PROCEEDINGS
VOLUME 3
Conference
In the matter off Pollution off
the Interstate Waters of the
Grand Calumet River, Little
Calumet River, Calumet River,
Wolff Lake, Lake Michigan
and theirTributaries
                          MARCH 2-9,1965
U. S DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

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                                                       603


  j                      UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT



  

  2




  3*



  4                   HEALTH,  EDUCATION,  AND WELFARE



                                 ****
  5




  6



  7             Conference in the matter of pollution of




  0             the  interstate waters of the Grand Calumet
  o



               River,  Little Calumet River, Calumet River,
  y



 10             Lake Michigan, Wolf Lake and their tribu-




 n             taries  (Indiana-Illinois).





 12


                                  *#*#
 13




 14



 15                   MR.  MURRAY STEIN, Chairman





 16




 17


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 18




 19



20                                  McCormick Place

                                    Banquet Room

21                                  9:45 o'clock a.m.

                                    March 4, 1965

22                                  Chicago, Illinois




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                                                      6 04
 1    CONFEREES:

 2         MR. H. W. POSTON,

 3           Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
            U. S. Public Health Service, Division  of
 4           Water Supply & Pollution Control,
            Regional Program Director, Illinois
 5
          MR. BLUCHER A. POOLE, Technical Secretary, and
          MR. PERRY MILLER,

 7           Stream Pollution Control Board,
            State Board of Health, Indiana.
 8
          MR. CLARENCE W. KLASSEN, Technical Secretary,  and
 9         MR. RICHARD NELLE,

10           State Sanitary Water Board, Department
            of Public Health, Illinois.
11
          MR. FRANK W. CHESROW, President, and
12         MR. GEORGE A. LANE,

13           The Metropolitan Sanitary District
            of Greater Chicago, Illinois
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504-
INDEX
STATEMENTS :
MR. SAMUEL R. ROSEN, Deputy Attorney General,
State of Indiana

MR. PERRY MILLER, Assistant Director, Division
of Sanitary Engineering, Indiana State Board
of Health
(continued on page 747)
DR. JOHN NICOSIA, Mayor, City of East Chicago,
A



606



616

Indiana
MR. CORNEL A. LEAHU, Sanitary District Superintendent,
City of East Chicago, Indiana
(continued on page 908)
MR. A. M. KATZ, Mayor, City of Gary, Indiana
MR. PERRY MILLER (continuing)
MR. GEORGE PORT, Chairman of the Board,
Merrlllville Conservancy District

MR. JOSEPH S. BAUM, Coordinator of Waste
Disposal, Cities Service Oil Company
MR. JOHN M. DEVINS, Plant Manager, E. I.
DuPont DeNemours & Company, East Chicago,
Indiana
MR. A. J. SCHULER, Plant Engineer, U.S.S.
Lead Refinery, Inc., East Chicago, Indiana

DR. GREGOIRE GUTZEIT, Senior Scientific Advisor
General American Transportation Corporation,
East Chicago, Indiana

MR. RICHARD J. MAUTHE, Chief Plant Engineer,
Blaw-Knox Company, East Chicago, Indiana
MR. R. L. SHANER, Regional Engineer, Linde
Division of Union Carbide Corporation

MR. EDGAR D. KEIPER, JR., Manager, Mobil Oil
Company, East Chicago, Indiana

838

909
936

945


951


968

976

,

978


994

998


1002

1:!0

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                                                        604-B

 I    STATEMENTS:

 2         MR. GEORGE A. BLAINE, Plant Manager, Sinclair
            Refining Company, East Chicago, Indiana        1010
 3
     PREPARED STATEMENTS:
 4
          MR. SAMUEL R. ROSEN, Deputy Attorney General,
 5           State of Indiana                                6l6

 6         MR. PERRY MILLER, Assistant Director, Division
            of Sanitary Engineering, Indiana State Board
 7           of Health.                                      624

 8    REPORTS, TELEGRAMS, COMMUNICATIONS, ETC.,

 9         REPORT ON TREATMENT PROCESS PRIOR TO DISCHARGE
          INTO THE WATERS OF THE GRAND CALUMET RIVER,
10         LITTLE CALUMET RIVER, LAKE MICHIGAN, AND THEIR
          TRIBUTARIES, presented by DR. JOHN B. NICOSIA,
          Mayor, City of East Chicago, Indiana              844

12         Letter from AMERICAN STEEL FOUNDRIES, Trans-
            portation Equipment Division, presented by
13           Mr. B. A. Poole                                 997

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                                                    605
      CHAIRMAN STEIN:   May we reconvene?
                At  this point,  we would like to call on
Mr. Blucher  Poole  of  Indiana.
                Mr.  Poole;
  5 I       MR.  POOLE:   Mr.  Chairman,  fellow conferees,  ladies
     and gentlemen:   When  Mr.  Stein  closed last evening,  he
     said  today would be Indiana  day.   I must  admit  that  there
     were  several times during the course of the day yester-
  9  I day when  it appeared  to me that it  was Indiana  day.
 10                                   (Laughter.)
               I do want you all  to know  that  Indiana
recognizes that we have a mutual  problem  in the  south
end of Lake Michigan.  We, too, are interested in main-
taining a high quality of water.
               The State of Indiana has only a small por-
tion of the lake, but we do recognize its tremendous
assets.
               We also recognize our obligations to our
19 J  neighbors in Illinois.
               Today, we are going to tell you what has
been done and what we are in the process of doing, and
we believe, when the work is completed, the Little Calumet
23    and the Grand Calumet at the points where they cross the
24    state line will be in an acceptable condition.
25                   Further, we believe that the trend which

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                                                        606
     was shown rather graphically yesterday by the Chicago
     Water Department's presentationwe believe the trend in
     the south end of Lake Michigan will have been reversed.
                    Now, our presentation will consist of,
     first, two statements on behalf of the Indiana State
     Pollution Control Board, following which there will be
     statements on behalf of all of the municipalities and
     each Industry in Indiana that maintains a separate out-
     let into any of the waters that are under considera-
10   tion.
                    I hope you will bear with us.  That is, we
12   have asked the big, medium-sized and the small.  Some of
13   the statements in my judgment are by participants in this
14   conference who have a rather infinitesimal part in the
15   over-all problem.
ie                  We are going to start off with Mr. Samuel
17   R.  Rosen, Deputy Attorney General of the State of Indiana,
18   who does the work for the Indiana Stream Pollution Control
19   Board.
          MR. ROSEN:  Mr, Chairman Stein, distinguished
21   conferees, ladles and gentlemen, I have been asked by
22   way of orientation to present the legal background of
23   the stream Pollution Control Board in the State of Indiana.
24                  The problem to a lawyer in presenting a
25   legal background on any subject is the problem of avoid-

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                                                     607
     ing the  pitfalls  of overemphasis on legalistic phraseology,
     and in turning out a legal brief rather than an under-
     standable  presentation for the nonlegally trained.
                    There was a recent cartoon in the New
     Yorker magazine}  depicting two well-dressed gentlemen
     along side a  stream, both observing the debris of bottles
     of  Napoleon Brandy,  the butts of Havana Corona cigars and
     empty cans of caviar and Foie Gras floating by.  One of
     the gentlemen observing this  remarked,  "It may be pol-
io    luted but  at  least it's pollution of a  high order."
11                   The observation of pollution started as
12    early as 1856 in  the leading  case of Sloan against  the
13    State, cited  in 8 Ind.  312.
14                   One,  Sloan,  was convicted of causing a
15    nuisance by pouring  the slops of the Bates House, the
16    leading  Hotel in  Indianapolis,  into the street where it
17    made  offensive  pools along  the  west side of Illinois Street.
18                   Thereafter,  an early statute defined
19    a nuisance as "whatever is  injurious to health,  or
20    indecent,  or  offensive  to  the senses, or an obstruction
21    to  the free use of property,  so as essentially to inter-
22    fere  with  the comfortable  enjoyment of  life or property."
23                   In 1868  in  the State against Taylor,  cited
24    in  29 Ind.  517, one,  Taylor,  was indicted  for  depositing
25    domestic waste  in a  spring  near a highway from which

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                                                  608
travelers were accumstomed to drink.  The indictment was
upheld as a public offense under the nuisance statute,
which I have already outlined.
               This is probably the first case in the
State involving stream pollution.  Thereafter, various
statutes and amendments were made by the Acts of 1881,
and continuously up to 1957 with additional ones pending
before the Legislature.
               The present law remains essentially the
same as written by Chapter 214 of the Acts of 1943, al-
though there have been important amendments in '45 and  '57.
               In essence, the present law creates a
Stream Pollution Control Board of seven members who are
comprised of the Secretary of the Indiana State Board
 15 I  of Health, the Director of the Department of Conserva-
     tion and the Lieutenant Governor of the State of Indiana,
all serving as ex-offlcio members of said Board.  The
remaining four members are appointed by the Governor for
terms of four years, no more than two of which shall be
of the same political party.
               The Governor fills vacancies for unexpired
terms and may remove any member for cause.  Ex-officio
members serve without pay, the other members of the
Board shall be paid mileage and a per diem fee.  The Act
provides for six regular meetings per annum and the

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                                                      609
     Secretary of the  State  Board  of Health shall  designate

     a  qualified  sanitary engineer as technical secretary of

     the  Stream  Pollution Control Board,  who is Blucher A.

     Poole,  the Conferee  today who represents the  Stream

     Pollution Control Board.

                    The Jurisdiction of the  Board is to control

     and  prevent  pollution in  the  waters of the State of Indiana

     with any substance which  is deleterious to the public

 9 II  health  or to the  prosecution  of any industry  or lawful

10   occupation,  or  whereby  any fish life  or any beneficial

n   animal  or vegetable  life  may  be destroyed,  or the growth

12   or propagation  thereof  prevented or injuriously affected.
13

14

15

16

17
               The powers of the Board are widespread in

that it may bring any appropriate action in law or in

equity in the name of the State of Indiana.  It may

hold Administrative Hearings, issue orders to any person,

corporation, municipal corporation, partnership or legal
    entity to acquire, construct, repair, alter or extend

    such plants as may be necessary for the disposal or treat-

    ment of organic and/or inorganic matter which is causing,

    or contributing to, or about to cause or contribute to

    a polluted condition of the waters of the State.

                   It has the power of sealing mines, oil

    and gas wells, brine wells or any other subterranean

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                                                      6lO
 i   contribute to a polluted condition of the waters of the

 2   State.

 3                  It has the right of reasonable inspection

 4   upon private or public property and may call upon any

 5   State officer, board, department, school, university or

 6   other state institution and the officers thereof for

 7   assistance.

 8                  It may determine what qualities and

 9   properties of water shall Indicate a polluted condition.

 10                  Whenever the Board shall determine that

 u    any corporation, municipal corporation, association,

 12   partnership, person, or any other legal entity is

 13   violating the various provisions as outlined in the Act,

 14    there shall be an Administrative Hearing.  Methods of

 15    serving notice and holding hearings and thereafter issuing

 16    orders and enforcing the same with rights of appeal

 17    to the parties against whom said Administrative Hearings

 ,0    are held, are all outlined in the Act.
 10
 19                   Incidentally, the Administrative Adjudica-

20    tion and Court Review Act which is set forth in Burns

21    has taken over the original Stream Pollution Control

22    Act and is controlling as far as administrative hearings

23    are concerned.

24                   All plans and specifications for abatement

25    or correction of any polluted condition must be approved

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     by the Stream Pollution Control Board.



                    If the offenders be a municipal corporation,



     the Act provides the steps necessary for the payment of



     funds available for such purposes in construction, acquisi-



     tion, improvement,  equipment,  custody, operation, repair



     and maintenance of any plant,  machinery or works, or



     if there are insufficient funds, it provides the necessary



     funds shall  be raised by the issuance of bonds,  subject



     to the approval of the Indiana Tax Board.



10                   It limits the use of these funds  for



11    specific purposes and provides for a penalty for any



12    individual offender,  or any member of a partnership or any



13    officer or private  corporation,  association or other legal



14    entity,  or any mayor, councilman,  or member of a board of



15    public works and safety,  or any municipal corporation, who



16    fails or refuses to discharge  any duty imposed upon him by



17    this Act or  by final  order of  the Stream Pollution Control



18    Board,  may be deemed  guilty of a misdemeanor and upon



19    conviction thereof,  shall be fined not less than $25



20    and  not  more than $100 to which may be added imprison-



21    ment in  the  county  jail for any period not to exceed



22    90 days.



23                   It gives the Stream Pollution Control



24    Board  discretion to extend  the time fixed in any final



25    order  and provides  that any of the above  persons or



     corporations as  described in the above paragraphs,  who

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                                                      6l2
     do not comply with the order within the fixed time ar

     within the time additionally granted, shall be subject

     to a penalty of $100 for each day that such polluted

     condition continues to exist after the time so fixed,

     or as additionally granted, which may be recovered in a

     civil suit brought in the name of the State of Indiana,

     which is in addition to the penalties outlined under

     the misdemeanor penalty.

 9                  It shall be the duty of the Attorney

 10   General to prosecute all actions for penalties under

     this Section, and all penalties so recovered shall be

 12   paid into the common school fund of the State.

 13                  In practice this Act has worked effectively.

 14   There are various suits pending against corporations and

 15   individuals which I will outline.

 16                  Since the inception of the laws of 1943*

 17   there have been some 232 separate matters Involving

 19   municipalities or industries.  The greatest majority

 19   have been concluded successfully without the necessity

20   of resorting to court action, by ruling of the Board after

21   an Administrative Hearing.

22                  With the passage of years since

23   the various matters have increased in number as have

24   the problems of pollution.

25                  For example, In 1964 there were 25 separate

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                                                       613
     Hearings  scheduled  with municipalities or corporations;
     20  sepaafce  conferences  held;  15  orders issued by the
     Board and three  facilities  were  constructed  in lieu of
     Hearings.
                   In projecting  the probable Hearings and
     Conferences which will  be held in this year  of 1965,  it
     appears certain  that both the number  of Hearings to be
     scheduled will be increased, as  will  the  number of
     Conferences.
10                  There are at least six separate matters
     pending in the courts of the State presently which Involve
12    either appeals from rulings of the Administrative Hearing
13    by the Stream PCOlution  Control Board,  or  application
14    by the State for enforcement of  cease  and desist orders.
is                  We have  yet  to resort  to the  penalty pro-
16    visions provided by the Act, asking for a conviction  as
17   misdemeanor offenders,  or asking  for  financial penalties.
18                  There is a close  cooperation  between the
19    office of the Attorney  General and the Stream Pollution
20    Control Board, in passing on correspondence  and attending
21    conferences, and in preparation  of all notices,  as  well
22   as the conduct of Administrative  Hearings.   This includes
     the review of testimony and transcripts taken at the
    Hearings and, of course, all court actions are exclusively
25   handled by the Attorney General's office.

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                                                         614



 i                  In conclusion,  it is significant to note



 2   that  the  highest court  of our  State has upheld the Stream  



 3   Pollution Control Act in the following cases:   Manner



 4   vs. Terre Haute, 163 N. E.  (and) 577 and the City of



 5   Plymouth  vs.  Stream Pollution  Control Board at 238 Ind.



     439.   Thus, we  have had an effective law which is being



 7   administered  in an effective manner.  The Stream Pollu-



 8   tion  Control  Board is affirmatively and agressively



 9   functioning.   It is successfully waging the continuous



lo   war against water pollution.  Thank you.



u         CHAIRMAN STEIN: Thank you, Mr. Rosen.



12                  Are there any comments or questions?



          MR.  KLASSEN:  Yes, I wanted to ask Mr. Rosen a



     question  or two.  From  my own  experience, I realize



     that  the  defeat or the  success of a vigorous pollution
lo


,c    control program is the  action  by the Attorney General,
lo


     and I want to ask Mr. Rosen whether the Attorney General



1D    in Indiana has  ever secured an injunction against a
lo


ig    municipality  or an industry prohibiting the discharge



20    of wastes into  a stream?



          MR.  ROSEN:  This we have.  I can give you the



22    citation.



          MR.  KLASSEN:  I Just wanted 



          MR.  ROSEN:  This has been done.
24


25         MR.  KLASSEN:  And  the second question.  It was on

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                                                       615
     page 8,  and it wasn't quite clear, whether the Attorney
 2  General  has actually collected penalty fines from a
     municipality or an industry.
          MR.  ROSEN:  At the top of page 8, in my statement,
     I said that we had never resorted to either criminal
     action or collection of a penalty.  This has not been
     resorted  to.  We have not found it necessary.
          MR.  KLASSEN:  And a third question:  Are there any
     outstanding orders issued by the Board that have not
10   yet  been  prosecuted by the Attorney General?
11        MR.  ROSEN:  There are none.  There are, as I say,
12   six  pending.  As a matter of fact, there is an Appeals,
13   one  Instance,  the City of South Bend is appealing an
14   order which had been issued after an Administrative
15   Hearing.
16        MR.  KLASSEN:  Thank you.
17        CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Are there any further comments or
18   questions?
19                  If not, thank you very much, Mr. Rosen.
20        MR.  POOLE:  Just one addition to make to Mr. Klassen's
21    last  question.   There are a few outstanding orders that
22   have  not  been  referred to the  Attorney General.
23                  Next on our list is Mr. Perry Miller, who
24   is the Assistant Director of the Division of Sanitary
25   Engineering of the State  Board of Health and is more

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                                                       616

     intimately acquainted with the problems and programs in

     Lake and Porter Counties,  Indiana,  than any other one in   ,

     our organization.
                                                                
                    He  is going to make  the technical presen-

     tation.   Mr.  Miller.

          MR. MILLER:  Mr. Chairman,  conferees,  ladies and

     gentlemen,  my name is Perry Miller.   I am Assistant

     Director of the Division of Sanitary Engineering,

 9   Indiana  State Board of Health.

10                  Mr. Chairman, I would request that the

11   entire report be included  in the record and I will only

12   summarize it  here  for you.

13        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  This  will  be  done without objection,

14   and I suggest,  Mr. Poole, that we do the same with Mr.

15   Rosen's  report because he obviously didn't  read all the

16   citations.

17                  Thank you.

18                   PREPARED  STATEMENT
                             Of
19                     Samuel R. Rosen
     Deputy Attorney General, State of Indiana,  on behalf of
20   Indiana.
                THE LEGAL BACKGROUND  OF  STREAM POLLUTION
21                   CONTROL IN  THE STATE OP INDIANA

22                  The problem to a  lawyer in presenting a legal

23   background  on any  subject is the problem of avoiding the pit-

24   falls of over-emphasis on legalistic phraseology, and in

25   turning  out a legal brief rather than an understandable

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                                                        617



 1   presentation  for  the  nonlegally trained.



 2                   There  was  a recent cartoon in the New Yorker



 3   Magazine, depicting two well-dressed  gentlemen along  side a



 4   stream,  both  observing the debris of  bottles of Napoleon



 5   Brandy,  but butts of  Havana Corona cigars and empty cans



 6   of  Caviar and Foie Gras floating by.   One off the gentlemen



 7   observing this  remarked,  "The  stream  may  be  polluted,  but



 8   at  least it is  only polluted with the best."



 9                   The observation of pollution  started as



10   early as 1856 in  the  State of  Indiana,  in the leading  case



11   of  Sloan against  the  State,  cited in  8 Ind.  312.   One,



12   Sloan, was convicted  of causing a nuisance by pouring



13   the slops of the  Bates House,  the leading Hotel in Indianapoli



14   into the street where it made  offensive pools along the west



15   side of  Illinois  Street.   Thereafter,  an  early statute



16   defined a nuisance as, "Whatever is injurious to  health,



17   or  indecent, or offensive  to the senses,  or  an obstruction



18   to  the free use of property, so as essentially to Interfere



19   with the comfortable  enjoyment  of life or property."



20   (G  & H 628)



21                   In 1868 in  the  State against  Taylor, cited in



22   29  Ind. 517, one, Taylor,  was  indicted for depositing domestic



23   waste in the spring near a highway from which travelers were



24   accustomed to drink.  The  indictment  was  upheld as  a public



25   offense under the nuisance statute, which I  have  already

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                                                        618


 1   outlined.


 2                  This Is probably the first case in the State  ,


 3   involving stream pollution.  Thereafter, various statutes
                                                                 

 4   and amendments were made by the Acts of l88lj Acts of 1901,


 5   p. 96; Acts of 1909, c. 24; Acts of 1913, c. 35; Acts of


 &   1913, c. 147; Acts of 1927, c. 45; Acts of 1935, c. 152;


 7   Acts of 1943, c. 214.


 8        The present law remains essentially the same as


 9   written by Chapter 214 of the Acts of 1943, although there


10   have been important amendments thereafter.  In 1945, c. 132


11   and  1957 , c. 64.


12                  In essence, the present law creates a Stream


13   Pollution Control Board of 7 members who are comprised of


u   the Secretary of the Indiana State Board of Health, the


15   Director of the Department of Conservation and the Lieutenant-


16   Governor of the State of Indiana, all serving as ex-officio


l?   members of said Board.  The remaining 4 members are


18   appointed by theGovernor for terms of 4 years, no more


19   than 2 of which shall be of the same political party.


20                  The Governor fills vacancies for unexpired


21   terms and may remove any member for cause.  Ex-officio


22   members serve without pay, the other members of the Board


23   shall be paid mileage and a per diem fee.  The Act provides


24   for 6 regular meetings per annum and the Secretary of the


25   State Board of Health shall designate a qualified sanitary

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                                                      619
    engineer as technical secretary of the Stream Pollution
    Control Board, who is Blucher A. Poole, the Representative
    of the Stream Pollution Control Board present at this
    Conference.
                   The jurisdiction of the Board is to control
    and prevent pollution in the waters of the State of Indiana
    with any substance which is deleterious to the public health
    or to the prosecution of any industry or lawful occuption,
    or whereby any fish life or any beneficial animal or vegetable
10   life may be destroyed, or the growth or propagation thereof
n   prevented or injuriously affected.
12                  The powers of the Board are widespread in
13   that it may bring any appropriate action in law or inequity
u   in the name of the State of Indiana.  It may hold Administra-
15   tive Hearings, issue orders to any person, corporation,
16   municipal corporation, partnership or legal entity to acquire,
17   construct,  repair, alter or extend  such plants as may be
18   necessary for the disposal or treatment of organic and/or
19   Inorganic matter which is causing,  or contributing to,  or
20   about to cause or contribute to a polluted condition of the
21   waters of the State.
22                  It has the power of sealing mines, oil and
23   gas wells,  brine wells or any other subterranean strata
24   causing,  contributing to or about to cause or contribute
25   to a polluted condition of the waters of the State.

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                                                       620
  i                  It has the right of reasonable Inspection
  2   upon private or public property and may call upon any State 
  3   officer,  board, department,  school, university or other
  4   state institution and the officers thereof for assistance.
  5                  It may determine what qualities and properties
  6   of water  shall indicate a polluted condition.
  7                  Whenever the Board shall determine that any
  8   corporation, municipal corporation, association, partnership,
  9   person, or any other legal entity, is violating the various
 10   provisions as outlined in the Act, there shall be an Adminis-
 n   trative Hearing.  Methods of serving notice and holding
 12   hearings  and thereafter issuing orders and enforcing the same
 13   with rights of appeal to the parties against whom said
 14   Administrative Hearings are held, are all outlined in the
 15   Act.  (Administrative Adjudication and Court Review, Burns
 16   63-3001 to 63-3030)
 17                  All plans and specifications for abatement
 18   or correction of any polluted condition must be approved
 19   by the Stream Pollution Control Board.
20                  If the offenders be a municipal corporation,
21   the Act provides the steps necessary for the payment of
22   funds available for such purposes in construction, acquisition
23   improvement, equipment, custody, operation, repair and
24   maintenance of any plant, machinery or works, or if there
25   is insufficient funds, it provides the necessary funds

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                                                        621



     shall be raised by the issuance of bonds, subject to the



     approval of the Indiana Tax Board. (Burns 68-528    It



     limits the use of these funds for specific purposes and



     provides for a penalty for any individual offender, or any



     members of a partnership or any officer or private cor-



     poration, association or other legal entity, or any mayor,



     councilman, or member of a board of public works and



     safety, or any municipal corporation, who fails or refuses to



     discharge any duty imposed upon him by this Act or by final



10   order of the Stream Pollution Control Board, may be deemed



n   guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof, shall



12   be  fined not less than $25.00 and not more than $100.00, to



13   which may be added imprisonment in the county Jail for any



14   period not to exceed 90 days.



is                  It gives the Stream Pollution Control Board



16   discretion to extend the time fixed in any final order and



17   provides that any of the above persons or corporations as



18   described in the  above paragraphs,  who do not comply with the



19   order within the  fixed time or within the time additionally



20   granted,  shall be subject to a penalty of $100.00 for each



21   day that such polluted condition continues to exist after the



22   time so fixed,  or as additionally granted, which may be



23   recovered in a civil suit brought in the  name of the State



24   of  Indiana,  which is In addition to the penalties outlined



25   under misdemeanor.

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                                                     622
                    It shall be the duty of the Attorney General
     to prosecute  all actions for penalties under this  Section, 
     and all  penalties so recovered shall be paid into  the common
     school fund of the State.
                    In practice this Act has worked effectively.
     There are  various suits pending against corporations and
     individuals,  and outlined as follows:
                    Since the inception of the laws of  1943, there
     have been  some 232 separate matters involving municipalities
 10   or industries.  The greatest majority have been concluded
 11   successfully  without the necessity of resorting to court
 12   action,  by ruling of the Board after an Administrative Hearing
 13                  With the passage of years since 1943* the
 14   various  matters have increased in number as have the problems
 15   of pollution.
 16                  For example, in 1964 there were 25  Hearings
 17   scheduled  with municipalities or corporationsj 20  separate
 18   conferences held;  15 Orders issued by the Board and 3
 19   facilities were constructed in lieu of Hearings.
 20                  In projecting the probable Hearings and
 21   Conferences which will  be held in the year of 1965, it
 22   appears  certain that both the number of Hearings to be
23   scheduled  will be increased, as will the number of Conferences
24                  There are at least 6 separate matters pending
25   in the courts  of the State which involve either appeals from

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                                                       623
 1   rulings of the Administrative Hearing by the Stream
     Pollution Control Board,  or application by the State for
 3   enforcement of cease and  desist orders.
 4
 5   visions  provided  by the Act,  asking for a conviction as
 6   misdemeanor offenders,  or asking for financial penalties.
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                    We have yet to resort to the penalty pro-
               There is a  close  cooperation  between the
office of the Attorney General and the Stream  Pollution
Control Board in passing on correspondence and attending
Conferences, and in preparation  of all notices, as  well as
the conduct of Administrative Hearings.  This  includes  the
review of testimony and transcripts taken at the Hearings
and, of course, all court actions are exclusively handled
by the Attorney General's office.
               In conclusion, it is significant to  note
that the highest court of our State has upheld the  Stream
Pollution Control Act in the following cases:  Manner vs.
Terre Haute, 163 N. E. (and) 577 and Plymouth  vs Stream
Pollution Control Board, 238 Ind. 439, 151 N.  E. (2nd)
626.  Thus, we have an effective law which is  being
administered in an effective mannerj  The Stream Pollution
Control Board is affirmatively and agressively functioning.
It is successfully waging the continuous war against
water pollution.

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                                                        624
              FOR CONFERENCE




                    ON




   GRAND CALUMET RIVER, LITTLE CALUMET RIVER,




   CALUMET RIVER, LAKE MICHIGAN, WOLF LAKE




              AND TRIBUTARIES




             (INDIANA-ILLINOIS)









                  CALLED BY









       SECRETARY ANTHONY J. CELEBREZZE




DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
           STARTING MARCH 2, 1965




              CHICAGO, ILLINOIS









                ON BEHALF OF




                     THE







   INDIANA STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD









                FEBRUARY, 1965

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                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                          Page
INTRODUCTION                                              626

BASIN REPORTS
   Grand Calumet-Indiana Harbor Canal-Lake Michigan       636
   Little Calumet-Burns Ditch                             649
   Little Calumet (West)                                  655
   Grand Calumet (West)                                   559
   Wolf Lake                                              662

CONCLUSIONS                                               663

APPENDICES

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                                                                  626
                              INTRODUCTION
     The conference was called by the Secretary of Health, Education, and
Welfare (HEW), under the provisions of Section 8, of the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act (Public Law 660) of 1956, as amended in 1961, based
upon reports, surveys, and studies conducted by the Department in conjunc-
tion with the Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin project.

     The chronology of events concerning this conference begins with a
letter dated December 15, 196it, (Appendix 1) front the Secretary of HEW*
This letter was Indiana's first official notice.  The matter was referred
to the Stream Pollution Control Board members on December 22, 196U,
(Appendix 2).  The Bonrd members directed the Technical Secretary to
designate 17 cities and towns (ADDendix 3) and 33 industries (Appendix U)
to participate in this conference.  The Board notified the Secretary of HEW
on December 29, 196lt, (Appendix 5) of its intentions regarding this
conference.

     The State of Indiana has been working for many years to improve and
maintain the water quality in this area in such condition that all users,
present and future, have acceptable water.  In an effort to overcome
pollutional problems in the south end of Lake Michigan and to collect data
on which to base water quality criteria, the State of Indiana prepared,
in 1953 an outline (Appendix 6) of a proposed survey for the south end of
Lake Michigan.  The survey was to be undertaken and financed by Indiana,
Illinois, Department of Water and Sewers of the City of Chicago, the Metro-
politan Sanitary District of Chicago, Public Health Service, and municipal
and industrial interests.  This survey was to be conducted over a two-year
period at a cost of about f250,000.  The survey was not undertaken because
of failure to reach an agreement with all parties concerned.

     In 1935, the first comprehensive stream pollution abatement law was
passed, and under provisions of the law the cities of East Chicago, Gary,
Hammond, and Whiting were ordered, in 1937, to abate pollution of the Grand
Calumet River, the Indiana Harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan.  East Chicago,
Gary and Hammond complied by formation of sanitary districts and the con-
struction of sewage treatment works.

     The Stream Pollution Control Board (hereinafter referred to as the Board)
was created by Chapter 2ll|, Acts of 19U3, (Appendix 7).  This statute as
amended provides for the Board members, grants the Board control over the
pollution of any waters of this State with the powers to make determinations,
orders, and regulations.  It further prescribes the powers and duties of the
Board to prohibit the pollution of any waters of this State and provides for
the raising of funds by municipal corporations to comply with the orders of
the Bosrd.  It provides penalties for the violation thereof; and repealed
the 1935 statute referred to above.

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                                                                        627
     The State of Indiana has made real progress in its pollution abate-
ment program under the 19U3 law,  '^'he number of municipalities served by
sewage treatment works has more than doubled during the past 17 years.
The investment in sewage works increased from $36.2 million to over
$361.6 million.

     Indiana recognizes its obligation to provide improved water to the
neighboring State of Illinois.  Water quality monitoring data from Indiana
Harbor Canal and Burns Ditch show water quality has not deteriorated.  The
water of Lake Michigan is usable for public water supplies and there is no
threat to the health of the people by this use.  The Board, even with in.
creased industrial activity and population growth, has not lost ground in
maintaining water quality in Lake Michigan.

     The Indiana portion of this area is included in two counties, Lake
County and Porter County.  Since the turn of the century, Lake County,
Indiana, has experienced a tremendous rate of growth.  In 1900 the County
had 37,892 inhabitants, while the I960 census showed a population of
5l3269 persons, an increase of 1,250 per cent.  The plentiful supply of
water evaliable from Lake Michigan; industrial development; excellent
highway, railroad and waterway transportation arteries; and the Qhicago
urban area are a few factors stimulating this phenomenal growth.  It
should be noted that 8U per cent of the Lake County population is located
in the upper third of the County along the shores of Lake Michigan and
the major watercourses of the Calumet Basin.

     Porter County has also experienced accelerated growth since 191|0
The increase between 19UO (27,336) and I960 (60,279) was 117 per cent as
compared to an increase of only U5 per cent between 1900 (19,175) and
19ljO.  The growth of Porter County is expected to increase at even a
greater rate due to:  (1) The recently completed Midwest Steel Division,
National Steel Corporation plant located at Burns Ditch and Lake Michigan;
(2) The Bethlehem Steel Corporation plant now under construction just east
of the Midwest plant, and (3) The proposed Burns Ditch Port and Harbor
development.

     There are 33 industries with separate outfalls to Calumet-Lake
Michigan Basin.  The attached map (Figure 1) shows the location of these
industries, the cities and towns and the major watercourses of the Indiana
Calumet Region.

     More than 83 per cent (1*76,17!?) of the Lake and Porter County popula-
tion (5735U6) is located in 20 incorporated municipalities within the
Calumet River Basin.<  Five of these with a I960 population of 18,398 have
no sewer systems.  Twelve, representing 98 per cent of the sewered urban
population, provide sewage treatment.  The remaining three are under Board
order to abate pollution of receiving waters and two now have projects
under construction.  The last municipality has engaged an engineer to study
its sewage works needs.

     Fifteen municipalities in the Calumet River Basin have invested
approximately $72,iiOO,000 in sewerage and sewage treatment facilities
during the past 30 years.  Approximately $61,000,000 of this has been
spent since 1950.  Eight sewage treatment plants serve 12 municipalities.
Two plants are under construction.  The remaining one with sewers has a

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project under construction to connect to an existing plant.   These plants
provide secondary treatment and five have chlorination facilities.  Of the
five towns without a sewer system,  Portage submitted a. preliminary engineering
report on sewers and sewage treatment to the Board in 1962.

     The East Chicago, Gary, and Hammond Sanitary Districts  account for
more than 82 per cent ($59.li million) of the $72,Ij million invested cost
noted above.  East Chicago completed major sewage treatment  plant  improve-
ments in I960, the Hammond plant improvements were completed in 196U,  and
the Gpry improvements were placed under construction late in 1962.  Hammond
has completed storm sewer separation orojects with discharge of storm water
to Wolf Lake and Gary has completed separation in one area and has one
oroject under construction.  Both cities are planning additions! storm
pever separation.  In addition, Highland, Hobart, Munster, and Schererville
are providing separate sewers in new development areas and other communities
have been advised of the necessity  of planning for separate  storm and sanitary
sewers.

     There are 37 semi-public installations in the Calumet River Basin with
sewage treatment facilities discharging to receiving waters.  As municipal
sewers become available, many of these plants will be abandoned.

     Industry has expended or committed approximately $73,200,000 for
treatment facilities in the Basin.   Approximately $50,000,000 has been
spent or committed since 1950.

     The Calumet area is one of the mort highly industrialired areas in
the country and primarily basic in  steel production and oil  refining.
Also, food nnd chemical processing  and metal fabrication plants are
located in the area.  The steel mills and oil refineries account for about
9U per cent of the industrial waste treatment dollars in the Basin.

     Approximately $53,500,000 have been expended or committed by eight
major steel plants.  Currently, the steel industry is experiencing a period
of major plant renovations and considerable sums are being spent and will be
scent for adequate industrial waste treatment facilities.  One of the out-
standing industrial waste treatment facilities of the country is at the
new plant of the Midwest Steel Division, National Steal Corporation, Portage,
The facilities include an activated sludge plant with chlorination of the
effluent.  Industrial waste treatment consists of acid-alkali neutralization,
oil emulsion breaking with terminal coagulation and settling, and deep well
injection of waste pickle liqtior.  The approved sewage and industrial waste
facilities which are under construction at the Burns Harbor  Plant,
Bethlehem Steel Company, Chesterton, will be equally extensive and, further,
a terminal lagoon will be included.

     All oil refineries in the Basin provide A.P.I. oil separators.  Approxi-
mately $15,000,000 of the $73,200,000 total has been expended by four major
oil companies.  Sinclair Refining Company, East Chicago, is an excellent
example of water re-use.  The Company utilires cooling towers with a total
in-plant water recirculation of 168,000 gpm and a waste discharge of 3500  gpra.
American Oil Company, Whiting, provides biological treatment for oxidation  of
dissolved organics and removal of oils.

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                                                                        630
     These accomplishments by municipalities and industries have been
possible in many cases with no legal action necessary.  The Board operates
on a basic policy of education and persuasion rather than compulsion.
However, legal action is undertaken, if necessary,  in cases where improve-
ments are not made within a reasonable time.  This  policy has been successful.
Since 19b3i it has been necessary to take 13 enforcement actions in the Basin.
The following list shows the municipalities or industries for which it was
necessary to undertake enforcement actions:
     Municipality or Industry

     Highland
     Munster
     Valparaiso
     Crown Point
     Hobart
     Whiting
     Lever Brothers
     Griffith
     Dyer
     Hammond Sanitary District
     Lever Brothers
     Schererville
     Porter
                     Date Order Issued

                     December 1U, 19li5
                     December 1U, 19U5
                     July 29, 19U9
                     November 19, 19h8
                     September 28, 19U8
Stipulation accepted February 9, 195U
Stipulation accepted June 25, 1957
                     July 30, 1959
                     June 22, I960
                     September 21, I960
                     Pending
                     August 22, 1962
                     October 8, 196U
     In April, 196h, the Technical Secretary of the Board requested those
public and semi-public sewage treatment plants needing effluent  chlorination
facilities to submit a timetable for provision of the  necessary  facilities.
The following list shows the status of municipal chlorination facilities*
     Municipalities

     Chesterton
     Crown Point
     East Chicago

     East Gary (Miller District)
     Gary
     Hammond

     Hobart
     Valparaiso
     Dyer
     Schererville
                Chlorination  Facilities

                Facilities  in operation.
                Facilities  in operation.
                Chlorinating  in effluent
                  channel.
                No facilities,  considering
                  connection  to Gary's main
                  sewage treatment plant.
                Under construction.
                Submitted preliminary report
                  for chlorination facilities.
                Facilities  in operation.
                Facilities  in operation.
                Under construction.
                Under construction.
     Of the 37 semi-public sewage works installations  in the  Basin, at least
eight plan to connect to municipal sewers in the  near  future.  Twelve of
the remaining 29 provide effluent chlorination  facilities,  one provides a
terminal lagoon, five have pand filters, and four have plans  for chlorination

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                                                                     631
facilities aoproved and/or are planning construction  of facilities in 1965*
Efforts will be continued to obtain  effluent  chlorination facilities at the
seve.n other inrtallstions.

     Nineteen of the 20 communities  in the Calumet-Lake Michigan Baain are
served with oublic water supplies.   Surface water is  used by 13 communities
and six use ground water.

     The following list summarises the public water supply  information:

City                    Source               Remarks

Whiting                 Lake Michigan        Uses American  Oil Co., intake.
Hammond                 Lake Michigan
  Munster                                    Served by Hammond*
  Highland                                   Served by Hammond.
Gary                    Lake Michigan        Gary-Hobart Water Corp*
  Hobart                                     Served by Qary-Hobart Water  Corp.
  Griffith                                   Served by Gary-Hobart Water  Corp.
  New Chicago                                Served by Gary-Hobart Water  Corp.
  East Gary                                  Served by Gary-Hobart Water  Corp.,
                                                and retained wells as standby.
  Portage                                    Served by Gary-Hobart Water  Corp.
Ogden Dunes             Lake Michigan        Infiltration gallery*
East Chicago            Lake Michigan
Valparaiso              Flint Lake
Dyer                    Wells
Schererville            Wells
St. John                Wells
Crown Point             Wells
Chesterton              Wells
  Porter                                     Served by Chesterton.

     Lake MichIPan water in the area under consideration, even with the
existing local pollution, is, in general,  of  good quality.   The water purifi-
cation plants, with a minimum of treatment, oreduce a safe  and excellent
Quality of water at all times*

     The water east of the Indiana Harbor breakwater  is generally very good*
This is bome out by the remarks of  Mr. Leo Louis, President of the Gary-
Hobart Water Corporation, to Senator Birch Bayh in a  letter dated February 10,
1965.

          "The second filtration plant, now under construction, is
     being built in the southwest corner of the Town  of Ogden Dunes
     adjacent to the Inland Steel Company property.  The primary
     reason we moved that far east was because we were unable to
     obtain other property and access to the  lake closer to Gary ..*
     water quality had nothing to do with our decision to move to
     the Porter County site .., In general, our raw water supply is very
     good, and, while we do have some periods of unsatisfactory water
     which result in some increased  chemical  costs and increased techni-
     cal supervision techniques, we  have never complained too much about

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                                                                           632
      these problems.   We arc anxious, of course, to keep pollution in
      the  lake  to a minimum, but we have been willing to undertake
      some increased  treatment costs  realizing that Lake Michigan
      water is  so very  much better than many other utilities in other
      parts of  the country hrve to deal with,  h'e are also cognizant
      of the fact that  we are located in an industrial area, we serve
      large industries  with at least  part of their water supply, and we
      are  anxious to have other industries locate in our area to promote
      the  growth of the area and our  water system."

      The  water north of the Calumet  Harbor breakwater is generally very
good.  The Department  of Health, Education, and Welfare report for this
conference shows, a "Summary of Raw Water Problems,11 Table VIII-1 for the
Chicago South  District Filtration Plant, 1963-U.  Included in this table
ere 23 days in 1963 and 12 days in 196U of hydrocarbon odors, indicating
a  relatively few days  of problems of this type.  It is believed the water
supplied  Chicago citizens on these days was safe and of excellent quality.

      The  water quality between Calumet Harbor and Indiana Harbor breakwaters
is poor.  The  report of Health, Education, and Welfare indicates there are
flow  reversals in the  Calumet River  resulting in pollution of Lake Michigan
in Indiana.  Officials of the Hammond water purification plant have reported
high  threshold odors with accompanying high carbon dosage to remove the odor
when  winds are from the north and northwest indicating water movement from
Calumet Harbor to the  Hammond intake.  Popcorn slag ha.s been found on all
beaches between the two breakwaters and the sources of this sla,g are U. S.
Steel,_South Vforks, and Wisconsin Steel Works in Chicago, indicating water
movement  from  Calumet  Harbor to Indiana.  Water movement is also from
Indiana north  when winds are from the south.   Hammond and Whiting water
purification plants report more days of high threshold odor than the other
water plants in the south end of Lake Michigan.   However, water supplied
by Heamond and Whiting is safe and does not jeopardize the health of the
consumers.

     On June 12, 196U, HEW  submitted a report entitled,  Preliminary Draft,
Report on Sampling of  Industrial Wastes, Indiana Portion-Calumet Area//to
the Board.  The report listed analyses of samples collected by Great Lakes-
Illinois  River Basin personnel from industrial waste  sources in Indiana.
Based upon information contained in the report,  the Board in June and
September, 196U, requested the following companies to develop comprehensive
industrial waste programs with timetables (Appendix 11);

     U. S. Steel Corporation,  Gary Steel Works,  Gary
     U. S. Steel Corporation,  Gary Sheet and Tin Mill,  Gary
     Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co.,  East Chicago
     Inland Steel Co., East Chicago
     Mobil Oil Co., East Chicago

     All responded and submitted information  on  what  was  being done and
planned for the future to reduce pollution.

     Water quality in the southern end of Lake Michigan is of utmost concern
to the Board.   On December 1U  and 15, 196U, after studying the operating
records of the Hammond, Whiting,  East Chicago and the Gary-Hobart water
treatment plants and noting the  amount of activated carbon which was used
to remove tastes and odors,  the  Board requested  10 industries (Appendix 12)

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fi;  to redouble efforts to improve housekeeping by eliminating or holding
to an ansolute minimum the wastes discharged to plant severs,  (l")  to
eliminate the dimming of wastes of non-saleable compounds to -the sewers and
watercourses, and (3") to iraprove where possible the operation of existing
treatment works.

     The waters of Laks Michigan are used for recreational activities.
Ihere is fishing and boating in ths upper portions of the Little CalVutst
Burns Ditch find Orand CaLumet River.  Lake Michigan and Wolf Lake as vail
ag a few small inland lakes furnish the major s%:imnsinf and fishing areas*

     In April of 1957i fi State-wide water quality monitoring program vas
established.  -Samples are collected by State Board of Health personnel and
co-operating agencies at each station on a bi-weekly schedule.  The results
of analyses at these stations are published each year on a calendar-year
basis.

     The initial program included U9 sites, three sites were located in the
Calumet Area.  These sites are:

     1,  Grand Calumet River at fiohunan Avenue bridge in Harsraond (Appendix 13).
     2,  Little Calumet River at Hohman Avenue bridge in Hammond (Appendix lit),
     3  Lake Michigan at the raw water intake or the Whiting water works
         (Appendix 15)*

     During the summer of I960, it became apparent that additional monitoring
stations were necessary in the Calumet Area.  In August, I960, the following
stations were established;

     1.  Grand Calumet River at the bridge on U.S. 12 (Appendix 16).
     2  Grand Calumet River at the bridge on Kennedy Avenue (Appendix 17).
     ?.  Grand C-ilum&t River at the bridge on Indianapolis Boulevard
         (Appendix 18).
     U.  Indiana Harbor Canal at the bridge on Columbus Drive (Appendix 19).
     5.  Indiana Harbor Canal at the bridge on Indianapolis Boulevard
         (Appendix 20),
     6,  Indiana Harbor Canal at the bridge on Dickey Poad (Appendix 21)
     7.  Burns Ditch fit the catwalk nesr mouth of Burns Ditch (Appendix 22)

     In February of 19&3, a station downstream from Lever Brothers, (Appendix 23)
was established in the Wolf Lake Chsnnel,

     With the increased development in the Burns Ditch area, it was decided
that even Rore sampling stations were required.  In February, 196U, the
following two stations were established:

     1  Bums Ditnh at the bridge on Chrisman Road "(Appendix 2ls)
     2.  Burns Ditch at the railroad bridge on the Mid-V.est Steel
         psraperty, just north of U S. 12 (Appendix 25)

     In order to make a final determination of the treatment requirements&>T
some of tne industries in the Indiana Calumet region, water quality criteria
must be established.  Without the necessary data or water quality in the area

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                                                                           634
and on the sources of waste discharges, criteria cannot  be  easily deter-
mined.  It is understood that the Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin project
now in the final phases of its Lake Michigan activities, will provide  these
data.   Therefore, establishment of water quality criteria  should be one  of
the objectives of this conference.

     The present problems of water quality in the Calumet-Lake Michigan
area can be summed in the following paragraphs which were a part  of the
State of Indiana's testimony at a Public Hearing Concerning the Nation's
Water Pollution Problems for the House  Natural Resources and Power Sub-
committee of the Committee on Government Operations, held in Chicago
September 6, 1963.

     "While much has been accomplished  by the treatment  of  sewage and
industrial wastes in the Indiana Calumet region  there are still problems.
Some of these are extremely complex and there are always dangers  of over-
simplification.  Notwithstanding this and the lack of the Great Lakes-
Illinois River Drainage Basin Report of the Public Health Service, the
following general statements can be made as to the water Quality  needs of
this Areat

     "1.  Tastes and Odors - Organics in the waters of the  Indiana Harbor
          tianal and in effluents going  directly  to the Lake contribute to
          the taste and odor problems of some of the cities that  use water
          from the south end of Lake Michigan.  Better housekeeping and
          more careful operation of existing treatment works will resolve
          some of these problems.  However, removal of a higher percentage
          of these organics at their source is essential if the water
          supplies are to have a continuously satisfactory  raw water,

     "2,  Coliforms - Coliform bacteria counts are too high in all streams.
          These, unlike tastes and odors which are due almost entirely to
          industrial wastes, have their origin in city sewage.  They are of
          particular significance in the Indiana Harbor  Canal and in Burns
          Ditch since these waters outlet into Lake Michigan. Significant
          reduction will take place in  the Little Calumet and Grand Calumet
          Rivers on completion of the construction work at  Hammond, Griffith,
          Munster, Highland, Dyer and Schererville. The work under way
          at Gary will reduce counts in the Indiana Harbor  Canal.  Fvll
          control of the high coliform  counts cannot be expected  until
          combined sewers are eliminated.  Sewer separation is costly  and
          time consuming.  Work has been started in Gary, Hammond and  some
          of the smaller cities, but this involves only a small percentage
          of the total problem.

     3  Solids - Upon completion of the municipal treatment works now
          under construction the solids getting  to the waterways  will  be
          largely of an inert nature.  While they have little bearing  on
          the quality of Lake Michigan, additional solids removal in the
          Grand Calumet-Indiana Harbor  Canal drainage area  is indicated,

     "U,  Aesthetic Considerations - It is not reasonable to expect waters
          draining highly industrialized areas to have the  same appearance
          as waters draining undeveloped areas.   But one can expect them
          to be reasonably free of floating material, sludge banks and

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                                                                          635
          color.  Accomplishment of the objectives outlined above will
          do jmich to improve the appearance of the waters of the region.

     The physiography of the entire Calustet Basin is such that gradients
of scost streams in the area are flat (providing sluggish conditions and
poor natural purification capacity), and many low, swaznpy areas are located
in the Basin.  Because of these conditions, the Grand Calumet and Little
Celusnet Rivers normally flow in two directions.  Both flow west into
Illinois ana east into Lake Michigan via the Indiana Harbor Canal and Burns
Ditch, respectively (Figure 1).  However,, during periods of heavy ciorra
runoff, these two rivers reverse flow and water from Illinois enters Indiana
and thence to Laka Michigan.  This condition also exists in the Calursst
Biver of Illinois and its waters carrying industrial wastes and stora
water overflow from the Metropolitan Sanitary District enters Lake Michigan,
including the Indiana portion of Lake Michigan.

     In order that the new O'Brien Lock may operate without the diversion
of Lake Michigan through the Grand Calxinet River a temporary barrier dare
must be constructed.  Sites_under consideration are in the vicinity of
Hasraaond and East Chicago.  The Public Health Service wants the dam so
located that the effluents from the Hastsnond and East Chicago sewage treat-
ment plants are diverted into the Illinois River Basin.  It is believed
that the saw degree of treatnvent may be necessary whether the wastewater
effluents flow to the Illinois River Basin or to Lake Michigan*
                          i            r
     For the remainder of this report, information, data, discussions^
sujsaaries -and--conclusions will be presented by drainage basins as follows:

     1  Grand Cslumat River-Indiana Harbor Canal-Lake Michigan
     2  Little Calusnet River-Burns Ditch
     3.  Little Calumet River (West)
     k  Grand Calumet River (West)
     $  Wolf Lake

     Appendices .26 through 29 provide summaries of information on industries,
municipalities, send-public installations znd selected copies of pollution
abatement orders.

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                                                                          636
          GRAND CALUMET - INDIANA HARBOR CANAL - LAKE MICHIGAN
     The Grand Calumet River originates near the eastern border of Lake
County.  Practically all of the dry-veather flow in the river is industrial
cooling and process '--ater, and waste treatment plant effluents.  Thus,
the flow varies depending on the amount of water used by industry and
municioalities. - Generally, the flow returns to the lake via the Indiana
Harbor Canal; however, the direction of flow in the canal can be in
either direction depending on the lake level.  The river and canal receive
the treated waste effluents from the East Chicago and Grry Sanitary
Districts, numerous induptrier and some untreated industrial wastes.
Samples collected from the canal at the Dickey Road water c.uality monitoring
station revealed high coliform counts.  It is discolored and contains oil
and other floatable material.  In addition to f,he wastes introduced to Lake
Michigan throurh the canal, the lake receives effluents from seven industries
and three power plants.

     The Sanitary Districtr of East Chicago and Gary provide adequate sewage
treatment facilities.  East Chicago provides effective chlorination in the
effluent channel and effluent chlorination facilities are now under con-
struction at Gary.  The facilities are v/ell operated and maintained and
oroduce a pood cuality effluent.  Construction of plant additions at Gary
necessitated some byoasring of raw and' inadequately treated sewage; however,
primary and oecondary treatment are now provided.

     Storm water pumping stations and storm water overflow from combined
sewers discharge storm water to the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor
Canal.  Hammond and '..hiting have combined sewer overflows thct discharge
storm water overflows and, at times, all flow to Lake Michigan.  The dis-
charge from these installations will continue to impose a bacteria and
organic load on receivinp waters.

     The effluents frorc industry comprise most of the flow in the river
and canal.  The.Board and industry are aware that additional pollution
abatement facilities may be required after water quality criteria are
established.  V.'ith these criteria, Indiana will require industry to re-
evaluate its wastewaters and install the necessary facilities.

Eapt Chicago

     The City of East Chicago is nerved by a combined sewer ryrtem and
an activated sludge type rewage treatment plantj chlorination is pro-
vided in the effluent channel.   T-he I960 population was 57,669; the
plant is designed for a population equivalent of 115,000 and a flow of
20.0 mgd.  The City does not accept appreciable quantities of industrial
wppte for treatment.  The nlant provides approximately 95 per cent

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                                                                         637
reduction in tersss of 5-day p.o.D.j  the facilities are well operated and
maintained.  The effluent is discharged to the Grand Calumet River and,
under normal flow conditions, the flow is east to the Indiana Harbor Canal.
Storm water overflow frees combined sewers and storm water pushing stations
discharge to the Grsnd Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal.

     In 1928, East Chicago attempted to form a Sanitary District; however,
it was not finally established until October lii, 1937.  0,i October lit,
1937, the Indiana Department of Consaerce and Industry issued a pollution
abatement order to East Chicago,  The Sanitary District attempted to sell
a bond issue in 1938, but the bond sale was blocked.  As the City was
unable to go to construction, a PWA grant of $1,350,000 was lost.

     In 191*0, plans for sewage treatment were approved by the Indiana
State Board of Health and, in 19ljl,  a bond issue of $1,000,000 was sold.
The City received approximately ;&?50,OQO in labor and materials from WPA
and, in 19k3 sold an additional $675,000 in bonds to complete financing
of the $2,625,000 project.  The sewage treatment facilities were placed
in operation in June, 19U5

     In 1958, plans were approved for construction of approximately
65,000 feet of sewers end sewage treatment plent improvements.  A bond
issue of $5,600,000 was sold to finance the construction work which was
completed in I960.  With the completion of the sewer work in I960, Kast
Chicago had approximately 75 miles of combined sewers.

     On April 22, l?6ii, the Board advised the District of the requirement
for continuous chlorinstion of plant effluent.  The District advised on
May 25, 196i|, that chlorination would be provided in the effluent channel
with existing facilities.  The effluent channel provides in excess of 15
minutes detention time at design flow.

Gary<

     The City of Gary is served by s combined sewer system and an activated
sludge type sewage treatment plant.  Effluent chlorinfiticn facilities are
under construction.  T-ho-ly60 population of Gary was 170,320.  When con-
str^ction of plant additions is completed, it will provide for & design
flow' of 80 mgd (with the exception of the aeration tank capacity which
provides 6-hour detention nt v flow of 60 mgd) snd a population equivalent
of over 500,000,. The plant provides approximately 95 per cent reduction
in terms of 5-day 8.0.0.; the facilities ere well operated and maintained.
The effluent ir. discharged to the Grand Calumet River.  Combined sewer
overflows snd storm water pumpinc stationsdischsrge to the Grand snd Little
Calumet Rivers snd Burns Ditch.

     On October lii, 1937, the Indiana Deportment of Commerce and Industry
issued an order to Gary for the abatement of pollution.  On April it, 1938,
the Sanit.-ry District of Gory was established snd construction of sewage

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                                                                            638
works was started.  In 1929, the Indiana State Board of Health approved
plans for an activated sludge type sewage treatment plant designed for a
flow of hO mgd.  The construction was financed by a PWA grant of |2.166,133
and a bond issue of $2,652,000.  In addition to the plant, approximately
16  miles of interceptor sewers were constructed.  The plsnt started opera-
tion in August, 19UO.

     From 195$ through 1959, a total of $10,918,000 in Sanitary District
bonds were sold to finance construction of sanitary, interceptor end
relief sewers.  Some of the work undertaken during this period and pro-
jects now under construction provide separate storm water sewers.

     Plans for sewage treatment plant additions, storm sewer separation
in  the Miller District end interceptor sewers and a lift station to pro-
vide for discharge of sanitary sewage from the Gary-Miller District area
to  the main plant were approved December 18, 1962.  Construction was
started after the sale of 59,900,000 in Sanitfry- District bonds on Decem-
ber 3, 1962.  The plent provided primary treatment only during part of
196k because of the construction program.

     Chlorination facilities uere not included in the plans; however,
the Board approval was conditioned on provision of effluent chlorination
facilities.  Plans for chlorination were approved on July 19,  1963.  Con-
struction of chlorination facilities,  and additional sewers, was under-
taken after the sale of $li,590,000 in Sanitary District bonds on December ,
196U.

Herrillville Conservancy Distrlett

     The Merrillville Conservancy District was established on December 28,
1962, to serve 2,61j7 parcels of land of which 1,277 were then undeveloped..
It  was estimated that li,000 homes could ultimately be .served within the
origins! District boundaries.  Since it was established, additional area
has been inclwled and a contract for sewage treatment signed with.the Gary
Sanitrry District.   The Conservancy District had planned to construct a
sewage treatment plant with effluent discharge to Deep River above Lake
George.

     Approximately 155,000 feet of sanitcry sewers, lift station and
force main connection to Gary Sanitary District interceptors are now
under construction.  The project was financed by a $2,700,000  bond issue
and a Federal grant of $181,7UO.

     Completion of these facilities will provide for abandonment of
semi-public sewage treatment facilities now serving the Merrillville
Bowling Alley, Merrillville primary,  grade and high schools and Chapel
Manor Subdivision.

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                                                                          639
Vulcan Materials Company, Gary
     Mr. E. W. Younft, President, Vulcan, notified the Board on January 11,
1965, (Appendix .30) that on or before March 1,  1965, all wastrwaters would
be eliminated from the Grand Calunset River.  The plant located in Gary in
1955 for the purpose of recovering tin from scrap tin plate.  Approximately
2,800 gpd of wastewater is discharged to the river.  Mr. Young indicated
that as of March 1, 1965, this wastewater will be sold.  All sewage is
treated in a septic tank-absorption field system.  Estimated expenditure
for water pollution control facilities is $12,000.

Cities Service Petroleum Company t East Chicago

     The Company pumps process water from Lake Michigan and has a puaping
capacity of 115 mgd.  Plant wastewaters are separated by three sewer systems:
sewage, process and cooling.  All plant jewage is discharged" to the East
Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.  Cooling water and boiler blowdown
is treated in an A.P.I, oil separator which was constructed prior to 19U3*
In 19U9, a second A.P.I, oil separator was placed in operation for treat-
ment of process wastewaters.  The cooling water flow is 7? wgd and the
contaminated process wastewater flow is U.3 ragd.  These flows are combined
after treatment and discharged to the Grand Calumet River.

     In 1961, an ammonia and sulfide  sour water) stripper was placed in
operation.  Stripper bottoms are discharged to the crude oil desalter for
removal of phenols.  Spent caustics are sold for recovery of cresylic acid.
Spent sulfuric acid is returned to the supplier for reprocessing.  Hydraulic
decoking waters are re circulated.  An experimental column trickling filter
and an experimental activated sludge plant are installed for additional
treatability studies of the process wastewater.

     Plans for 1?65 involve the discharge of delay coking unit waters to
the sour water stripper, and an automatic effluent monitoring system.
About $1,7145,000 has been expended by the Company for water pollution
control facilities.

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company j East Chicago .'

     The Company purchases potable water, 2.2 mgd, from East Chicago and
pumps process water, 11.5 mgd, from the Grand Calumet' River.  In 19U7,
all plant sewage was connected to the East Chicago Sanitary District sew-
erage system.  Acid neutralisation for sulfandc acid production wastes
was installed in 1957.  In 19^2, the Compaay requested approval of a proposal
to discharge up to 90,000 pounds per day of chlorides to the river.  The
chlorides are contained in by-product hydrochloric acid wastes.  The proposal
was submitted to HKW for comment (Appendix 31).  It was requested that
HEW inform the Board as to the compatibility of the proposal with the long-
range planning of the GLIRB project.  HEW did not express an opinion on

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                                                                         640
 the proposal.  The Company was willing to neutralize the wastes but
 suggested controlled discharge for the following reasons:  (1) neutrali-
 zation would increase the hardness snd soluble salt content of the riverj
 (2) controlled discharge would only decrease natural river alkalinity by
 2$ rag/1; end (3) the chloride content of the river would be increased
 18 mg/1 at average flow and neutralization would not change this value.
 The Board approved the proposal with the understanding thst the Company
 make an effort to sell the acid rather than discharge it to the river.
 The Company subsequently notified the Board thst the acid would be sold
 and no chlorides were discharged to the river.

     The Company currently discharges under controlled conditions calcium
 sulfate, calcium sulfaroste, sodium dichromate, ammo.nia and herbicide pro-
 duction wastes to the river.  About #115,000 has been expended by the
 Company for water pollution control facilities.

 U. S.  S. Load Refinery, Inc., East Chicago ;

     The Company uses the Grand Calumet River for cooling water.  The
 spent  cooling water is returned to the river.  No process wastewaters are
 discharged to a surface stream.  About ii,000 gallons per year of process
 wastewater are discharged to a ground absorption basin.  In 19ij7, all
 plant  sewage was connected to the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage
 system.  About #27,000 has been expended for water pollution control
 facilities.

 General American Transportation Corporation,  Plant 2,  ast Chicago

     All plant sewage is discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary District
 sewerage system.  Process wastewaters, 0.2 mgd, are treated in the following
 facilities:  waste equalization pond,  oil separator, and chemical treatment
 plant.  The chemical treatment plant consists of coagulation,  flocculation,
 and clarification.  The treated process wsstewaters are discharged to the
 Indiana Harbor Canal.  About $200;OOQ has been expended for water pollution
 control facilities.

Blaw-Knox Company, East Chicaga *

     Potable and process water,  1.0 ragd,  is purchased from East Chicago,
All sewage is discharged to the East Chicago  Sanitsry District sewerage
 system.  Process wastewafter is treated in settling tanks and filters
prior to discharge to the Indiana Harbor Canal.

American Steel Foundries, Indiana-Harbor Works, East Chicago:

     All sewage is discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary District sew-
 erage system.  Process waters, O.h mgd,  are pumped from the Indiana Harbor

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                                                                        641
Canal.  Process wastewsters are treated in a settling basin prior to
discharge to the Indiana Harbor Canal.  About $15,000 has been expended
for water pollution control facilities.

Linde Air Products, East Chicago'

     All plant sewage and procefs wastewaterj except cooling tower blow-
down, is discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.
Cooling tower blowdown is discharged to the Indiana Harbor Canal.

Mobil Oil _..Cgj5>anjy[>_.Kast_ Chicago

     The Company purchases potable water from East Chicago and pumps
process water from the Loke George Branch, Indiana Harbor Canal,  In
19h7, all plent sewage was connected to the East Chicago Sanitary District
severe ge system.

     In 1933 and 193J>> oil traps were provided for process wastewsters.
In 19UO, the following wastewater treatment facilities were installed:
A.P.I, oil separator, raw process water treatment plant, and cooling towers
for water reuse.  The cooling towers reduced the process water pumpage
from the cenal from 26 mgd to 1.5 mgd  Spent caustics are separated for
use in the wood pulping industry end for recovery of cresylic acid*  All
spent sulfuric acid is returned to the supplier for reprocessing^  Separa-
tion tanks and an oil separator are provided for ballast wster.y^Tha
Company recently installed en ammonia and sulfide stripper for sour'-^oat*-"
waters.  The stripper will significantly reduce ammonia, sulfide, phenol,
C.C.D. and B.O.D.  in the wastewetars.  About $600,000 has been expended
by the Company for water pollution control facilities.

Unidantif led .Source of Pollution- Storm Sewer Disoha rging to Lake G@or|9
ifreJhcKj7^Pdiariamfia^^

     An unidentified source of wastewater discharged to the Lake Gsorgs
Branch, Indiana Harbor Canal, was investigated on February 3, 1965*  The
wastewsters discharge to the Lake George Branch via a storm sewer located
on tha northeast side of Indianapolis Boulevard,  The sewer originates in
the vicinity of the American Oil Compeny, Whiting.  Two storsi severs, one
on the northeast side and one on the southwest side, parallel Indianapolis
Boulevard to the vicinity of Riley Avenue.  At Riley Avenue, the southwest
sewer crosses under Indianapolis Boulevard and is connected to the north-
east sewer which drains to Lake George Branch.  Estimated flow in the sewer
on February 3, 1965, was 50000 gpd.  The wsstewater was light in color
and had a gasoline odor.  The source of the wastewater has not been
identified.

Calumet Nitrogen Products Company,
     The Company is jointly owned by American Oil Company, Whiting, and
Sinclair Refining Company, East Chicago.  The plant is operated by

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                                                                        642
American Oil Company.  The plant located in Hammond in 1956.  Ammonium
nitrate plant wastewster and all sewage is discharged to the Hammond
Sanitsry JDistrict sewerage system./] Waatewater from the ammonia plant
plus  cooling tower blowdown is discharged to a separation basin for
removal of settleables and floatables.  The basin effluent drains to
the Lake George Branch, Indiana Harbor Canal.  Approximately $50,000
has been expended by the Company for pollution control facilities.

Union Tank Car Company, Whiting

      The Company's activities involve the construction and maintenance
of railroad tank cars.  Potable and process water is purchased from
Whiting.  Approximate water usage is 0.2 rngd.  All sewage is disposed in
septic tank-absorption field systems.  Process wsstewater is treated in
skimming tanks prior to discharge to the Lake George Branch, Indiana
Harbor Canal.  Skijnmings are chemically and thermally treated for oil
recovery.  Sludges from these facilities are burned.  About $15,000 has
been  expended by the Company for wastewater treatment facilities.

Sinclair Refining Company, East Chicago

      Sinclair is the second largest petroleum refinery in Indiana,  The
Company purchases potable water from East Chicago and pumps prcsess water
from  Lake Michigan.  In 19U7, all plant sanitary sewers were connected to
the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.  Treated process waste-
water and recirculating process water cooling tower blowdown is discharged
to the Lake George Branch, Indiana Harbor Canal.

      In 19^6, two A.P.I,  oil separators were built to replace one of two
oil separators built prior to -19^3.  Cooling towers arc utilized on the
process waters.  In-plant recirculation of water is 250 mgd and treated
westewater discharge is 5 mgd.  Considersble refinery eouipment modifica-
tion  in the late 19itO' s and early 19501 s reduced the amount of wastewater
requiring treatment.  An ammonia ;.nd sulfide strjpper is utilized in the
treatment of sour water.  Stripper bottoms and cooling tower blowdown
arc discharged to the crude oil desslter for additional phenol extraction.
Boiler blowdown and hot lime sludge is discharged to a separator for treat-
ment.  Caustics containing phenols are sold for by-product recovery.  Spent
caustics containing sulficies end merc^pitsns ere  oxidized.  Spent sulfuric
acid  is returned to the supplier for reprocessing.

     New ballast water A.P.I,  oil separators were constructed in 1963.
About $3,930,000 has been expended by the Company for water pollution
control facilities.

U. S. Gypsum Company, Sast Chicago

     The plant produces plaster, wall board and asbestos cement shingles.
All sewage is discharged tc the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage
system.  Process wastewaters,  0.1; mgd,  are discharged to the Indiana
Harbor Canal.

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                                                                       643
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company, IndianaHarbor Workaa East Chicago

     The Company pumps process water, 288 mgd, from Lake Michigan and
discharges treated and untreated process wastwaters to the Indiana
Harbor Canal and Lake Michigan.  All sewage, except for isolated septic
tank-absorption field systems, is discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary
District sewerage system*

     Dephenolizers were installed in the coke plant lor wastewatsr treat-
ment.  Coke quenching wastes are discharged to a settling basin with partial
recirculation.  Tar decsnter waters are discharged to the dephenoliaer.
Benzol condensates are double decanted prior to discharge to the canal.
Scale pits are provided at all rolling mills and secondary pitc are baffled
to trap free oil.  Wastewater discharged to Lake Michigan passes through
an oil removal basin which is equipped with a continuous oil resaoval belt.
A portion of the waste pickle liquor is trucked to the slag dump for dis-
posal and some is discharged to the canal.

     In-plant controls, in compliance with Regulation SPC-2,; to isolate
concentrated cyanide solutions were installed in 1956.  A gravity oil
separator for a six-stand tandem sail! in the No. 2 tin mill was approved
by the Board and installed in 1961.

     Halogen tinning line plating solution is trucked to the slag dump
for disposal.

     The wastewater treatment facilities for a new No. 3 cold reduced sheet
mill now under construction were approved by the Board on October 23* 196U*
These facilities consist of grevity oil separators end a terminal lagoon.
The logoon effluent will seep horizontally through 250 feat of slag before
reaching Lake Michigan.  Cooling waters containing less than 10 mg/1 of
oil will be discharged directly to Lake Michigan.

     Flue dust thickeners and sludge dewatering equipment are installed
for the blast furnace gas washer system.  About $5jOOO,000 has been expended
by the Company for water pollution control facilities.

Inland Steel Company, East Chicago

     The Company pumps process water, 800 nsgd, from Lake Michigan ad
discharges treated and untreated process wastewaters to the Indiana Harbor
Canal and Lake Michigan.  All plant sewage is treated in two Cosnpany owned
end operated trickling filter treatment plants.  A third plant is proposed*
All sewage plant effluents are chlorinated prior to discharge to either
the canal or lake*

     In 1928, the Company installed facilities for recirculation of coke
plant gas final cooling waters for phenol reduction.  About 1930, a Koppars

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                                                                       644
 vspor recirculation  phenol recovery unit vcs  installed for ammonia still
 wastes.   Blast  furnace  flue dust  thickeners and vacuum dewatering facilities
 for thickener sludges were installed  about 1931*  Additional phenol recovery
 by light oil extraction;  a settling basin for coke quenching wastes and
 ammonia  still wastes; recirculation of coke plant tar decanter wastes; 13
 scale pits;  oil recovery  and treatment facilities on the slab mill, Ulj-inch
 hot mill,  56-inch  tandem  cold mill, 1^0-inch tandem mill and the three-s't and
 skinny tin line have also been provided.  Fly ash and bottom.ash lagoons
 for the  new  power  plant have been constructed.  Facilities under construction
 consist   of:  scale  pits  for new  blooming and billet mills, scale pits, oil
 skimming pits,  chemical flocculator-clarifiers, and a tunnel to divert wa^te-
 waters to  the Indiana Harbor Cai^al for a new  80-inch hot strip mill.  The
 wastewater treatment proposal for the 80-inch hot strip mill was submitted
 to  HEW for comment.(Appendix 31)  It was requested the HEW inform the Board
 as  to the  compatibility of the proposal with  the long-range planning of the
 GLIRB project.   HEW  did not express an opinion on the proposal.  The new
 oxygen steel-making facilities will have a closed stack gas washer system.

      About $19,100,000  has been expended by the Company for water pollution
 control  facilities.

 NationalTube  Division, United States Steel Corporation, Gary

      In  19U9, all  plant sewage wag diverted to the Gary Sanitary District
 sewerage system.   Approximately 10 mgd of process waters is obtained from
 the  Gary Steel Works.   Process wastewaters are discharged.to the Grand
 Calumet  River.  About $000,000;has been expended for separation of sewers
 and installation of facilities to convey sewage to the Gary Sanitary District.

 Gary Steel Works,  United  States Steel Corporation, Gary

      The Company pumps  process water, 577 mgd, from Lake Michigan and dis-
 charges  treated and untreated wastewaters to  the Grand Calumet River.  Soae
 cooling  waters  are discharged to  Lake Michigan.  All plant sewage is dis-
 charged  to the Gary Sanitsry District.

      Ammonia  still liquors  are used for quenching coke.  Coke quenching
 wastewater is recirculated.   Benzol condensstes are discharged to the river.

     All rolling mills  have primary scale pits,  and a new 160 inch/230 inch
 plate  mill has oil skimmers  on the scale pits.  Waste pickle liquors are
 discharged to seepage pits.  Slag granulation wastewater is treated in
 settling basins prior to discharge to the river.

     Flue dust thickeners are installed for partial recovery on the blast
 furnace  gas  washer system.

     In 1950 and 1951,  an experiment on the treatability of ammonia still
liquors at the Gary Sanitary District sewage treatment plant was conducted.

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The experiment was asuccess but the City end industry did not reach agree-
ment to continue the project.  About $11, 000, 000 has been expended by the
Company for water pollution control facilities.

Gary Sheet & Tin Mill Division, United States Steel Corporation,, Gary -

     The Corapeny pumps process water, 60 mgd, from Lake Michigan and dis-
charges treeted and untreated wastewaters to the Grand Caluast River.  Come
cooling water and storm water from combined process wastewster sewers is
discharged to Laka Michigan.  All plant sewage is discharged to the Gary
Sanitary District.

     Waste pickle liquors are discharged to a lagoon and seepage there
frosi drains to Lake Michigan.  The lagoon will be eliminated by the use
of e deep well disposal system which is under construction.  Waste pickle
liquors and tinning line chromium solutions will be discharged to the deep
well system,  A .lagoon for neutralized nitric and hydrofluoric acids from
the stainless steel line will be constructed in 196$.

     Waste treatment facilities consisting of gravity oil separators with
an emergency bypass to Lake Michigan were approved by the Board in l61i
for s new 80-inch, five~tand sheet mill.  These facilities have been completed
and are in operation.  The separator effluent is discharged to the river.
About $3,600,000 has been spent by the Company for water pollution control
facilities*

American Bridge Division. United .States Steel Corporation, Gary
     In I9k5s 8H plant sewage was diverted to the Gnrv Sanitary District
sewerega system.  Currently, only rivet machine cooling wster is discharged
to the Grand Calumet River.  About $1,000,000 has been expended for tgatsy
pollution* control facilities.

Steiner Tissue Mill, Gary

     Potsble waters 0.1 sngdj is purchased from the Gary-Hobart Water Cosspany.
Process waters, Lit mgd, are pumped froai the Grand Calumet River to a clari-
fication pond prior to use in the plsnt.  Process wsstewaters are tessted
in two fiber ssve-all units prior to discharge to the Grand Calumet Rivara
All sswage is discharged to the Gary Sanitary District.

Berry Refining Coropan^ Gary

     All process and potable water is purchased from the Gary-Hobart teter
Company.  All sewage is disposed in septic tank-absorption field systems.
Process wastewaters ars treated in an A.P.I, oil separator and impounding
basins.  The effluent from the impounding basins is discharged to a swampy

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                                                                     G4G
area on Cities Service Oil Company property.  No wastewaters are
diachnrged to a surface stream or lake.  About $15,000 has been
expended for water pollution control facilities.

Northern Indiana public Service Company, Bailly Generating Station,
Bailey to'wn ,

     The Bailly Generating Station started operation in 1962.  Initial
capacity was 175,000 kw.  Maximum process water requirement is about
425 mgd and the water is pumped from Lake Michigan.  Sewage is disposed
in septic tank-absorption field systems.  Bottom ash, fly ash and
cinders arc sluiced to a solids storage area.  Sluicing waters and coal
storage drainage are absorbed into the ground.  Approximately $70,000
has been expended by the Company for pollution control facilities.

Universal Atlas Cement Company, United States Steel Corporation, Gtry x

     Process water is pumped from Lake Michigan.  Pump capacity is 72 mgd.
All plant sewage is treated in a fixed-nozzle trickling filter plant,  the
sewage plant was built in 1926.  The sewage plant effluent is discharged
to Lake Michigan.  During a recent inspection, fish were observed to be
living in the final clarifiers.  No process wastewaters other than indirect
cooling waters arc discharged to the lake.  About $1200,000 has been
expended for water pollution control facilities.

Northern.Indiana Public Service Company, Dean H. Mitchell Station, Gary-

     The plant pumps process water,  433 mgd,  from Lake Michigan.  Process
wastewater is discharged to Lake Michigan.  Sewage is treated in septic
tanks.  The septic tank effluent is  discharged to Lake Michigan.  The raw
process waters are chlorinated.  About $82,000 has been expended by the
Company for water pollution control  facilities.

Union Carbide Corporation,  Chemicals Division, Whiting

     Process water is pumped from Lake Michigan.  Process wastewaters are
discharged to Lake Michigan and the  Indiana Harbor Canal.  All plant
sewage is  discharged to the Whiting  sewerage system.  Cooling towers are
utilized for partial reuse of product contaminated cooling waters.

     In 1934,  the Company initiated  a program to separate sewage from
other wastewaters for discharge to a municipal sewerage system.   The pro-
ject was completed in 1947 when all  sewage was discharged to the Whiting
sewerage system.   During the 1935 to 1960 period,  the Company installed
the following facilities;   wastewater, clarification basin, raw water
chlorination unit,  closed cooling water system for direct product-contact
cooling waters,  and a cooling tower  system,  ami established an effluent
monitoring program.  During the 1960 to 1965 period, the following

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                                                                        6*7
facilities were added:  retention basin, automatic effluent sampler,
skimming pit, collection tank for land disposal of concentrated wastes,
plus many other minor pollution control facilities.  Approximately
$950,000 was expended by the Company for pollution control facilities
during the 1935 to 1965 period.

     Future plans indicate that the following pollution control units will
be installed in 1965 at an estimated cost of &lj6,100:  closed water system
dissolved solids removal unit, improved oil recovery facilities, screens
and recovery facilities for polyethylene pellets,  and waste-water laboratory
equipment.

American Oil Company, Whiting

     The Company is the largest petroleum refinery in .Indiana.  Process
water is pumped from Lake Michigan and discharged to Lake Michip.un sfter
treatment.  Potable waters srp obtained from Whiting.  All sewage, except
from a few isolated buildings is discharged to the Whiting sewerage system.
Isolated buildings are served by septic tank-alsorption field systems,
Process wsstewaters are conveyed to treatment facilities vie two separate
sewer systems.  Wsstewaters containing settleables snd floatables are dis-
charged to mechanically equipped A.P.I, oil separators and thencsto Lake
Michigan.  Wastewaters containing settleables, floatables, dissolved organics
and dissolved inorganics are discharged to mechenically equipped A.P.I.
oil separators and thence to "bio-flotetion" facilities.  The "bio-flotation"
facilities consist of settling, aeration snd settling units.  The effluent
from the "bio-flotation" facilities Is discharged to Lake Michigan.  Spent
caustics containing sulfides snd phenols sre trucked to logoons located
northwest of the Lake ^eorge Branch, Indiena Harbor Canal.  Coolinp, towers
are utilized for partial reuse of cooling waters.   Spent sulfuric acids arc
returned to the supplier for reprocessing.  Separation tanks and an oil
separator are utilised for ballast water at Indiana Harbor Canal docks.

     Cooling towers have been installed for recirculation of 100 mgd of
cooling waters.  Water usage peeked in 19!>6 at about 200 mgd.  Water usage
has been gradually decreased to about lUO mdg in 1961;.  The oil separators
utilized on wastewaters containing settleables and floatables were built
in 191|0.  The oil separators preceding "bio-flotfition" were constructed in
191(8.  The "bio-flotation" facilities were placed in operation in I960.
Facilities for conveying plant sewage to the Whiting sewerage system were
completed in 19ii8.  Approximately $9,055,000 has been expended for pol-
lution control facilities at the refinery.

American Maize Products Company, Harcanond

     The Company located in Hammond in 1905 and is s corn processing
plant.  Potable water, 0.7 ragdj is purchased from Hammond,  Process water,
11 mgd, is pumped from Lake Michigan.  All sewage, except from one ware-
house toilet, end a small amount of concentrated process wastewater is

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                                                                        648
discharged to the Hammond Sani.tr.ry District,  The warehouse toilet is
sewered to the process wastewater lagoon system.  Treated process waste-
waters are discharged to Lake Jlichican,  Treatment consists of anaerobic-
aerobic lagoons.  Many in-plant controls of wastewater have been provided
as well as an in-plant wsstewator monitoring  system.
           4
     Prior to liiO, all wsstewaters were discharged to Lake Michigan with-
out treatment.  In li|0, sll sewage find soae  process was tews ter was diverted
to Hawmond.  Considerable in-plant equipment  changes were BUS da in I9h9 and
19i?Q in order to rsduca wssta loadings to Lake Michigan.  Raw water supply
chlorinstion was instituted in 19SQ  Sufficient chlorine was applied to
the raw water to Mints in a chlorine residual in tha effluent to Lake
Michigan,  Later, chlorine was also applied directly to the wastewater dia-
charged to Lake Michigan,
            the late 19^0' s and early 1960's, the Company developed en
anserobic-asrobic legoon system for treatment of wastewater prior to dis-
charge to Lska Michigan*  An experimental col man trickling filter has been
installed for continuing studies on the treatability of process wastswatsrs,
The ultimate objective of the Coiapany is to produce a plant effluent of
0.5 P. E, per bushel of corn processed.  Approximately $1,3^0,000 has been
expended by the Cosspany for watsr pollution control facilities.

Comsionwealth Edison Co 0> Incaj_ Steteline Generating Station^ Haroraond

     Ths plant purchases potable wsters 0.1 ragd, frosz Hpjnmond and puaps
process water, 1,007 ?agd, frosa Lake Michigan.  Process waters are chlorinated
prior to use.  A sewarsgs system was installed in 1920 for collection of
sewsga for discharge to the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Chicago.
In 19k9, an Imhoff tank with effluent chlorination was installed*/  The
chlorinated effluent discharged to Lake Michigan until the Metropolitan
Sanitary District connection becssia available in 1961.  An ash disposal
basin was. constructed in 19ii6.  Tha basin was later replaced in 1961 with
bottosi ash dewstering tanks.  Fly ash is handled dry.  Approximately
Hj60jOOO has been expended by the Company for water pollution control
facilities,

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                                                                      649
                LITTLE CALUMET RIVER-BURNS DITCH,
     The Little Calumet River-Burns Ditch drainage basin includes the major
land area of the Calumet Basin.  Burns Ditch is a man-made draincse canal
constructed in 1923 discharging to Lake Michigan.  This ditch reversed
the flow to the east in the Little Calumet River at about Broadway Street
(Gary).  The basin receives the treated effluent from the Chesterton,
Crown Point, East Gary, Hobart, and Valparaiso sewage treatment plants.
Sewage from Porter is not yet treated, but the Town is under Board order.
Portage, New Chicago, Oguen Dunes and St. John do not have sewer systecs.

     The sewage treatment plants serving Chesterton,  Hobart and Valparaiso
provide adequate capacity, are well maintained and operated, and produce
a good quality effluent.  Improvements planned for construction at Crown
Point this year will provide adequate capacity; good  operation and
maintenance will continue.  Effluent chlorination is  provided for all
these"plants.

     The adequacy of the Gary-Miller District plant that is now serving
East Gary is problematical.  Plant additions, including effluent chlorin-
ation facilities, and improved operation and maintenance is required.

     The start of construction of sewage works for Porter is scheduled
for July 1, 1965.

     Treated waste effluents from Midwest Steel and Bethlehem Steel plants
discharge to Burns Ditch and the Little Calumet River, respectively.  The
effluent from Northern Indiana Public Service Company discharges to Lake
Michigan.

     There is no interstate pollution from the Little Calumet River-Burns
Ditch drainage basin.

Crown Point

     The City of Crown Point is served by sanitary and combined sewers.
The 1960 population was 8,433; the plant was designed for a population
of 7,500 and a flow of 0.8 mgd.  The existing activated sludge-type sewage
treatment facilities, including effluent chlorination, provide treatment
for most of the present population.  The plant provides approximately.
85 per cent reduction in terms of 5-day B.O.D; the plant is fairly well
operated and maintained.  Approved plans for plant additions, including
expanded chlorination facilities, will extend the capacity to 1.8 mgd.
The plant effluent and stormwster overflow from combined sewers discharge
to Bee Line Ditch, a tributary to Deep River and Burns Ditch.

     On November 19, 1948, the Board issued a pollution abatement order
with a compliance date of November, 1950.  Plans were approved by the
Board on January 26, 1951, and the project was placed under construction
following the sale of $567,000 in sewer revenue bonds on April 24, 1951.

     Due to the population growth in the area, extensions to the aewer
system and treatment plant additions are required.  Final plans for
approximately 16,000 feet of interceptor sewers and plant additions were
approved on July 21, 1964.  The project is ready for  construction bids
and a Federal grant offer of $198,540 is available to help finance the
project.

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                                                                    650
 Hobart

     The  City  of Hobart  is  served by a system of sanitary and combined
 sewers  and  an  activated  sludge-type sewage  treatment  plant  including
 effluent  chlorination  facilities.  The 1960 population was  18,680; the
 plant is  designed  for  a  population of 23,000 and a flo* of  2.0 mgd.
 Primary treatment  facilities were placed  in operation in 1953 and se-
 condary facilities were  completed in 1962.   The plant provides approxi-
 mately  90 per  cent reduction in terms of  a-day B.O.D  the facilities arc
 well maintained and operated.  The effluent discharges to Deep River
 thence  to Burns Ditch.   Stormweter overflow from combined sewers discharge
 to Deep River  and  tributaries  thereto.

     On September  29,  1948, the Board issued a pollution abatement order
 to the  City  of Hobart.   The City filed a  petition to  set the order aside.
 The case  was finally heard  on  February 2, 1950, in Jasper Circuit Court.
 The court issued a decision upholding the Board's order.

     Plans for a sewage  works  project were  approved on February 27, 1951,
 On May  31, 1951, the Board  approved a request for stage construction with
 primary facilities, plus chlorination, for  the first  stage.  The project
 was placed under construction  following the sale of $669,000 in revenue
 bonds on  June  25,  1952.

     Plans for secondary treatment facilities were approved on August 26,
 1960.   A  revenue bond  issue of $640,000,  a  Federal grant of $250,000 and
 cash on hand of $300,000 was utilized to  finance the  project.  The ex-
 panded  facilities were placed  in operation  in July, 1962.

 East Gary

     The  City of East Gary (1960 popuiation  - 9,309)  is served by combined
 &ad sanitary sewers.  The sewage and. wastes  from this community are-dis-
 charged to the Gary-Miller sewage treatment  plant.  .The Gary-Miller trick-
 ling filter-type sewage  treatment plant is  designed to treat approximately
 1.5 mgd.  Effluent chiorination is not provided;  the  plant provides about
 70 per  cent reduction  in terms of 5-day B.O.D.   Plant effluent and storm-
 water overflow from combined sewers discharge to Burns Ditch.

     On April 3, 1958, the City of East Gary signed an agreement with the
Gary Sanitary District for treatment of East Gary sewage at the Gary-Miller
District  plant.  On January 13, 1959,  the Board approved plans for inter-
 ceptor  sewers,  connection to the Miller District  plant and improvements
 to the Miller District plant.   The work,  which was completed in 1960,
was financed by East Gary with approximately $195,000 from the cumulative
 sewer fund.

     It is estimated that the City has approximately 40,000 feet of
combined  sewers; since 1960, approximately 37,500 feet of sanitary sewers
have been installed.  In 1962,  the City of East Gary was advised that
effluent  chlorination would be required.   At that time,  the Gary Sanitary
District was planning a  lift station and  interceptor to divert the Gary
sewage then discharged to the Miller plant to the Sanitary District 's main
plant,  and it was indicated that East  Gary would  acquire the Miller plant.
 (The Gary sewage from this area is now discharged to the Gary Sanitary
District's main plant.)  On October 9,,  1964, the  State Board of Health
advised East Gary that the Miller District plant  was in poor condition and

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                                                                   651
that laboratory and chlorination facilities were required.  The last re-
port from East Gary indicated that an early decision would be made on
whether to acquire the Miller plant or effect an agreement for treatment
of its sewage by the Gary Sanitary District.

New Chicago

     The Town of New Chicago {-ii)6G-popul-at-ion-~~~3-,-3T2) is not served by
a sewer system.  The soil is predominantly sandy and individual sewage
effluents are apparently absorbed into the ground.

     In May, 1949, a preliminary report on a proposed water and sewei
system was submitted.  A public water supply has been installed^however,
no progress has been made towards providing sewaga works.  An engineering
survey was proposed in 1962;,,further information has not been received.

Chesterton

     The Town of Chesterton is served by a combined sewer system and an
activated sludge-typ sewage treatment plant with effluent chlorination
facilities.  The 1960 population was 4,192; the plant is designed for a
population of 10,000 and a flow of 1.5 ssgd.  The plant provides approxi-
mately 90 per cent reduction in, terms of 5-day B.O.D; the facilities are
well maintained and operated.  The effluent discharges to the Little
Calumet River.  Storm wa;er overflow from combined sewers discharge to the
Little Calumet River and tributaries thereto.

     A letter from the Board dated April 4, 1952, recommended that
preparation of plans for sewage treatment be authorized.  In 1957, the
Town instituted a cumulative sewage fund and in 1959 an engineer was
employed for a survey of sewage works needs.  Throughout this period,
recommendations were made for a study to determine the feasibility of &
sewage works to serve the Towns of Porter and Chesterton,

     On January 23, 1962, plans for sewage treatment were approved and
construction was started following the sale of a $720,000 revenue bond
issue on June 28, 1962.  The plant was placed in operation oo April 1, 1963,
Adequate capacity is available to serve the Town of Porter.

Valparaiso

     The City of Valparaiso is served by a combined sewer system and an
activated sludge-type sewage treatment plant.  Effluent chlorination is
provided.  The 1960 population was 15,227; the plant is designed for a
population of 20,000 and a flow of 2.0 mgti.  The plant proviaes approxi-
mately 95 per cent reduction in terms of 5-day B.O.D; the facilities are
well maintained and operated.  The effluent discharges to Salt Creek,
thence to the Little Calumet River and Burns Ditch.  Storm water overflow
from combined sewers discharges to Salt Creek and tributaries thereto.

     A pollution abatement order was issued by the Board on July 29, 1948.
A petition for review was filed by the City on August 18, 1948.  After
some delay and a change of venue, the Board's order was upheld by the
Starke County Circuit Court on July 24, 1950.

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                                                                       652
     Final plans were approved by the Board on March 25, 1952.  The
project was placed under construction after a revenue bond sale of $725,000;
the plant was placed in operation in 1954.  Additional sewers were constructed.
following a revenue bond issue of $1,450,000 in 1958.

     A letter from the Board dated June 4, 1964, requested continuous
chlorination of plant effluent and a chlorine residual of 1 mg/1.  On
June 9, 1964, the mayor advisea that the City would comply with the Board's
request.  On January 5, 1965, the Board approved additions to chlorination
facilities and recommended that the City authorize a study of sewer and
sewage treatment plant improvement needs and that construction of facilities
be undertaken to keep pace with community development.

Por t age

     The Town of Portage was incorporated in 1959..  The area of 27 square
miles had a 1360 population of 11,822.  The Gary-Hobart Water Corporation
is providing water to the area.  A drainage project, to be partially
financed by a $100,000 loan from the Indiana Flood Control Revolving Fund,
is now under consideration.  No municipal sewers are available.

     The preliminary engineering report on sanitary sewers and sewage
treatment, which was submitted January 25, 1962, proposed the installa-
tion of approximately 263,000 feet of sanitary sewers and a 1.25 mgd
activated sludge-type sewage treatment plant to serve a population of
12,500.  No' progress has been made towards construction of sewage works.

     The Portage Junior-Senior High School and Capitol Estates and Robbin-
wood Subdivisions,  that are located within the corporate limits of Portage,
provide activated sludge-type sewage treatment facilities with effluent
chlorination.  Robbinwood has chlorination facilities approved.  The
effluent from these plants discharges to Salt Creek and tributaries to
the Little Calumet River.

Porter

     The Town of Porter (19&0 population - 2,189) is served by separate
ami combined sewers.-  The Town sewers discharge to the Little Calumet
River.  Sewage from 15 homes adjacent to the Chesterton sewage treatment
plant is treated at that plant.

     In 1961, the Town employed an 'engineer for a preliminary report and
in 1962 and 1963 unsuccessful efforts were made to finalize an agreement
for Porter to contract with Chesterton for sewage treatment.

     On October 8,  1964,  the Board ordered the To*n of Porter to abate
its contribution to the pollution of the Little Calumet River.  Plans and
specifications are due March 1, .1965; construction is to be started by
July 1, 1965, and the facilities are to be completed by July 1, 1966.

Midwest Steel Company Division, National Steel Corporation,  Portage

     The Company pumps water from Lake Michigan and has a maximum pumping
capacity of 52 mgd.  Treated wastewaters are discharged to Burns Ditch.
The plant started production in 1961.  One of the outstanding industrial

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                                                                    653
waste treatment plants in the country was provided as a part of original
plant construction^  Three separate sewer systems for conveying sewage,
process wastewaters and cooling waters are utilized.  All sewage receives
activated sludge treatment with effluent chlorination prior to discharge
to Burns Ditch.  Treatment of process wastewaters consists of acid-alkali
neutralization, oil emulsion breaking with coagulation and clarification,
and mechanically equipped basins for removal of settleablea and floatables.
Concentrated chromium- and fluoride-bearing wastes are treated separately.
A dsap well disposal system was constructed in 1964 for underground
disposal of waste pickle liquor and spent chromium-bearing solutions.

     The plant effluent is routinely monitored by automatic samplers and
laboratory analyses.  In-pLant controls, in compliance with Regulation
SPC-2, to isolate concentrated cyanide solution tanks have been installed
in the tin mill.  The Board's 1961 approval of the process wastewater
system was based on the final effluent meeting the following standards:

     B.O.D.       10 mg/1        pH                    5 to 10
     Fluoride      2 mg/1        Suspended solids      40 mg/1
     Zinc         15 mg/l        Floating material     No objectionable
     Chromium      2 mg/1        Color                 No objectionable
     Cyaides    0.5 rag/1        oils                  15 mg/1

     The effluent from the treatment facilities is consistently better
than the standards approved by the Board.

     No impairment of Burns Ditch or Lake Michigan has occurred as a
result of the Company's wastewater.  The operation of the wastewater treat-
ment facilities has been excellent.  About $6,025,000 has been expended
for water pollution control facilities.  It is expected that,  when the
Company installs basic steel and coking production units, equally extensive
wastewater treatment will be provided.

     Midwest Steel Company is an example of & new industry that has
provided adequate water pollution control facilities to comply with require-
ments of the Board.

Bethlehem Steel Company, Inc., Burns Harbor j?lant, Chesterton

     The construction of the Burns Harbor plant is the most recent major
industrial development in Indiana.   Initial production began in 1964 and
additional production facilities are under construction.  Water is pumped
from Lake Michigan.  Treated wastewaters are discharged to the Little
Calumet River, thence to Burns Ditch.

     Separate sewers for conveying sewage, process wastewaters and cool-
ing waters are, or will be, installed.  All sewage receives activated
sludge treatment and the effluent is chlorinated.  The chlorinated effluent
is discharged to a terminal lagoon for tertiary treatment.  Treatment of
process wastewaters consists of acid-alkali neutralization, emulsion
breaking with coagulation and clarification, and mechanically equipped
basins for removal of settleables and floatables.  Concentrated chronuusn-
and fluoride-bearing wastes will be treated separately.  A deep well dis-
posal system for underground injection of waste pickle liquor is  under
construction.

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                                                                      654
     An 80-acre terminal lagoon system has been constructed for tertiary
treatment of all wastewater other than cooling water.  Final settling/
reaeration and cooling will occur in the terminal lagoon.  The Isgoon
spillway  has been constructed so that additional reaeration will occur.
Facilities for removing floatables from the lagoon have been installed.

     The plant effluent will be routinely monitored by automatic samplers
and laboratory analyses.  In-plant controls, in compliance with Regula-
tion SPC-2, to isolate concentrated cyanide solutions will be installed
in the tin mill.  The Board's approval of the process wastewater system
was based on the final effluent meeting the following standards:

     pH                  5 to 10            B.O.D.          10  jag/1
     Suspended solids    40 sag/1            Cyanides       0.2  rcg/1
     Oils                15 mg'l            Chromium       1.0  mg/1
     Floating solids     No objectionable   Fluoride       1.5  mg/1
     Color               No objectionable

     It is anticipated that the effluent will be of better quality than
that approved by the Board.

     About $7,000,000 has been expanded for water pollution control facilities,
It is expected that, when the Company installs basic  steel and coking
production units,  equally extensive wastewater treatment will be provided.

     Bethlehem Steel Company, Inc., is another example of a new industry
that has provided adequate water pollution control facilities to comply
with requirements of the Board.

Seai-public

     There are 32 semi-public sewage treatment plants in this drainage
basin.  Most of the subdivisions are served by package activated sludge
sewage treatment plants.  Operation am! maintenance of many of the
facilities is inadequate.  The owners have been advised of the requirement
for providing continuous effluent chlorirvation; however, in some instances,
chlprination facilities are not available or, if available, not effectively
operated,  plans have been approved lor effluent chlorination facilities
for the Lake County Home, north of Crown Point, ami the Robbinwood Sub-
division in Porter County.

     The public schools in the area that have private sewage disposal
facilities do not routinely provide adequate operation and maintenance.
The two Indiana Toll Road, treatment plants in the area are well maintained
and operated.

     At least five of tha semi-public sewage treatment plants in and
near the Merrillville Conservancy District will be abandoned when the
District sewers now under construction are available.  These include
three Merrillville schools, a bowling alley and Chapel Manor Subdivision.

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                                                                         655
                      LITTLE CALUMET RIVER - WEST


     The Little Calumet River Basin is divided into two drainage areas by
Broadway Street in Gary.  That area east of Broadway discharges to Lake
Michigan through Burns Ditch.  West of Broadway, the water flows into the
Calumet-Sag Canel entering Illinois approximately 300 yards west of Hohman
Avenue in Hammond.

     The Little Calumet River receives sewage from Dyer and SchererviJJLe,
n portion of the sewage from Griffith and Highland, and treated wast from
Simmons Company.  A U. S. Geological Survey recording gage on the Littla
Calumet River near the stete line shows a minimum daily discharge of 1.9 cfs
and a mean daily discharge of 7.3 cfs for August, l?6iu  Water quality
monitoring data shows the stream to be polluted.

     The sewerage project recently completed by the Hammond Sanitary District,
completion of the sanitary sewage connection to Hammond by Griffith and
Highland, and completion of the sewage works projects under construction
by Dyer and Schererville will return the Little Calumet River flowing into
Illinois to a satisfactory condition.

     Storm water pumping facilities in Griffith, Highland, Munster end Gary
and storm water overflow from combined sewers will continue to impose a
bacteria and organic load on the Little Calumet River and tributaries thereto.

Dyer

     The Town of Dyer (I960 population - 3,95*3) is served by sanitsry and
combined sewers.  The project now under construction will provide inter-
ceptor sewers and an activated sludge type sewage treatment facility, in-
cluding effluent chlorination, for a design population of 6,000 and a flow
of 0.6 m^d.  The effluent from the plant and storm water overflows will dis-
chrrge to Hart Ditch, a tributary to the Little Calumet River.

     The Board issued a pollution abatement order to the Town of Dyer on
July 20, I960; as constructive progress was not achieved, the case was
referred to the Attorney General on. July 18, 1961*  Court action was deferred
when the Town agreed to proceed with preparation of final plans.  On
November 21, 1963, plans and specifications were approved by the Board.
After considerable delsy, the project was placed under construction following
the sale of $720,000 in revenue bonds on November 12, 1961;.  A Federal grant
of $250,000 wss approved to help finance the project.

Griffith

     The Town of Griffith (I960 population - 9,liO is served by a combined
sewer system.  The dry weather sewage flow is pumped to the Hammond Sanitary
District interceptor for treatment; storm water overflows from combined
sewers are discharged to Cady Marsh Ditch and to the Little Calumet.River.

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                                                                          656
     The Board order for pollution abatement was issued on July  30, 1959.
On June 16, I960, the Town signed a contract for treatment of its sewage
by the Hammond Sanitary District.  Plans and rpecifications for  interceptor
sewers, lift station and connection to the HRroiond Sanitary District were
approved on Auf*ust. ?6, I960.  A revenue bond issue of $l,JLj!.tO,000 was sold
on Aoril 12, 1962; a Federal nrrant of $250^000 was approved and  $?6,000
'in cash w?.s available to finance the oroject.  Construction was  completed
in 196U and pumping facilities were placed in operation to discharge dry
weather flow GO the Hammond interceptor sewer system for treatment.

Highland

     The Town of Highland (-I960 population - 16,?RU) is served by r.eaarate
and combined rewers.  The dry weather sewage flow from approximately 50
per cent of the population is pimped to the Hammond f-anitary District for
treatment.  Sewage and wastes from the remainder oi' the community, which are
now discharged to Hart Ditch and the Little Calumet River, will  be connected
to Hammond Sanitary District interceptors by the project now under construc-
tion.  Storm water overflows will continue to discharge to Hart  Ditch and
the Little Caluiaet Kiver*

     On Dsceaiber lij, 19U5, the Board ordered the Town to provide sewage
disposal facilities.  On February 2lt, 19U9$ the Town requested annexation
to the Hammond Sanitary District) however, annexation was not accomplished.
In 1958, the Town signed an agreement with the Hammond Sanitary  District for
a connection to Hammond interceptors.  On March 2, 1959, the Board approved
plans for a sewage pumping station and force main connection which would
discharge approximately 50 per cent of the Town's dry weather sewage flow
to the Hammond w interceptor sewer.  The project, which was financed by a
5175,000 general obligation bond issue and $12,000 from the cumulative
sewer fund, went into operation in November, I960.

     In March, 1963, the Board requested a timetable for the completion of
the neeesfary additional sewage works; on Peote*nb-er ?h, 1963, pianr were
approved for connection of the remainder of the sewage fron Highland to the
Hartsnond interceptor,  A revenue bond issue of $580,000 was sold  on February 2,
1965$ a Federal Errant of &229500 was approved to help finance the project
which is now under construction.
     Tha Town of Munster (I960- popul-fl-t-ion--*- -10,3-13) is r-erved by sanitary
and combined sewers j the dry weather sewage and waste flew ic treated at
the Hammond Sanitary District treatment plant.  T.he Town of Munster was
made a part of 'the District on January 26, 19li8.  Storm water overflow
from combined sewers discharges to Hart Ditch and the Little Calumet River,,

     On December 1U, 19U5? the Board issued an order for pollution abatement
to the Town.  The cosspliance date was extended to January 1, 19U8, on
petition of the Town.  After the Town was annexed to the Hammond Sanitary
District, the Board advised the District it was expected to assume Munster's
obligation.

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     On August 26, 19i|8, plans were approved for interception of existing
sewers and connection to Hammond interceptors;  however,  financing of the
project was delayed and actual connection was not made until December,  1953*
Local developers continued to construct combined sewers  with outfalls to
the Little Calumet River; tht-rei'ore, additional pollution was created.   As
provision was not undertaken for correction, the Board issued an order to
the Hammond Sanitary District on September 21,  1961,  Or September 27,  1961,
a petition for a court review of the order was filed by the  Hammond Sanitary
District; however, the petition was dismissed in 1962 and the District
proceeded with plans for the construction of additional  interceptor sewers*
The project, which was financed by S592YOOO in Sanitary District bonds  and
a $2h3,000 Federal grant, was completed early in 1961*

Schererville

     The Town of Schererville (i960 population - 2,8?5)  is primarily served
by sanitary sewers.  The project now under construction  provides for the
installation of aoproximately 75,000 feet of sanitary sewers and an activated
sludge type sewage treatment facility, including effluent chlorination, to
serve s design population of 6,000 and a flow of 0.86 mgd.  The effluent
from the plant will discharge to a tributary to Hart Ditch,  thence to the
Little Calumet River*

     The Board issued a pollution abatement order to the Town of Schererville
on August 28, 1962.  Final plans and specifications for sewers and sewage
treatment were aporoved on August 20, 1963*  The project was placed under
construction following the pale of an 4850,000 revenue bond  issue on March 18,
196U.  I.n addition, a Federal grant of $250,000 was approved and $16U,720 in
cash was used to finance this project*

Simmons Company, Munster

     Process and potable water is purchased from Hammond.  Approximate water
usage is 0.3 mgd.  All sewage is discharged to the Hammond Sanitary District
sewerage system.  Treated process wastewaters are discharged to the Little
Calumet River.  Cyanide control facilities, in compliance with Regulation
SPC-2, are provided within the plant.  Process wastewaters are chamically
treated to oxidize cyanides and reduce, chromiums.  Basins are provided to
remove settleables including metal precipitates and floatables.(f|Two-stage
continuous alkaiine-chlbrination is provided for cyanide-bearing wastewaters.
Sodium metabisulfite reduction plus lime neutralization is provided for
chromium-bearing rinse waters.  The discharge of treated process wastewaters
to the river was aooroved by the Board in 1959  The approval was based
upon the contaminants in the effluent not exceeding the  following concentrations*

     Cyanide        0   mg/1            Settleable Solids      None
     Chromium       0.5,.mp/l            pH                  6.5 to 8,5
     Oil            5
     The Company has, in general, been meeting the effluent quality specified
by the Board,  Aoproximately $65,000 has been expended by the Company for
pollution control facilities,

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                                                                       658
Semi-Public

     The Dyer Elementary School and the Mount Mercy Sanatorium in Dyer
will be connected to the Dyer municipal sewer system.  The sewage treat-
ment facilities serving the Wilbur Wright School in Munster will be
abandoned and connection made- to a Hammond Sanitary District sewer.  St.
Mary's Clericut in Schererville disposes of its sanitary sewage, after
activated sludge treatment and chlorination, on its own grounds; however,
if difficulty is experienced, connection could be made to the Schererville
sewer system.  Consideration is being given to connection of the St. John's
Township schools, which are in the Burns Ditch drainage basin, to the
Schererviile sewer system.

     With the completion of municipal sewer systems now under construction,
it appears that all significant sources of sanitary wastes froa serai-public
installations in this drainage basin could feasibly be connected to municipal
sewers*

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                                                                      659
                      GRAND CALUMET RIVER - WEST
     The Grand Calumat River enters Illinois approximately 700 yards west
of Honraan Avenue, Hammond.  The divide in the river is approximately at
Indianapolis Boulevard in Hensnond (U.S.  12 and 20)  although both easterly
and westerly flows have been observed at this location.  Generally,,  any
discharges to the river west of the boulevard flow  into Illinois asid dis-
charges east o the boulevard enter Lake Michigan-via the Indiana Harbor
Canal.  There ara no stream gaging stations on the  Grand Calumet River in
Indiana.  Most of the flow at the state line consists of Hajaisond Sanitary
District sewage treatment plant effluent.  Some industrial wastes are also
present.  Water quality aonitoring data show the stream to be polluted*
The higher E.O.D.'a and eolifora counts noted in 1963 and 1961; were  caused
by the bypassing of all or portions of the plant units during construction
of improvements at the Hammond plant.

     Whsn effluent chlorinstion facilities are installed, the bacterial
quality -of the Grand Celxsaet River flowing into Illinois will be isiproved
However, in should be pointed out that during periods of storms, atom
water overflow fross combined sewers will inipair bacterial quality and
contribute soisa organic load to the stream,

Hamond

     The Hammond Sanitary District provides interceptor sewers and sswaga
treatment for the City of Hammond and the Town of hunster within District
boundaries and sewage treatment by contract for the Towns of Griffith asd"
Highland and the City of Whiting.  The I960 tributary population of  15$S$>15
is served by an activated sludge plant with a design population equivalent
of it0,000 and a design flow of 36 mgd.  The plant  provides approximately
9$ per cent reduction in terns of 5-day B.C.D.; in  general, the operation
and maintenance of the facilities is adequate.  However, bypassing of all
or portions of the sewage works, including pump stations and interceptors,
during recent improvement projects contributed materially to the high coli-
form bacteria counts and orgsnic loads noted in the Grand and Littls Calunat
Rivers.  The majority of the area is served by combined sewers? as early
as 193Q> it was reported that Hammond had 155 aiiles of combined sejera*
However, separate storm water systems serve an area with storas water dis-
charge to Wolf L^ke,,  Storsa water pumping stations  discharge to the  Grand
and Little Calusaet Rivers, Wolf Lake and Lake Michigan.  The Robertsdale
pumping station discharges storm water overflow from combined sewers to
Lake Michigan*

     The activated sludge type sewage treatment facilities are located
adjacent to Columbia Avenue and effluent is discharged to the Grand  Caluisst
Hiver.  Under norasl flow conditions, tha flow is west to Illinois.   Chlo-
rination facilities ars not provided; the Board has advised that chlorina-
tion of the effluent is required.

-------
                                                                      660
     On October Ik, 1937, the Indiana Department of Commerce and Industry
ordered Hammond to abate pollution.  On October 31 1938, the Hammond
Sanitary District was organized and construction of a $3,250,000 project
was  undertaken in 1939.  The plant was placed in operation in August, 19ljl

     Plans for plant improvements were approved in 195; a $k1 million
bond issue to finance plant improvements and relief sewers was sold
November 10, 1959.  Plans for additional interceptor sewers in Munster
and  plant additions were approved in 196lj construction was started in
1962 following a bond sale of $3,100,000.  A Federal grant of $250,000
was  approved for plant additions and a grant of $2ij3*000 was made for
Muneter interceptor sewer project.  In 1962 and 1963, approximately $10
million in sanitary district bonds were sold to finance interceptor,
storn and storm relief sewers and pumping stations.  A total of $22,913*000
has  been spent to finance construction of sewage works, including inter-
ceptors and storm relief projects.  A projuct slated for early construction
will remove a bottleneck in a south side interceptor which has caused raw
sewage bypassing to the Little Calumet River-

     On September 2, 196U, a report on chlorination facilities was con-
sidered satisfactory by the Bosrd and the District was requested to advise
of action planned to install said facilities.  The District has not sub-
mitted a timetable for construction of chlorination facilities,

Whiting

     The City 01' Whiting (I960 population - 8,13?) is served by a  com-
bined sewer system with provisions for discharge of dry weather sewage
flow to the Hammond Sanitary District for treatment.  A sewer outfall
to Lake Michigan at Front Street and a storm water pumping station at
Atcheson Avenue discharges,  at times, sewage and storm uater overflow
to Lake Michigan.

     On October 11*, 1937, the Indiana Department of Commerce and Industry
issued a final order to Whiting to abate pollution.  An agreement for a
connection to the Hammord Sanitary District was signed on February 19,
19U5, and on April 25 the Board approved plans for connection of approxi-
mately two-thirds of Whitings sewage to the District.  On October 1, 19U6,
Whiting filed a stipulation with the U.  S. Supreme Court agreeing either
to construct a plant or connect all its sanitary sewage to the Hammond
Sanitary District within two years.  The stipulation pointed out that
two-thirds of Whiting's sewage was discharged to Hammond.

     On October 2U, 19U7, the Board approved plans for connection  of the
remainder of the sewage to Hammond; however, the work was not completed
until December 5, 19^9.  Operation of the Front Street station was not
satisfactory;  on May 31,  1951, the Board approved plans for improvements.
Intermittent discharge of raw sewage to  Lake Michigan continued.  A
stipulation, in lieu of an order, was entered into by the Board and

-------
                                                                      661
Whiting on February 9, 195ij.  The City stipulated that necessary isf-
provements to abate sewage discharge to Lake Michigan would be con-
structed.  In 195U, a flood gate was installed on the Front Street lake
outfall to keep lake water from entering the sanitcry sewage pump station
which was designed to discharge sewage to Hammond.  The operation of the
sanitary sewage pump station has not been satisfactory as raw sewage is
still intermittently discharged to Lake Michigan.

Adolph Plating, Inc, East Chicago

     The East Chicago plant of Adolph Plating Company is currently under
construction.  Plant operations will be^in in 1965,  and all plant sewage
will be discharged to the Kast Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.
Untreated process wastewatera, 0,3 rcgd, will be discharged to the Grand
Calumet River.  This project was approved by the Board on January ,
with the understanding that when water quality criteria for the river are
established, the necessary waste treatment will be provided.  In-plant
cyanide control facilities, in compliance with Regulation SPC-2, will ba
provided.

LaSalle Steel Company, Hammond

     All plant sewage is discharged to the Hammond Sanitary District
sewerage system.  Process wastes consist of 16,000 gallons per week of
waste pickle liquor and pickling rinse waters.  Waste pickle liquor is
discharged twice a week to a mixing basin where a wire coating lime-dip
solution is added for neutralization.  Routine rinse waters are also dis-
charged to the mixing basin.  The neutralized wastes are discharged to
the Grand Calumet River.  Estimated Company expenditure for water pollution
control facilities is $16,000.

Federal Cement Tile Company^ Hammond

     The Federal Cement Tile Company is served by a  7,500 gpd activated
sludge type sewage treatment plrnt with effluent discharge to the Grand
Calumet River nesr the Indiana-Illinois state line.   It is the only semi-
public sewage treatment facility in this sub-basin.   The Company has been
advised of the need for chlorination facilities.

-------
                                                                       662
                               WOLF UKE


     Wolf Lake is a natural lake located on.the Indiana-Illinois state
line which, in the past, drained into Lake Michigan.  This outlet is
now blocked and the lake discharges to the Caluraet River in Illinois.
There is very little outflow from the lake.  The lake receives the
effluent from Lever Brothers waste treatment facilities via Woli Lake
channel.  This channel begins at the Lever outfall.  The Board initiated
enforcement actions against I/ever Brothers and accented a stipulation in
1957.  After that date, complaints were received and fish kills occurred.
In 1962, a hearing was held.  As a result of this hearing, the'Company
has retained an engineer and studies are being conducted to determine
necessary improvements.

     The water quality of Wolf Lake, at the state line, is generally
good and there is no interstate pollution of Wolf -Lake.

Lever Brothers Company, Hammond

     The Company located at Hammond in 1930*  Potable water is purchased
from Hammond and process water, 10.5 rogdLy is pumned from Lake Michigan.
All plant sewage and some industrial wastewater is discharged to the
Hammond Sanitary District sewerage system.  About 10 mgd. of treated
process wastewater and cooling water is discharged to Wolf Lake.

     Pollution of the channel which conveys the Company's wastewater to
Wolf Lake is evident.  This pollution neither extends into Wolf Lake
proper nor does it cause interstate pollution of Wolf Lake.  The Company's
pollution of Wolf Lake Channel has b,een of concern to the Board for many
years, and administrative hearings were scheduled in 19^6 and 1961.  A
ten-day hearing was held in 1962.  As a result of the 1962 hearing, the
Company retained an engineer to review operations and make improvements
where investigations indicate improvements are needed.

     In 19Wi, the Company installed raw water chlorination equipment.
Sufficient chlorine is added to maintain a residual in the wastewaterv
discharged to Wolf Lake.  In 1952, two air flotation units were in-
stalled.  Two basins for removal of scttleables and floatables are in
use.  Because of the relatively low "strength" of the total plant
effluent, the Company has been reluctant to provide secondary biological
treatment.  The Company is attempting to improve in-plant waste prevention
measures.  About $750,000 has been expended by the Company for pollution
control facilities.

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                                                                     663
                             CONCLUSIONS
1.  The Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin report of the Dopartaant of
    Health, education and Welfare is needed to establish water quality
    criteria for Lake Michigan.  These criteria are absolutely
    essential to the determination of fiaal sewage and waste treatcaat
    requireaeats.

2.  The Board's Water Quality Monitoring Program has a sufficient
    nuabar of stations to determine quality of the waters in tha Indiana
    portion of the basin.  The Departooat of Health, Education and
    Welfare's report for this conference recoaaends continuously record-
    ing monitors at selected locations and for selected indices.  Monitors
    currently available have limitatieas oa pollutants that caa ba
    measured, Maintenance is difficult, and a careful Investigation should
    be conducted before a-decision is made oa installation.  If coatinu-
    ously recording Monitors for the pollutants of concern are available,
    this would isprove the data and make it nore usable.

3.  Major industrial plants should Institute peraaaent effluent sampling
    programs.  Data obtained from these programs should be submitted to
    the Board.

4.  The O'Brien Loc.k should be placed in operation to provide m->re
    positive control of flow froa Lake Michigan and reduce the reversal of
    flow from the Calumet giver to Lake Michigan, which affects Indiana
    waters.

ft.  All municipalities, except Porter, are providing secondary treatment
    aad some are providing effluent chlorinatioa.  The remainder of the
    municipal and the semi-public installations have been advised to provide
    effluent chlorinatioa.  The Board intends to take whatever action is
    necessary to obtain compliance.

8.  The waters discharged from Burns Ditch to Lake Michigan and from Wolf
    Lake to Illinois do not contribute to interstate pollution.

7.  When existing sewage works, are augmented by facilities now untftr
    construction and planssd, the waters of the Grand and Little Calumet
    Rivers where they cross the state line will be as good as modern sewage
    treat&ant practices can make thaa except during periods of store, water
    overflows.

8.  Tha Grand Calumet River and Indiana Earbsr Canal dry weather flow is
    practically all industrial cooling aad process waters and waste treat-
    ment plant effluents.  The origin aad character of this flow must be
    considered in development of water quality criteria.  Oaco the water
    quality is established, the Board will insist on the needed improvements.

9.  The water quality monitoring records for the Whiting water plant for
    the past eight years, and for the Dickey Road station on tko Icdiaaa
    Harbor Canal for the past five years, show little if any deterioration of
    of water quality during those periods.  This indicates the Board is
    holding the lite oa pollution eve with increased industrial expansion
    aad population growth.

-------
                                                                        664
10*  Tb waters IB Lafc ffiichigaa will isaprova oace th Great Lakss
     Illinois River Basia criteria BST
-------
                                                                     665
                            APPENDICES
 1  Letter of December 15, 196U, from the Secretary of Health.
          Education and Welfare                                       667
 2  Letter of December 22, 1961j, to the Stream Pollution Control
          Board Members                                               668
 3  Letter from Technical Secretary, Stream Pollution Control
          Board to 17 cities and towns regarding conference
          participation                                               669
 h  Letter from Technical Secretary, Stream Pollution Control
          Board to 33 industries regarding conference participation   672
 5  Letter of December 29, 196li^ from Technical Secretary,  Stream
          Pollution Control Board to the Secretary of Health,
          Education, and Welfare                                      676
 6  Abstract of Proposed Southern Lake "Michigan Water Pollution
          Survey, Indiana-Illinois, 1953                              677
 7  Indiana Stream Pollution Control Law, Chapter 2llj, Acts of
          19h3, as amended                                            679
 8  Regulation SPC 1 of the Stream Pollution Control Board             689
 9  Regulation SPC 2 of the Stream Pollution Control Board             691
10  Regulation SPC 3 of the Stream Pollution Control Board             692
11  Letters of June and September, 196U, to the following
          industries:                                                 693
          U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary Steel Works, Gary
          U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary Sheet and Tin Mill, Gary
          Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co., East Chicago
          Inland Steel Co., East Chicago
          Mobil Oil Co., East Chicago
12  Letters to 10 industries regarding taste and odor control
          at public water supplies                                   701
13  Analyses of Sampling Station, Grand Calumet River at Hohraan
          Avenue bridge in Hammond                                   704
111  Analyses of Sampling Station, Little Calumet River at Hohman
          Avenue bridge in Hammond                                   706
15  Analyses of Sampling Station, Lake Michigan at the raw  water
          intake of the Whiting water works                          708
16  Analyses of Sampling Station, Grand Calumet River at the  bridge
          on U.S. 12                                                 710
17  Analyses of Sampling Station, Grand Calumet River at the  bridge
          on Kennedy Avenue                                          711
18  Analyses of Sampling Station, Grand Calumet River at the  bridge
          on Indianapolis Boulevard                                  712
19  Analyses of Sampling Station, Indiana Harbor Canal at the
          bridge on Columbus Drive                                   713
20  Analyses of Sampling Station, Indiana Harbor Canal at the
          bridge on Indianapolis Boulevard                           714
21  Analyses of Sampling Station, Indiana Harbor Canal at the
          bridge on Dickey Road                                      715
22  Analyses of Sar.pling Station, Burns Ditch at the catwalk  near
          mouth of Burns DitchOgden Dunes                          717

-------
                                666
23  Analyses of Sampling Station,  Wolf Lake Channel below Lever
         Brothers Company Plant
2l  Analyses of Sampling Station,  Burns  Ditch  at the bridge on
         Chrisman Road
25  Analyses of Sampling Station,  Burns  Ditch  at the railroad
         trestle on the Mid-West Steel property, just north of
         0.  S.  12
26  Industrial  Waste Treatment  and Control Facilities
27  Resume of Orders Issued to  Calumet Area Municipalities
28  Status of Municipal Sewage  Works,  Calumet  Area
?9  Semi -public Sewage Disposal Facilities, Calumet Area
30  Letter dated January 11,  1965,  from  E. W.  Young, Vulcan
         Materials Company
31  Letter dated September 18,  196U,  from Technical Secretary,
         Stream Pollution Control  Board, to the Department of
         Health, Education and  Welfare,  Region V, Chicago,
         Illinois
                                  718
                                  ?20
                                  721
                                  731
                                  738
                                  740

                                  744
                                  746
ii

-------
                                                                667
                                                                  Appendix 1
            THE SECRETARY OF HEALTH, EDUCATION. AND WELFARE

                               WASHINUTON
                                                      DEC I 5 1S64
Dear Mr. Poole:

On  the basis of reports, surveys, or studies, in accordance with
section 8 of the Federal Water Pollution Contrcl Act (33 U.S.C.
466 et seq.), I hereby call a conference in the matter of pollution
of  the interstate waters of the Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet
River, Calumet Iliver, Lake Michigan, Wolf Lake and their tributaries
(Indiana-Illinois).  The conference will be held on Tuesday, March 2,
1965, at 9:30 a.m., C.S.T., Banquet Room, McCormick Place, South Lake
Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois.
Mr. Murray Stein of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
has been designated as Chairman of the conference.

A cony of the technical presentation to be made at the conference
by a representative of this Department will be supplied to you
in ample time before the conference to permit analysis and evaluation.

Participation In the conference will be limited to representatives
of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and such
persons as arc designated by your Board and the Illinois State
Sanitary Water Board.  You may bring such persons as you wish to
the conference.

The conference will cover all interstate pollution problems of the
Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River, Lake Michigan,
Wolf Lake and their tributaries.  As specified in the Act, we will
furnish a summary of conference discussions to your Board and the
Illinois State Sanitary Water Board.
Mr. B. A. Poole
Technical Secretary
Stream Pollution Control Board
State Board of Health                              rt E-ft^li-I-
1330 West Michigan Street                          B^kiS^31stU
Indianapolis, Indiana  46007                            PlPP I 7 1QA

                                                       STAit OF INDIANA
                                                  STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                           BOARD

-------
                                                                      668
                                                                     Appendix "2
STATE
INDIANA
 STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
                                                       INDIANAPOLIS  462C7
                                     1330 West Michigan Street
                                         MElrose 3-4420
                              -C 0 P Y-
                                     December  22,  1964
       STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD MEMBERS
       Anson S.  Thomas, Chairman
       Lewis S.  Finch, Vice-Chairman
       Donald E. Foltz
       Robert W. Kellum
       J. Robert Mitten
       A. C. Offutt, M. D.
       Lt. Gov.  Richard 0. Ristine

       Gentlemen:

                          Re;  Conference Under public Law 660 on
                               the Calumet Area - March 2, 1965

       I received on December 17,  1964,  a notice calling subject conference
       to be held by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.  For
       your information, a copy of this  notice is enclosed.

       It is the recommendation of the staff that all municipalities and
       industries with separate outfalls to waters named in the notice be
       invited to participate in the conference.  This involves approxi-
       mately 13 municipalities and approximately 21 industries. Each
       entity would be expected to present its own story of what it has
       done and  what it expects to do in connection with its waste disposal,

       I will call you the first of next week to see if you agree with the
       above proposal.  If we are to invite municipalities .and  industries,
       the notices should go out before  January 1.

                                         Sincerely.
                                         B. A. Poole
                                         Technical Secretary

       HDW/se
       cc:   Mr.  Samuel Rosen
            Deputy Attorney General
       copied 2-65

-------
                                                                          669
                                                                  Appendix  3
STATE
INDIANA
 STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
                                                       INDIANAPOLIS  46207
                                      1330 West Michigan Street
                                          MElrose 3-4420
                                  -C 0 P Y-
                                                         Deceraber  28,  1964
     Gentlemen:

          Attached hereto is  a  copy of a letter dated December  15,  1964, from
     Anthony J. Celebrezze, Secretary, Department of Health,  Education and
     Welfare, calling a conference relative to pollution of the interstate
     waters of the Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River,
     Lake Michigan, Wolf Lake and their tributaries (Indiana-Illinois).  You
     will note this conference  will convene on Tuesday, March 2,  1965, at
     9:30 a.m., CST,  Banquet  Room, McCormick place, South Lake  Shore Drive,
     Chicago, Illinois.

          Also attached hereto  is a copy of Section 8 of the  Federal water
     Pollution Control Act under which this conference is being called. You
     will observe from Secretary Celebrezze's letter that the conference is
     limited to representatives of the U. S.  Department of Health,  Education
     and Welfare, the Illinois  State Sanitary Water Board,  the  Indiana Stream
     Pollution Control Board  and such persons as are designated by  the two
     state boards.

          It is the purpose of  this letter to advise you the  Indiana stream
     Pollution Control Board  has designated your municipality as  a  participant
     in this conference.   Will  you please advise us, at your  earliest con-
     venience,  of the name and  title of your  representative?

          At the time of this writing we have not decided on  the  state of
     Indiana's presentation.  Tentatively, we  are considering  limiting this
     presentation to  a history  of the development and installation  of pollution
     abatement facilities in  the Indiana Calumet district and to  tabular data
     which depicts the current  status of pollution abatement  facilities at
     all industries maintaining separate outlets into the waters  of the district
     and at all municipalities.

-------
                                                                      670
                                                       December 28,  1964
      If  we  follow  the  scheme outlined  above, this means you should  consider
going into  some detail as  to your own  pollution abatement facilities and
also into some specific statements on  your plans for future work, if any.
Naturally,  you will be permitted to bring out anything else you consider
pertinent to  the subject under discussion.

      You will observe  a copy of HEW's  technical presentation is to  be
made available to  us in timt* to permit analysis and evaluation before
the  conference.  If we can obtain sufficient copies of this from HEW,
you  will be supplied one as soon as it is available.

      We  also  expect to have some Discussions with HEW representatives
within the  next few days relative to the length of the conference con-
templated,  an agenda for the conference and certain other details.  Follow-
ing  these discussions  we will give you an approximation of the time which
can  be allotted for your presentation,  if we receive other pertinent
information this will  also be supplied to you.

      Since  we will be  expected to provide HEW with a list of the persons
who  will participate in this conference, please give us the name and title
of your  representative as  soon as you  can.

                                 Sincerely yours,
                                 B. A. Poole
                                 Technical Secretary

BAP/se
Via Certified Mail
Enclosures

copied 2/65

-------
                                                                     671
Indiana Municipalities Designated to Participate in March 2,  1965
Conference Regarding Pollution of the Interstate waters of the
Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River,  Calumet River,  Lake
Michigan, Wolf Lake and their Tributaries
                 City of Crown Point

                 City of East Chicago

                 City of East Gary

                 City of Gary

                 City of Hammond

                 City of Hobart

                 City of Valparaiso

                 City of Whiting

                 Town of Chesterton

                 Town of Dyer

                 Town of Griffith

                 Town of Highland

                 Town of New  Chicago (P. O. Hobart)

                 Town of Portage

                 Town of Porter  (P.  0. Chesterton)

                 Town of Schererville

                 Merrillvilie Conservancy District (Gary)

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                                                                        672
                                                                    Appendix
STATE
INDIANA
 STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
                                                       INDIANAPOLIS  46207
                                      1330 West Michigan Street
                                          MElrose 3-4420
                            -c o P y-
                                                         December  28,  1965
     Gentlemen:

          Attached hereto is a copy  of a letter, dated December 15,  1964,
     from Anthony J. Celebrezze,  Secretary, Department of Health,  Education
     and Welfare, calling a oonference'relative to pollution of the  interstate
     waters of the Grand Calumet  River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River,
     Lake Michigan, Wolf Lake and their tributaries (Indiana-Illinois).  You
     will note this conference will  convene on Tuesday, March 2,  1965, at
     9:30 a.m., CST, Banquet Room, McCormick Place, South Lake Shore Drive,
     Chicago, Illinois.

          Also attached hereto is a  copy of Section 8 of the Federal Water
     Pollution Control Act under  which this conference is being called.
     You will observe from Secretary Celebrezze's letter that the conference
     is limited to representatives of the U. S. Department of Health, Education
     and Welfare, the Illinois State Sanitary Water Board, the Indiana Stream
     Pollution Control Board and  such persons as are designated by the two
     state boards.

          It is the purpose of this  letter 'to advise you the Indiana Stream
     Pollution Control Board has  designated your corporation as a participant
     in this conference.  Will you please advise us, at your earliest
     convenience, of the name and title of your representative?

          At the time of this writing we have not decided on the State of
     Indiana's presentation.  Tentatively, we are considering limiting this
     presentation to a history of the development and installation of
     pollution abatement facilities  in the Indiana Calumet district and to
     tabular data which depicts the  current status of pollution abatement
     facilities at all industries maintaining separate outlets into the
     waters of the district and at all municipalities.

          If we follow the scheme outlined above, this means you should
     consider going into some detail as  to your own pollution abatement

-------
                                                                     673
                                  -2-

                                                      December 28, 1964
facilities and also into some specific statements on your plans for
future work, if any.  Naturally you will be permitted to bring out
anything  else you consider pertinent to the subject under discussion.

     You will observe a copy of HEW's technical presentation is to be
made available to us in time to permit analysis and evaluation before
the conference.  If we can obtain sufficient copies of this from HEW
you will be supplied one as soon as it is available.

     We also expect to have sonic discussions with HEW representatives
within the next few days relative to the length of the conference
contemplated, an agenda for the conference and certain other details.
Following these discussions we will give you an approximation of the
time which can be allotted for your presentation.  If we receive other
pertinent information this will also be supplied to you.

     Since we will be expected to provide HEW with a list of the persons
who will participate in this conference, please give us the name and
title of your representative as soon as you can.

                                 Sincerely yours,
                                 B. A. Poole
                                 Technical Secretary

BAP/se
Via Certified Mail
Enclosures

copied 2/65

-------
                                                                  674
  Indiana Industries Designated 4o Participate in  March  2,  1965
  Conference Regarding Pollution of the Interstate waters  of
  the Grand Calumet River,  Little Calumet River, Calumet River,
  Lake Michigan,  Wolf Lake  ano their Tributaries
Chesterton

   Bethlehem Steel Co.,  Inc.
   Burns Harbor Plant
   P. O. Box 248
   Chesterton,  Indiana

East Chicago

   Adolph Plating, Inc.
   5334 Indianapolis Blvd.
   East Chicago, Indiana

   American Steel Foundries
   3761 Canal Street
   East Chicago, Indiana

   Blaw Knox Company
   4407 Railroad Avenue
   East Chicago, Indiana

   Cities Service Petroleum Co.
   P. 0. Box 718
   East Chicago, Indiana

   E. I. du Pont 
-------
                                                                   675
Indiana  Industries
Hammond

   Calumet Nitrogen Products Co.
   1630 - 169th Street
   Hammond, Indiana

   Commonwealth Edison Co. of Ind., inc.
   State Line Station
   P. O. Box 65
   Hammond, Indiana

   LaSalle Steel Company
   1412 - 150th Street
   Hammonu, Indiana

   Lever Brothers Company
   1200 Calumet Avenue
   Hammond, Indiana

   Northern Indiana Public Service Co.
   Baileytown plant
   5265 Hohman Avenue
   Hammond, Indiana

   Northern Indiana Public Service Co.
   Gary Plant
   5265 Hohman Avenue
   Hammond, Indiana

Munster
Whiting
   American Oil Company
   Whiting Refinery
   2400 New York Avenue
   Whiting, Inoiana

   Union Carbide Corporation
   Chemicals Division
   P. 0. Box 750
   Whiting, Indiana

   Union Tank Car Company
   1450 East 129th Street
   Whiting, Indiana
   Simmons Company
   9200 Calumet Avenue
   Munster, Indiana
Portage
   Mio
-------
                                                                          676
                                                                   Appendix 5
STATE
INDIANA
 STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL
       -COPY-
                                                        INDIANAPOLIS  462C7
                                      1330 West Michigan Street
                                          MElrose 3-4420
                                                          December 29,
       Mr.  Anthony J. Celebrezze, Secretary
       Department of Health, Education
         and  Welfare
       Wash ington,, D. C.

       Dear Secretary Celebrezze:

       Receipt  is acknowledged of your notice of December  15, 196k, regarding
       the  conference called on the matter of pollution  of the interstate waters
       of the Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River, Lake
       Kichigan, Wolf Lake and their tributaries (Indiana-Illinois).

       Please be advised that the conferee of tne Stream Pollution Control Board
       of the State of  Indiana has not been selected  to  date.  This will probe.".-1
       be done  at the meeting of the Board on January lj, 19&5  We have designa;,..-.
       approximately 19 Indiana municipalities and 31* industries to be represented
       at and participate in the conference.  We will provide you a lict of thcce
       representatives  at a later date when we are advised of the selections of
       the  municipalities and industries.

       We plan  to provide each Indiana participant with  a  copy of lEV'c technical
       precent'Ttlon as  soon as it becomes available.   We trust that sufficient
       copies can be obtained from HEV7.

       We also  expect to have sotr.e discussions with I1KW  representatives within
       the  next few c-ays relative to the length of the conference contemplated,
       an agenda for the conference and certain other details.

                                         Sincerely yours,
                                         B.  A.  Poolc
                                         Technical  Secretary
       RWH/rc
       Via Air Mail - Certified
       cc:   Kr. Murray Gtein
            Mr. H. W. Poston
             Regional Program Director, Region  V
             Water Supply and Pollution Control
             Chicago, Illinois
            Illinois Sanitary Water Board

       copied l/'t/op-rc

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                                                                    677
                                                              Appendix 6

 -C O  P Y-

      PROPOSED SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN WATER POLLUTION SURVEY

                       INDIANA - ILLINOIS

                       1953 - 1354 - 1955

   (Prepared for discussion purposes for use on May 22, 1953)

                           I.  ABSTRACT

      The ultimate aim of the proposed southern Lake Michigan  survey is  to
obtain up-to-date reliable facts upon which to establish water quality
objectives where these interstate waters are useu or may be used for dis-
posal of treated sewage and industrial wastes as well as for  water supply, .

      The survey is to be financed and controlled by a committee representin;
all parties.  The major portion of field and laboratory survey work will
be accomplished by the co-operating interests utilizing proffered personnel
and equipment.  A special survey staff working full time will be required
to plan, coordinate, obtain aata, record and report findings.

      It is recommended that a meeting of the several interests be arranged
for the specific purpose of organization, assembling of available data,
ana solicitation of funds, personnel ana field and laboratory equipment
among the survey participants.

     The general plan of the proposed survey is to place emphasis on
determining the zones of influence in the southern enci of Lake Michigan
of the principal sources of pollution discharging directly into the lake.
Minor pollution source effects will also be determined.  To accomplish
this will require systematic three-dimension sampling in the  immediate
area of each major outfall plus wherever the physical material forces
such  as wind, temperature, etc.,  cause the treated wastes to drift.
Vertical as well as horizontal drifts must be followed.  This has not
been  accomplished in previous surveys.

     Intermingling of zones of influence are anticipated and  it is deemed
necessary to establish a three-dimensional grid system of lake sampling
with key stations at and near each of the water supply intakes.

     In order to obtain accurate lake water quality in the survey area,
the proposed plan calls for daily sampling at perhaps 100 stations.
Samples will be taken at as many depths as laboratory limitations permit.
By analyzing wind,  lake drifts,  and results of analyses on a day-to-day
or week-to-week basis,  the daily sampling plan can be varied to eliminate
"insignificant" stations.   An attempt will be made to sample  through all
four seasons for two years.  Sampling will be accomplished from launches
and a helicopter.  Ice cover effects will be studied.

     One central laboratory for lake water examination is ideal,  but
utilizing space, equipment and personnel in two or mere existing labo-
ratories will be less costly.   Establishment of a committee-owned and

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                                                                    678
Proposeci Lake Michigan Pollution Survey (continued)
staffed-laboratory might be necessary.   Major industries will be urged
to measure, sample and analyze their own wastes.

     In conjunction with the lake survey, it seems desirable to make.*
thorough pollution survey of the tributaries near the lake.   State,
municipal anu industrial facilities should be utilized here.

     The budget covering the two-year survey, based on a somewhat "ideal"
plan, might reach $250,000, however, proffered equipment,  personnel,  etc.,
will reduce the over-all cost considerably.
copied 2-65

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                                                                                  679
      INDIANA STREAM  POLLUTION CONTROL  LAW

   Chapter 214, Acts of 1943; amended by Chapter 132, Acts of 1945;
              and amended by Chapter 64, Acts of 1957
    AN ACT creating the Stream Pollution Control Board of the
              State of Indiana, providing for its members, grant-
              ing: it control over the pollution of any waters of this
              State with the powers to make determinations, orders
              and regulations governing the same and prescribing
              the powers and duties of such Board; to  prohibit
              the pollution of any waters of this State; to provide
              for the raising of funds by municipal corporations;
              to  comply with the orders of the Board; and pro-
              viding  penalties for the violation thereof;  and re-
              pealing cei-tain laws.
    SECTION  1.  BE IT ENACTED BY THE GENEEAL ASSEMBLY
OF THE STATE OP INDIANA, That there is hereby created  an ad-
ministrative board to be known as  "The Stream Pollution  Control Board
of the State of Indiana."
    SEC. 2.  The  powers and  duties  of  the Stream Pollution Control
Board shall be vested  in a seven  (7)  member board.  The  secretary of
the Indiana State Board of Health, the Director  of  the Department of
Conservation and the  Lieutenant-Governor of the State of Indiana  shall
serve as ex-officio members of said Board.  The remaining four  (4)
members of said  board shall be appointed by the Governor  for terms
of four (4) years, no  more than two (2) of which appointed members
shall be of the same political party. The Governor shall fill  any vacancy
occurring in  the appointed membership of the board for  the  unexpired
term  thereof  and he  may remove any such member for  cause.  Ex-
oflicio members of\the  Board shall serve without additional compensation.
Other  members  of the Board  shall be paid mileage and  a per  diem
of fifteen dollars  ($15.00) for each and every day,  or part  of  a  day,
in actual attendance  at any meeting or hearing of the Board, which
per diem and mileage shall be valid claims against the Division of Health
and  Preventive  Medicine of the  State  Department of  Health.   The
tenure of the present appointed members  of the  Board is saved and
preserved.  (As amended by Chapter 132, Acts of  1945, and Chapter 64,
Acts of 1957.)
    SEC. 3.  The Board shall hold at le^st six (6)  regular meetings  each
calendar year at a place and time to be nxed by the Board.   Tho Board
shall select at its  first meeting following the passage of this Act, one
of its members to serve as chairman and at the first  regular meeting in
each calendar year thereafter the  chairman for the  ensuing year  shall
Note: The provisions ~f the Administrative Adjudication Act (Chapter 365, Acts
   of 1047, as amended) supersede certain procedures contained in the Stream
   Pollution Control Act.  The former act pertains to the proceedings, orders
   and determinations  of State officers and agencies and the judicial review
   thereof.

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                                                                             680
                                  3

be selected.  The secretary of the State Board of Health shall designate
a qualified  graduate sanitary engineer  as  technical secretary of  the
Stream Pollution  Control Board.  He shall receive  no  additional com-
pensation for such services  and  during:  the interim between meetings
of the Board he shall handle such correspondence, make or arrange for
such  investigations and surveys  and obtain, assemble or prepare  such
reports and data as the Board may direct and authorize.  Special meet-
ings may be called by the chairman or by two (2)  members of the Board
by delivery  of written notice at the office of each  member of the Board.
Four (4) members of the Board shall  constitute a quorum. (As amended
by Chapter 132, Acts of 1945.)
    SBC. 4.   The Stream Pollution Control Board  shall have jurisdiction
to control and prevent pollution  in the waters of this  Stale with  any
substance which is deleterious  to the public  health or to the prosecution
of any industry or lawful occupation, or whereby any  fish life or  any
beneficial animal or vegetable life may  be destroyed, or the growth or
propagation thereof prevented or injuriously affected.
    SEC. 5.   The Stream Pollution Control Board shall have the power
to bring any appropriate action  in law or in equity  in  the name of the
State of Indiana as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of  this
act, and to enforce any and all laws and  orders relating to the pollution
of waters of this State, as hereinafter provided. Said Board shall have
the power,  after hearing as hereinbelow set out,  to order  any person,
corporation,  municipal  corporation,  partnership  or legal  entity   to
acquire, construct, repair, alter or extend such plants as may be neces-
sary  for the disposal or treatment of organic anu/or inorganic matter
which is causing,  or contributing to, or about to  cause  or contribute to
a polluted condition of the waters of  this State. It shall have the power
to require  the  sealing of mines, oil  gas  wells, brine  wells  or  any
other  subterranean  strata causing,  contributing  or about  to cause or
contribute to a polluted condition of the waters of this State.
     SEC. 6.  The Stream  Pollution  Control Board  or  any  agent  duly
"appointed by it shall have the right  to enter at all  reasonable times in
or upon any private or public property, for the purpose of  inspecting
and  investigating conditions relating to the pollution of any water of
this State.  The Stream Pollution Control  Board  shall  have the power
to call upon any  State officer, board, department, school, university or
other State institution,  and the officers or employees  thereof, and receive
any assistance deemed  necessary to  the  carrying  out of the  provisions
of this act.
     SEC. 7.  The  Stream Pollution Control  Board shall have the power
to determine what qualities  ami  properties of water  shall indicate a
polluted condition  of such water, in any of the streams or waters of
this State, that shall be deleterious to the public health or to the prosecu-
tion of any industry or lawful  occupation  for which or in which  any
such waters may be  lawfully  used or employed, or  whereby the carry-
ing  on of any  agricultural,  floriculture! or horticultural pursuit  may
be  or shall be  injuriously  affected,  or  whereby  the lawful conduct of
any  livestock industry, or  the use of any such waters for domestic  ani-

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                                                                             681
mals may be prevented, injuriously  affjcted  or impaired, or whereby
any lawful use  of  any such waters by the State of Indiana,  or by any
political  subdivision,  corporation,  municipal  corporation, association,
partnership, person, or  any other legal entity, may be lessened or im-
paired or  materially interfered  with, or  whereby  any fish life or any
beneficial animal or vegetable life in said waters may be destroyed, or
the  growth  or  propagation thereof prevented or injuriously affected.
Any  such determination made  by the  said Stream  Pollution Control
Board as  above provided,  shall  be filed  of record in the office of the
Stream Pollution Control Board.  The Stream Pollution  Control Board
shall have  the  power to make  regulations and  orders restricting the
polluting content of any waste  material  and polluting- substances dis-
charged or sought to be  dischaigcd into  any of the streams or waters of
this State.  The Stream Pollution Control Board  shall have  the power
to  take  appropriate steps  to prevent  any pollution which shall  be
deemed by the Stream Pollution Control Board to  be  unreasonable and
against public interests, in  view  of the existing condition  in any stream
or other waters  of  this State.

    SEC. 8.  It  shall be unlawful for any  corporation, municipal cor-
poration,  association, partnership, person or any other legal  entity to
throw,  run,  drain,  or otherwise  dispose into any of the streams or
waters  of this State,  or to cause, permit or suffer to be thrown, run,
drained, allowed to seep or otherwise  disposed into  such waters, any
organic or inorganic matter that shall cause or contribute to  a polluted
condition of such waters, according to any determination  of the Stream
Pollution Control Board, as provided for in Section 7 of this act, de-
termining what  shall constitute a polluted condition of such waters that
shall be deleterious to the public health  or to the prosecution of any
industry or lawful occ\ipation for which  or  in which any such waters
may be lawfully used  or employed, or whereby the carrying  on of any
agricultural, floricultural or horticultural pursuit may or shall  be ad-
versely affected, or whereby the lawful conduct of any  livestock industry
or the use of any such waters by  or for domestic animals, may be pre-
vented, injuriously affected or impaired, or whereby  any lawful use of
such  waters by the State of Indiana or  any political subdivision, cor-
poration, municipal corporation,  association, partnership, person, or any
other'legal entity, may be  lessened or impaired or materially  interfered
with, or  whereby  any fish  life  or any  beneficial  animal or  vegetable
life  in  said  waters may be  destroyed,  or  the growth or propagation
thereof prevented T injuriously  aft'ected.

  SEC.  9.  Whenever the Stream  Pollution Control Board shall deter-
mine that any corporation, municipal corporation,  association, partner-
ship, person, or  any other lejjal entity, is violating, or is about to violate,
the provisions of Section  8 of  this act,  the  Stream  Pollution Control
Board shall serve notice on the  alleged offender by registered mail, of
its  determination of the fact of such violation, and shall include in such
notice an  order against such offender  to cease  such violation and to
abate such condition of pollution, fixing in such notice and order a rea-
sonable time within which  such  correction  and abatement shall be ac-

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                                                                                682
complished.  The notice of such determination and order shall be served
upon the president and secretary of any corporation or association, upon
the mayor and clerk, or clerk-treasurer, as the case may be, of any city,
and upon the members of the board of trustees of any incorporated town,
and in the case of municipal corporations, such notice and order also shall
be  published one time in a newspaper of general circulation in such
municipal corporation.  Within fifteen days from the receipt of notice of
such determination and order, such offender  may file with the Stream
Pollution  Control  Board a  full  report showing what steps  have been
and are being taken  to control such wastes  or pollution,  or a written
brief showing cause  why steps for correction or abatement are not
being instituted, or such offender may, by -written  petition  mailed by
registered mail, or delivered in  person  to the  Stream Pollution Control
Board within such rifteen days,  deny the fact  of such violation or im-
minence of  violation, and request a  hearing  on the issue  of fact thus
presented:  PROVIDED,  That in the case of a municipal corporation,
any forty or more taxpayers or owners of real  estate in such municipal
corporation  may, within fifteen  days  after publication of such  notice
and order as herein provided, by written petition  mailed  by registered
mail or delivered in person  to the Stream Pollution Control Board deny
the fact of such violation or imminence of violation, and request a hear-
ing on  the issue of fact thus presented,  regardless  of any action that
may have been taken by the proper officials of such municipal  corpora-
tion, in response to said  notice and  order. If hearing  is  requested as
herein provided, it shall  be the  duty of the  Stream Pollution Control
Board to  set such matter for hearing, not less  than ten and not more
than sixty days from  the date of receipt of  such petition  and request,
and to send notice  of  time and  place of such hearing to the petitioner,
not less than ten days prior to the time fixed  for such hearing, which
notice  shall  be served by registered mail as herein provided, for service
of the  notice of determination and order: PROVIDED, However, that in
case of request for hearing by forty or more taxpayers  or owners of
real estate, as  herein  provided, notice of time and place of hearing
shall be served upon  such  petitioners by publication  one time  in a
newspaper of g'eneral circulation in the municipal  corporation affected
by  such determination  and  order.  Such hearing shall be held in  sum-
mary manner, and witnesses may be heard and evidence  presented on
the  question of existence  or imminence  of such violation, only.  Any
member of  the board  shall  have the power  to compel the attendance
of witnesses and to administer oaths, and all witnesses shall be examined
under  oath  or affirmation.  A full record shall be  kept of  the  proceed-
ings had,  and evidence introduced, at such hearing, and a  transcript of
such proceedings and evidence, duly authenticated by the chairman and
secretary  of such board, shall be furnished by  said board, on request,
for use in any action to  set aside a final order of said board, as pro-
vided in Section 11 of this act.  Within fifteen days after completion of
any such hearing, such board shall make written recommendation, rela-
tive to the affirmance,  revocation or  modification of the original deter-
mination  and order of such  board.  When such alleged offender  shall
have filed a report showing what steps have-been or are being taken

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                                                                            683
 to control such wastes, or pollution, or shall have filed a written brief
 showing c^use why steps for correction or abatement are not being in-
 stituted, or where a hearing has been had and written  recommendation
 made by  such Board as herein provided, thereupon such Stream Pollu-
 tion Control Board shall revoke, modify  or affirm its original determina-
 tion, and order and make such final order in the premises, as it shall
 then deem  necessary  and proper.  Such final order shall be  filed  of
 record in the office of the Stream Pollution  Control  Board and notice
 of such final order shall be served on the alleged offender,  as  provided
 herein, for  service  of  notice  of the original determination and order of
 such board.

     SEC.  10.  That all plans and specifications for abatement or cor-
 rection  of  any polluted  condition  shall be  approved  by  the  Stream
 Pollution Control Board.  The Stream  Pollution Control  Board shall
advise and consult, on request, with any person planning any correction
 or prevention  of any pollution  condition of any water of this State.
    SEC. 11.  In case any corporation,  municipal corporation, associa-
tion, partnership, person, or any  other  legal  entity,  against whom any
 final order of the Stream Pollution Control Board has issued,  does not
 comply  with said order within sixty (60)  days from the date thereof,
 the said Board may commence an action for  enforcement of said order
 against said party or parties  against whom  the  order  has  been made,
 in the Circuit or Superior Court of the County in which  such alleged
 violator resides. Such action shall be tried as a civil  action de novo by
 such Court, and either party thereto shall be entitled to have the same
 tried before a jury. On such trill the Court shall have jurisdiction  to
 determine whether said order is reasonable or  unreasonable, and -whether
 a polluted condition of any water or waters exists or is about to exist,
and to affirm, modify,  or wholly set aside such order, it being the intent
and purpose of this Act that the finding of said Board as to whether a
polluted condition of any water or waters exists or  is  about to exist
is final only when so determined by  such Court.  Either party to such
 action may within  thirty (30)  days after  judgment appeal to the Su-
 preme Court of Indiana under the same procedure as governs  appeals
 in ordinary civil actions.
     SEC. 12.  Any  person, corporation,  municipal corporation,  partner-
 ship or legal entity, upon whom a final order  of the Stream Pollution
Control  Board, as herein provided is served which order shall not have
 been set aside by a court of competent jurisdiction upon complaint filed
as herein provided, or upon whom a final order is served as modified to
 conform with a judgment of  such court directing modification, shall,
 within thirty  days after  receipt of such order, or after judgment  af-
 firming such order  is entered, take steps  for the acquisition  or construc-
 tion of  such plants, machinery or works, or for such repair, alteration
 or extension of existing plants, machinery or works, as may be necessary
 for the  disposition  or treatment of the organic  and/or inorganic matter
which is causing or contributing to, or  is about to cause or contribute
to, A polluted condition of such water or waters, or shall take such other
 steps as may be necessary to comply with said final order of the Stream

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                                                                            681
Pollution Control Board. If the offender be a municipal corporation, the
cost of acquisition, construction, repair, alteration or extension of the
necessary plants, machinery or works,  or of  taking such other  steps
as may be necessary to comply with said order, shall be paid out of funds
on  hand available  for  such purposes,  or  out  of the general funds of
such municipal corporation, not otherwise  appropriated; or if there not
be sufficient funds on hand  or unappropriated,  then the necessary funds
shall be raised by the issuance of  bonds, such bond  issue to  be subject
only to the approval  of the Indiana Tax Board.
    If the  estimated cost of the steps  necessary to be  taken, by such
municipal  corporation to comply  with such final order  of the  Stream
Pollution Control Board, is  such that the bond issue necessary to finance
such project would not raise the total outstanding bonded indebtedness
of such municipal corporation, in excess of the  constitutional limit im-
posed upon such indebtedness by the constitution of this State, then and
in that event the necessary bonds  may  be issued as  a direct  obligation
of such municipal corporation, and retired by a general tax  levy  to be
levied  against all  the property within  the  limit of such  municipal cor-
poration listed and assessed for taxation.  If  the amount of such bonds
necessary to be issued would raise the total outstanding bonded indebted-
ness of such municipal corporation above  the said constitutional limita-
tion on such indebtedness, or if such municipal corporation, by its com-
mon council  or board  of  town  trustees,  as the case may  be, should
determine  against  the issuance of direct obligation bonds,  then such
municipal  corporation  shall issue  revenue bonds and provide  for the
retirement thereof, in. the same manner and subject  to the same condi-
tions as provided for the  issuance and retirement of bonds  in an act
of the General Assembly of the State  of  Indiana entitled "An act to
authorize cities and  towns  to  construct, own. equip, opt rate, maintain
and improve works, for the treatment and for the disposal of sewage;
to authorize charges against owners of premises for the use  of such
works and to provide for the collection of same; to authorize  cities and
towns to issue revenue oonds, payable solely from the revenues  of such
works,  and  to make such  bonds  exempt  from taxation and to  make
them lawfu' investments of  sinking funds; to authorize contracts for the
use of such works  by other cities,  towns and political subdivisions, and
to authorize charges  against owners of  premises therein  served  thereby
and  declaring an  emergency," approved August 17, 1932, as srnended
by  Chapter 187 of the  Acts of the General Assembly of Indiana,  1933,
approved March 8, 1933, and  as amended by an act of  the  79th reg-
ular session  of the General Assembly, such act as amended  being sec-
tions 48-4301 to  48-4323,  inclusive, of Burns' Indiana  Statutes, Re-
vision  of 1933, insofar as  the provisions  of said act,  as amended, are
applicable  and are  not  in conflict wilh any of the express provisions of
this act: PROVIDED,  However, that  the provisions of Section 5 of the
above mentioned act,  as amended, allowing objections  to be filed with the
common council or  board of town trustees by forty owners of property
affected, and requiring the submission  of the question of such  bond issue
and improvement to  the qualified voters of such municipal corporation
in certain cases shall  not apply to bond issues proposed by any municipal

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                                                                            6S5
 corporation to comply with a final order issued by the  Stream Pollution
 Control Board under the authority of this act, and such  objections and/or
 submission to the qualified voters of such municipal corporation shall not
 be  authorized, nor shall the S4me, if  had,  operate to justify or excuse
 failure to comply with such final order.
     The funds made available by the issuance of either direct obligation
 bonds  or revenue  bonds as herein provided, shall constitute a  sanitary
 fund, and shall be used for no other purpose than for carrying out such
 order or orders of the Stream Pollution Control Board.

     SEC. 13. The construction, acquisition, improvement, equipment, cus-
tody, operation, repair  and maintenance  of any plant, machinery or
 works  by any municipal  corporation,  in compliance  with a final order
 of the Stream Pollution Control Board, as herein provided, other than
the  financing thereof,  and  the  rights, powers and  duties  of  such
 municipal  corporation  and the  respective  officers and  departments
 thereof,  whether the same be financed  by the issuance  of revenue or
direct  obligation bonds shall be governed  by the provisions of an act
entitled "An act to authorize cities  and  towns to construct, own,  equip,
operate,  maintain  and  improve works, for the  treatment  and for the
disposal  of  sewage; to authorize charges  against owners  of premises
for the use  of such works and to  provide for the collection of same; to
authorize cities  and  towns  to issue revenue bonds payable  solely
from the revenues of such works, to make such  bonds exempt from tax-
ation and to  make them lawful investments of sinking  funds; to au-
thorize contracts for the  use of such  works by other cities, towns and
political  subdivisions and to authoiize  charges against  owners of  prem-
ises  therein  served  thereby; and  declaring  an emergency,"  approved
August 17, 1932, as amended by Chapter 187 of the Acts  o the General
Assembly of Indiana,  and  as amended by  an act of the  79th regular
session of the General Assembly, such  act as  amended  being sections
48-4301 to 48-4324, inclusive, Burns' Ind;ana Statutes,, Revision of I'M'.',,
insofar as  the provisions  of said act, as  amended,  are  applicable  and
not in conflict with any of  the express provisions of  this act:  PRO-
VIDED, However, that the provisions of Section  5 of the  above named
act, as amended, allowing objections to be filed with the common council
or board of town trustees by  forty owners  of property affected,  and
are requiring the submission of the  question of  such  bond issue and im-
provement to the qualified voters  of such municipal  corporation in cer-
 tain cases,  shall not apply  to  the  construction, acquisition,  equipping,
 improvement, repair or maintenance of any plants, machinery or works,
 by any municipal corporation, in compliance with a final order issued by
the  Stream  Pollution  Control Board  under the authority  of this  act,
and  such objections and/or submission  to  the  qualified  voters of such
 municipal corporation, shall not be authorized, nor shall the  same, if had,
 operate to justify or excuse failure  to comply with such final order, nor
 shall any provisions of said above named  act  as amended, be deemed
 to allow such municipal corporation  or any of the officers  thereof, a
 discretion in  the  manner  of  complying with said order, but  the  same
 shall be  mandatory:  PROVIDED,  Further, that the powers and  duties

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                                                                        686
conferred by the SjfcwVe named  act, a.s amended, upon  the boards of
public works, or i*et*nm >fttee or body authorized to perform the duties
of a  board  of px;b)n, w*ks, in cities where there were no such boards
at the time of nu&agtt c/f  such  act, shall be exercised and performed
by the boards ol public works and safety,  as now constituted.
     SEC. 14.  It shall be the duty  of  each individual offender, and of
each  member of partnership, and of each member of the common council
or board of town trustees of a municipal corporation, and of each mem-
ber  of  the  board of  directors  or other  governing  body of a  private
corporation, association or other legal entity, against whom a final order
has been issued, as herein provided, to begin appropriate action or  pro-
ceedings to  comply with such order, within thirty days from the receipt
thereof, if no action has been commenced in the circuit or superior court
of the county where such  violation is alleged to exist to set  aside or
vacate such order as provided in this act, or, in case such action has been
brought, within thirty days from the  date of judgment affirming such
order, or from  the  date of receipt of such order,  as modified  in  con-
formity with the judgment of such court.  Failure of the common council
or board of town trustees, in the case of a municipal corporation, or of
the board of  directors or other governing  body of any private  corpora-
tion,  association or other legal entity,  to provide for the  financing and
construction of such works  as may be necessary to carry out said order
by appropriate ordinance or resolution, shall constitute failure  to begin
appropriate action or proceedings to comply with such order, as above
provided.  Any individual offender, or any member of a partnership, or
any officer or member of the board of directors of a private corporation,
association  or other legal entity, or any mayor, councilman, town trustee
or member  of a  board of public works and safety, of any municipal cor-
poration, who fails or refuses to discharge any duty imposed upon  him
by this act or by such final order of the Stream Pollution Control Board,
or any duty imposed upon him by reason of any ordinance of the common
council or board  of trustees of any municipal corporation or resolution
of the board  of directors or other governing  body  of any private  cor-
poration, association  or other legal entity, pursuant to this act or to
such  final  order, may  be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon
conviction thereof,  shall be fined  in any sum  not less than twenty-five
dollars and  not more than one hundred dollars, to which may be added
imprisonment in the county jail for any period  not to exceed ninety days.

    SEC. 15.  The  Stream Pollution Control Board shall have the au-
thority, in  its discretion, to extend the time fixed in any final order
issued by it, within which any offender is  ordered to correct or abate a
condition of pollution of any water or waters, upon written petition filed
with  such department not less than thirty days prior to the time fxed
in such order, when it shall appear that a good faith effort to  comply
with  said order is being made, and that it will be  impossible for such
offender to complete the project of work undertaken  within the time so
fixed.  Any  person, corporation, municipal corporation, partnership, asso-
ciation or other legal entity, who shall fail or refuse to correct or abate
such polluted condition in compliance with such order within the time

-------
                                                                                     687
                                  10

fixed or within the time additionally  granted as herein provided, shall
be subject to  a penalty of one hundred dollars  for each day that such
polluted condition continues to exist after the time so fixed, or as addi-
tionally granted, which may be recovered in  a civil suit brought in  the
name of the State of Indiana,  and which penalty shall be in  addition to
the penalties  provided  in Section 14  of this  act.  It shall be the duty
of the Attorney General to prosecute all actions  for penalties under this
section, and all penalties so recovered  shall be  paid into the common
school fund of the State.  The penalties accruing for any two or more
days under the provisions of this section may be recovered in one com-
plaint and may be joined in one paragraph  of  said complaint:  PRO-
VIDED, However, that no order of the  Stream Pollution Control Board
shall be enforceable in cases  where  material,  supplies and  labor  are
unavailable.

    SBC. 16.  Wherever the word "person" is used in this act, it shall be
construed to mean and include person,  persons, firm, partnership, cor-
poration, municipal  corporation, association and  any and all other legal
entities, whatsoever.  Wherever the words "water" or "waters" shall be
rsed in  this act, they shall be construed to mean and  include lakes,
rivers, streams, drainage ditches,  roadside ditches, underground water
and  any  and  all other  surface and sub-surface water  courses,  un-
derground  reservoirs and basins  within the  jurisdiction of this state:
PROVIDED,  That  the  term  "water  or waters" shall not  mean  any
privately-owned pond: PROVIDED, Further, that the provisions of this
amendatory act shall in no way affect the administration and enforce-
ment  of the drainage and ditch laws of this state.   (As amended by
Chapter 64, Acts of 1957.)

    SEC. 17.  Being necessary for the public health, safety and welfare,
this act shall be liberally construed to effectuate  the purposes thereof.

    SEC. 18.  This act  shall not be construed as repealing any existing
law or any of the provisions of any existing law, relating to pollution of
lakes or streams, or relating to the powers and duties of the State Board
of Health, but shall be deemed and construed as auxiliary and  supple-
mentary thereto, excepting howrver,  Chapter 152 of the Acts of. 1935
which is hereby expressly repealed.

    SEC. 19.  Should any section or part of section of  this act  be held
unconstitutional by any court  of competent jurisdiction, the  same shall
not affect the  validity of the act as a whole,  or  any part  thereof, other
than that portion so held to be unconstitutional.

    SEC. 20. WHEREAS an emergency exists for the immediate taking
effect of this  act, the same shall he in  full force and  effect from and
after its passage.
April. 1964

-------
                                                       688
                                                 Appendix 8
      INDIANA STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
                 REGULATION SPC 1
WHEREAS, the Stream Pollution Control Board of the
         State of Indiana has the power under
         Section 7, Chapter 2lU, Acts of 19^3, to
         determine what qualities and properties of
         water shall indicate a polluted condition
         of such water in any of the streams or
         waters of this State, and

WHEREAS, the Board recognizes the fact that the
         character of all surface water is affected
         by the mode of life of the people and the
         activities of industry, and that both the
         people and industry are dependent on said
         surface water to a greater or lesser
         extent, and

WHEREAS, it is recognized that concentrations of
         population may exist on small streams
         where diluting water is insufficient to
         maintain suitable concentrations of oxygen
         by the use of known and reasonable methods
         of waste treatment, and

WHEREAS, there is a fair economic balance between
         cost of treatment of waste and benefits
         received beyond which it is not reasonable
         to expend money for treatment, and the
         cost of treatment and the benefits to be
         derived must be considered in determining
         the extent of corrective treatment to be
         applied, and

WHEREAS, natural purifying agencies in the stream
         should be reasonably utilized, these
         agencies consisting primarily of the
         biology of the stream which is affected
         by the depth of the water, the velocity
         of the current, etc., and

-------
                                                      689

                                                Appendix S
WHEREAS, the necessary degree of purity of surface
         waters depends on the subsequent use which
         varies on different watersheds and at
         different points on the same watershed, and

WHEREAS, for the above-named reasons, each stream
         presents a separate problem and standards
         may need to be modified to fit specific
         cases,

BE IT BESOLVED, that in general the following
         regulations and standards shall be appli-
         cable to all receiving waters and any water
         which does not meet such standards and
         properties shall be deemed and considered
         as in a polluted condition.

         1.  Floating material including grease and
             oil shall not be discharged into any
             surface water in deleterious amounts,
             or in amounts sufficient to affect
             injuriously fish life, fur bearing or
             domestic animals, or the general biology
             of the water, or plant life in or in
             the vicinity of such water.

         2.  Waste which is discharged into any
             water shall contain nothing which will
             deposit in a stream or a lake to form
             putrescent or otherwise objectionable
             sludge banks.

         3.  Waste which is discharged into any
             water shall contain no materials in
             concentrations sufficiently high to
             affect adversely public health, fish
             life, fur bearing or domestic animals,
             or plant life in or in the vicinity
             of such water.

         U.  Generally the oxygen content of the
             receiving water, after being mixed

                       -2-

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                                                           690


                                                    Appendix 8
             with and affected by the waste,  shall
             be no less than 50 per cent saturation.
             A lower concentration will be  tolerated
             temporarily,  but only so long  as it  is
             not injurious to aquatic life, and in
             no case shall it fall below 25 per cent
             saturation.

             Receiving waters shall be considered
             unsuitable for bathing if the  coliform
             concentration exceeds 1000 per 100 ml.
             (MPN.)  If the receiving water is used
             as a source of water supply, a coliform
             density greater than 5COO per  100 ml.
             (MPN.) shall  not exist at or in  the
             vicinity of the intake.  Also  in the
             case of wastes, bearing or producing
             substances objectionable from  a  taste
             or odor standpoint, which are  discharged
             into waters which are used as  a  source
             of water supply, such wastes shall be
             so treated as to render them unobject-
             ionable before discharge into  the stream
             or lake.
(Effective November 8,
                   Stream Pollution Control Board
                   1330 West Michigan Street
                   Indianapolis,  Indiana   1*6207
                           -3-

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                                                                 91
                                                          Appendix 9
      INDIANA STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD


                 BEGUIATION SPC 2
     Any person, firm or corporation engaged in
manufacture or other process in which cyanides
or cyanogen compounds are used shall have each
and every room, where said compounds are used
or stored, so constructed that none of said
compounds can escape therefrom by raeans of
building sewer, drain or otherwise directly or
indirectly into ary sewer system or water-course;

     PROVIDED, however, that on application to
and prior approval by the Stream Pollution
Control Board, limited amounts, which it is
determined would not be detrimental to public
health or which vrould not pollute any lake,
river, stream, drainage or roadside ditch or
other water-course, shall not costs under the
provision of the paragraph above.
(Effective January 10, 193)
                Stream Pollution Control Board
                1330 West Michigan Street
                Indianapolis, Indiana   U620?

-------
                                                           692
                                                    Appendix 10
    INDIANA STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
               REGULATION SPG 3
     Every person, firm, corporation or other
legal entity who owns an active or abandoned
coal mine or who is engaged in the storage,
transportation, use, mining or processing of
coal in the State of Indirna, shall dispose
of refuse, including gob and coal fines, from
processing coal, so as to create minimal acid
mine drainage and deposits of coal fines in
waters of this State.

     No gob shall be used in the construction
of public or private roadways in the State of
Indiana, which will cause acid mine drainage
to the waters of this State under the juris-
diction of the Stream Pollution Control Board
of Indiana.
(Effective December 9, 1963)
                 Stream Pollution Control Board
                 1330 West Michigan Street
                 .Indianapolis, Indiana  U6207

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                                                                        693
STATE
INDIANA
  STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD

   -COPY-
                                                                   Appendix 11
                                                       INDIANAPOLIS 46207
                                      1330 West Michigan Street
                                          MElrose 3-4420

                                         June 22, 196U
    U. S. Steel Corporation
    No. 1 Broadway
    Gary, Indiana

    Attention:  Mr. F. A.  Dudderar, General Supt.
                Gary Steel Works

                Mr, T. J.  Koening, General Supt.
                Gary Sheet and Tin Mill

    Gentlemen:

                                      Re:  Industrial Waste Survey
                                           U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary

         During the period of  August through NoveKber, 1963, the U, S. Public
    Health Service conducted industrial waste surveys in the Indiana portion
    of the Calumet Area.   These surveys were scheduled as part of the Great
    Lakes and Illinois River Basin Project (GLIKB) activities on streams tribu-
    tary to Lake Michigan.

         Enclosed for your information are copies of data obtained from the
    Public Health Service  which relate to the operations of U. S. Steel Corpora-
    tion, Gary.

         Those data on Pages 1 and 2 of the enclosure are selected effluent
    loadings from municipalities and industries which discharge weste waters to
    the Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan.  Those
    data on Pages 3 and h  are  selected stream loadings for the Grand Calumet
    Pdver and the Indiana  Harbor Canal.  These data were obtained during 2h-
    and U8-hour surveys except for those indicsted on Pa^,e 3  Page 5 shovs the
    chemical data  as obtained from the GLIKB Project and which relate specifically
    to U. S. Steel's operations.  These data were obtained with composite samples
    collected at the intersection of Bridge Street and the Grand Calumet Pdver,
    Gary.  Two 2U-hour samples were composited, over a U8-hour period on October 23-
    through October 25, 1963.

         As you will observe,  your plant discharges appreciable quantities of oil,
    phenol, ammonia, cyanide,  etc., to the Grand Calumet River.

-------
                                                                        69*
                                  -2-

0. S. Steel Corporation                                   June 22,  1961;
     It is recommended that the U. S. Steel Corporation,  Gary,  actively
study its problem and develop a comprehensive industrial  waste  treatment
program for the abatement of water pollution in the Grand Calumet Fiiver,
This program should include a timetable for the completion of each phase of
the work anticipated*

     It is requested that the comprehensive program be submitted to the
Board for review and approval.  The Board will have an engineer available,
upon request, for consultation in regard to this matter.   If we can be of
service, please contact us.

                                   Very truly yours,
                                   B. A.  Poole
                                   Technical Secretary
RAW/msb
Enclosures
cc:  Mr. G. A. Howell
     Mr. H. W. Poston

copied 2/6$

-------
STATE-
                                           "            INDIANAPOLIS 462C7
  STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD                      133 West Michigan Street
                                                              MElrose 3-4420

    -COPY-                                                  June 19, 196U
      Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company
      Indiana Harbor Plant
      East  Chicago, Indiana

      Attention:  Mr. J. W. Kirkpatrick
                 Manager, Chicago District

      Gentlemen:

                                        Re:   Industrial Waste Survey

           During the period of August through November, 1963, the U. S. Public
      Health Ssrvice conducted industrial waste surveys in the Indiana portion of
      the Calumet Area.  These surveys were scheduled  as part of the Great Lakes
      and Illinois River Basin Project (GLIRB) activities on streams tributary to
      Lake  Michigan.

           Enclosed for your information are  copies  of data obtained from the
      Public Health Service which relate to the operations of Younsstown Sheet
      and Tube Company, East Chicago.

           Those data on Pages 1 and 2 of the enclosure are selected effluent
      loadings from municipalities and industries which discharge waste waters
      to the Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan.  Those
      data  on Pages 3 and U are selected stream loadings for the Grand Calumet
      River and the Indiana Harbor Canal.  These data  were obtained during 2U-and
      U8-hour surveys except for those indicated on  Page 3.  Pages 5 through Ih
      are the total raw chemical data as obtained from the GLIRB Project and which
      relate specifically to Youngstpwn's operations.  Pages 15 through 19 describe
      the location of the Youngstown sewers that were  sampled during the survey.

           As you will observe, your plant discharges  appreciable quantities of
      oil, phenol, ammonia, cyanide, etc., to the Indiana Harbor Canal.

           It is recommended that the  Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company, East
      Chicago, actively study its problem and develop  a comprehensive industrial
      waste treatment program for the abatement of water pollution in the Indiana
      Harbor Canal.  This program should include a timetable for the completion
      of each phase of the work anticipated.

-------
                                                                        896
                                   -2-

Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co.                                June 19,
     It is requested that the coniprehensive program be  submitted to  the
Board for review and approval.  The Board will have an  engineer  available,
upon request, for consultation in regard to this matter.   If we  can  be  of
service, please contact us.

                                   Very truly yours,
                                   8.  A.  Poole
                                   Technical Secretary
RAW/msb
cc:  Mr. H. W. Poston
     Mr. J. E. Kinney
     Mr. A. J. Cochrane
copied 2/65

-------
                                                                           697
ST.
  STREAM POLLIT^ON CONTROL BOAED
    -COPY-
                                                        INDIANAPOLIS 46207
                                           1330 West Michigan Street

                                              MElrose 3-4420
                                            June 18, 196U
     Inland Steel Company
     Indiana Harbor Works
     East Chicago, Indiana U6312
     Attention:
     Gentlemen:
Mr. F. G. Jaicks, Vice-President
Manufacturing and Research
                                       Re:  Industrial Waste Survey
          During the period of August through November, 1963, the U. S. Public
     Health Service conducted industrial waste surveys in the Indiana portion of
     the Calumet Area.   These surveys were scheduled as part of the Great Lakes
     and Illinois River Basin Project (GLIRB) activities on streams tributary to
     Lake Michigan.

          Enclosed for  your information are copies of data obtained from the
     Public Health Service which relate to the operations of Inland Steel Company,
     East Chicago.

          Those data on Pages 1 and 2 of the enclosure are selected effluent
     loadings  from municipalities and industries which discharge waste waters
     to the Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan.  Those
     data on Pages 3 and 1; are selected stream loadings for the Grand Calumet
     River and the Indiana Harbor Canal.  These data were obtained during 2lj-and
     ii8-hour surveys excapt for those indicated on Page 3.  Pages 5, 6, and 7 are
     the total raw chemical data as obtained from the GLIRB Project and which
     relate ."specifically to Inland's operations.  Pages 8 and 9 describe the
     location  of the Inland sewers that were sampled during the survey.

          As you will observe, your plant discharges appreciable quantities of
     oil, phenol,  ammonia, cyanide, etc., to the Indiana Harbor Canal.

          It is recommended that the Inland Steel Company, East Chicago,
     actively  study its problem and develop a comprehensive industrial waste treat-
     ment program for the abatement of water pollution in the Indiana Harbor Canal.
     This program should include a timetable for the completion of each phase of
     the work  anticipated.

-------
                                                                     698
Inland Steel Coinpany                                        June 18, 196U
     It is requested that the  comprehensive program be submitted to tha
Board for review and approval.  The  Board will have an engineer available,
upon request, for consultation in  regard to this matter*  If we can be of
service, please contact us,

                                  Very truly yours,
                                  B. A. Poole
                                  Technical  Secretary
RAW/msb
Enclosures
cc:  Mr. I. Eosenak
     Mr. E. L. Harbaugh
     Mr. H. W. Poston

copied 2/6

-------
                                                                           699
STATE- ,^______,
                                      .._,  ftfe^..    i  INDIANAPOLIS 46207
                                            <*-*-        133 West Michigan Street
  STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD       -^sasa^
                                                              MEIrose 3-4420

   - COPY -                                                  September 11, 1961}.
    Mobil Oil Coup any
    3821 Indianapolis Boulevard
    East Chicago, Indiana

    Attention:  Mr. E. Kieper
               Acting Plant Manager

    Gentlemen:

                                      Re:   Industrial Waste Survey

         During the period of August through November, 1963, the U. S. Public
    Health Service conducted industrial waste surveys in the Indiana portion of
    the  Calumet Area.  These surveys were scheduled as part of the Great Lakes
    and  Illinois River Basin Project (GLIRB) activities on streams tributary to
    Lake Michigan.

         Enclosed for your information are  copies of data obtained from the
    Public Health Service which relate to the operations of Mobil Oil Company,
    East Chicago,

         Those data on Pages 1 and 2 of the enclosure are selected effluent
    loadings from municipalities and industries which discharge waste waters to
    the  Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor Canal, or Lake Michigan.  Those data
    on Pages 3 and h are selected stream loadings for the Grand Calumet River and
    Indiana Harbor Canal.  These data were  obtained during 21;- and U8-hour surveys
    except for those indicated on Page 3.  Pages 5, 6, 7 and 8 list the total
    chemical data as obtained from the GLIRB Project and which relate specifically
    to Mobil Oil Company's operations.

         As you will observe from the enclosed data, your plant discharges
    appreciable quantities of oil, phenol,  solids, B.O.D., ammonia, etc.,  to the
    waters of the Indiana Harbor Canal.

         It is recora/nended that the Mobil Oil Company, East Chicago, actively
    study its industrial waste problem and  develop a coaprehensive industrial
    waste treatment program.  This program  should include a timetable for the
    completion of each phase of the work anticipated.

-------
                                                                        7r>o
                                  2

Mobil Oil Corapaay                                       September 11, 196U
     It is requested that the comprehensive program be  submitted to the
Board for review and approval.  The Board will have an  engineer available,
upon request, for consultation in regard to water quality goals.  Please
advise this Board of the action that has been taken in  regard to this matter,

                                   Very truly yours,
                                   B,  A. Poole
                                   Technical Secretary
HAW/msb
Enclosure
cc:  Mr. J. W. Mann
     Mr. H. W. Boston
copied 2/65

-------
                                                                          701


                                                                   Appendix 12
STAT&
INDIANA
 STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOABD
    - COPY-
                                                       INDIANAPOIIS 46207
                                     1330 West Michigan Street
                                          MEIrose 3-4420

                                       December 15,  l$6k
     Gentlemen:
                                       Re:  Lake Michigan
          Water quality in the southern end of Lake Michigan is of the utmost
     concern to this Board,  You are aware of the past  litigation in the
     Supreme Court of the United States against the State  of Indiana, Hammond,
     Gary, East Chicago, Whiting and 19 industries for  pollution of Lake Michi-
     gan.  Currently, the Public Health Service is preparing a comprehensive
     report for Lake Michigan,  All of this is indicative  of the interest and
     concern about the present and future quality of Lake  Michigan water.

          For many years, the City of Chicago has communicated through the
     Cuicago Water Department its unhappiness with the  quality of Lake Michigan
     water, particalarly the high threshold odors.  High threshold odor water
     requires treatment with high dosages of activated  carbon.  Needless to
     say, Indiana industry has'been blamed and, in a large-number of the cases,
     is probably responsible.

          The daily operation reports of the Hammond, Whiting, East Chicago
     and Gary water treatment plants have been studied.    The daily average
     carbon used per million gallons (KG) of water treated have been plotted
     for a number of years.  These plots for Hammond show  the use of carbon is
     high in the winter months generally from November  through March.  This
     spring (l?61i) carbon usage remained high through April and then dropped
     in May, June and the first half of July.  Since July  13 the carve has been
     on the upswing with peak days above 100 pounds per MG on two days in
     AugUbt, nine days in September and 12 in October,  which is the first time
     since 195>9 this has occurred in September and October.  Enclosed is a table
     th?:t gives by month and year-the average monthly use  of carbon per KG, and
     -ohe number of days each month the dosage exceeded  100 pounds per KG and
     200 pounds per MG.

-------
                                                                        702
                                  -2-
     Several times each year the carton dosage exceeds 300 pounds per MG
with a high of 651 pounds per MG on March 5, I960.  Such occurrences before
December or January are unusual, and have been recorded before December 1
only twice since 1959 - November 13, 1962 (316) and October 2o, 1961 (300),
However, there are three days in November of this year (19610 which are as
follows:  382 on November 1, 33k on November 12, and I4i6 on November 23.

     These data indicate the pollution situation in Lake Michigan is worse
than it has been in the past several years.  If the present trend continues,
we can expect conditions to be as bad or worse than 1959 which was before
many of the waste treatment facilities were in operation.

     You are requested (1) to redouble your efforts to improve housekeeping
by eliminating or holding to an absolute minimum the wastes discharged to
plant sewers, (2) to eliminate the dumping of wastes or non-saleable compounds
to the sewers and water courses, and (3) to improve where possible the opera-
tion of existing treatment works*

     Please advise this Board of the action you have taken to improve water
quality in Lake Michigan.

                                   Very truly yours,
                                   B. A. Poole
                                   Technical Secretary
Encl.

Copies tot
     Cities Service Petroleum Co., East Chicago
     Inland Steel Company, East Chicago
     Mobil Oil Company, East Chicago
     Sinclair Refining Company, East Chicago
     Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co., East Chicago
     U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary Sheet & Tin MiU,  Gary
     U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary Steel Works, Gary
     American Maize-Products Co., Haamiond
     American Oil Company, Whiting
     Union Carbide Corporation, Whiting
copied 2/65

-------
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       706




Appendix lij

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                                                                          731

                                                                 Appendix 27
                      Resume of Orders Issued to
                      Calumet Area Municipalities
1.  The Department of Commerce and Industry under the authority of Chapter
    l2, Acts of 193$, issued orders to East Chicago, Gary, Hammond and
    Whiting.  A sample copy of said order re?ds as follows:


    FINAL NOTICE AND ORDER TO ABATE CONDITION OF POLLUTION AND TO CEASE
    VIOLATION OF SECTION 5, CHAPTER 1$2, ACTS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF
                        THE STATE OF INDIANA,  1935.
    TO:  THE CITY OF EAST CHICAGO
         COUNTY OF LAKE
         STATE OF INDIANA
           WHEREAS, it has heretofore been determined by the  Department
    of Conmerce and Industries of the State of Indiana,  that  you are  vio-
    lating the provisions of Section 5,  Chapter 152,  Acts of  the General
    Assembly of Indiana,  1935, in that you are throwing, running, draining
    and otherwise disposing into the waters of the  Grand Calumet River,
    the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and Lake Michigan,  and are  causing,
    permitting and suffering to be thrown, run^ drained  and otherwise
    disposed into such waters, certain organic and  inorganic  matter,
    to-wit:  do&astic sewage and industrial wastes, which are contri-
    buting to a polluted  condition of such waters,  according  to a de-
    termination of the qualities and properties of  water indicating a
    polluted condition thereof, which is deleterious  to  the public
    health, injuriously affects the use  of such waters for domestic
    animals and injuriously affects aquatic life and  the growth and pro-
    pagation thereof as fixed and determined by the Department of Commerce
    and Industries of the State of Indiana, and filed of record in the  of-
    fice of said Department at the City  of Indianapolis, County of Marion,
    Indiana; and

            WHEHEAS, pursuant to such determination you  were  heretofore,
    to-wit:  on the llth  day of September, 1937, ordered and  directed to
    cease such violation  and abate and correct such condition of pollu-
    tion on or before the first day of January, 1939;  and

            WHEREAS, notice of such determination and  order was  duly served
    and published as provided by law,  and more than fifteen days have elapsed
    since the receipt and publication of such notice;  and

            WHEREAS, a written report has been filed  in  behalf of the City
    of East Chicago, by its proper executive and administrative  officials,
    showing what steps for correction or abatement  are being  instituted,
    and no evidence denying the fact of  such violation and no written
    petition has been filed in behalf of such city  or by forty or more
    taxpayers or owners of real estate in such city,  denying  the fact of
    such violation and requesting a hearing thereon;

-------
                                                                            732
            NOW, THEREFORE, the determination and order heretofore made
    in the premises is hereby affirmed and made final, and it is the
    final order of this Department that the said City of East Chicago
    cease such violation and abate and correct such condition of pollu-
    tion on or before the first day of January, 1939, all as heretofore
    ordered.

            THIS NOTICE AND ORDER executed and issued at Indianapolis,
    Indiana, this lUth day of October, 1937.
                                  DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES
                                            STATE  OF  INDIANA
                                  By:  W. H. Frazier, Assistant Director
                                       Indiana State Board of Health
2.  The Stream Pollution Control Board, under the authority of Chapter
    2lU, Acts of 19U3, as amended,  issued orders to Highland and Monster
    on December 111, 191*5.  A sample copy of said order reads as follows:
                            FINAL ORDER
             WHEREAS, it has heretofore been originally determined by
    the Stream Pollution Control Board of the State of Indiana,  that
    the Town of Highland, Lake County, Indiana, is contributing  to the
    polluted condition existing in the waters of the Little Calumet
    River by throwing, running, draining and otherwise disposing into
    said waters, and by causing, permitting and 'suffering to be  thrown,
    run, drained, and otherwise disposed into said waters certain or-
    ganic and inorganic matter, to wit:  domestic sewage and industrial
    wastes, in violation of the provisions of Sections 7 and 8,  Chapter
    21U, Acts of The General Assembly of Indiana of 19U3> as amended by
    Chapter 132, Acts of The General Assembly of Indiana, 19U5j  and

             WHEREAS, pursuant to such original determination, the Town
    of Highland, Lake County, Indiana, was on the 25th day of August,
    19UU, duly ordered and directed to cease such violation and  to abate
    and correct such condition of pollution on or before the 1st day of
    July, 19U$J and
                      notice of such original determination and order was
    duly" served and published as provided by law,  and more than fifteen
    days have elapsed since the receipt and publication of such notice;
    and

             WHEREAS, the Town of Highland advised the Stream Pollution
    Control Board of the State of Indiana on the 6th day of December,
    19U5, that said Town had prepared tentative plans for sewage treat-
    ment; that said plans were being studied and that other possibilities
    such as connecting to the Hammond sewerage system were being investi-
    gated;

-------
                                                                            733
             NOW, THBlaJFORi;, rtifi IT RL'JQLVEi), That The Stream Pollution
    Control 3oard of the State of Indiana does hereby affirn said  ori-
    ginal determination and order, does hereby make  said original  determina-
    tion and order final, and does hereby finally order said Town  of Highland
    to cease such violation and abate and correct such condition of pollu-
    tion on or before the 1st day oi' January, 19^7.

             This notice and order executed and issued at Indianapolis,
    Indiana, this lUth day of Decerr.^r, 1?U5.

                                      STflEAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOAHD
                                             STATE OF INDIANA
                                                B. A. Poole
                                            Technical Secretary
    R. 3. Wiley
     Chairman
3.  The Stream Pollution Control Board, under the authority of Chapter 21U,
    Acts of 19ii3, as amended, and in accordance with the Chapter 365, Acts
    of 19lj7, issued orders to Crown Point, Hobart an<^ Valparaiso in 19U8
    and 1?1*9.  A sample copy of said order reads as follows:
                   STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOAfffl
                      OF THE STATK OF INDIANA
    IN THK MATTER OF:   )
                        )
    THE CITY OF HOBART, )
         INDIANA        )
                    FINAL ORDiiR AND nETERMINATION
         Ralph 3. Wiley, Chairman of the above board and designated as hear-
    ing member in the above cause, having presented to and filed with said
    board on September 1U, 19U8, his Recommended Findings of Fact and Order,
    in the above cause, together with the complete record of proceedings be-
    fore him, other than the transcript of the oral testimony, And notiM of
    such filing, together with a copy of said Recommended Findi ngs of Fact
    and Order, having been transmitted to The City of Kobart, Indiana, by
    registered mail on September lli, 19i8, return receipt requested, and said
    City of Hobart having filed no objections thereto, said Board having con-
    sidered said Recommended Findings of Fact and Order now on this 29'th day
    of September, 19U<3, adopts the same without amendnent or modification and
    now makes the following as its Findings of Fact:

-------
                                                                       734
     1.  That the City of Hobart discharges untreated domestic sewage
         and industrial waste through its municipal sewers into the
         waters of Deep River.

     2.  That said untreated domestic sewage and industrial waste are
         of such character as to prevent the growth of and propagation
         of normal fish and plant life downstream in said waters from
         the points of entry of said domestic sewage and industrial
         waste into said water course.

     3.  That such untreated domestic sewage and industrial waste are
         of such character as to render said waters unfit for use by
         live stock.

     U.  That the presence of said untreated domestic sewage and in-
         dustrial waste in said waters is a hazard to the public health.

     5.  That under the provisions of Sections 7 and 8, Chapter 212* of
         the Acts of 19U3, known as the Stream Pollution Control Law,
         the City of Hobart, Indiana, is polluting the waters of Deep
         River downstream from the point of entry into said stream of
         said untreated domestic sewage and industrial waste.

     IT IS NOW FINALLY ORDEHED AND DETERMINED, that said defendant,
The City of Hobart, cease and desist from causing pollution of Deep
River downstream from the point of entry into said stream of said
untreated domestic sewage and industrial waste, on or before July 1,
1950.
September 29, 19kQ

ATT3ST:
          Technical Secretary
Stream Pollution Control Board
of the State of Indiana
The Stream Pollution Control Board, under the authority of Chapter 21ii,
Acts of 19U3* as amended, and in accordance with the Chapter 365, Acts
of 19U7, issued orders to Dyer (I960), Griffith (1959), Hammond (Munster)
(1961), Porter (l?61j) and Schererville (1962).  It is noted that in ad-
dition to the usual order, compliance dates for submission of plans and
start of construction are  included.  A sample copy of said order reads
as follows:

-------
                                                                        735
               STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
                   OF THS STATE OF INDIANA
IN THE MATTER OF:   )
                    )
THE TOWN OF PORTER, )
      INDIANA       )
                FINAL ORDER AND DETERMINATION
     Donald E. Foltz, Member of the above Board and designated as hear-
ing officer in the above cause, having presented to and filed with tha
Stream Pollution Control Board of Indiana on September 16, lyoU, his
Recommended Findings of Fact and Recommended Order Regarding Hearing
of August 7, 196U, of the Town of Porter, Indiana, together with the
complete record of proceedings before him, other than the transcript
of the oral testimony, and notice of such filing, together with a copy
of said Recommended Findings of Fact and Recommended Order Regarding
Hearing of August 7, 1?6U, of the Town of Porter, Indiana, having been
transmitted to the Town of Porter, Indiana, by registered mail on
September 17, 19614, return receipt requested, and there being no ob-
jections by anyone, said Board now considers said Recommended Findings
of Fact and Recommended Order Regarding Hearing of August 7, 1?6U, of
the Town of Porter, Indiana, on this 8th day of October, l.?6U, and by
a majority of a quorum present and voting hereby adopts the same with-
out amendment or modification and now makes the following as its
Findings of Fact:

     1.  That the TOwn of Porter discharges raw and inadequately
         treated sanitary and domestic sewage into the waters of the
         Little Calumet River in or near the corporate limits of
         said Town of Porter.

     2.  That the discharge by the Town of Porter of raw and inade-
         quately treated sanitary and domestic sewage into the
         Little Calumet River, contributes to the formation of
         putrescent and objectionable sludge banks in said waters
         and along the banks thereof downstream from the points
         of entry of said sewage,

     3.  That the discharge by the Town of Porter of raw anu in-
         adequately treated sanitary and domestic sewage into the
         Little Calumet River, contributes to the growth of sewage
         fungi (Sphaerotilus spp.) and other pollution-tolerant
         organisms.

     U.  That said raw and inadequately treated sanitary and do-
         mestic sewage discharged by the 1'own of Porter, is of
         such character as to injuriously affect the normal growth
         and propagation of fish and other beneficial aquatic life
         in the Little Calumet River downstream from the points of
         entry of said sewage.

-------
                                                                        736
 5.  That the Town of Porter discharges raw and inadequately treated
     sanitary and domestis sewage into the Little Calumet River,
     thereby causing and contributing to a coliform bacteria concen-
     tration as high as 2,6CO;000 MPN (Most Probable Number) per 100
     milliliters in said water  downstream from the points of entry
     of said sewage.

 6.  That the presence of said raw and inadequately treated sanitary
     and domestic sewage in said waters is a hazard to the public
     health*

 7.  That the Town of Porter has no municipal sewage treatment facility*

 8.  That the recent growth in population of the Town of Porter is
     indicative of future growth attended by increased quantities
     of sewage in municipal sewers and increased degree of pollution
     in the receiving waters.

 y.  That said raw and inadequately treated sanitary and domestic
     sewaje discharged to the Little Calumet River by the Town of
     Porter is of such character as to adversely affect the waters
     for recreational uses downstream from the points of entry of
     said sewage.

10.  That the Town of Porter has violated, is now violating, and
     is about to violate provisions of Chapter 2lU, Acts of 19U3*
     and tegulation SPC 1 of the Stream Pollution Control Board,
     by permitting, causing or contributing to a polluted condi-
     tion of the Little Calumet River in a manner that is un<-
     reasonable and against public interests by discharging through
     its municipal sewers raw and inadequately treated sanitary and
     domestic sewage into said waters*

11.  That facilities must be constructed for the adequate treatment of
    all the sanitary and domestic sewa
-------
                                                                      737
which said facilities shall treat adequately all sanitary and domestic
sewage, including industrial wastes, of said Town including that coining
into or contemplated as coming into the sewer system of said Town.
October o, 1961;

ATTEST:
          ^Technical Secretary
Stream Pollution Control Board
       of the State of Indiana

-------
                                                                                    738
                                                                            Appendix 28
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                                                                  Appendix 30
        SEWAREN      NEW JERSEY      MEF.CURY 4-640O      VULCAN DETINNING DIVISION
                                                                       \
                                                            VI. .1 C.t '  MATtWlAI. 'I COMPANY
orrici OF THE PUCSIOCNT
                                       January  11,  1965

      Mr. B. A. Poole
      Technical Secretary
      State of Indiana                                    IRl rp/ra
         Stream Pollution Control Board                    I^E^Efl W P !f^
      1330 West Michigan Street                                 ^=^>u v  Ib .i^
      Indianapolis,  Indiana   46207                            JA'1 2 IQfi1!
                                                              STATE OF INDIANA
      Dear Mr. Poole:                                    STREAM ^W CONTROL

                I write with  reference to your  letter  of December  29,
      1964, addressed to Mr.  S. J. Alston, Jr.,  Plant  Manager of our  Gary,
      Indiana plant.  In this letter, you advised us that we  had been
      designated as  a participant  in  a conference on interstate stream
      pollution to be held in Chicago on March  2, 1965.

                On January 8, 1965, in a telephone  conversation, we dis-
      cussed what contribution our representative could  make  at this
      conference.  I requested our name be omitted  from  the list and  you
      acquiesced subject to receipt of information  from  us  relevant to
      the matter in  question. We  offer the  following  summation.

                Our  Gary plant commenced operations in 1955 and since that
      date detinning tin plate scrap  has been the principal function.  We
      employ on an average approximately 45  employees.  Sanitary waste is
      handled by a modern septic tank system with outfall to  an extensive
      filter bed system.  We  do generate some process  waste which  to  date
      has been discharged into the Grand Calumet River from an outlet on
      our property.

                The  approximate analysis of  the solution is as follows:

                        (as free caustic soda) 25 gms/liter
                        (combined as sodium carbonate  and other compounds
                        containing  carbon)     110 gms/liter
                  Na20  Total  ..............   135 gms/liter
                  Calculated  as all sodium carbonate,  the amount is
                  230 gms/liter or approximately 2  Ibs per  gallon of
                  solution.

                The  volume of solution is estimated to be approximately
      2,800 gallons  per day.

-------
                                                                   745
                               -2-

Mr. B. A. Foole                                   January 11,  1965
          We have recently executed a contract to sell all of  this
waste material, deliveries to commence on or before March 1, 1965.
It appears this waste with its alkaline content has a value for
acid neutralization.

          With the commencement of deliveries, the discharge of
waste into the Grand Calumet will cease.  It is for this reason we
feel our participation in the conference would serve no useful purpose.

          If there is additional information you may require,  please
do not hesitate to call on us.
                                      Yours very truly,

                                      VULCAN DETINNING DIVISION
                                      Vulcan Materials Company
                                            ^^^fx-^,
                                      E.  W.  YoiWg    SJ
                                      PresidenV      \J
EWY/hb

-------
                                                                       746


                                                                  Appendix 31.


STATE-  ^ INDIANA
                                   ggggaiM> /^l^4P^
                                                       INDIANAPOLIS 4620?
 STREAM POLLUTION CONTROL BOASD         5S         133 West M'1*1*"1 street
                                            ^Bi^^           MElrose 3-4420

    COPY                                                  September 18, 1962


   Department of Health, Education
      and Welfare
   Public Health Service
   U33 West Van Buren  Street
   Chicago 7, Illinois

   Attention*  Mr. H.  W. Poston
               Regional Program Director
               Water Pollution Control

   Gentlemen:

                                     Be:  Industrial Wastes
                                          E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc,
                                          and Inland Steel Company
                                          East Chicago, Indiana

        On August 8, 1962, E. I. duPont de Nemours &  Co., Inc., East Chicago,
    submitted a preliminary proposal for the disposal  of hydrochloric acid into
    the  Grand Calumet River.  On July 12, 1962, Inland Steel Company, East
    Chicago, submitted a preliminary proposal for the  treatment of wastes from a
    new  80-inch Hot Strip Mill.  The Inland proposal was considered satisfactory
    at the July meeting of the Stream Pollution Control  Board, and it is antici-
    pated that the Board will consider the duPont proposal during  its September
    25,  1962, meeting.

        Both of these proposals were discussed with you with  the  understanding
    that the Board would be informed of your opinion as  to the compatibility of
    these proposals with the long  range planning of the  Public Health Service in
    the  Great Lakes basin.  We provided you with a copy of the Inland proposal.

        It is requested that your comments on both proposals  be available for
    the  September 25, 1962, meeting of the Board.  It would  be appreciated if
    you  would submit separate letters, original  and carbon,  for each proposal;
    the  original typing for our files and a carbon copy for the Company files.
    Also, the Inland proposal should be returned for retention in  our files.

                                     Very truly yours,
                                      B. A. Poole
                                      Technical Secretary
     RAW/nOw

     copied 2/65

-------
                                                        747
          MR.  MILLER:  The State of Indiana has been working
     for many  years to improve and maintain the water quality
 3-   in this area,  in such condition that all users, present
     and future,  have acceptable water.  In an effort to
     overcome  pollution problems in the south end of
     Lake Michigan  and to collect data on which to base
     water quality  criteria,  the State of Indiana prepared
     in 1953 an outline of a  proposed survey for the south
     end of Lake  Michigan.
10                  The survey was to be undertaken and
     financed  by  Indiana,  Illinois,  Department of Water and
12   Sewers of the  City of Chicago,  the Metropolitan Sanitary
13   District  of  Chicago,  Public Health Service,  and munlci-
14   pal and industrial interests.  This survey was to be
15   conducted over a two-year period at a cost of about
     $250,000. The survey was not undertaken because of the
17   failure to reach an agreement with all parties concerned.
19                  In 1935*  the first comprehensive stream
19   pollution abatement law  was passed,  and under the pro-
20   visions of the law,  the  Cities  of Chicago,  Gary, Hammond,
21   and Whiting  were ordered,  in 1937,  to abate pollution of
22   the Grand Calumet River,  the Indiana Harbor Canal,  and
23   Lake Michigan.
24                  East Chicago, Gary,  and Hammond complied
25   by formation of Sanitary Districts  and the  construction

-------
                                                      748
 i   of sewage treatment works.
 2                  The Indiana  Stream  Pollution Control  Board
 3   policies are defined as existing pollution  must be
 4   eliminated as soon as possible.
 5                  All wastes,  from new outlets to state
 6   waters must be adequately treated  prior to  discharge,
 7   and adequate waste treatment must  be included as  part
 8   of the industrial expansion or sanitary sewer system
 9   enlargement where proposed  and where adequate facilities
10   were not available.
11                  The Board has been  constantly active
12   in pursuing its objectives  in the  Indiana-Calumet area.
13   This statement is emphasized by the fact that the Board
14   issued 15 industrial waste  treatment facility approvals
15   during the period of 1961-62, '63, and '64.
16                  The estimated expenditures for these
i?   facilities is $48,285,000.  Two of these projects were
18   submitted to the Public Health Service for  comment in
is   1962.
20                  Both Inland  Steel Company and E. I. duPont
21   de Nemours and Company, East Chicago, planned extensive
22   water pollution control works, and the Board requested
23   the Public Health Service to comment on the compatability
24   of these projects with the  long-range for pollution
25   control in Lake Michigan.   The Public Health Service did

-------
                                                        7^9
     not comment on either project.
                    Final determinations of the additional
 3-  treatment that will be required for industrial wastes
     must await completion of the Great Lakes River Basin
     Survey now being conducted by the Public Health Service.
     The report of this survey is expected to contain water
     quality criteria which are needed to determine additional'
     treatment needs for each waste  discharge.
                    Indiana recognizes its obligation to provide
 10   improved water to the neighboring state of Illinois.
 11   Water quality monitoring data from Indiana Harbor Canal
 12   and Burns Ditch show water quality has not deteriorated.
 13                  Samples at these stations are collected
 u   twice each month and the result of these samples
 is   are Included  in the appendix of the report.
 16                  The water of Lake Michigan is usable for
 17   public water  supply and there is no threat to the health
 18   of  the people by this use.   The Board,  even with Increased
 19   industrial activity and population growth,  has not lost
 20    ground in making and maintaining water quality in Lake
 21    Michigan.
 22                   The Indiana portion of this area is
 23    included  in two counties,  Lake  County and  Porter County.
 24    Since the turn of the century,  Lake County,  Indiana,
25    has experienced a tremendous rate of growth.

-------
10
11
                                                       750
                    In  1900,  the  county  had  37,892 inhabitants,
    while the 1960  census showed a population of  513,269
    persons, an increase of  1,250 percent.
                    It  should be  noted that  84 percent  of
    the Lake County population is located in the  upper third
    of the county, along the shores of  Lake Michigan,  and
    the major watercourses of the Calumet Basin.
                    Porter County has also experienced  ac-
    celerated growth since 19^0.  The increase between 19^0
    and 1960 was 117 percent as Compared at or to an in-
    crease of only 45 percent between 1900 and 19^0.
 12                 The growth of Porter County is expected
 13  to increase at even a greater rate  due to the recently
 14  completed Midwest Steel Division, National Steel Corpora-
 15  tion plant, located at Burns Ditch  and Lake Michigan;
 16  the Bethlehem Steel Corporation plant now under construction
 17  just east of the Midwest plant, and the proposed Burns
 18  Ditch port and harbor development.
 19                 There are 33 industries with separate
 20  outfalls to Calumet-Lake Michigan Basin.  The  attached
 21  map shows the location of these industries, the cities
 22  and towns, and the major watercourses or the  Indiana-
23  Calumet region.
24                 More than 83 percent of Lake and Porter
25  County population is located in 20  incorporated

-------
                                                        751
     municipalities within the Calumet River Basin.  Five  of

  2'  these with a I960 population of 18,398 have new sewer systems.

     Twelve, representing 98 percent of the sewered urban
     population, provide sewage treatment.  The remaining

     three are under Board order to abate pollution of  receding

     waters and two now have projects under construction.

          The last municipality has engaged an engineer to study
     its sewage works needs.

                    Fifteen municipalities in the Calumet

 10   River Basin have invested approximately $72,400,000
 11   In sewerage and sewage treatment facilities during the

 12   past 30 years.

 13                  Approximately $61,000,000 of this has
 14   been spent since 1950.  Eight sewage treatment plants

 15   serve 12 municipalities.  Two plants are under construc-
 16   tion.  The remaining one with sewers has a project under

 17   construction to connect to an existing plant.

 IB                  These plants provide secondary treatment
 19   and five have chlorlnatlon facilities.  Of the five
20   towns without a sewer system, Portage submitted a preliminary

21   engineering report on sewers and sewage treatment to

22   the Board in 1962.
23                  The East Chicago, Gary, and Hammond Sani-

24   tary districts account for more than 82 percent,

25   $59.4 million of the $72.4 million invested cost  noted

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                                                      752
     above.
                    East Chicago,  completed major sewage
     treatment  plant improvements  in I960;  the Hammond plant
     improvements  were  completed in 1964, and the Gary improve-

     ments were placed  under  construction late in 1962.
                    Hammond has completed storm sewer separation
     projects with discharge  of storm water to Wolf Lake,
     and  Gary has  completed separation in one area and has

     one  project under  construction.
 10                  Both cities are planning additional storm
 n   sewer separation.   In addition,  Highland, Hobart, Munster,
 12   and  Schererville are providing separate sewers in new
 13   development areas  and other communities have been ad-
 14   vised of the  necessity of planning for separate storm
 is   and  sanitary  sewers.
 16                  There are 37 semi-public installations
 i?   in the  Calumet River Basin with sewage treatment facilities
 is   discharging to receding  waters.   As municipal sewers
 19   become  available,  many of these plants will be abandoned.
20                  Industry  has expended or committed approxi-

21   mately  $73,200,000 for treatment facilities in the  Basin.
22   Approximately $50,000,000 has been spent or committed
23   since 1950.
24                  Approximately  $53,500,000 have been expended
25   or committed  by eight major steel plants.  Currently,  the

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                                                       753
     steel  industry is  experiencing a period of major plant
     renovations  and considerable sums are being spent and
     will be  spent  for  adequate industrial waste treatment
     facilities.
                    One of the outstanding industrial waste
     treatment  facilities  of the country is at the new
     plant  of the Midwest  Steel Division,  National Steel
     Corporation, Portage.
                    The facilities include an activated
10   sludge plant with  chlorination of the effluent*
n   Industrial waste treatment consists of acid-alkali
12   neutralization, oil emulsion breaking with terminal
13   coagulation  and settling,  and deep-well injection of
14   waste  pickle liquor.
15                  The approved sewage and industrial waste
16   facilities which are  under construction at the Burns
17   Harbor plant,  Bethlehem Steel Company, Chesterton,
18   will be  equally extensive  and,  further,  a terminal lagoon
19   will be  included.
20                  All oil refineries in the Basin provide
21   API oil  separators.   Approximately $15,000,000 of the
22   $73,200,000  total  has  been expended by four major oil
23   companies.
24                  Sinclair Refining Company,  East Chicago,
25   is an  excellent example of water reuse.   The  Company

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     utilizes cooling tiers with a total in-water recircula-



     tlon of 168,000 gallons per minute and a waste discharge



     of 3,500 gallons per minute.



                    American Oil Company, Whiting, provides



     biological treatment for oxidation of dissolved organics



     and removal of oils.



                    These accomplishments by municipalities



     and industries have been possible in many cases with



     no legal action necessary.   The Board operates on a



10   basic policy of education and persuasion rather than



11   compulsion.   However,  legal action is undertaken, if



12   necessary,  in cases where improvements are not made



13   within a reasonable time.  This policy has been success-



14   f ul.



is                  Since 1943,  it has been necessary to



16   take  13 enforcement actions in the Basin.



17                  The following list shows these munici-



18   palities and industries.



19                  We will summarize it in here.  There



20   have  been ten orders issued to municipalities and these



21   are Highland,  Munster,  Valparaiso, Crown Point, Hobart,



22   Griffith,  Dyer,  Hammond Sanitary District, Schererville,



23   and Porter.



24                  The other three cases involve Whiting and



25   two cases with Lever Brothers Company,  and these were

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 3-
                                                  755
ended by stipulation.
               In April 1964, the Technical Secretary of
the Board requested those public and semi-public sewage
     treatment plants needing effluent chlorination facilities
     to submit a timetable for provision of the necessary
     facilities.
                    The following list shows the status of
     the municipal chlorination facilities,
                    Chesterton has facilities in operation.
 10   Crown Point has facilities in operation.  East Chicago
 11   is chlorinating in the effluent channel.  East Gary,
 12   Miller District, no facilities, considering connection
 13   to Gary's main sewage treatment plant.
 14                  Gary, under construction; Hammond, sub-
 is   mltted preliminary report for chlorination facilities.
 16                  Hobart, facilities in operation; Valparaiso,
 17   facilities in operation;  Dyer,  under construction;
 18   Schererville, under construction.
 19                  Of the 37 semi-public sewage works instal-
 20   lations in the Basin at least eight plan to connect to
 21   municipal sewers in the near future.  Twelve of the
 22   remaining 29 provide effluent chlorination facilities;
 23   one provides a terminal lagoon; five have sand filters,
 24   and four have plans for acquiring chlorination facilities
25   approved and/or are planning construction of facilities

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                                                       756
 i   in 1965.
 2                  Efforts will be  continued  to  obtain
 3   effluent chlorination facilities at the seven other
 4   installations.
 5                  Surface water  is used  by 13 Indiana
 B   communities.  Lake Michigan water in  the  area under
 7   consideration, even with the  existing local  pollution,
 8   is, in general, of good quality.  The water  purification
 9   plants, with a minimum of treatment,  produce a  safe and
10   excellent quality of water at all times.
11                  The water east of the  Indiana Harbor break-
12   water is generally very good.   This is borne out by the
13   remarks of Mr. Leo Louis, President of the Gary-Hbbart
14   Water Corporation, to Senator Birch Bayh  in  a letter  dated
15   February 10, 1965:
16                  "The second filtration plant, now under
17   construction, is being built  in the southwest corner  of
18   the Town of Ogden Dunes adjacent to the Inland  Steel
19   Company property.  The primary  reason we  moved  that far
20   east was because we were unable to obtain other property
21   and access to the lake closer to Gary.  Water quality
22   had nothing to do with our decision to move  to  the Porter
23   County site.
                                                            *
24                  "In general, our raw water supply is very
25   good, and, while we do have some periods  of  unsatisfactory

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                                                      757
    water which results  in some  increased chemical costs and
    increased  technical  supervision techniques,  we have never
    complained too much  about  these problems.
                    "We are anxious, of course,  to keep pollu-
    tion in the lake  to  a  minimum,  but we have been willing
    to undertake some increased  treatment costs  realizing
    that Lake  Michigan water is  so  very much better than many
    other utilities in other parts  of  the country have to
    deal with.   We are also cognizant  of  the fact that we
10  are located in an industrial area,  we serve  large industries
11  with at least part of  their  water  supply, and we are
12  anxious to have other  industries locate  in our area to
13  promote the growth of  the  area  and  our water system."
14                 The water north  of  the Calumet Harbor break-
is  water is generally very good.   The  Department of Health,
16  Education,  and Welfare report for  this conference shows
17  in a table summary of  raw  water problems, table VIII-1
18  for the Chicago South  District  Filtration Plant,  1963-64.
19  This table included  23 days  in  1963 and  12 days in 1964
20  of hydrocarbon odors,  indicating a  relatively few days of
21  problems of this  type.
22                 I  might say that Mr. LeBosquet increased
23  the number of days in  1964 to 20 and  yesterday Mr.  Gerstein
24  used the figure of 8 and we  did not have this report
25  when we were writing this  one.

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                                                    758



                    It is believed that the water supplied



     Chicago  citizens  on these  days was safe and of excellent



     quality,  and  I  am happy to say that I was sure of this



     when this was written,  but since  we did not have the



     reports,  this is  the best  we  thought we could do, and



     Mr.  Jardine and Mr.  Gerstein  assured all of you yes-



     terday that at  no time  had there  been occasions when



     the  water was not safe  that was furnished the consumers



     in Chicago.



10                  The water quality  between Calumet Harbor



11   and  Indiana Harbor breakwaters is poor.  The report  of



12   Health,  Education,  and  Welfare indicates there are



13   flow reversals  in the Calumet River resulting in pollu-



14   tion of  Lake  Michigan in Indiana.



15                  Officials of the Hammond water purification



16   plant have reported  high threshold odors with accompanying



17   high carbon dosage to remove  the  odor when winds are from



is   the  north and northwest indicating water movement from



19   Calumet  Harbor  to the Hammond intake.



20                  Popcorn  slag has been found on all beaches



21   between  the two breakwaters and the sources of this  slag



22   are  U. S.  Steel,  South  Works, and Wisconsin Steel Works



23   in Chicago, indicating  water  movement from Calumet Har-



24   bor  to Indiana.



25                  Water movement is  also from Indiana

-------
                                                     759
     north when winds are from the south.  Hammond and Whiting
     water purification plants report more days of high threshold
     odor than the other water plants in the south end of
     Lake Michigan; however, water supplied by Hammond and
     Whiting is safe and does not jeopardize the health of the
     consumers.
                    On June 12, 1964, the Department of Health,
     Education, and Welfare submitted a report entitled,  "Pre-
     liminary Draft, Report on Sampling of Industrial Wastes,
 10   Indiana Portion-Calumet Area," to the Board.
 11                  The report listed analyses of samples collected
 12   by Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin personnel from indus-
 13   trial waste sources in Indiana.   Based upon information
 u   contained in the report, the Board in June and September
 is   1964 requested the following companies to develop com-
 16   prehensive industrial waste programs with timetables:
 17   U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary Steel Works, Gary: U.  S.
 18   Steel Corporation,  Gary Sheet and Tin Mill, Gary; Youngstown
 19   Sheet and Tube Company,  East Chicago;  Inland Steel Company,
 20   East Chicago;  Mobil Oil Company,  East Chicago.
 21                  All responded and submitted information on
 22   what was being done and planned  for the future to reduce
23   pollution.
24                  Water quality in  the southern end of
25   Lake Michigan  is of utmost concern to the Board.  On

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                                                     760
     December 14 and 15,  1964,  after studying the operating
     records of the Hammond,  Whiting, and East Chicago and
     the Gary-Hobart water treatment plants and noting the
     amount of activated  carbon which was used to remove tastes
     and odors, the Board requested ten companies to redouble
     efforts to improve housekeeping by eliminating or holding
     to an absolute minimum the  wastes discharged to plant
     sewers; to eliminate the dumping of wastes of non-saleable
     compounds to the sewers  and watercourses, and to im-
10   prove,  where possible, the operation of existing treatment
     works.
12                  In April  of 1957, a state-wide water quality
13   monitoring program was established.  Samples are collected
14   by State Board of Health personnel and cooperating
15   agencies at each station on a bi-weekly schedule; the
16   results of analyses  at these stations are published each
17   year on a calendar-year  basis; and they are included in
18   the appendix of this report.
19                  We started  with three stations.  One of
20   these was on the Grand Calumet River at Hohman Avenue;
21   the Little Calumet River at Hohman Avenue and Lake Michi-
22   gan raw water intake of  the Whiting water works.
23                  Since that  time, we have added ten addi-
24   tional stations including  Burns Ditch at Dickey Road
25   on the Indiana Harbor Canal.

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                                                        761
                    In order to make a final determination of
     the treatment requirements for some of the industries in
     the Indiana Calumet region, water quality criteria must
     be established.   Without the necessary data on water
     quality in the area and on the sources of waste discharges,
     criteria cannot  be easily determined.
                    It is understood that the Great Lakes-
     Illinois River Basin project now in the final phases of
     its Lake Michigan activities, will provide these data.
 10   Therefore,  establishment of water quality criteria should
 11   be one of the objectives of this conference.
 12                  The present problems of water quality in
 13   the Calumet-Lake Michigan area can be summed up in the
 14   following paragraphs which were a part of the State of
 15   Indiana's testimony at a Public Hearing concerning the
 16   Nation's Water Pollution Problems for the House Natural
 17   Resources and Power Subcommittee of the Committee on
     Government Operations, held in Chicago September 6,
     1963.
20                  "While much has been accomplished by the
21   treatment of sewage and industrial wastes in the Indiana
22   Calumet region,  there are still problems.  Some of these
23   are extremely complex and there are always dangers of
24   over-simplification.
25                  "Notwithstanding this and the lack of the

-------
                                                        762
    Great Lakes-Illinois River Drainage Basin  Report  of the
    Public Health Service, the following general statements
    can be made as to the water quality needs  of this area:
                   "Tastes and Odors:  Organics in  the
    waters of the Indiana Harbor Canal and in  effluents going
    directly to the Lake contribute to the taste and  odor
    problems of some of the cities that use water from  the
    south end of Lake Michigan.  Better housekeeping  and
    more careful operation of existing treatment works  will
10  resolve some of these problems.  However,  removal of a
n  higher percentage of these organics at their source is
12  essential if the water supplies are to have a continuously
13  satisfactory raw water.
14                 "'Coliforms:  Coliform bacteria  counts
15  are too high in all streams.  These, unlike tastes  and
16  odors which are due almost entirely to industrial wastes,
17  have their origin in city sewage.  They are of  particular
18  significance in the Indiana Harbor Canal and in Burns
19  Ditch since these waters outlet into Lake  Michigan.
20                 "'Significant reduction will take  place
21  in the Little Calumet and Grand Calumet Rivers  on comple-
22  tion of the construction work at Hammond,  Griffith,  Munster,
23  Highland, Dyer, and Schererville.  The work under way
24  at Gary will reduce counts in the Indiana  Harbor  Canal.
25  Pull control of the high coliform counts cannot be  expected

-------
                                                          763
     until combined sewers are eliminated.  Sewer separation
     is  costly and time consuming.   Work has been started in
     Gary, Hammond and some of the  smaller cities, but this
     involves  only a small percentage of the total problem.
                    "'Solids:  Upon completion of the municipal
     treatment works now under construction the solids getting
     to  the waterways will be largely of an inert nature.
     While they have little bearing on the quality of Lake
     Michigan,  additional solids  removal in the Grand Calumet-
10   Indiana Harbor Canal drainage  area is indicated.
11                  "'Aesthetic Considerations:  It is not
12   reasonable to expect waters  draining highly industrialized
13   areas to  have the same appearance as waters draining
     undeveloped areas.    But one can expect them to be rea-
ls   sonably free  of floating material,  sludge  banks and
16   color.  Accomplishment of the  objective outlined above
17   will  do much  to improve the  appearance of  the waters
18   of  the region.'"
19                  The physiography of the entire Calumet
20  Basin is  such that  gradients of most streams in the area
21   are flat,  providing sluggish conditions and poor
22   natural purification capacity,  and  many low,  swampy areas
23  are located in the  Basin.
24                  Because of these conditions, the Grand
25   Calumet and Little  Calumet Rivers normally flow in two

-------
                                                      764


 i   directions.  Both flow west  into  Illinois  and  east  into
                                                               *
 2   Lake Michigan via the Indiana Harbor  Canal and Burns
                                                               
 3   Ditch, respectively.

 4                   However,  during  periods of  heavy  storm

 s   runoff, these two rivers reverse  flow and  water  from


 6   Illinois enters Indiana and  thence  to Lake Michigan.


 7   This condition  also exists in the Calumet  River  of


 8   Illinois and its waters  carrying  Industrial wastes  and


 9   storm water overflow from the Metropolitan Sanitary

10   District enters Lake Michigan,  including the Indiana


11   portion of Lake Michigan.

12                   In order  that the  new  O'Brien Lock may


13   operate without the diversion of  Lake Michigan through

u   the Grand Calumet River, a temporary  barrier dam must  be

15   constructed.  Sites under consideration are in the  vicinity

16   of Hammond and  East Chicago.

17                   The  Public Health  Service wants the  dam

18   so located that the effluents from  the Hammond and  East

19   Chicago sewage  treatment plants are diverted into the


20   Illinois River  Basin.  It is believed that the same

21   degree of treatment may be necessary  whether the wastewater


22   effluents flow  to the Illinois  River  Basin or  to Lake

23   Michigan.


24                   For  the remainder  of this report, information,

25   data, and discussions will be presented by drainage

-------
                                                      765
    basins as  follows:  The Grand  Calumet  River-Indiana
    Harbor Canal-Lake Michigan;  the  Little Calumet River-
    Burns Ditch; Little Calumet  River West;  Grand Calumet
    River West; and Wolf  Lake.
         CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   Well
 6       MR. BOSTON*  May we  ask questions here?
 7       CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   I think  that would be all right
    if you want to.  Do you have any questions?
         MR. BOSTON:  I'd like to  clarify  one thing here and
1  ask Mr. Miller whether or not  normally the effluent,
11  the treated effluent  from Hammond sewage treatment  plant,
l2  flows to the east or  to the  west;  that is,  whether  it
13  flows toward Lake Michigan or  towards  Illinois?
         MR. MILLER:  It  has  been  my experience and obser-
15  vation that the divide seems to  be at  the Indianapolis
16  Boulevard  and  the effluent from  the Hammond plant flows
17  west into  Illinois.
18       MR. BOSTON:  This probably  is regulated some by
19  elevations of  the lake and the river system but generally
20  it flows towards the  west then?
2t       MR. MILLER:  This Is true.   This  is based upon U. S.
22  gaugings that  I have  seen and  also observations.
         CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   Mr. Chesrow.
         MR. CHESROW:,  Mr. Miller, will you  identify the two
25  rivers by flowthat  flow, reverse  flow  in  water from

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22




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25
                                                     766



 Illinois into Indiana and thence to Lake Michigan?



      MR. MILLER:  We have had at times storm runoff



 water in both the Little Calumet and Grand Calumet that



 have come back.



      MR. CHESROW:  Our hydraulic engineer, Mr. Brown



 Are you familiar with this?



      MR. BROWN:  Yes.



      MR. CHESROW:  Is the statement correct?



      MR. BROWN:  No, it is not.



      CHAIRMAN STEIN:  By the way, I think the way the



conference has to work is that when the Sanitary District



 gets this, and you may know the problem here, and I am



 sure the issue will be joined when you make your pre-



 sentation.



      MR. CHESROW:  Thank you.



      MR. POSTON:  I'd like to ask one more question for



 clarification purposes.



                I notice you talked about housekeeping



 here and I wondered if you feel if some immediate



 cleanup might not be possible for some of the wastes



 which we saw in the film; that is, gross oil pollution,



 heavy masses of oil, and solid material, if some of this



 might not be cleaned up by housekeeping methods almost



 immediately?



      MR. MILLER:  Well, I would say that I think the first

-------
                                                     767
     thing you always do in industrial waste treatment is
     look after the  housekeeping and  eliminate the wastes
     at  the source.   This is certainly a thing that
     should be done  and  it would appear from some of the
     material  that is in the Indiana  Harbor Canal, particu-
     larly,  improvement  in housekeeping would reduce these.
          MR.  POSTON: Well then, I'd like to follow this
     up  a little bit further in terms of seeing that this
     job is  done.
10                  Do you feel that  you have adequate staff-
n   ing to  provide  surveillance so that you can determine
12   whether some of these gross pollution spillsmaybe we
13   can call  them can be controlled more adequately?
14        MR.  MILLER:  Go ahead.
15        MR.  POOLE:   That is a loaded question.
16                                  (Laughter.)
17                  I think an  honest-to-goodness answer to that
is   question  would  be no.   That is,  I am sure  practically
is   everybody in this audience knows,  we,  like any other
20   state,  have limitations on personnel,  personnel limlta-
21   tions.  As  far  as our having adequate staffing to
22   prevent spills  in industry,  I don't know how any regu-
23   latory agency can do that  sort of thing having a man
24   stationed  in the  industry  all the time.
25                  This we can't do.   I think  we do have

-------
                                                      768
    adequate staffing, and bearing In mind the  importance of
    the problem in this particular area to do a reasonable
    amount of surveillance.
                   We hope, when we move into our next
    fiscal year which begins in July, if the Legislature
    which is closing up this week isn't too rough on us,
    we will have the money for a fairly sizeable expansion
    in our staff, and we can do a better job after that than
    we can now.
10                 I am not trying to duck your question,
11  Mr. Boston, but you realize that
12       MR. POSTON:  That is a satisfactory answer.
13                 I have one other question.
u                 I noticed that a chlorination is indicated,
is  that you have a number of plants chlorinated.  Is your
16  requirement on municipal wastes or those wastes that
17  possibly carry bacteria and pathogens to the streams,
18  is it your requirement that you chlorinate all municipal
19  wastes?
20       MR. MILLER:  I think I read to you in the report,
21  and the reports indicated that in April 1964, we requested
22  all of the municipalities, the semi-public installations
23  that would be treating sanitary sewage to provide chlorina-
24  tion facilities or to give us the timetable for construc-
25  tion of these facilities so we are on record with all of

-------
                                                       769
     these as requiring chlorinations of their effluents.
 2        MR. POSTON:  Thank you.  That is all I have.
 3        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Mr. Klassen.
 4        MR. KLASSEN:   I am going to reserve most of my
     questions,  Mr.  Miller,  on the details when tne cities
     and  the industries speak.  I'd like some firsthand
     information from them.   You probably have it, but I'd
     like to get their  answers.
                    But referring to your report, at the top
10   of page two,  coming back to this question of cyanide
n   again,  you  refer to SPC-2 which is the regulation in
12   Indiana for the discharge of cyanide.
13                  What maximum effluent strength charge of
14   cyanide is  permitted to Lake Michigan?
is        MR.  MILLER:  Well, I'd say to you that regulation
16   SPC-2 is specifically designed for the containment of
17   concentrated  cyanide solutions so these cannot be
is   accidentally  or intentionally discharged into a stream.
19   Each discharge  is  considered by the Board on its
20   own  merits   the  downstream water use made of the
21    receding waters  and  we have no effluent requirements
22    that have been  established for discharge in the Lake
23    Michigan Basin.
24         MR.  KLASSEN:   Does this apply to other
25

-------
                                                         770
 i   waterways  other  than Lake  Michigan In this area?
 2        MR. MILLER: This  is  true.
 3        MR. KLASSEN:   And  then,  the  top  of page 3,  Just a
 4   question of interest only  because I amI may be passing
 5   through there and drinking the water  some day
 6                                   (Laughter.)
 ?                  There  is  a statement and this is the
 8   next question.   This is  the top of page 3,  the second
 9   sentence,  the second paragraph, concerning the water
10   quality monitoring.
11                  It said,  "It shows that the water quality
12   in the Indiana Harbor Canal aid in Burns Ditch had
13   not deteriorated."
14                  Can  you  give us a  date of comparison
is   since the  day before or  two years ago or 1960 or just
16   some date  there?
17        MR. MILLER:  Actually,  the monitoring data  for
is   Lake Michigan is for an  8-year period,  and the date
19   for Dickey Road  is  a 5-year period.
20        MR. KLASSEN:   It could be that it hasn't gotten
21   any worse, becauseI am not  trying to be facetious,
22   that it was bad  to  start with and it  didn't get  any
23   worse because it's  still bad, could this be?
24        MR. MILLER: This  is  a question  thatin the period
25   covered, this is what the  date shows.

-------
                                                        771



 i                                  (Laughter and applause.)



 2*       MR.  KLASSEN:   Also on the top of page 4, this



     does concern me.   I presume that all of the studies



     of information which have gone into thisthat the



     injection,  apparently,  of wastes underground into wells



     inasmuch  as possibly Illinois groundwater might be



     involved, and certainly groundwater, and I know you



     have gone into this,  but what is the final conclusion



     in the  thinking, the  study,  that went into the injection



10   of pickle liquor underground so far as the underground



n   water resources are concerned?



12        MR.  MILLER:   I might say that the Board conferred



13   with the  State Geological DepartmentI worked Very



14   closely with themand  the Department of Conservation.



15   It,  too,  has geologists,  and we were very cognizant of



16   the protection or  the need to protect the groundwater



i?   resource.   These disposal wells are all in waters called



18   the Mount Sinon formation and the Lake County area.



19                  This is  somewhere around 2,400 feet on



20   down to about 4,200 or  4,500 feet.   In all of these



21   wells;  we have required that they put down at least a



22   double  casing and  a grot  from the bottom up and the



23   annular space between the two spacings,  the grots between



24   the outer casing and  the  ground.   The wastes are put in



25   through an  injection  and  the water is in the inner

-------
                                                        772
     casing and  is monitored,  also;  and  in this way,  we are
     endeavoring to protect all  the  fresh water acquirers  in
     the area.
         MR. KLASSEN:  Then,  on page  9I say this concerns
     me, from a  public health  standpoint.  You quoted a letter
     from Mr. Leo Louis of the Gary-Hobart Water Corporation
     on the top  of page 9.
                    I sense in here  what he has said, and  if
 9   I am incorrect,  please correct  me,  that they are anxious
10   to keep pollution at the  minimum  but he is willing to
n   take it and treat it.
12                  I am wondering,  and  it does go on to say
13   that industries  require water and we know that industries
14   require water.
15                  I am wondering in  this statement, for my
16   own knowledge of water treatment, whether you know whether
17   Mr. Louis is basing this  on any medical opinion, as to
18   what he might be treating and what  the products  that
19   might be in the  final water as  delivered to the  consumers
20   might be?
21       MR. MILLER: Well, Mr. Leo Louis is a participant
22   and he has  a statement to present,  and you can ask him
23   this question.   I can't speak for him.
24       MR. KLASSEN:  Will he  be here?
25       MR. MILLER: Yes, sir.

-------
                                                        773
 1        MR.  KLASSEN:  O.K., that is all.

 2        MR.  POSTON:   I*d like to read a little of the

     thinking  about a  hundred years ago.  It might help

     Mr.  KLassen in determining the changes in the lake, and

     this is a hundred years ago,  and it is from the Tribune

     and  other sources, your historical scrapbook, and it is

     dated January  13,  1865, and it says:

                    "The Tribune is against the proposal to

     get  Chicago's  drinking water from Lake Michigan.  No-

10   body will drink from a hog's  head however large if he

n   sees a  putrid  rat floating on the surface."

12                                  (Laughter.)

13                  "To expect the people of Chicago to

14   drink water from  the lake even though the tunnel be

15   successful and be  taken to a  point two miles from shore

16   while the sewer system for the dwellings for 200,000,

17   soon to be 500,000 people,  and the concentrated filth

18   and  abomination from innumerable slaughter, rendering

19   establishments, and distillers are constantly poured

20   into Lake Michigan is a most  palatable abeurdity."

21                   I  would submit, Mr. Klassen, that ideas

22   have changed in these hundred years.

23         MR.  KLASSEN:   Yes, but not the Tribune's ideas because

24    they are  still against it.

25                                   (Laughter.)

-------
                   They are  still against  pollution going



    into the lake, as I understand it.



         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  I  am glad you finished  that  sen-



    tence, Mr. Klassen.



 5                                  (Laughter.)



 6       MR. KLASSEN:  They  have always been for  clean water



    and this, I might say from personal knowledge,  that



    Col. McCormick has been  one of the real aggressors in



    this area for clean water.



10                 There are a number of reasons  for this



11  but we all appreciate the support that we have  gotten



12  from the Tribune.



13       CHAIRMAN STEIN:  I  told you Indiana Day  would be



14  interesting  Do you see  the conferees are beginning  to



is  warm up.



16                                  (Laughter.)



17                 Would you continue, Mr. Miller?



18       MR. MILLER:  This presentation will be on  the Basin,



19  Grand Calumet-Indiana Harbor CanalLake Michigan.



20  Mr. Eklund is going to help me and point out  the location



21  of the industry when I get to them.



22                 The Grand Calumet River originates  near



23  the eastern border of Lake County.  Practically all  of the



24  dry-weather flow in the  river is industrial cooling  and



25  process water, and waste treatment plant effluents.

-------
                                                        775
     Thus,  the flow varies depending on the amount of water

     used by industry and municipalities.   Generally, the flow

     returns to the lake via the Indiana Harbor Canal; however,

     the direction of the flow in the canal can be in either

     direction depending on the lake level.

                    The river and canal receive the

     treated waste effluents from the East  Chicago and Gary

     Sanitary Districts,  numerous Industries and some untreated

     Industrial wastes.  Samples collected  from the canal at

 10   the Dickey Road water quality monitoring station revealed

     high coliform counts.   It is discolored and contains oil

 12   and other floatable  material.

 13                  In addition to the wastes introduced to

 14   Lake Michigan through the  canal,  the lake received effluents

 15   from seven industries and  three power  plants.

 15                  The Sanitary Districts  of East Chicago and

 17   Gary provide  adequate sewage treatment facilities.

 18   East Chicago  provides effective chlorination in the

 19   effluent channel and effluent chlorination facilities

2Q   are now under construction at Gary.  The facilities are

21   well operated and maintained and  produce a good quality

22   effluent.   Construction of plant  additions at  Gary

23   necessitated  some bypassing of raw and inadequately

24   treated  sewage;  however, primary  and secondary treatment

25   are now  provided.

-------
                                                       776
                    Storm water pumping stations and storm
     water  overflow from combined  sewers discharge storm
     water  to  the Grand  Calumet River and Indiana Harbor
     Canal. Hammond and Whiting have combined  sewer over-
     flows  that  discharge storm water overflows and, at times,
     all  flow  to Lake Michigan. The  discharge  from these
     installations  will  continue to impose a bacteria and
     organic load on receiving waters.
                    The  effluents  from industry comprise most
10   of the flow in the  river  and  canal.  The Board and in-
11   dustry are  aware that additional pollution abatement
12   facilities  may be required after water quality criteria
13   are  established. With these  criteria,  Indiana will require
14   industry  to re-evaluate wastewaters and install the neces-
15   sary facilities.
16                  East Chicago:   The City of  East Chicago
17   is served by a combined sewer system and an activated
18   sludge type sewage  treatment  plant, chlorination is pro-
19   vided  in  the effluent channel.
20                  The  plant  is designed for a population
21   equivalent  of  115,000 and a flow of 20 million gallons
22   per  day.  The  City  does not accept appreciable quantities
23   of industrial  waste for treatment.  The plant provides
24   approximately  95 percent  treatment in terms of 5-day
25   B.O.D.

-------
                                                          777
                    The facilities are well operated and
     maintained.  The effluent is discharged to the Grand
     Calumet River and, under normal flow conditions, the flow
     is east to the Indiana Harbor Canal.  Storm water overflow
     from combined sewers and storm water pumping stations
     discharge to the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor
     Canal.
  8 I                On April 22, 1964, the Board advised  the
  9   District of the requirement for continuous chlorination
 10   of plant effluent.  The District advised on May 25, 1964,
 n   that chlorination would be provided in the effluent chan-
 12   nel with existing facilities.  The effluent channel provides
 13   in excess of 15 minutes detention time at design flow.
 14                  Gary:  The City of Gary is served by a
 is   combined sewer system and an activated sludge type sewage
 16   treatment plant.  Effluent chlorination facilities are
 17   under construction.
 18                  when construction of plant additions is
 19   completed, it will provide for a design flow of 80
 20   million gallons per day;  aeration tank capacity which
 21   provides 6-hour detention at a flow of 60 million gallons
 22   per day and a population equivalent of over 500,000.
23                  The plant provides approximately 95 percent
24
25
reduction in terms of 5-day B.O.D.; the facilities are
well operated and maintained.  The effluent is discharged

-------
                                                       778
 1    to  the Grand  Calumet  River.   Combined  sewer overflows and
 2    storm water pumping stations  discharge to the Grand and
 3    Little Calumet  Rivers and  Burns  Ditch.
 4                   Chlorination facilities were not included
 5    in  the plans; however,  the Board approval was conditioned
 6    on  provision  of effluent Chlorination  facilities.
 7    Plans for  Chlorination were approved on July 19,  1963.
 8    Construction  of Chlorination  facilities, and additional
 9    sewers is  underway.
10                   Merrillvllle Conservancy District:   The
11    Merrillville  Conservancy District was  established  on
12    December 28,  1962,  to serve 2,647 parcels of land  of
13    which 1,277 were then undeveloped.  It was estimated
14    that  4,000 homes could ultimately be served within the
is    original District boundaries. Since it was established
16    additional area has been included and  a contract  for sewage
17    treatment  signed with the  Gary Sanitary District.
18                   Completion  of these facilities will provide
19    for abandonment of  semi-public sewage  treatment facilities
20    now serving the Merrillville  Bowling Alley, Merrillville
21    primary* grade  and  high schoolsthis  is three sewage
22    plantsand Chapel  Manor Subdivision.
23                   Vulcan Materials  Company, Gary: Mr.
24    E.  W. Young,  President, Vulcan,  notified the Board on
25    January 11, 1964, that on  or  before March 1, 1965, all

-------
                                                      779
     wastewaters would be eliminated from the Grand Calumet
     River.
                    The plant located in Gary in 1955 for the
     purpose of recovering tin from scrap tin plate.  Approxi-
     mately  2,800 gallons per minute of wastewater is discharged
     to the  river.  Mr. Young indicated that as of March 1,
     1965, this wastewater will be sold.  All sewage is  treated
     in a septic tank-absorption field system.   The estimated
     expenditure of water pollution control  facilities is
 10   $12,000.
 11                  Cities Service Petroleum Company, East
 12   Chicago:   The Company pumps process water  from Lake Michi-
 13   gan and has a pumping capacity of 115 million gallons
 14   per day.    Plant  wastewaters are separated by three sewer
 15   systems;   Sewage,  process,  and cooling.
 16                  All plant sewage is discharged to the East
 17   Chicago Sanitary  District sewerage system.   Cooling water
 18   and boiler blowdown is treated in an A.P.I,  oil separator
 19   which was  constructed prior to 19^3.  In 19^9,  a
20   second  A.P.I,  oil separator was  placed  in  operation for
21   treatment  of process  wastewaters.   The  cooling water flow
22   is  77 million gallons per day and  the contaminated  process
23   wastewater flow is 4.3 million gallons  per day.   These
24   flows are  combined after treatment and  discharged to
25   the Grand  Calumet  River.

-------
                                                        780
                   In 1961, an ammonia and sulfide sour water
    stripper was placed in operation.  Stripper bottoms are
    discharged to the crude oil desalter for removal of
    phenols.  Spent caustics are sold for recovery of cresylic
    acid.  Spent sulfuric acid is returned to the supplier
    for reprocessing.  Hydraulic decoking waters are recir-
    culated.  An experimental column trickling filter and
    an experimental activated sludge plant are installed for
    additional treatability studies of the process waste-
10  water.
11                 Plans for 1965 involve the discharge of
12  delay coking unit waters to the sour water stripper, and
13  an automatic effluent monitoring system.  About
14  $1,7^5,000 has been expended by the Company for water
is  pollution control facilities.
16                 E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company,
17  East Chicago:  The Company purchases potable water,
18  2.2 million gallons per day, from East Chicago and
19  pumps process water, 11.5 million gallons per day, from
20  the Grand Calumet River.  In 19^7 > all plant sewage was
21  connected to the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage
22  system.  Acid neutralization for sulfuric acid production
23  wastes was installed in 1957.
24                 In 1962, the Company requested approval
25  of a proposal to discharge up to 90,000 pounds per day

-------
                                                       781
    of  chlorides  to  the  river.   The  chlorides  are contained
    in  by-product hydrochloric  acid  wastes.  The proposal
    was submitted to the Public Health Service for comment.
    It  was requested that the Public Health  Service Inform
    the Board as  to  the  compatibility of  the proposal  with
    the long-range planning of  the GLIRB  project.  We  have
    been unable to extract an opinion from the Public  Health
    Service on this  proposal.
 9                 The Company  was willing to  neutralize the
10  wastes but suggested controlled  discharge  for the  following
11  reasons.
12                 Neutralization would increase the hardness
13  and soluble salt  content of the  river.
14                 Controlled discharge would  only decrease
15  natural river alkalinity by 25 milligrams  per liter;
16  and the chloride  content of the  river would be Increased
17  18 milligrams per liter at  average  flow  and neutralization
18  would not change the value.
19                 The Board approved the proposal with  the
20  understanding that the Company make an effort to sell
21  the acid rather than discharge it to  the river.  The
22  Company subsequently notified the Board  that  the acid
23  would be sold and no chlorides were discharged to  the  river
24  through this  source.
25                 The Company  currently  discharges under

-------
                                                          782
     controlled conditions calcium sulfate, calcium salfamate,

     sodium dichromate,  ammonia and herbicide production
     wastes to the river.

                    I might say on the herbicide wastes, we

     require bio-analysis and information from the company

     to date that this would not have any harmful effects upon

     the water.

                    About $115,000 has been expended by the

     Company for water pollution control facilities.
 10                  U. S. S. Lead Refinery, Inc., East Chicago:

 n I! The Company uses the Grand Calumet River for cooling water.

 12   The spent cooling water is returned to the river.  No

 13   process wastewaters are discharged to a surface stream.
 L4   About 45,000 gallons per year of process wastewater are

 is   discharged to a ground absorption basin.  In 19^7* all
 16   plant sewage was connected to the East Chicago Sanitary
 17   District sewerage system.  About $27,000 has been expended
 18   for water pollution control facilities.
 19                  General American Transportation Corporation,
 20 S  Plant 2, East Chicago:  All plant sewage is discharged

 21   to the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.
 22   Process wastewaters, and I have .2 million gallons per day

23   and Dr. Gutzeit informs me that it should be .02, are
24 II  treated in the following facilities:  Waste equalization

25   pond, oil separator, and chemical treatment plant.

-------
                                                       783
                    The chemical treatment plant consists of
     coagulation, flocculatlon, and clarification.  The treated
     process wastewaters are discharged to the Indiana Harbor
     Canal.  About $200,000 has been expended for water pollu-
     tion control facilities.
                    Blaw-Knox Company, East Chicago:
     Potable and process water, 1.0 million gallons per day,
     is purchased from East Chicago.  All sewage is discharged
     to the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.
 10   Processed wastewater is treated in settling tanks and
 n   filters prior to discharge t> the Indiana Harbor Canal.
 12                  American Steel Foundries, Indiana Harbor
 13   Works, East Chicago:  All sewage is discharged to the
 14   East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.  Process
 15   waters, 0.4 million gallons per day, are pumped from
 16   the Indiana Harbor Canal.  Processed wastewaters are
 17   treated in a settling basin prior to discharge to the
 is   Indiana Harbor Canal.  About $15,000 has been expended
 19   for water pollution control facilities.
 20                  Linde Air Products, East Chicago:  All
 21   plant sewage and process wastewater, except cooling tower
 22   blowdown,  is discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary
23   District sewerage system.,  Cooling tower blowdown is
24   discharged to the Indiana Harbor Canal.
25                  Mobil Oil Company, East Chicago:  The

-------
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                                                    784
 Company purchases potable water from East Chicago and
 pumps process water from the Lake George Branch, Indiana
 Harbor Canal.  In 19^7, all plant sewage was connected
 to the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.
                In 1933, and 1935, oil traps were provided
 for process wastewaters.  In 19^0, the following waste-
 water treatment facilities were installed:  A.P.I, oil
 separator, raw process water treatment plant, and cooling
 towers for water reuse.  The cooling towers reduced the
 process water pumpage from the canal from 26 million
 gallons per day to 1.5 million gallons per day.
                Spent caustics are separated for use in
 the wood pulping industry and for recovery of cresylic
 acid.  All spent sulfuric acid is returned to the supplier
 for reprocessing.  Separation tanks and an oil separator
 are provided for ballast water.
                The company recently installed an ammonia
and sulfide stripper for stripping sour accumulator.  The
 stripper will significantly reduce ammonia, sulfide, phenol,
 C.O.D. and B.O.D. in the wastewaters.  About $600,000
 has been expended by the Company for water pollution
 control facilities.
                There is an unidentified source of pollution
 in the storm sewer discharging to Lake George Branch,
 Indiana Harbor Canal, East  Chicago.  An unidentified

-------
                                                        785
     source of wastewater discharged to the Lake George Branch,
     Indiana Harbor Canal, was investigated on February 3, 1965.
 3*  The wastewaters discharge to the Lake George Branch via
     a storm sewer located on the northeast side of Indiana-
     polis Boulevard.  The sewer originates in the vicinity
     of the American Oil Company, Whiting.  Two storm sewers,
     one on the northeast side and one of the southwest side,
     parallel Indianapolis Boulevard to the vicinity of Riley
     Avenue.
 10                  At Riley Avenue, the southwest sewer crosses
 11   under Indianapolis Boulevard and is connected to the north-
 12   east sewer which drains to Lake George Branch.
 13                  Estimated flow in the sewer on February 3,
 14   1965*  was 50,000 gallons per day.  The wastewater was
 15   light in color and had a gasoline odor.  The source of
 16   the wastewater has not been identified.
 17                  Calumet Nitrogen Products Company, Hammond:
 is   The Company is jointly owned by American Oil Company,
 19   Whiting,  and Sinclair Refining Company, East Chicago.
20   The plant is operated by American Oil Company,  The plant
21    located  in Hammond in 1956.   Ammonium nitrate plant waste-
22    water and all sewage is discharged to the Hammond Sanitary
23    District  sewerage system.   Wastewater from the ammonia
24    plant  plus cooling tower blowdown is discharged to a
25    separation basin for removal of settleables and floatables.

-------
                                                      786
    The  basin  effluent  drains  to  the  Lake  George Branch,
    Indiana Harbor  Canal.   Approximately $50,000 has  been
    expended by  the Company for pollution  control facili-
    ties.
                    The  Union Tank Car Company,  Whiting:
    The  Company's activities involve  the construction and
    maintenance  of  railroad tank  cars.   Potable and process
    water  is purchased  from Whiting.   Approximate water  usage
    is  .2  million gallons per  day.  All  sewage  is disposed
10  in septic  tank-absorption  field systems.  Process waste-
n  water  is treated in skimming  tanks prior  to discharge
12  to the Lake  George  Branch, Indiana Harbor Canal.  Skimmings
13  are  chemically  and  thermally  treated for  oil recovery.
14  Sludges from these, facilities are burned.   About  $15,000
15  has  been expended by the Company  for wastewater treatment
IB  facilities.
17                  Sinclair Refining  Company, East Chicago:
18  Sinclair is  the second  largest petroleum  refinery in
19  Indiana.   The company purchases potable water from East
20  Chicago and  pumps process  water from Lake Michigan.
21  In 1947, all plant  sanitary sewers were connected to the
22  East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage system.
23  Treated process wastewater and recirculatlng process
24  water  cooling tower blowdown  is discharged  to the Lake
25  George Branch,  Indiana  Harbor Canal.

-------
                                                       787
                    In 1946, two A.P.I, oil separators were
     built to replace one of two oil separators built prior to
     1933.  Cooling towers are utilized on the process waters,
     In-plant recirculation of water is 250 million gallons
     per day and treated wastewater discharge is 5 million
     gallons per day.  Considerable refinery equipment modifica-
     tion in the late 19^0fs and early 1950's reduced the amount
 8   of wastewater requiring treatment.
 9                  An ammonia and sulfide stripper is utilized
 10   in the treatment of sour water.  Stripper bottoms and cool-
 11   ing tower blowdown are discharged to the crude oil desalter
 12   for additional phenol extraction.
 13                  Boiler blowdown and hot lime sludge is
 14   discharged to a separator for treatment.   Caustics contain-
 15   ing phenols are sold for by-product recovery.  Spent
 16   caustics containing sulfides  and mercaptans are oxidized.
 17   Spent sulfurlc acid is returned to the supplier for
 18   reprocessing.
 19                  New ballast water A.P.I, oil separators
 20   were constructed in 1963.   About $3,930,000 has been ex-
 21   pended by the Company for water pollution control faclli-
 22   ties.
23                  U. S. Gypsum Company, East Chicago:  The
24   plant produces plaster,  wallboard and asbestos-cement
25    shingles.   All sewage is discharged to the East Chicago

-------
                                                     788



     Sanitary  District  sewerage  system.   Process  wastewaters,



     .4 million gallons per day, are  discharged to  the  Indiana



     Harbor  Canal.



                    Youngstown Sheet  and Tube Company,  Indiana



     Harbor  Works,  East Chicago:  The company pumps  process



     water,  288 million gallons  per day,  from Lake  Michigan



     and discharges treated and  untreated process wastewaters



     to the  Indiana Harbor Canal and  Lake Michigan.   All  sewage,



     except  for isolated septic  tank-absorption field systems,



10    is discharged  to the East Chicago Sanitary District  sewerage



11    system.



12                   Dephenolizers  were installed  in the coke



13    plant for wastewater treatment.  Coke quenching  wastes are



14    discharged to  a settling  basin with partial  recirculation.



is    Tar decanter waters are discharged  to the dephenolizer.



16    Benzol  condensates are double decanted prior to  discharge



17    to the  canal.   Scale pite are provided at all  rolling mills



18    and secondary  pits are baffled to trap free  oil.



19                   Wastewater discharged to Lake Michigan passes



20    through an oil removal basin  which  is equipped with  a



21    continuous oil removal belt.  A  portion of the waste pickle



22    liquor  is trucked  to the  slag dump  for disposal  and  some



23    is discharged  to the canal.



24                   In-plant controls, in compliance  with



25    Regulation SPC-2,  to isolate  concentrated cyanide  solutions

-------
                                                      789
     were Installed in 1956.  A gravity oil separator for a
     six-stand tandem mill in the No. 2 tin mill was approved
     by the Board and installed in 1961.
                    Haiogen tinning line plating solution Is
     trucked to the slag dump for disposal.
                    The wastewater treatment facilities for
     a new No. 3 cold reduced sheet mill now under construction
     were approved by the Board on October 23,  1964.  These
     facilities consist of gravity oil separators and a terminal
 10   lagoon.  The lagoon effluent will seep horizontally through
 11   250 feet of slag before reaching Lake Michigan.  Cooling
 12   waters containing less than 10 milligrams  per liter of
 13   oil will be discharged directly to Lake Michigan.
 14                  Flue dust thickeners and sludge dewatering
 15   equipment are installed for the blast furnace gas washer
 16   system.  About $5,000,000 has been expended by the Company
 17   for water pollution control facilities.
 18                  Inland Steel Company, East  Chicago:
 19   The Company pumps process water,  800 million gallons a
 20   day>  from Lake Michigan and discharges treated and untreated
 21   process wastewaters to the Indiana Harbor  Canal and
 22   Lake Michigan.   All plant sewage  is treated in two Company
23   owned and operated trickling filter treatment plants.
24   A third plant is  proposed.   All sewage plant effluents
25   are chlorinated prior to discharge to either the canal

-------
                                                       790
 i   or lake.
 2                   In 1928, the Company Installed  facilities
 3   for recirculation of coke plant gas final cooling waters
 4   for phenol reduction.  About 1930, a Koppers vapor
 5   recirculation phenol recovery unit was installed for
 6   ammonia still wastes.
 7                  Blast furnace flue dust thickeners and
 8   vacuum dewatering facilities for thickener sludges were
 9   installed about 1931.  Additional phenol recovery by light
10   oil extraction; a settling basin for coke quenching
11   wastes and ammonia still wastes; recirculation of coke
12   plant tar decanter wastes; 13 scale pits; oil  recovery and
13   treatment facilities on the slab mill, 44-inch hot mill,
14   46-inch tandem cold mill, 40-inch tandem mill  and the
15   three-stand skinny tin line has also been provided.
16                  Fly ash and bottom ash lagoons  for the
17   new power plant have been constructed.  Facilities under
18   construction consist of:  Scale pits for new blooming and
19   billet mills, scale pits, oil skimming pits, some
20   chemical flocculator-clarifiers, and a tunnel  to divert
21   wastewaters to the Indiana Harbor Canal for a  new 80-
22   inch hot strip mill.  The wastewater treatment proposal
23   for the 80-inch hot strip mill was submitted to the Public
24   Health Service for comment.  It was requested  the Public
25   Health Service inform the Board as to the compatibility

-------
                                                       791
     of the  proposal  with the long-range planning of the
     GLIRB project.   The Public Health Service did not ex-
     press an opinion on the proposal.  The new oxygen steel-
     making  facilities will have a  closed stack gas washer
     system.
                   About $19,100,000 has been expended by
     the  Company  for  water pollution control facilities.
                   National Tube Division, United States
     Steel Corporation,  Gary:  In 19^9*  all plant sewage was
10   diverted to  the  Gary Sanitary  District sewerage system.
11   Approximately 10 million gallons per day of process waters
12   is obtained  from the Gary Steel Works.  Process wastewaters
13   are  discharged to the Grand Calumet River.   About $800,000
14   has  been expended for separation of sewers  and installa-
15   tion of  facilities  to convey sewage to the  Gary-Sanitary
16   District.
17                 Gary Steel Works,  United  states Steel
18   Corporation, Gary:   The  Company pumps process water,
19   577  million  gallons  per  day, from Lake Michigan and dis-
20   charges  treated  and  untreated  wastewaters to the Grand
21   Calumet  River.   Some cooling waters are discharged to
22   Lake  Michigan.   All  plant sewage  is discharged to the
23   Gary  Sanitary District,
24                 Ammonia still liquors are used for quenching
25   coke.  Coke  quenching wastewater  is recirculated.

-------
                                                       792



     Benzol condensates are discharged to the river.



                    Flue dust thickeners are installed for



     partial recovery on the blast furnace gas washer system.



                    In 1950 and 1951* an experiment on the



     treatability of ammonia still liquors at the Gary Sani-



     tary District sewage treatment plant was conducted.



     The experiment was a success but the City and industry



     did not reach agreement to continue the project.  About



     $11,000,000 has been expended by the Company for water



10   pollution control facilities.



il                  Gary Sheet and Tin Mill Division, United



12   States Steel Corporation, Gary:  The Company pumps process



13   water, 60 million gallons per day, from Lake Michigan and



14   discharges treated and untreated wastewaters to the Grand



15   Calumet River.  Some cooling water and storm water from



16   combined process wastewater sewers is discharged to Lake



17   Michigan.  All plant sewage is discharged to the Gary



18   Sanitary District,



19                  Waste pickle liquors are discharged to a



20   lagoon and seepage therefrom drains to Lake Michigan.



21   The lagoon will be eliminated by the use of a deep well



22   disposal system which is under construction*  Waste  pickle



23   liquors and tinning line chromium solutions will be  dis-



24   charged to the deep well system.  A lagoon for neutralized



25   nitric and hydrofluoric acids from the stainless steel

-------
                                                        793
     line will be constructed in 1965.
                    Waste treatment facilities consisting of
     gravity oil separators with an emergency bypass to Lake
     Michigan were approved by the Board in 1964 for a new
     80-inch, five-stand sheet mill.  These facilities have
     been completed and  are in operation.  The separator
     effluent is discharged to the river.  About
     $3,600,000 has been spent by the Company for water pollu-
     tion control facilities.
10                  American Bridge Division, United States
11   Steel Corporation,  Gary:   In 1945,  all plant sewage was
12   diverted to the Gary Sanitary District sewerage system.
13   Currently,  only rivet machine cooling water is discharged
14   to the Grand Calumet River.   About  $1,000,000 has been
15   expended for water  pollution control facilities.
16                  Steiner Tissue Mill, Gary:  Potable water,
17   .1 million gallons  per day,  is purchased from the Gary-
is   Hobart Water Company.   Process waters,  1.4 million
     gallons per day, are pumped  from the Grand Calumet River
20   to a clarification  pond prior to use in the plant.
21   Process wastewaters are treated in  two fiber save-all
22   units prior to discharge  to  the Grand Calumet River.
23   All  sewage  is discharged  to  the Gary Sanitary District.
24                  Berry Refining Company,  Gary:  All process
25   and  potable water is purchased from the Gary-Hobart Water

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                                                     794
 1   Company.  All sewage is disposed in  septic  tank-absorption
 2   field systems.  Process wastewaters  are treated  in an
 3   A.P.I, oil separator and impounding  basin.
 4                  The  effluent  from the impounding  basins
 5   is discharged to a  swampy area on Cities Service Oil
 6   Company property.   No wastewaters are discharged to a
 7   surface stream, surface waters, or lake.  About
 8   $15,000 has been expended for water  pollution  control
 9   facilities.
10                  Northern Indiana Public Service Company,
n   Bailly Generating Station, Baileytown:  The Bailly
12   Generating Station  started operation in 1962.  Initial
13   capacity was 175.,000 kilowatts.  Maximum process water
14   requirement is about 425 million gallons per day and
15   the water is pumped from Lake Michigan.   Sewage is
16   disposed in septic  tank-absorption field systems.  Bottom
17   ash, fly ash and cinders are sluiced to a solids storage
18   area.  Sluicing waters and coal storage drainage are
19   absorbed into the ground.  Approximately $70,000 has
20   been expended by the Company for pollution  control facilities,
21                  Universal Atlas Cement Company, United
22   States Steel Corporation, Gary:  Process water is pumped
23   from Lake Michigan.  Pump capacity is 72 million gal-
24.   Ions per day.  All  plant sewage is treated  in  a  fixed-
25   nozzle trickling filter plant.  The  sewage  plant was

-------
                                                        795
     built  in 1926.   The sewage plant effluent is discharged
     to  Lake  Michigan.   During a recent inspection, fish were
     observed to  be  living in the final clarifiers.  No process
     wastewaters  other  than indirect cooling waters are
     discharged to the  lake.   About $200,000 has been expended
     for water pollution control facilities.
                    Northern Indiana Public Service Company,
     Dean H.  Mitchell Station,  Gary:  The  plant pumps process
     water, 433 million gallons per day, from Lake Michigan.
10   Process  vjastewater is discharged to Lake Michigan.  Sewage
11   is  treated in septic tanks.   The septic tank effluent is
12   discharged to Lake Michigan.   The raw process waters are
13   chlorinated.  About $82,000 has been  expended by the
14   Company  for water  pollution control facilities.
15                  Union Carbide Corporation,  Chemicals Division,
16   Whiting:  Process  water  is pumped from Lake Michigan.
17   Process  wastewaters are  discharged to Lake Michigan
18   and the  Indiana Harbor Canal.   All plant sewage  is dis-
19   charged  to the  Whiting sewerage system.   Cooling towers
20   are utilised for partial reuse of product  contaminated
21   cooling  waters.
22                  In  1934,  the Company initiated a  program
23   to separate sewage from  other  wastewaters  for discharge
24   to a municipal  sewerage  system.   The  program was completed
25   in 1947  when all sewage  was discharged  to  the Whiting

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                                                      796
 l   sewerage system.  During the  1935 to 1960  period,  the
 2   Company installed the following facilities:  Wastewater
 3   clarification basin, raw water chlorination  unit,  closed
 4   cooling water system for direct product-contact  cooling
 5   waters, and a cooling tower system, and  established  an
 6   effluent monitoring program.  During the 1960  to 1965
 7   period, the following facilities were added:   Retention
 8   basin, automatic effluent sampler, skimming  pit, col-
 9   lection tank for land disposal of concentrated wastes,
10   plus many other minor pollution control  facilities.
n   Approximately $950,000 was expended by the Company for
12   pollution control facilities  during the  1935 to  1965
13   period,.
14                  Future plans indicate that  the  following
15   pollution control units will  be installed  in 1965  at
16   an estimated cost of $46,100:  Closed water  system
17   dissolved solids removal unit, improved  oil  recovery
is   facilities, screens and recovery facilities  for  polyethylene
19   pellets, and wastewater laboratory equipment.
20                  American Oil Company, Whiting:  The
21   Company is the largest petroleum refinery  in Indiana.
22   Process water is pumped from  Lake Michigan and discharged
23   to Lake Michigan after treatment.
24                  Potable waters are obtained from  Whiting.
25   All sewage, except from a few isolated buildings is

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                                                       797
     discharged  to  the  Whiting sewerage system.   Isolated
     buildings are  served  by septic tank-absorption field
 3*   systems.  Process  wastewaters  are conveyed  to treatment
     facilities  via two separate sewer systems.   Wastewaters
     containing  settleables  and floatables are discharged to
     mechanically equipped A.P.I, oil separators and thence
     to Lake Michigan.
                    Wastewaters containing settleables, and
     floatables,  dissolved organics and dissolved inorganics
10   are discharged to  mechanically equipped  A.P.I, oil
n   separators  and thence to bio-flotation facilities.
12                  The bio-flotation facilities consist
13   of aeration and settling units.   The  effluent from
     the bio-flotation  facilities are dischargees to Lake
15   Michigan.
16                  Spent  caustics  containing sulfides  and
17   phenols are  trucked to  lagoons located northwest of the
18   Lake George  Branch, Indiana  Harbor Canal.   Cooling towers
19   are utilized for partial reuse of cooling waters.   Spent
20   sulfUric acids  are returned  to the supplier for reprocessing.
21   Separation tanks and  an oil  separator are utilized for
22   ballast water  in Indiana Harbor  Canal docks.
23                  Cooling  towers  have been  installed  for
24   recirculation of 100 million gallons  per day of cooling
25   waters.  Water  usage peaked  in 1946 at about  200 million

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                                                       798
 1   gallons per day.  Water  usage has been  gradually  decreased

 2   to about 140 million gallons per day in 1964.  The  oil

 3   separators utilized on wastewaters containing settleables
                                                               ^

 4   and floatables were built in 1940.  The oil separators

 5   preceding bio-flotation  were constructed in 19^8.

 B                  The bio-flotation facilities were  placed

 7   in operation in I960.

 8                  Facilities for conveying plant sewage  to  the

 9   Whiting sewerage system  were completed  in 1948.   Approxi-

10   mately $9*055*000 has been expended for pollution control

11   facilities at the refinery.

12                  American  Maize Products  Company, Hammond:

13   The company located in Hammond in 1905  and is a corn

14   processing plant.  Potable water, .7 million gallons  per

15   day, is purchased from Hammond.  Process water,

16   11 million gallons per day, is pumped from Lake Michigan.

17   All sewage, except from  one warehouse toilet, and a small

is   amount of concentrated process wastewater is discharged

19   to the Hammond Sanitary  District.

20                  The warehouse toilet is  sewered to the

21   process wastewater lagoon system.  Treated process waste-

22   waters are discharged to Lake Michigan.  Treatment

23   consists of anaerobic-aerobic lagoons.  Many in-plant

24   controls of wastewater have been provided as well as  an

25   in-plant wastewater monitoring system.

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10
12
13
14
15
16
17
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                  799
                Prior  to  19^0,  all  wastewaters were dis-
charged to Lake Michigan without treatment.   In  19^0,
all sewage and  some process wastewater was diverted to
Hammond.  Considerable in-plant equipment changes  were
made in 19^9 and 1950 in order to  reduce waste loadings
to Lake Michigan.  Raw water supply  chlorination was
instituted in 1950.  Sufficient chlorine was applied to
the raw water to maintain a chlorine residual in the
effluent to Lake Michigan.  Later, chlorine was  also
applied directly to the  wastewater discharged to Lake
    Michigan.
               During the late 1950's and early  1960's,
the Company developed an anaerobic-aerobic lagoon system
for treatment of wastewater prior to discharge to Lake
Michigan.  An experimental column trickling filter has
been installed for continuing studies on the treatabillty
of process wastewaters.
               The ultimate objective of the Company is
to produce a plant effluent of .5 population equivalent
per bushel of corn processed.  Approximately $1,3^0,000
has been expended by the Company for water pollution
control facilities.
               Commonwealth Edison Company, Inc., State-
line Generating Station, Hammond:  The plant purchases
potable water, J. million gallons per day, from Hammond

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                                                       8oo

 i   and pumps process water, one thousand and seven million


 2   gallons per day, from Lake Michigan.  Process waters
                                                               *

 3   are chlorinated prior to use.  A sewerage system was


 4   installed in 1920 for collection of sewage for discharge


 5   to the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Chicago.


 6                  In 1949, an Imhoff tank with effluent


 7   chlorination was installed.  The chlorinated effluent


 8   discharged to Lake Michigan until the Metropolitan


 9   Sanitary  District connection became available in 1961.


10   An ash disposal basin was constructed in 1946.  The basin


n   was later replaced in 1961 with bottom ash dewatering


12   tanks.  Fly ash is handled dry.  Approximately $460,000


13   has been expended by the Company for water pollution


14   control facilities.


15                  Little Calumet River-Burns Ditch:  The


16   Little Calumet River-Burns Ditch drainage basin includes


17   the major land area of the Calumet Basin.  Burns Ditch


18   is a man-made drainage canal constructed in 1923 discharging


19   to Lake Michigan.  This ditch reversed the flow to the


20   east in the Little Calumet River at about Broadway


21   Street in Gary.  The basin receives the treated effluent


22   from the Chesterton, Crown Point, East Gary, Hobart, and


23   Valparaiso sewage treatment plants.


24                  The sewage from Porter is not yet treated,


25   but the Town ia under Board order.  Portage, New Chicago,

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                                                         801
     Ogden Dunes  and  St.  John do not have sewer systems.
 2.                 The sewage treatment plants serving Ches-
     terton,  Hobart and Valparaiso provide adequate capacity,
     are  well maintained  and  operated,  and produce a good
     quality  effluent.   Improvements planned for construction
     at Crown Point this  year will provide adequate capacity,
     good operation and maintenance will continue.  Effluent
     chlorlnation is  provided for all these pl&nts.
                   The adequacy of the Gary-Miller District
10   plant that is now  serving East Gary is problematical.
11   Plant additions, including effluent chlorination facilities,
12   and  improved operation and maintenance is  required.
13                 The start of construction of sewage works
14   for  Porter is scheduled  for July 1,  1965.
15                 Treated waste effluents from Midwest
16   Steel and Bethlehem  Steel plants discharge to  Burns
17   Ditch and the Little Calumet River,  respectively.   The
18   effluent from Northern Indiana Public Service Company
19   discharges to Lake Michigan.
                   There is  no interstate pollution from the
21    Little Calumet River-Burns Ditch drainage  basin.
22         CHAIRMAN STEIN: Mr. Miller,  if we are going to
23    continue, let me call these two gentlemen  first.
24                  Mr. H. R.  McDonald,  of Lever Brothers,
25    and  Mr. Keiper, of Mobil  Oil?

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  1
  2
                                                         802
               Go ahead.
     MR. MILLER:  Crown Point:  The City of Crown Point
    is  served by sanitary and  combined  sewers.  The  I960



    population was 8,^33; the  plant was designed  for a  popu-



    lation of 7,500 and a flow of  .8 million  gallons per



    day.



                   The existing  activated  sludge-type sewage



 8 I! treatment facilities, including effluent  chlorination




 9  provide treatment for most of  the present population.   The



 10  plant provides approximately 85 percent reduction in



 n  terms of 5-day B.O.D.



 12                 The plant is  fairly  well operated and
 13




 14





 15




 16




 17




 18




 19




20




21




22





23
maintained.  Approved plans for plant additions, including



expanded chlorination facilities, will extend the capa-



city to 1.8 million gallons per day.  The plant effluent



and stormwater overflow from combined sewers discharge



to Bee Line Ditch, a tributary to Keep River and Burns



Ditch.



               Hobart:  The City of Hobart  is served by



a system of sanitary and combined sewers, and an activated



sludge-type sewage treatment plant including effluent



chlorination facilities were placed into operation.



The I960 population was 18,680; the plant is designed
24   for a population of 23,000 and a flow of  two million



25   gallons per day.

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  2.
 10

 11
 13

 14

 15

 16

 17

 18

 19

 20

 21

 22
24

25
                                                     803
                   Primary treatment facilities were placed
    in operation  in 1953 and  secondary facilities  were  com-
   pleted  in  1962.  The plant  provides  approximately 90
   percent reduction  in terms  of  5-day  B.O.D.   The facili-
   ties are well maintained and operated.
6 I                The effluent discharges  to Deep River
   thence  to  Burns Ditch.  Stormwater overflow from combined
8 I sewers discharge to Deep River and tributaries there-
   to.
                  On  September 29,  1948, the Board issued
   a pollution abatement order to the City of  Hobart.
 12   The City filed a petition to set the order aside.  The
   case was finally heard on February 2, 1950,  in Jasper
   Circuit Court.  The court issued a decision  upholding
   the  Board's order.
                  East Gary:  The City of East  Gary  is
   served by combined and sanitary sewers.  And wastes from
   this community are discharged to the Gary-Miller  sewage
   treatment plant.
                  The Gary-Miller trickling filter-type
   sewage treatment plant is designed to treat approxi-
   mately 1.5 million gallons per day.  Effluent chlorination
23    is  not  provided$  the plant provides approximately 70
   percent reduction in terms of 5day B.O.D.  Plant effluent
   and stormwater overflow from combined sewers discharge

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                                                      804
    to Burns Ditch.
                   On April 3* 1958, the City of East Gary
    signed an agreement with the Gary Sanitary District for
    treatment of East Gary sewage at the Gary-Miller District
    plant.
                   On January 13, 1959* the Board approved
    plans for interceptor sewers, connection to the Miller
    District plant and improvements to the Miller District
    plant.
10                  It has approximately 40,000 feet of
11   combined sewers; since 1960, approximately 37,500 feet
12   of sanitary sewers have been installed.
13                  In 1962, the City of East Gary was advised
14   that effluent chlorination would be required.  At that time,
15   the Gary Sanitary District was planning a lift station and
16   interceptor to divert the Gary sewage then discharged  to
17   the Miller plant to the Sanitary District's main plant,
18   and it was indicated that East Gary would acquire the
19   Miller plant.
20                  The Gary sewage from this area is now
21   discharged to the Gary Sanitary District's main plant.
22                  On October 9, 1964, the State Board of
23   Health advised East Gary that the Miller District plant was
24   in poor condition and that laboratory and chlorination
25   facilities were required.  This last report from East

-------
                                                         805
 i    Gary  indicated  that  an earlier decision would be made on
 2f   whether to  acquire the Miller plant or effect an agreement
 3 ]   for treatment of its sewage by the Gary Sanitary Dis-
 4    trict.
 5                   New Chicago 2  The Town of New Chicago
 6    is not  served by a sewer system.  The soil is predominantly
 7    sandy and individual sewage effluents are apparently ab-
 8    sorbed  into the ground.
 9                   In May, 19^9> a preliminary report on a
10    proposed water  and sewer system was submitted.   A public
n    water supply has been installed.  However, no progress has
12    been  made towards providing sewage works.   An engineering
13    survey  was  proposed  in 1962; further information has not
14    been  received.
15                   Chesterton:  The Town of Chesterton Is
16    served  by a combined sewer system and an activated
17    sludge-type sewage treatment plant with effluent chlorina-
18    tion  facilities.  The 1960 population was  4,192;  the plant
19    is designed for a population of 10,000 and a  flow of
20    one and a half  million gallons  per day.
21                   The plant provides approximately 90
22    percent reduction in terms of 5-day B.O.D.; the facilities
23    are well maintained  and  operated.
24                   The effluent discharges to  the Little
25    Calumet River.   Stormwater overflow from combined sewers

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                                                        806
     discharge to the Little Calumet River and tributaries
     thereto.
                    Valparaiso:  The City of Valparaiso is
     served by a combined sewer system and an activated sludge-
     type sewage treatment plant.  Effluent chlorination is
     provided.  The I960 population is 15,227j the plant is
     designed  for a population of 20,000 and a flow of 2.0
     million gallons per day.
 9                  The plant provides approximately 95 per-
 10   cent reduction in terms of 5-day B.O.D.j and the facilities
 ll   are well  maintained and operated.
 12                  The effluent discharges to Salt Creek,
 13   thence to the Little Calumet River and Burns Ditch.
     Stormwater overflow from combined sewers discharges
 15   to Salt Creek and tributaries thereto.
 16                  A letter from the Board dated June 4,
 i7   1964,  requested continuous chlorination of plant effluent
 18   and a chlorine residual of one milligram per liter.
 19   On June 9, 1964, the mayor advised that the City would
 20   comply with the Board's request.
 21                   On January 5* 1965, the Board approved
 22   additions to chlorination facilities and recommended
23   that the  City authorize a study of sewer and sewage treat-
24   ment plant improvement needs and that construction of
23    facilities be undertaken to keep pace with community

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                                                        8o?
     development.
                    Portage:  The Town of Portage was incorporated

     in 1959.  The area of 27 square miles had a 1960 popu-
     lation of 11,822.  The Gary-Hobart Water Corporation
     is providing water to the area.  A drainage project,
     to be partially financed by a $100,000 loan from the
     Indiana Flood Control Revolving Fund, is now under
     consideration.  No municipal sewers are available.
                    The preliminary engineering report on
10   sanitary sewers and sewage treatment, which was submitted
n   January 25,  1962, proposed the installation of approxi-
12   mately 263,000 feet of sanitary sewers and a 1.25 million
13   gallon per day activated sludge-type sewage treatment
14  plant to serve a population of 12,500.  No progress has
is   been made towards construction of sewage works.
16                  The Portage Junior-Senior High School
17   and Capitol  Estates and Robbinwood Subdivisions,  that
18   are located  within the corporate limits of Portage,
19   provide activated sludge-type sewage treatment facilities
20   with effluent chlorination.   Robbinwood has chlorinatlon
21   facilities approved.   The effluent from these plants
22   discharges to Salt Creek and tributaries to the Little
23   Calumet River.
24                  Porter:  The Town of Porter is served
25   by separate  and combined sewers.   The Town sewers discharge

-------
                                                       808

 i   to the Little Calumet River.  Sewage from 15 homes

 2   adjacent to the Chesterton sewage treatment plant is
                                                                *
 3   treated at that plant.

 4                  On October 8, 1964, the Board ordered

 5   the Town of Porter to abate its contribution to the

 6   pollution of the Little Calumet River.  Plans and speci-

 7   fications are due March 1, 1965; construction is to be

 8   started by July 1, 1965, and the facilities are to be

 9   completed by July 1, 1966.

10                  Midwest Steel Company Division, National

n   Steel Corporation, Portage:  The Company pumps water

12   from Lake Michigan and has a maximum pumping capacity

13   of 52 million gallons per day.  Treated wastewaters

14   are discharged to  Burns Ditch.  The plant started pro-

is   duction in 1961.

16                  One of the outstanding industrial

17   waste treatment plants in the country was provided as

18   a part of original plant construction.  These three

19   separate sewer systems for conveying sewage, process waste-

20   waters and cooling waters are utilized.  All sewage receives

21   activated sludge treatment with effluent chlorination

22   prior to discharge to Burns Ditch.  Treatment of process

23   wastewaters consists of acid-alkali neutralization, oil

24   emulsion breaking with coagulation and clarification,

25   and mechanically-equipped basins for removal of settleables

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                                                      809
    and floatables.
                    Concentrated  chromium and fluoride-bearing
    wastes are treated  separately.   A  deep well  disposal
    system was constructed  in  1964  for underground  disposal
    of waste pickle liquor  and spent chromium-bearing solu-
    tions.
 7                  The  plant effluent  is routinely  monitored
 8   by automatic samplers and  laboratory analyses.   In-plant
 9   controls, in compliance with Regulation  SPC-2,  to isolate
10   concentrated Cyanide Solution tanks  have been installed
11   in the tin mill.  The Board's 1961 approval  of  the process
12   wastewater system was based on  the final effluent meeting
13   the following standards:
14                  B.09D.,  10  milligrams per liter;  fluoride,
15   10 milligrams per liter.
16        MR. POOLE:  Two.
17        MR. MILLERs  Pardon me, two.
18                  Zinc, 15; chromium, 2; cyanides,  .5;
19   pH between 5 to 10; suspended solids, 40 milligrams
20   per liter; floating material, no objectionables;  color,
21   no objectionable; oils, 15 milligrams per liter.
22                  The effluent from the treatment  facilities
23   is consistently better  than the standards approved by
24   the Board.
25                  No impairment of Burns Ditch  or Lake

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                                                       8io
     Michigan has occurred as a result of the companyss waste-
     water.  The operation of the wastewater treatment facilities
     has been without exception excellent.  About $6,025*000
                                                                *
     has been expended for water pollution control facilitfes.
     It is expected that,  when the company installs basic steel
     and coking production units, equally extensive waste-
     water treatment will  be provided.
                    Midwest Steel Company is an example of a
     new industry that has provided adequate water pollution
 10   control facilities to comply with the requirements of
 11   the Board.
 12                  Bethlehem Steel Company, Inc., Burns
 13   Harbor Plant, Chesterton:  The construction of the
 14   Burns Harbor plant is the most recent major Industrial
 15   development in Indiana.  Initial production began in 1964
 16   and additional production facilities are under con-
 17   struction.  Water is  pumped from Lake Michigan.  Treated
 18   wastewaters are discharged to the Little Calumet River,
 19   thence to Burns Ditch.
20                  Separate sewers for- conveying sewage, process
21   wastewaters and cooling waters are, or will be, installed;
22   all sewage receives activated sludge treatment and the
23   effluent is chlorinated.  The chlorinated effluent
24   is discharged to a terminal lagoon for tertiary treatment.
25   Treatment of process  wastewaters consists of acid-

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  3.
 10

 11

 12

 13

 14

 15

 16

 17

 18

 19

 20

 21

 22

 23

 24

25
                                                 811
alkali neutralization, emulsion  breaking with coagulation
and clarification, and mechanically  equipped  basins for
removal of settleables and floatables.
                    Concentrated  chromiumand  fluoride-bearing
     wastes will be treated separately.  A deep well dis-
     posal system for underground injection of waste pickle

     liquor is under construction.
                    An 80-acre terminal lagoon  system has  been
 9 I! constructed for tertiary treatment of all wastewater
other than cooling water.  Final settling, reaeration
and cooling will occur in the terminal lagoon.  The  lagoon
spillway has been constructed so that additional aeration
or reaeration will occur.  Facilities for removing
floatables from the lagoon have been installed.
               The plant effluent will be routinely  moni-
tored by automatic samplers and laboratory analyses.
In-plant controls, in compliance with Regulation SPC-2
to isolate concentrated cyanide solutions will be installed
in the tin mill.  The Board's approval of the process
wastewater system was based on the final effluent meeting
the following standards:
               pH between $ to 10; suspended solids,
40 milligrams per liter; oils, 15; B.O.D., 10; cyanides,
.2; chromium, 1; fluoride, 1.5; and there will be no
objectionable floating material or color.

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                                                      812
                    It  is  anticipated  that  the effluent  will
    be of better quality  than  that approved  by the Board.
                    About  $7,000,000 has  been expended for
    water pollution control facilities.  It  is expected that,
    when the Company installs  basic steel  and coking  production
    units, equally  extensive wastewater  treatment will  be
    provided.
                    Bethlehem Steel Company,  Inc., is  another
    example of a new industry  that has provided adequate water
10  pollution control  facilities to comply with requirements
11  of the Board.
12                  Semi-Public:  There are two semi-public
13  sewage treatment plants in this drainage basin.   Most  of
14  the subdivisions are  served by package activated  sludge
15  sewage treatment plants.   Operation  and  maintenance of
16  many of the facilities is  inadequate.  The owners have
17  been advised of the requirement for  providing continuous
18  effluent chlorination; however, in some  instances,
19  chlorination facilities are not available or, if  available,
20  not effectively operated.
21                  Plans  have  been approved  for effluent
22  chlorination facilities for the Lake County Home, north
23  of Crown Point, and the Robbinwood Subdivision in Porter
24  County.
25                  The public  schools in the area that  have

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                                                        813
     private sewage disposal facilities do not routinely provide

     adequate operation and maintenance.  The two Indiana

     Toll Road treatment plants in the area are well

     maintained and operated.

                    At least five of the semi-public sewage

     treatment plants in and near the Merrillville Conservancy

     District will be abandoned when the District sewers now

     under construction are available.

                    These include three Merrillville schools,

 10   a  bowling alley, and Chapel Manor Subdivision.

 11                  The Little Calumet River-West:  The

 12   Little Calumet River Basin is divided into two drainage

 13   areas by Broadway Street in Gary.  That area east of

 14   Broadway discharges to Lake Michigan through Burns Ditch.

 15   West of Broadway, the water flows into the Calumet-Sag

 16   Canal entering Illinois approximately 300 yards west of

 17   Hohman Avenue in Hammond.

 18                  The Little Calumet River receives

 19   sewage from Dyer and Schererville,  a portion of the sewage

20   from Griffith and Highland,  and treated waste from Sim-

21   mons Company.

22                  A TJ. S. Geological Survey recording gage

23   on the Little Calumet River near the state line shows a

24   minimum daily discharge of 1.9 cfs  and a mean daily dis-

25   charge of 7.3 cfs for August 1964.   Water quality

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 1   monitoring data  shows  the  stream to  be  polluted.


 2                  The  sewerage  project  recently completed
                                                               *
 3   by  the Hammond Sanitary District,  completion of the

 4   sanitary sewage  connection to  Hammond by Griffith and

 5   Highland, and completion of  the  sewage  works projects


 6   under construction  by  Dyer and Schererville  will  return


 7   the Little Calumet  River flowing into Illinois  to a

 8   satisfactory condition.

 9                  Stormwater  pumping facilities in Griffith,


10   Highland, Munster,  and Gary  and  stormwater overflow  from


11   combined  sewers  will continue  to impose a bacteria and

12   organic  load on  the Little Calumet River and tributaries


13   thereto.

14                  Dyer:   The  Town of Dyer  is served  by

15   sanitary  and combined  sewers.  The project now  under


is   construction will provide  interceptor sewers and  an  acti-

17   vated sludge type sewage treatment facility,  including

18   effluent  chlorination, for a design  population  of 6,000

19   and a flow of .6 million gallons per day.  The  effluent

20   from the  plant and  stormwater  overflows will discharge


21   to  Kart Ditch, a tributary to  the Little Calumet  River.


22                  The  Board issued  a pollution  abatement


23   order to  the Town of Dyer  on July 20, I960;  as  constructive

24   progress  was not achieved, the case  was referred  to  the


25   Attorney  General on July 18, 1961.   Court action  was

-------
                                                       815
     deferred when the Town agreed to proceed with preparation

     of final plans.

                    Griffith:  The Town of Griffith is served

     by a combined sewer system.  The dry weather sewage flow

     is pumped to the Hammond Sanitary District interceptor

     for treatment;  stormwater overflows from combined sewers

     are discharged  to Cady Marsh Ditch and to the Little

     Calumet  River.

                    Highland:  The Town of Highland is served

 10   by separate  and  combined sewers.  The dry weather sewage

 n   flow from approximately 50 percent of the population is

 12   pumped to the Hammond Sanitary District for treatment.

 13   Sewage and wastes from the remainder of the community,

 14   which are now discharged to Hart Ditch and the Little

 15   Calumet  River, will be connected to Hammond Sanitary

 16   District interceptors by the project now under construc-

 17   tion.  Stormwater overflows will continue to discharge

 18   to  Hart  Ditch and the Little Calumet River,

 19                 Munster:  The Town of Munster is served

20   by  sanitary  and  combined sewers;  and the dry weather

21   sewage and waste flow is treated at the Hammond Sanitary

22   District treatment plant.   The Town of Munster was made

23   a part of the District on January 26,  1948.   The stormwater

24   overflow from combined sewers discharges to Hart Ditch

25

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 3




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 5




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 9




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11





12




13




14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21





22





23




24




25
                                                     816
 and the Little Calumet River.
                On August 26, 1948, plans were approved



 for interception of existing sewers and connection to     



 Hammond interceptors; however, financing of the project



was delayed and actual connection was not made until



 December, 1953.



                Local developers continued to construct



 combined sewers with outfalls to the Little Calumet



 River; therefore, additional pollution was created.



                As provisions were not undertaken for



 correction, the Board issued an order to the Hammond



 Sanitary District on September 21, 1961.  On September 27*



 1961, a petition for a court review of the order was filed



 by the Hammond Sanitary District.  However, the petition



 was dismissed in 1962 and the District proceeded with plans



 for the construction of additional interceptor sewers.



 The project, which was financed by $592,000 in Sanitary



 District bonds and a $243,000 Federal grant, was completed



 early in 1964.



                Schererville:  The Town of Schererville



 is primarily served by sanitary sewers.  The project now



 under construction provides for the installation of



 approximately 75*000 feet of sanitary sewers and an activated



 sludge type sewage treatment facility, including effluent



 chlorlnation, to serve a design population of 6,000 and

-------
                                                       81?
     a flow of .86 million gallons per* day.  The effluent
     from the plant will discharge to a tributary to Hart
     Ditch, thence to the Little Calumet River.
                    Simmons Company, Munster:  Process and
     potable water is purchased from Hammond.  Approximate
     water usage is .3 million gallons per day.  All sewage
     Is discharged to the Hammond Sanitary District sewerage
     system.  Treated process wastewaters are discharged to
     the Little Calumet River.
10                  Cyanide control facilities, in compliance
11   with Regulation SPC-2, are provided within the plant.
12   Process wastewaters are chemically treated to oxidize
13   cyanides and reduce chromiums.  Basins are provided to
14   remove settleables including metal precipitates and
is   floatables.
16                  Two-stage continuous alkaline-chlorination
17   is provided for cyanide-bearing wastewaters.  Sodium
is   metabisulfite reduction plus lime neutralization is
19   provided for chromium-bearing rinse waters.  The discharge
20   of treated process wastewaters to the river was Approved
21   by the Board in 1959.   The approval was based upon the
22   contaminants in the effluent not exceeding the
23   following concentrations:
24                  Cyanide, 0; chromium, .5.  These are
25   milligrams per liter.   Oil,  5; settleable solids,  none;

-------
                                                      8l8

    pH between 6.5  to 8.5.


                    The  Company has,  in general,  been meeting
                                                               .*

    the effluent quality  specified by  the Board.   Approximately


    $65,000 has been expended  by the Company  for  pollution


    control facilities.


                    Semi-Public:  The Dyer Elementary School


    and the Mount Merch Sanatorium in  Dyer will be connected


    to the Dyer municipal sewer system.  The  sewage treatment


    facilities serving the Wilbur Wright School in Munster


10   will be abandoned and connection made to  a Hammond


il   Sanitary District sewer.


12                   St. Mary's  in Schererville disposes


13   of its sanitary sewage, after activated sludge treatment


14   and chlorination, on  its own grounds; however, if difficulty


15   is experienced, connection could be made  to the Schererville


16   sewer system,


17                   Consideration is being given to connection


18   of the St. John's Township schools, which are in the


19   Burns Ditch drainage basin, to the Schererville sewer


2o   system.


21                   With the completion of municipal sewer


22   systems now under construction, it appears that all


23   significant sources of sanitary wastes from semi-public


24   installations in this drainage basin could feasibly be


25   connected to municipal sewers.

-------
                                                     819
                    The Grand Calumet River-West:  The Grand
     Calumet River enters Illinois approximately 700 yards
     west of Hohman Avenue, Hammond.  The divide in the river
     is approximately at Indianapolis Boulevard in Hammond
     although both easterly and westerly flows have been observed
     at this location.
                    Generally, any discharges to the river
     west of the boulevard flow into Illinois and discharges
     east of the boulevard enter Lake Michigan by way of the
10   Indiana Harbor Canal.  There are no streamgBMging sta-
ll   tions on the Grand Calumet River in Indiana.
12                  Most of the flow at the state line consists
13   of Hammond  Sanitary District sewage treatment plant effluent.
14   Some industrial wastes are also present.
15                  Water quality monitoring data show the
16   stream to be polluted.  The higher B.O.D.'s  and coliform
17   counts noted in 1963 and 1964 were caused by the bypassing
is   of all or portions of the plant units during construction
19   of improvements at the Hammond plant.
20                  When effluent chlorination facilities are
21   installed,  the bacterial quality of the Grand Calumet
22   River flowing into Illinois will be improved.  However,
23   it should be pointed out that during periods of storms,
24   stormwater  overflow from combined sewers will impair
25   bacterial quality and contribute some organic load to the

-------
                                                       820
     stream.
                    Hammond:   The Hammond Sanitary District
     provides  interceptor  sewers  and  sewage  treatment for the
     City  of Hammond and the  Town of  Munster within District
     boundaries  and  sewage treatment  by contract for the
     Towns of  Griffith and Highland and the  City of Whiting.
                    The I960  tributary population of 155,915
 8 !|  is  served by an activated sludge plant  with a design
 9   population  equivalent of ^90,000 and a  design flow of
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 13
 20
 21
 22
23
24
25
36 million gallons per day.
               The plant provides approximately 95 per-
cent reduction in terms of 5-day B.O.D.; in general,
the operation and maintenance of the facilities is adequate.
               However, bypassing of all or portions of
the sewage works, including pump stations and interceptors,
during recent improvement projects contributed materially
to the high coliform bacteria counts and organic loads
noted in the Grand and Little Calumet Rivers.
               The majority of the area is served by com-
bined sewers; as early as 1930, it was reported that
Hammond had 155 miles of combined sewers.
               However, separate stormwater systems serve
an area with stormwater discharge to Wolf Lake and Lake
Michigan.  The Robertsdale pumping station discharges
stormwater overflow from combined sewers to Lake Michigan.

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 10


 11


 12


 13


 14


 15


 16


 17


 18


 19
21


22


23


24
                                                  821
               The activated  sludge  type  sewage  treatment

facilities are located adjacent to Columbia Avenue and

effluent is discharged to the Grand  Calumet River.  Under

normal flow conditions, the flow is  west  to Illinois.

Chlorinatlon facilities are not provided; the Board

has advised that chlorination of the effluent is required.

               On September 2, 1964* a  report on chlorination

facilities was considered satisfactory  by the Board and

the District was required to advise  of  action planned

to Install said facilities.  The District has not sub-

mitted a timetable for construction  of  chlorination

facilities.

               Whiting:  The City of Whiting is  served

by a combined sewer system with provisions for discharge

of dry weather sewage flow to the Hammond Sanitary District

for treatment.  A sewer outfall to Lake Michigan at

Front Street and a stormwater pumping station at Atcheson

Avenue discharges, at times, sewage  and stormwater

overflow to Lake Michigan,..
20                  On  April  25  the Board  approved plans for
connection to approximately two-thirds of Whiting's sewage

to the District.

               On October 1, 1946, Whiting filed a

stipulation with the U. Se Supreme Court agreeing either
25  j  to construct a plant or connect all its  sanitary  sewage

-------
                                                       822
     to  the  Hammond  Sanitary District within two years.
     The stipulation pointed out that two-thirds of Whiting's
     sewage  was  discharged  to Hammond.
                    On October 24,  194?,  the Board approved
     plans for connection of the remainder of the sewage to
     Hammond; however,  the  work was not  completed until
     December 5,  1949.   Operation of the  Front Street
     station was  not satisfactory.   On May 31, 1951,  the Board
     approved plans  for improvements.
10                   Intermittent discharge of raw sewage to
11    Lake Michigan continued.   A stipulation, in lieu of
12    an  order, was entered  into by  the Board and Whiting
13    on  February  9,  1954.   The City stipulated that necessary
14    improvements to abate  sewage discharge to Lake Michigan
15    would be constructed.
16                   In 1954, a flood gate was installed on
17    the Front Street outfall to keep lake water from entering
18    the sanitary sewage pump station which was designed to
19    discharge sewage to Hammond.  The operation of the
2o    sanitary sewage pump station has not been satisfactory
21    as  raw  sewage is still intermittently discharged to
22    Lake Michigan.
23                   Adolph  Plating, Inc., East Chicago:  The
24    East Chicago plant of  Adolph Plating Company is  currently
25    under construction.  Plant operations will begin in

-------
                                                      823
     1965,  and  all  plant sewage will be discharged to the East
     Chicago  Sanitary  District  sewerage system.
                    Untreated process wastewaters, .3 million
     gallons  per day,  will  be discharged to  the  Grand Calumet
     River.   The project was  approved by the Board on January 5,
     1965,  with the  understanding  that when  water quality
     criteria for the  river are established,  the necessary
     waste  treatment will be  provided.   In-plant cyanide
     control  facilities,  in compliance  with  Regulation SPC-2,
10   will be  provided.
11                  LaSalle Steel  Company, Hammond:   All
12   plant  sewage is discharged to the  Hammond Sanitary
13   District sewerage system.   Process wastes consist of
14   16,000 gallons per  week  of waste pickle  liquor and pickling
15   rinse waters.  Waste pickle liquor is discharged  twice
16   a week to  a mixing  basin where  a wire coating lime-dip
17   solution is added for  neutralization.  Routine rinse
is  waters are also discharged  to the  mixing basin.   The
19  neutralized wastes  are discharged  to the Grand Calumet
20  River.
21                 Estimated Company expenditure  for  water
22  pollution  control facilities is  $16,000.
23                 Federal Cement Tile Company, Hammond:
24  The Federal Cement Tile  Company  is  served by  a 7,500
25  gallons per day activated  sludge type sewage  treatment

-------
                                                       824

 1   plant with effluent discharge  to  the Grand  Calumet River

 2   near the Indiana-Illinois state line.   It is  the  only
                                                              A
 3   semi-public sewage treatment facility  in this sub-basin.   

 4   The Company has been advised of the need for  chlorination

 5   facilities.

 6                  The Wolf Lake Basin:  Wolf Lake is a

 7   natural lake located on the Indiana-Illinois  state line

 8   which, in the past, drained into  Lake  Michigan.   This

 9   outlet is now blocked and the  lake discharges to  the

10   Calumet River in Illinois.  There is very little  outflow

11   from the lake.  The lake receives the  effluent from

12   Lever Brothers waste treatment facilities via Wolf Lake

13   channel.  This channel begins  at  the Lever  outfall.

14   The Board initiated enforcement actions against Lever

15   Brothers and accepted a stipulation in 1947.   After that

16   date, complaints were received that fish kills occurred.

17   In 1962, a hearing was held.   As  a result of  this hearing,

18   the Company has retained an engineer and studies  are  being

19   conducted to determine necessary  improvements.

20                  The water quality  of Wolf Lake, at the

21   state line, is generally good  and there is  no inter-

22   state pollution of Wolf Lake.

23                  Lever Brothers  Company,  Hammond:   The

24   Company located at Hammond in  1930.  Potable  water is

25   purchased from Hammond and process water, 10.5 million

-------
                                                       825
     gallons per day,  is pumped from Lake Michigan.  All plant

     sewage and some industrial wastewater is discharged to

     the Hammond Sanitary District sewerage system.  About

     10 million gallons per day of treated process wastewater

     and cooling water is discharged to Wolf Lake.

                    Pollution of the channel which conveys

     the Company's  wastewater to Wolf Lake is evident.   This

     pollution neither extends into Wolf Lake proper nor does

     it cause interstate pollution of Wolf Lake.   The Company's

10   pollution of Wolf Lake Channel has been of concern to

11   the Board for  many years, and administrative hearings

12   were scheduled in 1956 and 1961.

13                  A  ten-day hearing was held in 1962.

14                  Oh, I might say, there was evidence that

15   was presented  on  fish kills and the tainting of fish

16   flesh,  but since  that date,  1962,  we have received no

17   complaints of  any fish kill in Wolf Lake or  reports  of

18   tainting of fish.

19                  As a result of the 1962 hearing, the

20   Company retained  an engineer to review operations  and

21   make improvements  where investigations indicate improve-

22   ments  are needed.

23                  In 19^4, the Company installed raw water

24   chlorination equipment.  Sufficient chlorine is added

25   to  maintain a  residual in the wastewater discharged  to

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                                                        826




 1   Wolf Lake.  In 1952, two air  flotation  units  were  in-



 2   stalled.  Two basins for removal of  settleables  and



 3   floatables are in use.  Because of the  relatively  low



 4   strength of the total plant effluent, the  Company  has



 5   been reluctant to provide secondary  biological treat-



 6   ment.  The Company is attempting to  improve in-plant



 7   waste prevention measures.  About $750,000 has been



 8   expended by the Company for pollution control facili-



 9   ties.



10                  Conclusions:   The Great  Lakes-Illinois



11   River Basin report of the Department of Health,  Educa-



12   tion, and Welfare is needed to establish water quality



13   criteria for Lake Michigan.   These criteria are  absolutely




14   essential to the determination of final sewage and waste



15   treatment requirements.



16                  The Board's Watar Quality Monitoring



17   Program has a sufficient number of stations to deter-



18   mine quality of the waters in the Indiana  portion  of



19   the basin.  The Department of Health, Education, and



20   Welfare's report for this conference recommends  continu-



21   ously recording monitors at selected locations and for



22   selected indices.



23



24



25

-------
                                                       827

 i                   Monitors currently available have limita-
  1
 2    tions on  pollutants  that can be  measured.   Maintenance is

 3    difficult,  and  a  careful investigation should be

 4    conducted before  a decision  is made  on installation.

 5                   If continuously recording monitors for

 6    the pollutants  of concern are available, this would

 7    improve the data  and make it more usable.

 8                   Major industrial  plants should institute

 9    permanent effluent sampling  programs.   Data obtained

10    from these  programs  should be submitted to  the Board.

11                   The O'Brien Lock  should be placed in

12    operation to provide more positive control  of the flow

13    from Lake Michigan and  reduce the reversal  of flow from

14    the Calumet River to Lake Michigan,  which affects

15    Indiana waters.

16                   All municipalities, except Porter, are

17    providing secondary  treatment and some  are  providing

18    effluent  chlorination.

19                   The remainder of  the  municipal and the

20    semi-public installations have been  advised to provide

21    effluent  chlorination.

22                   The Board intends  to  take whatever action

23    is necessary to  obtain compliance.

24                   The waters discharged from Burns Ditch

25    to Lake Michigan  and from Wolf Lake  to  Illinois do not

-------
                                                      828
 i    contribute  to  Interstate pollution.
 2                   When existing sewage  works are augmented
 3    by  facilities  now  under construction and  planned,  the
 4    waters of the  Grand and Little  Calumet  Rivers where  they
 5    cross the State line will be as good as modern sewage
 6    treatment practices can make them, except during periods
 7    of  stormwater  overflows.
 8                   The Grand Calumet River  and Indiana
 9    Harbor Canal dry water flow  is  practically all
10    industrial  cooling and process  waters and waste treat-
11    ment plant  effluents.
12                   The origin and character of this flow
13    must be  considered in development of water quality
u    criteria.

15
16                   Once the water quality is  established,
17    the Board will insist on the needed  improvements
18                   The water quality monitoring records  for
19    the Whiting Water  Plant for  the past eight years,  and
20    for the  Dickey Road Station  on  the Indiana Harbor Canal
21    for the  past five  years, show little if any deterioration

22    of  the water quality during  those periods <,
23                   This indicates the Board is holding the
24    line on  pollution  even with  increasing  industrial
25    expansion and  population growth.

                    The waters in Lake Michigan will Improve

-------
                                                     829



    once the Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin criteria have



    been established and additional treatment of waste



    reduction is provided.



                   The number of semi-public Installations



    have been eliminated and connections made to municipal



    sewers.  This is in compliance with a condition in the



    Board's approvals requiring connection when municipal



    sewers become available.



                   The Board will press for the elimination



10   of these installations as public sewer systems become



11   available.



12                  The Indiana law is adequate to achieve



13   the desired water quality for the basin.



14                  Thank you.



15        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Miller.



16                                  (Applause.)



17                  Mr. Poole.



18                  Mr. Poole, I always knew you were an



19   enduring bunch in Indiana, but I never fully appreciated



20   the extent of your staying power until now.



21                  Perry, that was a virtuoso performance



22   and I know you are not a bit tired.  But at the request



23   of Mr. Poole and to give the conferees time to collect



24   themselves and because there are commitments to two



25   Mayors we'd like to put on, we are going to ask the

-------
                                                          630
     conferees to withhold their questions, perhaps,

     until after lunch,  in order to meet these schedules.

 3                  Mr.  Poole.

 4        MR. POOLE:  We have two Mayors who have early

     afternoon engagements back home and if you will

     indulge us for a while longer, I'd like to call on

     Mayor John Nicosia  of the City of East Chicago.

                    Incidentally, he is an M.D. of some

     30-odd years experience, I believe.

 10                  Mayor Nicosia.

 11        MAYOR NICOSIA:  Mr. Chairman, conferees,

 12   distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, fellow

 13   Hoosiers.  I am Dr. John B. Nicosia, Mayor of East

 14   Chicago, Indiana.

 15                  Having been a medical doctor for 30

 16    years and a mayor for only one, the practice of main-

 17    taining the good health of my patients has now been

 18    extended to encompass the well-being of all the citizens

 19    of East Chicago.  Immediately upon my taking office, my

20    attention was directed to pollution, both air and water.

21                   The Sanitary District Sewage Treatment

22    Plant has been operating at a very high degree of

23    efficiency with suspended solids removal of 9^.7 per-

24    cent and BOD removal of 85.9 percent.

25                   Chlorination of plant effluent discharged.

-------
                                                   831
 i    into the Calumet,  Grand Calumet has produced waste
 2 ,   water with better  characteristics than is available in
 3  " Lake Michigan  for  water purification purposes.   The MPN
 4    test showed an average  count  of 7.2 per 100 ml.
 5                   Monthly  reports are standardized  to
 6    correspond with Indiana State Board of Health forms.
 7                   A bacteriological control laboratory has
 8    been constructed and  is at present being set to  standards
 9    for  water  purification.
10                   I might  make a comment here now,  that
11    no one has set a standard for disinfecting of sewage
12    waste and,  therefore, we are  following a water purifica-
13    tion standard  in treating our sewage.
14                   As  to  the water situation in East
15    Chicago, may I make these points:
16                   First, in general,  our water supply is
17    very good  and  trouble free.   There are intermittent
19    instances  when some problems  of  taste  and odor arise,
19    but  these  are  minute.   The indication  of the minor
20    nature of  this taste and odor problem  is illustrated by
21    the  fact that  chemical  treatment  costs,  per million
22    gallons  treated, have declined almost  5  percent  since  1959.
23                   Second,  East Chicago's  Municipal  Beach
24    has  never  been closed because  of  contamination or
25    pollution.

-------
                                                      832
 l                  For the record, Mr. Chairman,  I would
 2   like to correct several statements made in the February   f
 3   1965 report of the United States Department of Health,
 4   Education, and Welfare as presented to this conference.
 5                  On page 16, it is stated that,quote
 B   "It is understood that the East Chicago Plant has
 7   chlorination facilities but they are not regularly
 8   operated" end of quote.  As I stated earlier, chlorina-
 9   tion facilities in the East Chicago Sanitary  District
10   are in continual use in disinfecting the plant effluent.
n                  In Table VI-1A, there appears  a
12   footnote (b) which does not apply to East Chicago.
13   This, I beg to say, applies to Gary Township  and not
14   East Chicago.
15                  In the Corrective Action Needed"
16   which was recommended, recommendation No. 5 states,
17   "A dam be built across the Grand Calumet River to
18   prevent uncontrolled flows from Lake Michigan to the
19   Illinois River through that channel.  Preferred loca-
20   tion of the dam is east of the outfall from the East
21   Chicago Municipal Waste Treatment Plant."
22                  I would like to urge the conferees to
23   study this recommendation more closely, to determine
24   jointly, with all those affected, industries, munici-
25   palities, local, county and state officials,  as to the

-------
                                                       333
 i    overall effect such a dam would have on the surrounding
 2 "|  area.
 3                   Recommendation No. 7 states:
 4                   "Hammond and East Chicago investigate
 5         the feasibility of constructing lagoons for
 6         further treatment of waste effluents.  Part of
 7         the existing poorly-drained flood plain of the
 8         Grand Calumet River might be utilized for this
 9         purpose,  with levees around the lagoons high
10         enough to prevent flooding, and improved bypass
n         channels  for storm drainage."
12                   I have present with me today Cornel
13    Leahu,  Superintendent of the East Chicago Sanitary
14    District,  who  will present a statement in which he
15    discusses  this recommendation.
16                   Recommendation No. 8 states:
17                   "All sanitary wastes be disinfected
18         before discharge.  Disinfection should be practiced
19         in the manner prescribed by State water pollution
20         control agencies and mutually agreed upon between
21         the two states."
22                   I must repeat that East Chicago's
23    Sanitary District is disinfecting sanitary wastes at
24    present.   This recommendation, however,  does bring up the
25    need  for a definitive agreement among the agencies

-------
                                                        634

     involved.   I would  recommend prompt action on this


     point.

                                                               *
                    I would like to comment that I know of


     no  definite standard  of disinfecting sanitary wastes


     which would be  amenable to both states.


                    As Mayor of the City of East Chicago,


     I pledge by City Administration to work tirelessly for


     pollution  abatement to preserve the God-given resource


     at  our  doorstep.


10                  Mr.  Chairman, I would also like to make


11   a comment  with  your permission.


12                  Looking over your agenda, it seems


13   strange to me that  some of the major Industries in


14   Illinois such as Wisconsin Steel Works,  Interlake Iron


15   Works,  Republic Steel Works, Acme Steel  Works,


16   Sherwin Williams, et  cetera, et cetera,  and many of the


17   industries that I am  certain border on the waterways


18   and tributaries and who are involved in this particular


19   situation  that  we are discussing here don't seem to be


2o   represented.


2i                  I get  the impression that, perhaps, the


22   State of Indiana is the whipping boy here.


23                  I hope that I am wrong, but for the


24   interest of everybody concerned and certainly for the


25   success of this type  of a  program,  I think that it is no more

-------
                                                      835



 1    than  fair  and  right  that  the  Illinois  industries should
 *


 2*   have  some  representation  to be  cross-examined just like

  i


 3   those of the State of  Indiana.



 4                   Thank you.



 ^                                    (Applause.)



 6         CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   Mr. Mayor,  would you wait a



 7    moment ?



 8                   This  question  has  come  up before and



 9    I am  sure  it will appear  in the record that  the question



10    has been asked  and an  answer  has  been  given.



11                   Again,  let me  explain the Federal position



12    on this:   When  this  law was first developed,  representa-



13    tives of the states  came  before the conference  and



14    urged that at this stage  of Federal enforcement pro-



is    ceedings,  the Federal  Government  not get in  touch with



16    the individual, allegedly dischargers  directly;  that  is,



17    municipalities  or industriesthat we  deal with the



18    states and the  states  do  this.



19                   I think we have dealt   with both industry



20    and Illinois on an equal  basis.



21                   I think Mr.  Klassen has indicated the



22    jurisdictional problem in  Illinois which has  led  to



23    the situation to which you alluded, but  I think as  far



24    as the Federal law is  concerned,  the Congress has  made



25    it abundantly clear what we are supposed  to do.

-------
                                                       836


                    Now, personally,  I  do  believe that
                                                                v

    conferences are best when all industries  are asked to
                                                               *t

    participate, because no one  can  tell  the  story  for you    *


    as you can yourself.   However.,  there have been


    conferences that we have had in  other parts  of  the


    country with state agencies when they have invited no


    one to participate other than themselves.


                    Under the law as  presently constituted,


    this is the situation.


10       MR. KLASSEN:  Yes, I just want to  amplify  that,


11  Mayor, because  this question was asked  yesterday.


12                  The territory involved here,  with the


13  exception of the three little white areas that  you see


14  on the map, are all under the Jurisdiction of the


15  Metropolitan Sanitary District of  Chicago and are exempt


16  from state jurisdiction.  We have  a specific Attorney


l?  General's opinion stating that the Water  Board  of the


18  State of Illinois has no jurisdiction,  nor no control


19  over waste entering Lake Michigan  that  originates within


20  the Sanitary District.  This is  the reason that the


21  Sanitary Water Board has not invited  the  industries,


22  and has given this prerogative in  writing to the Chicago


23  Sanitary District.


24                  Whether or not they call in industries,


25  I do not know,  and this undoubtedly will  be  determined.

-------
                                                       837



    when the Sanitary District time  comes  up  to  do  this.



 2%                 If industries are called,  they will have



 3* to be called by the Sanitary District.  This  is their



    responsibility under the law.



         MAYOR NICOSIA:  Mr. Klassen,  I appreciate  your



    remarks and your explanation.  But if  we  are  dealing



    with a problem that everybody knows is  critical



    throughout this area and certainly has  been  critical



    for the last hundred years, and  if we  are dealing  with



10   industries who seem to be  shall we  say   the



11   major offenders, I think it is no more  than  feasible



12   and fair that the Sanitary District of  the City of



13   Chicago should have made an effort so  that we,  from



14   the State of Indiana, could listen to their  side of the



15   story.  We feel that we are being whipped here  in



16   this particular conference, and  we Just don't like it



17   in Indiana to get whipped unless we get a fair  fight.



18        MR. KLASSEN:  I agree with  you.



19        MR. CHESROW:  Dr. Nicosia,  for your  information,



20   the Sanitary District has invited industry to participate.



21                  I want to point out that probably you



22   don't know that the Sanitary District of  Greater



23   Chicago does have a very effective industrial waste



24   ordinance that is being complied with, and it will be



25   brought out tomorrow when we present our  story.

-------
                                                      838
          MAYOR NICOSIA:  If that is so, I stand corrected,
     but I still want to be on the record.  I want to make
     sure that this is so.
 4                  Thank you.
 5                                  (Applause.)
 6                  Mr. Leahu will follow me.
 7        MR.  LEAHU:  Mr. Chairman, my name is Cornel Leahu,
     Superintendent of the East Chicago Sanitary District
     located at 5200 Indianapolis Boulevard,  East Chicago,
10   Indiana.
li                  Mr. Chairman, honorable conferees,
12   distinguished  guests, members of the conference, I was
13   directed  by the Commissioner of the East Chicago
14   Sanitary  District to read into the record their address
15   that is given  on our report which we hope will be
16   included  in the printing of the record.
17                  Honorable Anthony J. Celebrezze,
18   Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, Indiana and
19   Illinois  Water Pollution Conference, McCormick Place,
20   Chicago,  Illinois.
21                  Honorable Mr. Secretary:   Our distin-
22   guished Mayor, Dr. John B. Nicosia, enjoined the East
23   Chicago Sanitary District to undertake a positive program
24   to abate  any stream pollution that could be attributed
25   to our municipality.  We, in the District, are operating

-------
                                                        839
     a Guggenheim Bio-chemical Treatment Plant with a capa-

     city  of  twenty  (20)  million gallons per day.   Presently

     we  are treating an average of  ten (10)  million gallons

     per day.   Our BOD  removal varies  from eighty-eight (88)

     to  ninety- five (95) percent efficiency of removal.

     The effectiveness  of our suspended  solids removal is  in

     the same  category.

                    Following our Mayor's directive, we

     experimented with  chlorination of the plant effluent  in

10    June  of last year.   The  Sanitary  District Commissioners

ll    wrote to  the Indiana State Board  of Health requesting a

12    directive  to chlorinate  our effluent.   We were in need

13    of  documentation with teeth in it to justify  additional

14    appropriations  with  which to purchase chlorine.  This

15    was not forthcoming;  rather we received a letter urging

16    the Commissioners  to place chlorination into  effect and

17    hire a consultant  engineer,  not a directive.   The

18    District took it upon itself to obtain  monies earmarked

19    for chemicals and  use this exclusively  for chlorine.

20    At present, rather than  vacuum filtering sludge,  we

21    have and are continuing  to construct sludge lagoons.   In

22    this manner, monies  saved  by not  purchasing chemicals

23    for vacuum filtration are  expended  on chlorine.

24                   We  experimented for  six  months in 1964,

25    from June  through  December,  obtaining information

-------
                                                        840
     regarding contact time to produce an acceptable chlorine
     residual.  We use our effluent channel as a contact tank.
     The mechanics for this being completed we went one step
     further and proceeded to reduce the presence of members
     of the coliform group.  At this time, we did not have
     the facilities for bacteriological analysis, therefore,
     we took our samples to the Gary- Hobart Water Company, an
     independently owned and operated utility.  Their analysis,
     as documented, both on the multiple tube fermentation
 10   technique and by the membrane filter technique, indicate
 11   that our plant effluent has better characteristics than
 12   the raw water from Lake Michigan.  We are finishing
 13   our bacteriological laboratory so we may remain on top
 14   of this abatement program and preserve the effort that
 15   has been expended to date.
 16                  The Sanitary District has several plans
 17   which are being entertained but, due to limited funds
 18   available, would require Federal participation to
 19   accomplish: these are:
 20        (l)  Separate the sewer system in East Chicago.
 21        (2)  When separated, remove particulate matter
 22             from the storm sewer effluent and chlorinate.
23        (3)  Construct tertiary treatment for the sewage
24             disposal plant to produce potable water for
25             sale or reuse.

-------
                     These programs,  though highly ambitious,



i, 2~  we  feel are  the only answer to  positive abatement of any



  "*  pollution attributable  to  the East Chicago Municipal



     Sanitary  District.   The Sanitary District Board of



     Commissioners would  also like to recommend,  to the



     Army  Corps of Engineers, to resume discussion and



     planning  of  widening and straightening the Grand



     Calumet River;  to reconsider a  proposal to connect the



     Lake  Michigan breakwater from the Gary Lighthouse to



 10   South Chicago;  put in locks and in general create a



 11   tremendous settling  basin  to maintain our God-given



 12   resource,  Lake  Michigan, pure and pollution free.



 13                   Respectfully submitted, Peter E. Auksel,.



 14   President; Carlos Borge, Vice-president;  A.  G. Giannini,



 15   Secretary.



 16                   The report  and statistics provided were



 17   presented  by me and  are in retrospect to the previous



 is   statistical  data.  I wish  to bring this



 19   additional information.



 20                   The dissolved oxygen demand of the



 21   East  Chicago Municipal  Sanitary District  effluent,  as



 22   discharged into the  Grand  Calumet River and  the Lake



 23   Michigan Basin,  is on the  average for the year 1964,



 24   3,163 in population  equivalent  (PE).



 25                   The average coliform density  of the East

-------
     Chicago  Municipal  Sanitary District Sewage Treatment



 2   Plant  effluent,  as documented  by impartial laboratory




     analysis of  the  Gary-Hobart Water Corporation,  discharged



     into the Grand Calumet  River and the Lake  Michigan
 5




 6




 7




 8




 9




10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21




22




23




24




25
Basin, was, for the month of February  1965,  in  the



order of 7.2 per 100 ml.  Bacterial disinfection  of



this magnitude indicates an extremely  successful



treatment process.




               The Sanitary District,  at  the behest



of our tireless Mayor, Dr. John D. Nicosia,  is



presently studying feasibility reports and negotiating



with Industry the possibility of diverting industrial



wastes (phenolics, ammonia, nitrates,  nitrites, cyanide,)



to the District for final treatment.   Studies at  present



indicate this may be accomplished by settling in  a  deep



lagoon, aereating and chlorinating, prior to discharge



into the Grand Calumet River and the Lake Michigan



Basin.



               This report and statistical data of



the Sanitary District of the City of East Chicago,



Indiana, is hereby respectfully submitted to the



Honorable Dr. John B. Nicosia, Mayor,  the Sanitary



Commissioners, Honorable Secretary Anthony J. Celebrezze



of the Department of Health, Education, and  Welfare,



Honorable Murray Stein, Chairman of the Conference,  and

-------
                                                           843
   i | the Indiana State Board of Health, this 2nd  day  of
    i
   2   March,  1965.
*-v,
   3                  Thank you.
  4
  5
CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Leahu.

          Your technical report will  appear in
      the  record and will be referred to in the report.   It


      will,  of course, include columns of figures. This  record


  8 I  will be available for inspection in Washington and in


  9 I  Chicago at all times during business hours.


 10


 11


 12


 13


 14


 15


 16


 17


 18


 19


 20


 21


 22


 23


 24


 25

-------
                                                           844
   1                             REPORT ON
         TREATMENT PROCESS  PRIOR TO DISCHARGE INTO THE
-  2      WATERS OF THE GRAND  CALUMET RIVER,  LITTLE CAL-
         UMET RIVER, LAKE MICHIGAN,  AND THEIR TRIBUTARIES.
  3

   4

   5

   6

   7

   8

   9

 10                  EAST CHICAGO SANITARY DISTRICT

 11               HONORABLE DR.  JOHN B.  NICOSIA,  MAYOR

 12                  CORNEL A.  LEAHU,  SUPERINTENDENT

 13

 14

 15

 16

 17

 18              BOARD OF SANITARY COMMISSIONERS

 19        PETER E. AUKSEL            PRESIDENT

 20        CARLOS BORGE, P. E.        VICE-PRESIDENT

 21         A. G. GIANNINA,  P. E.      SECRETARY

 22

 23

 24

 25

-------
                                                          845

  1                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
*,

  2                                                       Page No.

  3   I     FOREWARD                                         Bl7


  4             Honorable Dr. John B. Nicosia, Mayor


  5   II    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS                          849


  6             Sanitary Commissioners                       853


  7             Exhibit "A"                                  854


  8             Gary-Hobart Summary                          855


  9             Gary-Hobart Examination 2/5/65               857


 10             Gary-Hobart Examination 2/8/65               858


 il              Gary-Hobart Examination 2/L5/65              859


 12             Gary-Hobart Examination 2/23/65             860

 13    III    BACKGROUND


 14              Plant  Design Information                    861


 15              Statistical Summary                         862


 16              Description of Treatment Process            863


 17              Table  2 Sewage Plow and Solids Removed    867


 18              Table  3 - Characteristics of Raw Sewage     868

 19              Table  A - Settleable Solids                 869

 20              Table  5 Suspended Solids and % Removal    870


 21              Table  6 - B.O.D. and % Removal              871


 22              Table  7 - % Volatile Suspended Solids       872


 23              Table  8 - Grit  Screenings  Scum Removed873


 24              Table  9 - pH                                874


 25              Table  10 - Mixed Liquor - Return Sludge DatasTS

-------
                                                                846
                                                       Page No.
               Table 11 - Aeration Data                   876

               Table 12 - Air Consumption                 877

 3             Table 13 - Comminutors                     878

 4             Table 14 Air Blowers in Operation        879

 5             Table 15 - Return Sludge Pumps             880

 6             Table 16 - Detritor and Cleaning Mechanism 891

 7             Table 17 - Raw Sludge to Digesters Data    882

 8             Table 18 - Sludge Vacuum Filtration Data   39.3

 9             Table 19 - Gas Engine Operation            884

10             Table 20 - Summary Showing Monthly Payroll 885

il             Table 21 - Summary Showing Utility Costs   886

12             Table 22 Summary Showing Monthly Fuel
                          Oil Costs                       887
13
               Table 23 - Summary Electric Power Costs    888
14
               Table 24 - Summary Monthly Chemical Costs  QQQ
15
               Table 25 Budget Classification           890
16
     IV     SUBMISSION NOTE                                891
17
               Conclusion by the Superintendent
18
           MONTHLY REPORTS OF OPERATION FOR THE YEAR 1964 895
19

20

21

22

23

24

25

-------
                                                          84?
 l                              CITY OP EAST CHICAGO

 2                              East Chicago, Indiana

 3                              Office of the Mayor

     Dr.  John B.  Nicosia,  Mayor

                                         February 16, 1965

     Gentlemen:

                    Having been a medical doctor for 30 years

     and  a mayor  for only  one,  the practice of maintaining the

     good health  of my patients has now been extended to en-

10   compass  the  well-being of  all the citizen's of East

11   Chicago.  Immediately, upon my taking office,  my attention

12   was  directed to pollution, both air and water.

13                  I called my Sanitary District Board of

14   Commissioners,  together with the new Superintendent,

15   and  requested a complete resume of what was being done

16   to abate  pollution.   The returned report was shocking

17   to say the least.   Prior to 1964, the Sanitary District

is   had  filed a  monthly report to the State Board  of Health

19   but  not on their standard  form.  I found that  chlorina-

20   tion facilities were  available to chlorinate plant

21    effluent  but were  never used for this purpose.  I

22    immediately  directed  the Sanitary District to  do every-

23    thing within  their  jurisdiction of work to abate further

24    pollution of the Grand Calumet River.

25                   It  is  with  gratifying satisfaction that I

-------
                                                         848
 1  can now report the following:
 2        (l)  The Sanitary District Sewage  Treatment  Plant
 3            has been operating at a very  high degree  of
 4            efficiency.
 5        (2)  Chlorination of plant effluent  has produced a
 6            waste water with better characteristics than
 7            is available in Lake Michigan for water puri-
 8            fication purposes.
 9        (3)  Monthly reports are standardized  to correspond
10            with Indiana State Board  of Health forms.
11        (4)  A bacteriologial control  laboratory has been
12            constructed and is at present being set to
13            standards for water purification.
14                 Gentlemen, all this  has  been accomplished
is  in less than a year, without additional expenditures to
16  burden the taxpayer.  A more ambitious  program, which
17  the Sanitary District is at present entertaining, would
18  require the assistance of Federal funds.  These other
19  programs are of such magnitude that to  embark on  them,  to
20  make Federal waterways acceptable to fish life, recreation,
21   and possible potability, is not within  the  financial scope
22  of the Sanitary District.
23  Sincerely,
24  Dr. John B. Nicosia, Mayor
25   East Chicago, Indiana

-------
1
                                             Mayor
2
   5200  Indianapolis Blvd.              Cornel A. Leahu
   East  Chicago,  Indiana  46312        Superintendent

   EXport 7-1068                        February 23, 1965

5
   Hon.  Anthony J.  Celebrezze
   Secretary  of Health,  Education,  and  Welfare
   Indiana &  Illinois  Water Pollution Conference
   McCormick  Place
   Chicago, Illinois
8

   Hon.  Mr. Secretary:

                  Our  distinguished Mayor,  Dr. John B. Nicosia,
10

11


12


13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22


23

24

25
                                                         849

     EAST CHICAGO SANITARY DISTRICT      Dr. John B. Nicosia
  enjoined the East Chicago  Sanitary District  to under-

   take a positive program to  abate  any stream pollu-

   tion that could be attributed  to  our municipality.  We,

   in the District, are operating a  Guggenheim bio-

   chemical treatment plant  with  a capacity  of twenty (20)

   million gallons per day.  Presently,  we are treating an

   average of ten (10) million gallons  per day.   Our

   B.O.D. removal varies from   eighty-eight (88) to ninety-

   five (95) percent efficiency of removal.  The effective-

   ness of our suspended solids removal  is in  the same

   category.

                  Following  our Mayor's  directive,  we

   experimented with chlorination of the plant effluent in

   June of last year.  The Sanitary  District Commissioners

   wrote to the Indiana State Board  of Health  requesting a

-------
                                                         850
     directive  to  chlorinate  our effluent.   We were in need
     of  documentation with teeth in it to justify additional
     appropriations  with which to purchase  chlorine.  This
     was not  forthcoming; rather we received a letter urging
     the Commissioners to place chloriniion into effect and
     hire a consultant engineer, not a directive.  The
     District took it upon itself to obtain monies earmarked
     for chemicals and use this exclusively for chlorine.   At
     present, rather than vacuum filtering  sludge, we have
10   and are  continuing to construct sludge lagoons.  In this
     manner,  monies  saved by  not purchasing chemicals for
12   vacuum filtration are expended on chlorine.
13                  We experimented for six months of 1964,
     from June  through December obtaining information
15   regarding  contact time to produce an acceptable chlorine
16   residual;  we  use our effluent channel  as a contact
17   tank.  The mechanics for this being completed we went
18   one step further and proceeded to reduce the presence
19   of  members of the coliform group.  At  this time, we did
20   not have the  facilities  for bacteriological analysis,
21   therefore, we took our samples to the  Gary Hobart Water
22   Company, an independently owned and operated utility.
23   Their analysis,  as documented,  both on the multiple tube
24   fermentation  technique and by the membrane
25   technique, indicate that our plant effluent has better

-------
                                                        851




 1    characteristics  than the  raw water from Lake Michigan.



 2    We  are  finishing our bacteriological  Laboratory so we



 3    may remain  on  top of this abatement program and preserve



 4    the effort  that  has  been  expended  to  date.



 5                  The Sanitary District  has several plans



 6    which are being  entertained but, due  to limited funds



 7    available,  would require  Federal participation to



 8    accomplish; these are:



 9         (l)  Separate the  sewer system in East Chicago.



10         (2)  When separated,  remove particulate matter from



11             the  storm sewer effluent and chlorinate.



12         (3)  Construct  tertiary treatment for  the sewage



13             disposal plant  to produce potable water for



u             sale or reuse.



15                  These programs,  though highly ambitious,



16    we  feel, are the  only answer to positive abatement of



17    any pollution  attributable  to the  East Chicago Municipal



18    Sanitary District.   The Sanitary District Board of



19    Commissioners  would  also  like to recommend,  to the Army



20    Corps of Engineers,  to resume discussion and planning



21    of  widening and  straightening the  Grand  Calumet River;



22    to  reconsider  a proposal  to  connect the  Lake Michigan



23    breakwater from the  Gary  Lighthouse to South Chicago;



24    put in locks and  in  general  create a  tremendous



25    settling basin to maintain our God given resource,  Lake

-------
                                                        852

     Michigan, pure and pollution  free.

     Respectfully submitted,

     Peter E. Auksel, President

     Carlos Borge, Vice-President

     A. G. Giannini, Secretary

     Board of Sanitary Commissioners

  7                                    Attest:  Cornel Ae Leahu,
                                               Superintendent
  8
 9


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 19

 20


 21


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25

-------
                                                        853
1                         State  of  Indiana

2                 STREAM POLLUTION  CONTROL BOARD

3                   1330 West Michigan Street
                   Indianapolis,  Indiana  46207
4

                        April 22, 1964

   Board of Sanitary Commissioners
   East Chicago Sanitary District
   5200 Indianapolis Boulevard
   East Chicago, Indiana
8

   Gentlemen:

                  Re:  Chlorination Facilities,  Sewage
 10
 n

 12

 13

 14

 IS

 16

 17

 18

 19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                       Treatment Plant, East Chicago  Sanitary

                       District.

                  The East Chicago sewage treatment plant

   provides primary and secondary treatment for sewage origi-

   nating within the ifiast Chicago Sanitary District.  In

   addition, the East Chicago plant has Chlorination  facili-

   ties utilizing the effluent channel for a chlorine

   contact tank.

                  It is the purpose of this letter to urge

   the East Chicago Board of Sanitary Commissioners to:

        1.  Repair, if necessary, and place in operation

            Chlorination equipment presently on hand.

            Such facilities should be used on a continuous

            basis.

        2.  Retain the services of a consulting engineering

-------
                                                        854




 1            firm to  study the adequacy of the East Chicago




 2            sewage treatment  plant effluent chlorination




 3            and  to render a report with recommendations




 4            for  improving the facilities,




 5                 A  reply relative to the above should be




    submitted to  this office not  later than June 1, 1964.




                   If we  can be of further assistance in




    this matter,  please feel free to call on us.




 9                                       Very truly yours,




10                                       B. A. Poole,




11                                       Technical Secretary




12  VGW/gwn




13  cc:  Ted  Leahu, Superintendent,  East Chicago Sanitary




U       District




15




16



17



18




19



20




21




22




23




24



25

-------
  1
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 IS


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20


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23


24


25
                                                  855

                  GARY-HOBART WATER CORPORATION

                         650  Madison Street

                        Gary,  Indiana  46401

                                     February 26,  1965
     Mr.  Ted  Cornel  Leahu
     East Chicago Sewage Dept.
     5200 Indianapolis  Blvd.
     East Chicago, Indiana
Dear Mr. Leahu:

               The results  of  the  coliform bacteria

test run on the East Chicago sewage plant  effluent  sub-

mitted to us, by Mr. Popa,  show a  definite decrease for

the month of February.  The M.P.N. test  showed  an

average count of 7.2 for the four  (4) samples submitted,

while the membrane Filter test had an average of  35

colonies per one-hundred (100) milliliters for  the  same

four (4) samples.  The enclosed bacteriological report

sheets show the actual count obtained from each sample

submitted.

               These results can be compared to the

average coliform bacteria concentration, for the  past

nine (9) years of 228 per one-hundred (100) milliliters

of water for our raw water  taken from Lake Michigan.
                                    *
This average is obtained by using the M.P.N. charts

according to "Standard Methods for the Examination  of Water,

Sewage and Industrial Wastes."

-------
                                                       856

                    The sewage effluent samples submitted  to


 2   us are performed impartially by the water quality  control


 3   laboratory  of the Gary-Hobart Water Corporation.


 4                                        Sincerely yours,


 5                                        /S/ Herbert L.  Plowman,  Jr
                                         Chief Chemist
 6

    HLP:jk
 7


 8


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10

11


12


13


14


15


16

17


18


19

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24

25

-------
     GARY-HOBART WATER CORPORATION
 REPORT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
                                                         857
       6A*Y-HOBART WATER CORPORATION
    REPORT OF ^ACtERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
. Date ia&C:
5 - 250 ml
4 = 100 ml
3 = 50 ml
2 = 10 ml
1 - 5 ml
6
- 1
- 2
- 3
- 4
-- 1 ail
=* 0.5 id
* 0.1 ml
= 0.01 ml
- 0,001
                                                     -JT:: ****/

-------
                                                                         858
                       6ARY-JWBART WMER CORPORATION
                    REPORT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMIMATIOW
GAIQf-lOBAJa: W&TER CORPORA.TICSI -
REPORT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAHMATION >
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-------
    GARY-HCBART WATER CORPORATION
REPORT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
                                                      859
GARY-HOBART WATER CORPORATION
REPORT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
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Portion
fL

O
"At
"'J
-V



























Day //ffntfitA^' Pite -U~-'/963*'

La'uryl
Tryptose Broth


^
/if

^.
_
^.




























3
^
^>
-
.
~




























B, G. B.
From
24 hr.
Broth

*
^
1+
































00

































5  250 ml
4 - 100 ml
3 = 50 ml
2 = 10 ml
1 - 5 ml
From
48 hr.
Brth

'S

































3
/^,
































*
PO
t
X
w

































PC
X
V
o
9)
0
O

































Formate-Ricemleate ]
48 hr, I

































Pnrtion Examined
0 -- 1 ml
- 1 - 0.5 ml
- 2 - 0.1 ml
- 3 = 0.01 ml
- 4 * 0.001
Collform Ccnfirmed ]
#y~
//
































i

h
1
o!
X
S.8*



\
i





















i
i



j

-------
    GARY-IOBART WATER CORPORATION
REPORT OP BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
                                                      860
GARY-IOBART WATER CORPORATION
REPORT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
Sample
Point of Collection
Pi Art
/*sY C. air, a GO
































0>
!



XL
i_2!
v^*



























Residual Chlorine



,/r 1
P /




























u
a.

































Membrane Filter
/f

,__
*





























Portion
q
0^
/
rt>
-*

'
^_5
-^
























Lauryl
Tryptos* Broth

Si

U_

/
*f
_>
^
*-
^

























x:
00





^
*.

	
























B. G. B.
From
24 hr.
Broth

.3

^

$.+
A+





























A

^-































5  250 ml
4 - 100 ml
3 = 50 El
rs ff ,72r~ 2 = 10 ir.l
From
48 hr.
3rth

^




































































x;
N
*
n

































Lactose fra. M. B.

































Formate-Ricenoleate
48 hr.

































Portion Examined
0 -- 1 ml
- 1 = 0.5 ml
-2-0.1 ml
- 3 = 0.01 ml
- 4 * 0.001

Coliform Confirmed



/-
jai-f-
-
-
-
^
^,























*
3

a
* i
cu
*
//



























	 i




i
:

-------
                                                      861

 1                    PLANT DESIGN INFORMATION

 2   ENGINEER                                RUSSELL B.  MOORE

     CONTRACT OF COST                           $2,277,199.8?

 4   TYPE OF TREATMENT                  GUGGENHEIM BIOCHEMICAL

 5   DATE PLANT STARTED                              MAY,  1945

     DESIGN POPULATION                                  64,800

     TYPE OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM                          COMBINED

     DESIGN FLOW (MILLION GALLONS PER DAY)                 20.0

     DESIGN MAXIMUM HOURLY RATE (MILLION GALLONS)          30.0

 10   DESIGN STRENGTH OF RAW SEWAGE                         150

 n    INDUSTRIAL WASTES                   OIL,  PICKLING LIQUOR

 12    PRIMARY SETTLING TANKS                            320,000

 13    DESIGN RATE *  PRIMARY DETENTION PERIOD IN HOURS      1.15

 14    AERATION UNITS (4) CAPACITY OF EACH IN GALLONS   509,000

 15    DESIGN RATE-AERATION DETENTION PERIOD  IN  HOURS-20#

 16                   RETURN SLUDGE                         2.04

 17    FINAL SETTLING TANKS (3)  CAPACITY OF EACH IN      407,000
     GALLONS
 18    DESIGN RATE -  FINAL DETENTION PERIOD IN HOURS         1.7

 19    FINAL WEIR LENGTH IN FEET                             942

20                        DIGESTION TANK DATA

21    EQUIVALENT POPULATION SUSPENDED SOLID  BASIS       100,000

22    SUSPENDED SOLIDS  RAW SEWAGE / DAY             20,000  Ibs.

23    SUSPENDED SOLIDS  REMOVED  / DAY                19,200  Ibs.

24    VOLUME SOLIDS  TO  DIGESTERS / DAY              14,400  Ibs.

25    VOLUME REQUIRED @ 25  CU.  FT./LBS.  VOLATILE ADDED/DAY
                                               360,000  cu.ft,

-------

1
2
3
4
5
6

7

8
9

10
11

12

13
14

15

16
17

18

19
20

21

22

23
24
25

DIGESTION TANK DATA (cont'd)
CU. FT. / EQUIVALENT POPULATION
VOLUME STORAGE TANK 370,
STATISTICAL SUMMARY 1960-1961 -1962-1964
I960 1961 1962
POPULATION SERVED
(ESTIMATED) 64,800 64,800 64,800

SEVJAGE TREATED,
MILLION GALLONS 4,434,080 3,914,470 3,775,432
SEWAGE TREATED,
MILLION GALLONS
DAILY 12.123 10.718 10.342
SUSPENDED SOLIDS
REMOVED, POUNDS 3,735,355 4,472,709 4,976,506

5-DAY B.O.D.
REMOVED, POUNDS 2,952,290 3,460,636 3,735,822
GRIT REMOVED,
CUBIC FEET 2,100 2,030 1,140

SCUM REMOVED,
CUBIC FEET 1,006 1,129 1,360
*SCREENINGS REMOVED,
CUBIC FEET 1,335 1,157 1,294

REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED
SOLIDS, PERCENT 93.4 94.2 96.4
REMOVAL OF BIOCHEMICAL
OXYGEN 86.6 86.0 87.9

* SCREENINGS REMOVED FROM ALDER STREET

PUMPING STATION ONLY.



862

3.6
000 cu.ft. ^

1964

64,800


3,796,891


10.402

3,972,468


2,502,774

2,50C


1,946

1,356


94.7

87.6








-------
                                                         863
                           DESCRIPTION OP TREATMENT PROCESS
                    Stormwater and sanitary wastes flow, by
     gravity, through a combined sewerage system to sewage
     lift stations located at Alder Street in the Calumet
     Addition to Indiana Harbor, and at 151st and Magoun
     Avenue in East Chicago; the Alder Street pumping station
     handling all wastes from the Indiana Harbor - Marktown -
     Calumet sections of East Chicago and the Magoun Avenue
 9   pumping station handling the remainder of the City's
 10   wastes.  Pumping stations located at Broad and Spruce
 ll   Streets in Marktown:  Canal Street and the Indiana
 12   Harbor Ship Canal:  Michigan and Sheridan Avenue:  serve
 13   as relay stations for the Alder Street pumping station.
 14   Mechanically cleaned fixed bar screens used to remove
 15   floating and large suspended solids are in operation at
 16

 17

 18

 19

 20

 21

 22

23

24

25
both pumping stations.  Gruendler sewage shredders used
for shredding screenings are also in operation at the
Magoun Avenue pumping station.
               In addition to stormwater pumps, the
City of East Chicago has in operation, three horizontal
dual speed sewage lift pumps, having a combined capacity
of 28 million gallons per day at 45 T.D.H., at the
Alder Street station, and three vertical motor driven,
open shaft, non-clog sewage pumps, having a combined
capacity of approximately 15 million gallons per day

-------
                                                       864

   l   against  38'  T.D.H.,  at  the  Magoun Avenue station.  These


   2   pumps  lift the  sewage and pass  it through force mains


   3   to  the sewage treatment plant at  152nd  and Indianapolis
    II

   4   Boulevard.


                     Industrial-sanitary wastes, upon entering


      the sewage treatment plant,  first pass  through two Chicago


      comminutors; each with  a capacity of 20 million gallons


      daily.  These units  shred large particles making the


      character of sewage  more consistent and preventing the


 10 II  clogging of  the numerous pipelines, pumps, and other


 11   mechanical equipment located in the treatment plant.


 12   In  the event of emergency the sewage can bypass this


 13   stage  of the treatment  process, flowing through a manually
 14



 15



 16


 17
22



23



24



25
cleaned fixed bar screen.  After treatment, by the


comminutors, the sewage passes into a 30-foot square Dorr


Detritor which removes the heavier inorganic solids.


The sewage then passes through a 60-inch pipe to the
 18    primary  distribution well  and  to three Dorr primary


 19    settling tanks.   These  tanks are designed to retain the


 20    sewage for  1.5 hours; each having a  capacity of 320,000


 21    gallons.  The  effluent  from these tanks then proceeds
to four aeration tanks; each with a capacity of 509*000


gallons.  The aerators supply air at the rate of 3,470


cubic feet per minute and retain the sewage for two and


a half hours.  It is at this point that the design calls

-------
 10
 12
 13
 15




 16




 17




 18




 19




 20




 21




 22





23




24




25
                                                     865



for the application  of  secondary  return  sludge  in an




amount of 20 percent of the volume  of  flow  and  intro-



duction of aluminum  sulfate  (alum)  at  the rate  of .4




grains per gallon.




                The aerated sewage then proceeds to




the three final settling tanks, each with a capacity




of 470,000 gallons,  where it is detained for 1.7




hours.  The finished effluent is  then  disinfected and




discharged into the  Grand Calumet River:



                PLANT EQUIPMENT  INCLUDES  A PAIR  OF
 11  WALLACE AND TIERNAN CHLORINATORS  THAT ARE USED TO
CHLORINATE THE FINAL EFFLUENT.
               Sludge,  from the primary  tanks,  is  drawn
 14  off into two primary  sludge digesters;  a  fixed  cover
Dorr-Oliver and a floating cover Pacific flush tank.




Digested sludge is transferred daily to 2 Pacific flush




tank company secondary digesters.  Digested sludge is



treated with ferric chloride and lime, and vacuum



filtered on two, 8' diameter - 10' length, Emico



filters.




               The dewatered sludge is then conveyed to




a Nichols multiple hearth incinerator for final




destruction.  This incinerator has a capacity of reducing




1*750 pounds of dry solids per hour and will destroy




sludge with a moisture content as high as 75 percent.  All

-------
                                                        866



     sludge from the secondary tanks returns to some point in




     the plant process.  Chicago screw impeller pumps move part




     to the aeration tanks, and part to the primary tanks.




                    The plant originally was intended to be




     constructed out of WPA funds, with a contractor retained




     for supervision and furnishing equipment.  However,




     before construction was complete, this WPA support was




     withdrawn, and the city was faced with the extremely




     difficult task of completing construction in the face




 10   of wartime restrictions and manpower shortages.  The




 11   plant has been in full operation since about the 1st




 12   of June 1945.




 13




 14




 15




 16                      *  *  *




 17




 18




 19




 20




 21




 22




23




24




25

-------
                                     TABLE 2
                                                                             867
                          SEWAGE  FLOW  - WATER WORKS PUMPAGE
AMD
SOLIDS MATTER REMOVED
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1 964 AVERAGE
1 962 AVERAGE
1961 AVERAGE
1960 AVERAGE
SEWAGE
FLOW
M.G.D.
10.1
9.3
11.1
12.9
12.5
10.5
10.5
9.7
8.6
9.5
9.5
10.2
10.. 4
10. 3s*.
10.7TS
12.1?7
WATER
WORKS
PUPMAGE
M.G.D. (1)
14.2
14. 4
14.5
14.9
16.0
16.3
16.5
16.4
16.3
15.0
14,4
14.9
15.3
16. 134-
14.959
12. 23*
SEWAGE
FLOW
GAL.
CAP 1 TA
177
163
195
266
219
184
184
170
150
167
167
179
185
160
165
206
FROM SEWAGE

POUNDS SUSPENDED
SOLIDS REMOVED
DURING THE MONTH (2)
TOTAL VOLATILE
422,454
439,723
346,229
401,421
349,029
217,351
201,425
246,946
292,710
466.023
362,880
317,688
331.039
414.709
364,784
358.500
308,391
294,614
249, 285
260,924
223.379
147,792
145,026
180,271
207,824
354.177
257,645
222,382
231,211
296,296
263,035
270,678
PRIMARY
DETENTION
PERIOD IN
HOURS (3)
2.3
2.5
2.0
1.8
1.-8
2.2
2.2
2.4
2.8
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
1.7
(1)   FROM THE EAST CHICAGO WATER DEPARTMENT

(2)   COMPUTED FROM SUSPENDED SOLIDS DETERMINATIONS OF RAW SEWAGE AND FINAL
     EFFLUENT.   POUNDS VOLATILE COMPUTED BY USING PER CENT VOLATILE OF RAW SEWAGE,

(3)   WASTE SLUDGE  INCLUDED  IN COMPUTING PRIMARY DETENTION PERIOD.

-------
                                                                       868
                                TABLE 3
                      CHARACTERISTICS OF RAW SEWAGE
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1 964 AVERAGE
1962 AVERAGE
1961 AVERAGE
! 960 AVERAGE
10 YEAR AVERAGE
TOTAL LBS
SUSPENDED
SOLIDS IN
RAW SEWAGE
444,690
461,817
369,317
434,872
365,188
228,096
215,531
259,997
315,030
482,732
378,480
366,040
352,464
430,042
390,456
341 .645
380,045
POUNDS
SUSPENDED
SOLIDS
PER CAPITA
DAILY
0.22
0.27
0.20
0.27
0.21
0.13
0.16
0.15
0.18
0.27
0.22
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.19
0.16
0.19
POUNDS
B.0.0.
PER CAPITA
DAILY
0.1;
0.19
0.18
0.10
0.11
0,11
0.15
0.16
0.14
0.20
0.15
0.16
0.15
0.17
0.16
0.13
0.16
POPULATION
EQU'VALENT
.(7 POUNDS
BCD/CAP/DAY
65,934
63,988
59,029
34,107
38,841
41,725
54,088
45,209
47,251
66,646
49,319
57,0*-*
50,661
68,056
63,487
52,373
67.183
AVERAGE
EQUIVALENT
.17 POUNDS
FAHRENHEIT
55
57
57
58
61
64
71
72
71
66
61
55
62
62
60
61
62
1950-1959

-------
                                  TABLE  4
                                                                       869
                            SETTI.EA3LE  SOLIDS
MONTHS
-JANUARY
a-B.ltlARY
A".RC!I
APRIL
NaY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
194 AVERAGE
1962 AVERAGE
1%1 AVERAGE
1.960 AVERAGE
10 YEAR AVERAGE
RAW
SEWAGE
C,s
.<*.
4.3
7.4
6.0
5.2
5.2
4.7
4.3
2.9
6.7
9.2
6.7
5.1
5.6
5.4
5.4
2.6
3.1
PRIMARY
EFFLUENT
C.C.
0.1
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4

S9.9
99.9
00. 6
99.9
99.9
99. 9
99-9
99.9
99.9
*9.9
9P.7
9S>.6
1950-1959

-------
                                  TABLE  5
                                                                        870
                   SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND PER  CENT ROMOVAL
MONTHS
JANUARY
ff&RURRY
AKKCH
/WRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1964 AVERAGE
1S52 AVERAGE
1961 AVERAGE
10 YEAR AVERAGE
RAW
SEWAGE
P.P.M
060
208
176
139
113
121
101
101
141
198
164
128
144
165
145
110
PRIMARY
EFFLUENT
P.P.M.
54
68
57
49
53
60
48
52
60
57
80
51
58
53
55
76
PER CENT
REMOVAL
PRIMARY
TO RAW
66.3
67.3
67.6
623
53.0
50.4
52.4
47/5
57.4
71.2
51.2
60.1
58.2
67.1
62.3
30.7
FINAL
EFFLUENT
P.P.M.
8
10
11
10
5
5
5
8
8
5
7
7
7
6
8
6
PER CENT
REMOVAL
COMPLETE
TREATMENT
55.0
95.1
93.7
S2.3
95. 6
95.9
95,0
92.1
y*.3
sn.s
35.7
S4-.5
W.7
96.4
#*.2
.94. r
1950-1955

-------
TABLE 6
                                   871
MONTHS
JANUARY
PEBHUARY
MARCH
APRIL
WAV
JJlltS
JtfLY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1 964 AVERAGE
1 962 AVERAGE
1S61 AVERAGE
i960 AVERAGE
10 YEAR AVERAGE
RAW
SEWAGE
P.P.M
124
i4e
no
52
59
81
98
95
112
143
106
114
101
135
124
91
106
PRIMARY
EFFLUENT
P.P.M.
61
70
61
32
28
28
41
52
53
61
58
71
50
66
64
76
73
PER CENT
REMOVAL
PRIMARY
TO RAW
50.0
50. 0
>4*.5
58.5
52.5
65.4
58.2
45.3
52.7
57.3
45.3
37.7
49.8
51.1
47.5
16.5
30.6
FINAL
EFFLUENT
P.P.M.
19
n
12
8
6
7
10
10
17
19
16
16
13
16
18
11
6
PER CENT
REMOVAL
COMPLETE
TREATMENT
84.7
87.1
89.1
84.6
89.8
91.4
89.8
89.5
84.8
a6.7
84.9
85.9
87i'6
87.5
86.8
86.6
94.1

-------
                                    TABLE  7
                                                                           872
                       PER  CENT  VOLATILE  SUSPENDED  SOLIDS
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APKIt
HAY
JUNE
JULY
AUfrlttT
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
T?64 AVERAGE
1962 AVERAGE
1961 AVERAGE
1960 AVERAGE
10 YEAR AVERAGE
RAW
SEWAGE
73
67
72
65
64
68
72
73
71
76
71
70
70
72
72
73
74
PRIMARY
EFFLUENT
75
71
69
63
68
6S
62
74
64
77
65
72
69
75
74
74
72
MIXED
L 1 q.UOR.
62
66
69
67
66
64
65
65
66
73
67
66
67
64
63
61
66
RETURN
SLUDGE
63
66
68
67
63
64
64
64
62
71
67
66
66
63
63
62
65
1950-1959

-------
                                      TABLE  8
                                                                              873
                          GRIT-SCREENINGS-SCUM

HOWTHS
JANUARY
FI3RUARY
ftMCN
/Vftll
MY
JURE
juur
AUtKT
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
194 TOTALS
1962 TOTALS
1951 TOTALS
1960 TOTALS
10 YEAR AVERAGE
f.jjo .
GRCT
Z70
116
60
255
338
310
358
14
189
136
183
271
2,500
1 ,140
2,030
2,iOO
3^006
, r.rcT nrMQVED
scxeiH
96
75
321
72
105
51
108
189
99
81
120
39
1,356
1,360
1,157
1,335
1,853


91
120
222
78
166
132
156
156
246
174
120
285
1,956
1,294
1,129
1,006
2,114
  1950-1959




GRUENDLER SEVftGE SHRE0DERS IN OPERATION  AT  MAGOUN AVENUE  PUMPING  STATION




THROUGHOUT 1952.  ALDER STREET PUMPING STATION  REMOVED MANUALLY.

-------
                                  TABLE 9
                                    pH
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
**RCH
AflWt
WAY
JUNE
JIM
AittST
CF DT^VMftf 3
*> t JT f ' v fW 
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECOIKR
/9J AVERAGE
1962 AVERAGE
1961 AVERAGE
1940 AVERAGE
10 NEAR AVERAGE
RAW
SEWAGE
7.6
7.4
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.4
7.2
7.5
7.5
7.4
7.4
PRIMARY
tffUSIff
7.6
7.6
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.3
7.2
7.1
7.5
7.4
7.4
7.5
7.4
7.4
MIXED
LIOJJOS
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.4
7.6
7.4
7.4
7.2
7.3
7.2
7.2
7.3
7.2-
7.3
7.2
7.2
RETURN
7.2
7.2
6.8
7.1
7.2
7.2
6.9
7.2
7.0
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
FINAL
ETFLUENT
7.5
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.0
7.3
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.3
1950-1959

-------
                                      TABLE  10
                                                                             875
                         MIXED LIQUOR  -  RETURN  SLISDGE DATA
t
MIXED
SUSPENDED
SOL 1 DS
MO/TWS P.f.M.
4MMY
FEBRUARY
fURCH
APRIL
HAY
1 AMJF?
'^JuN
JULY
Auwsr
.SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
OECEMflER
]&*/ AVFPAC
1961
1372
1471
1570
1597
1557
1598
1744
1967
19i7
1568
1584
JE1634
1962 AVERAGE 1901
1961 AVERAGMfcSI
79W> AVERAt
10 YEAR
2195
1790
L 1 QJJOR
SETTLEABLE
SOU 05
30-MINUTES
120
136
149
130
145
149
140
138
144
149
163
148
144
137
127
123
132
RETURN SLUDGE
SLUDGE
INDEX
61
101
103
85
93
92
90
81
74
91
103
95
92
75
69
61
75
WASTE RETURN
SLUDGE SLUDGE
M.G.D. M.G.D.
0.082
1.73
0.83
0.42
0.25
0.21
0.45
0.43
1.01
0.97
0.85
0.79
0.72
0.07'
0.06
0.13
0.15
3.175
3.821
3 .977
4.043
4.052
4.003
3.997
4.020
3.950
3.920
4.210
4.104
4.020
3.751
3.140
3.939
3.283
SUSPENDED
SOLIDS
P. P.M.
7923
4588
5366
6423
6460
6285
6226
6906
10280
9599
6363
5511
6728
7373
8586
9407
6991
PER CENT
RETURN BY
VOLUME
30
41
25
31
31
38
39
43
49
42
45
42
40
35
30
33
25
AVERAGE 1950-
1959

-------
                                     TABLE 11
                                                                            8?6
                                   ABERATION DATA
MOA/THS
JAMARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNL
JUT
AUWST
.SEfTEflBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMSEK
J#Y JWCJWWe
WfeAvEXAK
7961 /W&RAGl
n& AKMg
SEWAGE FLOW
THROUGH
AERATORS
M.G.D.
13.9
13.1
15.1
16.9
16.6
14.5
14.5
13.7
12.6
13.4
13.7
14.4
14.4
14.0
13.8
1S.O
RETURN
SLUDGE
AERATORS
M.G.D.
3.175
3.821
3.977
4.043
JJ.052
4.808
3.P97
W-.020
3.950
3.920
4.210
4.220
4.020
3.751
3.140
3.939
PER CENT
RETURN
SLUDGE BY
VOLUME
22.8
29.1
26.3
23,9
24.4
27,6
27.6
29.3
31.3
29.3
30.7
29.3
28.1
26.5
22.8
25.0
WASTE
SLUDGE TO
PRIMARIES
M.G.D.
.082
0.173
0.800
0.419
0.420
0.440
0.453
0.430
LOOS
0.965
0.853
0.255-
0.613
0.078
0.064
.132
AERATION
DETENTION
PERIOD
HOURS
3.5
3.7
3.2
2.9
3.0
3.4
3.4
3.6
4.0
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.1
FINAL
DETENTION
PERIOD
HOURS
3.2
3.1
2.5
2.3
2.3
3.0
2.9
3.1
3.5
3.1
3.1
3.3
2.9
3.3
3.2
2.9
10 YEAR AVERAGE
1950-1959    16.7
3.283
19.8
.159
3.0
2.6

-------
                                     TABLE 12
                                                                             877
                                 AIR CONSUPTION
MONTHS
JANWfiY
FEBRUARY
r^RCH
APR'i.
MY
JUM
JUU
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEM0E*
I fl*4 AVERAGE
1962 wmez
1961 AVERAGE
J960 AVERAGE
JO YfAK AVERAGE
AIR
MILLION
CUBIC FEET
PER DAY
8.283
4.144-
8.682
8.6)1
8.?85
8.S34
8.713
&.86S
8.652
8.7
-------
                                                                      873
                                  TABLE  13
                                COMMINUTORS
MONTHS
JANUARY
fEMUARY
MAKCH
A?RR
WAV
JWE
>W4V
Mf&ttT
SEPTCMaeR
OCTOBER
jWEMfltt
DCBER
1 964 TOTALS
1962 TOTALS
1951 TOTALS
I960 TOTALS
10 YEAR AVERAGE
TOTAL HOURS IN OPERATION
COMMINUTOR NO. 1
744
696
744
720
744
264
744
744
720
745
720
744
8329
5945
6002
8275
5656
COMMiNUTOR NO. 2
744
6 36
744
720
744
672
3*8
7
-------
       TABLE  14
                                            879
      AIR  BLOWERS
TOTAL HOURS  IN OPERATION
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1564 TOTALS
1962 TOTALS
1961 TOTALS
1960 TOTALS
10 YEAR AVERAGE
1950-1959
NO. 1.
AIR BLOWER
250
168
0
0
0
147
0
70
0
97
0
80
812
501
2634
2409
5440

NO. 2.
AIR BLOWER
427
168
0
0
0
128
0
60
0
96
0
95
974
505
2570
2607
5201

NO. 3
AIR BLOWER
123
112
0
0
0
147
0
62
0
99
0
31
574
521
2678
2397
5468

DIESEL
ENGINE
123
472
744
720
648
501
744
653
720
599
720
674
7318
8030
4723
	
	


-------
                                  TABLE  15
                                                                          880
                              RETURN SLUDGE PUMPS
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1964 TOTALS
1962 TOTALS
]961 TOTALS
1560 TOTALS
10 YEAR AVERAGE
PUMP NO, 1 .
744
696
744
720
744
720
744
744
576
505
718
744
8399
8760
7154
8598
7024
TOTAt HOURS IN OPERATION
PUMP NO. 2.
744
622
000
000
000
24
000
000
144
745
96
000
2375
6633
6931
6303
5807
PUMP NO. 3
24
74
744
720
744
695
744
744
720
745
720
744
7419
7175
3076
4094
6536
PUMP NO. 4
7W
95
744
720
744
720
744
744
720
240
648
744
8207
3442
8761
6637
6308
1950-1959

-------
                                                                          881
                                 TABLE 16






                       DETftlTOR AND CLEANING MECHANISM




                          TOTAL HOURS IN OPERATION
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1964 TOTALS
1962 TOTALS
1961 TOTALS
1960 TOTALS
10 YEAR AVERAGE
DETRITOR
744
696
744
720
646
47?
425
121
598
665
691
744
7265
7265
7113
8058
5282
CLEANING MECHANSIM
744
696
744
720
646
471
425
121
598
665
691
744
7265
7265
7112
8083
5281
1950-1959

-------
          TABLE 17
                                                  882
RAW SLUDGE TO  DIGESTERS DATA
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
TOTALS
1 964 AVERAGE
1962 AVERAGE
1961 AVERAGE
VOLUME
1000
GALLONS
1237
1052
1198
987
1170
1249
1425
1096
512
615
716
656
11913
993
1149
1109
DRY
SOLIDS
PER CENT
4.5
4.5
3.8
3.6
4.7
4.4
3.8
4.0
4.0
3.0
3.8
3.9
	
4.0
4.1
3.6
DRY
SOLIDS
1000 LBS.
388
395
380
296
459
458
452
366
171
200
227
213
3617
329
387
334
VOLATILE
SOL IBS
PER CENT
61.7
60.8
68.0
57.6
56.6
53.7
55.0
55.9
59.5-
62.6
66.4
58.5
	
59.5
60.7
62.2
VOLATILE
SOLIDS
1000 LBS.
240
240
258
170
260
246
247
205
102
125
151
125
2129
194
234
207
PH
6,5
6.6
6.9
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.2
7.2
7.0
7.1
7.1
7.1
	
7.0
6.4
6.3

-------
                                                                                                          883
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-------
      TABLE 19
                                                884
GAS ENGINE OPERATION
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBBR
DECEMBER
1964 TOTAL
1962 TOTAL
1961 TOTAL
MAXIMUM
MINIMUM
AIR BLOWN
HOURS IN CU. FT. GAS GAL OIL IflOO's CUBIC
OPERATION CONSUMED. CONSUMES FEET OF AIR
334
408
744
720
407
496
744
649
720
600
652
659
7,133
8,030
4,769
744
298
493,900 1,219
....... ... 7 07
25,200 5,634
277,00 2,246
317,010 2,535
200,700 5,275
	 5,801
6CCQ
________ 5 7Qf)
179,400 5,965
_______ f. <;i?
1,493,201 59,026
4,422,100 68,775
2,802,349 34,355
743,300 8,148
0 1,692
129,762
145,639
269,132
365,173
136,638
178,740
270,003
237,910
259,405
218,817
263,064
248,888
2,723,171
2,706,513
1,623,600
299,922
107,145
FUEL COMSl/MEfl
PER 1000 CU. FT.AIR
GAL. OIL. CU.FT.GAS
.01
.02
.01
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
	
	
.02
.01
3.80
o.efc
2.03
1.78
0.75
0.58
	

3.80
0.58

-------
                                     TABLE 20
              SUMMARY SHOWING MONTHLY SAURY AND PAYROLL DISTRIBUTION
                                                                              885
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVMEBER
DECEMBER
1964 TOJALS
1962 TOTALS
SEWAGE
TREATMENi
PLANT
4,000.00
3,750.00
4, 324. 75
4,000.00
4,000.00
5,526.05
4,991.12
5,141.68
5,227.44
4,555.50
4,643.20
4,773.85
54,933.59
180.973.59
f GENERAL
MAINTENANCE
9,218.92
11,215.92
11,564.01
11,689.75
11,433.41
13,319.13
11,801.37
11,203.37
12,230.73
11,405.43
13,039.41
15,593.66
143,745.11
SEWER
DIVISION
5,727.83
7,759.97
7,450.81
8,425.30
8,494.69
12,605.56
9,340.82
8,570.83
8,588.32
8,074.93
7,581.12
8,911.35
101,531.53
107.559.38-
ALDER
AVENUE
PUMPING
STATION
1,781,24
1,900.00
1,900.00
1,900.00
1 , 900. 00
2,398.08-
2,294.55
1,900.00
1,900.00
1,900.00
1,900.00
1,900.00
23,573.67
25.500.00
TOTALS
20,727.99
24,62F.S9
25,239.57
26,015.05
25,828.10
33,878.82
23,427.66
26,815.88
27.946.**9
25,935.86
27,163.73
31,178.86
323,783.90
=51 1.037. 97
TRANSFER OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE BUREAU OF PUMPING  STATIONS  TO  THE  BOARD
OF SANITARY COMMISSIONERS EFFECTED JANUARY 1, 1953.  THE  OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE OF ALL PUMPING STATIONS - SANITARY AND STORM  WATER  - ASSUMED  BY
THE SANITARY DISTRICT AS OF JANUARY 1,  1953

TRANSFER OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE SEWER DEPARTMENT TO THE  BOARD  OF SANITARY
COMMISSIONERS EFFECTED JANUARY 1,  1961.   THE  CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND
REPAIR OF ALL CITY SEWERS.  ASSUMED BY THE SANITARY  DISTRICT JANUARY 1, 1961.

-------
                                    TABLE
                     SOHHARY SHOWING OTHER UTILITY COSTS (1)
                                                                            886
MONTHS
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE.
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1964
1962
SEWAGE
TREAT-
MENT
PLANT
$ 1,105.53
1,097.67
1,377.52
2,146.87
278.98
269.86
631 .84
520.40
555.90
597.97
573.00
1,042.54
10,198.08
4,138.75
ALDER
STREET
PIMPING
STAT.'ON*
9.41
9.94
9.41
28.28
43.50
22.81
26.38
23.88
25.15
26.19
25.38
25.99
276.32
384.23
MAGOUN
AVENUE
PUMPING
STATJ ON
6.41
6.41
6.41
17.13
27.47
17.55
21.85
19.16
19.16
19.16
19.16
19.16
199.03
203.70
MICHIGAN
AVENUE
PUMPING
STATION
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
24.37
14.45
14.45
14,45
14.45
14.45
14.45
14.45
132.32
151.73
REMOTE (2)
METERING
CHtMNiL
SERVICES
23.62
23,62
23.62
23.62
23.62
23.62
23.62
23.62
23,62
23.62
23.62
23.62
283.44
307.06
TOTALS
1,1'*6.67
1,139.31*
1,418. $6
2,217. 0
397. 9t
3W.29
773.14
601.51
638.28
81.39
55.61
1,125.76
11,089.19
5,185.47
(1)   TELEPHONE ANO  TELEGRAPH, REMOTE METERING CIRCUIT, GAS AND WATER.
(2)   INCLUDES SERVICES TO MARKSTOW8, MICHIGAN AVENUE, CANAL STREET, AND ROXANNA.
     PUMP STATION.

 *   TRANSFER OF  THE JURISDICTION OF THE BUREAU OF PUMPING STATIONS TO THE
     BOARD  OF SANITARY COMMISSIONERS EFFECTED JANUARY 1, 1953.  THE 6PERATION
     AND MAINTENANCE OF ALL  PUMPING STATIONS - SANITARY AND STORM WATER-
     ASSUMED BY THE SAKITARY DISTRICT AS OF JANUARY 1, 1953.

     TRANSFER OF  THE JURISDICTION OF THE SEWER DEPARTMENT TO THE BOARD OF
     SANITARY COMMISSIONERS  EFFECTED JANUARY 1, 1961.  THE CONSTRUCTION,
     MAINTENANCE  AND REPAIR  OF ALL CITY SEWERS.  ASSUMED BY THE SANITARY DISTRICT
     JANUARY 1, 1961.

-------
                                      TABLE 22
                       SUMMARY SHOWING MONTHLY FUEL OIL COSTS
                                                                               887
MONTHS
JANUARY $
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEM3ER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1964 TOTALS
1962 TOTALS
SEWAGE
TREATMENT
PLANT
561.35
459,42
817.60
841.26
400.00
450.00
400.00
700.00
400.00
700.00
400.00
846.98
6,956.61
8,309.94
ALDER STREET MAGOUN AVENUE
PUMPING STATION PUMPING STATION TOTALS
466.92 1S6.80 1,225.07
_ 	 oc xo cou 7
XKC on --- 	 1 173 SQ
	 _,__ 	 _ gitf 07
	 	 __ 400 00
	 ___ 	  ii5Q QA
______ |iQo 00
	 	 700 00
	 	 	 	 	 iiQQ GO
	 	 	 	 700 00
500 cn ...... 7? 50
71? 00 ...... 1 558 Qfi
1,757.42 384.83 9,098. 86
1,400.34 661.91 10,372.19
TRANSFER OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE BUREAU OF PUMPING  STATIONS  TO  THE  BOARD OF
SANITARY COMMISSIONERS EFFECTED JANUARY 1, 1953.   THE  OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
OF ALL PUMPING STATIONS - SANITARY AND STORM WATER - ASSUMED  BY THE SANITARY
DISTRICT AS OF JANUARY 1, 1953.

TRANSFER OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE SEWER  DEPARTMENT OF THE BOARD  OF SANITARY
COMMISSIONERS EFFECTED JANUARY 1,  1961. THE CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND
REPAIR OF ALL CITY SEWERS.  ASSUMED BY THE SANITARY DISTRICT  JANUARY I,  1961.

-------







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-------
              TABLE 24
                                                        889
SUHMARY SHOWING MONTHLY CHEMICAL COSTS
ALUMINUM FERRIC
MONTHS SULFATE LlHE CHLORIDE
JANUARY 	 968.25 2,676.23
FEBRUARY 9fiO 00 RQfi 00 	 --
MARTH .... __._.. -- ... .
APRIL .... ......
MAY .... ...... _. 	 	 	
JUNP .... _  	 	 	 	 ...
Mil V - . .....
AilfttKT - ..... ......
CCpTCMRCD __ _ .- . ........
Of TORFR ... ...... ........
KinwrMRPD _ ..... .
ncr PMRPP .... ...... ........
1964 TOTALS 960.00 1,864.25 2,676.23
1963 TOTALS 4,014.00 3,247.50 5,781.06
LIQUID MURIATIC
CHLORINE ACID
	 8
	 7 en

.... 89 50

774 80

97*4 AH ....

U1 9 50 ....


961.80 90.00
460.00 3.38
TOTALS
3,644. 48
i gfi3 5Q

82 SO

274 80

974 80

412 20


6,552.28
13,505.94

-------
                                                                            890
                                     TABLE 25

                                 BUDGET FOR 196*4*

                                BUDGET CLASSIFICATION

                                        FOR

                            DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SANITATION


SANITARY MAINTENANCE AND GENERAL EXPENSE FUND

PERSONAL SERVICES                                     $   339,417.60

CONTRACTUAL SERVICES                                     189,785.00

SUPPLIES                                                  32,750.00

MATERIALS                                                 11,200.00

CURRENT CHARGES                                           25,675.00

PROPERTIES                                                7,000.00

                                      TOTAL           $   605,827.60


SANITARY DISTRIST BOND FUND

CURRENT OBLIGATION                                    S   355,855.00

DEBT PAYMENTS                                            574,000.00
                                      TOTAL           $   929,855.00
6RAND TOTAL  ALL FUNDS                              $1,535,682.60

*  TRANSFER OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE BUREAU OF PtWPING STATIONS  TO
   THE BOARD OF SANITARY COMMISSIONERS EFFECTED JANUARY 1,  1953.   THE
   OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ALL PUMPING STATIONS - SANITARY WATER-
   ASSUMED BY THE SANITARY DISTRICT AS OF JANUARY 1, 1953.

   TRANSFER OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE SEWER DEPARTMENT TO  THE BOARD
   OF SANITARY COMMISSIONERS EFFECTED JANUARY 1, 1961.  THE CONSTRUCTION,
   MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF ALL CITY SEWERS.  ASSUMED BY THE  SANITARY
   DISTRICT JANUARY 1, 1961.

-------
                                                        891

  1   EAST CHICAGO SANITARY DISTRICT            Dr. John B. Nicosia
                                                    Mayor
  2      5200 Indianapolis Blvd.
        East Chicago, Indiana  46312           Cornel A. Leahu
  3                                              Superintendent

  4                                             February 26, 1965

     Conference Regarding V/ater Pollution

     In the Calumet District March 2, 196|>,

     Honorable Gentlemen:

                    In retrospect to the previous statistical

     data,  I wish to bring forth this additional information.

 10                  The dissolved oxygen demand of the East

 11   Chicago Municipal Sanitary District effluent, as dis-

 12   charged into the Grand Cilumet River and the Lake

 13   Michigan Basin, is on the average for the year 1964,  3*163

 14   in population equivalent (PE).

 15                  The average coliform density of the East

 16   Chicago Municipal Sanitary District sewage treatment

 17   plant  effluent, as documented by impartial laboratory

 18   analysis of the Gary-Hobart Water Corporation,  discharged

 19   into the Grand Calumet River and the Lake Michigan Basin,

20   was, for the month of February 1965, in the order of  7.2

21   per 100 ml.   Bacterial disinfection of this magnitude

22   indicates an extremely successful treatment process.

23                  The Sanitary District, at the behest of

24   our tireless Mayor,  Dr.  John B.  Nicosia, is presently

25   studying feasibility reports and negotiating with industry

-------
                                                     892

    the possibility  of diverting industrial wastes (phenolics,

    ammonia, nitrates,  nitrites,  cyanide,  to the District for

    final treatment.   Studies at  present  indicate this may be

    accomplished by  settling in  a deep  lagoon,  aerating and

    chlorinating, prior to discharge  into  the Grand Calumet

    River and the Lake  Michigan Basin.

                   This report and statistical  data and the

    Sanitary District  of the City of  East  Chicago,  Indiana,

    is hereby respectfully submitted  to the Honorable Dr.

10   John B. Nicosia, Mayor, The  Sanitary  Commissioners,

11   Honorable Secretary Anthony J.  Celebrezze of the

12   Department of Health, Education,  and Welfare,  Honorable

13   Murray Stein, Chairman of the conference, and the

14   Indiana State  Board of Health, this 2nd day of March,

15   1965.

16                          /S/ Cornel A. Leahu,  Superintendent

17                              East Chicago Sanitary District

18
                           (Text  continued on Page  908)
19

20

21

22

23

24

25

-------
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                                                                            894
               r   r  r
        INTRODUCTION OF AIR TO
        GIVE SEWAGE SPIRAL FLOW TO
        INCREASE LENGTH OF CONTACT
        WITH OXYGEN (AIR) IN TANK.

SECONDARY REDUCTION PROCESS BY
GUGGENHEIM BROTHERS
NEW YORK, N.Y.
RETURN SLUDGE
REMOVED HERE
ADOUT 30% OF
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FLOW.
THRU ONE OF
FOUR RETURH
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IN BUILDING,
                         SCHEMATIC CROSS-SECTION OF
                         ' SEMftfiE TREATMENT PLANT
                            EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA
                          HON. DR. JOHN B. NICOSIA
                                  MAYOR
                          CORNEL A. LEAHU, SUPERINTENDENT

                         SANITARY DISTRICT BOARD
                                   OF
                              COMMISSIONERS

                          PETER E. AUKSEL
                          AMERIGO G. GIANN IN I
                          CARLOS BORGE
                          MARTIN A. KARR, ESQ.
                                ATTORNEY

-------

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-------
                                                        908
  i        MR. LEAHTJ:  Are there any questions?
  2        MR. KLASSEN:  Yes, one phrase that you used, Mr.
     Leahu, interest!] me.
                    You said the sewage treatment  effluent
     has better characteristics, as I recall your  statement,
     than the water out in the lake.
                    Do you want to amplify on that just a
     little bit?  What do you mean by "better characteristics"?
          MR. LEAHUi  Better characteristics in respect,

 10   Mr. Klassen, judging from the Gary-Hobart Water
 11   Company, the most probable number counts on coliforms
 12   coming into the raw water intake  the average in the
 13   neighborhood of 288 on the most probable number  we
 14   average 7.2.  Another thing, our suspended solids are

 15   at a very low level.  We do not have to have  heavy
 16   waste material such as rage, lumber,  garbage  that is
 17   dumped out by boats on the lake and things such as that.
 18                  We have no fish coming out of  our
 19   effluent which also can clog an intake water pipe of a
20   water treatment plant.
21        MR. KLASSEN:  This statement,  I was trying to
22   correlate with one that the Mayor made  that the bathing
23   beaches in the lake are never closed.  Do we  conclude
24   from that that it is safer to swim in the effluent of

25

-------
  2
  3
  4
  5
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
                                                         909
     your sewage treatment plant than out in the lake?
     MR. LEAHU:  Presently, yes.
                              (Laughter.)
     MR. KLASSEN:  Thank you.
     MR. POOLE:  Bear with us just a little longer.
  6 I                I am going to call on Mayor A. M. Katz
     of Gary at this time.   Mayor Katz.
          MAYOR KATZ:  Mr.   Poole, Mr. Chairman, distinguished
     conferees, ladies and  gentlemen,  I suppose it might be
 10   said that the bellicose mayor has already testified
 11   and the docile one is  about to testify,  but I do think
 12   that Mayor Nicosia has pointed out  a matter that was of
 13   great concern to us in northern Indiana, the apparent
 14   lack of the presence of many of the industries in the
 15   City of Chicago, their presence here to  testify as to
their particular problems and, of course, a study of
the agenda that has been distributed would certainly
give ground to the fears that we had.
               However, the explanation has been given
and I trust that they will be held to account for their
distributive share of the pollution that I think all
of us in all truthfulness realize does exist.
               I would like to take this opportunity
to congratulate this committee on its efforts to assemble
pertinent information relative to the conservation of

-------
                                                        910




     one of man's most essential elements, water.



                    It is necessary for the future welfare



     of our nation and its people, that a program for the



     preservation of our Nation's water supply be developed



     and implemented, and in order to bring this about,



     procedures such as we are involved in today, are



     essential and necessary.  This effort is to be applauded



     by all  for from efforts such as this, the problems



     of communities throughout America are being focused



10   into their proper perspective.



                    If it were not for the efforts of the



12   Muskie Hearings of 1963> and the assistance which



13   became available as a direct result of those hearings,



14   I am sure,  the strides now being made in air pollution



15   control would still be discussed in terms of future



16   action.



17                  Historic data as to man's needs for



18   water for his own personal use,  and of the need for



19   water for the growth and development of our industrial



20   and business community is well known.



21                  What we are and should be concerned with



22   today,  is the development and implementation of action,



23   both immediate and long-range,  for the abatement of



24   man's negligence in the treatment of his water supply,



25   and the abatement of the abuse of man's water facilities,

-------
                                                        911



                    I  represent  the  City  of Gary,  Lake



    County, Indiana,  the largest  industrial  community  located



    in Northern Indiana.  Our greatest asset is our  location



    at the southern tip of Lake Michigan,  which represents



    our single source of water  supply.   Without this supply



    of water our community could  not support its  citizens,



    nor could it sustain its industries.   The protection



    and the safeguarding of our supply of  water is of



    prime importance  to our community.



10                  We are a city  of over 178,000  people



11  who respect our neighboring communities,  and  try to the



12  best of our ability, to control the  treatment of waste



13  waters from our City into the common carrier.



14                  We are proud of  our city and its



15  industries; we  are also aware of our failures and



16  limitations in  the control of water  pollution.   We



17  have done much, as I will explain later,  yet  we  know



18  there is much more to be desired in  total control  of



19  wastes.



20                  All the sewage of the City of  Gary  is



21  handled by the  Gary Sanitary District.   The Gary



22  Sanitary District is a municipal corporation  constituted



23  by authority of the original Sanitary  District Act of



24  1917.  It was organized in 1938, and the first meeting



25  of the Board of Sanitary Commissioners was held  on May

-------
                                                       912




 i    16,1938.



 2                   Prior to that date, considerable work



 3    had  been  done  by the City Engineering Department in



 4    developing plans for sewage disposal in the City of



 5    Gary.



 6                   A Sanitary District is established for



 7    specific  purposes  to collect liquid wastes,  and to



 8    bring  these wastes through intercepting sewers  to a



 9    treatment works.  After treatment, these wastes can be



10    discharged into a drainage outlet without polluting the



11    outlet  or causing a nuisance.   To state this more



12    precisely,  a Sanitary District is administered  solely



13    to protect public health.



14                   Gary, being a second class city, has a



15    Board  of  Sanitary Commissioners,  three in number.  The



16    City Engineer  is a member of the  Board by virtue of his



17    office.   The other two members are appointed by the



18    Mayor.  All members are appointed for four years except



19    the  City  Engineer,  whose term is  concurrent with that



20    of the Mayor.   No two members'  terms of office  expire in



21    the  same  year.



22                   Under the Sanitary District Act, the



23    Board of  Sanitary Commissioners has broad powers.  It



24    can  hire  engineers,  attorneys,  levy taxes for operational



25    expenses,  and  issue bonds  to carry out construction

-------
                                                        913
    projects in  connection with  its  responsibilities.   It
    also has the power of eminent domain.  The Board has
    exclusive authority to expend district funds.  Bonding
    power was originally limited to  two percent  of the
    assessed valuation of a district.  Later this was
    raised by legislative acts to four percent,  then to
    six percent, and finally to  eight percent, where it
    stands at the present.
 9 I!                 In Kay 1938*  the  Board was organized.
 10  Plans were completed rapidly.  Contracts were awarded
 11  and construction work began  on interception  sewers
 12  and on the main treatment plant.  The city was fortunate
 13  in obtaining a Federal Grant covering forty-five per-
 14  cent of the  cost of the work, not including  the cost of
 15  the plant site.  This grant  amounted to $2,166,133.00
 16  and the district issued the  first bonds in the amount
 17  of $2,652,000.00.
 18                 Work completed under this construction
 19  program included the main treatment plant, rehabilitation
20   of the Miller Plant, Marquette sewage lift station  and
21   main interceptor sewer from  Alley 9 East to  the main
22   treatment plant.
23                   Also, a small interceptor sewer from
24   Coifax Street to the main treatment pfent, Pierce Street
25   interceptor  system, 16th Avenue  interceptor, 25th Avenue

-------
 8




 9




10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17





18




19




20




21




22





23




24




25
                                                   914



 relief sewer, a crossing over the Little Calumet  River,



 Side interceptor in Massachusetts Street from 42nd



 Avenue south to 52nd Avenue.  Eighteen general  contracts



 were awarded for the various units noted and were  com-



 pleted at a total cost of $4,371,579.50.  The treatment



 plant was formally accepted and placed into operation



 in August 19*10, approximately fifteen months after



 start of construction.




                With completion of the work noted



 above and with the issuance of $2,652,000.00 in bonds,



 remaining bonding power was only approximately



 $32,000.00.  It was impossible to consider any further



construction until a reserve had been built up in  the



 bonding power.  With the increase of the bonding  power



 from two percent to four percent, it was possible to



 start planning additional sewer capacity.



                In 1955 bonds were issued in the amount



 of $2,250,000.00 and these funds were used to construct



 the Rhode Island relief interceptor and South Broadway



 relief interceptor.   As noted heretofore, bonding



 power was increased successively until the present



 level of eight percent was reached.  These increases



 enabled the Gary Sanitary District to maintain an



 almost continuous construction program, building  sewage



 lift stations as well  as sewers,  and to expand the

-------
                                                        915



    capacity of the main treatment plant.   Pages 10 and 11



    indicate the bonds issued by the Gary Sanitary District



    to date, showing dates of issuance, amount of each



    issue, and a description of the work completed with



    these funds.



                   Total bonds issued  to date total



    $28,660,000.00 and at present the  reserve bonding



    power is between two and three million  dollars.



                   Page No. 12 of this report shows results



10   obtained for the year 1963 in the  removal of suspended



il   solids in the main treatment plant.  Page No. 13



12   indicates results obtained in reducing  a five-day



13   biochemical oxygen demand.  We use data from 1963 as



14   this is the latest year for which  such  data was avail-



is   able.  The main treatment plant went on primary



16   treatment in 1964 with the full knowledge and approval



17   of the Indiana State Board of Health.



18                  It will be noted that the average removal



19   of suspended solids for the year 1963 was 98.26 percent.



20   Suspended solids in the final effluent, annual average




21   was 11.6 PPM.  Five-day biochemical oxygen demand



22   reduction was as shown on page no. 13.  These results



23   were obtained without chlorination.



24                  There is presently  under construction



25   at the main treatment plant, a chlorinating assembly

-------
                                                        916




 l   which will permit chlorination of the final effluent.



 2   This is financed by a portion of a $4,590,000.00 bond



 3   issue.  Cost of this project is $355,000.00.  With this



 4   assembly completed, sterilization of final effluent



 5   will be effected.  This addition gives the City of Gary



 6   a completely integrated sewage treatment works.



 7                  The Gary Sanitary District is proud of



 8   its record of performance in the years that the main



 9   treatment plant has been in operation.  The tremendous



 10   expansion of the services rendered by the District, the



 11    growth of the system, and the continuing extension of



 12    the District's facilities to the Gary area, are vivid



 13    proof that the Gary Sanitary District has made great



 14    progress in the elimination of pollution, and has



 15    developed a progressive program of maintaining a high



 16    level of environmental sanitation.



 17                   The Gary Department of Health has been



 18    analyzing the bathing beach waters of the City of Gary



 19    for the past six years.  These determinations were for



20    the purpose of evaluating and comparing the quality of



21    the bathing beach area to acceptable surface water



22    standards.



23                   The methods used are the prescribed



24    standard methods for determining coliform densities and



25    reporting them as MPN of coliform per 100 ml.   In

-------
                                                       917
    addition  to  this,  our  laboratory has  run total bacterial
    plate  counts as  a  secondary  control.   These  determinations
    are  all biological in  nature,  as these have  been the
    limits of laboratory facilities.
                   Our results have thus  far been satis-
    factory,  as  our  analyses  show,  a vast majority of the
    samples collected  and  analyzed have less than 1000
    coliform  per 100 ml.
                   During  the past four years, in cooperation
 10  with the  Indiana State Board of Health,  the  Cities of
 11  Hammond,  East Chicago, Michigan City,  and the Porter
 12  County Health Department, we have coordinated a study
 13  of the biological  quality of the lakefront waters from
 14  the  Indiana-Illinois state line to the Michigan state
 15  line.  The primary purpose is  to give the participating
 16  agencies,  an opportunity  to evaluate  an overall picture
 17  of the lakefront.   Also included in this report is a
 18  copy of the  1964 results, pages 15 and 16.
 19                 We  have noticed a decided increase of
 20  algae  over the years accumulating on  our bathing beaches.
 21  Many complaints  are received during the summer months
 22  of "oil slicks"  in the water.   We have noted some game
23  fish washed  on our shores, and you may remember the sea
24  gull incident of three years ago.
25                 Our facilities  at the  present time are

-------
                                                        918
     not equipped to do more than the basic bacteriological
     studies.   We do no chemical or sediment analysis of the
     water in our area.  We have done no chemical analysis of
     the rivers which pass through our city.  We are aware
     of these limitations and are studying possibilities of
     expanding our laboratory facilities to include this
     phase of analysis.
                    As you can determine from this report,
     we are aware of waste water disposal and the problems
 10   it creates in our area.   We have made great progress in
 11   situations over which we have direct control and con-
 12   sider our Sanitary District an outstanding example of
 13   what a city can do in meeting the needs of the
 14   community.
 15                  At the same time, however, we admit
 16   we do have situations over which we cannot report at
 17   the present time,  nor over which we have any control 
 18   problems  created by industrial wastes.  We can only
 19   accept the report  issued by the Health, Education, and
 20   Welfare Department that  these do exist and to what
 21   degree.
 22                  It  is my  intention in the very near
23   future, to appoint an Advisory Committee to investigate
24   the problem of water pollution within the City of Gary,
25   and to advise as to action or legislation which might
                                (Text continues of Page 926)

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          REPORT OP A.  MARTIN KATZ,  MAYOR  OP GARY,  INDIANA

              BONDS ISSUED BY THE  GARY  SANITARY  DISTRICT
                                                         919
Date
Purchased
12/1/38
1/1/55



7/1/56


1/1/57


1/1/57
7/1/59
1/1/62
Series  Issued      Amount
1938   Sewer Bond  $ 2,652,000.
1955   Sewer Bond  $ 2,250,000.
1956   Sewer Bond  $ 4,089,000.
1957
       Judgment
       Funding
1957   Sewer Bond  $
104,000.


720,000.
12/1/58    1958   Sewer Bond  $   100,000.
1959
       Sanitary Dis-
       trict Bond  $ 3,480,000.
12/1/59    1959
       Sanitary Repair
       Bonds       $   175,000.
1962
       Sanitary Dis-
       trict Bond  $
                                  600,000.
                                         Purpose
                                  Original Bond Issue.
                                  Construction of Main
                                  Plant, Main Interceptor
                                  Sewers, South side inter-
                                  ceptor sewers and Pierce
                                  Street sewers.

                                  Rhode Island Relief Inter-
                                  ceptor and South Broad-
                                  way Relief Interceptor.

                                  Chase Street Interceptor
                                  Sewers.
                                  llth  & 19th Avenue  lat-
                                  erals to Chase Street
                                  Sewer.

                                  Emergency Sanitary Sever
                                  Repairs Alley 5 South
                                   (East Side) and Storm
                                  Drainage at Broadway &
                                  51st  Avenue.
                                              East  Side  Interceptor
                                              Sewer Replacement  and
                                              South Glen Park  Relief
                                              Sewer System.
                                              Emergency  Sanitary
                                              Repairs  -  Alley  1W  &
                                              37th  Ave., Alley IE Wsb-
                                              ash R.R. to  6th  Avenue
                                              and 40th Avenue  between
                                              Alley 15E  and Alley 163.
                                   Emergency Repairs,
                                   Georgetown Relief Sewer
                                   System and Pumping
                                   Station.

-------
         HE PORT  OF A. MARTIN KATZ,  MAYOR OP  GARY, INDIANA

                       BONDS ISSUED (CONT'D)
                                                         920
Date
Purchased
12/1/62
Series   Issued     Amount
1962   Sanitary    $ 9/900,000,
      District Bond
12/1/64
1964   Sanitary
    District Bond
$ 4,590,000,
           Purpose
Main Plant Expansion &
Modernization, Sewage
Lift Station, Miller
Storm Water Relief Sewer
System & Pumping Station,

42nd Ave. Storm Sewer
System and Pumping Sta-
tion, Repairs to 13th
Avenue Storm Sewer,
Chlorination Facilities
and repairs to Marshall-
town Pumping Station.
Total Amount of Bonds Issued (Brought Forward)
                              (This page)
                                          (TOTAL)
                                        $  14,170,000.00
                                        $  14,490,000.00
                                        $  28,660,000.00

-------
REPORT OF  A.  MARTIN KATZ, MAYOR  OP GARY,  INDIANA
921
     SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND PER CENT REMOVALS
                    1963
Raw Sewage Primary
Month P. P.M. Effluent
P. P.M.
January 620.2
February 480 . 2
March 543.9
April 1006.3
May 751.3
June 812.9
July 622.3
August 553.6
September 722.4
October 708.5
November 1020.5
December 642.3
Average 707.0
Maximum 1020.5
Minimum 480.2
1962 Average 595.9
1961 Average 550.0
1960 Average 508.6
1959 Average 431.2
1958 Average 467.6
1957 Average 379.3
1956 Average 293.9
1955 Average 213.9
1954 Average 271.9
153.9
116.2
152.6
167.2
162.3
195.7
110.7
111.2
151.9
200.5
359.0
153.2
169.5
359.0
110.7
142.5
128.8
144.1
125.4
121.9
131.4
143.5
110.2
111.3
Per cent
Removal
Clarified
To Raw
75.19
75.81
71.94
83.39
78.40
75.93
82.21
79.92
78.97
71.71
64.82
76.15
76.20
83.39
64.82
76.09
76.38
71.66
70.92
73.17
65.37
51.17
48.51
58.44
Secondary
Effluent
P. P.M.
12.3
15.8
13.8
14.6
11.4
10.8
6.9
9.4
9.2
10.6
13.2
11.5
11.6
15.8
6.9
10.8
12.5
14.1
14.8
13.4
18.1
25.3
12.1
17.2
'; Per cent
Removal
Complete
Treatment
98.01
96.72
97.46
98.55
98.48
98.60
98.87
98.30
98.73
98.51
98.71
98.21
98.26
98.87
96.72
98.18
97.70
97.22
96.57
96.97
95.23
91.38
94.47
92.78

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REPORT OP
5



Raw Sewage
Month P. P.M.

January 184*1
February 153.1
March 171.5
April 173.7
May 165.7
June 151.0
July 108.6
August 126.1
September 154.3
October 166.8
November 184.0
December 179.6
Average 159.9
Maximum 184.1
Minimum 108.6
1962 Averagel81.8
1961 Average225.3
1960 Average 216. 5
1959 Average243.4
1958 Average342.9
1957 Average 219. 6
1956 Averagel43.7
1955 AveragelOS.8
1954 Averagell2.4
A. MARTIN KATZ, MAYOR OP GARY, INDIANA 92
Day Biochemical
1963

Primary
Effluent
P.P*Mt

86.8
84.8
70.8
80.5
64.1
58.8
45.2
47.7
58.1
73.2
102.6
92.7
72.1
102.6
45.2
70.9
74.0
82.9
80.6
100.6
92.2
90.2
78.4
69.6
OxVaen Demand

Per cent
Removal
Clarified
To Raw

52*83
44.63
58.73
53.67
61.29
61.06
58.42
62.14
62.34
56.10
44.25
48.39
62.53
62.34
44.25
61.00
68.59
61.72
66.88
69.95
58.02
37.22
27.96
38.27


Secondary
Effluent
P. P.M.

10.7
12.9
11.4
9.8
5.9
5.9
3.7
4.9
6.6
5.2
4.4
5.6
7.3
12.9
3.7
10.7
13.7
12.4
19.0
18.9
19.2
11.5
11.8
11.2


Per cent
Removal
Complete
Treatment
94.18
91.60
93.33
94.33
96.47
96.07
96.50
96.14
95.69
96.88
97.58
96.88
95.47
97.58
91.60
94.11
93.82
94.25
92.21
94.75
81.25
92.00
86.94
88.47

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                REPORT OP A.  MARTIJI  KATZ, MAYOR OP  GARY^/lNDIANA
                 ILLINOIS
                 INDIANA
   Calumet  Beach
                    Whining
                    Public Beach

              East Chicago
                   PubLie teach
    Marquett* Park
         Lak Street
         Wells Street
(Porter)
        Ogden
  (Porter)
  (LPort)
        Dun5 Stt
West Beach
 Washington  Park

     Outer Drive


Long Bech


 Michina shores

-------
           REPORT  OP A. MARTIN KATZ,  MAYOR  OP GARY,  INDIANA
 LOCATION OP           SAMPLE
   SAMPLE              NUMBER
 Michiana Shores       11782
'(Knee Deep)

 Michiana Shores       11783
 (Waist Deep)

 Long Beach,  Stop 31   11784
 (Knee Deep)

 Long Beach,  Stop 31   11785
 (Waist Deep)

 Outer Drive,  Wash. Park 11786
 (Knee Deep)

 Outer Drive,  Wash. Park 11787
 (Waist Deep)

 Washington Park Beach   11788
 (Knee Deep)

 Washington Park Beach   11789
 (Waist Deep)

 West Beach, Mich.  City      5*
 (Waist Deep Only)

 Bartlett's Beach            6*
 (Waist Deep Only)

 Beverly Shores         11790
 (Knee Deep)

 Beverly Shores         11791
 (Waist Deep)

 Dunes State Park      11176
 (Knee Deep)

 IXines State Park      11177
 (Waist Deep)

 Ogden Dunes,  East  Bndy.  11178
 (Knee Deep)
 M.P.N,
 430
 430
 930
 750
 930
2400
 230
 430
 930
 750
 930
9.10
 210
9.10
 430
BACTERIA
  COUNT

   460
   520
  1010
   700
  2100
   1100
    70
   100
   240
   240
   500
    30
   870
   840
  3280

-------
           REPORT  OP A. MARTIN KATZ,  MAYOR OP  GARY, INDIANA     25
 LOCATION OF
   SAMPLE
SAMPLE
NUMBER
M.P.N,
 BACTSRIA
  COUNT
Ogden Dunes           11179
East Bndy.
(Waist Deep)

Lake Street Beach     11184
(Waist Deep)

Lake Street Beach     11185
(Knee Deep)

Wells Street Beach    11186
(Waist Deep)

Wells Street Beach    11187
(Knee Deep)

Marquette Park Beach  11182
(Waist Deep)

Marquette Park Beach  11183
(Knee Deep)
East Chicago Pub-
lic Beach
(Knee Deep)
11190
Whiting Public Beach  11189
 (Knee Deep)
Hammond Beach
 (Knee Deep)
11188
* These Samples Examined in
Michigan City Health Department
Laboratory.
                   430
                   430
                   430
                   930
                   430
                   430
                   230
 430
                   750
2400
                    2700
                    2310
                    1700
                    1950
                    2900
                     660
                     750
18,760
                  98,400
 T.M.C.

-------
                                                     926



    be necessary in  controlling  the  indiscriminate  disposal



    of liquid wastes.



                   We,  in the  City of Gary,  seek a  cooper-



    ative solution with our  industries to  the  mutual problem



    of industrial wastes.  We  realize fully  our  obligations,



    and I am sure, an amicable solution will be  found.



                   This,  gentlemen,  concludes  my report.



    I again thank you for  your efforts and your  interest



    in this matter,  and may you  be successful  in your



10   efforts to preserve the water of the United  States  for



11   the use of future generations of Americans.



12                  Thank you.



13                                        (Applause.)



14        CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Thank  you.   Thank  you,  Mayor  Katz.



15                  Please  wait a minute and  let  me  ask



16   if there are any comments  or questions.



17        MR. KLASSEN:   Yes, I  wanted  to ask  the  Mayor a



18   couple of questions here,  maybe  to amplify what is  in  the



19   report.



20                  In the  report here,  Mayor,  I  did not



21   find it but I think it was in the  Indiana  Board and the



22   Public Health Service  Report, the  capacity of your



23   treatment plant, primary.  So far,  it was  80  million



24   gallons.



25        MAYOR KATZ:  Eighty million gallons per  day.

-------
                                                       927
 1        MR. KLASSEN:  Have you ever been up  to  capacity?
 2   Have you ever put a capacity flow through your primary
 3   treatment plant?
 4        MAYOR KATZ:  I have the Superintendent  of that
 5   plant with me today, Mr. Matthews.
 6                  Can you answer the question?
 7        MR. MATTHEWS:  Yes, we have not put  the full
 8   capacity through yet because our complete construction
 9   program is just in the final hookup, and, as an example,
10   some of the subcontractors have some little  connections
11   to make.
12                  But previously, on the design of 40
13   million gallons per day, I pumped 58 million gallons
14   through the 40 million gallon plant.
15        MR. KLASSEN:  What is the maximum flow  that you
16   have put through your primary units?
17        MR. MATTHEWS:  The primary units?
18        MR. KLASSEN:  Yes, I understand they are 80
19   million gallon capacity.  I am wondering  what the
20   maximum flow is you put through there.
21        MR. MATTHEWS:  I wouldn't know because  we haven't
22   had a chance to try it out yet.
23                  The reason we have doubled  our first
24   capacity of 40 million.  I have put 58 million through
25   those four first primary tanks, but I have never been

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 1
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10
11
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18
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22
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                                                 928
 hooked up with enough pumps yet to oee how much we can
 put through the entire primary treatment plant.
      MR. KLASSEN:  Well, in other words, your primary
 treatment plant of 80 million gallons capacity is not
 in operation at the present time?
      MR. MATTHEWS:  No, sir, only singly,
      MR. POOLE:  What is your daily sewage flow?
 It is not anything like 80 million
      MR. MATTHEWS:  We are 	 right now, due to the
 extended drought periods in this part of the country,
 we have been experiencing for some years, our flow is
around 30 million gallons per day, right now, complete.
      MR. KLASSEN:  Well, what I am leading up to is
 the next question that concerns the State of Illinois,
 particularly.
                When do you start bypassing and where do
 you start bypassing at times of rain.  Apparently, you
 are not taking the full flow from your primary plant and your
 overflow from your combined sewers.  You are going to
 someplace without treatment.
      MR. MATTHEWS:  Well, sir, that is handled in this
 way:  We have Brown and Brown regulators, and where the
 large trunk sewer is connected to our interceptors,
 those work automatically, but they never close off
 entirely and we take enough sewage, all we can; but

-------
                                                      929
    there is no positive figure that  I  could give you,
    after operating there 25 years, where you  start  to
    bypass your float chambers,you know.
                   Your problem  you  are  probably  familiar
    with the Brown and Brown gauge.   As the water level
    rises in the sewage, the gate tends to  close off and
    there you have it, but I say, we  have not  had the
    opportunity yet.
                   We have 162 million  gallons capacity
10  in raw sewage pumps in the plant  hooked up right now
11  and we will never be short of pumpage capacity.
12       MR. KLASSEN:  I am not as concerned about the pumping
13  capacity as I am concerned about  using your treatment
14  plant to its maximum capacity at  time of rain so that
15  you minimize the amount of combined sewer  overflow in
16  the streams that go into the State  of Illinois.
17       MR. MATTHEWS:  That will be  determined a little
18  later.  As I said, we are not hooked up to use the total
19  capacity right now.  We do know we  have 80 as a  minimim
20  there.
21       MR. KLASSEN:  Well, I guess  that is as good an
22  answer as I can get.  But it is not too satisfactory,
23  in view of the glaring reports that were given here of
24  everything that Gary has done and that you are expending
25  every effort to protect the waters.

-------
 8
                                                  930
               Now, you tell us you don't know  how much
you can take and you are not hooked up to take  it and if
this is what you want to go in the record, this is 
     MAYOR KATZ:  Well, we are also telling you what
we have under construction and will be able to  do when
this construction is completed.
               You are looking for results from some-
thing that isn't completed yet.
 9        MR.  KLASSEN:   All  right.   Then that is the answer.
 10                  When will it be completed?
 11        MR.  MATTHEWS:   Probably in June.
 12        MAYOR  KATZ:   I believe the chlorination plant
 13  will  be completed  in June  also,  is  that  right?
 14        MR.  MATTHEWS:   Well,  I couldn't say chlorination.
 15  He is talking about.
 16        MR.  KLASSEN:   Mayor,  I want to get  
 17        MR.  MATTHEWS:   To  give you another  answer,  we have
 18  treated in  that ^million  gallon plant which in '38 was
 19  designed  as an equivalent  population load of 175*000,
 20  I have carried over  a half a million on  six out  of ten
 21   areas, equivalent population loading there.
 22                  But  we are  taking care of considerable
 23   pollution so as you  know,  when you  carry a  load  like
 24   that, and more than  once,  because we had the opportunity
25   to treat  a very strong  sewage,  up over 500 parts per

-------
                                                     931
    million in the chlorofier.
         MR. KLASSEN:  Well, do you anticipate,  then, when
    your plant is all completed and everything is the way
    it is laid out here, what percentage of your wet
    weather flow will be taken to the plant before you
    start bypassing?
 7                 This is what I am coming to.
 8       MR. MATTHEWS:  I am going to give you an answer.
 9  I made a computation that if all the main trunk sewers
10  were flowing full, 2^ hours a day, the discharge into
11  the river would be one billion gallons, round figures.
12                 Now, we have got 80 million capacity.
13  You make your own answer to that one yourself.
u       MR. KLASSEN:  I am asking you the question.  I
15  am not giving you your answers.  You answer  it.
16       MR. MATTHEWS:  Because you can't answer it.
17       MR. KLASSEN:  Well, all right, you can't answer it.
18                 If you can't then, I am not  I don't
19  know your facts.
20                 One other thing:  Have you ever considered
21  taking all of the wastes from U.S. Steel?  I understand
22  that you take the sanitary wastes.  How about the other
23  wastes that we have indicated here in the report?
24                 That is, has the city ever given this
25  consideration?

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  5
 6
 8

 9

 10

 11

 12

 13

 14

 15
                                                    932
     MR. MATTHEWS:  We have given it enough  considera-

tion that if we took all the pickling liquor through

our plant, we'd be out of business, that one item.  So

we don't take any of it.

     MR. KLASSEN:  All right, that is all  I  have.

     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  May we have your first name for

the record, sir?

     MR. MATTHEWS:  Sir?

     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  May we have your first name?

     MAYOR KATZ:  William, William Matthews.

     MR. MATTHEWS:  William Matthews.

     MR. KLASSEN:  By the way, one other question here:

When is the last time you constructed combined sewers,

new combined sewers in Gary?  What year?

               I'm particularly interested in a  com-
16  bined sewer that is taking new flow, not necessarily an

17  interceptor.  I am interested in the extension of the

18  Gary sewer system, whether it is on purely the separate

19  or the combined plan and this is why I was asking my

20  question.

21                 When is the last sewer extension on

22  the combined plan that you made in Gary?

23       MR. MATTHEWS:  I believe it is 1959, but I am not 

24  I ought to be able to answer that question, but remember,

25  consulting engineers come in and handle that construction

-------
                                                       933
 l   work and I am operating.   I have nothing to do with  the
 2   consulting engineer's program.
 3        MAYOR KATZ:  My recollection would be 1960, Mr.
 4   Matthews.
 5        MR. MATTHEWS:  How much?
 B        MAYOR KATZ:  I960.
 7        MR. MATTHEWS:  1960.
 8        MR. KLASSEN:  In other words, as late as I960,
 9   you were still building combined sewers in Gary?
10        MR. MATTHEWS:  Yes, sir.
11        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Are  there any further comments
12   or questions?
13        MR. POSTON:  I'd like to make a comment to the
U   effect that it has been very difficult for me to
15   understand the expenditures of large amounts of money
16   for construction of waste treatment works and then,
17   when it becomes necessary to do some maintenance or
18   repairs, there isn't a provision to provide temporary
19   treatment.
20                  I think water pollution control works
21   are one of the utilities which do not try to maintain
22   a continuous service, and  I know of many cases where
23   there have been results which have caused a great
24   commotion.
25                  I am thinking of the construction of  new

-------
     plants, water utilities, they don't shut down their
     operation to wait for another day.  They don't quit
     serving their customers, the telephone utilities, the
     power and light utilities all maintain continuous
     service, and I think it should be expected from the
     water pollution industry, the control Industry, to pro-
     vide similar service to maintain water quality and main-
     tain clean water.
 9        MAYOR KATZ:  Are you speaking specifically or
 10   generally, sir?
 11        MR. BOSTON:  This is generally, and I think it
 12   applies in most cases of sewage treatment works, when
 13   they build a new works, they will start to bypass a plant
 14   that is then doing a job, maybe sometimes for months,
 15   until they can get new construction under way.
 16                  I think that provisions can be made
 17   and should be made to continue this operation so that
 18   you don't provide additional pollution loads to our
 19   streams.
 20        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Do we have any further comments
 21    or  questions?
 22                  If not,  thank you very much, Mayor Katz.
 23    We  were very happy to hear fromyju.
 24         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Judging from you and the style of
25

-------
                                                        935
    your other Mayor,  I don't  think anyone in Indiana is
    being  shipped  today.
 3                                       (Laughter.)
 4       MAYOR KATZ:   I don't  think so either,  but perhaps
    the attempt was started.
         CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   I don't think there was any
    attempt, either.
                    I  think we  will stand recessed for
    lunch  until a  quarter  after two.
10                                       (Applause.)
ll                                       (Whereupon, the meeting
12                                       was adjourned until 2:15
13                                       o'clock p.m., this date.)
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

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10

11

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13

14

15

16

17

18
                                                       936
                  A.E.TERNOON  IS E    0  N
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  May we reconvene?
                   I wonder If we may ask  Mr.  Miller to
    get up again and resume and see if we have any comments
    or questions.
         MR. KLASSEN:  I just wanted to ask Mr. Miller a
    question or two.
                   The report indicates the kind  of progress
    that we knew resulted from your Board's action in Indiana,
    and I am sure that you undoubtedly have the same problem,
    the problems that we do in Illinois, and I just wanted to
    ask you about the operation of these facilities.
                   There is nothing in the report to
    indicate, first of all, that the facilities are operating
    and this isn't too far-fetched because we have found
    this in Illinois where facilities have been put in and
    when your back is turned,  they don't operate them.
                   I just wondered whether you are
19   receiving monthly operation reports from these various
20   plants that you have listed here in your very complete
21   report?
22        MR. MILLER:  We do not receive operation reports
23   for all of the plants that are listed in the report;
24   but by and large, from the large industries, we do
25   receive these reports, particularly on the facilities

-------
                                                        937
     that have been installed in recent years.

                    We don't have them complete  for  all

     sewers that may be in the plant.

          MR. KLASSEN:  That is the only thing I want  to

     ask Mr. Miller.

          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Do you have some further

     questions?

  8        MR. KLASSEN:  No.

  9        MR. BOSTON:  I would like to ask Mr. Miller  if

 10   he would feel free to share these industrial and

 li   municipal waste treatment plant reports, the amount

 12   of waste discharged to the stream, quantities and so

 13   forth, with us in the Public Health Service, Depart-

 14   ment of Health, Education, and Welfare?

 15        MR. MILLER:  Wally, I think  do you  want to

 16   answer?

 17                                        (Laughter.)

 18        MR. KLASSEN:  This is the advantage of having

 19   your boss here.

 20                                        (Laughter.)

 21        MR. MILLER:  Wally, I would say that the operation

 22   reports that we have are generally sent to  us in  a

23   classified basis, confidential, and as such, we have

24   them for review, but I am not able  to give  them to you

25   for your use.

-------
                                                      938

                   This is not true of all of them, but it
 2
    is true of a large share of them.

 3       MR. POSTON:  I would assume, then, that at a later
 4
    date, it will be up to Indiana municipalities and the

    Health Department to show progress if there's any
 c
    progress made at some future date.
 7
                   We want to know what accomplishments
 Q
    have been made.  It will be up to them to show this

    progress.

 10       MR. MILLER:  Yes, except that I might say that on
 11
 12

 13

 14

 15

 16

 17

 18

 19

20

21

22

23

24

25
the municipal plants, they are required to  submit
operation reports.  These are open files.
               They have given this information  to us
in the past and will continue to do this.
               The only thing I would say,  I  think the
proof of the pudding should be in the eating  and we
should be able to tell the accomplishments  by stream
sampling and monitoring, and I would hope that we would
get to the point in this wherein you might  not need
the individual outfall data.
     MR. POSTON:  Well, I feel it is very difficult
to assess a particular pollution condition  unless you
know the amounts and kind of wastes being discharged to
the stream from specific industries, to make  an engin-
eering evaluation of a particular situation.

-------
                                                     939




 1                  I think these bits of information are



 2   required and would be needed for our technical people



 3   to come up with some assessment of progress.



 4        MR. MILLER:  I would agree that such data is



 5   valuable and needed in an engineering evaluation.  But



 6   here again, I think the real results and the place where



 7   we must make the accomplishment is in the improvement of



 8   the overall water quality and this, I hoped we could do.



 9        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Well, I think I can understand



10   this now, because when you talked about the Hammond



11   Sanitary District, the municipality on page 32, you



12   said, "It will return the Little Calumet River flowing



13   into Illinois into a sanitary condition."



14                  While you talked about all the industries,



15   you never said that, and I didn't know whether your



16   admission  omission of this meant that even  though



17   they did this, it wouldn't be in a satisfactory



18   condition, but maybe it's because you got confidential



19   material and you couldn't tell, so we will never know.



20                                       (Laughter.)




21        MR. MILLER:  Well, again, I would say to you that




22   it is most difficult on the industrial ones to break



23   them as adequately and inadequately and here again,  we



24   operate under the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Law



25   on the principle of maintaining the quality of the

-------
                                                       940




     water in the  receiving waters and not on effluent



     standards;  and  for this reason we are concerned



     with the quality of the water.



          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Perry,  let me ask you this 



     I think we  need this for the  conferees,  and



     Hayes Black was supposed to come, and I respect



     you  and Hayes in Public Service as much as anyone.



     Hayes indicated to us that  the effluent discharges 	



     and  it seems  to me that you have really indicated it



10   also  are not bad.  I wonder if you'd care to



11   expand and  clarify that a little because I



12   really think  we need guidance on this,



13   Perry.



14        MR.  MILLER:   I think the real problem here,



15   as far as I see it,  is  that there is no  question in



16   my mind  that  the  Indiana Stream Pollution Control



17   Board  needs this  data to assess the problem and to



18   know how to approach the problem,  and where the work



19   needs  to  be done.



20                  We need  this further to  help us  in



21   the  approval  of new facilities,  as they  come up,  to



22   determine what  is  doing an  adequate job  and what  is not



23   doing  an  adequate  job.



24                  The other question that  I have,  and I



25

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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
                                                     941
say this from a State's viewpoint, we very definitely
need this data.
               Now, my only question and  answer  to
Wally was that I wondered whether you, in assessing what
had been accomplished, needed this data to determine
what can be accomplished as far as the watercourse is
concerned.
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Well, again I have  to say  here,
Perry, that I have to rely certainly on the technical staff,
as you can see by the way that you say you need  data and Mr.
Black who is our senior industrial ace says we need the data.
               Now, the point is:  If these are  closed files
and we do need the data and it is your policy not to release
it  I don't read it necessarily in your law that you have to
keep this data secret  if it is your policy to keep this
confidential and Mr, Black says we need it, I hope we can
work out a mutual agreement since there have been cases
when we just had to spend a lot of public funds.
               If our technical people say that  this data is
essential then they must get boats and get  outside the out-
fall pipes and keep taking the samples until we  get the needed
information.  Now, it would seem to me that a proper husbandry
of public funds should permit the free flow of data, and I am
not talking about trade secrets or going  back into the plant
or rummaging in the files and trying to get secret

-------
   1   information; I am talking about effluents that come out



   2   of the pipe into public waters.  I think that our



-   3   technical people say we have to have that and this is



   4   not going to be made available by Illinois  or Indiana



   5   Illinois has always made it available.



   6                                       (Laughter.)



   7                  If this is not going to be made available



   8   by Indiana, we are just going to have to go out and get



   9   it, and the trouble is it is going to cost us a lot of



  10   money and that is your money as well as ours.



  11        MR. POOLE:  May I get into this argument?



  12        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Yes.



  13        MR. POOLE:  We have certain confidential data.  I



  14   will admit to all of you here that Mr. Miller knows more



  15   about the number of plants that have submitted it than



  16   I know.



  17                  I have the impression that it was a



  18   relatively small group of industries when you consider



  19   the total group of industries.



  20                  Our policy has been that information



  21   that is submitted to us in confidence  is kept that way.



  22   On the other hand,  I hope to lean pretty heavily on



  23   the Chairman's view that anything that goes into public



  24   waters ought to be available to anybody that has got a



  25   real interest or a right to inquire about those public

-------
                                                     942



 1   waters.



 2                  Now, we do debate this thing.   It's been



 3   done in other conferences, the rest of the afternoon,



 4   but I would like to say to you, Mr. Stein, that if it



 5   is one of the conclusions of this conference and it has



 6   been recommended by H.E.W. that effluents data be



 7   submitted and maintained in open files, we do  the very



 8   best we can to make an adjustment with the people that



 9   have been ,giving us data in confidence in the past so



10   that the future data will be maintained in open files.



11        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.



12        MR. KLASSEN:  I just want to give you our



13   philosophy here.



14                  My own philosophy about this question



15   of operation reportswe feel that the waters are the



16   property of the people and certainly the public.  The



17   people, have a right to know how their property is



18   being used and what is being misused, and we have been



19   fairly successful in carrying out this philosophy; but



20   this is the basis on which we justify the fact that we




21   should know  the people have a right to know, the



22   public has a right to know  how their property is



23   being used and that it is not being misused.



24        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.



25                  Are there any further comments  or questions

-------
                                                        943
   l   of Mr. Miller's presentation?
   2        MR. KLASSEN:   I have a couple more.
   3                  I read your report here  and  followed  it,
   4   Mr. Miller, with a good deal of sympathetic understanding
   5   because after all,  Illinois and Indiana have maxxy mutual
   6   problems; and while we might operate a little differ-
   7   ently, the objective of your organization and ours,  we
   8   know, is the same.
   9                  On page 3^> there was a  statement here,
  10   "Local developers continue to construct combined sewers
  11   with outfalls to the Calumet River."
  12                  Is there a  well, first of all, does
  13   Indiana permit the construction of new combined sewers
  14   with outfalls?
  15        MR.  MILLER:  No.  The answer to that is no.
  16                  I think part of that was during the
  17   litigation.  Developers down there continued to build
  18   combined  sewers.
  19        MR.  KLASSEN:  Are there means by which steps could
  20   be taken  that you could put a halt,  practically, to  this?
  21                  I can tell you what has been very
  22   successful in Illinois.
  23                  When we find such a sewer that is being
  24   built illegally, we merely notify the Federal Housing and
  25   Veterans  Administration not to give any commitments  in

-------
                                                     944
 1   that area and this usually is more effective  than  state
 2   and court action, because this hitting the pocketbook  of
 3   the developer and the materials people and the financial
 4   people.
 5                  And I thought I might pick up  some  new
 6   ideas that you would have.  This approach is  getting a
 7   little threadbare, but it still works.
 8        MR. MILLER:  I would say we do the same  thing on
 9   the subdivisions that come to us.  FHA requires
10   approval of these before they construct them, and  in
11   this way we do get separate sewers in the subdivisions,
12   and we have been working on this; and the other thing
13   is on plan approval for sewers, these come to the
14   Stream Pollution Control Board and the Indiana State
15   Board of Health, and they require approval of the
16   Board's before they can obtain the financing, and  in
17   this way, we have some control over them.
18        MR. KLASSEN:  One other question of a technical
19   interest as well as putting something in here.  I  think
20   that this is a very complete report.
21                  It is on page 20, the statement, "The
22   lagoon effluents will seep horizontally through 250
23   feet of slag.
24                  What has been your experience  in the
25   material seeping through the brine or this deposit of

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 10

 11

 12

 13

 14

 15

 16

 17

 18

 19

 20

 21

 22

23

24

25
                                                         945
     slag in the way of either picking up material that will
     increase the pollution or being successful in so-called
     screening everything out or filtering everything out?
                    Has this been a successful means of
     keeping waste contained?
          MR. MILLER:  I think in this instance we believe
     that it will be a successful means of containing the
     waste.
                    This, I believe, depends upon the nature
of the waste, and as we  cited in the report with  the
pickle liquor, this did  go through the  slag and out into
Lake Michigan, so it is  dependent somewhat upon the
nature of the waste with which you are  involved.
     MR. KLASSEN:  That  is all, Mr. Chairman.
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Are there any further comments
or questions of Mr. Miller?
               Well, thank you very much  for a very
comprehensive report.
     MR. MILLER:  Thank  you.
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Mr. Poole.
     MR. POOLE:  Next on the list we have the
Merrillville Conservancy District.  I believe Mr. G.
A. Fort has a very brief report for this district.
     MR. FORT:  Mr, Chairman, conferees, ladies and
gentlemen, this is a report on how a fast growing,

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                                                      946



 l   unincorporated area has won the fight against pollution



 2   from septic tanks.



 3                  The purpose of this report is to  set



 4   forth information relating to the Sanitary Sewer System



 5   being constructed by the Merrillville Conservancy



 B   District, Lake County, Indiana, with $2,710,000  in bonds,



 7   issued by the Merrillville Conservancy District.



 8                  The bonds are issued under the provi-



 9   sions of Chapter 308 of the Laws of the State of



10   Indiana, passed at the 1957 Session of The General



11   Assembly, and an ordinance of the Merrillville



12   Conservancy District adopted September 13> 1963, to



13   provide funds to pay the construction cost of the pro-



14   posed Sanitary Sewer System.



15                  The bonds are direct obligations  of the



16   Merrillville Conservancy District, Lake County,



17   Indiana, payable out of unlimited ad valorem special



18   benefit taxes being levied and collected on all  taxable



19   real property in the district.



20                  The Merrillville Conservancy District




21   was established on December 28, 1962, by action  of the



22   court of Judge Felix A. Kaul, Circuit Court, Lake



23   County, Indiana, and was created for the purpose of pro-



24   viding sewage collection and treatment.  The district



25   can be identified as an area of some 3.2 square  miles

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                                                     94?
     located in Ross Township, Lake County, Indiana, to just
     north of Highway US 30 and extending east and west of
     State Road #53, better known as Broadway.  The terrain
     is generally flat to rolling in sections.  The area is
     drained by Turkey Creek which forms the headwaters of
     Lake George which flows into Lake Michigan.
                    The project has been approved by the
 8   following State agencies:
 9                  Flood Control Approval Letter, Dated
 10        July 29,  1963J
 11                  Stream Pollution Control Board:  Dated
 12        July 19,  1963;
 13                  State Board of Health; Dated July 19, 1963.
 14                  Merrlllville is an urban community
 15   situated in the great industrial complex of Lake County.
 16   It,  like many  other suburban communities, was developed
 17   without a central sewage system.  Each house is served
 18   by its own individual sewage disposal system.  Many of
 19   these individual systems were designed and constructed
20   without any regulatory control.   The Lake County Health
21   Department Septic Tank Ordinance was not passed until
22   the  late 1950's.
23                  Many of the homes in this area have
24   inadequate sewage disposal facilities and consequently
25   are  polluting  streams in this area and are creating

-------
                                                     948
 i   health hazards for themselves.  Because of soil condi-
 2   tlons many of the residents are unable to correct their
 3   failing septic tank systems.  The soil in this area is
 4   a clay type which does not permit satisfactory percolation.
 5                  A survey of tests by the Indiana Stream
 6   Pollution Control Board on December 6, 1963, found that:
 7        1.  Raw and inadequately treated sewage is being
 8            discharged to Turkey Creek and its tributar-
 9            ies from sewers originating within the
10            Conservancy District.
11        2.  Low dissolved oxygen values and high coliform
12            bacteria concentrations found downstream from
13            the sewer outfalls within the Conservancy
14            District indicate the streams are polluted
15            and serious health hazards exist.
16                  Twelve key points within the district
17   were samples with the following coliform results:
18        3 points      40,000 to    430,000 Coliform mpn/LOO ml
19        7   "      1,000,000 to  9,000,000     "    "    "  "
20        2   "     24,000,000 to 46,000,000    "     "    "  "
21                  A sanitary sewer system is the most
22   satisfactory answer to the abatement of the health
23   hazards, stream pollution and contamination of ground
24   water.
25                  Adequate sewage disposal for the protection

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10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21




22





23




24




25
                                                  949




 of  public  health is  the  most  serious  problem facing



 this metropolitan area.  Health precedes  all other



 needs such as transportation,  schools and industrial



 activity.  If the entire southern Lake County area is



 to  continue development  and growth, adequate sewers and



 sewage disposal  are  most necessary.   This district serves



 as  a hub or focal point  for future expansion of Lake



 County.  This district could  serve as a model and  guide



 to  others, pointing  the  way to the solution  of the



 sewage disposal  problem, particularly for unincorporated



 areas.  It could  through its  facility expand and provide



 sewage disposal  service  to the surrounding area.



               The present construction will include



approximately 154,850 feet of 8 to 30-inch diameter



 sanitary sewers,  a sewage pumping station will discharge



the sewage into the Gary Sanitary District Sewer System.



The Gary Sanitary District will provide the  treatment



and final disposal of the sewage.  Operation of sewer



system is scheduled to start approximately July 1,  1966.



The initial operation will have a flow of 500,000  gallons



of sewage/day with an immediate growth load  of the  next



5 years expected  at 2,000,000 gallons/day including



expected services to adjacent areas now using small



treatment plants.  The pump station will  be  capable of



handling 8,000,000 gallons per day to assure adequate

-------
                                                      950
 1   capacity for this fast growing area.
 2                   In January,  1965,  the Merrillville
 3   Conservancy District was notified by the United States
 4   Department of Health, Education,  and Welfare of a
 5   $181,7^0 grant  toward the construction of the pump
 6   station to handle sewage into Gary.  No grant has been
 7   made for the 29 miles of interceptors covering the
 8   polluted area described above.
 9                   ]n conclusion, the  Conservancy Act  of
10   Indiana has been established on this project as a means
11   to provide a growing unincorporated community an
12   economical and  much needed  centralized sewer service.
13   Having been with this project since its formation, it
14   can be said that the trials and tribulations are  many
15   especially in the financial area  because of having to
16   depend on the taxation support of low to average  income
17   families.  Projects like this can easily fall by  the
18   wayside without the financial aid of the proper state
19   and Federal agencies.
20                   Thank you.
21        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you,  sir.
22                   Are there any comments or questions?
23                   Mr. Poole.
24        MR. POOLE:  Next, I am going to call on Cities
25   Service Oil Company, and I  believe Joe Baum, who  is their

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                                                      951

 1  waste  disposal  coordinator,  will speak for them,

                                             k
 2       MR. BAUM:   Mr.  Chairman,  conferees,  ladies and


 3  gentlemen  


 4       CHAIRMAN STEIN:   I wonder before  you start,  can


 5  Lou Berglar of  Republic Steel  come  up.


 6       MR. BAUM:   I am Joseph  S.  Baum,  coordinator  of


 7  waste  disposal  for the Refining Division  of Cities


 8  Service Oil Company.


 9                  My report to  you today is  to tell  you of


 10  the progress  made in  pollution abatement  at the Cities


 n   Service Oil Company's petroleum refinery  located  at


 12   4900 Cline Avenue, East Chicago,  Indiana.


 13                   This  plant is a 55,000  barrel per  day


 14   refinery processing  sweet crude.  It is a  refinery


 15   employing only  skimming and  cracking operations.  The


 16   manufacturing processes include crude  distillation,


 17   delayed coking,  fluid catalytic cracking,  catalytic


 18   reforming and alkylation.

 19                   The water supply is  obtained from  Lake


20   Michigan and  is  used  on a once-through basis.   Con-


21   sumption, in  1964, varied from 60 million gallons per


22   day (mgd) in  the winter to a maximum of 95 million


23   gallons per day  in the  summer.   Approximately  96  per-


24   cent of this  water is used for  cooling purposes only.


25                   There  are three  separate sewer  systems

-------
                                                      952
 i  within the refinery:
 2       A.  The sanitary sewer  collects and discharges
 3           domestic wastes to  the East Chicago Sanitary
 4           District.
 5       B.  The cooling water is collected in a separate
 6           sewer system and this water does not  come in
 7           contact with petroleum products.  To  insure
 8           against accidents or breakdowns, such as
 9           tubular leaks, the  cooling water sewer dis-
10           charges through an  oil-water separator to
11            protect against the escape of any oil.
12       C.  The third sewer system collects process water
13           and discharges through an oil-water separator
14            of American Petroleum Institute (API) Design.
15                  The cooling water and process water Join
16   as the final effluent is discharged into the Grand
17   Calumet River.
18                  The East Chicago refinery was built in
19   1929.  During the first 16 years of operation  only one
20   major change occurred and that was the addition of an
21   Alkylation Unit for the manufacture of aviation gaso-
22   line.  Strong sulfuric acid  is used in the process;
23   however, there is no pollution problem from this source
24   as the spent acid is returned to the manufacturer by
25   pipeline.

-------
                                                    953
                    During the next 15-year period, from

     1945 to I960, many changes were made in processing units

     and waste treating facilities.  In the early part of this

     period the plant completed a $20,000,000 modernization

     program.  It was at this time that the company began its

     aggressive approach toward pollution abatement.

     Pollution control was a major factor in the design and

     selection of all new operating units.  During this

     period the following improvements were made:

 10        1.  Built new oil-water separator of API design

 n            to improve oil and solids separation from

 12            process water.

 13        2.  Made process changes to eliminate acid

 14            treatment of certain petroleum distillates.

          3.  Built an internal water circulating system,

 16            at the new Delayed Coking Unit, to prevent

 17            coke fines and other contaminants from

 18            entering the sewer system.  Coke fines are

 19            finely divided particles which are slow to

20            settle and consequently were isolated from

21            the sewer system.

22        ^.  Built treating unit to remove oily wax from

23            water used at the delayed coking unit.

24        5.  Additional sewers were installed for segrega-

25            tion of wastes and increased capacity.

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                                                     954
 1         6.  Boiler water  treating  sludge  was  removed  from
 2            the  sewer and pumped to  isolated  ponds.
 3         7.  Also, many antipollution features  were built
 4            into the new  process units.
 5                  The cost  of  the  water treating  facilities,
 6   during this period, to improve  the quality of  the  plant
 7   effluent, amounted to  $1,203,000.
 8                  The foregoing has  been  presented  to
 9   show  early developments  in  pollution abatement and the
10   company's interest in meeting its obligations.  The next
11   period I plan to cover is 1960  through 1964.   I have
12   limited this  to a five-year period because this period
13   is more closely related  to  the  current problem,  "the
14   quality of Lake Michigan water."
15                  In July   I960, modernization  of the
16   cooling water separator  was completed.  The  separator
17   was redesigned to meet present  day practices for maximum
18   separation of oil and  solids which included  an automatic
19   cleaning mechanism for their removal.   Also  included in
20   the design was the addition of  an effluent weir with
21   approximately a four foot waterfall.   This waterfall
22   permits aeration of the  total plant effluent and
23   increase the  oxygen content by  approximately 50 percent
24   of the oxygen deficit.   The cost  of this improvement
25   was $200,000.

-------
 12


 13


 14


 15
 17
                                                          955
                     January 1961,  marked the beginning of

     operation of a  newly  installed  spent  caustic  neutralizer.

     This eliminated the dumping of  waste  caustic  to the

     sewer  system.   In this  operation  the  waste  caustic is

     neutralized with acid.   After neutralization  and settling,

     the acid oils or phenolic type  compounds are  separated

     and sold.

                     In the period  of January 1961, to April
    I!
  9  1964,  a total of 1,883,000 gallons  of waste caustic  were

 10  collected and neutralized.  The cost  of this  installa-

 n  tion was $112,000.  This operation  was  changed in April
1964, and will be covered later in this report.

               In October 1961, a sour water stripper

was installed to remove sulfides, ammonia and phenolics

from the catalytic cracking unit accumulator waters.
 16   The stripper removes an average of 3700 pounds per day
of sulfides for a 99.9 percent removal and 1500
 18   pounds per day of ammonia for a 98.5 percent removal.

 19   The stripped water is then fed to a crude oil desalting

 20   unit where the phenolics are extracted by the crude oil.

 21   This total operation removes approximately 96 percent
   II
 22   of the phenolics or 160 pounds per day.  The cost of

 23   this installation was $96,000.

 24                  In November 1961, improvements were

25   made on the delayed coker blowdown system to permit

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 10


 11


 12


 13


 14


 15


 16


 17


 18


 19


 20


 21


 22


 23
                                                        956
   better separation of troublesome oily emulsions and

   retain these emulsions within the operating unit.  These

   improvements cost $30,000.

                  In December 1962, an automatic

   cleaning mechanism was added to the secondary chambers
  j
6 | of the API separator.  Similar equipment had previously

   been installed in the inlet and primary chambers of  the

   separator when it was originally built.  In the second-

   ary chambers the retention time and efficiency were

   gradually lowered as the solids would slowly build in
   the chambers.  The addition of the cleaning mechanism

   is to keep the solids continuously removed and thus

   take advantage of the maximum settling time built into

   this unit and consequently attain maximum efficiency in

   oil and solids removal from the process water.  This

   addition to the separator cost $31,000.

                  In April 1964, the plant began selling

   the spent caustic and consequently the caustic

   neutralization plant was shut down.  By sale of the

   total quantity of waste caustic there was further

   improvement by eliminating all wastes from this

   operation.  The amount of spent caustic collected and

   sold from April 1964, to the end of the year amounted
24    to 956,000 gallons.
25
                  The plant policy has and will continue

-------
                                                       957
     to be,  "attack the problem at the source and not allow

     wastes to enter the sewer system."  This has been a

     very effective method to control the quality of the

     plant effluent and this policy applies to all operations

  5 | within the plant.  On occasions it is necessary to

     chemically clean certain operating equipment.  This

     work is performed by outside contractors.  The contracts

  8 I covering this work stipulate that the cleaning wastes

  9  must be hauled away and not permitted to enter the
 10
 11
 12
 13
25
sewer system.  There are other wastes from in-plant

operations that require special handling.  An isolated

spoils area has been provided for the disposal of such

wastes.
 14 |                Although great strides have been made in

 15   abating pollution, we do not want to leave the impression

 16   that our job is done.  Pollution abatement is a problem

 17   requiring continual vigilance and we will continue to

 18   seek improvement.  Future plans for improvements in

 19   1965 include:

 20        1.  The condensed water from the delayed coker

 21            overhead product accumulator, though small

 22            in volume, contains sulfides and ammonia.

23            This water will be sent to an existing sour

24            water stripper for removal of the sulfides
         and ammonia.

-------
                                                       958
 1                After completion  of  this  project  the

 2             plant  will  be  removing,  from all  process  unit

 3             accumulator waters,  92  percent  of the sul-

 4             fides,  89 percent  of the phenols  and 91 per-

 c             cent of the ammonia.

 6         2.   A  pH analyzer  will be installed on the plant

 7             process water  leaving the API oil-water

 8             separator.   This will assist the  plant in

 9             detecting any  abnormal  conditions occurring

10             within the  plant.

n         3.   Installation of an automatic sampler on the

12             plant  final effluent water.   In the  past, the

13             plant  has relied on  spot samples  for the

14             evaluation  of  the  final effluent. It is  our

15             belief that a  more accurate  evaluation can  be

16             made on a 24-hour  average sample.

17         4.   We plan a pilot plant test run  on a  method

18             to further  remove  minute traces of oil from

19             plant  process  water.

20                   Because  of major  improvements  in the

21   past,  the Cities Service Refinery recognizes  that  they

22   are  entering into a  period  when  additional attention is

23   required  and future  improvements will be more difficult

24   to achieve. To keep abreast  of  this  problem  the plant

25   has  reorganized and  strengthened its  waste disposal

-------
                                                       959
     group.  Recently a new man was added to spend full time
     on pollution abatement.  It is his responsibility to
     coordinate all pollution abatement projects within the
     plant and serve as liaison on all related problems.
                    In conclusion, I should like to add that
     the Cities Service Oil Company has recognized its
     responsibility and obligation to improve the quality of
     the plant effluent water and this has been done.  We
     have worked closely with the State of Indiana in making
 10   these improvements and this cooperation will continue
 11   in the future.
 12                  This concludes my report.
 13        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Baum.
 14                  Are there any comments or questions?
 IS        MR. KLASSEN:  I have a couple, Mr. Chairman.
 16                  I noticed on the top of page 2, you say,
 17   "the cooling water and process water join as the final
 18   effluent is discharged into the Grand Calumet River."
 19                  According to some rapid calculations
 20   here, this is a dilution of about 18 to 1 to your
 21   waste load.
 22                  I am wondering, and I haven't had time
 23   to run through this, whether you plan to report your
 24   final effluent results and therefore your efficiencies
25   and waste removal in parts per million?

-------
                                                     960

 i                  If so, this tremendous dilution makes  it

 2   look awfully good in parts per million.  I would suggest,

 3   which I think I will do when the conferees meet, that it

 4   points up the importance of pounds of contaminant.

 5                  In other words, it masks it somewhat when

 6   there is this tremendous dilution and it is dilution with

 7   the same water that you are putting it back into.

 8                  The other point that I want to inquire about

 9   is  I don't see anything in here about temperatures.

10   Roughly 95 percent of your waste discharge is from

11   the cooling processes.  Do you want to make some comment

12   on what is the temperature of your discharge?

13        MR. BAUM:  I'd like to comment on both of your

14   remarks.

15                  The temperature  I will take your last

16   one first.

17                  The temperature of our total effluent

is   will run in the range of 90 degrees, possibly between

19   85 and 90 degrees.

20                  Now, on the amount of water, it is my

21   feeling that the thing that we are interested in is
                                 i
22   concentration in water.

23                  When we go out to survey a stream, we

24   talk concentration.  We go to the Public Water Service

25   Drinking Water  Standards.  They are all expressed in

-------
                                                        961
  1   concentration.   So If you have concentration in your
     effluent,  that  meets requirements.  You are satisfying
     a need.
          MR. KLASSEN:  I wish I could agree with you, but
     I don't  because on this basis, it might be cheaper and
     certainly give  you a more effective picture by pumping
     more lake water into your effluent discharge.
 8

 9

 10

 11

 12

 13

 14

 15

 16

 17

 18

 19

 20

 21

 22

23

24

25
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Right.
     MR. KLASSEN:  And this would make your effluent
look good on concentration but it would not reduce the
total amount that you are putting into the outlet
stream.
     MR. BAUM:  Well, I thought I had certainly shown in
my report that the thing that I had done to remove
products from our waste, is to help the situation that
you are talking about.
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  No, I think, as I understand
Mr. Klassen's question, in my mind, he makes a point.
He is talking in terms of cooling water.
               Let's forget the cooling water for a
minute.  If your theory is correct and you have an
effluent, you don't have to have any cooling water.  All
you have to do is draw up some clean water from your
source, mix it with the effluent, reduce your concentra-
tion and say you've got it made.

-------
                                                    962
         MR. BAUM:  Well, I don't think that that is quite
    what I am saying.
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Well, I think this is the point
    that Mr. Klassen raised.  I just wanted to clarify this.
         MR. KLASSEN:  I want to emphasize this:  My
    question has nothing to do with the excellent progress
    and the real job you have done.  I am merely raising
    this not for you, but for the rest of the industries;
    because, more and more, I would say the control agencies
10  are interested in the total pounds or amounts, rather
11  than the concentrations because this doesn't give a true
12  picture.
13       MR. BAUM:  Well, that is the point that I am
14  trying to make; that I  let me give you a ridiculous
15  idea in trying to bring out my point.
16                 Here we have Lake Michigan, and I believe
17  it is about 22,400 square miles.  If you assume an average
18  depth of 50 feet and then calculate this out on a one part
19  per million BOD, you will come out with a population
20  equivalent for Lake Michigan of something in the order
21  of 11 billion people.
22                 Well, it doesn't mean anything.  Now,
23  if the concentration is satisfactory, one part per
24   million which I think was in Mr. Gerstein's report,
25  that if he had water that is one or one-half part per

-------
                                                    963
     million at the crib inlet, that he was in very good

     condition.  So it seems to me that concentration is all

     important in that you can't  I am not saying that

     you can't use pounds per day in certain cases, but I

     do think that pounds per day cannot be a guiding factor

     in all situations.

          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  I have two points here:  one, as

 8   I see this and as I have listened to this,  we don't get

 9   this wonderful average in disbursing everything

 10   entirely through Lake Michigan.

 n                  I think as the Department of Health,

 12   Education, and Welfare report indicated along with the

 13   Chicago experience  Hy Gerstein indicated  this pollution

 14   goes in slugs in the waves and in groups through the

 15   lake.

 16                  The other point that I get  and I

 17   again am looking for something here 	 if  we divorce

 18   ourselves completely from Mr. Klassen's concept,  the

 19   only thing you have to do in order to meet  a concen-

20   tration concept is to get in enough water from your water

21   supply and dilute your waste and then put it out.   If all

22   we  are doing  is measuring the concentration and Just

23   getting enough dilution,  you have the concentration

24   without providing any kind of treatment facility.

25                   I am not saying that you are doing this,

-------
                                                      964
     and  I want  to  make  this  clear.   I think the Cities
     Service  Plant  has,  it  seems  to  me,  a  very good  program
     and  has  a real enviable  record  of waste disposal.
                    It  is  only when  you get to the good
     ones that you  can ferret out these fine points.  I
     do think Mr. Klassen has a real philosophic point here.
     Because  if  you can  get waste and if before you discharge
     it,  you  can put that  in  with some fresh water source,
     you  can  adjust that concentration to  suit yourself.
10        MR. BAUM:  Well,  it sounds easy, but that is not
11   cheap.   You don't pump that  water for nothing.
12                                       (Laughter.)
13        CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   You might not.   It might  be a
14   little easier  pumping  it and diluting it than treating
15   it.   Because if it  weren't cheaper, I can see why some
16   people say  "dilution  is  the  solution  to pollution" and
17   want to  use the public water supply to provide  that
18   dilution.
19                  If  it  weren't cheap, they wouldn't go to
20   too  much trouble pumping it  out.
21        MR. KLASSEN:   I  think basically  we are talking
22   about whether  or not we  subscribe to  the concept of
23   using a  fresh  water resource in lieu  of treatment.  I
24   think this  is  what  we  are talking about, and, again, I
25

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  5
 6
 7
                                                   965
want to emphasize you just happened to be the first
one up here that we could ask, and it certainly is no

reflection on the excellent job your refinery has done,
believe me.

     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Are there any further questions?

     MR. POSTON:  Is it my turn?

     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  By the way, I'd like to emphasize
     again  that  I  do  think that  the  record of your company is

 9   indeed enviable.   This is pretty good.

 10       MR. BAUM:   Thank you very  much,  Mr. Chairman.

 11       MR. POSTON:   I  notice  that on page  5 you have

 12   eliminated  all of  the waste from the  operation.   The
 13   amount of spent  caustic has been corrected and sold

 14   from April  of '64  to the end of the year amounted to

 15   956,000 gallons, and I noted that you had made the

 16   point  of the  cost  of your treatment previously.
 17                 Would you care to give how much savings

 18   was made by way  of selling  this material?
 19       MR. BAUM:   Well,  we didn't save  in  either case;
 20   it cost us  money.

 21        MR. POSTON:   To sell?
 22       MR. BAUM:  Yes,  both.   It  cost us to neutralize,

 23    in even   we operated at a loss to dispose of the
 24    phenolics which we did receive  a price for.

25                  We  do receive and save a  little bit by

-------
                                                        966
      selling the total caustic, the waste caustic, but to us,

     getting rid of a product completely and not having the

  3 Ioperation within our plant is worth the extra expenditure.

          MR. POSTON:  One other question:  Does Cities

     Service have any objection to giving the operation

  6 I effluent data, data of the amounts of specific chemicals

     discharged to the watercourse?

          MR. BAUM:  I don't have  I didn't bring any data

  9  | of hours along with me.  The only data that I have

 10   looked at was the data you have taken on your 24-hour
 11

 12

 13

 14

 15

 16

 17
composite sample, and I did write down the comparison

of our effluent with the stream that we were going into.

               Just as a comparison, because they were

both 24-hour samples taken at the same time, if you care

to, I would review those.  There is only about five

of them.   It will be very short.

     MR. POSTON:  Okay, I'd be glad to hear that.
 18        MR. BAUM:  These samples were taken by the Great

 19   Lakes-Illinois River Basin Project when they were working

 2o   in our area.

 2i                  The samples were taken on October 24,

 22 1  1963.  They sampled our effluent and then, at the same

23   time,, they sampled the Calumet, Grand Calumet River,

24   but it is 100 yards downstream of where our effluent

25   enters, so our effluent does influence the downstream

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10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17
18




19
                                                       967



    sample to some extent, because we don't know how much



    mixing you get from our effluent in a hundred yards.



                   However, the data taken was the Grand



    Calumet River.  On ammonia, it contained 5.1 parts per



    million.



                   The Cities Service effluent contained



    1.7 parts per million or only about a third as much.



                   On BOD, the Grand Calumet River contained



    9.5 parts per million; and the Cities Service effluent



    contained 4.8, or only half as much.



                   The dissolved oxygen in the river was



    2.1 parts per million; the dissolved oxygen on the



    Cities Service effluent was twice as high.  It was 3.9



    parts per million which makes the dissolved oxygen



    a higher content, better for our effluent.



                   Oil in the Grand Calumet River was



    12 parts per million.   On the East Chicago effluent,
    it is 6 parts per million or half as much.



                   Phenolics, it was 305 parts per million



20   in the Grand Calumet, this is 191 parts per million in



21   the Cities Service effluent.



22                  I think this illustrates the effective-



23   ness of our method of trying to treat these wastes and



24   get these down lower and meet our obligation of trying



25   to upgrade our effluent.

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                                                     968
 l        MR. POSTON:   I think that  is all.
 2        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Well, thank you very much, Mr.
    Baum.
 4                                        (Applause)
 5        MR. POOLE:  Next on the list is the duPont Company
    and I guess Mr. J. M. Devins, Plant Manager, is going
    to represent duPont.
         MR. DEVINS:   Chairman Stein, conferees, ladies
    and gentlemen, my  name is John  M. Devins.  I am manager
10   of the duPont Company Plant in  East Chicago, Indiana.
n                  The plant is located on the north shore
12   of the Grand Calumet River between Kennedy and Cline
13   Avenues.
14                  The plant began  chemical manufacture
15   in 1893 and has been in continuous operation for the
16   past 72 years.  We currently employ 440 people.  The
17   principal products are inorganic chemicals:  sulfuric
18   acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfamic acid, silicates,
19   and chlorides of zinc and ammonia.  Fluorocarbon
20   products and small volumes of organic herbicides are
21   also produced.
22                  Our current wastes entering the
23   Calumet River contain very little organic matter; they
24   are largely inorganic in nature.  From our studies we
25   conclude that these wastes have no material effect on

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23
24
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                                                 969
the water quality of the river.  Sanitary sewage is

pumped to the East Chicago Sanitary District Treatment

Plant.
               DuPont regards pollution abatement  as

an essential part of every process.  Technical studies

on pollution control are conducted simultaneously  with

the research and development of every new product.
The design of a manufacturing unit always includes

provision for pollution control.
               Facilities for preventing losses or

recovering valuable products are an important factor

in remaining competitive.  Whenever possible, we treat

our waste streams for recovery of valuable products.

In addition, we have made a determined effort to abate

any remaining pollution.  Following are some examples:
 16                  In 195^* we installed equipment to neu-
tralize diluted acid contained in a salt solution from
 18   our silicate operation.  The solubility characteristics
 19   of this solution required a detailed technical study to
 20   design equipment that would perform reliably.  These
 21   facilities are operating satisfactorily.

 22                  In 1955, when design of a new sulfamic
acid plan was undertaken, our plans were discussed

with the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board before
construction began.  Our waste discharge program was

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15
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18
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21
22

23
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                                                  970
approved, and a permit for this operation was issued.
The permit requires monitoring of the discharge stream
and a report is made regularly to the Indiana Stream
Pollution Control Board.
               A very recent addition to pollution
abatement facilities is in conjunction with the manu-
facture of organic herbicides.  Early in our planning
of this new product line, we approached the Pollution
Control Board and developed a waste disposal program
involving rigid controls.  A permit was issued and
performance reports are submitted to the Board
regularly.
               Now I would like to discuss the matter
of controls:
               We continuously sample our main process
effluent, chemically analyzing the samples for traces
of products.  Not only does this guard against pollution
of the Grand Calumet River, but it provides us with a
means of detecting operating irregularities and thus
enables us to make corrections promptly.
               On two occasions, in I960 and in 1962,
we studied the water quality of the Grand Calumet River
in the vicinity of our plant.  The studies were carried
out by engineers under the direction of a pollution
abatement specialist.  Intensive study was made from a

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20
21
22
                                                   971
point one half mile upstream of the plant to  the
Indiana Harbor Canal  -- about one mile downstream.
               In these studies hundreds of samples
were collected for chemical analysis.  We also  checked
our plant outfalls by measuring flow rates and  chemical
composition, and compared this total with the changes
in concentration of each constituent in the river between
upstream and downstream sampling stations.
               In general, the two methods of
measurement were in agreement and satisfied us  that the
monitoring program was accurately controlling the waste
load from the plant.
               Two areas where supplemental control might
be beneficial were disclosed by these studies,
specifically in sulfur dioxide and zinc wastes.  Engineers
were assigned to study recovery methods for both of these
materials.  After considerable technical effort, we
developed means of recovering these materials.  Con-
struction of facilities has been underway during the
past year and will be in operation very shortly.  When
this new equipment is operating, we plan to make another
survey of the river as a part of our continuing pollution
23   control program.
24
25
               Now, in summary, the duPont Company has
taken a positive approach to preventing pollution of the

-------
                                                      972
    Grand Calumet River.  We have cooperated fully with
    the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board in the
    design and construction of pollution abatement equipment.
    The performance and maintenance of this equipment is
    regularly monitored.  Surveys of the river substantiate
    that we have an effective control program.
 7                 Thank you.
 8       CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, sir.
 9                 Are there any comments or questions of
10  Mr. Devins?
11       MR. CHESROW:  To what extent are you now dumping
12  chlorides into the river?
13       MR. DEVINS:  I read a report in the Hammond Times
14  that we were dumping 90,000 pounds of hydrochloric acid
15  in the river.  This is not true.
16       MR. CHESROW:  How much are you dumping?
17       MR. DEVINS:  We are dumping none.
18       MR. CHESROW:  None at all?
19       MR. DEVINS:  None at all, and we have worked with
2o  the Indiana Pollution Control Board and obtained a permit
21  which has been discussed earlier in this conference to
22  dump the acid, that one of the provisos was that we would
23  try to sell the acid and I can report that we are selling
24  the acid.
25       MR. CHESROW:  Are you recovering all your acid?

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  2
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                                           973
MR. DEVINS:  Pardon?
MR. CHESROW:  Are you recovering all your acids?
MR. DEVINS:  Well, we make and sell acid and the
     only acid loss that we have would  I would define  it
     as a yield loss, so we do have some.
          MR. CHESROW:  To what extent?  How much was  
     what is the percentage of loss?
  8        MR. DEVINS:  Pardon?
  9 I      MR. CHESROW:  The percentage lost.
 10        MR. DEVINS:  I don't have the exact  figure,  but
 11   it is very low.  I could get that information.
 12        MR. CHESROW:  Does the Indiana Board control the
 13   loss, keep tab on your loss?
 14        MR. DEVINS:  Yes, we make reports to the  Indiana
 15   Pollution Control Board on our losses.
 16        MR. CHESROW:  Thank you.
 17        MR. POSTON:  VJe had pictures of duPont shown on
 18   Tuesday by Mr. Le Bosquetof the duPont Company  with a
 19   whitish appearing waste going to the Grand Calumet
 20   River,  and I wondered whether you saw that slide  or
 21   whether	
 22        MR. DEVINS:  I did not, Mr. Poston.
 23        MR. POSTON:  Well, I'd like to show this  slide
 24   and see if you could identify what this material  might be
25                  I see from some of our results, there are

-------
                                                      974
     some 40,000 pounds daily solids going to the river,  and
     I wondered if this were part of it and what this might
     be.
          MR. DEVINS:  I believe that is the picture that
     is in the back of the room, is it not?
  6        MR. POSTON:  Yes.
  7        MR. DEVINS:  That is the slide of the picture in
     the back.
                    Well, I have a summary of our various
 10   wastes here going to the river,  and I would say that
 11   that is probably a sulfate salt, some sulfate, calcium
 12   sulfate, perhaps.
 13        MR. CHESROW:  And referring to the slide, the
 14   percentage of wastes that are disposed of in the river,
 15   are they controlled at their source?
 16        MR. DEVINS:  Pardon, sir?
 17        MR. CHESROW:  Do you measure them?  You? controlling
 18   factor is  is it at the source that it goes into the
 19   river?
20        MR. DEVINS:  Yes, we control at the source and we
21   also check the outfalls.
22        MR. CHESROW.  You do check the outfalls?
23        MR. DEVINS:  Yes.
24        MR. CHESROW:  Do you have the figures available as
25   to the percentages, at the outfall and at the source, please?

-------
                                                       975
 1        MR.  DEVINS:   I could make these available.  I
 2   think I'd have  to  do a  lot of calculating to convert
 3   them into pounds per day or parts  per million.
 4        MR.  CHESROW:   Roughly, roughly, would you
 5   venture a guess?
 6        MR.  DEVINS:   Pardon,  sir?
 7        MR.  CHESROW:   Would you venture a guess?
 8        MR.  DEVINS:   A guess  on what,  now?
 9        MR.  CHESROW:   On the  percentages.
10        MR.  DEVINS:   Well,  the increase in the concentra-
11    tion of constituents in  the river  is the result of
12   discharge from  the  duPont  plant  
13        MR.  CHESROW:   From  the duPont  plant only.
14         MR.  DEVINS:    is  in terms of a few parts per
15   million.
16                   Now,  I am not 
17         MR.  CHESROW:   Is it as low  as  that?
18         MR.  DEVINS:  Yes, it  is low.
19         MR.  CHESROW:   All right,  thank you.
20         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Do you have any further questions
21    or comments?
22         MR.  POSTON:  No, I  think that  is it.
23         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you  very much,  Mr.  Devins.
24                   Mr.  Poole.
25         MR.  POOLE:  Next, we  have Mr.  A.  J.  Shulter of

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11


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19


20


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25
                                                  976

U.S.S. Lead Refinery, and I don't know whether Mr. A.

J. Shuler or Mr.,Warner is going to represent them.

     MR. SHULER:  Mr. Chairman, conferees, ladies and

gentlemen, I am A. J.  Shuler, not Shulter, Plant

Engineer of U.S.S. Lead Refinery in East Chicago.

     MR. POOLE:  I beg your pardon.

     MR. SCHULER:  This plant is located on about the

79 acres of land on the north bank of the Calumet River

immediately west of Kennedy Avenue.
                                        
               Approximately 10 acres of this 79 acres

is improved with roadways, railroad tracks, buildings

and production facilities.  None of the area within 300

yards of the north water edge of the Grand Calumet

River is improved.

               The total employment of this plant is

small, normally about 120 employees.

               This plant has been engaged in the

refining of nonferrous metals since 1906.

               The U.S.S. Lead Refinery, Inc., is using

water from the Grand Calumet River for cooling metal

moulds and for circulating in water jackets.  This

water is then returned to the river.  The water from this

river is also used for our fire hydrant system.

               We are concerned that the river water be

of good quality.

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V
I
   10

   11

   12

   13

   14

   15

   16

   17

   18
                                                      977
                   The average amount of water obtained for

    these  purposes  from the  Grand Calumet River is less

    than 1/4  million gallons per day and, as mentioned

    above,  this  small amount of water is returned to the

    river.

                   We know of no way in which nitrogen,

    phosphorus   or  cyanide compounds,  bacteriological

8 ||  pollutants,  oil,  acidic  or alkaline materials or trash

    are discharged  to the Grand Calumet River from our

    plant.
                   Conforming to the wishes of the various
    interested  agencies,  this plant  constructed a separate

    sanitary  sewer  system in  19*1-7 at a  cost of $26,585.00.

    All domestic wastes pass  through this  system to the

    East Chicago Sanitary District sewage  treatment plant.

    There are no combined storm and  domestic sewerage systems
   in this plant.
                   We  appreciate  the  opportunity of pre-
  19 J  senting this information to the committee.

  20         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Schuler.  Are

  21    there any comments or questions?

  22         MR.  KLASSEN:  You have no industrial wastes, then;

  23 I   only domestic wastes?

  24         MR.  SCHULER:  We have a small amount of what might

  25    be called industrial waste which goes to the East Chicago

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23
25
                                                  978
Sanitary District.
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Are there any comments or questions?
               If not, thank you very much, Mr. Schuler.
     MR. POOLE:  Thank you, Mr. Schuler.
               Next is General American Transportation,
     Dr.  Gregoire  Gutzeit,  Senior Scientific Advisor, who will
     handle  their  presentation.
          DR.  GUTZEIT:   Mr. Chairman,  conferees,  ladies
 9 I!  ana  gentlemen,  I am not going to  mention the sanitary
wastes which are connected to the East Chicago treatment
plant,
               Plant No. 2 of General American Trans-
portation Corporation is located on Railroad Avenue in
East Chicago, Indiana,  Its function is to maintain and
repair units of the large tank- car fleet, owned and
leased by the Corporation, as well as contract mainten-
ance of conveyances previously manufactured for and sold
to customers.
               Cleaning of these tanks may be required
for various reasons, but mainly in order to perform
needed repairs, or to start shipment of a different
product which frequently is the result of a seasonal
change.
24                   The method of tank- car cleaning depends
obviously on the last commodity carried. However, the

-------
                                                      979
  i   liquid wastes which contribute to stream pollution are
     generally produced by draining,  steaming, and/or
     rinsing.
                    Steaming can be carried out with or
     without the introduction of additional detergents or
     solvents.  In the former case, a so-called "syphon" is
     used;  that is,  a T-shaped attachment which serves the
     purpose of dispersing water, a detergent solution,
 9 I!  kerosene, or caustic soda solution into the steam jet.
 10   Kerosene  is used to facilitate the removal of heavy
 il   petroleum products.  Caustic soda solution is injected
12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
to saponify vegetable oils, animal greases and similar
glycerides.  Wet steam is applied to acid and alkali-
tanks.  Detergent solutions are helpful with materials
such as rosin, tar oils, etc.
               Liquids resulting from simple drainage
mixed with the wash waters and steam condensate, repre-
sent the fluid waste of these maintenance plants.
               Slide one, please:
               This slide shows the steam on both sides.
There are tank-cars in the center and the drainage flume.
All right.
               Due to the large number of products
shipped in bulk and to traffic fluctuations, this waste
is extremely complex and variable.  However, its daily

-------
                                                     980
    volume, and therefore its contribution to the total
    pollution load of Lake Michigan Basin, is quite small.
                   The maintenance shop in East Chicago
    has been in operation since 1937.  Until 1948, the waste
    was discharged into a large settling pond, about one acre
    area by an average 8 feet deep, and the overflow of
    the latter was received by the Indiana Harbor Canal.
    In late 1948, at the request of the Indiana Stream
    Pollution Control Board, studies were initiated with
10   the purpose of designing a treatment system.  However,
    the problem was further complicated by three factors
12   which are only encountered in old, established car
13   maintenance plants:
14        1.    The cleaning tracks and receiving flumes
15              had been built more than ten years previously,
16              and were unsuitable for segregating the cars
17              into separate classes, according to the
18              commodity last carried, which is a practice
19              we apply in new plants.
20        2.    The space available for the treatment system
21              was minimal, and thus dictated the choice of
22              methods requiring compact equipment.
23        3.    The East Chicago Municipal Sewage Works have
24              constantly refused to accept any type of
25              industrial waste for secondary treatment,

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IS
19
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22
23
24
25
                                                    981
                regardless  of the  degree of pretreatment,  and
                I have  been happy  to  hear today that this
                policy  may  have  changed.
                                     (Laughter.)
                Under these circumstances,  it  was  obvious
that only a compromise solution could be reached.
                A survey  of the waste's  character  and
volume was carried out from November 1,  1948,  to  April
30, 1949, in East Chicago  as well as in another of  the
Corporation^ maintenance shops in Masury,  Ohio.
                In East Chicago, a grand total of  1,611
cars, distributed as follows, were cleaned  during the
six months' period.
                23.66 percent of these cars  had been
used to ship solid commodities which do not contribute
to water pollution.
                The remainder had been last  loaded with
various commodities which  I tabulated.
                44 percent  of them being petroleum
products, oils, fats, et cetera; others  being  acids,
alkalies, organic chemicals and so forth.
                Another 18-day survey in September,
1948, of cars loaded with  liquid commodities  indicated
an even broader observation.  The tabulation  is
attached to our statement.   That is Table II.

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 9




10




11





12




13





14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21




22





23




24




25
                                                     982




                   A recent 5-day sample collection was



    made  from February 9th to February 15,  1965.   During



    that  period,  a  total  of 65 cars  were cleaned.   However,



    eight tank-cars contained solid  materials and  five



5   held  products volatile at steam  temperature so that



6   only  52,  or an  average of slightly over 10 tanks per



    day contributed to the production of liquid wastes,



    mineral,  vegetable and animal oils and/or greases



    represented again the most frequent loadings,  30 cars



    or  about  58 percent.    (Cf.  Table III)



                   For the purpose of estimating the



    volume  of the liquid  wastes,  based on an eight-hour



    operation for 25 days per month,  water  and steam con-
    sumption were  checked  twice  over  60-day  periods  in the



    Corporation's  Masury,  Ohio,  maintenance  plant.   It was



    found  that a maximum of  312.5 gallons  of water including



    steam  condensate was used per car hour or 2,500  gallons



    per  car per eight hour day.  However,  all the positions



    on the cleaning tracks are practically never occupied in



    any  single day and  only  about 50  percent of the  racks



    capacity is used over  a  long period.



                  In East Chicago  Plant No. 2, the  expected



    total  cleaning load, including  cars having last  shipped



    solids or gases, has been and still remains an average



    of 15  cars per eight-hour day.  This represents  a  maximum

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                                                       983




 l   of 37 cars and 500 gallons per day.



 2                  The treatment system was therefore



     planned for a maximum volume of 50,000 gallons per day



 4   of liquid wastes.   This figure, as printed, was more



 5   than twice the capacity actually required.



 6                  This is shown by the flows measured



 7   when the plant was in normal operation.



 8                  For instance, during the year 1959* a



 9   total of 5*784,750 gallons of waste was treated,



10   representing 19*282.50 gallons per working day at 300



11   days per year or 15,848.63 gallons for a 365-day year.



12                  The maximum occurred in March with an



13   average volume of  20,175 gallons per day.   During the



14   six-month survey period,  weekly composite  samples were



15   collected and analyzed.  Because of the particular



16   nature of the waste,  no BOD determinations were made.



17   Instead,  chemical  oxygen consumed was measured after



18   sludge settling and gravity separation of  free oil.



19                  The following data indicate the



20    character of the raw  waste.   The results are in parts



21    per million.



22                   Raw waste,  this is a  C.O.D. figure, the



23    first figure,  acid chromate,  silver catalyzed,  3,000  to



24    6,000;  after sludge settling and oil separation, 256 to



25    1,340.

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                                                        984



                    Ether extract,  594 to 1,771; after



     sludge settling and oil  separation,  20 to 160.   Phenols,



     8 to 32;  and after sludge  settling and oil separation,




     8 to 24.



                    Suspended solids,  2,600 to 3,100; after



     settling,  600 to 1,700.



                    Laboratory testing of possible treatment



     methods,  adaptable to the  existing conditions,  showed



     that chemical precipitation or coagulation followed



 10   by clarification,  would  reduce the oxygen consumed to



 11   about 30  to  150 ppm;  the ether extractables to  5-15 ppm;



 12   and the suspended solids to 20 ppm or less.



 13                  However,  phenols or other stable aro-



 14   matics were  not affected.   Experiments with chemical



 15   oxidation of phenols,  using chlorine dioxide, Indicated



 16   possibility  of achieving reduction from about 20 to 2



 17   ppm,  although reagent consumption appeared very high.



 18                  On the basis of these investigations, a



 19   treatment  system was  designed  in  1949 and built in 1950



20   with a theoretical capacity of 50,000 gallons per day.



21                  The original plant incorporated  chemical



22   oxidation of phenols,  a  solution  of chlorine, dissolved



23   oxygen controlled by a recently developed phenol-



24   monitoring device was fed  into the final outlet line.



25                  In 1952,  the Board of Sanitary Commissioners,

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                                                          985




     City of East  Gary,  was again requested by General



     American Transportation Corporation to allow the pre-



     treated waste to  be fed into the  city sewers.   On the



     basis  of previous policy decisions, this  proposition was



     rejected by letter  dated June 10,  1952, stating that



     only domestic sewage would  be accepted.



                    Consequently, the  treated  waste had



     to be  discharged  into the Indiana  Harbor  Canal.



                    Unfortunately, due  to the  complex



 10   nature  of the  waste,  chlorine dioxide consumption proved



 11   totally inconsistent and always excessively  high.



 12                  It had,  therefore,  to be discontinued



 13   both for economic and technical reasons.  Further,



 14   operating experience indicated the  need for  modification



 15   of the  system.



 16                  The  present  flow-diagram can  be



 17   summarized as  follows:   Slide 2.



 18                  The  raw waste from  tank-car cleaning



 19   operations flows  directly into the  large  settling  pond



20   over one acre by  an  average  of eight  feet deep.



21                  Through a submerged  pipe,  surrounded



22   by a cylindrical  baffle  retaining the  supernatant  oil,



23   the waste is pumped  into two  open oil  separators of



24   standard construction,  connected in series;  then,  into



25   three associated  holding and  equalizing tanks  of 10,000

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                                                       986



     gallons capacity each, steam heated.



                    From there, it flows into the large pre-



     settling tank where it is neutralized by a large lime



     slurry or by sulfuric acid, as the case may be.



 5                  The waste can be alkaline or acid.



 6                  The total aluminum sulfates required



     for flocculation and absorbed is indicated by prelimin-



     ary laboratory tests and is also fed into the pre-



 9   settling tank and returned to the pond.



 10                  The overflow is pumped at the rate of



 11    75 to 80 gallons per minute into an eleven-foot diameter



 12   clarifier where the remainder of the aluminum sulfate,



 13   as well as some additional lime, are fed within a con-



 14    trolled pH range, between 6.5 and 8.



 15                   The clear effluent is discharged into



 16    the Indiana Harbor Canal, while the sludge is returned



 17    to the pond.  The latter is cleaned each winter by an



 18    outside contracting firm and the accumulated sludge is



 19    hauled away.



20                   Slide 3, please.




21                   This shows the pre-settling basin, and



22    in the back the accelerator, the control building.



23                   Slide 4:  This shows the interior of the



24    control building with the controller, phenol controller



25    and pH.  There is still the chlorine dioxide equipment.

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                                                         98?

                    During the initial operation of this

     system, two composite samples of the effluent collected

     at different periods gave the following analyses.

                    O.C., chemical oxygen consumed, 182.4;

     ether extract, 45.0; phenols, 21.8; suspended solids,

     12.  This is a high sample.

                    A low sample:  chemical oxygen consumed,

     30.0; ether extract, 6.8; phenols, 23.2; suspended solids,

     0.01.

 10                  As can be seen, the operational results

 11   of the waste treatment system confirm reasonably well

 12   the findings of previous laboratory work.

 13                  Slide 5,  please.

 14                  That shows the waste, the raw wastes on

 15   the left side and on the right side the chloride over-

 16   flow.

 17                  A composite sample of raw waste from the

 18   pond collected recently  over a  5-day period from

 19   February 9,  to February  15,  1965, was analyzed for a

 20   number of pollutants,  some of which have not been

 21   formerly reported.

 22                  The concentration of these components

 23   was also determined in the treated effluent.   As  could

 24 (I  have been expected,  phosphorus is substantially removed

25   as  an insoluble precipitate.
                                   (Text Continued  on Page 993)

-------
GENERAL AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION CORPORATION
          (Dr.  Gregoire Gutzelt)
                   988
                    TABLE Cl
   tHSOlUtLEl
                      AGIOS
SOLUBLES
Dm
9/24
9/25
9/2S
9/27
9/29
9/30
tlO/3
10/4
10/6
10/7
10/8
10/10
10/13
10/14
10/15
10/1S
10/21
10/22

PtToLiu-Poo.-CiuriiCAL-Fm, ETC. 0e.-l*oiu. AUALies-Oae*
22 1
1 21
1 J 1
1
2

2 1
2
1
1 1
1 1
1
2

t

1 1
	 	 	 J_ JL J-
732 95 11
CKEMICALC-OTHE*
2 I

1

1 1
1


2
1
2
1

3
1
2
1
__ __
4 16
PHCNOI







3
1

1
1
1







-------
   GENERAL AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION CORPORATION         989
              (Dr.  Oregolre  Gutzeit)

                       TABLE III
                          (Last Load)
 Date                	Commodity	             Remarks
2-9-65               Syrup
                     Crude Soya Bean Oil
                     Steep Water
                     Reclean                          Water Wash
                     Reclean                          Water Wash
                     Reclean                          Water Wash
                     Reclean                          Water Wash
                     Caustic Soda
                     Ined. Tallow
                     Sulfuric Acid
                     Ref.  Vegetable  Oil
                     Ined. Tallow
                     #2 Fuel Oil

2-10-65              Diesel Fuel
                     Sulfuric Acid
                     Crude Soya Bean Oil
                     Light Residual  Fuel
                     Neats1 Foot Oil
                     Methanol
                     Black Strap Molasses
                     Tar                              Solid
                     Tar                              Solid
                     Lube  Oil
                     Crude Soya Bean Oil
                     Lube  Oil
                     Lube  Oil
                     Diesel Fuel
                     Sulfur                           Solid
                     Plastic Roofing Cement            Solid

2-11-65              Crude Vegetable Oil
                     Ined.  Grease
                     Chemical (?)
                     Naphtha                          Volatile
                     Lard
                     Pet. Naphtha                      Volatile
                     Fuel  Oil (Heavy)
                     Diesel  Fuel
                     Carbon Bisulphide                 Volatile
                     Sulfur                           Solid
                     Tar                              Solid
                     Plastic Roofing Cement            Solid

-------
                                                           99C
  GENERAL AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION CORPORATION
                                        (Dr.  Gregoire  Gutzeit)
                       TABLE III
                      (Continued)
                          (Last  Load)
 Date                	Commodity                    Remarks

2-12-65              Lube  Oil
                     Lube  Oil
                     Crude Vegetable Oil
                     W/fo Pet.  Oil
                     Phosphorus  Trichloride
                     Phosphorus  Trichloride
                     Phosphorus  Trichloride
                     Phosphorus  Trichloride
                     Fuel  Oil
                     Carbon Bisulphide                 Volatile
                     Molten Sulfur                     Solid

2-15-65              Fatty Acid
                     White Oil
                     Molasses
                     Ined. Grease
                     Triethanolamine
                     Synthetic Resin
                     Fuel  Oil
                     Naphthalene
                     Ammonia                           Volatile
                     Sulfuric  Acid
                     Ined. Grease
                     Ined. Tallow
                     Diesel Fuel


       * C.O.D.  of  Composite for 5 Days*  -  3300
* Silver Catalyzed Chromic  Acid Method  (8)

-------
           GENERAL AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION CORPORATION
                            (Dr.  Gregoire  Gutzeit)
                               TABLE III
                              (Continued)

                                SUKMARY
                        (Feb. 9 - Feb.  15,  19<55)
                C.O.D. of 5-Day Composite Cample:  3300
                              991
  Liquid & Soluble       Number
	Commodities	   of Cars
Lube Oil                    7
Inedible Animal Grease      6
Crude Vegetable Oil         5
Refined Vegetable Oil       1
Diesel Fuel                 4
Fuel Oil                    5
Neats1 Foot Oil             1
Fatty Acid                  1
   Liquid & Soluble
	Commodities
Sugar Syrup
Steep Water
Caustic Soda
Sulfuric Acid
Methanol
Black Strap Molasses
Phosphorus Trichloride
Triethanolamine
Synthetic Resin
Number
of Cars
   1
   1
   1
   3
   1
   1
   4
   1
   1

-------
- 0   GENERAL AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION  CORPORATION
   P               (Dr. Gregoire Gutzeit)
    ~ Y

                 City of East Chicago, Indiana

                DEPARTMENT OP PUBLIC SANITATION

                  152nd and Indianapolis Blvd.
                      East Chicago, Indiana

                        June 10, 1952
General American Tank Car Corp.
4405 Euclid Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

                 Attention;  Dr. G. Gutzeit

Gentlemen:

We have given careful consideration to your company's request
for permission to make connection with and thereby to discharge
certain industrial wastes into the sewerage system of the City
of East Chicago, which wastes must eventually pass thru and
be treated by this plant.

In accord with past policy, the Board of Sanitary Commissioners
shall accept for treatment at the East Chicago Sewage Disposal
Plant any and all sanitary wastes.  The Board, likewise in
accord with past policy, feels that industrial wastes, treated
or untreated, do not constitute a sanitary waste and as such
must be eliminated from the city sewerage system.

Knowing 'that you understand the past policy of this Board and
that you fully appreciate the Board's position in this matter
we remain,

                              Very truly yours,

                    BOARD OF SANITARY COMMISSIONERS


                              By Charles Sandor (signed)
                                 President
                                                     C
                                                     ~~ 0
                                                       ~" P
                                                         -y

-------
                                                       993
                    Cyanide and heavy metals were absent.
     Phenols were low in ppm.   Total nitrogen was reduced
     from 830 ppm to 570 ppm and tar residue from 15 ppm to
     zero.
                    Future plans involve a systematic
     settling program and a more complete analytical evalua-
     tion.
                    Summarizing, it can be stated that the
     waste  from GATC Plant No.  2,  while very complex and of
10   variable character,  represents only a small volume,
11   mainly 0.02 MOD,  and after treatment, contributes minimal
12   quantities of pollutants to the Lake Michigan Basin.
13        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Dr. Gutzeit.
14                  Are  there any comments or questions?
15       MR.  POSTON:   I'd like to ask the Doctor how the
16   disposal  of solid wastes is accomplished;  that is,  the
17   settled material?
18       DR.  GUTZEIT:  Settled material is hauled away by
19   a  contractor once every winter when those  tars are  pretty
20   solid.
21       MR.  POSTON:  You don't know the ultimate disposal
22   point?
23       DR.  GUTZEIT:  I don't know,  and I don't think
24   any  of  our^plant  people know.   We  just contract for
25   this.

-------
                                                          994
  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
     MR. BOSTON:  They are hauled away,  though?



     DR. GUTZEIT:  They are hauled away.



     MR. POSTON:  Thank you.
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.
                               (Applause.)
               Mr. Poole.
     MR. POOLE:  Next, we have the Blaw-Knox  Company,
  8   to be  represented  by Mr.  R.  J.  Mauthe,  Chief Plant



  9   Engineer.
 10
 11
     MR. MAUTHE:  Mr. Chairman, distinguished  conferees,



ladies and gentlemen, the East Chicago Works of
 12  Blaw-Knox  Company is  located at 440? Railroad Avenue in



 13  East  Chicago,  next to General American Plant No. 2.
 14




 15




 16




 17




 18




 19




 20




 21




 22





 23




 24




25
It is on the east side of the Indiana Harbor Canal



between Columbus Drive and Chicago Avenue.



               Operations include steel melting,  iron



melting, foundry and machining.



               Normal employment is about  2,000,  with



about 50 percent working the day turn, 30 percent the



afternoon turn and 20 percent working the night turn.



Operations are normally reduced to about 30 percent



on Saturdays and a standby crew on Sunday,



               All water is purchased from the City ~



of East Chicago.  Service water systems are largely



closed loops, with make-up water coming from the  City

-------
                                                       995
     and overflow going to the storm sewer.  All storm
     sewer systems empty into the Indiana Harbor Canal.
     Sanitary sewer systems are connected to the City's
     sanitary sewer.
                    About 1960, Blaw-Knox started a moderni-
     zation and relocation program at East Chicago.  Special
     efforts have been made to connect sanitary units to
     the sanitary sewer and stormwater lines to the storm
 9   sewer.
 10                  A wet sand reclamation unit was in-
 n   stalled about five years ago in our No. 1 Foundry.  A
 12   settling tank and filter were provided to remove sus-
 13   pended solids from the water.  The clarified water is
 14   then reused in the reclaimer, creating a closed system.
 IS   The water from a wet dust collector also goes to this
 16   settling tank and filter.  This system is under
 17   continuous study to determine whether any of the fines
 18   are bypassing the settling tank or filter and reaching
 19   the storm sewer.
20                  A number of wet dust collectors in our
21    No.  2 Foundry rely on a pair of 'settling tanks for
22   collecting suspended solids.   Funds have been provided
23    to  replace about 60 percent of this dust collecting
24    capacity with dry type units.  The resultant lighter
25    load on the settling tank is expected to increase its

-------
                                                       996



 l   efficiency.  The efficiency of the third wet dust



 2   collector settling tank is currently being evaluated.



 3                  A large roll grinder has been relocated



 4   and provided with cascade settling tanks to remove



 5   grinding sludge from the coolant.  The coolant is



 B   recirculated from the last tank back to the grinder,



 7   creating a closed loop.  We plan to relocate the two



 8   remaining grinders and provide more efficient coolant



 9   clarification facilities for them.



10                  In conclusion, we plan to continue  our



11   efforts to confirm specific flow connections, diverting



12   the flow to the sanitary sewer where indicated.  As



13   indicated above, we are checking our clarification



u   equipment and are attempting to improve its efficiency.



15        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, sir.



16                  Are there any comments or questions?



17        MR. POSTON:  I note that you have some 2,000



18   employees.  I wondered what happens to the sanitary



19   wastes or sewage from your plant.



20        MR. MAUTHE:  I mentioned earlier in the talk  here




21   that all of it goes to the City's Sanitary Sewer.



22        MR. POSTON:  I see.  I didn't catch that.  Thank




23   you.



24        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you very much, sir.



25                  Mr. Poole.

-------
                                                        997
          MR. POOLE:  I have a letter here 1'rom American

     Steel Foundries, Transportation Equipment  Division,

     signed by Mr. Alex Morris, Works Engineer  for the

     American Steel Foundries, and I am quite relieved  that

     it is very brief.

 6                  It is addressed to me and I will read

 7   it and furnish it for the record here.

 8                  "Mr. B. A. Poole, State of  Indiana  Stream

 9        Pollution Control Board, 1330 West Michiean Street,

 10        Indianapolis, Indiana, 46207.

 11                 "Dear Sir:

 12                 "Letter of January 29* 1965  request  for

 13        information on water pollution abatement.  American

 14        Steel Foundries Incorporated, Indiana.

 15                  "All sanitary sewers are connected  to  the

 16        East Chicago Sanitary District.

 17                  "Process water is used primarily for

 18        quenching and cooling.  A survey was  conducted by

 19         the Industrial Waste Section, Division of Sanitary

 2o         Engineering, State Board of Health, State of

 21         Indiana in the summer of 1962.  A copy of this

 22         report is attached.  An analysis of this report

23         shows that of the 93,000 gallon per day flow, 482

24         ppm solids were measured.   .7 ppm is given as

25         iron.   We attribute the balance to he zirconium

-------
                                                        998
 l        oxide sand which is an inert material used in our
 2        plant.
 3                  "We are interested in any supplementary
 4        information which you might have concerning our
 5        plant and would appreciate receiving such
 6        information.
 7                  "Yours very truly, H. L. Jones, Works
 8        Manager,  by Alex Morris, Works Engineer."
 9                  I shall be glad to answer all or any
10   questions, Mr. Chairman.
11        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  I wouldn't underestimate you.
12        MR.  POOLE;  Thank you.
13        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Do you want to call your next
14   participant,  Mr.  Poole?
15        MR.  POOLE:  The next one is Linde Division, Union
16   Carbide,  Mr.  R. L.  Shaner,  Regional Engineer.
17        MR.  SHANER:   Mr. Chairman, official conferees,
18   ladies and gentlemen, I am R. L. Shaner and represent
19   the Linde Division of Union Carbide Corporation in the
20   capacity  of Regional Engineer,
21                   We operate an air separation facility
22   at 4400 Kennedy Avenue in East Chicago, Indiana.  Our
23   west property line is adjacent to the Indiana Harbor
24   Canal. The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board has
25    designated Linde  as a participant in this conference.

-------
                                                       999
                    Our principal operation is the production
     of oxygen, nitrogen and argon.  These are separated from
     the air by means of a low temperature process.  We also
     operate a steam-electric power station for supplying a
     part of the total power requirements of our facility.
     Our gaseous products are distributed to our customers
     by means of pipelines.  Our liquid products are shipped
     by special tank cars, tank trucks and semi-trailers to
 9   most distant points.
 10                  Water is used in our process primarily
 n   as a cooling medium.  The water we use is purchased
 12   from the City of East Chicago.  It is supplied to the
 13   plant at rates of about 1 to 1.6 million gallons per
 14   day.  Water is recirculated through compressor collars,
 15   condensers and cooling towers.  Some water evaporates
 16   in the cooling tower.  This must be replaced with fresh
 17   water.  This process increases the concentration of
 18   materials already present in the water.   In order to
 19   minimize the results of this concentrating effect, the
20   usual water treatment chemicals are added to the
21    recirculating water.  Also a certain portion,  generally
22    about one-quarter of the make-up, is discarded to pre-
23    vent further buildup of minerals.
24                   A separate sanitary sewage system is
25    employed at our facility.   This system is tied in to the

-------
                                                       1000
    sanitary sewers of the City of East Chicago.   Thus no
    sanitary sewage Is discharged by Llnde into the Indiana
    Harbor Canal.
                   Linde discharges cooling water into the
    Indiana Harbor Canal as reported in Table VI-3b of the
    Blue Report.   We have been using an independent labora-
    tory to study the problem of waste fluids disposal.
    Our approach to the Stream pollution problem has been
    one of contaminant elimination rather than treatment,
10   believing that this is a more satisfactory solution.
11                  Recent actions to eliminate stream
I2   pollution include a permanent blocking of a drain line
13   from the ash-water pits of the power station, the
14   blocking of drains from the air compressor blowdowns
    and the installation of a sump and pump to divert these
16   streams to a settling basin.
17                  Plans are in progress to connect the
is   overflow and blowdown lines from the cooling towers to
    an enlarged settling basin.  When this is
20   completed our outfall to the Indiana Harbor Canal will
21   be handling nothing but rain water from our roof
22   drains.
23                  We will keep the Indiana Stream
24   Pollution Control Board apprised of our progress.  All
25

-------
                                                        1001
     data pertaining to this study will be available to that
     Board.
                    Although our contribution to the problem
     of stream pollution is relatively minor, money has been
     spent and we plan to spend additional money and effort
     toward  the elimination of stream pollution.
 7                  Thank you.
 8        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Shaner.
 9                  Any comments or questions?
10                  When you say "recent actions," what do
11   you mean by recent?
12        MR. SHANER:  Recent actions, well, they have taken
13   place within the past six weeks.
14        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Of February.
15        MR. CHESROW:  What are the contaminants you refer
16   to when you say, "Our approach to the stream pollution
17   problem has been one of contaminant elimination."
18        MR. SHANER:  This is eliminating the stream
19   pollution that is going into the Indiana Harbor Canal.
20        MR. CHESROW:  But do you have contaminants in your
21    water?
22         MR. SHANER:  We buy potable water and  water for
23    our process from the City of East Chicago.
24         MR. CHESROW:  Yes,  and the water that  is  expended,
25    does it have contaminants?

-------
                                                       1002



 l        MR. SHANER:  Only the same materials that were




 2   originally in the water 




 3        MR. CHESROW:  Thank you.




 4        MR. SHANER:  -- from the City.




 5        MR. CHESROW:  Thank you.



 6        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you very much.




 7                  You know, Mr. Klassen and I were




 8   discussing how much of this work seems to be done in




 9   February.



 10                  Mr. Poston, when did you put out that




 11    Blue Report of yours?



 12         MR. POSTON:  That seems to be in February, too.




 13         MR. KLASSEN:  It has nothing to do with it, Mr.




 14    Stein.  This is the way we do it.  You attorneys do not




 15    realize it, but February is the time to do things.




 16         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Valentine's Day.



 17         MR. KLASSEN:  And George Washington's Day.




 18         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Lincoln's Day.




 19         MR. POOLE:  Next, we have Mobil Oil Company.  I




20    don't know whether Mr. Keiper is here or Mr. J. W. Mann,




21    the Technical Department Manager.



22                   Mr. Keiper.




23         MR. KEIPER:  Mr. Chairman Stein, conferees, ladies




24    and gentlemen, I am Edgar D. Keiper, Jr., Manager, Mobil




25    Oil Company, East Chicago, Indiana Refinery.

-------
                                                      1003
 l                   Gentlemen,  before I start, inasmuch as
 2    you made  the  remark about  February,  the date for doing
 3    and accomplishing things,  I'd like to point out that
 4    we  have accomplished something which will be discussed
 5    here in our presentation in February; however,  the
 6    inception of  such action was back early in 1963.
 7                   I have divided my presentation into
 8    five sections which include a policy statement, a
 9    description of our water antipollution systems, a review
10    of  our past antipollution  efforts,  and a summary of
ll    antipollution work which is planned  or in progress.
12                   First, concerning our policies and
13    practices,  the Mobil Oil Company has always cooperated
14    with Federal,  state and  local agencies charged  with the
15    responsibility of controlling water  pollution in matters
16    within the  jurisdiction  of those agencies.  We  have
17    long been actively engaged in pollution prevention, and
18    we  are fully  aware of our  legal and  moral responsibilities
19    in  this matter of water  pollution control and abatement.
20    We  strive continually to fulfill those responsibilities.
21                   I feel that the survey recently  com-
22    pleted by the  Public Health Service  is most constructive.
23    Their report  gives us a  rather comprehensive picture of
24    the whole pollution problem in the  Chicago area.  We feel
25    that those  who participated in it have done an  excellent

-------
                                                       1004
     and  useful  job.
                    Second,  regarding waste gathering and
     waste  treatment  facilities,  the  sewer system in the
     East Chicago  Refinery can be divided  into  five
     categories:   sanitary;  oily  water;  sulfide stripping;
     non-oily  water;  and  ballast.  I'll  briefly describe  each
     one.
                    The sanitary  sewer system is completely
     divorced  from any  other system.   It collects effluent
10    from all  sanitary  sources such as toilets, wash rooms
n    and  shower  installations and discharges into the East
12    Chicago Municipal  Sanitary Sewer System.
13                   The oily water system  consists of
14    gathering facilities which serve all  the areas of the
15    plant  where the  water is likely  to  be contaminated with
16    oil; for  example,  the processing units,  the transfer
     pump house, and  the  like.
18                   The water collected  then flows through
19    an API separator and then discharges  into  the Lake George
2o    Branch of the Indiana Harbor Canal.   The API separator
21    actually  consists  of two separators in parallel.   Each
22    of the parallel  separators has four sections in series
23    which  are equipped with oil  skimming  facilities.
24                   In  addition,  the  primary section is
25    equipped  with scrapers  for solids removal  and the exit

-------
                                                      1005
 1    section is  equipped with hay filters.   The design
 2    capacity of our API separator system is 4,000 gallons
 3    per minute,  which is about three times the normal flow.
 4    This allows us  to shut down each of the parallel
 5    systems for maintenance.  Moreover,  it provides excess
 6    capacity which  prevents the system from overloading
 7    during periods  of high rainfall.
 8                   Our new sulfide stripper system which
 9    went into operation about February 15th,  consists of
10    gathering facilities which collect water containing
11    sulfides from the various oil water separators in the
12    processing  area and a stripping tower  where the water
13    is  stripped  of  sulfides and ammonia.   This water is
14    then pumped  to  the  crude oil desalters where 90 per-
15    cent of the  phenols are removed as the crude oil is
16    processed.   This treated water then flows  from the
17    desalters to the oily water system.
18                   The  non-oily system is  primarily a
19    surface water drainage unit.   It collects  drainage  from
20    roadways, roofs and the like,  places where there is no
21    oil  contamination.   The net effect of  this operation is
22    elimination  of  a source of oil  to the  canal.
23                   By that, we mean by not overloading  any
24    of the  API separators,  you get,  of course,  a  more efficient
25
operation of the oily water system.

-------
                                                       1006
                    The ballast system,  as the name implies,
     provides  facilities for recovering  oil from ballast water
     discharged  by tankers  at the  refinery's boat dock.
     Ballast water is  pumped into  one tank where oil separates
     from the  water by gravity.  Accumulated oil is skimmed
     to  a second tank  where it is  allowed to settle before
     being pumped to a storage tank for  reprocessing.
                    In addition to these five systems, we
     also minimize our effluent flow by  cooling our process
10    units through closed loop circuits    Make-up water to
11    replace losses from evaporation or  minor leaks is drawn
12    from the  Lake George Branch of the  Indiana Harbor Ship
13    Canal.
14                   Regarding historical review of steps
15    taken to  prevent  pollution, Mobil's East Chicago
16    Refinery, like most refineries these days, has been
17    revamped  a  number of times since its original construc-
18    tion. During every alteration, the pollution problem
19    was considered, and facilities were installed to cope
20    with it.
21                   In the early 1940's  we installed three
22    of  the operations I described a moment ago.  They were
23    the oily  water system,  the closed loop cooling system,
24    and the ballast water system.  In 19^-8 a sanitary sewer
25    was installed to  dispose of wastes  which previously had

-------
 1





 2




 3




 4




 5




 6




 7




 8





 9




10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21




22





23




24




25
                                                  1007



been treated in septic tanks.




               In 1958 the non-oily water  system was



installed to handle surface water drainage.



               The latest addition to our  pollution



abatement facilities is the sulfide stripper which we



placed in operation Just last month at a cost of $60,000.



               Incidentally, all the systems I've just



mentioned were installed at a cost in excess of a million



dollars.



               Fourth, improvements then to reduce



pollution since 1963; in the last 18 months, as part of our



continuing program, we have made several notable



improvements.



               First, though our sulfide stripper has



been in operation only a short time, tests to date



indicate a reduction of 99-plus percent in sulfides, 45



percent in ammonia and 16 percent in phenols, and we



have confidence in the fact that these are conservative



numbers; and, of course,  we are collecting data every



day we operate this facility.



               Second, flow through the API separators



has been reduced 45 percent through various economies



in the use of water and this roughly is a difference



between slightly less than 4 million gallons a day down



to now about 2 million gallons a day.

-------
                                                     1008
 i                   Fifth,  concerning work planned and in
 2   progress,  currently, we  are  making a  complete survey of
 3   the  refinery  to first  explore  ways to eliminate other
 4   possible  sources of pollution; second,  to further reduce
 5   the  total  refinery effluent, and (3)  continue to reduce
 6   the  flow  through oily  water  systems.
 7                   Our employees are also becoming more
 8   and  more  aware  of pollution  problems.   They contribute
 9   ideas  on  better ways to  operate our process units,  waste
10   disposal  facilities and  offer  suggestions with regard
11   to mechanical improvements to  further minimize water
12   pollution.
13                   And finally,  I'm pleased to report we
14   have a program  to continually  survey  our effluent in
15   cooperation with representatives of the Indiana Stream
16   Pollution  Control Board.  We are confident that the
17   Indiana and Illinois Pollution Control authorities  in
18   cooperation with private  industry will be able to solve
19   the  problems  pointed out  in  the Public Health Service
20   report.
21                   In summary, we  feel that this statement
22   constitutes evidence that Mobil has been progressive in
23   the  field  of  pollution control and abatement.   Since the
24   time the  survey data was  taken,  we have improved the
25   quality of our  effluent  by a reduction of sulfides,

-------
                                                       1009



     ammonia and phenols, as well as oil.



                    Our continual investigations may reveal



     other areas where we can make improvements.  Finally,



     let me repeat that we fully understand and welcome our



     responsibilities as a corporate citizen of East Chicago



     and of the Chicago area.  Our aim is to constantly



     strive to improve the quality of water discharged from



     our refinery.  This is more than a statement of good



     intentions  it is a statement of our actual operating



10   policy.



ll                  Thank you.



12        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you,  Mr. Keiper.



13                  Are there any comments or questions?



14                  You know, we have always had a long



15   history,  I think,  in this field of cooperation with the



16   oil  industry.



17                  I remember years ago when we were down



18   in  Louisiana   Mr.  Poole was there  and there was a



19   very dear old Congressman in charge of the district or



20   representing  the district who is  now deceased;  but he



21   was  the prototype  of what most  of us think of as the



22   southern  politician.   One of the  oil representatives



23   whom he got to know fairly well was telling me  that he



24   met  him in the street and the old gentleman at  that time



25   couldn't  quite tell  whether he  was a Federal man or an

-------
                                                       1010
     oil  man.
                    And he went up to him and said,
     "Congressman,  how is that case coming along?"
                    And the Congressman looked at him and said,
     "Well,  you know,  it's very complicated."  He said, "Some
     people  are for it and some people are against it, but
     I can assure you of one thing," he said, "We are making
 8   progress."
 9                                 (Laughter.)
 10                  Thank you, Mr. Keiper,
 11        MR.  KEIPER:   Thank you.
 12        MR.  POOLE:  For those of you, if any of you are
 13   paying  attention to your agenda, we are going to pass
 14   Calumet Nitrogen Products Company, Director of Technical
 15   Services  of American Oil Company, Mr. Mallatt will
 16   report  for both of them at one time.
 17                  Next, we have Union Tank Car Company,
 18   Mr.  R.  D. Glick,  Plant Engineer.
 19                  Union Tank Car?  Is Union Tank Car
 20   representated in the room?
 21                                 (No Response.)
 22                  Well, then, next on my list is the
23   Sinclair  Refining Company, Mr. G. A. Elaine, Plant
24   Manager.
25        MR.  ELAINE:   Chairman Stein, conferees, ladies and

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                                                          1011



   l   gentlemen,  I'd like to state that on page 20 of the



   2   H.E.W.  Report, you will find the results of their



  3   testing and they compare substantially with our yearly



       average.



                      The Sinclair Refining Company's East



       Chicago Refinery is located on the north bank of the



       Lake  George Branch of the Indiana Harbor Canal, just



       west  of Indianapolis Boulevard.



   9                  This refinery has a rated crude capacity



  10   of  114,000  barrels per day.  Refining facilities include



  11    all types of processing generally found in a modern



  12   complete petroleum refinery.  The present total force



  13   at  the  refinery consists of approximately 1,445 people.



  14                  All water for processing and cooling



  15   tower make-up purposes is pumped from a Lake Michigan



  16    intake  located in the vicinity of Indiana Harbor via



  17    the 30-inch line to the refinery.  All waste water



  18    from  the refinery is returned to the Indiana Harbor



  19    Canal.



  20                   Now, some background on our refinery:



  2i                   The Sinclair East Chicago Refinery



  22    began operations in March of 1918 at the rate of



  23    approximately 10,000 barrels per day of crude.    A



  24    single  sewer system was constructed to handle all waste



  25    water and a gravity-type oil separator of the best

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                                                        1012
     design known  at  the  time  was  installed.   This treatment
     was  in accord with the  general  practice  of the day in
     the  refining  industry;  however,  later Sinclair recog-
     nized  the  need for separate treatment of sanitary
     wastes and constructed  a  system of sanitary sewers and
     septic tanks.
                   This  sanitary  sewer system served the
     refinery until 1945  when  a  completely new refinery
     sanitary sewer system was built  and extended to the
10    refinery boundary  where Sinclair took advantage of the
n    opportunity to use the  newly  expanded City of East
12    Chicago system.  Consequently,  since 1945, all of our
13    sanitary sewage  has  been  handled through the East
14    Chicago system.
15                   In  1945  the  State of Illinois, the City
16    of Chicago, and  the  Sanitary  District of Chicago filed
17    suit in the United States Supreme Court  against the
18    State  of Indiana,  the Cities  of  Hammond,  Gary, East
19    Chicago, Whiting,  and 16  industries in Indiana,
20    including  Sinclair,  alleging  the pollution of the south
21    end  of Lake Michigan and  the  impairment  of Chicago's
22    water  supplies.  By  this  time the Sinclair Refinery
23    had  reached a crude  capacity  of  55*000 barrels per day.
24    The  water  requirement was approximately  34,000 gallons
25    per  minute, consisting  of 9,000  gpm from Lake Michigan,

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                                                         1013
     and 25,000 gpm from the Indiana Harbor Canal.  All of
     this water, except a small amount lost by evaporation,
     was returned to the Indiana Harbor Canal.
                    In the Illinois versus Indiana suit,
     Sinclair was required to submit to the court a plan for
     improvement of the waste disposal system.  It was evi-
     dent to Sinclair that any plan submitted to the court
     should fit into a long range plan which could be
 9   adapted to refinery expansion, new processing, and more
 10   stringent effluent control requirements.
 li                  Therefore, all phases of current
 12   operations and future expansion possibilities were given
 13   careful consideration before a decision was made.  The
 14   long range plan finally chosen by Sinclair consisted of
 15   the following basic features:
 16             First,  maintain a completely separate sani-
 17        tary sewer and disposal system.   This feature of
 18        the plan had already been accomplished.
 19             Second,  reduction of the overall volume of
 20        the effluent  to a minimum by the installation of
 21         cooling towers for recycling all cooling and con-
 22         densing water and reduction of process water
23         wherever possible.
24              Third,  construction of an oil-water separator
25         of adequate  size for the reduced overall effluent,

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                                                         1014
 1        design specifications for the separator being

 2        those  recommended  by the  API Committee on Disposal

 3        of Refinery Wastes.

 4            Fourtn, treatment of wastes at their source

 5        prior  to their entry into the refinery sewer

 6        system.   This item was of particular importance

 7        with the cooling tower system due to the effect

 8        of concentration.

 9                  The decision to go ahead to build the

10   cooling tower system was  basic to the Sinclair Plan

ll    since it would have far-reaching effects on all existing

12   and future  operations .\

13                  Essentially, the decision was a choice

14    between cooling towers  and oil-water separators.  Either

15    choice called for large expenditures of capital and

16    the choice  was complicated by  the fact that a large

17    expansion program for the refinery was in the early

19    stages of development.  The decision to go the cooling

19    tower route was made primarily on the basis of

2Q    effluent handling considerations.  The Sinclair manage-

21    ment recognized the fact  that  future trends in refinery

22    processing, effluent treatment technology, and

23    government  requirements could  not be predicted accurately

24    and it was  their conviction that the refinery would be

25    able to do  a better job with a small effluent than with

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                                                        1015

   1   a large effluent.

   2                  The plan for construction which Sinclair
f
*  3   submitted to the court,  after approval by the Indiana

   4   Stream Pollution Control Board, was accepted by the

   5   court.  Construction was completed and Sinclair was

   6   dismissed from the suit  late in 19^9.

   7                  I will now discuss the details of our

   8   effluent control facilities.

   9                  The total effluent control facilities

  10   which were constructed prior to 1950 in accordance with

  11   the Sinclair Long Range  Plan, which also included the

  12   court-approved projects, consisted of:

  13        1.  The new sanitary sewer system with connections

  U            to the East Chicago city sewer system.

  15        2.  Pour cooling towers with revisions to

  16            operating units necessary to convert to the

  17            cooling tower system,

  18        3.  Remodeling the  Light Oil Treating Plant by

  19             modification of operation and design to

  20             eliminate wash  water at that plant.

  21         4.  Construction of a new oil-water separator

  22             of the current  API design capable of handling

  23             efficiently the reduced volume of the refinery

  24             effluent.

  25         5.  Construction of a spent caustic treating plant

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                                                       1016
 l            capable of treating high sulfide spent caustic,
 2            oxidizing the  sulfides  to thiosulfates.
 3        6.   Construction of an ammonia-hydrogen sulfide
 4            stripper at the Fluid  Catalytic Cracking
 5            Unit  capable of stripping efficiently the
 6            sour  accumulator waters from that unit.
 7        7.   Installation of a ballast tank with necessary
 8            facilities for receiving ballast from ships
 9            and discharging the water to the oil-water
10            separator after recovery of the separated
11            oil.
12                  The cost of this  construction completed
13  prior to  1950  was $2,151,000.
14                  Since 1950, after we had completed our
15  approved  projects in conformance with the Illinois and
16  Indiana suit,  construction has been added in accordance
17  with  the  Sinclair Long  Range Plan to accommodate  new
18  processing units  and to further  improve the  effluent
19  system.   This  construction consists of:
20        1.   Four  additional cooling towers.
21         2.   A new and larger spent  caustic treating  plant
22            of improved design to  convert sulfides to
23             thiosulfates.
24         3   A new ammonia-hydrogen  sulfide stripper  at
25             the Catalytic  Cracking  Unit of greater capacity

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                                                   1017
          and efficiency to strip the sour accumulator

          waters from that unit;  and

              Fourth,  a larger ballast handling system
          capable of handling the ballast from all
          tankers and barges which load and unload at

          the Sinclair docks.  This system has ample

          capacity for receiving  all ballast water pumpings

          as  well as future tank  farm storm runoff and
          holding the water in storage until the oil

          and water separate.  The clear water from

          this tankage is  released to the canal.

              Also,  certain other oil-water wastes
          such as  ground water from well point and

          tank farm drain  tile installations are
          handled  through  the ballast handling system.

                The  cost of the construction completed

since 1950 was $1,530,000,  bringing  the total construc-
tion cost of  effluent  control  facilities  to $3,681,000.
                As a result of the construction and
improved  operating  procedures accomplished according

to the Sinclair Long Range  Plan,  the total  refinery

effluent has been reduced  from approximately 3^*000

gallons per minute, or 45 million gallons a day,  to

approximately 3,000 gallons per minute,  or approximately

4.3 million gallons a day, while  the crude  run has

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                                                         1018
     increased from 55>000 barrels a day to 114,000 barrels
     a day.   The reduction in volume of the effluent is due
     chiefly to the cooling tower system but also to economy
     in the  use of process water throughout the plant.
                    Oil in the effluent has been reduced to
     a relatively low figure.  This reduction is attributed
     largely to the reduction in volume of the effluent.
     The API separator has ample capacity for this low
     volume.
 10                  Ammonia and sulfides in the effluent
 11   have been held to a low figure even though increased
 12   crude run and additional processing has increased
 13   greatly the amount of these pollutants produced in the
 14   refinery.  The greatest source of sulfide and ammonia
 15   in the  refinery is the sour accumulator waters from the
 16   catalytic cracking unit.  The first stripper for these
 17   sour waters was put in operation prior to 1950.  The
 18   new and more efficient stripper for these waters was
 19   put in  operation in I960.
20                  Another important source of sulfide waste
21   is spent caustic which has been used to treat sulfide
22   bearing intermediate and product streams.  The first
23   spent caustic treating unit was put in operation prior
24   to 1950.  The new and more efficient unit was put in
25   operation in 1962.

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                                                       1019
  1                  The phenol content of the effluent has
  2   decreased due to the segregation and sale of high
  3   phenolic spent caustic and also due to the processing
  4   of stripped accumulator waters over a cooling tower
  5   and then through the crude desalters.
  6                  Our plans for the future:  Sinclair
  7   plans for the future are based principally on a continua-
  8   tion of the Long Range Plan as discussed previously in
  9   this report.   This means,  of course, maintaining a
10   minimum-volume effluent with the cooling tower system
li   and treatment of specific wastes at their source.  Also,
12   every effort  will be made to improve the operation of
13   existing facilities.  One item in this category has been
14   approved for  an expenditure of $100,000 in 1965.  This
15   item calls for construction of two 2,500 barrel tanks
16   especially designed for handling sludges removed from
17   the bottom of the API separator.
18                  With this equipment, we will be able to
19   dispose  of the oil-coated solids in the sludge more
20   efficiently and eliminate recycling of any part of these
21   solids  back to the separator system.  The efficiency of
22   the API  separator will be  improved and the oil and
23   suspended solids in the effluent will be reduced.  The
24   present  plans are designed to take care of future
25   expansion and new processing in a manner similar to

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                                                       1020


 l   present  operations.


 2                   We feel that the reduction in quantity


 3   of effluent  and improvements in quality which the


 4   Sinclair East  Chicago Plant has accomplished over the


 5   past years is  evidence of a sincere effort in attacking


 6   the problem  and supports the expectation of further


 7   improvement  to come.


 8                   Thank you.


 9        CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   Thank you very much, sir.


10                   Do you have any questions or comments?


11   If not,  thank  you very much for your statement.


12                   I think we have again reached the point


13   of diminishing returns and we will reconvene promptly 


14   and I mean promptly  at 9'30 tomorrow.


15                   If it is just Mr. Poole, I and the


16   stenographer here, I'm going to start.


17                                  (Whereupon, the Conference  in


18                                  the aboveentitled matter


19                                  was adjourned until March


20                                  5, 1965, at 9:30 o'clock


21                                  a.m.)


22


23


24
                . -  .;..,! -.-,.-, /gency

25     ^l^  '  "'   '    "  
                                           * U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE I96< 0799-413

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