism of the three has been shown to depend on the com-
    position of the wastewater being treated.  Davis et al. (1973) found
    that for liquid dairy waste the biological clogging mechanism predomi-
    nated.  In a San Diego County study site located on sandy loam, the
    infiltration rate of a virgin pond was measured.  A clean water infil-
    tration rate for the pond was 48 in/day.  After two weeks of manure
    water, infiltration averaged 2.3 in/day; after 4 months 0.2 in/day.
    
         A study performed in southern California (Robinson, 1973) indicated
    similar results.  After waste material was placed in the unlined pond in
    an alluvial silty soil, the seepage rate was reduced.  The initial 4.4
    in/day seepage rate dropped to 0.22 in/day after three months, and after
    six months to 0.12 in/day.
    
         Stander et al. (1970) presented a summary of information (Table 7)
    on measured seepage rates in wastewater stabilization ponds.  The results
    in Table 7 Lee similar to the values mentioned elsewhere in this report.
    Seepage is a function of so many variables it is impossible to anticipate
    or predict rates without extensive soils tests.  The importance of con-
    trolling seepage to protect groundwater dictates that careful evaluations
    be conducted before construction of lagoons to determine the need for
    linings and the acceptable types.
    
         Sanks et al. (1975) conducted a survey to determine the suitability
    of clay beds for the storage of industrial solid waste.  It was concluded
    that industrial solid waste can be stored in selected geological locations
    through the use of a multiple passive barrier concept, proper site selec-
    tion and pit preparation.
    
         A rational design of clay pits requires a knowledge of the follow-
    ing:  (1) the quantity and characteristics of the waste to be stored;
    (2) the location of groundwater and paths of percolation; (3) the sorp-
    tive and ion exchange properties of the clay, and (4) the permeability
    of the prepared clay liner and the natural clay beds.
    
         Five Texas clays studied were found to be capable of providing a
    substantial barrier to the migration of pollutants.  All of the clays
    were highly impermeable and the remolded clays had coefficients of
    permeability for distilled water ranging from 0.051 to 6.3 x 10~9 in/
    sec.  Strong acid conditions increased the permeability of three re-
    molded clays packed at low densities.  Caustic solutions greatly re-
    duced the flow rate, and the addition of phenol-like substances and
    heavy metals appeared to have little effect on the flow.
    
         The design of an industrial solid waste disposal facility could
    best be conducted by selecting consultants with a specialty in geo-
    technics and a background in industrial waste management.  Careful field
    
                                      21
    

    -------
                                             CO >, C
                                             ^ *-i co
                                             en H oo
                                     ru  cs TJ  co 13
                                     M  W  C  VH C
                                     Oj --^  cO  00 co
                                                                   TJ 4-> "d 4-*
                                                                                       3 rH
                                                                                          CO  CJ
                                                                              -o 4-i -o  -*  5  ac
                                                                               C en c  cr,     co v-
                                                                               co -H ra  H  CD  ex QJ
                                                                                 x:    x: TD  CD >
                                                                               CO CJ CO  CJ -H  OJ -H
    a
        *
      ^-x
      o
                         ,r,
       l-l
       CU
      o
       C3
       tfl
       4J
      C/)
                   a)    !
                   C/l  0)
                      "
        CO
    
        CU
                                                                               O O
                                                                               o o
                                                                               o o
    r-.
    
     cu
    tH
    
    s
    H
                                                          1
       CO
    
       
       JJ
       CO
       >,
       CO
        c
        o
        
        l-l
                                                                  - X  u  OJ -a    ^*
                                                                   w  c  w c  ^  i;
                                                                   
    -------
    exploration should be planned on the basis of the known geology of the
    area and detailed boring tests.  The importance of field permeability
    tests was emphasized, and it was recommended that care be exercised in
    preparing the borings so that meaningful results would be obtained.  Be-
    cause little is known about the effects of various chemicals on the
    permeability of clay, it was recommended that laboratory tests be con-
    ducted on undisturbed cores to correlate the permeabilities for water
    with permeabilities for expected leachates.  Because of the large percent-
    age of shrinking and swelling in clays, the moisture must be carefully
    controlled during construction to obtain an impervious lining and to
    prevent cracking.  Natural clays are frequently more impermeable than
    remolded clays, and therefore it was recommended that natural clays not
    be disturbed except in areas where cracks, aquifers, or other pathways
    for leakage make it necessary.  The importance of laboratory evaluations
    and careful field studies by competent personnel were emphasized greatly
    in the report.  It would appear that many of the difficulties encountered
    with clay linings in the past can be attributed to improper design and
    construction techniques.
    
         The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (Hannaman et al., 1978) ini-
    tiated  an  intensive study to evaluate the effects of stabilization pond
    seepage from five municipal systems.  The five communities were selected
    for study on the basis of geologic setting, age of the system, and past
    operating history of the wastewater stabilization pond.  The selected
    ponds were representative of the major geomorphic regions in the state,
    and the age of the systems ranged from 3 to 17 years.
    
         Estimates of seepage were calculated by two independent methods for
    each of the five pond systems.  Water balances were calculated by taking
    the difference between the recorded inflows and outflows, and pond seepage
    was determined by conducting in-place field permeability tests of the
    bottom soils at each location.  Good correlation was obtained with both
    techniques.
    
         Field permeability tests indicated that the sealing ability of the
    sludge blanket was insignificant in locations where impermeable soils
    were used in the construction process.  In the case of more permeable
    soils, it appeared that the sludge reduced the permeability of the bot-
    tom soils from a background level of 10~^ or 10~^ in/sec to the order of
    10~6 in/sec.  At all five systems evaluated, the stabilization pond was
    in contact with the local groundwater table.  Local groundwater fluc-
    tuations had a significant impact on seepage rates.  The reduced ground-
    water gradient resulted in a reduction of seepage losses at three of the
    sites.  The contact with the groundwater possibly explains the reduction
    in seepage rates with time observed in many ponds.  In the past this
    reduction in seepage rates has been attributed to a sludge buildup, but
    perhaps the increase in contact with groundwater accounts for this re-
    duction.  In an area underlain by permeable material where little ground-
    water mounding occurs, there is probably little influence on seepage
    rates.  The buildup of sludge on the bottom of a pond appears to enhance
    the ability of the system to treat seepage water.  Sludge accumulation
    apparently increases the cation exchange capacity of the bottom soils.
                                     23
    

    -------
         Groundwater samples obtained from monitoring wells did not show any
    appreciable increases in nitrogen, phosphorus, or fecal coliform over
    the background levels after 17 years of operation.  The groundwater down
    gradient from the waste stabilization pond showed an increase in soluble
    salts as great as 20 times over background levels.  Concentrations from
    25 mg/1 of chlorides to 527 mg/1 were observed.
    
         Emphasis was placed on the need to seal the primary pond to the
    extent that the water level is maintained at a level adequate to ensure
    that the natural biological processes occurring in a waste stabilization
    pond will not be inhibited by fluctuations.  It was observed that proper
    water level maintenance in the primary pond eliminated nuisance condi-
    tions and the potential for enteric organisms to enter the groundwater
    flow system.  The current recommended design seepage rate of 500 gal/ac/
    day was felt to be a good guide for the design of primary pond systems.
    The control of seepage from secondary ponds appeared to be of less con-
    cern than that observed for the primary ponds.
              Reviews, General Evaluations, Costs, and Summary
         The selection of the proper lining for a lagoon or holding pond
    remains site specific.  Each site must be individually analyzed for
    specific characteristics.  These characteristics include:  (1) composi-
    tion of wastewater, (2) physical and chemical soil characteristics, (3)
    local climate, (4) local lagoon seepage regulations, and (5)  project
    cost limitations (Morrison et al., 1971).
    
         Dallaire (1975) presented a series of case histories describing the
    application of various types of liners to industrial waste lagoons with
    emphasis on the synthetic liners.  Applications of synthetic liners in
    storm water overflow holding ponds, sanitary landfill linings to retain
    leachate and salt solution retaining ponds were also discussed.  Des-
    criptions of the construction methods used to protect the liners were
    presented.  The article also included a summary of the options normally
    available to engineers to obtain an impermeable lining in a lagoon or
    holding pond.  Five options were discussed:  (1) a clay blanket, (2) a
    lime-clay blanket, (3) a soil-cement blanket, (4) asphaltic concrete,
    and (5) a plastic or rubber impermeable liner.  The advantages and dis-
    advantages of each option were presented.
    
         Haxo and White (1974) and Haxo and White (1976) have presented an
    evaluation of 12 liner materials exposed to landfill leachate.  Six
    polymeric liner membranes (butyl rubber, chlorinated polyethylene,
    chlorosulfonated polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, polyethylene,
    and polyvinyl chloride), four admix materials (hydraulic asphalt con-
    crete, paving asphalt concrete, soil asphalt, soil cement) and two
    asphaltic membranes (a blown asphalt-canal lining asphalt, and emulsified
    asphalt on fabric)  were prepared according to recommended procedures and
                                      24
    

    -------
    exposed to the leachate.  After a one-year exposure of the liners to the
    leachate, the admix liners containing asphalt maintained their imperme-
    ability to leachate; however, a drastic decrease in comprehensive strength
    occurred.  The asphalt became softer, and this was attributed to possible
    absorption of organic components from the leachate.
    
         During the one year of monitoring in the above study, only three
    cells failed and two of these liners, soil asphalt and paving asphalt
    concrete, leaked, whereas the leakage in the third was caused by failure
    of the sealing compound around the periphery of the specimen.  Soil ce-
    ment lost some of its compressive strength, and its permeability decreased
    to some degree.  Inhomogeneities in the admix materials were thought to
    contribute to the failure of the paving asphalt and soil asphalt liners
    because of the 2-4-inch-thick liners used in the study.  In practice a
    much thicker application rate would be recommended.  There is no indica-
    tion of disintegration or dissolving of the asphaltic membranes during
    the one year test period, although  a slight swelling occurred.  All of
    the polymeric liner materials withstood a one year exposure to the
    leachate, but the chlorinated polyethylene and Hypalon (chlorosulfonated
    polyethylene) swelled appreciably.  The swelling softened the liners, but
    a reduction in tensile, tear, or puncture resistance was not observed.
    Preliminary tests of the polymeric liner materials indicated some in-
    crease in permeability which was attributed to swelling.  Reductions in
    the strengths of the seams of polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon, and chlorinated
    polyethylene liners were observed with the polyethylene retaining its
    strength best.
    
         The leachate to which the liners were exposed had a COD of 40,000-
    50,000 mg/1 and approximately 20,000 mg/1 of organic acids.  The simu-
    lated landfills were effective and produced anaerobic conditions which
    yielded satisfactory leachates and a meaningful test of the lining
    materials.  All of the construction materials, except the epoxy resins
    used to seal the liners in the base of the test facility showed no signi-
    ficant deterioration.  The resin selected was not designed for chemical
    resistance, and for the continuation studies a more resistant material
    has been developed.
    
         Haxo et al. (1977) have presented the results of an interim study
    describing the effects of liner materials exposed to hazardous and toxic
    sludges.  The experimental facility is constructed to simulate actual
    operating conditions, and in addition to the exposure of sludges at
    depths,  plywood troughs with sloping sides are constructed for exposing
    liners under conditions which simulate those encountered around the
    edges of wastewater stabilization ponds.
    
         The five types of admix materials exposed during the testing with
    their respective thicknesses are listed below:
              Asphalt emulsion on nonwoven fabric (0.3 in.)
              Compacted native fine-grain soil (12 in.)
              Hydraulic asphalt concrete (2.5 in0)
              Modified bentonite and sand (5 in.)
              Soil cement with and without surface seal (4 in.)
    
                                      25
    

    -------
         Eight types of polymeric membrane liners have been exposed to toxic
    substances and the types of materials and their thicknesses are listed
    below:
              Butyl rubber, fabric reinforced (34 mils)
              Chlorinated polyethylene (32 mils)
              Chlorosulfonated polyethylene, fabric reinforced (34 mils)
              Elasticized polyolefin (20 mils)
              Ethylene propylene rubber (50 mils)
              Neoprene, fabric reinforced (32 mils)
              Polyester, elastomer, experimental (8 mils)
              Polyvinyl chloride (30 mils)
    All of the polymeric membrane liners were mounted with lap seams prepared
    by the suppliers or by the contractor in accordance with recommended
    procedures.
    
         The six classes of hazardous waste selected for the study were:
    strong acid, strong base, waste of saturated and unsaturated oils, lead
    waste from gasoline tanks, oil refinery tank bottom waste (aromatic oil),
    and pesticide waste.  Preliminary exposure tests were conducted on the
    various kinds of materials to select combinations for long term exposure.
    Most of the membrane liners and all of the asphaltic materials either
    swelled or dissolved in the aromatic hydrocarbons.  Combinations of waste
    and liners exhibiting these characteristics were eliminated.  The clay
    liners were incapable of holding acidic and caustic wastes for extended
    periods of time, and these combinations were also dropped from the long-
    term exposure test.
    
         The results obtained during the first year of limited bench scale
    testing of liner materials exposed to various wastes resulted in the
    following conclusions:
         1.  Liners should be carefully selected for specific wastes.
         2.  Preliminary exposure tests should be conducted on liner materials
             before a specific liner is selected.
         3.  Asphalt based liners are incapable of containing oily wastes.
         4.  With the exception of crystalline polymeric membranes, oily
             wastes, and particularly those containing aromatic components,
             may pose special problems.  Non-crystalline materials such as
             rubber and PVC swell in oily wastes and swelling can be
             particularly damaging to seams using cement compounds.
    
         5.  Bentonite liners, polymer modified bentonite and many soils
             are probably unsatisfactory materials to be used for the con-
             finement of strong acids and bases and concentrated brines.
    
         6.  Wastes containing both aqueous and oily phases may pose special
             problems because of the need of the liner to resist simulta-
             neously two fluids which are inherently different in their
             compatibility with materials.
    
         This study is continuing and being expanded and the detailed analyses
    of the wastes used to expose the liners are being conducted.
                                     26
    

    -------
         Cost comparisons of various liners  (Tables 8 and 9) indicate that
    natural and chemical sealants are the most economical sealers.  Un-
    fortunately, natural and chemical sealers are dependent on local soil
    conditions for seal efficiency and never form a complete seal.  Asphalt
    type and synthetic liners  compete competitively on a cost basis, but
    have different practical applications.  Synthetic liners are most prac-
    tical  for zero or minimum  seepage regulations, for industrial waste that
    Table 8.  Cost of installed liner (Clark and Moyer, 1974).
                      Liner                                  $/sq ft
    
                Bentonite
                    2 Ib/sq ft                                0.14
    
                Chemical
                    Sodium Carbonate                          0.02
                    Sodium Silicate                           0.02
                    Sodium Pyrophosphate                      0.03
                    Zeogel                                    0.03
                    Coherex                                   0.03
    
                Asphalt
                    Asphalt Membrane                          0.14
                    Asphalt Concrete                          0.20
    
                Rubber3
                    Butyl
                        1/16 in.                               0.42
                        3/16 in.                               0.36
                        1/32 in.                               0.30
                    EPDM
                        1/16 in.                               0.41
                        3/64 in.                               0.35
                        1/32 in.                               0.29
                Synthetic Membrane
                    PVC
                        10 mils                               0.13
                        20 mils                               0.18
                        30 mils                               0.22
                    Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE)
                        20 mils                               0.26
                        30 mils                               0.34
                    Hypalon
                        20 mils                               0.26
                        30 mils                               0.34
                    Fiber glas
                        1/8 in.                               0.55
    
         o
          Nylon reinforced rubber costs an additional $0.10/sq ft.
    
                                       27
    

    -------
    Table 9.  Comparison of various installed liner costs,  1962 cost figures
              (Stoltenberg, 1970).a
               Liner Type
    Cost ($/ft2)
         Prefabricated Plastic
         Composite PVC and Asphalt
         Butyl Rubber Membranes
     0.03 - 0.10
     0.09
     0.40
    Bentonite Clay
    Prefabricated Asphalt
    Spray-type Cutback!
    Emulsion Asphalt J
    Spray-type Catalytically-blown Asphalt
    Asphalt/Concrete (Hot Mix)
    Soil Cement
    0.60
    0.11
    0.02
    0.08
    0.30
    > 0.30
          Courtesy of Public Works,  Ridgewood,  New Jersey.
    might degrade concrete or earthen liners, and for extremes in climatic
    conditions.
    
         Kays  (1977) has written a book describing the technology of linings
    for seepage control in reservoirs, lakes, ponds, canals, and related
    hydraulic  facilities.  Emphasis is given to earthen reservoirs, but other
    forms of containment such as concrete and steel tanks are also discussed.
    The lining classifications discussed in the book are summarized in Table
    10.  The book is an excellent analysis of the technology of linings and
    is recommended as a guide for all construction and engineering firms.
    
         A brief history on the application of linings is presented describing
    the types  of reservoirs frequently encountered.  Flexible, rigid, and
    miscellaneous lining systems are discussed individually and the basic
    problems associated with the selection of an elastomeric lining material
    are presented.
    
         A good analysis of the failure mechanisms involved in various types
    of linings is also discussed.  A chapter is devoted to pollution control
    linings and the various types of waste products retained.  Holding ponds,
    harvesting ponds, groundwater contamination, airborne and thermal pol-
    lution are discussed briefly.  Detailed recommended design procedures
    are also presented along with instructions for operation and maintenance
    with the various types of linings.
    
         The primary emphasis of the book is on plastic and elastomeric
    membranes.  The major advantages of zero permeability, good economics,
    and large  sheet capability along with their basic properties, testing,
                                      28
    

    -------
    Table 10.  Lining classifications (Kays, 1977).a
    Flexible                 Rigid                      Miscellaneous
    
    Plastics                 Gunite                     Bentonite clays
    Elastomers               Concrete                   Chemical treatments
    Asphalt panels           Steel                      Waterborne treatments
    Compacted soils          Asphalt concrete           Combinations
                             Soil cement
    
    Impervious                        Semiimpervious
    
    Plastics                          Compacted soils
    Elastomers                        Gunite
    Asphalt panels                    Concrete
    Steel                             Asphalt concrete
                                      Soil cement
                                      Bentonite clays
                                      Chemical treatments
                                      Waterborne treatments
    
    Continuous                        Noncontinuous
    
    Plastics                          Compacted soils
    Elastomers                        Gunite
    Asphalt panels                    Concrete
    Steel                             Asphalt concrete
                                      Soil cement
                                      Bentonite clays
                                      Chemical treatment
                                      Waterborne treatments
    
          o
          Courtesy  of  John Wiley  &  Sons,  Inc.,  New York, N.Y.
    fabrication cost and installation techniques are described in detail.
    The discussion of non-continuous lining systems such as concrete, gunite,
    asphalt concrete, compacted earth, bentonite, and chemical treatments are
    also adequately discussed.
    
         Figure 7 is taken from Kays' (1977) work and shows comparative con-
    struction cost ranges for concrete and steel tanks and cut and fill
    reservoirs.  Figure 8 shows a cost comparison for the various types of
    liners used in the United States.  Kays (1977) presented a classification
    of the principal failure mechanisms observed in cut-and-fill reservoirs
    (Table 11).  The list is extensive and case histories involving all of
    the categories are available; however, the most frequently observed
    failure mechanisms were the lack of integrity in the lining support
                                      29
    

    -------
         8
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                LINED CUT AND FILL
                    I
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                   4       8      12      16      20
    
                   CAPACITY (millions of gallons)
                                          CONCRETE    n
                                          STEEL        V
                                          CUT AND FILL o
            NOTE  All reservoirs are roofed
            DATA  "Southwest Builder" bid sheets
                  for  western states 1964-1965
    
    Figure 7.   Comparative construction cost ranges  for  concrete and
               steel tanks and  cut-and-fill reservoirs.   Legend:
               concrete, a ;  steel, v; cut-and-fill ,  o.   All reservoirs
               are roofed (data  from "Southwest Builder"  Bid Sheets
               for Western States, 1964-1965) (Kays, 1977).  Courtesy
               of John Wiley & Sons,  Inc., New York, N.Y.
                                   30
    

    -------
    
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    31
    

    -------
    Table  11.  Classification of the principal failure mechanisms for cut-
                and-fill reservoirs (Kays, 1977).a
    Supporting structure problems
    
       The underdrains.
       The substrate.
          Compaction.
          Texture.
          Voids.
          Subsidence.
          Holes and cracks.
          Groundwater.
          Expans ive clays.
          Gassing.
          Sluffing.
          Slope anchor stability.
          Mud.
          Frozen ground and ice.
       The appurtenances.
    
    Lining problems
    
       Mechanical difficulties.
          Field seams.
          Fish mouths.
          Structure seals.
          Bridging.
          Porosity.
          Holes.
          Pinholes.
          Tear strength.
          Tensile strength.
          Extrusion and extension.
          Rodents, other animals, and birds.
          Insects.
          Weed growths.
    
       Weather.
          General weathering.
          Wind.
          Ozone.
          Wave erosion.
          Seismic activity.
    
    Operating problems
    
       Cavitation.
       Impingement.
       Maintenance cleaning.
       Reverse hydrostatic uplift.
       Vandalism.
           Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons,  Inc.,  New York,  N.Y.
     structure and abuse of the liner.   A comparison of observed seepage rates
     for various types of liner materials is presented in Table 12 (Kays, 1977),
     If an impermeable liner is required, it appears that one of the synthetic
     materials must be used.  Protection of the synthetic liners is essential
     if impermeability is specified.
                                       32
    

    -------
    Table
    12.  Seepage rate comparisons  (Kays, 1977).
                                                           Minimum  Expected
                                                           Seepage Rate at
                                                        20 ft of Water Depth
    Material
    Open sand and gravel
    Loose earth
    Loose earth plus chemical treatment*
    Loose earth plus bentonite*
    Earth in cut
    Soil cement (continuously wetted)
    Gunite
    Asphalt concrete
    Unreinforced concrete
    Compacted earth
    Exposed prefabricated asphalt panels
    Exposed synthetic membranes
    Thickness
    (in.)
    
    
    
    
    
    4
    1.5
    4
    4
    36
    0.5
    0.045
    1_ (_ t- A. J. Jf A. \J J_ iJ C- A. V -L *- C
    (in. /day)
    96
    48
    12
    10
    12
    4
    3
    1.5
    1.5
    0.3
    0.03
    0.001
          The data are based on actual installation experience.   The chemical
    and bentonite (*) treatments depend on pretreatment seepage rates, and in
    the table loose earth values are assumed.
    
          Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
                                      33
    

    -------
                           STATE DESIGN STANDARDS
         Each of the 50 states was contacted by mail with a follow-up by
    telephone where necessary to obtain information about the requirements
    for liners in wastewater stabilization lagoons and allowable seepage
    rates from lagoons.  The results of the survey are summarized in Table
    13.  Requirements vary from state to state, but in general all specify
    as a minimum that the beneficial uses of the groundwater beneath a waste-
    water stabilization lagoon be protected.  Recommended methods for pro-
    tection of the groundwater range from natural sealing to impervious
    linings and stringent leakage allowances.
    
         Written standards varied from a one short paragraph statement
    leaving the selection of liners and establishment of seepage rates to
    the discretion of the regulatory agency to detailed written descriptions
    illustrated with drawings showing the acceptable methods of design and
    construction.  Washington and Minnesota standards were the most detailed
    of all and both sets of standards are presented as Appendixes A and B.
    
         None of the various types of liners were specifically excluded from
    application in any of the 50 states; however, the strict allowable seep-
    age rates imposed by certain states would make it difficult to employ
    many of the soil stabilization techniques discussed in other sections
    of this report.  The most common method of specifying allowable seepage
    rates was to specify protection of the groundwaters without establishing
    a minimum seepage rate.
    
         Several states expressed concern about groundwater pollution from
    lagoons containing industrial wastes with toxic substances such as heavy
    metals and exotic organic compounds.  Many of these states indicated
    they are presently modifying standards or are considering revisions.
    The trend is definitely toward more stringent standards.
    
         Experiences with various materials and application techniques were
    also cited as reasons to improve the regulations.  Opinions as to the
    best lining material varied from state to state, and the favored materi-
    al varied with the availability of natural materials for linings and the
    local soil conditions.  The need for competent professional services was
    emphasized by most states.
    
         It appears reasonable to assume that standards will become more
    stringent and that more detailed guidelines will be developed by many of
    the states.  Heavily industrialized states can be expected to require
    essentially impervious linings for most industrial applications.  It is
    likely that military installations will be expected to use impervious
    linings in applications where a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes
    is discharged to a stabilization lagoon.
    
                                      35
    

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                      DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE
         The presentation of recommended design and construction procedures
    is divided into two categories:  1) bentonite, asphalt and soil cement
    liners, and 2) thin membrane liners.  This division was selected because
    of the major differences between the application techniques.  There is
    some similarity between the application of asphalt panels and the
    elastomer liners and of necessity there will be some repetition in
    these two major subdivisions  A partial listing of the trade names and
    sources of common lining materials is presented in Appendix C.
    
         Regardless of the type of material selected as a liner there are
    many common design, specificiation and construction practices.  A summary
    of the common effective design practices in cut-and-fill reservoirs is
    given in Table 14.  Most of these practices are common sense items and
    would appear to not require mentioning.  Unfortunately, experience has
    shown these items to be the most commonly ignored practices.  Details
    of the design practices in Table 14 are presented in the following
    sections.
    
         A lining material must be selected with the type of waste to be
    contained in mind.  Kays (1977) has developed a lining selection guide
    chart (Table 15)  for various types of wastes and the common types of
    lining materials.  The chart should be used only as a guide, and before
    selecting one of the materials, a careful evaluation of the waste and
    the proposed liner must be conducted.
                     Bentonite, Asphalt and Soil Cement
         The application of bentonite, asphalt and soil cement as lining
    materials for lagoons and reservoirs has a long history (Kays, 1977).
    The following summary includes consideration of the method of using the
    materials, resultant costs and evaluations of durability and effective-
    ness in limiting seepage.  The cost analysis is necessarily somewhat
    arbitrary, since this cost depends primarily on the availability of the
    materials.  Examples of state standards developed or being developed to
    control the application of these types of materials are presented in
    Appendixes A and B.
    
    
    Types of Linings
    
         Bentonite.  Bentonite is a sodium type montmorillonite clay, and
    exhibits a high degree of swelling, imperviousness and low stability in
    
                                      45
    

    -------
    Table  14.  Summary of effective design practice for placing lining in cut
               and fill reservoirs.
     1.  Lining must be placed in a stable structure.
     2.  Facility design and inspection should be the responsibility of pro-
         fessionals with backgrounds in liner applications and experienced
         in geotechnical engineering.
     3.  A continuous underdrain to operate at atmospheric pressure is
         recommended.
    
     4.  A leakage tolerance should be included in the specifications.  The
         East Bay Water Company of Oakland, California, developed the follow-
         ing formula for leakage tolerance which has been modified by insert-
         ing more stringent factors in the denominator, i.e. 100, 200, etc.
                   Q  -
                          80
         where,
              Q  =  maximum permissible leakage tolerance, gallons/minute
              A  =  lining area, 1000 ft2
              H  =  maximum water depth
              Q  ^  1.0
    
     5.  Continuous, thin, impermeable type linings should be placed on a
         smooth surface of concrete, earth, Gunite, or asphalt concrete.
    
     6.  Except for asphalt panels all field joints should be made perpendic-
         ular to the toe of the slope.  Joints of Hypalon formulations and 3110
         materials can run in any direction, but generally joints run perpendic-
         ular to the toe of the slope.
     7.  Formal or informal anchors may be used at the top of the slope.  See
         details in Figures 9-13.
     8.  Inlet and outlet structures must be sealed properly.  See details in
         Figures 14-18.
     9.  All lining punctures and cracks in the support structure should be
         sealed.  See details in Figures 19 and 20.
    10.  Emergency discharge quick-release devices should be provided in large
         reservoirs (20-30 MG) .
    11.  Wind problems with exposed thin membrane liners can be controlled by
         installing vents built into the lining.  See details in Appendix F.
    12.  Adequate protective fencing must be installed to control vandalism.
                                       46
    

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    the presence of water.  Different ways in which bentonite may be used to
    line lagoons are listed below.
    
         (a)  A suspension of bentonite in water (with a bentonite concen-
              tration approximately 0.5 percent of the water weight)  is
              placed over the area to be lined, and the bentonite settles
              to the surface forming a thin blanket.
    
         (b)  The same procedure as (a), except frequent harrowing of the
              surface produces a uniform soil bentonite mixture on the
              surface of the soil.  The amount of bentonite used in this
              procedure is approximately 1 Ib/ft  of soil.
    
         (c)  A gravel bed approximately 6 in. deep is first prepared and
              the bentonite application performed as in (a).  The bentonite
              will settle through the gravel layer and seal the void spaces.
         (d)  Bentonite is spread as a membrane 1 or 2 in. thick and covered
              with an 8 to 12 in. blanket of earth and gravel to protect the
              membrane.  A mixture of earth and gravel is more satisfactory
              than soil alone, because of the stability factor and resistance
              to erosion.
         (e)  Bentonite is mixed with sand at approximately 1 to 8 volume
              ratio.  The mixture is placed in a layer (approximately 2 to
              4 in. in thickness) on the reservoir bottom and covered with
                                                                  r\
              a protective cover.  This method takes about 3 Ib/ft  of
              bentonite (Rollins and Dilla, 1970).
    
         In methods (d) and (e) above, certain construction practices are
    recommended.  They are as follows:
         1.   The section must be overexcavated (1 ft or more) with drag
              lines or graders.
         2.   Side slopes should probably be not steeper than 2 to 1.
         3.   Subgrade surface should be dragged to remove large rocks and
              sharp angles.  Normally 2 passes with adequate equipment are
              sufficient to smooth the subgrade.
         4.   Subgrade should be rolled with a smooth steel roller.
         5.   The subgrade should be sprinkled to eliminate dust problems.
         6.   A membrane of bentonite or soil bentonite should then be placed,
    
         7.   The protective cover should contain sand and small gravel, in
              addition to cohesive, fine grained material so that it will be
              erosion resistant and stable.
    
         The performance of bentonite linings is greatly affected by the
    quality of the bentonite.  Some bentonite deposits may contain quantities
    of sand, silt and clay impurities.  Wyoming type bentonite, which is a
    high swelling sodium montmorillonite clay has been found to be very
    satisfactory.  Fine ground bentonite is generally more suitable for the
    lining than pit run bentonite.  If the bentonite is finer than a No. 30
    
    
                                      48
    

    -------
    sieve, it may be used without specifying size gradation.   But if the
    material is coarser than the No. 30 sieve, it should be well graded.
    Bentonite should usually contain a moisture content of less than 20 per-
    cent.  This is especially important for thin membranes.  Some distur-
    bance and possibly cracking of the membranes may take place during the
    first year after construction due to settlement of the subgrade upon
    saturation.  A proper maintenance program, especially at the end of the
    first year, is necessary (USDI, 1968).  Examples of the application of
    bentonite in sealing various types of reservoirs are presented in
    Appendix D.
    
         Asphalt.  Asphalt linings may be buried or surface and may be com-
    posed of asphalt or a prefabricated asphalt.  Some possibilities are as
    follows:
         A.   An asphalt membrane is produced by spraying asphalt at high
              temperatures.  This lining may be either on the surface or
              buried.  A large amount of special equipment is needed for
              installation.  Useful lives of 18 years or greater have been
              observed when these membranes are carefully applied and cover-
              ed with an adequate layer of fine grained soil.
         B.   Asphaltic Membrane Macadam.  This is similar to the asphaltic
              membrane, but it is covered with a thin layer of gravel
              penetrated with hot blown asphalt cement.
    
         C.   Buried Asphaltic Membrane.  This is similar to A, except a
              gravel-sand cover is applied over the asphaltic membrane.  This
              cover is usually more expensive than cover in B and less ef-
              fective in discouraging plant growth.
    
         D.   Built Up Linings.  These include several different types of
              materials.  One type could be a fiber glass matting,  which is
              applied over a sprayed asphalt layer and then also sprayed or
              broomed with a sealed coat of asphalt or clay.   A 10 ounce
              jute burlap has also been used as the interior layer between
              2 hot sprayed asphalt layers.  In this case the total asphalt
              application should be about 2.5 gal/yd^.  The prefabricated
              lining may be on the surface or buried.  If buried, it could
              be covered with a layer of soil or, in some cases, a coating
              of Allox, which is a  stabilized asphalt,  is  used  (USDA,
              1972).
         E.   Prefabricated Linings.  Prefabricated asphalt linings consist
              of a fiber or paper material coated with asphalt.  This type
              of liner has been used exposed and covered with soil.  Joints
              between the material have an asphaltic mastic to seal the
              joint.  When the asphaltic material is covered, it is more
              effective and durable.  When it is exposed it should be coated
              with aluminized paint every 3 to 4 years to retard degradation.
              This is necessary especially above the water line.  Joints also
              have to be maintained when not covered with fine grained soil.
              Prefabricated asphalt membrane lining is approximately 1/8 to
                                      49
    

    -------
              1/4 in. thick.  It may be handled in much the same way as
              rolled roofing with lapped and cemented joints.  Cover for
              this material is generally earth and gravel, although shot-
              crete and macadam have been utilized.
    
         Installation procedures for prefabricated asphalt membrane linings
    and for buried asphalt linings are similar to those stated for buried
    bentonite linings.  The preparation of the subgrade is important and it
    should be stable and adequately smooth for the lining.  Applications of
    this material are shown in Appendix E.
    
         Soil Cement Linings.  Best results are obtained with soil cement
    when the soil mixed with the cement is sandy and well graded to a maxi-
    mum size of about 3/4 in.  Soil cement should not be placed in cold
    weather and it should be cured for about 7 days after placing.  Some
    variations of the soil cement lining are listed below:
    
         A.   Standard soil cement is compacted using a water content of the
              optimum moisture content of the soil.  The mixing process is
              best accomplished by traveling mixing machines and can be
              handled satisfactorily in slopes up to 4 to 1.  Standard soil
              cement may be on the surface or buried.
    
         B.   Plastic soil cement (surface or buried) is a mixture of soil
              and cement with a consistency comparable to that of Portland
              cement concrete.  This is accomplished by adding a consider-
              able amount of water.  Plastic soil cement contains from 3 to
              6 sacks of cement/yd-^ and is approximately 3 in. thick.
    
         C.   Cement modified soil contains 2 to 6 percent volume of cement.
              This may be used with plastic fine grained soils.  The treat-
              ment stabilizes the soil in sections subject to erosion.  The
              lining is constructed by spreading cement on top of loose soil
              layers by a fertilizer type spreader.  The cement is then mixed
              with loose soil by a rotary traveling mixer and compacted with
              a sheeps foot roller.  The 7 day curing period is also neces-
              sary for a cement modified soil.
    
    
    Cost of Linings
    
         The cost of linings for lagoons and reservoirs are approximations
    at best and have been estimated based on values in specific jobs several
    years ago.  A factor of 15 percent per year for inflation is estimated
    and the costs are based on that rate.
                                                         2
         Bentonite linings cost approximately $1 to $2/yd  when applied on
    the surface.  The greater cost will occur for harrowed blankets.  Buried
    blankets cost approximately $2.50/yd^.
    
         The average cost of buried asphalt membrane linings with adequate
    cover  is about $3.50/yd^.
    
         Prefabricated asphalt materials are generally cheaper than buried
    asphalt membrane linings if the prefabricated material can be obtained
    for less than $0.90/yd2.
    
                                     50
    

    -------
         Cover material over buried membranes composes the most expensive
    part of the placing procedure.  The cover materials should, therefore,
    be as  thin as possible and still provide adequate protection for the
    membrane.  If a significant current is present in the pond, the depth
    of coverage should be greater than 10 in., and this minimum depth should
    only be used when the material is erosion resistant and also cohesive.
    Such a material as a clayey gravel is suitable.  If the material is not
    cohesive, or if it is fine grained, a higher amount of cover is needed
    (USDI, 1963).
    
         Maintenance costs for different types of linings are difficult to
    estimate.  Maintenance should include repair of holes, cracks and
    deterioration, weed control expenses and animal damages and damages
    caused by cleaning the pond, if that is necessary.  Climate, type of
    operation, type of terrain and surface conditions also influence mainte-
    nance  costs.
    
         Plastic soil cement containing from 3 to 6 sacks of cement/yd3 and
    approximately 3 in. thick costs about $3.00/yd2.
    Evaluation of Linings
    
         Bentonite linings may be effective if the sodium bentonite used has
    an adequate amount of exchangeable sodium.  Deterioration of the linings
    has been observed to occur in cases where magnesium or calcium has re-
    placed sodium as absorbed ions.  A layer of bentonite on the soil surface
    tends to crack if allowed to dry and is, therefore, usually placed as a
    blanket of bentonite soil mixture with a cover of fine grained soil on
    top, or as a thicker layer, 6 in. or more, of a soil bentonite material
    (Dedrick, 1975).  Surface bentonite cannot be expected to be effective
    longer than 2 to 4 years.  A buried bentonite blanket may last from 8 to
    12 years.
    
         The quality of the bentonite used is a primary consideration in the
    success of bentonite membranes.  Poor quality bentonite deteriorates
    rapidly in the presence of hard water, and it also tends to erode in the
    presence of currents or waves.  Bentonite linings must often be placed
    by hand and this is a costly procedure in areas of high labor costs.
    
         Seepage losses through buried bentonite blankets are approximately
    0.7 to 0.85 ft3/ft2/day.  This figure is for thin blankets and represents
    about a 60 percent improvement over ponds with no lining.
    
         Linings of bentonite and asphalt are sometimes unsuitable in areas
    of high weed growth, since weeds and tree roots puncture the material
    readily (USDI, 1963).
    
         Many lining failures occur as a result of rodent and crayfish holes
    in embankments.  Asphalt membrane lining tends to decrease the damage,
    but in some cases, hard surface linings are necessary to prevent water
    loss from embankment failures.
    
                                    51
    

    -------
         Linings of hot applied buried asphalt membrane provide one of the
    tightest linings available.  These linings deteriorate less than other
    flexible membrane linings (USDI, 1963).
    
         Asphalt linings composed of prefabricated buried materials are best
    for small jobs, since the amount of special equipment and labor connected
    with installation is a minimum.  For larger jobs sprayed asphalt is more
    economical.
    
         When fibers and fillers are used in asphalt membranes, there is a
    greater tendency to deteriorate when these fillers are composed of organic
    materials.  Inorganic fibers are, therefore, more useful (USDI, 1963).
    Typical volume of seepage through one buried asphalt membrane after 10
    years of service  was consistently 0.08 ft3/ft2/day (USDI, 1968).
    
         Asphalt membrane linings can be constructed at any time of year,
    and since it is usually convenient in canals and ponds to use the late
    fall and winter seasons for installing lining, this may dictate the
    buried asphalt membrane lining as the proper one to use in many cases
    (USDI, 1963).
    
         Buried asphalt membranes in general perform satisfactorily for more
    than 15 years.  When these linings fail, it is generally due to one or
    more of the following causes:
         A.  Placement of lining on unstable side slopes
         B.  Inadequate protection of the membrane
         C.  Weed growth
         D.  Surface runoff
         E.  Type of subgrade material
         F.  Cleaning operations
         G.  Scour of cover material
         H.  Membrane puncture
    
         Soil cement has been used successfully in some cases in mild climates.
    Where wetting or drying is a factor, or if freezing-thawing cycles are
    present, the lining will deteriorate rapidly (USDI, 1963).
                            Thin Membrane Liners
         Plastic and elastomeric membranes are popular in applications re-
    quiring essentially zero permeability.  These materials are economical,
    resistant to most chemicals if selected and installed properly, available
    in large sheets simplifying installation, and essentially impermeable.
    As discharge standards continue to become more stringent, the application
    of plastic and elastomeric membranes as lagoon liners will increase be-
    cause of the need to guarantee protection against seepage.  This is
    particularly true in the sealing of lagoons containing toxic wastewaters
    or the sealing of landfills containing toxic solids and sludges.
                                      52
    

    -------
         Typical standards being developed to control the application of
     liners are presented in Appendixes A and B.  A partial listing of the
     trade names, product description and manufacturer of plastic and elastomer
     lining materials is presented in Appendix C.  Properties of the synthetic
     flexible liners were presented in Table 4 in the Literature Review section.
     The summary of effective design practices presented in Table 14 is appli-
     cable to synthetic liners.
    Design Details
    
         The most difficult design problem encountered in liner applications
    involves placing a liner in an existing reservoir (lagoon).  Effective
    design practices are essentially the same as those used in new systems,
    but additional care must be exercised in the evaluation of the existing
    structure and the required results.  Lining materials must be selected
    so that compatibility is obtained.  For example, a badly cracked concrete
    lining to be covered with a flexible synthetic material must be properly
    sealed and placed in such a way that additional movement will not destroy
    the new liner.  Sealing around existing columns, footings, etc. are other
    examples of items to be considered.
    
         The following paragraphs are a condensation of the discussion by
    Kays (1977) of effective design practices which have been summarized in
    Table 14.  Emphasis is placed on the details describing the installation
    of plastic or elastomeric materials.
    
         Top Slope Anchor.  Formal and informal anchor systems are used at
    the top of the slope of dikes.  Details of three types of formal anchors
    are presented in Figures 9-11.  Recommended are informal anchors shown
    in Figures 12 and 13.
    
         Inlet-Outlet Seals.  When the lining is pierced, seals can be made
    in two ways.  The techniques illustrated in Figures 14 and 15 are common-
    ly used, and the second technique utilizes a pipe boot which is sealed
    to the liner and clamped to the entering pipe as shown in Figure 16.
    
         It is recommended that inlet-outlet pipes enter a reservoir through
    a structure such as that shown in Figure 17.  A better seal can be pro-
    duced when the liner is attached to the top of the structure.  However,
    such an arrangement can result in solids accumulation and a direct free
    entry into a wastewater lagoon is better.
    
         A drain near the outlet can be constructed as shown in Figure 18.
    As mentioned in Table 14, large reservoirs containing above 20-30 million
    gallons should be equipped to empty quickly in case of an emergency.
    
         Cracks and Imperfection Seals.  The structure supporting the liner
    must be smooth enough to prevent damage to the liner.  Rocks, sharp
    protrusions and other rough surfaces must be controlled.  In areas with
                                      53
    

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    -------
    particularly rough surfaces, it may be necessary to add padding to protect
    the liner.  Cracks can be repaired as shown in Figures 19 and 20.
    
         Wind and Gas Control.  Thin membrane liners may have problems with
    wind on the leeward slopes.  Vents built into the lining control this
    problem as well as serve as an outlet for gases trapped beneath the liner.
    Details of such a venting system are shown in Appendix F.
    
         Fencing.  Protection of a thin membrane lining is essential, and
    Kays (1977) recommends that the fence be at least 6 feet high and be
    placed on the outside berm slope with the top of the fence below the top
    elevation of the dike.
    Proprietary Products and Recommended Procedures
    
         A partial listing of the manufacturers of plastic and elastomeric
    liners is presented in Appendix C.  In addition to these manufacturers,
    there are many firms specializing in the installation of lining materials.
    Most of the installation companies and the manufacturers publish specifi-
    cations and installation instructions and design details for use by
    customers and design engineers.  Most of the recommendations by the
    manufacturers and installers are similar, but there are differences
    worthy of consideration when designing a system requiring a liner.
    
         It would be impractical to reproduce all of the publications
    available; therefore, only a selected few are presented as appendixes.
    Information and instruction bulletins were selected for inclusion as
    appendixes based principally on the type of material although some firms
    install many types of liners.
    
         Appendixes F through I contain many valuable suggestions for the
    proper selection and installation of a liner.  The information presented
    in these appendixes should be used with caution and only after consul-
    tation with the firms preparing the information.
    
         The liner described in Appendix J was developed for protection of
    water supplies and other liquids requiring protection from the elements
    and birds and animals.  This type of liner has potential as an odor con-
    trol device in small wastewater treatment systems.  It would be particu-
    larly applicable to small anaerobic systems or in cases where it is
    desirable to control light penetration.
    
         New products continue to be developed, and with each new material
    the options available to designers continue to improve.  The future should
    bring even more versatile and effective liners to select for seepage con-
    trol.  If care and common sense are applied to the application of existing
    and new materials, the control of seepage pollution should become a minor
    problem of the future.
                                      59
    

    -------
            FIRM  SETTING
            HEAVY BODIED
                   MASTIC
      FLEXIBLE
    CONTINUOUS
         LINING
                                                                CRACK AT
                                                                TOP
                                                      EXIST. CONCRETE
                                                      A.C. OR GUNITE
                                                     HEAVY DUTY, HIGH  TENSILE
                                                     CURING MASTIC  OR
                                                     CEMENT  GROUT - USE
                                                     CONCRETE ADHESIVE
    Figure  19.   Crack treatmentalternative A (Kays,  1977).  Courtesy
                 of John Wiley & Sons,  Inc., New York,  N.Y.
                     FLEXIBLE
                     CONTINUOUS
                     LINING
                                             METAL PLATE
                                             (SEE  NOTE)
                                    PERCUSSION  DRIVEN
                                    STUDS - 6" 0/C - ONE
                                    SIDE OF CRACK ONLY
                  METAL PLATE  MUST BE  ABLE TO  SPAN
                  CRACK WITHOUT  BUCKLING  FROM  WEIGHT
                  OF WATER  BRIDGING THE CRACK. COPPER  &
                  STAINLESS  STEEL  ARE  MOST  COMMON  CHOICES.
    Figure  20.   Crack treatmentalternative B  (Kays,  1977)
                 John Wiley &  Sons,  Inc., New York,  N.Y.
                             Courtesy  of
                                        60
    

    -------
                       CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         Based upon the results of the literature review, the following
    conclusions and recommendations can be made.
    
         1.  The design and construction of liners should be carried out by
             trained, experienced professionals.
    
         2.  Multiple options exist for designers of lagoon liners,  and the
             proper selection and installation procedures should result in
             satisfactory liners.
    
         3.  Little information exists on the natural sealing of wastewater
             stabilization lagoons.  Most results are based on speculation
             from observations instead of carefully planned experiments
             designed to evaluate the phenomenon of soil sealing.
    
         4.  The mechanisms involved in natural sealing of lagoon bottoms
             should be evaluated.  Controversy exists as to whether or not
             reductions in seepage rates are attributable to natural sealing.
             Mounding of groundwater beneath the lagoon has been credited
             with much of the reduction in seepage.
    
         5.  Most reported seepage rates and the effectiveness of various
             liner materials are secondary to other aspects of experiments
             and are incomplete and limited in value.
    
         6.  A need exists for accurate measurements of seepage rates and
             the effectiveness of various lining materials.
    
         7.  An accurate, reproducible method of measuring seepage from
             lagoons is needed.
    
         8.  The success of a particular lining material is dependent upon
             the characteristics of the waste contained, the design details,
             and the construction techniques.
    
         9.  Failure of linings is most often attributable to poor judgment
             in selection, installation or operation of a lagoon and not to
             the lining material.
    
        10.  An assessment of the permeability of all lining materials in
             actual installations is needed.
                                     61
    

    -------
                              LITERATURE CITED
    Abelishvili, G.  1972.  Soviet Scientists Waterproof Ponds.  Water &
         Sewage Works.  119(8):57.
    
    Baker, James W.  1970.  Polypropylene Fiber Mat and Asphalt Used for
         Oxidation Pond Liner.  Water & Wastes Engineering.  7(11):F-17.
    
    Benson, J. R.  1962.  How to Prevent Sewage Lagoon Seepage.  Public
         Works.  93(3):111-114.
    
    Bhagat, Surinder K., and Donald E. Proctor.  1969.  Treatment of Dairy
         Manure by Lagooning.  Journal Water Pollution Control Federation.
         41(5):785-795.
    
    Boyle, W. C.  1971.  Lagoons & Oxidation Ponds.  Literature Review.
         JWPCF.  43(6):1118-1123.
    
    California State Water Pollution Control Board.  1956.  Report on
         Continued Study of Waste Water Reclamation and Utilization,
         Publication No. 15, Sacramento, California.
    
    California State Water Pollution Control Board.  1957.  Third Report on
         the Study of Waste Water Reclamation and Utilization, Publication
         No. 18, Sacramento, California.
    
    Chang, A. C., W. R. Olmstead, J. B. Johanson, and G. Yamashita.  1974.
         The Sealing Mechanism of Wastewater Ponds.  JWPCF.  46(7):1715-1721.
    
    Clark, Don A., and James E. Moyer.  1974.  An Evaluation of Tailings
         Ponds Sealants.  EPA-660/2-74-065.  U.S. Environmental Protection
         Agency, Washington, D.C.
    
    Clark, L. E.  1965.  Soil Erosion at Sewage Lagoon Solved with Fiber Glass
         Mat.  Public Works.  96(5):96-97.
    
    Dallaire, G.  1975.  Tough Pollution Laws Spur Use of Impermeable Liners.
         Civil Engineering.  45(5):63-67.
    
    Davis, S., W. Fairbank, and H. Weisbeit.  1973.  Dairy Waste Ponds Ef-
         fectively Self-Sealing.  Am. Soc.  Agric. Eng. Trans. 16:69-71.
    
    Day, M. E., E. L. Armstrong, W. F. Savage, and W. W. Rinne.  1970.   Brine
         Disposal Pond Manual.  Dept. of Interior.   R&D Progress Report #588.
         GPO#I1:88 #588-592.
    
                                      63
    

    -------
    Dedrick, A. R.  1975.  Storage Systems for Harvested Water.  U.S.
         Department of Agriculture, ARS W-22, p. 175.
    
    Edge, Duane E.  1967.  Asphalt Lined Lagoons to Help End Pollution.
         Public Works.  98(8):125.
    
    Ewald, George.  1973.  Stretching the Lifespan of Synthetic Pond-Linings.
         Chemical Engineering.  80(40):67-69.
    
    Gloyna, Ernest F., Edward R. Hermann.  1956.  Some Design Considerations
         for Oxidation Ponds.  J. ASCE - Sanitary Engineering Division SA 4,
         1047-1 to 1047-17.
    
    Hannaman, M. C., E. J. Johnson, and M. A. Zagar.  1978.  Effects of
         Wastewater Stabilization Pond Seepage on Groundwater Quality.
         Prepared by Eugene A. Hickok and Associates, Wayzata, Minnesota
         for Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Roseville, Minnesota.
    
    Haxo, H. E., Jr., and R. M. White.  1974.  First Interim Report:  Evalu-
         ation of Liner Materials Exposed to Leachate.  National Environ-
         mental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
         Cincinnati, Ohio.
    
    Haxo, H. E., Jr., and R. M. White.  1976.  Second Interim Report:  Evalu-
         ation of Liner Materials Exposed to Leachate.  EPA-600/2-76-255.
         Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and
         Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    
    Haxo, H. E., R. S. Haxo, and R. W. White.  1977.  First Interim Report:
         Liner Materials Exposed to Hazardous and Toxic Sludges.  EPA-600/2-
         77-081.  Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of
         Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
         Cincinnati, Ohio.
    
    Hermann, E. R., and E. F. Gloyna.  1958.  Water Stabilization Ponds.  I:
         Experimental Investigations.  Sewage & Industrial Wastes.  30(4):511-
         538.
    
    Hills, David J.  1976.  Infiltration Characteristics from Anaerobic
         Lagoons.  JWPCF.  48(4):695.
    
    Hopkins, Glen J.  1960.  Waste Stabilization Lagoons - Design, Construction,
         and Operation Practices Among Missouri Basin States.  Proceedings of
         Symposium:  Waste Stabilization Lagoons.  Kansas City, Missouri.  Aug.
         1-6, 1960.  p.  83-96.
    
    Jacobson, Aluni R.  1972.  Nylon Coated Fabric Rehabilitates Reservoir.
         Water Works Digest.  Public Works.  103(2):88.
    
    Kays, W. B.  1977.  Construction of Linings for Reservoirs, Tanks, and
         Pollution Control Facilities.  Wiley-Interscience Publication, John
         Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
    
                                      64
    

    -------
    Klock, J. W.   1971.  Survival of Coliform Bacteria in Wastewater Treat-
         ment Lagoons.  JWPCF.   43(10):2071-2083.
    
    Kumar, J., and J. A. Jedlicka.  1973.  Selecting and Installing Synthetic
         Pond Linings.  Chemical Engineering.  80(5):67-70.
    
    Leisch, B.   1976.  Evaluating Pollution-Prone Strata Beneath Sewage
         Lagoons.  Public Works.  104(8):70-71.
    
    Ling, Joseph T.   1963.  Pilot Study  of Treating Chemical Wastes With an
         Aerated Lagoon.  JWPCF.  35(8):963-972.
    
    Loehr, Raymond C., and John  A. Ruf.   1968.  Anaerobic Lagoon Treatment of
         Milking-Parlor Wastes.  JWPCF.   40(1):83-94.
    
    Matthew, Floyd L., and Leland L. Harms.  1969.  Sodium Adsorption Ratio
         Influence on Stabilization Pond  Sealing.  JWPCF.  41(11) Part 2:
         R383-R391.
    
    Morrison, W. R., R. A. Dodge, and J. Merriman.  1971.  Pond Linings for
         Desalting Plants Effluents (Supplement).  Office of Saline Water.
         GPO 1:1.88 #734.
    
    Neal, J. K., and G. J. Hopkins.  1956.  Experimental Lagooning of Raw
         Sewage.  Sewage and Industrial Wastes.  28(11):1326.
    
    Parker, C. D., H. L. Jones,  and N. C. Greene.  1959.  Performance of
         Large Sewage Lagoons at Melbourne, Australia.  Sewage & Industrial
         Wastes.  31(2):133-152.
    
    Pelloquin, Lou.  1972.  Pond Liner Serves Dual Role.  Water & Wastes
         Engineering.  9(3):B-15.
    
    Public Works.  1971.  Lined Lagoons Prevent Pollution in Park Area.
         99(7):79.
    
    Robinson, F. E.  1973.  Changes in Seepage Rate from an Unlined Cattle
         Waste Digestion Pond.  Transactions of the American Society of
         Agricultural Engineers.  16:95.
    
    Rizzo, F. J.  1976.  Floating Covers Protect Reservoirs.   Water & Sewage
         Works.   123(3):92-95.
    
    Rollins,  M.  B., and A. S. Dylla.  1970.  Bentonite Sealing Methods Com-
         pared in the Field.  J. Irr. & Dr. Div., ASCE Proceedings.  96(IR2):193.
    
    Rosene,  R. B., and C.  F. Parks.   1973.  Chemical Method of Preventing Loss
         of  Industrial and Fresh Waters from Ponds,  Lakes & Canals.   Water
         Resources Bulletin.  9(4): 717-722.
    
    Sanks, R. L., J.  M. LaPlante, and E. F. Gloyna.   1975.   Survey:   Suitability
         of Clay Beds for Storage of Industrial Solid Wastes.  Center for
         Research in Water Resources,  Environmental Health  Engineering, The
         University of Texas at Austin.
    
                                      65
    

    -------
    Shaw, V. A.  1962.  An Assessment of the Probable Influence of Evapo-
         ration and Seepage on Oxidation Pond Design and Construction, Journal
         2, Proceedings of the Institute of Sewage Purification, Part 4.
    
    Staff.  1967.  Vinyl Liner Helps Reduce BOD Level More Than 90%.  Water
         & Wastes Engineering.  1(6):457.
    
    Staff.  1971.  Lined Lagoons Prevent Pollution in Park Area.  Public
         Works.  102(7):79.
    
    Staff.  1973.  This Pond Wears a Necklace.  Water & Wastes Engineering.
         12(6):64.
    
    Stander, G. J., P. G. J. Meiring, R. J. L. C. Drews, and H. Van Eck.
          1970.  A Guide to Pond Systems for Wastewater Purification.  In:
         Developments in Water Quality Research, H. I. Shuval, Ed. Ann Arbor
         Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    
    Stoltenberg, Davis H. 1970.  Design, Construction and Maintenance of
         Waste Stabilization Lagoons.  Public Works.  101(9):103-106.
    
    Thomas, R. E., W. A. Schwartz, and T. W. Bendixen.  1966.  Soil Changes
         and Infiltration Rate Reduction Under Sewage Spreading.  Soil Sci.
         Soc. American Proc.  30:641-646.
    
    Thornton, D. E., and P. Blackall.  1976.  Field Evaluation of Plastic
         Film Liners for Petroleum Storage Areas in the Mackenzie Delta.
         EPS 3-EC-76-13.  Environmental Conservation Directorate, Environ-
         mental Protection Service, Canada.
    
    USDA.   1972.  Asphalt Linings for Seepage Control:  Evaluation of Effec-
         tiveness and Durability of Three Types of Linings.  Tech. Bull. No.
          1440.
    
    USDI.   1963.  Linings for Irrigation Canals.
    
    USDI.   1968.  Buried Asphalt Membrane Canal Lining.  Research Report No.
          12.
    
    Van Heuvelen, Hillis, Jack K. Smith, and Glen J. Hopkins.  1960.  Waste
         Stabilization Lagoons:  Design, Construction and Operation
         Practices Among Missouri Basin States.  JWPCF.  32(9):909-917.
    
    Voights, D.  1955.  Lagooning and Spray Disposal of Neutral Sulphite
         Semi-chemical Pulp Mill Liquors.  Proceedings of the Tenth Purdue
         Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University Extension Service.
         No. 89, p. 497.  West Lafayette, Indiana.
    
    Wilson, L. G., Wayne L. Clark, and Gary G. Small.  1973.  Subsurface
         Quality Transformations During Preinitiation of a New Stabilization
         Lagoon.  Water Resources Bulletin.  9(2):243-257.
    
                                    66
    

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                                 APPENDIX A
    
                STATE  OF  WASHINGTON LAGOON LINER REQUIREMENTS1
    
    
        15.4 Pond  Construction Details
    
             15.41  Liners
    
                   15.411 Requirement for Lining
    
                          The  seepage rate through  the  lagoon bottom  should not
                          exceed  1/4 inch per day.  Liners are required if native
                          soils will not  ensure this.
    
                   15.412 General
    
                          Systems utilizing soil, bentonite, or synthetic liners
                          may  be  considered, provided the permeability, dura-
                          bility,  integrity, cost-effectiveness, etc., of the
                          proposed material can be  satisfactorily demonstrated.
                          Results of a  testing program  that substantiates the
                          adequacy of the proposed  liner must be incorporated
                          into and/or accompany the engineering report.  Stan-
                          dard ASTM procedures or acceptable similar methods
                          should  be used  for all tests.
    
                          As a final field determination of the quality of all
                          in-place liners,  ponds should be prefilled and
                          checked for seepage.
    
                          Schematics for  each of the three basic liners are
                          attached for  information.
    
                   15.413 Soil Liners (Figure 6)
    
                          Preliminary testing of proposed soil liners should
                          include examination of the factors affecting seepage
                          through the seal, such as type of soil, water content,
                          density,  thickness, etc., and determination of the
                          seepage rate  through the  proposed seal.
    
                          Specifications  for a soil liner should be based upon
                          results  of the  preliminary testing program and at a
                         minimum provide  the type  of soil, optimum and accept-
                          able range in water content, and maximum allowable
                          boulder  size.    Recommended requirements include (1)
                          the  soil  should  have a high and uniform fines (clays
                         and silts) content, (2)  the water content should be at
                          or up to  4 percent above  the optimum for maximum com-
                          paction,  and  (3)  boulder  size should not exceed 4
                          inches.
          Taken from "Manual of Standards for Sewage Works Design" prepared
    by Water Quality Management Section, Department of Ecology, State of
    Washington, Olympia, Washington.
                                     67
    

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               -TOPSOIL  AND GRASS AND/OR RIPRAP (>4")
               -SOIL LINER (>12", WITH LIFT THICKNESS < 6" )
                          SOIL  LINER
                         TOPSOIL AND GRASS AND/OR RIPRAP (>4")
                         SAND  OR  FINE TEXTURED SOIL (>4")
                         INCORPORATED BENTONITE (>3")
                             SUBSOIL BASE-j^_
                      BENTONITE  LINER
                        HEAVY COBBLE OR COURSE GRAVEL OR SMALL
                                              RIPRAP  (>3")
                        SAND  OR FINE TEXTURED SOIL (> 3")
                        SYNTHETIC LINER (>0.02)
                        BEDDING OF CLEAN SOIL OR SAND
                      SYNTHETIC  LINER
    Figure  6.   Cross  sections of  liners.
                               68
    

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           Specifications for construction and/or placement of
           a soil seal should be based upon results of a pre-
           liminary testing program.   As a minimum they should
           provide for sealing of dikes prior to pond bottom
           and specify seal density and thickness and number of
           lifts.  Recommended requirements include (1) the
           liner should be compacted at the proper water content
           to at least 90 percent of Standard Proctor Density,
           (2) the liner should be at least 12 inches thick and
           applied in lifts no greater than 6 inches, (3)  the
           completed liner should be maintained at or above the
           optimum water content until the pond is prefilled,
           and (4) dike liners should be covered as described
           under Embankment and Dikes.
    
           Construction and/or placement of the soil liner should
           be inspected and tested to ascertain compliance with
           specifications.  Written certification that the soil liner
           was constructed in accordance with specifications should
           be provided by the project engineer or an independent
           soils laboratory.  Tests for water content and  density
           should be taken during application of each lift.   Addi-
           tionally, either permeability testing of undisturbed
           core samples from the in-place seal, or detailed tests
           such as particle size distribution and Atterburg limits
           confirming that the soil used in liner construction was
           the same soil initially tested, should be provided.  In
           all cases, at least one test should be provided per
           acre per lift, except for core sampling of the  in-
           place liner, where one core of the completed liner
           should be tested per acre.
    
    15.414 Bentonite Liners (Figure 6)
           Preliminary testing of proposed bentonite liners should
           include, in addition to the tests outlined for  soil
           liners, an examination of the type and rate of  bentonite
           being considered.
    
           Specifications for the bentonite liner should be based
           upon results of the preliminary testing program and at
           a minimum provide the types of soil, type of bentonite,
           bentonite application rate, and optimum and acceptable
           range in water content of the soil-bentonite mixture.
           Recommended requirements include (1) the bentonite
           should be high-swelling and free-flowing and have a
           particle size distribution favorable for uniform appli-
           cation and minimizing of wind drift, (2) the application
           rate should be at least 125 percent of the minimum rate
           found to be adequate in laboratory tests,  (3) appli-
           cation rates recommended by a supplier should be con-
           firmed by an independent laboratory, and (4)  the water
    
                        69
    

    -------
           content of  the soil-bentonite  mixture  should  be  at
           or up  to 4  percent  above  the optimum for maximum
           compaction.
    
           Specifications for  construction and/or placement of
           a bentonite liner should  be based  upon results of
           the preliminary testing program and at a minimum
           provide lining of dikes prior  to bottom, bentonite
           application procedures, seal density,  covering of
           the seal, and prehydration of  the  bentonite.  Recom-
           mended requirements include  (1)  bentonite  should be
           applied with specifically designed spreading  equip-
           ment,  (2) application should be split  so that one-
           half is applied in  one direction and the other half
           in a perpendicular  direction,  (3)  the  bentonite
           should be mixed into the  soil  to a uniform depth of
           at least 3  inches,  (4) the liner should be compacted
           at the proper water content to at  least 90 percent
           of Standard Proctor Density  (specifically  excluding
           use of a sheepsfoot roller),  (5) the completed seal
           should be covered with at least 4  inches of soil in
           addition to necessary erosion  control,  and (6) the
           completed liner should be hydrated with fresh water
           prior  to introduction of  wastewater and kept  at  or
           above  the optimum water content until  the  pond is
           prefilled.
    
           The bentonite supplier or its  representative  should
           verify that the specifications are in  accordance
           with its recommendations, and  written  certification
           that the liner was  provided and applied in accordance
           with specifications should be  furnished by the supplier,
           project engineer, or independent soils laboratory.
           The actual  bentonite application rate  and  the water
           content and density should be  tested during liner con-
           struction.   Permeability  testing of undisturbed  core
           samples should be provided following seal  completion.
           At least one test per acre is  recommended  in  all cases.
    
    15.415 Synthetic Liners (Figure  6)
    
           Requirements for thickness of  synthetic liners may
           vary due to liner material, but it is  generally
           recommended that the liner thickness be no less  than
           .020 inch or 20 mil.  Such thickness provides a  safety
           factor which will reduce  the probability of puncture.
           Consideration should also be given to  liners  contain-
           ing reinforcing in  appropriate situations, such  as
           sidewall slopes steeper than  3:1 or pond depths  greater
           than 6 feet.  Special care must be taken  to select  the
           appropriate material to perform under  existing
           conditions.
    
                        70
    

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    Proper site preparation for synthetic liners is
    essential.  The subsoil bed should be sufficiently
    prepared to ensure that all holes, rocks, stumps,
    and other debris are eliminated.  The subsoil should
    be sieved or the area raked after grading to provide
    a smooth, flat surface free of stones and other
    sharp protrusions that could damage the liner.  If
    the subsoil contains sharp, nonremovable objects, a
    bedding of 2 to 4 inches of clean soil or sand should
    be provided.  Soil should be well compacted and
    sterilized to kill vegetation.  Four-inch perforated
    pipe should be strategically placed to allow venting
    and draining of the soil to reduce gas and hydrostatic
    pressures and to facilitate monitoring for leakage.
    The pipe should be installed in trenches sloping
    toward a sump and be backfilled with pea gravel or
    other coarse material.
    
    Liner panels should be laid out in a longitudinal
    direction with an overlap of 4 to 6 inches.  Careful
    application of the appropriate adhesive is essential.
    
    The anchor trench should be a minimum 6-inch depth
    and be placed at least 9 to 12 inches beyond the
    slope break at the dike.  Care must be exercised in
    the backfilling of the anchor trench to ensure the
    liner is not damaged.
    
    To prevent erosion, mechanical damage to the liner,
    and hydraulic lifting of the liner, a minimum backfill
    of 6 inches on top of the liner is recommended.  On
    the side slopes this should consist of a minimum 3-
    inch primary fill of sand or finely textured soil and
    a minimum 3-inch secondary fill of heavier cobble,
    coarse gravel, or small riprap.  On the bottom the
    backfill may consist solely of the sand or finely
    textured soils.
    
    The manufacturer's representative should supervise
    or conduct all phases of installation.  It is also
    recommended that installation be done by contractors
    familiar with potential problems that can be
    encountered.
                 71
    

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                                 APPENDIX B
    
                STATE  OF MINNESOTA LAGOON LINER REQUIREMENTS1
    
    
     94.2  Pond  Bottom
    
        94.21 Soil   Soil used  in  constructing  the pond bottom  (not including
        seal) and dike cores shall be  relatively incompressible and tight and
        compacted at or up  to  4 percent above  the optimum water content  to at
        least 90 percent Standard Proctor Density.
    
        94.22   Seal  Ponds  shall  be sealed such that seepage loss through the
        seal is as low as practically  possible.  Seals consisting of soils,
        bentonite, or  synthetic liners may be  considered provided the
        permeability,  durability,  integrity and cost-effectiveness of  the
        proposed material can  be  satisfactorily demonstrated for anticipated
        conditions.  Results of a testing program which substantiates  the ade-
        quacy of the proposed  seal must be incorporated into and/or accompany
        the engineering report.   Standard ASTM procedures or acceptable  similar
        methods shall  be used  for all  tests.
    
        To achieve an  adequate seal in systems using soil or bentonite seal
        materials, the coefficient of  permeability  (K) in centimeters  per
        second  specified for the  seal  shall not exceed the value derived from
        the following  expression:
    
            K   <  2.58 x 10~9(L)
    
        where L equals the  thickness of the seal in centimeters.
    
        For a seal consisting  of  a synthetic liner, seepage loss through the
        liner shall  not exceed the quantity equivalent to seepage loss through
        an adequate  soil seal.
    
        In addition  to the  specific quality control tests specified for  each
        type of seal in the following  three sections, all ponds should be
        prefilled (See Section 94.24)  and checked for seepage  as a final field
        determination  of the quality of in-place seals.
    
        Schematics of  each  of  the three basic  seal systems are attached  for
        information.
    
           94.221 Soil Seals  (Figure  4)
    
           a.     Preliminary testing of proposed soil seals  shall include
                  examination of the  factors  affecting seepage through  the
                  seal such as type(s) of soil, water content, density,
                  thickness,  etc.  and determination of the coefficient  of
                  permeability for proposed seal.
          Taken from revised manual "Recommended Standards for Sewage Works"
    prepared by Minnesota Pollution Control Agency,  Roseville, Minnesota.
                                     73
    

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                            TOPSOIL AND  GRASS AND/OR RIPRAP  (>4", 10cm)
                           -SOIL SEAL (> 12", 30cm, WITH LIFT THICKNESS
                                                  < 6", 15cm)
    Figure  4.   Cross-section of  pond sealed with soil (Section 94.221)
                         -TOPSOIL AND GRASS AND/OR RIPRAP (> 4", 10 cm)
                         -SAND OR FINE TEXTURED SOIL  ( > 4", 10cm)
                         -INCORPORATED BENTONITE  ( > 3", 7.5 cm)
    Figure 5.  Cross-section of pond sealed with bentonite  (Section 94.222)
                           HEAVY COBBLE OR  COURSE  GRAVEL OR SMALL RIPRAP
                                                 (> 3", 7.5 cm)
                           SAND OR FINE TEXTURED SOIL (> 3, 7.5 cm)
                           SYNTHETIC  LINER  (>0.02" 0.05cm)
                           BEDDING  OF CLEAN SOIL OR  SAND
                               SUBSOIL BASE
     Figure 6.   Cross-section Of pond sealed with synthetic liner (Section
                 94.223)
                                        74
    

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    b.     Specifications for a soil seal shall be based upon results
           of the preliminary testing program and at a minimum provide
           the type(s) of soil, optimum and acceptable range in water
           content, maximum coefficient of permeability, and maximum
           allowable boulder size.  Recommended requirements include:
           (1) the soil shall have a high and uniform fines (clays
           and silts) content; (2) the water content shall be at or
           up to 4 percent above the optimum for maximum compaction;
           (3) the coefficient of permeability shall not exceed the
           value derived in Section 94.22; and (4) boulder size shall
           not exceed four inches (10 centimeters).
    
    c.     Specifications for construction and/or placement of a soil
           seal shall be based upon results of a preliminary testing
           program.  As a minimum they shall provide for sealing of
           dikes prior to pond bottom and specify seal density and
           thickness and number of lifts.  Recommended requirements
           include:  (1) the seal shall be compacted at the proper
           water content to at least 90 percent of Standard Proctor
           Density; (2) the seal shall be at least 12 inches (30
           centimeters) thick and applied in lifts no greater than
           six inches (15 centimeters); (3) the completed seal shall be
           maintained at or above the optimum water content until the
           pond is prefilled in accordance with 94.24; and (4) dike
           seals shall be covered as specified in 94.17.
    
    d.     Construction and/or placement of the soil seal shall be
           inspected and tested to ascertain compliance with specifi-
           cations.  Written certification that the soil seal was con-
           structed in accordance with specifications shall be provided
           by the project engineer or an independent soils laboratory.
           Tests for water content and density shall be taken during
           application of each lift.  Additionally, either permeability
           testing of undisturbed core samples from the in-place seal,
           or detailed tests such as particle size distribution and
           Atterburg limits confirming the soil used in seal construction
           was the same soil initially tested shall be provided.  In all
           cases,  at least one test shall be provided per acre per lift
           (two tests per hectare per lift), except for core sampling
           of the in-place seal where one core of the completed seal
           shall be tested per acre (two cores per hectare).
    
    94.222 Bentonite Seals (Figure 5)
    
    a.     Preliminary testing of proposed bentonite seals shall include,
           in addition to the tests outlined in 94.221a, an examination
           of the type and rate of bentonite being considered.
    
    b.     Specifications for the bentonite seal shall be based upon
           results of the preliminary testing program and at a minimum
           provide the type(s) of soil, type of bentonite, bentonite
           application rate,  optimum and acceptable range in water
    
                               75
    

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           content of the soil-bentonite mixture and maximum coef-
           ficient of permeability.   Recommended requirements include:
           (1) the bentonite shall be high swelling, free flowing and
           have a particle size distribution favorable for uniform
           application and minimizing wind drift;  (2) the application
           rate shall be at least 125 percent of the minimum rate found
           to be adequate in laboratory tests; (3)  application rates
           recommended by a supplier shall be confirmed by an inde-
           pendent laboratory;  (4) the water content of the soil-
           bentonite mixture shall be at or up to  4 percent above the
           optimum for maximum compaction; and (5)  the coefficient of
           permeability shall not exceed the value  derived in Section
           94.22.
    
    c.     Specifications for construction and/or  placement of a bentonite
           seal shall be based upon results of the  preliminary testing
           program and at a minimum provide sealing of dikes prior to
           bottom, bentonite application procedures, seal density, cover-
           ing of the seal and prehydration of the  bentonite.  Recom-
           mended requirements include:  (1) bentonite shall be applied
           with specifically designed spreading equipment; (2) appli-
           cation shall be split such that one-half is applied in one
           direction and the remaining half in a perpendicular direction;
           (3) the bentonite shall be mixed into the soil to a uniform
           depth of at least three inches (7.5 centimeters); (4) the
           seal shall be compacted at the proper water content to at
           least 90 percent of Standard Proctor Density (specifically
           excluding use of a sheepsfoot roller);  (5) the completed seal
           shall be covered with at least four inches (10 centimeters)
           of soil in addition to necessary erosion control as outlined
           in 94.17; and (6) the completed seal shall be hydrated with
           fresh water prior to introduction of wastewater and kept at
           or above the optimum water content until the pond is pre-
           filled in accordance with Section 94.24.
    
    d.     The bentonite supplier or their representative shall verify
           that the specifications are in accordance with their recom-
           mendations, and written certification that the seal was pro-
           vided and applied in accordance with specifications shall be
           furnished by the supplier, project engineer, or independent
           soils laboratory.  The actual bentonite  application rate and
           the water content and density shall be tested during seal
           construction.  Permeability testing of  undisturbed core
           samples shall be provided following seal completion.  At
           least one test per acre (two tests per hectare) is required
           in all cases.
    
    94.223 Synthetic Liners  (Figure 6)
    
    a.     Requirements for thickness of synthetic seals may vary due
           to liner material but it is generally recommended that the
           linear thickness be no less than .020 inches or 20 "mil"
           (0.50 millimeters).  Such thickness provides a safety factor
    
                                76
    

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           which will reduce the probability of puncture.  Consideration
           should also be given to liners containing reinforcing in
           appropriate situations, such as sidewall slopes steeper than
           3:1 or ponds depths greater than six feet (2 meters).
           Special care must be taken to select the appropriate material
           to perform under existing conditions.
    
    b.     Proper site preparation for synthetic liners is essential.
           The subsoil bed shall be sufficiently prepared to insure that
           all holes, rocks, stumps, and other debris are eliminated.
           The subsoil shall be sieved or the area raked after grading
           to provide a smooth, flat surface free of stones and other
           sharp protrusions which could damage the liner.  If the sub-
           soil contains sharp, non-removable objects, a bedding of two
           to four inches (5 - 10 centimeters) of clean soil or sand
           shall be provided.
    
           Soil shall be well compacted and sterilized to kill vegetation.
           Four-inch (10-centimeter) perforated pipe should be strate-
           gically placed to allow venting and draining of the soil to
           reduce gas and hydrostatic pressures and to facilitate monitor-
           ing for leakage.   The pipe should be installed in trenches
           sloping toward a sump and be backfilled with pea gravel or
           other coarse material.
    
    c.     Liner panels should be laid out in a longitudinal direction
           with an overlap of four to six inches (10 - 15 centimeters).
           Careful application of the appropriate adhesive is essential.
    
           The anchor trench should have a minimum six-inch (15-
           centimeter) depth and be placed at least 9-12 inches (22 -
           30 centimeters) beyond the slope break at the dike.  Care
           must be exercised in the backfilling of the anchor trench
           to insure the liner is not damaged.
    
           To prevent erosion, mechanical damage to the liner, and
           hydraulic lifting of the liner, a minimum backfill of six
           inches (15 centimeters) on the top of the liner is recom-
           mended.  On the side slopes this should consist of a minimum
           three-inch (7.5 centimeter) primary fill of sand or finely
           textured soil and a minimum three-inch (7.5 centimeter)
           secondary fill of heavier cobble, coarse gravel or small
           riprap.  On the bottom the backfill may consist solely of
           the sand or finely textured soils.
    
    d.     The manufacturer's representative shall supervise or conduct
           all phases of installation.  It is also recommended that
           installation be done by contractors familiar with potential
           problems which can be encountered.
    
                               77
    

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    94.23  Uniformity  The pond bottom shall be as level as possible at all
    points.  Finished elevations shall not be more than one inch (2.5
    centimeters) from the average elevation of the bottom.   Shallow or
    feathering fringe areas usually result in locally unsatisfactory
    conditions.
    
    94.24 Prefilling   All ponds shall be prefilled to the two foot (0.6
    meter) level to protect the liner, to prevent weed growth, to encourage
    rapid startup of the biological process and discourage odor, to reduce
    freeze up problems for late fall startups, to confirm the seal's
    integrity (as discussed in Section 94.22) and to maintain the water
    of the seal at or above optimum.  However, the dikes must be completely
    prepared as described in Sections 94.171 and/or 94.172 before the
    introduction of water.  Water for prefilling may be taken from the
    municipal water supply system or a nearby lake or stream.  The raw
    sewage influent alone shall not be used for prefilling purposes.
                                    78
    

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                                APPENDIX C
    
                 TRADE NAMES AND SOURCES OF COMMON LINING
    
                          MATERIALS (KAYS, 1977)1
    Trade Name
    Production Description    Manufacturer
    Trade Names
    Aqua Sav
    
    
    Armor last
    
    
    Armorshell
    
    
    Armortite
    
    
    Arrowhead
    
    
    Biostate Liner
    
    
    
    Careymat
    
    
    CPE (resin)
    
    
    Coverlight
    
    
    Driliner
    
    
    
    EPDM (resin)
    
    Flexseal
    
    
    Geon (resin)
    
    Griffolyn 45
    
    
    Griffolyn E
    
    
    Griffolyn V
    Butyl rubber
    
    
    Reinforced neoprene
      and Hypalon
    
    PVC-nylon laminates
    
    
    PVC coated fabrics
    
    
    Bentonite
    
    
    Biologically stable PVC
    Prefabricated asphalt
      panels
    
    Chlorinated PE resin
    Reinforced butyl and
      Hypalon
    Butyl rubber
    Ethylene propylene
      diene monomer resins
    Hypalon and Reinforced
      Hypalon
    
    PVC resin
    Reinforced Hypalon
    
    
    Reinforced PVC
    Reinforced PVC, oil
      resistant
    Plymouth Rubber
    Canton, Mass.
    
    Cooley, Inc.
    Pawtucket, R.I.
    
    Cooley, Inc.
    Pawtucket, R.I.
    
    Cooley, Inc.
    Pawtucket, R.I.
    
    Dresser Minerals
    Houston, Tex.
    
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Phillip Carey Co.
    Cincinnati, Ohio
    
    Dow Chemical Co.
    Midland, Mich.
    
    Reeves Brothers, Inc.
    New York, N.Y.
    
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    U.S. Rubber Co.
    New York, N.Y.
    
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Griffolyn Co., Inc.
    Houston, Tex.
    
    Griffolyn Co., Inc.
    Houston, Tex.
    
    Griffolyn Co., Inc.
    Houston, Tex.
         1
          Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
    
                                       79
    

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    Trade Name
    Production Description    Manufacturer
    Hydroliner
    
    
    
    Hydromat
    
    
    Hypalon (resin)
    
    
    Ibex
    
    
    Koroseal
    
    
    Kreene
    
    
    
    Meadowmat
    
    
    National Baroid
    
    
    Nordel (resin)
    
    
    Panelcraft
    
    
    Paraqual
    
    
    Petromat
    
    
    
    
    Pliobond
    
    
    
    Polyliner
    
    
    
    Red Top
    
    
    Royal Seal
    
    
    SS-13
    Butyl rubber
    Prefabricated asphalt
      panels
    
    Chlorosulfonated PE
      resin
    
    Bentonite
    
    
    PVC films
    
    
    PVC films
    Prefabricated asphalt
      panels with PVC Core
    
    Bentonite
    Ethylene propylene
      diene monomer resin
    
    Prefabricated asphalt
      panels
    
    EPDM and butyl
    Polypropylene woven
      fabric
    (Base fabric-spray
      linings)
    
    PVC adhesive
    PVC-CPE, alloy film
    Bentonite
    EPDM and butyl
    Waterborne dispersion
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    W. R. Meadows, Inc.
    Elgin, 111.
    
    E. I. Du Pont Co.
    Wilmington, Del.
    
    Chas. Pfizer & Co.
    New York, N.Y.
    
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Union Carbide &
      Chemical Co.
    New York, N.Y.
    
    W. R. Meadows, Inc.
    Elgin, 111.
    
    National Lead Co.
    Houston, Tex.
    
    E. I. Du Pont Co.
    Wilmington, Del.
    
    Envoy-APOC
    Long Beach, Calif.
    
    Aldan Rubber Co.
    Philadelphia, Pa.
    Phillips Petroleum Co.
    Bartlesville, Okla.
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Wilbur Ellis Co.
    Fresno, Calif.
    
    U.S. Rubber Co.
    Mishawaka, Ind.
    
    Lauratan Corp.
    Anaheim, Calif.
                                       80
    

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    Trade Name
    Production Description    Manufacturer
    Sure Seal
    Vinaliner
    Butyl, EPDM, neoprene,
      and Hypalon, plain
      and reinforced
    
    PVC
    Carlisle Corp.
    Carlisle, Pa.
    
    
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Akron, Ohio
    Vinyl Clad
    Visqueen
    Volclay
    Water Seal
    PVC, reinforced
    PE resin
    Bentonite
    Bentonite
    Sun Chemical Co.
    Paterson, N.J.
    Ethyl Corp.
    Baton Rouge, La.
    American Colloid Co.
    Skokie, 111.
    Wyo-Ben Products
    Billings, Mont.
    Materials
    Manufacturers
    Locations
    Sources
    
    Bentonite
    Butyl and EPDM
    Butyl and EPDM,
      reinforced
    CPE, reinforced
    Hypalon
    Hypalon, reinforced
    American Colloid Co.
    Archer-Daniels-Midland
    Ashland Chemical Co.
    Chas. Pfizer & Co.
    Dresser Minerals
    National Lead Co.
    Wilbur Ellis Co.  ,
    Wyo-Ben Products, Inc.
    
    Carlisle Corp.
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Aldan Rubber Co.
    Carlisle Corp.
    Plymouth Rubber Co.
    Reeves Brothers, Inc.
    
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    
    Burke Rubber Co.
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    
    Burke Rubber Co.
    Carlisle Corp.
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Plymouth Rubber Co.
    J. P. Stevens Co.
    Skokie, 111.
    Minneapolis, Minn,
    Cleveland, Ohio
    New York, N.Y.
    Houston, Tex.
    Houston, Tex.
    Fresno, Calif.
    Billings, Mont.
    Carlisle, Pa.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Philadelphia, Pa.
    Carlisle, Pa.
    Canton, Mass.
    New York, N.Y.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    
    San Jose, Calif.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    San Jose, Calif.
    Carlisle, Pa.
    Akron, Ohio
    Canton, Mass.
    New York, N.Y.
                                       81
    

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    Materials
    Manufacturers
    Locations
    EPDM
    
    EPDM, reinforced
    
    
    Neoprene
    Neoprene, reinforced
    PE
    
    
    
    PE, reinforced
    
    PVC
    PVC, reinforced
    Prefabricated asphalt
      panels
    3110
    See "Butyl and EPDM"
    
    See "Butyl and EPDM,
      reinforced"
    
    Carlisle Corp.
    Firestone Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    
    Carlisle Corp.
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Firestone Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Plymouth Rubber Co.
    Reeves Brothers, Inc.
    
    Monsanto Chemical Co.
    Union Carbide, Inc.
    Ethyl Corp.
    
    Griffolyn Co., Inc.
    
    Firestone Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Pantasote Co.
    Stauffer Chemical Co.
    Union Carbide, Inc.
    Firestone Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    B. F. Goodrich Co.
    Goodyear Tire & Rubber
      Co.
    Reeves Brothers, Inc.
    Cooley, Inc.
    Sun Chemical  Co.
    
    Envoy-APOC
    Gulf Seal, Inc.
    W. R. Meadows, Inc.
    Phillip Carey Co.
    
    E. I. Du Pont Co.
    Carlisle, Pa.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Akron, Ohio
    Akron, Ohio
    
    
    Carlisle, Pa.
    Akron, Ohio
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Canton, Mass.
    New York, N.Y.
    
    St. Louis, Mo.
    New York, N.Y.
    Baton Rouge, La.
    
    Houston, Tex.
    
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Akron, Ohio
    Akron, Ohio
    
    New York, N.Y.
    New York, N.Y.
    New York, N.Y.
    Akron, Ohio
    
    Akron, Ohio
    Akron, Ohio
    
    New York, N.Y.
    Pawtucket, R.I.
    Paterson, N.J.
    
    Long Beach, Calif.
    Houston, Tex.
    Elgin, 111.
    Cincinnati, Ohio
    
    Louisville, Ky.
                                       82
    

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    84
    

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                                             APPENDIX E
                                    ASPHALT  PANEL  LININGS
                                                                       1
    PANELCRAFT panels can be installed around equipment
    foundations. The panels are unaffected by fluid motion of
    domestic sewage and other water-based fluids in properly
    domestic sewage and other water-based fluids in properly
    designed reservoirs  and  storage  systems with  agitation
    systems.
    Flexibility  to move  with
    
    Earth Movements
    PANELCRAFT panels are used  in many multi-acre reser-
    voirs of great depth and similar facilities in areas of HIGH-
    SEISMIC activity. With reasonable care and planning during
    installation, facilitated and made possible by the flexibility
    of the PANELCRAFT panels, these linings will provide the
    greatest service at a reasonable cost
                                                       Single-ply and  Two-ply
    
                                                       options
                                                       PANELCRAFT Jimngs may  be installed (n either of two
                                                       ways, depending upon the  type of reservoir, pond, or other
                                                       storage system
                                                        The single-thickness (1/2-inch) system of installation can
                                                         be either installed with edges butted together and a
                                                         batten strip placed over the butt point, or the panels can
                                                         be overlapped to obtain  the desired joint.
                                                        For those applications requiring a perfectly smooth sur-
                                                         face (for sweeping and other cleaning requirements, for
                                                         example), the  use of two layers of 1/4-inch PANEL-
                                                         CRAFT panels is recommended. The first layer of panels
                                                         are installed, with ends  butted together, and the second
                                                         layer is placed  on top of the first, with the second layer
                                                         of panels offset approximately one-half panel to prevent
                                                         butt joints from being directly over each other.
                                                        SINGLE PLY
                                                                  BATTEN JOINT
                                                                                       OVERLAP JOINT
                                                                          OFFSET TWO-PL Y JOINT
                                                                     PANEL INSTALLATION
                                                       Either of the above installation systems provide maximum
                                                       protection from water loss, and may be walked on, swept,
                                                       and subjected to normal earth  movement without loss of
                                                       protection. PANELCRAFT system requires  no additional
                                                       protective coverings
                                                       PANELCRAFT linings are made of high-grade bitumen, re-
                                                       inforced  with  FIBERGLASS.  This construction  makes
                                                       possible an odorless liner that imparts no taste to the water,
                                                       and that is strong and flexible
    
                                                       As shown  in the cutaway drawing, the panels  are  made in
                                                       five layers'
                                                       I   The  core of ductile  air-blown asphalt,  fortified with
                                                          minerals and reinforcing fibers, thoroughly compounded
                                                          and  molded under pressure  and heat  into panels of
                                                          desired thickness and  length
                                                       }  Coverings of flexible  FIBERGLASS MA T on both sides
                                                          of the core.
                                                       ;  Protective coating of water repelling asphalt, hot applied
                                                          to both sides of panel
                                                                     PANEL CONSTRUCTION
                                                       PANELCRAFT fits properly compacted ground contours
                                                       perfectly, and adjusts quickly to normal earth movements.
                                                       No heaving, distorting, or damage from hot or cold weather
     Courtesy  of  Asphalt  Products  Oil  Corp.,  Long  Beach,   California.
    
                                                    85
    

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    Protecting   our  Water
    
    Resources
    
    PANELCRAFT  linings  are  protecting  reservoirs,  lakes,
    canals,  reflecting ponds, holding basins, sewage ponds and
    other water conservation and storage systems from loss of
    water through leakage, seepage, and  intrusion  SUCCESS-
    FULL Y FOR OVER TWO DECADES
    The need for protection and conservation of our precious
    water supplies is obvious. The large  population movement
    to arid  areas, the normal population growth, the expansion
    of water-oriented residential  and  retirement areas, recrea-
    tion areas, and urban and suburban greenbelts  places enor-
    mous  demands on  our relatively finite water resources
    Maximum use must be obtained from every drop of water 
    for its beauty of appearance,  for its  life-support properties
    in drinking water, and its utility in the production of food,
    manufacture, and even disposal  Every plan that includes
    water MUSI BE WATERPROOF Every drop of water must
    be protected against  waste and loss through leakage, seep-
    age, and contamination by intrusion
    
    PANELCRAFT will insure the leakage protection of your
    reservoir,  lake, canal, or other storage system  and will
    provide this protection economically  with  long life, dura-
    bility, and minimum  maintenance. Some storage systems
    using PANELCRAFT are over 20 years old   and  now
    PANELCRAFT  is   FIBERGLASS  REINFORCED   for
    strength, stability, and flexibility
    Today's ecological planning often  requires the storage  of
    brine and other  water-based  byproducts in  storage basins
    to prevent their intrusion into the soil and local water table.
    PANELCRAFT provides complete  strength and leakproof
    capabilities  to  such  holding basins.  The  flexibility  of
    PANELCRAFT insures  that this  integrity  is maintained
    even when subjected to the motion  and disruption of filling
    and emptying for distribution to disposal points
     Tough  and  Flexible
    
     PANELCRAFT linings  are tough and flexible, providing
     protection  from  penetration  during  normal  access and
     maintenance  tasks,  and the flexibility  insures  that the
     panels will not crack under the normal movements of the
    earth and pressures and forces that result from water flow,
    addition, and drainage. PANELCRAFT panels have come
    to the rescue of cracked and leaking concrete and other
    rigid material construction reservoirs and storage systems.
    PANELCRAFT  is  simply  installed over the  otherwise
    troubled concrete system, placing  the reservoir or storage
    system back into operation in the shortest time  possible.
                                                       86
    

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                                APPENDIX F
    
                              HYPALON LINERS
                        INSTALLATION PROCEDURE FOR
                     BURKE HYPALON 45 POND/PIT LINERS
          Courtesy of Burke Rubber Company,  Burke Industries,  San Jose,
    California.
    
                                      87
    

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
    
    
                                                       Page No,
    
    Installation Plan, General Sequence of Events         1
    
    
    Customer Furnished Materials for Installation         2
    
    
    Customer Make-Ready List                              3
    General Instructions for Unrolling and Unfolding
       Prefabricated Panels
    Recommended Guidelines, Field Seaming Procedure       6
    
    
    Mandatory Provisions, Field Seaming Procedure         7
    
    
    Tool List for Field-Seaming Crew(s)                   8
                                   88
    

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                                    INSTALLATION PLAN
    
                               General  Sequence of Events
    1.  Make ready all materials required for installation prior  to commencement  of
        lining operations.   See attached check-off list of materials.
    
    2.  Unroll and unfold only those panels which are to be anchored or  seamed  together
        in one day.  See attached procedure for unrolling and  unfolding  techniques.
    
    3.  After the panels are initially placed,  it is  desirable to remove as many
        wrinkles as possible.   The purpose of this is to make  the edges  to be bonded
        as smooth and free of wrinkles as possible.
    
    4.  As soon as the panels are in position,  commence field-seaming  operations.  See
        attached procedure on field seaming techniques.
    
    5.  At the end of each day all unseamed edges shall be anchored by sandbags.   If
        winds are expected, the use of boards along  the edges  of  the panels, with
        sandbags on top, should be used to anchor liner.
    
    6.  After field-seaming is complete in a given area,  liner edges in  anchor  trench
        should be buried.
    
        NOTE:  Do not bury the liner edge in the anchor trench within  30 feet
               of an "incomplete" field seam.  This  is  to allow the seam area
               to be retensioned to remove wrinkles  along the  seam area.
    
    7.  In selecting the sequence to be used in field-seaming,  always  start in  the
        middle and work toward an open end.  This will  minimize large  wrinkles  from
        becoming trapped, which requires cutting and  patching.
                                          89
    

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     Customer should supply the listed materials
     for installation of prefabricated panels of
     BURKE HYPALON LINERS
    
    
     1.  All  field installation labor and official  supervision,  i.e.,  crew  chief  or  foreman.
    
     2.  Means to move rolled-up panels of pond liner to  specified  locations at  pit site.
        Rolls 4' diameter by 7' long will weigh approximately  2,500  to  5,000  Ibs.
    
     3.  Stakes and string or chalk lines (not lime)  to define  panels locations  and initial
        unroll guidelines as indicated on the marked-up  print  provided.
    
     4.  Canvas, burlap, or polyethylene bags filled  with sand  or soft dirt to hold the
        unseamed edges in place; quantity depends on wind present  during  installation;
        figure on one bag per five to ten feet of unanchored panel perimeter.
    
     5.  Five to ten hand rakes, or large paving rakes.
    
     6.  One or more small compacting roller for smoothing out  or compacting rough  or
        badly gouged earth at the pit site (such  as  a lawn roller).
    
     7.  Portable hot air gun.  (See seaming tool  list).
    
     8.   Five to ten shovels.
    
     9.   Large box or barrel  of clean cotton  rags.
    
    10.  Tape measure, 100-foot.
    
    11.   Roll of twine or heavy string.
    
    12.   Old boards, such as 1" x 4", 2" x 4", 1"  x 6", 1" x 8" for holding unseamed
        edges in place while awaiting seaming (to be used in conjunction  with above
         sandbags).
    
    13.  A way to drag a 2,500-5,000 Ib. strip of  folded  pond liner if requiredrope,
         pipe and pulling means.
    
    14.  All  proper safety equipment and supplies. Responsibility  for all safety aspects
         of the installation is the customer's.
    
    15.  All  persons at the site to have smooth, protrusion-free shoe soles and  heels.
         (Tennis shoes).
    
    16.  A 10-foot plus length of 2-1/2" to 4" pipe.
    
    17.  Two 8-foot lengths of wood, 2" x 4".
    
    18.   Fifty feet of 1/2", 5/8", or 3/4" rope.
    
    19.   Wooden dowels, 3/4" to 1-1/2" diameter, approximately  12"  long.   Ends to be
         rounded smooth.  These dowels used to facilitate crew  in holding  onto liner as
         it unfolds.
    
    20.   If field seaming will be performed, all required equipment per  the attached "tool
         list for field-seaming crew" should be provided.
                                             90
    

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                                  CUSTOMER MAKE-READY LIST
    Things to be accomplished the afternoon or evening
    before commencement of the lining operations.
    1.  All equipment, tools and supplies to be at the pond site in a suitable storage
        area.
    
    2.  The first day's panels to be in position as shown on the layout drawing.  Leave
        the panels packaged, and if hot sunlight is present, shade the panels from direct
        sunlight using any opaque sheeting; leave free-flowing air space between opaque
        sheeting and panels.
    
    3.  Anchor trench dug all around pond.  Excavated anchor trench dirt to be spread out
        (raked back, flat, away from anchor trench) so that panels can be unrolled on
        the top of the berm.
    
    4.  Stakes and/or lines indicating panel locations as shown on the layout drawing
        to be installed.
    
    5.  All pond dimensions to be checked to verify that actual pond dimensions are not
        greater than those dimensions shown on the drawing.
    
    6.  Pond to be ready to be covered with liner.
    
        A.  Pond surface raked, smooth, rolled if necessary; free of all  large, sharp
            rocks or other sharp objects, free of all  vegetation and vegetation
            stubble.
    
        B.  All  penetrations, (pipes, etc.) covered or wrapped to protect liner from
            being cut, abraded or punctured during installation.
    
        C.  All  concrete slabs and skirts around penetrating pipes swept clean and
            free of all  debris and rocks.  Where subsequent bonding to concrete is
            to be done,  the surface to be smooth, clean, dry and ready for adhesive
            applications.
    
        D.  All  pipes, drains, fittings, etc., which are to be installed  beneath the
            liner should be in place ready to be covered with liner.
    
    7.  Distribute sandbags (about one every five feet) along the perimeters  of the
        area to  be lined the next day.   Don't put them in the area where  the  panels
        will  be  unrolled,  but immediately adjacent thereto.
                                            91
    

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    General Instructions for Unrolling
    and Unfolding Prefabricated Panels of
    BURKE HYPALON LINERS
    1.  The package is marked on the outside clearly indicating the panel  identification
        letter and the directions for unrolling and unfolding.   When locating the packaged
        panels, observe these markings so panels can be unrolled and unfolded in the proper
        direction.  (It is also clearly marked on the roll  of material  inside),
    
    2.  Leave packaging on the panel until  ready to unroll.  If the panel  will  be sitting
        in direct sunlight for over 1/2 hour before unrolling,  it should be completely
        shaded with any opaque sheeting.  It is necessary to leave a free-flowing air
        space between the opaque sheeting and the packaged  panel.
    
    3.  When ready to unroll the panels, remove the packaging carefully   DO NOT USE A
        KNIFE AS DAMAGE TO LINER MAY OCCUR.   Before unrolling off of the pallet, carefully
        inspect the pallet for and remove any protrusions which  may damage the liner.
    
    4.  The panel is normally unrolled by inserting a 2-1/2" to 4" diameter pipe 10-12'
        long, through the cardboard core and then looping a rope over each of the pro-
        jecting ends of the pipe.  The rope  should be out close to the ends of the pipe
        and away from the roll of Hypalon sheeting.  The rope should not touch the
        Hypalon during unrolling,  By putting an equal  number of men on each rope and
        pulling, the panel is unrolled along the desired guide  line.  Crew size:  One
        man/1,000 sq. ft. of any one panel  (e g,, 15,000 sq. ft. panel  requires  15 men).
    
    5.  After the panel is unrolled, it is  straightened out to  the guide line as
        indicated by the technical  advisor  or crew chief,
    
    6.  The panel is then unfolded  into position   Men  are  positioned at the edge of the
        panel as indicated by the technical  advisor or  crew chief   Generally,  the men
        are positioned approximately 15 feet apart, depending on the size of the panel
        and the terrain to be covered.  If  required, men are positioned at the uphill  end
        of the panel to keep it from sliding down the slope as  it is unfolded.   If the
        edge to be gripped is subsequently  to be bonded, then the panel edge is  folded
        back about two or three feet, and the fold is gripped for pulling  rather than
        the edge.  This is to avoid stretching the edge where it is to be bonded.
        Gripping of the panel can be facilitated by use of  a short length of wood dowel,
        3/4" to 1-1/2" in diameter, and 12"  to 18" long  The liner is first wrapped
        around the dowel, and then  gripped.   The edges  of the dowels should be carefully
        rounded off to prevent sharp edges  from digging into the liner as  it is  pulled
    
    7.  As the panel is pulled out  it is necessary to maintain  air under the liner   This
        air can be obtained and maintained  by several means   One way to maintain air
        under the liner is to simply hold the edge up and advance at a rate fast enough
        to capture air under the liner as it is unfolded   Another way is  the same as
        above, except the edge is constantly raised and lowered as it is being  spread
        out to "fan" air under the  liner.
                                            92
    

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        When there is a prevailing wind from the direction to which the liner is being
        pulled, then air can be introduced by lifting the edge just enough to allow the
        described amount of air to blow in under the liner.   Care must be exercised in
        this case to only raise the edge of the liner enough to let the "desired" amount
        of air under the liner and lower  to  cut  off the air as soon as enough air is
        captured; otherwise, it is possible to have the liner blow away.
    
        When the panel has been partially spread and it is necessary to stop (as is
        often the case) the edge should be lowered to try to trap as much air as pos-
        sible and keep it from escaping.  In spite of this,  some air will escape and
        it is necessary to introduce more air under the liner; this is accomplished by
       "fanning" the edge of the sheet up and down, and sending waves of air far in
        under the panel.  A common mistake is, when attempting to do this, the crew does
        not get enough vertical height on the fanning action; the edge of the liner should
        be raised from over-the-head level down to knee level as the cyclic fanning action
        is performed.  This fanning action should be continued as directed by the tech-
        nical advisor or crew chief before spreading of the  liner is attempted.
    
    8.  A slight lateral tension on the leading edge of the  panel being spread should  be
        maintained.  This lateral tension facilitates the spreading operations.
    
    9.  NOTES:
    
        A.  Generally, a 2:1 slope is the steepest slope which men can walk on to spread
            the liner.  Where the liner must be installed on a slope steeper than 2:1,
            special detailed plans must be worked out ahead  of time by the people res-
            ponsible for planning the job.
    
        B.  During unfolding-spreading operations it is necessary that the crew wear
            work gloves, as these operations can be quite chafing to the knuckles.
    
        C.  During unfolding-spreading operations it is necessary that the crew work
            as a team.  The technical advisor shall  provide  instructions which will
            facilitate this requirement,
    
        D.  If a gust of wind attempts to pull  the liner away from the crew and  they
            are about to lose their footing, the following points are applicable:
    
            1.  Put  lateral  tension  in the  leading  edge  and  lower  it  to  the
                ground.
    
            2.  Attempt to restrain it further by putting one knee on the leading  edge.
    
            If these efforts fail to restrain it, LET IT GO.   DO NOT HOLD ONTO THE
            LINER AND BE PULLED ALONG WITH THE WIND.
    
        E.  It is advisable that all persons at the pond site wear soft rubber-soled
            shoes such as tennis shoes or boat shoes.
    
        F.  Extreme caution should be exercised when  walking  on  the Hypalon liner
            material  when it is weto  The sheeting becomes very  slippery.   It  is
            generally necessary to use a rope as an aid in going in or out of  the
            pond.
                                              93
    

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                              RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES
    
    
    1.  Under ideal soil  and weather conditions, removal  of surface cure should
        not be completed  more than ten minutes ahead of seaming.   Under adverse
        conditions such as high heat, winds, muddy substrate or other conditions
        which increase the possibility of foreign material  to be deposited on the
        washed surfaces,  the amount of time between washing and seaming should
        be reduced at the discretion of the technical  advisor or crew chief.
    
    2.  Before adhesive is applied, surfaces to be seamed must have surface
        cure thoroughly removed and be essentially free of  dirt and foreign
        materials.  The presence of a few particles of sand or dirt is per-
        missible in situations where such presence is  unavoidable.   The
        acceptable limit  for such presence is where the few particles are
        totally encapsulated in the adhesive/seam and  they  do not connect to
        form a path for a leak.
    
    3.  On hot days, better results in removal of surface cure may be achieved
        by the use of perch!oroethylene.
    
    4.  "Fishmouths" can  be folded over and bonded closed or slit,  bonded down,
        and patched per instructions given by the technical  advisor.   Patches
        over fishmouths or other seam flaws should extend at least 2" past the
        flaw in question.  The rule on patches should  be, "if there is any
        question as to whether to patch or not, then patch  it!"
                                        94
    

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     rield Seaming  Procedure for
     BURKE HYPALON  LINER MATERIAL
                                    MANDATORY PROVISIONS
    Over1aps
    
           Minimum overlap - 4".
    
    Seams
    
           Minimum seam width - 2".
    
    Preparation
    
           A,  Remove all foreign matter, loose dirt, oil, etc., from edges to be
               bonded together.
    
           B.  Surfaces to be seamed must be washed with rags or natural  bristle
               scrub brushes soaked with trichloroethylene or perchloroethylene
               to remove surface cure.  Surface cure is removed when Hypalon turns
               shiny and slick when wet and a dull black when dry.
    
    Application of Adhesive
    
           Apply a liberal amount of Hypalon adhesive to one of the surfaces and lap
           together immediatelyno delay between the time the adhesive is  applied
           and material overlapped.  Adhesive must be thoroughly wet at the time
           surfaces are joined, with no evidence of surface "skinning"  or drying
           of the adhesive.
    
    Seaming Method
    
           Seam is "stitched" by rolling with a steel  roller in a direction perpen-
           dicular to the seam, applying firm pressure.   A small  amount of  adhesive,
           forced out of the seam edge, is desirable and indicates  sufficient
           adhesive has been applied.
    
    NOTE:   The temperature of the sheet and adhesive when bonding must  be above 60  F.
           minimum.   If ambient conditions create temperatures lower than this,  then
           the sheet and adhesive must be warmed by artificial  means; i.e.,  hot air
           guns,  radiant heaters,  heat lamps, spare heaters,  etc.
                                         95
    

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                                          TOOL LIST
                                   For Field Seaming  Crews
    
     1.   Each man on the seaming crew to wear PVA (polyvlnyl  alcohol)  coated  gloves.
         Edmont-Wilson,  Coshocton,  Ohio 43812.  Their No. 37-165,  or equal.
     2.   Three sets, Size 10, cloth gloves.
     3.   Two sets knee pads.   (If desired).
     4.   Roll of tape to hold on knee pads.
     5.   Gallon can with handle, with trichloroethylene.   (Consumption rate same  as
         adhesive).
     6.   Ten cotton rags per  hour.
     7.   Gallon can with handle, with adhesive.
     8.   A 3" paint roller with bent wire handle.
     9.   A 12" to 18" long length of 1/2" to 3/4" diameter  metal  tubing (will  be
         used to make handle  for paint roller).
    10.   A 2" diameter x 2" long, flat-face, steel  roller with  handle  ("stitcher").
         Hoggson brand,  from  H. M.  Royal, Inc., 11911 Woodruff  Avenue, Downey,  CA.
         Telephone 213-773-3774.
    11.   A stiff bristle, natural bristle scrub brush.
    12.   A whisk broom (or fox tail brush).
    13.   A 1" x 10" x 10' long Douglas fir,  clear board, rounded  off on both  ends
         and rounded off on all edges with a rope tied to one end.
    14.   A Stanley knife.
    15.   One red or yellow crayon for marking liner surface.
    16.   A pair of scissors with rounded-off points.
    17.   Each man on seaming  crew safety glasses (for protection  from  solvent splash).
                                          96
    

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    LINER LAYOUT  INFORMATION AND DETAILS
                                       HYPALON
                                       "LINER
                                             HYPALON
                                             SHROUD
     STAINLESS
    "STEEL CLAMP
    -GUM TAPE
     SHROUD GASKETS
                         12" TO 18" 12"T018
                                                    AIR-GAS VENT
     ANCHOR TRENCH
            &
       AIR-GAS VENT
    Courtesy of Burke Rubber Company, Burke Industries, San  Jose,  California
    
                                          97
    

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     LINER LAYOUT  INFORMATION AND DETAILS
     NOTE: PLACE A PIECE OF CAULKING TAPE UNDER THE BATTEN STRIP AT THE RAMSET POINT.
     THE BUTYL TAPE WILL SEAL THE HYPALON
     WHEN THE BATTEN STRIP IS RAM-SET.
    ANCHORING AND SEALING HYPALON
    TO CONCRETE BELOW WATER LEVEL
                  NTS
                              BATTEN:
                              1. REDWOOD
                              2. STAINLESS STEEL
                              3. ALUMINUM
                     EXPANSION ANCHORS OR
                     RAM-SET
                     1/4" OR %"
                                    CAULKED IN
                                    PLACE SEALANT
                                                                    1"xV8" BUTYL TAPE
                                                                       (SEE NOTE)
                                                            7"^> BR-700 CONTACT
                                                                      ADHESIVE
                                                                     6" MINIMUM
    
                                                                    CONCRETE WALL
             SAND BOTTOM
                                     INLET PIPE
      30 MIL LINER   BATTEN ANCHOR
        /           SYSTEM    BOLTS QN AppRQX
                                 12" CENTERS
    
                  SEE DETAIL A
            CONCRETE PAD
    BATTEN:
    1. REDWOOD
    2. STAINLESS STEEL
    3. ALUMINUM
                                                                 HYPALON SHROUD WITH
                                                                 STAINLESS STEEL CLAMP
                                                                  FASTENER: RED-HEAD
                                                                  OR RAM-SET
                                                                          HYPALON
                                                                          ADHESIVE
                              30 MIL LINER
     INLET SPLASH PAD
           NTS
                                                45 MIL
                                                LINER
                  CONCRETE PAD
    BR 700 CONTACT
    ADHESIVE
    Courtesy of Burke Rubber Company, Burke Industries,  San Jose, California
    
                                          98
    

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                            APPENDIX G
                  B.F. GOODRICH "FLEXSEAL" LINEARS
    INFORMATION  BULLETIN
    B.F.GOODRICH   GENERAL  PRODUCTS  COMPANY
         D/0414, WHB-3 -- 500 South Main Street       Akron, Ohio 44318
                                                                     iRFGoodrichj
                                                        EL-1.6-176
                    INSTALLATION GUIDE FOR B.F.GOODRICH POND LINERS
      I.   General
    
         B.F.Goodrich Pond Liners are all purpose, tough, durable, rubber or PVC linings that are
         heat welded into large panels up to 15,000 square feet each. These in turn can be easily
         assembled, as described later, for lining all possible sized pits, ponds, reservoirs, canals
         and lagoons.
    
      II.  Tools and Equipment Required for Installation
    
         Listed below are the materials and equipment that are typically required on job site before
         installation can  be accomplished. Please have the materials indicated before the day of
         installation.
    
           1. A means of handling large rolls of material: Forklift, Front end Loader,
             Crane, or Boom truck.
           2.
    
           3.
    
           4.
    
           5.
    
           6.
    
           7.
    
           8.
    
           9.
    
          10.
     .4" paintbrushes.
    
     . 2" wide hand rollers (Steel or Nylon).
    . 16' or 20', 1" x 10" clear white pine board or conveyor belt.
    
    . 50 pound sand bags or tire carcasses.
    
    _ pounds of clean rags.
    
    . 1 quart caulking gun.
    
    . 1 gallon paint pails for solvent.
    
    . 6 feet - 2" steel heavy wall (schedule 80) pipe.
    
    .10 foot chains.
          11. 1 ea.  i"x2"x 12" woodensticks per man.
     Lists: 0-GP, 1-SP-E, 1-SP-W
     Courtesy of B.F.  Goodrich, Akron,  Ohio.
                                         99
    

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    III.  Receiving and Storage of Lining Material
    
        Material is shipped in rolls up to 6 feet diameter, 5 feet long, strapped on skids or in pallet
        boxes. Depending upon the size of the panels, they can weight up to 4,000 pounds each. The
        liner is typically packed in a white covering to reflect the  sun's heat and can usually be
        stored outside at the site for one to three weeks before starting the installation with no harm
        to the material. If the job is delayed for an extended time (more than three weeks), material
        must be stored inside or in open shade. PVC Liners should be stored at  temperatures not
        lower than 50 F.
    
    IV.  Preparing the Site for the Installation of the Liner
    
        Pond should be free of all standing water or mud. Entire surface to be lined must be free from
        all rock, roots, and debris that may puncture the liner material.
    
        Anchor trench should be dug as per drawings and material properly spotted for installation.
    
        The area to be lined should  have the soil sterilized.  This is especially true of areas having
        prior growths of nut or quack grasses.
    
    V.  Equipment Needed for Spotting the Material
    
        The panels will weigh up to 4,000 pounds. A large front end loader, bulldozer or crane is re-
        quired fo spot the rolls of material.
    
        Material is accordion folded  in the length direction,  then rolled  in the width direction.  The
        package is marked in the direction the material must be unrolled and pulled into the pond so
        that the  correct side is up  and placed in its proper position  without extra handling. The roll
        is normally spotted at one corner of the final resting place of the panel, either along the berm
        or on a large installation, in the bottom  of the pond.
    
    VI.  Positioning the Panels for Seaming
    
        Unroll the material using  a 6'-2" diameter heavy walled pipe through the core of the roll
        chained to the truck or front end  loader, being certain to unroll material so that the end of the
        material will be in the proper position when unfolded.
    
        With small 1" x 2" x 12" sticks in hand, line 10 or 12 men along the 50' folded material.  With
        each man grasping the top layer of material and rollmg-the stick into the material 4" to 8", the
        material is ready to be pulled into the pond.
    
        After the material is 75 to 100 feet into the pond, place a man on each side of the panel and
        have them flip air under the panel. The cushion of air underneath the material makes moving
        a panel 300 feet long relatively easy.
    
        When  the first panel is  in position, temporarily anchor it in the berm  trench with  sandbags
        leaving the edges free to be  seamed. The edge of the panel that will be seamed to the  next
        panel should be re-positioned so that it is as  straight and lying as smooth  as possible. Then
        back fill trench partially to hold panel in place.
    
        Position the next panel in the same manner and allow a 6" overlap of material into the first
        panel. After panel is in position, weight panel  edges with sand bags or old tire carcasses. Be
        certain to position panel so that the edges to be seamed lie straight and as smooth as possible
        before attempting any seaming.
                                               100
    

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    VII. Adhesive Seaming of Flexseal-Hypalon Pond Liners
    
        Both liner surfaces of the overlap must be free of dirt or mud. If not, wash with water and dry.
        Wash both surfaces with cleaning solvent using neoprene gloves for hand protection.
    
        Starting  at the center of two panels to be seamed, place a 1" x 10" x 16' board or conveyor
        belting underneath the overlapped  area.  With adhesive, mark  outside of  the overlap. Fold
        overlap back and apply an even coat of adhesive 4" wide to both surfaces. Be careful not to
        allow coating surfaces to come  in  contact with each other before properly positioned. Adhe-
        sive surfaces are ready to be placed together when the wettest  area will not transfer to your
        clean knuckle when pressed onto the adhesive surface.
    
        Carefully apply the two surfaces  together avoiding  any  wrinkles or folds. Using a 2" hand
        roller, overlapped area with firm pressure to  insure a 100% bond. Pay particular attention to
        any area that consists of more than one layer of material (overlapped cross seams).
    
        After overlap is completed upon the length of the board, apply a coat of adhesive to the 3"
        tape and an area 3" wide centered  on the edge of the overlap just made.
    
        Allow adhesive to dry, using the knuckle test to tell  when adhesive is dry enough to position
        tape over the seam edge. Position tape and roll firmly with a hand roller.
    
        Pull board or belting from underneath this section  and proceed with the next section. Two
        crews may now start seaming toward each end of the panel.
           Notes of caution:
    
    
           1. Apply even coats of adhesive.
    
    
           2. Allow to dry to the touch.
    
    
           3. Avoid wrinkles.
    
    
           4. Use a hand roller with firm pressure.
    
    
           5. Use a board or belting as a working surface.
    VIII. Proceed with the next panels in the same manner. Do  not lay more material than can be
        sealed in one day.
    IX.   Inlet and Outlet Pipes that Penetrate the Liner.
    
         We  recommended  all penetrations through the liner and  attachments to  the  liner  be in
         accordance with B.F.Goodrich Information Bulletin EL-1.5-775.
    
                                              101
    

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    INFORMATION  BULLETIN
    B.F.GOODRICH   GENERAL  PRODUCTS  COMPANY
    P. O. Box 657                                   Marietta, Ohio 45750
                                                                     , RE Goodrich,
                   BULLETIN
                   EL-1.5-775
                           Typical Installation Details for
                   B.F.Goodrich Flexseal  Pond and Pit Liners
                    \
                     ANCHOR TRENCH 6"
                       WIDE  MINIMUM
                   Figure #1
    CA-1056 v \
    ADHESIVE \S.
    /I
    KV
    \ \ \ \
    4" MIN
     3" .
    
    
    6"
    ,
    S,V
    
    / REINFORCED
    TAP
    :NXXSO
                  FLEXSEAL LINER
      Figure #2
                    6'DIA
    Figure #1
    
      The anchor trench should be lo-
    cated far enough from the edge of
    the berm to provide a sufficient an-
    chor for the liner, as well as enough
    room to use a ditcher to dig the
    trench. The dirt thrown towards the
    lagoon may be raked back into the
    ditch, provided a minimum 18"
    depth is maintained.
    Figure #2
    
      The field seam illustrated is used
    for the reinforced Flexseal material.
    The 3"wide non-reinforced tape pre-
    vents wicking of the effluent into the
    reinforcing fabric. If non-reinforced
    Flexseal liner material is specified
    and used, the 3"tapeis not normally
    required.
                                                        Figure #3
    
                                                          As illustrated, the easiest method
                                                        of placing inlet and outlet pipes into
                                                        Flexseal lined lagoon is over the top
                                                        of the berms.using a protective liner
                                                        to contain the discharge, thus pro-
                                                        tecting the main liner. The fewer pro-
                                                        trusions that are designed into a lin-
                                                        ing,the easier it is to install and main-
                                                        tain both the liner and the piping.
    
                                                          A double layer of liner material
                                                        over the liner at the inlet may also be
                                                        sufficient, as opposed to the prefab-
                                                        ricated trough illustrated.
                                          102
                                                                           The BFGoodrteh Company
    

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                Flexseal Lining  Penetration Attachments
                           Flange Type Method 
          STAINLESS STEEL
          BOLT, NUT 8 WASHER
      RADIUS ON ALL
      TOP CORNERS
    
       Figure #4
      rFLEXSEAL LINER
                  -CONCRETE
                   PAD
    STAINLESS STEEL BOLT,
       WASHER 8 NUT
                                TACK  WELD
      -RADIUS ON ALL
       TOP CORNERS
    
    
       Figure #5
    
    
     -STAINLESS STEEL
                                    Figure #6
                                                       Figures #4, #5, #6
                                       If an inlet or outlet pipe or support
                                     post must penetrate the Flexseal
                                     liner, B.F.Goodrich recommends a
                                     flanged system be used.
    
                                       As illustrated in Figures 4,5 and 6,
                                     all attachment points have a good
                                     mechanical seal to the penetrating
                                     pipes. The concrete pads arou nd the
                                     pipes should be  used to prevent
                                     ground settlement and undue stress
                                     to the lining material. This system
                                     also allows the installation of large
                                     panels without cutting and fitting
                                     around the protrusion.
      All corners of the concrete pads
    should  be rounded and  have a
    smooth troweled surface to prevent
    unnecessary wear points. The use of
    a flanged extension pipe may be
    used to divert the effluent away from
    the liner if necessary.
                                       At an outlet pipe, 100# sacks of
                                     concrete should be placed around
                                     the outlet  five feet apart approxi-
                                     mately ten feet from the pipe. This
                                     is to prevent the liner from being
                                     sucked into the outlet pipe.
    M"ACK WELD
    STAINLESS STEEL
    STUD TO FLANGE
                       CONCRETE PAD
                                        103
    

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                    Flexseal Lining Penetration Attachments
                              Boot Type Method 
                                   CA-1056
                                   ADHESIVE
                -RADIUS ON ALL
                 TOP CORNERS
                       Figure #7
         STAINLESS
         STEEL CLAMP.
                             FLEXSEAL SEALANT
    
                             FLEXSEAL BOOT
        RADIUS ON ALL
        TOP CORNERS
    Figure #8
                                SUPPORT POST
                                FOR OVERHEAD
                                STRUCTURES
         CA-IO56 ADHESIVE'
                                                             Figures #7, #8, #9
      Where inlets, outlets or support
    pipes cannot be flanged, the alter-
    nate boot system can be used (fig-
    ures 7, 8 and 9). The boots can be
    factory or field fabricated for small
    pipe sizes and field applied on larg-
    er pipes. This system should be
    avoided whenever  possible. It is
    more difficult to install  the Flexseal
    liner panels and may  cause more
    field seaming than is necessary due
    to cutting and fitting around the pro-
    trusion. Boots can be made from re-
    inforced or non-reinforced Flexseal
    material. All pipes to be flashed in
    this manner should be smooth and
    clean. Clamping straps should be of
    material that will not  be attacked by
    the effluent.
      All concrete pads should have
    round edges and smooth surface.
    Concrete pads are required to pre-
    vent settlement of  sub-surface
    around pipes, thus reducing undue
    stress to the boots and Flexseal liner
    material. Large culvert type inlet or
    outlet pipe that would be very diffi-
    cult to seal by either method can be
    sealed directly to the concrete pad
    (see Figure 14).
                                  RADIUS ON ALL
                                  TOP CORNERS
                Figure #9
                                             104
    

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                               Flexseal Lining
                  Ventilation  and Underdrain System
                               4" PVC
                         PERFORATED LATERAL
            -PERFORATED
    DRAIN a VENT PIPE-SLOPE
    TO INSPECTION SUMP
    8EYOND PIT AREA
                    Figure #10
                                       Figure #10
    
                                         B.F.Goodnch recommends a vent-
                                       ing and underdrain system on most
                                       installations. Gases caused by a fluc-
                                       tuating water  table pumping  air un-
                                       der  the  liner  or  from decaying or-
                                       ganics  will be trapped under  the
                                       Flexseal liner  causing it to float un-
                                       less some precautions are taken.  If
                                       the  smallest  bottom  dimension  is
                                       larger than 25 feet and less than 50
                                       feet,  a simple center drain or vent
                                       may be used. If the smallest  dimen-
                                       sion is greater than 50 feet, a lateral
                                       system  should be considered.  The
                                       laterals should be placed approxi-
                                       mately 50  feet on centers. The cen-
                                       ter drain or vent system,  if run  to a
                                       sump, may also act as a leak  de-
                                       tection system.
    
                                         The lateral vents should run up the
                                       slope to  within a foot of the top  and
                                       screened off to keep out surround-
                                       dmg dirt and gravel.
       TOP OF DYKE-
     FLEXSEAL-
     FLAP
                             TOP OF BERM
             SIDE
      OF FLAP OPEN
      TO HOLE
                             4"DIA HOLE IN
                           FLEXSEAL LINER
      'SHADED AREA INDICATES
    ' I" WIDE MIN. ADHESIVE
    SEAL 3 SIDES ONLY
                                       Figure #11
    
                                         Directly above the end of the lat-
                                       eral a flap type vent should be placed
                                       in the  liner to allow  venting through
                                       the liner.
    
                                         Flap  type  vents are  also recom-
                                       mended on any lagoon  where a free
                                       board  of liner material  is more than
                                       4 or 5 feet. This helps  relieve pres-
                                       sure under the  liner if  wind causes
                                       the Flexseal liner to  lift off the berm.
                    Figure #11
                                        105
    

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                             Flexseal Lining
                                     of
           Aerated Lagoons and Concrete Attachments
    ADOITIONAL-
    FLEXSEAL LINER
       UNDER PAD
    rCONCRETE MOORING
    \  PAD TO HOLD
     \ FLOATING AERATOR
     -FLEXSEAL LINER
                     Figure #12
                         PROTECTIVE  PAD FOR
                         FIXED AERATOR
    ADDITIONAL LAYER
    FLEXSEAL
     FOUNDATION
                          RADIUS ON ALL
                          TOP CORNERS
                    Figure #13
      |-6"(MIN) OVER LAP
             .-CAULK WITH FLEXSEAL SEALANT
                                 Figure #14
    
                                     106
      B.F.Goodrich  recommends   us-
    ing  reinforced Flexseal liner mate-
    rial  for aerated lagoons. Some  pre-
    cautions  must be  taken  to protect
    the  Flexseal liner from  abrasion un-
    der the aerator and also from being
    sucked into the aerator.
                                   Figure #12
    
                                     A mooring pad for a floating aer-
                                   ator may also act as an abrasion pad.
                                   This  pad  may  be poured directly
                                   over the Flexseal liner with at least
                                   one additional layer of liner material
                                   being used for protection when pour-
                                   ing the concrete.
                                   Figure #13
    
                                     On fixed  aerators the liner mate-
                                   rial may be anchored to the pad or
                                   totally cover the  pad, then an addi-
                                   tional  layer of concrete poured  on
                                   top of the  pad to  protect the liner
                                   and/or anchorage of the liner. 100#
                                   sacks of  concrete  used as weights
                                   should be placed ten feet apart, ap-
                                   proximately twenty feet from aerator
                                   base. This is to insure the liner is not
                                   sucked into the aerator.
                                                      Figure #14
    
                                                        Anchoring Flexseal  liner to exist-
                                                      ing  or new concrete pads, walls or
                                                      weirs may be accomplished by using
                                                      anchor bolts, cast in place or drilled
                                                      later,  or ramsets  to  mechanically
                                                      seal the liner to the concrete by use
                                                      of a batten strip. Spacing of anchors
                                                      depends on rigidity of the batten
                                                      strip.
    

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    Evaporation  Nomograph
    DATA on. evaporation  from  lakes and
    reservoirs  are not extensive.  But there
    are formulas by which  it  may be com-
    puted. One of these; by Fitzgerald, has
    the form,  Eh = (S-F) (1 + v/2)/60; where
    Eh  =  evaporation rate,  in./hr; S = vapor
    pressure of water at water temperature,
    in. Hg; F = vapor pressure existing in the
    air; and v = wind velocity, mph. Wind
    velocities are  at the water surface and
    may be taken at one-half those recorded
    at  an  elevated  station  such  as the
    Weather  Bureau  stations.  For  larger
    reservoirs, however.  Weather  Bureau
    values  give results  in  close agreement
    with available direct measurements.
    
    An  alternative and substantially  equiv-
    alent  formula is given  by  Fitzgerald in
    more usable terms. Somewhat simplified
    and transformed; it is: Eh  = 0.0002 (Ta
    - Twb) (1 + v/2); where Ta and Twb are
    in  the  air temperature and  wet-bulb
               r110
                 100
               '-90
    0.035 -
               r-50
    
               -45
              ra
                           110-q
                           100-E
                            90-=
                            80-E
                           -70^
                           60-
                            50-E
                           40-E
                           30 J
              temperature,  respectively.  The nomo-
              gram is based on the second formula. It
              includes the relative humidity for con-
              venience.
    
              Example. Assume the "normal" or long-
              term  monthly  temperature, relative
              humidity, and wind velocity for a certain
              location are 80F.,  58%, and 8  mph;
              what is the "normal" wet-bulb temper-
              ature,  and  what is the evaporation rate
              per hour and per month of 31 days?
    
              Solution. Step 1, line 80F, on Ta scale
              with 58%  on  R scale,  extend to  Pivot
              line  and  mark.  Also  read  wet-bulb
              temperature as 69F. where line crossed
              Twb scale.  Step 2, from marked position
              Pivot  line,  connect  with  8 mph  on V
              scale, extend to Eb scale,  and read evap-
              oration rate as 0.011  in./hr. The evapor-
              ation rate per month = 0.011 X 24 X 31
              = 8.184 in.
                Reprinted from OIL & GAS PETROCHEMICAL
                EQUIPMENT, March 1974 issue.
                                     107
    

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                                    APPENDIX  H
                         POLYVINYL CHLORIDE LINERS
                      WATERSAVER COMPANY, INC.
                    3560 WYNKOOP STREET .  DENVER, COLORADO 80216    (303) 623-4111
    
    
    
                                                       Data Sheet SPVC - 74
    
                                STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
    
                           PQLYVIMYL CHLORIDE  PLASTIC LININGS
     01  -  GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    
          The work covered by these specifications consists of installina a polyvinyl
     chloride (PVC) plastic lining in the (lagoon, reservoir,  canal, etc.) where  shown
     on  the drav.'inqs or directed by the Engineer.  All work shall be done 1n strict
     accordance with the drawings and these specifications and subject to the terms
     and conditions of tho contract.
     02  -  PVC MATERIALS
    
          A.  General.   The materials supplied under these specifications shall be
                       first quality products designed and manufactured specifically
     for the purposes  of this work, and which have been satisfactorily demonstrated by
     prior use to be suitable and durable for such purposes.
    
          8.  Description of PVC Materials.  PVC (polyvinyl chloride) plastic lining
                                          shall consist of widths of calendered
     polyvinyl chloride sheeting fabricated  into large sections by means of special
     factory-bonded seams into a single panel, or into the minimum number of large
     panels required to fit thn jobsite as supplied by WATERSAVER CO., IMC., 3560
     Wynkoop St., Denver, Colorado.
             1.
    Physical Characteristics.  The PVC materials shall have the  follow-
    ino physical characteristics.
                      TEST
     Specific Gravity
     Tensile Strength,  psi, min.
     Elongation, " min.
     1007, Modulus, psi.
     Elmendorfer Tear,  gns/mil, min.
     firaves Tear, Ibs./in. min.
     Water Extraction,  % max.
     Volatility, "', max.
     Impact Cold Crack, op.
     Dimensional Stability, max.%
           100C. -  15 minutes
     Shore Durometer,  "A"
     Outdoor Exposure, sun hrs.
     Rondod Seam Strength, " of Tensile, min
     Pinhnles/lO Sq.  Yds. nax
     Color
                              TYPICAL       TEST
                              TEST VALUES   METHOD
    1.24 - 1.30
    2200
    300 %
    1000 - 1600
    160
    270
    0.35
    0.7
    -20
    ASTM D792-66
    ASTM D882-B
    ASTM D882-B
    ASTM D882-B
    ASTM 689
    ASTM 01004
    ASTM D1239
    ASTM D1203
    ASTM 1790
                              5
                              G5--70
                              1500
                              80 %
                              1
                                           Black
    ASTM D676
    Meets  USBR Test specially
    formulated for resistance
    to micro  biological attack.
    Passes Corps of Eng. CRD572-61.
    1
     Courtesy of Watersaver  Company,  Inc.,  Denver,  Colorado.
                                          109
    

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              2.  PVC materials shall  be manufactured from domestic virgin polyvinyl chloride
                  resin and specifically compounded for the use 1n hydraulic facilities.  Re-
    processed material shall  not be used.  It shall be neutral gray to black 1n color and
    produced in a standard minimum width of at least 54 inches.  Thickness shall be as shown
    on the drawings.   Certification test results showing that the sheeting meets the specifica-
    tions shall be supplied on request.
    
    03 - FACTORY FABRICATION
    
         Individual  widths of PVC materials shall be fabricated into large sections by dielec-
         tric sealing into a single piece, or into a minimum number of panels, up to 100 feet
    wide, as required to fit the facility. Lap joints with a minimum joint width of 1/2 inch
    shall be used.  After fabrication, the lining shall be accordion folded 1n both directions
    and packaged for minimum handling in the field.  Shipping boxes shall be substantial
    enough to prevent damage to contents.
    
    04 - PLACING OF PVC LINING
    
         A.  General.  The PVC lining shall be placed over the prepared surfaces to be lined
                       in such a manner as to assure minimum handling.  It shall be sealed
    to all concrete structures and other openings through the lining in accordance with de-
    tails shown on the drawings submitted by the contractor and approved by the Engineer.
    The lining shall  be closely fitted and sealed around Inlets, outlets and other projections
    through the lining.  Any portion of lining damaged during Installation shall be removed or
    repaired by using an additional piece of lining as specified hereinafter.
    
             1.  Field Joints.  Lap joints will be used to seal factory fabricated panels of
                                PVC together in the field.  Lap joints shall be formed by
             lapping the edges of panels a minimum of 2 Inches.  The contact surfaces of the
             panels shall be wiped clean to remove all dirt, dust or other foreign materials.
             Sufficient cold-applied vinyl to vinyl bonding adhesive shall be applied to the
             contact surfaces 1n the joint area, and the two surfaces pressed together imme-
             diately.  Any wrinkles shall be smoothed out.
    
             2.  Joints to Structures.  All curing compounds and coatings shall be completely
                                        removed from the joint area.  Joining of PVC to con-
             crete shall be made with vinyl to concrete adhesive.  Unless otherwise shown on
             the drawings, the minimum width of concrete shelf provided for the cemented joint
             shall be 8 inches.
    
             3.  Repairs to PVC.  Any necessary repairs to the PVC shall be patched with the
                                  lining material itself and cold applied vinyl to vinyl
             bonding adhesive.  The bonding adhesive shall be applied to the contact surfaces
             of both the patch and lining to be repaired, and the two surfaces pressed together
             immediately.  Any wrinkles shall be smoothed out.
    
             4.  Quality of Workmanship.  All joints, on completion of the work, shall be
                                          tightly bonded.  Any lining surface showing injury
             due to scuffing, penetration by foreign objects or distress from rough subgrade
             shall, as directed by the Engineer, be replaced or covered and sealed with an
             additional layer of PVC of the proper size.
    
             A Technical Service Representative will be made available to the contractor if the
             contractor desires.  The contractor will bear the expense of this Technical Service
             Representative.  The Technical Service Representative 1s not directly responsible
             for the quality of the work involved;  such responsibility will be solely that of
             the contractor.
                                               110
    

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                   WATERSAVER  COMPANY, INC.
                 3560 WYNKOOP STREET .  DENVER, COLORADO 80216  .  (303) 623-4111
                                                                     DATA SHEET DET - 74
                Vinyl to Concrete
                Adhesive   -v
                              6,v.;x
             PVC Lining
                Compacted   ^///>,
                   Subgrade  ^
            ^2"xl/8" batten       __
              strips - fasteners *    '
              12" o.c.
    
         ANCHOR TO CONCRETE STRUCTURES
         PVC Lining
    
      Patch to  lap 8"
          all around/
              vinyl to
              vinyl cement
    opening in
    patch smaller than pipe
    diameter & stretched over pipe
    
    
             SEAL  TO  PIPE
                                                        ANCHOR - METHOD //I
                                                                   Earth
                                             Water   '
                                             Level
                                                     PVC Lining
                                                           Compacted
                                                           Earth Subgrade
                                                             ANCHOR - METHOD 92
    
                                                               Earth
                                                                       I2MIVI .
                                                                       ~~
                                                PVC Lining
    
                                           Water LeveJ
                                                       Compact
                                                       Earth Subgrade
    
                                                    TOP  OF  SLO"E  ANCHORAGE
                                           1/2" wide bead
                                           vinyl to vinyl    JJM
                                               adhesive
                                                                   i /
                                                                    PVC Llnln
                                                      TYPICAL LAP SPLICE JOINT
                        Max Water Leve
                                                               Anchor Methods  91 or 12
    Alternate  6" cover
              PVC Lining
                                                    Earth Cover
                                                    Max. Slope
                                       Compacted  earth subgrade
    
    
                                EARTH & GRAVEL COVER - FULL SLOPES
                                                            Anchor Methods #1 or 12
    PVC  Lining
                                                        Cover
                                               3:1 Max. Slope
    
                              Compacted Earth Subgrade
    
                                EARTH & GRAVEL COVER - PARTIAL SLOPES
    
                                             111
    

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                                                    APPENDIX  I
                                        VARIOUS  LINER  MATERIALS
    
                                STAFF   INDUSTRIES,  INC.
                            78 Dryden Road, Upper Montclair, N.J. 07043           201-744-5367
                            240 Chene Street, Detroit, Michigan  48207             3I3-2S9-1820
                                      GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION of
                                        STAFF LINERS FOR PREVENTING SEEPAGE
                                    from PONDS, RESERVOIRS, CANALS, LAGOONS, etc.
     Staff seepage prevention liners are made from tough, imper-
     meable elastomeric sheeting, both reinforced and unreinforced
     specially compounded for long life when properly installed.
     Liner  sections are fabricated  up to widths of 70% feet by
     lengths up to weights of two tons, in various gauges. Bonding
     solvent is supplied for joining sections in  the field where it
     is necessary to cover wider areas.
     We recommend that all liners for ponds, reservoirs, lagoons,
     etc., be covered with earth for mechanical protection from
     animals, men, and weather. However,  where necessary, and
     when  they can be properly  protected,  lining materials
     with  superior  outdoor durability may be used as exposed
     membranes.
     Staff Industries fabricates large liners for use in structures
     designed and constructed by others. The following shall serve
     as guidelines for the use of Staff seepage  prevention liners.
     1. SITE PREPARATION
     The liner sections as supplied by Staff Industries are im-
     permeable to water and gas. (For special  instructions regard-
     ing high water table and gassy areas, see #2, below.) All
     sharp  sticks, stones, and trash should be removed from the
     bottoms and sides of the installation, or covered with fine soil.
     Areas  containing nut grass and quack grass should be steril-
     ized. Preferably, the area to be covered should be  rolled to
     effect  compaction and smoothing so as to reduce local stresses
     on the membrane. At all times care should be taken to prevent
     puncturing of the liner during  installation  and  use. A perim-
     eter trench 8 to 12 inches square,  above  the  waterline, is
     generally used for anchoring the membrane. (See sketches on
     reverse side.)
     2. HIGH WATER TABLE AND GASSY AREAS
     If liners are installed  over decomposing materials such as
     organic wastes, bogs, etc., or  in areas of fluctuating water
     tables  which "pump" air, bubbles can develop and come to the
     surface. They will be unable to escape because of the imperme-
     ability of the lining to water and gas and the fact that, under
     water, the liner has very little weight. Where such conditions
     might exist, special precautions should be incorporated in the
     design to allow venting of such gas to the sides by sloping
     bottoms and a layer of gas-permeable soils directly under the
     liner. Also, it is strongly recommended that the liner be cov-
     ered on the bottom to provide weight to aid in gas removal, in
     addition to other possible venting methods.
     3. INSTALLATION OF LINERS
     Staff liners are shipped accordion-folded in both directions
     for easy opening, first in the length direction and then in the
     width  direction. Various methods of installing liners have
     been used, and one of them will now be  described: A boxed
     section designed for a certain area in the installation is placed
     on the  back of a truck, front-end loader, or other carrier, with
     the box length crosswise, and taken to the area where it is to be
     installed. After the steel straps are cut, the  box top and sides
     can be removed vertically, leaving the accordion-folded liner
     on a pallet, from which it can be opened lengthwise by holding
     the end and driving the vehicle forward while unfolding the
     liner. The first section is generally positioned on the berm so
     that one edge can be buried in  the anchor trench, before the
     rest is opened down the slope. The second section is then posi-
     tioned  adjacent to the first section and unfolded so that the
     two can be joined, as described  below, to cover the total areas
     required.
    For joining two sections together, a long smooth work surface
    is recommended. A 1" x 10" x 20' board is particularly suitable
     and can be used directly on dry ground, or on supports above
     wet ground. The two liner edges to be joined are overlapped 2
     to 4 inches along  the center line of the board and aligned by
     two workmen, who also clean  the area of any dust, dirt, or
     moisture, using a rag or brush. The sheeting must be perfectly
     dry before the bonding solvent is applied. The two men then
     slightly tension the area, while a third man injects the bond-
     ing solvent between the two positioned films (at the rate of
     about 1 ounce per 30 feet), using the squeeze bottles which
     are supplied for this purpose. It is not necessary  or desirable
     to turn back the top edge of the  sheeting. Slight hand pressure
     with a rag should be applied immediately after  the bonding
     solvent is injected. If any edges remain unsealed,  the bonding
     application can be repeated so as to bond the flap completely.
     The board is then moved forward for sealing the next area.
     (Sometimes a rope is attached to the forward end of the board
     for pulling it ahead.)
    
    After the seam is completed, the bonding solvent will have
    bonded the sections sufficiently so that the newly added sec-
    tion can be opened to its full width and another section posi-
    tioned and bonded. Shear strength develops in 5 to 15 minutes,
    but peel strength requires several days for solvent  dissipation.
    Seams should be carefully inspected, after a half hour or more,
    to detect and reseal any voids in the seam.
    
    4. OBSTRUCTION SEALING
    For  sealing  around connections,  walkways,  etc., several
    methods can be used. For round connections,  a  hole ^  the
    diameter of the connection is made in the film, and this hole is
    then stretched over the connection, (which has been coated
    with a special adhesive for bonding sheeting to steel and to
    clean concrete), producing an upturned collar.  This collar is
    then reinforced with a strip of  film and some of the special
    adhesive. In the case of connections of square or other shapes,
    the  film can  be adhered with the adhesive. It is also possible
    to fabricate from film and the bonding agent specially shaped
    collars, attach them to the connection, and then  adhere the
    liner to the collars. Around walkways or docks it will be neces-
    sary to cut the film and glue it  to fit as well as possible, and
    then make and adhere  collars to the posts and film so as to
    seal the connections watertight.
    5. COVERING OF LINERS
    To prevent damage to the  sheeting,  it is recommended that
    all lining surfaces be covered with earth, if possible. For side
    slopes, free-draining  earth should be topped  with erosion-
    resistant material such as gravel. In  order to retain soil and
    gravel cover on the sides, a slope not steeper than 3:1 is neces-
    sary. (Concrete can be used to cover steeper slopes.) Covering
    of heavier membranes which will not be subject to mechanical
    damage and vandalism can be by water only, if desired and
    gas development under the lining will not take place. A water
    layer will prevent damaging effects of heat to the liner as well
    as provide protection.  Some facilities which are expected to
    be maintained almost constantly full of water  have been de-
    signed with a bench below the waterline. Cover is then main-
    tained above the bench, but no cover except water would  be
    used below the bench. (See last two sketches on reverse side.)
    Equipment  used in covering the sides and bottoms of lined
    structures can be clamshells, front-end loaders, bulldozers,
    dump trucks, elevating graders, carryalls, graders, etc. Though
    liners are tough, equipment should not be driven directly  on
    them,  unless it is tested and proved on the job site that damage
    will not result. Even then,  careful supervision  should  be
    provided.
                                                           Staff Industries assumes no liability for the design or use of its
                                                           tative has authority to mske any representation, promise, or si
                                                                                                   iKreement to the contrary
             1,
              Courtesy  of  Staff  Industries,  Inc.,  Upper  Montclair,  N.J.,  and
    Detroit,  Michigan.
                                                             113
    

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                   VINYL TO CONCRETE ADHESIVE
    
    
                   PVC LINING	
                               18  MIN.
              SUBGRADE
    
            I"x 1/8" BATTEN STRIPS,
            FASTENERS 12" O.C.
       ANCHOR   TO CONCRETE  STRUCTURES
             PVC  LINING
    
            PATCH TO LAP 8'
               ALL AROUND
               COLLAR
               VINYL TO
               VINYL CEMENT-
    - OPENING IN PATCH SMALLER THAN
     PIPE DIAMETER  a STRETCHED -
     OVER PIPE
    
            SEAL  TO  PIPE
    ANCHOR  METHOD  # |
    
           EARTH  BACKFILL -
    
     PVC LINING
                                                                  -COMPACTED
                                                                   EARTH SUBGRADE
                                                       ANCHOR METHOD # 2
                                                                             .   ,J2"MN,
                                                                                       SLOPETO DRAIN
                                                    PVC LINING
                                           WATER LEVEL
                                                                                 "31 I -I EARTH
                                 N-PVC LINING
                                                    COMPACT
                                                    -EARTH SUBGRADE
                                                      TOP  OF SLOPE  ANCHORAGE
                                                                                    ALTERNATE
                                                1/2" WIDE BEAD
                                                VINYL TO VINYL
                                                ADHESIVE
                                                                     2'MIN
                                                                        -PVC LINING
                                                TYPICAL  LAP SPLICE JOINT
                                                     6" GRAVEL  FILL 
    
                                                 12" MIN
                             MAX  WATER LEVEL-
     ALTERNATE  6" COVER
                   -PVC LINING
                                                                   ANCHOR METHODS tfl or #2-
    
                                                          6" EARTH COVER
    
                                                     3:i MAX SLOPE
    
                                             COMPACTED EARTH SUBGRADE
    
    
                               EARTH  AND GRAVEL COVER  - FULL  SLOPES
                                                   6" GRAVEL  COVER -
                                                                       "ANCHOR METHOD tt Iorjt2-
          MAX  WATER  LEVEL
    
    MIN WATER
                                                         6" EARTH COVER
                                                     3:i MAX SLOPE
         PVC LINING
                             COMPACTED  EARTH SUBGRADE
    
                                    EARTH AND  GRAVEL  COVER  -  PARTIAL SLOPES
                                              114
    

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                                         APPENDIX J
                               FIRESTONE  FABRITANK  LINER
                 EMBANKMENT  FABRITAMK
                             SIZES* AND  DATA
    NOMINAL
    CAPACITY
    (GALS.)
    25,000
    50,000
    100,000
    200,000
    300,000
    400,000
    500,000
    600,000
    700,000
    800,000
    900,000
    1,000,000
    TANK DIMENS. (FT.) DIKE DIMENS.
    A
    33.2
    41.5
    52.4
    66.4
    77.7
    87.2
    95.6
    103.1
    110.0
    116.5
    122.5
    128.2
    B
    15.2
    17.5
    22.4
    30.4
    41.7
    51.2
    59.6
    67.1
    74.0
    80.5
    86.5
    92.2
    c
    6
    8
    10
    12
    12
    12
    12
    12
    12
    12
    12
    12
    D
    22.5
    29.0
    35.5
    42.0
    42.0
    42.0
    42.0
    42.0
    42.0
    42.0
    42.0
    42.0
    E
    1.5
    2.0
    2.5
    3.0
    3.0
    3.0
    3.0
    3.0
    3.0
    3.0
    3.0
    3.0
    AVERAGE
    EARTH DIKE
    (CU. YDS.)
    549
    1045
    1855
    3137
    3628
    4041
    4402
    4728
    5028
    5307
    5568
    5816
    TANK NET
    WEIGHT (LBS.)
    (APPROXIMATE)
    836
    1,286
    2,045
    3,269
    4,414
    5,506
    6,563
    7,597
    8,615
    9,617
    10,609
    11,593
    Note: A  Tank TopSquare   B  Tank BottomSquare   C  Tank Depth  D  Earth DikeBase   E  Earth DikeTop
                   .LL	
    
                                          rr"
    -rtjp.
    
     c
            EMBAIMKMEIMT AIMD  TANK  CROSS SECTS ON
          All tanks are oversize 10%.
          Other sizes available on request.
          NOTE:
          Tank dimensions A, B & C are shown to illustrate standard available sizes and capacities.
          Embankment dimensions D & E and average earth dike quantities are to be considered
          as schematic illustrations only. Since structural characteristics of soil vary, it is important
          that the embankment design be determined by a qualified civil or consulting engineer.
          1
           Courtesy  of  Firestone  Coated  Fabricks Company,  Magnolia,  Arkansas,
                                             115
    

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    TVPICAL   INSTALLATIONS
      One-million-gallon Fabntank for domestic water service, prior to filling
      Same tank after filling, also showing the community in San Jose, California, that it serves.
                                                                      *US GOVERNMENT PWNTIIIG. OFFICE 1979 -281-147/41
                                                     116
    

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    EPA MCD-54
    
    
    
    Wasterwater Stabilization
    Linings
    

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       _ I States
    Environmental Protection
    Agency
    Official Business
    Penalty for Private Use
    $300
    Postage and Fees Paid
    Environmental Protection Agency
    EPA 335
    c/o GSA    -*
    Centralized Mailing Lists Services
    Building 41,  Denver Federal Center
    Denver CO 80225
                                                                                        Fourtl
                                                                                        Book
    

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