VOLUME1
Conference
In the matter off Pollution of
                ^
the Interstate Waters of the
Grand Calumet River, Little
Calumet River, Calumet River,
Wolff Lake, Lake
and
                            TECHNICAL SESSION
                            JANUARY 4-5, 1966
   FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

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                CONTENTS




                                                  Page



Murray Stein                                    4,  574




H. W. Poston                                   15,  571




Grover Cook                                    21,  158




Francis Kittrell                                   107




Commander Charles . Waite                         163




B. A. Poole                                        172




Perry Miller                                       175




Mayor A. Martin Katz                               209




Mayor John B. Nicosia                         219,  249




Cornell A. Leahu                                   224




A. G. Giannini                                     305




Clark N. Johnson                                   317




Herbert J. Dunsmore                                321,  506




Joseph Baum                                        342




George A. Blaine                                   351



. D, Keiper, Jr.                                  362




James . Kirkpatrick                               386




Ross Harbaugh                                      408




Bruce Burns                                        426




Russell Mallatt                                    433




George H. Mclntosh                                 449




Clarence W. Klassen                                463




Colonel F. W. Chesrow                              480

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                            CONTENTS    (Continued)




                                                                 Page




              Louis F. Birkel                                     515




              J. H. Miller                                        525




              Harry Henderson                                     543




              Charles Murphy                                      560








                                        *  * *

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                 TECHNICAL SESSION






                 In the Matter of:




          Conference on the Pollution of the Interstate




Waters of the Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River,




Calumet River, Wolf Lake, Lake Michigan and their Tributaries,




convened at 9:50 a.m., Tuesday, January 4, 1966, at the




Auditorium, Prudential Building, Chicago, 111.

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                               3-1
                              CONFEREE
              Blucher A.  Poole
              Clarence  W.  Klassen
              Frank V7.  Chesrow
              H.  W.  Poston
              Murray Stein,  Chairman
Technical Secretary
Indiana Stream Pollution
 Control Board
Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Secretary
Illinois State Sanitary
  r/ater Board
Springfield, Illinois

President
Metropolitan Sanitary District
  of Greater Chicago
Chicago, Illinois

Federal Water Pollution Control
  Administration
U.S. Department of Health,
  Education, and Welfare
Chicago, Illinois

Federal water Pollution Control
  Administration
U.S. Department of Health,
  Education, and vvelfare
Washington, D.C.

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                                                            3-II
                    PART
             PANT
Chris Angelidis


Joseph S. Baum
Chief Engineer
Gary, Indiana
Louis F. Birkel
George A. Elaine
Bruce Burns
Grover Cook
Herbert J. Dunsmore
A. G. Giannini
Ross Karbaugh
Harry Henderson
      Disposal Coordinator
Cities Service Oil Company Refining
  Division
East Chicago, Indiana

.feste Control Engineer
Republic Steel Corporation
Independence, Ohio

Refinery Manager
Sinclair Refining Company
East Chicago, Indiana

Manager, Chemicals Division Plant
Union Carbide Corporation
//hiting, Indiana

Federal //ater Pollution Control
  Administration
U.S. Department of Health, Education,
   and Welfare
Chicago, Illinois

Assistant to Administrative Vice
  President-Engineering
U.S. Steel Corporation
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

City Engineer
Ha romo nd , I nd i a na

Assistant to the Vice President
I n 1 a nd Steel Cornpa ny
iast Chicago, Indiana

Director,  Public Relations
Inter. lake , ,-iteel Corporation
Chicago, Illinois

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                                                           3-III
Clark N. Johnson
Dr. Joel Kaplovsky
Honorable Martin A. Katz
'cidward D. Keiper,  Jr.
James ,tf. Kirkpatrick
Francis ;7. Kittrell
Cornel A. Leahu
Russell C. Mallatt
Dr. George H. Mclntosh
J. H. Miller
South Lake County Stream Pollution
  Council, Incorporated
Hobart, Indiana

Division of Research and Control
Metropolitan Sanitary District of
  Greater Chicago
Chicago, Illinois

Mayor, City of Gary
Gary, Indiana

Refinery Manager
Mobil Oil Company
East Chicago, Indiana

Manager, Chicago District Operations
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company
East Chicago, Indiana

Chairman, Technical Committee
Federal Water Pollution Control
  Administration
U.S. Department of Health, Education,
  and welfare
Cincinnati, Ohio

Superintendent, Sanitary District of
  East Chicago
East Chicago, Indiana

Coordinator of Air and Water
  Conservation
American Oil Company
Chicago, Illinois

Chief Chemist-Quality Control
American Maize Products Company
Hammond  (Roby) , Indiana

Chief Engineer, Wisconsin Steel Works
International Harvester Company
Chicago, Illinois

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                                                          3-IV
Perry Miller
Charles Murphy
Honorable John B. Nicosia,
  M.D.

Lt. Cdr. Charles F. Jaite
U.S. Navy
Assistant Director, Division of
  Sanitary Engineering
Indiana State Board of Health
Indianapolis, Indiana

Supervisor of Mechanical Assembly
Ford Motor Company (Auto Assembly
  Division)
Dearborn, Michigan

Mayor, City of East Chicago
East Chicago, Indiana

Commandant Ninth Naval District
Naval Training Center
Great Lakes, Illinois

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                                                 3-A
ATTENDANCE AT THE RECONVENED TECHNICAL SESSION
  OF THE LAKE MICHIGAN ENFORCEMENT CONFERENCE
              JANUARY 4-5, 1966
              Albert Bleakley
              Refinery Superintendent
              Cargill, Inc.
              122 2D & Torrence Avenue
              Chicago, Illinois

              Paul Duncan
              Corporate Attorney
              Interlake Steel Corporation
              310 S. Michigan
              Chicago, Illinois

              Charles V. R. Edward
              Assistant to President
              Commerce Clearing House, Inc.
              4025 W. Peterson Avenue
              Chicago, Illinois

              *rt Fanning
              Vice President
              Izaak Walton League
              14526 Edbrook
              Riverdale, Illinois

              C. W. Gansl
              Associate
              American Petroleum Institute
              624 S.  Michigan Avenue
              Chicago, Illinois

              Mark  E. Hegman
              AM Colloid Company
              5100  Suffield Court
              Skokie, Illinois

              Ruth  Jacob
              For:  Alderman DesPres
              Chicago,  Illinois

              C. W. Klassen
              Technical Secretary
              State Sanitary Water Board
              Springfield,  Illinois

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                                  3-B


PARTICIPANTS (Cont'd)

Paul E. Langdon
Partner
Greeley & Hansen
14 E. Jackson Boulevard
Chicago, Illinois

Leo Louis
President & General Manager
Gary-Hobart Water Corporation
650 Madison Street
Gary, Indiana

Russell C. Mallatt
Coordinator of Air & Water Conservation
American Oil Company
9105 S. Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Joe McGinty
Public Relations Representative
71 Broadway
New York, N.Y.

Mrs. M. G. Myers
400 E. Randolph
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. John B. Nocosia
Mayor of East Chicago, Indiana
City Hall
East Chicago, Indiana

Mrs. Robert Rife
League of Women Voters
Women's Water Committee
6334 Sheridan Road
Chicago, Illinois

Carl W. Ren
Partner
Greeley &  Hansen
14 E. Jackson Boulevard
Chicago, Illinois

Charles Sandor
Superintendent
Hammond Water Department
6505 Columbia Avenue
Hammond, Indiana

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                                  3-C


PARTICIPANTS (Cont'd)

Chester A. Sanford
Associate
Robert Sanford & Associates
343 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, Illinois

Robert A. Sanford
Res. Associate
Sinclair Research
Harvey, Illinois

Harry S. Spitz
Assistant General Superintendent
U. S. Steel Corporation
Gary, Indiana

John R. Swanton
Partner
Coivsoer, Townsend & Associates
360 E. Grand Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

William A. Thiel
Chief Engineer
LaSalle Steel Company
1412  150th Street
Hammond, Indiana

Raymond M. Urbans
Senior Engineer
Western Electric Company
Hawthorne Station
Cicero and Cermak
Chicago, Illinois

Tom Voges
Supervisor Chemistry
Inland Steel Company
East  Chicago, Indiana

Richard A. Whipple
Associate Editor
Chicago Construction News
22 W. Monroe Street
Chicago,  Illinois

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                                            3-D

           PARTICIPANTS (Cont'd)

           Harold Williams
           Engineer
           Yeomans Bros. Company
           510 N. Dearborn Street
           Chicago, Illinois

           Arthur J.  Zeizei
           Assistant  Resources Planning Office
           Northwestern Illinois Planning Commission
           400 W. Madison
           Chicago, Illinois

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FEDERAL WATER
  POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

           William C. Abbott
           Chief Radio Chemist
           U. S. Public Health Service
           1814 W. Pershing Road
           Chicago, Illinois

           Hayse H. Black
           Industrial Waste Consultant
           U. S. Public Health Service
           4676 Columbia Parkway
           Cincinnati, Ohio

           Grover W.  Cook
           Chief, Enforcement Activities
           FWPCA
           Chicago, Illinois

           M. B. Fast
           Program Operations Officer
           Great Lakes Water Lab.
           P. O. Box
           Ann Arbor, Michigan

           Edwin E. Geldreich
           Bacteriologist
           Cincinnati Water Research Lab.
           FWPCA
           4676 Columbia Parkway
           Cincinnati, Ohio

           Frank E. Hall, Assistant Chief,
           Enforcement Activity, Region  V,
           FWPCA
           433 W. Van Buren  Street
           Chicago,  Illinois

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                                           3-E
REPRESENTATIVE OF THE FEDERAL WATER
POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION (ctd)

        George Harlow
        P. D. 0LIKBP
        DHEW
        Grosse lie Naval Air Station
        Grosse lie, Michigan

        Leslie Higgin, Secretary
        FWPCA
        433 W. Van Buren Street
        Chicago) Illinois

        W B, Horning
        Biologist
        FWPCA
        Minneapolis, Minnesota

        William Q. Kehr
        Project Director - GLIRBP
        FWPCA
        433 W, Van Buren
        Chicago, Illinois

        Morton Lebow
        Information Branch Washington
        FWPCA
        Washington, B.C.

        J. McDonald
        Construction Grants Activities
        FWPCA
        Chicago, Illinois

        S. Megregian
        GLIRBP-FWPCA
        Chicago, Illinois

        Theodore Meigos
        Chief Organic Chemist
        GLIRBP-Public Health Service
        1819 W, Pershing Road
        Chicago, Illinois

        Joseph L. Minkin
        Sanitary Engineer
        PHS-FWPCA
        1819 W. Pershing Road
        Chicago, Illinois

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                                              3-F
REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FEDERAL WATER
  POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
	(Cont'd.)	

         C. R. Ownbey
         FWPCA-GLIRBP
         Chicago, Illinois

         Lucille R. Ozanne
         Secretary
         FWPCA
         433 W. Van Buren Street
         Chicago, Illinois

         Rheta Pierre
         Enforcement Program
         FWPCA - Washington
         Washington, D.C.

         H. W. Poston
         Regional Program Director
         FWPCA
         433 W. Van Buren Street
         Chicago, Illinois

         A. C. Printz
         FWPCA
         Minneapolis, Minnesota

         John M. Rademacher
         Director, Colorado River Basin Program
         FWPCA
         Building 22 - Denver Federal Center
         Denver, Colorado

         William U. Riley
         Enforcement Activities
         FWPCA
         Chicago, Illinois

         Clifford Risley, Jr.
         Director of Laboratories
         FWPCA-GLIRBP
         Chicago, Illinois

         LeRoy E. Scarce
         Chief Microbiologist, GLIRBP
         1819 W. Pershing Road
         Chicago, Illinois

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                                            3-G
REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FEDERAL WATER
  POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
	(Cont'd.)	

         Mr. Schneider, Chief,
         Construction Grants Activities
         FWPCA
         Chicago, Illinois

         Murray Stein
         Chief, Enforcement Program
         FWPCA
         Washington, D.C,

         Adrian Sybor
         Information Branch - FWPCA
         Washington, D.C.

         David R. Vaughn
         Sanitary Engineer
         FWPCA
         1819 W. Pershing Road
         Chicago, Illinois

         F. W. Kittrell
         Chief, Enforcement Section
         FWPCA
         4676 Columbia Parkway
         Cincinnati, Ohio

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                                           3-H

OTHER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVES

     Thomas Atchison
     Operating Engineer
     Post Engineer's Fort Sheridan
     Bldg. 119 - U. S. Army
     Fort Sheridan, Illinois

     Pete Keyes
     Captain, Atlantic & Gulf Stevedores
     244 Condit Street
     Hammond, Indiana

     Colonel John C. Mattina
     District Engineer
     Chicago District U* S. Army Corps
         of Engineers
     219 S. Dearborn
     Chicago, Illinois

     Phillip L. McLaughlin
     Sanitary Engineer
     U. S. Navy - Midwest Division
     Bureau of Yards & Docks
     Bldg. 1A
     Great Lakes, Illinois

     R. P. McManus, Counsel
     Midwest Division - Bureau of Yards & Docks
       U. S. Navy
     Bldg. 1-A
     Great Lakes, Illinois

     LCDR Charles E. Waite, USN
     Commandant Ninth Naval District
     Naval Training Center
     Great Lakes, Illinois

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                                      3-1


    ATTENDANTS

Mrs. Daniel C. Anderson
Water Resources Committee
LWV of Illinois
67 E. Madison
Chicago, Illinois

Chris Angelidis
Chief Engineer
3600 West 3rd Avenue
Gary, Indiana

R. C. Atkins
Technical Superintendent
DuPont
5215 Kennedy Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

B. R. Atkinson
Republic Steel
Republic Building
Cleveland, Ohio

V. W. Bacon
General Superintendent
Metro Sanitary District
  of Greater Chicago
100 E. Erie Street
Chicago, Illinois

T. B. Barrington
Public Relations
CITGO
Box 300
Tulsa, Oklahoma

Carol D. Bart, Correspondent
United Mine Workers Journal
Robert Sanford & Associates
343 S. Dearborn
Chicago, Illinois

J.  S. Baura
Waste Disposal Coordinator
Cities Service Oil Company
Box 718
East  Chicago,  Indiana

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                                     3-J


     ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Keith W. Bennett
Chicago Reg. Ed.
Iron Age
540 N. Michigan
Chicago, Illinois

Orville V. Bergren
Secretary
Illinois Manufacturing Association
200 S. Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Louis F. Birkel
Staff Engineer
Republic Steel Corporation
6801 Brecksville Road
Cleveland, Ohio

Cnarles A. Bishop
Director, Chemical Eng. Division
U. S. Steel
525 Wm. Penn Place
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

George A. Elaine
Refinery Manager
Sinclair Refining Company
3500 Indianpolis Blvd.
East Chicago, Indiana

Carl T. Blomgren
Sanitary Engineer
Illinois Sanitary Water Board
1919 W. Taylor Street
Chicago, Illinois

J. E. Bodoh, Consultant
Siebert & Associates
20 North Wacker
Chicago, Illinois

Donald  J. Boos
Chief Engineer
Bataille, Kane & McKie,  Inc.
508 S.  Northwest Highway
Barrington, Illinois

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                                      3-K


    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Claude Both
Southeast Sports Conservation Clubs
1728 E. 87th Street
Chicago, Illinois

Austin Boyle, Secretary
East Chicago Mfgrs. Association
900 E. Chicago Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

Donald E. Brauer, Engineer
Sinclair Refining Company
410 E. Sibly
Harvey, Illinois

Pete Breaz
Area Manager
Nalco Chemical Company
6216 W. 66th Place
Chicago, Illinois

J. T. Burke
Production Manager
Nalco Chemical Company
6216 W. 66th Place
Chicago, Illinois

A. Bruce Burns
Plant Manager
Union Carbide Corporation
Whiting, Indiana

Roger T. Byrne
Product Manager
Chicago Pump - FMC
622 Diversey Parkway
Chicago, Illinois

Bruce W. Caper
Assistant Corporate Controller
Union Tank Car Company
111 W.  Jackson Blvd.
Chicago, Illinois

J. H.  Carnett
Chief  Chemist
Texaco, Inc.
Lockport,  Illinois

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                                     3-L

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

J. Roland Carr
Associate Editor
Engineering News Record
645 N. Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Joseph Chantigney
General Vice Chairman
Cook County Clean Streams
14823 Evers Street
Colton, Illinois

Stuart Chase
Chairman, Daniel Burnham Committee
5436 S. Hyde Park Blvd.
Chicago, Illinois

Bea Civanich
Director of Laboratory
Gary Health Department
574 Monroe Street
Gary, Indiana

C. D. Clauss
Manager
Palm Oil Recovery, Inc.
P. 0. Box 27
Weirton, W. Virginia

A. J. Cochrane
Assistant to Vice President
Youngstown Sheet-Tube Company
69 W. Washington Street
Chicago, Illinois

John B. W. Corey
Deputy Commissioner, Public Works
City of Chicago
121 N. LaSalle - City Hall
Chicago, Illinois

Richard G. Dalbke, Coordinator of
  Industrial Waste Control, Metropolitan
  Sanitary District of Greater Chicago
100 E. Erie Street
Chicago, Illinois

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                                      3-M

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Frank E. Dalton
Assistant Chief Engineer
Metropolitan Sanitary District
  of Greater Chicago
100 E. Erie Street
Chicago, Illinois

Robert W. Dault
Manager, Public Relations - Chicago District
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company
East Chicago, Indiana

Robert DeJonge
Chief Engineer
Cook County Health Department
1425 S. Racine
Chicago, Illinois

John M. Devins
Plant Manager
E. I. daPont
East Chicago, Indiana

Ronald Dilks
Plant Chemical Engineer
Stauffer Chemical Company
612 E. 138th Street
Chicago, Illinois

Walter Dudzinski
Plant Engineer
Union Tank Car Company
111 YIT. Jackson
Chicago, Illinois

Karen Dugan, Student,
Marian High School
666 S. Ashland
Chicago  Heights, Illinois

Paul Duncan
Corporate Attorney
Interlake Steel Corporation
310 S. Michigan
Chicago, Illinois

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                                      3-N

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Herbert T. Dunsmore
Asst. to Adm. V.P. Engineering
U. S. Steel
525 Win. Penn Place
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

John E. Egan, Trustee,
Sanitary District of Greater Chicago
100 E. Erie Street
Chicago, Illinois

Henning Eklund
Sr. Sanitary Engineer
Public Health Service
433 W. Van Buren Street
Chicago, Illinois

Mrs. Erneline Enswecler
Representative
South Lake County Stream & Pollution
3409 Burr Street
Gary, Indiana

J. C. Van Esterik, President
Palm Oil Recovery, Inc.
P. 0. Box 6657
Baltimore, Maryland

Lionel G. Eubanks
Isaak Walton League
Dolton, Illinois

James H. Evans
Representative
South Lake County Stream
  Pollution Control Council
5651 W. 24th Street
Gary, Indiana

Lawrence J. Fenlon
Special Part-Time Legal Counsel
HEW Pollution Control
4750 North Long Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

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                                     3-0

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Mrs. Fredric R. Finne
Vice President, League of Women Voters
Melrose Park, 111.
Chairman, Water Resources
909 Winston Drive
Melrose Park, Illinois

Joann Ferko, Student
Marian High School
666 Ashland Avenue
Chicago Heights, Illinois

William J. Flavin
Superintendent of Services
Blouson Works of Olin
Joliet, Illinois

M. T. Flavins
217 Thornton Street
Lockport, Illinois

S. A. Foust, Engineer
Union Carbide Chemicals
P. 0. Box 750
Whiting, Indiana

James A. Fowler, Engineer
Sinclair Refining Company
3500 Indianapolis Blvd.
East Chicago,  Indiana

Wm. H. Fulwider
Chief Engineer
Interlake Steel Corporation
135th & Perry
Chicago, Illinois

Vincent D. Garrity
Vice President of Sanitary District
100 E. Erie
Chicago, Illinois

H. H. Gerstein
Chief Water  Engineer
Department of Water & Sewers
City of Chicago
Room 404, City Hall
Chicago,  Illinois

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                                    3-P


    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Susan Gewirth, Student
1365 E. Park Place
Chicago, Illinois

Mrs. Alan Gewirth
Director, Metropolitan Study
Cook County Council League of Women Voters
1365 E. Park Place
Chicago, Illinois

A. G. Giannini
City Engineer
City of Hammond
City Hall
Hammond, Indiana

George Gockstetter
Superintendent
Republic Steel Corporation
11600 Burley Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Mrs. Gilbert Goodfriend
League of Women Voters of Chicago
9704 S. Merrion
Chicago, Illinois

Catheline Graham
League-Do1ton-Riverdale
14627 Dearborn
Chicago, Illinois

Mary J. Graham
League of Women Voters
Riverdale-Dolton
14627 Dearborn
Dolton, Illinois

Ned Grabavoy
City Councilman
City of Joliet
218 S. William
Joliet, Illinois

Arnold J. Grabovac
Public Relations Director
American Maize Products Company
113th  Street  & Indianapolis  Blvd.
Roby,  Indiana

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                                     3-Q

    ATTENDANTS  (Cont'd.)

 W.  M.  Graham
 Chief  Engineer
 American Maize Products Company
 Roby,  Indiana

 James  P. Gravenstretter
 Engineer
 U.  S.  Steel
 Gary Sheet & Iron  Works
 Gary,  Indiana

 Joseph B. Grenchik,  Mayor
 City of Whiting
 City Hall
 Whiting, Indiana

 Mrs. Ralph Griffith
 League of Women Voters
 2073 W, 107th  Street
 Chicago, Illinois

 L.  A.  Groshans, Superintendent,
 Reclamation  Department
 American Oil Company
 1815  Indianapolis  Blvd.
 Whiting, Indiana

 Edward Grudzinski
 Delegate
 Southeast Sportsmens Club
 8602 Muskegan  Avenue
 Chicago, Illinois

 C.  Fred Gurnham
 Professor-Consultant IIT
 Chicago, Illinois

 Dr. Greg Gutzeit
 Senior Scientific  Advisor
 General American Transportation  Corporation
 P.O. Box 480
 East Chicago,  Indiana

 Ross Harbaugh
 Assistant to Vice  President
   Manufacturing and  Research
 Inland Steel Company
East Chicago,  Indiana

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                                    3-R


    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

William J. Harth, Superintendent,
Division of Fisheries
Illinois Department of Conservation
Room 102 State Office Building
Springfield, Illinois

Dan Hartman
Superintendent of Utilities
National Steel Corporation
Portage, Indiana

Leland D. Halleck
District Representative
Nalco Chemical Company
6216 w. 66th Street
Chicago, Illinois

Geraldine Hansen
Secretary-Treasurer
South Lake County Stream & Pollution Council
  of Indiana
R.R. #7 Box 1330
Crown Point, Indiana

Marie E. Harris
Member of National Health Organization
4615 N. Magnolia
Chicago, Illinois

J. A. Hart
Proc. Eng. Supervisor
Mobil Oil Company Refinery
3821 Indianapolis Blvd.
East Chicago, Indiana

Harry Henderson, Director,
Public Relations
Interlake Steel Corporation
310 S. Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Peter M. Heylin
Assistant Editor
Chemical & Engineering News
36 S. Wabash
Chicago, Illinois

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                                      3-S


    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Mrs. Don Memmerling
League of Women Voters
Riverdale-Dolton
14547 Edbrooke
Riverdale, Illinois

Fred Herzog
Professor of Law
Chicago-Kent College of Law
10 N. Franklin
Chicago, Illinois

Robert A. Hirshfield
Staff Engineer
Commonwealth Edison
72 W. Adams Street
Chicago, Illinois

D. D, Horton
General Attorney
U. S. Steel
208 3. LaSalle
Chicago, Illinois

Mr. R. C. Howell
Chief Works Engineer
American Steel Foundries
1005 Prudential Plaza
Chicago, Illinois

Willard E. Hummeland
Director, Real Estate Division
Midwest Division - Bureau of Yards & Docks
Navy Department, Bldg.  1A
Great Lakes, Illinois

George E. Jackson
Chemist
Cities Service Oil Company
Box 118
East Chicago, Indiana

Val Janicki
Trustee, Metropolitan Sanitary District
  of Greater Chicago
100 E. Erie Street
Chicago,  Illinois

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                                     3-T

   ATTENDANTS  (Contd.)

Mrs. Philip Jaynes, President
Highland League of Women Voters
2923 Norman
Highland, Indiana

Clark N. Johnson, Land Owner
South Lake County Stream & Pollution
  Council
Hobart, Indiana

Eileen Johnston
Wilmette League Women Voters
505 Maple Avenue
Wilmette, Illinois

Elmer Johnson, President,
DesPlaines Chapter, Izaak Walton League
942 Woodlawn Avenue
DesPlaines, Illinois

Gerald F, Johnson, Superintendent
Sanitary District of Hammond Indiana
5143 Columbia Avenue
Hammond, Indiana

D. Kahn
Associate Chemical Engineer
DWS-Detroit
735 Randolph Street
Detroit, Michigan

Francis P, Kane, Trustee
Metropolitan San. Dist. of Greater Chicago
100 E. Erie Street
Chicago, Illinois

Edward D. Keiper, Jr., Refinery Manager
Mobil Oil Company
3821 Indianapolis Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

William Kepka
Assistant Chief Plant Engineer
Blaw Knox Company
4407 Railroad Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

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                                      3-U

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Frank Kidziija
Supervisor of Engineering
Ford Motor Company
12600 Torrence
Chicago, Illinois

Richard Kienitz
Reporter
MILWAUKEE JOURNAL
2 West Mittlin Street
Madison, Wisconsin

Doris Kelly
1728 E. 87th Street
Chicago, Illinois

John T. Kelly
Editor
Southeast Sportsmen Club
9037 Kingston Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Eugene Kennedy
Consultant
A. J. Boynton & Company
764 Hayes Street
Gary, Indiana

Edward F. King
Chief Sanitary Officer
Chicago Board of Health
Civic Center
Chicago, Illinois

Carl L. Klein
Chairman
Water Rllution 85 Water  Resource Commission,
  State of  Illinois
6428 s. Francisco  Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Mrs. Robert M. Kline
League  of Women Voters
Riverdale & Dolton
333 N.  Riverside Drive
Chicago, Illinois

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                                      3-V

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Martin S. Klingman
UPI - Staff
UPI
430 N. Michigan
Chicago, Illinois

Tom Knightly
Reporter
HAMMOND TIMES
Hammond, Indiana

J. L. Kohlbecker
Superintendent, Steam Power Department
Wisconsin Steel IHC
2800 E. 106th Street
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Joel 3
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                                         3-W

    ATTENDANTS (Contfd.)

George A. Lane
Attorney
Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater
  Chicago
100 E. Erie
Chicago, Illinois

Cornell A. Leahu
Superintendent
East Chicago Sanitary District
5200 Indianapolis Blvd.
East Chicago, Illinois

Ben J. Leland
Sanitary Engineer
Illinois Department of Public Health
1919 W. Taylor Street
Chicago, Illinois

Paul Levin
Sanitary Engineer
DuPage County Health Department
222 Willow
Wheaton, Illinois

Marietta M. Long
Hinsdale League of Women Voters
225 West Ninth
Hinsdale, Illinois

Marvin Lyzenga
Sales Engineer
Alexander Chemicals
18438 Rose Street
Lansing, Illinois

Chester  Magon
Co-Chairman
 (Thorn Creek-Calumet Area)
Cook County Clean Stream
10759 Avenue N.
Chicago,  Illinois

John W.  Mann
Technical Manager
Mobil Oil Company
3821  Indianpolis Blvd.
East  Chicago,  Indiana

-------
                                      3-X


    ATTENDANTS (Contf d.)

Joseph B. McCarthy
Warrant Boatswain
U. S. Coast Guard
610 S. Canal Street
Chicago, Illinois

G. Mclntosh
Chief Chemist
American Maize Products Company
Roby, Indiana

Leo A. McKay
Executive Secretary
U. S. Great Lakes Shipping Association
327 South LaSalle Street
Chicago, Illinois

Edith M. McKee
Certified Professional Geologist
Consultant
416 Maple Street
Winnetka, Illinois

J. Edward Meers
Superintendent-Manager
Sanitary District of Boom Township
P. O. Box 251
Chicago Heights, Illinois

Nicholas J. Melas
Trustee
Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater
  Chicago
100 E. Erie Street
Chicago, Illinois

Glenn W. Metcalfe
Supervisor of Sanitation
Chicago Park District
425 East 14th Blvd.
Chicago, Illinois

Henry A. Miller
Chairman, Lower DesPlaines
  Clean Streams Commission
Riverside, Illinois

-------
                                   3-Y

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

J. H. Miller
Chief Engineer
Wisconsin Steel IHC
2800 E. 106th
Chicago, Illinois

Mrs. D. E. Mockelmann
League of Women Voters
10641 Hoyne Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Edward J. Molloy
Bacteriologist
Chicago Board of Health
54 W. Hubbard Street
Chicago. Illinois

R. Edwin Moore
Vice President
Int. Telephone & Telegraph Company
8200 Austin Avenue
Morton Grove, Illinois

John S. Moore
Senior Sanitarian
Gary Health Department
3600 W. 3rd Street
Gary,  Indiana

Samuel L. Moore
Chief  of the Industrial Waste  Section
Indiana State Board of Health
1330 West Michigan Street
Indianapolis, Indiana

Brian  A. Moran
1448 Lake Shore Drive
Chicago,  Illinois

Mrs. Donald A. R. Morrison
State  Water Resources Chairman
League of Women Voters of  Illinois
67  E.  Madison St.
Chicago,  Illinois

-------
                                    3-Z


    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Alexander Morris
Works Engineer
American Steel Foundries
3761 Canal Street
East Chicago, Indiana

John R. Morrow
Assistant Attorney General
State of Illinois
Supreme Court Building
Springfield, Illinois

D. B. Morton
Sanitary Engineer
Illinois Department of Public Health
616 State Office Building
Springfield, Illinois

C. G. Murphy
Plant Engineer Supervisor
Ford Motor Company
P. Q* Box 247
Dearborn, Michigan

Jeff W. Napier
Counsel
Outboard Boating Club of America
333 N, Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Richard {?. Nelle
Water Resources Engineer
Illinois Department of Public Health
616 State Office Building
Springfield, Illinois

E. J. Nessglson
Waste Control Engineer
Velsicol Chemical Corporation
341 E. Ohio Street
Chicago, Illinois

Morgan J. o'Connell, M.D.
Assistant Commissioner of Health
Chicago Board of Health
Civic Center
Chicago, Illinois

-------
                                     3-AA

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

G. Olp
Plant Engineer Supervisor
U. S. Gypsum
3501 Canal
East Chicago, Indiana

Jack Palmer
Izaak Walton League
333 Hampton Place
Hinsdale, Illinois

E. S. Parker
Plant Engineer
General American Transportation Corporation
143rd & Railroad Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

Paul Pavey
Public Relations Department
American Oil
Prudential Plaza
Chicago, Illinois

James J. Pavlovich
Chemist
American Maize Products Company
112th Indianapolis Blvd.
Hammond  (Roby) Indiana

Harry M. Pawlowski
Civil Engineer
City of Chicago
Room 404 - City Hall
Chicago, Illinois

J. A. Pelletier
Manager General Engineering Department
5265 Hohman Avenue
Hammond, Indiana

Mrs. Gilbert  J. Perlov
League of Women Voters  of  Downers  Grove
4919 Northcutt Avenue
Downers  Grove, Illinois

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                                      3-BB

    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Gunnar Peterson
Director Open Land Project
Wayne Council Metropolitan Chicago
123 W. Madison
Chicago, Illinois

Emil Poppa
Chemist
East Chicago Sanitary District
5200 Indianapolis Blvd.
East Chicago, Illinois

Ralph W. Purdy
Chief Engineer
Michigan Water Resources Commission
Station "B"
Lansing, Michigan

John Renna
Secretary
Southeast Sportsman Club
13139 Avenue M
Chicago, Illinois

Mrs. Wm. E. Reynolds
League of Women Voters
238 Blackhawk Road
Riverside, Illinois

Mrs. Samuel Rome
Water Resource Chairman
League of Women Voters
Oakpark and River Forest
1421 Forest Avenue
River Forest, Illinois

George M. Rosengarter
Coordinator-Waste Abatement
Union Carbide Chemicals Division
South Charleston, West Virginia

Mrs. George W. Ryerson
Director of Development
Cavalcade Productions, Inc.
St. Charles Road
Wheatorn, Illinois

-------
                                3-CC
    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd)

Harry E. Schlenz
President
Pacific Flush Tank Company
4241 Ravenswood Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

A. Schuler
Plant Engineer
USS Lead Refinery, Inc.
5300 Kennedy Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

Mrs. C. Schreiber
Representative
S. Lake County Stream Pollution Control
  Council
R.R. #7 - Box 314
Crown Point, Indiana

Roger G. Seaman
Administrative Assistant to
  President Chesrow
Metropolitan San. District of Greater Chicago
100 E. Erie
Chicago, Illinois

A. M. Shannon
Chief, Water & Sewage Treatment
Detroit Department Water Supply
735 Randolph
Detroit, Michigan

J. R. Shanahan
Attorney
Sinclair Refining Company
155 N. Wacker Drive
Chicago, Illinois

R. L. Shaner
Region  Engineer
Linde Division,  Union  Carbide Corporation
230 N. Michigan  Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Charles Sharp, Superintendent
Lake Ridge School
106 E. Ridge
Griffith,  Indiana

-------
                                      3-DD


    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

James F. Shelley
Superintendent of Streets and Local
  Improvement
City of Chicago Heights
55 E. Hickory Street
Chicago Heights, Illinois

Donald R. Shiras
Manager, Public Information
Inland Steel Company
30 w. Monroe
Chicago, Illinois

M. W, Sibley
Water Engineer
Rock Island Railroad
4701 Wentworth Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

Kenneth Siefers
Development Representative
Pittsburgh Activated Carbon Company
Grant Building
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

John D. Serieni
Superintendent Chicago Heights
  Sewer Department
14th East End
Chicago Heights, Illinois

W. C. Soudriette
Plant Manager
Cities Service Oil Company
Box 718
East Chicago, Indiana

Mrs. C. M. Stephens
League of Women Voters
8846 Carolina
Highland, Indiana

Wm. D. Straczek
Director of Lab.
San. District - Bloom Township
Box 251
Chicago Heights, Illinois

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                                 3-EE


    ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

W. R. Stead
Corporate Counsel
Interlake Steel
310 S. Michigan
Chicago, Illinois

Macon W. Terrell
Pupil Personnel Services
Lake Ridge Schools
106 E. Ridge Road
Griffith, Indiana

Joseph L. Tite
Sanitary Engineer
Indiana State Board of Health
Michigan City, Indiana

Jack M. Troy
Chairman Calumet Chapter
Save the Dunes Council
1512 Park Drive
Munster, Indiana

Mrs. Donald Trump
3rd Vice President
League of Women Voters of  Indiana
R.5 - Box 26
Valparaiso, Indiana

F. E. Tucker
Manager, Pollution Control & Services
National Steel
Grant Building
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Arthur W. Tuemler
General Supervisor Power and Fuel  Engineer
U. S. Steel
3426  E. 89th  Street
Chicago, Illinois

Mrs.  Eugene Tyler
Observer
League  of Women Voters
9151  Grace Place
Highland,  Indiana

-------
                                         3-FF

   ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Larry V. Utke, Attorney
Texaco, Inc.
332 S. Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois

B, J. Wachter, Editor
Industrial Water Engineering
450 S. Ohio
Chicago, Illinois

Deyarraan Wallace
Research Supervisor
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company
P. 0. Box 900
Youngstown, Ohio

F.I. Warner, Vice President
USS Lead Refinery, Inc.
5300 Kennedy Avenue
East Chicago, Indiana

F. H. Watkins
Coordinator
Sinclair Research, Inc.
400 E. Sibley Blvd.
Harvey, Illinois

Bernard E. Wedman
740 Hayes Avenue
Oak Park, Illinois

Richard W. West
Foreman
Sinclair Refining Company
1500 Indianapolis Blvd.
East Chicago, Indiana

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                                     3-GG

   ATTENDANTS (Cont'd.)

Clayton E. Whiting, Jr.
Chairman
Chicago Ind'l Water Waste & Sewage Control
6216 W. 66th Place
Chicago, Illinois

Bruno A. Woelki
Operations Manager
U. S. Navigation Comp,
140 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, Illinois

Clifford B. Wolf
Technical Supervisor
Allied Chemical Corporation

Charles L, Woody
Assistant to Manufacturing Superintendent
Lever Brothers Company
1200 Calumet Avenue
Hammond, Indiana

A. R. Wreath
Chief, Control Chemist
Stauffer Chemical Company
Ind. Chemical Division - Phosphates
llth & Arnold
Chicago Heights, Illinois

Sidney R. Yates
U. S. Representative
9th District
Illinois

       * * *

-------
             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein
                   OPENING STATEMENT




                          BY




                   MR. MURRAY STEIN








             The conference is open.




             This technical session of the conference in the




matter of pollution of the interstate waters of the Grand




Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River, Wolf Lake,



Michigan and their tributaries, is being held under the pro-




visions of section 10 of the Federal Water Pollution Control




Act, as amended.  The Secretary of Health, Education, and




Welfare, is required to call a conference of this type when,




on the basis of reports, surveys,  or studies he has reason



to believe that pollution of interstate waters subject to



abatement under the Federal Act has occurred.




             The purpose of the conference is to bring to-



gether the State water pollution control agencies, the repre-




sentatives of the Department of Health, Education, and Wel-



fare, and other interested parties to review the existing




situation, to appraise what has been done, to lay a basis




for future action by all parties concerned, and to give the

-------
             Opening Statement -Mr. Stein




States, localities, and industries an opportunity to take



any remedial action which may be indicated under State and




local law.




             We have had conferences now throughout the




country involving more than a thousand cities and involving




more than a thousand industries.  We strongly support the




conference technique, and we measure our success by the




situations which are solved at the conference stage rather




than by the court actions we bring.




             To date we have only had to go to court once



against one city.  We have only had to go to a hearing four




times.  All the other cases have been resolved at the confer-




ence stage.  I believe that this case will follow the same




pattern, and I think this speaks very well for our State-




Federal cooperative program.



             As specified in section 10 of the Federal Water



Pollution Control Act, the official water pollution control




agencies have been notified of this conference.  These




agencies are the Illinois State Sanitary Water Board, the




Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, and the Metropolitan




Sanitary District of Greater Chicago.



             Illinois will be represented by Mr. Clarence




Klassen, who is accompanied by Mr. Richard Nelle.




             Indiana will be represented by Mr. Blucher

-------
             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein



Poole, accompanied by Mr. Perry Miller.



             The Metropolitan Sanitary District will be repre-




sented by Colonel Frank Chesrow.




             Mr, H. W. Poston, Department of Health, Educa-




tion, and Welfare, with headquarters in Chicago, Illinois




and the regional program director, has been designated as




conferee for the Federal Government.




             My name is Murray Stein.  I am from Washington,




D.C., headquarters of the Department of Health, Education,




and Welfare.  I have been designated as chairman of the




conference by the Secretary, and I am also designated as his




representat ive.




             The representatives of the official water pollu-




tion control agencies are privileged to bring whomever they




wish to the conference and have them participate in it.  How-



ever, this is a conference between the official agencies and



the representatives of the Department of Health, Education,



and Welfare.  These parties constitute the conferees.




             Both the States and the Federal Government have




responsibilities in dealing with interstate water pollution




control problems.  The Federal Water Pollution Control Act




declares that the States have the primary rights and res-




ponsibilities for taking action to abate and control inter-




state pollution.  The function of our Department is to

-------
             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




encourage the States in these activities.  However, the




Department of Health, Education, and Welfare is charged by




law with specific responsibilities in connection with inter-




state pollution control problems.




             The Federal Water Pollution Control Act provides




that pollution of interstate waters, whether the matter caus-




ing or contributing to such pollution is discharged directly




into such waters or reaches such waters after discharge into




a tributary of such waters, which endangers the health or




welfare of persons in a State other than that in which the




discharges originate, is subject to abatement.




             The first session of this conference was held




in Chicago March 2-9, 1965.  Many of you were present at




that conference.  I think it is fair to say that throughout




the country we have never had a more diverse or complicated




situation or case to deal with than we have had in the lower




end of Lake Michigan.  The conference, consequently, took




more than a week.




             At that session of the conference the conferees




at this table unanimously agreed to the following conclusions




and recommendations:




             1.  Interstate pollution endangering the health




and welfare of persons in a State other than that where the




discharges originate exists in the waters of the Grand

-------
                                                          8





             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Lake Michigan and their




tributaries.  Such pollution is subject to abatement under




the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.




             2.  Sewage and industrial waste from sources in




Indiana (the Little Calumet River area and Grand Calumet




area and Indiana Harbor area) contribute to such interstate




pollution in Illinois.




             3.  There is no evidence of such interstate




pollution from discharges in the Burns Ditch area in Indiana.




             4.  Municipal and industrial waste from sources




in the Calumet area in Illinois contributes to such inter-




state pollution in Indiana.




             5.  Cognizance is taken of the efforts in both



States to abate such interstate pollution but action taken




to date is not adequate and such interstate pollution still



exists.




             6.  The nature of the delays in abating such in-




terstate pollution include the complexity of the problem and




the concentration of population and industry.



             7.  To initiate a program of immediate remedial




action to protect water quality in the area for the maximum




number of legitimate uses, the conferees will use as a guide




for water quality at the Chicago Water Works intakes the




"Recommended Quality Criteria Goals, Lake Water at Chicago

-------
                                                          9






             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




Intakes" presented by the Department of Water and Sewers




of the City of Chicago at this conference.  The conferees




will use as a guide for bacterial water quality at bathing




beaches covered by this conference the requirement that




receiving water shall be considered unsuitable for bathing




if the coliform concentration exceeds 1000 per 100 ml.




             8.  The conferees will establish a technical




committee as soon as possible which will evaluate water




quality criteria and related matters in the area covered




by the conference and make recommendations to the conferees




within six months after the issuance of the summary of the




conference.




             9.  The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board,




the Illinois Sanitary Water Board and the Metropolitan




Sanitary District of Greater Chicago will institute immediate




action in their respective jurisdiction that all sewage re-




ceive at least secondary treatment plus adequate effluent




disinfection within one year after the issuance of the




summary of the conference.




             10.  The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board,




the Illinois Sanitary Water Board and the Metropolitan




Sanitary District of Greater Chicago will institute immediate




action in their respective jurisdiction to insure that




industries will institute housekeeping practices which will

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                                                        10




             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




minimize the discharge of wastes from industrial sources




and to insure optimum operation of sewerage systems and



sewage treatment facilities to minimize by-passing of sewage




treatment plants or other practices that result in the




discharge of untreated or partially treated wastes and re-




port on these activities to the conferees within six months




after the issuance of the summary of this conference.




             11.  The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board,




the Illinois Sanitary Water Board, the Metropolitan Sanitary




District of Greater Chicago will undertake action to insure




that industrial plants discharging wastes into waters within




their respective jurisdictions institute programs of sampling




their effluents to provide information about waste outputs




needed by these agencies in the carrying out of their




functions.  Such information will be maintained in open files




by these agencies for those having a legitimate interest in




the information and the agencies will report to the conferees



on this activity within six months after the issuance of



the summary of this conference.




             12.  The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board,




the Illinois Sanitary Water Board and the Metropolitan Sani-




tary District of Greater Chicago, maintaining close liaison




with the technical committee created by the conferees,  will




develop a time schedule for the construction of necessary

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                                                        11






             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




industrial waste treatment facilities.  Such a schedule will




be submitted to the conferees for their consideration within




six months after the issuance of the summary of this confer-




ence.




             13.  The Thomas J. O'Brien Lock is to be placed




in operation to protect water quality of Lake Michigan and




prevent backflow to the Lake.  This should be done as soon




as possible but not later than January 1, 1966.




             14.  Surveillance will be the primary respons-




ibility of the  Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, the




Illinois Sanitary Water Board and the Metropolitan Sanitary




District of Greater Chicago.  The Department of Health,




Education, and  Welfare will make available a resident techni-




cal group and visiting groups of experts which will assist




the State agencies and the Metropolitan Sanitary District



of Greater Chicago at such time as requested by them.




             15.  The conference may be reconvened on the



call of the chairman.




             As recommended by the conferees, a technical




committee was established to evaluate and recommend water




quality criteria.  I would like to indicate that in my exper-




ience  in this field, which is extensive  I think, perhaps not




as extensive as that of some of the people here but I have




been working with this since 1948,  I have never seen a better

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                                                        12
             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




cooperative effort than that put in by this technical com-




mittee.




             The committee, as you will hear, had repre-




sentatives of the States of Illinois and Indiana, the Metro-




politan Sanitary District, the Federal Government and in-




dustrial representatives representing the petroleum industry




and the steel industry.




             I think the best of goodwill was evidenced by




all hands on the committee.




             I also expect that we will hear from the com-




mittee about its recommendations.  To my knowledge,  this may




be a landmark and the first time that a committee repre-




senting various levels of government, district,  State, Fed-




eral,  and industrial representatives have gone over in




detail specifically the kind of requirements and criteria




needed to protect water quality and have reached an accommo-




dation.  In my opinion this shows that it can be done.  If




we can arrive at accepting this accommodation, I think not




only will we be way ahead in the lower end of Lake Michigan



but we very well may have set a model for the rest of the



country to follow.




             All the conferees will be called upon to make




statements.  The conferees, in addition, may call upon




participants whom they have invited to the conference to

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                                                         13
             Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




make statements.  At the conclusion the conferees will be




given an opportunity to comment or ask questions.




             At the conclusion of all the statements we will




have a discussion among the conferees to try to arrive at




agreement on the facts of the situation.  The conferees will




probably convene in executive session and reappear to make




an announcement.




             Now a word about the procedure governing the




conduct of the conference.  A record and verbatim transcript




will be made of the conference by Mr. Joe McLaughlin.  Mr.




McLaughlin is making this transcript for the purpose of aid-



ing us in preparing the summary and providing a complete




record of what is said here.




             We will make copies of the summary available to



the official water pollution control agencies of Illinois,




Indiana and the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater



Chicago for distribution.  If you want copies of that summary




and transcript, we suggest you get in touch with them.  The




transcript is generally available within two or three months




after the conference, and the summary may be available much




sooner.



             Now, I would suggest that all speakers and




participants other than those at this table come up to the




lectern to make their statements.  You will find it a rather

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                                                      14




               Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




tortuous route through the wings.




          Before going on I would like to take one minute,




because today we are indeed privileged in having one of the




members of Congress  and my boss  here, a man who has




been vitally interested in water pollution control for a long




time, one who assiduously looks after Chicago's interests.




I don't know that you have ever had a better guardian in my




opinion or a man who did his homework so well and who was so




adept at persuasion in looking after Chicago's interests,




          I think as long as I can remember this Congress-




man has been in touch with us several times during the ses-




sion, and I don't think that there was ever any issue involv-




ing water in the Federal government where his influence has




not been felt and his counsel has not been sought.




          He has contributed immeasurably to the legisla-




tion and philosophy of the Federal program and in no small




measure is responsible for our agency.




          Congressman Yates, would you stand up?




          (Applause.)




          I would like to call on Mr. Poston for the Federal




presentation*




          Mr. Poston.

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                                                       15





                   H. W. Poston




        STATEMENT OF H. W. POSTON,  CONFEREE,




        REPRESENTING FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION




               CONTROL ADMINISTRATION








             MR. POSTON:  Thank you,  Mr. Stein.




             As many of you know, the agency that Mr. Stein




and I represent here today is very young.  The fact is it is




only four days old.  When we met in the first session of the




conference at McCormick Place in March of 1965 we represented




the Public Health Service.  However,  the Water Quality Act



of 1965 created the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis-




tration, so this is the first meeting of this type under




the new Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.




             At the March 1965 conference on pollution of




Lake Michigan and streams of the Calumet area, several



recommendations of action were made in concerted effort to




clean up these waters.  Certain of these recommendations




placed definite responsibilities on the Department of Health,




Education, and Welfare.  What these responsibilities are and




how they are being carried out will be reported by our




technical people.



             Recommendation No. 8 called for the conferees



to establish a technical committee as soon as possible which




will evaluate water quality criteria and related matters and

-------
                                                        16






                    H. W. Poston




make recommendations to the conferees.




             The technical committee was formed immediately




after the March conference.  Representatives of State and




Federal regulatory agencies, industry, municipalities and




recreation and conservation interests served on the committee.




             To head such a committee we surveyed the field




to get qualified individuals.  We feel very fortunate in




having Mr. Francis Kittrell, a nationally recognized water




pollution control expert and currently Chief of the Water




Pollution Evaluation Unit at the Administration's Sanitary




Engineering Center in Cincinnatti.  He has served as chair-



man.




             Other members on the committee were Mr. Perry




Miller of the Indiana State Board of Health, Mr. R.S. Nelle




of the Illinois Department of Public Health, Mr. H.H. Ger-




stein of the Chicago Department of Water and Sewers, Dr. A.J.



Kaplovsky of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater



Chicago, Dr. C. A. Bishop of the United States Steel Corpor-




ation, Mr. R. C. Mallatt of the American Oil Company, and



Mr. Harold C. Jordahl, United States Department of Interior,




for which he is the regional coordinator.



             Fourteen technical committee meetings, covering




25 days, were held during the past six months.  The task of




this committee involved complex and extremely difficult

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                                                        17





                    H. W. Poston




considerations and decisions, and we want to take cognizance




of the formidable obstacles which these experts faced.




             To paraphrase a famous Englishman's remarks with




respect to the committee members, much blood, toil, sweat,




and probably even a few tears went into these deliberations.




             On behalf of the Federal Water Pollution Control




Administration I want to take this opportunity to thank each




one of these experts publicly.




             The conferees also met several times to discuss




matters related to the conference.  One of these meetings




dealt with the disposal of dredged material in Lake Michigan.




All conferees agreed that the practice of disposing of




dredged material in the Lake must be stopped and have taken



positive action to see that it is stopped.



             Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce at this



time the letter of policy jointly agreed to and distributed



to the conferees on December 21, 1965.



             MR. STEIN:  Without objection that will be done.

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                                                                        18
             DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH,  EDUCATION,  AND WELFARE
                                                 December 21, 1965

                                                 Refer to:  WS&PC
Mr. Frank W. Chesrow, President
Metropolitan Sanitary District
100 East Erie Street
Chicago, Illinois  60611

Dear Mr. Chesrow:

In response to a request for information concerning policy for dumping
of dredged material into Lake Michigan, a conference telephone call
was arranged last summer between:

    C. W. Klassen           Illinois Sanitary Water Board
    F. W. Chesrow           Metropolitan Sanitary District
    B. A. Poole             Indiana Water Pollution Control Board
    H. W. Poston            Program Director, Public Health Service

The question of attitude of the conferees of the Calumet Area-Lake
Michigan enforcement conference was the subject of the conference call.
During the course of this call, it was agreed as follows:

    1.  Dredged material from the Bubbly Creek branch of the Chicago
        River shall not be dumped into Lake Michigan or its tributaries
        because this dredged material is primarily composed of deleterious
        waste solids.

    2.  There shall be no intentional transfer of deleterious waste solids
        and other such material from one area of Lake Michigan and its
        tributaries to another area of Lake Michigan and its tributaries.

    3.  The conferees shall further explore the current policy of dumping
        inert material in Lake Michigan and its tributaries.

The above agreements extend only to the conference area, and have been
communicated to the Conference Chairman, Mr. Murray Stein.

                                     Sincerely yours,
                                     H. W. Poston
                                     Regional Program Director
                                     Water Supply and Pollution Control
cc:  Murray Stein, Washington, D.C.
     C. W. Klassen, Springfield, Illinois
     B. A. Poole, Indianapolis, Indiana            FILE    COPY

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                                                         19




                    H. W. Poston




             MR.  POSTON:  Another responsibility was spelled




out  in the Recommendation No.  14, which stated that sur-




veillance would be the primary responsibility of the Indiana




Stream Pollution  Board, the  Illinois Sanitary Water Board




and  the  Metropolitan Sanitary  District of  Greater Chicago.




The  Department of Health, Education, and Welfare will make




available a resident technical group to assist at such  times




as requested by them,.




             Requests were received from the State regulatory



agencies, and a seven-man staff was organized in June of 1965




by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to  per-




form surveillance functions.




             There has been  a  close cooperation between the



regulatory agencies and our  surveillance team in a beach-



sampling program. Laboratories that worked together in the




overall  program were the Chicago Water Department, the  Chicago




Park District, Metropolitan  Sanitary District of Greater



Chicago, Indiana  State Board of Health, Illinois State  De-




partment of Health, Gary-Hobart Water Company, Inland Steel




Company, American Oil Company, and the Great Lakes-Illinois




River Basin Project of our Federal Walter  Pollution Control




Administration.



             A report of this  surveillance activity has been




submitted to  the conferees,  and a limited  number of copies of

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                                                        20






this report are available for other interested parties.




             We will hear a summary discussion of this report




with the conclusions from Mr. Grover Cook, who is Chief of




our Enforcement Section in our Chicago Regional Office.  I




would like to ask Mr. Grover Cook at this time to give




this summary discussion.




             Mr. Cook.

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                                                        21




                    Grover Cook









             STATEMENT OF GROVER COOK, CHIEF,




             ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES, REGION V,




             FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL




                    ADMINISTRATION








             MR. COOK:  I am going to summarize a report en-




titled "Report on the Calumet Area Surveillance Program."  I




would request, Mr. Chairman, that this be entered into the




record.




             MR. STEIN:  The full report will be entered into




the record without objection.









              (The report referred to follows:)

-------
                                                        22
                    Grover Cook









                   REPORT ON THE




         CALUMET AREA SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM




                         BY




      DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE




                    FOR THE PERIOD




              JUNE THROUGH NOVEMBER, 1965




                   ILLINOIS-INDIANA









                      I FOREWORD




             This report presents an evaluation of the present




water quality in the Calumet Area based primarily on the




sampling program of the Department of Health, Education, and




Welfare's Calumet Area Surveillance Project.  The exception




to this is the evaluation of the bacteriological quality of




the water at the six Lake Michigan beaches within the study




area.  Three of these beaches are in each of the two States




involved and the Surveillance Project is the only one of the




four cooperating agencies that sampled all six beaches.




Beach sampling data was freely exchanged by all cooperating




agencies.  Results from each of the weekly sampling runs by




the Calumet Area Surveillance Project have been forwarded to




the responsible State and local agencies usually within two




weeks after the samples were obtained.

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                                                        23






                    Grover Cook








             II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS








             1.  Based on the conferees* criteria of bathing




water having a total coliform count of less than 1000 per 100




milliliters, the water quality at the six Lake Michigan




beaches in the Calumet Area was unsuitable for bathing from




31 per cent to 100 per cent of the time.




             2.  The Lake Michigan beachers in the Calumet




Area are subject to varying degrees of pollution from extern-




al sources making the water at times unsuitable for bathing-.




The Calumet Park, Whiting, and Hammond beaches are subject




to periods of extremely heavy pollution,




             3.  Indiana Harbor is grossly polluted with very




high total coliform and fecal streptococcus counts.  Phenols,




though reduced from 1963 levels, are still high enough to



cause taste and odor problems at times in near municipal



water supplies.  Total phosphates average almost five times




the value required for algae blooms, also there are still




many visual signs of pollution being dumped into this stream




system.  This polluted water is flowing into Lake Michigan




at a dry weather flow estimated to be 2,300 cubic feet per




second.




             4.  Calumet Harbor sampling indicates a slight

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                                                        24





                    Grover Cook




increase in the dissolved oxygen content, a decrease in the




phenols, and bacterial contents that were slightly higher




than obtained during the 1963 sampling period.  Iron, ammonia




nitrogen, and total dissolved solids are all above the back-




ground levels found in Lake Michigan.  Average total phos-




phates are five times the value required for algae blooms.




There is also visual evidence of large quantities of pollu-




tion being dumped into lower portions of the Calumet River




and Calumet Harbor.  The operation of the O'Brien Lock and




Dam and the slightly higher water levels of Lake Michigan in




1965 have partly reduced the pollution to Lake Michigan from



this source.




             5.  The Grand Calumet River at the State line is




still grossly polluted as is evidenced by very high bacterial




counts.  Ten per cent of the samples collected in 1965 had a




zero dissolved oxygen content and 25 per cent had an oxygen



content of less than one milligram per liter (mg/1) indicat-



ing that septic conditions still exist.  Pollution is also




indicated by the high biochemical oxygen demand, chemical




oxygen demand, phenol, and dissolved solid values found




during the sampling period.



             6.  The Little Calumet River at the State line




is still grossly polluted,  although there has been an improve-




ment since the 1963 sampling period.  Bacterial counts are

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                                                        25





                    Grover Cook



still above acceptable levels,  15 per cent of the samples had




dissolved oxygen content of zero and 40 per cent had an oxy-




gen content of less than one milligram per liter (mg/1)




indicating that septic conditions still exist.  Biochemical




oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total phosphates, sul-




fates, and dissolved solids, although less than 1963 values,




are still high.  The improvement in quality of water is




probably due in part to the treatment of a portion of the




sanitary wastes from the communities of Highland and Griffith




by the Hammond Sanitary District.  However, the stream is




still polluted, especially if the recreational benefits that




this stream can provide to the area are considered.

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                                                        26





                    Grover Cook








                 III  INTRODUCTION








Authority and Organization



             A conference on pollution of the interstate




waters of the Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River,




Calumet River, Wolf Lake, Lake Michigan and their tributaries




(Indiana-Illinois), called by the Secretary of Health, Educa-




tion, and Welfare under the provisions of Section 8 of the




Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 USC 466 et. seq.),




was held in Chicago, Illinois March 2-9, 1965.




             Paragraph No. 14 of the Conclusions and Recom-




mendations of the Conferees for this Conference provided




that "Surveillance will be the primary responsibility of




the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, the Illinois




Sanitary Water Board and the Metropolitan Sanitary District



of Greater Chicago.  The Department of Health, Education, and




Welfare will make available a resident technical group and



visiting groups of experts which will assist the State



agencies and the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater




Chicago at such time as requested by them."



             The State of Indiana, on April 6, 1965, and the




State of Illinois,  on April 16, 1965 requested an extensive




sampling program by the Federal government to monitor the

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                                                        27






                    Grover Cook




water quality in the Calumet Area.  These requests




accompanied the sampling program proposed by them within



their respective jurisdictions.  The Metropolitan Sanitary



District has not formally requested a sampling program, but




has requested laboratory assistance in the analysis of




samples they have collected and in special studies they have




conducted on chlorination of the effluent from their sewage




treatment plant.  The Calumet Area Surveillance Project was




organized in the latter part of June, 1965 to fulfill the




requirements of paragraph No. 14 and the requests of the




States.




Purpose and Scope




             The purpose of the Calumet Area Surveillance




Project is to assess the progress in the abatement of pollu-



tion in the conference area in cooperation with appropriate




State and local agencies.  This is being accomplished through



sampling programs to monitor the water quality at various



locations within the conference area.  Stream flow measure-




ments are being made so that laboratory analyses in milli-




grams per liter can be converted to pounds per day.  The




information obtained through Federal, State and local



sampling programs and the information furnished by the in-




dustries to the State or other responsible agency on the




quality and quantity of their waste flows (in accordance

-------
                                                        28





                    Grover Cook




with paragraph No. 11 of the Findings and Conclusions) are




evaluated.  Reports are prepared and presented to the




conferees and reconvened conferences on the current water




quality and the progress in the abatement of the pollution.




             (Figure III-l follows:)

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29

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                                                        30






                    Grover Cook




       IV DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM




Present Staffing




             The Calumet Area Surveillance Project began  in




the latter part of June 1965 with the assignment of six




persons to the staff.  The professional staff consists of




the Project Director, a sanitary engineer, two aquatic




samplers, a chemist, and a microbiologist.  Technical assist-




ance has been provided by the Great Lakes-Illinois River




Basins Project.




Beach, Stream, and Harbor Sampling,




             Sampling of six Lake Michigan beaches on a




weekly basis was initiated in the latter part of June.  Rain-




bow and Calumet Park Inner and Outer beaches were the three




beaches sampled in Illinois.  Hammond, Whiting, and E. Chi-




cago beaches were the Indiana beaches sampled.  This sampling




program was coordinated with three other agencies who were



sampling certain of these beaches.  Cooperating agencies  are



the Indiana State Board of Health, the Illinois Sanitary



Water Board, and the Chicago Park District.  Beaches were




sampled for total coliforra and fecal streptococci.  The re-




sults of the Surveillance Project's beach sampling were trans-




mitted to other interested and cooperating agencies usually




on the third day after the samples were taken.  Results




were also received from the other cooperating agencies.  By

-------
                                                        31
                    Grover Cook

agreement with the other agencies the Surveillance Project

sampled on Tuesday.  In addition, one Sunday sampling run

was made to determine conditions under the increased weekend

bathing load.  In September additional samples were obtained

by boat approximately 1/4 mile off the beach opposite the

regular wade-in stations.  Fecal coliform determinations

were made in addition to total coliform and fecal streptococci,

The location of beaches sampled and the results of sampling

are shown under Microbiological Quality of Water.

             Stream sampling was initiated the last week in

June with five stations that could be sampled from bridges.

The Grand Calumet was sampled at Broadway Avenue in Gary,

Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge and the Baltimore and Ohio

Chicago Terminal  (B&O C.T.) Railroad Bridge.  Indiana Harbor

Canal was sampled at Dickey Road and the Little Calumet River

at Wentworth Avenue.  When the project boat became operation-

al in July, four  additional sampling stations were added.

These were the Calumet River at its mouth, Calumet Harbor

opposite the mouth of the river at the State line, Indiana

Harbor at Harbor  Light-Inshore  (mouth of Indiana Harbor Canal)

and Indiana Harbor at Harbor Light (East Breakwater).

             In August the Broadway Avenue sampling station

was terminated and the Indiana Harbor Canal was sampled at

151st Street instead.  The Calumet Harbor State-line station

moved out to mid-channel, about 3,500 feet from the mouth of

-------
                                                        32






                    Grover Cook




the river to obtain a more representative sample of the water




quality in the Harbor.  Sampling was also initiated at the




Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad Bridge across the Grand Calumet




River.  This bridge is closer to the State line than the B&O




C.T. Railroad Bridge.  After a period of duplicate sampling




to coordinate the results of the two stations sampling at




the B&O C.T. station was discontinued.  Wolf Lake at the




State line and Wolf Lake outlet were added to the regular




sampling stations in October.  These stream and harbor sta-




tions are sampled for microbiological and chemical analysis.




The location of these stream and harbor sampling stations




were given in the sections on Microbiological and Chemical




Quality of the Water.




Hydraulic Surveys




             No gaging stations are maintained by the U. S.




Geological Survey in the Grand Calumet-Indiana Harbor drain-



age system.  Therefore, six water level recording stations



have been established in this basin.  Flow measurements are




being conducted at each station at several different volumes



of flow so that rating curves can be developed.  These gages




are located on the bridges that cross the Grand Calumet




River at Hohman Avenue, Kennedy Avenue, Indianapolis Blvd.,




Industrial Highway, and Bridge Street, and at the bridge




across the Indiana Harbor Canal at Chicago Ave.  Since the

-------
                                                        33





                    Grover Cook




greater volume of water discharged to Lake Michigan from the




Indiana Harbor Canal is a result of industrial waste dis-




charged to the canal below Chicago Ave., the canal was not




gaged below this point.  Fluctuations in lake level distorts




the information provided by water level recording gages in-




stalled below this point to such an extent that gages are not




considered feasible.




             Special flow area and velocity measurement




studies are planned for Indiana Harbor Channel to correlate




the flows debermined at the upstream gaging stations with the




waste flow information provided by the industries through the




State of Indiana.




             Information obtained from the U. S. Geological




Survey and the Metropolitan Sanitary District will be used as



the basis for stream flow calculations in the Little Calumet



and Calumet Rivers.  However, it is planned to conduct some




flow measurement in Calumet River and Calumet Harbor to deter-



mine the effects of flow reversals in the Calumet River and




wastes discharged directly to the harbor.  The location of




these gaging stations is shown on the map of the Calumet Sur-




veillance Area, Figure IV-1.



             (Figure IV-1 follows:)

-------








u*
o
z
o
fe
3

g
1
"

O
z
3
Q.
s
<
(/)
< o
^?-
 d
_, g
o tJ
s I
Z)
LU
r
i
i
o
i

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                                                        35






                    Grover Cook




Biological Surveys




             The kinds and numbers of aquatic plants and




animals, inhabiting a particular body of water and the stream




or lake bottom beneath it, reflect the quality of water that




has generally prevailed in the area for an extended period




of time.  Some plants and animals are capable, by virtue of




physiological features or living habits, of withstanding




polluted conditions and will multiply rapidly when competi-




tion with less tolerant forms is eliminated.  Examples of




pollution-tolerant animals are the sludgeworms, bloodworms,




leaches, and pulmonate snails, that exist in the decaying




organic sediment which builds up from the settleable organic




solids present in most waste discharges.  A benthic (bottom-




dwelling) population consisting of many kinds of organisms



with low numbers of each species is typical of unpolluted



waters.




             The continuous or sudden introduction of toxic




wastes and settleable solids, as well as oxygen-consuming




materials could also alter the composition of the community




by destroying the sensitive forms and giving more living




room to the tolerant kinds.  A balanced population would not




be re-established automatically by the sudden return to




optimum water quality conditions, because the lengths of the




life cycles of the organisms vary from weeks to years.

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                                                        36






             Fifteen substrate samplers of the Dendy type




have been made and used in the waters of the Calumet Area.




These substrates have three types of surfaces for growth of




aquatic life.  One is made up of broken clam shells, a second




of course sand, and the other of hardwood sawdust.  The




samplers are placed in the streams for two or more weeks at




a time.  The organisms collected on these samplers will be




compared with the organisms found by bottom sampling in cor-




responding areas.  The organisms collected on the sampler




are less affected by silt and oil pollution than those




actually on the bottom of the stream.




             Surveys for bottom-dwelling animals, attached




algae and rooted vegetation are to be performed biennially.




Studies will be seasonal because of the wide differences in




life cycles of bottom-dwelling animals.  The information




gained by these studies will not only indicate subtle changes




in water quality over a two-year period, but may also reveal



the presence of unseen pollutants, organic toxicants and



toxic metals.  They will also provide evaluations as to the




effects on the biota of organic suspended matter and silt.




Automatic Monitoring



             Many operations of the industries in the basin




require discharge of wastes on a batch basis, and wastes from




these tanks may be dumped at any time of the day, week or




month, depending on the needs of the industry.  These

-------
                                                        37





                    Grover Cook




discharges and accidental spills of oil or other chemicals




could pass into Lake Michigan or down the Illinois River




unobserved by a once-a-week sampling program.




             An automatic water quality monitoring station




has been installed at the Indiana Harbor East Breakwall Inner




Light.  Details of this station are provided in Figures IV-2,




IV-3, IV-4 and IV-5.  The monitor has been continuously




recording the dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and tempera-




ture of the water flowing past this point into Lake Michigan




since December 2.  Weekly sampling for complete chemical and




bacteriological analysis at two locations in Indiana Harbor




will continue.  The results obtained from the two types of




sampling will be correlated for the parameters that are dupli-




cated.  From this information and extra samples that will be




obtained when high and low limiting values are exceeded on the



monitor a more thorough evaluation of the quantities of




wastes entering Lake Michigan from Indiana Harbor can be made.




             (Figures IV-2, IV-3, IV-4 and IV-5 follow:)

-------
                                      37a
         H"AL TH, ^DUCA T/&M AND WEI FARE
QUALITY MONITO&/NG  FACILITY
 fMD/ANA   HARBOR

-------
                                              37b
-a/
                            SfCT/OM
            Qi/A/rr MOM/TO/Z/NG
             JA/&/AA/A /-/A
               OF
                                            jsr-3

-------
                                                                   37c
One- half mile of catwalk is the access route to the
monitoring station.
Lighthouse in which the  monitor is  housed.
                 INDIANA WATER QUALITY MONITOR
                                                            ISMi

-------
                                                            37d
Monitoring instrument and control panel installed
in lighthouse bade
       Monitoring instrument.   Top section houses
       chart recorder.
           INDIANA WATER QUALITY MONITOR
                                                      iz-5

-------
                                                        38




                    Grover Cook




          A second automatic water quality monitor  is being



 installed at the Calumet River North Pier Light.  This




 monitor will record dissolved oxygen, Ph, conductivity and




 temperature of the water at the mouth of the Calumet River.




 Information obtained  from this monitor will also be corre-




 lated with the analysis for chemical and bacteriological data




 obtained from the weekly sampling program.




          The monitor that is now installed will be replaced




 in the spring with a monitor that will be equipped with an




 alarm system which will be activated when a parameter varies




 beyond a specified limit.  Upon activation of the alarm a




 sample will be collected so that it can be fully analyzed in




 the Projectfs laboratory.  Field crews will be dispatched to




 obtain and preserve the sample as required, and investigate




 the source of waste by tracing the spill back to its source.



 Additional samples and photographs will be obtained if appro-



 priate.  Operators of municipal and industrial water supplies




 will be notified of the approaching pollution so that they




 might make adequate preparations.




          Next year it is planned to install two other




 monitoring stations.  One will be located at the mouth of Burns




 Ditch to provide a continuous record of the quality of water




 flowing into Lake Michigan from this rapidly growing area.




The fourth monitoring station is to be located on the Calumet

-------
                                                     39



                       Grover Cook




River in the vicinity of the Blue Island Locks.  This




station will provide information on the quality of water




discharged from the Calumet Area to the Illinois River




Basin System.



Other Accomplishments to Date




          Two Interim Reports were prepared for the Calumet




Area Conferees.  These reports included an analysis of the




sampling information available to the date of the reports.




The first report also included a description of sampling




programs in operation by each agency.  Fifty-five frequency




analysis graphs that were prepared by the Surveillance Pro-




gram staff engineer were also included  These graphs show




the per cent of time that specified levels were exceeded for




the given parameters as indicated by existing historical




data.  The graphs were made at the request of the Calumet



Area Technical Committee and have proved most valuable in aid-




ing them in establishing water quality goals.  The second re-



port included a recommended minimum sampling program for sur-




veillance of the water quality in the area.  This report also




contained information on the dredging of the Calumet River




and the discharge of this material in Lake Michigan*




          A report on the methods of beach sampling and



laboratory analysis that were employed this summer was pre-




pared at the request of the technical committee.

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                                                        40





                    Grover Cook




          V.  MICROBIOLOGICAL  QUALITY OF WATER




 Introduction




          Microbiological information contained  in  the  fol-




 lowing text and  figures  is based  on  sampling  of  Lake  Michigan




 beaches, streams, and harbors  in  the Calumet  Area between




 June 9 and November 23,  1965.  However, the study period




 for beaches was  terminated on  September 15 with  the end of




 the bathing season.  Samples by the  Surveillance Project




 were processed by means  of the membrane filter  (MF) method




 to determine  total coliform and fecal streptococci  counts per




 100 milliliter of sample.  In  the latter part of the  summer,




 fecal coliform determinations  were also made  to  provide sup-




 plementary information.




          The laboratory methods  followed by  the Surveillance




 Project are in accordance with the procedures established in




 "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and  Waste-




 water, 1960"  except that KF Streptococcus Agar was  used in-




 stead of M-enterococcus  agar.  Fecal coliform determinations




 were made by  the MF method and confirmed, using  the E.C.




 medium.




 Beach Sampling




          Six Lake Michigan beaches  in the Calumet  Area were




 sampled during the study period by one or more of the follow-




ing four  cooperating  agencies:  The Chicago  Park  District,

-------
                     Grover Cook                       41
Illinois Sanitary Water Board, Indiana State Board of Health,
and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's Calu-
met Area Surveillance Project.  These agencies freely ex-
changed their data as rapidly as it became available.  The
beaches sampled were Rainbow and Calumet Park Inner and Outer
beaches in Illinois, and Hammond, Whiting, and E. Chicago in
Indiana.  The Surveillance Project sampled all six beaches.
The Chicago Park District sampled all six beaches except
E. Chicago while representatives of the State of Indiana and
Illinois collected samples only from the beaches within their
respective States.
                       Procedure
          A meeting was held at one of the beaches early in
July to aid in standardizing methods for collecting and
reporting information on beach samples.  This meeting was
attended by representatives of Indiana, Chicago Park District
and the Surveillance Project.  The location of a common
sampling point for the three Indiana beaches was established.
Also, it was agreed that Indiana and the Surveillance Project
would obtain their samples in four feet of water at elbow
depth, approximately 18" below the surface.  The Chicago
Park District and Illinois collected their samples at mid-
depth in three feet of water.  Also, they collected samples
at two locations on Illinois beaches while the Surveillance
Program collected samples only off the center of each beach.
It was agreed to at the meeting  that the  samplers should

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                                                         42






                    Grover Cook




collect the sample by  inverting the bottle,  lowering  it  to



elbow depth, about 18", then collect the sample by sweeping




the bottle away from the body.  The samples  are immediately




stored in an ice chest until they can be processed at the




laboratory.  It was also agreed that the sampler should




record the following information at the time of collecting




the sample; number of bathers within a one hundred foot




radius; air and water temperature; wind speed and direction;




cloud cover or weather condition and surf condition.




          Illinois, Indiana and the Surveillance Project




used the membrane filter technique in processing their




beach samples.  The Chicago Park District data presented in




this report is based on the MPN Method of laboratory analysis.




In August the Chicago Park District started  processing some




samples by both methods.  Indiana and the Chicago Park




District collected their samples on one day  and preserved



them on ice until the following day, when they were processed.



Illinois and the Surveillance Project processed their samples




on the same day they were taken.  Variations in results of




ten to 15 per cent have been noted in results of thoroughly




mixed samples that have been split with a part processed




immediately and a part held on ice for 24 hours.  Variations




were about equally dispersed both higher and lower than the




control  sample.

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                                                        43


                    Grover Cook

          All agencies did not filter the same amounts of

original sample.  The Surveillance Project filtered 100,

ten and one railliliter samples for total coliform and 50 and

ten milliliters for fecal streptococci.  Plate counts were

read only for the plates which came within the preferred

counting range.  The following quantities of the original

sample are filtered after appropriate dilution, when required

by the Cooperating agencies.

                      TABLE V-l

        QUANTITY OF BEACH SAMPLE FILTERED TO DETERMINE
                 BACTERIOLOGICAL COUNTS

     AGENCY               TOTAL COLIFORM   FECAL STREPTOCOCCI
                              in ml              in ml
Chicago Park District
Illinois
CASP
Indiana
E. Chicago
Hammond
Whiting
10
10, 1, 0.1
100, 10, 1

10, 1
0.1, 0.01
1, 0.1
50
50, 10
50, 10

100-10
100-10
100-10
                       Data Analyses

          A comparison of the maximum, minimum, arithmetic

mean, and median densities for total coliform and fecal

streptococci as determined by the four cooperating agencies

-------
                                                        44
                    Grover Cook

are given in Figures V-l and V-2.  The counts obtained by


the Calumet Area Surveillance Project (GASP) are generally


a little higher than counts by the Chicago Park District and


lower than those obtained by Illinois.  Indiana had higher


counts than the GASP on Hammond Beach, but lower at Whiting


and 3. Chicago.  However, the results by all agencies bear


reasonable relationships when compared with each other.


          Mean values of fecaJ coliform as determined from


three samples are given in Figure V-3.  The extremely high


value shown for Hammond Beach was proven to be accurate with-


in 25 per cent by the confirmation test using E.G. medium.


          Recommendation No. 7 of the Summary of the March,


1965 conference stated that:


          "The conferees will use as a guide for bacterial


          water quality at bathing beaches covered by this


          conference the requirement that receiving water


          shall be considered unsuitable for bathing if the


          coliform concentration exceeds 1000 per 100 ml."


          Using this criteria the results of the 1965 beach


sampling data were reviewed.  The per cent of samples by each


agency for each beach that exceeded this criteria of 1,000


coliforms per 100 milliliters is given in table V-2.  The


total number of days sampled by each agency during the period


covered by this report are also given.


          (Figures V-l,  V-2 and V-3, and Tables V-2 ancs


v-r ;oiiow:)

-------
                                                                                                  45
100,000 - -
 IO.OOO-- (I4)
 gipoo-
 tu
 Q
    100-
      10-
               (23)
                                         _    107,000
                                                             360JOOC
                                                       (16)
                                                           (18)
                                                                             (16)
                                                                          (18)
                 LEGEND
    CASP  Calumet  Area Surveilance  Project
    CPD   Chicago  Park Dist.
    ILL   ILL. State  Sanitary Board
    IND   IND. State  Sanitary Board
    ^^t Direction of Flow
1
Max.
Mean

Median
                     CALUMET   AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
BEACH  SAMPLING  -TOTAL  COLIFORM
    MAXIMUM, MINIMUM,  MEAN  8  MEDIAN
             JUNE - SEPT.   1965
                                                         U S  DEPT Of HEALTH,  EDUCATION  8 WELFARE
                                                         REGION  V                 CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS
                                          Min.
                                      (16)-No Times Sampled
                                                    3ZI-I

-------
lO.OOO-r
 1,000-;-
   100-r
8
X
CO
z
         (14)
               "
                  03)
              "
       Q.
       c/>

       <
       O
              O
              O.
                  _J
           RAINBOW
                             (43)
                                 (13)
0.   O   _1
co   a   _i
<   U   -
                       OUTER

                      CALUMET
                                           (43)
                                               (13)
                                        <
O  _)
a  _i
o  -
             INNER - PARK
                                                       (18)
                                                              (16)
a
01
o
a
           HAMMOND
Q-   Q  O
^   Q.  Z
<   u  -
               WHITING
                                                                                                     46
                                                                                  (18)   06)
a
CO
                                                                                      o
                         E CHICAGO
              LEGEND


CASP   Columet Areo Surveilonce  Project

CPD    Chicogo Pork District

ILL.    iLL. State Sanitary Board

IND.    IND. State Sanitary Board

^^t" Direction of  Flow
             Max
             Mean
                                      i Median
                                      Win.
                                                         CALUMET   AREA   SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
                                                       BEACH SAMPLING - FECAL STREPTOCOCCI

                                                           MAXIMUM,  MINIMUM, MEAN  8  MEDIAN

                                                                   JUNE-SEPT.  1965
                                                       U S DEPT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION 8  WELFARE

                                                        REGION  V                CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                   (16) No. of Times Sampled
                                                                                     Y-2

-------
10,000-
 1,000-
~ 100-
8
LJ
Q
     \o-



<




5

a o _i
<" Q- _|
< 0 -
o
RAINBOW
\ -NX

270
<



o- o _i

-------
                                                                       47
                                 TABLE V-2
     Percent of Beach Samples o rer 1000 Coliform per 1' C Milliliter
          and Total Number of Samples Collected - 1965 Season
COLLECTING
  AGENCY
BEACH
Rainbow
Total
$ No.
CASP ; 50$ 1U
Chicago
Park Dlst.! 65$ 23
Illinois 1*6$ 13
Indiana ;
Calumet PaTl'tuMif
Outer
Total
$ No.
69$ 16
61$ 13
ITMmond
Total
$ No.
63$ 16
60$ U3
77$ 13
Hammond
Total
$ No.
9^$ 16
61$ 18
100$ 16
Whiting
Total
$ No.
81$ 16
61$ 18
62$ 16
S.Chicago
Total
$ No.
61$ 18
31$ 16
     The above  table shows that based on the criteria recommended by the
conferees the beaches in the Calumet Area were unsuitable for bathing
from 31$ to 1CO$ of the days when samples were taken.  Since these samples
were taken according to an established schedule on various days of the
week without reference to weather or other conditions, it can be
assumed that the time the bacterial quality of the water at the beaches
exceeded the 1000 coliform per 100 ml level would be fairly close to the
above percentages.

     The Calumet Area Technical Committee has recommended the following
criteria for determining satisfactory water quality for bathing at the
beaches in the Calumet Area:

     Bacteria - Number per 100 ml by MF Techniques (Tentative)

     a)  The number of bacteria shall be the Arithmetic Average of the
         last five  consecutive sample results.

     b)  Satisfactory area if MF Coliform are less than 1( OC and MF Fecal
         Streptococci are less than 100.

     c)  Satisfactory area if MF Coliforms are from 1000 to 5000 and MF
         Fecal S+reptococci are less than 20.

     d)  A single sample result'  of over 100,OOC  Coliforms shall require
         immediate  investigation as to the cause.   Items to be considered
         in the judgment of cause and action to be taken include the
         sanitary survey, winds, currents and weather conditions.

                                    13

-------
                                                                        48
        These standards have been applied to information collected at the
   six beaches in the Calumet Area for the 1965 swimming season.  The
   criteria was first applied to the individual data collected by the
   Calumet Area Surveillance Project and the States of Illinois and
   Indiana.  The criteria specifies the membrane filter method of process-
   ing the sample.  In the first analysis the data received from the
   Chicago Park District was not used since the MPN method was used as
   their regular method of processing s'amplesl-.aSie -r'ata 'TOW the three
   agencies represented weekly samples.  Therefore, the five-sample
   average co ~ers a five-week period.  At the beginning of the season the
   data was averaged until five samples were available.

        A second analysis was made on some of the beaches using data from
   all four agencies assembled in chronological order so that at the most,
   the five samples would represent the water quality over a five to eight
   day period.  Since this second analysis included MPN counts, the
   criteria is somewhat modified.  However, I'ETl counts are usually slightly
   higher than similar counts by the MF method.

        Calumet Area Surveillance Project began their sampling on June 9,
   the State of Indiana on May 2k, the State of Illinois on June 30, and
   the Chicago Park District on June 1  September 15 was used as the end
   of the swimming season for this review.

                                TABLE V-3

Number of Days and Percent of Time Water Quality at Beaches did Not Meet
Proposed Calumet Area Technical Committee Criteria for Beaches in 1965
Season (June 1 to September 15> 1965 - 107 days).

COLLECTING
AGENCY                           BEAdH

GASP
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
ALL DATA
COMBINED
REMARKS
Rainbow
Days f>
79 7k
57 53

38 35

Calumet Park
Outer
Days %
61 57
65 6l

in 38
1 sample
over
ICO, 000'
Inner
Days %
97 91
78 73

Ik 69
1 sample
over
100,000
Hammond
Days %
.10? 100

77 72
8k 79
2 samples
over
100, 000
Whiting
Days %
6k 60

21 2(.
73 68

E . Chicago
Days %
65 61

0 0
k2 39


-------
                                                        49
                    Grover Cook
          The total coliform densities at these beaches are
shown graphically in Figure V-l.  Rainbow and E. Chicago
beaches are the only beaches where the median values for
each agency are close to or below 1000 per 100 ml.  It should
be noted, however, that the average total coliform values
at Rainbow Beach are over twice the recommended 1000 per 100
ml level.  This results from some of the high total coliform
values being many times the median value.  The responsible
State agency found total coliform counts of 100,000 or over,
and 300,000 for two Calumet beaches and the Hammond Beach
respectively for 100 ml of sample.   The maximum values as
shown in Figure V-l indicates that the Calumet, Hammond and
Whiting beaches are subject to periods of extremely heavy
pollution.
          Fecal streptococci are also an indication of pos-
sible contamination of the water from domestic sewage.  It
is usually considered as an indicator of recent pollution
since the fecal streptococci which are present in fecal
matter of warm-blooded animals, have a more rapid die-off
rate than the total coliform group.  All beaches except E.
Chicago had maximum counts of 1000 or over per 100 ml
indicating that these beaches are subject to contamination
from domestic wastes.  However, most of the median values
are within a reasonable level.
          Samples were collected by boat on August 31 and

-------
                                                         50






                    Grover Cook




September 7 to determine whether bacteriological  concentra-




tions varied with the distance from shore.   The boat  samples




were taken about a quarter mile off shore opposite the regu-



lar beach wade-in sampling points -- just a few hours after




collecting the corresponding beach sample.   E. Chicago beach




was not sampled by boat because of weather  conditions and




its great distance from the other  beaches.




          A comparison of the average  coliform, fecal coli-




form, and fecal Streptococci counts obtained from these two




boat runs are given in Figure V-4.




          (Figure V-4 follows:)

-------
         
        o
        o
        2
        UJ
        Q
10,000 -

1,000-
100-
10-





A





4





 <






^ FC FS
RAINBOW
/


(




>
(




1





TC FC FS.
CAL R

1




I

<


>
<





>

TC FC FS.
CAL HBR
MOUTH /

4





<



>


1
TC FC FS
CAL PARK






<



>


1
TC FC. FS.
CAL PARK

{




i
(






1
TC. FC FS.
HAMMOND

1




1
<



1



TC.FC FS.
WHITING
OUTER INNER / /
                                                                                            51
CHICAGO
                                                                      LEGEND
                                                                        Boot  Stotion
                                                                        Beoches
                                                                        Totol  Cohform
                                                                        Fecal  Collform
                                                                        Fecal   Streptococci
                              HAMMOND
                                                   CALUMET  AREA  SURVEILANCE   PROJECT
                                                   BOAT   STATIONS - OFF   BEACHES
                                                  MEAN TOTAL COLIFORM,  FECAL  COLIFORM  8
                                                  FECAL  STREPTOCOCCI    AUG -SEPT.  1965
U S  DEPT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION 8  WELFARE
REGION  V              CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

-------
                                                        52





                    Grover Cook




          The results of the beach sampling were compared




with corresponding boat samples and information obtained




from the municipal water intakes at Hammond, Whiting, and




Chicago's South Filtration Plant.  This latter information




was obtained through the Chicago Department of Water and




Sewers.  In most cases the total coliform was higher at the




beach wade-in station than at the corresponding boat station.




The two samples that were higher at the boat station were




over four times as high as the beach station, but the corres-




ponding fecal Streptococci counts were much higher at the




beach stations in these two instances.  Fecal Streptococci




counts were also generally the same or higher at the beach




wade-in stations than at the boat stations.  The two excep-




tions had values less than ten and were not significantly



greater than the wade-in values.  The average coliform and




fecal Streptococci values reported at the municipal intakes




are significantly less than the values obtained at the beaches,



          The results of the beach sampling program were




studied to determine sources of pollution and under what



condition the wastes from these sources jeopardize the




bacteriological quality of the water at the beaches.  The




location of the beaches in relation to waste sources and the




geography of the area greatly affect the quality of water




found at the beaches.

-------
                                                        53






                    Grover Cook




          The Calumet Park Inner and Outer, Hammond, and




Whiting beaches are located within an artificial bay.  This




bay is formed by Calumet Harbor breakwall on the north and




the Indiana Harbor land fills and breakwall on the south.




Within this artificial bay there are five major sources of




bacteriological pollution.   Two  of these are combined sewer




overflows.  One of these serves a portion of the Whiting area




and discharges to Lake Michigan just south of the Whiting




Beach.  The second serves the Robertsdale section of Hammond




and discharges south of Hammond's beach.  The outfall of the




American Maize Products Company is also located in the vicin-




ity of the Robertsdale outfall.  The Indiana Harbor Canal




discharges its grossly polluted waters through Indiana




Harbor into this bay area.  Also the Calumet River under




flood conditions or extremely low lake levels reverses its




flow and partially discharges to Calumet Harbor.




          Rainbow beach by its location north of the bay and




its orientation in a northeasterly direction appears to be




protected from most of the pollution emanating within the




artificial bay area.  However, under certain conditions




pollution can make this beach unsafe for swimming based on




the criteria recommended by the conferees.




          E. Chicago's beach is located just south of the




landfill at Indiana Harbor.  This location tends to protect

-------
                                                        54






                    Grover Cook



the beach from pollution from Indiana Harbor.  However, this




beach is subject to pollution discharged to Lake Michigan




along the shore south and southeast of this beach.




          Lake current studies by the GLIRB Project indi-




cate that the prevailing currents in this sector of Lake




Michigan, under normal summer conditions, are parallel to




shore and in a northwesterly direction.  These currents




are shown in Figure V-5.




          (Figure V-5 follows:)

-------
                                                                      55
                                                           -N-
                                                   GARY
   LEGEND
DIRECTION OF FLOW
POLLUTION  SOURCES
BEACH AREAS
CALUMET  AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
   WATER MOVEMENT IN THE
     CALUMET HARBOR  AREA
                                       U.S. DEPT OF  HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE
                                        REGION  V              CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                                  Y-5

-------
                                                        56






                    Grover Cook




          There appears to be a correlation between the high-




er total coliform and fecal Streptococci counts found at the




beaches with rainfall in the area and the velocity and direc-




tion of the wind.  Bacterial counts appeared to increase




with rainfall, although when the rain lasted over one day




the counts started to drop again.  This may have been due to




a flushing action in the streams and sewers.  Winds of over




ten miles per hour from the north ana east appeared to alter




the normal summer lake current patterns as shown in Figure




V-5.  This appears to cause pollution, which would normally




bypass the beaches, to be pushed shoreward.  Under these




conditions of turbulence more debris, algae and fish are also




carried shoreward and bottom deposits are stirred up.  This




would cause some of the increase in bacterial counts at the




beaches.  As further evidence of this change in currents,




popcorn slag was found floating at the beaches when northerly




winds of over ten miles an hour were experienced.  As a cor-




rolary to this, bacterial counts were lower with the normal




summer breeze from the southwest.




Stream and Harbor Sampling




          Fourteen stream or harbor stations were sampled




for total coliform and fecal Streptococci during the study




period.  The maximum, minimum, arithmetic mean, and median




values per 100 milliliters for these two parameters are given

-------
                                                        57





                    Grover Cook




in Figures V-6 through V-9.  Samples were collected on a once-




a-week basis, but not all 14 stations were sampled for the




full study period.  The number of samples represented in the




data presented in Figures V-6 through V-ll is given in paren-




thesis.  Fecal coliform counts made at 13 of the stations are




shown in Figures V-10 and V-ll.  The samples were taken in




the middle of the stream at mid-depth.




          (Figures V-6 through V-ll follow:)

-------
10,000,000-
1,000,000-

lOO.OOO :
- 10,000-
8 ;
\
V
K
w
S ',000 -
a
IOO-
10-

#
1,070,000
8/18/65

(12)
T
{





(4)






(9)
i

(22)






(21)
}
'

J
[

.


(13)






Calumet R Calumet Hbr Calumet Hbr Wentworth Ave B.SO CT R.R INDIANA Hbr.
Mouth Stole Line / / / Belt RR
                                           5O
                                           o
                  (16) No. ot Timet Sbmpled
  CALUMET  AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
          TOTAL  COLIFORM


   STREAM  SAMPLING  STATIONS


   MAXIMUM, MINIMUM,  MEAN 5  MEDIAN
US  DEPT OF  HEALTH, EDUCATION 8 WE-FARE


 REGION  V               CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS
                              r-e

-------
1,000,000 -
 100,000-
   10,000-
                                                      I
                                                   2/00,000
(5)
;
                                                     (20)
                                                             4,300,000
 o
 o
 UJ
 Q
    1,000-
     100-
      10-
                        (6)
                                                               (13)
                                                                         (21)
           Wolf Loke | Wolf Lake | Indiana Hbr| Indiana Hbr | Dickey Rd.l 151st'  St.  I Penn  RR  |  Broadway
                                                               59
             Channel  State Line   Outer  Lt    Inner  Lt.
                                                                                Median
                                                                                Mm


                                                                             (16) NO. of Times

                                                                                Sampled
                                                     CALUMET  AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
                                                              TOTAL   COL I FORM

                                                       STREAM    SAMPLING    STATIONS

                                                       MAXIMUM, MINIMUM,  MEAN  & MEDIAN
                                                   US  DEPT OF  HEALTH, EDUCATION  ft WELFARE

                                                    REGION   V                 CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS
                                                                                   3T-7

-------
10,000,000-
1,000,000-




100,000-
- 1 0,000-
o
2
K-
10
S 1,000-
Q

IOO-

10-

140,000
8/18/65
03)

#











I


1
'




























(4)
'
;












(9)
.^
1
(








(22)

























(21)















;











(13)














I







                                                                                         60
            Calumet   R     Calumet  Hbr    Calumet  Hbr   Wentworth Ave  B.80 CT RR   INDIANA  Hbr.
              Mouth       Stole Line       /           /            /          Belt  RR
I
06) No. of Times Sampled
                                                   CALUMET  AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
                                                         FECAL    STREPTOCOCCI
                                                     STREAM    SAMPLING STATIONS
                                                     MAXIMUM, MINIMUM,  MEAN &  MEDIAN
                                                 US  OEPT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION 8.
                                                  REGION  V               CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS
                                                                                3T-8

-------
1,000,000-
  100,000-5
   10,000-
 o
 o
 >. 1,000 -i
      100-
       10-
                                                    (20)
                                                               (13)
Wolf Lake | WolM.ake  | Indiana Hbr| Indiana Hbr.) Dickey Rd. I 151st  S.  I Penn. R.R.  |
              Channel  State Line  Outer  Lt.   Inner  Lt.
                                                                       Penn. R.R.   Broadway
                                                                                               61
                                                                            (16) NO. of Times
                                                                                Sampled
                                                     CALUMET AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
                                                           FECAL   STREPTOCOCCI
                                                      STREAM    SAMPLING  STATIONS
                                                      MAXIMUM, MINIMUM, MEAN  8 MEDIAN
                                                   U.S. DEPT. OF  HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE
                                                    REGION  V                CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS

                                                                                   Y-9

-------
10,000,000-
1,000,000-
  100,000 -
 _.  10,000-
 E
 8
CO
     1,000 -
      100-
                                                                                (13)
                                                                                               62
            Calumet  R    Calumet  Hbr    Calumet  Hbr   Wentworth Ave  B.80  CT  R.R   INDIANA Hbr
               Mouth       State Line        /           /           /          Belt  RR.
                                                                     (16) No. of Times Sampled
                                                     CALUMET  AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
                                                             FECAL  COLIFORM
                                                      STREAM   SAMPLING  STATIONS
                                                      MAXIMUM, MINIMUM,  MEAN a MEDIAN
                                                   US DEPT OF  HEALTH, EDUCATION a  WELFARE
                                                   REGION  V               CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS

-------
                                                                                                63
1,000,000-
  100,000-
   IO.OOO-:
 o
 o
    1,000 -
 c/
      100 -
       10-
                                                     (10)       (12)
{
                                                                                    (8)
              (6)
                       (6)
           Wolf Lake | Wolf Lake | Indiana Hbr] Indiana Hbr | Dickey Rd. I 151st  St.  I Penn. R.R  |  Broadway
              Channel  State Line  Outer  Lt   Inner  Lt.
                                                                               LEGEND
                                                                                Max.

                                                                                Mean
                                                                                Median

                                                                                Mm
                                                                             (16) NO. of Times
                                                                                Sampled
                                                     CALUMET  AREA  SURVEILLANCE  PROJECT
                                                              FECAL  COLIFORM
                                                       STREAM    SAMPLING  STATIONS
                                                       MAXIMUM, MINIMUM,  MEAN  a MEDIAN
                                                   US  DEPT. OF  HEALTH, EDUCATION  a WELFARE
                                                    REGION  V               CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

-------
                                                        64





                    Grover Cook



                   Calumet Harbor




          Three stations were sampled in Calumet Harbor dur-




ing the study period.  The location of stations are 1) at  the




center of the Calumet River at its mouth,  2) opposite the




center of the river at the Illinois-Indiana State Line,




3) the Mid-Channel Harbor Station is 3500 feet east from




the mouth of the river.  This last station replaces the Stater-




line station since it is more representative of the quality




of water in the harbor.  All three are boat stations and




therefore sampling is subject to weather conditions.




          One of the 13 samples taken at the mouth of the




Calumet River was extremely high for both total coliform and




fecal Streptococci.  At the time of this sample on August  18




a boat had passed the sampling point, which may possibly be




the cause of these extremely high values.   The corresponding



samples at the State line taken within a few minutes of the



sample at the mouth gave average counts for both total coli-



form and fecal Streptococci.  Therefore, the extremely high




value has not been included in determining the average or




median values as shown on Figures V-6 and V-8.  Instead,




they are shown as individual crosses in their appropriate




place on the scale.  The fecal Streptococci count of over  one-




tenth the total coliform count indicates that the pollution




was of recent origin and probably a result of the passing

-------
                                                       65






                    Grover Cook




vessel.  This points up the need for control of wastes



from this source.




          The O'Brien locks are now in operation and the




lake levels are slightly higher this year over the 1964




season.  Therefore, the majority of the pollution found in




the Calumet Harbor and at the mouth of the river could be




expected to originate in the immediate area.  The total coli-




form are lowest at the State line station while the fecal




Streptococci counts are lowest at the Harbor station.  In




August and September of 1963 the results of 20 samples in




Calumet Harbor gave maximum total coliform and fecal Strep-




tococci counts of 350 and 250 respectively, and median




values of 67 and 2.  It should be noted that these are much




lower than the 1965 values.




            Little Calumet River at Wentworth Avenue



          The Wentworth Avenue station was established to



monitor the wastes in the Little Calumet River flowing from




Indiana to Illinois.  The nearest station available for



historical data is across the State line at Hohman Avenue.




The maximum values obtained for 22 samples for both total




coliform and fecal Streptococci are comparable to the maximum




value obtained from 20 samples by the GLIRB Project in Aug-




ust and September of 1963.  However, the average values for




total coliform have been reduced from 1,600,000 to 800,000

-------
                                                        66


                    Grover Cook

and the minimum value from 130,000 to 20,000.  The average

value for fecal Streptococci dropped from 80,000 to 6,300

while the minimum fecal count dropped from 19,000 to less

than 100.  These values are still above the 5,000 for total

coliform and 500 for fecal Streptococci recommended by the

Calumet Area Technical Committee except for periods of storm

overflow.  The reduction in bacteriological densities is

probably due to the treatment of a part of the domestic

wastes of the communities of Highland and Griffith by the

Hammond sewage treatment plant.

               Grand Calumet River at Indiana Harbor
                         Belt Railroad

          The Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad bridge crosses

the Grand Calumet River downstream from the Illinois-Indiana

State Line.  This sampling station records the level of

pollution crossing the State line.  Hohman Avenue, about one-

half mile further upstream in Indiana is the closest station

for historic data.  Thirteen samples collected by the Sur-

veillance Project at this station yielded a maximum total

coliform value of 8,900,000, an average value of 2,000,000,

a mean value of 640,000 and a minimum value of 100,000.

Fecal coliform values as obtained from 13 samples were also

extremely high, ranging from 410,000 to 2,000 with an average

value of 78,000 and a mean of 28,000.  Fecal Streptococci

-------
                                                        67

                    Grover Cook

values are slightly lower.  These range from 250,000 down

to 40 with an average of 21,000 and a mean of 560.  The

above data shows that gross pollution is still crossing the

State line in the Grand Calumet River.  The total coliform

and fecal Streptococci counts show no improvement over con-

ditions found by the GLIRB Project in 1963 when 19 samples

were processed.

          Grand Calumet River at Baltimore and Ohio
              Chicago Terminal Railroad Bridge

          Twenty-one samples were collected at this railroad

bridge, which is about 3,000 feet further downstream on the

Grand Calumet from the Indiana Harbor Belt RR bridge.  This

railroad bridge was sampled in place of the Harbor Belt Rail-

road bridge when the sampling program was initiated.  Samp-

ling at this station was discontinued in November in favor

of the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad bridge which is closer

to the State line.  Total coliform values at this station

ranged from 5,600,000 to 3,000.  The average value was

1,400,000 and the median value was 540,000.  These values are

a little less than the corresponding values found 3,000 feet

upstream.  Fecal Streptococci values ranged from 260,000 to

less than 1 (one) with an average value of 35,000 and a mean

of 8,000.  It should be noted that although the maximum

values are about the same at both stations, the average and

median values are a little greater than found just upstream.

-------
                                                        68


                    Grover Cook

However, of 12 fecal coliform samples, the maximum, minimum,

average and median values at this station were about double

those found at the Indiana Harbor Railroad bridge.  The area

adjacent to the stream between these two bridges is an in-

dustrial area.

           Grand Calumet River at Broadway Avenue

          The Grand Calumet river at Broadway Avenue in Gary

was one of the initial stations sampled by the Project.  This

station is near the headwaters of the Grand Calumet River and

the flow consists mainly of industrial wastes discharged by

the U. S. Steel Company, Gary Works.  Since the Steel Company

has additional outfalls downstream from this point and their

dredge operated on both sides of this station, sampling at

this station was discontinued after eight weeks in favor of

sampling at 151st Street and the Indiana Harbor Canal.  The

eight samples collected show evidence of sanitary wastes.

Total coliform values ranged from 2,700 to 36,000 with an

average of 10,000 and a median of 6,200.  Fecal Streptococci

values ranged from 540 to 3300 with an average of 1500 and

a median of 950.

              Grand Calumet River at Pennsylvania
                       Railroad Bridge

          This station is located just upstream of the Gary

Sewage Treatment Plant where the wastewater flow from U. S.

-------
                                                        69





                    Grover Cook




Steel still forms almost the entire stream flow.  Compared



with the Broadway station the total coliform counts have in-




creased with a maximum value of 1,900,000 and a minimum




value of 5,300.  The average of 21 samples was 254,000 and




the median 104,000.  Fecal Streptococci ranged from 70 to




29,000 with an average of 2,734 and a median of 800.  Thir-




teen fecal coliform samples had counts that varied from




4800 to 160,000.  The average was 37,000 and the median




19,000.  These values are not much lower than the GLIRB




project found with 19 samples in 1963 at Industrial Highway,




which is below the outfall of the Gary Sewage Treatment




Plant.  The Grand Calumet River is grossly polluted by sani-




tary wastes even before it receives the wastes from any muni-




cipal sewage treatment plant.




              Indiana Harbor Canal at 151st Street




          This sampling station was added the latter part of



August, to obtain information on the quality of water after



the two sections of the Grand Calumet have joined together




to form the Indiana Harbor Canal.  This station is below the




outfalls of the Gary, Hammond and E. Chicago Sewage Treatment




Plants.  E. Chicago is the only one of these three municipal




sewage treatment plants which,  at present, chlorinates its




effluent.   The total coliform counts at this station ranged




from 33,000 to 4,300,000 with an average value of 1,500,000

-------
                                                        70




                   Grover Cook




and a median value of 1,000,000.  Fecal Streptococci counts




varied from 400 to 28,000 with an average of 5,000 and a




median of 1,000.  Fecal coliform counts averaged 80,000 but




varied from 1,000 to 190,000.  The median value was 68,000.




Twenty total coliform samples by the GLIRB Project at this




location in 1963 varied between 19,000 and 2,500,000 with




an average value of 380,000.  Eighteen fecal Streptococci




samples averaged 5,400 but varied from 100 to 40,000.  Com-




parable total coliform values are now double the values found




in the summer of 1963, although fecal Streptococci counts



are about the same.




             Indiana Harbor Canal at Dickey Road




          Dickey Road is the last highway crossing the




Indiana Harbor Canal before it discharges to Lake Michigan.




The dry weather flow at this station is estimated to be



about 800 cubic feet per second (cfs).  Twenty samples at



this station gave total coliform counts ranging from 57,000 to




2,700,000 with an average value of 680,000 and a median




value of 330,000.  Fecal Streptococci counts for these




samples varied from 7,800 to 14,000 with an average of 3,300




and a median of 2,100.  Ten fecal coliform samples had



counts that varied from 4,200 to 190,000 with an average




count of 84,000.  The median value was 69,000,  Indiana Water




Quality Data for this station for the period from January,

-------
                                                        71


                    Grover Cook

1963 to April, 1965 show total coliform counts as high as

25,000,000 and a minimum value of 24,000.  The average value

was 3,500,000 and the median value was 200,000.  The

bacterial quality of the water in the canal at this station

shows gross pollution.  Although few pleasure boats use this

canal, this is a busy channel for commercial shipping and

tugs.  Handling of lines that have fallen in this water or

spray from the tugs' bow wave can form a health hazard to

the men involved.


          Indiana Harbor Canal - Inner Light
                  (Mouth of Canal)

          This sampling station is located at the mouth of

the Indiana Harbor Canal just prior to the turning basins.

This is a boat station and weather conditions have at times

prevented sampling at the two stations in Indiana Harbor.

Total coliform counts for five samples varied from 830,000

to 57,000 with an average value of 240,000 and a median value

of 110,000.  Fecal Streptococci values varied from 30 to

1,000 with an average value of 430 and a median value of 250.

Three total coliform samples had values of 340, 450, and

17,000.

            Indiana Harbor - Outer Light (East
            Breakwall Inner Light, as given on
                   Navigation Charts.)

          This station is located just downstream of the

-------
                                                        72


                    Grover Cook

turning basins and about 2,500 feet upstream from where the

canal discharges into Lake Michigan at the end of the break-

wall.  The average dry weather flow at this station is esti-

mated to be about 2300 cfs which is about three times the

dry weather flow at Dickey Road.  Five total coliform samples

at this station varied from 2,000 to 270,000 with an average

value of 94,000 and a median value of 87,000.  Fecal Strep-

tococci counts varied from 40 to 11,000 for an average of

2,400 and a median value of 140.  Three fecal coliform

samples had counts of 290, 760 and 8,600.  Since these samples

were taken when Lake Michigan was fairly calm the reduction

in bacteriological counts from those found at Dickey Road

are probably due mainly to the dilution resulting from the

increased flow and possible toxic effect of the industrial

waste flows originating between the two points.  Even so,

this represents a gross amount of bacterial pollution which

is being discharged into Lake Michigan in the vicinity of

municipal water intakes and bathing beaches.  The water in

the turning basins is usually yellow from pickle liquor

wastes, which has a high sulfuric acid content.


                Wolf Lake at Indiana-Illinois
                         State Line

          Sampling at this station was initiated in the

middle of October.  There is a causeway dividing Wolf Lake

-------
                                                        73
                   Grover Cook

at the State line with several culverts to allow drainage

from the Indiana side to flow through to the Illinois side

then out to the Calumet River and down the Illinois waterway.

Six samples collected at the outlet of the culvert, repre-

senting the quality of the water that has flowed across the

State line, had a total coliform count ranging from 60 to

5,400 with an average value of 1,700 and a median value of

930.  Fecal Streptococci counts for these samples varied

from less than one to 120 with an average of 33 and a median

value of less than one.  Fecal coliform counts varied from

less than one to 100 with an average of 36 and a median

value of 6.  This lake is used extensively for recreation in

the form of swimming, boating, water skiing and fishing.

Although these samples were taken after the normal recreation

season, the water appears to be of satisfactory bacteriolog-

ical quality.

                  Wolf Lake Channel

          This sampling station is located on Wolf Lake out-

let about 3,000 feet downstream from Wolf Lake.  The six

samples obtained at this station since mid-October had total

coliform counts that varied from 60 to 1,600 with an average

value of 700 and a median value of 250.  Fecal Streptococci

counts varied from 15 to 220 with an average of 90 and a

median value of 30.  Fecal coliform counts varied from less

than one to 190 with an average of 47 and a median value of

-------
                                                        74




                    Grover Cook




five.  These counts are a little higher than the counts at




the State line.  This could be partly due to surface runoff




entering the ditch below the outlet of Wolf Lake.

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                                                        75





                    Grover Cook




            VI.  CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY




Introduction




          Stream and harbor stations were sampled for chemical




analysis in addition to bacteriological data.  Samples were




collected on a once-a-week basis at the midpoint of the stream




and at mid-depth or ten feet in the case of navigable waters.




Samples were immediately preserved and/or iced where required




in accordance with procedures established in "Standard Methods




for Examination of Water and Wastewater, I960."  Laboratory




analysis on samples subject to deterioration was initiated




on the same day they were collected.




          The location of the sampling station and results of




the chemical analysis is presented in Tables VI-1 to VI-6.




This data covers the period from June 24 to October 26, 1965.




The river mileage from the mouth of the Illinois River is




given for each station so that the distance in miles between



stations can be determined.  Also the number of samples ana-



lyzed is given in parenthesis after the name of the station.



Variations from this number for specified parameters are noted




at the bottom of the table.




          (Tables V-l through V-6 follow;)

-------
        CHICAGO
                               TABLE    VI  -I            76
                     CHEMICAL  QUALITY   OF  WATER
                           GRAND  CALUMET  RIVER

                                At   Broadway
                                At   Penn. RR
     2. Grand Calumet R.
        at Penn.  R.R.  Bridge  -GC 336.4(19)*
                                   1. Grand Calumet R.
                                     at Broadway -GC 339.6(10)*
Parameter
          Max
         Win   Mean  Medlar
                      Max
                      Min  Mean  Median
PH
DO
BOD
COD
Sulfates
NH3- N
N03- N
Org.- N
Tot. P04
Tot. Sol.
Total Iron
Phenol
Cyanide
Sus. Solids
Dis. Solids
mgs./L
 ug/L
  7-2
  6.0
 17
 59
186
  3-7
  7-5
  7-3
  0.93
  0.32
 23
100
* 0.19
 70
 6.5
 1.1
 5.7
 7-9
29
 0.87
 0.32
 0.06
 0.10
 0.00
 2.7
 0
 0.00
26
 6.7
 3-6
 9-8
32
56
 1.5
 1.4
 1.3
 0.28
 0.08
 7.9
28
 0-.03
44
        365    170    245
  6.9
  3.7
  8.5
 39
 49
  1.6
  0.69
  1.6
  0.2*4
  0.06
  6.6
 22
  0.01
 39
235
  7.6
  4.3
  8.1
145
 40
  2.5
  0.88
  3.0
  0.34
  0.11
 38
 7-0
 1.6
 3-7
25
24
 1.4
 0.20
 0.47
 0.12
 o.o4
 3-8
 7-3
 3.3
 5.8
62
30
 2.1
 0.53
 2.3
 0.21
 0.06
15
 7-3
 3.4
 4.9
46
30
 2.2
 0.48
 2.6
 0.20
 0.05
 7.1
331    146    207    195
  0.30   0.09   0.19   0.17
  * Number denotes river milage  point from river mouth.  Number in parenthesis
    denotes the number of samples  for each parameter with these exceptions:
      17 Cyanide samples     9 dis. Solids                 7 Cyanide samples
      10 Suspended Solids

-------
    CHICAGO
          TABLE   VI-2

CHEMICAL  QUALITY  OF  WATER

     INDIANA  HARBOR CANAL

            At   I5l8t-  St.
            At   Dickey Rd.
                                                                         77
4. Indiana Harbor
at Dickey Road
Parameter
PH MM*
DO mgs . /L
BOD
COD "
Sulfates "
KB?- If "
N03- N "
Org.- N
Tot. PO^ "
Tot. Sol. POj^ "
Total Iron "
Phenol ug/L
_ . , "^-flA
Cyanide V
Sus. Solids "
Dis. Solids "
Canal
IHC 334.
flax
7-3
2.9
11
48
77
3-1
3-5
3.8
0.91
0.57
3.8
42
0.00
23
34o
6 (19)*
Mln
6.3
0.0
3.5
0.0
46
1.1
0.31
O.o8
0.24
0.01
0.88
1
0.00
6
240


Mean
7-
0.
6.
23
65
2.
1.
1.
0.
0.
2.
20
0.
14
260
0
3
3


3
1
9
57
26
4
00




Mediar
7-
0.
5-
20
66
2.
1.
2.
0.
0.
2.
20
0.
12
300
0
0
5


4
1
1
53
29
2
00


. Indiana Harbor Canal /at
151st St. IH 331.9 (9)*
Max
7-3
5.0
12
65
71
4.0
2.2
4.3
k.6
0.64
5-7
41
0.17
59
640
Min
6.7
2:1
4.4
7-7
50
0.77
0.23
0.30
0.52
0.19
0.78
9
o.oo
16
240
Mean
7.
3-
7-
29
56
1.
1.
1.
l.
0.
2.-
19
0.
30
315
0
6
9


8
2
5
3
49
4
03


Median
7.1
3.8
7-3
14
56
2.3
1.1
1.3
0.81
0.48
1.6
15
0.00
27
280
* Number denotes river milage point from river mouth.  Humber in parenthesis
  denotes the number of times parameters were sampled with these exceptions:
    18 Cyanide    10 Sus.  Solids
     9 Dis. Solids

-------
     CHICAGO
          TABLE    VI-3

CHEMICAL  QUALITY   OF   WATER

         INDIANA  HARBOR

          At  Inshore Light
         At  Breakwater Light
                                                                          78
6. Indiana Harbor at Harbor
Light (Breakwater) IHC 336.
Parameter
PH
DO
BOD
COD
Sulfates
NH3- N
N03- N
Org.- N
Tot . PO.
Tot. Sol. PO^
Total Iron
Phenol
Cyanide
Sus. Solids
Dis. Solids
Max
7-3
mgs./L 6.1
13
* 67
" 5!*
" 1.1*
0.59
l.i*
0.21
0.12
3.0
ffig/L 7
**$'*" 0.01
13
255
2(6)*
Min
6.
1.
2.
8.
32
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1.
0
0.
3
230
9
9
3
1*

38
26
10
06
03
3

00


Mean
7
1*
1*
20
1*5
0
0
0
0
0
1
1*
0
5
175
.1
.2
.5


.89
.1*2
.73
.11*
.07
 9

.00


Median
7-
1*.
3-
8.
50
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1.
3
0.
5.
235
1
2
0
6

73
1*1*
71
15
07
7

00
0

5. Indiana Harbor at
Light (inshore) IHC
Max
7-3
5-9
9.1
67
62
1A
0.7!*
1-7
0.23
0.10
5.0
21
0.01
105
255
Miri
6-9
2.1*
2.8
0.0
31*
0.75
0.29
0.30
0.08
0.03
2.1
6
0.00
10
215
Mean
7-1
3A
1*.8
20
51
1.1
0.1*2
1.1
0.16
0.06
3-1
12
0.00
36
21*0
Hrbr.
335 -.7(6)*
Median
7-1
2.1*
3-7
9.3
51*
1.1

1.3
0.15
0.06
2.6
9
0.00
13
250
* Number denotes river milage point from river mouth.  Number in parenthesis
  denotes the  number of times parameters were sampled with these exceptions:
    ! Sus.  Solids   3 Dis. Solids                  It- Sus. Solids  3 Dis. Solids

-------
     CHICAGO
                     TABLE   VI-4

           CHEMICAL   QUALITY  OF  WATER

                 GRAND  CALUMET  RIVER

                  At INDIANA HARBOR Belt R.R.
                    At   B. 8. 0. C.T. R.R. Br.
                                                                         79
8. Grand Calumet
at B & OCT RR
Parameter
pH
DO mgs . /L
BOD
COD
Sulfates "
NH3- N
N03- N
Org.- N
Tot. PC],. "
Tot. Sol. P0\i "
Total Iron
Phenol ug/L
Cyanide **fl^L
Sus. Solids "
Dis. Solids "
R.
Bridge GC 328.0(19)*
Max
7.2
8.9
25
113
233
14
17
16
4o
31
6.6
38
0.12
83
760
Min
3.
0.
3-
18
80
0.
0.
0.
2.
1.
0.
0
0.
8
325
7
0
9


93
45
19
7
7
76

00


Mean
6.6
3-2
13
56
165
6.7
5-4
6.0
13
9-5
3.2
14
0.01
29
600
|7. Grand Calumet R.at Indiana
jHrbr.Belt RR Br. GC 328-5(9)*
Mediar
6.
2.
12
53
168
5-
4.
5-
11
6.
2.
10
0.
22
695
9
3



7
2
2

9
1

00


Max
7.
5.
20
108
282
7-
13
3-
12
9-
17
46
0.
155
705
2
4



8

7

2


12


Min
6.5
0.0
4.6
16
52
1.2
1.2
0.05
5.4
1.3
0.27
4
0.00
7
58
Mean
7-0
2.7
11
47
179
2.9
5-3
0.90
7-7
5-3
2.8
18
0.02
38
480
Median
7.0
2.7
7-3
26
179
2.4
4.6
1.8
6.9
5-5
0.82
16
0.00
20
54o
*  Number denotes river milage point from river mouth.
   denotes number of times  parameters were sampled with
    10 Sus. Solids
9 Dis.  Solids
                             Number in parenthesis
                             these exceptions:

-------
  CHICAGO
          TABLE    VI-5

CHEMICAL  QUALITY   OF  WATER

        Calumet River ot Mouth
    Calumet  Harbor at Mid-Channel
                                                                         80
9. Calumet River
at Mouth -CR 333
Parameter
PH
DO mgs./L
BOD
COD "
Sulfates "
NH3- N
N03- N
Org.- N
Tot. PO^
Tot. Sol. PO^ "
Total Iron
Phenol 'u^ft't~
Cyanide ^f^L
Sus. Solids "
Dis. Solids "
.k
(ID*
Max
8
9
3
74
26
0
0
0
0
0
2
8
0
76
280
.0
.4
 7


39
.41
.60
.25
.23
.3

.01



Min
7-
7-
1.
0.
19
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0
0.
2
8
1
0
9

16
17
Ok
02
02
23

00


Mean
7-9
8.1
1.8
17
2k
0.24
0.28
0.27
0.12
0.08
0.98
2
0.00
22
160 195


Median
7-
8.
1.
8.
24
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1
0.
18
185
9
1
5
9

22
28
29
80
05
72

00


10. Calumet Harbor, State Line
& Mid-Channel CR 334.0(10)*
Max
8.0
10
2.1
26
37
0.27
0.53
0.51
0.78
0.29
1.8
3
0.01
17
195
Min
7-7
7.0
1.0
0.0
19
0.10
0.17
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.09
0
0.00
1
155
Mean
7-9
8.5
1.5
9.0
25
0.19
0.27
0.26
0.15
0.08
0.52
1
0.00
8
175
Median
7-9
8.3
1.6
5-9
24
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.06
o.o4
0.18
0
0.00
6
170
Number shows  river milage point from river mouth.  Number in parenthesis
denotes number of times parameters were sampled with these exceptions:
  8 Sus. Solids    7 Dis. Solids                 7 Sus. Solids  6 Dis. Solids

-------
     CHICAGO
          TABLE   VI -6            81

CHEMICAL   QUALITY   OF   WATER

      LITTLE CALUMET  RIVER

        At  Wentworth  Ave.
11. Little Calumet R.
at Wentworth Av. LC
Parameter
PH
DO
BOD
COD
Sulfates
NH3- N
N03- N
Org.-N
Tot. PO^
Tot. Sol. PO^
Total Iron
Phenol
Cyanide
Sus. Solids
Dis. Solids
Max
8.8
mgs . /L 5-0
35
79
310
3-7
k.k
8.6
Ik
9-7
3-8
ug/L 38
332.2(19)*
Min Mean
7-1 7A
0.0 1.8
3-9 13
5-9 1*5
57 172
0.1*2 2.1
o.Ok 1.3
0.13 3-2
1.5 5-3
0.51 3-1*
O.U5 1.5
o 8
**f'L 0.12 0.00 0.01
705
6Uo
17 175
no 1*70

Median
7-3
1.5
10
51
170
2.1
0.72
2.8
fc-5
3-6
1.2
6
0.00
1*1
505
* Number denotes river milage point from river mouth.  Number in parenthesis
  denotes number of times parameters were sampled with these exceptions:
    17 Cyanide   10 Sus. Solids
    10 Dis. Solids

-------
                                                        82




                    Grover Cook




          The Wolf Lake and Wolf Lake Outlet were not included




in these tables since only two weeks of chemical data was




available at the cutoff date.  The chemical analysis for




Calumet Harbor at the State Line and Mid-Channel stations have




been combined in this report.




          The chemical analysis on these samples were per-




formed in accordance with methods agreed upon at the Calumet




Area Enforcement-Laboratory Director's Meeting.  At this




meeting, held on April 29, 1965, the six laboratory conferees




discussed the methods to be used by all laboratories concerned




with the Calumet Area Surveillance Activities.




Stream and Harbor Sampling




          Grand Calumet River at Broadway Avenue GC 339.6




          This station was sampled for chemical analysis for




ten weeks before it was abandoned in favor of a station of




Indiana Harbor Canal at 151st Street.  The closest station




that the GLIRB Project sampled in 1963 was at Virginia Street




about four-tenths of a mile further upstream.  Comparing the




results of 20 samples obtained in August and September of




1963 with the results obtained in 1965, values for pH, Dis-




solved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Nitrate




nitrogen remained about the same.

-------
                                                        83


                    Grover Cook

         Grand Calumet River at Pennsylvania
                R.R. Bridge  GC336.4

          The closest station for historical data is four-

tenths of a mile downstream from the Pennsylvania Railroad

bridge at Industrial Highway, but in this four-tenths of a

mile the Gary Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant discharges its

effluent after secondary treatment.   Therefore, this municipal

waste discharge has to be taken into account in comparing

chemical analysis.  The nineteen samples taken in 1965 have

about the same range of values as the 20 samples taken a

little further downstream by the GLIRB Project in 1963 for DO

and phosphates; BOD, COD, pH and Ammonia Nitrogen values

are a little lower at the upstream station while Nitrate

nitrogen and dissolved solids were much higher in 1965 than

corresponding 1963 values.

           Indiana Harbor at 151st Street IH 331.9

          This sampling station was added in the latter part

of August, so there are only nine weeks of sampling informa-

tion available for 1965.  The GLIRB Project obtained 20

samples at this station during August and September, 1963.

Comparing the two sets of data it is noted that the phosphates

have nearly doubled.  In 1963 the average value of 20

samples was 0.61 mg/1.  1965 sampling shows the average

value has increased to 1.3 mg/1.  The new maximum phosphate

-------
                                                        84

                    Grover Cook

value also doubled at this station since the 1963 sampling.

Dissolved solids have also increased substantially since the

GLIRBP sampling.  However, the BOD and COD have been reduced

with a corresponding increase in the DO since 1963.  Also,

phenols show a substantial reduction, particularly with re-

spect to the maximum value which is now only one-tenth the

1963 value.   Ammonia nitrogen and the pH have declined

slightly and the nitrate nitrogen has increased slightly

with the increased availability of oxygen in the stream.  The

suspended solids remained about the same.

               Indiana Harbor Canal at
               Dickey Road  IHC 334.6

          Indiana Harbor Canal at Dickey Road was not included

in the 1963 sampling program for the GLIRB Project.  Therefore

the data is compared with the data at 151st Street, two and

a half miles upstream.  At Dickey Road the dry weather flow

has increased an estimated 50 cfs over the flow at 151st

Street.  This additional flow consists of industrial wastes.

It should be noted that the DO has dropped to zero for over

50 per cent of the time.  The BOD has remained about the

same, but the COD is lower than obtained by the previous

sampling at 151st Street.  Phosphates and iron show a re-

duction as do suspended and dissolved solids but phenols re-

main unchanged between the two stations.

-------
                                                       85

                    Grover Cook

          Indiana Harbor at Harbor Light
               (Inshore)   IHC 335.7

          This sampling station is located at the mouth of the

Indiana Harbor Canal just upstream of the turning basins at

Inland and Youngstown Steel Companies.  This is a boat station

and could only be sampled under favorable weather conditions.

Our 20-foot boat was moored at the Calumet Coast Guard Station

and rough water in Lake Michigan often prevented sampling at

this station.  Therefore, the results of only six sampling

periods in 1965 are available.  In July and September of 1963,

the GLIRB Project conducted two extensive sampling cruises

in this area of Lake Michigan.  Comparing ten DO samples taken

on these two cruises with 1965 sampling indicates that the

dissolved oxygen present in the stream has increased.  The

average DO increased from 2.5 mg/1 in 1963 to 3.4 mg/1 in

1965.  The average value for phenols showed a reduction from

26 wg/1 in 1963 for 17 samples to 12 ug/1 for the six samples

in 1965.  However, the average sulfates increased slightly

from 42 mg/1 in 1963 to 51 mg/1 in 1965.  The ammonia nitrogen

and pH values have remained about constant with a slight

drop in the dissolved solids value.

             Indiana Harbor at Harbor Light
                (Breakwater)   IHC 336.2

          This station is located in the center of the channel

opposite the East Breakwall inner light where the water

-------
                                                       86




                    Grover Cook




quality monitor is located.  As noted in the bacteriological




section of this report,  the average dry weather flow at this




station is about 2300 cfs, and except when strong north winds




persist and push lake water back up the channel,  the quality




of water measured at this station represents the level of




pollution being discharged to Lake Michigan.  The collection




of samples for full chemical analysis at this station will be




continued for comparison with the output of the monitoring




station.




          Weather conditions prevented sampling of this sta-




tion, particularly during the fall months, so that only six




samples were collected in 1965.  The results of the sampling




in July and September of 1963 by the GLIRB Project would




indicate that there has been a slight increase in the dis-




solved oxygen content of the water in the harbor.  The ten




samples in 1963 varied from 0.4 to 2.6 mg/1 with an average of




1.6 mg/1, while the average for six samples in 1965 was




4.2 mg/1 with no values as low as the 1963 average value.




Phenols also show an improvement.  Seventeen values for




samples collected in 1963 ranged from 2 to 127 jig/1 with an




average value of 43^g/l.  In 1965 the highest value recorded




was 7 jig/1 with an average value of 4jig/l.  The dissolved




solids and ammonia nitrogen also show some reduction in value




over the past two years.  The pH has shown just a slight

-------
                                                        87


                    Grover Cook

increase and the sulfates remained about the same.  In general

the changes in water quality at the two Indiana Harbor

stations, based on the results of the 1963 and 1965 sampling-

periods, tend to agree with each other and to show an improve-

ment for phenols and dissolved oxygen.  However, the six

samples obtained in 1965 are not a sufficient base on which

to form rigid conclusions.

        Grand Calumet River at Indiana Harbor Belt
                 Railroad Bridge  GC 328.5

          In 1963 the GLIRB Project sampled the Grand Calumet

River at Hohman Avenue during August and September.  This

station is two-tenths of a mile upstream and across the State

line in Indiana from the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad Bridge.

During the early sampling period in 1965 the Grand Calumet

River was sampled at the B&O C.T. Railroad Bridge.  Therefore,

data from only nine samples are available for present water

quality.  However, the B&O C.T. Railroad Bridge is only five-

tenths of a mile further downstream and 19 samples were col-

lected at that station.  Although the dissolved oxygen

values show a general increase since the 1963 sampling, the

DO still went down to zero for at least one sample and the

average value is still low.  The average BOD and COD for the

20 samples in 1963 and the nine samples in 1965 are about the

 same, but the maximum value for COD in 1965 was

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                                                        88

                    Grover Cook

substantially higher than in 1963.  Suspended solids have

decreased somewhat but the average for dissolved solids has

increased.  Ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen have in-

creased substantially since the previous sampling period.  The

average phosphate value increased from 6.2 mg/1 in 1963 to

7.7 mg/1 in 1965.

             Grand Calumet River at B&O C.T.
               Railroad Bridge   GC 328.0

          Nineteen weekly samples were collected at this

station before it was discontinued in favor of the Indiana

Harbor Belt Railroad Bridge station just upstream and closer

to the State line.  The Hohman Avenue station is the closest

point on which historical data is available.  This section

of the Grand Calumet River is quite industrialized.  The

median value of dissolved oxygen for the 19 samples collected

in 1965 was 2.3 mg/1, which, although still quite low, is

above the maximum value obtained from 20 samples in 1963.  It

should be noted, however, that three of the 20 samples showed

a zero DO and two others had a DO of less than 1.0 mg/1.  The

average BOD was about the same, but the COD was a little

higher in 1965, as compared to 1963.  Ammonia nitrogen and

the nitrate nitrogen content of the water have both increased

since the 1963 sampling period.  The average value of

ammonia nitrogen increased from 3.4 mg/1 in 1963 to 6.7 mg/1

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                                                        89





                    Grover Cook




in 1965 and the nitrate nitrogen from 1.2 mg/1 to 5.4 mg/1




during the same period.  Phosphates increased from an average




value of 6.2 rag/1 in 1963 to 13 mg/1 in 1965.  Suspended




and dissolved solids values remained about the same for both




sampling periods.




          Calumet River at Mouth  CR 333.4




          This station, located at the mouth of the Calumet




River, is a boat station.  Therefore, sampling is subject




to weather conditions and only 11 samples were obtained during




the 1965 study period.  Since the O'Brien locks have been put




into operation and the lake levels have increased slightly




over their 1964 low, the flow in the Calumet River is general-




ly away from Lake Michigan.  However, the U. S. Steel Company,




South Works,  has industrial waste discharges into Calumet




Harbor, the slip at the north end of the harbor, and into




the Calumet River itself.  Dr.  Kaplovsky,  of the Metropolitan




Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, stated at one of the




meetings of the Calumet Area Technical Committee that the




Sanitary District planned on passing about 200 to 250 cfs throug




the O'Brien locks.  These locks are located about six and one-




half miles downstream from the  sampling station.  Therefore




the drainage  from the area, including Wolf Lake, and other




industrial waste flows are included in this 200 cfs.   There-




fore,  at times there would be little, if any, current away

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                                                        90





                    Grover Cook




from the lake at the sampling station.




          There is no historical data at this station with




which to compare the 1965 values.  Even if there were, the




present operation of the O'Brien locks would void most of the




comparability of the two sets of data.  However, comparing the




present data to sampling by the GLIRB Project in the center of




the harbor during July and September of 1963, the values for




pH, DO, sulfate, ammonia nitrogen, and phenols all appear to




have the same average values and cover about the same range




of values for each of the parameters.




      Calumet Harbor at State Line and Mid-Channel CR 334.0




          The data from the sampling stations in Calumet




Harbor have been combined for this analysis giving a total of




ten samples.  During July and most of August the harbor was




sampled at the State Line opposite the entrance to the Calumet




 River.  Beginning with the last week in August the sampling




point was moved to a point about 3,500 feet from the entrance




to the river.  The station was moved because it is believed




that the new location will give a more representative sample




of the water quality in this harbor.  The normal summer




current pattern as shown in Figure V-5 indicates that the




original sampling station would not adequately monitor the




wastes discharged into the Calumet harbor by U. S. Steel Com-




pany north of the Calumet River.

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                                                        91





                     Grover Cook




           Comparing the 1965 data with the results of the




 GLIRB Project's sampling in July and September,  1963 shows




 that there has been little change in the pH or sulfates con-




 tent of the water.   The dissolved oxygen content of the water




 in the harbor has increased slightly,  and a small decrease




 in the ammonia nitrogen content is noted.  Eighteen phenol




 samples in 1963 ranged in value from zero to 5.3 yg/1 with




 an average of 1.4 jjg/lo  In 1965 the maximum value of ten




 samples was 3^ig/l,  the minimum and median value was zero,




 and the average value was only l^ug/1.




       Little Calumet River at Wentworth Ave.  LC 332.2




           This sampling station is located about a half-mile




 downstream from the Illinois-Indiana State line  on the




 Little Calumet River.  The closest sampling point for historic




 data is just over a mile upstream at Hohman /venue,  where




 from 11 to 20 analyses on samples were obtained  by the GLIRB




 Project in August and September 1963.   All 20 samples in 1963




 had a DO of zero while 19 samples in 1965 had a  median DO




 value of 1.5,  although three of the samples had  a value of




 zero and five others had a value of less than 1  rag/1.  How-




 ever, a maximum value of almost 5 mg/1 was attained  by two




 samples.  The BOD and COD values shows a notable reduction




 since the 1963 sampling period.  The average value for BOD




dropped from 20 mg/1 in 1963 to 13 mg/1 in 1965.   The average

-------
                                                        92





                    Grover Cook




value of COD for 11 samples in 1963 was 61 mg/1, while the




average value for 19 samples in 1965 was 45 rag/1.  The




average values for ammonia nitrogen shows a similar reduction




from 6.7 mg/1 to 2.1 mg/1.  As expected with the increase in




dissolved oxygen, the average nitrate nitrogen sample showed an




increase from 0.3 mg/1 to 1.3 mg/1.  Phosphates also show a




reduction in their average values dropping from 10 mg/1 in




1963 to 5.3 mg/1 in 1965.  A large reduction was also noted




in suspended and dissolved solids.  The average value for sus-




pended solids dropped from 175 mg/1 in 1963 to 35 mg/1 in




1965, while the dissolved solids dropped from 610 mg/1 to




470 mg/1 during the same period.  As noted in the bacteriology




section of this report,  the increase in the quality of water




at this station, as noted by comparing the 1965 results with




those obtained in 1963 is probably due, in part at least, to




the treatment of a part of the domestic wastes of the com-




munities of Highland and Griffith by the Hammond Municipal




Sewage Treatment Plant.

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                                                        93





                    Grover Cook




              VII  BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS




          In March, 1965 a project biologist made a three-day




biological survey of the Calumet Area.  Observations from




this survey are given in Table VII-1.  The stations are




located on a map of the area in Figure VII-1.  Comparing the




biological data obtained in March 1965 with surveys in 1961




indicates that there had been no substantial change in the




biological conditions either for the better or worse in the




Calumet Area in the past five years.




          (Table VII-1 and Figure VII-1 follow:)

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                                                             94
                   TABLE VII-1
CALUMET AREA BIOLOGICAL SURVEY, MARCH 17-19,
Station
Secchi
Disc (ro)
Grand Calumet River
GC 344.8 0.25
GC 336.0
GC 332.2
GC 331-1
GC 325-8
Indiana Harbor
IB 331-9
IH 335-2
IH 335-5
Indiana Harbor
1
2
3
Thorn Creek
TC 330.3
Little Calumet
LC 351-1
LC 337-2
LC 33^-9
LC 328.0
Thornton Road
LC 319.7
LC 320.1
LC 322.4
Calumet River
CR 327.0
CR 328.1
CR 333-0
Calumet Harbor
1
p
3
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.50
Canal
0.25
0.30
0.30

0.30
0.75
l.CO

To bottom
River
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5

1.0
0.5
0.2

0.4
1-5
2-5
D.O.
ffig/1
4.4
5.4
4.0
5-7
2.9

3-0
3-0
_

3.7
5.4
5-5

6.9

4.6
0.0
8.8
9.7
3-3
2.9
2.0
2.9

3-6
1-7
7.2

7-7
8.2
8.9
PH
7.4o
7-30
7.25
7-45
7.80

7-05
8.65
_

8.50
8.00
8.00

8.50

8.15
7-80
3.20
8.30
7-90
8.25
8.15
8.30

8.30
7.90
8.30

8.30
8.20
8.20
Temp.
C
23.00
21i25
22.00
19.00
21.00

22.00
21.50
21.00

21.50
17.00
19.00

18.00

17-50
21.00
19.00
18.00
17.50
17-50
19.50
20.00

22.0
23-5
17-0

18.0
15-0
16.0
Depth
(m)
1.0
1.5
1.5
0.5
1.0

1.0
6.5
6.5

5.5
10.0
7-5

0.5

0.7
0-3
0.3
0.5
0.5
1.0
2.0
3-0

4.5
5-5
7-0

9.0
9.0
10.5
Bottom Type
Iron particles
Ooze
Ooze, Detri.
Ooze
Ooze, sand

Ooze, silt
Ooze
Ooze

Ooze
Ooze
Ooze

Ooze, silt, sand

Black ooze
Ooze, silt
Sand, Detritus
Gravel
Silt, sand
Silt, sand
Ooze, silt
Ooze

Clay
Clay, ooae , sand
Rust color ooze

Ooze, silt
Clay, silt
Silt

-------
                                                                          95
                                 TABLE VII-1
                                 (Continued)
Station
Bottom Odor    Water Odor
                                                 Notes
                      Predominate
                       Organisms
Grand Calumet R.
GC 3^.8     Petro
GC 336.0
GC 332.2

GC 331-1
GC 325.8
             Sewage
             Sewage, Petro
               Sewage

               Sewage
               Sewage,Petro
Heavy oil slicks,
rusty water color
Oil slicks, oily banks "
Murky,0il slicks,      "
 slimy banks
Slime & algae on bottom "
Murky,black oily patches"
                                                                 None observed
Indiana Hrbr. Canal
IH 331-9     Sewage,Petro
IH 335-2

IH 333-5
               Sewage
               Petro

               Sewage,Petro
Turbid, murky
Murky,oil slicks,
 dk. brown color
                                                                 None observed
Indiana Harbor
   1         Sewage,Petro
                              Murky,oil slicks
                              Lt.brown,murky,oil
                               slicks
                            Sewage,Petro
                      None observed
                      Sludgeworms

                      Leeches,saails
Thorn Creek
TC 330.3     Sewage
               Sewage
Debris, algae cov.
 rocks
                                                                 None observed
Little Calumet R.
LC 351-1 Sewage, Petro
LC 337.2 Raw Sewage
LC 33^.9
LC 328.0 Sewage
Thronton Rd. "
LC 319.7
LC 320.1
LC 233.4
Calumet River
CR 327.0 Normal
CR 328.1 Sewage
CR 333.0 Dead fish
Calumet Harbor
1 Petro
2 Metallic
3 Normal
Sewage
it
Normal
Sewage
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Water greenish, marshy Sludgeworms,
bloodworms
Abundant blue -greens None observed
" " Sludgeworms,
bloodworms,
mayfly
Green water color Oligochaeta
" " " Sludgeworms
Water greenish, oil slicks "
Water brownish, "
Oil along shores "
Oil slicks Ncne observed
" ", brownish water "
Purple wtr, popcorn slag " "
Water red-brown, dead Leeches, sludge -
ale wives worms,
sphaeriid clams
Dead alewives Sphaeriid clams,
sludgeworms
Water clearer Sphaeriid clams,
sludgeworms

-------




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                                                        97




                     Grover  Cook




           The  Calumet  Area  Surveillance  Project  also  installed




 Dendy  type biological  samplers in  the  streams  in the  Calumet




 Area.  These Samplers  were  made  of a series  of 4" square




 plates made of 1/8"  masonite with  1" square  pieces of masonite




 as  spacers.  The  larger  squares  painted  with fiber glass  resin




 and sprinkled  with either crushed  clam shells, coarse sand  or




 hardwood  sawdust  and shavings.   Eleven of  these  plates with




 spacers between are  placed  on a  1/4" threaded  rod to  form one




 sampler.   Each sampler has  ten slots,  five of  the slots




 covered on each face with one substrate  material and  five with




 a second  type  of  surface.




           Seven of these samplers  were placed  in the  Little




 Calumet and Grand Calumet Rivers and the Indiana Harbor Canal




 during the week of October  4-8,  and were retrieved in early




 November.   Bottom samples were also obtained at  each  location




 so  that a  comparison of  the organisms  found  on the Dendy




 sampler to an  equal  area of stream bottom  could  be made.




           Bloodworms and sludgeworms were  present at  most




 of  the locations.  In  addition,  pulmonate  snails were found




 on  the sample  removed  from  the Grand Calumet River at the




 Indianapolis Boulevard station.  These are all pollution-




 tolerant  organisms.




           Six  Dendy  type samplers  were also  placed on the




Calumet River and  one in Wolf Lake.  The location of the Dendy

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                                                        98





                    Grover Cook




samplers is shown in Figure VII-1.  Bottom samples were also




obtained at these locations when the samplers were removed.




          The information gained from these biological surveys




will provide valuable reference data on which to evaluate




any future changes in biological conditions and water quality.
                         * * *

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                                                        99





                    Grover Cook




          My summary  is as follows:




 Introduction




          A conference on pollution of the  interstate waters




 of the Grand Calumet  River, Little Calumet  River,  Calumet




 River, Wolf Lake, Lake Michigan and their tributaries




 (Indiana-Illinois), called by the Secretary of Health,  Edu-




 cation, and Welfare under the provisions of Section 8 of the




 Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1961 as amended, was




 held  in Chicago,  Illinois, March 2-9, 1965.




          Recommendation No. 14 of the Summary of  the confer-




 ence  provided that:   "Surveillance will be  the primary  res-




 ponsibility of the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board,




 the Illinois Sanitary Water Board and the Metropolitan  Sani-




 tary  District of  Greater Chicago.  The Department  of Health,




 Education, and Welfare will make available  a resident tech-




 nical group and visiting groups of experts  which will assist




 the State agencies and the Metropolitan Sanitary District of




 Greater Chicago at such time as requested by them."




          The State of Indiana, on April 6, 1965,  and the




 State of Illinois, on April 16, 1965, requested an extensive




 sampling program  by the Federal government  to monitor the




 water quality in  the  Calumet Area.  These requests accompanied




 sampling programs proposed by them within their respective




jurisdictions.   The Metropolitan Sanitary District also

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                                                        100





                    Grover Cook




cooperated in laboratory programs and in special studies that




have been conducted on effluent chlorination at one of their




sewage treatment plants.




Scope




          The report presents an evaluation of present water




quality in the Calumet Area based primarily on the Department




of Health, Education,  and Welfare's Surveillance activity.




However, all agencies cooperated in studies of the bacteriolog-




ical quality of the water at six beaches.  Those data are




presented in this report.  The chemical, physical, micro-




biological and biological data from stream and harbor stations




are those obtained from Surveillance Project activities only




and do not include information from the monitoring work of




the other agencies.  They will discuss their findings later




in the conference.




          The beaches that were sampled bacteriologically




were:




                     Rainbow




                     Outer Calumet




                     Inner Calumet




                     Hammond




                     Whiting




                     East Chicago




          Stream and harbor stations sampled routinely by

-------
                                                        100 a






                    Grover Cook




the Calumet Area Surveillance Project were as follows.   I




think Mr. Ray Johnson is pointing these out, but  I can't see




him from here.




          Little Calumet River at Wentworth Avenue.




          Grand Calumet River at Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad




Bridge.




          Grand Calumet River at B.O. Terminal Bridge.




          Grand Calumet River at Broadway




          Grant Calumet River at Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge.




          Indiana Harbor Canal at 151st Street.




          Indiana Harbor Canal at Dickey Road.




          Indiana Harbor Canal Inner Light.




          Indiana Harbor Canal Outer Light.




          Calumet Harbor at Mouth of Calumet River.




          Calumet Harbor on State Line




          Calumet Harbor at Mid Channel




          Wolf Lake at State Line




          Wolf Lake Channel




Biological observations were made at the above stations and




at 11 additional stations throughout the area.




          In addition to the normal sampling program, two




continuous automatic monitors are being installed.  One is




located on the Indiana Harbor Canal, and one will be located




on the Calumet River.  Two more monitors will be  installed

-------
                                                        101
                    Grover  Cook


later in the year.


          Six water level recording stations have been  in-


stalled on the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor


Canal.  Data from these gages and from U. S. Geological Survey


and Metropolitan Sanitary District gages on other streams of


the area, will be used for stream flow calculations in  the


Calumet system.


Summary of Findings


          1.  Beaches.  Individual coliform bacteria densities


determined by the Calumet Surveillance Project at the six


beaches ranged from near zero to about 360,000 per 100  ml.


The following is a list of beaches and the per cent of  time


from June 1, 1965 to September 15, 1965 that the water  quality


did not meet the Proposed Calumet Area Technical Committee


Criteria for beaches.


                Beach                 Per Cent


                Rainbow                  74


                Outer Calumet            57


                Inner Calumet            91


                Hammond                 100


                Whiting                  60


                East Chicago             61


          The highest mean values for the season were about


8,000 per 100 ml at Hammond and Whiting; Inner Calumet  was


about 4,000 per 100 ml; Outer Calumet and East Chicago  were

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                                                        102





                    Grover Cook




about 2,000 ml; and Rainbow Beach was about 1,100 per 100 ml.




          The highest individual determination, 360,000 per




100 ml,  was at Hammond Beach.  The Hammond City Healt'h Depart-




ment closed this beach several years ago.




          2.  Indiana Harbor.  Coliform bacteria were found




in mean densities of about 300,000 per 100 ml  in Indiana




Harbor.   Phenols ranged from six to 21 ^ug/1; the mean total




phosphate concentration was 0.16 mg/1; and the following mean




values were also found in Indiana Harbor:




               Sulfates           51 mg/1




               Ammonia Nitrogen   1.1 mg/1




               Dissolved Oxygen   3.4 mg/1




          3.  Calumet Harbor.  The mean value of coliform




densities were found to be about 1500 per 100 ml with maximum




values of 10,000 per 100/ml.  Phenol concentrations were as




high as  3 jig/1.  The mean total phosphate concentration was




.15 mg/1 with a maximum of ,78 mg/1.  Maximum values of 37 rag/1




for sulfates,  and 0.27 mg/1 for ammonia nitrogen were also




found.




          4.  Grand Calumet River at the State line.  Minimum




coliform bacteria densities were found to be 100,000 per




100 ml with counts as high as 9,000,000 per 100 ml.  Mean




phenol concentration was 18 jJg/1.  Total phosphates ranged




as high  as  12 mg/1 at the State line and as high as 40 mg/1

-------
                                                         103




                    Grover Cook




one-half mile downstream from this point.  The mean value at




the State line showed total phosphate to be 7.7 mg/1.  Sul-




fates ranged from a minimum of 52 mg/1 to 282 mg/1 with the




mean being 179 mg/1.  The mean of the dissolved oxygen values




was 2.7 mg/1 with a minimum value found of zero D.O.  Dis-




solved oxygen values were at or near zero 50 per cent of the




time.




          5.  The Little Calumet River at the State line.




Coliform bacteria densities ranged from about 10,000 to 400,000




per 100 ml.  Total phosphates were sampled at a maximum of




14 mg/1 and sulfates as high as 310 mg/1.  The mean value for




phenols was 8,/ig/l with a maximum of 38jig/l.  Dissolved




oxygen values were as low as zero with the mean being 1.8 mg/1.




About half of the time dissolved oxygen values were at or




near zero.




Summary and Conclusions




          1.  Based on the criteria of bathing water having




a total coliform count of less than 1,000 per 100 milliliter,




the water quality at the six Lake Michigan beaches in the




Calumet Area was unsuitable for bathing from 31 per cent to




100 per cent of the time.  Calumet Park, Whiting, and Hammond




beaches had periods of extremely high bacterial contamination.




The Calumet Park, Whiting, and Hammond beaches are subject




to periods of extremely heavy pollution.

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                                                        104




                    Grover Cook





          2.  Indiana Harbor is grossly polluted as evidenced




by high total coliform and fecal Streptococcus counts.




Phenols, though reduced from 1963 levels, were still high




enough to cause taste and odor problems at times in near




municipal water supplies.  Total phosphates average almost




five times the value required for algal blooms.  There were




still many visual signs of pollution such as oil on the sur-




face, and sludge banks in the stream bottoms.




          3.  Calumet Harbor sampling revealed a slight




increase in the dissolved oxygen content, a decrease in the




phenols, and bacterial concentrations that were slightly




higher than obtained during the 1963 sampling period.  Iron,




ammonia nitrogen, and total dissolved solids were all above this




background levels found in Lake Michigan.  Average total




phosphates were five times the value required for algal




blooms.  There was also visual evidence of large quantities




of wastes being discharged to lower portions of the Calumet




River and Calumet Harbor.  The operation of the O'Brien Lock




and Dam and the slightly higher water levels of Lake Michigan




in 1965 partly reduced waste inputs to Lake Michigan from




this source.




          4.  The Grand Calumet River at the State line was




still grossly polluted as evidenced by very high bacterial




counts.  Ten per cent of the samples collected in 1965 had a

-------
                                                        105
                      Cover Cook
zero dissolved oxygen content and 25 per cent had an oxygen
content of less than one milligram per liter.  Pollution was
also indicated by the high Biochemical Oxygen Demand,
Chemical Oxygen Demand, phenol, and dissolved solid values
found during the sampling period.
          5.  The Little Calumet River at the State line was
still grossly polluted, although there was an improvement
since the 1963 sampling period.  Bacterial counts were still
above acceptable levels, 15 per cent of the samples had dis-
solved oxygen content of zero and 40 per cent had an oxygen
content of less than one milligram per liter.  Biochemical
Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, total phosphates,
sulfates, and dissolved solids, although less than 1963
values, were still very high.
          In brief, then, this report shows that:
          The Grand Calumet River is still grossly polluted.
          The Little Calumet River is slightly improved over
1963 but still very polluted.
          So with minor exceptions, there has been no signi-
ficant improvement in water quality anywhere in the conference
area since the February 1965 report to the conference.
          MR. STEIN:  Any comments or questions?
          (No response.)
          If not,  I call on Mr. Poston.

-------
                                                        106
                    Francis Kittrell




          MR. POSTON:  I would like to call upon Mr. Francis




Kittrell, chairman of the Technical Committee, to summarize




the committee report at this time.




          Mr. Kittrell.









                     STATEMENT OF




      FRANCIS KITTRELL, CHAIRMAN OF TECHNICAL COMMITTEE




          MR. KITTRELL:  Mr. Chairman, conferees, ladies and




gentlemen:




          My statement is briefed from the report on water




quality criteria for the Calumet Area, Lower Lake Michigan.




I would like that entire report entered into the record.




          MR. STEIN:  Without objection, this will be done.




          (The report referred to follows:)

-------
                                                         107
                    Francis Kittrell

                       REPORT OF

                  WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

             CALUMET AREA-LOWER LAKE MICHIGAN

                      DECEMBER 1965



                   TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
Members^

Mr. F. W. Kittrell
Department of Health,
  Education, and Welfare
Cincinnati, Ohio
(Chairman)
Dr. C. A. Bishop
U. ;;. Steel Corporation
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Mr. H. H. Gerstein
City of Chicago
Department of Water
  and Sewers

Mr. Harold C. Jordahl
Department of the Interior
 Madison, Wisconsin

Dr. A. J. Kaplovsky
Metropolitan Sanitary Dis-
  trict of Greater Chicago
Chicago, Illinois

Mr. R. C. Mallatt
American Oil Company
Whiting, Indiana
Alternates

Mr. Henning Eklund
Department of Health, Education,
  and Welfare
Chicago, Illinois
(Original Secretary)

Mr. Joseph L. Minkin
Department of Health, Education,
  and Welfare
Chicago, Illinois
(Subsequent Secretary)

Mr. Ross L. Harbaugh
Inland Steel Company
East Chicago, Indiana

Mr. James Vaughn
City of Chicago
Department of Water
  and Sewers

Mr. John Carr
Department of the Interior
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. David T. Lordi
Metropolitan Sanitary District
  of Greater Chicago
Chicago, Illinois

Mr. J. S. Baum
Cities Service Oil Company
East Chicago, Indiana

-------
                                                        108

                    Francis Kittrell

                   TECHNICAL COMMITTEE

                      (Continued)

Member                       Alternates

Mr. Perry Miller             None
Indiana Stream Pollution
  Control Board
Indianapolis, Indiana

Mr. R. S. Nelle              Mr. Benn J. Leland
Illinois Sanitary Water      Illinois Sanitary Water Board
  Board                      Chicago, Illinois
Springfield, Illinois

-------
                                                        109





                    Francis Kittrell




                 WATER QUALITY CRITERIA




             CALUMET AREA-LOWER LAKE MICHIGAN






                       INTRODUCTION






          This report on the Calumet Area and Lower Lakes of




Michigan is adapted from a report "Recommended Water Quality




Criteria" submitted by a Technical Committee appointed in




April, 1965.




          A conference on pollution of the interstate waters




of the Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Calumet




River, Wolf Lake, Lake Michigan and their tributaries




(Indiana-Illinois), called by the Secretary of Health, Educa-




tion, and Welfare under the provisions of Section 8 of the




Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 USC 466 et seq.),




was held in Chicago, Illinois, March 2-9, 1965.




          Conclusions and recommendations of the conferees




included the following items that are pertinent to this report




          "The conferees will establish a technical committee




          as soon as possible which will evaluate water qual-




          ity criteria and related matters in the area




          covered by the conference and make recommendations




          to the conferees within six months after the issu-




          ance of the summary of the conference."




          "The  Indiana  Stream Pollution Control Board,  the

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                                                        110






                    Francis Kittrell




          Illinois Sanitary Water Board, and the Metropolitan




          Sanitary District of Greater Chicago,  maintaining




          close liaison with the technical committee created




          by the conferees will develop a time schedule for




          the construction of necessary industrial waste




          treatment facilities.  Such a schedule shall be




          submitted to the conferees for their consideration




          within six months after the issuance of the summary




          of this conference."




          Subsequently the conferees met on April 7, 1965




and appointed the technical committee which held its initial




session on the same date.   Since then the committee has met




at approximately two-week intervals, with most of the meetings




continuing for two days.




          The committee consisted of one representative of each




of the four regulatory agencies (the States of Illinois and




Indiana,  the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater




Chicago,  and the Federal  government), two representatives




of industry (U. S. Steel  Corporation and American Oil Company)




and one each of the City  of Chicago Department of Water and




Sewers, and the U. S.  Department of the Interior.

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                                                        Ill





                    Francis Kittrell




         GUIDE LINES FOR ADOPTING BASIC CRITERIA




          At its second meeting the committee agreed on the




following guidelines for its deliberations:




          "Water quality criteria for various uses will be




applied to the existing situations.  The criteria that are




developed will recognize the existing water quality, the need




for improvement of water quality in certain areas, and the




possibility that criteria will not be limited by existing




levels in all cases.  It is realized that quality criteria




set at present cannot be binding for all time but will need




reconsideration and possible revision at regular intervals




in the future.  Water quality needs for present and potential




uses will be considered.  Effluent standards will not be




considered by this committee."



          Considerable discussion was devoted to definition




of the phrase "water quality criteria" used by the conferees



in their charge to the committee.  Relying on the usual inter-




pretation of the word "criteria," it was concluded that the




conferees intended that limits of constituents recommended




by the committee would be used as guides in judging the




suitability of water quality for various uses and in planning




improvements in water quality through waste reductions where




needed, but would not necessarily be applied as standards or




requirements.

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                                                        112




                    Francis Kittrell





            BASES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA




          After considering various bases for development of




water quality criteria the committee agreed that criteria




should be based on:




          1.  Present and potential water uses.




          2.  Preservation of present good quality.




          3.  Improvement of degraded quality where technical-




ly and economically feasible.




          4.  Reconsideration and revision of regular intervals




as future developments may dictate.




          It was concluded that adoption of uniform criteria




for specific uses, regardless of location of uses, would not




provide a practical basis for a pollution abatement program




for lake waters.  For example, the sheltered areas between




the Calumet Harbor Breakwater and the Indiana Harbor Bulkhead




(Figure 1 - Appendix) receives the major discharges from waste




sources.  Obviously, it is impractical to expect water of




the same high quality in this area, regardless of the degree




of waste treatment achieved,  as that which will be found




several miles out in the open lake.  If the sources of muni-




cipal supply in the sheltered area are given adequate protec-




tion, the water in the open lake inevitably will be of still-




better quality.




          Based  on this reasoning,  the water area of  the lower

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                    Francis Kittrell




lake was divided into three zones as shown in Figure 1.  Most




of the water area is defined as Open Water, which is that




area more than 200 yards offshore and outside of a line from




the outer end of the Calumet Harbor Breakwater to and along




the outer edge of the Inland Steel Bulkhead Line and thence




through the U. S. Steel Water Supply intake to the outer




end of the Gary Harbor Breakwater.  The Inner Harbor Basins




is the area shoreward of the above line, but not including




Shore Water.  Shore Water is all water within 200 yards




of shore except in the Inner Harbor Basins, where it is that




water within 200 yards of existing onshore recreational areas.




          Other water bodies for which criteria were devel-




oped included the Little Calumet River, the Grand Calumet




River, and Wolf Lake.  The reach of the Little Calumet River




involved is from the State line to the confluence with Cal-




Sag Channel.  In accordance with Federal jurisdiction in




interstate enforcement it was concluded that the committee




should concern itself with only those reaches of the two




rivers that are downstream from the State  line in Illinois,




and with that portion of Wolf Lake that lies in Illinois.




          General water use categories were adopted for the




development of criteria.  These water uses are:




          1.  Municipal Water




          2.  Industrial Water

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                                                       114




                      Francis Kittrell




              Process - Cooling



          3.  Recreation




              a.  Whole Body Contact




              b.  Limited Body Contact




          4.  Fish and Wildlife




          5.  Commercial Shipping




          6.  Esthetics




          7.  Wastewater Assimilation




          Existing and potential uses of the delineated




bodies of water for which quality criteria were considered




are noted in Table I (Appendix).  The locations of principal




water uses are shown in Figures 2A and 2B.  (Appendix)  Al-




though there has been use of water for irrigation in the




Little Calumet Basin, it has been so limited that it was




concluded this very minor use did not justify special con-




sideration.



          Constituents for which water quality criteria were



considered for each of the bodies of water are indicated in



Tables II through VI (Appendix).  It should be noted that the




constituents for both Open Water and the Inner Harbor Basins,




given in Table II, are the same.




          Criteria first were selected for each constituent




for each water use in each area.  Once the complete tabulation




of criteria for all water uses in an area had been developed,

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                    Francis Kittrell




the most stringent criteria for any of the water uses were




selected as the governing values for that area.




          Some of the criteria recommended are at or near the




lower limits of detectability of analytical procedures




included in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater."  The committee concludes that "Standard




Methods" of analysis should be employed where applicable,




but recognizes that other approved methods may be required in




judging compliance with some of the criteria.  For example,




the committee recommends a limit of 0.025 mg/1 of cyanide for




protection of fish.  The limit of detectability of this com-




pound by the "Standard Methods" procedure is 0.1 mg/1, but




the accepted method used by t he Great Lakes-Illinois River




Basin Project Laboratory has a precision of 0,01 mg/1.




          Successful application of the criteria requires




that analytical results be reproducible among the several




laboratories involved in the program.  A round-robin program




of replicate sample analysis recommended by the committee has




been initiated by the laboratories to ensure reproducibility




of results.




          A major, and probably the major, water quality prob-




lem of the area is taste and odor in municipal water supplies.




The types of taste and odor most difficult and costly to




control by water treatment are "chemical,"  or "hydrocarbon,"

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                    Francis Kittrell





and "medicinal," or "phenolic."  Since the "Standard Method"




for threshold odor is recognized as subjective rather than




objective, it is especially important that every effort be




exerted to ensure the maximum possible reproducibility of




threshold odor results among the laboratories.




                       CRITERIA




          The criteria recommended by the committee are




incorporated in the following tables, 1 through 6.  The com-




mittee feels that it is establishing a precedent in recommend-




ing criteria which,  if attainable, will ensure the highest




quality water that is reasonably feasible.




          (Tables 1 through 6 follow:)

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                                                                              117

                               TABLE 1

                              CRITERIA

                              OPEH WATER
Control Points - Chicago* South District Filtration Plant and
                 Gary-West Plant Intakes

Coliform Bacteria - MPN/100 ml

  Annual Average (Arithmetic)                        Not more than   200
  Single Daily Value or Average (l)                  Not more than 2,500

Streptococci - Number/100 ml (Tentative) (2)         Not more than    25

Turbidity

  No turbidity of other than natural origin that will cause substantial
  visible contrast vith the natural appearance of the water.

True Color - Units

  Annual Average                                     Not more than     5
  Single Daily Value or Average                      Not more than    15

Threshold Odor (Hydrocarbon and/or Chemical) (3)

  Daily Average                                      Not more than     U
  Single Value                                       Not more than     8

Odor

  No obnoxious odor of other than natural origin.

Temperature -  F                                     Not more than    85

Oil

  Substantially free of visible floating oil.

Floating Solids and Debris

  Substantially free of floating solids and debris from other than
  natural sources.

Bottom Deposits

  Substantially free of contaminants that will:   (l)  adversely alter the
  composition of the bottom fauna;  (2) interfere with the spawning of
  fish or their eggs;  (3) adversely change the physical or chemical nature
  of the bottom.

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                                 CRITERIA (CONT'D)

                               OPEN WATER
pH - Units
  Annual Median                              Within range 8.1 - 8.4
  Daily Median                               Within range 7.7 - 9.0

Dissolved Oxygen - Per Cent Saturation

  Annual Average                             Not less than 90
  Single Value                               Not less than 80

Ammonia Nitrogen (H) - mg/1 (U)

  Annual Average                                            0.02
  Single Daily Value or Average                             0.05

Total Nitrogen (N) (*Q                                      O.U

Methylene Blue Active Substance - mg/1

  Annual Average                             Not more than 0.05
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not more than 0.20

Chlorides (CL) - mg/1                   1965    1970    1980    1990    2000

  Annual Average     Not more than        8       9      10      11      12
  Single Daily Value or Average  Not more than          15(through 1970)

Cyanides  (CH) - mg/1

  Single Value                               Not more than 0.025

Fluorides (F) - mg/1

  Annual Average                             Not more than 1.0
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not more than 1.3

Dissolved Iron (Fe) - mg/1

  Annual Average                             Not more than 0.15
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not more than 0.30

Phenol-Like Substances - mg/1 (Tentative) (5)

  Annual Average                             Not more than 0.001
  Single Value                               Not more than 0.003

Sulfates (S0t|) - mg/1                   1965    1970    19&0    1990    2000

  Annual Average    not more than        23      2U      26      28      30
  Single Daily Value or Average  Not more than  50 (through 1970)

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                                                                               119
                                 CHITKKIA (COFJT'D)
                              OPEN WATKR


Total Phosphates (POu) -mg/1 (Tentative) j[6)

  Annual Average                              Not more than O.O3
  Single Daily Value or Average               Not more than O.OU

Filtrable Residue (Total Dissolved Solids (aig/lj
                                     1^   1970   1980   199O   2000
  Annual Average                     "152    lol>    172    179   ~l8o"
  Single Daily Value or Average Hot more than 200   (through 1970)

Miscellaneous Trace Contaminants and Radionuclides

  Shall not be present in concentrations that will prevent meeting
  PHS 1962 Drinking Water Standards after conventional treatment*

(l)  If more than one sample per day is examined, the limit shall be
     the daily average.  If only one sample per day is taken, the single
     value shall govern.

(2)  Pending accumulation of adequate data on existing densities of
     Streptococcus.  Probably can be lowered.

(3)  The Chicago South District Filtration Plant Control Laboratory will
     be the reference laboratory for Threshold Odor.

(U)  Tentative 'findln^ ;:.tu<1y of additional data and evaluation of
     potential .reductions ;it the sources.

(5)  Pending study of additional data and evaluation of potential reduc-
     tions at the sources.

(6)  Fending thorough determination of existing concentration in Lower
     Lake Michigan Conference Area.

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                               TABLE 2

                              CRITERIA
                          INNKR HARBOR BASINS

Control Points - Hammond and iiast Chicago Water Intakes

Coliform Bacteria - MPN/100 ml.

  Annual Average (Arithmetic)                Not more than 2,000
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not more than 5,000 (l)

Fecal Streptococci                           Not more than   100

Turbidity - No turbidity of other than natural origin that will cause
  substantial visible contract with the natural appearance of water.

True Color - Units

  Annual Average                             Not more than  5
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not more than 15

Threshold Odor (Hydrocarbon and/or Chemical) Units (2)

  Annual Average                             Not more than  8
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not more than 20

Odor - No obnoxious odor of other than natural origin.

Temperature -  F                             Not more than 85

Oil - Substantially free of visible floating oil.

Floating Solids and Debris - Substantially free of floating solids and
  debris from other than natural sources.

Bottom Deposits - Substantially free of muck and debris of other than
  natural origin.

pH - Units

  Annual Median                              Within range  8.0  -  8.5
  Daily Median                               Within range  7.5  -  9.0

Dissolved Oxygen - Per Cent Saturation

  Annual Average                             Not less than 80
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not less than 65

Ammonia Nitrogen - mg/1  (2)

  Annual Average                             0.05
  Single Daily Value or Average              0.12

Methylene Blue Active Substance - mg/1

  Annual Average                             Not more than 0.10
  Single Daily Value or Average              Not more than 0.30

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                                 CRITERIA (CONT'D)
                          INNER HARBOR BASINS

Chlorides - mg/1
                                               1965  1970  1900  1990  2000
  Annual Average                Not more than    16    18    20    22    2T
  Single Daily Value or Average Not more than            30 (thru 1970)

Cyanides - mg/1

  Single Value                  Less than      0.1

Fluorides - mg/1

  Annual Average                Not more than  1.0
  Single Daily Value or Average Not more than  1.3

Dissolved Iron - mg/1

  Annual Average                Not more than  0.15
  Single Daily Value or Average Not more than  0.30

Phenol-like Substances - mg/1 (Tentative) (2)

  Annual Average                Not more .than  0.002
  Single Daily Value or Average Not more than  0.005

Sulfates - mg/1
                                               1965  1970  1980  1990  2000
  Annual Average                Not more than    35    36    39    42    4 5
  Single Daily Value or Average Not more than             75 (through 1970)

Total Phosphates - mg/1 (Tentative) (2)

  Annual Average                Not more than  0.05
  Single Daily Value or Average Not more than  0.10

Filterable Residue (Total Dissolved Solids) - mg/1
                                               3-9J5  1970  1980  1990  2000
  Annual Average                Not more than   187   190   197   20k   211
  Single Daily Value or Average Not more than           230 (through 1970)

Miscellaneous Trace Contaminants and Radionuclid.es

  Shall not be present in concentrations that will prevent meeting
  PHS 1962 Drinking Water Standards after conventional treatment.

  (1)  Except during periods of storm water overflow when coliform should
       not exceed 24,000/100 ml.

  (2)  Tentative pending study of additional data and evaluation of
       potential reductions at the sources.

       If more, than one sample per day is examined, the limit shall be the
       daily average.  If only one sample per day is taken, the single value
       shall govern.

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                               TABLE 3

                               CRITERIA

                              SHORE WATER


Control Points -  Existing Sampling Points at Bathing Beaches.

Bacteria - Number per 100 .ml by MF Techniques (Tentative) (1)

  a)  The number of bacteria shall be the Arithmetic Average of the
      last five consecutive sample results.

  t>\  Satisfactory area if MF Coliform are less than 1000 and MF Fecal
      Streptococci are less than 100.

  c)  Satisfactory area if MF Coliforms are from 1000 to 5000 and MF
      Fecal Streptococci are less than 20.

  d)  A single sample results of over 100,000 Coliforms shall require
      immediate investigation as to the cause.  Items to be considered
      in the judgment of cause and action to be taken include the sanitary
      survey,  winds, currents and weather conditions.

Turbidity

  No turbidity of other than natural origin that will cause substantial
  visible contrast with the natural appearance of water.

True Color - Units

  Annual Average                            Not more than  5
  Single Daily Value or Average             Not more than 15

Odor

  No obnoxious odor of other than natural origin.

Temperature - F                            Not more than 85

Oil

  Substantially free of visible floating oil.

Floating Solids and Debris

  Substantially free of floating solids and debris from other than natural
  sources.

Bottom Deposits

  Substantially free of muck and debris of other than natural origin.

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                                 CRITERIA (CONT'D)
                               SHORE WATER
pH - Units

  Daily Median

Dissolved Oxygen - Per Cent Saturation

  Annual Average
  Single Value

Ammonia Nitrogen (N) - mg/1 (Tentative) (2)

  Annual Average
  Single Daily Value or Average

Methylene Blue Active Substance - mg/1

  Annual Average
  Single Daily Value or Average
                                               Within range ?.0 - 9.0
                                                Not less than 90
                                                Not less than SO
                                                Not more than O.05
                                                Not more than 0.12
                                                Not more than O.02
                                                Not more than 0.03
                                                Not more than 0.025
Cyanides (CN) - mg/1

  Single Value

Phenols - Like Substances - mg/1 (Tentative) (2)  Not more than 0.05

Total Phosphates (PC1+) - mg/1 (Tentative) (3)
  Annual Average
  Single Daily Average or Value
                                                Not more than 0.03
                                                Not more than O.OU
Miscellaneous Trace Contaminants and Radionuclid.es

  Shall not "be present in concentrations that will prevent meeting the PHS
  1962 Drinking Water Standards after conventional treatment.

(l)  Pending evaluation of data on bathing beaches during 1965 vhich are
     now being collected.

(2)  Pending study of additional data and evaluation of potential reductions
     at the sources.

(3)  Pending thorough determination of existing concentrations in Lover
     Lake Michigan Conference Area.  Lower limits may be desirable.

     If more than one sample per day is examined, the limit shall be the
     daily average.  If only one sample per day is taken, the single value
     shall govern.

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                               TABLE  k



                               CRITERIA.


                         LITTLE CALUMET BIVER




Control Point - Hentworth Avenue Bridge.


Coliform Bacteria - MPH/100 ml.


  Maximum Value 5000 except during periods of storm water runoff.


Fecal Streptococcus


  Maximum value 500 except during periods of storm water runoff.


Turbidity


  No turbidity of other than natural origin that will cause substantial

  visible contrast with the natural appearance of the water.


True Color - Units


  Annual average not more than 25


  Single Daily value or average not more than 50


Odor


  No obnoxious odors of other than that of natural origin.

            o
Temperature  F


  Single daily value or average not more than 90.


Oil


  Substantially free from visible floating oil.


Floating Solidi  and Debris


  Substantially free of floating solids and debris from other than

  natural sources.


Bottom Deposits


  Substantially free of sludge banks.


pH - Units


  Annual median within range 6.5 - 9*0

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                                                                            125

                                 CRITERIA (CONT'D)

                        LITTLE CALUMET RIVER


Dissolved Oxygen - mg/1

  Average (Kay thru September) not less than U.O

  Single daily value or average not less than 2.0

BOD - mg/1

  Single daily value or average not more than 10.0

Ammonia Nitrogen - mg/1 (2)

  Single daily value or average not more than  1.5

Methlene Blue Active Substance - mg/1

  Single daily value or average not more than  0.5

Cyanides - mg/1

  Single daily value or average not more than  0.025

Phenol-like Substances - mg/1

  Single daily value or average not more than  0.02

Total Phosphates - mg/1 (2)

  Held for additional data analysis.  (Appears to be from surface  runoff.)

(1)  If more than one sample per day is examined, the limit shall  be  the
     daily average.  If only one sample per day is taken,  the single  value
     shall govern.

(2)  Tentative pending study of additional data and evaluation of  potential
     reductions at the sources.

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                               TABLE 5

                               CRITERIA

                         GRAND CALIMBT RIVER


Control Polat - Baltimore and Ohio Chicago Terminal Railroad Bridge.

Coliform Bacteria MFN/100 ml.  (Tentative)

  Maximum Value 5000 except during periods of storm water runoff.

Fecal Streptococci

  Maximum value 500 except during periods of storm water runoff.

True Color - Units (Tentative)

  Annual Average               *_                                  25
  Single Daily Value or Average* '                 Not more than    50

Odor

  No obnoxious odors of other-than that of natural origin.
            c
Temperature  F                                     Not more than    90

Oil

  Substantially free of visible floating oil.

Floating Solids and Debrig

  Substantially free of floating solids and debris from other than natural
  sources.

Bottom Deposits

  Substantially free of sludge banks.

pH - Units

  Annual Median                                    Within range 6.5 - 9.0

Dissolved Oxygen - mg/1 (Tentative)

  Average (May thru September)                                   3.0
  Single Daily Value or Average                    Not less than 1.0

BOD - mg/1 (Tentative)

  Single value                                     Less than    10.0

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                                                                         127

                                 CRITKRIA (CONT'D)

                          GRAND CALUMET RIVBR

Ammonia-Nitrogen - mg/1 (Tentative)

  Single Value                                       Not more than 5-0

Methylene Blue Active Substances - mg/1 (Tentative)

  Single Value                                       Not more than 0.5

Chlorides - mg/1 (Tentative)

  Annual Average                                                    75
  Single Daily Value or Average                      Not more than 125

Phenol - Like Substances - rog/1 (Tentative)

  Single Value                                       Not more than 0.020

Total^Phosphates - mg/1 (Tentative)

  Held for additional data analysis

Filterable Residue (Total Dissolved Solids) mg/1 (Tentativej

  Single Value                                       Not move than   500

  (l)  It is recognized that the Grand Calumet River at the State Wne is
       essentially treatment plant effluent from Hammond due to the nature
       of the natural drainage flow.

       In addition to the concentration limits, the pounds per day of each
       constituent shall be limited to the loads that would occur at these
       concentrations with a flow of 20 cfs.

       Combined storm water overflows shall be eliminated as soon as possi-
       ble.

       Criteria considers only existing conditions.  If the proposed dan
       changes conditions, then the criteria should be reconsidered..

  (2)  If more than one sample per day is examined, the limit shall be the
       daily average.  If only one sample per day is taken, the single value
       shall govern.

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                                                                        128

                                TABLE 

                                CRITERIA

                                WOLF LAKE

                                                             U)
Control Point - Illinois-Indiana State Line-Uolf Lake Culvert

Bacteria - Hinbsr per 100 ml by MF Techniques (Tentative) (2^

  a)  The nunbar of bacteria shall be the Arithcstic Average of the last
      five consecutive sample results.

  b)  Satisfactory area if MF Coliform are less than 1000 and MF Fecal
      Streptococci are less than 100.

  c )  Satisfactory area if MF Colifonus are from 1000 to 5000 and MF
      Fecal Streptococci are less than 20.

  d)  A single sample result of over 100,000 Colifonus shall require
      immediate investigation as to the cause.  Items to be considered la
      the Judgment of cause and action to be taken include the sanitary
      survey, winds, currents and weather conditions.

Turbidity

  No turbidity of other than natural origin that will cause substantial
  visible contrast with the natural appearance of water.

True Color - Units

  Annual Average                                 Not more than  5
  Single Daily Value or Average                  Not more than 15

Odor

  No obnoxious odor of other than natural origin!

Temperature - F                                 Not more than 95

Oil

  Substantially free of visible floating oil.

Floating Solids and Debris

  Substantially free of floating solids and debris from other than natural
  sources.

Bottom Deposits

  Substantially free of muck and debris of other than natural origin.

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                                                                         129
                                 CRITERIA (COST'D)

                              WOLF  LAKE


pH - Units

  Daily Median                              Within range  7.0 - 9-0

Dissolved Oxygen - Per Cent Saturation

  Annual Average                            Not less than 90
  Single Value                              Not less than 80

Ammonia Nitrogen (N) - mg/1 (Tentative) (3)

  Annual Average                            Not more than 0.05
  Single Daily Value or Average             Not more than 0.12

Methylene Blue Active Substance - mg/1

  Annual Average                            Not more than 0.02
  Single Daily Value or Average             Not more than 0.05

Cyanides (CH) - mg/1

  Single Value                              Not more than 0.025

Total Phosphates (PO^) - mg/1 (Tentative) (4)

  Annual Average                            Not more than 0.03
  Single Daily Average or Value             Not more than 0.0^

(1)  Criteria apply at beaches as well as at Toll Road Bridge Station

(2)  Pending evaluation of data on bathing beaches during  1965 which are
     now being collected.

(3)  Pending study of additional data and evaluation of potential reduc-
     tions at the sources.

(h)  Pending thorough determination of existing concentrations in Lover
     Lake Michigan Conference Area.  Lower limits may be desirable.

     If more than one sample per day is examined, the limit shall be the
     daily average.  If only one sample per day is taken,  the single value
     shall govern.

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                                                        130

                    Francis Kittrell

          PROCEDURES FOR APPLICATION OF CRITERIA

CONTROL POINTS

          The committee recommends that the following sampling

stations serve as control points to judge compliance with the

recommended criteria.  This recommendation is not intended

to exclude sampling at such other points as may be found nec-

essary to ensure effective pollution abatement and continuing

monitoring and control of pollution.

OPEN WATER

          1.  Chicago South District Filtration Plant - Dunne
              or Shore Intake Crib, or both in combination

          2.  Gary Water Intake, West.

INNER HARBOR BASINS

          1.  Hammond Water Intake.

          2.  East Chicago Water Intake.

SHORE WATER

          Existing sampling points at bathing beaches.

LITTLE CALUMET RIVER

          Wentworth Avenue Bridge.

GRAND CALUMET RIVER

          Baltimore and Ohio Chicago Terminal Railroad Bridge.

WOLF LAKE

          Culvert through Earthen Dike Road on Illinois-

Indiana State line.

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                                                        131






                    Francis Kittrell




LABORATORY METHODS




          Analytical methods shall adhere to the procedures




approved by the Laboratory Directors representing the Illinois




and Indiana pollution control agencies, the Metropolitan




Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, the Chicago Bureau of




Water and the Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins (GLIRB) Pro-




ject.




          The technical committee is aware of the variations




in the procedures followed in determination of threshold




odor by the several laboratories involved and none adheres




to "Standard Methods," and recognizes that quantitative




values reported by the laboratories quite probably have little




true relationship to each other.  In order to place threshold




odor results on a comparable basis until a uniform procedure




can be adopted, the committee recommends that all official




determinations be performed by one organization, such as the




Chicago South District Filtration Plant.  In this way the




South District Filtration Plant method would serve temporar-




ily as a standard for reference procedure.




          Recent discovery of wide variations in ammonia




results obtained by four laboratories on two samples has




cast some doubt on the comparability of analytical results.




The program of the Laboratory Directors to achieve uniformity




in methods and results should be pressed with all possible




speed.

-------
                                   132
APPENDIX

-------
 WINNETKA
   KENILWORTH
      WILMETTE
 51EVANSTON
                                 LAKE
                         MICHIGAN
    C HI C A 0 0
                              CHICAGO-DUNNE CRIB
                              VHAMMOND  \
                                           INTAKE \ GARY-WEST INTAKE    i
                                                 I UH
                                                   r7:-. U.S. STEEL
LEGENO-
 Control Point 
 Inner Harbor Line	
 Area Boundary
HAMMOND   I
                                                 LOCATION  MAP
                                         CALUMET-LOWER  LAKE MICHIGAN
                                                                             133
                                                                    FIGURE

-------
Table I
                                          136













AREA AS DEFINED
Open Water
Inner Harbor
Basins
Shore Water
Little Calumet
River
Grand Calumet River
Wolf Lake
X - Present Use
0 - Future Use




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-------
TABLEH
                                     137
Open Lake and Liner
Harbor Basins
13
CO

CONSTITUENTS
Coliform Bacteria
Fecal Streptococcus
Turbidity
Color (True)
Threshold Odor Number
Odor
Temperature
Oil
Floating Solids and Debris
Bottom Deposits
PH
Dissolved Oxygen
BOD
Ammonia Nitrogen
Nitrogen (Total)
Meth. Blue Act. Substance
Chloride
Cyanide
Fluoride
Dissolved Iron
Phenol-Like Substances
Sulfates
Phosphates (Total)
Filtrable Residue(Tot.D'd Solids^
Misc. Trace Contaminants
Radionuclides
Municipal Water j
X
X

x
X





x
x

x

x
x
X
x
x
x
X
X
X
X
x
Industrial Water -
Processing


Y
X


X



X
_J^_

X

X
x



X


X

.
Industrial Water -
Cooling


Y



X



X















Recreation - Whole Body
Contact


























Recreation -
Limited Body Contact
X
Y



X

Y
Y

X
_J



x_










i

-------
                                      138
TABLE
Shore Water
%
CO
S3
CONSTITUENTS
Coliform Bacteria
Fecal Streptococcus
Turbidity
Color (True)
Threshold Odor Number
Odor
Temperature
Oil
Floating Solids and Debris
Bottom Deposits
pH
Dissolved Oxygen
BOD
Ammonia Nitrogen
NitioEen (Total)
Meth. Blue Act. Substance
Chloride
Cyanide
Fluoride
Dissolved Iron
Phenol-Like Substances
Sulfates
Phosphates (Total)
Filtrable Residue(Tot.D'd Solids
Misc. Trace Contaminants
Radionuclides
Municipal Water


























Industrial Water -
Processing


























Industrial Water -
Cooling !
- i


























Recreation - Whole Body
Contact
X
X
X
X

JC
X
X
X
X
X
X



X

X








I
Recreation - i
Limited Body Contact ]
i
X
X



x:

X
X

X
X



X










Fish and Wildlife


X



X
X

X
x
X

X

X

X


x



X
X
Commercial Shipping


























Esthetics


X


_JC

X
JLJ





X
X






T



Wastewater Assimilation






X



X
X
X














-------
TABLE IV
                                     139
1
Little Calumet River
From State Line to
Junction With fc
Calumet Sag. Channel w ; -P
W .; ro
CO 'l;s
;t
H
O
H
CONSTITUENTS H
Coliform Bacteria '
Fecal Streptococcus !
Turbidity
Color (True)
Threshold Odor Number
Odor '
Temperature
Oil H
Floating Solids and Debris '
Bottom Deposits
PH I'
Dissolved Oxygen 'j
BOD !
Ammonia Nitrogen t!
Nitrogen (Total) i
Meth. Blue Act. Substance !
Chloride ;
Cyanide !
Fluoride
Dissolved Iron
Phenol-Like Substances j
Sulfates ;i
Phosphates (Total)
Filtrable Residue(Tot .D'd Solids '
Mies. Trace Contaminants <\
Radionuclides '
Industrial Water -
Processing


























Industrial Water -
Cooling





















I
,



Recreation - Whole Body
Contact

























|
Recreation -
Limited Body Contact
X
Y



X

X
X

Y
Y



Y










Fish and Wildlife


X



X
X

X
Y
Y

X

Y

Y


Y

ft

_x
X
Commercial Shipping


























Esthetics


X
X

X

X
x





Y
jf






JC



Wastewater Assimilation
... i






X



Y
Y
x














-------
TABLE V
                                       140
Grand Calumet River
State Line to
Junction with co
Calumet River to
CONSTITUENTS
Colifoim Bacteria
Fecal Streptococcus
Turbidity
Color (True
Threshold Odor Number
Odor
Temperature
Oil
Floating Solids and Debris
Bottom Deposits
pH
Dissolved Oxygen
BOD
Ammonia Nitrogen
Nitrogen (Total)
Meth. Blue Act. Substance
Chloride
Cyanide
Fluoride
Dissolved Iron
Phenol-Like Substances
Sulfates
Phosphates (Total)
Filtrable Residue (Tot. D'd Solids)
Misc. Trace Contaminants
Radionuclides
Municipal Water























j


Industrial Water -
Processing


X
XL


X



X
X

X

X
X



X


X
1

Industrial Water -
Cooling 	


X



X



X















Recreation - Whole Body
Contact


























Recreation -
Limited Body Contact


























Fish and Wildlife


























Commercial Fishing


























Esthetics


X
x

X

X
X
X



X
X







X



1
3
5
ra
01
<
to
o
1
1






X



X
X
X














-------
TABLE VI
                                          141
Wolf Lake
8
3
CONSTITUENTS
Coliforai Bacteria
Fecal Streptococcus
Turbidity
Color (True)
Threshold Odor Number
Odor
Temperature
Oil
Floating Solids and Debris
Bottom Deposits
pH
Dissolved Oxygen
BOD
Ammonia Nitrogen
Nitrogen (Total)
Meth. Blue Act. Substance
Chloride
Cyanide
Fluoride
Dissolved Iron
Phenol-Like Substances
Sulfates
Phosphates (Total)
Filtrable Residue (Tot. D'd Solids]
Misc. Trace Contaminants
Radionuclides
._. - _..
Municipal Water

























i
Industrial Water -
Processing
..


























Industrial water -
Cooling


























Recreation - Whole Body
Contact
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X



X

X








Recreation -
Limited Body Contact
X
X



X

X
X

X
X



X










Fish and Wildlife |


_x_



x
X

X
X
X

X

X

X


X



X
X
Commercial Shipping |


























Esthetics


x
x

x

X
X





X
X






X



Wastewater Assimilation






X



X
X
X














-------
                                                       142






                    Francis Kittrell




          My summary is as follows:




          Following the first session of the  Enforcement




Conference on pollution of interstate waters  of the  Calumet




Area and Lower Lake Michigan in early March,  the  conferees




appointed a technical committee to  "evaluate  water quality




criteria and related matters in the area covered  by  the




conference and to make recommendations to the conferees




within six months after the issuance of this  summary of the




Conference."




          The technical committee was appointed and  organized




for its first meeting on April 7   It held 14 meetings, cover-




ing a total of 25 days, at approximately two  weekly  intervals




from that date until agreement was  reached on a final report.




          The committee had eight members, with alternates




who served when the regular members could not be  present.




Four of the members represented pollution control agencies.




As chairman, I represented the U. S. Department of Health,




Education, and Welfare.  Dr. Joel Kaplovsky represented the




Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Mr. Perry




Miller the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, and Mr.




Richard Nelle the Illinois Sanitary Water Board.  Mr. Harold




Jordahl, regional coordinator, represented all interests of




the Interior Department, including  recreation and fishing.




Two members,  Dr.  Charles Bishop of the U.  S.   Steel Corporation

-------
                                                         143




                    Francis Kittrell




 and Mr. Russell Mallatt of the American Oil Company,  repre-




sented the industrial interests.  Mr.  Hyman Gerstein,  of the




City of Chicago Department of Water and Sewers,  an internation-




ally recognized authority on water treatment,  completed the




committee.




          All of these men and their alternates  took their




assignments very seriously, and this was a real  working com-




mittee with which it was truly a pleasure to be  associated.




I want to take this opportunity to express publicly my ap-




preciation to each of them for their faithful and thoughtful




participation in our extended and sometimes exhausting de-




liberations.




          This committee was faced with a complex problem




indeed.  We were dealing with bodies of water that varied




widely  the relatively small Wolf Lake which straddles the




Indiana-Illinois State line, the Calumet Area streams  which




flow sometimes in one direction and sometimes the other and




even on occasion flow not at all except for the  treated sew-




age which constitutes their only source of water, and  a por-




tion of Lake Michigan, one o.f the largest bodies of fresh




water in the world.




          We were dealing with varied effects of waste on




water quality that included:  Offense to the esthetic  sensi-




bilities of those who would enjoy a stroll by clean, clear

-------
                                                         144





                    Francis Kittrell




waters; undesirable changes in the teeming aquatic life,




including fish, of the lake and the streams; hazards to the




health of some fraction of those hundreds of thousands who




swarm to the lake beaches during the summer; and the dis-




comfort of those whose drinking water from time to time has




a most offensive chemical odor or taste.




         We were dealing with some factors that were well




known and well defined, and with others that were obscure and




ill defined.




          We were charged with the responsibility of recom-




mending water quality criteria that would ensure protection




of these priceless water resources for all present and future




uses without unduly penalizing existing municipalities and




industries that must treat their wastes, and without re-




stricting future population and industrial growth of the area.




          Among the earliest considerations of the committee




was the proper interpretation of the word "criteria."  A long-




standing favorite subject for discussion by that portion of the




sanitary engineering profession that deals with stream sani-




tation is the definitions of the various words that describe




limits on water quality.  Among the most commonly used words




are "criteria," "goals," "objectives," "requirements" and




"standards."




          The word "criteria" implies that the proposed limits

-------
                                                         145
                    Francis Kittrell
are to be used as guides in judging the suitability of water

quality for various uses.  The words "goals" and "objectives"
imply that the limits are aims toward which corrective action

will be directed.  Both requirements and standards establish
limits that must be met.  The important differences among the
several definitions involve the flexibility of application of
the limits, ranging from the highly flexible criteria to the
quite rigid standards.
          In view of the complexity of the situation, the com-
mittee felt that it was desirable to retain flexibility in
application of criteria in the program of corrective action
that is to be undertaken, at least until the practicality of
the recommended water quality limits has been proven by
experience.  However, the final decision regarding the applica-
tion of the criteria is, of course, a proper function of the
conferees.
          Among other early decisions of the committee were
that:  The criteria to be developed should be based on
present and potential water uses; the present high quality

of water in certain portions of the lake should be preserved
in so far as is feasible; improvement in water quality is
necessary in other areas; and water quality criteria adopted
at this time should be reviewed from time to time and revised
as necessary.  The committee makes no claim to the prophetic

-------
                                                         146





                    Francis Kittrell




vision that would be required to establish criteria for all



time to come.




          A wealth of water quality data and of practical




experience with the water use problems of the area was avail-




able to the committee.  Five of its eight members had had




personal experience with one or more facets of the area prob-




lems.




          Probably the single most useful combination of tech-




nical data and experience was that available from the City of




Chicago South District Filtration Plant through one of the




committee members, Mr. Gerstein.  The voluminous operating




records of this plant provided a comprehensive picture of




water quality at the plant water intakes and the experiences




of the operating personnel revealed the levels of pollutants



at which difficulties in water treatment occurred.




          Based on these factors, Mr. Gerstein had proposed



certain limits on pollutional constituents at the first




session of the conference.  In addition, plant personnel




have conducted a regular program of lake and stream sampling



in the area at many points with which the committee was con-




cerned.




          Thus the South District plant not only provided




an excellent starting point for the selection of sound




criteria at the plant water intakes,  but also furnished a

-------
                                                         147





                    Francis Kittrell




basis, through the regular sampling program, for intelligent




correlation of the criteria selected for the South District




water intakes with those for other points of concern in the




lake.




          The committee soon realized that it would not be




feasible to achieve uniform water quality throughout the area




and that a single set of criteria for all points in the area




would not be practical.




          For example, some water plant intakes, such as those)




for Hammond, Whiting and East Chicago, are relatively close




to the lake shore and to sources of wastes that discharge to




the lake, and are at locations where dilution of wastes by




clean lake water is restricted by breakwaters such as those




at Calumet and Indiana harbors.  Other intakes, such as those




for Chicago and Gary, are more remote from sources of wastes



and are in open-water locations where more dilution with clean




lake water occurs.



          It obviously is not reasonable to expect to achieve




the same high quality of water at the inshore intakes that



it is possible to attain at the open-water intakes.  The




committee concluded that it would be poor policy, indeed,




to accept lowered water quality at the open water intakes



simply because it would not be practical to ensure the same




high quality at the inshore intakes that is possible in the

-------
                                                         148






                    Francis Kittrell




open water.  Similar differences in practicality of attainment




of water quality exist with respect to other water uses and




to other locations.




          Consequently, the committee established three zones




for the lake waters of the area.  One zone, designated as




Open Water, includes all of the area more than 200 yards




offshore and outside of a line from the outer end of the




Calumet Harbor Breakwater to and along the Inland Steel Bulk-




head line and thence through t he U. S. Steel water supply




intake to the outer end of the Gary Harbor Breakwater.




          A second zone, designated as the Inner Harbor




Basins, is the area shoreward of the above line, but not




including shore water.  Shore Water is all water within 200




yards of shore except in the Inner Harbor Basins, where it is




that water within 200 yards of existing recreational areas.




In addition to the three lake zones, the committee considered




the three interstate portions of the Little Calumet and the




Grand Calumet Rivers and of Wolf Lake.




          In each of the six areas, the committee considered




existing and potential water uses.  The seven types of water




uses considered were municipal water supply,  industrial water




supply, recreation, fish and wildlife, commercial shipping,



esthetics and waste water assimilation.




          For the six areas the committee considered a total

-------
                                                         149




                    Francis Kittrell





of 31 sets of criteria consisting of  18 to  51  items  for  each




area.   Its final report recommends limits on nearly  200  items




involved  in water quality  in the six  areas  under  consideration.




          It would be needlessly time-consuming to plod  through




all of  these 200 items at  this  time.  The six  tables will  be




included  in the transcript of the "Report on Water Quality




Criteria, Calumet Area - Lower  Lake Michigan." Only some  of




the more  significant items will be discussed here.




          Major emphasis must be placed on  protection of




public  health, both of those who are  served by municipal water




supplies  and those who use the  area's beaches.  For  protection




of water  consumers against disease, we have recommended  limits




of coliforra bacteria not to exceed an annual average of  200




per 100 ml, with no single day's value in excess  of  2,500  per




100 ml. for Open Water, and corresponding limits  of  2,000  and



5,000 per 100 ml. for the  Inner Harbor Basins.  Recommended



tentative limits on fecal  Streptococci are  25  per 100 ml.  for



Open Water and 100 per 100 ml.  for the Inner Harbor  Basins.




For bathing beaches in Shore Water, the quality is to be con-




sidered satisfactory if coliform bacteria are  less than  1,000




and Streptococci are less  than  100 per 100  ml., or if coii-




forms are between 1,000 and 5,000 but Streptococci are less




than 20 per 100 ml.  In addition, toxic materials at water




supply  intakes shall not exceed concentrations that  would  pre-

-------
                                                         150






                    Francis Kittrell




vent meeting Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards




after conventional treatment.



          Closely following protection of public health




in importance is the preservation of esthetic values.  Those




include prevention of taste and odor in public water supplies




and of objectional visual pollution, especially in beach areas.




It is recommended that threshold odor number of a chemical




nature not exceed an annual average of 4, nor a single day's




value of 8 in Open Water, and that corresponding values for




Inner Harbor Basins not exceed 8 and 20.  Phenol-like sub-




stances should not exceed an annual average of one part per




billion (ppb) or a single day's value of 3 ppb in Open Water,




and be not more than 2 ppb and 5 ppb in the Inner Harbor




Basins.  To preserve esthetic values for both Open Water and




Shore Water, the waters should be substantially free of




floating oils and of solids and debris from other than natural



sources and there should be no turbidity of other than natural



origin that will cause substantial visible contrast with the



natural appearance of the water.



          To prevent undue interference with and cost of




water treatment, it is recommended that ammonia not exceed




an annual average of 0.02 milligrams per liter (mg/1) or a




single day's value of 0.05 mg/1 in Open Water, and be not




more than 0.05 and 0.12 mg/1 in the Inner Harbor Basins.

-------
                                                          151






                    Francis Kittrell




          Protection of fish and other aquatic life is




covered by several limitations,  Dissolved oxygen should not




be less than 90 per cent of saturation for an annual average




nor less than 80 per cent saturation for a single day in Open




Water with corresponding limits of 80 and 65 per cent of sat-




uration for the Inner Harbor Basins.  The hydrogen ion concen-




tration of pH is to be limited to an annual median within the




narrow range of 8.1 to 8.4, and a daily median within the




range of 7.7 to 9.0 in Open Water, to corresponding ranges of




8.0 to 8.5 and 7.5 to 9.0 in the Inner Harbor Basins, and to




7.0 to 9.0 in Shore Water.  Cyanides are to be limited to




0.025 mg/1 in Open and Shore Watere and to 0.1 mg/1 in the




Inner Harbor Basins.  General prohibitions of materials that




will adversely affect the physical, chemical or biological




nature of the bottom in Open Water are recommended.



          Many other limitations are recommended, but the



selected values cited indicate the exceptionally high quality



of water that the committee believes is obtainable and desir-



able in Lower Lake Michigan.  If these recommendations are




adopted by the conferees, it is believed that they will be




establishing a precedent in seeking the highest quality of




water that is feasible.  Improvements in sewage treatment




facilities and practices already in effect or in prospect




and estimated reductions of 70 to 80 per cent in the more

-------
                                                         152





                    Francis Kittrell




objectionable industrial waste constituents should go far




toward meeting these criteria.




          Criteria recommended for Wolf Lake are designed to




ensure the same protection for bathers as for those in Shore




Water, and the same protection for fish as in Open and Shore




Waters.




          The Little Calumet and Grand Calumet Rivers present




quite different problems than those encountered in the lakes.




Here much of the flow is waste treatment plant effluent with




little natural dilution, and, in fact, such effluent is the




only flow in the Grant Calumet at times.  The criteria




recommended for these streams are believed to be the highest




that can be achieved by conventional sewage treatment, but




as improved waste treatment methods become available these




criteria should be re-evaluated.




          Those presently recommended for the Little Calumet




River should permit safe use for limited body contact recrea-




tion, such as boating and fishing, for wildlife and rough




fish, and for waste water assimilation, and should prevent




nuisances.  Those for the Grand Calumet should permit use for




industrial water supply and waste water assimilation, and




should prevent nuisances.




          MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Kittrell.




          Are there any comments or questions?

-------
                                                         153





                    Francis Kittrell




          As you know,  we told you this was going to be a




technical session of the conference,  I think you can appreci-




ate the difficult nature of what this technical committee has




done, but I suspect that these numbers and what we are going




through and arriving at probably represent the future face




of pollution control.  I don't think any of us believe with-




out any numbers similar to this that we are going to have the



criteria, standards, and requirements if you will, to judge




if we are going to have pollution control,




          I would like to say for this committee that as far




as I can see this is to my mind a culmination of 20 years of




work and a program on various levels and with industry,  I




am not sure that ten or even perhaps five or even perhaps two




years ago we could have gotten all of these diverse elements




together, industry, local government, State government, and




Federal government, to come up with an agreed-upon set of



numbers the way we have had here.



          I do think that it would be fair to say -- and, of




course, the conferees will consider these numbers  that the




reflection or the attainment of the water quality recommended




by the technical committee would indeed give us a rather good




quality of water in the Great Lakes or in the tributaries



covered by the conference.  Certainly if all the waters in




the country had this quality there would be no pollution

-------
                                                       154




                       Francis Kittrell




problem in the country.



          Now, the 200 items are covered in a little brochure




which has been prepared for distribution.  We have only a




limited number of these copies at the present time.  There




are 13 pages of rather close typing.  For those who are




interested these can be picked up.




          I suspect this very well may become a historic




document, because I think something like this will have to be




forthcoming in most areas of the country if we are going to




achieve water pollution control.




          Mr. Kittrell, I would like to extend our thanks




to the technical committee for a really pioneering effort,




I think, in the field of water pollution control.




          I don't know where these criteria and standards




are going to lead, and I don't know what the position of the




conferees will be after they consider them and evaluate them.




But I think right now it is safe to say that we have moved



farther along in the field of pollution control in arriving



at a consensus involving municipalities, districts, State



and Federal government, and a consensus on specifics than I




have ever seen in this field.



          Thank you very much indeed, Mr. Kitrell.




          Mr. Klassen.




          MR. KLASSEN:  Mr. Stein, I would like to have you

-------
                                                         155



                    Francis Kittrell




draw on your own experience.  I have stated this, but I just




want it confirmed or not confirmed.  This is the first time




that representatives of two States and the Federal government



under the so-called aegis of legality have come up with agreed




upon standards.  Is this correct?




          MR. STEIN:  That is correct, sir.  They have come




up with a relatively high quality of water.




          I might say you can appreciate if you read these 200




items and look at Mr. Kittrell's full report this is even to




be more admired because of the complexity of the problem.




          It is amazing, it seems to me, that we have come up




with these standards in one of the most difficult areas of the




country.  I think the reason we have come up with this is two-




fold.  We just had to do it.  Perhaps the easy areas do not




call for thiso  The second point is we had, as far as I can




see, the complete cooperation, goodwill and hard work of the




various members of the technical committee.




          I don't know how many people are thoroughly con-




versant with our field, but as this was going on I looked




over the names of the technical committee here, and I would




say wherever you would have a technical committee you would be




hard put, if you had the whole country to choose from, to




select a more distinguished and expert technical committee




than devised these requirements.

-------
                                                         156





                    Francis Kittrell




          Again, I would like to say that this reflects very




favorably on the two States and the Sanitary District that




from their own staff they were able to supply men of this




caliber.




          I would also like to commend the oil industry and




the steel industry for sending top experts to the technical




committee.  I think we have had very, very distinguished




industrial waste experts and experts in dealing with the tech*




nical aspects of public programs.  This is what has led to




this achievement.




          MR. KLASSEN:  Just one other thing.  We have enough




worries and problems right here in Lake Michigan, but would




you want to venture a guess that this might be seriously con-




sidered in other parts of the Great Lakes?




          MR. STEIN:  I would not like to prejudge that.  I




would think that is true not only in other parts of the Great



Lakes, but I do think we have a model here which cannot only




be used for the Great Lakes but for the rest of the country.




          As you know, we are faced with the statutory prob-




lem of developing Federal standards, and the State agencies




have the first obligation to come up with these standards.




          The conferees will go through these and whatever




modifications may be made.  The pattern of the development of




these standards had become evident here.  I think that

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                                                         157






                    Francis Kittrell




probably this is the indication of the wave of the future.




          As far as I can see,  we are years ahead, at least




in administrative techniques, of the rest of the country.  I




am sure that when the committee gets through its deliberations




and the conferees come up with their conclusions, whatever




they adopt,  the entire proceedings and the requirements de-




veloped by the committee as discussed and considered and pos-




sibly adopted by the conferees will be one of the most sought




after documents in the field.




          Are there any further comments or questions?




          (No response.)




          If not, thank you very much, Mr. Kittrell.




          MR. POSTON:  At this time I would like to call




Grover Cook to come back and make a report on Federal instal-




lations and give us general recommendations.

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                                                         158

                    Grover Cook
                 FURTHER STATEMENT
                        OF
        GROVER COOK, CHIEF, ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES,
        REGION V, FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                   ADMINISTRATION
Federal Activities
          Besides the surveillance activity, the Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare recognized a responsibility
for abatement of pollution at Federal installations.  There
are no large Federal pollution sources in the conference area,
but the Department contacted all possible polluters shortly
after the conference to evaluate their problems.  Four Army
Nike sites are located in the conference area.  Their prob-
lems were largely one of poor maintenance and operation.  The
Army has since thoroughly reviewed their waste treatment
practices, and has initiated a program that will prevent
future pollution.
          The Coast Guard tells us they will start construc-
tion of all necessary waste treatment facilities in the
conference area  in fact, throughout the Great Lakes 
in the spring of 1966, to be completed during the fiscal year
of 1967.  Many of these will be completed by the end of
calendar year 1966.
          In addition, the Department of Health, Education,

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                                                         159






                    Grover Cook




and Welfare is installing six macerator-chlorinator units,




which are vessel waste treatment devices, in several Coast




Guard vessels in this area, to be evaluated.  Hopefully, then,




the other Federal vessels can follow suit and profit by this




experience.




          In addition to Federal water pollution control




activities of this nature, the Department of Health, Education,




and Welfare has also assisted the pollution control effort




by making grants for construction of municipal waste treatment




facilities in the area.  Since January, 1965 four grant offers




were made.  The largest was to the Metropolitan Sanitary




District of Greater Chicago in the amount of $1,041,000 for




construction amounting to $3,650,000.  Grant offers totalled




$1,593,000 for $4,373,000 of construction in the conference




area.  Before the conference the Department of Health, Educa-




tion, and Welfare made grants of about $2-1/2 million to




11 communities.




Re c omme nd a t _io ns




          The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare




reaffirms its position in regard to the conclusions and




recommendations of the March 1965 conference.  Surveillance




activities over the past eight months have pointed up the




need for a very vigorous program.  Therefore it is suggested




that the conferees consider the following recommendations.

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                                                         160




                    Grover Cook




          It is recommended that:



          1.  Present surveillance activities be expanded to




include more sampling stations and more frequent sampling.




The industries, municipalities, and the regulatory agencies




are encouraged to cooperate with the current Department of




Health, Education, and Welfare's Surveillance Program in the




establishment of a more comprehensive program, including the




possible installation of automatic monitoring equipment to




augment the present Department of Health,  Education, and




Welfare's monitors.




          2.  Laboratories continue to work together in a




long-range program to obtain uniformity in methods and pre-




cision of results.  Industrial, municipal, and regulatory




agency laboratories are invited to cooperate with the




Department in this program.




          3.  Information on characteristics of effluents



and receiving waters, and new construction of waste treatment



facilities be made available to the Indiana Stream Pollution



Control Board,  the Illinois Sanitary Later Board, and the




Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago for




compilation in semi-annual status reports to the conferees  and




to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.




          That's all I have.




          MR. STEIN:  Thank you,  Mr. Cook.

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                                                         161





                    Grover Cook




          Are there any comments or questions?




          I would like to bring one point out that Mr. Cook




raised of possible interest to the outdoors people, the con-




servation groups who may be in the audience.




          We have had a marine toilet operating on our boat




in Raritan Bay, between New York and New Jersey, for about a




year and have found it very satisfactory.




          As you know, in the last few years we have been




conducting assiduous searches for effective marine toilets to




stop pollution from boats.




          On the basis of this we have made available $75,000




for a cooperative program with the Coast Guard where marine




toilets will be put into operation on the Coast Guard boats




operating in New York Harbor, Raritan Bay, and the Great Lakes.




This shows you we just don't always enforce and use money to




tell people what to do but try to put our money where our




mouth is sometimes.




          We hope this demonstration will show what can be




done with wastes from ships, and we hope that it will be




closely watched and may prove an example to others so that




you can employ similar programs in your own localities and




in your States and use this measure to protect the lakes and




streams wherever they may be.




          Are there any further comments or questions?

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                                                         162






                    Grover Cook




          (No response.)




          If not, thank you very much.




          MR. POSTON:  That concludes our particular part of




this program, and we would like now to call upon Commander




Waite of the U.S. Navy who has a prepared statement on the




progress of the Navy in this matter of pollution.




          MR. STEIN:  If I had known we were to have a Navy




man, I probably should have said "ship" instead of "boat."




(Laughter)

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                                                         163






                 Commander Charles E. Waite




                       STATEMENT OF




           LIEUTENANT COMMANDER CHARLES E. WAITE,




                        U. S. NAVY




          COMMANDER WAITE:  Mr. Chairman, fellow members of




the effluent society:  (Laughter)




          At this time I would like to take the opportunity




to thank the committee for inviting the Navy to make this




public statement as to the programs and steps that the Navy




has taken to help in the abatement of water pollution.




          Before reading my statement, which I assure you is




very short, I would like to say at the outset that upon




notification that there was pollution by the Navy we took




what we considered to be a rather legalistic approach, and




then upon looking into the problem a little more closely,




recognizing that the Federal government is really the impetus




behind the whole program, we became more enlightened.




          We do have two problems here in the Chicago Sanitary




District Area.  One is with the Randolph Street Armory, which




is not owned by the Navy but is used by the Navy, and also




with our vessel that is tied up at the Randolph Street Armory.




          Now, if you will, bear with me for a moment while




I go through a reading exercise.




          In May 1965, the Chicago office of the Department




of Health, Education, and Welfare, in a letter to the

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                                                         164






                 Commander Charles E. Waite




Commandant, Ninth Naval District, indicated that the Navy was




not providing treatment of waste waters from its vessels




stationed or operating in the Chicago area pursuant to the




requirements of the municipal code of the City of Chicago.




          Now, here is where we took our legalistic approach.




In response, it was pointed out that the Chicago municipal




code did not apply to public vessels of the United States




government, and further that the naval vessels operating in




this area were complying with the more stringent requirements




of the Federal statute (33 USC 421) which has application




on the Great Lakes.




          On 7 July 1965,  the Metropolitan Sanitary District




of Greater Chicago in correspondence to the Commandant,




Ninth Naval District,  stated that "vessels docked at the




Naval Armory (Randolph Street) are discharging wastes into




Lake Michigan that violate our 1946 ordinance for the




control and abatement of pollution of water within our juris-




diction. "




          On 5 August 1965 the Chicago Sanitary District




suggested a meeting to discuss the problem of waste disposal




not only from the vessels  docked at the Naval Armory, but al-




so from the Armory itself.  This was the first occasion that




the Navy was asked officially to consider the Armory waste




disposal problem as its responsibility.

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                                                         165





                 Commander Charles E. Waite




          At the outset of the meeting with the Sanitary




District personnel, it was agreed that there were two distinct,




albeit interrelated problems; that is, pollution from




(1) Naval Armory and (2) Naval vessels.




          Recognizing the intent of Congress as expressed in




the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 USC




466 et seq.) the Navy representatives expressed the desire




of the Navy to cooperate with all interests in so far as




practicable and consistent with the interest of the United




States and within the limits of available appropriations.




In this spirit Navy representatives and officials of the State




of Illinois, owner of the Randolph Street Naval Armory, met




to discuss ways and means to abate the alleged pollution from




the Armory's septic tanks.  Since the United States does not




have a proprietary interest in the Naval Armory building, the




Navy cannot, under present regulations, expend Federal funds




for capital improvements such as the construction of a sewer




line from the Armory to the city sewerage system.




          However, because of the emphasis placed upon the




water pollution abatement program by the Federal government




and because of the fact that the Navy  is, for all intents




and purposes, the sole user of the Naval Armory, the project




for the construction of a sewer line,  as mentioned above,




has been included in the budget program of the Navy Bureau of

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                                                         166




                 Commander Charles E. Waite




Yards and Docks.  Whether the project will be authorized and



funds appropriated is presently the subject of some specula-




tion in view of the recently announced cutback of military




construction programs because of the Vietnam conflict.




          Meanwhile,  Sanitary District engineers conducted




tests of the effluent of the Naval Armory septic tanks in




order to determine its degree of contamination.  The results




of these tests were reported by the Sanitary District as




indicating "an unusually weak effluent."




          On the basis of this information the Illinois



authorities and Navy representatives, in a cooperative effort




and as a temporary solution to the problem of pollution from




the Armory, have initiated procedures for the installation of




a system whereby the septic tank effluent would receive




secondary treatment by way of chlorination prior to discharge




into the waters of the Sanitary District.  This procedure has



been approved by the Chicago Sanitary District.



          These are the steps which have been taken toward




solving the Armory problem, and it is felt that the temporary



solution is reasonable in view of the Sanitary District tests.




The duration of this interim arrangement is indeterminate




at this time because of requirements for Congressional author-




ization and the exigencies of the Southeast Asia military




involvement.

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                                                         167





                 Commander Charles E.  Waite




          The discharge of waste materials from Naval vessels




has been a subject of study by the Department of the Navy




for several years.  The Navy anticipated the primary problem




in early 1962 by incorporating in the  piping design of new




ships the provision for the separation of soil and human




wastes.  Backfitting of treatment equipment in these ships




will be facilitated as a result of this action, but the effort




and cost in backfitting ships built prior to 1962 will be




considerable.




          The Navy recognizes the importance of this problem,




is proceeding in the knowledge that pollution from ships is




definitely significant, and has recently expanded its efforts




to seek a solution.  The Secretary of  the Navy recently




stated that the public interest requires that the Navy take




all feasible steps which will help minimize the water pollu-




tion problem which exists today.




          At Navy initiation a macerator-chlorinator treat-




ment unit has been developed for small ships which will be




suitable for a maximum of about 40 people.  It is planned




that specifications for all new small  ships and craft will




provide for installation of this service-tested unit.  Another




step taken by the Navy has been its invitation to interested




companies to bid on the development and design of a waste




treatment system for larger ships.  Following prototype

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                                                         168





                 Commander Charles E. Waite




approval, specifications for future large ships will be




amended to include a requirement for a waste treatment system.




          With respect to USS PARLE (DE-708), which is




stationed here at the Naval Armory, Randolph Street, as well




as other Naval Training boats and ships, the following courses




of action are contemplated:




          a)  For ships under 40 complement, install a




          macerator-chlorinator unit, subject to availability




          of funds;




          b)  for larger ships such as DE  the PARLE 




          install the large waste treatment unit which is




          expected to be available about July 1968; once again




          backfitting is dependent upon availability of funds.




          The principal problems associated with the instal-




          lation of waste treatment systems in existing ships




          are centered in piping rearrangements, watertight




          integrity, and weight and space requirements.



          In addition to the above, the Navy's Bureau of




Ships has undertaken the development and manufacture of a




prototype installation in PARLE which, it hopes, may then be




applicable to other ships in the Great Lakes.



          In conclusion it may be said, categorically,  that




the Navy has recognized the importance of the pollution




problem.  It is taking permanent long-term measures to abate

-------
                                                         169






                 Commander Charles E. Waite




the pollution of the country's harbors, lakes and waterways,




in general.  Pending completion of these long-term solutions,




the Navy is currently developing a waste treatment system




for PARLE and, in cooperation with the State of Illinois, is




installing equipment to provide adequate treatment of the




Armory wastes.




          Thank you.




          MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Commander.




          Are there any comments or questions?




           (No response.)




           If not, thank you very much.




           I might say for the audience we have worked with




trying to  install waste treatment facilities on ships that




have been already built.  This is one of the most vexing




problems we have in our field, and I think the Commander will




readily agree, particularly in a Naval ship made to carry




out a specific mission.  There just isn't an inch to spare.




          The point is, if you have to change the piping




arrangements this is not very simple.  You can't even move




them a foot without making adjustments, and once you do that




you are in the situation sort of like musical chairs.  You




move one pipe, and every other one has to be moved.




          The problem of installing adequate waste collection




and disposal  facilities on some  of the older ships  is  indeed

-------
                                                         170





                 Commander Charles E. Waite




formidable and expensive.  Perhaps that is not so on the Naval




ships, or maybe it is.  But on many of the others, particular-




ly some ships we have found with foreign registry, we have



found waste discharges from ten or 12 points in the vessel.




          Evidently a lot of these older ships were designed




to get it in the waste pipe and right out as soon as possible




and just let it go to the outside.




          The task of running the pipe, connecting them all




together, bringing them to one or two or three central points




and treating it presents a real problem in ingenuity and




engineering.




          Commander,  we are with you on the program and will




try to do what we can to work with you.




          COLONEL CHESROW:  Mr. Stein, I would like to com-




mend the Commandant and the entire Navy personnel for the fine




cooperation and expedient manner, in which they handled the




problems which were presented to them.




          MR. STEIN:   Thank you.  That is very good news in-




deed.




          Yes, Mr. Poston?




          MR. POSTON:  This concludes the Department of Health,




Education and Welfare's presentation and also that of the




other Federal agencies.  However,  I would like to say that




Colonel Mattina has indicated to me that he would be available.

-------
                                                         171






                 Commander Charles E. Waite




He did not have a statement to make, but if there were ques-




tions pertaining to operation of the waterways in this area




he would be available to give such answers as he may be able




to assist in.




          MR. STEIN:  Colonel Mattina is with the Corps of




Engineers?




          MR. POSTON:  Right.




          MR. STEIN:  At this point let's take a ten-minute




recess and we will then resume with Indiana's presentation.




          (Whereupon, a recess was taken.)




          MR. STEIN:  May we reconvene?




          We have a couple of announcements.  One, we will




have more copies of the criteria available after lunch, and




also you can place your name on a list at the front desk and




they will be mailed to you if our supply runs out again.



          Also, as you know, we have the President of the



Sanitary District here, Colonel Chesrow, and in the audience



is another distinguished member of the Sanitary District who




has been a constant fighter for clean water in the lower end




of the lake and has always kept his eyes on our program and




prodded us to bigger and better things.  Vice President Vin-




cent Garrity, we thank you for coming.




          May we continue now with the Indiana presentation?




          Mr. Poole.

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                                                         172






                    B.  A.  Poole




                   STATEMENT OF




            BLUCHER A.  POOLE, CONFEREE




          MR. POOLE:  Mr.  Chairman, fellow conferees:




          Since the March conference,  the State of Indiana




has been right diligent I believe in attempting to carry out




the assignments that were given to it  by the findings of the




conferees at the conclusion of the March conference.




          In a nutshell, this involved the treatment of




sewage including chlorination, the establishment of a monitor-




ing and surveillance program particularly within the indus-




tries, the establishment of a housekeeping program and a




better operational program both within industries and in the




sewage treatment plants, and the development of schedules




for future construction.



          I believe our report which will follow will indi-




cate that except in the last category we have made real



progress, particularly if you consider the complexity of



the problem and the time involved.



          The Indiana presentation will consist of first a




statement on behalf of the Indiana Stream Pollution Control




Board, which I anticipate will take us up to noon today or




adjournment time  it will be past noon  and then we have




asked the Mayors or representatives of the cities of Gary,




East Chicago and Hammond to present brief reports on behalf

-------
                                                         173




                    B. A. Poole




of their cities.




          This will be followed by nine industries which are




the industries, in our judgment at least,  in Indiana that are




involved with a major problem.




          This is the agenda that I had brought with me.  I




have had one request for a brief statement on the part of a




small community on the Little Calumet River, and since it will




only take a few minutes I am going to try to work that state-




ment in sometime during this afternoon's agenda.




          I give you that because people have been asking me




when they would appear and how long would the Indiana part of




the program last and that sort of thing.  I have seen only




two or three of the statements from the 12 participants that




will follow us, but I would guess, Mr. Chairman, that Indiana




will consume the rest of the day and possibly might spill




over to a little while in the morning.




          MR. STEIN:  That will be perfectly agreeable.  We



will stay here as long as reasonably feasible.  There are two




things that in my experience happen though when you stay too




long.  One, the reporter gives out.  After all, this is one



area where we still have to depend on human power.  Secondly,




the conferees tend to get a little testy.  Sometimes this



prolongs things and complicates things rather than facilitating




them.

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                                                          174




                     B,  A. Poole




          So we will try to do as well as we can.  We all get




testy except Klassen.




          MR. KLASSEN:  I missed the word, Mr. Chairman.  Did




you say "pesty" or "testy"?  (Laughter)




          MR. STEIN:  Mr. Poole.




          MR. POOLE:  I am now going to introduce Perry Miller,




assistant director of the Division of Sanitary Engineering




of the Indiana State Board of Health, who will present the




report on behalf of the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board.




          He is the same man who talked to you down in




McCormick Place in March of last year.




          Perry Miller.

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                                                          177
                    Perry E. Miller



additional treatment needs.




              Cities Service Oil Company; E. I. du Pont de




Nemours & Company; Mobil Oil Company; Sinclair Refining




Company; Union Carbide Corporation, Chemicals Division;




American Oil Company; and American Maize-Products Company.




          C.  Need control or treatment facilities.




              Blaw-Knox Company; Calumet Nitrogen Products




Company; Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company; National Tube




Division, U* S. Steel Corporation; Gary Steel Works, U. S.




Steel Corporation; Gary Sheet & Tin Mill Division, U. S.




Steel Corporation; Inland Steel Company; M & T Chemicals,




Inc.; and Lever Brothers Company.




          D.  Need control or treatment facilities and cur-



rently negotiating for connection to a sanitary district



sewer system.



              Union Tank Car Company and Georgia-Pacific



Corporation  (formerly Steiner Tissue Mill).



          E.  Evaluation needed of facilities installed




since March, 1965.




              U. S. Gypsum Company.



          F.  No longer operating production facilities.



              Berry Refining Company.




          Waste load data from routine monitoring programs




for total plant loads were supplied by eight plants  and

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                                                       178






                    Perry E. Miller




partial load data by two plants prior to the March 1965




conference.  Since the conference 11 additional plants have




established monitoring programs.  The waste load to the



Grand Calumet River from four U. So Steel Corporation plants




is determined by sampling the river.  Outfall sewer sampling




is also included to determine waste loads and the effective-




ness of control facilities.  E. I. du Pont de Nemours &




Company has ordered samplers to monitor all significant




waste discharges.  Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company submits




data for only one outfall sewer and must expand its




sampling program.  The following plants must establish




monitoring programs:  Universal Atlas Cement Company, U. S.




Steel Corporation, and M & T Chemicals, Inc.  The data from




the monitoring programs and the preliminary surveillance




program are maintained in open files.




          Substantial reductions have been made in BOD, oil,



ammonia-nitrogen, phenol and sulfides when the present



monitoring data are compared with the data in Table VI of




the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare report of



February,  1965 and also with previous plant monitoring data.



          Part of these reductions are the result of improved




operation of facilities and improved housekeeping.  Part is




from the completion of new facilities which were designed




before the March conference.  The next six to 12 months

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                                                         179






                    Perry E. Miller




should bring further reductions as construction of treatment




works now approved are completed,,  However, the treatment




necessary to meet the water quality criteria when established




will require meetings with the companies involved to deter-




mine waste effluent quality.




MUNICIPAL




          Commendable progress has been made in the disin-




fection of treatment plant effluents.  Gary placed chlorin-




ation facilities in operation December 1, 1965; construction




bids have been received for chlorination at Hammond and East




Gary,  All sewage treatment plants will have disinfection




when the Hammond and East Gary facilities are completed.




          The City of Crown Point started construction of




additions to its activated slude-type sewage treatment plant




and chlorination facilities.  The City of Valparaiso started




construction of additions to the effluent chlorination




facilities.




          The Sanitary District of East Chicago is treating




wastes from General American Transportation Corporation,




has been treating ammonia still liquor from Inland Steel Com-




pany, and for a short time accepted ammonia still wastes



from Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company.  The District has




proposed the construction of a deep lagoon to receive a




portion of the storm water and the treatment plant effluent.

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                                                         180






                    Perry E. Miller




This combined waste would receive tertiary treatment includ-




ing chlorination and be available for industrial water




supply.




          The Town of Porter is the only community that has




not provided treatment of sewage.  The town is under order of




the Board to provide adequate facilities.  A consulting




engineering firm has been authorized to design sewage treat-




ment facilities.




          Increased surveillance of semi-public installations




has brought about improvements in the facilities and opera-




tion thereof.  Progress is being made towards obtaining




connections to municipal sewer systems and the provision of




effluent chlorination for the remainder of the semi-public




plants.




          The beach sampling conducted by Department of




Health, Education, and Welfare, Chicago Park Department, and




the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board show 13 or 38




samples from the Whiting beach had a coliform density of




less than 1,000 per 100 ml.  The Department of Health, Educa-




tion, and Welfare report of February, 1965 states coliform




densities usually exceed 1,000 per 100 ml.  The beaches




sampled by the Board in the Burns Ditch area were consistent-




ly low and satisfactory for swimming.




          There follows a brief discussion by river systems

-------
                                                         181
                    Perry E. Miller




of the progress by each municipality and each industrial




plant in the area covered by the conference.  The same



order has been followed as in the Indiana Stream Pollution




Control Board Report of February, 1965.




     GRAND CALUMET - INDIANA HARBOR CANAL - LAKE MICHIGAN




East Chicago - The East Chicago Sanitary District is working




with industry and initiating a program of accepting in-




dustrial waste that can be treated at the sewage treatment




plant.  Industrial wastes from U. S. S. Lead Refinery, Inc.,




General American Transportation Corporation, paint booth




wastes from Blaw-Knox Company, and ammonia still wastes from




Inland Steel Company are now discharged to interceptor




sewers for treatment at the District plant.  Youngstown




Sheet & Tube Company proposes the connection of ammonia still



wastes to District sewers for treatment.  Effluent chlorin-



ation is provided.




          The treatment facilities are designed for 20 mgd



with utilization of chemical treatment to supplement the




activated sludge process.  The plant is now treating 12 to




14 mgd, and the effluent BOD and suspended solids average




12 mg/liter.  The average quantity of phenol in the plant




effluent is reported as five parts per billion.  However,




surface settling rates and detention times in the tanks will




be less than recommended standards at flows of approximately

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                                                         182






                    Perry E. Miller




15 mgd; therefore, close control will be required to main-




tain satisfactory treatment at higher loadings.




          The District has proposed the construction of a




deep lagoon to receive storm water from approximately one-




third of the city and the sewage treatment plant effluent.




This combined waste would receive tertiary treatment includ-




ing chlorination prior to delivery to industry and/or dis-




charge to the receiving stream.




Gary - The Sanitary District completed construction of




sewage treatment plant additions during the summer of 1965




and placed effluent chlorination facilities in operation




on December 1, 1965.  The Gary Steel Works proposes the dis-




charge of coke plant wastes and the remaining sanitary




sewage, the Gary Sheet and Tin Mill proposes the discharge




of the remaining sanitary sewage and the Georgia-Pacific




Corporation proposes the discharge of industrial waste to



interceptor sewers for treatment at the District plant.




The Merrillville Conservancy District will discharge sewage




and wastes to Gary early in 1966 for treatment at the




District plant.




          The District facilities are designed to provide




secondary treatment for 60 mgd and primary treatment for




an additional 20 mgd.  The plant is now treating 30 to 35




mgd and the effluent BOD and suspended solids average about

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                                                         183






                    Perry E. Miller




12 rag/liter.  Adequate capacity is available for the




proposed additional sewage and waste discharges.




Merrillville Conservancy District - Construction of sanitary




sewers in the District area south of Gary is approximately




65 per cent complete.  The lift station and force main con-




nection to the Gary Sanitary District should be completed




by January, 1966.  In addition to providing sewer service




for over 1,500 homes within District boundaries, service




will be provided for several adjacent communities and semi-




public establishments.  The subdivisions to be connected




include Turkey Creek Meadows and Chapel Manor with an esti-




mated 1,000 homes.




Vulcan Petinning Division, Vulcan Materials Company, Gary -




The company is selling spent caustic that was formerly dis-



charged to the Grand Calumet River.  Bacteriological samples



indicated no evidence of sewage contamination.  Uncontamin-




ated cooling water is discharged to the Grand Calumet River.




Periodic inspections will be made to insure that adequate




waste control is maintained.




Cities Service Oil Company,	East Chicago - The preliminary




surveillance program has been completed and a routine




sampling program has been established.  The results of the




monitoring program, when compared with Table VI-5b of the




Department of Health, Education, and Welfare report of

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                                                          184





                    Perry E. Miller




February, 1965 show the following reductions:  BOD 73 per




cent; oil 92 per cent; ammonia-nitrogen 81 per cent; and




phenol 72 per cent.  The bacteriological samples show no




evidence of sewage contamination.  The establishment of water




quality criteria for the area may require further reduction




of contaminants.




E.	I. du Pont de Nemqurs_^Compa^nyj InPi_la.st Chicago -




The results of the preliminary surveillance program revealed




that concentrations of suspended solids and acidity are




significant.  The bacteriological samples show no evidence




of sewage contamination.  A routine sampling program is




being established.  Since March, 1965 the company has in-




stalled a sulfur-dioxide recovery system and it reports




98 per cent recovery of the sulfur-dioxide in the wastes dis-




charged to the Grand Calumet River.  The following waste




control projects are proposed:  Discontinue zinc ore roast-




ing operation (1967),  new treatment facilities for filter




aid wastes and revisions to the acid neutralization facili-




ties.  The establishment of water quality criteria may re-




quire further reduction of contaminants.




U. S. S Lead Refinery,  Inc.^Jlast Chicago^ - The preliminary




surveillance program was not required.  Inspection by




representatives of the Board indicates that all wastes are




discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary District sewerage

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                                                         185





                    Perry E. Miller



system.  Periodic inspections will be made by representatives




of the Board to insure that adequate waste control is main-




tained.




General American Transportation Corporation,  East^Chicago -




A preliminary surveillance program was not required.  The



company has connected all industrial waste to the East




Chicago Sanitary District.  Periodic inspections will be




made by representatives of the Board to insure that adequate




waste control is maintained.




Blaw-Knox Company, East Chicago - The preliminary surveil-




lance program has been completed.  Inspections by representa-




tives of the Board indicate that concentrations of suspended




solids and oils are significant.  The bacteriological samples




showed evidence of sewage contamination.  The company has




completed the following waste control projects since March,



1965:  Recirculation of wash water from the sand reclamation




operation, connection of paint booth waste to the East Chicagb



Sanitary District sewerage system and conversion to dry dust




collectors at two locations.  The workers at the main plant




were on strike from October 6 to November 14, 1965, and data




on the wastes discharged are not available at this time to




determine the effectiveness of the above facilities.  Dye




tests are being conducted to determine the sources of sewage




in the discharge to the Indiana Harbor Canal.  The company

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                                                         186





                    Perry E. Miller




must provide additional waste control facilities to reduce




suspended solids and oil.




American Steel Foundries,	East Chicago - The preliminary sur-




veillance program indicates that the company waste disposal




is adequate.  The bacteriological samples showed evidence of




sewage contamination; however, the company recently located




and repaired a broken section of the sanitary sewer and all




sewage is discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary District




for treatment.  Periodic inspections will be made by repre-




sentatives of the Board to insure that adequate waste control




is maintained.




Union Carbide Corporat ion,  Linde Division, East Chicago -




The results of the preliminary surveillance program indicates




that the corporation's waste disposal is adequate.  The




bacteriological samples show no evidence of sewage contamin-




ation.  The corporation has completed the following waste



control projects since March, 1965:  Disconnected roof drains




and cooling water from the settling basin, connected oily




waste to the settling basin, installed an automatic controller




on the cooling towers and installed oil separation baffles



on the settling basin.  Periodic inspections will be made by




representatives of the Board to insure that adequate waste




control is maintained.




Mobil Oil Company, East Chicago - The preliminary surveillance

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                                                         187





                    Perry E. Miller




program has been completed and a routine sampling program




established.  The routine sampling program indicates




periodically high concentrations of BOD, suspended solids,  oil,




phenol and ammonia.  Two out of five outfalls convey signifi-




cant wastes.  Bacteriological samples indicate no sewage




contamination.  Since March, 1965 the company has completed




the following:  Sludge pits, facilities for collecting spent




caustic, piping changes in the alkylation unit to prevent




sulfuric acid spills and installed automatic samplers, pH




recorder, temperature recorder, and flow measuring equipment.




          The results of the monitoring program, when com-




pared with Table VI-5c of the Department of Health, Education,




and Welfare report of February, 1965 show the following




reductions:  ammonia-nitrogen 90 per cent, phenol 90 per cent,




and BOD 21 per cent, and when compared with company data a



reduction of sulfides of 90 per cent and oil of 53 per cent.



          The following is proposed:  Caustic drip and drain




collection system, and divert wash water from the alkylation




unit to the sludge pit.  Additional in-plant control and




improved housekeeping practices are needed to eliminate




periodically high BOD, suspended solids, oil, phenol and



ammonia in the main outfall.  The establishment of water




quality criteria for the area may require further reduction




of contaminants.

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                                                         188






                    Perry E. Miller




Calumet Nitrogen Products Company, Hammond - The preliminary




surveillance program has been completed and a routine sampling




program established.  The results of the routine sampling




program indicate that concentrations of ammonia and nitrite-




nitrogen in the company's effluent is significant.  The




bacteriological samples showed no evidence of sewage contamin-




ation.  Since the March, 1965 conference the company has




discontinued the use of lime softening of boiler feed water




in order to reduce concentrations of suspended solids in the




effluent.  Future plans for waste control include the dis-




charge of spent caustic into the Hammond Sanitary District




sewerage system.




          The results of the monitoring program, when com-




pared with Table VI-5c of the Department of Health, Education,




and Welfare report of February,  1965 show the following re-




ductions:  Ammonia-nitrogen 74 per cent; and total nitrogen



74 per cent.  Additional reduction of ammonia and nitrate-



nitrogen are needed to provide a satisfactory effluent.



Union Tank Car Company, Whiting - The results of the prelim-



inary surveillance program revealed that concentrations of




BOD, suspended solids and oil are significantf  The




bacteriological samples showed evidence of sewage contamin-




ation.  The company proposes the following waste control




projects:  Diversion of in-plant storm drains from the oil

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                                                          189
                    Perry E. Miller



separator, recirculation of water from the hydrostatic testing



operations, and is negotiating a connection to the Hammond



Sanitary District sewerage system.  Diversion of storm water



from the oil separator and connection to the Hammond Sanitary



District sewerage system would provide satisfactory waste



disposal for the company.



Sinclair Refining Company, East Chicago - The preliminary sur-



veillance program has been completed and a routine sampling



program established.  The routine sampling program indicates



periodically high concentrations of BOD, suspended solids, oil,



phenol and ammonia.  The bacteriological samples show no



evidence of sewage contamination.  Since March, 1965 the



company has completed the following:  Sludge-holding tanks,



oil separation boom on the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, and



installed an automatic sampler.  Additional in-plant controls



and improved housekeeping practices are needed to eliminate



periodically high BOD, suspended solids, oil, phenol and



ammonia in the main outfall.  The establishment of water



quality criteria for the area may require further reduction of



contaminants.



U. S. Gypsum Company^ East Chicago - The results of the pre-



liminary surveillance program revealed high concentrations of



suspended solids.  Bacteriological results show no evidence



of sewage contamination.  A routine effluent sampling program



has been established.  The company completed construction of a

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                                                        190





                    Perry E. Miller




settling basin in November, 1965.  Evaluation of new facil-




ities will determine if additional treatment is required.




Youngstown Sheet jnd_Tube Company, East Chicago - The results



of the preliminary surveillance program revealed that con-




centrations of BOD, suspended solids, oils, ammonia-nitrogen




and phenols are significant.  The bacteriological samples




from eight outfalls showed high coliform densities.  However,




subsequent tests by the company and dye tests have shown that




all sewage is discharged to the East Chicago Sanitary District




for treatment.




          The company proposes the following waste control




projects:  Connection to the East Chicago Sanitary District




for disposal of remaining sewage, connection to the East




Chicago Sanitary District for ammonia still wastes, naptha-



lene recovery system, return caustic to the flue gas washer




water, waste pickle liquor holding tanks, waste pickle liquor




disposal on hot slag, seamless mill oil recovery facilities,




terminal settling lagoon with recirculation of clarified



effluent to the plant process water supply.  This program is




to be completed within 30 months.  Adequate waste treatment




facilities must be installed.




National Tube Division, U._S_ Steel CorporatioHj Gary -




The preliminary surveillance program revealed that concentra-




tions of oil, acidity and suspended solids from both outfalls

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                                                        191





                    Perry E. Miller




are significant.  The bacteriological samples showed no evi-




dence of sewage contamination.  The corporation has employed




a consulting engineering firm to study the industrial waste




problem at the National Tube Division.  The engineering studies




are to be completed by December, 1966.  Adequate waste treat-




ment facilities must be installed.




Gary Steel Works, U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary - The results



of the preliminary surveillance program revealed that concen-




trations of BOD, oils, suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen and




phenol are significant.  Four of 13 outfalls do not convey




significant wastes.  The bacteriological samples show that




five of 13 outfalls have sewage contamination.  The corpora-




tion proposes the following waste control projects:  Con-




tinuous casting line waste treatment facilities to be com-




pleted by July 1, 1966, oil skimmer on the Grand Calumet River




(these plans approved by the Stream Pollution Control Board



on December 2, 1965), connection to the Gary Sanitary Dis-



trict sewerage system for disposal of coke plant wastes




and remaining sanitary wastes.  The corporation has employed




a consulting engineering firm to study the industrial waste




problem at the Gary Steel Works.  The engineering studies are




to be completed by December, 1966r  A partial sampling pro-



gram has been established.  Adequate treatment facilities




must be provided.

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                                                         192





                    Perry E. Miller




Gary Sheet and Tin Mill, U. S. Steel Corporation, Gary -




The results of the preliminary surveillance program revealed




that concentrations of BOD, oils, suspended solids and




acidity are significant.  The bacteriological samples indicate




that two of three outfalls show evidence of sewage contamin-




ation.  The Stream Pollution Control Board approved plans




for treatment facilities at a new 84-inch hot strip mill for




reduction of scale, suspended solids and oil and for treat-




ment facilities at a new six-stand tandem cold reduction



mill and existing west five-stand cold reduction tin mill,




four-stand sheet mill, three-stand sheet mill and three other




cold reduction mills for reduction of oils and suspended




solids.  The remaining sewage will be discharged to the Gary




Sanitary District for treatment.  A deep well for disposal




of waste sulfuric acid will be completed in March, 1966.



Completion of these waste disposal and treatment works will



provide treatment for a majority of the wastes at this mill.




Engineering studies are in progress to determine additional




treatment needs.




American Bridge Pi vis ionx U. S. Stee 1^ Corpora t ion, Gary -



The results of the preliminary surveillance program revealed




that the wastes are not significant.  The bacteriological




samples show no evidence of sewage contamination.  Periodic




inspections will be made by representatives of the Board to

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                                                         193





                    Perry E. Miller




insure that adequate waste control is maintained,




Georgia-Pacific Corporation,	(Steiner Tissue Mill),  Gary -




The results of the preliminary surveillance program revealed




that concentrations of BOD, suspended solids and oils in the




corporation's effluent are significant.  The preliminary sur-




veillance data, when compared with Table VI-5b of the De-




partment of Health, Education,  and Welfare report of February,




1965 show a 63 per cent reduction of BOD.  The bacteriological




samples showed no evidence of sewage contamination.   A rou-




tine effluent sampling program was not established.   The




corporation is currently negotiating with the Gary Sanitary




District for connection to the Gary sewerage system for dis-




posal of the industrial waste.  Connection to the Gary system




with adequate pretreatment would provide satisfactory dis-




posal of the corporation's waste.




Berry Refining Company, Gary - This company was included in




the original list of industries designated to participate in




the conference.  On May 1, 1965 the company closed the re-




finery at Gary.




Northern Indiana Public Service Company, Bailly Station,




Baileytown - A preliminary surveillance program was not re-




quired.  Bacteriological samples indicate no sewage con-




tamination.  Inspections by representatives of the Board




indicate that waste disposal is adequate.  Periodic inspections

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                                                         194






                    Perry E. Miller




will be made by a representative of the Board to insure




that adequate waste control is maintained.




I nlanci Stee 1 Company, East Chicago - The results of the pre-




liminary surveillance program indicate that concentrations




of BOD, oils, suspended solids, acidity, ammonia, and phenol




are significant.  Seven of 19 outfalls do not convey signifi-




cant wastes.  The bacteriological samples indicate that four




outfalls show evidence of sewage contamination.  The company




has established a routine effluent sampling program.  The




following waste control projects have been completed since




March, 1965:  Connection of ammonia still wastes to the East




Chicago Sanitary District, recirculation of final coke plant




cooling waters, and installed two automatic samplers.  The




company reports it has substantially reduced phenols and




ammonia-nitrogen and increased fee oil recovery 200,000




gallons per year.




          The following waste control projects are planned:




Use of 80-inch hot strip mill waste treatment facilities for




disposal of waste pickle liquor, engineering studies to




determine practicability of using a deep well disposal system




for waste pickle liquor, expansion and modernization of the




North ,-;nd lagoon, seven additional automatic samplers, No. 4




Basic Oxygen Furnace reciroulation system, expansion of the




No. 2 sewage treatment plant,  and connection of the remaining

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                                                       195
                     Perry E. Miller
sanitary wastes to the sewage treatment plants.  Adequate
treatment facilities must be provided,
Universal Atlas Cement Division, U.S. Steel Corporation, Gary -
The results of the preliminary sampling program and inspection
by representatives of the Board indicate waste disposal is
adequate.  The bacteriological samples showed evidence of
sewage contamination.  The company has completed the following
waste control projects since March, 1965:  Effluent chlorina-
tion facilities and oil separation.  Periodic inspections
will be made by representatives of the Board to insure that
adequate waste control is maintained.
Northern Indiana Public Service Company, Mitchell Station,
Gary - A preliminary surveillance program was not required.
Bacteriological samples indicated no sewage contamination.
The company completed construction of a sand filter and
total ground absorption system for disposal of sanitary
wastes in October, 1965.  Inspections by the State indicate
that waste disposal is adequate.  Periodic inspections will
be made by representatives of the Board to insure that
adequate waste control is maintained.
Union Carbide Corporation, Chemicals Division, Whiting -
The preliminary surveillance program has been completed and
a routine sampling program established.  The routine sampling
program indicates periodically high concentrations of BOD

-------
                    Perry E. Miller




and suspended solids  in the corporation's two outfalls.  How-



ever, the monthly operation reports for September and October




show improved waste control.  These reports, when compared




with Table VI-5a of the Department of Health, ^Jducation, and




Welfare report of February, 1965 show the following reduc-




tions:  BOD 36 per cent, and from company data a suspended




solids reduction of 82 per cent.  The bacteriological samples




show no evidence of sewage contamination.  The corporation has




completed the following waste control projects since March,




1965:  Polyethylene pellet recovery facilities, oil collection



sumps, waste oil storage tanks, oil emulsion decanter tanks




and a nettling basin.  Establishment of water quality criteria




for the area may require further reduction of contaminants.




American Oil Company, V/hiting - The results of the preliminary




surveillance program  revealed that concentrations of BOD anc




ammonia-nitrogen in the effluent are significant.  The bacter-



iological samples show no sev/age contamination.  The routine




effluent sampling program indicates that periodically high




concentrations of oil and phenol are also significant.  The




company has completed the following waste control projects




since March, 1965;  Replaced the acid and clay treating




facilities at the Propane Dewaxing Plant with a new hydro-




finishing unit, increased the oxygen input to the bio-




flotation process by increasing the submergence of the




aeration brushes,  installed four mechanical aerators in

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                                                         197





                    Perry E. Miller




the bio-flotation basin,  and provided segregation, collection




and separate disposal of wastes from the heavy oils area of




the refinery.  Additional in-plant controls and improved




housekeeping practices are needed to eliminate periodically




high concentrations of oil and phenol in the effluent.  The




establishment of water quality criteria for the area may nec-




essitate further removal of contaminants.




American Maize-Products Company, Hammond - The preliminary




surveillance program has been completed and the routine




sampling program expanded.  The routine sampling program




indicates periodically high concentrations of BOD.  The




bacteriological samples show no evidence of sewage contamin-




ation.  The company has completed the following waste control



facilities since March, 1965:  Primary settling basins for



starch filtrate, enlargement of aerobic lagoon, diversion of



condenser waters to the lagoon system, and a surface condense^




on a steepwater evaporator.  The monitoring data, when com-



pared with Table VI-5a of the Department of Health, Education,




and Welfare report of February, 1965 show a 34 per cent




reduction in BOD.  The company proposes installation of




additional mechanical aeration to the aerobic lagoon.




Development of water quality criteria for the area may




necessitate further removal of contaminants.




Commonwealth Edison Company of Jndiana_, Hammond_ - The prelim-

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                                                         198




                    Perry E. Miller




inary surveillance program was not required.  Bacteriological



samples indicated no evidence of sewage contamination.  In-




spections by representatives of the Board indicate that waste




disposal is adequate.  Periodic inspections will be made by




representatives of the Board to insure that adequate waste




control is maintained.




           LITTLE CALUMET RIVER - BURNS DITCH




Crp\yn Point - The city has started construction of additions




to its activated sludge-type sewage treatment plant to




increase the design flow from 0.8 to 1.8 mgd.  Effluent




chlorination facilities will also be enlarged.  Extension




of the sewer system will provide sewer service to areas that




are not now served.  It is estimated the project will be com-




pleted by July 1, 1966.




          Effluent chlorination was provided this past season




and is continuing.



Hobart_ - The city is providing secondary treatment.  Effluent



chlorination provided May through October.



East Gary - Sewage from East Gary is treated at the Gary




(Miller) District sewage treatment plant.   Effluent chlorina-




tion was not provided; however, plans have been approved and




construction bids received for plant improvements including




effluent chlorination.  The city is considering the con-




struction of a new sewage treatment plant in the near future.

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                                                         199




                    Perry E. Miller





Chesterton - The town is providing secondary treatment and




effluent chlorination.




Valparaiso - The city is providing secondary treatment and




effluent chlorination.  Additions to effluent chlorination




facilities are under construction.  A preliminary engineering




report on sewage plant additions has been received.




Porter - The town has advised that no agreement had been




reached for sewage treatment by contract with the town of




Chesterton.  A consulting engineering firm has been author-




ized to design sewage treatment facilities.




          No action is reported on New Chicago and Portage;



these municipalities are not served by sewer systems.




Semi-Public - Seven of the semi-public installations in this




basin plan to connect to the Merrillville Conservancy District




sewer system.  With the exception of four relatively small



installations which are served by septic tanks and sand




filters or absorption fields, the rest provide secondary




treatment facilities; 17 of these now have effluent chlorin-




ation facilities and the other five have chlorination




facilities approved and/or promised by April 11, 1966.




          In general, the operation and maintenance of the




semi-public treatment facilities has improved.

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                                                          200





                     Perry  E.  Miller




               LITTLE CALUMET  RIVER -  WEST




 Dyer  - The  activated sludge-type  sewage  treatment  plant  in-




 cluding  effluent  chlorination and north  interceptor  sewer




 should be ready for  operation by  December 31,  1965.   Other




 interceptor sewer work  should be  completed by  June 1,  1966.




 Highland -  Construction of the lift stations and sewer con-




 nection  to  the Hammond  Sanitary District interceptor is




 continuing.    The project  should  be completed  by June 1,  1966.




 Schererville - The secondary  sewage treatment  facilities,




 including effluent chlorination,  were placed in operation




 about June  1,  1965.




 Griffith and Monster -  The sewage from these municipalities




 is discharged  to  the Hammond  Sanitary District for treatment.




 Problems have  been encountered with overloading of the




 south interceptor of the Hammond  Sanitary District resulting




 in the occasional discharge of sewage and wastes to  the



 Little Calumet River from  Highland and Griffith.   Plans  for



 a relief interceptor have  been approved  and construction




 bids were received in December, 1965.  The sewer construction




 can be completed  in  1966.




          The  overflow  from combined  sewers and the  discharge




 from storm  water  pumping stations, particularly during low




 stream flow periods,  will  continue to cause localized  unde-




sirable conditions in the Little Calumet  River.  The United

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                                                          201





                    Perry E. Miller




States Geological Survey stream flow records show flows as




low as 4 mgd in the river near the Indiana-Illinois State




line.




Simmons Company, Munster - The results of the preliminary sur-




veillance program indicate that waste disposal is adequate.




The company proposes the installation of automatic control




equipment and conversion to continuous chromium treatment




in order to provide optimum waste control.  A routine efflu-




ent sampling program has been established.  Periodic in-




spections will be made by representatives of the Board to




insure that adequate waste control is maintained.




             GRAND CALUMET RIVER - WEST




Hammond - Plans for effluent chlorination facilities for the




Hammond Sanitary District sewage treatment plant have been




approved and construction bids were received in December, 1963,




Construction should be completed in 1966.  The Calumet



Nitrogen Products Company proposes the discharge of spent




caustic to the District and the Union Tank Car Company and




LaSalle Steel Company propose connections to the interceptor




sewers for treatment of wastes at the District plant.




          The treatment facilities are designed for a flow



of 36 mgd.  The plant is now treating 32 to 34 mgd.  Problems




were encountered with replacement of air diffusion equipment




in existing aeration tanks and from time to time inadequately

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                                                          202





                    Perry E. Miller




treated sewage and wastes were discharged to the Grant Calumet




River.  The effluent BOD and suspended solids average about




20 mg/liter.  The District plant can handle the waste from




the proposed industry connections; however, additional




sewage treatment facilities will be required in the near




future.




          The District has made some progress with sewer




separation by the construction of sanitary relief sewers.




However, as interconnections are provided with existing



combined sewers, storm water overflows still discharge sewage




and wastes to receiving streams with surface water runoff.




Additional sewer separation is needed.




Whiting - A consulting engineering firm has presented a pre-




liminary plan to the city for separation of sewers in the



drainage area which outfalls to Lake Michigan at Front Street.




The city is now investigating the feasibility of financing



this project.



          The operation of the Front Street lift station




has improved materially.  From June through October sewage




was discharged to the lake on only 13 occasions for a total




of 106 hours.  Twenty-nine hours of bypassing was caused by




a sump pump failure which flooded out the pump motors and




two  and one-half hours by a power outage beyond the city




control.

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                                                         203
                    Perry E. Miller




Adolph Plating Inc., Electrogalvanizing Division, East



Chicago - The preliminary surveillance program was not re-




quired.  The bacteriological samples indicated no sewage




contamination.  Inspections by representatives of the Board




indicate that waste disposal is adequate.  A routine sampling




program is being established  Periodic inspections will be




made by representatives of the Board to insure that adequate




waste control is maintained.




LaSalie Steel Company, Hammond - The results of the preliminary




surveillance program and a routine effluent sampling program




indicate that waste disposal is adequate.  The bacteriological




samples showed no sewage contamination.  The company is




negotiating with the Hammond Sanitary District for connection




to the Hammond sewerage system.  Periodic inspections will



be made by representatives of the Board to insure that



adequate waste control is maintained.



M &T Chemicals, Inc., East Chicaga - The company was not



included in the original invitations for industries to par-




ticipate in the conference.  Subsequent investigations and




results of the preliminary surveillance program revealed




that the concentrations of BOD, suspended solids and oils




are significant.  The bacteriological samples showed evidence




of sewage contamination.  The company has not developed a




satisfactory waste  control program.

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                                                         204





                    Perry E. Miller




                       WOLF LAKE




Lever Brothers Company, Hammond - The preliminary surveill-




ance program has been completed and a routine sampling prob-




lam established.  The routine sampling program indicates




variations in BOD and suspended solids in the effluent.




There is no interstate pollution of Wolf Lake from this




source.  Additional in-plant control and housekeeping prac-




tices are needed to reduce the variations in waste discharges




to the Indiana waters of Wolf Lake.









                       SUMMARY




1.  All municipalities, except Porter, are providing second-




ary treatment and all will provide effluent chlorination




when the Hammond and East Gary facilities are completed in




1966.




2.  The Sanitary Districts of Gary, Hammond and East Chicago



are cooperating with industrial plants to treat industrial




wastes.




3.  The East Chicago Sanitary District has proposed con-




struction of a lagoon to receive storm water from approxi-




mately one-third of the city and the effluent of the sewage




treatment plant.  The combined wastes would receive tertiary




treatment including effluent chlorination and be available




for industrial water supply.

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                                                         205

                    Perry E. Miller
4.  Beach sampling showed the beaches in the Burns Ditch area
were consistently satisfactory for swimming.  The Whiting
Beach samples based on coliform density show improvement when
compared with those in the report of Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare of February, 1965.
5.  All industrial plants requested to make preliminary sur-
veillance tests did so and submitted the analytical results
to the Board.  Total or partial monitoring programs have
been established except at two industrial plants.  Data from
both programs are maintained in open files.
6.  Substantial reductions have been made in BOD, oil,
ammonia-nitrogen, phenols and sulfides by improved house-
keeping and installation of new facilities.
7.  Fifteen industrial plants have adequate waste control
facilities, two are negotiating to connect to sanitary
district sewer systems, one plant completed facilities in
November and these facilities must be evaluated, and one
plant is no longer operating.  Nine plants must provide addi-
tional treatment.  Of these one is Lever Brothers which is
involved in Indiana waters and not interstate waters.  Seven
plants will probably need additional treatment when water
quality criteria are adopted.
8.  A number of semi-public installations will be eliminated
and connection made to municipal sewers.  Seventeen semi-

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                                                          206






                    Perry E. Miller




public plants provide secondary treatment including chlorin-




ation and five others with secondary treatment have chlorin-




ation facilities approved and/or promised by April 11, 1966.




          Thank you.




          MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Miller, for a very com-




prehensive and excellent report.




          Are there any comments or questions?




          MR. KLASSEN:  Mr. Miller, will the Gary people  be




here?  Or should I ask you the questions that I would have




asked them?




          MR. MILLER:  Mr. Klassen, the Gary people will  be




here.  They are expected to make a report this afternoon.




          MR. KLASSEN:  Okay.  I will save that.




          Also, just on page one, different States have dif-




ferent interpretations of words.  When you say "waste control




facilities" in "A," is that measuring devices and this type




of thing?




          MR. MILLER:  No, in "A" we mean the treatment that




they have installed that we consider as satisfactory and



as being adequate for the area.




          MR, KLASSEN:  Okay.




          MR, MILLER:  Some of them do, however,  have




measuring devices as well.




          MR. STEIN:  Thank you.

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                                                          207





                    Perry E. Miller




          Are there any farther questions or comments?




          (No response.)




          If not, thank you very much, Mr. Miller.




          I think you can appreciate the magnitude of the




problem faced by Indiana in attempting to bring this problem




under control and the painstaking way you have to go through




to achieve that control.  I think the progress indicated




here is admirable.




          Again, let me say, as indicated, this is a tech-*




nical meeting and there is no other way to pollution control




that I know of but getting down to naming places and dealing




with the materials where they come out and dealing with the




hard technical problems presented.




          I think Indiana is well on its way.




          At the present time we will recess for lunch and




reconvene promptly at two o'clock.  Thank you.




          (Whereupon, at 12:40 p.m., the luncheon recess  was




taken.)
ftU S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1966 O - 211-207

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