WATER  SUPPLY AND
   WATER QUALITY  CONTROL STUDY
       BIG WALNUT RESERVOIR
        BIG  BLUE  RESERVOIR
       DOWNEYVILLE RESERVOIR
        WABASH  RIVER  BASIN
               INDIANA
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. AND WELFARE
   FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
       REGION m. CHARLOTTESVILLE. VIRGINIA
                MARCH (966

-------
             WATER SUPPLY AND WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY
           BIG WALNUT, BIG BLUE, AND DOWNEYVILLE RESERVOIRS
                          WABASH RIVER BASIN
                               INDIANA
Abstract

     A study has been made which discloses a need for storage in the
proposed reservoirs for municipal vater supply and for water quality
control.  These conclusions are based on analysis of existing water
quality information and hydrologic, economic, and demographic analyses.
Future needs are projected to the year 2020.
            Prepared at the request of the District Engineer
               U. S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, LOUISVILLE
                          Corps of Engineers
                         Louisville, Kentucky
           U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
             FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                        Ohio River Basin Project
                   Evansville Field Station, Indiana

                               March 1966

-------
                           TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                               Page No.




  LIST OF TABLES	      iv




  LIST OF FIGURES	      vi




  I.  INTRODUCTION




      Request and Authority  	      1-1




      Purpose and Scope	      1-1




      Acknowledgments  	 .....      1-2




 II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS




      Summary of Findings	     II-l




      Conclusions	     II-2




III.  PROJECT DESCRIPTION




      Location	    III-l




      Streamflow	    III-l




      Water Quality	    Ill-2




      Pertinent Data	    III-9




 IV.  STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION




      Location and Boundaries	     IV-1



      Geography and Topography	     IV-1



      Climate	     IV-2




      Principal Communities and Industries 	     IV-2



  V.  WATER RESOURCES OF THE STUDY AREA




      Quantity of Water Available  	      V-l




      Quality of Water Available 	      V-5
                                   ii

-------
                          TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)



                                                                    Page No.



  VI.  THE ECCUOMY



       Introduction	      VI-1



       Present	      VI-1



       Future	      VI-U



 VII.  WATER REQUIREMENTS - MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL



       Present Water Use	     VII-1



       Existing Sources of Supply - Surface and Ground Water . .     Vll-k



       Future Municipal and Industrial Water Requirements. . . .     VII-8



VIII.   WATER QUALITY CONTROL



       Municipal and Industrial Pollution	    VIII-1



       Water Quality Criteria	    VIII-U



       Flow Regulation	    VIII-7



  IX.  BENEFITS



       Water Supply Benefits	      H-l



       Water Quality Control Benefits	      DC-1*



   X.  BIBLIOGRAPHY



APPENDIX



       Tables	   (Pages A-l thru A-29)



       Figures 	   (Pages A-30 thru A-36)
                                      iii

-------
                           LIST OF TABLES




Table No.                                                       Page No.

m-i

III-2

in-3

m-4

III- 5

III-6

III-7

III-8

III-9

111-10

III-ll
V-l
VI-1

VI- 2

VI-3

(Tables Included in Appendix)
Surface Water Quality, Eel River (Lower White
River Basin), Worthington - 1964 	
Surface Water Quality, Big Blue River,

Surface Water Quality, Big Blue River,

Surface Water Quality, Big Blue River,
Shelbyville - 1964 	
Surface Water Quality, White River, Muncie -
1964 	
Surface Water Quality, White River,
Anderson - 196k 	 	 .
Surface Water Quality, White River, Noblesville
- 1961* 	
Surface Water Quality, White River, Nora -
1964 	
Surface Water Quality, White River, Antrim -
1964 	
Surface Water Quality, White River,
Martinsville - 1964 	
Surface Water Quality, Flatrock River - 1964 . .
Raw Water Quality - Ground Water Supplies . . .
Number and Baployment Size of Manufacturing

Number and Bnployment Size of Manufacturing

Number and Employment Size of Manufacturing



A-l

A-2

A-3

A-4

A- 5

A-6

A-7

A-8

A-9

A-10
A-ll
A- 12

A-13

A-14

A-15
                                 iv

-------
                      LIST OP TABLES (Gftot'd)

Table Ho.                                                      PMt Bo.

  VI-U      Output by Manufacttxrlng Industry la Thousands
              of I960 Dollars and Index of Output
              1960-100, Eel Hirer Subarea	     A-l6

  VI- 5      Output by Manufacturing Industry in Thousands
              of I960 Dollars and Index of Output
              1960=100, East Fork White Hirer Subarea  . . .     A-17

  VI-6      Output by Manufacturing Industry in Thousands
              of 1960 Dollars and Index of Output
              1960=100, White River Subarea	     A-18

  VI-7      Historical and Projected Study Area Population      A-20

 Vn-1      Study Area Municipal Water Supplies	     A-22

VIII-1      Study Area Municipal Waste Treatment
              Facilities	     A-2 5

VIII-2      Study Area Industrial Waste Treatment
              Facilities	     A-28

-------
                            LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Mo.                                                          Page No.

     I      Study Area Map		     A-30

    II      Eel River Subarea Map	     A-31

   III      East Fork White River Subarea Map	     A-32

    IV      White River Subarea Map  	     A-33

     V      Percent Occurrence for Shelbyville and Carthage,
              Indiana Water Quality Monitor Stations 1957-196U . .     A-31*

    VT      Draft-on-storage for Water Quality Control Needs
              vs Recurrence Interval for the Years 1980 and
              2020Big Walnut Creek below Greencastle and
              White River below Anderson	     A-35

   VII      Draft-on-storage for Water Quality Control Needs
              vs Recurrence Interval for the Years 1980 and
              2020Big Blue River below Shelbyville	     A-36
                                   vi

-------
                                                                     Irl




                            I.  INTRODUCTION






Request and Authority



     The Corps of Engineers, Louisville District, is preparing a



comprehensive study of the Wabash River Basin concerning the development



of water and related land resources.  This study, as outlined in the



"Plan of Survey, Wabash River Basin," September 23, 1963 (revised



May 196U), requests the Public Health Service to determine present and



future needs for and value of storage for municipal and industrial water



supply and for regulation of streamflow for the purpose of water quality



control.



     This study has been made in accordance with the Memorandum of



Agreement dated November k, 1958, between the Department of the Army



and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, relative to the



Water Supply Act of 1958 as amended (U3 U.S.C. 390b) and the Federal



Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33 U.S.C. U66 et seq.).





Purpose and Scope



     The purpose of this study is to determine the need for and value



of storage of water for the purpose of municipal and industrial water



supply and for water quality control, which could be served by the



proposed Big Walnut, Big Blue, and Downeyville Reservoirs in the White



River Basin of Indiana.

-------
                                                                      1-2



     Die period of study for this report is from the present to the




year 2020.  This is the period for which the economic guidelines were



established by the Corps of Engineers Ohio River Division "Projective



Economic Study of the Ohio River Basin" and  consequent economic studies



of the Wabash River Basin.



     The area studied includes 16 counties in central Indiana which



most nearly approximate the drainage boundaries of the upper White



River Basin and upper East Fork White River Basin.






Acknowledgments



     Completion of this study was made possible by the cooperation and



assistance of Federal and State authorities and by local authorities in



the basin.  Information and data were furnished from their publications,



records, and files.



     Acknowledgment is made of the assistance given by the following



agencies:



     U. S. Geological Survey - Indianapolis, Indiana



     U. S. Soil Conservation Service - Indianapolis, Indiana



     U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife - Lebanon, Ohio



     Indiana State Board of Health



     Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board



     Indiana Department of Natural Resources



     Indianapolis Water Company



     Indianapolis Sanitary District



     City of Greencastle

-------
                                                                    II-l






               II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS






Summary of Findings



     1.  The proposed Big Walnut, Big Blue, and Downeyville Reservoirs



in the Wabash River Basin, Indiana, are being studied by the Corps of



Engineers for the purposes of flood control, general recreation, fish



and wildlife recreation, water conservation, and water quality control.



The reservoir sites are, respectively, on Big Walnut Creek, a tributary



of Eel River in the White River Basin, five miles northeast of



Greencastle, Indiana; on Big Blue River near the Rush-Hancock County



lines; and on Flatrock River, approximately seven miles northwest of



Greensburg, Indiana.  The latter two reservoir sites are on major



tributary streams of East Fork White River.



     2.  The study area consists of approximately 5*200 square miles in



central Indiana, generally centering on Indianapolis, and includes 16



counties which most nearly correspond to the hydrologic boundaries of



the upper White and upper East Fork White River Basins.



     3.  The I960 population of the study area was approximately 1,3^0,000,



of which 980,000 were in the 3 counties of Marion, Delaware, and Madison



which include the cities of Indianapolis, Muncie, and Anderson.



     ^.  Water use from central water supply systems serving the area



is 118 million gallons per day (mgd).  This is approximately 121 gallons



per capita per day (gpcd) for the 978,000 people served by these systems.

-------
                                                                    II-2




After adjusting for 32 mgd of the centrally supplied vater utilized by



industry, 88 gpcd is vater used for domestic, commercial, and general



public use.  Self-supplied industrial water use is estimated at 575 mgd,



of which 506 mgd is for thermal power plant cooling water.



     5.  The major communities in the area have secondary treatment



plants.  An estimated 735>000 people are served by municipal waste



treatment plants.  These plants have a raw Biochemical Oxygen Demand



(B.O.D.) of 1,620,000 population equivalent, indicating a significant



industrial waste loading, much of which is concentrated in Indianapolis.



After treatment, these wastes have a population equivalent estimated at



270,000.  In addition, self-discharging industries discharge treated



wastes with a population equivalent estimated at ^1,000.



     6.  The surface water in the study area is of the calcium-



magnesium carbonate type with hardness generally in the range of 200



to 370 mg/1 and alkalinity from 150 to 300 mg/1, which can be typified



as hard and having a high alkalinity.  Water quality is acceptable for



all legitimate uses except below sources of waste discharges where



insufficient flow exists to assimilate residual organics.






Conclusions



     1.  The population of the study area is projected to increase to



approximately 1,720,000 by 1980 and to 2,515,000 by 2020.  The urbanized



area of Indianapolis is projected to increase in population to 900*000



by 1980 and to 1,300,000 by 2020.

-------
                                                                    II-3

      2.  Water requirements  for municipal and industrial purposes,
i
 exclusive  of that  for thermal power plant cooling,  are expected to

 increase to 265 mgd by 1980  and to 522 mgd by 2020.   Approximately  90

 percent of this requirement  is expected for the metropolitan areas  of

 Indianapolis, Muncie and Anderson, and the immediately adjoining counties.

      3  Storage proposed for conservation purposes  in these reservoirs

 is capable of supplying some of the water supply needs for the year

 2020. Big Walnut  Reservoir  storage can supply such  needs for 1.0 mgd

 at Putnamville State Farm and 78 mgd for the Indianapolis metropolitan

 area. Big Blue Reservoir conservation storage is capable of providing

 approximately 28 mgd for the Indianapolis area.   Downeyville Reservoir

 storage is capable of providing an anticipated need for 2.h mgd of

 additional water supply at Greensburg.

      k.  Provision of water  quality control from the Big Walnut and

 Big Blue Reservoirs will serve to protect existing sport fishing values,

 protect the public health aspects of use of the stream for public water

 supply and general recreation, result in a better and more economical

 source of  water supply, thereby serving to encourage municipal and

 industrial development, protect downstream land values, and protect

 and enhance esthetic values.  The benefits of providing water quality

 control are widespread.

      5.  To maintain adequate water quality in downstream reaches

 through 2020 is estimated to require annual draft-on-storage*,  at the

 point of need,  of  1,UOO acre-feet for Big Walnut Creek below Greencastle,



 *Annual draft-on-storage is  the sum of the incremental excesses of  needed

  releases  over inflows during a climatic year.

-------
                                                                     II-U



12,000 acre-feet for Big Blue River below Shelbyville, 80,000 acre-feet




for White River below the Muncie-Anderson area, and 11,000 acre-feet



for East Fork White River below Columbus.



     6.  Thermal stratification may be expected to occur in the



Big Walnut, Big Blue, and Downeyville Reservoirs with reduction of



dissolved oxygen in the hypolimnion.  To assure discharge of good



quality water below the dams, it is recommended that sufficient



multiple-level outlets be provided to insure selection of the best



quality water available.



     J.  In determining releases for water quality control, the quantity



and quality of release should be based on use of a water quality



monitoring system and use of anticipated flows from the U. S. Weather



Bureau River Forecast Section.



     8.  The minimum annual value of storage in Big Walnut Reservoir



for water supply purposes is $553*500.  Of this, $3,500 is for meeting



a 2020 need of 1.0 mgd additional water supply at Putnamville State



Farm and $550,000 for meeting 78 mgd of the water supply need in the



Indianapolis metropolitan area.  The minimum annual value of storage



in Big Blue Reservoir is $8l,000 for meeting 28 mgd of the water supply



need for the Indianapolis metropolitan area.  The minimum annual value



of storage in Downeyville Reservoir is $6,500 for meeting a 2.U mgd



additional water need in 2020 for Greensburg.  Needs for additional



water supply exist for the New Castle and Muncie-Anderson areas.

-------
                                                                     II-5



However, since annual pipeline and pumping costs vould exceed nearby



reservoir development costs, no benefit exists for satisfying these



needs from the proposed reservoirs.



     9.  The minimum annual value of the benefits of supplying reservoir



storage for vater quality control in Big Walnut Reservoir for the



Big Walnut Creek and Eel River is $22,300.  The minimum annual value of



benefits of providing water quality control from Big Blue Reservoir for



Big Blue River below Shelbyville is $75,000.



    10.  The benefit values used are based on the most likely alternate



to providing storage in the proposed reservoirs.  Annual benefits are



based on a 50-year amortization of capital costs at 3 1/8 percent plus



estimated operation and maintenance costs.



    11.  These needs and the value of benefits are based on the best



estimates that can be made at this time and are subject to review and



revision based on information and data from the Ohio River Comprehensive



Study by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare when it



becomes available.

-------
                                                                     m-1

                           III.  PROJECT DESCRIPTION


Location

     Potential reservoir sites in the study area are on Big Walnut Creek

in Putnam County, Indiana, approximately 5 miles northeast of the city

of Greencastle; on Big Blue River aear the Hancock-Rush County lines

and about 21 miles southeast of downtown Indianapolis; and Downeyville

Reservoir on Platrock River in Decatur County approximately 7 miles

northwest of Greensburg, Indiana.  These potential reservoir site

locations are shown in Figure I at the end of this report.  All reser-

voir sites are in the White River Basin which is a major tributary of

the Wabash.  Big Walnut Creek is a tributary of Eel River in the main

stem White River Basin.  Big Blue and Platrock Rivers are major head-

water streams of the East Fork White River Basin.


Streamflow

     The drainage area above the Big Walnut Creek damsite is 197 square

miles.  The only gaging station on Big Walnut Creek is at Reelsville

about 22 miles below the proposed damsite.  At the gage the drainage

area is 338 square miles.  Based on the use of calculated flow

frequencies at Reelsville and miscellaneous flow information, the

following is the flow expectation at the damsite:

     Mean streamflow                              20^ cfs

     Minimum 7 consecutive day mean flow          Less than 2 cfs
       with a 10 year recurrence

     Minimum 1 day once in 30 year mean flow      Less than 1 cfs

-------
                                                                   III-2

     The drainage area above the Big Blue damsite is 268 square miles.

Flow records are available from USGS gaging stations on Big Blue River

at Carthage, with a drainage area of 18? square miles, since 1950; and

at Shelbyville, with a drainage area of 1*25 square miles, since

Flows expected at these stations are listed "below:

                                                 Big Blue River
                                                 Flow in cfs
                                           Carthage       Shelbyville

     Mean streamflow                          196             U63

     Minimum 7 consecutive day mean            19              37
       flow with a 10 year recurrence

     Minimum daily discharge during            18              32
       period of record

     The drainage area above the Downeyville damsite is 28U square

miles.  A USGS gaging station on Flatrock River has been in operation

at St. Paul since 1931.  The drainage area at the gaging station is

298 square miles.  Flows expected at this station are:

     Mean streamflow                            315 cfs

     Minimum 7 consecutive day mean flow        1.3 cfs
       with a 10 year recurrence

     Minimum 1 day mean flow with a 30          0.5 cfs
       year recurrence


Water Quality

     Water quality records are not available on Big Walnut Creek.

Quality records are available, from the Indiana State Water Monitor

Network, for the period since 1957 at Worthington at the mouth of the

-------
                                                                     III-3



Eel River (drainage area approximately 1,100 square miles).  Table III-l



(see Appendix) shows the record at this station for the year 196U.  "The



sanitary vater quality at the project site may be expected to be better



than at Worthington, since the treated wastes of Greencastle, Brazil,



and Jasomrille enter the stream between the two points.  Untreated



sewage from Jamestown (1960 pop. 827) and North Salem (1960 pop. 626)



is discharged into tributaries of Big Walnut Creek approximately 20



miles upstream from the project site.  The area above the damsite is



almost completely rural at present with no population centers over 1,000



and no significant industry.  Adverse effects of organic wastes would



not be expected in Big Walnut Creek Reservoir.



     Water quality records are available on the Big Blue River at



Carthage approximately 8 stream miles above the project site, at



Morristown approximately 2 miles below the project site, and at



Shelbyville approximately 12 stream miles below the project site.



Indiana Water Quality Monitor Station records for 196U are shown in



Tables III-2, III-3, and III-U for these stations.  In addition, percent



occurrence plots for B.O.D., D.0., chlorides, nitrates, and coliform



are shown for the Carthage and Shelbyville stations for the period 1957



to 196U in Figure V.  The Shelbyville station shows higher D.O. and



B.O.D. levels, while the Carthage station has higher levels for chlorides,



nitrates, and coliform.  New Castle (1960 pop. 20,3^9) near the headwaters



of Big Blue River is by far the largest community introducing wastes



above the Shelbyville station (both the Shelbyville and Carthage stations



are above the point of local treated waste discharges); therefore, domestic

-------
                                                                    Ill-k


vastes are a more predominant feature for the upstream Carthage station

                                                                            w
and serve to explain the higher chloride and coliform concentrations at


Carthage.  The higher B.O.D. levels at Shelbyville are presumed to be due


largely to the discharge of treated industrial vastes from a paper mill


at Carthage.  The company uses pulp vood to manufacture paper for corrugated


media.  The wastes from this process consist mainly of cooking liquor and


machine water.  The cooling liquor is burned in a thermoreactor and the


ash is reclaimed.  The machine water is treated in a Sveen-Pedersen


flotation unit, and the effluent is discharged to the river during the


period of about October to May.  During the remainder of the year, the


company discharges this water to a 55~acre lagoon system for release


at periods of high streamflow in accordance with dilution rates


established by the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board.  The company


monitors the river daily to show the effect of waste discharges and


submits the data to that Board.  As a free flowing stream, the river can


assimilate the treated wastes from the paper mill.  Reservoir construction


would convert this stream stretch to an impounded area with lower


assimilative characteristics.  Construction of a pipeline to carry the


treated wastes of this paper mill to a point below the dam should be


considered.  If this were not done, the treated effluent would discharge


approximately one mile above the head end of the Big Blue Reservoir.


With such a pipeline the nutrient load from municipal and industrial


wastes (mostly from New Castle) should not be sufficiently great to


cause other than a localized problem in the upper arm of the reservoir,


and then only during low flow periods.  The State of Indiana specifies


secondary  treatment  with  chlorination  of  wastes  upstream  from

-------
                                                                     III-5



" reservoir areas.  Treatment facilities in close proximity to reservoirs



  vill be required to provide chlorination and holding ponds or other



  treatment beyond secondary.  Under these conditions of a high level of



  upstream treatment and bypassing of the paper mill effluent, quality in



  Big Blue Reservoir should be satisfactory to allow use of the reservoir



  for general recreation, fish and wildlife recreation, and water supply.



       Without the bypass pipeline, use of reservoir storage for water



  supply would be impaired by higher treatment costs.  Use for general



  recreation would be impaired by possible color problems and nutrients



  creating a less esthetically desirable pool area.  Use for fish and



  wildlife recreation would be somewhat impaired by a possibly significant



  portion of the upstream reservoir volume being deficient in D.O. and



  having suspended solids in sufficient concentration to interfere with



  fish life.  In addition during winter stratification, zero or low



  dissolved oxygen levels in the reservoir would extend further up in the



  hypolimnion.



       The maximum mean sea level flow elevation of the existing lagoons



  is about 863.  The proposed flood control pool elevation is 880.  These



  lagoons are constructed in the glacial sand and gravel deposits along



  the stream and have sealed themselves.  Hydrostatic pressure from the



  head differential during storage of floodwaters could cause infiltration



  from the reservoir into the lagoons and a disruption of the bottom seal



  of the ponds and consequent pollution of the reservoir.  It is

-------
                                                                   III-6



therefore believed that It will be necessary to replace the existing



lagoons at an elevation above the influence of the proposed reservoir.



It vill also be necessary that the organic solids be buried above



elevation 880 and sealed with at least 6 inches of compacted clay.



The lagoons which have a storage volume of U40 acre-feet (55 acres



surface area and 8 feet of depth) could be replaced either at a point



below the proposed reservoir or near the present Container Corporation



site.  The latter would more conveniently keep the lagoons under the



operating control of the Corporation.  Means to provide a significant



lagoon discharge during release of flood waters would be necessary.



With lagoons near the plant, a reregulation lagoon would be necessary



below the dam.  A capacity of 90 acre-feet should be sufficient for a



reregulating lagoon.



     Since present operation of the lagoon system is directly related



to the stream hydrograph, regulation will require a different operation



and close cooperation.  Problems to be considered include B.O.D. and



resulting D.O. and color.  The effects of the reservoir on these



pollutants are discussed separately below.



     B.O.D.



     Introduction of treated wastes with a residual B.O.D. demand at a



point approximately six miles further downstream should not in itself



cause a stream problem.  Stream gradients and reaeration capabilities



are believed to be approximately equal to that in the reach where

-------
                                                                   III-7




assimilation is now accomplished.  Since the critical point will be at




a point with a drainage area of 290 square miles rather than 268 square




miles, a greater volume of flow will be available annually at the new




critical reach.  This additional flow will not all be available for




assimilation because lagoon releases are normally made only during the




cooler months, and some of the winter and spring flow will be stored




for water quality releases mainly in summer and early fall (see water




quality storage needs in Chapter VIII).  During the more severe drought




years there will be no gain of volume of flow at the critical point by




discharging at a further downstream point.  However, in most years




there should be a marginally greater volume of flow for assimilation




of treated wastes.  Perhaps more important is a net gain from




regulation in synchronizing assimilative flov to lagoon release by




having a more predictable hydrograph.  Purely from a consideration of




assimilation of B.O.D., the reservoir should have no adverse effect




on the Big Blue River if the wastes are diverted around the reservoir.




     Color




     Color is a more critical problem than B.O.D.  Present operation




limits downstream color to 38 units during nonturbid conditions.  As




for B.O.D., a marginally greater volume of assimilative flow and a




greater ability to synchronize lagoon and streamflows should assist in




protecting legitimate stream uses.  Less turbidity during periods of




high runoff from clarification in the reservoir will hinder discharge

-------
                                                                   III-8



of colored wastes since D.O. is presently the only criterion necessary



during periods of high turbidity.  The reservoir, however, because of



site limitations will have a relatively small storage for the drainage



area involved and much turbidity can still be expected in release



flows of stored floodwaters.  Study of color and turbidity in the



streamflow below Mansfield Reservoir in Indiana indicates an apparent



decrease in color and turbidity since reservoir construction.  Reduction



of color will benefit assimilation of colored wastes while, as



previously discussed, reduced turbidity will be detrimental to the



present type of operation.



     Based on an analysis of the many factors enumerated above, it is



believed that construction of Big Blue Reservoir can be accomplished



and wastes from the Container Corporation Plant accommodated as



satisfactorily after reservoir construction as at present with



unregulated streamflow.  It will be necessary in advanced planning



stages that reservoir operation schedules be devised in such a manner



that all legitimate stream uses can be protected to the utmost.



Federal, State, and local interests should cooperatively formulate an



operating schedule to effect this objective.



     Water quality information in the Flatrock River Basin is limited.



The State of Indiana does not have a water quality monitor station in



this basin.  Water quality data during low flow periods of 196U,



obtained by the Evansville Field Station, Ohio River Basin Project, are



shown in Table III-ll.  The results indicate a nondegraded condition



with relatively high hardness, typical of base flow from the glacial

-------
                                                                   m-9

sands and gravels of the region.  Above the proposed Downeyville

Reservoir, the only major community is Rushville (1960 pop. 7,26U).

Organic vastes from Rushville are attributable to the resident sewered

population.  Rushville has a secondary sewage treatment plant.  The

major industry in Rushville is furniture manufacturing and the produc-

tion of piston rings, neither of which would contribute a noticeable

organic waste loading.  It is concluded that under existing upstream

residential and industrial development, no adverse effects of organic

wastes or nutrients would result in Downeyville Reservoir.  Upstream

waste control policies of the Indiana State Board of Health should

prevent future waste loadings from appreciably changing these conditions.


Pertinent Data

     The proposed projects are being considered for flood control,

municipal and industrial water supply, water quality control, general

recreation, and fish and waterfowl recreation.  Pertinent data based on

preliminary planning information are given below.


                 	Fool Elevation	       Capacity in Acre-Feet
                   Big     Big                     Big     Big
                 Walnut    Blue    Downeyville   Walnut    Blue   Downeyville

Flood Control   782-808   863-880     895-910   160,000    75,100    71,300

Conservation    726-782   850-863     857-895   153,000    31,500    75,500

Minimum           726       850         857      10,000    13,500    15,100

  Total Storage                                 323,000   120,100   l6l,900

-------
                                                                    111-10



     The drainage areas at the three proposed damsites are  197  square



miles at Big Walnut, 269 square miles at Big Blue, and 276  square miles



at Downeyville.

-------
                                                                      IV-1




                      IV.  STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION






Location and Boundaries



     The study area consists of the counties of Clay, Putnam, Owen,



Hendricks, Morgan, Marion, Johnson, Hancock, Hamilton, Madison, Delaware,



Randolph, Boone, Henry, Shelby, and Rush in central Indiana.  This area



includes essentially the entire Eel River Basin, the entire East Fork of



White River Basin above Columbus, and the White River Basin from its



headwaters through the downstream reach below the Indianapolis metro-



politan area.



     The area under study consists of approximately 5,200 square miles,



of which 1,100 square miles are in the Eel Basin; 1,692 square miles



are in the East Fork White River Basin above Columbus; and 2,^00 square



miles are in the White River Basin between the Eel and East Fork drainage



basins (see Figure I in the Appendix for a study area map).  In addition,



subarea maps for the Eel, East Fork White River, and White River areas are



designated Figures II, III, and IV, respectively.  (See Appendix.)





Geography and Topography



     The northern two-thirds of the study area including all of Hendricks,



Marion, Hamilton, Madison, Delaware, Randolph, Boone, Hancock, and Henry



Counties and northern portions of Putnam, Morgan, Johnson, Shelby, and



Rush Counties are in the Tipton till plain physiographic region.  The



Tipton till plain is a great glacial plain occupying nearly one-third of



the State of Indiana.  It is characterized by a variable covering of



glacial material, the surface of vhich is mainly flat or very gently

-------
                                                                     IV-2

rolling.  Stream gradients are generally in a range greater than three

feet per mile.  The White River in Marion and Morgan Counties is about

IT5 feet below the till plain.  The plain has a general westward slope.

The southern edge of the Tlpton till plain is the general limit of
                     2
Wisconsin glaciation.

     The southern third of the study area is divided between six

physiographic regions.  The terrain in this area is generally more

rugged than in the Tipton till plain area.  Southern Putnam County,

Owen County, and southern Morgan County areas are from moderately to

very rugged, while the Clay County area to the west and Johnson, Shelby,

and Rush County areas to the east have generally level to moderately

rolling terrain.

Climate

     The study area has a humid continental type climate.  There is a

sharp contrast between winter and summer temperatures.  The annual mean
temperature during 33 years of record at the Indianapolis Airport is
    o                                                       0
52.1 P.  Mean monthly temperatures have a range of from 75 2 P in July
       o
to 29.1 P in January.  Average annual precipitation at the Indianapolis

Airport is 39*25 inches.  Mean monthly precipitation ranges from 2.28
inches in February to U.62 inches in June.

Principal Communities and Industries
     In the Eel River-Big Walnut Creek Basin, there are only two

communities of over  2,500.  These are Greencastle (1960 pop. 8,506) and

-------
                                                                       IV-3



' Brazil (1960 pop. 8,853).  Greencastle is a farm market town and is the



  site of a "business form production plant and an electronic capacitor



  plant.  DePauv University is situated here.  Brazil has a clay products



  industry and is influenced "by Terre Haute IT miles away.  There are



  active coal mines near Brazil as well as throughout southern Clay



  County and western Owen County.



       In the East Fork of White River Basin above Columbus there is a



  well-diversified industrialization.  Canning, Pharmaceuticals, fabricated



  metals, electrical machinery, automotive machinery, and paper products



  are important.  The major communities are New Castle, Shelbyville,



  Greenfield, Rushville, and Franklin, all with a population of between



  7,000 and 21,000 in I960.  In addition to the industrial base, there



  is a well-diversified agricultural development and most of the



  communities are within a reasonable commuting distance to Job oppor-



  tunities in Indianapolis.



       In the White River Basin area, Indianapolis is the dominant popula-



  tion and industrial center.  Indianapolis is located in Marion County and



  is the capital of Indiana.  In 1960, Indianapolis had a population of



  476,000 while Marion County had a population of nearly 700,000.



  Indianapolis is a major industrial and commercial area and is a trans-



  portation hub.  Food processing, fabricated metals, Pharmaceuticals, and



  automotive and electrical machinery are major industries.

-------
                                                                   iv-U



     Anderson (i960 pop. U9,100) has over half of its industrial employ-



ment in the electrical machinery and equipment categories*  Another



important category is fabricated metals.



     Muncie (i960 pop. 68,600) is highly industrialized.  Major



industries are automotive transmissions and batteries, meat packing,



food and beverage containers, and metal fabrication.  Muncie is also



the site of Ball State University.



     Other communities in this White River area are Greenwood,



Mooresville, Martinsville, Brovnsburg, Danville, Noblesville, Plainfield,



Speedway, Beech Grove, and Lawrence, all with a I960 population of



from 3000 to 11,000.  These communities are either suburban to



Indianapolis or within a 30-mile commuting distance.  They are



generally showing a distinct growth pattern due to job opportunities



in nearby Indianapolis.  Some of these communities in addition have



a small industrial base.  Alexandria, Elwood, Tipton, and Winchester,



all with a 1960 population in the 5,000 to 12,000 range, are in the



northern portion of the study area and are within 30 miles of either



Muncie or Anderson.   In these latter communities as well as in the



smaller communities near Anderson and Muncie, canning, glass



containers, and building products are major industries.

-------
                                                                    V-l




               V.  WATER RESOURCES OF THE STUDY AREA






Quantity of Water Available



     The mean streamflov in the study area is equal to an average annual



runoff of from 12 to 15 inches.  During low flow periods considerable



variation exists between various streams, depending largely on local



geology.  The following tabulation shows the dependable flow at gaging



points on various streams in the study area.  There is a considerable



variation in dependable low flow yields on a cfs per square mile basis.



The variation is largely dependent on local geology and the thickness



and permeability of glacial deposits.  Inflow from and loss to pre-



glacial stream valleys greatly affects lov flows.  The Big Blue River



and White River have relatively high low flow yields.  These streams



have an origin in a more northernly area than the Eel River and Flatrock



River, vhich have moderate and relatively small low flow yields



respectively.



     The largest existing reservoir in the study area is the Corps of



Engineers Cagles Mill Reservoir on Mill Creek, a tributary of Eel River



(see Figure I in the Appendix).  This reservoir provides flood control



and recreation benefits.  No water supply or vater quality control storage



is included in the storage allocation.  Operation does not provide for



flow augmentation for water supply or water quality control.



     The Indianapolis Water Company has impoundments on two tributaries



of White River.  Morse Reservoir, with a storage capacity of 21,000



acre-feet, supplements natural flows in the White to provide an estimated

-------
                                                                             V-2

                                                       Lowest Average Flow in cfs
                                                       for Indicated Number of Con-
Years of Drainage Area Mean Flow secutive Days for Indicated
Location Record Square Miles cfs Recurrence Interval in Years*

Eel River at
Bowling Green
Big Walnut Ck.
near Reelsville
White River
near Centerton
White River
near Nora
Blue River
at Carthage
Blue River
at Shelbyville
Driftwood River
near Ediriburg
Flatrock River
at St. Paul
Sugar Creek

1931-63
1950-63
1930-32
19U6-63
1930-63
1950-63
19^3-63
19UO-63
1930-63
191*2-63

Qkh
338
2,U35
1,200
187
1*25
1,05U
298
U62

853
350
2,366
1,077
196
U63
1,129
315
U90
7 Day 3 Day
Once in Once in
10 Years 20 Years
17.0 12.0
6.1 h.k
125.0 93.0
70.0 550
19.0
37.0 33.0
60.0 1*2.0
1.3 0.6
16.0 11.0
3 Day
Once in
30 Years
11.0


51.0



0.5

near Edinburg
* All indicated values are from "Low-Flow Characteristics of Indiana Streams,"
U. S. Geological Survey and State of Indiana.

-------
                                                                     v-3



firm yield of 75 mgd at the water company's diversion canal about 2 miles



south of Nora in Marion County.  Geigt Reservoir, with a storage capacity



of 21,000 acre-feet, supplements natural flows in Fall Creek to provide



an estimated firm yield of 20 mgd.  The estimated firm yields are based



on engineering appraisals for the Indianapolis Water Company and reflect



the dependable ensured flows during the worst drought of record.



     The Muncie Water Company has a 21,000 acre-foot impoundment on



Prairie Creek.  This impoundment plus natural flows in Buck Creek and



White River provide a IT mgd firm water supply yield.  Ground water is



a significant source of existing and potential water supply.  Except for



Muncie and Indianapolis Water Company, virtually the entire public water



supply in the study area is from ground water sources.  Most of the



self-supplied industrial water supply is from ground water sources.



     Outwash deposits of Wisconsin age and to a lesser extent of



Illinoian age occur along the Eel River, White River, Sugar Creek, Blue



River, Brandywine Creek, and Platrock River.  The outwash is capable of



moderate to large yields of water.  Most of the length of the outwash



filled valleys is occupied by perennial streams.   Ground water pumpage



in these areas reduces streamflow.  In the headwater stretches of the



smaller tributaries the amount of induced infiltration is small, especially



during dry weather.  At such times the streamflow represents ground water



discharge.  Within the study area quantities of ground water capable of



significant development exist in the Bel River Basin from the valley of



Big Walnut Creek about two miles north of Greencastle to the mouth of

-------
                                                                       v-u



Eel River, along White River throughout the entire length vithin the



study area, and along the major streams in the East Fork Basin.



Estimated use in 19^3 from these sources in the study area was 92 mgd,



of vhich 58 mgd was for municipal and industrial water supply in Marion



County.



     In addition to the major ground water resource from outwash deposits,



"bedrock development of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age generally



yield sufficient water for farm and stock use and locally enough for



municipal and industrial supply.  Developed use of municipal and



industrial water supply in the study area from these sources is small,



and future development will probably be limited by the greater water



availability from surface supplies and from ground water originating in



outwash deposits.



     From the ground water literature researched, an estimate of maximum



potential yield from ground water sources in the study area was obtained



only for Marion County.  Tlie ground water quantity in Marion County



believed to be perennially available is about 235 mgd.   Perennially



available has been defined as not necessarily "economically developable."



Development of ground water in Marion County decreases surface flow in



the White River because of some recharge that would occur from the river



to the adjoining sand and gravel and bedrock aquifers.



     Considerably less ground water is available in Randolph,



Hendricks, and Boone Counties than in Marion County because of more limited



glacial outwash deposits.  In Clay, Putnam, Johnson, Hancock, Shelby, and

-------
                                                                    V-5



Rush Counties ground water is assumed to be available in considerable



quantities but less than that available in Marion County.  In these



counties outwash deposits exist but appear to be of lesser magnitude and



are adjacent to smaller streams than the White River in Marion County.



Northeast Putnam County, central Johnson County, and southern and central



portions of Rush County would not appear to be favorably located for



obtaining large quantities of ground water.  Delaware, Madison, Hamilton,



Morgan, and Cwen Counties have significant quantities of ground water



available along the White River.






Quality of Water Available



     The quality of surface water in the study area is quite variable.



The surface water supply can be characterized as hard (generally



200-^00 mg/1 hardness as CaCOg).  Quality of the surface supply below



Indianapolis and Muncie is seriously affected by lack of sufficient



streamflow to assimilate treated wastes.  A similar though less severe



situation occurs below New Castle on the Big Blue River, below Rushville



on Flatrock River, and below Greenwood, Greenfield, Danville, Brownsburg,



Brazil, Elwood, Alexandria, and Franklin on small tributaries during



dry periods of the year.  The streams generally have good assimilative



and self-purification properties.  The Eel River and the Big Blue River



below Shelbyville generally have a water quality acceptable for all



legitimate uses.  Acid mine drainage is a problem on some small



tributaries of the Eel River Basin.  The acid mine drainage is not

-------
                                                                    v-6
great enough to noticeably affect the water quality of the Eel River as
shown by records of the Indiana Water Quality Monitor station at
Worthington at the mouth of Eel River (see Table III-l in the Appendix).
     The Indiana Water Quality Monitor Station Network has been in
operation since 1957   For water quality Information for 196U on Eel
River at Worthington, Big Blue River at Carthage, Morristown, and
Shelbyville, and White River at Muncie, Anderson, Noblesville, Nora,
Antrim, and Martinsville, see Tables III-l through 111-10 in the
Appendix.  The Antrim station is about 6 miles downstream from the
discharge of Indianapolis' treated wastes,* while the Martinsville
station is about 30 miles downstream from Antrim.  The Carthage,
Shelbyville, Muncie, and Anderson stations are above the discharge of
the local waste treatment plants.
     Ground water quality is shown in Table V-l for various municipal
supplies in the study area.  Ground water sanitary quality is generally
high.  Chemical quality is typified as generally hard with some wells
having objectionable quantities of iron or sulphur.
* A second Indianapolis waste treatment plant is scheduled for
completion in mid 1966 and will discharge to the river Just above
the Antrim station.

-------
                                                                     VI-1


                            VI.  THE ECONOMY




Introduction


     An investigation of the population and economic characteristics and


a projection of the probable growth of the area of concern of the reser-


voir projects provide a basis for determining the water requirements in


terms of both quantity and quality for the area.  The growth of an area


depends not only on the characteristics of the area itself but, also, in


varying degrees, on the type and extent of the growth of the Nation and


the region of which it is a part.  This discussion of the economy has


been prepared within the general framework of the Projective Economic

                                                                         h
Study for the Ohio River Basin prepared by the A. D. Little Company, Inc.


     To supplement that work, a special study has been conducted by the


Louisville District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, utilizing


historical employment data from the unemployment insurance program of the


Bureau of Employment Security, U. S. Department of Labor.  This study


covered the Wabash and White River Basins as delineated in the Projective


Economic Study of the Chio River Basin.



Present


     The area of economic influence of the proposed Big Walnut, Big Blue,


and Downeyville Reservoir projects encompasses 16 counties in central


Indiana.  The economic areas are in central Indiana and are divided into


three hydrologic basins.  The economic area of the Eel River Basin is made


up of the counties of Clay, Owen, and Putnam.  The economic area of the


East Fork of the White River is made up of the counties of Hancock, Henry,

-------
                                                                     VI-2


Rush, and Shelby.  The largest economic area is the White River Basin


proper and is made up of the following counties:  Boone, Delaware,


Hamilton, Hendricks, Johnson, Madison, Marion, Morgan, and Randolph.


     Between 1950 and I960, all the counties in the areas had a population


increase except Owen County in the Eel River Basin.  Estimates for the


period 1960 through 196k show a slight population decrease in Owen County.


In this same period, all the counties in the East Fork Basin except Rush


County increased.  All of the counties of the White River Basin proper also


increased between 1960 and 196U.  In general, the rural counties are Just


holding their own while the urban areas are showing large population


increases.


     The terrain is no handicap to the transportation network system.


Indianapolis is the dominant urban city in central Indiana.  Four major


railroads service Indianapolis:  The New York Central, Pennsylvania,

                                             6
Illinois Central, and the Baltimore and Ohio.   The highway system is


excellent.  Four interstate routes pass through Indianapolis.  Tlie


interstate routes are 65, 69, 70, and 7^  There are six major highways


that crisscross Indianapolis.


     In the White River Basin, only 5 percent of total employment is in


agricultural pursuits.  Less than 2,000 acres were under irrigation in

                       Y
1959 out of 6|- million.   Approximately Uo percent of the value of farm


products is from field crops, 50 percent from livestock products, and the


remainder from dairy and poultry products.

-------
                                                                     VI-3

     In I960, the 3 counties making up the study area in the Eel River

Basin had lU percent of the total employment engaged in agricultural

pursuits.  The U counties in the East Fork study area had 12 percent

and the 9 counties in the White River Basin proper had only 3 percent.

     Agriculture continues to be an important industry in Indiana but it

will require less employment.  The total value of farm products is

increasing in Indiana.  While the value of field crops declined from

195^ to 1959* value of livestock and poultry increased.  In 1959> the

total value of farm products sold approached one billion dollars.  It

is this farm base that will provide increased farm income in the future.

     The total value of mineral production has remained fairly constant

for the past 10 years.  In the study area, only 3 counties employ more

than 100 persons in mining:  Clay, 200; Marion, 200; and Owen, 100.

Clay and Owen are in the coal mining area.  The mining employment in
                                             Q
Marion County is sand, gravel, and limestone.

     In the Eel River study area, there is one large International

Business Machines Corporation plant employing over 1,000 employees.

The IBM plant engages in die-cutting purchased paper and paperboard.

This plant is not a heavy water user due to the fact that it does not

manufacture the paper.  There is a brick and tile plant with over 500

employees in Clay County.  Stone and clay products plants are the most

numerous for the Eel study area.  (See Table VI-1 for the other plant

sizes.)

-------
                                                                     VI-U


     The East Fork study area has a heavy concentration of plants in


primary metals, fabricated metals, non-electrical machinery, and


transportation equipment.  (See Table VI-2 for plant size.)


     A major manufacturing center is Indianapolis.  Table VI-3 shows the


diversity and depth of the manufacturing categories in the counties


around the urban areas of Indianapolis, Anderson, and Muncie.  There are


28 plants with over 1,000 employees.  The main categories of plants in


the urbanized areas of Anderson, Indianapolis, and Muncie are food and


kindred products, transportation equipment, fabricated metals, machinery


(both electrical and nonelectrical), primary metals, plastics, and

          9
chemicals.   It is this industrial complex in central Indiana that


provides the base for future economic growth and expansion of the urban


areas.



Future


     The projected prosperity of the study areas depends upon the


continued expansion of the diverse industrial base concentrated along the


White River.  This industrial area encompasses the three major urban


areas of Anderson, Indianapolis, and Muncie.


     The indices of output projections (see Tables VT-U, VT-5, and VT-6)


were compiled from the employment data supplied by the Louisville District


Office Corps of Engineers and productivity per employee data for the years


1976 and 1985 from the National Planning Association.  Extrapolations of


the indices were made from 1980 to 2020.

-------
                                                                     VI-5



     Urban area projections are based upon historical relationships between



the urban areas and the county within which the area is contained.  These



projections, as veil as county projections, are shown in Table VI-J.



Total study area population is projected to increase by 88 percent from



1,3^0,000 in I960 to 2,514,000 by 2020.



     Projected growth rates by subarea show the Eel River subarea



increasing its population by slightly more than 50 percent from 1960 to



2020, with an accompanying slight percentage Increase in urbanization.



In the East Fork White River subarea, population is expected to increase



by 8? percent between 1960 and 2020.  In the White River subarea,



population is expected to increase by 90 percent between I960 and 2020,



with the urbanized area of Indianapolis increasing its percentage of the



subarea population only slightly.



     The Federal Bower Commission has projected electric power capacity



to increase 183 percent from 1963 to 1980 in the White River Basin.  Most



of the increase will be used by the industrial complex of Anderson,



Indianapolis, and Muncie.



     The projections in this section have been used for calculating



future water supply and water quality needs in subsequent sections of



this report.

-------
                                                                     VII-1



               VII.  WATER REQUIREMENTS-MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL





Present Water Use



     Table VII-1 (see Appendix) lists the municipal supplies for the



three stibareas comprising the study area*  A summarization of these



data is shown below.
Subarea
Eel River
East Fork
White River
Totals
Population
Served
29,000
76,000
873,000
978,000
Total
Municipal
Use mgd
2.9
7.8
107.6
118.3
Ground
Water
Use mgd
2.6
7-7
21.6
31-9
Surface
Water
Use mgd
0.3
0.1
86.0
86. k
Average
Demand
gpcd
100
103
12
121
     Average water use by municipality varies from 30 to 162 gallons per



capita per day (gpcd).  The average of 121 gpcd is strongly influenced



by the consumption from the Indianapolis Water Company system which



serves 615,000 people and has an average use of 123 gpcd.  The communities



of less than 5,000 population have an average use of 77 gpcd.  These



average use figures Include some associated business and commercial use



and an estimated 32 mgd industrial water use from public water supplies.



Most of this indicated industrial water use is in the Marion County



(Indianapolis) area.  By subtracting the above estimated industrial water



use, an average water use of 88 gpcd is obtained solely for domestic,



commercial, and general public use.

-------
                                                                     VII-2

     Total estimated industrial water use in the study area is shown in

the following tabulation.  Of this total, 32 mgd is estimated to originate

from public water supply sources and 575 mgd from self-supplied industrial

water sources.


                                           Total Estimated
                                           Industrial Water
   Subarea                                 Use for 1963 in mgd

Eel River                                        0.6

East Fork                                        8.0

White River

  Thermal Power Plant Cooling Water            506.0

  Other Industrial Uses                         92.0

                    Totals                     607.0


     In the Eel River subarea only small quantities of water are utilized

by industry.  Some coal mining companies utilize ground water in their

operations.  The two industrial firms in Greencastle that employ the

largest number of employees utilize water from the municipal system.

     The major industrial water use locations in the East Fork White

River subarea are at New Castle, Shelbyville, and Carthage.  Self-

supplied surface water is the dominant source of industrial supply.

The greatest amount of industrial water use is by the pulp and paper,

canning, primary metals, and pharmaceutical industries.

-------
                                                                     VII-3



     In the White River Basin subarea the greatest use of water by



industry, exclusive of cooling water for thermal power plants, is in



Indianapolis with an estimated 76 mgd total from public and self-



supplied sources.  That obtained from public supplies originates mostly



from surface water sources, while that which is self-supplied is mostly



from wells or Ranney collectors along White River.  Industries utilizing



large quantities of water in the Indianapolis area include meat packing,



Pharmaceuticals, paper manufacturing, primary metals, fabricated metals,



and machinery.



     Other areas of considerable industrial water use in the White River



subarea are at Anderson and Muncie.  Electrical machinery, meat packing,



batteries, and fabricated metals are major industries in these communities



which are within 19 miles of each other.  Estimated industrial water use



in this area is 16 mgd, of which about one-half is estimated to come from



municipal sources and half from self-supplied sources.



     Water use for irrigation purposes is limited in the study area as



a whole.  A limited amount of water is used for truck crops in Marion



County.  No estimate of actual use could be obtained..



     Ihe U. S. Economic Research Service of the U. S. Department of



Agriculture submitted a preliminary report to the Louisville District



Corps of Engineers dated June 25, 1965.  This report stated that there



is presently no irrigation in the Big Walnut Creek Reservoir area.



There are about 1,000 acres presently irrigated in the Big Blue Reservoir



area from above the Shelby-Hancock County line to the confluence of

-------
                                                                     vn-u



Driftwood and Flatrock Rivers near Columbus.  In the area from the



Downeyville damsite to the confluence of Clifty Creek and East Fork of



the White River, about 900 acres of land are now irrigated.  About



half of this acreage is irrigated from the river and half from wells.





Existing Sources of Supply-Surface and Ground Water



     Quantity



       In the Eel River Basin the four largest communities (Greencastle,



Brazil, Jasonville, Clay City), serving about 2^,700 persons, are



obtaining their water supplies from well fields in glacial outwash



deposits paralleling or near to the Eel River or Big Walnut Creek.  The



largest developed well is 1,000 gpm at Greencastle.  Brazil and Jasonville



abandoned wells closer to the community and went some miles to reach this



relatively good aquifer.  Smaller communities, serving about 2,800



persons in this basin, utilize wells in aquifers with less potential than



the outwash deposits.



     In addition to the ground water resources, there exists a relatively



untouched surface water potential from the Eel River and its tributaries.



Minimum daily flows are l.U cfs at Reelsville on Big Walnut Creek



(drainage area 338 square miles) during a period of record from 19^9 to



196^, and 11 cfs at Bowling Green on Eel River (drainage area 8UU square



miles) during a period of record from 1931 to 196k.



     The Putnamville State Farm, a correctional institution of the State



of  Indiana, has a low head impoundment on Deer Creek.  During drought



years Deer Creek has flows insufficient to meet the needs of the

-------
                                                                     VII-5



institution.  Wells have been drilled in the Deer Creek valley floor



and are pumped during emergencies*  The problem of a reliable vater



supply has not been solved, and several methods of obtaining wore water



have been investigated including storage reservoirs in the Deer Creek



Basin and a veil field in the Big Walnut Creek valley which is



approximately four miles away.



       In the East Fork of White River subarea, the total existing



municipal water supply is from ground water sources except for 0.08



mgd at Princes Lake.  Estimates of potential yields from ground water



sources are unavailable.  However, considerable undeveloped potential



exists and, particularly in areas near Big Blue River, significant



quantities of ground water can be developed.  Surface water has not been



developed as a significant source of supply because of this general



availability of ground water.  Base flows are relatively good on Big



Blue and Driftwood Rivers.  The minimum daily flow of the Big Blue



River at Shelbyville (drainage area k25 square miles) was 32 cfs during



the period of record from I9^k to 196^.  On Sugar Creek near Edinburg



(drainage area U6"2 square miles), the minimum daily flow from 19^3 to



196U was 9.2 cfs.  On Flatrock River at St. Paul (drainage area 298



square miles), the minimum daily flow from 1931 to 1964 was 0.6 cfs.



       In the White River area, Muncie's present sources of supply are



the White River and Buck Creek.  In addition, a 21,500 acre-foot impound-



ment has been constructed on Prairie Creek, an upstream tributary of



White River.  This system provides an estimated firm yield of 13.8 mgd.

-------
                                                                     VII-6



The city also has eleven veils which are not normally used at this time



but are available for emergencies.  The estimated firm yield of these



wells is 3 mgd, providing a total present installed system capability



of 16.8 mgd.



       The city of Anderson utilizes wells as a primary source of supply.



A Ranney well collection system near the mouth of Kilbuck Creek serves



as a major source of supply.  This system is recharged to a considerable



extent from the streamflow.  A low head impoundment on White River is



used during times when the well system is incapable of meeting the



needs.  This is usually during periods of low streamflow and high



demands.  The firm capabilities of the present supply sources are 75



mgd from surface sources and 10.5 mgd from ground water for a total of



18 mgd.



       The privately owned Indianapolis Water Company utilizes the



White River and Pall Creek as its major sources of supply.  Impoundments



on Cicero Creek, an upstream tributary of White River, and on Fall Creek



supplement the natural streamflow to provide a firm yield from surface



sources of 95 mgd.  Forty wells are available but are pumped only



occasionally.  The water company does not presently pump these wells



for extended periods and considers their prime function that of providing



for flexibility of operation and as an emergency source rather than as



an addition to their firm supply.

-------
                                                                     VII-7



     The town of Speedway, in 19^5, went to Eagle Creek as its major



source of water supply.  The town has retained its six wells, which



have a firm yeild of 30 mgd, to supplement the creek flow when needed.



     The Eagle Creek Reservoir, now under construction, will have



storage for water supply.  The reservoir has a firm yield of about



16 mgd.  It is anticipated that both the city of Indianapolis and



the town of Speedway will purchase water from this source.



     The other public water systems in the White River subarea utilize



wells for their sources of water supply as do most self-supplied



industries in the area.  These sources of supply are generally adequate



for short-term future needs.  In many instances, inadequate testing



and evaluation of ground water potential result in an inability to



assess present sources of supply.  Generally for moderate and small-



sized communities, obtaining adequate quantities of water is largely



a matter of well field expansion and exploration to determine the most



favorable areas for ground water development.



     Quality



       Tables III-5 and III-8 show the water quality generally available



to the two major surface water users (Indianapolis and Muncie) in the



study area.  The hardness generally ranges from 200 to 370 mg/1 and the



alkalinity from 150 to 300 mg/1.  These levels are generally typical of



the surface water in the area which can be typified as hard and having



a high alkalinity.

-------
                                                                     VII-8



     Above points of major organic pollution, the surface vater is of



a quality amenable to normal treatment consisting of coagulation,



sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination.



     Ground vater quality is shown in Table V-l.  Hardness ranges from



200 to UT5 mg/1 and alkalinity from 2UO to 390 mg/1.  This can be charac-



terized as very hard with a high alkalinity.  Many of these veils are at



a relatively shallow depth and base streamflow results from ground vater



contribution, so, as would be expected, these are similar quality



characteristics to that for the surface vater in the area.  Iron is a



problem from some well supplies and iron removal is a common practice.



In addition, softening is practiced at some of the treatment plants.





Future Municipal and Industrial Water Requirements



     Current water use levels are discussed at the beginning of this



chapter.  The current use was evaluated to determine as nearly as



possible the amount utilized by industry and the amount utilized for



domestic, commercial, and general public use.  This evaluation was used



as a base from which projections for future water use vere made.  The



industrial water use was projected on the basis of economic output



projections in Chapter VI with an assumed increasing efficiency in



water use per unit of product.  Domestic, commercial, and general public



use was projected on the basis of a continuing trend of increased per



capita use.  The assumed values are shown on the following page for



the study area.

-------
                                                                     vil-9
                                         Gallons per
         Year                            Capita per Day

         1963                                  88

         1980                                  95

         2020                                 120

     Based on the above described methods, total projected water use by

subarea vas obtained and is summarized below.
     Study Area                        Water Use in mgd _
                                              1950      2020
Eel River Subarea
  Industrial                         0.6       1.3       3.5
  Dom., Com., & Gen'l.               2.3       3.5       6.8
       Total                         2.9       O      10.3

East Pork Subarea
  Industrial                         8.1      12.0      25.0
  Dom., Com., & Gen'l.               6.3       8.8      21.0
       Total                        T77E
White River Subarea
  Industrial                        92.0     13^.0     261*. 0
  Dom., Com., & Gen'l.              78.0     105.0     202.0
       Total                       170.0     239.0     U66.0

Study Area Totals                  187.0     265.0     522.0
     These projected water use figures do not include cooling water needs

for thermal electric power generation.  At present, an estimated 506 mgd

is used for this purpose.  This is the total use at four generating

plants on White River.  During low flow periods a successive reuse of

the streamflow for cooling and other purposes results.  The A. D. Little

"Protective Economic Study of the Ohio River Basin"  relates future power

production location to areas with coal resources.  Significant coal

resources exist in an area generally west and southwest of the study

-------
                                                                     vn-io



area.  It is therefore concluded that the future power needs of the study



area will for the most part be generated outside the area and cooling



vater needs within the study area vill not be a controlling water supply



factor.



     In the Eel River subarea, the present water needs are being met



almost exclusively by ground water.  Bie outwash sand and gravel deposits



along Big Walnut Creek, in the Greencastle area and below, and along the



Eel River should be capable of significantly increased levels of



development.  In addition, natural streanflow could be used to supple-



ment ground water if necessary to meet the projected water supply need



of 10.3 mgd by the year 2020.  In the upstream areas, the communities



all have less than 1,000 population and use ground water from sources



with less apparent potential than the downstream outwash deposits.  It



is believed the future needs of these communities can be met by expansion



of existing well fields and, should the need develop, by exploration to



develop additional or better yielding nearby ground water sources.  The



northeastern portion of this subarea is close enough to the Indianapolis



metropolitan area (22 to 30 miles) to support future major bedroom or



commuter communities.  13iis possibility is enhanced by two interstate



highways, one of which will traverse this area and one which will be



near this area.  Locations of such possible communities cannot be



determined and possible storage needs for such a development cannot be



logically evaluated.  Water supply for such a community might very

-------
                                                                     VII-11



possibly be from expansion of the Indianapolis Water Company's service



area or by a water district purchasing water from an existing supply.



Needs for the Indianapolis metropolitan area are included in the White



River subarea totals and, to the extent that this metropolitan area may



spread into the upper Eel River Basin, water use therefrom is included



in the White River subarea totals.



     She Putnamville State Farm was estimated to have a 1980 water



requirement of 0.68 mgd in a 1956 Investigation by the Indiana Flood



Control and Water Resources Commission.    This would require an



additional O.U8 mgd of water supply to supplement its present estimated



firm supply of 0.2 mgd.  Projections beyond the year 1980 are unavailable



and normal protective techniques are not applicable to this type of



institution.  Assuming the institution population paralleled the State



population projections   and that the 1980 projected water use level of



290 gpcd for the institution continued, a projected water use by 2020



of 1.2 mgd is obtained or 1.0 mgd more than the present firm yield.



Based on this projected need, there is a potential need for storage in



Big Walnut Creek Reservoir to meet water supply needs of 1.0 mgd in the



Eel River subarea.



     The East Fork subarea obtains virtually all of its municipal supply



from ground water sources.  These existing sources along with the natural



flow of the streams are expected to be sufficient to meet the projected



water supply needs in all except upper headwater areas.  Should existing



ground water sources of supply prove inadequate for future needs,

-------
                                                                     vn-i2



supplementation with the natural flow of Big Blue River will be sufficient



to meet needs at Franklin, Shelbyville, Rushville, Ediriburg,



New Whiteland, Whiteland, Knightstown, Carthage, Morristown, and



Greenfield, and supplementation with natural flow in Flatrock River



will be sufficient to meet needs at St. Paul.  For some of these



communities, pipelines would have to be constructed to intake points on



the Big Blue River in the stream reach from Knightstown to Edinburg.


Hie upstream communities of New Castle, Lewisvllle, Shirley, and



Spiceland are not as favorably situated to allow potential use of


natural flow to supplement ground water development.  The latter three



communities, however, are all small enough (less than 1,100 population)



that nearby ground water development should be capable of meeting future


needs.  At New Castle present municipal and self-supplied industrial


water use is estimated to be ^.2 mgd and is expected to increase to 7 mgd


by 1980 and 16 mgd by the year 2020.  While existing ground water potential



cannot be accurately estimated from existing information, a previous


report on ground water in the area concluded that the community would

                                                               12
very possibly have to eventually use surface sources of supply.


Based on past and projected growth, it is concluded that these sources


must be utilized some time during the 1980 to 2020 period.  If available


ground water sources can be economically developed to a level of 7 mgd,


9 mgd of surface water supply will have to be provided to meet 2020 needs,



with a first need occurring in the year 1980.

-------
                                                                     vii-13

     Reservoir storage is capable of satisfying a water supply need

established for Greensburg, Indiana, in a previously published report

entitled, "Water Resources Study, Clifty Creek Reservoir, Wabash River

Basin, Indiana," by the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and

Welfare, January 196U.  Greensburg's projected vater needs are for an

additional 2.U mgd by the year 2020, with the year 1982 the estimated

time of first need.  TSiis need would most logically be met by storage

for water supply in Downeyville Reservoir.  Greensburg presently has a

low head impoundment on Flatrock River approximately one mile below the

location selected for the Downeyville damsite.

     The White River subarea is expected to need about U66 mgd to

satisfy its municipal and industrial water supply needs for the year

2020.  Approximately 86 mgd of this is projected for the upper portion

of the subarea centering around Muncie and Anderson and including the

counties of Madison, Delaware, Randolph, and part of Tipton County.

The other 380 mgd is projected for the area centering on Indianapolis

and including Marion, Hamilton, Hendricks, Morgan, and portions of Boone

and Johnson Counties*  Two portions of the subarea are tabulated below.

                          Muncie-Anderson Area
           (Madison, Delaware, Randolph, and Tipton Counties)

                                         1980           2020
                                         (mgd)          (mgd)

Projected Municipal and Industrial        ^8             86
  Water Supply Need                      - - -          - - 

Existing Dependable Draft (Ground Water)  2k             2k
Existing Flow plus Storage                23             23
                    Totals               ~W           ~W

-------
                       Muncie-Anderson Area (Corrt'd)
             (Madison, Delaware, Randolph, and Tlpton Counties)

Additional Municipal and Industrial Need
Utilizing White River Flow at Anderson
Not Utilizing White River Flow at
1980
(mgcQ

1
8.5
2020
(mgd)

39
1*6.5
    Anderson


     Even though the above area tabulation shows 23 mgd from streamflow

plus storage, T5 mgd of this indicated existing water supply is from

the White River and a low head impoundment on White River at Anderson.

This is a secondary source of supply for Anderson and is only IT stream

miles below the discharge of municipal and industrial wastes from

Muncie.  Because of limited base flow, the nearness to Muncie and the

high level of industrialization, much of which is in metals where plating

wastes present a potential hazard, the White River at Anderson is a

dubious source of future water supply.
                              Indianapolis Area
             (Marion, Hamilton, Hendricks, Morgan, and portions of
                         Boone and Johnson Counties)

Projected Municipal and Industrial
Water Supply Need
Existing Flow plus Storage (White
River, Fall Creek)
Existing Ground Water Development
Augmented Streamflow from Upper
Basin Water Supply Development
Total Available Supply
Additional Water Supply Required
1980
(mgd)
191
95
TO

165
26
2020
(mgd)
380
95
TO
30
195
185

-------
                                                                     vn-15



     Some of the projected need for additional water supply can be expected



to result from increased development of ground vater by industries and



the 22 public water systems presently utilizing ground water sources of



supply.  The Indianapolis Water Company has further development of



surface water from both upstream and downstream sources included in its



long-range plans.  This company foresees a possible need for an additional



capability (in excess of present firm sources of supply) of 25 mgd by



1980 and 100 mgd by the year 2010.



     Of the total estimated additional 185 mgd water supply needed by



the year 2020, it is estimated that from 100 to 150 mgd will be developed



from surface water sources and the remainder from ground water, depending



on the relative economics and availability of supply from the two sources.



It is therefore concluded that a need for reservoir storage to yield a



minimum of 100 mgd is needed to satisfy municipal and industrial water



requirements in Indianapolis and the surrounding area by the year 2020.



The required storage should be provided, to the extent consistent with



optimum use of water resources, in the Big Walnut and Big Blue Reservoirs.



     The U. S. Economic Research Service of the U. S. Department of



Agriculture in a report dated June 25, 1965, stated that:  "...Preliminary



analysis of the supply of and demand for agricultural products in the



Wabash Basin indicates that there will not be a significant shortage of



land and water resources needed for food and fibre production in 1980

-------
                                                                     vn-i6

and 2010.  Therefore, further expansion of irrigation and other forms of

resource development vould not be necessary to meet production require-

ments.  Increases in irrigation can be expected, however, if per unit

costs of production can be decreased by its use.  ...In general, the

volume of water used for irrigation is likely to remain small relative

to the amounts used for other purposes."

     The needs for storage for water supply indicated in this report are

in addition to that which may be required for irrigation as indicated

in the previous paragraph.

     The following tabulation briefly summarizes the municipal and

industrial water supply needs which have been identified in the previous

text.  Excluded from this listing are areas where expected economic

development of ground water or where ground water plus base streamflow

will be sufficient to meet future needs.
                        Summary of Water Needs (in mgd)
               Not Satisfied by Present Firm Sources of Surface
                Supply or by Expected Development Capabilities
                               of Ground Water
Putnamville State
  Farm

New Castle Area

Greensburg***

Water
Supply
Require-
ments
ite 0.7
7.0
2.8
1980


*Firm
Supply
0.2
7.0
3-0


Addi-
tional
Need
0.5

...

Water
Supply
Require-
ments
1.2
16.0
5-U
2020


*Firm
Supply
0.2
7.0
3-0


Addi-
tional
Need
1.0
9.0
2.U

-------
                                                                       VII-17
                          Summary of Water Needs (in agd)
                 Not Satisfied by Present Firm Sources of Surface
                  Supply or by Expected Development Capabilities
                             of Ground Water (Cont'd)
Monde-Anderson
  Area

Indianapolis Area

Water
Supply
Require-
ments
U8.0
, 191.0
1980


*Firm
Supply
39-5
165.0
2020

Addi-
tional
Need
8.5
26.0
Water
Supply
Require-
ments
86.0
380.0


*Firm
Supply
39-5
195-0

Addi-
tional
Need
U6.5
185.0-
  *Firm supply is present dependable surface water supply and ground water
   development.  For Indianapolis area augmented streamflow from Muncie-
   Anderson area is considered part of 2020 dependable surface supply.

 **An estimated 100-150 mgd is expected to be required from surface water
   sources with the remainder from further development of ground water.

***Figures for Greensburg are extrapolated from Clifty Creek Report.

-------
                                                                  VIII-1



                      VIII.  WATER QUALITY CONTROL






     The control of water quality centers around economic and public



health aspects of instream and withdrawal uses.  Benefits accrue from



the possible use of water for recreational activities, public and




industrial water supply, and esthetic enjoyment.  Economic benefit is



reduced if water quality is such as to restrict these uses, make treatment



for beneficial uses more costly, result in the necessity of substituting



more remote and therefore possibly more expensive water based recreational



activities, result in corrosion or scaling of watercraft, domestic,



navigation, and industrial equipment and facilities.  Economic benefit



is also lost if obnoxious fumes result in damage to painted surfaces,



loss of esthetic enjoyment and reduced land values.






Municipal and Industrial Pollution



     Table VIII-1 (see Appendix) shows the present status of municipal



waste facilities in the study area.  Generally for communities greater



than 1,500 in population, secondary treatment has been provided.  The



following is a summarization of data by subarea.  Unless information was



available to indicate a different percentage removal of 5-day biochemical



oxygen demand (B.O.D.), this report is based on the usual observation



that secondary treatment provides 85 percent B.O.D. removal and primary



treatment 30 percent B.O.D. removal.

-------
                                                                     VIII-2
Treatment Facilities
   Population
   Served
Eel River Subarea

  Secondary Treatment

  Primary Treatment

  Severed vith no
    Treatment

        Total

East Fork White River
     21,800
      1,UOO

     23,200

Subarea
  Secondary Treatment      68,900

  Primary Treatment         	

  Severed vith no
    Treatment               5,1+00

        Total              7^,300

White River Subarea

  Secondary Treatment     699,UOO

  Primary Treatment        11,200

  Severed vith no
    Treatment              2^,800

        Total             735,^00

  Study Area Totals       833,000
Population Equivalent
Baaed on B.O.D	
           Wastes
Raw        Discharged
Wastes     to Streams
21,800
 1,UOO

23,200
                     63,^00
                      5,^00

                     68,800
                     2U,8oo
3,300
1,UOO

U,700
             9,800
            15,200
                  1,58U,000     238,300

                     10,900       7,800
            2U,800
                  1,619,700     270,900

                  1,712,000     291,000
     Table VIII-2 (see Appendix) shovs a tabulation of industrial vaste

treatment facilities vith separate discharges (not discharging to public

sever systems).  As a general rule, industries vith discharges containing

high levels of B.O.D. are connected to city severs.  The total population

equivalent based on B.O.D. is estimated to be Ul,100.

-------
                                                                   VIII-3



     As noted in Chapter V, seriously degraded conditions exist on the



White River below Muncle and below Indianapolis.  During drought periods



there is less dilution water in the White River than the discharge volume



from the Indianapolis sewage treatment plant.  The same is true below



Muncie.  Zero dissolved oxygen levels were observed on occasion in these



stream reaches during a 1965 sampling program by the Evansville Field



Station of the Ohio River Basin Comprehensive Project.  Water quality is



generally good below the proposed Big Walnut, Big Blue, and Downeyville



damsites.



     In addition to waste loadings from the municipal and industrial



sources previously described, pollutants enter streams from agricultural



and other sources.  During periods of surface runoff, pollution from



insecticides, pesticides, fertilizers, and from barnyard and pasture



runoff in rural areas would occur.  Also, urban street washings and



storm water flow would contribute significant waste loadings to



streams.  The net loading from such sources would be difficult to measure



and estimate; however, solids that might accumulate in the stream's



channel would contribute to sludge deposits.  Nutrients derived from



these and other sources would contribute to algal growths.



     Ballution from the above sources as well as from treated municipal



and industrial wastes contains biodegradable organic materials.



Stabilization of these organic materials results in a demand on the



dissolved oxygen in the stream.  If the quantities of these materials



exceed the assimilative capacity of the stream, lowered dissolved oxygen

-------
                                                                     YIII-U



levels vill result.  Lowering of D.O. levels "below requirements for the



fish life vill result in fish kills or, in less severe cases, vill



result in environmental conditions unfavorable for growth and/or



reproduction.  A stream vill eventually recover from such a condition



if no additional waste loadings are introduced and sufficient time



elapses for natural atmospheric reaeration to replace the oxygen



demanded to stabilize the organic wastes.



     Some pollutants are nondegradable or very slowly degradable in



nature.  In this category are most strictly chemical pollutants such



as chlorides, sulfates, acidity, and excess alkalinity.  Pesticides and



herbicides are not normally considered subject to Immediate degradation



on being introduced into stream systems.  Inflow of water containing a



lower concentration of non-degradable pollutants results in a dilution



effect, and the pollutional characteristic is partially or possibly



completely eliminated.





Water Quality Criteria



     The quality of water determines the uses that can be made of it and,



unless proper quality is maintained, possible economic benefits of its



use will be lost and public health endangered.  Withdrawal and instream



uses determine the water quality objectives applicable to a stream.  The



objectives used in evaluating quality conditions in the study area have



been based on use of Big Walnut Creek, Eel River, and Big Blue River as

-------
                                                                     VIII-5



a potential source of raw water supply for the communities located nearby,



general recreational use including fishing, and on preventing loss of



esthetic environment from degraded streamflov conditions.



     The Manual of Recommended Water Sanitation Practice of the Public



Health Service has been used as a guide to acceptable raw water quality



and is used here to select objectives for the maximum coliform concen-



trations in the raw water at water treatment plants' intakes.  Coliform



densities in excess of 5,000 per 100 ml in 20 percent of the samples in



any month or 20,000 per 100 ml in more than 5 percent in any month should



be avoided, even with coagulation, filtration, and post chlorination.



Ghlorination of the effluent from waste treatment plants is considered



a more economical control method than regulation of streamflow.



However, it should be recognized that bacteria in uncollectable wastes



such as emanate from storm water overflows or street washings are not



affected by chlorination of waste treatment plant effluents.



     Raw waters, in addition to meeting bacterial requirements, should



be free of excessive toxic, taste producing, or otherwise harmful



substances.  Raw waters should contain no organisms not readily or



completely removable by ordinary water treatment and should be free of



excessive amounts of acid, microscopic organisms, and organic matter



causing any interference with normal operation and efficiency of water



treatment processes.



     The 1962 Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, which



applies to finished drinking water on interstate carriers, limits total

-------
                                                                     VIII-6



dissolved solids to 500 mg/1 where other more suitable supplies are or



can be made available.  This same standard has a similar recommended



limit of 250 mg/1 for both chlorides and sulfates.



     The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board has by Regulation SPC 1



established the following standard for receiving waters, "...Generally



the oxygen content of the receiving water, after being mixed with and



affected by the waste, shall be no less than 50 percent saturation.



A lower concentration will be tolerated temporarily, but only so long



as it is not injurious to aquatic life, and in no case shall it fall



below 25 percent saturation."  At present the flow of the White River



below Muncie and Indianapolis is insufficient to allow maintenance of



this standard even with adequate treatment of wastes.



     A water quality goal was established after considering a number of



water quality indicators.  It was found that maintaining a water quality



goal of 5 mg/1 of dissolved oxygen resulted in levels of total dissolved



solids, chlorides, and sulfates within the recommended limits previously



referred to in the 1962 Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards.



     The water quality goal of 5 mg/1 of dissolved oxygen was selected



on the basis of anticipated municipal and industrial water supply,



aquatic life, esthetics, and recreational use.  In selecting dissolved



oxygen goals for streams to protect aquatic life, mere survival is not



enough.  The minimum level selected should be suitable for the



continuance of satisfactory fish life and fish food organisms.  On the



basis of studies by the Public Health Service on Lytle Creek in the

-------
                                                                      VIII-7



Cincinnati area, it was concluded that for a well-rounded, warm-water



fish population dissolved oxygen concentrations should not be below



5 mg/1 for more than 8 hours of any 2U-hour period and at no time should



it be below 3 ng/l  Since the study area is within about 150 miles



geographically of Lytle Creek and similar species of fish abound in



both streams, the above statement of necessary oxygen concentrations



was the basis of the water quality goal for this study.





Flow Regulation



     In the future, increased waste discharges in the Eel River and Big



Blue River Basins will, even after adequate treatment, result in reduced



water quality during low flow periods.  In the Sugar Creek Basin (a



tributary of East Fork White River, see Figure III), which drains a



portion of eastern Marion County as well as western Shelby and Hancock



Counties, expansion of the urban Indianapolis area will probably result



in major increases in population and-in wastes discharged.  It is



expected that with increased population a sewage treatment plant will be



built to serve this area.  Presently,  lift stations are utilized to pump



sewage for a limited population in eastern Marion County into the



Indianapolis sewerage system.  After treatment, this sewage is discharged



to the White River Basin.  Below Indianapolis and Muncie-Anderson in the



White River Basin, and below New Castle in the Big Blue Basin, water



quality is degraded below the established goal during low flow periods.



For each of these areas, needs for water quality control exist which could



be satisfied by reservoir storage.

-------
                                                                        vni-8

            In addition to the above needs, a January 196U  study of the proposed
                            13
       Clifty  Creek Reservoir   established water quality control needs on the

       East Fork White River below  Columbus.  These flow needs were established

       as  from k8  to  55 mgd in 1976 and from 103 to 113 mgd in 2010.  For  the

       purposes of this report, the higher 1976 value of 55 mgd  was accepted

       for the expected 1980 need and the higher 2010 value of 113 mgd "was

       accepted for the expected  2020 need.

            The aforementioned critical stream reaches are  tabulated below with

       flow needs  for water quality control.  These flow needs are based on

       adequate control of wastes at the source and adequate treatment, which

       is  defined  as  conventional secondary treatment providing  85 percent

       removal of  B.O.D.  If quality is maintained throughout the critical

       reaches, quality is expected to be insured in the stream  as a whole.

                                                             Summer Flow  Needed
Critical Reaches by Stream System           Design Flow*     to Receive Treated Wastes
                                                                            "
                                                                            (mgdj

       Big Walnut Creek-Eel River System

         (l)  Big Walnut Creek below             <2              8            12
                Greencastle

       Upper Tributaries East Fork
       White River System	

         (1)  Big Blue River below New Castle   <12             lU            25
         (2)  Big Blue River below Shelbyville    2U             2U            70
         (3)  East Fork White River below         1*9.5           55           113
                Columbus (based on Clifty
                Creek Reservoir report)
       White River-Main Stem

         (1)  White River below Muncie-Anderson <39            120           195
         (2)  White River below Indianapolis      80            5^0           975
       *The design flow is defined as the minimum 7 consecutive-day mean flow  with
        an expected 10-year recurrence interval.

-------
                                                                   viil-9



     Needs for other months of the year are expected to be the following



percentages of the summer flow needs:  May and October, 80 percent;



April and November, 70 percent; December, January, February, and March,



50 percent.



     The indicated flow needs should not be interpreted as an operating



schedule.  Each period of deficient streamflow would be characterized



by different temperature levels.  The temperature and waste loadings that



materialize would affect the actual needed releases during the period of



drought.



     Of previously tabulated critical reaches, a complete evaluation was



made for Big Walnut Creek below Greencastle, Big Blue River below



Shelbyville, and White River below Muncie-Anderson.  Needs as previously



outlined below Columbus in the Clifty Creek report   were not specifically



re-evaluated but are shown in this report for a more complete understanding



of total area needs.  For the critical stream reach below New Castle,



storage from the subject reservoirs was not seriously considered.   The



proposed Big Blue Reservoir is about 25 miles downstream and pumping to



below New Castle would not involve a significant demand on storage since



the pumped flow would be returned undiminished except for perhaps  a small



loss to evaporation and/or recharge to alluvium in the stream channel.



A "Watershed Work Plan" for a P.L. 566 project in the upper headwater



areas of the Big Blue River Basin has been submitted to a Congressional



Committee in Washington.  Two structures in the work plan include  storage



for water quality control.  Under present legislation the cost of  providing



such storage cannot be at Federal expense.

-------
                                                                   VIII-10

     Because of a lack of sufficient storage in potential reservoir sites

above Indianapolis, vater quality control for the White River below

Indianapolis cannot be attained by this method alone, even vith adequate

treatment of vastes.  Until such a time as a complete field study to

determine stream characteristics is completed and a thorough evaluation

of alternates is completed, a definitive recommendation cannot be made.

However, reservoir storage from the proposed structures can be a partial

solution.  In the benefits section, cost of storage in alternate reser-

voirs upstream from Indianapolis is used to place a value on the

contribution of this partial solution.

     For those needs that can be evaluated at this time, a draft-on-storage

has been determined by comparing vater supply and waste return flow

conditions expected in 1980 and 2020 with streamflows in each year of

the past record.  The results of these calculations were arrayed in order

of magnitude and are presented graphically in the Appendix.  The results

of these analyses are tabulated belov.  These represent draft-on-storage

at the point of need with no allowance for evaporation or transmission

losses.  The values given should maintain water quality in nine out of

ten years.  For needs for other recurrence intervals, see Figures VI and

VII in the Appendix.

                                       Draft-on-Storage in Acre-Feet
                                          19502020

Big Walnut Creek below Greencastle         600              1,1*00

Big Blue River below Shelbyville             0             12,000

White River below Muncie-Anderson       3^,000             80,000

East Fork White River below Columbus         0             11,000

-------
                                                                  VIII-11



     The expected adequately treated waste flows to Flatrock River belov



Downeyville Reservoir can be adequately assimilated by natural flovs



in an expected seven consecutive day once in ten year mean low flow



condition.  Therefore, no storage is requested in Downeyville Reservoir



for water quality control in Flatrock River.  The Bureau of Sport



Fisheries and Wildlife, Lebanon, Chio, in a report has requested a



minimum April to September flow of 50 cfs below the proposed reservoir



to maintain fish habitat.



     The proposed reservoirs are expected to be subject to the detrimental



influence on water quality of thermal density stratification.  Under



such conditions the epilimnion of the impoundment remains aerobic due



to vind mixing and contact with the atmosphere, but the water in the



hypolimnion is trapped below the thermocline and is prevented from



undergoing atmospheric reaeration.  The oxygen demand in these waters



consumes the original dissolved oxygen content.  After anaerobic



conditions have developed, other detrimental reactions take place;



iron, manganese, and color may go into solution and the pH may decline.



Release of this water through outlet works could cause harmful down-



stream effects.  Design of the reservoir should include features to



avoid these difficulties.  Multiple-level outlets are recommended to



allow the selection of the most suitable quality of water.   Outlets



should be provided with a vertical spacing of approximately 10 feet in



the conservation and seasonal pools.  Installation of recording



instruments to indicate water quality at the several levels would



facilitate operation of the flow release structures.

-------
                                                                    VIII-12



     Consideration of anticipated flow from unregulated areas, such as




is provided by the Weather Bureau River Forecast Section and frequent



observation of downstream conditions including establishment of a water



quality monitoring system, will allow determination of the required




quantity and quality of releases to maintain water quality objectives.



     The above recommendations for flow needs and draft-on-storage are



based on limited data.  A more detailed analysis will be possible when



information from the Chio River Basin Comprehensive Project by the



Federal Water Pollution Control Administration is available.

-------
                                                                      EC-1



                             IX.  BENEFITS





Water Supply Benefits



     As previously outlined in Chapter VII, needs for municipal and



industrial vater supply that could be satisfied by reservoir storage  exist



in the study area*  The areas of need vere determined to be in the Eel



River subarea at Putnamville State Farm, in the East Fork White River



subarea at New Castle and at Greensburg, and in the White River subarea



in two multi-county areas, one centering on Muncie and Anderson and one



centering on Indianapolis.



     For the New Castle area and the Muncie-Anderson area, estimated  costs



of pumping and amortization of transmission facilities from the reservoirs



under study exceed the costs of possible single-purpose reservoir develop-



ment near the points of need.  Therefore, there is no value for storage



in the Big Walnut, Big Blue, or Downeyville Reservoirs to satisfy water



supply needs in the New Castle or Muncie-Anderson areas.



     For the Putnamville State Farm, an additional 1.0 mgd of vater supply



is expected to be required to meet needs for the year 2020.  This need



could be satisfied by utilizing base flow plus storage releases at a point



directly below Big Walnut Creek Dam and utilizing a 2-mile pipeline to



transport the water to an upstream tributary of the Farm's Deer Creek



vater supply source.  Alternates to providing for the need in the above



manner include an Impoundment upstream in the Deer Creek watershed or a



pipeline to the Big Walnut Creek valley about four miles west.  At this



point, either wells in the alluvium or use of base streamflov might serve

-------
                                                                    DC-2



to satisfy the need*  The latter vas considered the most economical



alternate.  Based largely on the difference in pipeline costs, the



annual benefit of storage in Big Walnut Creek Reservoir for satisfying



this need is estimated at $3>500 per year.



     For Greensburg, the municipal and industrial water supply need for



2020 is projected to be 5h mgd.  A total of 3*0 mgd is available from



the present ground water development and the reliable flow from



Flatrock River as augmented by storage from a low head dam.  The addi-



tional 2.U mgd need could be supplied from storage releases from the



proposed Downeyville Reservoir, which would be located one mile upstream



from Greensburg *s present low head dam.  The benefit of providing for



this need based on the cost of the most economical alternate, which is



a single-purpose reservoir, on a small stream near Greensburg with an



estimated first cost of $lUo,000 is $6,500 per year.  This benefit is



discounted from 1982, the time of estimated first need, to 1970 and



includes operation and maintenance costs.



     For the Indianapolis area, a need for 185.0 mgd of additional water



supply by the year 2020 is projected.  Some of this need is expected to



be satisfied from more extensive ground water development.  However, at



least 100.0 mgd is expected to be developed from surface water supplies.



Big Walnut Creek Reservoir is capable of satisfying approximately 78.0 mgd



of this projected need from conservation storage not allotted to water



quality control needs in the Eel River Basin.  By developing facilities

-------
                                                                   H-3



to provide 78.0 mgd of water supply to the Indianapolis area, the



benefit of storage in Big Walnut Creek Reservoir is estimated at



$575*000 per year.  This is based on the most economical alternate of



providing single-purpose storage in upstream portions of the White



River Basin.



     The computation of annual benefit includes yearly operation and



maintenance costs and amortization of investment at the Federal interest



rate of 3 1/8 percent.  Operation costs included pumping costs for the



pipeline to Big Walnut Creek Reservoir and expected savings in treatment



costs from use of a better quality vater from Big Walnut Creek Reservoir.



Determinations of treatment cost savings vere based on present costs



reported by the Indianapolis Water Company of $25.62 per MG (million



gallons) for White River vater and $13*58 per MG for Fall Creek water.



Since Big Walnut Creek Reservoir water is expected to be of better



quality than either White River or the Fall Creek supplies, an estimated



treatment cost of $11.00 per MG was used for this potential source.



     Storage in Big Blue Reservoir is also capable of satisfying a



portion of the future water supply needed for the Indianapolis area.



Based on a similar calculation to that outlined for Big Walnut



Reservoir an annual benefit of providing 28 mgd was determined to be



$81,000.  This method of satisfying water supply needs requires a



pipeline of approximately nineteen miles to Fall Creek and utilizing



the existing Geist Reservoir for equalizing purposes.   Since the

-------
quality of water in Big Blue Reservoir is expected to be approximately



equal to that presently obtained from White River, no benefit from



lower treatment costs as considered in Big Walnut Creek Reservoir



was calculated.





Water Quality Control Benefits



     Storage of water for quality control will result in benefits to



downstream water supplies for municipal and industrial use, to those



interested in fishing in the stream, to those who might desire to use



the stream and shore for picnicking and boating, and to property owners



along Big Walnut Creek, and Eel, Big Blue and East Fork White River



because of esthetic and direct use benefits.  Public health would be



protected by providing a better quality of water for existing and



potential future public water supplies and for general recreational use.



Some of the benefits associated with these uses are tangible and can



be assigned a dollar value; however, in many cases such dollar values



are difficult to accurately define.  Other benefits are largely



intangible and often relate to esthetic values which are difficult to



assign a direct dollar value.



     Use of the stream and shore for general outdoor recreation is



dependent on a number of factors including accessability, amount of



leisure time generally available, alternate recreational areas and



area population.  With a present population of over 1,300,000 and



significant growth projected for the study area many people are and

-------
                                                                    ix-5



vill be living within easy access of the stream reaches.  Esthetic



enjoyment will in part depend on water quality.  Degraded quality



could be expected to decrease this use and result in the substitution



of more remote and therefore more expensive water oriented general



recreation.  Ihe value of such benefits foregone, or participated in



at more cost at more remote locations in the absence of quality control,



would be a partial measure of the values of releases attributable to



this beneficial use.



     The United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Sport



Fisheries and Wildlife, has a report in preparation on fish and



wildlife resources of the Ohio River Basin including the White River



Basin.  Based on provisional figures, the total number of anglers in



the White River Basin is expected to increase from 208,500 in I960 to



285,300 in 1980 and to 361,300 in 2010.  Actual man-hours of fishing



are expected to increase from l,UUo,000 in 1960 to 2,29k,000 in 1980



and to 2,905,000 in 2020.  Existing fishery capability is 77,600



man-hours in excess of the 1980 needs, but 533,500 short of the 2010



needs.  The provisional values further consider 1,000 acres of free



flowing stream in the White River Basin as having a potential commer-



cial fishery habitat.  Approximately UOO stream miles in Big Walnut



Creek, Eel, Big Blue, White, and East Fork White Rivers are below the



proposed reservoirs.

-------
                                                                   DC-6



     Many of the benefits previously described are tangible but



difficult to accurately evaluate.  Other benefits are intangible and



valuation is dependent on personal esthetic considerations.  In the



absence of developed techniques to determine the value of many of the



benefits, the cost of the most likely and economical alternate to



providing water quality control from storage in the project reservoirs



is considered the minimum value of the benefits assignable to the



project.



     Benefits as calculated below are based on a 50-year amortization



of costs at the Federal interest rate of 3 1/8 percent and include



operation and maintenance costs.



     The minimum annual value of the benefit of providing water quality



control below Greencastle from storage in Big Walnut Creek Reservoir



was determined to be $22,300.  This evaluation is based on the



estimated annual cost of an upstream single-purpose water quality



control structure, which is considered the most economical alternate



to providing sufficient storage in Big Walnut Creek Reservoir to yield



the 1,UOO acre-feet draft-on-storage to meet 2020 requirements at the



point of need.  The first cost of the alternate structure is estimated



at $380,000 and is based on a reservoir storage of 1,800 acre-feet to



allow for storage and transmission losses to the point of need.



     The minimum annual value of the benefit of providing water quality



control below Shelbyvllle from storage in Big Blue Reservoir was



determined to be $75,000.  This evaluation is based on the estimated

-------
                                                                    rx-7



annual cost of an upstream single-purpose vater quality control structure,



which is considered the most economical alternate to providing sufficient



storage in Big Blue Reservoir to yield the 12,000 acre-feet draft-on-



storage to meet 2020 requirements at the point of need.  The first cost



of the alternate structure is estimated at $1,500,000 and is based on



a reservoir storage of 15,000 acre-feet to allow for storage and



transmission losses to the point of need.



     A 196U report on Clifty Creek Reservoir ^ estimated the benefit



of providing water quality control storage in Clifty Creek Reservoir



as being $1^3,000 per year.  This benefit was based on providing water



quality control on Clifty Creek and the East Fork White River below



Columbus.  Storage in the reservoirs under study in this report would



not provide any water quality control benefit to Clifty Creek, unless



water were pumped from Downeyville Reservoir to the upper end of the



Clifty Creek drainage basin.  A value for using pumped storage would



accrue to Downeyville Reservoir only if storage costs were enough



lower in Downeyville Reservoir than in Clifty Creek Reservoir to more



than offset pumping and pipeline costs.  Storage in Big Blue Reservoir



to satisfy water quality control needs below Shelbyville is a partial



alternate to storage in Clifty Creek Reservoir in providing water



quality control benefits on East Fork White River below Columbus.



However, operation to satisfy needs below Shelbyville cannot be



expected to coincide exactly with the timing of needs below Columbus.

-------
                                                                   H-8



Clifty Creek Reservoir, by being much closer to the stream reach below



Columbus, would provide considerably more flexibility than trying to



adjust flows by storage in Big Blue Reservoir.  Provision of storage in



both Big Blue and Clifty Creek Reservoirs would allow meeting all



expected water quality control needs in Clifty Creek and East Fork



White River and those needs on Big Blue River below Shelbyville.



     For the 80,000 acre-feet of storage required for water quality



control needs below Muncie and Anderson, the annual cost of pipelines



to the proposed reservoirs was found to exceed the annual cost of



storage in a potential reservoir site at Parker City above Muncie.



Therefore, no benefit for storage to provide for this need has been



attributed to the reservoirs under study.  However, this need remains



unmet and possibilities of meeting this need from a reservoir at



Parker City or other upstream locations should be further studied.



     As noted in Chapter VIII, reservoir storage is capable of meeting



a portion of the water quality need for the stream reach below



Indianapolis.  Benefits of providing this storage from Big Walnut Creek



Reservoir were found to be $280,000 using the same alternates indicated



in evaluation for water supply for the Indianapolis area.  The lesser



benefit for water quality control ($280,000 rather than $550,000) is



due to the treatment savings that are expected to be of benefit to



water supply but not water quality control and because some of the



pumping head which is lost in transport to the White River for water

-------
                                                                   BC-9



quality control can be utilized by taking advantage of the higher



terrain in the rapidly growing area vest of Indianapolis and constructing



new treatment facilities at an elevation to take advantage of head



gained in pumping from Big Walnut Creek Reservoir.  Storage in a



reservoir at Parker City, as noted in the previous paragraph, would



also have an additional benefit of being a partial solution to providing



water quality control in the White River below Indianapolis.



     The benefit of providing water quality control in the Big Walnut



Creek, Eel, White, Big Blue, and East Fork White Rivers is widespread.



The benefits will continue downstream on the Wabash River and to a



lesser extent to the Chio and Mississippi Rivers.  All storage require-



ments are based on adequate treatment at the source of wastes and,



therefore, are not in lieu of adequate treatment or other control



measures at the source.



     The needs and value of benefits as outlined in this report are



based on the best estimates that can be made at this time and are



subject to review and revision based on information and data from the



Chio River Basin Comprehensive Study by the Federal Water Pollution



Control Administration.

-------
                                                                    X-l

                           X.   BIBLIOGRAPHY

 1.   "Low-Flov Characteristics of Indiana Streams," U. S. Geological
     Survey and State of Indiana, 1962.

 2.   "Bulletin No.  1, Indiana's Water Resources," Division of Water
     Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

 3.   "Water Resources of the Indianapolis Area Indiana," U. S. Geological
     Survey Circular 366.

 h.   "Protective Economic Study of the Ohio River Basin," Arthur D.
     Little Company, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 196U.

 5.   "Estimated Population 196k, Public  Health Statistics," Indiana
     State Board of Health, 196U.

 6.   "The Indiana Industrial Directory,  196^-65," Indiana State Chamber
     of Commerce, Indianapolis, Indiana, 196U.

 7.   "Census of Agriculture 1959 > " Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department
     of Commerce.

 8.   "Minerals Yearbook 196l,  Volume III Area Reports," Bureau of Mines,
     U. S. Department of the Interior.

 9.   "Location of Manufacturing Plants by County, Industry, and
     Employment Size, Census of Manufacturers 1958," Bureau of the
     Census, U. S.  Department of Commerce.

10.   "Report of Investigation, Indiana State Farm, Water Supply, "
     Report No. 8,  Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources Commission,
     May 1956.

11.   "Water Resources Activities in the  United States, Committee Print
     No. 5> Population Projections and Economic Assumptions," Senate
     Committee on National Water Resources, United States Senate.

12.   "Ground Water Resources of Henry County Indiana," Preston McGrain,
     Indiana Academy of Science Proceedings, Volume 58,
13.  "Water Resources Study, Clifty Creek Reservoir, Wabash River Basin,
     Indiana," U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
     January
lh.  "Indiana Water Quality Monitor Station Records-Rivers and Streams,"
     Indiana State Board of Health and Stream Pollution Control Board
     Annual Report,

-------
A-2






_t-
-^
ON
r~t
ble III-2
ER, CARTHAGE
WATER QUALI1]
ta > w
EH H O
OS <
L_3 ro
PQ
O
a









SJ.3 AOTIi

^ o **J""S %
r-l J
O W
s| ^
g *TI/
 0  a j;nq.8j:adu ji
( spuBsnoqj,
ui) i0 ooi aad


aaq.fi/3K QOS
aaq.fi/Sni
aaq.q.ityi 'dstig
jC-j.ip'j.aat'ij,

^oioo
 co ITNVO on ITNVO
CM i-t UA^t CM rH i-4 ,-)
^T r-T
on onco J- t^ t~--4- t- t- on b- LT\ j- o VD i^ o> t- Ico ONVD W vo O O
t co t- ON WN CO O co t co ON ON ON ONCO CM ONCO |H \O vo vo vc MD t~-
i~n r"' rH
a>ooir\OHOCMt Oonont-^cot oi^O ocOtHco-a-voon
OHHonCOCMHONCOCOONCOCOt t HONCO CUt^t^VOONOOO
r~^ in i~H p^ ^H r~"l r~^ ^^ r^
HrHr-IHr-ICMCMCMOJCMHCM rHHrHr-4
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOVOOOoOcor-LfNOOvoO
CMOJHCMHonHOOCMHCMCMCMHCM on CU HH CM
OonoifNCOt-tonoONONOHi-ioOvoonojj-CMLrNonvDvc ON
onCMCMCM^onOCMCMOHHCMHCMOHCMHHCMHHHHCM
O OnONONCO LTNLfNOnMD IfNl/A-^T f t O ONOCOCOCO O ^O CMCO iT\On
CMCMOnHOOOOOOOOOOf-4OCMOOOr-IOHOOO
onr-i Lf\H onCM ont-b--s ononvoco ifNoncovoco ITN t on on on CM ^
on H CM
t r-HJ-b-H H H i-l HCMHr-IH
OO H VO VOOnHr-IHCMrH^l- CMOnrH
on on on f-i I

H H H CM On-J- Hr-l r-4r-l H HrHi-tr-lr-4
r-HO^tOCOOOCMCOVOOOOVOCM-cl-CMVOOVOOOCOVOOOCMCO
on on on onr-i oncu CM onononononcvj ononononononononononon
f t i 1-3'VOonCMCOCMrlr-l-ct'OvOCO IrH COVD CM onVD ONl^NOCO
h-t COt t CMt _d-_a-VDVDVOt~-VDlTs |[ VDVOOOt~-t VDt t t>-
OVDOt-ONHOOOxVOt-COOOOt-^CO^COH^^^OVOrH
CC b-CO t-f-h-C [-t-C- t- CO CO CO t CO t- t N- CO t-CO C-CO t-00
on ~3 t"  vo t/> rH LTN QN co CM CM o co -3" vo i^ on LTN i  i vo ON-J" ON f-n vo t 
CMCUCUt^HCMCUJiHr-
CMonCMCMCM CVJr-lr-4CMCMCMCVJCVlCMCUCMCMCMOnCMonCMOJCMCM
onvc CM j- r-t
CMr-IOnr-ICM(-lCMt CM-J-OJJ-iHOOHOnr-ICMr-^CM 1 1 1 1 1 1
llllllllllllllllllllOOr-lr-ICMCM

-------
                                                                                                                               A-l
C/3
   
rH

rH^
M M
II SC
W
                                              -H-COONOCMOOONOOr-COJ-rACOCO OrH O  O
                      O
                               a a
                                     I'ITI/S'JU
                                                     CMrArACAONrHOOr^-COCVJrHNOr-  COONGOON
                                                 CNJrHrHrHrH    rH           rHrH
                        [spuecnoq^  uj)
                                                                                        _
                                                                     rHrHrHC\IC\JOJC\JCMC\iC\JCNjrHHiHrHrH
                                              rHCOHOOO!v-C\JOOOOOOOOCNjOC--CM(\JOOrHrH  O
               Iiu  001
                                         lOS
                                                                                                                      1  l_r\
                                                                                                                        H
                                                   	I
                                               rHOl^-rHOOOOOOOilOOOOOOrHO   IrHOO  i   o
                               dang' 'TO A
                      T3jfTI/2tU  ^00  EQ

                            SB  SSOUpJEJJ
                                      ' soqut
                                                     O Ox CN V\ ON t
                                                                                 O  CM o~\ O
                                                                                                                    XA XANO *LA  oo
                                                                                                                  O
                                                                                                                     tr\ o crj  rM
                                                                              CM
                                                                                        -l rH     rH  rH
                                               LA o
                                                                        CM
                                                           o  o XA o o o o  c.  o o o o  o  XA o XA <
                                                           rH  C.1N CJ NO CO  '  XA  O  O r1 _* CO CO  0~\ C*- CM '
                                                                 rH    CM        r-H  rr,
                                               O XA O O XA O XA XA o XA XA xr\ i r\ cj o o  o  o XA XA o  r - XA XA cj>  i 

                                                  OJ OJ O-J CM CM  CM rH CM rH rH CM  r>-\ OJ CN) OJ r^\ CNj r^ m CM rH OJ  O^ OJ CV1  O.J
                                                  r-1 NO OJ CM CO NO CM CO rH rH  O  O 'O OD ro 1 'A XA O CO -TJ O'l XA Ox CO  f-  r.H
                                                  vO CO r- CO O  r-H ON rA O c^i  CA XrA o -) v J XA XO ON r\ NO XA _-j O NO NO _r*  NO
                                                                                 XA NO ~- _ XA XA _nr XA XJA ro r-\ x ^ XA XA NO  x.-\
                                               O ^H O O _^r i NO ^- NO NC:  o  o c_i -;, XA ON _^t NO rn CM r--  o  '-N o

                                               r> co co co co r r-- r~- 0s- r-- oo  a~> 0.3 c a'j r co t- co co ^- CD  r-  < j
                                                                                                                               co
                                                - CM o O CM  CA o O XA r- CM

                                               OHrHrHCCMOJCVOrHO
                                                                                                                                  r^-

                                                                                                                                  (~j
                                               LA NO NO CM _3 CO CO ON _3- XA co XA CO i  -, r r H  CN CO O CX CN1  (" 'N r i  _: r  -r
                                               rH rH rH CM rH                   CVJ       o 1 r 1     rH r 1    r-     r -1  i 1 CN;
                                               CM CO OJ CO .^ NO CM C -if OO . ~ CO C .^f NO O  CNJ _TJ CO CM O a 1  NC} O-  O  O
                                               CA XA CO XA C-- CM rH CO CN r-H  H CM U\ 1A O NO  r^ NO O XA XJ\ f, r*\ r^i  QV  (yj
                                               CM rH rH rH rH H rH .I    r-1  OJ Cxi rH rH O., OvJ  CM CM CM CM r-' CM  CM CM  rv  rH
                                               Is- rH _CT CO  CA r rH _^T CO OJ NO  CN r^ [^- ,- < oo  Cvl XA _rj NO C ^  r -  (-
                                                  CM
                                                                     r-H CN, rH  CM    O I    OJ  r '
                                                                                                                           Vv
                                                                                                        OJ    CM     rH -H  rH CM
                                                i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i    i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i   i    !   r
                                               iI rH CM CM  C--\ rA c<>_rT_^ XA XA^O s? r-  >'  CO  ON ON ON O O  r-1 rH CM  c\j CJ
                                                                                                           H r-'  r ^ r H rH  rH r-(

-------
                                                                                                                                    A-3
   o
   E n
   co
<" ,jr;

   tr ]
r" M
   rri
                    CD
                    >  C
                   H  CO
                    O  bO
                                  'r> pp  (V
                                    +Kb  ,1)
                       -  ajnaeaaduiai
                        a ad
                            'dsns   to A
                                    .10100
                   -10  se  sa
                                                               ICMCNCNXAOO   1C COU\vOCOcO   1  r-l C*- Os Co -CI
                                                               I  OrHir\_3CMr^r--_3''L/\CM

              5  INOOCOCNrrvc^CMOOfiCMr-Hi(CMOOOOrHCM
                      NO rH                 fA    CM
                                               i    i  o XA CM  i o  o o rH co in NO \o fA o o rH r-- _3- NO
                                                                                                                              - XA
      r o  CM IA    XA ii  O zt CA * A NO o O <~A ~^ XA o\ CM NO XA f^ cc

?: - ,^  rH O O (->  O  O C O O O rH CM w. r-i O G O C C CM CM  O C

 -1 tNJ           O
 DO           Crf
 r1 cr! vQ  r""\ CO    _^  CMI  CM XA cA XT\ XA r-~ CO O", O _rj CO XA CO _^j X/A XT, r> \ r^
PL, fc,           Q     rH  r-l          rH
                W
ft; D-;           o
   fx4           O
   t- rr\  CA O\ 1^1 rH CO  O XA :"" CO '-t/' X A i r\ ro r' _3- _ct rH t^- C^ C1^ r -I vC, NO
   M           >' rI XA XA rJ    -H CM rH _1J     O.I r-l rH rH rH       rH
r-' c1           &-,

 I   I
 I   I XT  O LA  I O  O  o O O CJ o XA O XA o L
 I   I     I     I r-i CO  r^y ,i r-H M f , i -~^     f"\ r
                          r-H

 I   I C-  LJ\  I   I XA  I   I   I  LA C LAXAXA O U\ O O XA. O XA, \J\ XA C,' Xj\
 I   I c*\  r\  I   I CNJ   I   I   I  CM rt       iI rH CV r-n CM r-l CM CM' i~l CM  c\l C
                                               i   i  r- co c~-  i o\
                                               I   I  ro CM rA  I CM
                             ON r^ rH  CMJ _T CO _TT ^  .
                             CM CA f~\  rA fA c\: P"\ CM
 I   I  '  * x ON  I  [~ CM  CJ rI
 I      XA C\  CM  I  NO O  Os O
 i   i  o-,  -- r  i  ON XA fA NO
                                               i  i  CM NO co  i  CM _rf c
                                               II   ...  I    .
                                               i  i  co r-- f  i  cc r- r-
                                                                                        _* 1A  1  C 'G CM r^\ r~\ O CM ''^ f  C
                                                                                        f~\ SO   1  ^r- 1A \O r^~ 1A 1-f \ tr UN cXJ  en
                                                                                        o xrx  i  u\ t^ \o r- r^-  t^- ^o r-- vo  r~-
                                                                                                             * co
                                                                                                     r~- c~- co  r^ co r - co  ( - co
                                                                 o
                                                               i
                                                               i  r^ _cr r~> rH o
                                               I   I  '^ CV O  I
                                               I   I  A: CM CM  I
                                               I   I O  C? NO  I  CM CO  CM NO NO _T CM O CO  i)  C' CM NO NO O CO CM v- NO M:
                                               I   I CM  CO CO  ICOf  _^_r-'"'-AC?NO\rr,r-  ^ -^ C O^ rH _^J r-< O- CO -
                                               I   I ("A CM CM  I  CM rH  rH C\; CM CM  CM CM CM  CM  CM CM CA CM r"v r"\ C \ CM CM i" \
                                                 rH  r > r,  CM r CM     CM    CM     rI     -H <^ N r-i O J  rH CM |H  CM r-H CV     CM
                                               I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I    I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I    I   I
                                            3 I rH  r-H CM CM
                                                                    _rT .-3 Lj \ 1A vO

-------
                                                                                                                            A-J4
sO
Os
s co

 Q?'
   ^
   HI
 en

 g
 Zi
 CQ

 O
 M
 CQ
W
O

iS
                            sjo
                  T!
                   0)
                   >  a
                  rH  0)
                   O  ho
                                              OOC\)C\jD\COOO\'Lr\COr-tC\jOOOO\i IO
                                                 rH r-(       rH           p-lp-lrH, (^    HrH
                                           rHCMCMONlAsOr^CMCOOOOXACNJCO^l-lAjOrH
                            aaiTI/3'Ji
                 0  -
               (spUGsnoqj,  uj)   "[m
                  001 J3d uuojT-[oo
                                    aoa
                                                             XAQ  O O n~\r~-r"^mO  i lO
                                                             cvisO  O CM CM^O r^a\lArH  CN
                                                                                                        -1-rv_^j'Lol1Lr\i^  ovco
                                                          IT\
                                                 CSJ^-sOrHrHrHOlAODCNr-lCNOOCOCOOCN
                                                 rHr- IrHrHrHrHH           rH              rH
                                                                                                      O^v CO _ZJ r- ' r- SO '-O
                                                             r-Hi IrHCMCMi ICMCMCVJCMCMCM  IrHr i
                                              CXjOOOOrHCOrHCMOO-^rHOOOCsir^r-IOOOC  O
                                                          CM  rH C\J                    eg
                                                I l_r\ r
                                                                                                OsvO o-\ao c\j
                                           rH _CJ G rH _cr XA rA CO rH _3 CM CAXAOsO LA I rA rA _ZI CA _T CM CM C- A!

                                              ^H -=T -H O O O O r-H O G O* G  G  O o O* O O O O  G* G* C* G" G*
                                                      \ CM
                                              C\j _J^
                                           Li \ l/\
                                                          XA
                                                          O. CM CO XA
                                                             CO rH _;:
                                                             CM
                                                       O  O G G
                                                       XA rH c^- r--
                                                       XA       r-i
                                                                             1_ \ r"\ O _~J
                                                                                             r- - XA so XA co _r _n
                                                                                                   O  s *.
                                                                                       O  u\ C O
                                                                                       c\j     CVI rH rH
                                                                                                                   C XA X, -
                                               -- rH r 1 CM XA r-H
                                                                                      r- > A,  CNj CT) f-- C (> Cs CM  i_  A'  r-  CM

                                                                                      co ;o  co  i^- r-co 03 t-- cc ^~c     '- co
                                              r- r- IACO  ^- G r- C
                                                                       *} r  ru .-^\CL^  -
                                                                                    
                                                                       r-l .   C  rH  '  !
                                                                                                   CM CM C\j  C\  C\  CX O,
                                           rH C s^.' sO _3- G -3- sO V-C) o _3 CM . - Csl CM aj aT CJ SO sQ SG _zr su CO c\ c\
                                           iHooco_3-r--cjsr-\o-cM_^r--sOsOiv-oj  - C so c-- r-H co   ( en c~- co o\
                                              CM CM CM' CM    CM rH r-J CV' C\ C\C\!C\lr-tCMCMCMCSirACMro,rMCMCMC\l
                                           r j LA G G >- O Xf\
                                            1   '
                                                    CM  CM
                                                                                              "\ _-zf o co <^", sc  oj _  r - r-H
                                                                          C\     rH     r-1 f^> r-H CM ^H A) r-n CM  .-  i O     A,
                                                         I   I   I   I   I   I    I  I    I   I   I   I   I   I   I  I   I   I   I  I   I   I
                                               i  XAOU\  i   i o   i   i   i   A G XA o xr* XA xr\ XA XA XA XA XA XA G IA C
                                               I  CM rA OJ  I   I rH   I   I   I  rI r I    rH r-t rH Ai rH rH rH ,I CM ^H r-J A C\



                                              CA O GO G _cr CM CM sO CC 03 CM SO _JT sO sO o '^J G cr sO CM CO uO _^ so sC
                                             .   -J-LAO-O'rHOfA  -  C CM rH '' - CM sO C_) XA CM  ^rHOAXA X'\ -!--    ,
                                             pO fv^ CA ro rA ri rA CM     "A CA fA oj o", CM rA CM CA r"\ CA rA rA rA rA f"^ r~\    '
                                            I  sO G lA sO O  r- -LA AJ ,H rA  I --O  O -  CM  I  CMC\CMsOCOC\'CO-4.iO  f'-1
                                            I  G rH CM O so  CO CM -CJ O CO  I O CO  CM  lrHsO_3''>.C^-CO_-jGOOr'-
                                            I  ( CO SO r--  CM  sO XA rA sQ O  I r XA UA  I  IA sO so  0 SO sO sf > " -  sO ^

-------
  w
  H
  O
4>

     O
     <
     to
                                                                                                                     A-5
                            9JO
 0 
                          jnq.8 a adu j,

                          ( spuBsnoqj,

                          iw  001
                           ssq.eqdsoqj
                                  'dsng
                     asq.fi/8ui

                         SB
                           rao/  soqairf
                         SB
                   TO  SB
                             aaq.1I/Sm
                 aaq.ft/Sui   00^0  SB

                                                         H H r-ICO
                                                                                OJ
                                                                              r-l r-l OSOO r-l
                           - co
                                                               r-l    r-l r-l H
                                                                                   oo t- O -* co i
                                                                                   OVDr-JVOJ-
                                                                                   r-l r-l r-l  H r-l
                                                                                                             oo oo co
CO O ITN_*  OOJHir\CMH_*Lf\OJCOCMOU-NUNv>OOOOJ-3-r-4r-IOO>\

   onoHd^cui4cAcOd^oovocopocr\rocnt^-HVDOJt^-cAoo
   H H r-4  H    HiH    r-l r-4 r-l          H    r-l r-4    r-l             H r-4



oo CM oooouM^f-ooooONOMJ-MrNOco  ON UAUJ VO\D-*  t^tVCMD ifN t~- t b- ^- t-MD LO> C t^-VD t~- CO C^-
                       t OO  t--CO S- t C^CO t^COCOOOCO Ct-CO b- CO CO t~-CO t ^-CO CO CO CO




                                         -I O OO CM  CM OO O LfN-zfr O VO CO t ^^O r-4 i1 U"N  -j- VO CO






                               H-^fCO OCO t J- CO t t~ CO VO OOITNO-*
                                          CM CM
                                             OO
                                                      r-4r-4CMCMHCMCMCMOJr-lr--lr-ICOCMOJCMOOCMCMCMCMCMCM
                                                         ON   U3 O -* CO r-l -*     CM    ON
                                                                                                            CO
                                                   O               -       -
                                          ONCMVOOJI/Nr-ICMr-IOOHCMr-ICMaOOJ^r-l-d-r-ICM  I   I  I  I   I   I  I
                                           llllllllllllllllllllOOrHr-IOJCMCVl
                                                                                    CXDOOONCJ\ONHr-lr-IHr-l  r-
-------
NO
ON
   s
NO
 I
H
H
H

 V
r-4  -
k 

i
i
   g
K
                                                                                                             A-6
                        sjo
             1
                         aaq.fi/2ut
                       ( sptresnoiii
                      -ira 001
                          aaq.fi/8ut
             aaq.q.Bw -dsng
                          a8q.fi/2in
                              -dsns
                              act oo
                  aaq.fi/Soi
                      SB
                       rao/  soipmrf
              aouBq.onpuoo   oadg
                   M  SB



                10 SB sapfaomo


              aaq.fi/Sni  SoO'BO  SB
                                                                                             ir\ t t o>t c
                                          |t~-^i^O-3-C\JOOcoco-3-aocMt i-icvj in NO ON -i co oj o m moo
                                           O O t UN t-- VD oo-* t-oooovo rnosoo t^h-i
                                           H H    lT\_d- CVJCVJJ-OJHr-IHlA
                                          |O OS OJ NO OJ ON OS i
                                          It- t- O -=t irscoco c
                                                                    ITN OS O IT\ r-t NO CO tTN-d" OJ ,d" VO VO U  _ . _
                                                                    irsoni/sont ITNOJ-*NO OJ o ITS ir\ on t NO t
                                                                       <-\         iH r-t OJ CM on H
                                              HCO
                                                       CD OSCO
                                          |O _*  CVI M3 UN
                                                                 r-l   H
                                                            OO OS ON
                                                                                          OJ
                                                                                                           OS CO
                                                                            00
                                           [OOOOOOOOOOOOOt-OOOOOO   ^OOOsO

                                                                                                        O HNO H
                                         ITS H    onr-iHOJNOonon    L/SI
                                                                                 oo H O irs
                                                                                  H    H CM
                                                                                                    U*

                                                                                                    ND
                                              cot-c
                                                   t-c  onroo_*j--co OJ t--^t vo co o -
                                                   OJ                       c-l         H r-l OJ    H



                                           O vo vo v> O OH irsco I/N on Os t LTS o O   It ON irs o
                                                                                                        c
                                                                                                        ir\ ir\ O
                                           It J- OOOO COt-LfNt~-COt OvOU-Nf-
                                                    CM       H         r-IHr-I
                                                                                       -
                                                                                 HHrO t NO r-l
                                      g
                                      OsOfnOOHPnHO-4-OSOONO
                                         CM    CO r-l H OJ CO H   H r-l
                                              -=f
                                                                                          ONOOOJ-  OOHO
                                                                                          Ct-CJHCJr-l
                                            CU
                                                         r-ivDOJHrHro
                                      PC
                                           ICXJCVIOJOJH    Hr-(HC\JrHr-lC\Jr-f
                                                                                       HCVJr-t-ONDt OOOCM  0s.

                                            coco t t-^^t-r-aocococo c-cococococooooc) t- t co oo co  t-



                                            OCO OSO fOONONONO HJ- ONCO-3NO tU^CO r-l O^NOONO H OOO
                                                                    OJ
                                                                                       _
                                                                                       LTNNO -4- IT\NO
                                                                                                          -4- t LfS
                                                                                                          LTN J- OO
                                           CVJ ITNN-irNOJ-d- t
                                           OJOJOJr-ICMOJOJr-1
                                                                                               , O O co onvo NO
                                                                                                                CO
                                                                                                H    CO    t-
                                         on    O    NO   NOOJ-COr-l-c}-    CM    ON    t-OJOOCM-d-HOJr-l
                                       ONOJNOOJUNr-IOJr-IOnrHOJi-IOJCOOJNOi-IJ-i-ICVJl   I  I   I   I   I
                                         r-IHCvJCVIOOOOj-^l-^)-ir\
                                                                       vot-C-COCOONOsONHr-lt-IHH H H

-------
H I
H I
M
&
I
H
O
<
                                                                                                                   A-7
                            SJO AOI.J
*>O-3-COOOt-CT\O\ON POOO tMO  t UN on O OM^ONOxOO OCO U

                      f O t^O\LT\ONt^J-^OVO OVO-it [ IT\ tr-)VO CO
                    0 
                          ( spiresnoqj,
                          iro 001
                       aaq.fi/Sra (jog
                             aaq.fi/Sra
                          *dsns
                             JLaq.fi/3ui
                                  dsng
                  10  SB

                aaq.fi/Sui
                                  oadg
                                    Hd


                            aaq.fi/gra
                        SB saq.Bjq.fu

                            aaq.fi/8ra
                                       0)
                                          ON ON O O UN UN
                                       __  UN CO rH rH O V> '
                                       H  r-l H MD CO UN t- I
                                                                  VDMDOJU>Hrnr-(i-lr-<    H
                                                              O N- H ITv t
                                                              r-l i-l H r-< r-l
              t IA J-  t^-l
              ir\t COOOOODHVDCVI
                         r-l    r-4   H
                                                                                 COV) I/NO OJOO IfXOCOJ-  ONOO O
                                                                                 CTMr\ONCOr-l
                                                                                      r-l    r-l
                                               O CM CVJ
                                               r-l H rH
                            O UNMD CO t CJNVO -* ON CM CM
                            CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMr-ICMH
                                                                                                             CO
OOCO
                                                                                                          on
                                O UN\O UN OOVO H H CJ\VD OO OO UN CM



  i O CM OO UN ON-*  OM33 OJ-^c-lOOUNOOHONOUNUN   UN\) OOCO
                      tCM^OCOOVDONMDCOOOCM
                      HH       HH       HHHH
              ON
              OJ
           HOJr-l^-ICOrOHCMUNmCUHOOOOCUCMrH   H
                                                                                                          CM J- CM OJ
                                                                      UN
                                          UNOUNUNOOUNOOOUNUNOOOLr\OOOOOOOOUNir\LfN
                                          OH       HOO    H-^-J-r-fr-IUNUNrnHJ-r-lmr-li-IHHr-t
                                          00                    H
                                          OOOOOUNUNOUNUNt/NOOUNUNUNLfNUNUNOOUNUN   |OO
                                          rOC\JCMCMCMr-l    HCMr-IHHHr-IHCMCMHrHCMOJCMH   |CMCM
                                                                                                                  O
                                         CVJO-*CM\OOO^J-vocMQOOJOCMCO-d-VD-^COCOCOOOOCMCX3-^
                                          ~    Ot-CM\DUNOOOoO>.5^)-OVO.    ~    	        	~     	
                                          OOOOONOOOOCM OOOOCM  OOOOOOOOOOOOCM OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
                                    r-l CM   ,    _  .  ._
                                    OJ UN   CM VO r-l CO
                                    ONCO   '- '   -- ' -
                            t--covo t--vo
                                           -
                                          j-oo
                                          cococo
                                                                                                               OOO
                                                  ooao UNCO ONCO c
t^-rHONOCOONUNCOCOr-(Or-(CXDf OOJ-OOOCOONr COOH OON
t co  tcot-t-t h-t^-cccocot~-cococot^-cocot-t^-t-c cococot-
OHOHHUNOOOOCMrHCMrHOOOf-IHi-IHOOi-ICVHOr-l HH



      UNCO UNM3CMCOCO O t-SP-3- t-UN_d-V)\OCOCM UNMD ON ^ -3" LT\CO
                                                                                                                  CM
                                         CM CM
                                                    CVIHCMCMHCM
                                                                           CMCVJCMCM
                                                                                            mCMPOrOOOCM
                                                          oj    co   VD ON
   CM    ON   CO    LrNONPOCOO-3-    CM    O    VQr-lt--CMUNr-|CMf-lCM
   CMUNr-l^l-Hr-IHCMr-ICMi-lCMr-ICMUNOJOOrHCMl  I   I   I   I   I  I
 lllltllllltlllllllllOOHr-4CM(MCVJ

-------
                                                                                                                     A-
oo

H IZi
  t- H poo m OJV.O j- t-oo o
                                                                 (-IH       i-lr-ti-IOJHHH
                                                         t-
                                                         CVJ
O
00
                                                                                                         -
                                                      r-IOJrOOJCOaJrHCJVQOJOO   OOOJJ-OJCVJ     HH
                                                      r-10OOJrHHj*-r-lr-(t-Lr\OOOJ-*OJJ-OJHr-Ir-lrH
                                                                 H
                                                                                   LT\O
                                                                                                . O IJTN O U"N   ILTN O
                                                                                                 OJ OJ OJ OJ    |r4 OJ
                                           O  O VO O O O O VD CO -d" -^t VO O O CM CO O OJ OJ CO -^  OJ  O -^f O -^ O
                                           OOVO 1/NVO -* POOO O P rI -4" OOVO OO O b IT\ ITV rH-3" U"Nt^-OVOVO tVO
                                           OOOOOOOOOOOJ CM OOCM OOOOOOOJ OOOOOJ OOOOOOOOOOOO-^- OOOOOOOO
                                          ,.   -  _ .  .
                                           X5 CO OO OO
               r-t CM OJ OO OOVO VOr-IO-=tVOVOCMOO LfN_:f O CO CO O OO O
              lOO-d-VOOOOONOOO-J-LrN^-pOOHOOt-COVOrH O -*
               l/NVO VOJ-VO t^t^VO OOVO b-t^OOVOCO U^OOOOCOCO ONt
                                              iH CO 00 t 00 OOOO 00 H OJ OJ 00 O  ITN J- ^OlTNOJOJr-ft t^OONt-O

                                           c oo t-t-r-b-c-f-cococooo t-~cocooooooococ6co  t-t--co t t--co
                                           X) -4- OO ON t--* r-*OONO-=tOJOoO-a- irxco -4- H ON ON LTN O oov> O O
                                           oovo co Lf\vo moo co  OvC ojcoco H r-ico
                                                                                              t O ^VD  moo -3- vo OJ
                                                                                                          -
 OVO-J-OJCO-d-OJVpCOOJOOOVOO-J--d-pOOCOOOOCp^tO-d-CO
 3D vo t ON I/NVO p O vo oovo vo  ON ir\vo P co as t t co OJ c5 co oo ON oo
 'OvlCMCMOJr^OJOJr^CMOJOJHOJOJOJOJOJCMOJOJOOfOOJOJ OJOJ
                                           OJ
                                                                                                       OO   CO    MD ON
                                              OJ    ON    OO    tr\ONOOCOO-*    OJ    O    VQHtCMir\r-IOJi-IOJ

                                            llllllllllllllllllllOOHHOJCMCM
                                           i-l r-l  OJ OJ 00 00 J- J- -4- ITN l/NVO VOt-t-COCOONONONHrHHHr-l r-i rH

-------
 I

H
$
w
o
                                                                                                                A-9
               0 
                   'Ira GOT
                           S'S'V
                      *dsng
                             'dsng
                    SB
                            soqnmr
                    SB
              10  SB
O OJ t- ^ r
on H -* cvi cu    o\ o\oo co oo
                                                                     aNOJOOJONOOi-lr-lt-MDV)Hpr-ltr P>2
                                                                     vo t oo -* o\ao oo H t- co u\ co ai on-* tyJ-
ONOOCUO1AOIAHOOJOOOOJ-O-4- OOOO OCVJH

ooH trsoocvi o r-i OJ ONCO t LT\ I/NV> oo t ITN\O OOMD ro_* OJ
                                                                                                                 cotr\
                                     OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOC3OO
   CM
                                                    OJ
                                                             rOCOH
                                                                           t H
                                                     a\c
                                                                                                  t- ON
                                                                                 CM
                                                                                                           C\J
                                           O OOOOOOJ  H

                                           iAd c
                       b-Ot OVDO

                             t^- H t^d
                                H    i-4
                                                                                                        c
                                     O O PO O IA O "> IAVO  LTvOHLrNOJOOCOOonOOOO    IQOO

                                           H OJVO H O H H  H H H lA H OOO !> OOC3 ^-VO CO    CO tA CO
      ONO\CVJCOCOV> ONJ--d-VO H-d- OJCO  O CVI-d" t H-*OO
            H            r-lHHHHHH
                                     uMf\rocMC\OJoo'vOOOHH
                                            cu  H oo ^ irv.4- co cvj o\ cu i^ w vq
                                             -CVJ    r-fHr-l    H    OO    HH
   H OOOOOOOOH OJ ?J CM CO OO OO OJ CM  OO OO H OOOOCM OOOOOOCM  OOOOOO
                                     OOO~\CM
                                     ONOO LTN
                    CM O>CO
                    IT\ O ^O '
                                                                                    CM
                                                                                               IfN t>-00 r-l
                                                                                                                    CO
CM LTN O CMCO t PO t U"N CNSP M3 t/\-^-U3  OOV> ON1
CMMDHCOONCOr-IOJOJHCMOOUAOOJ-OOCOCMi
r-l    H    H                                       I
                                                                                                    , t ON CO O '
                                                                                                              (-H
                                                                                                                    CO
                                     00 H N-CO ^1- CM  CM
                                     OO OO CM CM CM OO r-t
                         iCOCMCMCOOOCMCOCOCM
                         i_^_d-SLfNOOJQVOLfS
                         IHOJCMCMOJOJCMOJr-l
                                                                                                     Ho
                                                                                                     on
                                                                                                     CM
NO CO CO CO CM ^ O
O CO CM O '' O CO
OO OJ OO CM OO OO CM
                                        IT.O    t^-   VOOOON-HLfN    OO    H   CO    l/\_*V)OJOJH'-li-4C\l
                                     CMr-IOOOOt-tOJr-IOOi-ICMi-IOJONCMtCM^l-i-ICMr-IOJl   I   I   I     J.   
                                      I   I   I   I   I   I   I                                           ~  ~
                        I   I   l   I   ,'7  ',  7  I  I   i   l   i  O O H  H CVJ OJ  CM,

-------
   3

og
,H >

H
r-l
H

flJ
H

S  H
EH K

   M
   K
w
O
                        SJO
               . __
                J
                         001
          rtrr
          003
saq.m[dsott3
                       *dsns
                               'dang
                                                                                          -
                                        - co  ON co co I/N t t co oo r-i CM oo ON ON-* vovo ON oo ON OJ fr--*
                                                                                   - LTN PO oo c\u OJ oo oj co  oo J-
                                                                     O\ ONOO
                                                     OC  O
                                                                                    OJ
                                             lf\ir\VD
                                                              co VD
                                                                              r-i oo t ir\ t oo vo
                                                                                                         no CM
                                       OOHOOt-osvOOOOOmOOpHOJOO iA_* CVlt-i^VD I/MTN OMA t

                                       (TvOO  C^CO CO ON C3 t^- t^- lAvD lA^D QC3 U3 t^- H lA C^- lA.jj J- CO CM
                                       H cu  t-
                                                      o\
                                                                                                               ONOO oo
                                                                        OtD O
                                                               CO
                                                                                                         \O
                                                                                                            ON
IAONCU
                                  HvoO\rnrooOooOOt^-OOOOOOOonOON

                                        OO VD VO O  fN lA ITNOO  t^- OO  t U) OO 00-* ON UA OO OO
                                                                        O
                                                                        r-l
                                                   O O
                                                                           ooooi/Non
                                                                                             ITN i/\xO  CM*vD  OJ O^                _
                   H       HOOJJ-_*CUOJirNOJ^t-lPvmCVICM(MC\JHH
                                                                                                          O CO
                                                                                                          pHCVj
                                                                                                                O VO O
                     SB
                       rao/  soqrarr

OJ O ON O ON_*
                      s
               10
                                   SB
                                                      r-i oo ^d-
                                                      I"1
                                                                                                                r-lr-l
                                             OJ OJ CVJ <-*
                                                                              0r)
                                                                                             OJHl-IOJ-cl-H
                               C\JC\JVDC\JC\JVOCO
                               OONOOJOOOOVO
                 OOOOOOOOOOOJ  OJ  OOOJ  OOOOCVJ
                                        OJ  OCVJCOcOVjpVDVO OJ-OOOJOO O
                                      \t-ooo ooifNoS mvo f-t^ojvo oj r-i
                                        OJ  oooooorooorooorooooooooooo
                                                   r-IUArHOOOJlfNOOOCOVQiHOOCOOOUAOJOO
                                                   OJ oovo OJ-d-r-looooirst" r-iir\N-~~   ~~
                                                   ~  ~  *     VDj-^tt-t^-"A[~-Lr\f
OJ ONfOVD CO t^<
vo ON ON ON CO vo
                                                                                   O OO -d- O OO
                                                                                   r-1 ITN ON t- O
                                                                                   r-i ON O\ ON t^
                                                                                          OJ ONOO O ON ON C~- CO oo O
                              -  >-t~-[^VOOO  OJ  ITNr-l OJ ITNt^-OJOOVD H OU) OOlT\t OOVO

                 OOO-4-OOOOJOJ<-IOJOJOJr-IOJr-lr-(OJOJr-IHCMr-lr-IOOOr-l
                                       fHOJtONC~-r-IOJOJOJOO-d-?\J^JOJuSOJC^OOOOt--ONO     t--cbcOLr\
                 OJOO-4-OJMDVOVOOO-^-oOOJOO'
                 HOMAN-VOOJOOJ  U^>_d-  LTN O r-l
                 rOOJOJOJOJHOJOJMOJOJOJOJ
                                                                                 -d-OJLT\COVOOOr-IOVOOLr\r-l
                                                                                 OJOJOJOJOJOOCViOOOOOJOOOJOJ
                                                                                                                   ITN
                                                                                                       o    c^-
                                          H    OO    t1 r-l -4- OO VD    OO   H    OJCO     UA-d- VJD  OJ OJ  r-4 r-(  r-l CVJ
                                       t OJJ-r-HOOr-IOOr-IOJCUONOJt~-OJ-^-r-IHOJr-IOJl   I  I  I  I   I   I
                                        IlllllllllllllllllllOOr-li-tCvlOJCVl
                                       HHOJOJoOOOOOj-_d- tTNVDVJ3N-tODCOCOONONONHHHHr-l  rH r-H

-------
                                                                                  A-ll
                                     Table III-ll
                                    FIATROCK RIVER
                                SURFACE WATER QUALITY


                 Specific    Dissolved     Alkalinity  Chlorides  Hardness  B.O.D.
         Temp.  Conductance  Oxygen        as CaCO^    as Cl      as CaCOo  5-day
Pate     C.     mhos./I cm.  mg/1  ^ Sat,  mg/1	  mg/1	  mg/1      mg/1    p_H

     Flatrock River at UOO N. Road, Columbus, Indiana

9-7-6U    20       500        8.1     88      212        16          	     3.5    7-5

9-8-6U    20       500        8.2     89      200        17          278     2.5    	

9-9-6U    21       510        8.2     91      222        20          	     3.6    	

9-10-6U   21       500        7.0     78      218        15          272     6.U    	


     Flatrock River - County Road South St. Paul, Indiana at USGS gaging station

7-7-6U    2U       560        7-^     87                                            8.0

-------
                     co
                     CO


                    I
                    -p
                    H
                    S3
           VD    OJ
                  

           O    H
            I     i

           O    O
           co g
           CO CO
           CO ^3
          t-5-p
  H     CM          OJ

wcwfl        cod   wg
coco   cocom    coco   coca

^43   v^-p o    !-q-P

OJ

rH
H
O*



CO
CM



H

co d
w 3
t^^
A-I;

H

w C co
W co co
i-3 -P t-3:
co
co

8
                    W
O    O
vo    m
 i     i
o    o
in    oo
                                                        i
                                                       in
                                                            O
                                                                  in
                    3

                    in
                    -d-
                                                                                              O
                                                                                              CM
in
oo


&
in
oo
H

O
CM
H

in
CM
                     CO

                     CO
   I
^-  b


 0*
H



I  '
   -p
   H
   i
   O"
    a;
    -P
o

s
t- o c- in o
H in in H
ii ii
CM CM VO m
fn ro _* o
co ... oo H
-P C
3 8
H
H 00 CO 
III CM OO
00 O II
O O OJ VD
. *  
CO O H H O
PL*
W
M -P
M -H
H OOC
H O -H
C " r-j



o o o in o
ON ON VO _* -*
CM CM OO OO OO
III II
O in o o O
C~ -cf in O J-
CM CM OO OO OJ
C
0 H
H ->.
-P M
cd g ca
^ w

CO Tj
O tj
3 ro
O p"!

O in in O O
in ro ON o in
oo oo oo -* _*
ill ii
in o O in o
ON > o H t>-
CM CM 00 OO OJ
o
K| ON in vo O vO
pj ... . .
C-- t-- 0- CO !>-
03
CO
^H
dj <3
fl 1
C
o
H
-P

j^
Q
P^t
O ft
H H -P 0
CO CO W CO
> > OJ
03 co B M
t-i JH -rl 
Cy *H
cu rt
fLi
< cu
1 CO -P
> H CO -H
3 -P hC je
-P
H


E
g
0
0
03 -H
M 0 H ^ ^4
CO C -H ,0 J-(
S> CO N C O
H CO 03 -H pt,
K, (H S-i CO
O CQ CQ p
H w
(LJ cti
&3 pr*]






1
1
1






CO
H 0)
1 3
0 
 SH -H cu
S 3 H >
r& fQ C3 *H
H G CO CK
CO >H 0)
*-< r^ ^ (y
CO W C3 P
f )
f *
s
-* co o H
H OO OJ H CO J-
1 III 1 H
CM CO CO -d- -*

CM t- ON VO ON CM
  *   
OJ H OO OJ H H
1 III II
O CM CM CO O O
H O* O* H




in O O O O O
H in J- ON CM vO
oo oo oo oo oo oo
i lit ii
in in in o O O
!>- O m co O CM
CM OO CM OO OO OO





O m in o O
ON VD C^- m VO
OO OO J- CM O -3"
1 1 1 l O 1
80 o o c\i o
OJ O -d- co
OO OO OO OJ OO

in oo vO co ro _d"
. ... * *
t*- CO t C*- C*- C~-


rfj
G co
co C
T< O
H 2 .p H H
CO CO CO CO CO
> W CO > > ^1 X
ct3 E o3 d o o
S-i T-I ti ^ O O
o ^ o o os en



CO

rl (5.0 C5
H ^ -H
J>j CO f> 3 CO ^
Cti O W O ,  j r^J
> C fl M rH 2
Tj CO -H CJ -H CO
CO f-t -P ? J> H
CO ? $H O C CO

CO i-3 H PQ f3 S;




-------
to
 0)
                                                                                              A-13
ONrHH-rtHHr-trHrHrHXAHCN
                                           oo
                                           IA
o\
0\
Ox



1A

en
-p
c
to
rH
O,

M
C
rH
rH
r^
fJ
P
O
to

Q)
CD N
rH -H
,0 CO
TO
EH -P
C
Q)
E
>
ff
rH
Q
ft

T)
G
to
?H
0)
JO




,  v
CO
G
CO
iH
T3
G
P_J

vt
to
>, CD
O -H
3 -P
-P C
cog
.3
co 6
jo co
 C
-P
rH 3
CD nu
>
H T)
Pi c
to
H
CD n
W C
0)
3

\
t>>
CO
,r^J
n
0
N*_^-

ON
ON
_=r
i
o
XA
C\J




ON
-*
 -J
CM
1
8
rH


ON
ON
1
O
XA




ON
_3

O
C\J




*
ON
rH
1
J
r^


 o
                                           XA
                                            C\J
     t rH
Products
ts
-o cj
CD 3
*-. TJ
t3 O
C rH
H OH

O
eg o
o
8S
0 0
PK EH
ted Products
Products
CO
"CD "o
tt 0
;s

<*)
rH
CD t*
f-c M
CO
rH
O

*
CD

-p
CO

CO
H
CO
4->
CD
sc


to
H
rH
OH
Machinery
rH
to
O
H
*H
-P
O
CD
rH
W
G
0
ss
fr
CD
S
J^
o
to
a
rH
CO
o
H
rH
-P
O
CD
rH
W


CO
o
CD
C
to
rH
rH
CD
0
cn
H
a







rH
CO
-P
O
H























>,
5?
>
rH
0
CO
,  1
H
H
CC

Z
CO
^
O
o
S
E
O
rH
CM

CO
tn
CD
4i

o
 n
CO
H
CD
^i
r<
rJ
-P
O
CO

C rH
CD 3
ECO
15s rH
rH (H
D.-H
e EC
W 1
*
TJ CO
C 5-i
co O
o
v ^r*

f
-p CD
CO CJ
3 SH
T3 CD
c e
M e
0
>o
>._
-fJ CH
q o
g ^
LJ -+J
0 C
CD
K^ Pi
j^J
V,
to co
-(-> Q.
10 (H
rH
DH 
CO
to
5
ED
fn
3 >
-P CO
CJ 3
CO to
CM G
3 CD
G 0
CO
a 
-------
rH
 CO

t?
                                                       r"\ H
QO

7?
                                                                                     oo
                                                                                     IA
                                                                                     ON
                                                                                     H
                                                                                                                   A-l
 CD

O

O
ON
ON
ON
  I
O
O
u\
                                   *
                                                                    1A


to
-p
c
re
PL,
no
.5
*H
j3
-P
0

'*H
j3
c
re
CM S
1
 	 1 f,^
fc> o

CD Q)
rH CQ
,0 -H
re co
-p
c
Q)
s
e?
rH
a.
E
W

TJ
C
re
p
CD
o

3
z.
re

re
 H
C

to
CD
C -H
rl +5
CO C
re 3
CQ 0
u

5
> >
H H
te CD
rjj
0) CO
-p
H T3
 c
ts re
_>jj ^
^ ^d
O CO
pr r^
cn
-P
to <
re fc^s
W ,
d
CD
JT^

*>
O
0
o
c
re
DC
ON
ON
"~\
O
U>
CM


ON
CM
1
O
O
rH



ON
ON
|
Q
UN,




ON
~
O
CM





}|C
ON
rH
|
H






                                      CM
                                                                    CO
       CM
                     OJ CM
                                                CM
                                      rH
                                             CM .
                                                    CM r-H
       r- H rH  O UN.    vQ
       CM        rH       rH
                                             O NO
                                                       rH rH -O-
 CQ
        O CNJ r*~\ ^"^ U\ NO [^CO  O CM
        CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM
                                                          OD  ON
                                                                     O
                                                                     rH
                                                                     rH
                                                                     rH
                                                                     O
                                                                     re
                                                                     P
                                                                     o
                                                                               t-,

                                                                               co
                                                                               re
                                                                               S-,
                                                                               0
                                                                               
                                                                               f-,
                                                                               CM
                                                                               to
                                                                               f-,
                                                                               0)
                                                                               ^:
                                                                               to

                                                                               (D
                                                                                CJ
                                                                                re


                                                                                I
                                                                                re
                                                                               S


                                                                                o

                                                                                to

                                                                                to
                                                                                C
                                                                                0)
                                                                               O

                                                                               03

                                                                               ON
                                                                               g
                                                                               to
                                                                               -P
                                                                               d
                                                                               re
                                                                               rH
                                                                               a,
                                                                               ON
                                                                               H
                                                                                      co   

                                                                                      Q) NO
                                                                                      r< ON
                                                                                      3 rH
                                                                                      -P
                                                                                      CJ   >
                                                                                      CO  CO
                  C dJ
                  CO rH
                 ^g^ f^^


                 CM r-t
                  O CO
                     H
                  W f-i
                  0 -P
                  to to
                  c &
                  0) T)
                 O C
                                                                                      CD CM
                                                                                      N  O
                                                                                      H
                                                                                      -P  >
                                                                                      C  f-.
                                                                                      CD  S
                                                                                      6 co
                                                                                      Ct-rl
                                                                                      
-------
 CO
 C
 co
rl

E
 in
 CD
H
-P
o
o
a.
             C\J
                                                 Os O -3 O sO f\ C"-
                                                 XA f\ MO XA XA CM O
                                                   CM m
                                                                                                             A-15
             CM
                                  CM
                                        CM
                                                               CO

                                                               CM
Os
Os
Os
 I
O
o
XA
                                              rH  CM rH _3 rH rH
                                                                        IA






















r^\
1
M
>

Q)
rH
,0
CO
H





































O
T)

CO
A-f
ffi
in
-P
c
CO
rH
OL,

tO)
3
rj
3
-p
o
co
fH
3
C
CO
a


(0 C
CO O
w in
rH
J-1 T3
CD CO
> s
H
a; -
c
CD O
-p in
H q
rd r
Sfo
-3

\
in
>;
0
H
SH
T3
C
CD
W

v
c
0
.p
rH
rl
CO
K
CD
fn
re
?
CO
, i
CD
Q

*>
%
O
Q



Os
Os
-3
O
XA
CM


rH
rH





Os
-3
CM

8
rH


M3
CM




OS
Os
|
O
XA


CM
CM





Os
_3;
O
CM


Os
CM




*
Os
H

rH

H
rH
rH











W
-P
O
3
"8
^
CU
-o
CD
S^
a
c
rl
fcd

=8

8
0
lx*














rH























H













in
-P
o
3
"8
^
PL,

rH
H
H
s

CD
H
H
P
X
CD
EH





XA_3 CM rH rH








rH CM_3_JO O-3XA
rH rH






rH rH CM r-H XA CM








rH rH _3 rH -3






COC O\MO_acOCAXA
CM -a CM SO _3 rH
rH







1C
in cn -P
P -p O
o o 3
3 in 3 -u
b in +J TJ O
0+3 o o ^
IH 0 W 3 ^ (X
PL, 3 CD T) D-,
*C fn O T3 bO
O O 3 ^ Tl CD C
Q) ^i H-> P-i Q) -H -rl cn
+3 a, x -H H c -P
CO -H T) rH rH -H O
rHtifx, CDrH, .p
C C
CD CD in
C E -P
tn -r1 {>,, CL c
in .d S~> -rH CD
CO O Q) 3 6
rH w co c cr 3
in O rH  -rl H f-,
P co .C -P
Ooain-PrH o C w
3 M CD CO CO O C
T3 " CO S O E -H M
0 (>, 4J ** -H ** -P
^COCDT3S-.rHCCrH
D-irHS CD-P CO-P CO
o -p o o tt u
!-, !>-, CO Q) -H O -H
CD ^t'OrH^Q-C
x:Q)co-r-i[i-pinco
-P C E JH 1 0 C ,C
coO-HXJCCDfOO
CD-Pf-,coOrHf-)(D
hJcOO-. foZWEHig














f^







r^\








O
rH






0
XA
















CO
D
O
CD
C
CO
rH
rH
CD
O
W
H
s





XA
XA







XA
CM
rH






r-
O
rH






Os
r
rH





m
rr\
o
^
rH





















r-H
CO
-P
O
r-i

         O
          

         M
             O CM

             CM CM CM CM























>>
CD
>
t-<
CO
rH
rH
iH
X

&
CO
?H
o
o
a
cr*
8
t.
H
to
f-i
0)
x:
-P
0
 w\
in
f<
0)
FH
3
-P
O
nj
H
3
c
CO
SJ
f. ,
M
O

CO
3
en
C
CD
O
CO
XA
Os
rH

Q
t,
CM

in
p
C
co
rH
O,
1
Os
rH
1
rH

*
OO
XA
Os
r-t
%
in 
fn-3-
0) sO
JH Os
3 i  I
-p
O .
CO 10
CM -P
3 C
C CO
CO rH
SB cu,

*3
I10
O rH
rH rH
CL-H
e a
W 1

T3 CO
C ^
CO O
O
sT*
b
-P Q)
10 O
r-J 
P ^*
O Q)
C 
M e

>o
>CM
4 ' ^H
C 0
3
0 -P
o c
CD
fc> E
J?-P
IH
CO CO
-P a.
C Q)
co Q
r-H
OH 
CO
k.A
CUJ
c 
H D
f-,
3 >
-p in
o 3
co en
H C
P CD
C 0
co
X*
6-i +3
o
CM
C O
O
rH 3
-P CO
10 (D
0 t-
,3c
1 ' M-(

CD
O
t,
3
O
CO

-------
A-l
I
P
s
w Vi n
poo
cu ^
ss
5
a
M

a
H
H
a
ol
H
*%H
o

g

o
!J
H -P
11
C
M
H
^j
J
O

1
,a
-P




g
CO







t
s

ON O O
H \D
X ON
O  X-N
c? o ^ o
O \O O O
G\ t5
 CO
0 H
H PM
-P H
03 d
rl 3
fi 0
OJ -P
r-l itf
r-l fc
CO O
rl 

0
V -H
.3 -P
P Oi
>> E
10 <
C -H

tl
P ft
co fi
a
O Vi
H U
+> P)
O
^H
&l

g }

-------
                                                                                                  A-17
   03


  5
  ON
  H

  CH
   O
   
H3
rH +>
     8
     ON
               I

               
               ,

r-l
0)
s

r^




s

v
H
ci
0)
W

\
X
CJ
o
o
rt
9
H"f
Vi
0

to

a
p
-p a
Xti
P
P H
10 0}
H S
P 0
4) -p
H C3
r-l K
H
CO O
H -<
M C
0
0) -H
^ -H
-p cfl
^1
0)^
C -H
5 -
V

^^
?t H
-P ft
W
C!
O b
H J
P ft
0
V ^
o +>
O -H
^ >
ft-H
-P
-P 0
C 0
0) rtf
3 O
0 &
r-H
g.
d 
V (0
fn
r-l tt)
0) V
H C
O -H
0} M
Pi fi^
to W 
cr}
cd CH -p
  iS
P ft fl
HH H O
O -H
d o -P

-------
                   88
      8
      VO
                                    QQQQOQQQQQC   Q   Q Q   Q Q
                                    OOOOtfNlr\OOOOQ   O   Q O   O O
                                    oo t- t ^cvj HJ- ir\ ro-3- C\J   vo   OJ vo   ir\ c <
                                                                                     A-l

VD
rH -P



If

  M
   O


   5


   S
   i
     -ti
  Is
c? CH 'n
o\ o o
H  VQ
   X O>

  r
  H
  I

O I* '

^8:
r-H H*

  3

  g
               V


               g


               fcl
               P
                M
                

                CO
                     8
^H
                          8
                          00
                          C\J
           O Q
            \o
                                     ir\
                                           O IAO
                                       OOOJ OOH H
o o
ir\ ir\ i
CM rH
:
                                                              8
                                                              m
                                               88
                                               j- on
                            !
                            ' c H
                      88
                      rH CO
                                   888
                                   OJ -^ rH
               88
               -* rH
                              00 OJ
                          HOOCViOJt-OJOJOOONOJON
                                 ^ cvi     I-H   t-n
                                                               OO
                                                                   r-l CO
                                                               888
                                                               CO CO H
                                                                         t-
                                                                             -
                                                                           CO O
                   O OO

                   OJ CU
oo
J-
CVJ
                    H j-   ir\ oovo t OJir\oJv
                    U~\\O   t-CX3 O O 
-------
A-19

f
"












to
Dollar
o
VO

H

O
-9
3
3
o

fcH
c
j?

CO
T)
H
{jfl
O
H
1
cd

CQ
jgj


O
M'
8

H
O


o
43


1
H
CO TH d>
to J3 H
tt) O O
0 ti vH
US d
^^H $
^J OO W tt
C o d> Vi
0) IQ -H -H O
| 4J P H 4i
ft C -P & O
H 0) O ftg
a1|3fi-5
. B 08 to Ti
COO) OJ oj
O O 2 ^H ft
H O -P O
4J 0 <1J (3 tH eg
g-ass-s^
H OH P<> *H
Q li H -rl 03
3 H^ ^ rJ ^ JH
a o o Q< o o
g 4) W (3 HJ fn
O H *rl O 'H
o W s S<
^
ps
^
H

to


VQ [- ON H OJ
VD VO *>D t t
OO OO OO CO OO



d


t
g
be

*
\
j3
O
H
)LJ
jn
*
*
O
(Q
H

\
C
o
g
*s
^
to
^
H
(j
rd
s
v
C
o
p
rl
3
ffi
\
0)
s
H
a
*\
o>

s
 -rl
fl -d
H C
H
H >
s-a
Hi H
O
to *d
fH 4
c^ fA
EH re


5)
4> H->


*H C
O O
H
Q> -P
O 0)
4_J tat
pi *n
J-) O
4H O
O to
to
p <
o
H tf
P -H
to c
Sl
i-l
H H
"> C
tQ O
H -H
?i -P
Q Oj

> O
d SH
?> B
4^ -H
to
0)
C CU
0 >v
H 0
HJ H

& Q
S TJ
5
O
m a spe
ineers .
0 M
j^ H^

-------
                                                           A-?0
                  Table VI-7
Historical and Projected Study Area Population

Eel River Subarea
Clay County
Brazil Urban Area
Owen County
Putnam County
Greencastle Township
Subtotal
East Fork White River Subarea
Hancock County
Center Township
Henry County
Henry Township
Rush County
Rushville Township
Shelby County
Addis on Township
Subtotal
White River Subarea
Boone County
Lebanon Urban Area
Delaware County
Muncie Urban Area
Hamilton County
Noblesville Township
Clay Township
1950
23,918
8,U3*
11,763
22,950
9,^53
58,631
20,332
7,989
^5,505
23,633
19,799
8,090
28,026
13,857
113,662
23,993
7,71^
90,252
58,^79
28,1*91
9,125
2,311
I960
2U,207
8,853
11,1+00
2^,927
10,5^2
60,53^
26,665
11,356
H8,899
25,896
20,393
9,131
3^,093
16,90^
130,050
27,5^3'
9,650
110,938
77,501*
Uo,132
11,651
10,215
1980
28,000
13,000
9,700
32,100
12,000
69,800
36,800
17,000
60,800
3^,000
20,000
11,500
33,500
19,000
151,100
25,600
10,600
157,800
126,000
U7,200
13,000
20,000
2020
U0,800
21,000
io,Uoo
U0,900
18,000
92,100
66,900
35,000
105,600
60,000
2U,200
lU,500
U6,900
25,000
21+3,600
U3,700
2U,000
2^U,800
220,000
71,900
15,000
143,000

-------
                                                                          A-21
                                    Table VI-7
              Historical and Projected Study Area Population (cont'd)

Lte River Subarea (cont'd)
Hendricks County
Guilford, Lincoln, and
Washington Townships
Johnson County
Franklin Township
Pleasant Township
Madison County
Anderson Township
Marion County
Morgan County
Brown Township
Washington Township
Randolph County
Wayne Township
White River Township
Urbanized Area of
Indianapolis*
Subtotal
Study Area Total
1950
2k, 59k
9,758
26,183
8,^29
5,211
103,911
57,023
551,777
23,726
3,181
8,625
27,11+1
U,890
7,935
517,3*6
900,068
1,072,361
1960
Uo,896
22,817
l*3,70U
10,578
lU,282
125,819
67,305
697,567
33,875
5,673
10,912
2Q,k3k
5,332
8,1*03
676,439
1,11*8,908
1,339,^92
1980
50,600
33,000
63,000
ll*,000
26,000
19*1,600
100,000
895,600
33,^00
7,500
15,000
32,UOO
6,500
9,500
900,000
1,500,200
1,721,100
2020
101,800
73,000
108,700
19,000
75,000
296,200
150,000
1,206,500
58,500
21,000
20,000
U6,500
10,000
13,000
1,300,000
2,178,600
2,51^,300
*Marion County plus the surrounding townships of Clay in Hamilton County;
 Guilford, Lincoln, and Washington in Hendricks County; and Pleasant in
 Johnson County.

-------
                                                                                A-22
                                    Table VII-1
                                MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES

Location and Name of         Estimated Population       Average Use       Demand
    Municipality               Served - 1963	          MGD	        gpcd

Eel River Subarea

    Greencastle                   9,000                    1.2              133
    Brazil    2                  10,1*50                    1.0               96
    Jasonville                    **,300                    0.187             1*3
    Bainbridge                      600                    0.03              50
    North Salem                     650                    0.022             3!*
    Jamestown                       830                    0.03              36
    Clay City                       960                    0.0l*5             1*7
    Cloverdale                      760                    0.035             1*6
    Putnamville State Farm         1300                    0.31             gl*0
                 Subarea Total   28,850                    2.86              99

East Fork White River Subarea

    Franklin                      8,000                    1.1              138
    Greenfield                   11,000                    1.1              100
    New Castle                   21,000                    1.65              78
    Shelbyville                  12,500                    1.59             127
    Rushville                     7,000                    0.70             100
    Edinburg                      ^,000                    0.60             150
    New Whitelan^                 3,^90                    0.20              57
    Princes Lake-                   570                    0.08             lUO
    Whiteland                     1,000                    0.10             100
    Knightstown                   2,500                    0.35             1^0
    Lewisville                      650                    0.037             57
    Shirley                       1,0**0                    0.05              U8
    Spiceland                       865                    0.017             20
    Carthage                      1,100                    0.16             ll*5
    Morristown                      800                    0.039             ^9
    St. Paul                        500                    0.030             60
                 Subarea Total   76,000                    7.8              103

-------
Location and Name of
   Municipality	

White River Subarea
               j.

   Indianapolis
   Speedway
   Lawrence
   Clermont
   Cumberland
   Whitestown
   Brownsburg
   Danville
   Pittsboro
   Plainfield
   Mooresvilie
   Greenwood
   Bargersville
   Bethany
   Brooklyn
   Martinsville
   Noblesville
   Cicero
   Sheridan
   Carmel
   Westfield
   Zionville
   Fortville
   Pendleton
   Elwood
   Tipton
   Arcadia
   Winchester
   Farmland
   Parker  City
   Muncie
   Yorktown
   Gaston
   Mt.  Summit
   Middletown
   Chesterfield
   Anderson
   Edgewood
   Summitville
   Alexandria
   Frankton
   Orestes
   Lapel
   Table VII-1 (Cont'd)
MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES

  Estimated Population
    Served - 1963
       615,000
        10,500
        10,200
         1,100
           900
           650
         5,000
         3,500
           830
         6,000
         *,000
                                                                               A-23
           650
            65
           850
         8,000
         8,ooo
         1,290
         1,260
         i.UUo
         1,250
         1,900
         2,300
         2,500
        13,000
         5,600
         1,260
         5,7*0
         1,200
         1,200
        71,000
         1,200
           810
           Uoo
         2,100
         2,500
        62,000
         2,120
           900
         5,580
         1,*50
Average Use
    MGD
Demand
 gpcd
         1,780
                   Subarea Total   873,000
75.5
1.7
0.9
0.055
07025
0.35
0.35
0.03
0.32
0.26
0.5
0.087
0.003
0.03
0.76
0.75
0.06
0.159
0.17
0.075
0.126
0.22
0.13
0.905
0.60
0.05
0.50
0.08
0.065
11.50
0.069
0.03
0.025
0.18
0.20
9.03
0.20
0.08
0.70
0.20
0.025
0.08
107.6
123
162
87
50
39
70
100
36
53
65
125
13*
*6
35
95
9*
*7
126
118
60
66
96
32
70
107
l+O
87
67
5*
162
58
37
63
86
80
1*6
9^
89
125
138
56
*5
123

-------
                                Table VII-1 (Cont'd)
                             MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES

Sources:  "1963 Inventory of Municipal Water Facilities, U. S. Department
           of Health, Education, and Welfare."
          "Data on Indiana Water Supplies, Bulletin No. S. E. 10., Indiana
           State Board of Health, I960."

1.  Brazil also serves the communities of Harmony and Knightsville.

2.  Jasonville also serves the communities of Coalraont and Hymera.

3.  Princes Lake also serves the community of Ninevah.

U.  Indianapolis also serves the communities of Beech Grove, Ben Davis,
    Homecroft, Mars Hill, Meridian Hills Southport, Warren Park and Williams
    Creek.  Figures for Indianapolis are for year 196U.


All communities utilize wells as their source of supply except Indianapolis,
Speedway, Princes Lake, Muncie, Anderson and Putnamville State Farm.
Indianapolis in addition to their surface supply from White River and Fall
Creek has ^2 wells utilized as an emergency and occasional source of supply.
Estimated ground water use by the Indianapolis Water Company is an average of
3 mgd.  Princes Lake uses impoundments, Putnamville State Farm uses a low head
impoundment on Deer Creek.  Muncie uses low head impoundments on Buck Creek
and White River along with a 21,500 acre-foot impoundment on Prairie Creek,
supplemented by wells.  Anderson uses wells supplemented by a low head impound-
ment on White River.  Speedway uses a low head impoundment on Big Eagle Creek
and has six wells for emergency use.

-------
            Table VIII-1



Municipal Waste Treatment
                                                      A-25
Facilities
Community
Eel River Subarea
Jamestown
North Salem
Greencastle
Brazil
Cloverdale
Putnaniville
State Farm
Jasonville
Sewage
Treatment
Facilities
Sewers
No Treatment
n
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Receiving
Stream
West Fork
Big Walnut Ck.
East Fork
Big Walnut Ck.
Big Walnut Ck.
Birch Creek
Rabbit Creek
Deer Creek
Trib. to Eel R.
Total
Estimated
Population
Served
800
600
8,500
8,800
7^0
1,300
2,U30
23,170
Population Equivalent
Based on B.O.D.
Raw Treated
E
800
600E
8,500E
8,800E
7UOE
1,300E
2;U30E
23,170
E
800
600E
1,275
1,320
110
200E
360
^,665
East Fork White River Subarea
New Castle
Carthage
Morristown
Shelbyville
Edinburg
Greenfield
Franklin
New Whiteland
Rush vi lie
Shirley
Spiceland
Knightstown
New Palestine
Glenwood
Secondary
Secondary
Oxidation
Ponds
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Oxidation
Ponds
Sewers
No Treatment
"
n
"
Big Blue R.
Big Blue R.
Big Blue R.
Big Blue R.
Big Blue R.
Brandywine Ck.
Youngs Creek
Grassy Creek
Flat Rock R.
Six Mile Ck.
to Big Blue R.
Tributary to
Big Blue River
Big Blue River
Big Sugar Ck.
Ben Davis Ck.
Total
20,000
1,000
705
1*1,300
3,660
9,000
9,^50
3,^80
7,260
1,030
867
2,1(90
600
380
7^,215 '
21,200
I,OOOE
705E
7,820
3,660E
9,oooE
13,695
3^80E
2,885
i,030E
860E
2,l+90E
6ooE
38oE
68,805
2,970
150E
105E
2,885
550E .
l,350E
1,060
520E
220
150E
860E
2,^90
6ooE
1^,290

-------
      Table VHI-1 (Cont'd)



Municipal Waste Treatment Facilities
                                                      A-?6
Community
Sewage
Treatment
Facilities
Receiving
Stream
Estimated
Population
Served
Population Equivalent
Based on B.O.D.
Raw Treated
White River Subarea
Winchester
Parker City
Muncie
Yorktown
Chesterfield
Anderson
Edgewood
Summitvllle
Gaston
Alexandria
Elwood
Lapel
Carmel
Westfield
Zionsville
Middletovn
Pendleton
Fortville
Lawrence
Beech Grove
Secondary
Sewers
No Treatment
Secondary
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Sewers
No Treatment
Sewers
No Treatment
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Oxidation
Ponds
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
White River
White River
White River
ii it
it it
it tt
Tributary
White River
Mud Creek
Pipe Creek
ii it
Duck Creek
Stony Creek
Cool Creek
it it
ii ii
Fall Creek
it ii
ii it
ti ii
Lick Creek
5,7l*0
1,180
68,600
1,130
2,585
63,000
2,110
1,01*5
770
5,200
11,000
1,770
1,M*0
1,210
E
1,820
2,030
2,1*70
2,200
10,100
10,950
5,7l*0E
1,180E
153,000E
E
1,130
2,585E
5l*, 330
2,110E
1,OU5E
770E
E
5,200
2,820
1,770E
1,1*1*0
1,210E
1,820E
2,220
, E
2,1*00
2,200E
9,990
5,575
870E
1,180E
E
26,000
E
790
l,8lOE
11,61*0
2,lioE
i,ol*5
115E
E
790
1,055
265E
215E
180E
E
275
1*10
E
300
E
330
1,1*1*5
310

-------
                               Table VIII-1 (Cont'd)



                         Municipal Waste Treatment Facilities
A-27
I
Community
Clermont
Noblesville
Indianapolis
Speedway
Homecroft
Southport
Brownsburg
Danville
Plainfield
Mooresville
Greenwood
Tipton
Arcadia
Cicero
Sheridan
Bargersville
Martins ville
Sewage
Treatment
Facilities
Sewers
No Treatment
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Sewers
No Treatment
Sewers
No Treatment
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Sewers
No Treatment
Sewers
No Treatment
Secondary
Secondary
Primary
Receiving
Stream
Eagle Creek
White River
White River
Eagle Creek
Little Buck
Creek
Little Buck
Creek
White Lick Ck
West Fork
White Lick Ck
White Lick Ck
White Lick Ck
Pleasant Run
Cicero Creek
Cicero Creek
Cicero Creek
Cicero Creek
Stotts Creek
White River
Total
Estimated Population Equivalent
Population Based on B.O.D.
Served Raw Treated
1,050
7,800
^76,260
9,600
950
890
. M75E
. 3,200
. 5,^60
. 3,800
7,170
5,600
1,260
1,280
2,165
580
7,500
735,390
1,050
3,300E
1,310,000
5,365
950E
890E
M75E
3,200E
5,^60E
3,800E
M05
5,600
1,260E
1,280E
2,165
58oE
7,195
1,619,510
1,050E
180E
202,700
1,690
950E
890E
/- E
670
WOE
820E
E
570
695
8UOE
1,260E
1,280E
325E
E
90
5,225
270,850
Footnotes:



1.  Wastes of 53,715 given secondary treatment and lU,885 no treatment.



E.  Indicates an estimated value.

-------
                             Table VIII-2

                Industrial Waste Treatment Facilities
(Self -discharging industrial waste treatment
facilities for industrial plants utilizing
over 10 million gallons of water a year)1
S.I.C.
Code
Eel River

East Pork
2653
3229
283U
Type of Plant & Location
Subarea
None self -discharging and over 10
White River Subarea
p
Pulp and paper mill-Carthage
Fiberglass products -She Ibyville
U
Biologicals -Greenfield
Employment
(1962)
mg/yr.
160
32
300
Pop. Equiv.
Based on B.O.D

28,000
900
50
White River Subarea
283U
28lU
2^91
2911
20U1
3713
3^61
3351
3722
3531
^7PQ
Biologicals-Zionsville
Wood treating and coal ,-
tar chemicals -Indianapolis
7
Petroleum refinery- Indianapolis
8
Corn milling- Indianapolis
8
Truck body parts-Indianapolis
9
Brass products -Indianapolis
Aircraft engines and products -
Indianapolis10
Uco
150
220
130
3,500
1,200
^,300
120
2,800
1,080
5,950
U20
280
1,500
                                                         Total     1*1,100
Footnotes:
1.  Plants whose discharge is essentially only cooling water or which have
    wastes not characterized as producing a B.O.D. are not included.

-------
                                                                       A-29

                             Table VIII-2 (Cont'd)

                     Industrial Waste Treatment Facilities
                  (Self-discharging industrial waste treatment
                   facilities for industrial plants utilizing
                   over 10 million gallons of water a year)1

 Footnotes cont'd.

 2.  Paper machine water is discharged to clarifier and lagoon.  Results
     are for combined waites of boiler blowdown, log washing and power
     plant cooling waters.  Since collection of these data, extensive
     waste treatment facilities have been added.  Effluent is discharged
     to Big Blue River.

 3.  Sanitary wastes and starch and chrome binder wastes are discharged
     to the municipal sewer system.  Effluent is discharged to Little
     Blue River.

 U.  Treatment is by a trickling filter plant with postchlorination.
     Effluent is discharged to Brandywine Creek via Leary Ditch.

 5.  Wastes from animal quarters are treated by Imhoff tank followed by
     slow sand filtration.  Serum area and cafeteria wastes are given
     activated sludge treatment and sand filtration.  Effluent is discharged
     to Eagle Creek.

 6.  Process wastes are treated in API (American Petroleum Institute)
     separator and effluent is discharged to Eagle Creek.  Has connected
     to municipal sewer since these data were collected.

 7.  Treatment consists of ion exchange tower for phenols, sulfides and
     flue gas.  Process water is treated in an API separator, accelator
     and oxidation ponds.  Effluent is discharged to Little Eagle Creek.

 8.  Sanitary wastes are discharged to municipal sewer system.  Process and
     cooling waters receive no treatment.  Effluent is discharged to the
     White River.

 9  All wastes are treated in an aerated lagoon preceded by an oil skimming
     basin.  Effluent is discharged to Eagle Creek.

10.  Sanitary wastes are discharged to municipal sewer system.  Process
     wastes are treated by three API separators, clarifiers, chemical
     treatment and a stabilization pond.  Effluent is discharged to
     Eagle Creek.

11.  Data obtained from joint U. S. Public Health Service-Indiana State
     Board of Health survey in 1962 and 1963.

-------
                         A-30
A  N  0  O  L  P  H
WAYNE
 \

N
 T T E
          SCALE IN MILES

     	g	    in
   WATER SUPPY & WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY
  BIG WALNUT, BIG BLUE & DOWNEYVILLE RESERVOIRS
       WABASH RIVER BASIN-INDIANA


         LOCATION MAP



            ;^^owc*Twwimw^



            SSSttff^

-------
                                                             A-31
X-S
PROPOSED
DAM SITE
:::
HENDRICKS  I
                                                       	|
                                                             f
                                                            N
                                SCALE IN MILES

                               0       5	10
IS
                        WATER SUPPLY 4 WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY

                        BIG WALNUT. BIG BLUE & DOWNEYVILLE RESERVOIRS

                               WABASH RIVER BASIN-INDIANA


                                 EEL RIVER SUBAREA

                                    LOCATION  MAP
                        U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. EDUCATION, tWELFARE


                            Federal Water Pollution Control Administration

                        EVANSVILLE FIELD STATION, INDIAN*   OHIO RIVER BASIN PROJECT
                                                       FIGURE  01

-------
                                                                              A-33
_'  unnitvill**
             /   DELAWARE
                                                  RANDOLPH
   0  C   K    H     E      N     R     Y
                                                   SCALE IN MILES
                                       5	0		10	13
    INDIANA!
  KALC IN MHO
^"^l^J^IJ

 VICINITY MAP
                                         WATER SUPPLY & WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY
                                         BIG WALNUT, BIG BLUE &, DOWNEYVILLE RESERVOIRS
                                                  WABASH RIVER BASININDIANA
                                                  WHITE RIVER SUBAREA
                                                      LOCATION MAP
                                         U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE
                                              Fdral Water Pollution Control Administration
                                         EVANSVILE riEt.0 STATION. INDIANA    OHIO RIVER BA5N PROJECT
                                                                          FIGURE  DC

-------
                                                      A-34

o >
Sf
\\j\j
80
60
40
20
ft
\
\
\
\
\



\
A
\
\
\



\
^^s




	 .  .




=aM
          2    4   6    8
             BOO (ing/I)
     10
             Ul
            0>
                                  UJI-
IUU
80
60
40

20
ft










^"







/
/
L^






X
f
/ S
/






s'
*' /
/




 7    8    9    10
  D.O. (mg/l)
   100
7o EQUAL TO OR GREATER
THAN GIVEN VALUE
\\i\j
80
60
40
20
ft
\^
\



\
\
X
\x
\



\
\
\
V \
\ \
\\
\ \
     0   25  50
       Chlorides
        (rng/l)
10  I01   I02
 Collform per  ml
                                        cr
                                        UJ
                                        o>
                                        OI
                                        LU-


                                        I?
                    100


                     80


                     60


                     40


                     20
                                                     \
 0    !    2   3
  Niiro + es  (mg/l)


    LEGEND
SHELBYVILLE	
CARTHAGE 	
     NOTE:
         THE ABOVE PER CENT OCCURENCES
     REPRESENT ABOUT 195 SAMPLES AT EACH
     STATION. EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED THROUGH-
     OUT THE YEAR.
          PERCENT OCCURENCE FOR SHELBYVILLE AND
         CARTHAGE, INDIANA WATER QUALITY MONITOR
                        STATIONS  1957-1964
                                                  FIGURE 7

-------
                                               A-35
m *,uuu
cr 
^ 3.000= = : =
z ::::
U 2,006 -'-'--
O :---

^t
( 	
O_

H"

Z *
o ::"

F- 700 -
O C f\ A - - -
DUU - - - -

^ 4OO -- - -

 300 	
9ftO- 	 	








































<




















yf





















1



















> 1
^



















,,
n




















$<




















,/




















,







^












J H
^






. /













**




















^r *"'






!--





-








V






5<







L^





^






^





















k'
X












^
><









































1







x-

;











f







--













*-







^





















^





















M










^

^







^

X










^








^*





















^










































^



















(

^











E"" ! 	 ''





1 O AO

r , , '
=**' I
* ' ~*~




........ J













|U[ i


1 1



T
t
(T ITT



 30" 	
OAfV - ^
1.5
3WJ,C/uO




u
b.
U) -~ 4.
at I r
o
2 1 00 000 4- 	 i-

UJ 	 L *
O -U4-4.
a ii
O
L*. ^c\rtc*r\ - -- *-


\^ 3O,OOO
Q
<
3
Z
Z
<
in AAn -t- -- -



1.5



V '
^




























2 3 456789 10 20
RECURRENCE INTERVAL IN YEARS
BIG WALNUT CREEK BELOW GREENCASTLE







I



f j

y>^pr**fi "
.-tr
tt'rr"




Z 3



r

	 j
I
i

-







*<*
'*'"*
1

^i'-X




- *

\~-
**











X


fr















**










ff


>











X



\





1







^J-1
j


,










4 56789



, 	 [_




\
1

^




< *





h

r
\-  
h-















^




**

-

10


**















^










__[._!_ J..+1
1!
JlJ-1
' 20 20 j
K 1
'

1 980
T< "^,;;
-------
                                                         A-36
V-
UJ
uj
u.

UI
OC
o
UJ
o
<
(T
O
Z
O
I

u.
<
--,
s




- 
2






t
r
si
F
I
1




 -
0







ro
o




N-  9 (







1
RAG
R 1
i



i









1-
E
)80
t
.1
- l"t r
* ! '
-  * *











j
... i
  V
1 . 1
t !"







- 
1
. . ..
       1.3  I 5
5 6 7 8 9 |0
                                               20
30  40 5O
                    RECURRENCE INTERVAL IN YEARS
                   BIG BLUE  RIVER BELOW SHELBYVILLE


         DRAFT-ON-STORAGE  FOR  WATER QUALITY CONTROL  NEEDS

         VS RECURRENCE INTERVAL FOR THE YEARS OF I960 AND 2020
                                                   FIGURE YE

-------