United States
           Environmental Protection
           Agency
Office of Research and   EPA/600/R-92/189
Development      September 1992
Washington, DC 20460
&EPA     Pollution
           Research Program
            POLLUTI

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                                                  EPA-600-R-92-189
                                                  September 1992
     POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                      Gregory Ondich
                      Project Manager
Office of Environmental Engineering and Technology Demonstration
             Office of Research and Development
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                  Washington, D.C. 20460
                                                Printed on Recycled Paper

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                  DISCLAIMER
             This material has been funded wholly or in part by the United States
             Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  It has been subject to review
             by the Science Advisory Board and it has been approved for publication
             as an EPA document. Mention of trade names or commercial products
             does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
 ii
                                                                           DISCLAIMER

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                                                POULUIION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                       FOREWORD
               During the past two decades, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
        has made considerable progress in improving environmental quality by focusing largely
        on treating and controlling pollutants that have already been generated. EPA's "end-of-
        the-pipe" approaches have achieved significant reductions in the discharge of pollutants,
        but additional gains  in treatment and control will, in most cases, be much more costly
        and difficult to achieve.  The U.S. currently spends about $115 billion each year (about
        2% of the U.S. gross national product) on  environmental protection.   Despite the
        increasing expenditures for pollution control, many environmental problems remain and
        complex  new problems have  arisen that threaten the quality  of our lives and the
        ecological systems that support our economy.  Many of the problems that we now face
        are not amenable to the "end-of-the-pipe" treatment approaches that we have used in the
        past.  We need creative new strategies for reducing environmental risk.  Further strides
        in  protecting  the environment will require preventing problems before they occur.
        Pollution prevention holds the key to future gains in environmental protection.

               We must begin to integrate pollution prevention into  the  way we  design,
        manufacture, regulate, buy, consume, and dispose.  Pollution prevention not only offers
        an approach to reducing the risks associated with most of the serious problems facing our
        nation, it also makes good economic sense.  Pollution prevention has the potential to
        conserve natural resources, reduce raw material costs and energy consumption, reduce
        present and future waste management costs, minimize liability, and earn public goodwill.
        These benefits  can  serve as  incentives to  encourage voluntary implementation  of
        prevention approaches hi both the public and private sectors.

               Our ability to anticipate and prevent environmental problems will depend directly
        on our understanding of and ability to manage the myriad of activities mat affect the
        environment.  Research is the primary vehicle for enhancing our pollution prevention
        knowledge base.  It is needed to provide the scientific and technical knowledge necessary
        to implement pollution prevention initiatives on a cross-media,  cross-program basis. This
        document describes the framework and  strategic design of EPA's pollution prevention
        research program, and it identifies priority problems and cross-cutting issues targeted by
        the program. This document also describes how the research program is integrated with
        Agency-wide pollution prevention initiatives to achieve EPA's pollution prevention goals.
                                                   Stephen A. Lingle
                                                   Pollution Prevention Issue Planner
                                                   Office of Research  and Development
FOREWORD
                                                                                             iii

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS
Disclaimer	i	    li

Foreword		   iii

Table of Contents	   iv

List of Exhibits	   vi

List of Acronyms	  vli

Executive Summary	-. .',	   ix

Chapter 1: Introduction	    1
       Background	    1
              The Pollution Prevention Act	    2
              What is Pollution Prevention?	    3
              EPA's Pollution Prevention Initiative	    3
              U.S. EPA Pollution Prevention Strategy ,	    6
       EPA's Pollution Prevention Research program	  12
              Pollution Prevention Research Plan: Report to Congress	  13
              OKD's Vision for Pollution Prevention Research	  15
              Pollution Prevention Research Program  	„	  18
              Overview of the Research Program	  18

Chapter 2: Strategic Approach		  21
       A Framework for Pollution Prevention Research		  21
       Identifying Priority Environmental Problems 	  22
              Risk-Based Evaluation of Environmental Problems	  24
       Selecting Priority Environmental Problems	  27
       Identifying Cross-Cutting Research Issues	  30
       Setting Research Priorities  	.,	  30

Chapter 3: Problem-Specific Research	  35
       Indoor Air Pollutants	  35
       Criteria Air Pollutants	  36
       Ozone Depleting Substances	I  .......  37
       Greenhouse Gases/Global Climate Change  	'.	  39
       Toxic Air Pollutants  .	  40
       Pesticides	  41
       Nonpoint Source Water Discharges	  43
»v
                                                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS

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                                           POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                  TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
      Hazardous and Industrial Wastes  	   44
      Municipal Solid Waste	   45

Chapter 4: Cross-Cutting Research	   47
      Development of Pollution Prevention Tools  .	   47
             Pollution Prevention Assessments 	   47
             Modelling   	   48
             Life Cycle Analysis  	   49
             Understanding Decisionmaking and Behavior	   51
      Application of Pollution Prevention Tools	   51
             Source Reduction Review Project	   52
             Innovative Pollution Prevention Approaches   	   52
             Technology Transfer	   53
             Incentives and Education	   54
             Sector Strategies for Pollution Prevention	   54
      Measurement  of Progress	 .   55
             Pollutant Reduction  . . .	   56
             Impacts and Effectiveness	   56

Chapter 5: Implementing the Pollution Prevention Research Program	   59
      Managing the Research Program  	   59
      Role of the Pollution Prevention Issue Planner	   59

Bibliography	   63
TABLE OF CONTENTS

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POtLDTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                LIST OF EXHIBITS
Exhibit 1:

Exhibit 2:


Exhibit 3:

Exhibit 4:

Exhibit 5:

Exhibit 6:

Exhibit?:


Exhibit 8:


Exhibit 9:


Exhibit 10:
                                                                                      Page
Definitions of Pollution Prevention Terms   .	    4

Priority Chemicals Targeted hi the 33/50 Project for the
    Industrial Sector Pollution Prevention Strategy	    7
Pollution Prevention Research Report to Congress   	   14

ORD Research Issues   . . . ;	   16

Framework for Pollution Prevention Research	   23

Priority Environmental Problems	   26

Priority Environmental Problems Targeted in the
    Pollution Prevention Research Program	   29

Cross-Cutting Issues Targeted in the Pollution
    Prevention Research Strategy	   31

Prioritization of Pollution Prevention Approaches for
    Targeted Environmental Problems  	   33

Relationship Between Problem-Specific Research Areas
    and ORD Research Issues   	   60
                                                                         UST OF EXHIBITS

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                                           POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                             LIST OF ACRONYMS
AEERL
AIA
BOD
CAAA
CCMS
CERCLA
CFCs
CO2
DOE
EMAP
EPA
FY
GACT
HAPs
HCFCs
ICPIC
LCA
LISA
MACT
MSW
NAAQS
NATO
OEETD
OPP
OPPT
ORD
OTA
OTTRS
PCBs
PPIC
PPIP
R&D
RCRA
RREL
SAB
SARA
SRRP
TRI
USDA
VOCs
Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
American Institute of Architects
Biological Oxygen Demand
Clean Air Act Amendments
Committee on the Challenges of a Modern Society
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Chlorofluorocarbons
Carbon Dioxide
Department of Energy
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program
Environmental Protection Agency
Fiscal Year
Generally Available Control Technology
Hazardous Air Pollutants
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse
Life Cycle Analysis
Low-Input Sustainable Agriculture
Maximum Achievable Control Technology
Municipal Solid Waste
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Office of Environmental Engineering and Technology Demonstration
Office of Pollution Prevention
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Office of Research and Development
Office of Technology Assessment
Office of Technology Tranfer and Regulatory Support
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse
Pollution Prevention Issue Planner
Research and Development
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
Science Advisory Board
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
Source Reduction Review Project
Toxics Release Inventory
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Volatile Organic Compounds
 LIST OF ACRONYMS
                                                                 VII

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
PREVENTTON-A NEW FRONTIER IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    The 1990s have been referred to as the "decade of the environment" and with this decade a renewed
sense of urgency and resolve to improve the quality of the environment has taken root in our country.
Despite the complexity of the environmental  challenge~or perhaps because of it-scientists from both
inside and outside the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are  turning toward the concept of
preventing pollution before it is created. The EPA Science Advisory Board, the National Academy of
Sciences/National Research Council, the National Science Foundation, and other groups of experts have
recommended that EPA shift the focus  of its environmental protection strategy from  "end-of-pipe"
controls to preventing the generation of pollution.

    On October 27,  1990, Congress passed  the Pollution Prevention Act which declares pollution
prevention to be national policy.  The Act states that"... pollution should be prevented or reduced at
the source whenever feasible."   Even before the Act  was passed, EPA started work on establishing an
Agency wide pollution prevention program and had initiated concurrent strategic planning efforts to assist
the Agency in developing, implementing,  and prioritizing various components of this program. In 1987,
EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated the Waste Minimization Research Program
designed to identify and demonstrate approaches for minimizing the generation of hazardous wastes.  In
1989, ORD began to build a multimedia pollution prevention research program to develop the tools and
methods needed to implement an Agency-wide pollution prevention initiative. The plan for expanding
this program was  described in the Pollution Prevention Research Plan: Report to Congress, published
by EPA in March 1990.

    Pollution prevention is now considered EPA's preferred choice for environmental protection and the
Agency is seeking to integrate prevention as an ethic throughout all of its activities.  Pollution prevention
means "source reduction," as defined under the 1990  Pollution Prevention Act, and other practices that
reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through:  (1) increased efficiency in the use of raw
materials, energy, water, or other resources, or (2) protection of natural resources by conservation. The
Act defines "source reduction" to mean any practice which:

    •  Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or  contaminant entering the waste
       stream  or  otherwise released  into the environment  (including  fugitive  emissions) prior to
       recycling, treatment, or disposal.

    •  Reduces the hazards to public health  and the environment associated with the release of such
       substances, pollutants, or contaminants.

    Pollution prevention includes  equipment or  technology modifications,  process or  procedure
modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and improvements
in housekeeping, maintenance, training, or inventory control.

    The expanded, multimedia research program described in the 1990 Report to Congress was a critical
step in building the caliber of program needed to  find technological and non-technological means to
reduce pollution at the source.  The Report to Congress identified specific research goals and provided
a foundation for the pollution prevention research program, but it did not delineate specific themes for
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ix

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
future research efforts or identify priority research issues to be addressed by the program.  The next
logical step in building an effective pollution prevention research program was to prepare a planning
document that identifies the strategic direction of the program and establishes a risk-bused approach for
setting research priorities.  The Pollution Prevention Research Program is intended to serve as this
planning document.

ISSUE-BASED STRATEGIC PLANNING
                                         I

    Since preparation of the Report to Congress, ORE) has been developing a new strategy for conducting
research based on comprehensive, cross-media issues rather than the fragmented single-media approach
of the past.  This new research planning process, called issue-based planning, focuses on environmental
problems and issues that pose the greatest risk; to human health and the environment—especially those that
have multimedia impacts. ORD has targeted |38 issues on which to focus its research program.  One of
these issues is pollution prevention. Clearly, pollution prevention is not an environmental problem in the
same sense as global climate change, indoor air pollution, and nonpoint source pollution are problems.
Pollution prevention is an approach to managing these environmental problems.

    Most, if not  all, of the problems targeted in ORD's strategy, should have a  strong pollution
prevention thrust integrated into the research program addressing the specific issues.  However, there are
a number of cross-cutting pollution prevention issues that impact multiple environmental problems. These
cross-cutting issues must be addressed in a Comprehensive pollution prevention program.   It is these
issues that will fall under the pollution prevention research issue of ORD's issue-based planning strategy.

STRATEGIC VISION AND GOALS

    ORD believes that  EPA should shift the focus of its environmental protection strategy from
"end-of-pipe" controls to preventing the generation of pollution and  that a solid foundation based on
quality  science and innovative technology is necessary to achieve the full potential and benefits of
pollution prevention.  ORD seeks to work in partnership with industry and government  to identify,
develop, demonstrate, evaluate, and transfer innovative prevention technologies and approaches; and to
provide tools and information to enable and encourage consumer, business, and government decisions for
pollution prevention.

    Consistent with ORD's issue-based planning process, the strategic direction described in the Pollution
Prevention Research Strategy  targets:   (1)  high risk environmental problems for which pollution
prevention offers a cost-effective solution for reducing the risks, and (2) cross-cutting research that can
be applied to implementing pollution prevention approaches to multiple problems.

PRIORITY RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

    The nine high-risk environmental problems (in order of priority) targeted by the pollution prevention
research program are:
       Indoor Air Pollution

       Criteria Air Pollutants

       Ozone Depleting Substances
Pesticides

Nonpoint Source Water Discharges

Hazardous and Industrial Wastes
                                                                       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    •  Greenhouse Gases/Global Climate Change     •  Municipal Solid Waste

    •  Toxic Air Pollutants

This list of problems is very similar to the environmental problems targeted by the Science Advisory
Board in Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection and the top ranked
problems identified in EPA's Unfinished Business: A Comparative Assessment of Environmental Problems.
Despite the inherent difficulties in comparing and ranking environmental problems, ORD ranked the nine
problems hi an effort to guide and prioritize the pollution prevention research efforts.  The air  related
issues, particularly indoor air pollution, criteria air pollutants, and ozone depleting substances, received
the highest risk-based rankings and will be the primary areas of growth hi pollution prevention research.

    The  strategy for  cross-cutting  pollution prevention research  is  built on  a  framework  which
encompasses the development and application of tools for preventing pollution, as well as methods for
measuring pollution prevention progress. The cross-cutting research component of the program addresses
the following issues:
    Tool Development
    •  Assessments
    •  Modelling

    Application of Tools
    •  Source Reduction Review Project
    «  Innovative Pollution Prevention Approaches
    •  Sector Strategies for Pollution Prevention

    Measurement of Progress
    •  Pollutant Reduction
    •  Environmental and Health Effects
•  Life Cycle Analysis
•  UnderstandingDecisionmaking and Behavior
•  Technology Transfer
•  Incentives and Education
   Economic and Social Effects
The Application of Tools and Measurement of Progress research areas are expected to grow over the next
five years.  Assessments and Modelling are expected to remain at  a  stable level, while Life Cycle
Analysis and Social Science research should remain stable or decline over the next five years.

    These research  priorities will be reviewed and updated annually based on research progress and
changing research needs.  In addition, these annual reviews will allow EPA to incorporate new problem
areas  as they emerge and reassess relative risks as new information leads to revised evaluations of the
risks associated with existing or new problem areas.

THE POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH AGENDA

    The principal pollution prevention research thrust for each of the environmental problems targeted
in the program is:

    •  Indoor Air Pollution—Identify raw material or process changes for indoor products to reduce use
       of high release materials. Develop quantitative methods for comparing indoor air quality impacts.
       Study social science issues such as how to affect consumer behavior in buying and using product
       with lower indoor air impacts.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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POULUIION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    •   Criteria Air Pollutants—Identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted! by various area
        sources such as industrial solvents, cpnsumer products, and pesticides.  Evaluate lower VOC
        cleaners, coating resins, and consumer products.

    •   Ozone Depleting Substances-Identify non-ozone depleting replacements for refrigerants, fire
        suppressants,  and insulation.  Work with industry to  test replacements for performance and
        toxicity.

    •   Greenhouse Gases/Global Climate Change-Evaluate renewable fuels such as biomass; identify
        potential leak reduction in natural gas transport;  and reuse/recycle of methane from landfills and
        sewage treatment. Support the Agency's Energy Sector Strategy through research on improving
        energy efficiency in electric motors,  refrigeration equipment, and other electricity dependent
        devices.

    •   Toxic Air Pollutants-Develop  and demonstrate innovative prevention approaches involving
        changes  in the formulation, manufacturing, application,  and use of products and materials
        containing or emitting hazardous air pollutants.  Focus on non-proprietary diverse sources such
        as solvent cleaning and coating processes; and on large emitting industries with limited research
        resources such as printing, adhesive paper coating, and gray iron foundries.
                                          i
    •   Pesticides-Cooperative research with USDA on reducing the use of pesticides in sustainable
        agriculture applications, development of meaningful pesticide management plans for preventing
        groundwater contamination, reducing pesticide use through improved applications, and reducing
        the disposal of pesticides and pesticide-related materials through container reuse and improved
        rinsing practices.

    •   Nonpoint Source Water Discharges—Characterize urban runoff and  identify best management
        practices  for  reducing  nonpoint source water discharges.   Develop  models  for predicting
        effectiveness,  evaluate practices to control urban water  quality,  and  identify incentives for
        reducing runoff.

    •   Hazardous and  Industrial Wastes-Continue to develop product and manufacturing process
        specific assessment guidance, evaluate and  stimulate  the  development of innovative source
        reduction techniques/technologies, and communicate the research results to interested users.

    •   Municipal Solid Waste—Identify and reduce toxics in products entering the municipal solid waste
        stream, and evaluate incentives for reducing the generation of waste.

    The primary research focus for each of the cross-cutting issues is:

    •   Tool Development

        •  Assessments—Conduct assessments of facilities for the 12 industrial sectors responsible for
           generating most of the hazardous waste in the U.S., and develop  case studies of successful
           pollution  prevention  programs for  inclusion  in  the Pollution Prevention Information
           Clearinghouse (PPIC).
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                                                                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
       •  Modelling-^Develop a set of pollution prevention factors for various pollution prevention
           techniques for incorporation  into commercial process simulation programs.   Initial focus
           would be on the chemical process industries, and will expand to other industries in the future
           if the concept is successful.

       •  Life Cycle Analysis—Develop the criteria and methodologies required to conduct life cycle
           evaluations of products.   Provide product and process designers  with methodologies to
           develop new products and modify existing products to minimize health risks and adverse
           environmental impacts.  Standardize environmental impact terminology and explore greater
           and  multiple uses for products.   Evaluate  national and private labelling programs  and
           determine the characteristics of effective labelling programs.

       •  Understanding Decisionmaking and  Behavior-Evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary
           pollution prevention programs  and their  effects  on industry competitiveness, corporate
           decisionmaking,  and behavior.   Evaluate consumer attitudes and responses to prevention
           programs and determine factors which influence and motivate consumer behavior.

       Application of Tools

       •  Source  Reduction Review Project (SRRPV-Support workgroups for the regulations/rules
           affecting the 17  SRRP industries/processes to ensure that source reduction measures are
           considered.  Develop an industry-wide pollution prevention technology survey for various
           industries.  Test and evaluate advanced pollution prevention technologies to be used by the
           workgroups  during  regulatory  options selection.   Develop measurement protocols for
           pollution prevention measures in various industries.

       •  Innovative Approaches to Pollution Prevention-Develop advanced analytical techniques
           to  reduce laboratory waste  and  prepare a  methods  manual.   Investigate innovative
           management practices to prevent agricultural and other nonpoint source water pollution. Test
           new, unproven  techniques  and  technologies,  extend  the  applicability  of  existing
           techniques/technologies, and develop new techniques/technologies to replace those that are
           more polluting.

       •  Technology  Transfer-Continue  operation  of  the Pollution  Prevention  Information
           Clearinghouse including improving user access,  expanding repository holdings,  and
           establishing a feedback mechanisms for users.  Provide support to the American Institute for
           Pollution Prevention (AIPP), and support technology  transfer  efforts for all pollution
           prevention research  activities, including organization of workshops and conferences  and
           publishing of research results.

       •  Incentives and Education—Complete  an interdisciplinary study on ecosystem valuation,
           analyze the public's perception and interpretation of chemical exposure information,  and
           investigate  the role that trust  and credibility  (of  the  government) plays in conveying
           information related to health risks.  Assess market-based  incentives for pollution prevention
           and determine the impact of education and communication on motivating pollution prevention.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
        •  Sector  Strategies for Pollution Prevention—Provide support for the development and
           implementation of EPA's sector stategies concerning industry, consumers, agriculture, energy
           and transportation, and the federal government.

    •   Measurement of Progress

        •  Pollutant Reduction—Complete comparative evaluation of material balance and non-material
           balance data for ascertaining pollution prevention progress by industry and modify Toxic
           Release Inventory forms if necessary.  Develop and test methodology to quantify pollution
           prevention progress, occurring during any and all stages of a product's life cycle, which is
           attributable to decisions made or actions taken during the product's  design stage.

        •  Environmental  and Health  Effects—Incorporate  another dimension into  the pollution
           prevention  measurement   methodology   relating  pollution  prevention  progress  to
           health/environmental risk reduction.

        •  Economic and Social Effects—Investigate the success of individual compainies in achieving
           cost- effective source reduction. Evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary pollution prevention
           programs and what  motivates companies to participate. Investigate environmental  equity
           issues  and the societal and economic benefits of pollution prevention.

IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM

    Implementing both the problem-specific and cross-cutting research components of the research
program is critical to its overall  success in addressing current and emerging research needs in the area
of pollution prevention.   Each component will be implemented through ORD's issue-based planning
process. Planning for research to address each problem area (e.g., indoor air pollution) will be conducted
as part of the research planning for the related ORD planning issue.   The problem-specific research
described in this document is intended to serve as a guide for the ORD Issue Planners who have been
given the responsibility for preparing issue research plans.  It provides the planners with a framework
for the pollution prevention element of the appropriate issue research plan.  Integrating the proposed
pollution prevention research projects into the issue research plans will be the responsibility of the Issue
Planners.

    The cross-cutting research component of the pollution prevention program forms the basis of ORD's
pollution prevention issue.  These cross-cutting efforts, while not specific to a particular problem, could
be  useful in addressing  numerous problems and  improving the overall  effectiveness  of pollution
prevention programs.  The cross-cutting research projects described in this document are intended to
serve as a guide for the ORD Pollution Prevention Issue Planner in preparing the pollution prevention
issue research plan.

    Given that the strategy is to plan and conduct pollution prevention research on a decentralized basis,
pollution prevention will be just one of the many components Issue Planners have to consider in planning
their programs. Further, it will be more difficult to track and transfer information concerning research
progress and results.  The Pollution  Prevention Issue Planner can play a vital role in building the
pollution prevention research program by:
XIV
                                                                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    •  Tracking all pollution prevention research resources and efforts including both problem-specific
       and cross-cutting research, and facilitating the transfer of information on research progress and
       results.

    •  Serving  as an advocate for pollution prevention research within the Agency and lobbying for
       inclusion of pollution prevention in all appropriate ORD research issues.

    •  Managing the pollution prevention issue program, including strategic direction, research planning
       and prioritization, and resource allocation.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                                                                                             xv

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                                              POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                     CHAPTER 1

                                  INTRODUCTION
                  Preventing pollution is a far more efficient strategy than
                  Struggling to deal with problems once they've occurred*
                  For too long, we've been focused on cleanup and penalties
                  after the damage is done.  It's time to reorient ourselves,
                  using technologies and processes that reduce or prevent
                  pollution, to Stop it before it Starts*

                                                  President George Bush
BACKGROUND

    During the past two  decades,  the  U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency  (EPA)  has made
considerable progress in improving environmental quality, but these efforts have focused  largely on
traditional approaches—treating and controlling pollutants that have already been generated.  EPA's "end-
of-the-pipe" approaches have achieved significant reductions in the discharge of pollutants, but additional
gains in treatment and control will, in most cases, be much more  costly and difficult to achieve.

    The U.S. currently spends nearly $115  billion each year (about  2% of the U.S. gross national
product) on environmental protection. Although this amount has been growing, national environmental
pollution control expenditures are just one-third of the amount spent on national defense, one-third of the
cost of medical care, and one-fifth of the cost for housing.  Despite the  ever increasing expenditures for
pollution control, many environmental problems remain and complex new problems have arisen that pose
serious environmental and health risks. Many of the problems we now face are not amenable to the end-
of-the-pipe treatment approaches that we have used in the past. Furthermore, many of the problems  that
have been subject to conventional "command and control" methods can be better and more cost-effectively
addressed with innovative approaches.

    Over the past few years,  EPA and  others concerned about protecting human health  and  the
environment have given considerable thought to the nature and scope of the environmental problems of
the 1990s  and beyond, and the tools and approaches needed to address them. One theme has clearly
emerged from the discussion and debate—EPA's traditional approaches  alone are no longer adequate to
address our nation's environmental problems.

    EPA's Science Advisory Board has been  an active participant in these discussions and in proposing
pollution prevention as the first priority in environmental protection.  In its 1988 report, Future Risk:
Research Strategies for the 1990s, the Science Advisory Board (SAB) noted that "clearly, the magnitude
of these risks requires that we develop and maintain a national environmental strategy that emphasizes
CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
prevention, because, in some cases, we will not be able to act after the fact" (Science Advisory Board
1988, p. 4).  The first of ten recommendations included in this SAB report was that:

    "EPA should shift the focus of its environmental protection strategy from end-of-pipe controls to
    preventing the generation of pollution."
    The SAB recommended that prevention
or reduction of environmental risk should be
a primary long-term goal for the Agency.
In. Future Risk, the SAB defined a hierarchy
for risk reduction research to help hi setting
priorities and in achieving the Agency's
overall goal of protecting human health and
the environment.   The  hierarchy  clearly
indicates that pollution prevention  should
consistently be the first option for reducing
risks.  In addition, the SAB recommended
that EPA plan,  implement, and sustain  a
long-term research program to  support the
new strategy of preventing pollution.
Whenever possible, environmental
efforts first should be aimed at minimizing the
amount  of wastes or  pollutants  generated,
Thus>  waste  reduction  at  its  sourceHEor
example, through  product  design  changes,
industrial   process   changes^   or   material
substitution-should be a primary objective.
                              Advisory Board
Future Risk: Research Strategies for the 1990s
    Two years later, in Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection
which stressed the importance of targeting environmental protection efforts on the basis of opportunities
for the greatest risk reduction, the SAB recommended that "EPA emphasize pollution prevention as the
preferred option for reducing risk" (Science Advisory Board 1990, p. 6). The SAB also recommended
that we expand the "tools" available to reduce health and environmental risks posed by pollution—" ...
the extent and complexity of future risks willj necessitate the use of a much broader array of tools  ..."
(Science Advisory Board 1990, p.  6).   It has become increasingly clear that the  old  tools in  the
environmental toolkit are no longer adequate to address all of these problems.  We need creative new
strategies for reducing environmental risk, further strides in protecting the environment will require
preventing problems by reducing or eliminating the generation of pollutants in the first place.  Pollution
prevention holds the key to future gains in environmental protection.

    It is important to recognize, however, that not ajl wastes can be prevented or eliminated from the
waste stream. The Agency recognizes the tremendous benefits of preventing waste that can be prevented,
but also acknowledges the importance of continued efforts to develop control and treatment options to
manage those wastes that are generated.

The Pollution Prevention Act            j

    On  October 27, 1990, Congress passed the Pollution Prevention Act. Enactment of this legislation
will strengthen and accelerate efforts to promote pollution prevention throughout the nation.  The
hierarchy defined by the SAB in Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental
Pollution was endorsed by Congress as national policy in the Pollution Prevention Act.  The Act  "...
declares it to be the national policy of the Uniied States that pollution should be prevented or reduced at
the source whenever feasible; pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled in an environmentally
sound manner, whenever feasible;  pollution that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated in an
environmentally safe manner, whenever feasible; and disposal or  other release into  the environment
                                                                  CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
should be employed only as a last resort and should be conducted in an environmentally safe manner"
(Pollution Prevention Act of 1990).

    The Pollution Prevention Act defines source reduction as follows:

    ".  .  .  any practice  which (1) reduces the amount of any  hazardous substance,  pollutant,  or
    contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including jugitive
    emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; and (2) reduces the hazards to public health and
    the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants. The term
    includes equipment or technology modifications, process or procedure modifications, reformulations
    or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and  improvements  in housekeeping,
    maintenance,  training, or inventory control.

    The  term does not  include  any practice which alters  the physical, chemical,  or biological
    characteristics or the volume of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant through a process
    or activity which  itself is not  integral  to and necessary for  the production of a product or the
    providing of a service."

What is Pollution Prevention?

    Pollution prevention, as defined under the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, means source reduction
and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through: (1) increased efficiency
hi the use of raw  materials, energy, water, or other resources, or (2) protection of natural resources by
conservation.  Under the Pollution Prevention Act, recycling, energy recovery, treatment, and disposal
are not included within the definition of pollution prevention.  Some practices commonly described as
"in-process  recycling" may  qualify as pollution prevention.   Recycling  that is conducted  hi  an
environmentally sound manner shares many of the advantages of pollution prevention—it can reduce the
need for treatment or disposal, and conserve energy  and resources.

    Pollution prevention  (or source reduction) is  the Agency's first priority within an environmental
management hierarchy for reducing the risks to human health and the environment from pollution. This
hierarchy includes: (1) prevention, (2) recycling, (3) treatment, and (4) disposal or release.  The second
step in the hierarchy is the responsible recycling of any wastes that cannot be reduced  at the source.
Wastes that cannot feasibly be recycled should be treated in accordance with environmental standards that
are designed to reduce both the hazard and  volume of waste streams. Finally, any residues remaining
from the treatment of waste should be disposed of safely, to  minimize their potential for release into the
environment.  Pollution prevention and related terms are defined in Exhibit 1.

EPA's Pollution Prevention Initiative

    Even before  the  Pollution Prevention Act  was  passed,  EPA started work on establishing  an
Agencywide pollution prevention program and had initiated concurrent strategic planning efforts to assist
the Agency in developing, implementing, and prioritizing various components of this program. As part
of these planning efforts, EPA has recently prepared several reports that are intended to focus EPA's
environmental protection efforts on  reducing risk by targeting priority environmental problems and
pollution prevention approaches to  address these problems.
CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION

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    POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                           EXHIBIT  1
               DEFINITIONS OF POLLUTION  PREVENTION TERMS
Waste
Pollution/Pollutants
Waste Minimization
Source Reduction
Waste Reduction
 In theory, the term "was;te" applies to nonproduct outputs of processes and discarded
 products, irrespective of the environmental medium affected.  In practice, since the
 passage of RCRA, most uses of the term "waste" refer exclusively to the hazardous
 and solid wastes regulated under RCRA, and do not include air {(missions or water
 discharges  regulated by the Clean Air Act or the Clean Water Act.

 The terms "pollution" and "pollutants" refer to all nonproduct outputs, irrespective of
 any recycling or treatment that may prevent or mitigate releases to the environment
 (includes all media).

 The term "waste minimisation" initially  included both treating waste to minimize its
 volume or  toxicity and j  preventing  the generation of  waste at the source.  The
 distinction  between treatment and prevention  became important  because some
 advocates  of decreased waste generation believed that an emphasis on waste
 minimization would deflect resources away from prevention towards treatment. In the
 current RCRA  biennial report, waste minimization  refers to source reduction and
 recycling activities, and now excludes treatment and energy recovery.
                     I
 Source reduction is defined in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 as "any practice
 which  (1) reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant
 entering any waste  stream or otherwise released into  the environment (including
 fugitive emissions) prior}  to recycling, treatment, and disposal;  and (2) reduces the
 hazards to  public health  and  the  environment associated with the release  of such
 substances, pollutants, or contaminants. The term includes equipment or technology
 modifications,  process  or  procedure  modifications, reformulations or design  of
 products,  substitution  of  raw  materials,  and  improvements  in  housekeeping,
 maintenance, training, o'r inventory control."  Source reduction does not entail any
 form of waste management (e.g., recycling and treatment). The Act excludes from
 the definition of source reduction  "any practice which alters the physical, chemical,
 or biological characteristics or the volume of a hazardous substance,  pollutant, or
 contaminant through a process or activity which itself is not integral to and necessary
 for the production of a product or the providing of a service."

This term has  been  usejd by  the  Congressional  Office of Technology  Assessment
synonomously with source reduction. However, many different groups have used the
term to refer to waste minimization. Therefore, care must be employed in determining
which of these different Iconcepts is implied when "waste reduction" is encountered.
                                                                     CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION

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                                                   POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                           EXHIBIT 1
    DEFINITIONS  OF  POLLUTION  PREVENTION TERMS (CONTINUED)
Toxic Chemical Use
Substitution
Toxics Use Reduction
Pollution Prevention
Resource Protection
Cleaner Products
The  term "toxic chemical use  substitution" or "material substitution" describes
replacing toxic chemicals with less harmful chemicals, although relative toxicities may
not be fully known.  Examples would include substituting  a  toxic solvent in an
industrial process with a less  toxic chemical  and reformulating a product so as to
decrease the use of toxic raw  materials or the generation of toxic byproducts.  This
term also refers to efforts to reduce or eliminate the use in commerce of chemicals
associated with health or environmental risks, including substitution of less hazardous
chemicals for comparable uses, and the elimination of a particular process or product
from the market without direct substitution.

The  term "toxics  use reduction"  refers to the activities grouped  under  "source
reduction," where  the intent is to reduce,  avoid, or  eliminate  the use of toxics in
processes and/or products so as to reduce overall risks to the health of workers,
consumers, and the environment without shifting risks between workers, consumers,
or parts of the environment.

The term "pollution prevention" refers to activities undertaken to reduce or eliminate
pollution or waste at its source, or to reduce  its toxicity.   It  involves the use of
processes, practices, or products that reduce or eliminate the generation of pollutants
and wastes, or that protect natural resources through conservation or more efficient
utilization.   Pollution prevention  does  not  include  recycling,  energy recovery,
treatment,  and disposal.   Some  practices  commonly described as  "in-process
recycling" may qualify as pollution prevention.

In the context of  pollution prevention,  the  term  "resource protection" refers to
protecting natural  resources by  avoiding excessive levels of wastes and residues,
minimizing the depletion of resources, and assuring that the environment's capacity
to absorb pollutants is not exceeded.

The term "cleaner  products" or  "clean products" refers to consumer and industrial
products that are less polluting and/or less harmful to the environment and less toxic
and/or less harmful to human health.
Environmentally Safe      In this strategic plan, the terms "environmentally safe products", "environmentally
Products, Environmentally  preferable products", or "green products" refer to products that are less toxic and/or
Preferable Products, or    less harmful to human health and the environment when considering their polluting
"Green" Products         effects during their entire life cycle.
Life Cycle Analysis
"Life cycle analysis" is a study of the pollution generation characteristics and the
opportunities for pollution prevention associated with the entire life cycle of a product
or process.  Any change  in the product  or  process  will have implications for
"upstream"  stages  (extraction and  processing  of  raw materials,  production  and
distribution of process inputs) and for "downstream" stages (including the components
of a product, its use, and its ultimate disposal).
    CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                                  Above all, we need to mobilize a national
                                                  effort  to prevent  pollution  before  it*s
                                                  created in the first place, We must learn
                                                  not just  to  control  pollution,  but  to
                                                  prevent it—not just to dispose of waste in
                                                  better ways, but to eliminate it * »» Tbis
                                                  will  increasingly  become  the  measure
                                                  against  which  all   our  policies  and
                                                  regulations are judged.

                                                                         William K, Reilly
                                                                       EPA Administrator
    Recognizing  the  importance  of pollution
prevention in furthering the Agency's progress in
protecting human health and the  environment,
EPA  established  the   Office   of  Pollution
Prevention (OPP) within the Office of Policy,
Planning and Evaluation in August  1988.  Atthe
same  tune,  EPA   established   an  Advisory
Committee to help guide and direct the Agency's
prevention activities.   OPP has recently b|een
made a Division in the Office of Pesticides and
Toxic Substances,  and  renamed the Office;  of
Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT).

    The  OPPT  is  responsible for establishing
broad Agency policies and strategies for pollution
prevention, setting goals, and measuring progress
toward achieving these goals.  OPPT functions as a catalyst for pollution prevention, promoting the
concept inside and outside the Agency and helping to facilitate and coordinate prevention programs.  This
Office is the focal point for the Agency's pollution prevention activities and a major impetus behind an
integrated, cross-media approach to pollution prevention.

U.S. EPA Pollution Prevention Strategy

    EPA recognized that a clear and coordinated federal strategy for pollution prevention was needed to
remove obstacles to preventing pollution and ito foster preventive initiatives hi the future.  The Agency
believes that its environmental protection goals will be best served hi the long run by a comprehensive
pollution prevention strategy that proposes roles for industry, agriculture, energy, and transportation
sectors, the American public, and the international community.  In January 1991, the OPP released such
a strategy-the  U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Strategy.   The  strategy
presents EPA's blueprint for a national, cross-media pollution prevention program.  The strategy focused
on economic sectors that offer opportunities for prevention.  It is designed to serve two purposes: (1) to
provide guidance and direction for efforts to  incorporate pollution prevention within EPA's  existing
regulatory and  non-regulatory programs, and (2) to  set forth a program that will achieve  specific
objectives hi pollution prevention within a reasonable timeframe.

    The Pollution Prevention Strategy focuses on cooperative efforts between EPA, industry, and  state
and local governments, as well as other departments and agencies, such as the Departments of Energy,
Transportation, and Agriculture, to  forge specific initiatives which  address key environmental  threats.
For each sector, EPA will target projects which  offer the potential to achieve specific reductions of
emissions  which pose a  significant risk to human health or the environment.   Initially,  the  strategy
focused on the manufacturing sector and the  33/50 Program (formerly called the Industrial  Toxics
Project), under which EPA will seek substantial voluntary reductions of 17 targeted high-risk industrial
chemicals  (see Exhibit 2) that offer significant opportunities for prevention.   The goal is to  reduce
environmental releases of these chemicals by 33% by the end of 1992, and at least 50'% by the end of
1995.
                                                                  CHAPTER 1-]QSTRODUCTION

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                                     POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
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CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCnON

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
33/50 Program

    Over a billion pounds of these 17 chemicals are released into the environment each year.  The 33/50
Program involves the development of focused jprevention strategies for each of the 17 chemicals and sets
a voluntary goal of reducing total environmental releases of these chemicals by 33% by the end of 1992,
and at least 50% by the end of 1995. EPA has developed this list of targeted chemicals, drawn from
recommendations by Program Offices, based upon five criteria—(1) high levels of emissions, (2) technical
or economic opportunities for pollution prevention,  (3) potential  for health and  ecological  risk,
(4) potential for multiple exposures or  cross-media contamination, and (5) limitations of treatment
technologies. Most of the 17 pollutants targeted by the Pollution Prevention Strategy ate slated for even
greater regulatory controls under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, but the controls would not go
into effect until 1995.

    EPA is seeking  voluntary,  measurable  commitments  from major industrial sources of these
contaminants to reduce environmental released through prevention.  Beginning in early 1991, EPA sent
letters to 600 corporate polluters asking them to help  achieve the Agency's goal of substantially reducing
releases of the 17 chemicals over the next fourj years.  EPA asked these companies to make commitments
to the project and to develop prevention plans to carry them out.  By September 1992,  nearly 850
companies had responded with commitments-rpledging total reductions in excess of 350 million pounds
nationally.  EPA will rely on data from the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) to track reductions in releases
of targeted contaminants from industrial facilities,  and will develop more appropriate indicators for
sources not covered by the TRI.

Source Reduction Review Project

    EPA has established the Source Reduction Review Project (SRRP)  to review Agency regulations,
during their earliest stages of development, to ensure that source reduction measures  and  multimedia
issues are considered in air, water, and hazardous waste standards. The goal of the SRRP is to focus this
review on a key list of regulations during their development to produce regulatory and non-regulatory
policy options that encourage source reductionjover add-on control technologies as the preferred approach
to achieving environmental compliance and beyond.  It builds on EPA's existing regulatory development
process, but emphasizes analysis of source reduction measures  in addition to traditional  end-of-pipe
controls, and consideration of cross-media impacts  when developing standards.  The SRRP will also
provide information on source reduction measures to accompany rule-making to help industry identify
cost-effective source reduction compliance methods, and to educate permit writers about the performance
potential of source reduction measures.

    The SRRP will focus initially on  regulations  affecting  16 industrial categories.  Within  these
categories, 25 air toxics, water effluent guidelines, and hazardous waste standards will be developed over
the next 10 years. The industrial categories were selected based on one or more of the following criteria:
1) environmental releases to more than one media,  2) potential  for pollution reduction, 3) known
opportunity for source reduction,  and 4) forthcoming regulatory requirements under multiple statutes.

    ORD will be conducting industry-specific research in support of the SRRP, including:

    •   Collection of data on  pollution prevention opportunities for the targeted industrial categories.
                                                                   CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    •   Development of advanced technology to support regulatory deadlines for industrial categories.

    •   Development of techniques  to  evaluate performance of pollution prevention technologies/
        approaches.

    •   Plant audits and technology/technique performance testing.

    •   Technical assistance for industrial categories that include a large number of small businesses.

Green Lights Program

    The Green Lights Program, launched by EPA in January 1991, is designed to prevent pollution by
encouraging the use of energy-efficient lighting in offices, stores, factories, and other facilities across the
country. Lighting is responsible for the consumption of about 25% of the nation's electricity and more
than half of the electricity used for lighting is wasted by inefficient technology and design practices.
Under the Green Lights Program, EPA has asked businesses, governments, and other institutions to
voluntarily install energy-efficient lighting in 90% of their space nationwide over a five-year period, but
only where it is profitable and where lighting quality is maintained or improved. EPA, in turn, offers
program participants a portfolio of technical support services to assist them hi upgrading their buildings.

    Over 600 companies have made voluntary commitments to participate in this program, representing
2.5 billion square feet of business space.  Given the commitments of current participants, over the next
five years they will reduce their electric bills by an estimated $760 million. In addition, the program will
prevent the generation of 7.4 million tons of CO2, 59,500 tons of SO2, and 25,300 tons of NOX emissions.

Golden Carrot Program

    The Golden Carrot Program,  promoted by EPA's Office of Air and Radiation, is designed to
encourage manufacturers to design a "super efficient" refrigerator that uses  no chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs) for cooling or insulation. Refrigerators and freezers use about 20% of the nation's electricity and
vary widely in efficiency.  In an effort to stimulate refrigerator manufacturers to develop more efficient,
CFC-free units,  23 electric utilities have pooled their resources to offer a $30 million incentive  (the
Golden Carrot) to the winner of a product design competition for the "super efficient" refrigerator.

    EPA estimates that the Golden Carrot Program is ultimately capable of reducing electric power
consumption by three to six billion kilowatts per hour, saving $240 to $480 million annually in consumer
electric bills.  In addition, EPA estimates that the program will lead to a reduction of 600,000 to 1.2
million metric tons of annual carbon emissions by the year 2000, while at the same time helping the
nation achieve the early phaseout of CFCs by 1995.  The reduction in electricity consumption will result
in significant reductions in SO2, and NOX emissions that cause acid rain and urban smog.

Energy Star Computers Program

    EPA's Energy Star  Computers Program is a voluntary,  market-based partnership with computer
manufacturers to promote the introduction of energy-efficient personal computers in an effort to reduce
the air pollution caused by generation of electricity.  Office equipment is the fastest growing electricity
load in the commercial sector.  Computer systems alone are believed to account for 5% of commercial
electricity consumption-a  figure which could reach 10% by the year 2000.  Dramatic, cost-effective
CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCnON

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POLLUTION PREVENTION EESEARCH PROGRAM
efficiency improvements are available for both hardware power consumption and control of operation
hours—offering up to 90% energy savings forimany computer applications.

    Through the Energy Star Computers Program, industry agrees to manufacture and market computer
equipment that simultaneously emphasizes high performance and increased energy efficiency. Products
that meet the terms of the agreement will be identified for consumers through the use of an EPA "Energy
Star Pollution Preventer" logo.  To date eight computer manufacturers—Apple, IBM, Hewlett-Packard,
Digital, Compaq, NCR, Smith Corona, and Zenith Data Systems-have signed partnership agreements
with EPA to participate hi the  program.   These eight charter partners produce 35% of the personal
computers sold in the U.S.

    It is anticipated that by the year 2000, EPA Energy Star Computers and other campaigns to promote
energy-efficient computer equipment will  lead to savings of 25  billion kilowatt-horars of electricity
annually—down from an estimated consumption of 70 billion kilowatt-hours per year.  These savings will
reduce CO2 emissions by 20 million metric tons, SO2 emissions by 140,000 metric tons, and NOX by
75,000 metric tons.

    The 33/50, Source Reduction Review, Green Lights, Golden Carrot, and Energy Star Computer
Programs are only the first steps.  EPA recognizes  that there are abundant opportunities to promote
pollution prevention hi all sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, federal government, and
the consumer sectors. EPA has already drafted the consumer sector strategy and is currently preparing
strategies  for the other three sectors.

Consumer Sector Strategy

    Consumer purchasing power and behavior can have an enormous impact on pollution problems.  The
primary goal  of EPA's pollution prevention strategy for the consumer sector is to reduce the risks posed
to the environment and human health by  lifestyle decisions and  consumer actions.  The strategy is
envisioned as being implemented hi two phases. Phase I focuses primarily on information dissemination
to close the  "consumer information"  gap which acts as a  barrier to the efficient operation of the
marketplace as a mechanism for achieving genuine environmental innovation and improvement.  Phase
n will involve wider input from a broad range of experts as well as  research into the environmental
impacts of consumer products and behavior in lorder to refine the strategy and to more closely target high
risk problems.                            ;

    Phase I of the strategy includes creation:of a public clearinghouse for information on indoor air
pollution, development of federal guidelines for environmental marketing claims (e.g.,  "recycled" and
"recyclable"), promotion of an environmental ethic through implementation of the National Environmental
Education Act,  and completion of a project to develop  a  methodology for assessing life  cycle
environmental impacts of consumer products.! In Phase n, research efforts will be expanded to improve
the scientific underpinning for  recommendations to  consumers on  actions they can take to help  the
environment.  In addition, the Agency's role hi dissemination of information will be better defined and,
generally, a wider mix of tools will be examined to carry out the goals of the strategy.

Agriculture Sector Strategy

    The link between economic interests (farm profitability)  and environmental protection, as well as
statutory authorities  represented in the  1990 Farm  Bill, point to  new opportunities for promoting
10
CHAPTER 1-BSTRODUCTTON

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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
sustainable agriculture.  EPA has already signed a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, and is working with the USDA to develop a joint strategy for pollution prevention in the
agricultural sector. The primary goals of the strategy are to:

    •   Achieve nationwide, voluntary improvements in nutrient application and pesticide use that will
        reduce the impacts of agricultural activities on the environment.

    •   Identify and target specific geographic areas as priorities for action.

    •   Reduce the use of more hazardous pesticides to protect  water, food stuffs, soil, human health,
        and ecosystems.

    •   Promote efficient livestock and poultry waste management to protect surface and groundwater.

    •   Protect ecologically sensitive areas.

    •   Promote research to develop new and innovative tools for preventing pollution due to agricultural
        practices.

Energy Sector Strategy

    Substantial opportunities exist for achieving energy savings and environmental improvements in the
energy sector. The goal of this strategy is to improve environmental quality by reducing and preventing
emissions generated through the production and use of energy  in four primary subsectors—electricity
generation, buildings, and industry.  The strategy takes a society-wide view of possibilities, and uses the
concept of "environmental leveraging" to obtain the maximum environmental benefit through targeting
and investment. Specific proposed short-term initiatives include promoting conservation under the Clean
Air Act, establishing voluntary "cool communities" partnerships to counter "urban heat island" effects,
extending appliance labelling programs, and encouraging the consideration of energy efficient practices
in loan policies in lending institutions. A draft of the strategy has been prepared and  circulated to
relevant staff in EPA Program Offices and Laboratories, Regional pollution prevention coordinators, and
members of the Agency work group for the National Energy Strategy for comment. EPA is investigating
potential cooperative efforts with the Department of Energy.

Transportation Sector Strategy

    The Intennodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991  (ISTEA), Public Law 102-240, has
created  opportunities for cooperation among federal and state agencies on pollution prevention  in the
transportation  sector.   A Memorandum of Understanding between EPA and the Federal Highway
Administration has  been signed that identifies pollution prevention as one of the primary areas for
cooperation. An interagency workgroup has been tasked with developing a sector strategy incorporating
some of these  legislative opportunities. In general, substantial opportunities exist in:

    •   Traffic congestion mitigation and air quality improvement.

    •   Development and support of environmentally benign transportation modes.

    •   Transporation air quality planning.
CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION
11

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    •  Congestion pricing and tolls to reduce pollution.

    •  Wetland banking to offset impacts to wetland resources.

    •  Incorporation of recycled rubber in paving material.

    •  Development  of erosion control  guidelines consistent with  nonpoint source management
       programs.

Federal Government Sector Strategy

    Federal facilities need pollution prevention tin order to meet their own environmental objectives.  In
addition, federal pollution prevention policies could have a dramatic effect, spurring pollution prevention
throughout the economy.  OPPT is already working with the Department of Defense and the Department
of Energy to target the 17 chemicals  of the 331/50 Program for reduction at their facilities.  The draft
federal government sector strategy incorporates the following:

    »  Federal leadership in demonstrating technologies and in conducting maintenance activities (e.g.,
       implementing energy efficiency in opportunities at federal facilities; establishing clean fleets of
       alternative fuel vehicles).

    •  Using procurement specifications to stimulate demand for cleaner technologies and products (e.g.,
       procuring safe alternatives to high risk chemicals now in use; procurement of recycled and reused
       material whenever feasible).

    •  Designing policies to promote pollution prevention (e.g., working with the State Department and
       the Agency for International Development  to help  developing nations avoid  inappropriate
       technologies; establishing procurement policies with the Office of Management and Budget,
       Department of Defense, and the General Services Administration).

    In addition to preparing each of the sector strategies described above, OPPT is responsible for
coordinating EPA's efforts to measure progress in industrial source reduction and is developing methods
for evaluating prevention progress in each of the other sectors.

    In the long run, EPA hopes to promote a "cultural change" both within the Agency and throughout
society, in which pollution prevention will be woven  into the fabric of public programs and private
activities. In the short term, the strategy provides a methodology  for selecting targets of opportunity
based on one or more criteria, including: (1) jrisk to human health and the environment, (2) technical
or economic potential for prevention, (3) lack of adequate treatment capacity,  (4) threats to attainment
of environmental standards for air or  water, and (5) problems that persist across more than one media
or economic sector.                         !
                                           I

EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM

    In  1987,  EPA's Office of Research and  jDevelopment (ORD) initiated the Waste  Minimization
Research program designed to encourage the identification, development, and demonstration of processes
and techniques that result in a reduction or prevention of pollution. In 1989, ORD significantly expanded
its pollution prevention  research efforts to  support the Agency's  pollution prevention policy  and in
12
CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION

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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
 response to recommendations by the SAB.  ORD's overall plan for expanding the Agency's pollution
 prevention research program was described in a report to Congress published in March 1990.

 Pollution Prevention Research Plan;  Report to Congress

    The Pollution Prevention Research Plan: Report to  Congress is a three-year plan that addresses the
 critical research elements needed to support an Agencywide multimedia pollution prevention initiative.
 This plan described a comprehensive program that includes both  technological and non-technological
 research to address a broad range of pollution prevention issues. Preparation of the Pollution Prevention
 Research Plan was the first step in developing the research component of EPA's pollution prevention
 initiative.

    The report to Congress identified six fundamental goals (see Exhibit 3) for the pollution prevention
 research program:

    •   Stimulate the development and use of products that result in reduced pollution.

    •   Stimulate the development and implementation of technologies and processes that  result in
        reduced pollution.

    •   Expand the reusability and recyclability of wastes and products  and  the demand for recycled
        materials.

    •   Identify and promote the implementation of effective socioeconomic and  institutional approaches
        to pollution prevention.

    •   Establish a program of research that will anticipate and address future environmental problems
        and pollution prevention opportunities.

    •   Conduct a vigorous technology transfer and technical assistance program  that facilitates pollution
        prevention strategies and technologies.

    The report to Congress was the first step in developing a strategy to guide the Agency's pollution
prevention research program.

    Since preparation of the report to Congress, ORE) has been developing a new strategy for conducting
research based on comprehensive, cross-media issues rather than the fragmented single-media approach
of the past.  This new research planning process, called issue-based planning, has broad EPA support,
and once the process is fully implemented it will significantly impact the direction of the Agency's entire
research program. By focusing  on issues  rather than simply trying to fund research to assist specific
media programs, ORD will be attempting to address those problems that pose the greatest risk—especially
those that have  multimedia impacts.   ORD believes  that  issue-based planning  is a  critical step in
furthering the Agency's progress towards  a multimedia approach to solving environmental problems.
Since pollution prevention—by its very nature—requires a multimedia focus, and the issue-based planning
process will  apply to all  ORD programs, issue-based planning became an important factor for
consideration in preparing the strategic plan for pollution prevention research.
CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTTON
13

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             POLLUnON PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
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                                                                  CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION

-------
                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                           The  pollution   prevention   research
                                           described in this document is:
program
                                             Organized   to  reflect   ORB's   issue-based
                                             planning process-including  both  issue-based
                                             and cross-cutting research,

                                             Designed to support the  Agency^  pollution
                                             prevention sector strategies.

                                             Focused On pollution prevention research efforts
                                             with the greatest potential for reducing risk.
    The first step in ORD's issue-based
 planning process-identification  of the
 research  issues—has  been  completed.
 Thirty-eight research  issues have  been
 identified (see Exhibit 4) and assigned to
 Issue Planners,  who have been charged
 with the task of preparing issue research
 plans.  Unlike past research  programs,
 ORD's  research  issues  are  organized
 around environmental problems.    The
 new planning process  is expected to be
 completed in time for preparation of the
 Fiscal Year 1994 budget.  ORD believes
 that an issue-based approach will lead to
 a much clearer understanding of how each
 research component is addressing specific
 environmental problems of concern to
 EPA.  Additionally, organizing around environmental problems will enhance ORD's ability to deal with
 cross-media issues and issues of concern to the Program and Regional Offices.

    ORD has targeted 38 issues on which to focus its research program. One of the issues on this list
 is pollution prevention. Clearly, pollution prevention is not an environmental problem in the same sense
 as global climate change, indoor air, and nonpoint source pollution are problems.  Pollution prevention
 is an approach to managing these environ- mental problems. Most, if not all, of the issues identified in
 ORD's strategy should have a strong pollution prevention thrust integrated into the research program
 addressing the specific issues.  However, there are a  number of cross-cutting pollution prevention issues
 that impact multiple environmental  problems.   These cross-cutting issues must be addressed  in a
 comprehensive pollution prevention research program. It is these issues that will fall under the pollution
 prevention research issue of ORD's issue-based planning strategy.

 ORD's Vision  for  Pollution Prevention Research

    ORD believes that EPA should shift the focus of its  environmental protection strategy from
 end-of-pipe controls to preventing the generation of pollution and that a solid foundation based on quality
 science and innovative technology is necessary to achieve the full benefits of pollution prevention.  ORD
 seeks  to work in partnership with industry and government to identify, develop, demonstrate, evaluate,
 and transfer innovative prevention technologies and approaches; and to provide tools and information to
 enable and encourage consumer, business, and government decisions for pollution prevention.

    With completion  of the Pollution Prevention Research Plan: Report to Congress, the foundation of
the pollution prevention research program had been laid and the Agency was ready to begin building the
framework of the program.  The next step in implementing the pollution prevention research initiative
was to prepare a planning document that clearly delineates the vision for the pollution prevention research
program and the specific themes  for  future pollution prevention research efforts.   The Pollution
Prevention Research Program is intended to serve as this planning document.  The strategic direction for
pollution prevention research described  in this document is to target:
CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTTON
          IS

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                  EXHIBIT 4
                         ORD  RESEARCH  ISSUES
 A. Protecting Ecological Systems
                                   Ecosystems
  1.  Coastal and marine
  2.  Large lakes and rivers
3. Wetlands
4. Terrestrial systems
                                  Assessments
  5.  Contaminated sediments
  6.  Aquatic ecocriteria
7. Nonpoint sources (including agricultural
      and multimedia nitrogen impacts)
8. Ecorisk assessment methods
                             Emerging Ecological Issues
  9.  Habitat/biodiversity
10. Environmental releases of
      biotechnology products
  B. Environmental Monitoring %and Assessment

  11. Environmental  monitoring and
        assessment program (EMAP)   |
  C. Global Change

  12. Global warming
13. Stratospheric ozone depletion
  D. Air Pollution

  14. Acid deposition/aerosols
  15. Air toxics
  16. Criteria air pollutants
        (includes ozone)
17. Pollutants from motor vehicles (includes
      mobile sources/alternative fuels)
18. Indoor air pollution (includes radon,
      electromagnetic frequency)
  E. Drinking Water

  19. Drinking water pollutants and
        and disinfection (includes
        toxic chemicals, microbials,
        and disinfection byproducts)
20. Groundwater (includes prevention and
      cleanup)
                                                          CHAPTER I-INTRODUCTION

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                                      POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                EXHIBIT 4
              ORD  RESEARCH ISSUES (CONTINUED)
 F. Waste Management

 21. (Toxics in food combined with
       with human exposure issue)
 22. Municipal solid waste
23. Hazardous Waste
24. Sludge and wastewater (including
      nonpoint sources)
 G. Environmental Cleanup

 25. Surface cleanup
 26. Bioremediation
27. (Spills to surface water combined
      with surface cleanup)
 H. Improving Human Health Risk Assessment
 28. Human exposure
 29. Health effects
30. Risk assessment methods
 I. Innovative Technology and Outreach

 31. Pollution prevention •
 32. Innovative technologies
33. Environmental education
34. International and national technology
      transfer
 J. Exploratory Research and Special Environmental Problems

 35. Environmental review of new        38. Anticipatory research on emerging
 36. (Multi-media nitrogen impacts             environmental problems
       combined with nonpoint sources  39. Exploratory grants and centers
 37. Lead and other heavy metals
 K. Infrastructure
 L. Cross Program (Analytical Methods, Quality Assurance/Quality Control, High
     Performance Computing, Test Method Development}
CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTXON
                                       17

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 POJXUnON PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
     •  High-risk environmental problems for Much pollution prevention offers a cost-effective solution
        for reducing the risks.

     •  Cross-cutting  research that can be applied to multiple problems, such as measuring pollution
        prevention.                         \

 Pollution Prevention Research Program

     Although the Pollution Prevention Research Plan: Report to Congress identified research goals and
 formed the foundation of EPA's pollution prevention research efforts, it did not delineate specific themes
 for future research efforts or identify priority research issues to be addressed by the program. The report
 to  Congress provided  only representative examples of the types of research projects that EPA expected
 to  conduct. A strategy was needed to clearly delineate themes and establish priorities for future research
 efforts that support ORD's  pollution prevention vision and achieve  the goals and objectives of the
 program.                                   ;

    The Pollution Prevention Research Program provides the "blue print" for ORD's pollution prevention
 research program by focusing the Agency's research efforts on reducing the health and ecological risks
 associated with high priority environmental problems and  developing the "tools" needed to implement
 pollution prevention approaches and measure i their performance.  This document is  also designed to
 support the information and research needs of the Agency's  pollution prevention sector strategies, as well
 as  the needs of the EPA Program and Regional Offices.

 Overview of the Research Program

    One of the responsibilities of the EPA Administrator included in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
 is to identify research  needs  relating to pollution prevention and set priorities for research  to target the
 most promising opportunities for risk reduction! The Pollution Prevention Research Program fulfills this
 responsibility  by defining a strategic  plan for  pollution prevention research that targets  priority
 environmental problems and  cross-cutting issuers and those research efforts that will result in the greatest
 potential for reducing  the risks associated withj these problems.

    The pollution prevention research program targets priority environmental problems and cross-cutting
 issues that will be used to focus ORD's pollution prevention research efforts over the next several years.
 It describes the various research approaches that will be employed to meet the research needs associated
 with the priority environmental problems and cross-cutting issues.  Chapter 2 presents the strategic
 approach for focusing the pollution prevention research program and identifies the priority environmental
 problems  and  cross-cutting issues targeted in i the strategy.  In addition, the criteria and process for
 establishing research priorities are presented in Chapter 2.

    Chapter 3  briefly  describes the major research needs  for each of the nine priority environmental
 problem areas-criteria air  pollutants,  toxic lair pollutants,  indoor air pollutants, ozone depleting
 substances,  greenhouse gases/global climate change,  pesticides, nonpoint  source  water discharges,
 hazardous waste, and municipal solid waste.

    Chapter 4 identifies the knowledge gaps associated with  each of the cross-cutting issues-assessments,
 modelling, life cycle analysis, understanding decisionmaking and behavior,  source reduction review
project, innovative pollution prevention approaches, technology transfer, incentives and education, sector
18
                                                                    CHAPTER l-EmiODUCTTON

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
strategies for pollution prevention, and measurement of progress (pollutant reduction, environmental and
health effects, and economic and social effects).

    Chapter 5 provides an overview of how  the  pollution prevention  research program will be
implemented.  It also describes the role of the Pollution Prevention Issue Planner in managing and
supporting pollution prevention research within the Agency.

    Through the pollution prevention research program and the joint efforts of the Office of Policy,
Planning, and Evaluation, the Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, the Office of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response, the  Office of Water, and the Regional Offices, EPA is attempting to
establish pollution prevention as a cornerstone of  national environmental protection strategies, to
communicate the message to all members of the environmental protection community, and to assist that
community in implementing pollution prevention programs. The Agency is fully aware of the significant
role that pollution prevention can play in preserving and protecting human health and the environment,
and we  recognize the importance of a well-conceived strategic research program to help achieve these
promising benefits.
CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION
19

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-------
                                               POlXiniON PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                      CHAPTER!
                             STRATEGIC  APPROACH
    Strategic planning at EPA has been based on a number of different approaches.  The primary
approaches that have been used include: (1) a regulatory/statutory approach, (2) a sector approach, and
(3) an environmental problems/issues approach.

    The regulatory/statutory approach has been the basis for much of EPA's program and research
planning in the past. This approach takes its direction from the requirements of environmental statutes
and the regulatory programs that evolve from the statutes. Using this approach, the research program
is designed  to  assist the Agency in meeting statutory requirements  and the needs of the regulatory
development/implementation process. Traditionally, this has led to research on topics such as available
technologies and permissible emissions levels that could be written into regulations.  Research founded
on this approach tends to be media based; EPA has recognized the limitations of media-based approaches
and has begun to emphasize cross-media research and planning.

    The sector approach includes topics that apply across different media, environmental problems, and
regulatory issues. This approach has not been used extensively for research planning, but it has been
used for program planning.  For  example, EPA's Pollution Prevention Strategy uses this approach. In
addition to outlining the overall goals, objectives, and programs for pollution prevention, it includes a
separate strategy for each of the five sectors-manufacturing,  consumers, energy and transportation,
agriculture, and federal government. One major reason that the sector approach is used in the Agency-
wide Pollution Prevention Strategy is that it incorporates a view of the entire system (e.g., use of electric
cars may reduce VOCs in urban areas, but it increases emissions from electric power generation). Using
a sector approach, a strategy can focus on the specific issues and cross-media concerns that relate to that
sector.

    The environmental  problems/issues approach focuses on specific issues or problems,  including
specific environmental problems and cross-cutting issues.  This approach has been used increasingly for
Agency strategic and research planning.  The SAB suggested strongly in Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities
and Strategies for Environmental Protection that research and program planning be based on the concept
of risk, with priority given to those activities that could reduce risk by addressing the issues and problems
that presented the greatest risk  to human  health and/or the  environment.  Despite the difficulties
associated with ranking problems according to  their relative risks, the environmental problems/issues
approach aligns closest with the SAB's recommendation for strategic planning.

A FRAMEWORK FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    Any of the three approaches  described above  could be used to  systematically identify  information
needs that could be met through pollution prevention research and to suggest potential research topics to
address these needs. The strategic approach proposed for planning EPA's pollution prevention research
program and identifying research needs and knowledge gaps is  the environmental  problems/issues
approach.
CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH
21

-------
POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    While it is crucial to focus pollution prevention research on reducing the risks associated with priority
problems, research is also needed to develop! the "tools" needed to implement pollution prevention
approaches.  This type of research is  not problem-specific and can be applied to more than one
environmental problem.  Further, a problem-Sspecific research focus alone could lead  to  duplicative
efforts.  For example, one research need under the air toxics problem  could be to develop a better
understanding of the factors affecting corporate decision-making-such as incentives for voluntarily joining
the 33/50 Program.  While this project may impact the air toxics problem, the results of the study are
applicable to implementing pollution prevention approaches to many different environmental problems.

    The  environmental problems/issues  approach is focused enough to  achieve near-term results in
reducing risks associated with targeted environmental problems, and flexible enough to  meet research
needs that cut across these and other problems, as well as the needs identified hi the Agency's sector
strategies and the information needs for integrating pollution prevention into the regulatory process.
                                           I
    Selection of the environmental problemsfissues approach is just the first  step in designing a
framework for pollution prevention research.  The remaining steps are:

    •  Identifying high-risk  environmental problems which could be effectively addressed through
       pollution prevention (discussed in this chapter).

    •  Identifying knowledge gaps associated with developing the  "tools" needed for implementing
       pollution prevention approaches (discussed in this chapter).

    •  Selecting priority environmental problems and cross-cutting issues (discussed in this chapter).

    •  Targeting the major research needs and knowledge gaps associated with the selected problems
       and issues (discussed in Chapters 3  and 4).

    •  Establishing mechanisms for implementing and managing the research program (discussed hi
       Chapter 5).                         i

    •  Developing a research plan which includes both problem-specific and cross-cutting research to
       address these research needs and knowledge gaps (to be developed as part of ORD's issue-based
       planning process).

This framework is presented in Exhibit 5.  Thfe pollution prevention research program focuses on five
of the six steps listed above. The research plans[ detailing the research topics to meet the problem-specific
and cross-cutting research needs will be prepared as  part of ORD's issue-based planning process.  The
Pollution Prevention Research Program identifies the thrust of the pollution prevention research efforts
for each problem and issue, and it will be the responsibility of the Issue Planners to integrate the pollution
prevention component into the relevant research plans.
                                           !      '  •
IDENTIFYING PRIORITY ENVIRONlviENTAL PROBLEMS

    In a  world of limited resources and  multiple environmental  problems, EPA must make the best
possible choices about where and how to  invesjt its research and development resources.  Good choices
require sound scientific and technical informatipn and a capability to sift through the options and select
those that offer the most promise in terms of long-term protection of health and the environment.  In
22
CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH

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                                        POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
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                                                   23

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
by  different environmental problems based on the best possible technical and scientific knowledge
available. The SAB was also charged with identifying options to reduce those risks.  To accomplish this,
the SAB established a special committee, the Relative Risk Reduction Strategies Committee, which in turn
was divided into three subcommittees:

    «  The Ecology and Welfare Subcommittee

    •  The Human Health Subcommittee

    •  The Strategic Options  Subcommittee.

    The Ecology and Welfare Subcommittee and the Human Health Subcommittee were charged with
reviewing and updating the risk findings from the Unfinished Business report.  Those two Subcommittees
were to provide, to the extent  possible, a single aggregate ranking of the risks, and recommend a long-
term strategy for assessing such risks.  The Strategic Options Subcommittee was charged with:

    •  Identifying strategy options for reducing residual environmental risks.

    •  Developing and demonstrating analytical  methodologies  for identifying  and  selecting risk
       reduction options.

    The Ecology and Welfare Subcommittee and the Human Health Subcommittee generally agreed with
the priority rankings of the 31 environmental problems included  in Unfinished Business. However,
because of the difficulties associated with ranking the problems, the Committee only assigned relative
priorities (i.e., high, medium,  and low) to each problem.  In view of time and resource constraints, the
Strategic Options Subcommittee decided that it could  not develop risk reduction options for all 31
problems.  Initially,  10 problems-those posing the  greatest health and ecological risk according to
Unfinished Business rankings—were selected for analysis.  One of these problems, worker exposure to
toxic chemicals, was later dropped without the Subcommittee making judgments about risks and strategy
options.  Two additional problems were selected by the Subcommittee-hazardous waste and municipal
solid waste—to include problems from another environmental medium and because of the large amounts
of resources and the public interest  devoted to them.   Two more problems—habitat alteration and
wetlands—were added after it became  apparent that the Ecology and Welfare Subcommittee was likely
to rank them as particularly .important. The resulting list of the 13 problems analyzed by the  Strategic
Options Subcommittee is presented in Exhibit 6 along with the top 10 priority problems from Unfinished
Business.

    The Reducing Risk report recommended that EPA target its environmental protection efforts on the
basis of opportunities for the greatest risk reduction. It also recommended that EPA emphasize pollution
prevention as the preferred option for reducing environmental risks over the long term. The SAB cited
seven reasons for focusing on pollution prevention to reduce risk:

    •  For some environmental problems, such as stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate
       change, pollution prevention is the only solution.

    •  Pollution prevention is often the most effective solution.  For instance, in the case of lead,
       asbestos, PCBs, and certain pesticides, the most effective solution has been to ban their use.
CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH
25

-------
POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM













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                                              POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
       There can be a tremendous cost benefit for pollution prevention in terms of avoiding costs of
       control, cleanup,  and liability; and in terms of decreasing costs by increasing efficiency and
       productivity.

       Pollution prevention is  the key  to  sustainable development.   In many  areas,  the U.S. is
       approaching or even exceeding the capacity of the environment to absorb pollutants. It is clear
       that economic and industrial strategies for the future that minimize pollution and the consumption
       of resources are more likely to be sustainable.
    •  Pollution prevention often prevents the
       solution to one environmental problem
       from re-emerging as another kind of
       environmental  problem  in   another
       medium, sometime  in the future or in
       another place.

    «  Pollution prevention can help improve
       international relations in two ways-first,
       it can help developing countries avoid
       the environmental problems that we had
       in the U.S.  by moving  directly to  low
       polluting, low waste technology; second,
       because it reduces the worldwide impact
       of  U.S.  generation of pollution  and
       consumption of resources.
EPA should reflect risk-based priorities in
its  strategic planning processes.   The
Agency's long-range plans should be driven
not so much by past risk reduction efforts
or by existing programmatic structures, but
by  ongoing assessments  of remaining
environmental   risks,   the   explicit
comparison of those risks, and the analysis
of opportunities  available for  reducing
risks.

                  Science Advisory Board
    Reducing Risk:  Setting Priorities and
  Strategies for Environmental Protection
    •  Pollution prevention protects the natural
       resources on the planet for future generations by reducing the amount of destruction caused by
       excessive pollution and slowing the depletion of resources.

    The 13 environmental problems analyzed bv the Strategic Options Subcommittee were used as
input for selection of the environmental problems  on which to focus the pollution  prevention
research strategy. All nine of the environmental problems targeted in this strategic plan ranked very
high in the Unfinished Business Report and five of them were included as medium- to high-risk priority
problems in the Reducing Risk report.

SELECTING PRIORITY ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    In preparation of the Pollution Prevention Research Program, ORD held several meetings with EPA
staff from the Office of  Environmental  Engineering  and  Technology Demonstration (OEETD)
laboratories, the Office of Pollution Prevention (OPP),  the  Office of Regulatory Management and
Evaluation (Science, Economics, and Statistics Division), and the Office of Technology Transfer and
Regulatory Support (OTTRS) to solicit ideas and comments for the strategic plan, as well as descriptions
of specific research projects that could be initiated as early as next fiscal year.  A planning meeting was
held during the summer of 1990 at the University of Cincinnati to discuss the structure and content of
the strategic plan.
CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH
                                                                                         27

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    OEETD organized a work group which was charged with establishing criteria for selecting 10 to 12
priority environmental problems whose  riskjs could be  reduced or eliminated  through a pollution
prevention approach.  To initiate the identification and selection process, the work group started by
discussing the 13 environmental problems analyzed by the Strategic Options Subcommittee of the
Relative Risk Reduction Strategies  Committee in The Report of the Strategic Options Subcommittee
report.                                    ;
                                          i
    During the discussion, seven additional environmental problems were identified for consideration by
the work group.  By  applying the following [criteria, the work group narrowed the list down to nine
priority environmental problems (see Exhibit 17) on which to focus the Pollution Prevention Research
Program:

    •  Risk to human health and the environment-those problems that pose the greatest risk relative
       to other environmental problems when| taking into account  the risk of cancer, chronic non-cancer
       health effects,  reproductive, developmental, and neurotoxic risks, and the potential for ecological
       damage as well as the risk for multiple exposures.

    •  Amenability to pollution prevention solutions and limitations of other solutions-the potential
       contribution of a pollution prevention approach to solution or elimination of the environmental
       problem,  particularly when pollution controls, treatment, and disposal options are limited or
       relatively ineffective in reducing the associated risks.
                                          i
                                          i
    •  Probable  benefits   and  costs of reducing risks—the  expected benefits  (economical  and
       environmental) of preventing the generation of sources contributing to the environmental problem
       outweigh the costs associated with implementing a pollution prevention approach.

    •  Degree to which the problem is addressed and funded by programs  other  than pollution
       prevention—environmental problems which are already being effectively addressed through other
       programs should not be priority targets of the pollution  prevention program.

    Subsequent to the summer 1990 meeting, the work group members and representatives from the OPP
and OTTRS were individually asked to rank the nine problems in order of priority using the criteria listed
above.  This, of course, was a subjective ranking based  on the knowledge and experience of those
involved, as little data  are  available on  which to base objective  rankings.   Ranking environmental
problems is challenging for several reasons.  Ecological, health, and welfare risks can be manifested in
a number of different endpoints; it is difflculit to compare risks with widely different time scales and
spatial dimensions; and because of the data gaps and methodological inadequacies, it is rarely feasible to
quantify total risk.

    Despite these difficulties, the problems presented in Exhibit 7 are ranked in order of priority.  All
of these problems are considered important in tjsrms of the pollution prevention research program because
of the risks they pose to human health and thfe environment, and  the potential for pollution prevention
research to reduce these risks.  Overall, the air-related problems ranked high due to the relatively high
associated risks, the pervasiveness of the probl&ms, and the suitability of pollution prevention approaches
to address the problems.                    i
28
CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH

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                                 POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
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                                                               29

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    The work group recommended that the research priorities be reviewed and updated periodically as
new problem areas emerge and as new inforniation leads to revised evaluations of the risks associated
with existing and new problem areas.        |
                                          I
IDENTIFYING CROSS-CUTTING RESEARCH ISSUES

    There are a number of pollution prevention research  issues that are not specific  to a particular
environmental problem and can often be applied to multiple problems.  Therefore, one of the components
of this strategic plan is cross-cutting issues. Three major areas are targeted for cross-cutting research and
they are identified in Exhibit 8. To undertake a balanced cross-cutting research program, equal emphasis
should be placed on establishing the engineering and scientific foundation for development of a broader
array of tools (such as life cycle analysis methodology or process simulation models containing pollution
prevention factors), the application of these tools, and methods for measuring their impact and improving
their effectiveness.

    Many of the issues identified in Exhibit 8 crosscut all nine of the priority problems, as well as other
problems not targeted in  this  strategy.   For example, methods for measuring and evaluating the
effectiveness of pollution prevention efforts $re needed regardless of the environmental problem or
problems being  addressed by the efforts.  Research on other cross-cutting  issues can be applied to
implementing pollution prevention solutions to  many different environmental problems;.  For example,
social science research is needed to understand the incentives that motivate individuals and corporations.
This information is critical for designing and implementing a multitude of voluntary pollution prevention
programs that  will  impact diverse  environmental problems.   Without  the  cross-cutting  research
component, much of the research needed to address the targeted priority problems and future problems
would be neglected.

SETTING RESEARCH PRIORITIES

    Once the priority environmental problems and cross-cutting issues have been identified, the next step
in the strategic planning process is to  define th& knowledge gaps and research needs associated with each
of the problems and issues. The research needs for the environmental problems and cross-cutting issues
will be the focus of Chapters 3 and 4, respectively.
                                          I
    In identifying research needs for the environmental problems and the appropriate research approaches,
the nature and controllability of the risks associated with the priority problem must be considered. For
example, risks associated with indoor air polljutants can be substantially affected by individual lifestyle
choices,  and these  risks  may  be  more effectively reduced  through market incentives  and risk
communication (social science research) than jthrough conventional regulation and enforcement.  These
risks  can also be reduced  or prevented by making available less toxic,  less polluting products-ranging
from building materials to furnishings to  household cleaners and pesticides. The Pollution Prevention
Research Plan: Report to Congress described a variety of research  approaches to address these
environmental problems.  Greater emphasis wjas placed on approaches which concurrently address risks
attributed to more than one problem. For ex|ample, pollution prevention research initiatives to  reduce
fossil fuel use would help to address human health risks posed by criteria and toxic air pollution from
fossil energy powerplants, and ecological risks [posed by the threat of global climate change resulting from
the emission of greenhouse gases.
30
                                                            CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH

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                                      POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
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                                                                          31

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POULUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    Similarly, when planning the research approaches to address cross-cutting issues, there are a number
of factors that must be considered.  The cross-cutting issues are not intended to focus on a particular
environmental problem, rather they will involve developing pollution prevention "tools"  that can be
applied to a multitude of problems, investigating methods to improve the application of these "tools," and
measuring their effectiveness in preventing pollution.

    The cross-cutting research component of the pollution prevention research program is designed to
provide EPA and other government agencies, industries, consumers, and other economic sectors with the
"tools"—whether they be information tools such as life cycle analysis and audit manuals or evaluation
tools such as measurement methodologies—to encourage and facilitate the use of pollution prevention
technologies and approaches.                >

    Since there are numerous research approaches that could be undertaken to  address  a particular
problem  or issue, priorities must be  established.  Considerable thought was given to methods  for
prioritizing the research approaches associated with the priority environmental problems and cross-cutting
issues. In prioritizing the research approaches, an attempt was made to place relative importance on those
approaches that would most effectively address the problem or issue; for example, whether the problem
of pesticides  application could best be addressed through technology transfer or product research.  The
following criteria were established for prioritizing the pollution prevention research projects:
                                           I
    •  Contribution of Pollution Prevention Research in Reducing Risks-the potential  contribution
       of the research  project in preventing,1 reducing,  or eliminating the risks associated  with  the
       environmental problem.

    •  Value Added by EPA  Research-the necessity of EPA conducting the  research because of
       information needs  that others are not addressing,  and  the importance  of this  research in
       implementing pollution prevention approaches to the problem.

    •  Impact on Multiple Environmental Problems-the contribution of the research results to better
       understanding of and  capability to  implement pollution prevention  approaches that address
       multiple priority environmental problems.

    •  Cost Effectiveness-the cost of  the j research relative to the absolute amount  of  expected
       environmental improvements.

    Exhibit 9 shows the nine highest priority environmental problems identified by the work group. These
problems were then arrayed against the various  sectors wherein they are most likely to  occur.   The
rankings are relative rankings based on the judgment of the members of the work group from the large
number of potential problems considered by them. The rankings indicate those areas of initial focus in
the research  program.  These rankings will ibe  reviewed  and updated annually to redirect research
priorities based on research progress and changing research needs.  In addition, these annual  reviews will
allow  ORD to incorporate new problem are|as  as they emerge and reassess relative risks as new
information leads to revised evaluations of the risks associated with existing and new problem areas.

    In establishing priorities for cross-cutting; research several factors were considered, including  the
potential contribution of the research to preventing pollution, the needs of the EPA region and program
offices, and the support required for the Agency's pollution prevention sector strategies. The major areas
of growth will be in the application  of tools and measurement of progress.  Both of these research areas
32
CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH

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                                     POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
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CHAPTER 2-STRATEGIC APPROACH
                                                                       33

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I
                                                              PCMLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
               are critical to the success of EPA's pollution prevention efforts and will receive increasing funding over
               the next five years.  Tool  development research, as well as social science research, are expected to
               remain at level funding. Much work is being {done outside of EPA on developing and refining tools for
               pollution prevention, and if this continues to increase, ORD may reduce the level of funding concentrated
               on tool  development. The social science research area is relatively new (a draft strategy has just been
               prepared) and the pollution prevention component needs to be more focused on contributing to the overall
               pollution prevention research goals.
                34
CHAPTERS-STRATEGIC APPROACH

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                      CHAPTERS

                       PROBLEM-SPECIFIC  RESEARCH
    Nine priority, high-risk environmental problems are targeted  hi the problem-specific research
 component of the pollution prevention research program. Only nine problems have been selected of the
 many environmental problems that EPA must address in order to develop a realistic and achievable plan
 given the resource constraints associated with a finite budget.  These nine problems are those that, in the
 professional judgment of ORD and the SAB, pose relatively high health and ecological risks.  These
 problems include:
    •  Indoor Air Pollutants

    •  Criteria Air Pollutants

    •  Ozone Depleting Substances

    •  Greenhouse Gases/Global Climate Change

    •  Toxic Air Pollutants
•  Pesticides

«  Nonpoint Source Water Discharges

•  Hazardous and Industrial Wastes

•  Municipal Solid Waste
     Descriptions of the major concerns and research needs associated with each of these environmental
problems are presented in the remainder of this chapter.

INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to indoor air pollutants is a major contributor to human
health risk for a wide variety of environmental contaminants. In addition, building occupant complaints
about things such as Sick Building Syndrome resulting in lost productivity have risen dramatically in the
past few years.  Thus, poor indoor air quality has adverse health and economic impacts.  With few
exceptions, such as radon, indoor air pollutants arise from sources within the indoor environment. Thus,
while ventilation and air cleaning can be used to improve indoor air quality, managing the sources
(through source  reduction) is the most effective mechanism  for reducing or eliminating indoor air
pollutants.  The following hierarchy describes the preferred approach to indoor air quality improvement:

    1) Whenever possible, select products and materials which are low-emitting and whose emissions
       result in reduced health impact.

    2) Then, improve ventilation.

    3) As a last resort, use add-on technology to clean up polluted indoor air.

The first step in this hierarchy is considered in this pollution prevention strategy.

    The amount and type of indoor air pollution depends to a large extent on building materials selected
by the architect and/or builder, products purchased for indoor use by the building occupants, and the
CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIFIC RESEARCH
                                                                                          35

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
manner in which those products are used.  Therefore, ORD's indoor air pollution prevention research
program should include the following:

    •   Collection of information on the emitting characteristics of products, and on the possible effects
        of those emissions, and distribution of jthis information to architects, builders, manufacturers, and
        consumers in forms that are useable and understandable by the target audience(s).

    •   Work with  product  manufacturers to  develop  lower-emitting products, or products whose
        emissions result in lower health impact.

    •   Development of methods to reduce the growth and reproduction of biocontaminants that are
        present in indoor environments.

    •   Social science research to determine the most effective methods of communicating risks associated
        with indoor  air pollutants and the best ways to get architects, builders, and consumers to change
        their behavior to specify, buy, and use lower indoor air impact products.

    Research efforts focused on  indoor air pollutants should be coordinated with pollution prevention
research on pesticides (for household use) and the development of life cycle analysis methodology.

CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    Criteria air pollutants are regulated under [Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990.
They include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to ozone formation,  carbon monoxide,
paniculate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead.  In the 20 years since the  implementation of
the original Clean Air Act hi 1970, there have been substantial reductions  in the emissions of most of the
criteria air pollutants.  However, in 1990 there were still approximately  74 million people in the U.S.
living in counties where the National Ambienjt Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria air pollutants
were exceeded. Pollution prevention approaches can be used to further reduce the ambient levels of these
pollutants.                                i

    Ozone standards are those most frequently violated.  Approximately 112 million people live in non-
attaining counties.  VOCs are important ozone precursors, and they account for approximately 33% of
total criteria air pollutant emissions from transportation and 46% of total  criteria air pollutant emissions
from industrial processes. VOC emissions from anthropogenic sources will be a primary focus of the
criteria air pollutants pollution prevention research program.  Reduction of VOC emissions is a key
component of the strategy to reduce ambient jozone concentrations.

    VOCs are emitted from several types of Sources-mobile sources (automobiles, trucks, boats, etc.),
large point sources  (industries), and small distributed sources (dry cleaners, consumers, etc.).  Mobile
sources, regulated under Title  II of the CAAA, were responsible for approximately  34% of VOC
emissions in  1990.  VOCs emitted from large  point sources have received a great deal  of attention in
Control Technology Guidelines  and  State Implementation Plans in the  past.  Prevention and control
technologies  for these sources are already required  in most non-attainment areas, and  most pollution
prevention research relating to these sources jwill be carried out primarily under ORD's air toxics issue.

    Small,  distributed sources of emissions include such things as consumer product use and coating and
solvent cleaning by  small industries.  The primary objective of this research is to better understand how
                                                   CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIFIC RESEARCH

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
to reduce VOC emissions from these sources through prevention.  Applications engineering is used to
adapt technologies used in large industries for smaller industries, and technology transfer is encouraged
to make information about less polluting alternatives available to the small users and consumers.

    The majority of criteria air pollutant emissions result from the combustion of fossil fuels.  About 41 %
of total criteria air pollutant emissions from transportation and 55% from fuel combustion are attributed
to nitrogen oxides. Since VOCs and nitrogen oxides are key contributors to the criteria air pollutants
problem, ORD will focus on developing ways to prevent and reduce these emissions. ORD's pollution
prevention strategy for criteria air pollutants includes:

    •   Development, demonstration, and evaluation of technologies and techniques to reduce and prevent
        emissions from distributed sources (e.g.,  consumer products use, coating and solvent cleaning
        by small industries) of VOGs in ozone non-attainment areas.

    •   Investigation of incentives and their effectiveness for reducing VOC emissions.

    •   Development of low-NOx combustion technologies.

    •   Development of technologies/techniques  and incentives to promote energy conservation and
        energy efficiency.

    This research program focuses on the needs of smaller users. Applications engineering is used to
adapt technologies used in large industries for smaller industries, and technology transfer is encouraged
to make information about less polluting alternatives available to the small users.

    Many VOCs  are also regulated as hazardous  air pollutants (HAPs)  under Title  III maximum
achievable control technology (MACT)  requirements of the CAAA.  Development and maintenance of
expertise in the reduction of VOCs which are also HAPs can  solve both problems in an integrated
fashion. The use of metals and organic solvents contributes to environmental problems due to air toxics,
criteria air pollutants, and hazardous wastes. Therefore, research on the reduction of organic solvent and
metal emissions conducted under all three of these problem areas should  be coordinated. In addition,
since certain chlorinated VOCs are stratospheric ozone depletors, research efforts focused on reducing
emissions  of these compounds should be coordinated with research on ozone depleting substances.

OZONE  DEPLETING SUBSTANCES

    Chemicals containing chlorine  that reach and persist in  the stratosphere  cause depletion of
stratospheric ozone which shields the earth's surface from ultraviolet-B radiation.  These ozone depletors
include: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) like CFC13 and CF2C12, halons like CBrF3 and CBrClF2, and to a
lesser extent, methyl chloroform (CCHjCCL,) and carbon tetrachloride (CC14).  In 1990, the Montreal
Protocol established a new schedule for phasing out several substances which contribute to stratospheric
ozone depletion. U.S. industry has responded by pledging to reduce production of CFCs and other ozone
depletors.  The CAAA of 1990 implemented the  Montreal Protocol requirements in this country,  and
went further by instituting specific  dates for phaseout of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and several
more stringent interim targets for other chemicals.

    Recent data (issued in a Statement on Ozone Depletion by William K. Reilly, April 4,  1991) have
indicated greater  stratospheric ozone depletion hi the mid-northern latitudes than had earlier been
CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIEIC RESEARCH
37

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FOIXUIION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
predicted.  It is anticipated that the international community will react to these data by modifying the
Montreal Protocol to require even earlier phaseouts of CFCs and other ozone depletors.  The CAAA
requires adoption of any more stringent Montreal Protocol requirements when they are adopted.

    The vast majority of EPA engineering research related to stratospheric ozone depletion is directed
at pollution prevention—finding more innocuous replacements for ozone depletors.  The seriousness of
the problems resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion combined with the long  atmospheric life of
many ozone-depleting chemicals forces us to [focus on source reduction, and maximum use of existing
supplies of chemicals (i.e., recycling) to utilize existing equipment for its useful life.  This reduces both
capital expenditures and the wastes generated [by scrapping old equipment.

    CFCs are used primarily as refrigerants, foam blowing agents, aerosol propellants, and as solvents
in electronics production. Halons (brominated jsubstances) are used as fire suppressants and extinguishers.
Methyl chloroform is used as a solvent hi electronics manufacture. Carbon tetrachloride is a specialty
chemical and a precursor to CFCs.  Much research related to finding substitutes for  solvent and aerosol
propellant uses is underway by industry, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and
other EPA programs.   Several hydrocarbonk and other chemicals are technically viable as aerosol
propellants.

    Much of the research on alternative refrigerants, being conducted by industry, centers on the use of
HCFCs.  Because HCFCs are also stratospheric ozone depletors, it is important for EPA to look for more
environmentally benign replacements.   HCFCs are also proposed as substitutes for CFCs  hi foam
insulation.   Research  is needed to find the  next generation replacement  or alternative insulation.
Frequently, these other replacements are not being sought by industry because this is "high risk" research,
and there is no near-term regulatory requirement for their phaseout. A great deal of work must be done
to synthesize and test potential replacements  before there is any indication that  any one particular
chemical will  have commercial possibilities.  EPA  research is  filling this  void by encouraging the
synthesis and testing of more new compounds.

    The use of halon as a fire and explosion suppressant hi certain applications has the potential for
CAAA exemptions to extend its use beyond the phaseout deadlines because of its critical safety function
hi enclosed environments.  This will not be necessary if a replacement is found.  Research is needed to
find an adequate replacement hi order to accelerate the phaseout.
                                          i
    ORD's strategy for pollution prevention research to address the stratospheric ozone depletion problem
includes:

    •  Development, testing,  and evaluation |of alternatives for CFCs, halons, and olher stratospheric
       ozone depletors to effectively fulfill the various uses of these substances.

    •  Development of recycling techniques for CFCs  and CFC substitutes.

    •  Identification and evaluation of the effectiveness of education, communication, and incentives on
       reducing the use of products containing stratospheric ozone depletors.

    Some solvents and aerosol propellants which are stratospheric ozone depletors or their substitutes are
also precursors of ground level ozone and/or  are considered HAPs.  For example,  CFCs are potent
greenhouse gases—accounting for about 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions from human activities on
38
CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPEOFIC RESEARCH

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
 a carbon dioxide equivalent basis (Federal Register, 1988).  Therefore, research dealing with ozone
 depleting substances should be coordinated with pollution prevention research conducted to  address
 criteria air pollutants, toxic air pollutants!, and greenhouse gases/global climate change issues.

 GREENHOUSE GASES/GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases resulting from the activities of a rapidly expanding
 global population are a major factor in global warming.  Carbon dioxide, methane (natural gas), nitrogen
 dioxide, and CFCs result in about 86% of human impact on the atmosphere's greenhouse effect even
 though they are a small fraction of the total atmosphere.  Fossil fuel combustion will account for about
 50%  of the problem in  the form of CO2 emissions by  the year 2030.   Deforestation and biomass
 combustion will account for approximately 25% more of the problem, and another 15% is attributed to
 methane releases from landfills, pipelines,  coal mines, and agriculture/animal husbandry.

    Each of these problem areas is amenable to a partial engineering solution; biomass fuels can replace
 fossil fuels while providing an incentive for reforestation; other renewable sources of energy can replace
 fossil fuels; conservation can reduce energy demand; and methane from landfills, coal mines,  and the
 natural gas industry can be recovered and used as a source of energy.

    To address the global climate change problem, we must develop an understanding of greenhouse gas
 emissions, sources, factors, activities, and inventories. With this information, we can develop prevention
 and  mitigation strategies,  technologies,  and  practices for reducing these emissions.   The major
 contributors to global warming amenable  to engineering  pollution prevention approaches are carbon
 dioxide from energy consumption and production, and  methane releases from waste disposal facilities,
 coal mines, and natural gas processing. DOE is conducting a tremendous amount of research on reducing
 CO2 emissions from  energy consumption and production.   DOE is also investigating the feasibility of
 alternatives to fossil fuels.  Therefore, ORD  will focus  its prevention research efforts on reducing
 methane generation and developing ways to capture and reuse methane waste streams.  ORD's research
 efforts will also focus on energy efficiency  and  conservation and, in conjunction with DOE, alternatives
 to fossil fuels.

    ORD's strategy for pollution prevention research to address the greenhouse gases/global  climate
 change problem should include:

    •  Development, testing, and evaluation of technologies/techniques to reduce emissions of methane.

    •  Determination of opportunities and techniques for capture and reuse of methane waste streams.

    •  Development, testing, and evaluation of using biomass as an alternative to fossil fuel.

    •  Development, testing, and evaluation of technologies and techniques to reduce CO2 emissions
       through energy efficiency and use of renewable energy.

    •  Identification of safe alternatives  and  technologies/techniques for reducing CFC and halon
       emissions.

    •  Identification and evaluation of the  effectiveness  of incentives for energy conservation and
       reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIFIC RESEARCH
39

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POULTJTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    The pollution prevention research to reduce emissions of CFCs and halons and find safe alternatives
 conducted under the stratospheric ozone depletion problem should be coordinated with the greenhouse
 gases/global climate change research efforts.

 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    There are three major categories of sources of air toxics: 1) mobile sources through fuel combustion
 (gasoline, diesel, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarjbons, 1,3-butadiene, and fine particles), 2) use of solvents
 by industry, commercial, businesses, and consumers (electronics industry, dry cleaning,  paints, cleaning
 products, and personal products), and 3) combiistion of fuels and use of a wide variety of toxic chemicals
 in industrial processes.                     '.

    In 1989,  the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) showed that approximately 2.4 billion pounds of toxic
 chemicals were released to the air from reporting sources. However, national reductions in toxic air
 pollutant emissions from stationary sources have been limited by the small number of federal emission
 standards promulgated  under Section  112 of the Clean  Air Act (National  Emission Standards for
 Hazardous Air Pollutants).  The Act required setting standards based on "ample margin of safety,"
 primarily based on health and exposure concerns.  Because of the complexity and uncertainty involved
 ia setting health-based standards, EPA and the regulated community were unable to agree on an "ample
 margin of safety" for many hazardous air pollutants.  The resultant regulatory approach was difficult and
 slow.  Only seven standards were set in 17 years.   To compensate for the lack of federal regulation,
 several states created their own, independent' air toxics programs, while many others waited for the
 federal government to make progress.

    Congress  addressed these problems when they passed the  CAAA in 1990,  which substantially
 modified  Section  112.   The new regulatory approach  requires federal technology-based standards
 (MACT/GACT) for stationary sources of the 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) specified in the
 Amendments. This new regulatory strategy [can best be achieved by combining pollution prevention
 approaches and the use of control technologies hi the new standards issued.
                                          I
    Approximately  80% of the releases of the  17 chemicals targeted in the 33/50 Program are HAPs.
 Because of the large contribution of HAPs to jthe total 33/50 releases,  reduction of HAP emissions will
 be critical to  the success of the 33/50 Program.  The Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
 (AEERL) completed a scoping study in Fiscal Year 1991 to set research direction and develop projects
 in support of the 33/50 Program. The scoping study examined the processes responsible for the largest
 emissions  of 33/50 chemicals and  explored the  potential   for  pollution  prevention  research.
 Representatives from high-emitting industries participated in identifying research directions and needs.
 The research needs identified hi the scoping [study are concerned primarily with reducing the use of
volatile, toxic, organic cleaning solvents. Other priority industries/processes identified in the study are
 chemical/refinery, gray iron foundries, pharmaceutical,  polymer and  resin production, and surface
 coatings.  Research is needed to identify effective methods of reducing the use of toxic cleaning solvents
 hi these and other industries.

    Much work  is  underway  hi industry, particularly by larger industries working with proprietary
processes.  The EPA research role is primarily focused on areas that are less proprietary,  and  more
 distributed, such as solvent cleaning and coating processes.  Another focus is on catalyzing industry
research where resources are unavailable (such as low profit margin industries), or where the research
 is not a priority for the industry involved (some1 environmental priorities are not business priorities).  EPA
40
CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPEC][FIC RESEARCH

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                                                 POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
 will also play a role in discouraging the use of toxic solvents in consumer products such as paint,
 cleaners, and other household products.

    ORD's strategy for .pollution prevention research to address toxic air pollutants includes:

    •  Development and demonstration of innovative prevention approaches involving changes in the
        formulation, manufacturing, application, and use of products and materials containing or emitting
        air toxics.

    •  Demonstration and evaluation of alternatives to processes emitting toxic air pollutants.

    •  Investigation of the effectiveness of incentives for developing and using non-toxic substitutes.

    Pollution prevention research to address the toxic air pollutants problem should be coordinated with
 prevention research  efforts on criteria air pollutants and stratospheric ozone depletion since a number of
 air toxics are criteria air pollutants and/or ozone  depletors.

 PESTICffiES

    There are an estimated 850 active pesticide ingredients in production. In addition, there are hundreds
 of inerts (such as methylene chloride, formaldehyde, and other solvents or carriers) which are mixed with
 the active ingredients to make formulated pesticide products. As many as 50,000 pesticide products have
 been registered at the federal level.  About 1.1 billion pounds of conventional active pesticide ingredients
 are used in the United States each year.  The agricultural sector accounts for about 75% of pesticide
 usage; the industrial, commercial, and government sectors account for about 18%, and the remaining 7%
 is used in homes and gardens. Pesticides present a health risk to applicators and farm workers, and to
 the general public through the food supply, and  contamination of  surface water and groundwater.  A
 pesticide (herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, or rodenticide), by its very nature, is toxic to some organisms
 and thus can cause significant adverse human health problems and/or ecological  damage.

    Pollution prevention offers a major opportunity to reduce the  environmental risk of pesticides hi
 manufacturing,  formulation  and  packaging, and application of the end-use products.  While safer
 pesticides are clearly a highly desirable goal, less pesticide use will most directly help achieve reduced
 exposure and environmental burden as well as pollution prevention.

    There is a significant need for research devoted to proper application technologies/techniques for end
 users.  Research is needed to develop controlled application techniques that will reduce the amount of
 pesticides traditionally applied on a per acre basis.   It is important to develop training and educational
 programs focused  on the proper methods of selecting the application rate and applying the product to
 prevent or minimize over or improper application.  Training of the applicator  and general public
 regarding proper rinsing and disposal procedures  for empty pesticide containers is necessary.  Research
 is also needed to investigate the viability and practicality of buffer strips to mmimize surface water runoff
 and resulting surface water contamination with pesticides applied  properly, but physically moved by
 excessive rainfall.

    Pesticides are applied to the land in a variety of methods.  These application methods often result in
wasted or unused product, rinsate,  or other contamination.  Research is needed  to develop application
techniques which reduce the amount of drift of a sprayed liquid or a dry dust formulation.  Application
CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIFIC RESEARCH
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
equipment which  minimizes  waste by  eliminating unwanted/unused product  and reduces  rinsate
requirements needs to be studied.  Development of closed mixing equipment for pesticides is needed for
safety and accurate metering to reduce product waste.

    For the small-scale farmer and home and [garden end-users of pesticides, ORD pollution prevention
research should focus on how to collect and r|euse unwanted pesticides rather than the common practice
of throwing the product and container away. Research with the Office of Pesticide Programs on container
design to  encourage reusable and/or refillablej and/or recyclable containers for the retail markets should
also be conducted.

    Pollution prevention research at the formulation/packaging level, should focus on ways to minimize
the amount of pesticide active ingredient, diluents, and carrier agents discharged to wastewater treatment
plants. Wash-downs are critical for the formulators/packagers as a means of avoiding contaminating one
product with residue from a previous batch. Reuse of these rinsates is one potential cost-effective method
to reduce  discharges.  ORD should work on developing better cleaning methods  (e.g., high pressure and
low volume rinsing, solvent rinsing with recycle) to reduce rinsates, and on reuse of off-specification
formulations.                              >

    In the pesticide formulation and packaging industries, research needs include investigating equipment
rinsing practices to reuse as much water or solyents as possible and to minimize the volume of wastewater
to be  treated,  and using reusable containers  which  could be returned to the manufacturer.   The
formulation of less toxic, less polluting pesticides should not be the function of EPA.  However, the
Agency should encourage industry to conduct the research needed to develop  these pesticides.  ORD
should  play an active role  hi working with industry  to  determine the toxicity,  transport,  and
transformation hi the environment  of new  pesticides, and/or formulations to ensure mat these products
and possible degradation products are less toxic and less persistent than currently used products hi natural
waters, soils, and sediments.  While reformuljation of pesticides to reduce the overall environmental risk
could be very effective hi preventing pollution, there is a major barrier to consider for reformulation-the
cost and time invested by a manufacturer  to have a pesticide product registered by EPA.   Research is
needed to investigate ways to overcome this barrier and streamline the registration of  less toxic, less
polluting pesticides.

    Another pollution prevention solution would be to find effective alternatives to chemical treatments
using biological methods, such as biotechnology/genetic engineering to develop viral pesticides or natural
methods to eliminate pests such as integrated jpest management.

    ORD's strategy for pollution prevention research to address the pesticides problem includes:
                                                           '
    •   Development and demonstration of  improved mixing, application, and rinsing techniques to
        reduce the use and waste of pesticides.

    •   Evaluation of the feasibility of collecting and reusing leftover pesticides from homeowners and
        small farmers and investigation of container design modifications for reuse.

    •   Evaluation of the effectiveness  of techniques  to prevent  and  reduce runoff of  pesticide-
        contaminated surface water.         •
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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
     •  Identification of alternatives to chemical pesticides, such as new methods of integrated pest
        management and low input sustainable agriculture, that minimize the volume and diversity of
        pesticides and inerts used in agriculture.

     •  Evaluation of the effectiveness of education and communication efforts in improving application
        practices and reducing the use and waste of pesticides.

     •  Identification and assessment of incentives for and barriers to the development of safer, less toxic
        pesticides.

 NONPOINT SOURCE WATER DISCHARGES

     Nonpoint source discharges are the largest contributing source type to pollution of surface waters.
 They are responsible for most of the loadings of conventional pollutants-96% of the sediment, 79% of
 the nitrogen, 74% of the phosphorus,  41% of the BOD (biological oxygen demand), and similarly high
 fractions of many toxic pollutants.  Agriculture, mining, construction, silviculture, and land disposal are
 major contributors to the nonpoint source problem. Agriculture is responsible for between 68% to 83%
 of the nonpoint source loadings of four conventional pollutants. In some specific regions, though, urban
 runoff, silviculture, grazing, mining,  construction, or septic tanks may be the major contributor to a
 nonpoint source problem.

    EPA has been and will continue to work with the Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop
 improved farming practices, including reducing the use of fertilizers and pesticides through increased use
 of techniques such as integrated pest management,  low-input sustainable agriculture, crop rotation,
 alternative tilling practices, and soil testing; promoting the use of best management practices that reduce
 runoff; discouraging farming activity on erodible acreage in priority watersheds; and maintaining or
 creating vegetative stream buffers. Since agriculture is responsible for the bulk of nonpoint source
 loadings nationwide, it is receiving nearly all of the federal attention.  However, other nonpoint sources
 can  cause locally severe impacts.  Therefore, ORD will focus substantial research effort on reducing
 urban runoff.

    Urban runoff has not been fully characterized, especially with respect to toxic materials. Although
 some  urban  watersheds were studied in the  1960s  and 1970s,  these  studies  concentrated  on the
 conventional pollutants.  Further data on the magnitude and source of toxic substances are needed. Based
 on this review, data gaps will be identified and specific urban problem areas will be selected for further
 evaluation. A number of sites will be selected for urban runoff monitoring that will fill the data gaps.
 Based on this information, a pollution prevention approach to  the most  critical problems  can  be
 formulated.

    Some research has been conducted on best management practices for urban  and agricultural runoff.
 Information on best practices needs to be prepared and disseminated  to users in appropriate forms.
 Demonstrations  and evaluations of best management practices are needed for those methods with
 inadequate cost and performance data.

   Research is also needed to develop models capable of predicting the pollution prevention effectiveness
of various best management practices on receiving waters in urban areas.
CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIEIC RESEARCH
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    ORD's strategy for pollution prevention research to address nonpoint source discharges to surface
v/aters includes:

    •  Identification, demonstration, and evaluation of best management practices to prevent or reduce
       nonpoint source discharges from agriculture and urban runoff.

    •  Development of models capable of predicting the effectiveness of best management practices on
       preventing or reducing nonpoint sourpe discharges.

    •  Cooperation with USDA to develop improved farming practices that minimize nonpoint source
       discharges from agriculture.

    •  Evaluation of incentives for reducing the use of fertilizers, pesticides, etc., by farmers and
       homeowners, and incentives for discouraging sewer disposal of toxic substances.

    Pollution prevention research to address the nonpoint source problem should be coordinated with the
research focused on preventing and reducing the use and runoff of pesticides.

HAZARDOUS AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    The mining, manufacturing, and use and [disposal of materials and products produce a vast number
of undesirable substances that are considered toxic and hazardous. There are approximately 275 million
metric tons of hazardous liquid and solid waste generated each year, and  another 11 billion metric tons
of nonhazardous industrial waste, wastes associated with gas and oil production, and mining wastes.
A 1987 Chemical  Manufacturers Association hazardous waste survey of 552 plants revealed that 218
million tons  of hazardous waste were generated,  of  which 96.7%  was in the form  of industrial
wastewater.

    A number of analyses indicate that the amounts of waste currently generated could be substantially
reduced through changes hi raw materials, production processes, and products. The Office of Technology
Assessment (OTA) concluded that a reasonable goal would be to reduce  the generation of all types of
hazardous waste entering all media by 10% each  year for five years.

    The overall research direction is to establish an integrated program that provides a tool for evaluating
existing pollution prevention technologies, testing new concepts that catalyze the development of new
pollution prevention technologies, and transferring this information to the user community.  Additionally,
in concert with the combined resources of other government and private organizations, research is needed
to explore and demonstrate model productiojn systems that integrate pollution prevention technologies
from the ground up. Research is also needed to develop models capable of predicting the effectiveness
of pollution prevention technologies/techniques in reducing or eliminating hazardous waste in industrial
systems from the acquisition of raw materials through manufacture, product use, and final disposal.

    There is  a need to evaluate the effectiveness  of pollution prevention technologies/techniques in
reducing or eliminating hazardous waste.   Tools for comparing pollution prevention options are also
needed.  An additional research need is to determine what second and third order effects need to be
considered in selecting process changes to prevent pollution.
44
                                                    CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIEIC RESEARCH

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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    An informational network via regions, states, trade associations, international organizations, other
 government agencies, and industry is needed to share information on pollution prevention technologies
 and their performance and cost effectiveness.

    In addition, there is a need to demonstrate and evaluate methods,  technologies,  and systems for
 preventing hazardous waste and pollution hi specific high-polluting industries.  These industries should
 be selected on the basis that the results will be applicable throughout their industrial sector, attack a major
 hazardous/toxic material, and/or are a major source of pollutant. It is critical that credible information
 concerning the performance and costs associated with these techniques are effectively transferred to
 potential users.

    ORD's strategy for pollution prevention research to address hazardous and industrial wastes includes:

    •   Conduct of audits/assessments of production processes to identify and evaluate opportunities for
        reducing or preventing the generation of hazardous and industrial wastes.

    •   Development, demonstration, and evaluation of technologies/techniques to reduce or prevent the
        generation of hazardous and  industrial wastes.

    •   Development and  maintenance  of an informational network  to  share information  on  the
        availability, performance, and cost of pollution prevention technologies.

    •   Development of models for designing and simulating industrial processes to incorporate pollution
        prevention approaches and predict the effectiveness of different pollution prevention alternatives.

    •   Investigation of ways to encourage product stewardship to promote responsible use and disposal
        of hazardous wastes.

    •   Identification and evaluation of incentives for  voluntarily reducing the generation of hazardous
        and industrial wastes.

MUNICIPAL  SOLID WASTE

    Americans generated approximately 160 million tons of municipal solid waste in 1986. The United
States is experiencing environmental problems caused by the ever increasing volume of solid waste
generated and the ever decreasing disposal capacity for the waste.  According  to the USEPA/Franklin
Model,  individuals in the U.S. dispose of some four pounds of waste daily on the average.  This is more
than individuals  hi any of the other industrial nations and almost twice as much as individuals hi Japan.

    There are also environmental problems associated with teachable and  bio-available toxic compounds
that can be present hi the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream.  Disposal options, such as combustion,
are adversely affected because of control problems with heavy metals and other toxic compounds hi the
waste stream.  Leachate from landfills is a problem due to waste components that are largely unidentified.
There are also concerns with the utilization of MSW compost product due to uncertainties about the fate
of heavy metals and the degradation of potential toxins hi the waste.  Beyond the environmental pollution
problems directly related to disposal, is our nation's dependency on "throw-away" products which may
be depleting resources unnecessarily.
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    Pollution prevention strategies can reduce both the volume and toxicity of MSW. One strategy would
be to examine a consumer product manufacturing process and identify ways in which toxicity of the
product can be reduced through changes in the production-manufacturing a "clean" product.  Every
consumer product has the potential of becoming part of the solid waste stream and  changes in design
could impact the waste stream and the problems associated with disposal.  These design changes could
also include ones that improve the recyclability of the product or packaging.

    One of the major keys to reducing the generation of MSW is to provide incentives for individuals to
reduce the volume and toxicity of their waste generation.  This,  coupled  with  an integrated waste
management system, would reduce the amount of waste that would require disposal.

    Research is needed to identify incentives and disincentives for reducing the volume/toxicity of waste
generated by individuals, corporations, and goVemment. In addition, there is a need to design packaging
to minimize the volume of waste that requires disposal.  Research is also needed to determine what
factors affect waste reduction and recycling decisions.  Are deposit-refund incentives effective? How
effective are "pay by the can" programs in reducing waste and encouraging recycling?

    Data are needed to characterize MSW streams-information on the sources, quantity, and fate of toxic
compounds  in MSW that  could lead to problems at disposal.   This information is needed to identify
components or compounds in the waste stream that should be targeted for source reduction. In addition,
this information could be useful in conducting life cycle analyses and  risk assessments by more distinctly
identifying those compounds or components that are toxic or more harmful to the environment.

    Research is needed on the  recycling and  reuse of products to reduce  the generation of MSW.
Recycling research must consider recycling in design, materials, packaging, processes, and use. While
it is not the Agency's responsibility to develop products, it is important to research  product groups to
determine pollution prevention opportunities from the predesign of a product to reusability.

    ORD's strategy for pollution prevention research to address the municipal solid waste problem focuses
on reducing the volume and toxicity of MSW'through pollution prevention and recycling.  The strategy
includes:

    •   Development and evaluation of technologies, techniques, and incentives for  reducing the volume
        and toxicity of MSW.               '

    •   Development of design guidance and incentives to promote the reduction of toxics in consumer
        products.

    •   Investigation of disincentives and barriers to waste reduction and recycling, and specifications that
        discourage the use of recycled materials.

    •   Identification and evaluation of incentives for reducing MSW.

    Pollution prevention research to address the MSW problem should be coordinated with research
efforts on the development of life cycle analysis methodology.
                                                   CHAPTER 3-PROBLEM-SPECIHC RESEARCH

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                                              POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                      CHAPTER 4
                         CROSS-CUTTING RESEARCH
    Three major areas of research are targeted in the cross-cutting research component of the pollution
prevention research program.  For each of these areas, cross-cutting issues have been selected because
of their importance in furthering the science of pollution prevention and the Agency's ability to promote
and implement pollution prevention as the preferred approach to environmental protection. The research
described in this chapter cross-cuts several or all of the priority environmental problems targeted in this
strategy. The cross-cutting issues include:
    Tool Development
    •  Assessments
    •  Modelling

    Application of Tools
    •  Source Reduction Review Project
    •  Innovative Pollution Prevention Approaches
    •  Sector Strategies for Pollution Prevention

    Measurement of Progress
    •  Pollutant Reduction
    •  Environmental and Health Effects
•  Life Cycle Analysis
•  UnderstandingDecisionmaking and Behavior
   Technology Transfer
   Incentives and Education
   Economic and Social Effects
    More detailed descriptions of the knowledge gaps and research needs associated with these issues are
presented in the remainder of this chapter.

DEVELOPMENT OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    A balance cross-cutting research program must address the development of innovative tools for
pollution prevention including technological, informational,  and evaluative tools.   The cross-cutting
research  strategy for tools development focuses on performing industry-specific pollution prevention
assessments, incorporating pollution prevention factors into process simulation models, developing and
testing life cycle analysis methodology, and improving the Agency's understanding of how individuals
and corporations make decisions and the factors that affect their behavior.

Pollution Prevention Assessments

    Before pollution prevention programs can be implemented, the opportunities for prevention must be
identified and evaluated, and the prevention plan designed. This can be as simple as identification of the
problem, a quick analysis of what to do,  and implementation of the plan.  To this end, the Waste
Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual was developed hi July 1988.  The  manual lays out a
systematic method for conducting audits with the overall objective of reducing or eliminating waste,
mostly within an industrial setting.  The steps involved in the audit method begin with a careful review
CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUTHNG RESEARCH
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
of the plant's operations and waste streams, and the selection of specific areas to assess. The second step
is to  develop options  for  waste reduction,  for  example, through process or material changes, and
determine the technical and economic feasibility of the selected options.   The final step  is the actual
implementation and measurement of success, j It is important that pollution prevention assessments be
multimedia hi scope to assure actual reduction of the  problem pollutants regardless of primary or
secondary sources.                         |

    ORD has recently prepared the Facility pollution Prevention  Guide.  The guide was developed by
QRD's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory hi cooperation with the Office of Solid Waste's Waste
Minimization Branch. This guide has expanded the Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual
by emphasizing multimedia rather  than just hazardous waste releases, and by including some detailed
information on economic analysis/assessments and energy conservation considerations.

    The cross-cutting nature of waste assessment techniques and methods is obvious as the pollutant
problem must be reduced or eliminated and not moved to another media. This area of research not only
cross-cuts media, it also crosses a variety of environmental problems.  While the method for conducting
pollution prevention audits provides a generic procedure from the point of recognizing the need to reduce
a pollutant to the successfully implemented pollution prevention project,  a variety of techniques are
developed and used each tune a pollution prevention audit is conducted.  New approaches and ideas are
shared by the waste generating operators and each assessment takes on an identity of its own.  The
question "Why are we  producing this product this way?" gets different answers and presents a myriad
of research issues.

    A number of industry-specific manuals have been developed to assist users in targeted industries in
conducting pollution prevention assessments.  The manuals provide industry-specific worksheets to assist
companies and environmental professionals inj methodically conducting pollution prevention assessments
for facilities within the  subject industry.  Additional industry-specific or other category-specific manuals
are needed to provide  individuals  in all sectors assistance in using a proven method  or  modifying  a
technique to meet their needs for conducting pollution prevention  assessments.

    In addition to revising  and updating the basic manual to include other pollution prevention options
and techniques, technology transfer and  training are needed within each sector to tram individuals how
to conduct pollution prevention assessments, to encourage businesses to be part of the cultural change of
waste management, and to present case studies  that prove to be success stories as examples of how
pollution prevention assessments pay benefits]

    Assessment research will focus on:
                                          i
    •  Conducting industry-specific assessments and documenting pollution prevention case studies.

    •  Improving assessment methods and developing additional industry/process-specific guidance.

Modelling

    Pollution prevention  research, development, and demonstration  must be  conducted  hi  the most
efficient manner to achieve scientific and engineering solutions to the problem-specific pollutants being
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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
 generated in today's society. It would be cost-prohibitive to conduct full-scale research for every research
 idea; therefore, bench- and pilot-scale are often the first steps in testing and evaluating new ideas.  Due
 to  a variety of externalities  such as  different processes, materials,  costs, energy type and usage,
 regulations, etc.,  modelling appears to  be the path of  choice in selecting techniques to reduce the
 generation of wastes in the production and use of goods and services.  A well prepared and operated
 model can present a simulated picture of the overall process with regards to the generation of pollutants
 as a result of changes within the process or changes in the product.

    Process simulation models have been utilized in the construction of large integrated industrial
 operations such as petrochemical manufacturing for many years.  With the increasing costs of waste
 disposal, worker health and safety, and long-term environmental liability,  there is substantial incentive
 to  develop  methods of predicting unwanted emissions and/or  wastes of various commercial-scale
 processes. Research is needed to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating pollution
 prevention factors into process simulation models.

    Other cross-cutting research will provide modelling opportunities, such as the development of life
 cycle analysis techniques and methods, measurement methods, and data collected through the pollution
 prevention assessments.   For example,  "use trees" developed under an existing project for the 17
 chemicals targeted in the 33/50 Program will provide data to manufacturers  and users of products
 containing one  of the 33/50 contaminants. Through computer-assisted modelling, the prevention effects
 of substitutions in processes or design changes may be more clear to decision-makers.  The methodology
 developed for life cycle analyses will be very helpful in designing the model to include the entire life of
 a product from production through use and disposal.

 Life Cycle Analysis

    A worldwide concern regarding the environmental impacts of products  exists in the marketplace for
 both producers  and consumers. The production and use of products and packaging have negative impacts
 on the environment through the pollution of air, water, and land; and resource and energy usage at any
 or all stages of a product's life cycle.  Recent national surveys  within the  U.S.  show that the majority
 of people favor reduction of environmental impacts even at the prospect of having  to pay more for a
product or service.  This growing attitude has led to the general acceptance of the term "environmentally
 safe" referring to those products  which are less damaging to human health  and  the environment.
However, this concept is based on the presumption that consumers are informed about the relative risks
 associated with the products they  buy.   Similarly, it presupposes that  industry is aware of the risks
associated with their own products they manufacture for consumption.

    The problem is that most consumers and producers are unaware of all the steps involved  in the life
cycle of a product and the environmental impacts that occur at  each of these steps.  Products on store
shelves are in the midst of a complex process that begins with the extraction of raw materials to make
the product (or  use of recycled materials), and includes production, transportation, use/reuse, and final
disposal. Each  stage has associated environmental impacts and health risks. Consumer decisions which
are based on only one or two highly visible aspects (such as CFC content) and ignore the total life cycle
implications can do more harm than good.
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    Studies that have been called "life cycle analyses" have been performed on industrial and consumer
products and packaging over the last 20 years|.  Life cycle analysis as it is now defined, consists of three
steps: inventory, impact assessment, and improvement. It is now recognized that what has been referred
to as life cycle analysis generally addresses only the inventory phase, basically accounting for energy and
natural resource use and releases to the environment across the life cycle of a product.

    The general public is very anxious to discover the environmental impacts and health risks associated
with products they purchase daily.  Assessing environmental impact goes beyond the life cycle inventory
and requires an understanding of how quantities translate to environmental damage or benefit.  While this
information is not readily obtainable, it is nonetheless very important in evaluating products, processes,
and activities.                             !
                                          i
    Manufacturers  are interested  hi designing  and producing  products in a way  that  minimizes
environmental impact. Similarly,  the general  public is interested hi learning which products are less
damaging to the environment. The development of such  "cleaner" products requires the application of
methods which will help identify opportunities to  improve some component of a product through  its
design and manufacture. These improvements can range from using less toxic components in the product
or manufacturing process to requiring less packaging.  For example, poor process design can cause the
generation of effluents, emissions, and solid  wastes that should be considered hi design, including
unreacted materials, undesirable byproducts, process upsets, and fugitive sources.

    Several organizations hi the U.S., as well as  hi other  countries, have seized the clean products idea
as an effective method for improving the environment. Public interest groups have published shoppers'
guides for environmentally-conscious consumers, while some grocery stores are labelling store shelves
to identify "cleaner" products. Also, environmental labelling is expected to be in place hi the next few
years. Already,  the governments of Germany^ Japan, Canada, and others have enacted programs to label
consumer goods based on environmental critjeria.  Germany has also passed a law which will require
manufacturers and retailers to collect and recycle packaging at the point of sale.

    Research is needed to  develop  the criteriA and methodologies required to evaluate products.  While
various methodologies have been used to assess a product's overall environmental impact, it is generally
agreed that a life cycle approach which analyzes a product's environmental impacts from design through
disposal/reuse is the most  valid.  An accurate,  valid methodology must be developed that is acceptable
to both  consumer and producer and can be implemented with ease.  With EPA's support,  significant
progress has been made hi the development of a methodology for conducting life cycle inventories. This
methodology needs  to be tested and methods for assessing impact need to be developed.

    The  cross-cutting research conducted  under  the life cycle analysis  issue will be coordinated with
research on consumer products and assessment techniques and methods, as well as municipal solid waste.

    While there is a definite interest by the pujblic hi promoting and purchasing "cleaner" products, there
is little information  currently available to assist consumers hi making sound buying decisions. EPA can
assist producers and consumers hi filling this gap.  There exists also the need to provide product and
process  designers with methodologies to develop new products and modify existing products to minimize
health risks and adverse environmental impacts.  The clean products research program will encourage
50
                                                       CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUTTING RESEARCH

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
actions  that  minimize  environmental  damage and  encourage future research,  development,  and
demonstration of "cleaner" products.

    ORD research hi this area will focus on:

    •   Continued development of the life cycle analysis methodology.

    •   Development of manuals, training programs,  and educational initiatives to introduce potential
        users to life cycle analysis and assist them hi applying this tool.

    •   Analysis of consumer products and methods for minimizing their polluting effects on health and
        the environment.

Understanding Decisionmaking  and Behavior

    Social science research is one of the cornerstones hi the foundation of ORD's pollution prevention
research program.  There is a need  for basic information on why people and corporations choose one
course of action over another, and how various types of incentives, disincentives, and information affect
those choices. Social science research also improves our understanding of the human behavior associated
with a multitude of environmental problems.

    Individual decision-making issues focus on the factors that influence the way people choose among
alternatives, including those factors  that affect attitudes and beliefs, and factors that affect behavior.
Frequently, groups do not behave simply as collectives of the individuals who compose them. Therefore,
organizational decision-making issues, particularly those factors that affect corporate actions, must be
examined.

    The voluntary nature of the Agency's pollution prevention programs increases the need to understand
all of the forces  that affect voluntary compliance and participation.  Research is needed to understand
what factors influence corporate decision-making and behavior, and the effect of these factors.  This
information will enable EPA and others to predict how people and organizations will react to a proposed
program.  Therefore, it will assist EPA hi selecting the most effective approaches and introducing those
programs in the most positive manner.

APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    Demonstrating  the  effectiveness of pollution prevention approaches  is critical to increasing our
reliance on this preferred approach  to  environmental management.  EPA can play a crucial role hi
encouraging and facilitating the use of pollution prevention technologies and approaches. The application
of tools research area will  focus on incorporating pollution prevention considerations into  EPA's
rulemaking  process, developing  and  demonstrating innovative pollution  prevention  technologies,
transferring timely information on pollution prevention approaches, and determining the most effective
ways to use incentives and education to promote prevention.
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
 Source Reduction Review Project

    The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 requires EPA to review Agency regulations to determine their
 effect on source reduction.  EPA has established the Source Reduction Review Project (SRRP) to review
 Agency regulations, during their earliest stages of development, to ensure that source reduction measures
 and multimedia issues are  considered. Initially, it is focusing on the development of air, water, and
 hazardous waste standards affecting 16 industrial categories.

    The first step hi the process is the conduct of source reduction analyses.  EPA will identify and
 evaluate source reduction  measures through industry/process studies and additional data collection
 activities. Source reduction measures can thbn be compared to end-of-pipe control measures.

    The second step is the development of the regulation. The analysis completed in step one will help
 support standards as well as development of! regulatory incentives for source reduction technologies as
 an alternative means of compliance and guidance materials that accompany the final regulation to educate
 permit writers and industry about performanqe and cost of source reduction measures.  Step three of the
 process is implementation of the regulation.  EPA will provide training to permit writers and technical
 assistance to industry to facilitate selection and implementation of source reduction measures.

    ORD research will emphasize:

    •  Collection of data on pollution prevention opportunities for the targeted industrial categories.

    •  Development of advanced technology to support regulatory deadlines for  industrial categories.
                                         i
    •  Development of techniques to  evaluate performance of pollution prevention technologies and
        approaches.                       !

    •  Conduct of plant audits and technology/technique performance testing.

    •  Provision of technical  assistance for industrial categories that include a large number of small
       businesses.

Innovative Pollution Prevention Approaches

    There is also  a need to  investigate ways to reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous wastes hi EPA
and other laboratories—to modify laboratory procedures to recover hazardous materials and to reduce the
amount of hazardous chemicals used and hazardous wastes generated.  EPA is already conducting some
research focused on reducing the use and disposal of hazardous materials.  Based  on the results of these
studies, the Central Regional  Laboratory in Annapolis, Maryland has  already modified  its internal
laboratory procedures  to recover methylenei chloride and to  reduce mercury wastes by half.   More
research is needed to identify and develop other procedural changes and alternative analytical methods,
such as microscale chemistry, that will reduce these hazardous wastes.
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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
Technology Transfer

    Technology transfer and technical  assistance are essential components of any successful research
program.  This  component of the pollution prevention research program cross-cuts the targeted
environmental problems, as well as many of the cross-cutting issues.  While technology transfer is not
a research area hi the same sense as the other research areas described in this strategy, it is nonetheless
critical to achieving the program's research goals. Technology transfer is the means by which research
results are transferred to the user community. It is also the best means of providing technical assistance
to facilitate the adoption and implementation of pollution prevention approaches and technologies.

    The  technology transfer research area  focuses on  targeting research and products to appropriate
audience(s), developing products that  best transfer the information  to the targeted  audience(s),  and
providing information that is both useful and easily accessed by the target audience(s).  In addition, the
technology transfer  component includes supporting  education and training to transfer  important
information, concepts, and techniques to target audience(s). Another element of the technology transfer
program is to evaluate the  effectiveness of the technology transfer techniques  employed for various
research products.

    Pollution prevention is increasingly being considered as a way of simultaneously achieving both
unproved environmental  quality  and expanding  economic development both domestically  and
internationally. Several foreign countries, including Germany, Canada, Japan, Sweden, and Norway,
have instituted clean product labelling programs, as well as clean technology (sustainable development)
or source reduction programs.  In the area of pollution prevention, ORD has been participating in a
NATO/Committee on the  Challenges  of a Modern Society (CCMS)  project—"Pollution Prevention
Strategies for Sustainable Development." ORD researchers also initiated a Canadian Waste Minimization
project hi FY 1991 and are participating in a U.S./Canadian project with Environment Canada to carry
out co-sponsored waste minimization assessments around Erie County, New York. In addition, ORD was
involved  in the  Netherlands Waste Minimization Project  to evaluate the effectiveness of  waste
minimization manuals. Two individuals from ORD were assigned  to the Netherlands for four months
to assist that country in implementing waste minimization programs in participating companies.  ORD,
in cooperation  with the United Nations Environmental Programme,  has established the International
Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC)  as a "sister system"  to the U.S. EPA-sponsored
Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse.

    Given the international market for U.S. and foreign products and the accompanying competitiveness
of manufacturing processes, there  is a need to understand and benefit from the exchange of various
pollution prevention technologies, techniques, and socioeconomic approaches. Pollution is not an issue
isolated to a particular country or continent, and prevention will be an integral part of addressing and
preventing global pollution problems. For economic development and global environmental quality to
improve, there is  a need for national and international commitments to strategies that will result hi the
use of cleaner production technologies, and in the use of products that are more environmentally benign.
Therefore, it is essential that countries share what they have learned in their efforts to employ various
pollution prevention approaches. A number of efforts are already underway and these are expected to
continue hi upcoming years.
CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUTTJNG RESEARCH
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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
Incentives and Education

Economic and Non-Economic Incentives   ]

    Research is needed to fully understand the appropriate application of economic tools and the results
that can be anticipated from employing these tools. Issues that need to be addressed include: government-
issued allowances, tradeable usage permits, and other tradeable privileges to discharge pollutants or use
scarce natural resources; monetary incentives, such as direct subsidies, fees, taxes, loans,  and grants;
deposit/refund  systems  to discourage disposal of recyclable  or hazardous wastes;  and government
procurement policies to encourage pollution prevention.   Research is also needed on the infrastructure
that would be needed to support the implementation of economic incentives.  Research is also needed on
non-economic incentives, disincentives, and [barriers to  address  issues such as information disclosure
policies (i.e., labelling, Community Right-to-Know), and regulations hi one program or media that create
barriers to pollution prevention efforts in another area.

Information, Education, and Bisk Communication

    EPA has conducted considerable research on risk communication to support its shift toward risk-based
priorities.  The Agency has learned about how the public perceives risk and how its perception often
differs from that of EPA scientists. Because jof this discrepancy between what science describes as risk
and what the public perceives as risk, additional research is needed to fine-tune risk communication tools,
particularly hi promoting voluntary pollution prevention actions by the public to reduce serious risks.
Research  is also needed hi areas such as risk comparison, risk  characterization, the role  of message
intermediaries, pertinency and'sufficiency of risk information, psychological stress, the "mental models"
of recipients, and risk literacy.              ;

    Finally, a key tool for EPA's pollution prevention program is informing various audiences—assisting
them in developing the knowledge and skills they need to carry out pollution prevention programs. Every
program,  from a technological innovation to modification  of  individual behavior requires that those
responsible for effecting the change are aware of the change, understand it well enough  to take the
required steps, and are motivated to take this action.  One of the  most important factors is tailoring the
information to an appropriate target audience to be reached and the type of information to be exchanged.
Social science research provides information on target audiences and their learning styles, effectiveness
of various tools hi specific situations, and other information needed to design effective communications.
                                          I
Sector Strategies for Pollution Prevention
                                          i
                                          i
    In January  1991, EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention released the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency Pollution Prevention Strategy which presents the Agency's  plan  for a national, cross-media
prevention program.   The strategy  focuses on six economic  sectors that offer  opportunities  for
prevention—manufacturing/industrial,  agricultural,  consumer,  energy, transportation, and  federal
government sectors.  Given the relative youtbJof the pollution prevention program, most of the pollution
prevention activities have targeted the manufacturing/industrial sector. However, the other sectors offer
great potential for pollution prevention opportunities.
54
                                                       CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUnHNG RESEARCH

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                                               POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
 Consumer Sector

    The proliferation of non-reusable and "throw-away" consumer products, coupled with the lack of
 uniform  criteria for environmental labeling,  have caused much concern about legitimate pollution
 prevention progress in the consumer sector.  Likewise, there is a variety of products commonly used
 indoors in homes and offices available in aerosol spray form that may present high exposure and human
 health risks.  Source reduction techniques may be the only approach available to solving some of these
 consumer products issues, particularly those affecting indoor air quality.

 Agricultural Sector

    Midwestern agricultural practices have dramatically altered the landscape during the past century and
 research needs to be undertaken to better understand how sustainable land use can be maintained.

 Energy Sector and Transportation Sector

    Energy consumption is responsible for a large portion of the air pollution in this country, as well as
 significant impacts on water and land. The production and use of energy generates approximately 90%
 of SO2 emissions, 95% of NOX emissions, almost all of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions, about 70%  of
 CO emissions, and more than 85% of volatile organic compound emissions in the U.S.  These emissions
 contribute to acid rain, ground-level smog, and global warming.

    Pollution prevention can be a cost effective way of reducing  these harmful emissions.  EPA has
 already achieved some notable successes using the voluntary Green Lights Program. Other voluntary and
 regulatory approaches will be developed with the associated supporting research efforts. The Intermodal
 Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 has created opportunities for cooperation among federal
 and state  agencies on preventing pollution from transportation.  A Memorandum of Understanding
 between EPA and the Federal Highway Administration (FHA) identifies pollution prevention as one  of
 the primary areas of cooperation. EPA will work with FHA to identify priority research areas in the
 transportation sector.

 Federal Government Sector

    The federal government, primarily through the Departments of Energy and Defense, has developed
 materiel specifications that are used routinely for procurement of federal parts, equipment, and supplies.
 The federal government purchases and consumes vast amounts of products and materials.  For example,
 government-owned and contractor operated facilities include major manufacturing operations that are large
users  of paints, coatings, and solvents, including CFCs.   Each of these federal facilities presents an
 opportunity for pollution prevention research—from procurement specifications to manufactured products.

MEASUREMENT OF PROGRESS

    Continued environmental progress depends upon knowing what has worked and how well, and what
has been less successful and why.  This  information can then be used to identify areas for additional
research, improve approaches, and develop new approaches.  Development of techniques to measure and
 evaluate the effectiveness of pollution prevention approaches  is critical to determine which approaches
CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUTIING RESEARCH
                                                                                           55

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
effectively prevent pollution and which approaches  fail.  These techniques are useful for measuring
progress and important in establishing priorities for research and other activities.

Pollutant Reduction                    |

    Pollution prevention progress must be determined not  only at the level of the individual waste
generator (an industrial or business facility, a household, an institution, a farm, or an urban jurisdiction,
etc.), but on both a broader scale (e.g., an area, an industry sector, or nationwide) and a narrower scale
(e.g., for a specific process, a specific activity, or a specific source), and even as related to the life cycle
of a given product or material.  In making sjuch measurements, special attention must be given to the
inherent differences in the types of activities | involved hi the various sectors of the economy—industry,
agriculture, consumer, energy and transportation, and government.
                                          i
    From EPA's perspective, it is crucial not only to  measure pollution prevention progress, but also to
assess the effectiveness of various  initiatives in bringing  about this progress.  EPA officials  need to
understand  the effectiveness of regulation,! incentives, technology transfer, information,  and  other
programs in motivating individuals and companies to adopt  pollution prevention strategies.  They also
need to understand what factors influence program success or failure.

    At least for the near future, EPA will rely on data from the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) to track
industry's progress in pollution prevention for certain  targeted contaminants (the Superfund Amendments
and  Reauthorization Act  313 chemicals)  generated  and used  at industrial facilities.  The Pollution
Prevention Act of 1990 made the collection of such data mandatory beginning in 1992.  However, for
broader purposes, the TRI database suffers from significant limitations.  It includes data on only a limited
number of chemicals, and it applies only to pollution prevention at industrial sources. It does  not, for
example, include small commercial enterprises such as dry cleaners or garages,  and it does not include
pollution prevention progress  resulting  from decreased  environmental  releases away  from  the
manufacturing site (occurring during use,  repair, or  eventual disposal  of the products). The TRI does
not tie prevention accomplishments to specific pollution prevention techniques—it relies to a large extent
on estimates of the quantities reported and does not include any information on source-by-source or
process-by-process reductions achieved.

Impacts and Effectiveness

    EPA's capability to measure and assess pollution prevention progress is in its early stages. Measuring
pollution prevention is a complicated issue—the challenge is to quantify the amounts of pollution that will
not exist in the future because certain actions are taken now. For example, a volatile toxic compound
which is released to the air during the use of a product is replaced by a non-toxic or less-toxic compound
resulting hi pollution prevention. The measure of the effectiveness of this pollution prevention approach
is the amount of the toxic compound that was not emitted.  The question one might ask is:  "How much
global wanning, aquatic toxicity, or solid waste did not happen?" Energy conservation programs faced
a similar dilemma in their early years. Just as pollution prevention programs seek to measure the quantity
of pollution that was not generated, energy conservation programs sought to measure the quantity of
energy that  was not consumed.  These programs also explored various methods for establishing causal
links between specific conservation initiatives and reductions in energy use. Determining causality was
56
                                                        CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUTONG RESEARCH

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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
a particularly difficult task because energy conservation was being promoted through many media and
had become a very popular notion—just as pollution prevention is becoming a generally accepted concept.
Isolating the effects of specific government-sponsored programs was, and continues to be, difficult. EPA
should examine the principles that were adopted in energy conservation program evaluations to assess
their applicability to pollution prevention program assessments.

    It is recognized that not all toxic substances, not all ozone depletors, and not all lake nutrients, have
the same "potency."  In addition,  the physical and/or chemical forms of such materials also affect the
degree and type of environmental or health impacts.  In the long run, therefore, methodologies need to
be developed to account for such factors and to relate "amount of pollution prevented" to "amount of
environmental risk prevented."  The "kinds" of pollution prevented need to be defined in order to
aggregate progress and  to tie that progress to  reduction of risks.   For example,  it is evident that
preventing a pound of wastepaper from  entering a landfill has a different environmental impact  than
preventing a pound of PCBs from  contaminating the air of an office building.

    Under  the TRI, pollution prevention is reported separately for each of the SARA 313  chemicals
pertinent to the reporting facility.   However, when there is a need to aggregate pollution prevention
progress on other than a chemical-by-chemical basis, no reliable capability exists.

    Research is needed to address the following questions:

    •  How can pollution prevention progress best be assessed  across ^1  industrial sources, for all
       environmentally damaging  pollutants, and for individual processes, activities or sources?

    •  How can progress be quantified for  sectors of the economy other than the manufacturing
       industries (agriculture, energy, transportation, consumers, and government)?

    •  How can progress achieved best be related to the individual pollution prevention techniques
       responsible for it?  How can progress be related to specific pollution prevention initiatives?

    •  What are the factors that affect success or failure of pollution prevention initiatives?

    •  How can progress data best be aggregated geographically, by industry type, across sectors of
       activity (minerals extraction, manufacturing, energy production, and farming), and by "kind" of
       pollution prevented?

    •  How can progress resulting from decisions or actions taken during the design stage of a  new
       product, but which affect pollution impacts during any stage of the life cycle of the product
       (especially those beyond the manufacturing stage), be assessed?

    •  How can progress with respect to "amount of environmental risk prevented" be quantified?

    •  How can the quantities  of wastes that  might prove reducible hi the  future be realistically
       estimated?
CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUniNG RESEARCH
                                                                                             57

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POIXUT1ON PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
    ORD's strategy for research on measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of pollution prevention
approaches emphasizes:

    •  Development of methods for quantifying and measuring pollution prevention.

    •  Collection and analysis  of data on pollution prevention progress at the level of the individual
       facility, industry category, geographic region, and nationwide.

    •  Development  of measurement  factors,  use  of microscale chemistry, and protocols  for
       designing/use testing.

    •  Identification and development of alternative laboratory and analytical procedures to reduce the
       use and generation of hazardous materials.

    •  Conduct of evaluative studies to assess the effectiveness of specific initiatives.
                                                      CHAPTER 4-CROSS-CUTHNG RESEARCH

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                                             POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                     CHAPTER 5

          IMPLEMENTING THE POLLUTION PREVENTION
                             RESEARCH PROGRAM
    Chapters 3 and 4 have described the problem-specific and cross-cutting components of the Pollution
Prevention Research Program, respectively. Implementing both components is critical to the success of
the overall program  in addressing current and emerging  research needs  in the  area of pollution
prevention. Each component will be implemented through ORD's issue-based strategic planning process
which focuses on comprehensive, cross-media issues.

MANAGING THE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Each of the environmental problems targeted in Chapter 3 of this document correspond to one or
more of the 38 issues included in ORD's issue-based planning process.  The relationship between the nine
problems and the ORD issues is depicted hi Exhibit 10.  While only nine problems are targeted in the
problem-specific component of the Pollution Prevention Research Program, this is not meant to imply
that other ORD issues should not include a pollution prevention  element. It merely indicates that for
these nine ORD issues, a pollution prevention focus is critical to the research program addressing these
issues.

    The ORD issue-based planning process is already underway. Thirty-nine issues have been identified
and brief issue strategies  have been prepared.  These  issue  strategies delineate the problem to be
addressed, the research goals, the current status of the program, strategic directions, topics and scientific
questions that need to be addressed, and the resources required for the research program.  These issue
strategies will identify the key strategic directions for ORD's issue-based research programs.

    The problem-specific research described in the Pollution Prevention Research Program is intended
to serve as a guide for the ORD Issue Planners who have been given the responsibility for preparing issue
research plans.  The strategic plan provides the planners with a framework for the pollution prevention
element of the  appropriate issue research plan. Integrating the proposed pollution prevention research
projects into the issue research plans will be the responsibility of the Issue Planners.

    The cross-cutting research component of the Pollution Prevention Research Program forms the basis
of ORD's pollution prevention issue.  These cross-cutting efforts, while not  specific to a particular
environmental problem,  could be useful in addressing numerous problems and improving the overall
effectiveness of pollution prevention programs.  The cross-cutting research projects proposed in the
strategic plan are intended to  serve as a guide  for the ORD pollution prevention Issue  Planner in
preparing the pollution prevention issue research plan.

ROLE OF THE POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUE PLANNER

    The ORD Issue Planners will be responsible for coordinating the research and budgeting efforts of
various ORD offices and laboratories for a particular research issue.  The Issue Planner will play a vital
CHAPTER 5-IMPLEMENTING THE POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
59

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                         EXHIBIT 10
         RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM-SPECIFIC
       RESEARCH AREAS AND ORD RESEARCH ISSUES
- " i
Targeted Environmental Problem
in Pollution Prevention Research
, , Strategy
i -r- _ \ .. „„
Indoor Air Pollutants
Criteria Air Pollutants
Ozone Depleting Substances
Greenhouse Gases/Global
Climate Change
Toxic Air Pollutants
Pesticides
Nonpoint Source Water
Discharges
Hazardous/Industrial Waste
Municipal Solid Waste
L- •••••IHBBHH^HHI^Bl
$ ;
, - f- QRD Research issue
£ '
Indoor Air Pollution (includes radon and
electromagnetic frequency)
Criteria Air Pollutants (includes ozone)
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Pollutants from Motor Vehicles (includes mobile
(sources/alternative fuels)
Global Warming
Acid Deposition/Aerosols
i
Air Toxics
Toxics in Food (includes applicator exposure to
i pesticides)
Ground water (includes prevention and cleanup)
Nonpoint Sources (includes agricultural impacts)
Nonpoint Sources (includes
agricultural impacts)
i
Hazardous Waste
Groundwater (includes prevention and cleanup)
Air Toxics
Municipal Solid Waste
         CHAPTER 5-IMPLEMENTlNG THE POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM

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                                                POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
role in managing ORD's research programs.  The Pollution Prevention Issue Planner (PPIP) will be
responsible for:

    •  Tracking all pollution prevention research resources and efforts including both problem-specific
       and cross-cutting research.

    •  Serving  as an advocate for pollution prevention research within the Agency and lobbying for
       inclusion of pollution prevention in all appropriate ORD research issues.

    •  Managing the pollution prevention issue program, including strategic direction, research planning
       and prioritization, and resource  allocation.

    Tracking pollution prevention research efforts and resources becomes more critical with ORD's issue-
based planning process. The importance and high visibility of pollution prevention make it essential that
ORD be aware of all research efforts being undertaken to further pollution prevention and the application
of prevention solutions to address environmental problems. This task will be more difficult than in the
past, because  pollution prevention will not be isolated to one program.  It will require tracking the
pollution prevention research being conducted in numerous issue-based research  programs, in addition
to the cross-cutting research conducted under the pollution prevention research issue. Failure to track
this information would make it very difficult for the Agency to comprehensively describe its pollution
prevention research program. It could also make it difficult to justify necessary budget increases to EPA
Senior Management, as well as Congress.  The PPIP will be responsible for tracking and  reporting this
information for ORD.

    As an advocate for pollution prevention research, the PPIP will encourage appropriate Issue Planners
to include pollution prevention in their issue research plans and subsequent programs.  Further, the PPIP
will provide guidance in defining the strategic directions  and pollution prevention research needed to
address the various problems/issues. The Pollution Prevention Research Program targets only a fraction
of the ORD research issues.  The PPIP will play a critical role in promoting pollution prevention research
in these targeted issues as well as in other issues for which pollution prevention offers promise hi
alleviating or preventing the problem.

    Managing the pollution prevention research issue program will involve assisting in the preparation
of the pollution  prevention issue strategy,  identifying and  refining the strategic direction for the cross-
cutting pollution prevention research program, planning and prioritizing research efforts, and determining
resource requirements and allocation.  The PPIP can also play a key role hi publicizing the cross-cutting
research efforts  and results that could be applicable to other research issues.

    Overall, the PPIP will play a vital role hi shaping and  building EPA's pollution prevention research
program,  and  a  valuable source of information on what research the Agency is conducting that  will be
useful in addressing current and emerging environmental problems.
CHAPTER 5-IMPLEMENTING THE POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
61

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                                             POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY
AIChE/EPA/NSF  Workshop on Waste Minimization  Research  Needs.   December  3-5,  1989.
       Washington, DC.

Bretthauer, Erich W.  1990.  Prevention—The New Approach to Environmental Protection.  Address to
       the Hallmark Annual Environmental Health and Safety Conference. September 11, 1990.

Carlin, Alan.  1990.  Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean Environment (Summary).
       Washington, DC. Document Number EPA-230-12-90-084.

Chelimsky, Eleanor.  1991.   On the Social  Science Contribution to Governmental Decision-Making.
       Science. 254:226-231.

Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, P.L. 101-549, Title IE.

Federal Register.  August 12, 1988.  40 CFR Part 82, Protection of Stratospheric Ozone, Final Rule.
       Vol. 53, No. 156, pp. 30566-30602.

Future Directions in Pollution Prevention R&D, Engineering Foundation Conference Summary Report.
       July  1991.  A New Paradigm for Pollution Prevention R&D.  January 27-February 1, 1991.
       Santa Barbara, California.

Gianessi, Leonard  and Henry Peskin.  1986.  Resources for the Future Environmental Data Inventory.

Inside E.P.A.  July 26, 1991.  EPA  Scientists Propose "Revolutionary" New Strategy.  Inside E.P.A.
       Weekly Report. Vol.  12, No.  30.

National Research  Council.  1991.  Report of the Committee on Opportunities in Applied Environmental
       Research and Development:  Waste  Reduction Research Needs in Applied Social Sciences.
       National Academy Press.

OTA. 1986. Serious Reduction of Hazardous Waste. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.

Palca, Joseph.  1991.  Social Science Gets a Leg Up at NSF. Science.  254:368.

Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Sections 6602, 6603, and 6604.

Resources for the Future. 1991. Super/and Research Symposium: Summary Report. Unpublished.

Science Advisory Board. 1988a.  Future Risk: Research Strategies for the 1990s.  Washington, DC.
       Document  Number EPA SAB-EC-88-040.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
                                                                                       63

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                       BIBLIOGRAPHY (CONTINUED)
Science Advisory Board. 1988b. Appendix E: Strategies for Risk Reduction Research. Washington, DC.
       Document Number EPA SAB-EC-8&-040E.

Science Advisory Board. 1989. Review of the ORD Draft Pollution Prevention Research Plan: Report
       to Congress. Washington, DC. Document Number SAB-EEC-89-037.

Science Advisory Board. 1990a.  Reducing, Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental
       Protection.  Washington, DC.  Document Number EPA SAB-EC-90-021.

Science Advisory Board. 1990b.  The Report of the Strategic Options Subcommittee.  Relative Risk
       Reduction Project.  Washington, DC. Document Number EPA SAB-EC-90-021C.

Science Advisory Board.  1991. A Draft Pollution Prevention Research Strategic Plan: Review of the
       Office of Research and Development's Pollution Prevention Research Strategic Plan (Draft).

Science Advisory Board.    1992.   Letter report to  Administrator  William  K. Reilly  from the
       Environmental Engineering Committee of the Science Advisory Board concerning review of
       ORD's Pollution Prevention Research Strategic Plan (Draft).

SETAC.   1991.  A Technical Framework for Life-Cycle Assessments.  Society of Environmental
       Toxicology and Chemistry and SET^C Foundation for Environmental Education, Inc.  Report
       for a Workshop held August 18-23, 1990, Smugglers Notch, Vermont.
                                       i
Stahel, Walter R.  1986. "Hidden Innovation. R&D in a Sustainable Society."   Science and Public
       Policy: Journal of the International Science Policy Foundation.  August 1986.
                                       I

The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments^/1984, modifying Section 3002 of RCRA, 42 USC 6922.

U.S. Department of Commerce.  1990. Emerging Technologies: A Survey of Technical and Economic
       Opportunities. National Technical Information Service. Washington, DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.   1^87.  Unfinished Business: A Comparative Assessment of
       Environmental Problems  (Overview \ Report).   Office of Policy Analysis/Office  of Policy,
       Planning, and Evaluation.  Washington, DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  October 1988.  Report to Congress: Solid Waste Disposal in
       the United States, Volume  1. Document Number EPA/630-SW-88-011.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  October 1988.  Report to Congress: Solid Waste Disposal in
       the United States, Volume  2. Document Number EPA/630-SW-88-052.
                                                                         BIBLIOGRAPHY

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                                            POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                       BIBLIOGRAPHY (CONTINUED)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  November 1988. The Waste System.  Washington, DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. Policy Options for Stabilizing Global Climate (Executive
       Summary, p. 12).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  March 1990.  Pollution Prevention Research Plan: Report to
       Congress.  Office of Research and Development. Document Number EPA/600/9-90/015.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  May 13, 1990.  Environmental Protection Agency Pollution
       Prevention Directive (Draft).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  1990.  Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual.
       Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory/Office of Research and Development.  Cincinnati, OH.
       Document Number EPA/625/7-88/003.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. "Department of Defense Pollution Prevention Initiatives."
       The Environmental Challenge of the 1990's Proceedings: International Conference on Pollution
       Prevention:  Clean Technologies and Clean Products.  Washington, DC.  Document Number
       EPA/600/9-90/039.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  November 1990.  Office of Research and Development Draft
       Four-Year Strategic Research Plan.  Office of Research and Development.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  1991.  Pollution Prevention Strategy.  Federal Register
       56:7849-7864. February 26,  1991.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.   March 1991.  The Industrial Toxics  Project, The 33/50
       Program: Forging an Alliance for Pollution Prevention.  Washington, DC.  Document Number
       EPA 560-1-91-003.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  April 3, 1991.  Memorandum from Alfred W. Lindsey to John
       H. Skinner on ORD's Pollution Prevention Initiative. Office of Environmental Engineering and
       Technology Demonstration/Office of Research and Development.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  August 1991. Chemicals in Progress Bulletin. Vol. 12/No. 3.
       Office of Toxic Substances.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  November 13, 1991.  Memorandum from John H. Skinner to
       Deputy Assistant Administrators and Deputy Regional Administrators on FY 94 ORD's Research
       Issue Planning Process. Office of Research and Development.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                       BIBLIOGRAPHY  (CONTINUED)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Npvember 29, 1991. EPA—Preserving Our Future Today.
       Agency-Wide Strategic Plan Draft 3A.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  December 11, 1991.  Memorandum from Erich W. Bretthauer
       to ORD Office Directors and Laboratory Directors on Assignments and Responsibilities for the
       New Issue Planners. Office of Research and Development.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.   December 1991. PPIC Resource Guide to the 33/50 Project:
       Winning Solutions Through Pollution Prevention (Draft).  Office of Research and Development
       and Pollution Prevention Office.    [
                                      [
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.   1991.   Pollution Prevention 1991: Progress on Reducing
       Industrial Pollutants.  Office of Pollution Prevention.  Washington, DC.  Document Number
       EPA 21P-3003.                 :

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.   1991. Stimulating Environmental Progress: A Social Science
       Research Agenda (Draft Report).  Office of Policy, Planning,  and Evaluation  and Office of
       Research and Development. Washington, DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  January 24,  1992.  Memorandum from John H. Skinner to F.
       Henry Habitch JI on Follow-Up  to; the Pollution Prevention Senior Policy Council Meeting,
       December  10, 1991. Office of Research and Development.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  1992. Memorandum  from Gerald Kotas to Mark Greenwood
       concerning  Bi-Weekly Update on Pollution Prevention Sector Strategies.  January 22,  1992.
       Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics/Office of Pesticides and  Toxic Substances.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Janiuary 1992.  Pollution Prevention Through Enforcement and
       Compliance. A Review of OPTS Accomplishments. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
       Document Number 22T-1002.     :
                                      I
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  February  12, 1992.  Memorandum from James S. Bridges to
       Greg Ondich on Assistance for the Regulatory Targeting Project.  Risk Reduction Engineering
       Laboratory/Office of Research and Development.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. February 1992. Source Reduction Regulatory Review (Draft).
       Office of the Administrator.       !

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. February 1992. EPA's  33750Program SecondProgress Report:
       Reducing Risks Through Voluntary Action. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Document
       No. TS-792A.
                                                                          BIBIIOGRAPEtY

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                                       POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
                    BIBLIOGRAPHY (CONTINUED)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. June 1992. Pollution Prevention Cross-Cutting Research Plan
      (Draft). Office of Research and Development.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
67
                                                      * U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1993—750-002/60,132

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