00
 CM


 ^ CM

 ?S
 0 >.
 2-8
 LULL
 5  5?
 CO  O
 CD (0 CM

 ISO
 -.B c Q
 CO CO  .
 *r 3 D>
 Oco c
 
 O .CD c
   o
   CD
   O
-
  Bo> 42
  o5
  o

  "t3
  o>
eo <5
 c
 <5


Si&
CD. C
 > 
c tz a>
Z3LU<
 CO
 (0
 o
 Q.
 CO

5
        (0
        CO
         (D
        u
        CO
        0)
       CL
       LU
       cd

-------
   CO
P-
&
    ft
      *TJ
8-&
   P
o ;= ^
(W
    CO

    B. S
 I
             SIS
           6 . a o
                 I
          is&n
              S 
          
           ai
           1
           i a
          I
          I
          S
          to
             linn
             Os ON
          i
          I
          &
            1.11 i I
                  IS
a_
|"
3



1
*"
O
S.
a.
JL
5"
S

I
^
-^





Tl
1






S
                       p. c
                         CO
                           S 8 
                           3:1
                             - era
                             !=*
                               S 2.
                        &,  
5 & & & ff
g ^ g. 5 5
1 & i? g. "

2 II
ill II
IS 5*1-S,

 His
llfi-
H 03 3 p co
S>. fD
  g- CD fcr co

  HIS1
                                    S9
                                    CfQ

-------
produced by long-term exposure). Metabolism
and kinetics play a significant role in the ex-
es >>
jD JD
sb^
ctf o3
e. . ^
0 '
""i*. O3
&
5 g
ll
Q 3
tS o
S'S
Vj3 4)
3 OH
H
4H 00
O
:!
>rH f \
03 .y
GO C
fli GO
&&
metabolism while others are deactivated. Tox-

o

>
:
centratiori of the formulation. Depending on
use and disposition, a very toxic compound
may ultimately be less harmful than one that is
relatively non-toxic. Pesticides should be la-
belled according to their hazard class, and the
usage instructions on the label should consider
the toxicity of the pesticides.
& f! lll.s g"* M"|  ISge
|||Ii|I IllliHli
f!!i!iK-lgIl^ft
agtlrfSl-iSjfrQalsj!*
i l si i^s s'-*i iff Hi
|l|l^pi|i||lg|i
s. gsaaisg^o5Sg.g -s *
3|l'3ISg^Ssa|.l^||a
is .S M M T3 . SggEP-S'SS-.S'SSfg
lll!!ililll!l!l!
persistent in the environment.
 TPT-!c.L-
""iy .*"l*l*l/Ui]C. JL11V -LUlA^glttlA^U J.ViaiV
Information System (IRIS) contains summa-
d
o

C

a
2

E
c^  O
         
         OH
                o3 
                O f^| .3 " .^
Introduction
Over the past four decades, the production
&

e
J
I
J3
GO
!
GO
 T3  'd ^ OH -  5 S 2 fi P  '
|iH.ll|g||fe|-llS
fl-frv^SlliHS-si!
^Illlll-5llll3S-
8||t|llaiB^II1i1
a o S o 5  S I 1  S^ - 3 ! 1
|ill!|ril||l|il
Es^jn-cSia^ .9 -S .S 'G &'S -S 8
quently may cause adverse health effects in
exposed humans and animals.
s*

OJD
.g
*p
Disposal
The best way to handle the disposal prob-
lem is to avoid accumulating excess or obsolete
pesticide stocks in the first place. Methods to
minimize the need for disposal include the
following:
- Purchase small quantities & avoid over-
stocking and stockpiling.
                                I
                                
                                I

-------

-------

-------

-------
some highly mobile and toxic wastes. In some
cases inorganic pesticides or liquid pesticide
wastes containing about 5 percent organic ma-
terial can be solidified or stabilized prior to
disposal in a landfill. Mercury, lead, cadmium,
and arsenic, as well as inorganic compounds
that are highly mobile in soil, can be encapsu-
lated in concrete or other stable material. This
will retard mobility and contain the wastes in a
small area that can be recorded for future refer-
ence. Significant concentrations of organic sub-
1 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 2)
notbe in erosion gullies, sinks, dry watercourses,
pesticides, 3) chlorinated hydrocarbons, and 4)
miscellaneous chemicals. Treatability screen-
ing studies were conducted to determine degra-
dation rates, partition coefficients among air,
water, soil and oil phases, and transformation
characteristics. The quantitative information
developed for a subset of the tested chemicals
was input into two mathematical models spe-
cifically designed to describe the soil treatment
process.
or quarries. Protection of ground and surface
waters should be a major consideration.
 SW-874 Hazardous Waste LandTreat-
ment  This document is a practical reference
for people involved in design and design re-
view, beginning with site selection and waste
characterization and progressing through facil-
ity design, operation, and closure. Information
on the fate of both inorganic and organic com-
pounds in the soil environment is included and
stances may retard solidification and affect its
mechanical strength; water soluble pesticides
x'
1
J
1
1
43
B
1
Disposal in Carefully Managed Landfills
A disposal option for small amounts of
some solid pesticides, or small amounts of
provides a basis for developing treatment dem-
onstrations. Non-hazardous waste constituents
are also discussed because they are likely to be

i
g

1
1
CO
1
CO
s.
1
s
1
CO
w>
s
.s?
1
1
1
Q
a
I
 i-H
 EPA/625/4-89/022 Technology Trans-
fer Seminar Publication: Requirements for Haz-
ardous Waste Landfill Design, Construction,
/7M/7 C*1f\Q1lV0 TVl-10 TMiK1iratl/-W -rwo*tt+f< *-*n-
rent guideh'nes for construction of hazardous
waste landfills, and offers practical and de-
tailed information on the construction of haz-
ardous waste facilities that comply with these
requirements. Included are the use of clay lin-
ers, material and design considerations for flex-
ible membrane liners, liquid management in-
cluding leachate collection and removal, leak
detection, collection and removal, and the sur-
verted into a solid product, is burial in a well-
managed municipal solid waste landfill. The
landfill operator must be notified of the identity
of the pesticide waste. In a well-managed land-
fill, the waste deposited each day is covered
with a layer of soil, and the soil layer is packed
using machinery. Microorganisms in the soil
layer, and in other organic materials in the
landfill, promote the breakdown of pesticide
wastes.
The landfill should be sited to ensure that
ground water will not be contaminated (as
determined by a hydrogeologic survey) or must
have a clay or synthetic liner. It should not be
face water collection system. Also discussed
are the elements of a closure system for a
completed landfill includingflexible membrane
located in areas of seismic instability, in flood-
plains, or wherever the integrity of the liner
system could be adversely affected.
ment of facilities. Waste-site interactions that
affect treatment processes are discussed as well^
as laboratory, greenhouse, and field testing
protocols for assessing land treatment perfor-
mance. Methods for calculating loading rates
and determining limiting constituents are pre-
sented. Plot layout, water control, erosion con-
trol, management of soil pH and fertility, veg-
etation establishment, waste storage facilities,
waste application methods and equipment, site
inspection, andrecordkeepingrequirements are
discussed. Monitoring procedures for waste,
soil cores, soil-pore liquids, runoff water, ground
water, and vegetation are also presented.
 EPA/600/6-88/001 Treatment Potential
for 56 EPA Listed Hazardous Chemicals in
caps, surface water collection and removal, and
gas control.
c
j>-
 1-H
CO
O
1
1
1
-3
1
CO
1
1
^^
t V3
a
CO
3.
a
^j
*j
o
nized into four categories of substances: 1)

-------
0\
           3
                                                                           5  B Js  9 *S
                                                                             -P "8  s.  a
cf.
                                                                       <   a.
                                                                            ^ n  g  2. ^
                                                                               o  c- c^  >-..
                                                                               B  r>  CD  50
                                                                               P  S  5  .,
 P


 I
 en


3
                                       *
                                                                                                                       O)

                                                          I
                                                      I
                                                      O





                                                      I


-------
           1 <+-!
           *H6]|
I 6

-------
WHO. "Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used
8
B*
I
3.
0
rr
ure." World Health Organizatioi
^
*
i *
VO
p
iviuigcui, JL.IT. iviiiiinii/.iiig vyuv/upauuiioi XJA^UOUJ
75: 97-102.
U.S. EPA. "Pesticide Fact Sheets." United States
W c
1' ^
O r
FAO/WHO. "Pesticide Residues in Food." Report
WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues C
D  O
? SSg;

P 00 JJ3 -
1 Q!  r?
5 Joint Meeting of the FAO Wor
nical Report Series, No. 592; F;
ides: Acute and Chronic Effects
;ntal Protection Agency. 1985-1
FAO. "International Code of Conduct on the Distri
1986.
i

H^
P.
Use of Pesticides." Rome, Food i
vo o <^ Q S
00 M, Q g- jjj^
** J? TJ0" ^>
^ ?
 s* 2?

g. BI IT)^


- *
3 C
T> a o
 O w>
*S o ^ W
o p ^ ><
o | I'l
p 1 l
c? 5?S?
i. a&.


3* 0 ft'
^ I'S
S3 C/3 oo
R" S- &
to P S


5 2 S
s- P &
S H-&


S" V CD
1
0

j*
c
3
^w
S
nizationi
S,
the United
2
f


j
FAO. "Guidelines on Good Labelling Practice foi
~i
c?
a
o
ff
00
." Rome, Food and Agriculture
*
B.
S
rr.
o
p

->
CD
i
I

-5
VO
oo
Ui
*




FAO. "Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses."
!
vw
?
>d and Agriculture Organization
a
a.
CD
C
.

CD
P<
i5
i
p
y
00







FAO. "Ad Hoc Government Consultation on Inter
p. 57 (AGP: 1977/M/9, Appendix IV).
1

c/a
i-f
uidardization of Pesticide RegisI
H
1
P
hrH
70
P
e
S-
3
3
1
P
to

00
CD
"*
vD
|~4

FAO. "Report of the FAO Panel of Experts on Inte
Nations, 1967.
1

c?
%.
Control, September 1967." Rom
CD
P.


^
h^_
ffO
u
o
-
s
N
1
a,
s-
CD
d
3.
clT
p.
ESCAP. "Development/Environment Trends in A
Pacific, 1983.
1

cf
Pacific: A Regional Overview."
i
|
3
o'

c
3
c
8
-*
9
%
ionof Asii
*>
P
f3

S-
CD
^H
CSA. "Cancer Risk of Pesticides in Agricultural
Association. 260 (1988): 959-966.
1 '
?r

g1
1
2.
h *

c/a
o
CD'
P
j>"
">
S5
p.
l"t
L
, "
|
|

c?
CD
S.
5;
o^
CD



P.
O
p
Adelines."
^_a
CD
f

n
2
ff
X
^H
Brattstin, L.B. et al. "Insecticide Resistance: Chal
1

cF
st Management and Basic Rese<
1
c4
Pi

-------
Os vo vo
en o vo
>n r~ n
"n o t~~
XI o in o\
-a* cs o vo
oo en en
i i O  i
es c^- in
.
^ - tt -S
2  ja g -a
ti * a 8'1
tS  -g ^ w
>S ^ 1 o |
2* .54 B 
 K 45 ^
^1
CO
"rf
r^
r*
Project Area
Bioassays
Disposal
Disposal of Small Quai
i-H
1
f-
en
O
 i
1
o\
i
o\

Robert Menzer





|| Toxicology
t^-
oo
VO
en
l-H

co
1




a.
Treatment Technologie

-------
O H W PO
>> en n>

&^^
   af
                        i
                       tr
                        
a
s-
                       I

                        i

                        I

-------
on
nfor
 ?3
a
 s
^
^
JT
H
S
S
Jl
I
K
E
I
^
S
i
^
rld
on
try
SYSTEM (cont.)
*
FORMATIOI
Z
^^
^EGRATEDRISK]
g
H
s of IRIS to both the Woi
.a
[y, diskette cop
ti
^ also provides, quart
ol
w
ericanHealth Organizati<
>pies of the latest IRIS ent
5
|) and the Pan A
O
1th Organization (WF
CO
ffl
8
ns will provide
&
HO). These organizal
<
o

_

-------
sr
                                                                      o
                                                                      I

-------
fa.
o
s  p|l

         I
         I
                  I
                    CO Q
             io|
             s g 
             fiiSs
             ol|
 If
                       05
                        
                        < "
                  o  g>
                  sil
H.!
5c?J
                                      o
                              o8
                              81?
                                        S" o
                                    II li
                                      I
                                      1
           IE
           |8
           5-2
            iii
          " O)
          S 2
          s-
          - 
       ^  II
       lf!f
1
                             gs
                             m O
                             i E
                             w a.
                             ^-2
                                        2 2
                                      li
                     I
                                              TO

                                              
                                                      01

                                                      g
                                                 O   S 
-------

-------