PROCEEDINGS
VOLUME 2
Conference
In the matter of Pollution off
the Interstate Waters off the
Grand Calumet River, Little
Calumet River,Calumet
Wolff Lake, Lake Michigan
and theirTributaries
                          MARCH 2-9,1965
U. S DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

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IQN AGENCT

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        UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT

                   OF

     HEALTH, EDUCATION, and WELFARE




                *«**
Conference in the matter of pollution  of

the interstate waters of the Grand  Calumet

River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River,

Lake Michigan, Wolf Lake and their  tribu-

taries (Indiana-Illinois).

               ****

      MR. MURRAY STEIN, Chairman

               ****
                          Mccormick  Place
                          Banquet Room
                          9:30 o'clock  a.m.
                          March 3, 1965
                          Chicago, Illinois

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                                                    329

        CONFEREES:

2          MR. H. W.  POSTON,

                Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,
                U.S.  Public Health  Service,  Division  of
                Water Supply & Pollution Control,
                Regional  Program Director,  Illinois

           MR. BLUCHER A. PC-OLE,  Technical  Secretary, and
6          MR. PERRY  MILLER,

                Stream Pollution Control Board,
                State Board of Health, Indiana.

8          MR. CLARENCE W.  KLASSEN, Technical Secretary, and
           MR. RICHARD NELLE,

                State Sanitary Water Board,  Department of
                Public Health, Illinois.

11          MR. FRANK  W. CHESROW, President,  and
           MR. GEORGE A.  LANE,

                The Metropolitan Sanitary District
                 of  Greater  Chicago, Illinois.

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                                                         602

    least  from the Federal enforcement Program  standpoint is

 2   that we can't get lost;  we move on inexorably.

 3                   With that,  I hope as many  of you who can will

 4   be  back tomorrow, because  tomorrow is going to  be Hoosier

 5   Day and I've never been  in Indiana or in  contact with an

 6   Indianan where I haven't thoroughly been  enchanted and I am

    sure you all will be  if  you come back tomorrow.

 g                   We stand  recessed until 9:30 tomorrow.

                    (Whereupon  the proceedings in the above
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    entitled matter were continued to March 4,  1965,  at 9:30
    o'clock A.M.)
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f\f\
              Environmental Protection Agency


23              r.:<} __ ;  •"- . .   _.c"u Street"

               PVf • --••. .  /: '....oi.j
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                                              U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1966 0—799-412

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    ones that have been pointed out as contributing to pollution:



    You are obligated to find a solution to it.  You can't look
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    to anybody els®.  This is your responsibility.
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                   You know, or you should know, what you are



    putting into the streams without being told.
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                   However, you have been told and in this parti-
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                                                       601


    the industry and the municipalities,  regardless of where they



    are, as representing the objectives and the target objectives



    so far as the State of Illinois is concerned, that you are the
cular conference and there can be no, as I see it, no further



excuses for saying that you don't know.



               There are two questions and I am directing



this particularly at the people we will hear from tomorrow.



               There are two questions that we would like


answered, what are you going to do and when are you going to


do it?



               Now, when we talk about a schedule and time-


wise I can only say this, that if you are now discharging,



whether you are a municipality or an industry, if you are now


discharging pollution into these waters, as far as the



Illinois Sanitary Water Board is concerned, you are already


behind schedule.



               Thank you.



     CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Thank you,  thank you, Mr. Klassen.



               I might indicate that  part  of our reputation at

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 j        MR. KLASSEN:  This is — this pattern has been, and I

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                   Well, one or two summary remarks on behalf of
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    the State of Illinois.
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                   The Sanitary Water Board area particularly
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    today and it's been planned this way, you have heard primarily
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    from the water users and those that have or represent prime
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    interest in clean water and water pollution abatement.
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                   We have also up to this point in the conference
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    heard a review of the problems that are existing;  some of

    these are new, but most of them have been known.
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                   Some have been brought out at this  hearing.

                   I think this is strictly a personal comment,
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    the thought given so far to this whole pollution problem
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    and the south end of Lake Michigan reminds me of the same

    thought that was given to the disposal of solid wastes in the
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    feudal castle days and I only get this from reading, — it is
    my understanding that the garbage was thrown on the floor
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    among the rushes that were spread around on the castle floor
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    and the garbage was kicked around until it got lost.
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                   I have a feeling from hearing the presentations
    today that  there are some that were hoping that this thing
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    would be kicked around  again.   It's been kicked around  again
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    and  the  problem would be  lost.
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                   I want to say this and I  am addressing, too,
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                                                       599


                  The  reason  that  obviously when you see  the


    map of the Sanitary Water  Board,  my responsibility did not


    include industry because the industrial complex and the


    industry included in this  report  are not within the jurisdic-


    tion of the State Sanitary Water  Board area.
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                   I Just want to summarize that — does that
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    answer your question, Mr.  Poston?


         MR. POSTON:  Well,  I  think it is important that we hear
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    from all concerned and I Just wanted to bring this out.
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                   I guess you answered my question.
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     MR.  KLASSEN:  Yes,  I  assume  that  if  the  Sanitary District


 at  the  time  of  their  presentation desires to  have  industry


 heard from,  that  is their  prerogative.


     CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Mr.  Poston, I  thought I pointed out  the


 Federal law:  this is a  state  responsibility. The conferees


 are both Federal  and  state agency participants.  The  conferees


 in  addition, may  call upon participants whom  they  have invited


 to  the  conference to  make  statements.  Invitees  are limited  to


 those who the states  invite.


                Now, I think as far as  the Federal  participa-


 tion is concerned, we are  not  getting  geared  to  the refine-


 ments of  state  Jurisdictional  problems and the state  either


 invites someone or doesn't  invite them.   It is not  our preroga-


tive to invite anyone other than the other Federal  agencies and


the state agencies concerned.

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                                                       598
     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.
     MR. KLASSEN:  Mr. Stein, this concludes the presentation



of people to appear on behalf of the State Sanitary Water



Board.



               I am going to wind up here with about a two




minute  or a minute and half  —



     MR. POSTON:  I would like to break  in, Mr. Klassen.



               There has been a lot of discussion  concerning



industrial pollution in the Calumet area and we have been




given information on this.



               I wondered whether you plan to have any



industry be heard concerning their thoughts and their wastes,



that they may  or may not empty into the  Calumet River branch.



     MR. KLASSEN:  Possibly my remarks yesterday or this



morning were overlooked.



               The legislation or, as I  indicated,  has



exempted the Chicago Sanitary District from the Jurisdiction



of the  State Sanitary Water Board.  This is the reason that we



have two conferees or co-conferees representing the state of



Illinois and the Sanitary Water Board and the Metropolitan



Sanitary District of Greater Chicago.



               The co-conferees representing the Sanitary



District was advised and I am sure that  they understand this.



It is their responsibility and their prerogative to call any




industry or any municipality coming within the Sanitary Distric

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                                                        597

                  All data  is reported periodically to  the


    Illinois  Sanitary Water  Board,  which  agency regulates  water
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    pollution control in  Illinois  outside the  limits of  the
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    Metropolitan Sanitary District of  greater  Chicago.
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                  We believe the  Illinois Sanitary Water  Board
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    has done  an outstanding  Job  of controlling water pollution.
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    The record shows that the responsibility for water pollution
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    control has been accepted locally  and by the state.
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                   Increased industrial  activity, soaring  popula-
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    tion,  new housing and commercial development, and greater
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    utilization of our  natural  resources, challenge the  District
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to keep abreast of  its responsibility to provide water pol-


lution control for  the Lake Michigan area of Lake County,


Illinois.


               Additional collection and treatment facilities


will have to be provided in the near future in order to meet


the needs within the District.  Furthermore, adjacent areas


linked to the North Shore by reasons of commerce, culture,


business, or recreation are looking to the District for a


solution to their sewage problems and for protection of their


Lake Michigan water supply and recreation waters from contami-


nation as a basis for a healthful, orderly growth and develop-


ment.  The basic need for the District is as real today as it


 as when the enabling legislation was approved by the General


 ssembly in  1911.

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596


Beach
Winthrop
Harbor
Zion
25th Street
Illinois
Beach State
Park
Lake Shore
along
Pershing Road
Waukegan
FOBS Park
U. S. N.
Lake Bluff
Lake Forest
Highwood
Park Avenue
Ravine Drive
Rosewood
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Humber
of
Samples
55
55
55
56
55
52

53
53
27
56
51*
a
9 6
Per
Coli.
629
370
29k
395
266
820

537
390
290
283
328
299
2=
100 ML
Strep.
11
9
9
6
3
13

12
7
5
6
9
9
1
Rtunber
of
Samples
57
57
57
53
57
57

63
57
16
57
57
57
9 6
Per
Coli
155
OJ£
111
2ltf
87
278

181
192
152
182
137
2lli
3__
100 ML.
. Strep*
5
5
5
k
3
7

U
5
5
1;
It
7
1
Number
of
Samples
63
62
63
63
63
63
20
63
61
32
62
63
63
9 6
Per
Co'l'i
139
155
107
88
5k
192
76
201
182
2U2
183
25k
302
U
100 ML
._ Strep,
13
U*
10
9
5
20
9
13
15
17
U*
18
22

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                                                   595
testing, the District has established a laboratory to perform
extensive physical, chemical and bacteriological analyses.
This  laboratory has been issued a Certificate of Approval from
the Illinois Department of Public Health under the Bureau of
Sanitary Bacteriology and Laboratory Approval Program.
               In  1964 the District completed its seventeenth
consecutive summer season of routine sampling and bacterial
analyses of Lake Michigan waters  along  the  North shore  between
the Wisconsin  State Line and Cook County.   This comprehensive
program includes determinations of the  water quality at the
public  beaches in  Lake Michigan,  and of the discharges  from
the District's disposal plants, and from industries.
               Since 1947 when the special  sampling  program  at
bathing beaches within the District was initiated by the Board
of Trustees at the request of the Illinois  State Department  of
Health, thousands  of samples have been  analyzed and  a great
deal  of information has been accumulated concerning  the
quality of waters  of Lake Michigan along the North Shore.  It
is known that  this quality varies with  the  weather,  ravine
flow, conditions of the lake, and the characteristics of dis-
charges into it.
               Following is a summary of water quality  data,
showing the geometric mean for coliforms and streptococcus,
based on results  obtained using the  membrane filter technique.

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120 per 100 ML.



               2.  Outboard Marine Corporation.  Small amounts




of oil separator effluent.  No other contaminants.



               3.  U. S. Steel Waukegan Works.  An estimated



10 M.G.D., approximately two-thirds of which is neutralized



and treated pickle liquors, the balance from rinses, galvaniz-



ing, general mill operations, etc.  No organic or conform




contaminants.



               4.  Abbott Laboratories.  Activated sludge type,



with year-round chlorinatlon.  Coliform geometric mean of ^7



per 100 ML.



               5.  Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation, 0.35



M.G.D. of neutralized acid.  A small amount of suspended



solids from the unused lime.  No other contaminants.



               The District's "Ordinance Relating to Sewers and



Sewer Systems" sets forth conditions under which sewers may be



constructed and used within the District.  This Ordinance is



particularly valuable in protecting both the District and the



municipalities within it from unsatisfactory sewer construction



and from various abuses of the sewers and interceptors already



involved, have cooperated excellently to make the Ordinance



effective.




               As a means of continuously determining the



effectiveness  of  its  own  treatment  processes,  and  of performing



special  industrial, Lake  Michigan or  stream  sampling and

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                                                  593
plant at Its rifle range north of Zion, with intermittent
effluent discharges to Lake Michigan during the summer
months.
               During the last decade, the muncipalities and
industries within the District have also spent millions of
dollars to control and prevent water pollution.   Many miles
of new sewer have been laid to collect sewage formerly
treated inadequately by individual septic tanks,  and to pro-
vide for new residential and  industrial development.
               Untreated or partially treated sewage dis-
charged to creeks, to ravines, and to the east fork  of the
north branch of the Chicago River, has been  intercepted and
conveyed to sanitary district treatment facilities.
               All of the industries have complied with the
District's requirements for treatment of wastes before dis-
charge to the receiving waters or for pre-treatment  before
discharge to the  sewage disposal facilities  of the District
by installing a variety of controls, pre-treatment facilities,
complete treatment works, or by revising manufacturing
processes.
               Industrial effluents, other than cooling
water, are discharged to Lake Michigan from  the following:
               1.  Johns-Manvilie Corporation.  A lagoon
effluent of approximately 12 M.G.D., with negligible five-day
B.O.D. and suspended solids.   1964 conform geometric mean

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                                               592



North Chicago, Lake Bluff, Lake Forest, and Highland Park,



with the effluent being discharged to the River.



               The flow to the Clavey Road plant  is primarily



of  domestic  origin, although  industrial areas  west of Waukegan



are rapidly  being developed.  With the exception  of a small



flow from  the  Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company plant in Lake



Bluff which  receives  secondary treatment, no industrial wastes



are discharged to the River,  but  are treated at the Clavey



Road plant of  the District.



               The 1961-1964  average flow to the  Clavey Road



plant was  2.40 M.G.D., with a final effluent containing 315



pounds  of  five-day B.O.D.  No deterioration of the River  in



Cook County, south of the plant,  has been noted,  as evidenced



by  the  sampling program begun before the plant was built  and



continued  regularly since it  was  put into operation.



               Two Federal installations located  on Lake



Michigan,  in Lake County, Illinois, who do not come under the



Jurisdiction of the North Shore Sanitary District, are the



Great Lakes Naval Training Center and the U.S. Army, Fort



Sheridan.  Both have  sewage treatment plants,  with effluent



discharge  to the lake.



               The Naval Training Center also has a sewage



treatment plant located on the east fork of the north branch



of the  Chicago River  which serves  a portion of  its facilities.

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                                                   591
               A.  Waukegan — activated sludge type, with

year-around chlorlnation.

               B.  North Chicago — highprate trickling

filter type, with year-around chlorination.

               C.  Lake Bluff, Lake Forest and Park  Avenue,

Ravine Drive, and Gary Avenue, Highland Park  — Imhoff tanks,

with four months of  summer chlorination.  Outfalls,  with

diffusers,  ranging from 800 to 1,800  feet into Lake  Michigan.

               A summary of averages  of pertinent  effluent

data for the period  1961 through 1964 follows:

            Effluent  Quality and Characteristics
                                              1964  Conforms
   Location               Flow,   5-Day       per 100 ML
                          M.G.D. B.O.D.,lbs.  Geometric Mean
                            9.79    1,679

                            3.39    1,405

                             .327    240
221

 29

 80

 66

191

 48

 82
Waukegan

North Chicago

Lake Bluff

Lake Forest                 1,429     762

Park Avenue,Highland Park    .843     6l3

Ravine Drive,Highland Park   .424     263

Gary Avenue,Highland Park    .889     459

               The east fork of the  north branch  of  the  Chi-

cago River has its headwaters west of Waukegan, within the
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boundaries of the North Shore Sanitary District,   its

eighteen-mile length is paralleled by a Sanitary  District

intercepting sewer terminating at an activated sludge plant  on

Clavey Road in Highland Park.  This plant serves  the cities  of

Park City and Highwood and the western portions of Waukegan,

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                                                        590



    facilities were constructed to serve the sewered areas in



    Zion, North Chicago, Lake Bluff, Lake Forest, Highwood, and
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    portions of Waukegan and Highland Park.  This construction was
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    financed out of the general tax levy.  In the 1930's a bond



    issue,  coupled with a PWA grant, provided for the  construc-



    tion of a new plant and interceptor for Waukegan; new treat-
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    ment works in Winthrop Harbor and at Cary Avenue and Racine



    Drive in Highland Park; and major additions to the  plants in
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    North Chicago, Lake Forest, and Highwood.
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                   Following a program of education and wise
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 publicity,  the voters,  by a margin of more than two to one,


 approved a  bond issue in 1953 for a comprehensive construction


 program.


                This included major additions to the existing


 treatment works at Waukegan and North Chicago; a new treat-


 ment  plant  in Highland  Park and an intercepting sewer from


 Waukegan to Highland Park to serve the Skokle Valley; an


 intercepting sewer from Winthrop Harbor to Waukegan, with


 pumping stations at Winthrop Harbor and Zlon; extended out-


 falls into  Lake Michigan at five lakefront plants;  and other


 plant improvements.  This program was completed in  1961, at


 a  cost  of over eight million dollars.


                Sewage treatment  plants with effluents dis-


charging to Lake Michigan  are operating by  the  North Shore


Sanitary District at the following locations:

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                                                     589


    Lake  Michigan Water  Commission was  organized  to study pol-


    lution of the  lake  and its effect upon water  supplies.
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                   A second group, organized under the auspices
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    of the Chicago Association of Commerce and known as the Lake


    Michigan Sanitary Association, urged in December 1908, that a


    sanitary survey be made along the  north shore as far north
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    as Waukegan.
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                   As a result, early  in 1909, a rather informal
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    organization to study the problem  locally was formed.  It was
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known as the North Shore Sanitary Association, with its


stated purpose  "to investigate sanitary problems along the


North Shore, and endeavor to work out a solution of the  same."


                On June 5* 1911* approval was given by the


Illinois Legislature to "An Act to create sanitary districts


and to provide  for sewage," which Act applied specifically


to the area along the North Shore.


                In 191^, a part of this area was organized


under this Act  as the North Shore Sanitary District,  its


boundaries have since been extended to include the entire


shoreline of Lake County, Illinois.  The Act states that  "The


Board of Trustees of any sanitary district organized under


this Act shall  have power to provide for the disposal of the


sewage thereof  and to save and preserve the water supplied to


the inhabitants of such district from contamination...."


               Between  1922  and 1928,  sewage  treatment

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                   Parks and Recreation Committee
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                   Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference"
         MR. KLASSEN:  Also, now, there is a statement of Mr.
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                                                      588
    but the lake recognizes no boundary lines;  the waste pours
    into our beaches and into our drinking water.
                   Only Federal action can stop the gradual ruin
    of Lake Michigan.  We urge full use of the Water Pollution
    Act and recommendations by the Department of Health, Education,
    and welfare, and of more stringent statutory controls of
    industrial waste.
                   Respectfully,
                   George Overton, Chairman
    Raymond E. Anderson, General Manager, North Shore Sanitary
    District,  Waukegan (Lake County) Illinois.
15        MR.  ANDERSON:   Mr. Chairman:
                   The development of the area along the North
    Shore of Lake Michigan proceeded slowly until about the turn
    of the Century, by which time the problem of water supply and
    pollution control arose.  The larger towns in Lake County,
    Illinois, which draw their water supplies from Lake Michigan,
    found that untreated sewage from these same towns was pol-
    luting their source of drinking water.
                   Although some protective measures were taken
    early in 1900,  the problem became increasingly more serious
    for  all  the  shore towns of Lake Michigan.   In April 1908,  the

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                                                        587



         MR.  CHESROW:   Thank you.




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        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.



        MR. KLASSEN:  Mr. Stein, I have a statement from the
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    Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference that I would like in th«




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   record.
 c        CHAIRMAN STEIN:   It may go in.
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            STATEMENT PROM THE HYDE PARK-KENWOOD COMMUNITY



                             CONFERENCE



                  The Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference  is



   a neighborhood organization serving Hyde Park-Kenwood  areas



   in the southeastern portion of Chicago.  The region fronts on



   Lake Michigan from 47th to 69th Streets.  The Conference



   serves as the center for local planning actions and as the



   spokesman for the community before government agencies.



                  The residents of the Hyde Park and Kenwood



   communities use Lake Michigan not only for their drinking  water



   but also as their recreation area.  A row of parks fronting



   on the lake provide the residents with much of their leisure



   time facilities.



                  We are deeply concerned with mounting pollution



   in Lake Michigan.  We have examined the United States  Public



   Health Service report on Lake Michigan and we are appalled to



   learn that tons of sulfuric acid, cyanide, and oil waste are



   poured into the lake daily by steel mills in the South Chicago-



   Gary region.   Most of this waste is poured into Indiana waters,

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                                                       586
 !   end that this resource of great value will be protected and
 2   enhanced.
 3        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Are there any comments or questions?
 4        MR. CHESROW:  Mr. Stein.
 c        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Yes?
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 «        MR. CHESROW:  First, let me compliment Mr. Ackermann
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    and the —
 0        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  This isn't Mr. Ackermann.
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         MR. CHESROW:  Mr. Ackermann wrote it.
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                   Compliment him on that last paragraph  and his
n   conclusions.
                   They are very well put and most desirable.
                   By the same token, I haven't been able to
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    follow his talk because I have a copy of a previous statement
    and I understand this is a condensed version.
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,D        MR. LARSON:  That is correct.  This is the official one.
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17        MR. CHESROW:  Until I have had an opportunity to go over
18   this condensed version with our attorneys and, incidentally,
    as you know, did you know our lake diversion case — I would
Is)
    like to reserve the right to make any comments on the condense(
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    version.
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         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Will you be here for the rest of the
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    conference?
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         DR. LARSON:   Yes.
»4
25        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  If you have any questions tomorrow or
    thereafter,  we may be  able  to resolve them.

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                                                       585



l   that he include individual  mineral constituents in one of the



2   parameters for monitoring the water quality.



3                  The Illinois River basin also  is affected by



4   waste discharges in the Calumet River as It enters the state



e   and as it flows by way of the Calumet Sag Channel to the
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e   Sanitary and Ship Canal to  the Des Plaines River and the
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    Illinois River.



                   However, it  is assumed that this is not a
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    matter of direct concern in the present conference.
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                   Conclusions
                   In the concern  of the Illinois Technical
Advisory Committee on Water Resources, "unnecessary  pollution



can be associated with toxic or otherwise harmful discharges



to lakes and streams, and the Committee, therefore, urges



its elimination.



               We do not consider any water problems —


whether they be local, state, interstate, or international  —


as unsolvable, although we must be continually searching for



new solutions, which, above all, require coordinated efforts.



               We consider Lake Michigan and its related



waters a Joint asset of great present and future value.  It is



our firm intention to contribute in every way possible to the



present conference and any subsequent activities by making



information available, by contributing to its analysis, by



reasoning together,  and by evaluating our alternatives to the

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                                                  584
 Obviously,  a considerable  degree  of control was exercised at
 this time or some changes  in industrial development were
 taking place.
                If the lower average chloride values over the
 early period are extrapolated,  the natural rate of increase of
 chloride without excessive pollution would be about 2.5 mg/1
 in 100 years.  In 1963 a value  indicating three times this rat
 has been recorded.  During the  past fifteen years the rate of
 increase has been approximately 1.8 mg/1 per 15 years, or, by
 comparison an unnatural 12 mg/1 per 100 years (almost five
 times the normal rate).
                The data on sulfate increase is even more
 notable.  The early data are not sufficiently defined to
 suggest a normal rate of increase, but since 1948, the general
 rate of increase is about 3.5 mg/1 per 10 years with a sudden
 rise Just prior to 1948 and again in 1963.
                Now,  I want to add something not in the text
 here.
                The actual levels of concentration on the
 chart  are tight.   They are not  too serious in themselves.
                They do represent an appreciable amount of
 dilution from the  concentration of the center of pollution.
                The  thing that is of real  interest and  concern
 is the  accelerated rate  of  increase  in  the most  recent years
and I would like, at this time,  to recommend to Mr. Poston

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                                                       582
 i   shows the available records on these increases over the past
 2   hundred years.  The data were obtained on request from the
 3   Bureau of Water of the Chicago Department of Water and Sewers.
 4                  Of particular interest are three features of
 5   this chart.  First is the general increase over this period,
 6   which is presently at a significantly greater rate.  Second is
 7   the variability of the data which is particularly significant
 8   during the most recent fifteen year period.  This variability
 9   is considered to be due to the directional changes in flow of
10   water at the southern end of the lake and a center of increas-
n   ing exceptional pollution.
12                  Therefore, the general increase and the greater
13   variability of the data during the past fifteen years is
14   attributed to increasing waste discharges from the south of
15   the sampling point at Dunne Crib.
16                  The third feature of the data is the inconsis-
17   tent ratio of sulfate to chloride.  This inconsistency, which
18   ranges from 2.2 to 4.3,  range of variability indicates more
19   than one type of waste discharge.
20                  To a lesser degree there was some variability
2l   of quality in 1862, but  most of these samples were collected
22   closer to the mouth of the Chicago River and before the flow
23   was reversed.
24                  Another feature is the relatively constant  and
2S   low rate of increase during the period between 1938 and 1948.

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                                                  581




               Lake Michigan has represented a bountiful water



resource for many purposes.  Its quality is of great importance



to the communities on and beyond its border.  Creeping destruc-



tion of this natural excellent quality is of great concern to



the State of Illinois from an economic standpoint as well as



from the standpoint of the health and well being of its



citizens.



               The health and well being of the citizens of



Illinois now depending on this principal adequate source of



supply is paramount and to a great degree so is the economy



of this important commercial and industrial center of the



State and the Nation.



               One parameter that may seem to be innocuous is



the chloride ion, normally from salt.  This ingredient,



chloride, is present in human waste discharges and therefore,



in waste treatment effluents.  When present in increasing



concentrations with time, it can, therefore, be an indication



of the increase of other components from such discharges, many



of which are unidentified.  Increasing concentrations also



promote increasing corrosion of metals in contact with the



water.  An increase in sulfate likewise can indicate the



presence of an industrial waste discharge with other accompany



ing unidentified components.



               This is taking place at an accelerated rate



in the southern end of Lake Michigan.  The accompanying figure

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                                                      580



 l   fertilizers.


 2                  The public becomes aware of water pollution



 3   only when it is in a noticeable form — usually visible sus-



 4   pended matter, floating debris, green scum (algae growth), or



    an unpleasant odor.  In such cases, the public shuns the
 O


 „   recreational area, and its value is diminished.  A much
 D


    greater concern, however, is the unseen pollution which may



 0   be hazardous to health.
 O


                   The State of Illinois, Department of Conserva-
 8


    tion advises that it is developing more detailed and specific


    data on recreation which is relevant to this conference and



    wishes an opportunity to submit this at an early date.



                   Health and Economy
13                   —-JL. -__. T-- j.r--j.-:  T-


                   In Illinois statewide planning for the develop-
14


    ment and use of its water resources, quality is recognized as
15

    being as important as quantity.  Quality is important to the
16


    industrial as well as domestic user.  When water of inferior
17


    quality is provided to industries by self development or by
18


    public water utilities, supplementary treatment to correct
*y

    inferior quality is an economic loss to the industry, and if
20

    industry should choose a more favorable site on this basis,
t»\.

    it then becomes an economic loss to the community and to the
22


    state.  Similarly, if recreational facilities are degraded,
23

    the degraded environment  for adequate living conditions result!
24

    in a loss to the industry as well as to the community and the
25


    State.

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                                                       579
    pected to increase threefold during the 40-year period from
    I960 to 2000,  and most of this increase will be concentrated
    in and near metropolitan areas such as northeastern Illinois.
    This means that either more intense use will need to be made
    of present water recreation facilities or more facilities will
    need to be made available.  An effect of this projected in-
    crease in participation has been an increase in the relative
    importance of recreation in water resources development
    projects.
                   Since recreational use is a flow or on-site
n   use of water,  it can be measured in terms of available
12   facilities.  Current Water-oriented recreational use in north-
13   eastern Illinois amounts to 651 swimming pools, 187 miles of
14   publicly-owned streams, 25*873 surface areas of inland lakes
1S   and the recreational opportunities afforded by Lake Michigan.
16   When compared with other metropolitan areas, Northeastern
17   Illinois ranks low in existing public facilities for outdoor
18   recreation, but high in the degree of intensity of use of thes«
19   facilities.
20                  Pollution has been recognized as one of the
21   major limitations of water recreation activities in metropoli-
22   tan areas.  The pollution results from the discharge of
23   industrial and municipal wastes,  storm water overflows, seepage
24   from septic systems,  discharge from pleasure boats,  and runoff
25   from lawns and agricultural areas that leaches chemicals and

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                                                         578
 MCHENRY
i
                                                     N
                                                     \
                                                SCALE OF MILES
                                                0     5    10
  LAKE
MICHIGAN
       KANE
      GR
           V////A AREA REQUIRING LAKE WATER

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                                                       577-A
   people will  be  in the  Chicago metropolitan  area.   Studies
   conducted  by the Illinois  State  Water  Survey show conclusively
   that  the State's interior  water  resources,  even when fully
   utilized,  will  be  inadequate, and  increasing dependence must
   be  made on Lake Michigan waters  for water supply.
6                  The  accompanying  map shows by shading the esti-
7  mated geographical  area which will need to be supplied from
8  the lake  in  the year 2000.  (See Map - next page)
Q                  Recreation
y                   ...  .. i	.._.„.. -
10                  Outdoor recreation  is a major leisure time
   activity  and generates an  estimated $20 billion a year
12
13
14
is
16
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20
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23
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25
national market for goods and services.  Water  is a focal
point of outdoor recreation  —  "people want water to  swim  and
fish in, to run their boats  across, to dive under and to ski
over."  In addition to all the water activities which actually
use water, many other activities are directly enhanced by  the
presence of bodies of water.  Such activities include
picnicking, walking and driving for pleasure, as well as all
forms of waterfowl hunting.  Thus, the presence of appropriate
water bodies exerts almost as much influence as access in
determining the adequacy of  recreation resources of metropoli-
tan residents.
               The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Committ-
ee (ORRRC) has speculated that increasing income, leisure time,
mobility and population will result in more participation in
outdoor recreation in the future.   This participation is ex-

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                                                       577
                   The interests of this Illinois Committee
    extends to programs aimed at developing and exploiting one of
    mankind's greatest assets - the waters of our Great Lakes.
                   The lakes provide us, not only with a source of
    water for human and industrial use, but also with a highway of
    commerce, a source of fisheries and magnificent area of
    recreation.  However, there are problems — including the
    control of pollution through human, industrial and shipping
 9   wastes.
10                  We must seek to manage these pollution sources
    in such a way as not to destroy any of the major actual and
12   potential values of the lakes.
13                  Difficulties are ever present and finding
14   solutions to the complex matters that limit our realization
15   of full opportunity from the Great Lakes is our primary task.
16                  Present problems can be resolved by the prepara--
17   tion of short and long-range management plans for future
18   protection and development of the Great Lakes.  These plans,
    however, are going to take an even greater effort than we have
2Q   been making in the past,  a high order of cooperation and all
21   of the collective information and intelligence we can bring
22   to bear on the subject.
23                  Water Supply
24                  Of primary importance to the State of Illinois
25   is the availability of Lake Michigan as a source of water
    supply.   By  the year  2000 it  is  predicted that  some ten  million

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                                                      576
 l                  Chief,  State Geological Survey Division,
 2   Department of Registration and Education.
 3                  Chief Waterway Engineer, Division of Waterways,
 4   Department of Public Works and Buildings.
 5                  The Committee performs four major tasks to
 6   supplement the functions assigned to the respective agencies.
 7                  First, the Committee is charged with advising
 9   the Governor on technical issues affecting maximum beneficial
 9   use of Illinois' water resources.
10                  Second, the Committee determines ways to co-
11   ordlnate water uses and agency activities in the state to
12   achieve maximum beneficial use.
13                  Third, the Governor receives advice on proposed
14   legislation from the Technical Advisory Committee.  Besides
15   reviewing proposals, the Committee may recommend legislation
16   to further conservation and development of the State's water
17   resources.  The Committee gives particular attention to the
18   problems of multiple use and reuse of water, and to the
19   resolution of conflicts.
20                  Finally, the Committee is assisting the Board
21   of Economic Development, the State's planning agency, in the
22   formulation of a statewide water development plan.  The neces-
23   sary studies are under way now.  Each agency is responsible
24   for certain appropriate phases of the work,  and the  Committee
25   will recommend policies and programs for assuring the State's
    water uses of adequate future  supplies.

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                                                   575
                A statement has been prepared by this Technical
 Advisory Committee on Water Resources and it will be presented
 by Dr. T. E. Larson.
      DR. LARSON:  Mr. Chairman, conferees:
                My name is T. E. Larson,  Assistant Chief of the
 Illinois State Water Survey.
                I am reading this for Mr. Ackermann,  who is a
 member of the Illinois Technical Advisory Committee  on Water
 Resources.
                I am pleased to be here today as the  designated
 representative of the Illinois Technical Advisory Committee on
 Water Resources.  This Committee Is a body created by State
 statute in 1963 to coordinate the several and interrelated
 water resources responsibilities of state agencies.   The
 Committee is composed of the following individuals who direct
 the principal water resources agencies of state government:
                Executive Director,  Board of Economic Develop-
 ment, Chairman of Committee.
                Chief, State Water Survey Division, Department
 of Registration and Education.
                Superintendent, Division  of Soil and  Water
 Conservation,  Department of Agriculture.
                Director,  Department  of Conservation.
                Chief, Division of Sanitary Engineering,
Department of Public Health.

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                                                  574
tion between the discharge of a pollutant and an effect, do
we have anything with which to get at it.
               Sometimes getting at these causal connections
is very, very difficult.
               Mr. Beecher pointed out that he suspected
certain types of materials or parts of materials being re-
sponsible for these deaths.  But I think that we should not
delude ourselves that until we are pretty sure that we
ascertain the cause of the destruction.
               Mr. Klassen.
     MR. KLASSEN:  We have one more presentation for the State
of Illinois.
               We have a Governor in the State of Illinois who
has a real interest in water, water pollution.
               When he took office some four  — about four
years ago — while the many state agencies that were Involved
in water questioned an informal working arrangement, it was
through Governor Kerner's efforts that a bill was passed
creating a Technical Advisory Committee on Water Resources.
               This legalized the working relationship that
formerly existed and still does between all of the state
agencies involved in the questions of water.
               The administrative home of this agency is in
the Board of Economic Development, but membership consists of
the various state agencies that have this interest in water.

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                                                      573
 !        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Are there any comments or questions?
 2                  For those of you who are still here, I would
 3   like you to turn your attention to the last two speakers.  I
 4   think it may be wise to take a minute and give you at least
 5   what I believe might conceivably be a limitation of what we caii
 6   do as a result of a conference of this type in enforcement
 7   procedures.
 g                  Now, whatever you may think about the dismal
 9   effect of killing loons or protecting the loons under our law,
10   we are still bound by a nasty little item that we have to
u   show a causal connection between a discharge of wastes and
12   damage.
13                  It very well may be that the proposals we
14   heard from Mr. Gerstein this morning will protect the water
15   supply.  It very well may be that we may come up with something;
16   which will protect the beaches, or maybe these proposals of
17   Mr. Gerstein will be broad enough to do that.
18                  Unless we can ascertain with reasonable cer-
19   tainty, or have a fairly good notion of what causes alewives
20   to die, or loons to die, or geese or ducks to die, we are
21   going to have a pretty hard time controlling that.
22                  The alternative to that is to prevent dls-
23   charges of any wastes,  and as good as we think we are,  I am
24   not sure we can quite do that.   I do think that we have to
25   recognize when,  and only when,  we can find the causal connec-

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                                                   572
Michigan, Wolf Lake and their tributaries - Illinois and
Indiana.  We think the recommended criteria in the above re-
port to be a good set of standards and, therefore, recommend
to the conference that such water quality criteria be accepted
as standards for the water quality at the lower end of Lake
Michigan.
               The basic economics of the possible future
pollution of the lakefront as far north as Edgewater would
certainly affect the property values of the area.  If this
pollution continues, the City of Chicago would certainly lower
tax revenue in the area of Edgewater.
               To be realistic, we in the Edgewater Community
Council are, therefore, committed to the idea that this con-
ference will hopefully come forth with a solution to this
pollution before it becomes more troublesome than it is at
present.
               We wish to thank the United States Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare, Division of Water Supply
and Pollution Control, Region V, Chicago, Illinois, for the
advice given to our Conservation Committee in giving us the
data to read.  It is refreshing to see again the cooperation
from governmental bodies with civic organizations in the
attempt to make this world of ours a better place to live and
work.
               Respectfully submitted.

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3
    wood Avenue, on the north side, Devon Avenue and on the east



    side the Lakefront.



 .                  At the direction of the Executive Board of the
 6


    Edgewater Community Council, I was appointed to come to this



 0   meeting and observe, as well as state the position of the
 8


    Edgewater Community with regards to the pollution at the lower
 a
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                                                     571



    John Kilcullen, Conservation Officer for the Edgewater



    Community Council.  Our boundaries in the City of Chicago are



    on the south side, Poster Avenue, on the west side, Ravens-
end of Lake Michigan.  This community  is  concerned,  as  all



people are, in a quality of water good enough to drink  and



swim in.



               The Council is aware of the problem of metro-



politan planning because it is proposed in the Comprehensive



Policies of the Chicago Plan, to extend the  landfill in the



lake north from Hollywood to the city  limits.



               Our first question, therefore, is:  "if  this



pollution is not corrected at the southern end of Lake  Michi-



gan now, what will the quality of the  water  be at the beaches



in five or ten years?"  The next question we have to ask:



"What authority will establish water quality standards?"



               Using Chapter VIII:  "Effects of Wastes  in



Water Quality and Water Uses" - Water  Quality Criteria  is



described in the report on pollution of the  water of the



Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River, Lake

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                                                       570
    Loren Woods.
                   He doesn't seem to know either.  This is one
 2
    of the mysteries.
 3
                   I would say this,  that, certainly, the Great

    Lakes study of the waters of Lake Michigan should be studied
 O
    by a complete study.  I think money should be provided on a
 6
    grant basis for universities who wish to make studies like tha'
    out of the United States Public Health Service funds, perhaps.
 8
         MR. POSTON:  You also talked about insoluble poisons in
 9
    the bottom of the lake.  Would you care to expand?
10
         DR. BEECHER:  This is actually drawn from Grover Cook's
    findings and I would prefer that you discuss this with him.
12
         MR. POSTON:  Thank you.
13
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Mr. Klassen?
14
         MR. KLASSEN:  The Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs
merely wanted to indicate their interest in the subject.
               Is Mrs. Roman Ford here?  Would she stand up
Just to be recognized?
               Apparently, she is not here.
               The Edgewater Community Council, which is the
north part of the City of Chicago, desires to place in the
record a statement which will be given by Mr. Kilcullen, their
Conservation Officer.
     MR. KILCULLEN:  Conferees from Illinois, Indiana and the
United States Government, ladies and gentlemen:  My name is

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                                                    569
whirlpool first described by Dr.  Edmund Andrews,  once Director
 of the Academy, I think that this is the time to call a halt
 to this sort of thing.
                I don't  think we can be very soft about it,
 either.  I think when the levels of pollution that are
 allowable are set, that they will have to be very stringently
 enforced and to stick with it.  Because the thing that many
 people don't seem to realize today is that we live in a
 biological world.  We are part of this world.
                There are some things you can't do.  People
 keep thinking science can bail us out.
                We do this wrong and that wrong and science
 will save us.
                This is  something that science can't do.  When
 you start fooling around with the drinking water, you are
 taking some awful risks.
                So, I think that will be it.
      CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you Doctor.  Just one moment,
there may be a question.
      MR.  POSTON:   I would like to ask Dr. Beecher what causes
the alewives to die each year?
                I  have noticed,  being a smelt  fisherman,  that
we  seem to  get  more and  more  alewives each year and we get
large numbers and  they die.   I  am unable  —
     DR. BEECHER:   I  am  an ornithologist.   I  say, when we come
to a question like this, I have asked the same question of

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                                                  568



               Much of the Industrial waste lies on the bottom



of Lake Michigan, essentially an insoluble, poisonous mass.



It may be significant that the bird deaths occurred in the



fall at a time when Lake Michigan begins its overturn - when



cooling surface waters sink to mix with lower strata.  Possibl;



the mingling of wastes from the lower strata into the biologic-



al food chain of microorganisms, at this time caused the



deaths of fish and birds.



               As of this date, we do not know what killed



them but it is clear that Lake Michigan must be cleaned up.



We have made a barbarous use of one of the world's outstand-



ing natural resources, poisoned wildlife and threatened



the lives of millions of people.
15   pollution.
               My additional statement is about the amount of
                   Actually, I agree very firmly with Mr. Meserow
and seemed shocked that industry has never made any attempt to



clean up by itself.  Apparently, they have stringent laws to



keep this pollution down.  In fact, the one steel company down



there in Indiana has dumped every day 990 pounds of ammonia



nitrogen into Lake Michigan, 60 pounds of total nitrogen, 250



phenol, 60 pounds of cyanide, 7700 pounds of oil into the lake



every day.  It is rather frightening and shocking.



               Certainly,  one of the reasons why we have this



large blob of poison out in the middle of the lake and the

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                                                       567


                   The introduction of smelt and sea lamprey have


    wiped out the lake trout and most of the burbot, almost wiping


    out the fishing industry as well.  The alewife has displaced
3

    the lake herring and the bloater has increased greatly in


    numbers.  Thus, the so-called "rough-fish", ones having no
5

    market value, have displaced those which formerly supported
6

    the Lake Michigan fishing industry.  Alewlves are cast up in


    huge windrows every summer from Wilmette over to the Michigan
O

    side.  The beach becomes impossible for swimming; the stench
9

    is that of a huge garbage heap.
10



11



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13



14



15



16



17



18



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22



23



24



25
                But  these  are not  the Only changes.   It has


 been  reported  by the  United States Public Health Service that


 the equivalent of raw sewage of approximately 4,500,000 people


 is dumped  into the  Great  Lakes.  Increased nutrients in the


 lake  over  past decades have increased the abundance of algae,


 feeding  on bacteria.   The increase in green algae has been


 reported along beaches of the Indiana and Michigan  shore,  so


 that  it  is impossible to  use the  beach for recreation.  Skin


 divers have encountered clouds of algae miles from  shore.


                The  Increased use  of the lake by aea-going


 vessels  and by pleasure boats may be an element in  this pol-


 lution,  but the industrial waste  from steel mills and other


 industries  in  the Calumet  area of  northern  Indiana  has been


well documented  in the United  States  Public  Health  Service


report of February 1965.

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                                                566




               There the toxicological examinations under Dr.



Carlton Herman of Fish and Wildlife Service were delayed by



immunization of the staff against Type E botulism before a



study could be undertaken.  However, eight months later, it was



clear that botulism could not be accepted as the answer.



Some of the dead birds showed no sign of it in their organs.



Some 80 birds injected with the bacterium showed no signs of



being affected at all.



               Now, more than a year later, we still do not



know what killed these birds.  Insecticides, industrial pol-



lution and poisons of unknown origin are suspect.



               In the fall of 1964 some 5,000 further deaths



were reported at the north end of Lake Michigan between St.



Ignace and the Wisconsin border.  Of these, 3500 were loons,



bringing the total of loon deaths for 1963 and 1964 to about



6500.  Since loons lay only two eggs a season, such a loss



is difficult to make up; in fact, it is estimated that this



wipes out most of the loon population lying north of the Great



Lakes Region.



               These deaths of very hardy species of birds,



living mainly on fish, are alarming in themselves but are



symptomatic of something seriously wrong in Lake Michigan.



Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, Chicago Natural History



Museum, has reported the extensive biological changes that have



taken place in Lake Michigan in the past 35 years.

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                                                     565


 l   1857,  it was known then as the first museum in the west.



                   One of the early directors, in i860, was the
 t»


    first  person to write scientifically about the occurrence of
 3


    life in Lake Michigan.  The paper he wrote for the Academy
 4


    is scarce because the whole supply was burned up in the Chlcag
 O
                   Well, the Academy has grown on from those days



    and has been interested in education of the public as regards
 8


    biology and things of that nature and we very frequently have
 9


    groups of school children and teachers out to study the life



    and stream life of local areas.



                   So, we are interested in pollution.



                   I am going to read the statement, that is the
13


    quickest way to get it out of the way, then I want to make one
14


    additional comment.
15


                   During the second week of November 1963, thou-
16


    sands of gulls, loons and fish-eating ducks were found dead



    and dying on beaches of Lake Michigan from Gary eastward and
18


    up the Michigan shore.  The total estimate was in excess of



    10,000 birds.
20


                   I alerted the United States Fish and Wildlife
21


    Service and the United States Public Health Service, Great
22


    Lakes -Illinois River Basins Project.  Mr.  Grover Cook, biolo-
23


    gist  of the project,  sent  some birds,  I had picked up and



    refrigerated,  on to Laurel,  Maryland,  for  study.
2o

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                                                        564


   The  future  of boating  in this  area  is dependent upon  it.   For



   this compelling reason, the  boating sport  and industry by and



   large have  been,  are,  and  will continue to be self-policing in
3


   the  anti-pollution measures  they follow.  It is  a minor contri-



   bution to the  campaign against water pollution,  we grant  you,
0


   because pollution from recreational boats  is a relatively
6


   minor problem.



                   Thank you,  Mr.  Chairman, for the  opportunity
O


   of taking part  in this conference to express our views.
9
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     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.


               Are there any comments or questions?


               (No response)


               If not, then, Mr. Klassen.


     MR. KLASSEN:  The Chicago Academy of Sciences has a con-


tribution to make, particularly in some of the scientific


aspects of wildlife.


               Dr. Beecher.


     DR. W. J. BEECHER:  Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen:


I am Dr. W. J. Beecher, Director of the Chicago Academy of


Sciences.


               I am also Chairman of the Conservation Council


of Chicago and so, I am also a member of the Open Lands


Project of the Welfare Council of Greater Chicago, and I speak


for the Conservation aspects.


               The Chicago Academy of Sciences was founded in

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                                                       563



                   If there Is a problem Involving pleasure boats,



    it is more likely on small congested lakes that are purely



    state waters, and the problem is of a local or state nature,



    not of Federal magnitude.


                   As the Wisconsin Committee on Water Pollution,
5


    the principal antipollution enforcement agency in Senator



    Nelson's own state, has stated:



                   "Laws and regulations pertaining to sewage
8


         disposal facilities by commercial vessels operating
y


         interstate should be developed and enforced by the



         Federal Government.  In the case of pleasure boats
12



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25
      or boats  operating within the  waters of a single


      state,  the  enactment  of laws and  regulations should


      be a  state  responsibility as should  the enforcement


      of such laws  and  regulations."


               If  Federal  legislation  affecting recreational


boating in this  area is to come nevertheless,  we strongly urge


that  every effort  be made  to assure that  it  is as uniform as


practicable  with state pollution controls so that boatment


traveling  from one body of water to another  within the  bound-


aries of the same  state or across state lines  are not beset


by dual  standards.



               In  closing,  let me emphasize  once  more that


recreational boatmen are acutely aware of the necessity  and


desirability of keeping prime boating water  like  that of the


south end of Lake Michigan and its tributaries pure and clean.

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  I                                                     562




 1                 Although Senator Nelson  is primarily concerned



 2   about pollution on the Great Lakes  and  its harbors  in  his  home



 3   territory, when he talks  about legislation affecting navigable



 4   waters  in general, he infers such legislation  would apply  to



 5   navigable waters  throughout the United  States.  Senator Nelson



 8   proposes to  have  the responsibility for the  enforcement of



 7   anti-pollution laws on all navigable waters  centralized and  to



 8   streamline the enforcement procedure.



 9                 We do not  believe  that pollution from pleasure



!0   boats  is the serious problem which  Senator Nelson insinuates



n   by Joining pleasure craft with commercial  ships and barges and



12   government vessels on the Great Lakes.



13                 The findings of the  Pollution Committee of  the



14   National Association of  State Boating Law Administrators



15   confirm our  belief.  They found pollution from pleasure boats



16   to be  insignificant when compared with  several thousand



17   communities  which still  have inadequate municipal sewage



18   treatment plants  or no facilities at all, and  with the thou-



19   sands  of industries still dumping untreated  wastes into rivers



20   and  lakes.




21                 Furthermore, we find it  hard  to believe that



22   sewage  and garbage disposal from  pleasure boats on waters  as



23   vast and deep as  the Great Lakes  really poses  a problem Justi-



24   fying pollution control  regulation  of pleasure boats on the



25   Great Lakes.

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                                                        561


    tional watercraft contribute substantially to the over-all



    pollution problem,  it is most anxious that a uniform system be
 ft


    made available to those states which now or in the future feel
 3


    the necessity of such laws.
 4


                   As a special member of the Committee, the



    Outboard Boating Club of America has prepared a model law
 6

    dealing with the general subject of pollution from recreation-
 7

    al watercraft.  This model law has been extensively reviewed
 8

    by the Committee and the United States Public Health Service,
 9
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25
 somewhat  modified,  approved,  and now awaits the acceptance of


 the  national body which will  meet in November of this year, (a


 copy Is appended  hereto.)


                In view of  these effective and far-sighted


 efforts being made  to stop pollution from recreational water-


 craft before it begins to  become a problem, we are indeed


 interested  to learn from the  February 9th "Congressional Recorcj"


 of the intent of  Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin to draft


 Federal legislation to attack what he calls one phase of the


 pollution problem on the Great Lakes - the dumping or


 spillage  of human,  galley,  and wash-water waste and garbage


 from vessels.


                The  proposed legislation would require all ships


 and  pleasure  craft  which use  the Great  Lakes and other


navigable waters to be  equipped  with  Federally approved  faci-


lities for the proper treatment  or retention  of sewage and


other wastes.

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                                                        560


    manufacturers interested  In producing marine  chlorinators.


    They,  too,  are conscious  of the need for standards so that
 2

    their  products will be universally acceptable to the various
 3

    state  agencies responsible for approving treatment devices.
 4

                   Recently these manufacturers have taken steps
 O

    to meet and cooperate with recognized testing authorities to
 6

    develop acceptable standards and criteria.  The United States


    Public Health Service is  also involved in this standard-
 8

    setting process.
 9

                   We would like to emphasize that boating law
10

    administrators, too, have jumped into the fight against water


    pollution.   At the 1963 annual meeting of the National
12

    Association of State Boating Law Administrators, the admini-
13

    strators pledged their support to antI-pollution efforts by
14

    Federal and state government.  They will seek to do all within
ID

    their  power to curtail any pollution by recreational water-
is

    craft, but  at the same time, they intend to see that boaters
17

    are not made the scapegoats in particular pollution situations
18

    when the real culprits and real causes are elsewhere.
19

                   The National Association of State Boating Law
20

    Administrators has a Water Pollution Control Committee to
21

    implement its aims and to serve as a liaison with other
22

    agencies and groups likewise concerned with the abatement of
23

    pollution.
24

                   While the  Committee does not feel that recrea-
25

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2
    its model act without charge to people in and out of governmen
3


                   Recognizing the trend in boat pollution regula-



    tions, the Outboard Boating Club of America four years ago



    took positive steps to prepare boat manufacturers for the
6


    installation of required treatment devices.



                   We published a standard in our "Engineering
8


    Manual of Recommended Practices" for minimum space require-
9
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                                                       559


    regulate in this area.  Over the past six years the Outboard



    Boating Club of America has distributed thousands of copies of
ments for marine toilets fitted with chlorinator units.  (See



copy appended)  Boatbuilders are advised to  leave  a recommend-



ed minimum space on craft of size and design reasonably



expected to have toilets so that any owner hereafter required



or wishing to install a sewage treatment device can do so



without encountering structural difficulties.



               At the time we first published our  recommended



standard on this subject, a Joint letter was sent  by the



Outboard Boating Club of America and the National  Association



of Engine and Boat Manufacturers to all known boat-builders



asking that they agree to leave the desired  space.  There was



no dissent.



               Consequently, we believe you will find that



virtually all boat manufacturers now provide adequate space



for sewage treatment devices.



               Today there are an increasing number of

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4
7
                                                    558
                  State registration of watercraft equipped with
   toilets is conditioned upon proof that the toilets are fitted
   with an approved treatment device.  All boats having toilet
   facilities are subject to inspection at any time to see that
   they comply with the law, and those that do not will have the
O
   registration suspended if the equipment violation is not cor-
   rected as soon as practicable.
                  The New Hampshire Act was endorsed by the New
   England Water Pollution Control Commission not long after its
9
   adoption, and started a wave of action in the same direction.
                  Subsequently, the Council of State Governments
   issued, as part of its program of suggested state legislation,
   a model act very similar to the New Hampshire law.  About the
   same time the Outboard Boating Club of America published its
   "Model Act on Sewage Disposal from Boats." (A copy is appended
   to this statement)
                  Both acts recommend the use of marine toilets
   be permitted only with affixation of a treatment facility
   or method authorized by regulation of the state pollution
   control agency.  They also authorize the state boat registering
   agency to refuse to number boats with toilets unless they meet
   the requirements for treatment devices.
                  At the same time,  it is suggested that this
   problem remain exclusively under  state Jurisdiction,  and that
   local units of government be expresslydenied  the right to

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                                                     557
but  is unlikely to prevent  the deposit  of waste materials
when the  occasion demands.
                A number of  devices  are  now  on the market which
treat human wastes before they are  committed to the water.
For  the most part these are chlorinating units of one kind  or
another.   Usually some maceration process  is also involved
prior to  chemical treatment.
                Also  recently developed  are  special devices  to
hold waste materials until  they  can be  disposed of in waters
far  offshore not susceptible to  pollution  or at a special
shoreside facility.
                The availability  of  these marine toilet
appurtenances has given rise to  a second form of  state legis-
lation, which we consider to be  a more  reasonable solution  to
the  boat  pollution problem.
                In 1957 the  state of New Hampshire, after con-
siderable testing of the effectiveness  of marine  chlorinators,
passed an act requiring that every  toilet on any  boat operated
on state  waters be equipped with a  state-approved treatment
device, and prohibiting the discharge of any untreated sewage
into the  water.
                The Act authorizes the state's Water Pollution
Commission  to determine  the adequacy of treatment  devices,  and
any device  used  in a boat on New  Hampshire waters  must be con-
structed and  installed in accordance with regulations of the
Commission.

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                                                   556



River Project Lake - then lug your litter home!"



               On the back side of the bag there is a con-



densed version of the Arizona Boating and Water Sports Laws,



including a provision which prohibits dumping refuse or debris



on the shoreline or waterways of the state.  Cooperation by th<



public is reported to be excellent.  We submit such campaigns



can easily be conducted in other areas to prevent  littering



from recreational users.



               If we may Judge by recent state legislation,



the greatest attention in the area of boat pollution today is



being devoted to regulating the operation of toilet facilities



aboard boats.  There are basically two legislative approaches



to this:



               1.  Require the sealing of all marine heads to



prevent the discharge of any excrement or other human waste



Into the water on the theory that this will eliminate the



possibility of any pollution.



               2.  Require all marine toilets to be equipped



with some device which will either effectively treat waste



material before discharge into the water or provide for its



retention and subsequent disposal some place other than in the



water.



               The first method - sealing - is highy un-



realistic since it defies basic laws of nature.  This approach



is also highly unfair since reasonable alternatives do exist.



A sealed toilet may create problems of convenience and etlquett

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 3   states.



 4                  As a practical matter, however, effective



 c   enforcement of such laws is difficult.  But  the problem
 0


 c   is not insurmountable.  On our public highways where littering
 6


    was formerly a serious problem, it now seems substantially



    remedied by the twin approach of education and enforcement.
 O


    Fines for an offender are often very high, and more important,
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                                                   555


riparian property owners.  This kind of heedless behavior  is



usually prohibited under general  legislation  found in most
the public has been persuaded to  cooperate.  We  are  encouraged



by anti-litter campaigns for our  waterways already initiated


by boating groups alone and in cooperation with  organizations


such as Keep America Beautiful, Inc.


               An example of such anti-litter  campaigns  is


that of the Salt River Project, an irrigation  and water  supply


district in Arizona whose reservoirs provide a great deal of


outdoor recreation and boating for the public.


               The Salt River Project furnishes  plastic  con-


tainers for use by boaters in stowing their trash.   In a year


and a half more than 150,000 of these bags have  been distribut-


ed free of charge in gasoline stations, marine dealerships,


and marinas.



               On the front of the bag is printed, "Don't be



a Litter Bug.  Use this Litter-Lugger.  Put your empty cans,



bottles and trash in this bag while having fun at the Salt

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                                                     554
   waters  along the southern  shore and  In Calumet region  streams
   indicates  that  pollution from pleasure craft  is  infinitesimal
3  compared with pollution from industrial  and municipal  sewage
   sources and that contributed by 11,000 trips  of  large  cargo
   vessels In these waters annually.
O
                   If  pollution  from recreational watercraft were
6
   completely controlled,  we  do not think it  would  make any
   significant difference  in  the pollution  problem in general.
8
   Nevertheless, we are eager to do everything possible to
y
   eliminate  recreational  boating as  a possible  source of water
   pollution  however  insignificant.
12

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               Potentially problems of pollution from recrea-
tional watercraft are likely to be most acute within areas of
large concentrations of boats, such as marina, where there is
perhaps less dilution effect due to limited current flow and
other factors.
               Obviously, an important and effective deterrent
to pollution in shoreside areas of heavy boat concentration Is
the provision for adequate sanitary and trash disposal faci-
lities.  Thus, marina operators, both public and private, shou
be encouraged to place rest rooms and trash disposals convenien
to docks and launching area.
               Another aspect of the situation is the deposit
of rubbish and garbage overboard, particularly In areas where,
when washed ashore,  it will prove a nuisance to littoral and

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                                                       553

                   Ironically,  we have heard it said that the


    tremendous interest in the use of inland waterways for boating,
 2

    fishing, and other recreational pursuits is responsible for


    part of the water pollution problem.  If recreational water-


    craft do contribute to pollution, we submit it is very


    negligible compared to municipalities who Inadequately treat
 6

    or fall to treat their sewage at all before discharging it
 7

    Into the water, and industries which likewise fail to properly
 8

    treat their waste products before dumping them.  Let's not
 9

    overlook the detergent and pesticide problems either.
10


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               At the  annual meeting  of  the  National  Associa-


tion of State Boating  Law Administrators,  held  November  18-20,


1963 in Oklahoma City,  a Committee was appointed  to report  on


the nature and extent  of pollution of the  waters  of the  United


States by recreational  watercraft and to make recommendations


relative thereto.


               The Pollution Study Committee with Mr. Keith


Wilson, Director, Michigan State Waterways Commission, as


Chairman completed its  study and reported  at the  1964 NASBLA


meeting in November at  Portland, Oregon.   The study Committee


concluded that "Pollution of waters attributable  to recreation-


al watercraft is of a most insignificant nature."  A copy of


the Study Committee Report is attached to  this  statement.


               More recently, the United States Public Health


Service Report of February 1965, on pollution of Lake Michigan

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                                                   552



Calumet Kiver are used for recreational boating, but are



hardly ideal with floating debris, oil, and sewage conditions



prevailing generally.  But what else is there for boaters to



use in the area except polluted waters?



               That these waters are a health hazard, that



fishing is bad to non-existent, that swimming and other boat-



oriented recreation are less than pleasant in many areas is we]



known.  The water may be "gritty", oily, or variously hued,



depending upon the type of pollution where the  boater is try-



Ing to enjoy himself along the south shore of Lake Michigan.



               In recent years the growth of pleasure boating



has been at a phenomenal rate.  Pleasure boating is called



"the Nation's fastest growing family sport".  Marinas, mooring



facilities, launching ramps and docking areas are unable to



keep up with the booming popularity of pleasure boating and



related sports.



               The State of Illinois alone expects to spend



over $5 million in the next ten years on boating facilities,



much of it in the Lake-Cook County area.  Many  cities along



the south shore of Lake Michigan are building and planning



public marinas and launching facilities, not to mention private
developments.
               Clearly there will be many more people looking
to the waters of the area for recreation in the future.  Clearly



too, the waters will not provide this recreation if current



pollution practices are allowed to continue.

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                                                    551
 1   from, coast to coast.  Fifty-eight of our clubs are in Indiana
 2   and Illinois, and twelve in the immediate area under consldera
 3   tion.
 4                  Naturally we are more than interested in the
 5   subject of water pollution and abatement along the south
 6   shore of Lake Michigan.  There is a tremendous investment in
 7   dollars and pleasure at stake here.  The Chicago-Gary metro-
 8   politan area is the second largest market in the country for
 g   outboard motors.  We estimate there are at least 21^,000
10   outboard motors in use in this area alone.
n                  When we speak of recreational boating, we are
12   talking not only of cruising, but of fishing, swimming, water
13   skiing, skin diving and other related recreations involving
14   the use of boats.  We are talking about the leisure activities
15   of hundreds of thousands of persons on and about the waters at
16   the southern end of Lake Michigan.
17                  How do all these people find the waters at the
18   south end of Lake Michigan?  In many cases, not very good...
ig   and getting worse.
20                  It does not take a scientist to ascertain that
21   streams in the Calumet area are polluted with raw sewage...
22   only a deep breath.  Waters of the Grand Calumet River and
23   Indiana Harbor area are so unfit for recreational boating that
24   they are not used.
25                  The Calumet River and parts of the  Little

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                                                 550




               Any comments or questions?



               (No response)



               Mr. Klassen?



     MR. KLASSEN:  One of the organizations that is vastly



getting many new members and certainly equipment is the



Outdoor Boating Club of America, which has its headquarters



in Chicago, and a statement from that organization will be



made by Mr. Ron Stone.



     MR. STONE:  Mr. Chairman, Fellow Conference Participants,



Ladies and Gentlemen, my name is Ron stone.  I am the Director



of the Government Relations Department of the Outboard Boating



Club of America, headquartered in Chicago.



               We are a National trade association represent-



ing 208 manufacturers in the recreational boating industry,



28 of them in the two states that are the participants in this



conference.



               Our Illinois and Indiana-based member manu-



facturers enjoy a multi-million dollar share of the boating



market.  Their products are top brands in outboard motors,



outboard and inboard boats, sailboats, houseboats, boat



trailers and marine accessories.



               The Outboard Boating Club of America speaks for



the people who buy pleasure boating equipment as well as the



people who manufacture and sell it.  Over 350 boating clubs,



boasting 40,000 individual members are affiliated with us

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                                                      549-A



         MR.  FANNING:   Mr.  Chairman,  conferees,  ladies and
    gentlemen:
                   I am Art Panning,  President of the Illinois
    Division of the Izaak Walton League of America.



                   We, the members of the Illinois Division of the



    Izaak Walton League of America, state to the conference the



    policies of the Izaak Walton League of America and the result



    of over 43 years of thinking and work on the part of members,



    chapters, divisions and international organizations of the



    League.



                   The Izaak Walton League was founded right here



    in Chicago, Illinois, on January 14, 1922.



                   We welcome this conference on water pollution,



    called by Mr. Anthony J. Celebrezze, Secretary of Health,



    Education, and Welfare.



16                  We know that the states Involved, Illinois and



    Indiana, have been unable or unwilling to stop this pollution.



    We are interested in clean waters.



                   We have present at this conference, the Chair-



    man of our Clean Waters Committee, Walt Sherry, also Joe



    Chantlgney.  These Chairmen, along with the Committee members,



    will be glad to inform the members of all the problems of



    pollution in the Grand Calumet and Little Calumet  and their



    tributaries.

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 4 „ the ability, ingenuity,  energy and wealth to abate pollution

 e ,, by all means possible.  Certainly it is fully as important to
 5 I
 g « devise new types of sewage treatment plants which have an

 7 || efficiency rating approaching the 100 percent level as it is
   I
 0 „ to land a man on the moon!!
 8 I
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                                                 549

in his opinion it was much more desirable to abate pollution

rather than to flush the polluted waters one place or another.

               The League believes the American people possess
made  of knowledge presently  available  in  order  to achieve  a

higher degree  of pollution abatement.

               The Izaak Walton League of America is honored

be  able to  appear before you and  it  calls upon  you to  take

Immediate steps to rectify the various sources  of water  pollution
141
    mentioned above as well as a multitude of others much too
151
    lengthy to be included herein.
16  |
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you,  Mr. Riaski.
17  I
                   Are there any comments or questions?
18  I
                   (No response)
               Mr. Klassen.


     MR. KLASSEN:  One of the affiliated groups of the Izaak

Walton League is the Illinois Division of the League and  its

President, Art Fanning, wants to present a statement.  I

wouldn't say wants to, we invited him to, as to the position

of the Illinois Division.

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                                                      548



    disagreeable taste and perhaps is even a bit discolored.  This



    also applies to the water in the pipes in their homes if the



    water comes from Lake Michigan.



                   There is little doubt the most important sub-



    ject in connection with this conference is the health of the



    vast number of people who daily drink and wash in such waters,



    as those under consideration.



 _                  The Izaak Walton League of America feels it is
 O


    extremely important that these waters be given far more pro-
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   tection for this purpose alone.  However,  there  are many



   additional benefits to be gained from clear water  for  indus-



   trial, recreational and other uses.



                   It  is definitely time  all concerned exert  a



   major effort to restore these waters  to a  high degree  of



   purity for the  benefits which it will return  in  the health,



   welfare and economic well-being of every one.



                   Colonel Mattina in answering a question yester-



   day following his  presentation for the United States Corps of



   Engineers, made a  statement of considerable importance, and th



   full significance  of which may be overlooked.



                   There had been some discussion about the pos-



   sible location  of  a proposed dam to be built on the Grand



   Calumet River designed to control its direction of flow.  When



   questioned about his thoughts as to exactly where the dam



   should be built, Colonel Mattina responded to the effect that,

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                                                    547
               The Inland Steel Company and the Youngstown
Sheet and Tube Company of East Chicago; and the United States
Steel Corporation of Gary are polluting the Indiana harbor
Canal - Grand Calumet River system and Lake Michigan as are
the Cities Service Petroleum Company, Sinclair Refinery
Company and Mobil Oil Company in East Chicago.
               Wastes are being discharged directly into Lake
Michigan by the American Oil Company and Union Carbide
Chemicals Company, both of Whiting; the American Maize Pro-
ducts Company of Hammond and the United States Steel Corporati n
of Chicago.  Other important industries in the area also
contribute to the water pollution problem in various degrees.
               Currents in Lake Michigan are of considerable
importance for their presence at some periods and their
absence at others, the direction of the currents and their
speed all enter into the picture.
               It is worthy to note to those present today who
live in the areas under discussion that this conference is
being held in the Banquet Room of this building.
               One is tempted to speculate on the number of
folks who have gathered here who have drunk water taken from
Lake Michigan.  In spite of the fact some health authorities
claim no real danger exists after such water is properly treat-
ed with chlorine and other chemicals in a modern water supply
system,  one cannot help but wonder why it often has a rather

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                                                   546
                East  Chicago,  Gary,  Hammond and Whiting (all in
 Indiana)  have combined sewer  systems which sometime overflow
 into the  Indiana Harbor Canal - Grand Calumet River system and
 thence into Lake Michigan.
                Chesterton, East Gary, Griffith, Hobart, Porter
 and Valparaiso have  combined  sewer systems which sometimes
 overflow  into the Little Calumet River - Burns Ditch system
 and into  Lake Michigan.
                Whiting, Indiana, also has a combined sewer
 overflow  which discharges directly into Lake Michigan.
                Pleasure boats and commercial vessels contri-
 bute to the pollution of Lake Michigan.  In fact, these can
 be particularly dangerous sources of health hazardous pollu-
 tion because of their unique  ability to discharge such wastes
 in close  proximity to the water intakes of the cities of
 Chicago,  East Chicago,,Gary and Hammond.
                The list of industries which are polluting the
 waters under consideration is resplendent with the names of
 some of America's most prosperous businesses.  Of late, the
 executive officers of most of these businesses have been
 furnishing their stockholders and the public with glowing
 accounts  of their prosperity  during the past year.   It is
 usually not  the  lack  of sufficient  capital which prevents them
 from installing  adequate  sewage  traatment  systems but  rather
their general disregard for the  problems raised by water
pollution.

-------
 !   the nose but in many cases the condition of the waters actuallj
 2   presents health hazards.
 3                  The entire problem of water pollution in the
 4   area is" greatly affected by the fact that much of the water
 5   involved is only slightly higher than the levels of water in
 6   Lake Michigan.
 7                  Several of the streams concerned have a very
 8   low rate of flow for this reason and, at times, appear to be
 9   almost stationary.  The presence of many combined sewerage
10   systems which carry both human and industrial wastes as well
n   as that from storm sewers adds to the complexity of the
12   problem.
13                  In times of rapid runoff during and following
14   heavy rainstorms, it is not unusual for such sewers to bypass
15   into the streams because the sewage ticatment plants simply
16   cannot accommodate the huge flows of water involved.
17                  Griffith, Hammond, Highland, Munster and
lg   Scherervllle (all in Indiana) have combined sewer systems and
J9   sewage treatment plants which empty into the Calumet River and
2Q   some times produce such overflows into it that these go into
21   Lake Michigan during periods of reversal of flow.
22                  The same holds true for Burnham, Calumet City,
23   Chicago (Calumet Treatment Plant), Dolton,  Lansing,  Phoenix,
24   Posen,  Riverdale,  and South Holland (all in Illinois)  which
25   also have combined sewers which sometimes overflow into the
    Calumet River  and  into Lake Michigan.

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 1
 2
 3
 4  interest in clean waters and a statement from the League will
 5
 c        MR. RIASKI:  Mr. Chairman, conferees, ladies and gentle-
 D


 7   men:



                   I am William A. Rlaski, Executive Director of
 8


    the Izaak Walton League of America, the National Headquarters
 y
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                                                       544


                   The National Izaak Walton League has their
    headquarters here in Chicago.
                   They have been long noted for their active
    be presented by the Executive Director, Mr. Rlaski.
 of which is located in Glenview,  Illinois.  The League is a



 Nationwide organization of citizens dedicated to the wise and



 proper use of America's natural resources.



                It may be of some interest to you to know that



 the League, at the behest of President Hoover, in 1927, con-



 ducted the first nationwide survey of water pollution in the



 United states.  Mr. Hoover at the time was Secretary of



 Commerce and the Honorary President of the League.  The League



 was then but five years old but throughout its life, it has



 had an active and intensive interest in water pollution


 abatement.



                The increasing pollution of the waters of the



 Grand  Calumet River,  Little Calumet River,  Calumet River,



Wolf Lake  and the  southern  end  of Lake Michigan constitutes



a very ^-ave problem.  There  is little doubt that  in some of



the areas  involved it is not  only disagreeable to the eye and

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                                                    543


                  We  urge  you  not  to consider —


         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  May we  have your first name,  please,
2

    Mrs.  Anderson?  I  guess you are not the only Mrs.  Anderson
3

    in Chicago.


         MRS.  ANDERSON:   Mrs. Daniel C. Anderson
O

                   (Laughter)
6

                   Joan.
7

                   We  urge  you  not  to consider this brief
O

    statement  a measure of  the  deep interest the League of Women
9

    Voters has maintained for many  years in the conservation of
10



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IS



16


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25
our water resources.


               Of our 76 local Leagues in Illinois, in urban,


suburban and rural communities, about 45 are in the Chicago


Metropolitan area.


               Although the League of Women Voters of Illinois


has a long-standing interest in water pollution control and


abatement, we are attending this conference as most interested


observers and will not be presenting a detailed statement.


               We feel our best  contribution to the success of


this conference will be to create in our communities public


understanding and awareness of the problems discussed here.


               Thank you.


     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you,  Mrs. Anderson.  Mr. Klassen.


     MR. KLASSEN:  I might say off the record.


               (Discussion off the record)

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1
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    effort  to recess again at  4:30.
6
                   (A ten minute recess was taken.)
 5
                   We stand recessed for ten minutes.
7
8
g                  Mr.  Klassen?
         MR.  KLASSEN:   Sometimes the men think that they are

    Y1OOY%/
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                                                     542
                   (No response)
                   If not,  we will stand recessed for ten minutes
    and I ask everyone, including the conferees, to come back
    promptly because if you do, we are going to make a valiant
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:   May we reconvene.
10
    responsible and run things,  but I think most of the time'
    we are Just kidding ourselves because in Illinois, for example,
    our water pollution law — the first one was introduced by a
    woman and she said there is no reason why a housewife shouldn't
    be interested in water pollution because, after all, it is
    merely a question of municipal or industrial housekeeping.
                   This is why we always welcome the participation
    of a ladies1  organization In this fight for clean streams.
                   We are going to depart very slightly from the
    agenda today and have a very brief statement from the League
    of Women Voters of Illinois,  by Mrs. Anderson,  who is the
    State Water Resources Chairman.
                   Mrs.  Anderson.
         MRS.  ANDERSON:   Mr.  Chairman,  conferees, ladies and
    gentlemen:

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                                                   541
               Too frequently they fail to provide competent
waste works operation, fall to adequately compensate a good
operator for his services, fall to give financial support to
waste and disposal facilities.
               Many industries which have contributed so much
to our economy research, product and employment react slowly
in meeting their water pollution abatement obligations to the
general public.
               Keeping pollution, natural wastes out of our
waters may mean increased cost of product ultimately borne by
the consumer.  Only when industry as a group observes its
margin of competition will the individual enterprise devote
its energies to clean waters.
               Mr. Chairman, the Illinois Federation of
Sportsmen's Clubs is pleased to have the opportunity to express
its views and anxieties.
12
13
14
15
16
                   The cooperation between our organization, the
    Illinois Sanitary Water Board, the Clean Streams Committees anc
    other agencies has been most productive.
                   We sincerely hope that this conference will
    result in constructive actions aimed to restore and preserve
    our streams and lakes for the beneficial use of people and I
    thank you.
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Thank you,  Mr.  Extrom.
                   Are there any questions or comments?

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 1
 2   cannot be maintained in a condition suitable for every con-
 3   ceivable use and, therefore, alternate recreational areas must
 4   be built.
                   Surely, there is a grain of truth in these
 5
 6
 7
 8
    seek some other less acceptable form of relaxation closer to
 y
    home.
                   We are concerned with the long term degrading
12

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22

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24

25
                   They argue in substance that the surface waters
 assertations,  but  the  family,  the men,  the  women  or the  child
 who  has to  travel  extreme  distances  to  avoid  a polluted
 stream and  reach a suitable  place of recreation will often
 effect  of many wastes  on  our  waters, wastes  solids blanket
 the bottom  of  the  streams,  chemicals of many varieties  inhibit
 or snuff out the organisms  upon which higher forms of aquatic
 plant life  and animal  life  depend.
                Even when  chronic discharges  of wastes to
 streams are eliminated, accidental  losses  of materials  are
 frequent enough to label  them careless losses.  Waste dis-
 charges, even  though accidental, have the  same effect on the
 stream  as purposeful discharges.
                Recovery of  streams  from fish kills and
 desecration of aquatic life may require years of reestablish-
ment and acceptable balance of aquatic environment.  Many
municipal officials who so honestly desire to develop their
community often fall short in planning for waste treatment.

-------
                                                      539


   big business  in which millions  of people  participate  and on



   which billions of dollars are spent annually.   Proportionately,
ft


   the sportsmen of  Illinois participate and spend in an effort
3


   to gain a beneficial effect of  the  great  outdoors.



                   Although we realize  that our expanding economy



_  makes it possible for the sportsman to earn a living and the
D


   time to enjoy his avocation, it does not  seem necessary to



0   sacrifice our natural water resources on the altar of progress,
8


                   Streams  and lakes are regarded as public
9
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property and they should be kept fit for human uses and


enjoyment.



               Yet, some waters are barely acceptable to the


aesthetic senses and some may be labeled as disgusting


spectacles.



               Proper waste disposal by municipalities and


industries has an economic value in supporting aquatic life


and in making available land for forest preserves, picnic


areas and other outdoor uses.


               Heavily polluted streams not only are offensive


to the senses, they also impose a hazard to the health of


those coming in contact with these waters.



               There are those who contend that the public


must be satisfied with minimum acceptable water qualities in


streams and lakes if our industrial and urban way of life is to


progress.

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                                                     538


 l   accelerated clean streams program.


                   They are doing a wonderful Job.


         MR.  CHANTIGNEY:  Mr. Chesrow,  I would like to compliment
 3

    you and Mr. Bacon.  In our last meeting, I asked that one
 4

    portion of Calumet be cleaned.  This was on a Tuesday evening
 5

    and your people were over there Thursday morning and I don't
 6

    know how fast is fast, but this is fast.
 7

                   Thank you.
 8

                   (Laughter)
 9

         MR.  CHANTIGNEY:  I will leave all this stuff.
10

         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you very much.


         MR.  KLASSEN:  Thank you, Joe.
12

                   I don't know how many members there are in the
13

    Illinois Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs.  The last count I
14

    had was some 16,000.  The Executive Secretary of the Illinois
15

    Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs wants to put a statement into
16

    the record here.  Mr. Ace Extrom.
17

         MR.  EXTROM:  Mr. Chairman, conferees:
18

                   I am Ace Extrom, Executive Secretary of the
19

    Illinois Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs, which organization
20

    has as its objective the encouragement of intelligent manage-
21

    ment of the life sustaining forests and plant life and wild-
22

    life in order that these resources may be wisely used and
23

    preserved for future generations.
24

                   Hunting,  fishing and outdoor  recreation is a
25

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                                                    537
   the average American citizen drinks, because the chemical
   treatment often required to kill the bacteria is sufficiently
   toxic to kill any fish that might be put into it.  Pishing at
   the south end of Lake Michigan has been poor for years.
,                  "Mr. Chairman, our membership asks that you
0
   carefully review this and all other statements made at this
   hearing by persons who are not financially interested in the
   outcome of this hearing and let Justice decide the verdict.
   The elimination of pollution is a social cost of doing business
   in this country and those industries, which through one method
   or another avoid this expenditure, certainly have a decided
   advantage over their competitors that do obey the law.
                  "Thank you for permitting me to present this
   statement for the record.
                  "Signed John T. Kelly, Newsletter Editor and
   Director."
        MR. CHANTIGNEY:  I believe this Hearing will be recorded
   in history as being responsible for a modern miracle, turning
   the dirty water of the present into clean water of the future.
                  I thank you for the opportunity granted to
   testify here today.
        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  All right,  Colonel Chesrow.
        MR. CHESROW:   I would like to take this opportunity to
   thank Mr.  Chantigney and his committee for the outstanding
   cooperation they have given to us,  the Sanitary District in our

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 1
                   "Exhibit #11:  Editorial which appeared in the



    Chicago Daily Calumet, dated August 15, 1963.  Titled OIL,



    GREASE PREVENT USE OF AREA BEACH.  Article stated swimmers and



    waders could not use Calumet Park because of heavy oil or tar



    in the water.
 o


                   "Exhibit #12:  Editorial which appeared in the



    Chicago Daily Calumet, dated August 17, 1963 titled CLOSE
 8


    CALUMET PARK BEACH.  In this article editor pointed out water
 y
10



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25
                                                       536


    Harvester Company,     the Interlake Iron Company.
 was too dirty to swim in.   Demanded Investigation by United



 States Public Health Service.


                "Exhibit #13:   Editorial from the Chicago


 Daily Calumet, titled WATER POLLUTION dated August 24, 1964.


 The writer states that 'The water in Lake Michigan at Calumet



 Park contains oil, grease,  slag,  and other debris.  Dead


 fish line the shore each morning.  The writer points out that


 there is a Federal injunction against dumping waste into the


 lake but it is not being enforced.  A second news article on


 this exhibit, titled CANCEL BEACH CHECK,  appeared in the


 Chicago Dally Calumet on August  27,  1963,  in which the writer


 reports that under Public Law 660 the United States Public


 Health Service will not make  an  investigation unless requested



 to  do so by the Governors of  each state.



                "As  a  sportsman I  must point  out that  fish of



desirable game  species frequently will not live in water which

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                                                535



               "Exhibit #7:  A letter to John T. Kelly from



Mr. Albert H. Stevenson, Sanitary Engineer, United States


Public Health Service, dated October 28, 19^8.  Excerpt:


'Swimming is not recommended in Lake Michigan at Calumet Park,



etc.1


               "Exhibit #8:  A letter to John T. Kelly from


Mr. D. W. Evans, Regional Engineer, United States Department


of Health, Education, and Welfare, dated December 28, 1955.


Excerpt:  'The Public Health Service will take such practical


measures within its available resources to ascertain the


source of the November 22 oil pollution and to prevent similar


occurrences In the future.'


               "Exhibit #9:  A letter to Mr. Lewis L. Birdsall,


Cook County Clean Streams Committee from Mr. L. A. Beaudin,


Chief, United States Army Engineers in Chicago, dated August


30, 1961.  Excerpt: 'Popcorn slag on the water, at Calumet


Park is believed to come from the United States Steel plant in
    South  Chicago.'
18
               "Exhibit #10:  News article taken from the


Chicago Dally Calumet, dated July 2, 1963, titled SETTLE IN


RIVER DUMPING, reporting the Federal law suit  against three


local steel mills in South Chicago was settled and that they


paid $600,000.00 damages for pollution of the Calumet River


which leads into Lake Michigan.  These companies were:   The
„ Republic Steel Mill, the Wisconsin Steel Mill, the Internationa
   II

-------
 1
 2
                                                    534
    into Wolf  Lake  but  state  it  is  "treated"  and  not harmful.
                   "Exhibit #5:   A  letter to  John T. Kelly from
    Mr. Peter  Witham, Deputy  Attorney General,  State of Indiana,
    dated  June 4,  1962.  Excerpt: 'the hearing  officer, Mr. Anson
    S. Thomas, Chairman of the Indiana Stream Pollution Control
    Board,  has entered  a "finding of fact against Lever Brothers"
    and that Lever  Brothers were exercising their rights under
    the statute and taking an appeal to be heard  by the membership
g   of the entire  Board.1  We have  been unable  to learn the
    results of this second hearing  although we  have made many
10
n
    time.
23
24
25
    requests for this information which we were promised at that
12
                   "Exhibits 6 through 13 pertain to pollution
    of Lake Michigan.
                   "Exhibit  #6:   A news article which appeared in
    the Chicago Daily  News on July 30,  1948,  written by Austin
    Boyle,  in which he stated that Attorney General Barrett  of
    Illinois,  reported that  Indiana authorities would be in  com-
    pliance with an order  of the  United States  Supreme Court,
    within  a year,  which would halt pollution of the southern  end
    of take Michigan.
                   "The story also stated  that  three beaches,
    Calumet  Park  in  Chicago,  the  City Beach in  Whiting,  Indiana,
    and the  City  Beach in Hammond,  Indiana, were  closed  because
   of pollution  in Lake Michigan.

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                                                      533


                   "Exhibit  #1.   A  letter  to  John T.  Kelly from



    Mr.  B.  A.  Poole,  Technical Secretary,  Stream Pollution Control



    Board of Indiana, dated  September 19,  19^7.  Excerpt:  'It is
O


    acknowledged that the waste from Lever Brothers going into the



    lake is large in volume  and contains sludge deposits,  etc.'



.                  "Exhibit  #2.  Another letter to John T. Kelly
6


7   from Mr. B. A. Poole, dated November 14,  1951.  Excerpt: 'Leve]



    Brothers has done some construction work in their plant which
8


    is expected to reduce the pollution load going into Wolf Lake1
y


                   "Exhibit  #3.  A letter to John T. Kelly from



u   Mr.  Oyler, Plant Manager of Lever Brothers in Hammond, Indiana
12




13




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25
Excerpt:  'Lever Brothers places 10,000,000 gallons  of water  a



day, Monday through Friday, and 2,000,000 gallons of water on



Saturday  and Sunday into Wolf Lake.1  He reports this water



is  'treated'.



               "Exhibit #4.  Two newspaper articles on  a



single sheet of paper.  Article #1, titled WOLF LAKE HEARING



UNDER WAY, was taken from the Hammond Times, dated  January 31,



1962, and reports residents of that state were in attendance



at  a public hearing being held by the Indiana stream Pollution



Control Board in Indianapolis, where they were protesting odors



and unsightly wastes in Wolf Lake.



               "Article #2, titled LEVER BROTHERS DENY LAKE



POLLUTION was published in the Southeast Economist,  February 8,



1962,  in which the company officials admit  discharging water

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 1
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 3   users of these waters.
 4
 5
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 7
 8                  "it is our belief that these waters are still
 9
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                                                 532
resources,  to work for  improvement  in  the lakes  and  rivers  of
Illinois,  and to provide  better fishing and hunting for the
                "The  membership of the Southeast  Sportsmen's
 Club  has been active for the past 18 years in reporting
 pollution of Lake  Michigan and Wolf Lake to various govern-
 mental agencies.
 polluted.   To support  this belief we offer a number of exhibits;
 indicating pollution over a period of the last 18 years.  Thest
 exhibits,  briefly summarized are:  replies received to letters
 seeking information and making complaints about apparent
 pollution  conditions in these bodies of water, some being
 news  stories, the others editorials by the editors.
                "it is  our belief that, due to the interstate
 movement of the pollution in these bodies of water, that the
 laws  of Illinois and Indiana have proven Ineffective,  or this
 condition  would not exist,  therefore,  we ask immediate positive
 action  by  the Federal  Government.
                "Exhibits summarized below,  numbers 1 through
 5, pertain to Wolf Lake in  Illinois and Indiana.   This pol-
 lution  enters the Wolf Lake from the Lever  Brothers plant  in
Hammond, Indiana,  and  flows into Wolf  Lake  in  Indiana  and  then
into Wolf  Lake  in  Illinois, the  bodies  of water being  divided
by an imaginary line through the  center of this lake.

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17
                                                   531



                   This concludes the report  on the film.   Thank





 2



 3        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.




 4                  Are there any comments or  questions?




         MR. CHANTIGNEY:  Thank you,  Mr. Magon.




 6                  Mr. Stein, I would like to also present one




 7   more statement from a member of my Committee who won't be able




 0   to read it, but we would like to present  this as a statement
 o



    for the record.
 y



1Q        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Without an objection, that  will be




    included.




 2        MR. CHANTIGNEY:  A statement from Mr. John Kelly, thank




    you very much.




         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Pass that among the conferees.




..        MR. CHANTIGNEY:  Yes.
Id



1C                  "My name is John T. Kelly.  My address is
lb
    9037 Kingston Avenue, Chicago, Illinois.  I represent the
10   Southeast Chapter of the Illinois Federation of Sportsmen's
io



    Clubs.  We are a not-for-profit corporation operating under




„   the laws of the State of Illinois.
Zu



21                  "The Southeast Sportsmen's Club was organized




22   over 25 years ago, and now has a membership of 370 persons




    residing in Cook County, Illinois, and Lake County,  Indiana.




    The purpose of our organization is:   to work for the conserva-
tA



    tion and  the  restoration of our wildlife  and natural

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                                                      530
 charge ran out into the river.
                Now, here is something taken at Swift Ferti-
 lizer.
                This is an ammonia caldron in my estimation.



                The discharge is approximately 100 yards to the



 south, right here into the Grand Calumet River.



                To the left is a dike which is supposed to hold



 all of this pollution back, which was wide open.



                Two months previous to this film, we looked at



 the dike there and there was a red colored water in there and



 it is all drained out now.



                There is another discharge close to this



 ammonia, which when mixed with it, turned a milky white as you



 see right here.



                And the next shot will show you where the other



 discharge was coming from.



                It is kind of hidden by weeds, a milky white



 color it turned to.



                That flows into the Grand Calumet River.



                This is another picture of the dike which is



 empty, the settling basin.



                It was kind of gloomy and drizzling.  We took



 this  picture  here in the  afternoon.



               Here  is a picture of the  hidden discharge which



mixed with the ammonia turned white, hidden in the middle of



their weeds.

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2
                                                    529




   that you see in the background, appearing between Calumet




   Beach and Mutchins Beach.
3                 The Coast Guard lookout tower and here we are



   approaching the Coast Guard Harbor.



                  Here is a mallard duck which you have seen in



    the Calumet Harbor, which you don't see in any Indiana



7  Harbor at all.



                  Here we are taking off all of our equipment



   which we brought with us.



                  There is the gangplank being thrown over to



   the Coast Guard Cutter.



                  Here is a shot of the Coast Guard Commander,



   Mr. Caffey.
 9




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                  Mr. Chantigney is on the  left  and  thanking him



   for the cooperation his Coast Guard rendered  us.



                  Here is a shot of the Republic Steel  in South
17  Chicago.
                  There is a dark liquid you  see coming  out  of



   the outfalls.  An hour and a half before this picture was taken



   we stood on top of the outfall and we could  see the visible



   discharge of rainbow colors of oil coming  into the river.



                  It formed a pocket on the west side of the river



    nd this is what developed from it — a heavy oil slick.  The



   jurrent was moving to the right real slow.



                  There  was  a northeast wind and the outflow dis-

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 1
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                                                    528



                  The gentleman in the background was Mr. A,




   Brantizsky, from the Cook County Department of Public Health.



                  This is a picture of myself.  It was kind of



.   cold out there that day, so I took my hunting Jacket along.
4


                  This is the mast of the Coast Guard cutter.
5


                  That is Mr. Tullis, again.
b


                  This is a shot of Lever Brothers, taken from



   Lake Michigan.
O


                  Here we made a chemical analysis of the water
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   and also one for bacteria.



                  This is Mr. Brantizsky from the Cook County



   Department of Health, taking an analysis of the water.



                  (Laughter)



                  Well, he made it.



                  Here is Mr. Traficano checking for a bacteria



   test.  He got his dip stick in there, bringing up the plastic



   bottle.



                  Here we are under way again for Calumet Harbor



   Coast Guard Station.



                  That is the back of the Jacket of Mr. Tullis



   of the Coast Guard.



                  (Laughter)



                  This is another shot of the Coast Guard Engi-



   neer aboard.



                  Here again we are back at  the Calumet Beach,

-------
1
                  The  next  shot  you  will  see  is an oil slick
&


    which is approximately 25 to  30 feet wide  and extends the full



    length of the  ship.



                  There is  another oil slick  and that extends



c   the  full length  of  the ship.
6


                  Here is a view looking  back at the canal harbor,



    and  we are under way to  take  a test grab,  a little bit west of
8


    the  mouth of the river or the harbor channel.
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24



25
                                                      527
   is  also present  in  the Harbor.
               This is  Just outside of the harbor breakwater


and a little bit to the west of  it.


               Here the water  is a little bit  cleaner.


               That is  Mr. Traficano.  He is taking  another


test sample.



               That is  our Chairman, Mr. Chantigney,  capping


the bottle.



               Here we  are leaving Indiana Harbor and in the


background you see the  steam water of the oil  industry which


are in East Chicago.


               Prom here we are  under way to take a  test



sample of the Lever Brothers Company In the northern part of



Indiana in Lake Michigan.


               That is  Mr. Norman Patch, photographer,  on the



left.



               This is Mr. Dick  Phenol.  He is the State



Director of the Izaak Walton League.

-------
 1

    analysis.
                                                      526

                   Here we are taking another test grab for
 2

                   That is Mr. Traflcano, co-chairman.
 3

                   Here you see another shot of oil on the surface.
 4

                   That was one of the photographers from a
 0

    newspaper.
 6

                   This is the west side of the channel looking
 7

    toward the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company and here is
 8

    another one toward Inland Steel.
 9

                   If you will notice that the water line of this
10

    ship, all of these ships, the saturation of oil which is


    collected on the hull of the boat, this is a view looking at


    Inland steel.
13

                   You can also see the oil on the docks.
14

                   Now, here is the outfall which you have seen
15

    yesterday from the air.  You will see the oil here in the
16

    foreground.
17

                   These are twin discharges of Youngstown Sheet
18

    and Tube.
19

                   Here is one looking at inland Steel.
20

                   If you notice  the heavy saturation of oil at


    the stern of the ship.
22

                   Here you see the  pilings  of the  river are Just
23

    saturated with  oil.
24

                  This  is  a close-up  of one of the outfalls.
25

                  Now, here is a heavy concentration of oil which

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                                                      525



                  Here you can distinguish the  color  of  Lake



2  Michigan upper topside and the  lower  one which is  the effluent



3  flowing or polluted water flowing  out of Indiana Harbor.



4                 Here we are coming  into the breakwater.



                  In  the back you  see the smoke pollution of
6
10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




18




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20




21




22




23




24




25
   Youngtown  Sheet  and Tube.
 7                  Here is the first  sample we are taking right at




 0   the mouth of the Harbor.
 o



                   Our cochairman,  Ben Traflcano,  is doing the
 y
 sampling  and our Chairman, Mr. Chantigney,  is  capping the



 bottle.



               This  is Mr. Slitzer.   He  is  the President of



 the Izaak Walton League.



               Mr. Traficano was  on  the  right  side  of the



 screen here.



               We are coming into the Indiana  Harbor  of



 Indiana Harbor.



               If you will notice this breakwater,  you will see



 the heavy saturation of oil on the breakwater.



               The next shots are something you will  see,



 which we  took in Indiana Harbor Inter-channel  itself.



               Here you see the formations  of  oil inside the



Harbor.



               I might state that the entire Harbor this day



 as full of this oil.

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 1
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Go right ahead,
t»

         MR.  MAGON:   This is the title of our film.
3

                   Here we are at the Coast Guard Station in
4

    Calumet Harbor.   We are bringing our sample bottles aboard.


                   The gentleman coming down the ladder now is Mr,
6

    Slitzer with some of the sample bottles.
7

                   This is the deck hand who was throwing off the
8

    forward anchor line or mooring line.
9

                   This is the shot of the Coast Guard Station and
10

    here's the harbor leading out from the Coast Guard Station and
11
12



13



14



15



16



17



IS



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
                                                   524


   this time,  please.
 in the background you see Calumet Beach Coast Guard Station


 taken from a distance.


                Here's a shot of the State Line Generating


 Plant.


                This is a view looking toward Indiana Harbor.


                I might say it was a little bit choppy that day,


                This is a view looking back at United States


 Steel in South Chicago.


                Here is another shot of the Coast Guard station,


                Here we are passing the Hammond Water intake


 Crib.


                This is a view looking at  Indiana Harbor.


                This is Standard Oil  in East  Chicago.


                Now, here  is the mouth  of  the Indiana Harbor


breakwater.

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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                   523
               These cities are supplied from Lake Michigan.
I might point out that not all of them, but most of them,  and
I will Just read the cities that gave me a resolution  in order
to  save time:  Calumet City, Chicago Heights, Harvey,  Rlverdalt
South Chicago Heights, Park Forest, Phoenix, Homewood,  Crete
Dolton, East Hazel  Crest, Worth, Hazel Crest.
               Also is attached a resolution adopted by the
Tents  'N Trailers,  Chapter of the National Campers and Hikers
Association in which they protest the pollution of the bodies
of  water under consideration today.  Their letter of protest
which they have asked me to present to you is marked as our
Exhibit #26.
               As our Exhibit #29, we have attached petitions
containing over 5,000 signatures of persons who desire to  be
recorded as protesting the pollution of Lake Michigan  and  the
other bodies of water, the subject of this hearing.
               We thank Mr. Klassen, Chief Sanitary Engineer,
for the Illinois Department of Public Health, for permission
previously granted, to show a film taken on Lake Michigan  on
February 11, 1965,  which not only shows the taking of  samples
of  water referred to in our exhibits, numbers 5 through 13, but
also shows the oil  slick and other pollution floating  on the
lake and the smoke pollution from the industries which  contri-
bute pollution to the water also.   This film will follow the
presentation of this report,  but  I would like to show it at

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 1
 2
 3
 4                  Exhibit #12, sample taken from Lake Michigan,



    February 11, 1965, at location indicated.  Pollution found.
 O


    Illinois Department of Public Health Laboratory File #16189.
 6


                   Exhibit #13, sample taken from Lake Michigan,



    on February 11, 1965, at location indicated.  Pollution found
 O


    Illinois Department of Public Health Laboratory File #16190.
 y
10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




19




19




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21




22




23




24




25
                                                  522


                Exhibit #11, sample taken from Lake Michigan



 February 11, 1965, at location indicated.  Pollution found.



 Illinois Department of Public Health Laboratory File #16188.
                I will submit a picture to you for Just the



 Committee to look at, I wouldn't want the ladies to see-this.



                Also, I will not elaborate on the samples of



 the lake, as I said earlier, I will let you Just read these



 over.



      CHAIRMAN STEIN:  We show these at our hearings all the


 time.



                (laughter)



      MR.  CHANTIGNEY:  This is my first one I ever attended.


      CHAIRMAN STEIN:  This is Just a conference.



      MR.  CHANTIGNEY:  The following exhibits are resolutions



 adopted by legislative bodies of cities and villages in



 southern  Cook County, Illinois,  which they have asked me to



 present to you,  for the  purpose  of recording their protest



 to  the  pollution of  Lake Michigan  because  of ''its  interference



with its use as drinking water".

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 ,
Q „                Exhibit #4,  sample taken February 5, 1965, from
  II

  ,. the Grand Calumet River at  the Illinois-Indiana State Line.
4 I
    Pollution found.  Illinois  Department of Public Health Labora-
5 II
. . tory File #15861.
  II

, „                Exhibit #5,  sample taken February 11, 1965,

7 I
    from Lake Michigan at location indicated on report.  Pollution

8 II
    found.  Illinois Department of Public Health Laboratory File


,o ;; #l6182-

                   Exhibit #6,  sample taken February 11, 1965, in


    Lake Michigan, at location  indicated.  Pollution found.
  II

    Illinois Department of Public Health Laboratory File #16183.
13


14


15


16


17


18


19


20


21


22


23


24


25
                                                      521

    Pollution found.   Illinois Department of Public Health


    Laboratory File #15860.
               Exhibit #7,  sample  taken February 11,  1965,  in


Lake Michigan, at  location  indicated.   Pollution found.


Illinois Department  of Public Health Laboratory File  #16184.


               Exhibit #8,  sample  taken February 11,  1965,  in

Lake Michigan, at  location  indicated.   Pollution found.

Illinois Department  of Public Health Laboratory File  #16185.

               Exhibit #9,  sample  taken February 11,  1965,  in


Lake Michigan, at  location  indicated.   Pollution found.


Illinois Department  of Public Health Laboratory File  #16186.


               Exhibit #10, sample taken in Lake Michigan,


February 11, 1965, at located indicated.  Pollution found.


Illinois Department of Public Health Laboratory File #16187.

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10

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25
                                                   520
 officials have  asked  me to present to youj  water samples
 taken from these bodies of water and analysis made by the
 Illinois Department of Public Health; and a motion picture
 film taken by my cochairman,  Chester Magon, aboard a Coast
 Guard boat in Lake Michigan,  and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal
 on February 11, 1965, which I will present to you today.
                Our first thirteen exhibits are reports on
 water samples taken in my presence, by Mr. A. Brantizky,
 Engineer, Cook County Department of Public Health.  I will not
 elaborate on all of these as I am not an engineer or a chemist
                I will merely touch on the first two samples
 but I will submit the rest for the record, so you gentlemen
 can look them over at your leisure.
                Sample Exhibit #1, a sample taken from the
 Grand Calumet River at the Illinois-Indiana State Line, Jan-
 uary 22, 1965.   Pollution found.  Illinois Department of Public
 Health Laboratory File£l5l76.
                This sample showed that approximately one-third
 of the Grand Calumet  was raw sewage.
                Exhibit #2, a sample taken from the Little
 Calumet River at the  Illinois-Indiana State Line,  January 22,
 1965.   Pollution found.  Illinois Department  of Public Health
 Laboratory File  #15177.
               Exhfcit #3,  sample  taken February 5, 1965, from
the Little Calumet River at the Illinois-Indiana State Line.

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                                                      519
   in the streams and rivers of Cook County.  The Thorn Creek-
1
   Calumet Committee serves the area south of ?6th Street in
2
   Chicago,  south, east and west to the Cook County line.  Over
3
   three million persons reside in this area.  All members who
4
   serve on  this Committee are volunteer workers.  Meetings are
5
   held monthly.  They are open to the public.
B
                  For several years I have been  interested in the
7
   problem of water pollution.  It is my opinion, which  is shared
8
   by other  members of this Committee, that Federal assistance
9
   is necessary, at this time, to correct the existing conditions
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
of pollution in Lake Calumet, Lake Michigan, the waters of the

Grand Calumet River, the Little Calumet River, Wolf Lake, and

their tributaries.  Existing state laws in Illinois and

Indiana have not corrected this condition.

               We believe that municipal sewage and industrial

wastes, treated to varying degrees, are the principal pol-

lutional materials discharged into these waters.  Other wastes

discharged intermittently may have serious local effects or

may cause temporary excessive pollution.  Among these wastes

are accidental spills from storage tanks and barges, combined

sewer overflows, wastes from lake vessels, barge tows, and

pleasure craft, and material from dredging operations.

               Our belief is supported by exhibits listed

below:  resolutions adopted by numerous municipalities in

southern Cook County, copies of which are attached,  which their

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1
2
3
 4
 e       CHAIRMAN STEIN:  You might  explain  that  these are purely
 O



 6  volunteers.




 ?       MR. CHANTIGNEY:  Yes,  it  is in my statement.




 Q       CHAIRMAN STEIN:  All right.
 O



 0       MR. CHANTIGNEY:  Did Mr.  Donald  Maskey stand?  Please
 y
10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




18




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20




21




22




23




24




25
                                                    518



our committee whom I would like to introduce before I commence.



It will only take a minute.



               Our retiring General Chairman, Mr. Duke E, Read,



and our newly appointed General Chairman, Mr. Don Maskey.
 stand.



               And, our Executive Secretary, Mr. Lee  Bradlsh,



 in the back.



               I might also  say that we  are  Just one  of  seven



 committees on the Cook County Clean Streams  and we  are here



 because this happens to be our area of responsibility.   I



 would like to point this out on the map  to you, ladles and



 gentlemen.



               Our map is very small.  We will use  the large



 one then.  We extend from 76th Street on the south  side  all



 the way over to Blue Island, west all the way south to Cook



 County line and over to the Indiana State Lines.  This is our



boundary.   Thank you.



               The Cook County Clean streams Committee was



formed  in  1953  by the  Cook  County Board  of Forest  Preserve



 ommlssioners for  the  express purpose of  eliminating pollution

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25
                                                     517



   authority and the power and authority of the United States


1  II
   Public Health hold the point until the appropriate state or



   local agency does something about it and sometimes I will admit
3


   they are pointing at us.



                  (Laughter)



                  The first and the most active of these groups



   of unique organizations is the Cook County Clean Streams



   Committee, and they are so organized that they are in basins.



   The Chairman of the Thorn Creek watershed, which is in the



   southern part of Cook County, is going to present their thought }g



   here, and the interests of the Cook County Clean Streams



   Committee on the particular problem that is before us.



                  I present to you the Chairman of the Thorn Creek



   Watershed, Mr. Joseph Chantigney.  Mr. Chantigney.



        MR. JOSEPH CHANTIGNEY:  Mr. Chairman, conferees, ladies



   and gentlemen:



                  I want to assure you all this stuff I brought up



   I won't be reading it all.  It would take all day.



                  Ny name is Joseph T. Chantigney.  My home address



   is 14823 Evers Avenue, Dolton, Illinois.  I am the Chairman of



    he Thorn Creek-Calumet Committee of the Cook County Clean



   Streams Committee.



                  With me today are two cochalrmen on this committee
    r.  Chester Magon and Mr. Ben Traficano,
                  Mr. Klassen, you invited three more members of

-------
                                                      516
    standpoint of water resources needed to support a growing
    urban area such as Joliet.  The Lower Des Plaines Valley
    Water Resources Committee, a group made up of representatives
    from the various governmental Jurisdictions and industry in
    this region, had conducted by Stanley Engineering Studies, a
    study of water resources in the Lower Des Plaines Valley.
                   This study shows that the Jollet-Lockport-
    Lemont area will face a severe water shortage unless a major
    new water supply is developed, the projected water deflcien-
10   cles in the Lower Des Plaines Valley to be ten million gallons
    per day in ten years.  They forecast the fact that our
12   existing source of water supply, ground water, will be inade-
13   quate for public and industrial needs.
14                  Therefore, we are especially concerned with
    the pollution of the Des Plaines River and the Illinois Deep
16   Waterway because this represents to us the resource from
17   which this area can best obtain an adequate supply of water
18   to continue the growth and prosperity of this region.
19                  We submit to you and the United States Public
20   Health Service an urgent plea to act within the full extent
21   of your power and authority to eliminate pollution in the
22   Des Plaines River, in Illinois Deep Waterway, so that Joliet
23   and their region can utilize this water resource to meet the
24   growing needs of this area.
25                  We express the hope that your power and

-------
                                                     515
    is slightly outside the area of this conference, but flowing
    past and through the City of Joliet is the waterway which
£t
    does take some of the wastes that come from Indiana and we
3
    know the Mayor is a person that is vitally interested in the
4
    water supply needs of his community and hopes that someday
5
    he may utilize the water course that flows through Joliet as
6
    a source of water supply and, in this context, we have a
    brief statement from Mayor Berlinsky of Joliet.
8
         MR. MORRICE BERLINSKY:  Mr. Chairman, the Honorable
9
    Murray Stein, and distinguished co-conferees:
                   I would like to preface my remarks by saying
    that the citizens of Joliet are most grateful for the
    opportunity for our opinion to be read into the record and
13
    made a permanent part of the record of this conference.
14
                   Our statement is addressed to Mr. Klassen.
15
                   As Mayor of the City of Joliet,  I wish to
16
    express the fact that our City is gratified with the atten-
    tion being directed by your Department and by the United
18
    States Public Health Service to the problem of water pollu-
iy
    tion.
20
                   We share with you, the state and the region
&i
    and the Nation, the concern relative to pollution of our
22
    waters.
23
                   The problem of pollution concerns us not only
&4
    from the standpoint of public health, but also from the
AW

-------
                                                      514

    like to make that suggestion.


                   I want to  close by  saying:   Our sincere
2

    appreciation for the privilege of  speaking for the City of
\j

    Calumet and the Calumet City Flood and  Pollution Control
4

    Committee.  Also, our thanks to  the Metropolitan Sanitary
3

    District, the  Pennsylvania Railroad,  and the Department of


    Public Health  for their continued  interest and aid in keeping
7

    our  streams as clean as possible in spite of pollution  pro-
8

    blems.
9
10


11


12


13


14


15


16


17


18


19


20


21


22


23


24


25
               I want to commend the United States Department

of Health, Education, and Welfare, on their comprehensive


report, the pollution report.  I have had a lot of very fine

information out of that.  It has come in handy, really, to


our local people.

               Thank you.


     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mrs. Mays—M-A-Y-S?

               Are there any comments?

     MRS. MASE:  It is Mase.

     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  M-A-S-E, that Is my fault.

               To follow up, we will show you  how American

this is and what a wonderful conference we have — I would


like to Just  go off-the-record for a minute to read a post

card.

               ](Discussion off the record)


     MR. KLASSEN:  We have Invited the Mayor of Joliet.  It

-------
                                                       513
    banks Is a narrow, crooked polluted stream.
                   Pollution problems can only be solved through
    the fullest cooperation of and between industries, municipali-
    ties, county, state and Federal Government.  Because sludge
    has been building up over a long period of time, perhaps,
    we should look to widening, straightening, and dredging  our
    smaller polluted streams
 8                  I want to interject here that the one time
 g   we tried to have a committee,  an interstate committee, and
10   we called it the Illlana Waterwaste Drainage and Flood
n   Control Committee, and I was Chairman, and Mr. Giannini  of
12   Indiana, who is here today, was the Secretary  — but because
13   of Jurisdictional problems, every time we went to  the Indiana
14   side, we were told they had no Jurisdiction in Illinois, and
15   every time we went to the Illinois side, we were told they
16   had no  Jurisdiction in Indiana.
17                  So, before I close this brief message, I
18   would like to make a suggestion, if I may take the liberty,
19   that a  committee, an interstate committee, along with the
20   Federal Government, form a commission or committee — I  know
21   we are  overloaded with commissions and committees  today, but
22   they do get things done—that  they be formed to combat this
23   flood pollution and to Just at  least keep the populace aware
24   of what is going on, and informed people generally are better
25   residents and better citizens.  I find it that way and I would

-------
                                                      512


    heavily by industrial wastes and raw sewage.  The Little


    Calumet River runs through a residential section of  our City
 2

    and is subject to pollution from Indiana towns without treat-
 3

    ment facilities.
 4

                   Our residents along the River  suffer  from
 O

    obnoxious odors during warm weather,  Pollution has  been  so
 6

    bad that the paint on houses and garages has  been peeling and
 7

    changing color.  Both rivers flow in a westerly direction
 8

    from Indiana.
 9

                   Our people, through popular subscription,
10

    built dikes along the river to protect from flooding.  To
11

    date the dikes have stopped overflow during heavy rainfall,
12

    but the pollution is another problem that has grown  much
13

    worse each year.
14

                   In dry weather, little water flows, and such
15

    flow is very sluggish, even stagnant.  The hot sun causes
16

    river bottom sludge to be exposed.
17

                   If you ever watched it — may  I interject
18

    here — when the waters are way down, the sludge is  drawn up
19

    by the hot sun.  It is a strange phenomenon but the  smell
20

    is very strange, too, I assure you.
21

                   No recreational areas are located near the
22

    River because of such conditions.  Children are forbidden to
23

    play near the streams because of health hazards.  What could
24

    be a nice clean river with parks and playgrounds along its
25

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1
2
14



15



16


17



IS



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
                                                 511


make a couple of additional remarks.


               This is a statement on the subject of pol-
3   lution of the Grand and Little Calumet Rivers and their


4   tributaries with relation to my community and my City.

  II
                   I am a much smaller municipality; I have only


    27,500.  But we are directly concerned because we are


    bordered by the Grand Calumet on the north  and the Little


8 |  Calumet on the south.  And if you will look on the map, I


    am concerned with the area where the dotted line crosses


10 I!  the pink map or the Little Calumet River, Just on the  inner


H   side of the River across from Lansing  - this white area here.


12   Calumet City lies in that area long the State line.  We have


13 I  been plagued with flooding and pollution for the fifteen
 years that  I  have lived there In that  suburban community.


                I  want  to read from this.


                It says, Calumet  City is located in the south-


 east  corner of Cook County,  bounded on the north by the


 Grand Calumet River, on the  east by the State of Indiana, on


 the south by the  Little Calumet  River, and west by the


 Calumet  Expressway. We are  plagued by two interstate pollute^


 rivers along our  borders.


                The Grand Calumet River pollution is caused


 primarily by industries, but the Little Calumet River is


 polluted both by  industry and municipalities.  The Grand


 Calumet  runs  through industrial  sections  and is polluted

-------
                                                      510




    pollution at the  sources.



 2                  We need help  also  from the  Secretary in  a



 3   continuing research program;  in continuing help to  muncipali-



 4   ties  and  industries;  and especially in a continuing program



 5   of  imaginative education designed to build public awareness



 6   of  water  pollution, public participation to end it, and



 7   public  enthusiasm for an improved environment.



 a                  We ask urgently for help, and we promise full
 O
 9
13
     support.
10                   Thank you.



u         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you,  Mr.  Despres.



12                   Any comments or questions?
                    (No response)
14                   Thank you very much for your statement,  sir.



15         MR.  KLASSEN:   Next, we have an Alderman of the Sixth



 6    Ward, but not  from the City of Chicago — from Calumet  City.



17                   And,  very interestingly enough, this Alderman



10    is also a member of the Clean Streams Committee and active in
lo


     that  area, and, of particular interest, she is a lady.



20                   I want to present now, Mrs. Sarah Mase,  the



     Alderman  of the Sixth Ward,  from Calumet City.



22         MRS.  SARAH MASE:   Conferees,  Mr. Chairman,  ladies  and
    gentlemen:
23
                    I do have  a  short  statement  that  has been
25   released and I am going to read that.  Then  I would  like  to

-------
                                                       509



    power to act.



                   We need help to stop the dumping of sewage




 3   from 325,000 people.




                   We need help to stop    dumping of industrial




    wastes.  Industry stands to gain enormously if it ends water
 0



 .   pollution.  We know that some of the pollutants can be
 b



 7   turned into valuable by-products, as industries in the Pacific




 0   Northwest and German Ruhr learned after they worked with
 8



    government to stop pollution.
 y



10                  Some dumping of pollutants is Just a bad habit




u   which can be stopped by storage or reprocessing.  All pol-




    lution will eventually destroy Industry, as pollution goes




    on to destroy the environment and means of life which industry




    needs to survive.  Since industry, although it stands to




1C   lose heavily from general water pollution, cannot legislate
10



1C   rules against it, the Federal Government has the responsi-
lb


1?   billty to do so.




10                  The measures we need are measures to end pol-
io


    lutlon of Lake Michigan.  There is a danger that the Secretary
*y


    may be tempted to define "standards" and tolerate all
20


    pollution down to a fixed point.  Such a procedure would
21


    encourage pollution; allow irreversible damage; and permit




    the continued entrance into the lake of sewage, chemicals,
23


    metals and solid wastes whose cumulative effect on our
24


    population could be devastating.  Our need is to stop

-------
                                                      508




    the personal observation of  our portion  of  the  Lake  bottom



    made  by a constituent who  does amateur skin-diving and  has kept



    a careful four-year  Journal  of underwater observations.  He



    reports one overriding  observation  — the startling  growth in



    length  and size  of algae.



                   The Public  Health  Service report tells  us what



    our own observations hinted  at — that the  Lake and  Its  water



    are being fatally degraded;  that  bloodworms,  sludgeworms,



    and fingernail clams have  all but taken  over  the Lake  bottom



10   near  us;  that the Lake's growing  nitrogen content has  almost



    reached the point where algae finally take  over the  lake-



12   front and bathing and impede filtration; that sewage and



13   industrial wastes tax Chicago's great filtration plant beyond



14   its power to purify  completely; and that our  water Is  receiv-



15   Ing massive chemicals,  metals, and  poisons  whose cumulative



ig   biological effect may be massively  disastrous.   What we  are



17   suffering from is inadequate control of  the effects  of



19   population increase  and industrial  advance.  Nobody  knows



19   how long  our filtration will be effective if  contamination



20   increases.



21                  Since years of conscientious preventive efforts



22   by the  City of Chicago, both alone  and in cooperation  with



23   industry  and with local governments in Indiana  and Illinois,



24   have  ended in Increased Lake pollution,  I urge  strong  measures



25   now by  the Federal Government, which alone  has  effective

-------
                                                    507
 i   along Lake Michigan between 51st and 6?th Streets.  The
 2   75,000 persons in my ward share the general concern of all
 3   Chicagoans in our Lake and hold a special concern because we
 4   live directly next to Lake Michigan.
 $                  I have come here to urge the Secretary to take
 6   the strongest and most effective measures possible to end
 7   pollution of lake water.  The report on Lake Michigan made by
 8   the Public Health Service for this conference has horrified
 9   all of us who have studied it.
10                  It shows that the danger to lake water is not
11   ten years off, not five years off, but immediate and present.
12   It shows that sewage and industrial wastes are doing
13   irreversible damage to the lake; that municipalities and boats
14   are pouring in sewage wastes daily; and that the steel, oil,
15   and chemical plants are daily pouring vast, deadly industrial
ie   wastes into our end of the lake.
17                  The report confirms the disturbing personal
19   observations we have made as laymen.  In December 1964, for
19   instance, we found millions of mysterious polyethylene pellets
20   washed up on our two miles of breakwater.  Later we learned
21   that they represented Just one flushing from a chemical plant,
22   and we learned that on the Michigan shore part of the same
23   flushing made up 30 or 40 miles of windrows, plus an incalcu-
24   lable area of lake bottom.
25                  Another disturbing instance to us has been

-------
 c
 D
                                                        506


         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Mr. Despres.



         MR.  LEON M. DESPRES:  Mr.  Chairman, before  I  start, I



     would  like  to ask  if  I  could  be permitted to  file  for  the



     record the  statement  I  was requested  to give  you from  the



     Chicago Heritage Committee, Thomas  Stauffer,  Chairman.  It  is



     a brief statement,  if I may file  it?
 7        CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Without  objection,  that  will  be  included



 _   in the record.  The conferees  can look at that.
 o


                    STATEMENT  OF CHICAGO HERITAGE COMMITTEE
 y


 0                  We urge TOTAL control of pollution for  the



     metropolitan area.  Such  control  is technologically possible;



     that it is both desirable and  necessary is beyond debate.
Lft


                    We believe that this should be   achieved  by
I O


     legal control of the sources of pollution with costs to  be



     borne, in the case of Industrial  pollution, by private



     enterprise and the market,  in  accordance  with  American tradl-
16


     tion, rather than by public administration with costs



     covered by taxes.
18


                    We believe that there is considerable exper-



     ience showing that such control is often  even  profitable;
20


     however,  if it is not,  the  cost will be passed to consumers



     equally by all competitors.
VM


          MR.  DESPRES:   Mr.  Chairman,  ladies and gentlemen:
*u


                    I  appear here as an Alderman of the  City  of



25   Chicago elected from  Chicago's Fifth Ward, which extends

-------
                                                       505


 j   are by people, by organizations that are, you might say,



    the users and on the receiving end of pollution and interested
 f»


 3   in this particular problem.



 4                  Some have been invited to participate,  some



 5   requested the appearance and the first one of these that we



 6   are presenting is the Alderman from the Fifth Ward in  Chicago,



 7   Leon Despres.



 g        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  While Mr. Despres is coming  up,  I don't



 g   know how it  is in Springfield, but in Washington the people



    don't have to wait for public meetings, they seem  to criticize



u   us all the time.



12                  And, I think the beauty of our Government  is



13   not just that ordinary people can criticize you, but some of



14   the biggest  corporations can criticize you, too,



15        MR. KLASSEN:  I will  say maybe there is more  to criticize



16   in Washington than in Springfield.



17                  (Laughter)   (Applause)



18        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  That might be, but in my visits, I



19   missed It.



20        MR. BOSTON:  I would  like to comment, Mr. Chairman, to



21   the effect that I thought  the Public Health Service had re-



22   ceived a lot of accolades  today and yesterday and  it makes me



23   feel real good.



24                  I think probably our Chairman Is a  little more



25   critical of us than some of the local people.

-------
                                                        504
 i   numerous wells  became  polluted  as a result  of a disturbance
 2   in the bed  of the Calumet-Sag Channel.   A survey in 1962 of 55
 3   homes in this area showed  that  24 of the 55 wells tested
 4   contained varying amounts  of pollutional bacteria.
 5                   There can be no  compromise between public
 6   health and  stream pollution. We in Cook County have demanded
 7   that our residents do not  pollute the streams, we can ask no
 8   less from others,
 0         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Dr. Hall.
 y
10                   Are there any questions or comments?
n                   (No response)
12                   If not, thank you very much for your state-
13   ment.
14         MR. KLASSEN:  Several years ago we had a visitor to our
15   office for  most of the summer from behind the Iron Curtain
16   and after he had been with us several months attending
17   meetings and hearings, when he  left I said, "What are some
ia   of the things that have been high points in your visit?"
19                   "Well," he  said, "l was impressed by the fact
20   that at your public meetings ordinary people can get up and
21   criticize Government,  criticize Industry and criticize other
22   people and  this is a right,  privilege that  apparently you
23   people have."
24                   Following here are a series  of several pre-
25   sentatlons,  some  of them a very short statement.   But they

-------
                                                        503
 !                  Aesthetically these streams become eyesores.
 2   Because of the heavy pollution, there is little interest on
 3   the part of the resident public to improve them, and  in time
 4   they become clogged, overgrown with vegetation and  reposi-
 $   tories for Junk.
 6                  Through the Cook County  and the Metroplitan
 7   Sanitary District  of Greater Chicago's  program of  stream
    cleaning, efforts  are being made  to reclaim  these  streams.
    However, stream cleaning, although an excellent thing in
 y
10   itself, does  not eliminate the potential health hazard of
n   pollution.
12                  Public interest and pride in  the stream
13   cannot be generated  as  long as the pollution remains.  In
14   addition, the mere mechanics of  stream  cleaning involves
15   individual hand work and, in a polluted stream, this  is a
16   health hazard to the worker.
17                  The health of the  public in the vicinity of
ig   these streams can  be affected by other  means. Insects and
ig   rodents that  breed in and along  these polluted waters become
2Q   carriers of disease.  Dysentery  of various types  can  possibly
21   be transmitted to  man.   Livestock damage is  not beyond being
22   caused by polluted waters.
23                  We  have  cases on record  where individual wells
    become polluted from these streams where the water-bearing
*A
25   aquifer was at or  near  the surface.  In the  Alsip  area,

-------
                                                         502
                   Any problems that the City of Chicago Water

    Purification Division has producing a  safe water  supply  for
 z
    the  citizens of  the  City of Chicago is reflected  in  the  hazard|s
 3
    possible  to the  other users of  this water.
 4
                   The reduction  of the pollution  in  this  area of
 5
    Lake Michigan  is of  prime  importance in protecting the health
 6
    of the  citizens  of this metropolitan area.  Waste disposal
 7
    in waterways must be rigidly  controlled.  Performance  stand-
 8
    ards must be established and  met.   Cost factors should be
 9
    subordinate to the health  and welfare  of the  citizens  dependent
10
    on this water  supply.
                   Part  of  the problem is  pollution of the Little
12
    Calumet River.  Reference  is  made  to this because it directly
13
    affects the health and  welfare  of  the  citizens of suburban
14
    Cook County under the  Jurisdiction of  this Department.  This
15
    pollution has  been of  such extent  as to render these streams
16
    almost  totally unfit for recreation.
17
                   Recreation  and public health are inexorably
18
    wedded  together. Fishing, boating, water skiing and even
19
    walking along  the banks of these streams are  denied  to the
20
    public  since contact with these polluted waters Is a public
t*\.
    health  hazard.  Adults  can become  educated  and prevailed upon
t*£
    to leave  the streams alone, but children are drawn to  them
23
    and,  through no  fault of their  own, can suffer the  effect
24
    of industrial  neglect.
25

-------
                                                       501


 i                                              Population
                   44.  River Forest              13,000
 2                  45.  River Grove                8,600
                   46.  Riverside                  9,500
 3                  47.  Robbins                    8,200
                   48.  Rosemont                   1,700
 4                  49.  Schiller Park              6,200
                   50.  South Holland             12,700
 si                 51.  Stone Park                 5,000
                   52.  Summit  (Argo)             11,700
 6                  53.  WestChester               18,700
                   54.  Canfield Community Service
 7                       (Norwood)                  1,000
                   55.  Leyden Township  (Leyden)   8,000
 8                  56.  Monterey Manor Subdivision
                        (Norwood)                     850
 9
                   ADDITIONAL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES FROM  LAKE
10                       MICHIGAN, OTHER  THAN  CHICAGO

11        Glenview           22,400        From  Winnetka
         Lansing            19,500        From  Hammond,  Indiana
12        Northbrook         12,300        Directly  from Lake  Michigan
         Skokie             66,800        From  Evanston
13        Wilmette           29,900        Directly  from Lake  Michigajn

14
                   The  constant reduction in  the  water table in
15
     this metropolitan area  has  driven more and more communities
16
     to  seek  the waters  of Lake  Michigan. There hase  been many
17
     plans under consideration and it can be said  that this
18
     movement will  spread so that in the  foreseeable future  the
19
     total population of this metropolitan area will be deriving
20
     its water  supply from Lake  Michigan.
21
                   At the present time,  we are talking about the
22
     water supply of 4.5 million people in the State of Illinois,
23
     then we  will be talking about a population of more than 7
 24
     million  persons.
25

-------
                                                       500

 !             PUBLIC WATER  SUPPLIES  UNDER THE JURISDICTION
              OF THE COOK COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH
 2              OBTAINING  LAKE MICHIGAN WATER THRU CHICAGO

 3                                                Population

 4                   1.   Alsip                       4,300
                    2.   Berkeley                   7,600
 5                   3.   Berwyn                    54,224
                    4.   Blue Island               20,500
 6                   5.   Broadview                  9,000
                    6.   Brookfleld                 20,429
 7                   7.   Burnham                    2,478
                    8.   Calumet City              26,000
 8                   9.   Calumet Park               9,200
                    10.   Cicero                    70,600
 9                   11.   Dixmoor                    3.400
                    12.   Dolton                    19,800
10                   13. East Hazelcrest             1,500
                    14.   Elmwood Park              24,200
n                   15.   Evergreen Park            25,300
                    16.   Forest Park               14,900
                    17.   Franklin Park             18,700
                    18.   Golf                          430
13                   19.   Harvey                    30,800
                    20.   Harwood Heights            6,300
                    21.   Hazel  Crest                8,200
                    22.   Hillside                   8,500
15                   23.   Hodgkins                   1,200
                    24.   Hometown                   7,500
16                   25.   LaGrange Park             14,700
                    26.   Lincolnwood               12,200
17                   27.   Lyons                      11,100
                    28.   Markham                   12,300
18                   29.   Maywood                   27,700
                    30.   McCook                       470
19                   31.   Melrose Park              23,800
                    32.   Merrionette Park            2,400
20                   33.   Midlothian                  9,000
                    34.   Morton Grove              22,100
21                   35.   Niles                      26,000
                    36.   Norridge                  14,700
22                   37.   Northlake                 12,900
                   38.   North  Riverside            8,400
23                  39.   Oak Lawn                  33,100
                   40.   Park Ridge                 36,700
24                  4l.   Phoenix                    4,700
                   42.   Posen                       4,800
25                  43.   Riverdale                  13,000

-------
                                                      499
 i   many such substances and the evaluation of their potential
 2   health hazards at present is either lacking or incomplete,
 3   therefore, be it
 4                  RESOLVED, that the Illinois State Medical
 5   Society go on record as being opposed to any unnecessary dis-
 6   charge of wastes that will result in the degradation of
 7   drinking water supply resources, or the impairment of water
 8   used for bathing and swimming.
 9                  Passed by the Illinois State Medical Society,
10   Board of Trustees, on January 17, 1965.
u        MR. KLASSEN:  Next, the Cook County Department  of Public
12   Health has a real  jurisdictional interest  in this particular
13   area, particularly that area in Cook County outside  of the
14   City of Chicago and at this time a  statement will be presented
15   by the Health Officer for the Cook  County  Department of  Public
16   Health, Dr. John B. Hall.
17        DR. JOHN B. HALL:  Mr. Chairman, conferees,  ladies  and
1Q   gentlemen:
10
ig                  Any pollution of Lake Michigan which  affects
2Q   the potability of  the water supply  of the  City of Chicago alsc
21   affects the water  supply of 56 communities in suburban Cook
22   County  (with a total population of  approximately  750,000
23   persons) who procure their water from the  City of Chicago, and)
24   five other communities which use Lake Michigan water from
25   other directions with a population  of approximately  150,000.

-------
                                                      498

 i                   (No response)

 2                   If not, thank you very much  for your  statement

 3        MR. KLASSEN:  The Illinois State Medical Society  has

 4   prepared a  statement for the record which will not be  pre-

 5   sented  at this  time, but will  go into the record.  It  is a

 6   general statement concerning its interests  in clean  waters


 7   in this area.

 8        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  You  have a copy of that statement?

 9        MR. KLASSEN:  No.

10        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Well, would  that  be made available?

11        MR. KLASSEN:  It will be  mailed.

12        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Without  any  objection, that will be

13   inserted at this point.

14                   ILLINOIS STATE  MEDICAL SOCIETY

15                   RESOLUTION  ON WATER POLLUTION


16
                    WHEREAS, any unnecessary discharge of sewage
17
    and  industrial  wastes, either  treated or untreated,  into
18
    underground or  surface sources of  domestic  drinking  water
19
    supplies is contrary to the basic  concepts  of disease  pre-
20
    vention, and
21
                    WHEREAS, prevention of such  pollution is
22
    becoming increasingly important because  of  the multiplicity
23
    of potential pollutants especially those involving organic
24
    and inorganic chemicals and viruses, and
25
                   WHEREAS, methods for the  identification  of

-------
                                                       497



 j                  The Department of Public Works and Buildings of




 2   the State of Illinois Joins with the Metropolitan Sanitary



 3   District of Greater Chicago in urging that the wastes from



 4   the Hammond Sewage Treatment Plant not be permitted to flow




 5   into the State of Illinois.



 6                  It is our opinion that the construction of



 7   this dam by the Corps of Engineers as part of the Cal-Sag



 8   navigation improvement has not properly involved the Depart-



 9   ment of Health, Education, and Welfare at this time.  The dam



10   does not exist at the present time and while reports show that



n   pollution does originate from the Hammond sewage treatment



12   plant, data are not available to show that this undesirable



13   material would be more acceptable in the inland waterway



    system of Illinois than it would be in Lake Michigan.



15                  It is our understanding that under the Public



    Law 660, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Depart-



    ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, has a corrective



10   Jurisdiction relative to matters such as the Barrier Dam only
lo


    after a hearing to establish pollution has been held.
jy


20                  We further believe that the law clearly indi-



21   cates such a hearing would be necessary subsequent to this



    conference.
AA



23                  Thank you very much, ladies and gentlemen.



         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Lorenz.
«4


25                  Are there any comments or questions?

-------
                                                      496
    Michigan.  It is also true that the same volume of effluent
    applied to the Little Calumet River, the Cal-Sag Canal and the
 ft
    Illinois River will constitute a much greater  source of pol-
 &
    lution because of the comparatively minuscule  volume of
 4
    dilution water available.
 5
                   A further consideration  in this regard is the
 B
    burden placed upon the Sanitary Water Board  in endorsing
    pollution requirements in  Illinois, on  the one hand, while
 8
    accepting polluted waters  from Indiana, on the other hand.
 y
                   It is the position of the Department of Public
    Works and Buildings that this is a completely  untenable
    proposition.
\t*
                   The question  of pollution to  Lake Michigan by
13
    effluent from the Hammond  sewage treatment plant is one of
14
    academic interest,  it is  a  fact that the pollution moving to
15
    Lake Michigan through the  Indiana Harbor Ship  Canal originates
16
    primarily in the Grand Calumet River easterly  of the Canal.
    This flow which is of Industrial origin moves  westerly in the
18
    Grand Calumet River to the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, at
19
    which point it turns in a  northerly direction  and moves to
20
    Lake Michigan.
f» I
22                  It is because of the large volume of this
    grossly polluted flow that effluent from the Hammond Sewage
23
    Treatment plant is sometimes noted to move in  a westerly
    direction towards Illinois.

-------
 8
12


13


14


15


16


17


18


19


20


21


22
24


25
                                                  495


cation, and Welfare, covering the pollution of the Waters of


the Grand Calumet River, the Little Calumet River, the Calumet


River and the Lake Michigan, makes reference to the construc-


tion of a temporary dam on the Grand Calumet River at


Columbia Avenue in Hammond, Indiana.  The Department of Public


Works and Buildings of the State of Illinois and, I believe,


the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, will


both be on record as proposing the construction of this dam  ir
 9 I  such  a way  that the treated  effluent  of the  Hammond,  Indiana,


10 ]|  sewage treatment  plant would be  excluded  from the  State  of

  I
     Illinois  and would flow  to Lake  Michigan  through the  Indiana
Harbor  Ship Canal.


               The  recommendation  of  the Department  of Public


Works and  Buildings is  based  on  the foregoing precepts of


Illinois  law.


               Observations by competent individuals have


clearly shown  that  during the preponderance  of time  flow in


the  Grand  Calumet River is from  the Hammond  sewage treatment


plant to the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal  and then into Lake


Michigan.  Topographic  data provided  by the  Chicago  District


Office  of  the  Corps of  Engineers clearly shows a slight rise


in the  Grand Calumet River to substantiate the preceding
23   statements.
                It  is  true  that  the  effluent  from the  Hammond


 treatment plant will  constitute a slight pollutant  to Lake

-------
                                                      494



                   We do  feel  very  strongly,  however,  that  each



 2   stream  of  the  state does have an  appropriate standard of



 3   quality which  should  be maintained in the vicinity of the



 4   industrial centers of Illinois.  Many of  the streams have



     already deteriorated  to the point where desirable  standards
 5


 6   of quality are no  longer  satisfied.



 7                 In  these areas,  state government, principally



     through the Sanitary  Water Board  and the  Department of  Public
 o


     Works and  Buildings,  is moving  toward the re-establishment of
 9


     the quality criteria  which is believed to be desirable.



                   An  excellent example of this procedure  is  the



     Pox River  which  flows through Lake County, as well as McHenry,



     Kane, Kendall  and  LaSalle  Counties in Illinois.
13


                   In  those areas of  the State where  streams  are
14


     not yet polluted to the point that the acceptable  standards  of
15


     quality have been  violated, the Sanitary  Water Board is
16


     making every effort to insure that the quality does not



     deteriorate to a value less than  a desirable standard for  that
18


     particular stream.
13


                   I do not infer that stream quality  standards
20


     have been  vigorously  applied to all of the streams of this



     State,  but I do  strongly  assert that the  forces of the  State
tut*


     government are presently moving to maintain and to Improve
23


     the quality of our service waters.
24


25                 The report  of the  Department of Health,  Edu-

-------
                                                        493




    both flood flows and low flows of the streams of the watershed



                   Our responsibility relative to flood flows Is



    clear and is not particularly germane to the issue today.



                   The responsibilities of the Department relative



    to low flows has been interpreted to include augmentation of



    flows which are inadequate so as to maintain reasonable



    stream water quality.  For each watershed of the state, there



    is a fine topography and a limited capability for the storage



    of dilution waters.



10                  The Department of Public Works and Buildings



11   is automatically concerned with the amount of pollution being



12   directed to streams of this State because of the volume of



13   low flow augmentation storage varies directly with the pol-



14   lutlon delivered to the stream by industry, drainage districts



15   or individuals.



16                  Our efforts to develop optimum water resource



17   plans for the basins of the State are substantially hindered



18   by excessive requirements for dilution flow signs.  These



19   waters arrive in the stream from storage volumes within



20   reservoirs which Michigan allocated to a different, more re-



21   imbursable purpose.



22                  Tne Department does not propose that every



23   stream in the state of Illinois shall be of sufficient quality



24   to permit bathing or domestic consumption of the water without



25   prior treatment.

-------
                                                      492


    bathing, recreation, agriculture, industry or any other


    purpose.  But, the same rule which applies in his favor also
 £t

    limits his rights in respect to other riparian owners with
 3


    regard to water quality.
 4

                   He cannot make such use of the water  as to un-
 5

 „   reasonably diminish its quality or create a nuisance; neither
 6

    can be discharge poisonous or noxious matter into the stream


    or use the stream to float away refuse if the refuse is in-
 8

    Jurious to the rights of the public or other riparian owners.
 y

                   When questions arise between riparian owners,


    regarding the right of one to make a particular use  of the


    water in which he may have a right common to others, the
i«

    solution will generally depend upon the reasonableness of the
lo

    use and the extent of the detriment to the common owner.
14

                   The evaluation of Illinois law indicates that
15

    municipal corporations or private corporations have  no greater
16

    right to pollute waters than do individuals.  This being the


    case, it should be clear that any pollution of Illinois
18

    waters, regardless of a party acting as the polluter, would
19

    automatically infringe upon the property rights of individual
20

    riparians to the body of water and therefore should  not be
21

    condoned.
22

                   Illinois statutes provide that the Department
23

    of Public Works and Buildings is responsible for  the develop-
24

    ment of watershed plans or resource development which include
25

-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                  491
               Illinois Is usually considered to follow the
doctrine of riparian rights which broadly stated are the
rights of the owner of land situated on a water course rela-
tive to the water, its use and the ownership of soil under the
stream.  The doctrine also implies the intended responsibility
of the owner to refrain from interfering with or depriving
other land owners, similarly situated, of the same rights.
               In addition to the general police power of the
state to regulate within limitations the use of water and
other related activities—and the state of Illinois has
several rather specific types of Jurisdiction over natural
water courses that are of interest here—it has the power to
regulate and control fishing in all waters of the State.  It
has the power to control and protect all navigable waters of
the state for the purpose of navigation; to control and
regulate the exercise of all rights incident to the ownership
of beds of all water courses in which the state holds title
and to control and regulate the general use of all public
waters of the state.  These Jurisdictions are in addition to
the powers and the rights which the state enjoys  as a
riparian proprietor on a particular water course and such
regulatory actions as the Commission of Pollution Control
laws and other similar regulatory functions.
               The individual riparian owner may make such
reasonable use of the water as he can while it passes his
land.  He may use it for water supply,  for navigation,  for

-------
  I                                                490



    Water Resources.



                   Perhaps, it would be best to first acquaint you
 ft


    in a general way with the scope of the authority of the De-
 3


    partment relative to waters and water courses in Illinois.



                   The Department of Public Works and Buildings
 0


    is a co-department of the Executive Branch of State Govern-
 6


    ment and has Jurisdiction and supervision over the rivers,



    lakes and  streams of the State of Illinois and is charged wit*
 8


    the specific responsibility of making careful investigation
 a


    of such waters and water courses to prevent or remove  en-



    croachments; In this connection, title to the bed of meandered



    lakes in Illinois.



                   Lake Michigan, for example, is held in  trust  fcjr



    the benefit of all of the people of the State, and Jurisdiction
14


    in this instance is assigned to the Department of Public Works
15


    and Buildings.  As a general rule, considering other than
16


    meandered  bodies, title to the bed of rivers  and other streams



    whether navigable or non-navigable, rests with the owner of  tbje
18


    abutting properties, regardless of whether publicly or
X 3


    privately  owned.   supervision   Of the waters  remains with the



    Department, particularly, as to the collection of data rela-



    tive to navigation and natural resources, the development of
22


    public reserves, the exercise of permit for the  erection of
23


    structures, the development of flood control  and low flow



    Improvements, drainage and, to a specific degree, water supply
2o

-------
                                                    489
    also a member of the State Sanitary Water Board — one of our
    real active members.
         MR. FRANCIS LORENZ:  Mr. Chairman, official conferees,
    ladles and gentlemen:
                   I am most pleased to appear before you today
    to present the views of the Department of Public Works and
    Buildings as it relates to the subject of this conference.
                   We are deeply concerned with the problem of
 9   pollution in Lake Michigan because the lake is our most 1m-
10   portant  single water resource.
11                  It is essential that sound management practices
12   based upon thorough engineering analyses be applied so this
13   resource, for the benefit of the people of the City of
14   Chicago, the states of Illinois and Indiana and of the Nation
is   as a whole be preserved.
16                  The Department of Public Works and Buildings,
17   through  its director, is a voting member of the State Pollu-
18   tion Control Agency, the Sanitary Water Board, through the
19   office of Chief Waterway  Engineer, the Department is an
20   official member of the Technical Advisory Committee for Water
21   Resources*
22                  I am pleased to reaffirm that this Department
23   subscribes completely to the comments presented to this con-
24   ference by Mr. Clarence Klassen for the Sanitary Water Board
25   and by Mr. Ackermann for the Technical Advisory Committee for

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 1
                                                      488


                   AFTERNOON  SESSION
 2         CHAIRMAN  STEIN:  May we  reconvene.


                    First. I would like to read a telegram I Just
 3

     received addressed to me, dated today:
 4

                    "Our Union welcomes your conferenece on


          lake pollution. However, on behalf of the employees
 6

          we represent and the  situation in Whiting, it is


          felt that unions  such  as ours should have been
 8

          invited to participate and an answer shall be
 y

          appreciated."


                    Signed  "Joseph J. Sotack, President, Inde-


     pendent Petroleum Workers Union, Whiting, Indiana."


                    Mr. Klassen?
13

          MR. KLASSEN:  To continue with the State of Illinois
14

     Agencypresentations, we have within our State government, the
10

     Department of Public Works  of which the Illinois Division of
16

     Waterways is a part.


                    This department through this division has some
18

     Jurisdictions and some  real interests in the waterways in-
1 w

     volved in this conference.
20

                    It is because  of this and the interest of that
21

     department and its Director in this whole problem that we are
22

     scheduling at  this time a presentation  by our Department of
23

     Public  Works and  it will be given by the Director of the De-


     partment,  the  Honorable Francis Lorenz,  who incidentally is
25

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                                                      487



 i   abatement of the pollution which they are doing.



 2                  It is my recommendation that, If the Secretary,



 3   after this conference and if they so find that these Industrie*



 4   are polluting,  that they should recommend that they abate this



 5   pollution within the time allotted under the Act and if they



 6   don't, that action, legal action, should be filed by the



 7   Attorney General of the United States, and I strongly urge



 8   that there can be no compromise with the health of the people



 9   of the City of Chicago.



10                  Thank you.



n                  (Applause)



12        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Any comments or questions?



13                  (No response)




14                  If not, we will stand recessed until 2:00



15   o'clock.




16                  (Whereupon the proceedings in the above



17   entitled matter were continued to 2:00 o'clock P.M. the



is   same date).




19



20



21



22




23



24



25

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                                                      486


    Moelmann; they examined the plans and when they approved the


    plans, these efforts were carried into effect by the Industrie^.
 A

                   When they were completed, the engineers in-
 3

    spected the treatment works and, if they were satisfactory,
 4

    each of these industries were dismissed from the case in the
 O

    United States Supreme Court.
 6

                   This was done over a period of four or five
 7

    years.  The industries spent about twenty million dollars in
 8

    doing it.  It was done under the supervision of the United
 9

    States Supreme Court Master and every three months these
10

    industries had to report their progress.
12



13



14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
               Now, I found in my investigation that these


conferences, such as these were held  as far back  as 1890,


whenever there was an outbreak of any epidemic or disease or


communicable disease.   A furor would take place  and they


would hold these conferences and the  industries said,  "Yes,


we will do something about it", but they never did anything


until they were forced to do it by Court action.


               Now, it is my recommendation to these conferees


that now we have the Federal Water Pollution Control Act


which has all of the teeth in it which we didn't  have back in


19^3, which gives the Attorney General of the United States,


upon recommendation of the Secretary  of Health, Education, and


Welfare, authority to commence a legal action in  the District


Courts of the United States for the purpose of securing the

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                                                 485
               I was instructed by the Attorney General to
make an investigation which I did for over a period of a year.
               I found that the pollution at that time was
much greater than it is at the present time.  At the Indiana
Harbor Ship Canal we had pollution to the extent of samples
of over one million per hundred millimeters, sometimes as high
as ten million.
               We found that raw sewage went on cakes of ice
 9   as far north from the Whiting area up to Wilson Avenue intake.
10   There was a real pollution problem and fortunately, for the
11   expert efforts of the City of Chicago and their filtration,
12   the handling of their water, there were no epidemics but they
13   commenced a suit in the United States Supreme Court on behalf
   It
14   of the State of Illinois against the State of Indiana and the
four cities and seventeen national industries that were
polluting the lake.
               We had a meeting of the respective governors
and the representatives of the Indiana industries and they
came in and they admitted that they were polluting the lake.
               They said they wanted to do something about it,
they were willing to do something about it.
               We worked out a unique method whereby each of
these industries proposed the necessary abatement plans.
               These plans were submitted to the engineers of
the Sanitary District, Lange Donpers, Horace Rayne and Dr.

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                                                  484
Its mutual water problems with the other Great Lakes states
and desires to solve these varied water resource problems
which exist today and which can be anticipated.
               It hopes to accomplish this in full cooperation
with the various federal and local agencies as well as with
the agencies of its sister Great Lakes states.
               It is believed that through public recognition
and through proper engineering, research, regulation, develop-
ment, legal and sound administrative arrangements that mutual
water needs can be met so far ahead as man can see.
               I again wish to emphasize that I personally
believe that within the framework of this Great Lakes Commis-
sion lies the ultimate amicable solution to many of the present
Great Lakes water use problems and the future problems with
which all states will be confronted as industry and population
expand.
               To this end, the Illinois Delegation of the
conference pledges its active cooperation and support.
               I would like, at this time, to refer the con-
ferees to a case in a pollution situation in the same area,
the lower end of Lake Michigan, which took place prior to 1943.
               While I was an Assistant Attorney General of
Illinois, there was a great furor about the pollution of Lake
Michigan at the lower end,  principally because of the in-
dustries and the four cities at the lower end of Lake Michigan.

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                                                      483
 l                  This applies especially to the assimilation and
 2   dilution of domestic and industrial wastes in lieu of their
 3   proper treatment.  It is believed that all of these uses can
 4   be compatible.
 5                  It is my further belief that within the frame-
 6   work of such interstate compacts as the Great Lakes Compact
 7   Commission that many problems involving the multluse and reuse
 8   of the Great Lakes waters can and should be resolved.
 9                  I believe that in this area we can occupy an
10   extremely important role in resolving these Great Lakes water
n   problems and at the same time protecting and promoting the
12   water interests of this state.
13                  It is my belief that a uniform understanding
14   and policies can be developed and agreed upon whereby waters
15   from the Great Lakes can be utilized by the bordering states
16   without involving economic, health or similar losses or pro-
17   blems to the various states involved.
18                  While litigation may be necessary in resolving
19   some of these questions, it is believed that mutually satis-
20   factory solutions to the problems of water uses of the Great
21   Lakes can be resolved through sound and practical statesman-
22   ship.
23                  Illinois regards its available water resources
24   as one of the most important factors in the economic growth
25   for its municipalities and industries.  Illinois also recognizes

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                                                      482
    Article VII of the Compact has been ratified by each of the
    eight Great Lakes state legislatures.  It provides for the
    states to consider the action of the Commission with respect
    to recommendations on the stabilization of lake levels,
    measures for combating pollution, beach erosion, floods, and
    shore inundation; problems of navigation, fishing, power,
    diversions of waters and other Great Lakes problems.
                   So far as Illinois is concerned, several of
    these considerations do and can vitally effect the economic
10   and Industrial growth of our state and particularly the Chi-
li   cago area as well as the potential population increase which
12   that area can support, particularly in reference to water
13   usage.
14                  Illinois is dedicated to the principal of full
15   multipurpose use of its water resources and this should apply
16   to the waters of the Great Lakes.
17                  We must make maximum economic use of these
18   waters for municipal water supplies, the industrial water
19   supplies, water for agricultural purposes, for fishing and
20   aquatic recreational uses, for water power, navigation, and
21   by those municipalities and industries whose adequately treat -
22   ed wastes are discharged to these waters.
23                  The Delegation recognizes the importance of all
24   of these uses,  and further, that this resource is far too
25   valuable to be dedicated primarily for one particular use.

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                                                      481
    Lake Michigan and also the industries in that area have
2   treatment works.  There are numerous water intakes in that
3
4
5
6                  I want to mention this because Mr. Anderson is
    present.  Will you stand up a minute,  Ray?
 8
7
                  Mr. Chesrow made  a  good  suggestion here.   I am
   talking  about  Lake County, Illinois.
                  There  is  a Lake County,  Indiana.   Thank you,
   Colonel.
                  We promised to get  you out  of here at  12:30
   and we have  one  short presentation we want to work in this
 9
10
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14
15
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23
24
25
    area that have  a  satisfactory raw water  source  and  also,  all
    of the bathing  beaches that operate  in that  area are  open and
    meeting up to bacterial  standards.
   morning.
                  Mr.  Albert Meserow, who is  the immediate past
   Chairman  of  the  Great  Lakes  Compact  Commission and the
   Chairman  of  the  Illinois Delegation.  Mr.  Meserow, would you
   make  a  statement on behalf of the Illinois Delegation?  This
   will  then conclude  the discussion for this morning.
         MR.  ALBERT  E.  MESEROW:  Mr. Chairman, fellow conferees:
   The Great Lakes  Commission is an eight-state  statutory agency
   composed  of  membership of the eight  Great  Lake states, Illlnol
   being one and  Indiana  being  one.
                  The  Commission serves as a  medium of discussion
   and makes recommendations on all Great Lakes  problems.

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                                                480
will  continue to  cooperate with the District  in our  industrial
waste program and the  treatment plant  expansion completed in
accordance with the  consulting engineer's   recommendations,  the
present  and  future needs  of  the Sanitary District  of Bloom
Township will be  adequate for the  next ten to fifteen years,
provided the population trend,  industrial development,  and
area  expansion remain  within predicted forecasts.
      CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Thank  you, Mr. Meers, for a  very In-
formative statement.
               Are there  any comments  or questions?
      MR. POSTON:   I would like to  ask  Mr. Meers whether they
anticipate chlorination as part of their expansion program?
      MR. MEERS:   It  is very  possible.   It will be  on the
recommendation of the  consulting engineers.
      CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Thank  you, sir.
      MR. KLASSEN:  One other area  that has been pointed out
that  is  within the Jurisdiction of the State  Board,  but which
is not an official part of this conference is the  area in Lake
County.
               We  are  not going to ask the North Shore  Sani-
tary District to make  a formal  presentation.   I wanted  to
state that Mr. Ray Anderson  is  here and will  be available to
be called on if and when any problems  or  questions may  arise.
               I merely want to state  that that District  has
complete treatment and chlorination of  the sewage going  into

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                                                    479
   Engineering, University  of  Illinois,  to  supervise  and  conduct
                            i
   the abovementloned  survey and  study.   The  final report of this
0   study is entitled,  "Future Planning - Plant  Evaluation and
O
4   Industrial Waste Survey,  Sanitary District of Bloom Township,
                              \
,.   Park Forest,  Chicago Heights,  South Chicago  Heights, Illinois,
0
.   April 1963, Swing,  Engelbrecht and Associates, Champaign,
b
7   Illinois."
    operative agreement with the United States Department of the
 3
                   The Sanitary District has entered into a co-
Interior, Geological Survey, to construct, install, equip and
operate a stream gaging station located above our wastewater
treatment plant at Halsted street in Chicago Heights.  The
stream gaging station was constructed and put into operation
in June 1964.  Our District is now measuring the flow of the
stream, sampling and conducting stream evaluation studies.
               The wastewater treatment plant of the Sanitary
District of Bloom Township is achieving consistently 85
percent or higher biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and sus-
pended solids (SS) removal efficiency.
               The Board of Trustees of the Sanitary District
have retained the services of a competent sanitary engineering
firm to prepare plans and specifications for construction and
installation of additional treatment facilities at our waste-
water treatment plant.
               It is my considered opinion that, if industry

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    storage capacity has been provided and arrangements made to
    adequately dispose of these oil wastes.
 ft
                   The industrial waste study has resulted in some
 o
    accomplishments other than the remedial measures taken by
 4
    those industries.  Foremost is the keener understanding of the
 5
 .  effects of industrial wastes on the treatment plant and
 6
    knowledge of the industries needing remedial action, those
    needing further investigation, and those which produce no
 8
    significant wastes.
 y
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
20
21
22

23
24
25
               Another  very  Important  accomplishment has been
the development of greater respect  and appreciation of the
District's problems by  people  in  all the  industries in the
community.  The associations resulting from  this  study greatly
enhance the long  and continued effort  to  educate  these people
to appreciate waste treatment  and cooperate  in the control of
pollution.
               Laboratory pilot plant  studies conducted to
determine the effect of industrial  wastes on the  treatment
plant actually demonstrated  some possible modifications in
operation which permitted the  plant to accommodate these
difficult industrial wastes  with less  ill effects.  The
laboratory pilot plants have been continued  and have even be-
come a control feature  of the  treatment plant.
               The Sanitary District retained Dr. R. S.
Engelbrecht and Dr. Ben B. Ewing, Professors of Sanitary

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                                                  477
treatment plant was attributed to the infiltration of storm
water.
               The Sanitary District conducted a comprehensive
industrial waste survey and wastewater treatment plant evalua-
tion study.  Forty-seven (47) industries were surveyed and
their wastes were studied,identified and characterized.
               During the course of this survey and  study the
industries, officials and personnel were very cooperative.
The Sanitary District's policy is that industry should elimi-
nate objectionable industrial waste at the source.   Industry
has responded in various ways, but with gratifying results.
               One industry which produces a waste which is
very difficult to treat has installed industrial waste treat-
ment facilities and these facilities are doing a very satis-
factory Job.
               Another industry is making an intensive study
of possible waste abatement measures within its plant and
records of sampling have shown marked Improvement.
               One of the companies has designed and installed
additional pretreatment facilities.
               Still another has agreed to purchase  and instal
monitoring equipment which, in their case, was the only cor-
rective measure considered necessary.
               One large industry was found to be discharging
oil directly to the stream during heavy rains.  Sufficient

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                                                      476

                   I am J. Edward Meers, Manager-Superintendent
 i
    of the Sanitary District of Bloom Township, Chicago Heights,
 2
    Illinois.
 3
                   The Sanitary District of Bloom Township is
 4
    located 24 miles south of the Chicago Loop and 6 miles west of
 5
    the Indiana State line.  The Sanitary District serves Chicago
 6
    Heights, South Chicago Heights and Park Forest, Illinois.  The
 7
    present connected population is 75,357.  On June 4, 1928, a
 8
    referendum was held and the formation of the Sanitary District
 9
    was approved.
10
                   The first wastewater treatment plant, a septic
n
    tank and contact bed, was built in 1907 to serve the City
12
    of Chicago Heights.  In 1921 this plant was revised to an
13
    Imhoff tank and trickling filter type plant.  Construction
14
    was started in 1935 on a new activated sludge plant and addi-
15
    tions were completed on the activated sludge plant in 1956.
16
                   The Sanitary District initiated a survey and
17
    study of the infiltration of storm water into the sanitary
18
    sewer system.  The District has a separate sewer system.
19
    The result of this study was a report entitled, "study and
20
    Survey of the Nonuse and Misuse of Sanitary Sewers", 1959, E.
21
    H. Ashdown; Consulting Engineer,  Chicago Heights, Illinois.
22
                   We received cooperation of the Municipalities
23
    served by the District and during a three-year period,  from
24
    1961 to 1964,  only ten percent  of the flow received at  our
25

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25
                                                  475

    to the plaintiff in accordance with plans and specifications


    filed with the Sanitary Water Board.
                   Finally, it should be mentioned that the
3


    Sanitary Water Board does not grant permits for sewers unless



    adequate treatment facilities exist or are assured.  Mtnyof
O


    the treatment works in the Thorn Creek watershed were en-
6


    larged or improved as a requisite for consideration of sewer



    system expansion.
O


         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.
9
               Are there any comments or questions?


               (No response)


               Thank you very much, sir.


     MR. KLASSEN:  I am going to ask Mr. Meers, the Superin-


tendent of the Thorn Creek-Bloom Township Sanitary District,


to make a brief statement on behalf of that Sanitary District


which embraces the areas of Park Forest, Chicago Heights,


and that Immediate area.


               Inasmuch as this was mentioned in the Public


Health Service report and referred to several times, I wanted


It as a matter of record what this Sanitary District has and


is doing.


     CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Without objection, Mr. Nelle's complete


report, including the chart and map will appear in the record.


     MR. MEERS:  Mr. Chairman, Honorable conferees, ladies


and gentlemen:

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                                                                                  474
A/N
                                                                  LEGEND

                                                      WATER  QUALITY  SAMPLING STATION
                                                      TERRITORY UNDER  JURISDICTION OF
                                                      ILLINOIS SANITARY WATER BOARD
                                                      BOUNDARY METROPOLITAN  SANITARY
                                                      DISTRICT  OF GREATER CHICAGO
                                                  FLAN   MAP
                       CAUTMET  REGION  &  LAKE  MICHIGAN  WATKIISIIKHS

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                                                     472

 1    same order as those  shown in Table II and the  same general
 2    comments  are applicable  although the flow In Thorn Creek  is
 3    about  one-half that  in Little Calumet River.
 4                  It  should be noted that the muncipalities  of
 5    Glenwood, East Chicago Heights, and Sauk Village are  within
 6    the Chicago Sanitary District and also within  Thorn Creek
 7    watershed.  Their  combined population is about 9,000.
 8                  Plum  Creek, having its source in eastern Will
 9    County,  flows northeasterly into Indiana, becomes known as
10    Hart Ditch and empties into Little Calumet River at the north-
11    east corner of Munster,  Indiana.  Three small  sewage  treat-
12    ment plants serving  two  undeveloped subdivisions and  a
13
     country club drain into Plum Creek tributaries.   Sampling
14    data included in Table IV do not indicate significant  pollution
15    entering the State of Indiana from Illinois.  (See Table IV on
                                      following page.)
                    Since its inception in 1929, the Sanitary Water
17    Board has refused to grant permits for new combined sewer
18    systems and has required that extensions to existing combined
     sewer systems be made on the separate sewer plan.
20
                    A permit issued to the Village of Lansing for
21
     sewer development in a private tract constitutes the single
22
     exception to this policy.  In the case of Frank vs. Village oi
23    Lansing and State Sanitary Water Board, No. 48398, Illinois
24    Appellate First District, the Appellate Court affirmed the
25
     order of the Circuit Court directing the issuance of a permit
                           (Continue  text on page 475)

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                                                                 471
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                                                                                                        470
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-------
                                                        469
                   Bloom Township Sanitary District serving Chicago

    Heights,  South Chicago Heights,  and Park Forest collects and
 2
    treats about one-half of the total waotewater in the Thorn
 3
    Creek watershed.  Included in this presentation is a brief
 4
    statement from the District concerning its future plans and
 5
    programs.
 B
                   Table II lists observations and analytical re-
 7
    suits taken at a sampling station located on Little Calumet
 8
    River at wentworth Avenue in Lansing.  These results portray
 9
    the general water quality of the River as it comes from the
10
    State of Indiana.
11
                   The data indicate quantities of organic matter
12
    present in the water or presumably in bottom deposits suffi-
13
    cient to depress the dissolved oxygen content below satis-
14
    factory levels.  In past years a diurnal change in dissolved
15
    oxygen has been noted with absence or low values at daybreak
16
    and high values by raid-afternoon.
17                       (See Table II on following page.)
                   Table II further shows coliform bacteria and
18
    enterococcus counts In a range of values consistent with
19
    numbers found in fresh or dilute sewage treatment plant
20
    effluents.  Other constituents likewise confirm the presence
21
    of undesirable amounts of waste matter.
22                       (See Table III on following page.)
                   Table ill lists similarly the water quality of
23
    Thorn Creek near its confluence with Little Calumet River.
24
    Co-incidentally, the values for various tests are much of the
25
                         (Continue Text on Page 472)

-------
                                                                                    468
                                         TABLE   I
            DOMESTIC WASTEWATER  WORKS - LITTLE  CALUMET  RIVER WATERSHED
                          ILLINOIS  SANITARY WATER BOARD  AREA
Municipality
Lar.sing
Thornion
rlomewood
Flossmoor
Olympic Fields
Main
Olympic Woods
Graymoor
Matteson
Richton Park
Bloom Township San. Dist. ' '
Crere
Steyer
3 Winor(c)
3 Minor(d)
Receiving
Stream
Little Cal. R.
Thorn Creek
Butterfield Cr.
Butterfield Cr.

Butterfield Cr.
Butterfield Cr.
Butterfield Cr.
Butterfield Cr.
Butterfield Cr.
Thorn Creek
Deer Creek
Third Creek
Plum Creek
Thorn Creek
Estimated Load to Sewers
and Treatment
Population
18,500
2,900
15,000
4,800

800
400
180
3,200
1,050
68,000
2,750
6,400
—
—
P.E.(«>
18,500
2,900
15,000
4,800

800
400
180
3,200
1,050
75,000
3,500
6,400
100(o)
100(e)
Design
Capacity
P.E.
25,000
4,500
16,000
8,000

2,500
1,500
400
5,000
3,000
60,000
4,000
10,000
—
—
Year Built or at
Last Expansion
1958
1959
1956
1956

1960
1959'
1954
1959
1964
1958
1963
1954
--
—
                                                 123,980   131,730      139,900
  (a) -  Population Equivalent
  (b) —  Chicago Heights, South Chicago Heights, Park Forest
  (c) -  2 Subdivisions and 1 country club
  (d) —  1 Subdivision, 1 medical center, and 1 industrial domestic
  (•) -  Excluded from totals

NOTE:  All waste works provide secondary treatment capable of 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand reductions of
       greater than 85%;  Estimated total P.E, to streams 17,500

-------
                                                         467
                   It IB sufficient to note that in Thorn Creek
    watershed through constant public demands for cleaner streams
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7   of conditions has been noted in the past thirty years or more,
 0   despite a growing population and greater industrial activity.
 O
                   These streams are not large for the populations
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
 and  through Sanitary Water  Board action,  numerous raw sewage
 discharges  were  eliminated,  and  all  sewered municipalities now
                                «
 have secondary treatment  facilities.  Although the water
 quality of  these streams  are not ideal,  a gradual Improvement
 that  use  them for wastewater treatment effluent assimilation
 and transport.  During dry weather the flow in Thorn Creek
 approximates  the combined volumes of sewage treatment plant
 effluents.
                     (See  Table I on following page)
                In Table I are listed the municipal wastewater
 works located within the  Little Calumet River drainage system
 under Sanitary Water Board jurisdiction.  An estimated
 124,000 persons are  served by sewers and secondary treatment,
 and with  some included industrial waste the population equiva-
 lent  is about 132,000.
                Population equivalent is a calculated waste-
 water strength equal to a normal waste contribution  by the
 same  number of persons.   Present treatment  plants, all of  whicji
 have  been built, enlarged,  or improved in the  past ten years,
have  a nominal  capacity for treatment  of wastes of 140,000
population equivalent.
                     (Continue Text on Page 469 }

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                                                     466


l   of Clarence W. Klassen, Chief Sanitary Engineer of the


   Department, and Technical Secretary of the Illinois Sanitary
f»

   Water Board.
3

                  My principal duties for almost thirty years hav
4

   been in  activities relating to Illinois programs  of water pol-
5

   lutlon abatement, prevention, and control.   In the course of


   my work,  I have devoted much time and effort to the region
7

   under consideration  at this conference.
8

                  The accompanying map of Calumet Region  shows
9

   the areas over which the  Illinois Sanitary Water  Board has


   responsibility for water  pollution control.  Other areas in


   this part of  Cook County  have been subject to control  by the


   Metropolitan  Sanitary District of Greater Chicago since 1956,


   prior to which year  159th Street  (U.S.Route  6) defined the


   general  southern boundary of the District.


                  Pollution  control of Lake  Michigan waters


   within the State are a responsibility of  the Board from the


   north Cook County line to the State of Wisconsin, and  in


   Cook County from sources  other than those originating  in the


   Sanitary District.


                  Prom  1929  to 19^6, surveys and sampling in the


   Calumet  Region for the Sanitary Water Board  encompassed


   streams  within the Chicago Sanitary District, as  the responsi-


   bilities for  stream  pollution control were less well defined


   than at  the present  time.
10


n


12


13


14


15


16


17


18


19


20


21


22



23


24


25

-------
                                                      465

    District of Chicago.  This accounts for the co-conferees, the


    Sanitary Water Board and the Chicago Sanitary District.
2

                   The next brief presentation — it is brief
3

    because it covers a small area — will be made on behalf of
4

    the State Sanitary Water Board by Mr. Bichard Nelle, who is
o

    the Co-ordlnator of the Board enforcement activities and
6

    handles our water resources information*  He will be assisted
7

    by Ben Leiand, coming up the aisle here, who is in charge of
8

    the Sanitary Water Board of Chicago Office.
9

                   I do want to call attention to the map over
10

    here, the three white areas that you see.  Do you want to
11

    point them out for a minute, Leland?  They are the areas under
12

    the Jurisdiction of the State sanitary Water Board.
13

         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Those are the three areas left of the
14

    Illinois line within dotted areas, because this won't show up
15

    when we reprint it.
16

         MR. KLASSEN:  The dotted area, the one at the left,
17

    Chicago Heights and the Homewood area, then the next is the
18

    Thornton area and then next is Lansing.
19

                   Mr. Nelle, will you make the presentation for
20

    the Board?
21

         MR. RICHARD S. NELLE:  Mr. Chairman, conferees, ladies
22

    and gentlemen:
23

                   I am Richard S. Nelle, Sanitary Engineer,
24

    Illinois Department of Public Health, serving under direction
25

-------
                                                     464



                   Is  it  not  timely for us  to  ask that  our great



 2   neighboring state  of  Indiana and the  responsible officials of




 3   local  communities  in  that State, together  with Industries who



 4   may  be contributing to the pollution  of interstate  waters,



 ,   take immediate remedial and necessary preventive measures to
 O


 6   halt such pollution which jeopardizes not  only the  citizens of



 7   Chicago,  but citizens of Indiana as well.



 0                  It  is  my great hope that this conference called
 o


 .   by Honorable Anthony  J. Celebrezze today will be consummated
 y


    by the development of an acceptable program and schedule under



n   which  the State of Indiana, with the  cooperation of the Pedera^
12   Government and the State of Illinois,  will bring about a



13   cessation of pollution,  thereby assuring us and future genera-



    tlons of a wholesome water supply.



15                  Thank you very much.



,c        CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Dr. Andelman.
ID


17                  (Applause)



18                  Any comments or questions?



lg                  (No response)




20                  If not» —



21        MR. KLASSEN:  This  is an off-the-record remark.



22                  (Discussion off the record)



23        MR. KLASSEN:  Most  of the audience,  I am sure,  is aware



24   of the fact  that  the Illinois Legislature has excluded from



25   the  Jurisdiction  of the  Sanitary Water Board the Sanitary


-------
                                                      463



    deleterious to health when Ingested over a long period.



                   Specifically, any contamination of our drinking
 £»


    water with intestinal organisms, even though they be harmless
 o


    in themselves, is an immediate signal of potential danger.
 4


                   Furthermore, the viruses of poliomyelitis and
 5


 .   infectious hepatitis may both be disseminated by fecal contain!
 5


    nation of the water supply.  The fact that we now have an



 .   effective vaccine against poliomyelitis does not alter the
 o


    situation.  There is no such vaccine against hepatitis, and
 9
10



11



12



13




14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22




23




24



25
this disease  is  still  a  serious health problem.


               Good  sound public health preventive medical


practice demands that  our water resources  be maintained  in  the


cleanest possible  condition.



               The United States Public Health service report


titled, "Report  on Pollution of the Waters of  Grand  Calumet


River, Little Calumet  River, Calumet River, Lake Michigan,


Wolf Lake and Their  Tributaries, Illinois  - Indiana", dated


February 1965> contains  adequate documentation of the sources


of pollution which may adversely affect the health and well-


being of citizens  residing  In our communities.



               The City  of  Chicago has used every lawful


measure available  to control and prevent pollution Insofar  as


this municipality  is concerned.  We have received assurance



from our responsible state  agencies that similar measures are



being undertaken by the State of Illinois.

-------
1
4
2                 We  in Public Health are rightly concerned  since
   this type of pollution carries with  it the threat of outbreaks
   of infectious hepatitis, typhoid fever, Salmonellosis,  and
   possibly other virus or bacterial diseases, which we have not
6  had since the late l800's.
                  In  order to successfully control  these water-
0  borne diseases,  it has been necessary to maintain constant
O
.  vigilance of the safety of our water supply and  to  require
y
10
11

12

13

14

15

16
17

18

19
20

21

22

23

24
25
                                                   462
    sewage empty into the lake.
   more money for  the  construction  of  new water treatment  faci-
   lities.
                   At present, water used  for drinking purposes is
   being  maintained  safely.   Persons using the lake for swimming
   and other recreational  purposes  do  not have the protection of
   filtration and  chlorination,  but come  in direct contact with
   the polluted  water;  hence  hazard to them is markedly greater
   than exists from  the drinking of properly treated water.
                   The  waters  of  Lake Michigan that are used for
   drinking,  bathing and recreational  activities should be free
   from undesirable  appearance,  odor,  and taste.  In this  connec-
   tion industrial wastes  such as phenollcs, oils, cyanides,  flue
   dust and  popcorn  slag play a  serious role in the Lake Michigan
   water  pollution problem.
                   Industrial wastes impart  undesirableodors to
   the water  and in sufficient concentration may also  be

-------
                                                   461


    the responsible city and state officials concerned with the



    protection of the health of our community advise us that



    pollution from both municipal sewage disposal systems and from
 3


    some industrial plant discharges is becoming a serious problem
 4


    and creating potential health hazards,  as well as adding sub-
 O


 c   stantially to the economic burden on the taxpayers of this
 b


    community due to the increased cost for the treatment of our



    drinking water.
 u


                   Studies carried out by the United States Public
 y
10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21




22




23




24




25
Health Service  and the Chicago Department  of Water  and  Sewers



during the years  1962 through 1964  indicate an  increasing



degree of fecal type contaminants in  the waters at  the  south-



ern end of Lake Michigan.



                The United States Public Health  Service  states:



"Highest coliform concentration occurred in the waters  extend-



ing from the mouth of the Calumet River to the  Indiana  Harbor



and out to a distance of approximately two miles off  shore."



                This contaminated water, due to  current  flows



in the south end  of Lake Michigan, moves northward  until  it



reaches the South District Water Filtration Plant intakes and



the beaches in  the southern half of the City of Chicago.   The



presence of these polluted waters presents a definite health



hazard because when there is increased concentration of non-



pathogenic organism, pathogenic bacterial  and viral organisms



obviously must Increase also as greater and greater amounts of

-------
 8




 9




10




11





12




13




14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21





22





23




24




25
                                                  460



plants became necessary In order that safe, potable water,



free of disease-producing contaminants, would be available in



sufficient abundance to assure protection of the public health



and continued residential and industrial growth.  To meet our



obligations the City of Chicago has Just completed the con-



struction of the world's largest and most modern water treat-



ment plant designed to supply not only Chicago but also other



communities served by Chicago's water system.



               In addition to constituting a domestic raw



water source for our drinking water, Lake Michigan provides



recreation for millions of citizens of Chicago and the



metropolitan area.   We have been Justly proud of our bathing



beaches and aquatic recreational facilities.



               Because of these aforementioned actions, the



City has had an excellent record with respect to the control



of waterborne diseases*  The maintenance of this record,



however, has been dependent upon many factors including main-



tenance of a highly trained staff of water safety experts.



These experts advise us that an increasing amount of Inferior



quality lake water moving in from the south of the City has



been noted at the water intakes of the South District Filtra-



tion Plant.  Already it is noted that a number of beaches in



the communities to the south of Chicago have been closed be-



cause of polluted water in Lake Michigan.



               The United States Public Health Service and

-------
                                                     459



    statement  to this conference.



         DR. ANDELMAN:   Thank you,  very much,



         MR. KLASSEN:  He is locally known as Dr. Sam.



         DR. ANDELMAN:   Thank you,  very much.
4


                   I see some of you smoking.  I want to make sure
u


c   this is not affecting water pollution
b


7                  (Laughter)



                   Honorable Chairman,  Conferees Poston, p0ole
8


    Klassen, Colonel Chesrow, public officials, representatives
9


    citizen groups, ladies and gentlemen:



                   The citizens of Chicago who Inhabited these



    shores at  the turn of the Century,  when Chicago was a fledg-
i. it


    ling community, dealt sternly and realistically with the pro-
13


    blem of disease and nuisance-creating pollution of Lake
14


    Michigan.
15


1C                  Their foresight in establishing the Metropoli-
16


    tan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago with its world re-



    nowned record for efficient waste treatment, and the outstand-
18


    ing engineering feat of reversal of the flow of the Chicago
jy


    River were critical factors in permitting the development of
20


21   Chicago as a leader residential, bU8ineSs and Industrial center



22   whose citizens enjoyed the health benefits of a safe,  potable



23   drinking water supply and water-oriented recreation areas
24  second to none.
25
                  The construction of modern water treatment

-------
                                                     458


   something  like 38  in one place, 49 percent  in another place




   and  I  Just  raise this  issue.



                  I am not saying whether  it is significant  or



   anything of that kind, but, I would  think that  before the



   conference is concluded, the Sanitary District  in its presenta-



 6  tion,  may  want to  cover that so the  conferees will  be able to



 7  come to a  uniform  Judgment.



 0                 Are there any other points or comments?
 o


                   (No response.)
 y


 0                 If  not, you know,  we  do  have a  lot of people



   and  we are going to keep your nose to the grindstone.



                  Mr. Klassen has  a  few more people to call  be-



   fore lunch and I think we  are not going to  go  past  12:30, but
1O


   we are going to try to expedite this as much as possible.



                  Mr. Klassen?
15


        MR. KLASSEN:   Yes, that is the  general timing.
16


                  One of  the  real  important Jobs  in the city of



   Chicago is the Commissioner of  Health.
18


._                 He's got to keep his  eye open for present  and
13


   possible future potential  hazards to health,



                  Chicago is  fortunate  to  have a Health Commis-



   sioner that has a  rare combination of medical  and environ-
AM


   mental health competencies.
23


                  At  this time, I am going to  ask  Dr.  Andelman,

  I


   Commissioner of Health of  the City of Chicago,  to present his
25

-------
2
    ment wasn't proper,  are more Important than any costs that we
o


    might have.



         MR.  POSTON:   Thank you.  I thought it was excellent.
5


         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  For the conferees—and maybe they want
D


    to hold you when you finish this—I think we have two points



    here.
8


                   I think one is that for the first time, at
y
10



11



12



13



14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
                                                       457


                   I think the problems that come with treating


    a polluted water and the possible ramifications,  if the treat -
 least to me,  I have  seen  recommended water  criteria goals.


 This should be borne in mind during the  rest  of  the conference


 by the conferees.  There  was another point  that  Mr.  Gerstein


 raised—and this is  always one  of the most  awkward  spots  for  a


 Chairman who  has to  keep  his eye on the  unresolved  issues—


 and I bring it up because I wondered particularly if the


 Sanitary District would later,  in its presentation,  be careful


 to include this:  Mr. Gerstein, generally speaking,  said  that


 the report is in accord with the data and reports presented


 by Mr. LeBosquet yesterday, and I think  that  these  reports


 speak for themselves and  the conferees will be able  to evaluati


 However, Mr.  LeBosquet said that the Calumet  River  and its


wastes went back into Lake Michigan a significant number  of


times.   There was a question on that by Colonel Chesrow.  This


is still,  to my mind, an unresolved issue.


     I  think Mr.  Gerstein's figures as I saw them up there were

-------
                                                     456

                   I suspect that this paper Is such a classical
 i
    example of our problem that it will very well be used In other
 2
    regions throughout the country.
 3
                   If this conference accomplishes nothing else,
 4
    at least, we provided the forum for the deliverance of the
 5
    paper,
 6
                   Thank you very much.
 7
                   Wait, let's see If there are any comments or
 8
    questions.
 9
                   Any questions?
10
                   Wait just one moment.  Mr. Poston?
11
         MR. POSTON:  I would like to ask Mr. Gerstein if he's
12


13


14


15


16


17


18


19


20


21


22


23


24


25
made  cyanide  analyses  on  raw water and  have they had any

reason to  suspect that they might  have  —

      MR. GERSTEIN:   I  checked with Jim  Vaughn on this matter

and we haven't taken very many  samples  for  cyanide  tests,  but

all those  that we have taken in the lake  have been  negative

for cyanide.

      MR. POSTON:  I  was going to ask one  more question and

that  pertained to whether you have any  estimated total annual

cost  of treatment because of pollution?

               In other words,  whether  you  could break out the

cost  of extra chemicals and extra  filter  washing?

     MR. GERSTEIN:  I  don't have that figure.

               It can be obtained.  It  is rather difficult.

But,  frankly,  I am not  really concerned about the cost.

-------
4
10

II

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                                                   455
                  We  are,  therefore,  suggesting that  natural
    algae  odors be omitted  from these  parameters,  and  set  a
    maximum  goal  of  a  threshold odor number  of  6 in the  intake
    water  for  odors  produced  by industrial waste pollution with
    the particular caution  to be observed that  the odors so caused
c   should  always  be  of  such  nature  as to come  within the capacity
b
    of  a conventional water treatment  plant  for their removal.
                  The statement  was prepared by Oscar Dillens
    and his assistant, Jim Vaughn, who played a big part  in the
    preparation  of this  report.
                  Nick  Kuhn,  the head of the Water Safety Control
    Section,  furnished most of the data,  since  it was collected
    under his Jurisdiction.
                  Thank you.
         CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   Thank you, Mr.  Gerstein.
                  Why don't  you  wait  up  there  a minute.
                  Speaking for myself, Hy,  I want  to say that I
    have waited  twenty years  for  that  statement and it was worth
    waiting for.
         MR.  GERSTEIN:  Thank you.
         CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   I think it was  completely comprehensive
    and  I don't know  where the views and  information you  presented
    in the  report  are going to lead.   But  I  am  sure that  these
    views and this Information will have to  be  taken into consider-
    ation in  any evaluation of water quality in this area.

-------
                                                     454



                   We have prepared recommendations which we



    believe are both desirable and practical for attainment of



    the maximum goals in various parameters of quality which, if
O


    met, should present no serious problems in producing a safe



    and palatable, superior quality water for the consumers in
O


    Chicago and the metropolitan area.
6


                   These are maximum goals which should never be



    exceeded but it is most desirable that these parameters be
O


    kept at levels below these maximums at all times.
9
10




11




12




13




14




15




16




17




18




19




20




21




22




23




24




25
               I am showing on the slide the Recommended



Quality Criteria.



               These are not too strict,  I would say most of



the time, water at our intakes met these standars; but, by



setting the criteria limits and also setting perraissable



limits for not more than 12 days per year, we feel that an



acceptable water can be received at our intakes which will



lend itself to efficient treatment in our plant.



               We have purposely omitted the parameter "odor



threshold" number because of differences which exist in the



effectiveness of water treatments for removing various types



of odors from the water.  It has been our experience that it



is more difficult to reduce a "hydrocarbon" type odor of 6



threshold intensity to an acceptable level, than an algae-type



odor of 15 threshold intensity.

-------
 4
 5                  We have been requested to develop recommenda-
    tions for desirable quality criteria goals for various para-
 7   meters of quality for Lake Michigan water received at our
 Q   water works intakes.  We are fully aware of the pit-falls that
 o
    are inherent in setting water quality criteria goals and are,
 y
10
11

12

13

14

15

16

17
18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                                                      453
                   And now,  I come to the last section.  It  is on
    Recommended Quality Criteria Goals for Lake Water at the
    Chicago Water Works Intakes.
                   Next slide, please.
 therefore,  approaching this matter with  great  caution  and
 trepidation,  and with full knowledge  that  only a practical  and
 reasonable  recommendation for quality goals  can be  Justified.
               Lake Michigan water in its  natural state  has
 been  an excellent  source of water supply and lends  itself to
 treatment in  conventional rapid-sand  treatment plants  to pro-
 duce  a superior quality water for domestic and industrial use.
               It  is only during periods when  industrial and
 sewage pollution of the water with contaminants such as  coli-
 form  bacteria, odor producing wastes  which are difficult to
 remove, ammonia,nitrogen, phenols, ABS and various  organic
 wastes having unknown chemical constituants, are present in
 the water that it  becomes difficult to produce our  customary
 high  quality  water in the conventional treatment plant.  Also
 Increased nutrients in the water definitely tend toward  bring-
 ing about biological degradation of the lake and the problems
that go with it.

-------
                                                      452


    sufficient numbers to reduce the filter runs at the South


    District Filtration Plant to less than 7 hours*  Therefore,
 2

    the problem of short filter runs, which normally occurred only
 3

    on a seasonal basis, is now present almost all the year round,
 4

    resulting in increasing the costs of treatment and creating
 O

    operating problems in the plant.
 6

                   Another result of increased amounts of phos-
 7

    phorus and ammonia nitrogen in the lake water has been the
 8

    increase in the growth of the filamentous algae known as
 9

    Cladaphora.  This algae has been found growing along the rocks
10

    around the bulkhead of the filter plant and has been observed
11

    by skin divers growing in patches at the bottom of the lake
12

    near the plant intakes.
13

                   The wave action of the lake loosens this algae
14

    and it collects on the screens of the intake basin ahead of
15

    the low lift pumps, clogging these screens and reducing the
16

    flow through them.  At times each summer it has been necessary
17

    to keep a crew of laborers busy cleaning these screens which
18

    are of the fixed type and not adaptable to automatic cleaning.
19

                   Pour to six men are kept busy almost every day
20

    for a period of six weeks to three months, cleaning screens of
21

    this particular algae.  Each year clogging of the screens in-
22

    creases and the period over which it is necessary to clean the
23

    screens of this algae lengthens out.  In 1964 it was necessary
24

    to clean the screens as late as the first week in November.
25

-------
                   As previously indicated,  normally the popula-



    tion peaks of plankton in the water are reached in the spring
tt


    and the fall of each year; however, in 1956 a new problem
3


    appeared — a new diatom which had existed in snfall numbers
4


    heretofore, began to occur In appreciable numbers.  This
5


    diatom is known as Stephanodlscus hantzachii.  It is a small
6


    diatom that grows best when the water temperature ranges be-



    tween 32 and 39 degrees Fahrenheit.  This organism does not
8


    interfere with filter runs but in its life cycle produces col-
9


    loldal calcium carbonate which produces colloidal turbidity



    in the water, and raises the hydrogen ion concentration of the



    water.  This in turn requires the use of much more coagulant.



                   In 1959 another difficult water diatom appear-
1 w


    ed — this one had not been observed in Lake Michigan until
14


    that time,  it has been reported as being present in the St.
15


    Lawrence River water at Montreal in 1956.
16


                   This organism is known as Stephanodiscus



    binderanus.  It is a filamentous diatom and In addition to
18


    raising the hydrogen ion concentration of the water, produced
zy


    colloidal calcium carbonate when present In large quantities,



    and the organisms not settled out in the basin are carried on
21


    to the filters, producing short filter runs and creating
**


    serious operating problems because of the large number of



    filter washes required.
24


                   In January I960  this  organism occurred  in
25

-------
3
6
15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                                                      450
    maximum number found during any day in each year for the
    period 1950-1964 in the lake  water at the South District
    Filtration Plant intakes.  This chart shows in a very striking
    manner the general upward trend in plankton numbers over the
    period.  The annual average microorganisms per mllllllter more
    than doubled from 10?6 in 1950 to 2624 in 1964, and the number
    found in the water during the maximum day of each year in-
    creased from 3961 in 1950 to 15,510 in 1964.
                   The prevailing type of algae in the lake at the
    Chicago intakes has been the diatoms Tabellaria, Pragilaria

11
12
13
14
10
    and Asterionella.  Normally there are spring and fall peaks of
    these organisms, usually rising when the water temperature
    ranges between 45 and 55 degrees Fahrenheit.
                   Under normal operation, the filters at the
    South District Filtration Plant are washed about once in 24
    hours or longer.  However, when the algae numbers in the intak
    water reach their peaks, the coagulation is less effective in
    settling out the microorganisms, and clogging of the filters
    results, cutting down the filter runs to about 6 or 7 hours.
    At such time, the operating problems caused by larger number
    of filter backwashes and the increased "time out" of filters
    being washed, decreased the plant capacity considerably.  Such
    occurrences during peak demand periods in the water system
    have had serious consequences in reducing the available capa-
    city of the plant when needed most

-------
           449
FIGURE  H-l
PLANKTON
MICROORGANISMS PER -ml.
SOUTH DISTRICT FILTRATION PLANT INTAKE
/ 6,000
1-5,000
14,000
13,000
12,000
*
r— *
f
cc
LJ
CL
w
^
CROORGAN
2
11,000
IQOOO
9,000
8,000
7000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
1950-1964









- r^~
„




MHM











F«j
































MAXIMUM DAYV
\S ^









m^m

"^W
























i^B


1950






•^

"P—






•^••M









-







VKHPV
A^
1






n

~.
gwuA
n
mtm








L
1



MM





A
•Mi



VE
i .;


:n
1
•IB




^•W
A
1





6





g*
"^



























mq*p

•











1955 I960 964
Y p A p CITY OF CHICAGO
^ •"- *»" nrBADTMCMT rx WA7PR A HEWERS

-------
 1


 2


 3


 4


 5


 6


 7


 8


 9


10


11


12


13


14


15


16


17


18


19


20


21


22


23


24


25
                                                   448

to scan all of our 250 instruments in various parts of the


plant, at very frequent Intervals and print out on a data log


when It exceeds or goes under set points.


               We plan later to try to use the computer to


automate certain functions in the treatment.


               Next slide, please.


               This section Is on the Effect of Nutrient


Pollution of Lake on Plankton Development.


               The Increased nutrient waste discharge  into  the


southern end of Lake Michigan, indicated by the rise in


ammonia nitrogen content of the water, has caused  increases


in the numbers and changes in the species of plankton micro-


organisms in th°e lake water.  (See Flg.H-1 on following page.)


               In recent years routine tests for phosphorus


in the water were carried out in our laboratory other  than  on


samples for complete chemical analysis.  However,  in light  of


the ABS (synthetic detergent) pollution found to exist in the


Indiana Harbor Ship Canal discharges to the lake and the


results of laboratory determinations made by the United States


Public Health Service in their recent surveys, there is no


question that sufficient phosphorus exists in the water to  act


with the high ammonia nitrogen content to furnish the  necessary


nutrients to sustain the increased plankton growths which have
              (

been observed.


               In this chart shown on the board, the annual


average number of plankton organisms per millileter and the


                         (Continue  text page 450)

-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                      447
produced as  side effects in the increase of nutrient pollu-
tion,  and  are discussed in Section H  of this  report.
               A very obvious  and apparent result  of this
steady increase in the pollution of the raw water  treated  at
the South  District Filtration  Plant has been  a rapidly  accel-
erating rise in the costs of chemicals for treatment.   While
there  has  been a slight rise in the price per pound paid for
the chemicals, this is but a fraction of the  total increase in
the total  cost of chemical treatment  of the polluted Intake
water.
               The annual average cost of chemicals used in
treating water at the South District  Filtration Plant has  in-
creased from $3.81 per rag. in  1955 to $6.35 in 1964.  Pro-
jecting these costs at the present rate of increase into the
future, it is obvious that the cost of producing a satisfactory
water  from such a highly polluted source, may well become  pro-
hibitive.  It is also possible, If this pollution  continues,
that the capacity of this plant to properly treat  such  a pol-
luted  water, may soon be overtaxed.
               I would like to depart from my prepared  state-
ment to tell you about the provision that our new  Central
District Filtration Plant has  a very sophisticated type  of
instrumentation for controlling treatment in  the plant.
               We are now taking bids for a computer which will
cost about a quarter of a million dollars ,  which will function

-------
                                                      446

    in spite  of a remarkable degree of anticipation,  there  have

    been several occasions in which the reserve supply of activate<

    carbon was sufficient for less than 24 hours at the peak rate
3

    of consumption.

                  Additional dosages of alum are required  for

         carbon dosages in order that the carbon after completing
6

    its absorption function,  may be coagulated and settled out.

    The ratio of the peak taste and odor incidents to normal
o

    usage for the application of dosages of carbon, chlorine and
10


11


12


13


14


15

16

17

18

19

20


21


22


23


24

25
alum, are as follows:

                      Carbon,    70:1
                      Chlorine,   7:1
                      Alum,       4:1

               The potential problems and hazards involved in

treating highly polluted waters are:

               1.  Water with a highly obnoxious taste and

odor may be supplied to the consumers.

               2.  It may be impossible to apply enough chlor-

ine to decompose the ammonia nitrogen present and still leave

enough to destroy the bacteria present introducing a potential

hazard that a bacteriologically unsafe water might leave the

plant.

               No such occurrences have taken place since the

South District Filtration Plant has been in operation but we

are concerned with the future if pollution of the intake

waters are not abated.  Other operating problems have been

-------
                                                       445
                   Of great assistance in anticipating taste and
    odor incidents, are the wind direction and velocity instru-
 ft
    ments, the measuring elements of which are located at the top
    of the chemical building south penthouse.  The indicating and
    recording instruments are located in the control center.  It
    is well established that a wind from a southerly direction may
 6
    bring up pools of industrial pollution from the Calumet region
                   Problems in Handling High Pollution Periods
 8
                   The first problem is to anticipate these
 3
    periods.  Watching the wind direction and velocity are impor-
    tant warnings.  A drop in pH, a rise in temperature of the raw
    water are other indications.  A drop in the chlorine residual
12
    of the treated water is another immediate indication of an in-
13
    crease of ammonia nitrogen or chlorine absorptive pollution.
                   It is well established that ten units of
15
    chlorine are required to decompose one unit of ammonia nitro-
16
    gen.  When the ammonia nitrogen content of the raw water is
    high, the problem is to add enough chlorine to decompose it
18
    and still leave enough chlorine present to destroy the bacter-
    lal pollution also present.
20
                   Another problem of operation is to keep on hand
    adequate reserves of the chemicals necessary to combat taste
22
    and odor incidents.   Whenever a taste and odor incident begins
23
    continuing shipments of chemicals are begun.
                   In spite of  expanding  the  storage  facilities,
25

-------
                                                       444
                   Next to the control center is the control
    laboratory which operates 24 hours of every day.  This labora-
    tory, at regular intervals, makes certain tests on the raw
3
    intake and treated waters that are necessary for control of
    the treatment process in all of its phases.
                   In addition to checking out the readings of the
6
    pH and chlorine residual recorders, the control chemist makes
    threshold odor and ammonia nitrogen determinations on the raw
8
    waters.
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
               Normally, these tests are made at four-hour
intervals.  In case a taste and odor Incident occurs, they  are
usually made every hour.  The most important facility availabl
in anticipating taste and odor incidents, is a Continuous Odor
Monitor.
               This gives an immediate qualitative  indication
as to the intensity and character of the odor of the water
being supplied to that instrument.  There are five  of these.
These sample water from the crib intake, the shore  intake,  the
raw water header containing the prevailing mixture  of crib  and
shore water, and from each of the two outlet shafts.
               When there is a sudden and extreme change for
the worse in the odors of the raw waters, the control engineer
and the control chemist are immediately aware Of this change.
Thus the carbon application may be increased immediately and
adjusted when the results of the threshold odor dilution tests
are available.

-------
  I                                                   443


    350,000 pounds of bag carbon which Is made into slurry when


    used is also kept on hand.
 it

                   Carbon may be applied to the crib water by
 3

    means of a bypass shaft 1,100 feet ahead of the chemical appli


    cation channels.  This is done when the phenol content of the
 5

    crib water is at a significant level.  This removes the
 6

    phenols ahead of chlorination.
 7

                   It is well established that when phenols are
 8

    chlorinated, a very obnoxious medicinal odor is produced due
 9

    to the formation of chlorophenols which are very difficult to


    remove.  Carbon may be added at the beginning of the mixing


    period but in case treated water passes this point with in-
12

    adequate treatment, it may also be added to the settled water


    as it goes on to the filters.
14

                   Control of Treatment
15                  	

                   The operation of the plant stems from a control
16

    center.  Here pumpage rates are set.  The control engineer has


    available information from the pumping stations as to pumpage
18

    rates.  Before him on the control panel, he has available
19

    indicated and recorded information as to the status of water
20

    levels and flows throughout the plant.
21

                   The control engineer also sets chemical dosages
22

    He has available on the panel indicated and recorded inform-
23

    ation as to the pH and temperature of the raw waters as well
24

    as the pH and chlorine residual of the treated waters.
25

-------
                                                       442
    The plant is designed to receive Lake Michigan water either
    from the Dunne Crib intake 2 miles off shore,  or from the
2
    shore intake, which is 2,500 feet out from the main shoreline,
3
    or from a mixture of both.
4
                   For the last three years, it has been necessary
O
    to use both intakes.  The coagulants used are  alum and chlori-
6
    nated copperas (ferrous sulfate).  Sterilization and oxidation

    is accomplished by the use of chlorine.  Post  ammoniation in
8
    the finished water is practiced for the purpose of maintaining
9
    sterilization residuals and for reducing chlorinous taste and
10
    odors.
n
12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
               Provision is also made for the removal of ob-
jectionable tastes and odors.  This may be accomplished in two
ways.  Small amounts of phenols and some types of  "fishy" or
"musty" odors originating from the plankton in the water may
be reduced by the action of chlorine.
               The principal agent for taste and odor removal
for the more difficult odors is activated carbon.  This is a
finely divided, highly absorptive material having  its origin
in certain charcoals.  This material is received in bulk and
on arrival is made into a slurry so that each gallon of slurry
contains approximately one pound of activated carbon.
               The storage capacity for carbon slurry has been
steadily increased over the years as the carbon demans in-
creased,  now amounts to 180,000 pounds.   A reserve stock of

-------
                                                        441



    nitrogen content of 0.164 parts per million and the shore



    intake water on this day had a maximum threshold odor of 16 Ch



    and a maximum ammonia nitrogen of 0.080 parts per million.



                   The maximum carbon dosage on this day was
 4


    745 pounds per mg.  The total activated carbon used during the
 5


 c  month of December was 531,572 pounds.  Of this total,
 b


    462,272 pounds were used during fifteen days of the high "Ch"



    odor threshold in the raw water.
 8


                   The most recent appearance of industrial pol-
 9


    lution occurred in February 1965.  Hydrocarbon odors appeared



    at the Dunne Crib intake on February 6.  The threshold odor



    reached a maximum value of 12 Ch on February 7.  The ammonia



    nitrogen reached a maximum value of 0.138 parts per million
13


    on this day.  These hydrocarbon odors in the raw water pre-



    vailed continuously for 7 days up to and including February



    12.  The maximum activated carbon dosage required by this
16


    water to produce an acceptable treated water was 320 pounds



    per mg.on February 7, 1965.
18


                   The next slide, please.
*y


                   The next section of the statement is regarding



    the "Effect of Pollution on the Operation of our Treatment



22  Plant".



                   The South District Filtration Plant is a typl-



    cal water treatment plant with facilities for coagulation,
24


    settling,  filtration, sterilization and taste and odor removal
25

-------
                                                      440



    on October 28 and remained through October 31.   It  reached



    the Dever Crib on October 30 but did not drift  to the Wilson
 2


    Avenue Crib,  All of these pools had hydrocarbon odors and
 3


    high ammonia nitrogen content.



                   A similar experience of pollution being trans-
 C)


    ported as a result of wind action occurred in 1963 over the
 6


    period of January 29 to February 2.



                   As indicated above, the prevailing wind preced-
 8


    ing the incident was from the southeast to southwest quadrant.
 9


    The slug of pollution reached the Dunne Crib intake on January



    29.  On January 31 the wind switched from southwest to south-



    southeast.  The pollution arrived at the Dever Crib intake



    on February 2.
13


                   The raw water from this intake reached a maxi-
14


    mum threshold odor of 10 Ch.  The chlorine demand of this
15


    water amounted to 14.5 pounds per mg.  The maximum threshold
16


    odor of the intake water from the Dunne Crib reached 50 Ch on
17


    January 29.  The ammonia nitrogen content reached a maximum of
18


    0.270 parts per million.
* */


                   During the month of December 1965 the South
20


     District Filtration Plant experienced four principal odor



    periods.  In length and severity these periods exceeded any-
a


    thing observed in recent years.
Z3


                   On December 12, the raw water from the crib
*A


    intake had a maximum threshold odor of 90 Ch with an ammonia
25

-------
                                                   439


   lake off the mouth of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and



   Calumet area toward Chicago's intakes.  The winds  continued



   for the next several days from this quadrant, ranging from
3*


   southeast to southwest.
4


                  The pollution reached the Dunne  Crib on Sept em-
5


   ber 19 and arrived at the Dever Crib on September  21 where it
6


   lasted for 3 days.  The same slug with the same general winds



   prevailing was observed at the Wilson Avenue Crib  on September
8
\2t




13









lo




16




17




18




1*3




20









22




Zu




24
                  A similar experience occurred during the period


   of October 4 to 16.  During this period the winds  again were


   from the quadrant between the compass points of  southeast  and


   southwest .


                  The polluted water first appeared at the Dunne


   Crib on October 4 and remained through October 13.  It appear-


   ed at the Dever Crib on October 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 16.


   This same pool drifted to the Wilson Avenue Crib Intake twice


   on October 10 and once on October 11.


                  A third experience occurred during the period


   of October 24 - 31, inclusive.  Beginning on October 24, the
                                     «o


   winds again moved into the critical quadrant between the south


   east and southwest points of the compass.  With  few exceptions


   the winds prevailed in a generally southern direction through


   October 31.


                  The polluted water appeared at the Dunne crib

-------
                                                   438


                   These conclusions are borne out by analyses of


    many pollution incidents which have been observed each year


    since close supervision over the water quality and safety be-
3

    gan in 1924.  Further confirmation of wind-induced lake
4

    currents is offered by the results of a series of float travel
v)

    tests made by the Water Safety Control Section in 1925 and
6

    1926, under my direction, as well as the most recent  oompre-
7

    hensive current studies made by the United States Public
8

    Health Service Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin (GLIRB) Pro-
9

    ject.
10

                   An illustration of the movement of pollution
n
12



13



14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
pools under the influence of wind-induced lake currents which


were experienced in the fall of 1961 was a series of tests


and odor incidents at Chicago's water intakes.


               These show in a striking manner how far pools


of pollution have traveled in the lake.  During the period of


September 15 to November 15, 196l, at the Dunne Crib and shore


intakes supplying the South District Filtration Plant, there


were 8 periods of taste and odor incidents.  Some of these


lasted for several days and some were shorter.


               The first pool of pollution reached the Dunne


intake on September 19 and lasted 5 days.  Prior to this


period, for 3 days there had been prevailing winds from east-


southeast to south-southwest direction.  These winds usually


cause drifting of pools of pollution from that portion of the

-------
                                                                      E~7
                                                                             437
                6$ TMISTO CR'B
                          CRIB
                       SPECIAL  LAKE SURVEY
                              DUNNE CRIB
                                    TO
                        'INDIANA  SHIP  CANAL
                               DEC.  14,1964
                                                      N
       FILTRATION
79th ST.    PLANT
                  NO-
 SOUTH SHORE  WATER  QUALITY  SURVEY
PTS.
   TIME
     N.
   I2M2 P
   12=30 PI
   I2--45P
   I'OOP
   I'OS P
       TEMPTURB
38
       36
       36.
       37
       48
             PH
               ZSDCh
        55DMCH
        2Q DM
        25"PCh
               *Q.OGlL_ J 730
        THRES-
        HOLD
        OQf RS
16 DCm
     JLQ88
     0.108
     0.096
                     PPM
0-020
                     0.026
          PHENOL
           PPM
          DET
          PPM

 AQAR
COUMT
AV  ML
 CULI
PER 100
ML MPN
                                    _
                                240000
                                                ( BSJF
                                                 ^HARBOR
                                 CTY OF CHICAGO
                           DEPARTMENT OF WATER & SEWERS
                                               DIRECTION WNW
                                                        VEUDCITY 22 MPH
                                              REMARKS	

                                              PT. 6  WATER WAS BROWN
                                               BYG.GATTO  S.E.I
                                                          DATE 12-14-64
                                                S.KOSTKA UAB.

-------
                                                       436

    December 14,  1964.  (See Pig.  E-7 on following page.)


                   I don't know if you can see but the results are
 f»

    shown in the lower left-hand corner but it shows that the .6
 3

    at the mouth of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal — it has got
 4

    the highest figures in ammonia nitrogen and coliform and pro-
 O

    gressively the amounts get less as you go from 6, 5,  4,  3, 2,
 6

    1, up to the intake on — the Dunne intake oh the top.


                   The next slide, please.
 8

                   The next section is on lake currents carrying
 9

    slugs of pollution to Intakes.
10

                   I hope you will bear with me in this section.


    We tried to follow various slugs of pollution carried by the
12

    winds to Just give you an idea of how the pollution is carried
13

    long distances in the lake under the influence of lake current
14

                   Experience and observation made in the course
15

    of day-by-day supervision over the quality of the Chicago
16

    water supply has produced ample evidence that polluted water


    drifts in slugs or pools which are carried by wind-induced
18

    lake currents in the general direction of the winds existing
iy

    at the time.
20

                   The travel of the lake currents bears a direct
21

    relationship to wind direction and velocity.  The distance
22

    that slugs or pools of pollution are carried in the lake are
23

    dependent upon the total hours that the wind is sustained in
24

    a given direction.
25
                   (Continue text on page 438 )

-------
                                                 435
                                    FIGURE E-6
  0.25
 £
 a
 a
 i
-J
O
z
111
X
a

u
a:
UJ
  0.20
  O.f5
  O.fO
  0.05
          ANNUAL AVERAGE  PHENOL

          WEEKLY SANITARY  SURVEYS

                   1950-1964


        (D INDIAN A HARBOR SHIP CANAL SAMPLING AT CANAL N
          5T/BRIDGE([950-I959)AND DICKEY RD. BRIDGE(1960-1964)

        (2) CALUMET RIVER SAMPLING AT 92°^ ST. BRIDGE
          (1950- 1964)
                   .MOUTH OF INDIANA  HARBOR

                    SHIP CANAL®
             ^^OUTH OF CALUMET RIVER®

                     \
     1950
~i	r
 1955
I960
                                           1964
                     YEAR       City of Chicago

                               Cefit. of Water & Sewers

-------
                                                434

                                      FIGURE E-5
 LJ
  O
  o:
  tn
  1C
  tlJ
  a:
  UJ
  z
  <
2/65
      ANNUAL AVERAGE AMMONIA NITROGEN
           WEEKLY  SANITARY SURVEYS
                   I95CH964
    5.0 r
    4.0
    3.0
     2.0
     1.0
   MOUTH OF INDIANA HARBOR
   SHIP CANAL-DICKEY RQ BRIDGE
                 MOUTH OF CALUMET
                 RIVER-92^ST BRIDGE
       1950
1955
I960
1964
                      YEAR
                 City of Chicago
             Dept. of Water & Sawera.

-------
                                                   433
                                       FIGURE  E-4
    4,000,000
    3,000,000
  £
  o
  o

  c:
  u
  a
 cr
 o
 u.
 1j
 o
 u
 c:
 UJ
    2,000,000
    1,000,000
ANNUAL AVERAGE  COLIFORM
  ORGANISMS  PER  IQOmL

    WEEKLY  SANITARY SURVEYS
            1950-1964
          1950
      MOUTH OF INDIANA HARBOR
      SHIP CANAL-DICKEY RD. BRIDGE
                  MOUTH OF CALUMET
                  RIVER-92^1 ST. BRIDGE
           YEAR
                                    City Of Chicago
7/65

-------
                                                      432


    100 per cent and also at  the Junction of the Grand Calumet


    River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal.  We show the  percen-
2

    tage as well as the percentage where the Grand Calumet River
•S

    enters the Little Calumet River toward the Sag-Channel.
4

                   Next slide.
O

                   This is the last year on our records, 1964.
6

    I think the results can be shown much better by showing the
7

    data In chart form and this chart shows the average conform
8

    at Dickey Road which is the upper part of the graph and which
9

    shows the character of the water flowing into the lake from
10


11


12


13


14
16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, which shows a generally upward


trend since 1950 to 1964, and the average at the 92nd Street


bridge which Is the lower line, which represents the water
                                    (See pig. E-4 on following
near the mouth of the Calumet River, page)
                   The next slide shows similarly the amount of
15
ammonia nitrogen average, yearly figures, for the Dickey Road


at the ship canal and the lower one shows the 92nd street
                               (See Pig. E-5 on following
bridge on the Calumet River.    page)


               The next slide shows the phenol determinations


on the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and the lower one Is the


Calumet River.  There's a greater fluctuation in these results


than in some of the others. (See Fig. E-6 on following page)


               I have one more slide that I haven't mentioned


in the text, but the next slide shows a typical lake survey


that our Water Safety Control Section makes.  This is on


                 (Continue text on page 436)

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-------

-------

-------
428

-------
427

-------
               426
jt'B/MpaHiASUOJ

-------
425

-------
424

-------
423

-------
422

-------
421

-------
                     420
FIGURE £-3Cd)

-------
419

-------
                                                                    418
                                            FIGURE E-3tt>)


LL LJ

°£
HUI
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U ^

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cr <

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                                                                 o
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                                                                 12
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                                                           JQ3NN3X

-------

-------
  I                                                     416


    and the drainage runoff from the connecting rivers.


                   We have prepared fifteen charts, one for each


    year for the period 1950-1964, showing the annual average and
 3

    maximum ammonia nitrogen values in parts per million at varlou
 4

    points on the rivers, and the annual average of coliforra

 5                                             (See Figs.E-3(a)

    bacteria per 100 milliliters at each point(through E-3(o) on

 6                                             (following pages)

                   I will not bore you with showing all these
 7

    slides.  They are in the text of our statement for anyone who
 8

    wants to look It over.  However, I will show you Just a few
 9

    slides to show you Just how they look.
10

                   Next slide, please.


                   These slides show, on the upper part of the


    line, the average annual ammonia nitrogen in one type of
1 J

    brackets and the maximum result of ammonia nitrogen in other
14 I

    brackets and underneath the line, the average conform per
lo

    100 milliliters.
16

                   You will notice that the greater amount is at
17

    the mouth of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal.
18

                   Next slide, please.
19

                   I think that is 1955.
20

                   Next slide, please.
21

                   That is I960.  You will notice the arrows at
22

    the mouth of the Calumet River which show the percentage of
23

    the time of our observations when the river was flowing toward
24

    the lake and at the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal where it shows
25

                                (Continue on page 432)

-------
 1

    that?
                                                      415

                   I can't read It right from here — what is
 2

         MR. PAWLOWSKI:  2.5
 3

         MR. GERSTEIN:  2.5
 4

                   Now, also on the Grand Calumet River east of
 O

    the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal we had some very high ammonia
 6

    and phenol results.
 7

                   At the time of sampling at the various points
 8

    on the rivers, observations were made of the direction of the
 9

    river flows, but no quantitative measurement was made of the
10

    flows in the streams.
11

                   Our results of the surveys, therefore, have
12

    qualitative value but have the weakness of not being quantita-
13

    tive as related to total flows.  However, in case of the
14

    Indiana Harbor Ship Canal which was at all times found to flow
15

    to the lake, reliable data is available showing that the flow
16

    has been in the range of 700 to 900 cubic feet per second.
17

                   As I found out yesterday, at the Dickey Road
18

    Bridge—where our samples showed the character of the water
13

    being discharged into the lake—Mr. LeBosquet said their
20

    measurement showed two thousand cubic feet per second.
21

                   The amount and the direction of flow in the
22

    different reaches of the Calumet River at the time of sampling
23

    were influenced by the amount of diversion being drawn from
24

    the  lake through the Cal-Sag  Channel,  lake level fluctuations
25

-------
414

-------
413

-------
                                                                                     412
SOUTH DISTRICT FIL"
SPECIAL POLLUT
GRAND CALUMET RIVER,
INDIANA HARBOR SHIP CANAL,
CARNEGIE ILLINOIS STEEL CORP.
NO.
<•
2.
».
4
3
6.
6A
6B
7
•
9.
K>
II
12
13.
14
IS
I3X
fiXX

A
•
I-A



LOCATION
92 NO ST. a RIVER
9S TH 	
,00 " " " "
106 	
126 	
138 	 "(AT TORRENCE)
BURNHAM AVE AND GRAND
CALUMET RIVER
134 TH. AND INDIANA AVE.
FORSYTHE 8 I.H.S.C.
CANAL
DICKEY
141 ST.
CHICAGO " "
151 ST.
FORSYTHE 8 GC RIVER
KENNEDY 	
CLINE " "
" " "IE. SEWER)
" " "(W. SEWER)
CARNEGIE ILLINOIS STEEL
NORTH SLIP- INTAKE
" - DISCHARGE
MOUTH OF CALUMET RIVER


THRESHOLD
ODOR HOT
w*.
t***
J'&'fi*,
r



KT

2."
S.//


S.SJ




&• * J^


^F 'fcjT ~ ^r






AVERAGE L
RAW WATER
ENDING WITK
**s?



S. <**<>'

s.s/s
*'JV


S.SS4




S.SS,









ANT
EY
ILLECTE
IM /'

n /^-^^-
-------
                                                      411

    odor, ammonia nitrogen, coliform bacteria and hydrogen ion

    concentration on each sample, and on selected samples examlna-
 2
    tions were made for phenol, ABS, fluorides and radioactive
 3
    beta counts.
 4                                    (See Table E-l and Figs. E-l
                                      and E-2 on following pages.)
 5                  Next slide, please.

 6                  This slide shows a typical summary of results

 7   of a one-daysanpling survey.  This was made on October 27*

 8   1964.  The same data is charted on the next slide and you will

 9   notice in the upper left-hand corner the legend which shows on

10   the upper part, the figure on the upper part of it says

11   ammonia nitrogen, parts per million, and the lower is phenol.

12                  This is a map on which the ammonia nitrogen and

13   phenol content of the water at the various points in the river

14   system are shown.  The ammonia nitrogen results and observa-

15   tions of direction of river flow indicate that the Calumet

16   River was positively flowing away from the lake toward the

17   Gal-Sag Channel on that day.

18                  You will notice that the results of ammonia and

13   phenol from the mouth of the river up to about 138th Street

20   are about the same, indicating the quality of the water that

21   was coming in from the lake.

22                  On the other hand,  if you look at the result at

23   the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal at Dickey Road,  you will find

24   quite high results •

25                  (Continue text on page 415)

-------
                                                                   410
                       TABLE D-5

                SUMMARY OF PHENOL TESTS
 MADE DURING ABNORMAL "OIL REFINERY" TYPE ODOR PERIODS

       RAW WATER SOUTH DISTRICT FILTRATION PLANT
YEAR
1950
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
NO. OF SAMPLES
SHOWING PHENOLS
3
6
1
0
-
3
158
103
32
PHENOL PARTS
AVG. MAX.
7
3
1
0
-
2
3
3
3
12
4
1
0
-
3
11
14
6
PER BILLION
MIN.
2
2
1
0
-
1
1
1
1
No samples  tested since August,  1964
                                      City of Chicago
                             Department of  Water & Sewers

-------
                                                       409

    were used and the maximum carbon dosage was 7^5 pounds per


    million gallons.  The next slide is a chart showing the gen-


    erally upward trend of maximum activated carbon dosages.
 4
                  Next slide, please.  (See Table D-5 on following
                                                        page.)

                  Tests for phenol in  the water collected during
5

   the abnormal pollution periods at the South District Filtra-
6

   tion Plant are recorded in the slide shown which shows a  sum-
7

   mary of phenol determinations for the period 1955 to date.
8

                  Only the samples tested which show the presence
9
10



11



12



13



14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
   of phenol are summarized.  It will be noted that a phenol con-


   tent as high as 14 parts per billion was found in the intake


   water.


                  The next section is on data on pollution of


   rivers discharging into the lake, 1950-1964.


                  Beginning with 19^8 the Water Purification


   Division has collected samples one day each week at various -


   that is, every Tuesday - at various established points in the


   Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, Calumet River


   and the little Calumet River.  The total number of samples


   collected on a sampling day varied from 16 to 23.


                  I might say that we have had full cooperation


   from the Indiana people in permitting us to collect these


   samples and that we have furnished them with results of tests


   that we made on these samples during the entire period.


                  Laboratory examinations were made for threshold


                             (Continue Text on page 411)

-------
                                          408-A

                                 FIGURE D»4
        MAXIMUM ACTIVATED  CARBON
      ,  DOSAGE  DURING ABNORMAL
      OIL REFINERY"TYPE ODOR PERIODS
       SOUTH DISTRICT FILTRATION PLANT INTAKE

                I960 - 1964
 3
 U
 CO
 O
 O
 o
 Q
 I
 c:

 o
 X
1200



1100




1000



900




800




100




GOO



500



400




300



200-




100
      J950
              1955
I  i   I  r
  I960
                                   1  T
1964
2/65
               YEAR      City of Chicago
               	  Dept. of Water & Sewers

-------
                                                                                     408

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-------
                                                     407

                                          FIGURE D-3
          MAXIMUM AMMONIA NITROGEN
      DURING ABNORMAL*OIL REFINERY'
      	TYPE  ODOR  PERIODS	
    SOUTH  DISTRICT  FILTRATION  PLANT INTAKE

                    I95O-I964
     0-7 r
     0.6
    0.5
 CL
 i

z
LL)

O

H

Z
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     0.4
     03
     0.2
  X
  <
     0.1
                               City of Chicago
                          Department of Water & Sewers
       1950
                   i   i   •   |
                   1955

                      YEAR
I   I
I960
1964
2/65

-------
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-------
                                                      405

    trend  of  pollution  in  the water  during  the  last  ten years.


                   It  is interesting to note  that  in the  various


    charts prepared as  part  of  this  presentation,  there are  shown
 3

    peak values of  the  various  pollution parameters  in the years
 4

    1950-1951 which are followed  by  a reduction in these  values
 0

    for the next few years subsequent to which  these parameters
 6

    followed  a definitely  upward  trend in the last ten years.   It
 7

    is possible that the decline  in  pollution severity following
 8

    1950-1951 was due  in a large  part to the  industries exercising
 9

    better control  of  their  waste discharges.
10



n



12



13



14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



2S
               Next slide, please.  (Table D-3 on following page


               A summary for the period 1950-1964 of the maxi-


mum ammonia nitrogen which occurred during the pollution


periods each year is presented in Table D-3 which shows, dur-


ing 1964, a maximum of 0.496 parts per million ammonia nltroger


and requiring a maximum chlorine dosage of 56.1 pounds per


million gallons.  The data charted in Figure D-3 shows the


same general increasing trend during the last ten years of


ammonia nitrogen.


               Next slide, please.(Pig. D-3 on following page)


               The table on the screen shows the total pounds


of activated carbon used each year at the South District Piltra


tlon Plant during 1950-1964 and the annual average activated


carbon dosage and the maximum activated carbon dosage during


pollution periods.  (See Table D-4 on following page.)

                   (See Figure D-4 on page 408-A)

               In 1964, 3,773,655 pounds of  activated carbon
                   (Continue text on page 4 09)

-------
                                                404

                                     FIGURE D-2
  I50r
  125
c:
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I

-------
                                                                                                             403
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-------
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                 402
               Next  slide,  please.
               The most  seriously polluted condition  of the
water  at  the  intakes of  the South District Filtration Plant
when slugs  of wastes drifting to the  intake have abnormal
 "hydrocarbon" odors  which are similar to those which  are ob-
tained by diluting oil refinery waste effluent with lake water
The water during these periods of objectionable odors also
usually has a high ammonia  nitrogen and  phenol content,  and
has abnormal  chlorine absorbing properties all of  which in-
crease the  difficulty of producing a  satisfactory  water in the
treatment plant.
               These data on abnormal "oil refinery"  type odor
periods for the  fifteen  year period,  1950-1964,  are tabulated
on an  annual  basis in Table D-2,  which shows the number of
odor periods  and the total  days included in these  periods for
each year;  also  shown are the frequency  of various intensities
of maximum  threshold odor numbers which  occurred during the
periods,  and  the  maximum activated carbon dosage required to
treat  the water  (See Table  D-2 and Figure D-2 on following
pages).
               In 1964 there were 28  days of abnormal odors
covering  a  total  of  89 days with  a maximum threshold  odor num-
ber during  one of the periods  of  90 (hydrocarbon).  These  data
are charted in Figure D-2 which shows a generally upward trend
of pollution in the water during  the  last ten years. These  data
are charted in the next slide which shows a generally upward
               (Continue text on page 405)

-------
                                     FIGURE  D-l
                                                   401
       U)
       *
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8?
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-------
                            TABLE D-l
                 RAW LAKE WATER BACTERIAL QUALITY
                  COLIFORM ORGANISMS PER 100 ML
                      CHICAGO WATER INTAKES
                                                                   4oo
      WILSON AVE.  CRIB
DEVER CRIB
SDFP INTAKES
Year
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
Annual
Average
7.9
12.8
7.1
3.1
6.4
3.2
5.3
19.3
17.3
40.5
52.5
10.9
26.9
*
*
Maximum
Day
852
1700
330
78
1100
110
270
1900
1300
3500
3500
300
-
*
*
Annual
Average
9.?.
10.9
8.1
7.0
6.9
5.8
7.4
14.1
13.9
18.4
20.5
21.6
9.2
*
*
Maximum
Day
400
230
850
790
330
140
200
2000
490
1300
700
790
-
*
*
Annual
Average
*
14.0
9.7
13.9
20.0
42.3
38.7
70.8
63.1
85.6
65.2
52.4
69.5
200.8
110.2
Maximum
Day
*
375
495
534
959
1300
1400
9600
6400
3200
2900
3000
1700
5800
1900
*Chlorinated water
                                               City of C
                                       Department  of  Water  &. Sewers

-------
                                                     399-A
    fifteen year period,  1950-1964,  are summarized in Table D-l,
    and shown on the screen  (See Table D-l on next page).
                   These show the annual averages and maximum day
    results.    (See Pig. D-l on page 401)
                   I think the material in these slides is more
    significantly shown in the next slide which in chart form
    shows a definitely increasing trend of the annual average
    coliform per 100 milllliters (ml) in the intake water at the
    South District Filtration Plant which is closest to the
10   sources of pollution from the Calumet area, while the other
    intakes to the north show a much lesser degree of bacterial
    pollution.       (continue text on

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

-------
 3
 4  opened during heavy rainfall runoff in order to prevent
 5  flooding.
 .                 Pollution effects from sewage effluent dls-
 b
 7
    communities to the north, at the present time, are of lesser
 8
    significance than the other pollution sources mentioned.
 y
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                      399
    pollution from occasional illegal discharges of wastes
    from lake vessels and small craft, and also the infrequent
    short period reversals of the Chicago River when the locks are
    charges from communities in Lake County, Illinois, and other
               Filter backwash water  and  settling basic
 sediment  are discharged  into the  lake from the  South District
 Filtration Plant  and the Central  District Filtration Plant.
 I  am covering the point  that was  made by  Mr. LeBosquet when he
 showed the slide  of the  South District Filtration Plant
 yesterday with an indication of discharge of the filter backwash
 water on  one corner.
               The solids in these discharges contain material
 that was  in the original lake water plus  the chemicals added
 for treatment which include the coagulants and  spent activated
 carbon.   This material is completely  innocuous  and our exper-
 ience has been that it has produced no problems on the lake.
               The next  slide, please.
               The results of bacteriological examination of
samples of water collected daily from the Wilson Avenue, Dever
and South District Filtration Plant intake supplies for the

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6
7   miles north of the mouth of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal.
                     My next section is the effect of lake pol-
Q   lution on water quality.
y
                     There are no sewage or industrial wastes
    discharged into Lake Michigan along the 30 miles of lakefront
12

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                                                     398
    the pollution sources at  the mouth of the Indiana Harbor
    Ship Canal and the mouth  of the Calumet River.
                     For example, the Dunn intake is approxi-
    mately 3-3/4 miles from the mouth of the Calumet River and
    9-1/4 miles from the mouth of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal;
    the Dever intake is 18-1/2 miles and the Wilson intake 22
extending from the Cook County limits on the north to the
mouth of the Calumet River on the south.
                 I have repeated this a number of times and I
feel that this repetition cannot be overdone because there is
no waste being discharged off the Chicago area.
                 The principal source of pollution at the
Chicago intakes has been from the southern end of Lake Michi-
gan which receives the discharges of waste from the Indiana
Harbor Ship Canal, various industrial sewer outlets on the
lake off the Calumet area, and the fluctuating discharges
from the Calumet River.
                 The South District Filtration Plant intakes
being the closest to the source of pollution are the most
seriously affected.  In addition, the intakes are exposed to

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                                                             FIGURE  C-!
                                                                                  397-A
        Wisconsin
        Illinois"
                    MAP OP WEST SHORE OF SOUTHERN PORTION OP LAKE
                    MICHIGAN SHOWING DISTANCES BETWEEN MOUTHS OF
                    INDIANA HARBOR SHIP CANAL AND CALUMET RI7ER
                    AND VARIOUS WATERWORKS  INTAKES.
          Waukegan

        N> Chicago
       Great Lakesj-o
        Lake Forest
        Ft. Sheridan
 Highland Park
Lake County
Cook CounV
                                                          K  E
                                                                  N
ROW
                  Glencoe
                   Winnetka^
                  Kennilworth
                                                                               N
                  CITY OF CHICAGO
            DEPARTMENT OF WMK ^ SEWERS
                                                                   11-62

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    land on the lakeshore opposite Ohio Street Just north of Navy
5
4
   Pier.
                    At present  it obtains  its water  supply from a
6
7   shore intake on the north end of the plant.  In the near
 8
    the plant to take its supply from the Dever and Harrison crib
 y
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                                                      397
                     The next slide,  please.
                     The Central District Filtration Plant, which
    was placed in operation in October 1964, is located on made
    future, tunnel connections will be completed which will permit
    intakes which are  located  in the  lake about  2.6 miles off of
    Chicago Avenue.  The  plant supplies the  remainder of the area
    of  Chicago north of Pershing Road and 34 adjacent suburbs,  a
    total  population of 2.7 million.   Its rated  capacity is 960
    million gallons  dally and  peak capacity  1700 million gallons
    daily.  The plant  supplies seven  pumping stations by gravity
    flow through tunnels.
                    The  next  slide,  please.
                    The  Wilson Avenue intake, which is located
    2.1 miles from shore  opposite Wilson Avenue, will be maintalne
    as  an  emergency  Intake. The Pour-Mile crib, which is .located
    3.1 miles offshore opposite 14th  street, is  no longer used  as
    an  intake and will soon be razed, (see Map  - Pig. C-l on
                                       following page.)
                    The  map on the screen shows the location of
    the two filter plants and  the crib intakes,  and also shows
    distances that the various intakes along the lake are from

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                                                     396


    all time  peak hour pumpage rate was 1,888 million gallons



    daily on  June 29,  1964.


                     I would now like to start the slides, if you
3


    please.   I will ask Mr.  Pawlowskl to point out on the slides
4


    the various points.
0


                     The entire water supply now receives flltra-
6


    tion treatment at the South District Filtration Plant which
7


    supplies  37 percent of the total, and the new Central District
8


    Filtration Plant which supplies 63 percent of the total.
y


                     The South District Filtration Plant, located
10



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on made land along the lake front between 78th and 79th


Streets supplies the entire south side of the city south of


Pershing Road and adjacent suburbs.


                 The principal intake is the Dunne crib loca-


ted about 2 miles off of 68th Street in about 32 feet of


water.  This intake is connected to the filter plant through a


14 and 16-foot tunnel.  The plant also has a shore intake at


the east end which is located in about 24 feet of water and is


used as an alternate intake.


                 The plant which was placed in full operation


in 1947 is now undergoing a fifty percent expansion of capa-


city, which will be completed late in 1965 and will provide a


total rated capacity of 480 mgd and a peak capacity of 850 mgd.


It supplies filtered water by gravity flow through underground


tunnels to four pumping stations which serve a population of


1.8 million in Chicago and 29 suburbs.

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2
3
 ,                    9.  Our recommendations for water quality
 4



    criteria goals for Lake Michigan are directed toward maintain-



 c   ing the benefits of the naturally superior quality of lake
 b


    water at our water works Intakes.  We urge that no further




 0   degradation of quality of the lake water be permitted and that
 o



 g   contaminants be kept at the lowest level possible so that the
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                                                   395


algae and some of the new species which have developed have



at times caused serious interference with the filtration pro-



cess, due to the shorter filter runs which have resulted.
capacity of our treatment plants to produce a pure, safe,



sparkling, clear, palatable water for our consumers is not



endangered.



                 Section C regards the Chicago Water Works



System.



                 The Chicago Water Works System supplies a



total population of approximately 4.8 million of which 3.5



million are in Chicago and l million are in 63 suburbs located



adjacent to the city limits.



                 All of the suburbs supplied with Chicago



water at the present time are located within the confines of



the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago.  The



average dally pumpage In 1964 was 1,046 million gallons, of



which 135 million gallons per day were supplied to the suburbar



municipalities.  The all time peak day pumpage of the Chicago



System was 1,529 million gallons on June 30,  1964,  and the

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                                                     394


                     This canal is reported to have a flow rate



    of 700 to 900 cubic feet per second.
£t


                     I was interested in hearing Mr. LeBosquet
3


    say yesterday that at the Dickey Road Bridge near the mouth of
4


    the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, the flow was measured at
5


    2,000 cubic feet per second.
6


                     In the last ten years, there has been a



    general increase in the annual average coliform bacteria,
8


    ammonia nitrogen and phenol in the waters discharged into
y


    the lake from the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal.  Discharges into
10



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25
the  lake  also  occur  from the  Calumet River when  the  hydraulic


gradient  changes due to temporary drops  of the lake  level,


and  when  the runoff  from the  Little Calumet  River  is greater


than can  be handled  by the  capacity of the Sag Channel which


connects  to Illinois Drainage Canal.


                 8.  The continuous and  increasing trend  of


discharge of nutrients into the lake in  the  Calumet  area, as


illustrated by increases in the ammonia  nitrogen content  of


the  lake  water in recent years, has resulted in  definite


signs of  eutrophication of  the water.  This  is exemplified by


the  increasing number of plankton organisms  found  and the


changes in the character of the species  found.


                 Cladophora,  a long filamentous  algae, appeared


at the water Intakes and has  caused nuisances on the  bathing


beaches in the last three years.  The Increasing numbers of

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                                                      393


    similar  to  odors which are obtained by diluting oil refinery



    waste  effluents In  lake  water.  During these  pollution  periods
it


    the water also has  excessive  amounts  of  ammonia nitrogen,
3


    phenols  and high collform bacterial counts, creating more  dif-



     ficult  operating problems in producing  a satisfactory, safe
  it

    and palatable water at the treatment  plant.
6


                    It has  been  necessary to apply excessive



    dosages  of  chemicals such as  alum coagulant,  chlorine  for



  I  disinfection and oxidation, and activated carbon  for odor
9


    removal, in order to produce  a  satisfactory quality water.



                    In 1964 there  were 28 periods of abnormally



    polluted water at the South District  Filtration Plant  Intake



    covering a  total of 89 days.  During  these periods, the odor
13


    threshold number reached a maximum of 90 (hydrocarbon)  and
14 I!


    the ammonia nitrogen a maximum  of 0.^96  ppm.   The maximum
  II

    chlorine dosage required for  effective treatment  was  56.1
16


    pounds per  million  gallons and  the maximum activated  carbon



    dosage required for odor removal  was  7^5 pounds per million
18 II



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
                 7.  Results of various laboratory tests on


the routine samples collected during weekly sampling surveys


from various points on the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, the


Grand Calumet River, the Calumet River and Little Calumet Rive


have positively shown that the major source of Lake Michigan


pollution off the Calumet area has been the continuous dis-


charge into the lake from the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal.

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                                                  392
from the south end of Lake Michigan off the Calumet area at
times drift to the Chicago water works intakes under the in-
fluence of wind-induced lake currents.  The South District
Filtration Plant  intakes are the closest  to the pollution
sources and are most frequently affected  by the highest pollu-
tion concentrations.
                  Occasionally, with prolonged winds from
southerly directions, slugs of pollution  have drifted north-
ward beyond the South District Filtration Plant intakes,
ultimately reaching and affecting water at the Dever intake an<
at times traveling further north to the Wilson Avenue intake.
                  These long distances traveled by pollution
can be best visualized if we consider that the South District
Filtration Plant  intakes are 9-l/^ miles  from the mouth of the
Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, the Dever intakes are 18-1/2 miles
away and the Wilson Avenue intake is 22 miles distant from
this point.
                  Our records show that in the past under very
heavy pollution conditions and prolonged  southerly winds, the
pollution slugs have traveled as far north as the water intake
at Waukegan, Illinois, which is about 50  miles north of the
mouth of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal.
                  6.  During abnormal pollution periods at the
water intakes at  the South District Filtration Plant the water
usually has objectionable "hydrocarbon type" odors which are

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                                                     391

    Sanitary District  of Greater  Chicago are  discharged  into the



    Sanitary Drainage  Canal.   No  wastes are discharged along the
 It


    entire  lake front  from the Cook County boundary on the north
 3


    to the  mouth of the Calumet River on the  south, except for
 4


    infrequent short periods  of outflow of the Chicago River when
 0


    the locks must be  opened  during heavy rainfall in order to
 6


    prevent flooding.



                    However, continuous outflow into the lake of
 8


    the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and partial outflows from the
 9


    Calumet River as well as  direct discharges from sewer outlets



    along the lake off the Calumet Region have continuously pol-



    luted the southern end of Lake Michigan.



                    The intensity of pollution of the lake water
1O


    has had upward and downward trends over a period of years,
14


    Indicating occasional beneficial effects  of treatments in-
15


    stalled for abatement of  pollution at times and also increases
16


    and decreases in industrial activity.



                    However, in  the last ten years there has been
18


    a general increase in pollution of the lake.  The most alarm-
iy


    ing features of the pollution picture are the indications of
20


    eutrophication of  the lake, as well as Increases In the number
21


    and intensity of periods  when the quality of the intake water
««


    at the  Chicago South District Filtration  Plant has been
23


    seriously affected by the pollutants.



                    5.   Our  studies  show that  the polluted waters

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                                                  390



lated a great mass of data over the  last  forty years pertain-



ing to results  of laboratory examination  on  extensive  routine



and special  sampling to determine the quality of  the water  at



the lake  intakes as well as at various  points in  the lake



opposite  Chicago and in the rivers and  streams discharging  in-



to Lake Michigan.  It would be Impractical to present  all of



the data  available.  We are, therefore, presenting  data



covering  the last fifteen years, 1950-1964,  which will best



illustrate the  year-by-year trends of pollution and its



effects on the  quality of the water  at  the Chicago  waterworks



intakes.



                 3.  In 1926 Chicago began an extensive investj



gation of methods of treating the highly  polluted water which



was periodically received at the south  side  water intakes.



The studies  were carried on at the now  world-famous experi-



mental filtration laboratory located at Oglesby Avenue and



69th Street, where Mr. John R. Baylis and his associates



developed the use of activated carbon for removal of difficult



industrial waste odors from water and methods for high-rate



filtration as well as other improvements  in  water treatment.



The results  of  the studies were incorporated in the design  of



the South District Filtration Plant  which was placed in full



operation in 19^7.



                 4.  The industrial  and sewage wastes  of



Chicago and the metropolitan area included in the Metropolitan

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                                                    389


    "Pollution of the Waters of the Grand Calumet  River,  Little



    Calumet River, the Calumet River,  Lake Michigan,  Wolf Lake



    and their tributaries,  Illinois-Indiana February 1965".
O


                     2.  Following an  epidemic on the south side




    of Chicago in the late fall of 1923,  which resulted in 228



    cases of typhoid fever and 23 deaths, the Water Safety Control
b


    Section was organized in 1924 in the  Chicago Department of



0   Health for the purpose of instituting strict control over
0


    chlorination treatment at the various pumping stations in the
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IS




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Chicago Water System and for the collection of data on the



quality of the water at the lake intakes and of the chlorinat-



ed water supply furnished to the consumers.



                 An additional function of the section was the



investigation of the sources of pollution In Lake Michigan in



the vicinity of Chicago and the determination of the condi-



tions which caused polluted water to be carried to the water



intakes by lake currents.



                 In fact, my first assignment, when I came to



work with the City in 1925, was to be in charge of the lake



survey that the City was making of the lake waters off of Chi-



cago.



                 In 1926 the Water Safety Control Section was



transferred to the Water Department where it has continued as



part of the Water Purification Division.



                 The Water Purification Division has accumu-

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 1
 2
 3
 4
 5                    The South District Filtration Plant has con-
 6
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 8
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 9
                     We are also concerned with the definite indi-
                                                388
total  population  of  1.8 million.   Less  frequently during pro-
longed periods  of southerly winds  the polluted waters are
carried northward affecting the Dever and Wilson Avenue water
intakes.
 sistently produced an excellent quality,  safe and palatable
 water,  even during the periods of heavy pollution of the water
 at  its  intakes,  but we are deeply concerned for the future if
 the increasing trends of pollution are permitted to continue.
 cation of degradation of the lake water quality in the south-
 ern end of Lake Michigan because of excessive nutrient pol-
 lution which has already produced undesirable changes in the
 nature of the microscopic plankton growths in the lake water.
                  Projections of  the rate of increase  in the
 frequency and severity of pollution incidence,  and of the
 capacity of our treatment plant  to handle these incidences,
 indicate that the time when  the  raw water can no longer be
 satisfactorily  treated may soon  come.
                  The  next section is a  summary and conclusions
 After  that,  I will get into  the  full text of my statement.
                  1.   We are  generally in accord with  the data
presented  and the  conclusions drawn  regarding the  pollution  of
the waters of the  southern end of Lake Michigan  in the  report
prepared by the United States Public Health Service entitled,

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                                                      387
         CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you.
         MR. GERSTEIN:  Mr. Chairman, conferees, ladies and



gentlemen:



                 My statement will concern the effect of pol-



lution of the southern end of the lake on the operation of



our filter plants and the general pollution of our water at



our Intakes.



                 I beg your indulgence in the fact that some



portions of my  statement will be repetitive, but I feel that



it is necessary in order to make certain points.



                 The City of Chicago  at present furnishes



water supply to a population of approximately 4.5 million of



which 3.5 million are in Chicago, and 1 million are  in 63



suburbs in the  metropolitan area.



                 Although no sewage and industrial wastes are



discharged into Lake Michigan along the entire 30-mile stretch



of lake front from the north boundary of Cook County to the



mouth of the Calumet River, there exists gross pollution of



the lake waters in the southern end of Lake Michigan from



communities and industries in the Calumet area, and  such



pollution discharge is apparently on  an increasing trend.



                 These polluted waters are frequently carried



by wind-induced  lake currents to the  Chicago water works in-



takes, most seriously affecting the intakes supplying the South



District Filtration Plant (SDPP) which furnishes water service



to the south side of Chicago and 29 adjacent suburbs, to a

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                                                      386


 !   is again willing to accept the challenge.  We intend to take




    whatever steps are necessary to prevent continued degradation
 £t



 3   of the quality of Lake Michigan water.



                     We hope to do this forcefully and intelll-
 4


    gently.  Without question, the need for drastic corrective
 O



 c   action is of the greatest urgency.  We urge all of the parti-
 b



    cipants of this conference to pledge their effort to restore




    Lake Michigan to a quality level where all of the many million^
 o [



 ...   of residents and tourists can share in the use of one of
 y



    nature's most beautiful, functional and valuable resources.



u                    This is not merely something that should be




    done, it is something that must be done.




13                    Mr. Chairman, present with me today are many




14   of our top engineers from the Chicago Water Department who




15   are experts and will be happy to answer any questions.




lg                    I would like to present Mr. Hyman Gerstein,




17   our Chief Water Engineer.




                     He is an outstanding water works engineer



    who will outline for you and the people in the audience the




2Q   picture of water pollution in the Calumet area of Lake Michi-



21   gan and will point out it's effect on our water.




22                    The report which he will present has been pre--




23   pared from available data on our water safety control section




24   during the past fifteen years,




25                    Thank you,  Mr.  Chairman.

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                                                     385
    constant  increase  in industrial production capacities and chanj-
    ges in industrial  processes used,  and the fact that waste
    treatment has not  kept pace with this increase, has caused
O
    what we believe a  serious water pollution problem which re-
4
    quires immediate bold and drastic measures to abate.
O
                    We believe the solution adopted should have
6
    as its final objective the complete and permanent protection
    of Lake Michigan from man-made pollution.  We also believe
8
    that the people who look to the lake for beauty, livelihood,
y
recreation, and most important, a healthy existence, share
this view and will support whatever program will accomplish
these goals.
                 We have found from past experience that most
of the parties Involved with this problem will cooperate
willingly.  What is urgently needed is a program which all
can support now and in the future.
                 With the technical aid and guidance available
from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and,
more particularly, the United States Public Health Service,
we believe such a program can and will be adopted.
                 However, it is imperative to keep in mind
that time is the one commodity we don't have in ample supply;
technical data, resources, leadership, and desire are abundant
                 Having expended funds approximating a billion
dollars in previous efforts to  eradicate the problem, Chicago

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                                                      384
    of 460 million dollars; however, replacement cost would pro-
    bably exceed one billion dollars.  Thus, it is apparent that
    Chicago has spared no expense in its efforts to provide a
    plentiful supply of safe and palatable water for its users.
4
                     The problem we currently face with the fur-
5
    ther degradation of the lower or southern reaches of Lake
6
    Michigan are real and dangerous.
                     The rapidly expanding population and Indus-
O
    trial complex in the Calumet area of Indiana have been the
y
    principal sources of pollution of the southern end of Lake
    Michigan.
12
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                  The  crib and shore  water intakes of the South
 Filtration  Plant  are  at  times exposed  to excessive pollution
 from industrial and sewage wastes  discharged into the lake
 from the  Calumet  Region.
                  However,  we  have  been able  to produce a high
 quality,  safe, palatable water at  all  times,  but  our experience
 in the  last  several years has Indicated that periods of pol-
 lution  are  of greater frequency and  of progressively increasing
 Intensity.  While the rising  cost  of water purification is of
 interest  to us, our primary concern  remains  with  the ability
 of the  conventional water  treatment  process  to produce a
 satisfactory quality water in  the  future  if  the trend  of  in-
 creasing pollution persists.
                 While some progress has been made in  the
Calumet area in the treatment of wastes by industry, the

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4
 5
   millions of dollars to protect their drinking water and to



   prevent water pollution.  Chicago is proud of its leading



   role in the development of many of the most important tech-
 o


   niques now in use in water treatment.
 y


                    The present system is a product of a compre-



   hensive plan and program which when completed this year will
12




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                                                    383



   comprehensive system of collection, treatment, and distribu-




   tion facilities designed to serve Chicago and its suburban



   neighbors with a product as pure and safe as modern technology
   permits.
                    The people of Chicago have spent hundreds of
enable us to supply the projected water needs of 1980, many



years before they occur.



                 This vast system consists of the world's two



largest water filtration plants with a design capacity of



approximately 1.5 billion gallons a day and a peak capacity



exceding 2.5 billion gallons a day.



                 The distribution systems consist of some 75



miles of water tunnels beneath the lake and a network of over



4,000 miles of water mains fed by 11 water pumping stations.



                 This system supplies the water needs of over



4,500,000 persons residing in the city of Chicago and sixty-



three suburbs.  Daily water pumpage exceeds 1,046,000,000



gallons.



                 The cost of the complete system is in excess

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                                                     382


    against several northern Indiana cities and industrial con-



 2   cerns in an effort to reduce lake pollution.  In 1944, the



 3   Chicago Water Department along with the Metropolitan Sanitary



 4   District, and other Chicago agencies made a Joint survey in



 5   the Calumet Region and documented many domestic sewage and



 6   Industrial waste outlets.



 7                    Throughout the years, the Chicago Water



 8   Department has managed to keep the city's water supply safe by



    introducing a series of water treatment improvements which
 y


    incorporated into the design of a vast water filtration pro-



u   gram.  Chlorination equipment capacity was Increased at the



12   pumping stations, twenty-four hour chlorination control sta-



13   tions were installed in the City's North and Central water
14
    districts, and an intensive water quality surveillance program
    was initiated with checkpoints in the lake as well as the
15


,„   Calumet River system.
ID


17                    The South District Filtration Plant was



10   placed into partial operation in 1945 and into full operation
18


    in 19^7.  The giant Central District Filtration Plant, with



2Q   a nominal capacity of 960 million gallons per  day, was



21   placed in operation in 1964 providing the entire city of Chi-



22   cago and sixty-three suburban municipalities with a filtered



23   water supply.




24                    In its fight against  the effects of lake pol-



25   lution,  the  Chicago Water Department  operates and maintains a

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                                                381
of Chicago, the Indiana State Board of Health, and the Metro-
politan Sanitary District.
                 Numerous conferences were held for several
years and by 1931 the abatement program had significantly
reduced the amount of phenol pollution in the lake.  Relief
was temporary, however, and the water quality at the intakes
again showed an increasing pollution trend with "oil refinery"
type tastes and odors predominating, although chlorophenol
taste persisted.
                 The increasing deterioration of raw water
quality on the city's south side prompted the Department to
install an ammonia-chlorine treatment plant at the Dunne Crib
in 1936.  This type treatment was installed to reduce taste
and odor problems and to provide additional protection.  The
water filtration program, which had begun at the experimental
plant, was now accelerated very rapidly and construction of
the 32O million gallon per day South District Filtration Plant
was started in 1938.
                 The Dunne Crib water supply continued to
deteriorate from 1937 through 194l.  At the city's request,
the United States Public Health Service studied the situation
in 1941-42 and reported again that the Calumet Region was
again responsible for increasing levels of lake pollution.
                 Following this report, the State of Illinois
in 1943 brought suit in the United States Supreme Court

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                                                      380
                     In 1923-4,  228 typhoid fever cases occurred
 i
    on the city's south side and 23 persons died as a result.
 2
    City officials immediately recognized the need for a more
 3
    rigid system of chlorination control.
 4
                     New chlorination equipment was installed in
 5
    duplicate sets at all of the pumping stations.  Permanent
 6
    chlorine attendants were employed and trained, and a compre-
 7
    hensive program of water sampling, testing and pollution study
 8
    was instituted under technical supervision.  These actions
 9
    proved their effectiveness by virtually eliminating death by
10
    typhoid fever in Chicago.
n
                     In fact, since 1924, there hasn't been re-
12

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23

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25
 corded  in Chicago  a  single  case  of typhoid  attributed  to  the

 public  water  supply.  Intensive  lake pollution  surveys  were

 made in 1924-25 by the United States Public Health  Service

 and in  1925 and 1926 by the City.  These  surveys  and reports

 warned  of declining water quality and growing  pollution in

 the Calumet Region.  The Chicago Water Department heeded  the

 warning by beginning construction in 1926 of an experimental

 filtration plant to conduct research for  design of  a full

 scale plant.

                 Beginning  in 1927, the city's water supply

 began suffering periods of  severe chlorophenol tastes  and

 odors.  A pollution abatement program was immediately  launched

by certain industrial concerns in cooperation with the city

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                                                    379
                     Up to this time,  the city of Chicago govern-
    ment  had shouldered responsibility for water supply and sewage
2
    disposal.  Now a new and separate  governmental agency was
*3
    created to protect  Lake Michigan from pollution.   The success
4
    of the Metropolitan Sanitary District, covered in  a separate
5
    report, in carrying out this assignment and manner in which
6
    this  task was accomplished is both history and one of the
7
    Seven Engineering Wonders.
8
                     While the Sanitary District attacked their
9
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
phase of the problem, the protection of Lake Michigan from
pollution, the Chicago Water Department concerned itself with
its mission of supplying an adequate quantity of safe water
of high quality.
                 In support of this objective, the Water De-
partment introduced the sterilization treatment of the raw wate
with a  hypochlorite solution in 1912.
                 By 1915* all of the city's water was receiving
this chemical treatment.  Shortly thereafter, liquid chlorine
feeding equipment was installed in all of the water pumping
stations.  The striking effect of these improvements was Imme-
diately noted as the annual death rate from typhoid fever
was sharply reduced to a rate of 2 per 100,000 in 1917, from
the high of 174 per 100,000 in 1891.  Reduction in the fre-
quency of cholera and dysentery also followed the use of
jhemical treatment.

-------
                                                      378
    where It spread beyond the water intakes.   This episode
    triggered an epldemnlc of typhoid fever which persisted for
tt
    several years.
                     This crisis also led to the formation by the
    Chicago City Council of a Drainage and Water Supply Commission
O
c   in 1886.  This Commission was given the assignment of study-
6
    ing the city's problems relating to water supply, sewage
    disposal, and storm drainage.  After several years of study,
O
    the Commission recommended a plan designed to protect Chicago1
y
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
most priceless asset  - its lake front and water supply.
                 The  plan was to:
                 1.   Relocate the flow of the Des Plaines
       River to the westerly edge of Its drainage basin.
                 2.   Construct a new drainage canal  28
       miles in length from the Chicago River at Damen
       Avenue to the  Des Plaines River at Lockport.  This
       would permanently reverse the flow of the Chicago
       River.
                 3.   Build major intercepting sewers along
       the lake to collect existing sewerage and drain this
       sewerage to the new canal.
                 To carry out these plans, the Commission
recommended the creation of the Metropolitan Sanitary District
Enabling state legislation was passed in 1889 and on January
18, 1890, the Metropolitan Sanitary District became a reality.

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                                                      377


                    In the quest for safe water, a tunnel system


   under the lake bed was constructed, connecting water intakes


   located two miles from shore.  The first such water tunnel was
3

   completed in 1867 and attracted world-wide interest.
4

                    At the same time, it was determined that
5

   steps would have to be taken to prevent the flow of the river
6

   with its pollution load from reaching the lake.


                    Thus, the plan to reverse the flow of the
8 1


   Chicago River had its beginning.  City engineers calculated
  11

   that, if the Illinois and Michigan Canal, opened in 1848, were


   deepened, the flow of the Chicago River from West to East


   would be reversed.


  I                  This project was started in 1865 and completed
  !1

   in 1871.  The system worked well for a time, but expanding
14

  population and real estate development created a situation
  !

   which finally terminated the temporary relief and resulted in
16 ||

   the Chicago River returning to its normal flow.  Other


  funsuccessful schemes followed.
18
19



20



21



22



23



24



25
                 Finally, on August 2, 1885, nature counter-


attacked with a torrential rainstorm which blanketed the


Chicago area with over 6 inches of rainfall.  The intensity of


 he storm scoured the sewerage system and produced a record


 ass of pollution.


                 The storm waters also overloaded the river and


 anal system permitting the storm pollution to enter the lake

-------
                                                      376
l                 Early efforts to obtain an uncontaminated source]
    of water prompted the city's engineers to reach for clean
ft
    water by extending water intakes further into the lake,
    beyond the polluted shore lines.  The first such effort
.   occurred in 1854, when a water intake was extended 600 feet
5
    into the lake.  However, in the same year a cholera epidemic
D
    claimed the lives of 5.5 percent of the population.  Mute
    testimony to the magnitude of the problem.
O
                  In 1856, work began on the construction of an
9
    integrated sewerage system, the first of its kind in the
    United States.  With the completion of this project, the
    surface drainage of Chicago's flat and marshy areas was
    greatly improved but only at the expense of the problem of
13
    supplying safe drinking water.  This was particularly true
14
    since the integrated sewerage system emptied into the Chicago
lo
    River which in turn flowed into the lake.
16
                  During this period, the problems of supplying
    an adequate supply of uncontaminated drinking water were ever
18                                                *
    compounding because of the rapidly increasing population.
•I J
                  In 1862, the City1s Chief Engineer, Mr. Ches-
    brough, was sounding the alarm about the increasing pollution
    of the river and rapidly declining quality of the water supply
fttt
                  About this time,  a program was formulated to
23
    attack the  problem on  two fronts in an attempt  to break the
24
    chain linking the water supply problem with that of sewage
    disposal.

-------
                                                     375
    state of Indiana are to continue to reap the many benefits'
    of their close dependence upon the lake, an immediate, effec-
    tive, and well coordinated action program must be undertaken.
*i
    This program must have as its objectives the permanent abate-
4
    ment of the present pollution problem so clearly defined in
&                                                                 I
    the United States Public Health Service report, as well as the
6
    prevention of further lake pollution from all sources.
                  The protection of our source of water supply
8
    is vital for maintaining the prosperity, health and welfare
y
    of the citizens of our city, as well as the lake water users
    in the large metropolitan area supplied from the Chicago Water
    Works System.
                  Chicago became an incorporated community in
13
    1833 and a city in 1837.  At that time, the Chicago River
14
    was used as a means of collecting and removing the sanitary
15
    wastes produced by the community's 4,000 residents.  Drinking
16
    water was obtained from shallow wells or directly from the
    lake.  In this way, the deadly cycle of sanitary wastes con-
18
    taminating the community's water supply was activated with
*y
    resultant disease-breeding potential.
20
                  When the infant city formed its own water com-
A!
    pany* tne forerunner of the Department of Water and Sewers,
22
    it assumed a primary responsibility for protecting the public
MW
    health from water-borne disease,  a charge which remains in
24
    effect today.
25

-------
                                                       374

    this  conference,  and the far-reaching effect  it will have  on
 i
    the health  and welfare  of millions  of people  is indicated  by
 2
    the fact  that it  was called  by  the  Honorable  Anthony J.  Cele-
 3
    brezze, Secretary of the Department of  Health, Education and
 4
    Welfare as  a result of  the very excellent  survey  and report
 5
    made  by the United States Public Health Service.
 6
                  The history of Chicago is a  saga of a deter-
 7
    mined people's efforts  to control the use  of  the  most  impor-
 8
    tant  single physical and natural asset  associated with Chicago
 9
    - fresh water.   In this apparently  never-ending struggle to
10
    retain the  full use of  Lake  Michigan's  waters to  support the
11
    domestic, commercial, industrial, and recreational needs of
12
    Chicagoland's residents, the Chicago Water Department,  in
13
    conjunction with  the Metropolitan Sanitary District, have
14
    sought and  received cooperation from both  federal and  state
15
    agencies  through  the years.
16
                  During the 132 year history  of  Chicago,  as a
17
    community,  numerous battles  have been fought  against the
18
    threat and  scourge of water  pollution and  the various  water-
is
    borne diseases which it produces.
20
                  Because of Chicago's  strategic  location  along
21
    the shores  of Lake Michigan,  the lake has  served  to influence
22
    the city's  development  as the nation's  transportation  center
23
    and the heart of midwest's agricultural and industrial
24
    complex*
25
                  However,  if the Chicago area and the  neighboring

-------
                                                      373


    previous efforts to  eradicate the problem, Chicago is again



    willing to accept the challenge.
ft


                  We intend to take whatever steps necessary to
3


    preverft continued degradation of the quality of Lake Michigan



    water.  We hope to do this forcefully and intelligently.
O


0                 Without question, the need for drastic
6


    corrective action is of the greatest urgency.  We urge all of



.   the participants of this conference to pledge their effort to
8


    restore Lake Michigan to a quality level where all of the
y


    many millions of residents and tourists can share in the use



    of one of nature's most beautiful, functional, and valuable



    resources.



                  This is not merely something that should be
13


    done, it is something that must be done.
14


..         STATEMENT PRESENTED BY JAMES W. JARDINE, COMMISSIONER
15


            DEPARTMENT OP WATER AND SEWERS, CITY OP CHICAGO
16


1?                AT THE INTERSTATE POLLUTION CONFERENCE



                         HELD ON MARCH 2, 1965
lo


    Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Conferees, Ladies and Gentlemen:
iy


20                 I am very appreciative of the opportunity to be



21   here today as a representative of the Chicago Water Works



22   System which provides water service to over 4,500,000 persons



23   in Chicago and some sixty-three suburban communities in an



24   area of over 400 square miles.



25                 The need, the urgency and the importance of

-------
                                                     372
    area in the treatment of waste by industry, the  constant  in-

    crease in industrial production capacities and changes  in
 ft
    Industrial processes used,  and the fact  that waste  treatment
 3
    has not kept pace with this increase, has caused what we  be-
 4
    lleve a serious  water pollution problem which requires

    immediate bold and  drastic  measures  to abate.
 6
                  We believe the solution adopted should have as
 7
    its final objective the complete and permanent protection of
 8
    Lake Michigan from  man-made pollution.   We also  believe that
 9
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
the people who  look to the  lake  for  beauty,  livelihood,
recreation and  most important, a healthy existence,  share  this
view and will support whatever program will  accomplish these
goals.
              We have found from past  experience  that  most of
the parties involved with this problem will  cooperate  will-
ingly.  What is urgently needed  is a program which all can
support now and in the future.   With the technical aid and
guidance available from the Department of Health,  Education,
and welfare and more particularly the  United States  Public
Health Service, we believe  such  a program can  and  will be
adopted.
              However, it is imperative  to keep in mind that
time is the one commodity we don't have  in ample  supply;
technical data, resources,  leadership, and desire  are  abundant
Having expended funds approximating  a  billion dollars  in

-------
                                                      371


 j   exceed one billion dollars.


 2                 Thus, it is apparent that Chicago has spared


 3   no expense in its efforts to provide a plentiful supply of


 4   safe and palatable water for its users.


 5                 The problems we currently face with the


 6   degradation of the lower or southern reaches of Lake Michigan


 7   are real and dangerous.


 8                 The rapidly expanding population and industrial


 9   complex in the Calumet area of Indiana have been the principal


10   source of pollution of the southern end of Lake Michigan.


n                 The crib and shore water intakes of the South

                        at
12   Filtration Plant are/times exposed to excessive pollution from


13   industrial and sewage wastes discharged into the lake from


14   the Calumet Region.


15                 However, we have been able to produce a high


16   quality, safe palatable water at all times, but our experience


17   in the last several years has indicated that periods of pollu-


18   tlon are of greater frequency and of progressively Increasing


19   intensity.


20                 While the rising cost of water purification is


21   of Interest to us, our primary concern remains with the


22   quality of the conventional water treatment processes to pro-


23   duce a satisfactory quality water in the future if the trend


24   of increasing pollution persists.


25                 While some progress has been made in the Calumet

-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                   370
comprehensive  system of  collection, treatment,  and distribu-
tion  facilities  designed to  serve  Chicago and  its suburban
neighbors, with  a product as pure  and  safe as  modern  tech-
nology permits.
               The people of  Chicago have  spent hundreds  of
millions of  dollars to protect  their drinking  water and  to
prevent water  pollution.  Chicago  is proud of  its  leading
role  in the  development of  many of the most Important tech-
niques now in  use in water treatment.
               The present system is a  product  of a compre-
hensive plan and program which,  when completed this year, will
enable us to supply the  projected  water needs  of 1980, many
years before they occur.
               This vast  system  consists of the world's two
largest water  filtration plants  with a designed capacity of
approximately  1.5 billion gallons  a day and a  peak capability
exceeding 2.5  billion gallons a  day.
               The distribution  systems consist of some 75
miles of water tunnels beneath the lake and a  network of over
4,000 miles  of water mains fed by  11 water pumping stations.
               This system supplies the water needs of over
4,500,000 persons residing in the  city of Chicago and sixty-
three  suburbs.  Daily water pumpage exceeds 1,046,000,000
gallons.  The cost of the complete system is in excess of
460 million dollars; however, replacement  cost  would probably

-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 8
                                                    369
                 However, if the Chicago area and the neighbor-
   ing state of Indiana are to continue to reap the many benefits
   of their close dependence upon the Lake, an immediate, effec-
   tive, and well coordinated action program must be undertaken.
   This program must have as its objectives the permanent abate-
„  ment of the present pollution problem so clearly defined  in
o
   the United States Public Health Service's report, as well as
   the prevention of further lake pollution from all sources.
                 The protection of our source of water supply is
   vital for maintaining the prosperity, health and welfare  of
   the large metropolitan area supplied from the Chicago Water
   Works System.
                 Throughout the years, the Chicago Water Depart-
   ment has managed to keep the City's water supply safe by
   introducing a series of water treatment improvements which
   were incorporated into the design of a vast water filtration
   program.
                 The South District Filtration Plant was placed
   into partial operation in 19^5 and into full operation in 19^7
   The giant Central District Filtration Plant, with a nominal
   capacity of 960 million gallons per day, was placed in opera-
   tion in 1964, providing the entire city of Chicago and sixty-
   three suburban municipalities with a filtered water supply.
                 In its fight against the effects of Lake pollu-
   tion, the Chicago Water Department operates and maintains a
10
n
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

-------
                                                     368

    conference, and the far reaching effect it will have on the


    health and welfare of millions of people is indicated by
 2

    the fact that it was called by the Honorable Anthony J.
 3

    Celebrezze, Secretary of the Department of Health, Education,


    and Welfare as a result of the very excellent  survey and
 5

    report made by the United States Public Health Service.
 B

                  The history of Chicago is a saga of a deter-
 7

    mined people's efforts to control the use of the most impor-
 8

    tant single physical and natural asset associated with
 9

    Chicago - fresh water.  In this apparently never ending
10


11


12


13


14


15


16


17


18


19


20


21


22



23


24


25
struggle to retain the full use of Lake Michigan's waters to


support the domestic, commercial, industrial, and recreational


needs of Chigagoland's residents, the Chicago Water Department


in conjunction with the Metropolitan Sanitary District, have


sought and received cooperation from both Federal and state


agencies through the years.


              During the one hundred and thirty-two year


history of Chicago, as a community, numerous battles have


been fought against the threat and scourge of water pollution


and the various waterborne diseases which it produces.


              Because of Chicago's strategic location along


the shores of Lake Michigan, the lake has served to influence


the City's development as the Nation's transportation center


and the heart of the midwest's agricultural and industrial


complex.

-------
                                                      367


    been and is responsible for this activity in the City, the



    Commissioner of Water and Sewers, James Jardine.
 ft


          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  While Mr. Jardine is coming up, I think
 3

    we have a little advance information.  A good deal of his
 4


    presentation will be based on slides and I think this will
 5

    probably be one of the most vital or interesting we have.
 6

    The suggestion is that some of the people sitting in the


    fringes back there who don't have a good view of the screen
 8

    might want to adjust their seats and make sure they see the
 y

    slides.
10

          MR. JAMES W. JARDINE:  Mr. Chairman, Distinguished


    Conferees, Ladies and Gentlemen:
12

                  I have submitted to the reporter the full text
13

    of my statement, Mr. Chairman, and in the interest of saving
14

    time, I would appreciate it if the full statement could be
10

    included in the record and I will brief     the reporter later
16

          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Without objection, this will be done.


          MR. JARDINE:  I might add that those who follow me will
18

    present the slides.
19

                  I am appreciative of the opportunity to be here
20


    today as a representative of the Chicago Water Works System
21


    which provides water service to over 4,500,000 persons in
2*


    Chicago and some 63 suburban communities in an area of over
23

    400 square miles.
24


                  The need,  the urgency and the importance of this
25

-------
                                                       366


    competency and dedication of the people that are in charge


    of the Chicago water supply.  I see, I know this over the yearb
 2

    and they have had a number of problems and it might strike


    some of you here as rather a peculiar set of circumstances in
 4

    this country where very rarely can the officials in respon-
 0

    sible charge of a public water supply get up publicly and tell
 &

    the public what their problems are.


                  Usually, they have had to take what's given to
 8

    them and solve the problem the best way they can.  And, this
 y
10



11



12



13



14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
 is no  exception here.


              Without  in any way minimizing any of  the  other


 Jobs in the  city,  I  know this  from my long years of experience


 that the people in charge of a public water supply, whether


 it is  Chicago or any other place,  has the  one most  responsible


 Job in any municipality because  literally,  and  figuratively,


 in their hands rests the health  and the  lives of the people


 of that community, in  this Instance,  the health and lives of


 over five and one-half million people, where a  billion  and a


 half gallons of water  every  day, at peak days particularly,


 roughly about a billion gallons  is pumped  to the citizens of


 this area.


              I say, it is a rather rare opportunity that


waterworks officials have  of laying out  their particular


problems.  This is going to  be one of the exceptions because


this is a fact-finding  conference, and the person that  is


going to lead off for the City of Chicago is the man that has

-------
                                                       365
                  Apparently there is a sensitivity about cyanide
2   in certain quarters and I — my only conclusion is, I hope
3   this sensitivity continues.
4                 (Laughter)
                  Without minimizing any of the multipurpose uses
O
c   of Lake Michigan under consideration here, there is one that
o
    is the most important without any question.
0                 That is the source of Lake Michigan as a public
o
    water supply for human consumption.
9
                  A water supply has some peculiar character-
    istics.  It is a peculiar type of industry.  It has no control
    over its raw material and this is something that industry
12
    would never tolerate.
13
                  Yet, it is expected and required to turn out
    a quality product, a product that must be safe to drink,
lo
,_   every drop of it, every minute of every day, of every night.
lb
17                 Again, it is an industry that has to take what's
,0   given to it.  There is no industry, I am sure, and those par-
lo
    ticularly represented in this conference, that would think of
iy
    not controlling its raw materials.
                  Yet, we have seen that some of these industries

-------
                                                     364


          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you very much, Mr. Jordahl.



                  This, I think, completes the federal agency
tt


    presentation.



                  The Department of Interior and the Corps of
4


    Engineers, as you know, work very closely with us in the
o


.   water resources field.
o


                  There is one other agency, water resources



    agency in the Department of Agriculture.
O


                  They didn't indicate they wanted to speak here
w


    at this meeting, and I guess, flying in here, you can guess
                  That concludes it?
12


          MR. POSTON:  That concludes it.
13


          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Again, we would like to call on Mr.
14


    Klassen of Illinois.
15


                  Mr. Klassen.
16


          MR. KLASSEN:  Before I call on the next agency to appear



    Mr. Chairman, last evening, after the session it was called to
18


    my attention that I made a technically incorrect statement
xy


    and I, Just for the record, wanted to correct it.



                  I did say that two-tenths parts per million of



    cyanide was toxic.



                  This is technically incorrect.  I should have
23


    said that two-tenths parts per million of cyanide is the
24


    maximum amount permissive in drinking water.
Zo

-------
                                                     363


    area, be it on inland lakes, rivers, or ocean shoreline —



    whether the reason is development for other purposes or the
 tt

    pollution of the waters — the result is a greater demand and
 3

    heavier load on remaining facilities, local, State, and



    National.


                  The present facilities in the vicinity of
 B

    southern Lake Michigan are inadequate to meet the existing
 7


    demand, to say nothing of the overwhelming future increases
 O

    of recreation demand predicted by the ORRRC report.  There-
 3

    fore, any action which can be taken to improve water quality


    in this area will be of immeasurable value to people deserving


    outdoor recreation.
12

    CONCLUSION
13   	

                  Mr. Carver, in the statement previously noted,
14

    stressed the essential element of cooperation as follows:
15

                  "in the early days of water resources conserva-
16

    tlon and development, there was little need for coordination


    among the various Federal agencies involved.  The field was so
18

    sparsely occupied, water problems — especially water-quality


    problems — were so relatively less urgent than they are now,



    that coordination was not then a major consideration.  Today,


    and in the years ahead, close and effective coordination is
22


    essential.  This Department and other Federal agencies must
ffV

    pool their resources in order to accomplish our goal of
24

    acceptable levels of water quality for our natural resources
25


    and our economic needs."

-------
                                                     362
    cooperatively,  and In some cases financed cooperatively, with
    State and local governments and other Federal agencies; the
2
    Survey has responsibility also for the design of the national
3
    network of hydrologlc data collection.  Results of these pro-
4
    Jects are available to all in the form of maps and reports.
O
    The Geological Survey wishes to continue its cooperation with
6
    Federal and State agencies in the basins around Lake Michigan
    to obtain the information on water and its environment that
8
    is most needed in the solution of the pressing water problems.
9
    These agencies and those to which data and information have

    been furnished include Illinois Water Survey, Metropolitan

    Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Indiana Board of Health,

    Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Water Re-

    sources, Indiana Flood Control and Water  Resources  Commission,

    U. S. Public Health Service, Corps of Engineers, Illinois

    Division of Waterways, and the Northeastern Illinois Metro-
    politan Area Planning Commission.

    NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                  The National Park Service is very much inter-
    ested in the improvement of the water quality of our streams,
    lakes,  estuaries and oceans generally.  The pollution of the
    southern end of Lake Michigan has a direct effect upon the
    recreation use potential of the Indiana Dunes National Lake-
    shore proposal and an indirect effect on all areas of the
    National  Park Systems.   A  recreation potential is lost in one

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 3

 4

 5

 6

 7

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 9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                                                  361
scientific and technological investigations among the mineral
industries with the aim of improving health conditions, in-
creasing safety and efficiency, and preventing economic waste
	 Close contact with current industrial practices is
maintained through activities that include: (1) conduct of
cooperative studies with State and other governmental agencies
and with industry; (2) participation in the committee work of
technical societies? and, (3) informal exchanges of  Informa-
tion between Bureau and industrial specialists in appropriate
fields."
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
              The Geological Survey provides scientific in-
formation on the physical environment of water that  is re-
quired for the successful development, use, and control of
water.  All phases of the Survey's work are designed to ob—
tain timely and appropriate water facts needed for the solu-
tion of water problems.  Topographic quadrangle maps prepared
by the Survey give information on the surface features of
river basins; its geologic maps give information on  rock types
and structure which control ground water occurrence  and move-
ment.  Hydrologic maps and reports based on these topographic
and geologic data present Information on the quantity,
quality and distribution of the water resources of the United
States.
              Programs and individual projects are designed

-------
                                                        360
    arise in the mineral  industry.
                  The Bureau of Mines  can  contribute to the  study
 2
    by  identifying number and  location of  existing mineral-based
    industries  and determining the water requirements,  as well  as
    the water discharged,  from these establishments.  Prediction
    of  future water  requirements  of the mineral industry is  also
 6
    a province  where the  Bureau's special  abilities  can be uti-
    lized .
 8
                  Assistant Secretary  of Interior Carver,  in a
 9
    statement on July 8,  1963, stated  the  following  relative to
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
the role of the Bureau of Mines in the pollution-control
field.
              "Mineral-industry water interests Initially
conflict with all other major water interests.  To  ameliorate
such conflicts, the Bureau of Mines of this Department en-
courages the mineral industries to practice water conservation
Including water-quality control.  In ,this way, we promote
attainment of an equitable use balance within the total
national demand for water.  Water withdrawn from natural
supplies must be used over and over where feasible.  Waste
water effluents must not be allowed to impair significantly
the quality of our water supplies.
              "Under the provisions of the Bureau of Mines
Organic Act, it is both the province and the duty of the
Secretary of the Interior to conduct economic inquires and

-------
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25
                                                 357
              The mighty Great Lakes with their many tribu-
taries can rightfully be included among our nation's major
natural resources.  Through the years we have been led to
believe that the Great Lakes can be little affected by the
activities of man.  Recent studies and observations show that
many portions of the Great Lakes have been adversely affected
by pollution.  The severity of the pollution is evidenced by
violent fluctuations in species composition by not only
fishes but other aquatic organisms.  The choicer fishes are
being replaced by less valuable species which have a greater
tolerance for turbidity and low oxygen.  The gradual accumula-
tion of wastes day after day may render the water a barren
wasteland to fish.
              Most important to fishery utilization is the
capacity of a fish population to restore iself after its
numbers have been reduced or changed.  For this reason all is
not lost.  By cleaning up pollution, the restoration of our
fishery resources can become a reality.  Once again we will be
able to see, capture and eat the choicer varieties of fish
which are no longer present or are present in limited numbers.
              The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries is always
interested in maintaining high water and environmental quality
in areas where the development or continuation of commercial
fisheries is possible.  Conditions regarding water quality
and fish production in the extreme southern portion of Lake

-------
                                                     356


    upon which they depend for food consist of the living re-


    sources in rivers, lakes and the sea.  They are the property


    of no man until caught.  In life they are the concern of the
 w

    people and can be conserved and managed by governmental
 4

    authority — local, State, Federal or international.  Hidden
 v)

    as they are beneath the surface of the water, special and
 6

    complicated techniques are needed to find out how they can be


    managed so as to yield maximum sustained production.
 8

                  Sound management requires an understanding of
 y

    the nature of living resources.  The stocks of fish which


    support our fisheries are self-renewing.  They do not exist


    in limited quantities, like our mineral resources, to be used
12                                                    '

    once and thereafter be gone forever.  Living resources can
1 V

    endure forever, and therefore are more valuable, by far, than
14

    the annual yield would suggest.  This is true only if we
15

    manage them wisely, and we can do this only if we understand
16

    the habits of the aquatic animals and plants and their inter-
17

    relationships with each other and with the environment.
18

                  Where the environment becomes changed or re-
19

    stricted by pollution, the fish population and fish food
20

    organisms have to adjust themselves to altered conditions.


    This produces fluctuation of abundance,  changes in species
22

    composition,  changes in growth rate and  many other things,
23

    most of which do not benefit  mankind.   This has happened in
24

    the Great Lakes where the environment has been changed or
25

    rendered unfit  by pollution.

-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
                                                355           |
              2.  Strengthen and maintain a vigorous fishery
industry by assuring full and fair access to the American
market.
              3.  Do these things in partnership with the
States and in full accordance with our international obliga-
tions, arid without sacrificing the system of free enterprise.
              In pursuing these policies the Federal Govern-
ment has a responsibility to the Public as a whole to see
that our fishery resources are utilized to the fullest eco-
nomic extent without damage to their future productivity.
              A deeper look Into the complex problems facing
our fishing industry today is a look into the major trends
operating over decades, that have produced the critical
problems now facing us.
              Our population growth, the change from rural to
urban economy, and industrial development have caused in-
creasing complications: first, from domestic wastesj then
from dams, industrial wastes, channel and harbor improvements,
marsh drainage and conversion of marshlands and backwaters to
residential and industrial sites; more recently from the wide-
spread and rapidly expending use of insecticides, herbicides,
detergents, and a host of other technological developments;
and now the possible dangers introduced by disposal of radio-
active wastes from research,  industry and other uses.
              Our raw material,  the fishes,  and the organisms

-------
                                                     354

                  2.  They enrich our diet with variety.


                  3.  They promote our health, providing dietary
 t»


    supplements such as vitamins, trace minerals, and the essentia
 3

    requirements in wider variety than any other class of foods.
 4

                  4.  They have, because of the unique properties


    of their proteins and oils, potential uses as Pharmaceuticals
 6

    and industrial chemicals.
 7

                  5.  They supply to our animal industries vital
 8

    proteins, fats and growth factors.


                  6.  They develop the seafaring qualities of our
10

    people and provide marine facilities and equipment sorely


    needed by an America now faced with transoceanic problems and
12

    wide responsibilities in a changing world.
13

                  The Pish and Wildlife Act of 1956 recognizes
14

    that fish and shellfish are capable of making a valuable


    continuous contribution to the national economy, food supply
16

    and health, recreation, and well-being of our citizens.  When
17

    these resources are properly protected, properly developed,
18

    properly managed, and properly utilized, the Act considers


    them capable of being greatly increased.  Control of pollution
20

    Is one conservation measure that must be practiced.  The


    alternative is destruction by neglect.
22

                  It is the National Pish Policy to:
23

                  1.  Increase and maintain forever, for the
24

    people of the United States, a fishery resource capable of
25

    yielding the maximum annual product.

-------
  I                                                   353



    activity by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries.  The National



2   fish policy established by the 1956 Act places high on the



3   list of goals the responsibility for the economic betterment



4   of the commercial fishing industry in all its phases - pro-



,   duction, processing and distribution.  This responsibility
O


.   extends to the control and prevention of pollution.  Pollution
D


7   is probably the primary factor today that limits the production



0   of food fish and in fact threatens future fish production.
o


    The measure of pollution as used here is the suitability of
%3


    water for a required use.  The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries



    is concerned with the suitability of the waters of Lake



    Michigan for production of fish and fish food organisms.



                  The fishermen of America have played a unique
13


    part in this country's economy since its founding.  Fisheries
14


    are still of major importance to many sections of the country.
io


    Employment, direct and indirect, is furnished to 500,000
16


    citizens.  Today our fisheries supply over five billion pounds



    of fish each year, about half of which is used for human food.
18


    The fish catch, when processed, is worth over a billion
*y


    dollars annually at the retail level.



                  Our aquatic resources are far more valuable
A!


    than is indicated by the number of persons they support or
***»


    the dollar values of their products.
23


                  1.  They are living, renewable resources which
24


    can continue to make their contribution to our welfare forever
25


    if we treat them wisely.

-------
                                                     352
                  Where the environment becomes changed or damaged
    by pollution, the fish population and fish-food organisms
 ft
    have to adjust to the altered conditions or perish.  This pro-
 3
    duces fluctuations of abundance, changes in species compos!-
 4
    tlon, changes in growth rate, and many other modifications of
 5
    the plant and animal life present.
 6
                  Changes in the environment of the waters of Lake
 7
    Michigan are being reflected in the following:
 O
                  1.  Lake trout and Whiteflsh have all but dis-
 9
    appeared, in part due to lamprey infestations.
10
                  2.  Alewives, a low value species, have greatly
    Increased in numbers, and catches of carp have also shown
12
    great Increases.  Periodic die-offs of alewives In great nura-
13
    bers at the southern end of Lake Michigan are a major nuisance
14
                  3.  Catch statistics of the Bureau of Commercial
15
    Fisheries indicate great declines in fish harvest.
16
                  4.  In 1963 about 10,000 migratory waterfowl
    were killed along the shores of eastern and southern Lake
18
    Michigan (loons, ducks, gulls).  Although the causes were not
io
    definitely determined, (botulism, pesticides, organic pollu-
20
    tants were all investigated), obviously some highly unfavor-
21
    able environmental change occurred.
22
    BUREAU OP COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
23   	
                  The 1956 Act and a wide variety of other
24
    statutes enacted over the years authorize a broad range of
25

-------
                                                    351

                  The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is
 i
    vitally interested in protecting and enhancing the quality of
 2
    all waters throughout the Nation.  In this respect, the Bureau
 3
    is a signatory to a Memorandum of Understanding with the
 4
    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare concerning water
 5
    pollution control.  This agreement was developed in recogni-
 6
    tion of common interests in the field of water pollution and
 7
    to make possible a more effective program of interagency
 8
    cooperation.
 9
                  It is In accordance with the Fish and Wildlife
10
    Coordination Act of 1956 which authorized the Secretary of
n
    the Interior, through the Fish and Wildlife Service and the
12
    Bureau of Mines, to make such investigations as he deems
13
    necessary to determine the effects of domestic sewage, mine,
14
    petroleum, and industrial wastes, erosion silt, and other
15
    polluting substances on wildlife, and to make reports to the
16
    Congress concerning such investigations and of recommendations
17
    for alleviating dangerous and undesirable effects of such
18
    pollution.  These investigations shall include: (1) the
19
    determination of standards of water quality for the maintenanc^
20
    of wildlife; (2) the study of methods of abating and prevent-
21
    Ing pollution and (3) the collection and distribution of data
22
    on the progress and results of such investigations for the use
23
    of Federal, State, municipal and private agencies, individual
24
    organizations or enterprises.
25

-------
                                                    350
    water makes It unsafe for swimming.  Official beach attendance

    is zero.  Thus, it is estimated 150-250 thousand activity
 tt
    days of swimming are lost annually due to the closure of this
 3
    beach.  A portion of the local water-oriented recreation needs

    of the area are met in the form of swimming pools.  A recent
 0
    Indiana Department of Health survey indicates that while Lake
 6
    County had 9 outdoor pools in 1960, about 17 more were needed
 7
    to meet local public needs within the county.  Construction
 8
    of that many pools and their attendant facilities could well
 9
    run over 2.5 million dollars.  The survey further indicated by
10
    1970 there would be a need for about 35 swimming pools to

    meet the growing needs of Lake County, Indiana — this at a
12
    time when Hammond's Lake Michigan beach sits unusable due to
13
    poor water quality.
14
                  In addition, other beaches in the area are
15
    threatened with closure due to deterioration of water quality.
16
    Gary, Indiana's beach at Narquette Park, is presently suffer-
17
    ing water quality problems according to information received
18
    in connection with this Bureau's Nationwide inventory of
19
    recreation areas.  In addition, five beaches on Chicago's soutlk
20
    side are threatened by the changing water quality.  If the
21
    trend continues, millions of people within this area will be
22
    left without a place to swim on the southern end of this Great
23
    Lake.
24
    BUREAU OF SPORT FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE
25   	

-------
 1
                                                   349

    areas in which urban people may retreat occasionally from the
    complexity of city life increases.  Such an escape is almost
it

    a spiritual necessity.


                  It has been established through studies by the


    Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Committee that our great-


    est need is for outdoor recreational areas near population
6

    centers.   ORRRC studies fui»ther indicate 90 percent of all
7

    Americans participate annually in some type of outdoor recrea-
8

    tion, with 44 percent preferring water-oriented recreation,
9
10



11



12



13



14



15



16



17



18



19



20



21



22



23



24



25
mainly swimming.  This region, with its near seven million


local inhabitants, adjoins Lake Michigan, one of the largest


bodies of fresh water in the world.  The lake is a real


treasure for those able to use it for outdoor recreational


activities.  However the pleasure of swimming in its cooling


waters or sunbathing along one of its pleasant sand beaches


after a sweltering day at work is not available to many of


the thousands who live along Its shores.


              For example, Hammond, Indiana, with Its 112,000


population, has about a quarter mile of public beach.  Such a


beach by accepted standards should support a daily attendance


of 2,000 to 3,000 people, affording thousands of local people


the opportunity to enjoy conveniently water-oriented outdoor


recreation throughout the summer.  Such is not the case,


however, the beach has been closed for more than 15 years by


order of the local Board of Health, because the quality of the

-------
                                                   348


    by Act of Congress on May 28, 1963 as a result of recommenda-


    tions made by the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commls-
 2

    sIon, to provide a focal point In the Government for the
 3

    Nation's outdoor recreation activities.  The Congress took


    this action because they deemed it desirable that (1) all
 5

    American people of present and future generations be assured
 6

    adequate outdoor recreation resources, and (2) prompt and


    coordinated efforts be made toward conserving, developing and
 8

    utilizing such resources for the benefit and enjoyment of the
 9

    American people.  Thus, it has become the purpose of this
10

    Bureau to fulfill these desires of the Congress.  As a result
11

    this Bureau shares a very deep concern for events which have
12

    been and are taking place in the area under consideration
13

    here, events which have affected the natural resources of this
14

    region and their usefulness to the American people,  particu-
15

    larly the local citizen, for recreational pursuits.
16

                  The area under consideration includes much of
17

    the Chicago-Northwestern Indiana Standard Consolidated area
18

    as defined by the U.S. Census.  It had a I960 population of
19

    about 6.8 million, an increase of 21.6 percent over the 1950
20

    population.  As such, it Is an area of rapidly increasing re-
21

    creational needs where, at the same time, areas suitable for
22

    recreation development must compete with industrial  and other
23

    development.
24

                  As urbanization increases,  the  need for natural
25

-------
3
                                                    347


    access to all points of the compass.  Mid -Americans making


    plans for vacations and outdoor recreation look to the Ozarks


    in the southwest, to the Smoky Mountains in the southeast, or



    to this Great Lakes region to the north.



                  The highway pattern in Mid -America indicates



    that the Great Lakes are within easy reach of these 50 million
6


    people.  And, situated at the doorstep of the southern end of



    Lake Michigan is the gigantic Chicago metropolitan  area.
8


                  The Outdoor Recreation Resource Review Com-
9
10



11



12



13



14



15



16



17



18







20







22



23



24



25
    mission in their voluminous studies highlighted the importance


    of water to outdoor recreation as follows:


                  "Water Is a focal point of outdoor recreation.


    Most people seeking outdoor recreation want water — to sit


    by, to swim and to fish in, to ski across, to dive under and


    to run their boats over.  Swimming is now one of the most


    popular outdoor activities and Is likely to be the most popula:


    of all by the turn of the century.  Boating and fishing are


    among the top ten activities.  Camping, picnicking and hiking,


    also high on the list, are more attractive near water sites.


    About 90 percent of all Americans participated in some form of


    outdoor recreation in 1960 — a total of 4.4 billion


    occasions.  By 1976, the total will be 6.9 billion, and by the


    year 2000, it will be 12.4 billion — a three-fold increase by


    the turn  of the  century."


                  The  Bureau of Outdoor  Recreation was established

-------
                                                     346


    of this valuable resource.  The Interior approach emphasizes


    the coordination and interrelation between uses and the effect
 2

    of these uses on management and quality of the total water
 J

    supply system.


                  "Maintenance of water quality Involves not only
 O

    the quality levels for human consumption, but also quality
 6

    levels for consumption by other animal and plant life, for
 7

    development of other natural  resources, and for industrial
 8

    processes.  These quality considerations are interrelated.
 9

    They can be understood and controlled best from the point of
10

    view of water as a resource, rather than from a point of view


    of a particular quality need."
12

                  The Department of the Interior has a rich back-
13

    ground of experience and knowledge in this area and is
14

    equipped with highly qualified technical manpower.  All
15

    bureaus and offices of the Department have an interest in
16

    water resources.  In the Great Lakes, the Bureaus of Outdoor
17

    Recreation, Commercial Fisheries, Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
18

    Mines, Geological Survey and National Park Service have a
19

    direct interest.
20

    BUREAU OF OUTDOOR RECREATION
21	

                  The nine upper midwest states which make up Mid-
22

    America contain 50 million people.  Much of this nine-state
23

    region is flat or gently rolling prairie, plain, and field,
24

    and has a relative scarcity of water and topographic resources
25

    for recreation purposes,  but many fine highways provide ready

-------
                                                     345
          CHAIRMAN STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Jordahl.
 l
                  Are there any comments or questions?
 2
                  (No response)
 3
                  Mr. Jordahl, you wanted your whole statement to
 4
    appear In the record.  Without objection, that will be done.

                  Are there any comments or questions?
 6
                  (No response.)
 7
         STATEMENT BY HAROLD C. JORDAHL, JR., REGIONAL COORDINATOR
 8                    OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY
           U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, MADISON, WISCONSIN
 9            FOR PRESENTATION AT THE POLLUTION CONFERENCE
                       SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN
10
                          March 3, 1965
11                       Chicago, Illinois

I2   INTRODUCTION

13                 My name is Harold C. Jordahl, Jr., Regional

14   Coordinator for the U.S. Department of the Interior.

15                 The Department is pleased to offer its coopera-

16   tion to the Public Health Service and the States of Illinois

17   and Indiana in the matter of pollution at the southern end of

18   Lake Michigan.

i9                 Secretary of the Interior Stuart Udall, in a

20   statement before a subcommittee of the House Committee on

21   Government operations early in 1963, expressed the Department

22   of Interior's interest in maintenance of clean water as follow^

23                 "....the focus of Interior effort is directed

24   to the maintenance of adequate national water supplies and

25   adequate water quality for whatever uses man may wish to make

-------
 i   demand, to say nothing of the overwhelming future Increases



 2   of recreation demand predicted by the ORRRC report.



 3                 Therefore, any action which can be taken to 1m-



 4   prove water quality in this area will be of Immeasurable



 5   value to people deserving outdoor recreation.



 6                 In the way of conclusion, I would like to quote



 7   again from Mr. Carver who is now our Under Secretary and he



 8   stressed the essential element of cooperation as follows:



 9                 "in the early days of water resource conserva-



10   tlon and development, there was little need for coordination



n   among the various federal agencies involved.  The field was so



12   sparsely occupied, water problems - especially water-quality



13   problems — were so relatively less urgent than they are now,



14   that coordination was less than a major consideration.  Today,



is   and in the years ahead, close  and effective coordination is



16   essential.



17                 "This Department and other federal agencies



is   must pool their resources in order to accomplish our goal of



19   acceptable levels of water quality for our natural resources



20   and our economic needs."



21                 On behalf of the Department of the Interior and



22   in line with this statement, we assure you that we will make



23   every effort to assist on this study and to achieve a goal of



24   acceptable water quality in the Waters of Lake Michigan.



25                 Thank you,  Mr. Chairman.

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                                                   3^3



                  Results of these projects are available to all



    in the form of maps and reports.



                  Now, the work of the Geological Survey and their



    cooperators in the area under study would include the Illinois



    water survey, Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater



    Chicago, Indiana Board of Health, Indiana Department of Con-



    servation, Division of Water Resources, Indiana Flood Control



    and Water Resources Commission, United States Public Health



    Service, Corps of Engineers, Illinois Division of Waterways



10   and the Northeastern Illinois Metropolitan Area Planning



11   Commission.



12                 Let's turn now to the National Park Service.



13   The National Park Service is very much interested in the 1m-



14   proveraent of the water quality of our streams, lakes, estuarie^



15   and oceans generally.  The pollution of the southern end of



16   Lake Michigan has a direct effect upon the recreation use



17   potential of the Indiana Dune National Lake Shore proposal and



18   an indirect effect upon all areas of the National Park system.



19                 A recreation potential is lost in one area, be



20   it on inland lakes, rivers, or ocean shoreline, whether the



21   reason Is development for other purposes or the pollution of



22   the waters the result is a greater demand and heavier load



23   on remaining facilities, local, state and national.



24                 The present facilities in the vicinity of



25   southern Lake Michigan are inadequate to meet the existing

-------
    Organic Acts, it is both the province and the duty of the



    Secretary of the Interior to conduct economic Inquiries



    and scientific and technlcologlc investigations among the



    mineral industries with the aim of Improving health condi-




    tions, increasing safety and efficiency and preventing




6   economic waste,"



7                 Let's turn now to another scientific organlza-




8   tion within the Department, the Geological Survey.



                  This Bureau provides scientific information on
9


    the physical environment of water that is required for the



    successful development, use and control of water.  All phases



    of the survey's work are designed to obtain timely and appro-
11*


    priate water facts needed for the solution of water problems.
1J


14                 Topographic quadrangle maps prepared by the



    survey give Information on the surface features of river
10


,_   basins; its geologic maps give information on rock types and
lb


17   structure which control ground water currents and movement.



,.                 Hydrologic maps and reports based on the topo-
18


    graphic and geologic data present information on the quantity,



    quality,  and distribution of the water resources of the United



    States.




22                 Programs and individual projects are designed



    cooperatively, and in some cases finances cooperatively with



    local state and government and other federal agencies; the
24


    survey has responsibility also for the design of the national
Zs)



    network of hydrologic data collection.

-------
    water, dishcarge from operating plants.  These data will be
 i
    useful in arriving at solutions to water problems which may
 2
    arise in the mineral industry.
 3
                  The Bureau of Mines can contribute to the study
 4
    by identifying number and location of existing mineral-based
 5
    industries and determining the water requirements, as well as
 6
    the water discharges from these establishments.
 7
                  Prediction of future water requirements of the
 8
    mineral industry is also a province for the Bureau's special
 9
    abilities to be utilized.
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

 24

 25
              Assistant Secretary of Interior Carver, in a

statement on July 8, 1963, stated the following relative to

the role of the Bureau of Mines in the pollution-control field

and I quote:

              ^Mineral-industry water interest initially

conflict with all other major water interests.  To ameliorate

such conflicts, the Bureau of Mines of this Department en-

courages the mineral industry to practice water conservation,

including water-quality control.  In this way, we promote

attainment of an equitable use balance within the total nation-

al demand for water.  Water withdrawn from natural supplies

must be used over and over where feasible.  Waste water

effluents must not be allowed to impair significantly the

quality of our water supplies.

              "Under the provisions of the Bureau of Mines

-------
    there prior to 1950 would certainly be of great value to the
 1
    states Involved and to the nation as a whole.
 2
                  Let's turn now to the Bureau of Mines.
 3
                  Adequate —
 4
          CHAIRMAN STEIN:   Mr. Jordahl, I don't know if we may
 5
    interrupt — is Ted Layheu of the Department of East Chicago
 6
    Sanitary District here?
 7
          MR. JORDAHL:  Turning now to the Bureau of Mines.
 8
                  Adequate supplies of usable water are essential
 9
    to the mineral industry.  As in many other industries, the
10
    quantity and quality of available water are vital factors in
11
    the development of an economic operation.
12
                  Consideration for the needs of the mineral
13
    industry must be included in a study of the nature being
14
    considered.  Regulations on water discharges from a mineral-
is
    based operation must be consistent with good industry practice^
16
    and must be based on factual evidence.
17
                  The Bureau of Mines has the scientific and
18
    technological abilities to assist in studies of the mineral
19
    industries with the objective of improving health conditions,
20
    increasing safety and  efficiency and preventing economic waste.j
21
                  This Bureau has Just completed a canvas of the
22
    mineral industry to establish water use and water needs of the
23
    mineral industry.  The study included development of data on
24
    the treatment methods  in relation to quantity and quality of
25

-------
                                                       339

    mercial fisheries In Illinois and Indiana that may be attri-


    buted to several things.  A change in the fishery has resulted


    from predatlon from sea lampreys.
 3

                  However,  the general drop off In production from
 4

    the areas involved Implies that conditions other than sea
 O

    lamprey predatlon has been at least partially responsible for
 6

    poor conditions existing in the area in the Illinois and


    Indiana fisheries.
 8

                  The Bureau Is inclined to believe that water
 9

    pollution has had an effect on the normal production of the
10

    finer fishes in that area, and approves and supports the


    foresight Involved in the current approach to the problem
12

    existing in southern Lake Michigan.
13

                  Their attitude is stimulated particularly by the
14

    fact that, although gross pollution of the whole of Lake
IS

    Michigan cannot be demonstrated at present, from a fishery
16

    standpoint, the gradual spread of .situations resembling that
17

    extent in southern Michigan can become of vital concern in a
18

    relatively short time.
19

                  It Is conceivable that the situation in southern
20

    Lake Michigan could spread subtly but steadily into other
21

    sections of this very large and productive body of water.
22

                  Statistics on the catch of fishes in the states
23

    of  Indiana and Illinois indicate almost full collapse.  Any
24

    movement made to restore the productive fishery that existed
25

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 1
    the environment has been changed or rendered unfit by pollu-
 2
    tion.
 3
                  The mighty Great Lakes with their many tribu-
 4
    taries can rightfully be included among our nation's major
 5
    natural resources.  Through the years we have been led to be-
 6
    lieve that the Great Lakes can be little affected by the
 7
    activities of man.  Recent studies and observations show that
 8
    many portions of the Great Lakes have been adversely affected
 9
    by pollution.  The severity of the pollution is evidenced by
10
    violent fluctuation in species composition, but not only
11
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                                                      338
                  This has been happening in the Great Lakes where
 fishes but  also  other   aquatic  organisms.

              The  choicer  fishes  are  being  replaced  by less

 valuable  species which  have  a greater tolerance  for  turbidity

 and  low oxygen.  The gradual accumulation of wastes  day after

 day  may render the water a barren wasteland to fish.

              The  Bureau Is  always  interested in maintaining

 high water  and environmental quality  in  areas where  the de-
 velopment or continuation  of commercial  fisheries  is possible.
 Conditions  regarding water quality  and fish production in  the
 extreme southern portion of  Lake  Michigan have caused  the

 Bureau concern in  the past few  years  and particularly  in the

 recent past.  This problem Is under study as part  of our parti-

 cipation in the United States Public  Health Service's  Illinois

River Basin-Great Lakes Project.

              There has been a gradual disintegration of com-

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                                                     337
    change  occurred.
1
                  Let's turn to the sister bureau.
2
                  The 1956 Act  and a wide variety of other
3
    statutes enacted  over the years authorize a broad range of
4
    activity by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries.
5
                  The national  fish policy established by the
6
    1956 Act places high on the list of goals the responsibility
7
    for the economic  betterment of the commercial fishing industry
8
    in all its phases — production, processing, and distribution
9
                  This responsibility extends to the control and
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 prevention of pollution.   Pollution is probably the primary

 factor today that  limits  the production of food fish and that

 threatens future fish production.

               The  measure of pollution as used here is the

 suitability of water for  a required use.  The Bureau of

 Commercial Fisheries is concerned  with the suitability of the

 waters of Lake Michigan for production of fish and fish food

 organisms.

               Where the environment becomes changed — to

 those  of you who are following the prepared presentation, I

 will go to page 12, — where the environment becomes changed

 or restricted by pollution,     the fish population and fish

 food organisms have to adjust themselves to altered conditions

 This produces fluctuations  of abundance,  changes  in species

 composition,  changes  in growth rate, and many  other things,

most of which do not benefit mankind.

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2
3
                  Where the environment becomes changed or damaged



    by pollution,  the fish population and fish-food organisms
 O


 .   have to adjust to the altered conditions or perish.  This pro-
 6


    duces fluctuations of abundance,  changes in species composi-



 _   tion, changes  in growth rate, and many other modifications of
 8


    the plant and  animal life present.
 y
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                                               336



on wildlife, and to make reports to the Congress  concerning



such  investigations and of recommendations  for  alleviating



dangerous and undesirable effects  of  such pollution.
               Changes  In  the  environment  of the  waters of  Lake



Michigan  are being reflected  in  the  following:



               I.   Lake trout  and white  fish have all  but dis-



appeared,  in part  due  to  lamprey Infestations.



             II.   Alewives, a low value species, have greatly



increased  in numbers and  catches of  carp  have also shown the



increases.  Periodic die-offs of alewives in great numbers at



the  southern end of Lake  Michigan are a major nuisance.



            III.   Catch statistics of the Bureau of Commercial



Fisheries  indicate great  declines in fish harvest.



             IV.   In 1963* about ten thousand migratory water



fowl were  killed along the shores of eastern and southern  Lake



Michigan  —  loons, ducks, gulls.



               Although the causes were  not  definitely deter-



mined, botulism, pesticides,  organic pollutants  were  all



investigated,  obviously some  highly unfavorable environmental

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                                                    335
                  In  addition,  other  beaches  in  the  area  are
    threatened  with closure  due to deterioration of  water quality.
 2
    Gary,  Indiana's beach at Marquette  Beach  is  presently suffer-
    ing  water quality problems  according to the  information re-
    ceived in connection  with this Bureau's nationwide  inventory
    of recreational areas.
 6
                  In  addition five beaches  in Chicago's south side
    are  threatened by the changing water quality. If the trend
 8
    continues,  millions of people  within this area will be left
 y
    without a place to swim  on  the southern end  of this Great Lake.
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               Let's turn now  to  the  Bureau  of  Sport  Fisheries
and Wildlife.
               This Bureau  is  vitally interested  in protecting
and enhancing  the quality  of  all waters  throughout the  nation.
               In this respect, the Bureau is a signatory  to  a
Memorandum of  Understanding with the Department  of Health,
Education,and  Walfare, concerning water  pollution control.
               This agreement  was developed  in  recognition of
common  Interests in the field of water pollution and to make
possible  a more effective  program of interagency cooperation.
               It is in accordance with the  Fish  and  Wildlife
Coordination Act of 1956 which authorized the  Secretary of the
Interior, through the Fish and Wildlife  Service  and  the Bureau
of Mines, to make such investigations as he deems necessary  to
determine the effects of domestic sewage, mine, petroleum, and
industrial wastes,  erosion silt,  and other polluting substances

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                                                   33^

    sweltering day at work is not available to many of the


    thousands who live along Its shores.


                  For example, Hammond,  Indiana, with Its 112,000
3

    population, has about a quarter mile of public beach.  Such a


    beach,  by accepted standards should  support a daily attendance
O

    of 2,000 to 3,000 people, affording  thousands of local people
6

    the opportunity to enjoy conveniently water-oriented outdoor
7

    recreation throughout the summer.
8

                  Such is not the case,  however: the beach has
9

    been closed for more than fifteen years by order of the local
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Board of Health, because the quality of the water makes  It


unsafe for swimming.  Official beach attendance Is zero.


it is estimated 150 to 250,000 activity days of swimming are


lost annually due to the closure of this beach.


              A portion of the local water-oriented recreation


needs of the area are met in the form of swimming pools.  A


recent Indiana Department of Health survey indicates that,


while Lake County had nine outdoor pools in I960, about  17 more


were needed to meet the local public needs in the county.


              Construction of that many pools and the attendant


facilities would well run over 2.5 million dollars.


              The survey further indicated by 1970 there would


be a need for about 35 swimming pools to meet the growing needs


of Lake County,  Indiana,  — this at a time when Hammond's Lake


Michigan beach is unusable due to poor water quality.

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                                                      333
   American people.
                 Thus,  it has become  the  purpose  of  this  Bureau
t*
   to fulfill  these desires  of  Congress.
3
                 The  area under consideration  includes  much of
4
   the  Chicago-Northwestern  Indiana Standard Consolidated Area as
5
   defined by  the  United States Census.   It had  a I960  population
6
   of about 6.8 million, an  increase  of  21.6 percent over the
7
   1950 population.   As such, it is an area of rapidly  Increasing
8
   recreational needs where, at the same  time, areas suitable for
9
   recreation  development must  compete with industrial  and other
   development.
12

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              It has been established through studies by the
Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission that our great-
est need is for outdoor recreational areas near population
centers.
              ORRRC studies further indicate 90 percent of all
Americans participate annually in some type of outdoor recrea-
tion, with 44 percent preferring water-oriented recreation,
mainly swimming.
              Now, this region with its near 7 million local
inhabitants, adjoins Lake Michigan, one of the largest bodies
of fresh water in the world.  This lake is a real treasure for
those able to use it for outdoor recreational activities.
              However, the pleasure of swimming in its cooling
waters or sunbathing along one of its sand beaches after a

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                                                    332


                  The focus of Interior effort is directed to



    the maintenance of adequate national water supplies and ade-
t»


    quate water quality for whatever uses man may wish to make of



    this valuable resource.  The Interior approach emphasizes the
4


    coordination and interrelation between uses and the effect of
O


.   these uses on management and quality of the total water supply
6


    system.



                  Our Department has a rich background of exper-
8


    ience and knowledge in this area, and we are equipped with
y


    highly qualified technical manpower.
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               All bureaus and offices of the Department have


 an interest in water resources.  In the Great Lakes, our


 Bureaus of Outdoor Recreation, Commercial Fisheries, Sport


 Fisheries and Wildlife,  Mines, Geological Survey and National


 Park Service have a direct interest.


               Our Bureau of Outdoor Recreation was established


 by the Act of Congress on May 28, 1963, as a result of


 recommendations made by the Outdoor Recreation Resources Revie*


 Commission, to provide a focal point in the government for the


 nation's outdoor recreation activities.  The Congress took


 this action because they deemed it desirable that: I, All


 American people of present and future generations be assured


 adequate outdoor recreation resources,  and II,  prompt and co-


ordinated  efforts be made  toward  conserving,  developing  and


utilizing  such resources for the benefit and  enjoyment of the

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 1
 2                 I would  like  to  call  on  Mr.  Poston.



                  As was  indicated yesterday,  there is another
 O


    Federal  representative who  came here and we  will have an
    opportunity  of  hearing from him.




 6
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                 Mr. Poston?
        MR.  POSTON:   The Department  of Interior asked that its



    statement  be  withheld until  this morning,  when Mr. Harold
 8


    Jordahl  could be  present  and I would like  to hear from Mr.
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                                                     331

       CHAIRMAN  STEIN:   Let's  reconvene.
   Jordahl now.



       MR. JORDAHL:  Thank you, Mr. Poston, conferees, ladies



   and gentlemen:



                 What I would like to do, Mr. Stein, is to ask



   that the statement which I have provided to you earlier be



   inserted in the record.  I will Just give the comments I have



   about the presentation.



                 The Department of Interior is pleased to offer



   its cooperation to the Public Health Service and to the States



   of Illinois and Indiana in the matter of pollution at the



   southern end of Lake Michigan.



                 Our Secretary of the Interior, Stuart Udall, in



   a statement before a subcommittee of the House Committee on



   Government Operations early in 1963 expressed the Department



   of Interior's interest in maintenance of clean water as



   follows:

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330
STATEMENTS: (Continued)

MR. WILLIAM A. RIASKI, Executive Director,
Izaak Walton League of America
MR. ARTHUR C. FANNING, President, Illinois
Division, Izaak Walton League of America
DR. W. J. BEECHER, Director, Chicago Academy
of Sciences
MR. JOHN M. KILCULLEN, Conservation Officer,
Edgewater Community Council, Chicago
MR. T. E. LARSON, Assistant Chief, Illinois
State Water Survey, read statement prepared by
Mr. Ackermann, Illinois Technical Advisory
Committee on Water Resources.
MR. RAYMOND E. ANDERSON, General Manager,
North Shore Sanitary District, Waukegan
(Lake County), Illinois
PREPARED STATEMENTS:
MR. HAROLD C. JORDAHL, JR., Regional
Coordinator, U. S. Department of the Interior
MR. JAMES W. JARDINE, Commissioner, Department
of Water and Sewers, Chicago, Illinois
CHICAGO HEBITAGE COMMITTEE, presented by
Alderman Leon M. Despres
-A


5*3

5*9

$6H

570



57**


588


3*5

373

505
MR. JOHN T. KELLEY, Director-News Editor, Southeast
Chapter of the Illinois Federation of Sportsmen
Clubs, presented by Mr. Joseph Chart igney
HYDE PARK -KENWOOD COMMUNITY CONFERENCE
TELEGRAMS, COMMUNICATIONS, REPORTS, ETC.

's
587
587

Telegram from Joseph J. Sotack, President Independent
Petroleum Workers Union, Whiting, Indiana
ILLINOIS STATE MEDICAL SOCIETY RESOLUTION
ON WATER POLLUTION

488

498


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330
INDEX

STATEMENTS:

MR. HAROLD C. JORDAHL, JR., Regional Coordinator,
U. S. Department of the Interior
MR. JAMES W. JARDINE, Commissioner, Department
of Water and Sewers, City of Chicago, Illinois

MR. HYMAN GERSTEIN, Chief Water Engineer,
Department of Water and Sewers, City of Chicago
DR. S. L. ANDELMAN, Health Commissioner, Chicago
Board of health

MR. RICHARD S. NELLE, Water Resources Engineer,
Illinois Sanitary Water Board
MR. J. EDWARD MEERS, Manager -Superintendent,
Sanitary District of Bloom Township, Chicago
Heights, Illinois
MR. ALBERT J. MESEROW, Chairman, Illinois
Delegation to the Great Lakes Commission

MR. FRANCIS S. LORENZ, Director, Public Works
and Buildings, State of Illinois
DR. JOHN B. HALL, Director, Cook County Department
of Public Health

MR. LEON M. DESPRES, Alderman, City of Chicago

MRS. SARAH MASE, Alderman, Calumet City, Indiana

IfR. MORRICE BERLINSKY, Mayor, City of Joliet,
Illinois
MR. JOSEPH CHATIGNEY, Chairman, Thorn Creek-Calumet
Committee, Cook County Clean Streams Committee

MR. ACE EXTROM, Executive Secretary, Illinois
Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs
MRS. JOAN ANDERSON, Chairman, State Water Resources
Committee, League of Women Voters of Illinois






331

367


386

459


465


475

481


488

499

505

510


514

517


538

542
25

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