PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN
     RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING
                         i  by

                    Abt Associates, Inc.
                   Cambridge, MA 02138
                  Contract No. 68-D9-0175
                 Work Assignment No. 2-21
                      Project Officer
                         i

                      Paul Randall
               Sustainable Technology Division
         National Risk Management Research Laboratory
                   Cincinnati, OH 45268
 NATIONAL RISK MANAGE]\IENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
        OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
       U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                  CINCINNATI, OH 45268

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                                      CONTACT

Paul Randall is the EPA contact for this report. He is presently with the newly organized National
Risk Management Research Laboratory's new Sustainable Technology Division in Cincinnati, OH
(formerly the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory). The National Risk Management Research
Laboratory is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH, and is now responsible for research conducted by
the Sustainable Technology Division in Cincinnati.

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                                      NOTICE
                                      i                 •          „ .  .   ,
                                      .                  ^
       This document summarizes the information collected from printers who voluntarily
participated La this project to evaluate  alternative screen reclamation chemicals.  These
evaluations were conducted as demonstrations under the variable conditions of production.
The results reported hi  this  document  ^re, hi  large part, subjective  and relied on the
experience and judgement of the printers; who used these alternative products.

       This report has been subjected tojU.S.  Environmental Protection Agency peer and
administrative review and approved for [publication.  Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement
or recommendation for use. This document is intended to provide printers with information
on the performance and cost of alternative screen reclamation products.  Compliance with
environmental and occupational safety and health laws is the responsibility of each individual
business and is not the focus of this report.

 .      This effort has been funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency
under Contract No. 68-D2-0175, Work Assignment 2-21.
                                         11

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                                    FOREWORD
                                      i.
                                      i
       Today's rapidly developing and  Changing technologies and industrial products and
practices frequently carry with them the increased generation of materials that, if improperly
dealt with, can threaten both public healih and the environment.  The U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by congress with protecting the Nation's land, air, and
water resources.  Under a mandate of national environmental laws,  the agency strives to
formulate and implement actions leading! to a compatible balance between human activities
and the ability of natural systems to suppprt and nurture life.  These laws direct the EPA to
perform research to define our envirohrnehtal problems, measure the impacts, and search for
solutions.                             I
                                      I.        '
      The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is responsible for planning,
implementing, and managing research, development,  and demonstration programs to provide
an authoritative, defensible engineering I basis in support  of the policies, programs,  and
regulations of  the  EPA with respect to drinking water,  wastewater, pesticides, toxic
substances,  solid  and hazardous  wastes,   Superfund-related activities,  and  pollution
prevention.  This publication is one  of  ihe products of that research and provides a vital
communication link between the researcher and the user community.

       The cost and performance summaries presented in this report, in conjunction with risk
estimates, are essential information for printers to use when selecting products that are safer
for employees and the environment.  Associated risk  estimates were calculated as part of the
overall Design for the Environment (DfE) Screen Printing  Project and are presented in the
project report titled, Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA), EPA document
EPA744R-94-005.   Since  variables  such  as ink type, substrate  printed,  volume,  and
equipment are different hi every print shop, a product that is efficient  and cost effective for
one facility, may not be the right choice jfor another shop.  With these variations hi mind,
this document presents the results of the performance demonstrations  of several alternative
screen reclamation products and the associated costs, without ranking or comparing any of
the products.  The  information on performance is largely qualitative and is based on the
opinions of the printers who used these substitute products hi then* facilities for one month.
Using the information presented hi this report, the printer can then estimate what products
are likely  to be successful in his/her particular facility.
                                     E. Timothy Oppelt, Director
                                     National Risk Management Research Laboratory
                                         m

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                                    ABSTRACT
                                      I                               .
                                      l
       This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation
process in screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23  printing facilities
nationwide.   Through the Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA)  Design  for  the
Environment Printing Project, printers,  the EPA, reclamation product manufacturers, and
the screen printing trade association worked together to evaluate alternatives to the hazardous
chemicals commonly used during screen1  reclamation.   A total of ten "product systems"
(which include an ink remover, a stencil jor emulsion remover,  and a haze remover) were
voluntarily submitted by manufacturers for evaluation.  Additionally, one individual ink
remover, and two substitute technologies |were demonstrated.
                                      1    -
       Performance, cost, and risk were evaluated for each alternative chemical system. The
portion of the project documented in this report includes the performance characteristics and
the costs.  The risk assessment information is available in the EPA project document, titled
Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA), EPA document EPA744R-94-003.
                                      j
       Performance  was evaluated hi tWo phases:  (1) laboratory testing to ensure the
products were  generally effective, and j(2) in-field demonstrations to  evaluate  product
effectiveness hi a production situation.  In general, most emulsion removers worked very
well, but the success with the ink and haze removers was mixed.  Costs of switching from
a baseline reclamation system to an alternative  system were estimated based on the cost of:
chemicals,  the labor time to reclaim  the|  screen, rag use, and  waste disposal.  Fourteen
facilities would realize reduced costs for screen reclamation by switching to an alternative
product.  The other nine facilities would experience increased costs.
                                      I      ...
                                      i
       Two alternative technologies were also evaluated. Using the first technology, a high
pressure (3000 psi) water blaster, the quantity of chemicals needed and the tune required for
reclamation were reduced.  Based on  limited, preliminary  demonstrations, the second
technology evaluated, a sodium bicarbonate spray, may have potential for reclaiming screens
used for printing with solvent- or water-based inks.
                                      r
       This report was submitted hi partial fulfillment of Contract No. 68-D2-0175 under
the sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and it covers a period from
December 16,  1993 to September 30,  1993.
                                         IV

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                                 CONTENTS
Notice	j •  .   			   ii
Foreword	1	   iii
Abstract	I .  .	  iv
                                                                           Vll
List of Tables	
Acknowledgements   	'....!	  viii
                                    i
I:   Introduction	j	   1
                                    i
II:  Background on Screen Printing .  j.	   4
       Screen Printing Process  	!	 .   4
             Screen Reclamation  .  . .  .[	   4
             Environmental Concerns Associated with Screen Reclamation	   5
                                    i      •   • •   •
III; Performance Demonstrations and Costing Methodology	   7
       Performance Demonstration Methodology	   7
             Laboratory Testing Methodology  	   7
             Field Demonstration Methodology	   8
             Alternative Technologies Methodology	   9
       Costing Methodology	j. . .	   10
                                    i
IV: Characterization of Participating Facilities	   14
       Products Printed	;	   14
       Size of Facilities	i	   15
       Acceptance of Alternative Products	   15

V: Characterization of Products Demonstrated	   16
       Alternative Product System Submittal Procedure	   16

VI: Performance and Cost Results  . .  .j	   17
       Explanation of Variability hi Results	   17
       Product System Chemical Formulations	   19
       Baseline Screen Reclamation  ...'.....	   23
       Product System ALPHA ......!	   24
             Performance hi the Laboratory	   24
             Summary of Performance ait the Volunteer Facilities  	   25
       Product BETA .	...;....	   29
             Performance hi the Laboratory	  .   29
             Performance at the Volunteer Facility  	   29
      Product System CHI  .......  .j	   33
             Performance hi the Laboratory	   33
             Summary of Performance ajt the Volunteer Facilities	   34
      Product System DELTA	.j	   37

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            Performance in the Laboratory	   37
            Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities .  . . .	 .   38
      Product System EPSILON  . .  . . j	.   41
            Performance in the Laboratory	   41
            Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities	   41
      Product System GAMMA	i.	   45
            Performance in the Laboratory	   45
            Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities	   45
      Product System MU	i	   49
            Performance in the Laboratory	   49
            Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities	   49
      Product System OMICRON-AE . |	   53
            Performance in the Laboratory	   53
            Summary of Performance a*t the Volunteer Facilities	   54
      Product System OMICRON-AF .;....	   57
            Performance in the Laboratory	   57
            Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities	   58
      Product System PHI	i	   61
            Performance in the Laboratory	   61
            Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities .	 .   61
      Product System ZETA  	'••.-•	   65
            Performance in the Laboratory	 .   65
            Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities	   66
                                   |  .
      Alternative Screen Reclamation Technology THETA	   71
            Summary of System Theta Performance Evaluation	   71
      Alternative Sodium Bicarbonate Reclamation Technology  	   75
            Sodium Bicarbonate Reclamation Technology Application Method  . .   75
            Summary of Sodium Bicarbonate Technology Performance Results . .   76
            Alternative Sodium Bicarbonate Technology Potential	   77
                                   i    '      '
APPENDIX A: Facility Background Questionnaire	   79
APPENDIX B:  Observer's Evaluation Sheet	   89
APPENDIX C: Ink Remover Evaluation Sheet for Printers   	   95
APPENDIX D: Emulsion Remover Evaluation Sheet for Printers   	   96
APPENDIX E:  Weekly Follow-up Call Log . . .	   97
APPENDIX F:  Methodology Used in the jPerfomance Demonstrations  	   99
APPENDDC G: Methodology for SPTF Performance Demonstrations  	   106
APPENDIX H: Participating Manufacturers	   110
APPENDIX I: Volunteer Facility Profiles'and Performance Details	   Ill
                                     VI

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                             LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 3.1:  Alternative Reclamation Systems: Manufacturer Pricing  .  . . .
TABLE 3.2:  Determination of RCRA Hazardous Waste Listing  	
TABLE 4.1:  Number of Employees in Screen Printing Facilities	
TABLE 6.1:  Chemical Composition of Alternative Reclamation Systems  . . .
TABLE 6.2:  Categorization of Reclamation Chemicals for Use in Alternative
            Product System Formulations	
TABLE 6.3:  Product System ALPHA Performance	
TABLE 6.4:  Cost Analysis for System ALPHA	
TABLE 6.5:  Product System BETA Performance .	
TABLE 6.6:  Cost Analysis for Alternative BETA	
TABLE 6.7:  Product System Cffl Performance  	
TABLE 6.8:  Cost Analysis for Alternativje Cffl	
TABLE 6.9:  Product System DELTA Performance	
TABLE 6.10: Cost Analysis for Alternative DELTA	
TABLE 6.11: Product System EPSELON Performance	
TABLE 6.12: Cost Analysis for Alternativje EPSILON	 .	
TABLE 6.13: Product System GAMMA plerfbrmance	
TABLE 6.14: Cost Analysis for Alternative GAMMA	
TABLE 6.15  Product System MU Performance	
TABLE 6.16: Cost Analysis for Alternative MU	
TABLE 6.17: Product System OMXCRONi AE Performance	
TABLE 6.18: Cost Analysis for Alternative OMICRON AE	
TABLE 6.19: Product System OMICRONi AF Performance	
TABLE 6.20: Cost Analysis for Alternative OMICRON - AF	
TABLE 6.21: Product System PHI Performance		
TABLE 6.22: Cost Analysis for Alternative Pffl	 .
TABLE 6.23: Product System ZETA Performance	
TABLE 6.24: Cost Analysis for Alternative ZETA	
TABLE 6.25: Alternative Reclamation Technology THETA Performance  .  .
TABLE 6.26: Cost Analysis for High Pressure Washer THETA  	
11
13
15
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28
31
32
35
36
39
40
43
44
47
48
51
52
55
56
59
60
63
64
68
70
73
74
                                   Vll

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                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       This report was  prepared  under 1 the direction of  Paul Randall for the U.S.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Office | of Research and Development, Risk Reduction
 Engineering Laboratory, Pollution Prevention Research Branch, in Cincinnati, Ohio.
                                      i
       Several  diverse groups  worked  together to make this  project possible.   The
 contributors include the EPA Office of  Pollution Prevention and Toxics Design for the
 Environment staff, particularly Kathryn Caballero, Stephanie Bergman, and Jed Meline, and
 the Screen Printing Association International (SPAI), particularly Marcia Kinter and Dan
 Marx. The performance demonstrations  would not have been possible without the help of
 the  screen  reclamation product manufacturers  who  donated their products.   These
 manufacturers, listed below, can be contacted through the information given in Appendix H.
                                      J
                            Amerchemj Wood Dale, EL
                        Autotype Americas, Schaumberg, IL
                      Ciot International Services, Whippany, NJ
                     Franmar Chemical JAssociates, Normal, IL
                    Hydro Engineering, ;Inc., Salt Lake City, UT
                       Image Technology, Inc., Anaheim, CA
                               KIWO, Seabrook, TX
                      Nichols and Associates, Burnsville, MN
                      Ruemelin Manufacturng, Milwaukee, WI
                                      i
                                      i
       The role of the printing facilities iwho volunteered their time to demonstrate tide
alternative products was essential to  the success of the project.  The efforts of these printers
were greatly appreciated:
Action Graphics, Louisville, KY
Artcraft, Portland, OR                  {
Burlington Graphic Systems, Union Grovej WI
Coburn Corporation , Lakewood, NJ     j
Fastamps and Fasigns, Randolph, MA    j
Gangi Studios, N. Hollywood, CA       i
Gillespie Decals Inc., Wilsonville, OR    j
Identification Products, Bridgeport,  CT   j
Ivey-Seright International, Inc., Seattle, WA
Karagraphic, Kent, WA
Leading Edge Graphics, Minnetonka, MN
Masterscreen Products, Portland, OR
M&M Displays Inc., Philadelphia, PA
Mobius, Inc., Eugene, OR
Modagraphics, Rolling Meadows, IL
Morrison & Burke, Inc., Santa Ana, CA
Nameplate & Panel, Carol Stream, IL
Paramount Screen Print, Milwaukee, WI
Philadelphia Decal, Philadelphia, PA
Phillips Plastics Co., Fredonia, WI
Quantum Graphics, Redmond, WA
Royal Label, Boston, MA
Screen Process Specialist, Plymouth, WI
                                      I Vlll

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                                    SECTION I
                                       I

                                 INTRODUCTION
                                       i                               <
       The Screen Printing Performance Diemonstrations summarized in this report provide
critical information on the performance of alternative screen reclamation products and
technologies for the Design for the Environment (DfE) Printing Project.  One goal of the
DfE Printing Project is to encourage printers to use risk and hazard information, along with
performance and cost data, to make informed, environmentally-sound decisions about the
chemicals and processes they use.  This nbn-regulatory, voluntary project is a cooperative
partnership between the EPA, the Screen Printing Association International (SPAI), printers,
and manufacturers  of printing supplies.  A$ one of the initial tasks for this project, industry
representatives prioritized certain processes as the focus for exploration of environmentally
preferable alternatives. In screen printing, Iscreen reclamation was selected as the focus area
for the DfE project. Screen reclamation is |a cleaning process where ink and the print image
are removed from  a screen so the screen can be reused for another job.  It is a three step
process where the ink, the stencil (or emulsion), and any remaining stain (known as "haze")
are removed sequentially. Typically a different product is used for each step, and in this
project the three products (ink remover, emulsion remover, and haze remover) are referred
to as a product system.                  i
                                       i                 •              '            •  :
       In support of the EPA Office of RJesearch and Development (ORD), the DfE staff
within the Office of Pollution Prevention ;and Toxics (OPPT) conducted the Performance
Demonstration portion of the DfE Printing jProject. The performance of substitute products,
voluntarily supplied by manufacturers, was evaluated under both laboratory conditions and
by printers under  actual production conditions.  This performance information was an
essential  element of the complete analysis iof the product systems,  which is documented in
the Cleaner Technologies Substitute Assessment (CTSA). The CTSA integrates performance
data with information on the costs and risks, evaluated in a separate effort, associated with
the products demonstrated. Because all products .were evaluated following the same protocol
hi a neutral forum, the CTSA provides i printers with a more complete assessment of
alternative products than has otherwise  been available from one source.
                                       4
       When printers consider alternative'chemicals, performance of the product is often
their primary  concern.   This report summarizes the performance data collected during
performance demonstrations with alternative screen reclamation products carried out between
January and April 1994.  The data collected include  information such as, time  spent on
screen reclamation, volume of product used, and appearance of the screen after reclamation.
In addition to the data collected during demonstrations in printing facilities, laboratory
demonstrations were also conducted at the Screen Printing Technical Foundation (SPTF).

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 The intent of the SPTF evaluations was toj assure that the product systems sent to printers
 would provide an acceptable level of performance.  Additionally, the SPTF evaluations
 provided another set of observations with which to compare in-facility demonstration results.
 In-facility demonstrations were designed toj last one month and were undertaken so that the
 long-term  effects  of the product  systems'  could  be evaluated under  actual production
 conditions at printing facilities. It should be noted that the performance demonstrations were
 not rigorous scientific investigations.  Instead, much of this document reports the printers'
 experiences with and opinions of these products as they were used in  production at their
 facilities.                               •
                                        !          '
       In addition to performance information, the  costs and risks for each of the substitute
.product systems were evaluated. The risk information is too extensive to be included in this
 document, but can be found in the CTSA. j The  cost estimate for each reclamation system
 included the cost of:  labor  time spent to  reclaim the  screen, the average  quantity  of
 reclamation product used, the rags used, and the  hazardous waste disposal for RCRA-listed
 chemicals.  To compare the costs of the substitute systems to a known system, a baseline
 was established using a traditional solvent-based screen reclamation system. The traditional
 system used in the comparison consisted of lacquer thinner as the ink remover, a sodium
periodate   solution   as   the  emulsion 1  remover,   and   a   xylehe/acetone/mineral
 spirits/cyclohexanone blend as the haze remover.  These chemicals were selected because
 screen printers indicated they were commpnly used in screen reclamation.   For all cost
estimates, it was assumed that the chemicals were  applied manually to  6 screens per day,
each 2,127 in2 (approximately 15 ft2)  in siie.  It is important to note that the costs of the
alternative products are compared to the baspline product system and not to the actual system
currently in  use at the facility.  A baseline was  selected to obtain the most useful arid
consistent information.   Comparing the demonstrated products to each facility's current
product would have been highly inconsistent because of the range of products in use at the
volunteer plants.  Additionally, such a comparison  would not be representative of printers,
because these facilities volunteered to assist in identification of environmentally preferable
products, which may indicate that they are more  concerned and aware of environmental
issues than the average printer.  For example, several of the facilities were  already using
products that were nearly identical to the products being demonstrated. With the variability
among the products currently in use by thejparticipating facilities, it was determined that a
comparison of the demonstration products to a baseline product would give printers  more
useful information than a comparison to products currently in use.
                                        j
       A total of ten  alternative  screen (reclamation systems  were  submitted for the
demonstrations.  Each product system was sent to two or three facilities in addition to the
testing done at SPTF prior to the on-site dejmonstrations.   In most cases, the results for the
same product system varied somewhat from one  facility to the next.  For the ink and haze
removers the products generally received a better  performance evaluation at SPTF than they
did in the field demonstrations.   The performance of the majority of these  products was
considered fair by the printers, however there are some exceptions where the performance
was consistently evaluated as good,  both I at  SPTF and at the printing facilities.   The
performance of 8 out of the 10 emulsion removers submitted was very good.  Both at SPTF
                                        j
                                        f              .
                                        12                       -

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and at the facilities, the emulsion removers removed the stencil quickly and completely and
many of the printers wanted to continue using these products after the demonstrations were
over.                                  i
                                       I        .   '
       Background on the screen printing process, screen reclamation, and the environmental
issues associated with the industry are described in Section n.  Details on the demonstration
methodology used during laboratory tests at SFTF and during field demonstrations at printing
facilities are given in Section m. Section IjV describes the printing facilities that volunteered
their plants for the demonstrations. A general description of the types of products submitted
is given in Section V.  For each product system, the SPTF testing results and the facilities'
evaluation of the products are summarized in Section VI of this report.

       The summaries  in Section  VI provide a description of the product performance and
the cost summary for each product system,j but do not rank or endorse any product systems.
As  the printers involved in this project pointed out, the specific operating  conditions  of a
print shop (e.g., ink type, mesh count, drying time) can influence the product performance
significantly. For this reason, selected facility characteristics are also detailed in the Section
VI evaluations. It should be noted that the trade names of the products are  not used in this
report nor were they given to individuals involved in performance demonstrations. Instead,
the chemical formulation of each product is listed in Table 6.1 at the beginning of Section
VI.  Using the descriptions of product performance in  conjunction with the  chemical
formulations table (Table 6.2), printers can determine which product system(s) they think
would be most suitable for  their facility.!  Once that  determination is made, printers can
contact their distributors,  inform them of the type of product they are looking for (based on
the chemical composition), and ask for a recommendation on such a product system. A list
of the participating manufacturers is given
telephone numbers  and  contact  names
                                        so printers  can  also  directly contact  these
manufacturers if they prefer. For more information on the risks associated with each product
system, the printer should refer to the EPA's CTSA Screen Reclamation document.
                                        in Appendix H of this report.  The list includes

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                                    SECTION n
                                       I
                                  ..I
                     BACKGROUND QN SCREEN PRINTING
 SCREEN PRINTING PROCESS       I
                                       !                                   '
       Most printing processes use an impervious metal, plastic, or rubber plate to transfer
 an image to a substrate.  Screen printing, however, does not use such a system; instead ink
 is forced through the unblocked portion of: a porous screen onto a substrate. The image is
 defined by a stencil which is adhered to the fabric screen.  The finely woven screen mesh
 is usually stretched tightly over a wooden pr aluminum frame which forms a shallow well
 where ink is applied.  Ink is placed on the  screen and is pressed through the mesh with a
 rubber blade (a "squeegee") onto the substrate.  Ink will pass through the mesh and onto the
 substrate except in the areas where the stencil has been applied.  The screen is raised and
 the printed substrate is either manually plkced on a drying rack or  on a conveyor  which
 moves the printed material into a drying unit. As the printed substrate  moves out from under
 the screen, another substrate is put in its jplace.  When the screen  is  lowered again, the
 squeegee is drawn across the screen and the image is printed again on the next substrate.
                                       i
       Screen printing offers the printer more versatility than most printing processes in that
 it can deposit ink at variable thicknesses,;  including relatively heavy deposits, with high
 quality pigments on almost any surface, regardless of size or shape. This variability in ink
 thickness and print substrate allows the screen printer to print brilliant colors, and durable
 products that can withstand harsh weather conditions (for outdoor signs)  and laundering (f Dr
 printed T-shirts). Substrates commonly used by screen printers include paper, paperboard,
 plastics,  glass, metals, textiles, and many other materials. Ink types used in screen printing
 include solvent-based, UV-curable (ultraviolet curable), water-based, and plastisol inks. The
 choice of ink depends on the substrate being printed and  the equipment available in the
 facility.  This project focused on screen printers who print on plastic and vinyl substrates.
                                       i   '    „  ,        .  ..    ...      .
 Screen Reclamation
                                       j
                              ,'(•'•'••'
       An imaged screen can be reused multiple times to print the same image or the stencil
 can be removed so a different image  can be applied. Removal of the image and ink from
 the screen is called the reclamation process.  Due to the high cost of the screen material ($25
 - $45/yard for 40" wide mesh) and the labor required  to replace a  screen, most printers
 reclaim their screens for reuse.  According to a 1990 SPAI survey  of the industry, 90.3
percent of screen printers reclaim screens daily.   Screen reclamation  techniques vary from
 one facility to another, however, the three basic steps typically performed to reclaim a screen
 are: ink removal, emulsion removal, and haze removal.

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       Ink removal is the first step in reclaiming a screen.  Generally, facilities scrape off
excess ink and chemically remove ink residue from the screen at the end of every press run,
regardless of whether the screen is to be reclaimed or reused with the same image. The 1990
SPAI Industry Survey found that 97.5 percent of the printers responding use an ink remover
daily.  In most facilities, an ink removerj product is sprayed, poured, or wiped onto the
screen. The ink remover chemical and the ink are both wiped off or rinsed off the screen.
                                       j.  .  .	
       Ink removal precedes emulsion  removal (also called stencil removal) so that excess
ink does not interfere with the removal of j the stencil.  The predominant emulsion removal
chemical in use today is sodium metaperipdate.  It is sold either as a powder that is mixed
with water at  the facility or in a water  solution as a liquid.  The liquid is typically sprayed
on the emulsion, rubbed in with a  brush which loosens the stencil and is rinsed off with a
pressurized  water wash.                 j

       After the emulsion is removed,  a haze or a "ghost" of the image may remain on the
screen. If the haze is dark enough, it may! act as a stencil by blocking the ink from passing
through the screen. A light image, called a ghost, will then appear on the substrate during
the next printing job.  Haze may also interfere with the adhesion of the next stencil.   The
haze is caused by ink  or stencil that gets j caught in the areas between the  overlap of the
screen threads or that is  stained into  thej threads of the screen.   If a haze is visible or
suspected, a haze remover is applied before reusing the screen to avoid printing a.ghost in
the next print run. Haze remover is typically either a paste that is brushed onto the affected
area, or a liquid that is sprayed onto the scjreen and then brushed in. The chemical and the
haze are then rinsed off, typically with a high pressure washer. Haze remover chemicals aire
often caustics and can damage or  weaker! the mesh if used excessively or if allowed to
remain in contact with the mesh for too long.

       The ink remover, the emulsion  remover,  and the haze remover are sometimes sold
together as a screen reclamation "product system." For the Dffi Performance Demonstration
Project, manufacturers were encouraged j to submit complete product systems.  When
purchasing a product system, as opposed jto buying the individual products,  the printer is
assured that the products are designed to \york together and that there will be no chemical
incompatibilities between the system cbmponents.  A total of ten product systems,  one
individual ink remover, and two alternative technologies were evaluated by the Dffl Screen
Printing Project.                        j
                                       I      •          .
Environmental Concerns Associated with Screen Reclamation

       Screen reclamation was selected as the focus area of this project for several reasons:
                                       I        -          -        •
       •       Screen reclamation products often contain highly volatile organic solvents.
              Depending on the amount of product used, federal, state, or local regulations
              may limit the amount of volatile organic solvents used in the printing facility.
              In order to meet regulator^  requirements and to protect the health of the
              workers, many printers are looking for less volatile cleaners.

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       •      Wastewater from screen reclamation typically goes directly down the
              drain.  According to a 1992 survey by Screen Printing magazine (printed in
              the April 1992 issue  of Screen Printing').  191 out of 250 companies (76
              percent) reported they send unfiltered  waste down the drain (to sewer or
              septic).  Ink, emulsion, and/or reclamation chemicals are likely to be in the
              unfiltered rinse water which could lead to health and environmental problems
              as the  wastewater  goes toja treatment facility,  a waterbody, or a  septic
              system.                   i
       •      Confusion over products ithat claim to be "biodegradable,"  or "drain-
              safe." Although a given product may itself be safe to rinse down the  drain,
              once it is mixed with ink or iemulsion, drain disposal may not be permissible.
              Also, confusion surrounding the term "biodegradable" is widespread among
              printers; each  manufacturer, regulator, and printer may  have  a unique
              definition for the term. It is important for printers to check their local, state
              and federal water regulations prior to discharging such a product.
                                       i     •
       The CTS A addresses these issues by presenting information on the costs and benefits
associated with different screen reclamation options, such as occupational exposure concerns,
cost differences, and performance effectiveness.  The  Performance Demonstration portion
of the project concentrated on evaluating and documenting the performance of the alternative
product systems.                        {

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                                   SECTION m

     PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION AND COSTING METHODOLOGY
                                      1

PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION (METHODOLOGY
                                      I
       Performance evaluations were conducted in two distinct phases:   (1) the Screen
Printing Technical Foundation (SPTF) evaluated each product system under controlled and
consistent laboratory conditions; and (2) yolunteer printing facilities nationwide collected
much of the same information, but did so under the more variable conditions specific to their
production runs.  The testing methodology for both phases of the  demonstrations was
developed by consensus with the involvement of EPA, SPAI, individual screen printers, and
manufacturers and suppliers of screen reclamation products and equipment.  Due to the
numerous variables associated with  screen reclamation, the work group agreed that  a
rigorous scientific test of screen reclamation product systems would be difficult to develop.
The group decided that it would be preferable to rely on the seasoned judgment of screen
printers in evaluating the effectiveness of the alternative products.  Additionally, the group
felt that a month-long demonstration at the volunteer facility was required in order to identify
the types of problems that occur only afterjrepeated uses of the product on the same screen.
For example, a product may  cause  gradual damage to the screen mesh that does not
immediately affect print quality and is not visually noticeable until after multiple applications
on the same screen.                     ]
                                      i
                                    '  j        '             .'   •
Laboratory Testing Methodology         j                   ,

       The intent of the SPTF evaluations  was  to assure that the product systems sent to
printers would provide an acceptable level of performance. Screening at SPTF also provided
another set of observations to compare with in-facility demonstration results.  At SPTF, each
product system was tested on three imaged screens; one with solvent-based ink, one with
UV-cured ink, and one with water-based jink.   One of the  most important aspects of the
SPTF methodology was that the evaluations were conducted under consistent conditions for
all screens (e.g., tension, mesh type, emulsion type, thread count, image). In addition, the
same technician conducted the evaluations for all product systems at SPTF.  The technician
recorded the following information: amount of product used, time spent on each reclamation
step, level of effort required, and a qualitative assessment of product effectiveness and screen
condition. A complete description of the SPTF methodology and parameters used is included
in Appendix G.                 '    .   i                              •

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Field Demonstration Methodology       j
                                       |
       Each printer evaluated the effectiveness of one screen reclamation product system.
In most  cases, the system included an ink  remover,  an emulsion remover and  a haze
remover.  The facilities were responsible for  reclaiming up to 12 screens per week over a
thirty-day period  utilizing the  specified} product  system and  recording  the product's
performance for each screen.  (See Appendix F for the complete Facility Demonstrations
Methodology).                         j
                                       I          ......
       SPAI recruited volunteer screen printers  who print on plastic and vinyl substrates
from across the country.  EPA and SPAIJ staff matched the submitted product systems to
volunteer printing facilities based on existing equipment,  ink type, and current practices.
Most product systems were evaluated hi trto or three facilities to  provide performance data
from different operating and ambient  conditions.   Prior  to  shipping product systems to
printers,  SPAI repackaged products or removed identifying marks and brand names so that
those printers  evaluating the products  die!  not know the  manufacturer or product name.
Masked MSDSs and application instructioins were also developed and were shipped along
with the product systems to each facility, j

       Prior to the start of the demonstrations,  a project observer was assigned to each
facility.  Observers were not EPA employees, but were drawn from the staff  of Abt
Associates Inc. and its subcontractor, Radian Corporation.   For each of their designated
facilities, the observer was responsible for  collecting background information, visiting the
facility on the first day of alternative product use, following the facilities progress throughout
the demonstrations, and reporting the results.   Before the observers scheduled their on-site
visits,  each facility received a Facility Background  Questionnaire (see Appendix A). The
data from the questionnaires were used forj several purposes.  First, the questionnaires were
used to collect facility background information such  as  the number of employees, the
facility's system for tracking  screens, andlthe types of products printed. This information
was used to help explain the  different experiences of the two  or three facilities who
demonstrated  the  same alternative system.   Second,  the  facility's current  application
procedures were reviewed to determine if they were similar to  the application  method
recommended for the alternative product. Where possible, the project attempted to minimize
changes in application techniques when switching over to the alternative product system.
This was done because it was assumed that screen reclamation employees would be most
receptive to new products that caused the least disruption of their  normal routine.  Third,
information was  collected on the chemical  composition  of the facility's  current screen
reclamation products  to determine if there would be any  incompatibilities between the
alternative products and the facility's standard products that had previously been applied to
the screen.  In  cases  where  the  standard and alternative products were chemically very
different, the possibility of incompatibilities existed and may have influenced the product
performance.   Cases  where  this could have occurred are  noted in the text  discussing
performance results in Section VI.       i

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       After the Facility Background Questionnaire was completed, alternative products were
shipped to the volunteer printing facilities. 'Before the facility could start using the products,
the assigned observer visited the plant.  During the visit, the observer first explained the
goals of the project to all employees who might be using the alternative products. Next, the
observer watched one screen being cleaned using the current screen reclamation procedures
and recorded information about the current product system's performance on an Observer
Evaluation Sheet (see Appendix B). Then the observer explained the application techniques
of the alternative product system.  The observer then watched the reclamation of three
different screens  with the alternative products  and recorded information on Observer
Evaluation Sheets. This routine allowed the observer to verify that the employees understood
how to use the alternative product system and how to record data on the alternative system.
Information collected on the Observer Evaluation Sheets included:

       •     Screen condition:  screen size, thread count, mesh material, ink type and
             color, emulsion type, number of impressions of previous run.
       •     Facility ambient conditions:  temperature,  humidity, ventilation.
       •     Reclamation procedures: application method used for ink remover, emulsion
             remover, and haze remover.! drying time between each reclamation step.
       •     Product usage: quantity of product used, the time it took to clean the screen,
             the effort required.        !
       •     Screen inspection: effectiveness of each product,  evaluation of print image
             quality after reusing the screen.

       After the observer's visit, the facility continued to use the alternative products for one
month.  During this tune, facility staff recorded performance information on the alternative
product systems for up to 12 screen reclamations per week, using the Printer Evaluation
Sheets.  Using evaluation sheets (see Appendices C and D), the printers recorded much of
the same information on product performance that the observers  collected during their site
visit. The evaluation sheets for the printers, however, were less detailed to minimize the
printers' record-keeping burden. Forms wejre kept short and simple to increase the likelihood
that data would be recorded consistently and completely.
                                       j                       .
       To supplement the information recorded by the printers, each week, the DfE observer
telephoned the facility staff for an update |on the product system's performance.  Through
these calls, the observer was able to determine if any changes were made in the way the
products were used, and if the facility was having any problems  with the products.  These
calls were documented in telephone logs (see Appendix E) and this information was used in
the descriptions of the performance results' for each facility presented in Section VI.
Alternative Technologies Methodology   |
                                       |
       In addition to the demonstration of alternative chemical product systems, the DfE
Printing  Project  evaluated  the  performance  of  two  alternative  screen  reclamation
technologies. These substitute processes rely on specialized equipment, and were, therefore,

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 not demonstrated at SFTF. Instead, the observers travelled to facilities where the equipment
 was available and evaluated the processes using criteria similar to those used by SPTF during
 their tests of the alternative chemicals.  The two technologies demonstrated were:  (1) a high
 pressure water blaster; and (2) a sodium bicarbonate reclaim system.
                                        i
       For both of these  evaluations, anj observer brought three imaged screens to  the
 demonstration site.  Once  on-site, the  observer applied ink to each screen.  Solvent-based
 ink was applied to one screen, UV ink to Another, and water-based ink was applied to the
 third screen. The alternative technology was then used to reclaim each of the screens and
 the observer recorded the same data as was recorded for the alternative chemical systems.
 For the high pressure water blaster technology, testing was conducted at a printing facility
 that was already using the required equipment in production.  For the sodium bicarbonate
 technology, the evaluations were done at the equipment manufacturer's facility,  since it is
 still a developing technology and is not in juse at any printing facilities.
COSTING METHODOLOGY          I
                                        j    .        -       •                  ••
       In general, the cost estimate for each reclamation method was composed of the sum
of four distinct cost elements: labor, reclamation products, materials, and waste disposal.
                                        t
                                        !
Labor                              -   . j  ..
                                        I
       The printer's staff time spent on each reclamation step (e.g., ink removal, emulsion
removal, haze removal) was collected or Estimated from various sources.  The total time
estimate does not include collecting screens jfrom printing areas, waiting for product reactions
as might be specified  in the manufacturers's  application instructions,  maintenance of
reclamation area, or handling of segregated waste materials.  The labor cost was calculated
as the total time spent multiplied by (1) ihe average wage rate for screen reclaimers of
$6.53/hour (as reported in SPAI's 1993 jWage  Survey Report for the  Screen  Printing
Industry') and (2) an industry multiplier  of 2.01 (calculated from SPAI's  1992 Operating
Ratios Study) to account for fringe and overhead costs.

Reclamation Products                    !
                                        |

       The average usage per screen was (calculated for each product (i.e., ink remover,
emulsion remover, haze remover) used by a particular facility.  Because of wide variations,
no attempt was  made to average  across facilities or product systems.  For comparative
purposes, "normalized" average quantities were calculated by multiplying actual usage with
the ratio of the baseline screen of 2,127 in^ to the recorded screen size.   Multiplying usage
with the unit cost of each  product (proyided  by each participating  manufacturer  and
summarized in  Table 3.1) yielded the reclamation product  costs.   Costs  associated with
special storage requirements for products were not considered in the cost analysis.
                                         10

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                      TABLE 3.1




ALTERNATIVE RECLAMATION SYSTEMS: MANUFACTURER PRICING
Product
System
Alpha
Beta
Chi
Delta
Epsilon
Gamma
Mu
Phi
Omicron
Theta
Zeta

Ink Remover
$18.20/gallon
($850/55 gallons)
$15.10/gallon
$31.20/gallon
($1,315/55 gallons)
Emulsion Remover
-
$4.00/gallon
Ink remover only
$32.00/gallon
($438/15 gallons)
($1,238/55 gallons)
$20.00/gallon $32.00/gallon
($900/55 gallons) ($438/15 gallons)
($1,238/55 gallons)
$7.80/gallon $29.80/kg
$11.00/gallon
(25 liters/$72)
$7.80/gallon
(20 liters/$41 )
$3.50/kg
$10.40/gallon
(3 five liter units/$41)
$24.95/gallon $24.95/gallon
$13.40/gallon
($540/55 gallons)
No ink remover costs
Other costs: $5,170
$11.00/gallon
($530/55 gallons)
$21 .95/gallon
$23.00/gallon $23.00/gallon
•
•
Haze Remover
$10/kg
Ink remover only
$31.20/gallon
($1,315/55 gallons)
$20.00/gallon
($900/55 gallons)
$2.40/kg
$10.40/gallon
(25 liters/$62)
$37.80/gallon
(5 five liter units/$50)
$39. 95/gallon
No haze remover
Degreaser costs:
$10/gallon
($500/55 gallons)
$43.00/gallon
$30.00/gallon

                          11

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Materials (e.g.. rags, screens^

       Rag use was estimated or recorded for the baseline and all substitute products. It was
assumed that rags were leased and laundered at a cost of $0.15/rag.  Changes in the number
of  application  brushes  between  the  baseline  and  substitute methods  is  considered
inconsequential.

Waste Disposal
       Hazardous waste disposal costs werej assumed only if the reclamation products contain
RCRA-listed chemicals or if the products are defined as characteristic wastes due to their
ignitable nature (see Table 3.2).  For each product system, hazardous waste generation rates
(in g/day for 6 screens), were estimated! by chemical  engineers on EPA's staff.   This
methodology does not consider the possible effect residual  inks may have on the waste's
hazard classification.  It also assumes that pther wastestreams at the facility are hazardous;
thus, the labor cost of training and managing hazardous wastes is not associated with screen
reclamation only. Given that filtration systems used to remove residual inks and reclamation
products from spent wash water (spent filters must be disposed of) may be required for both
baseline and alternative analysis.  The analysis focuses on quantifying cost differences among
reclamation methods.
                                         12

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                                       TABLE 3.2

                 DETERMINATION OF RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE LISTING
  Product
  System
          Ink Remover
     Emulsion Remover
                                                                        Haze Remover
  Alpha     RCRA characteristic waste
            (ignitable)
            Flashpoint - 101 ฐF/38ฐC
                                None
                         None
Beta
Chi
Delta
None
Ink remover only
None None
None
None
Ink remover only
None
None
  Epsilon    RCRA Listed waste            !
            (cyclohexanone - all other       |
            components qualify as listed    [
            under mixture rule). Also       i
            Characteristic  waste (ignitable)  i
            Flashpoint = 46ฐC/115ฐF      i
                                None
                         1:1 dilution with ink
                         remover. All components
                         qualify as hazardous waste
                         under mixture rule.
Gamma
Mu
Phi
Omicron
(AE&
AF)
None
RCRA Characteristic waste
(ignitable)
Flashpoint = 131ฐF/55ฐC
None
None
| None
i • -
i None
I
I
i
i None
| None
|
I
None
None
None
None
 Theta
No ink remover
j  None
                                                                  RCRA Listed waste
                                                                  (cyclohexanone - all other
                                                                  components qualify as
                                                                  listed under mixture rule)
 Zeta      RCRA Characteristic waste
           (ignitable)
           Flashpoint =  101ฐF/38ฐC
                                None
                         None
All information on flashpoint was gathered frolm masked MSDSs submitted by supplier. None of
the above information should be used for compliance purposes. None of the chemicals in these
formulations is listed as toxic characteristic contaminants and were not treated as such in the cost
analysis; however, printers should  use the Tc-xicity Characteristic  Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to
determine the applicability of the toxicity characteristic to their particular waste stream.
                                          13

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                                    SECTION IV
                                        i
            CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICIPATING FACILITIES
PRODUCTS PRINTED                 j
                                        I
       The cooperation of the volunteer printing facilities was essential in obtaining the
performance  data  for  this project.  The jparticipating  printers were not intended to be
representative of the screen printing industry as a whole.  They were, however, fairly typical
in the type of products produced. The DfJE project did limit participation to facilities using
plastic and vinyl substrates to reduce one [source of variability.  Most of the participating
printers also printed on other media, such as paper, metal, glass, or ceramics.
                                        i
       The screen printing industry in the ljnited States can be divided into three major types
of facilities:                             j
                                        i                              •
                                        i
       •     Commercial screen printers: Commercial operations print garments, signs,
             posters,  decals, and banners j for commercial applications, commercial screen
             printing shops are assumed io be the  most prevalent in the industry.
       •     Industrial screen  printers:  Industrial screen printers print front panels,
             circuits, glassware, and labels for original equipment.
       •     In-plant screen printers: Many manufacturing facilities have in-house screen
             printing departments that are| dedicated to  printing markings or decals for the
             parts produced in that facility.   Although they  operate  screen printing
             equipment,  their primary business is not screen printing, and they do not
             classify themselves as screen printers.
                                        i
       The  majority  of  the  printers participating in  the  DfE  Printing  Project  were
commercial screen printers.  Because the in-plant screen printers are typically classified by
the products they produce, not by the processes they use to produce those products,  it is
difficult to quantify the size  of the  screed printing industry in the United States. SPAI
estimates that there are at  least 40,000 plants in the U.S. with screen presses, not including
in-plant operations or the majority of industrial screen printing operations.  The 1990 SPAI
survey of the industry estimated that 55 jpercent of commercial screen printers print on
textiles.  Graphic arts printing is another major category in commercial screen printing and
it includes such diverse products as point-of-purchase displays, posters, decals, and banners.
The types of products printed by the volunteer facilities is just as diverse as the range for the
industry as a whole.   The most common i products of the participating facilities includes
labels, store displays, decals, panels,  graphic overlays, nameplates, banners, signs, and fleet
graphics.                                I
                               '         !
                  '   -    -       •        ! 14      .

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 SIZE OF FACILITIES

       Approximately 90 percent of the volunteer facilities had less than 50 employees,
 which is consistent with the  1992 Screen! Printing magazine survey which found that 86
 percent of the screen printing facilities ha
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                                   SECTION V
                                      i
                                      |

           CHARACTERIZATION OF PRODUCTS DEMONSTRATED
ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT SYSTEM SUBMITTAL PROCEDURE

      Manufacturers' cooperation in  this project was  essential to gather performance
information on as many alternative product systems as possible at the start of the project.
The Dffi project staff contacted all known manufacturers of screen reclamation products
designed for  printers  who use  vinyl or jplastic substrates, and invited them to submit
alternative product systems. In addition to directly contacting manufacturers, the DfE project
team  also  encouraged product submittals through  articles  in  trade magazines  and
announcements at the annual SPAI convention and trade show.  This is due, in part, to the
expectation that  impending regulations  may effect market  availability  and  use of these
substances.   The DfE Project Staff did not solicit those products containing chlorinated
compounds due to the scheduled phase-out
Air Act Amendments.
of many of these chemicals under the 1990 Clean
      Prior to submitting their products,;manufacturers were informed that product trade
names would be masked throughout the demonstrations.  Neither the volunteer printers nor
the DfE observers would know the manufacturer of the products being evaluated.  Trade
names are not listed in the CTSA document or in this report.  Product systems are only
identified by a generic formulation: a list of the chemical components associated with each
individual product (the ink remover, the emulsion remover, and the haze remover).  These
formulations are presented in Section VI in tables 6.1 and 6.2.
                                       16

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                                   SECTION VI
                                    'I
                     PERFORMANCE| AND COST RESULTS

EXPLANATION OF VARIABILITY E^ RESULTS
                                       i
       This section describes the product!systems' performance during the demonstration
project and the cost of each alternative system compared to a baseline system.  For each
system, a description of the demonstration facilities is  followed by the results from the
evaluation at SFTF, the details of performance at the volunteer printing facilities, and the
costs for each volunteer facility to switch from a baseline system to the system demonstrated
at their plants.  A table is also included for each product system which provides summairy
statistics from the performance and cost of the system.

       The information summarized in this section comes from five sources:

       •     SPTF evaluations where screens with different ink types (up to three types:
             solvent-based,  UV-cured,  land  water-based)  were  reclaimed  with  the
             alternative product system;  j
       •     Facility Background  Questionnaires  profiling  printing  and reclamation
             operations of each site;
       •     DfE Observers Evaluation Sheets where the observer recorded information on
             one reclamation with the current product system and up to three reclamations
             using the alternative product system;
       •     Printers Evaluation Sheets \yhere the facility employees completed as many
             as 12 observation forms per week for four weeks; and
       9     Logs  of the weekly follow-up  calls  made to  each facility by the DfE
             observers.                 i
                                       I
       Performance demonstrations were not scientifically rigorous but were subjective
assessments which reflected the conditions and experiences of the employees at two or three
individual facilities.  As the printers involved  in this  project pointed out, the specific
parameters  of a print run can influence product performance significantly.  In several cases,
two facilities with similar operating parameters using the same reclamation products had very
different perceptions of the product performance.  Among the reasons why the results of
performance demonstrations for one particular product system may differ from one facility
to another and/or from the SPTF results are:

       0  Variability of screen conditions.  Because performance demonstrations were
       carried out during production  runs!, many factors which affect the performance of
       reclamation products were not controlled during the performance demonstrations

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        including: age of screen, ink colorj, ink coverage, image size, ink type and drying
        time prior to reclamation.        j

        • Variability of ambient conditions.  Conditions, such as temperature, humidity,
        and ventilation were recorded but nbt controlled during performance demonstrations.
        Many screen printers reported that ambient conditions affect performance of the
        products they use (e.g., temperature! and humidity effect on drying of ink on screens).

        '• Chemical interactions with products used previously on the screen. Printers and
        manufacturers have reported that chemicals previously applied to clean a screen can
        affect the performance  of products currently used to  clean the screen.   Product
        systems are often designed for chemical compatibility during the screen reclamation
        process;  if another product is added to the  product system  that is  chemically
        incompatible, cleaning performance^ of the system may be affected. For example, if
        a printer who has been using a variety of hydrocarbon solvents, such as acetone and
        xylene for screen cleaning, switches to an alternative product to clean the screen, the
       performance of the alternative systehi may be affected by a residue of hydrocarbons
        on the surface of the screen.  Testing may have been more effective if a new screen
       was used, however,  this was typically not the case in the performance demonstration.
       In either case, the performance demjonstration may have been affected by (1) residue
       chemicals on the surface of the screen or (2) the chemical "conditioning" of the
       screen.                          i
                                       I
       • Variability of staff involved in performance demonstrations. During laboratory
       testing, the same technician conducted all tests and recorded the results.   At the
       volunteer facilities, several differentjindividuals often conducted the reclamations and
       recorded the  data.   Reclaimers' past  experience also differs and can affect their
       perception of performance.  For example,  a screen reclaimer who has only used
       highly effective, and sometimes hazardous, ink removers may differ in their opinion
       of  "moderate  scrubbing effort" from a reclaimer  whose  current ink  remover
       instructions call for  several minutesj of scrubbing with a brush.
                                       i     '       " -
       • Level of cleanliness expected by  the  facility. The DfE observers  found that
       different facilities could have  veryj  different opinions about the cleanliness of a
       screen. At some facilities, a light haze is acceptable and it does not affect the quality
       of future prints.  Other facilities may requke  that every  screen look new after
       reclamation.                     i
                                       i

Where possible,  the text summaries of product system performance in this section point out
where these factors may have contributed to disparate results among facilities evaluating the
same product system.

       The inclusion of widely variable conditions across and within facilities and the short
duration of the performance demonstration's did not allow the results to be interpreted as
definitive performance assessments of the pjroduct systems.  In addition, some facilities did
                                        18

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not provide the  full complement of observation forms  for  several reasons including:
unacceptable performance of the product system, personnel problems, insufficient volume
of products supplied, and, in  one case, lost records of the performance demonstrations.
Based on the forms that were completed by the printers during the four week demonstration,
analyses were prepared for each product system, keeping each facilities' experiences with
that product system separate.  A number of statistics correlations were attempted for each
facility but the results are not statistically significant due to small sample size.  Correlations
included:                               j
       • the effectiveness of ink removal compared with variables such as effort/time spent
       on ink  removal, ink color, number of impressions
       • the condition of screen after emulsion removal step compared with variables such
       as  effort/lime spent on emulsion rejmoval, prior ink coverage
       • the condition of screen after allj reclamation steps  are complete  compared with
       effort/tune spent on haze removal, leffectiveness of previous steps

       Where  appropriate, these results are included within the text summaries of each
product system.  Summary statistics, such as average amount of product used, are presented
in accompanying tables.                 I
PRODUCT SYSTEM CHEMICAL FORMULATIONS
                                      •i       .   .       '
       One  of the goals of this project Is to  encourage printers to use risk and hazard
information  to make more informed, environmentally-sound decisions about the chemicals
and processes they use.  To accomplish this goal, Tables 6.1 and 6.2 provide printers with
the chemical formulations of the product systems demonstrated. Since product trade names
are not given, the printer must identify the! products by their chemical class.  The first table
(Table 6.1) lists the formulation of each product system in generic chemical categories.  The
second table (Table 6.2) describes  the bhemicais which are included in each generic
classification.   Using the chemical  composition  information in conjunction  with the
performance summaries, printers can determine which product system(s) they think would
be successful in their facility.  Once that determination is made, printers can contact their
distributors,  inform them of the type of product they are looking for (based on the chemical
formulation), and  ask  for a recommendation  on such a product system.   A list of the
participating manufacturers  is given in Appendix H of this report.   The list  includes
telephone  numbers  and contact  names  so  printers can  also directly  contact these
manufacturers if they prefer.
                                      |
      In making a decision on which products to try, the printer can evaluate the laboratory
results, the field demonstration data, and the cost  summaries.  For more information on the
risks associated with each product system, the printer should refer to the EPA's CTSA
Screen Reclamation document.  These products are referred to as "alternatives," however,
a printer can only evaluate the relative human health risks and the environmental impacts of
these products by  reviewing the health and environmental risk information presented in the
CTSA.            .           .    .     |  •   .

                                      !  19

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                                      TABLE e.i
                                        ( .                 '          •
     CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION SYSTEMS
Product
System   .          Ink Remover
  Emulsion Remover
      Haze Remover
Alpha     Aromatic solvent naphtha
          Propylene glycol series ethers
Sodium periodate
Water
Alkali/caustic
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol
Water
Beta      2-octadecanamine, N,N-
          dimethyl-,N-oxide or a modified
          amine from unsaturated soy
          bean oil fatty acid
          Water
Ink remover only
Ink remover only
Chi       Diethylene glycol series ethers
          Propylene glycol series ethers
          N-methyl pyrrolidone
          Ethoxylated nonylphenol
Sodium periodate
Water
Diethylene glycoi series
ethers
Propylene glycol series
ethers
N-methyl pyrrolidone
Ethoxylated nonylphenol
Delta
Dibasic esters
Propylene glycol series ethers
Ethoxylated nonylphenol
Sodium periodate
Water
,
Dibasic esters
Propylene glycol series
ethers
Ethoxylated nonylphenol
Epsilon    Cyclohexanone
          Methoxypropanol acetate
          Diethylene glycol
          Benzyl alcohol
          Diacetone alcohol
          Aromatic solvent naphtha
          Derivatized plant oil
Sodium periodate
Sulfate salt
Water
Alkyl benzene sulfonates
Ethoxylated nonylphenol
Phosphate salt
Sodium hydroxide
Derivatized plant oil
Water
Gamma   Tripropylene glycol methyl ether j
          Diethylene glycol butyl ether    ;
          acetate                       I
          Dibasic esters                 i
          Fatty alcohol ethers            j
          Derivatized plant oil
Sodium periodate
Sulfate salt
Phosphate salt
Other
Water
Sodium hypochlorite   .
Alkali/caustic
Sodium alkyl sulfonate
Water
Mu       Dibasic esters
          Methoxypropanol acetate
          d-Limonene
          Ethoxylated nonylphenol
          Derivatized plant oil
Periodic acid
Water
Sodium hypochlorite
Alkali/caustic
Sodium alkyl sulfonate
Water
                                        ! (continued)
                                          20

-------
                                   TABLE 6.1  (continued)
Product
System
Ink Remover
Emulsion Remover
Haze Remover
Phi
Dibasic esters
Sodium periodate
Water
Ethoxylated
nonylphenol
Other
                                                                   N-methyl pyrrolidone
                                                                   Dibasic esters
Omicron  Diethylene glycol butyl ether
(AE)      Propylene glycol
                                 Sodium periodate
                                 Ethoxylated
                                 nonylphenol
                                 Water
                       Ethoxylated nonylphenol
                       Phosphate surfactant
                       Other
                       Water
Omicron  Diethylene glycol butyl ether
(AF)      Propylene glycol
                                 Sodium periodate
                                 Ethoxylated
                                 nonylphenol
                                 Water
                       Ethoxylated nonylphenol
                       Phosphate surfactant
                       Alkali/caustic
                       Other
                       Water
Theta
None
Sodium periodate
Water
Alkali/caustic
Cyclohexanone
Furfuryl alcohol
Zeta
Propylene glycol series ethers
Sodium periodate
Water
Alkali/caustic
Propylene glycol
Water
                                          21

-------
                                    TABLE 6.2
                                      I                    '   •   '
            CATEGORIZATION OF SCREEN RECLAMATION CHEMICALS FOR
                                      j  •
              USE IN ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT SYSTEM FORMULATIONS
              Category
           Chemicals in Category
Alkali/caustic
Sodium hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Alkyl benzyl sulfonates
Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, triethanol
amine salt
Sodium salt, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid
Aromatic solvent naphtha
Solvent naphtha (petroleum), light aromatic
Solvent naphtha (petroleum), heavy aromatic
Derivatized plant oil
Tall oil, special
Ethoxylated castor oil
Dibasic esters
Diethylene glycol series ethers
Fatty alcohol ethers
Phosphate salt
Propylene glycol series ethers
Diethyl adipate
Diethyl glutarate
Diisopropyl adipate
Dimethyl adipate
Dimethyl glutarate
Dimethyl succinate
Diethylene glycol butyl ether
Diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate
Alcohols, C8 - C10, ethoxylated
Alcohols, C12 - C14, ethoxylated
Sodium hexametaphosphate
Trisodium phosphate
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether
Propylene glycol methyl ether
                                       Tripropylene glycol methyl ether
                                       Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate
                                       Dipropylene glycol methyl ether acetate
                                       Ethoxypropanol
                                       Ethoxypropyl acetate
                                       Methoxypropanol acetate
                                       22

-------
BASELINE SCREEN RECLAMATTONJ
                                     | -
                                     i
      The system used to estimate baseljne costs was selected as it was assumed to be
representative of systems currently in use.) The baseline products used are:
      Ink remover
                        =  lacquer thinher consisting of:
30% methyl ethyl ketone
20% naphtha, light aliphatic
20% toluene
15 % n-butyl acetate
10% isobutyl isobutynaite
5%  methanol
      Emulsion remover
      Haze remover
                           1.25% sodium periodate in water
                           10% xylenej (by weight)
                           30% acetonb
                           30% mineral spirits                                '
                           30% cyclohjexanone

      For ink remover, time and volume information was taken from SFTF testing. An
average price for lacquer thinner was calculated from prices  reported in the Workplace
Practices Questionnaire conducted by SPAI and the University of Tennessee. Time, volume,
and price information for baseline emulsion removal was taken from the Zeta system used
in performance demonstrations. Tune and yolume information for the four-chemical baseline
haze remover  was  not available from the performance demonstrations, and had  to be
estimated based on the SPTF evaluation of! similar haze remover, resulting in a time of 11.5
minutes. A volume  of 3 ounces for haze removal was taken from the application instructions
developed for SPTF.  A price for purchasing this formulation in a 55-gallon drum quantity
was quoted by Ashland Chemical.
                                     I 23

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM ALPHA

       For Product System Alpha, this section describes the performance results from the
laboratory  performance tests  and from  tlhe  volunteer facility  demonstrations, and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For information on the operating conditions of the three volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Alpha was demonstrated, or on the specific details of the product
system performance at each of the facilitiejs, see Appendix I.
                                       I
       Product System Alpha consisted ofi an ink remover, emulsion remover,  and a haze
remover.  The products were  demonstrated at Facilities 8, 13,  and 14.  Facility 8 prints
labels, nameplates, and graphic overlays.j  They reclaimed 48  screens  over 4 weeks of
demonstrations using solvent-based inks and an indirect emulsion.   Facility 13 prints store
displays, decals, and  outdoor  signs,  and they reclaimed 13 screens using UV-cured and
solvent-based inks and a direct photo stencil during the 2 weeks  they participated in the
demonstrations. Facility 14 prints metal nameplates, vinyl pressure sensitive decals, and
signs. They used solvent-based inks and a direct photo stencil during the three weeks they
used Product System Alpha to  reclaim 36 screens.
                                       t
                                       i-
Performance in the Laboratory

       Product System Alpha was tested at SPTF on two screens (one with a solvent-based
ink, and one with a UV-cured ink). This product system is not recommended for use with
water-based inks.  Performance of the product system was similar for both ink  systems.

       To apply the ink remover, the manufacturer recommends spraying the product on the
screen, and wiping up the dissolved ink anil solvent with an absorbent rag or cloth until the
ink is removed. On the screen with the jsolvent-based ink, the ink dissolved well with
moderate scrubbing.  On the screen  with jthe UV ink,  the ink dissolved more easily and
minimal scrubbing was needed.  Four wipes were used to clean each screen.  The technician
noted that the ink remover had an unpleasant odor.
                                       I
       On both screens, the emulsion remover dissolved the stencil with moderate scrubbing
effort, leaving no emulsion stain. There was a moderate ink stain remaining on the solvent-
based ink screen after emulsion removal,  but the application of the haze remover removed
the stain completely.  On the  screen with UV ink, a light stain remained after emulsion
remover use, but the haze remover lightened the stain considerably.

       The  standard ink remover used at facility  13  is  a proprietary blend consisting
primarily of tripropylene glycol methyl ether.  Their emulsion remover consists primarily
of sodium periodate. Haze remover is used as needed (on approximately 50 % of the screens
reclaimed).  Information on the chemical Composition of haze remover was not available.
Using their standard product, ink is removeid from the screen with a pressure wash, whereas
rags are used to wipe off the ink when using the alternative ink  remover.  The  application
                                        24

-------
 procedure for the alternative emulsion and haze remover products are very similar to this
 facility's standard application method.    I
                                       j                             .
 Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
       This section summarizes the product system performance as recorded by the printers
 using the products at all three of the demonstration facilities.  The table at the end of the
 section summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results  of the
 product tests performed at SPTF.        |
                                       i                             ,  .
                                       j
       Ink Remover: Facility 8 reported that the ink remover worked well most of the time,
 but results were inconsistent and some extra scrubbing was required to achieve the desired
 results.  Performance was improved if the ink remover was sprayed on both the scrubbing
 rag and the screen.  The ink remover did not seem to work at all with epoxy inks.  Facility
 13 also reported that the ink remover required more time and scrubbing than their usual
 product.  Facility 14 reported that the ink remover worked as well as their usual product.
 One screen reclamation employee at  this facility reported that the ink remover worked
 particularly well with their vinyl inks.

       Emulsion Remover:  At Facility 8, jthe emulsion remover worked satisfactorily only
 if the screen was rinsed with hot water before applying the product. Facility 13 reported that
 the emulsion remover did not work as efficiently as their usual product, taking more time
 to dissolve the stencil and more scrubbing! even at full strength.  Facility 14 reported that
 the emulsion remover worked as well as their usual product and required less effort than the
 regular product  with  the same positive re!sults.  The only negative feature mentioned by
 Facility 14 was that the emulsion remover (left a slight green tint on the screen, but this tint
 was  removed by the alternative haze remopr.
                                       I
       Haze Remover: The  haze remover jperfbrmance varied between the three facilities.
At Facility 8, the haze remover removed the ink stain on most of the screens, however,  it
 did not sufficiently remove haze from about 20% of the screens.  These screens  had to be
 cleaned again with their standard product. JFacility 13 thought that the haze remover did not
 work at all,  and required extra scrubbing and follow up  use  with their regular product.
 Facility 14 initially reported that the haze j remover performance was average, but another
 reclaimer said that it did not work as well! as their usual product.
                                         25

-------






















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TABLE 6.4
COST ANALYSIS FOR SYSTEM ALPHA
Description
.
Baseline Alternative System Alpha
Facility 8
Facility 13
Facility 14
Facility Characteristics •
Average screen size (in2)
Average # screens/day
Cost Elements
Labor
Materials and
Equipment
Reclamation
Product
Use
Hazardous
Waste Disposal
Totals
pef Screen
Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products
(min)
Cost ($)
# of rags used
Cost ($)
Ink Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost($)
Amount (g)
Cost ($)

Total Cost/Screen
'
Normalized*
Total Cost/year

Normalized*
2,127 823
6 12.5

24.4 22.5
$5.33 4.92
3 1.1
$0.45 0.17
8.0 1.8
$0.22 0.21
3.5 1.0
$0.13 <0.01
3.0 1.0
$0.12 0.30
34 31
$0.02 0.02
^ ...
$6.27 5.62
$6.27 6.79
$9,399 17,574
$9,399 10,183
1,591
20

36.7
8.02
4.1
0.61
2.5
0.31
3.9
0.01
1.3
0.37
60
0.04
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9.36
9.37
46,800
14,062
1,577
12

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0.53
4.1
0.01
4.0
1.18
59
0.04

5.10
5.92
15,313
8,886
*. Normalized values adjust product usage, number of screens cleaned, and number of rags
laundered to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per day under the baseline
scenario. Labor costs, however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows a comparison between
the baseline and facility results.             j
                                         I
                                         !28

-------
PRODUCT BETA

       For Alternative Product Beta, this sbction describes the performance results from the
laboratory performance tests and from the volunteer facility demonstration, and also presents
two tables: one summarizes the performanqe results and the other presents costing data.  For
information on the operating conditions ofj the volunteer printing facility where Alternative
Product Beta was demonstrated, see Appendix I.
                                       i •                    •        •   .
       Facility 12 used ink remover Beta jduring the performance demonstrations.  Unlike
the product systems submitted by other manufacturers, the manufacturer of Beta supplied the
ink remover  only.  The facility used thej alternative ink remover Beta, along with their
standard emulsion  remover and  haze  remover  to reclaim their screens.  During the
demonstrations, the performance  of ink remover Beta was recorded for 17 screens with
solvent-based inks and a capillary film emulsion over a three week period. Facility 12 prints
graphic overlays, labels, and flexible membrane  switches, and all products are primarily
printed on plastics.

       Ink remover Beta was also sent to two other facilities who were not able to participate
in the  Performance Demonstrations. Onej facility could not use the product because they
send all their screens out to be reclaimed; they  only use ink removers as an in-process
cleaner. Since this project is intended to evaluate ink removers used for screen reclamation,
not for in-process ink removal, this facility did not participate. The second facility felt they
could not use the alternative products because of an on-going FJPA inspection.  The printer
regretted not being able to participate, hoy ever, the FJPA was in the process of testing Ms
waste water,  so he did not want to add any new chemicals to his waste stream.

Performance  hi the  Laboratory

       Ink remover Beta was tested at SPTF on three screens (one with a solvent-based ink,
one with a UV-cured ink, and one with a water-based ink). The manufacturer recommended
removing the ink by spraying the product directly onto the screen and wiping off the ink with
a clean rag.   On all three screens, the technician reported that the ink dissolved well,
however a fair amount of wiping was required. For the screen with the solvent-based ink,
seven wipes were needed.  Six wipes were {used on the UV ink screen, and eight wipes were
required to remove the ink from the water-abased ink screen.  The technician noticed that the
ink remover affected the stencil image in the half tone area on all screens. The color of the
stencil appeared on the rag,  which also indicated that the product was deteriorating the
emulsion.

Performance  at the Volunteer Facility

       This section summarizes the product system performance as recorded by the printer
using the alternative product Beta at the demonstration facility. The table at the end of the
section summarizes both the field demonstration  performance data and the results of the
product tests  performed at SPTF.         I

                                       \  29

-------
       Facility 12 felt the ink remover Beta sufficiently removed the ink from most screens,
however,  it took a long time to remove the ink and the product left an oily haze on the
screen.  In some cases, they reported ink iresidue or ink stains were also left in the mesh.
The oily film and the  ink residue were bbth removed during emulsion removal and haze
removal steps, and all  screens were reusable for all types of printing jobs.

       Unlike all of the other facilities in the Performance Demonstrations, an observer did
not visit this facility to introduce them to the project and to the alternative product.  This
lack of in-person guidance may have affected the results. During the first week, the printer
sprayed on the ink remover, rubbed it in with a brush and pressure washed the screen to
remove the ink.  This application method was very messy and did not effectively remove the
ink. For  the remainder of the demonstrations, the printer changed his application method
and used rags to wipe  the ink off the screen. This second method removed the  ink much
more easily, but took it took a long tune!(an average of 25 minutes per screen). Two or
three rags were used on each screen.  While wiping the screen with the rags, the printer
noticed that the emulsion started to deteriorate.  He also mentioned that he needed to replace
his filters  on the ink removal sink waste water more frequently when using the alternative
product.                               j
                                       I    '   "
       In  reviewing the data, there did not appear to be any correlations between the product
performance and the screen conditions,  however, the printer felt it was much easier to
remove wet ink and light colored inks, thaln dried on and black ink.
                                         30

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T>
COST ANALYSIS F
Description
IBLE6.6
OR ALTERNATIVE BETA
Baseline
(Without Haze
Remover)
Alternative System
Beta**
Facility 1 2
Facility Characteristics
Average screen size (in2) 2,127
Average # screens/day 6
1,089
15
Cost Elements per Screen '
Labor
Materials and
Equipment
Reclamation
Product
Use
Hazardous
Waste
Disposal
Totals
Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and i
removing reclamation i 1 2.9
products (min)
Cost{$) $2.82
# of rags used 3
Cost ($) $0.45
Ink Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost {$)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost {$)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Amount (g)
Cost ($)
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
'
29.4
6.43
2.2
0.34
4.2
0.50
1.8
0.06

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34
$0.02
t f r <
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$3.63
$3.63
$5,446
$5,446
0
0
,..,
17.33
7.97
27,477
11,958
                                        I            ••••'•...
* Normalized values adjust product usage, number of screens cleaned,  and number of  rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per
day under the baseline scenario.  Labor costs; however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows
a comparison between the baseline and facility results.
                                        i .. ,       -
** The emulsion removal use and cost per screen were taken from performance demonstration
results for product system Zeta.            i     .     '
                                          32

-------
                                      I  •


PRODUCT SYSTEM CHI            j
                                      i               • •                •
       For Product System Chi,  this section describes the performance results from the
laboratory  performance tests  and from jthe  volunteer facility demonstrations, and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For  information on the operating conditions of the two volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Chi was demonstrated, or on the specific details of the product system
performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.
                                      |"
       Product System Chi consisted of an ink remover and an emulsion remover. In place
of a separate haze remover product, the ink remover was reapplied to remove haze.  A
degreaser accompanied this product system and was used by the facilities, however, detailed
information on the performance of the degreaser is not included in the scope of this project.
The performance of the product system was demonstrated at Facilities 3 and 21.  Facility 3
prints decals and vacuum formed sheets;  Facility 21 prints decals for glass and ceramics.
During the four week demonstration period, Facility 3 reclaimed 47 screens and Facility 21
reclaimed 48 screens.  Both facilities used solvent-based inks during the demonstrations, and
Facility 3 used  a dual-cure emulsion, while Facility 21 used a capillary film emulsion.
                                      I
Performance in the Laboratory

       Product System Chi was tested at JSPTF on three  screens (one with a solvent-based
ink, one with  a UV-cured ink,  and one with a water-based ink).   The  ink remover
performance varied, depending on the type of ink used.   Performance of the emulsion
remover and the haze remover was consistent for all three screens.  All products were
applied  according to the manufacturer's recommended application procedure.

       On  the  screen with the solvent-based ink, there was considerable  ink  residue
remaining after spraying the screen with product, scrubbing with a brush, and rinsing with
a high pressure  wash.  The technician also' noticed that the stencil was beginning to peel off.
After repeating the ink remover application process, the ink residue was still present and
about half of the stencil had been removed.  The ink dissolved more easily on the screen
with UV ink, however, after using the inkjremover, a gray haze remained on the screen, but
there was no noticeable ink residue and the stencil was intact.  On the screen with the water-
based ink, the product dissolved the ink fairly well, however, a light ink residue remained
on the screen and the stencil began to peel off.
                                      !
      The emulsion remover easily dissolved the stencil with only light scrubbing on all
three screens, leaving no emulsion residue behind. On the screen with the solvent-based ink,
the heavy ink residue was  still present after using the emulsion remover.  When additional
ink remover was applied (used instead of a haze remover in this product system), it removed
the residue and lightened the stain. After using the emulsion remover on the screen with UV
ink, a moderate to heavy ink stain remainejd. The reapplication of the ink remover lightened
this stain considerably.  On the screen with water-based ink, the ink residue persisted in
                                        33

-------
                                       I
some areas and there was a heavy ink stain1 on the screen after using the emulsion remover.
An additional application of ink remover lightened the stain, but did not remove it.

Summary of Performance at the Volunteer! Facilities
                            .....'  I    •
       This section summarizes the product system performance as recorded by the printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities. The table at the end of the section
summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results of the product tests
performed at SPTF.
                                       i   ...           -      -  .   •
       Ink Remover: The ink remover performance was considered satisfactory by Facility
3 and was considered good at Facility 21.  At Facility 3,  the alternative ink remover took
longer to solubilize the ink and required
more physical effort than their usual product.
Facility 21 reported that the Product System Chi ink remover worked very well on most of
their inks, but the alternative ink remover did not work as well with cover/flux ink or clear
cover coats. They have similar problems with their standard ink remover on the cover/flux
and clear coats. They also found additional! scrubbing was needed when using the alternative
ink remover on very coarse (low mesh count) screens.  Overall, they described the ink
remover performance as good, but not quite as good as their standard product.

       Emulsion Remover: The two facilities were both quite pleased with the performance
of the emulsion remover. Facility 3 reported the performance was as good as their standard
product. Facility 21 thought that the emulsion remover worked much better than their usual
product. Although it worked well on both direct and capillary film emulsions, Facility 21
found a little more effort was required to re|move the capillary film emulsions than the direct
emulsions.

       Haze  Remover: This  system  did' not include  a  haze  remover.   Instead,  the
manufacturer recommended that the ink remover be used a second time as a haze remover.
After using the ink remover following removal of the emulsion, Facility 3 reported that an
image was still left on the screen and that, when used for haze removal, the ink remover did
not perform as well as their usual haze remover. At Facility 21, a haze remover was needed
on only one screen of the 48 screens reclaimed.
                                       i 34

-------






















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35

-------
TABLE 6.8
I
COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE CHI
Description
, Baseline
Alternative
Facility 3
System Chi
Facility 21
Facility Characteristics 1
Averaae screen size (in2) 2,127
Average # screens/day 6
1,977
15
1,088
23
Cost Elements oer Screen :-
Labor
Materials and
Equipment
Reclamation
Product
Use
Hazardous
Waste
Disposal
Time spent applying, j
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products 24.4
(min)
Cost ($)
# of rags used
$5.33
3
Cost ($) $0.45
Ink Remover
Average Volume (oz
Cost ($)
,
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz
Cost ($)
) 8.0
$0.22
) 3.5
$0.13
) 3.0
$0.12
Amount (g) 34
Cost ($) $0.02
12.3
$2.69
1.2
0.18
1.1
0.21
2.1
0.07
2.1
0.39
0
0
8.0
$1.74
1.2
0.19
1.1
0.21
1.5
0.05
2.0
0.37
0
0
Totals 	 '. ... .. .. ..-..- 	 ? 	
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$6.27
$6.27
$9,399
. $9,399
-. . 3.55
3.89
13,312.
5,829
2.56
3.25
14,413
4,879
* Normalized values adjust product usage, number of screens cleaned, and number of rags
laundered to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per day under the baseline
scenario. Labor costs, however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows a comparison between
the baseline and facility results.             j
                                         ! 36

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM DELTA
       For Product System Delta, this section describes the performance results from the
laboratory performance tests and from the volunteer facility demonstrations,  and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For information on the operating conditions of the two volunteer printing facilities
where  Product System Delta was demonstrated, or on the specific details of the product
system performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.

       Product System Delta was demonstrated at Facilities 10 and 11, who both used UV-
cured inks. This product system consisted of an ink remover and an emulsion remover.  In
place of a separate haze remover product, the manufacturer recommended that the ink
remover be reapplied  to remove haze. A jdegreaser accompanied this product system aiad
was used by the facilities, however, detailed information on the performance of the degreaser
is not included in the scope of this project.j Facility 10 prints store displays and Facility 11
prints vehicle markings and pressure sensitive decals.  During the demonstrations, Facility
10 reclaimed 17 screens (all with dual-cure emulsion) over a 3 week period and Facility 11
reclaimed 31 screens (with a direct photo stencil)  over 4 weeks.
Performance in the Laboratory
       Product System Delta was tested at
SPTF on three screens (one with a solvent-based
ink, one with a  UV-cured ink,  and one with  a water-based  ink).  The ink remover
performance  varied, depending on the  type of  ink used. Performance of the emulsion
remover and the haze remover was more consistent for the three screens.  All products were
applied according to the manufacturer's recommended  application procedure.  The  ink
remover was sprayed onto the screen and the ink was removed with a pressure rinse. The
emulsion remover was also sprayed on and rinsed off at high pressure.

       On the screen with the solvent-based ink, there was some ink residue remaining after
applying the ink remover. While scrubbing the screen to remove the ink, approximately half
of the emulsion was also removed.  The results were similar on the screen with UV ink.
Moderate ink residue remained on the screen and some of the stencil in the half-tone area
peeled off while scrubbing.  On the third screen (water-based ink), the ink residue was still
heavy after applying the ink remover. Again, some of the stencil was lost  while brushing
in the ink remover.  For this screen (water-based ink), the technician repeated the ink
remover application process, which removed most of the residue, but also removed most of
the stencil.   Because two applications of i ink remover were needed, the quantity of ink
remover and the time it took to clean the iscreen  were about twice as much for the screen
with water-based  ink.                    |

       The emulsion remover easily dissolved the stencil on all three screens,  leaving no
emulsion residue behind.  On the screen with the solvent-based ink, a heavy ink residue was
still present after using the emulsion remover.  The haze remover,  which is an additional
application of the ink remover in this product system, was then applied.  It removed the
                                         37

-------
residue, but an ink stain remained on the screen.  Some ink residue remained on the screen
with UV ink after using the emulsion remover, but the haze remover (a second application
of ink remover) removed the residue, leaving a moderate ink stain.  The emulsion remover
worked best on the screen with water-based ink. The stencil dissolved easily with only light
scrubbing.   A small amount of ink residue remained, as well as moderate  ink stain.  A
reapplication of the ink remover removed the residue,  but did  not  lighten the stain
significantly.
                                      I
Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities

       This section summarizes the produbt system performance as recorded by the printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities.  The table at the end of the section
summarizes both the field demonstration performance  data and the results of the product tests
performed at SPTF.                    j
                                      -1   -        .         . -         ' _  -
                                      i
       Ink Remover: At Facility 10, the jink remover removed the ink efficiently on 67%
of the screens. On the other 33 % of the screens, a slight ink residue remained on the screen
after using  the ink remover.  Overall, thq performance of the ink remover was considered
fair, however, it required extra effort and it had a strong smell and the screen reclamation
employees  thought it gave them  headaches.   Facility  11 had better  results and they
considered  the performance of the ink jremover to be very  good.  It consistently and
efficiently removed the ink from their screens under  most conditions.

       Emulsion  Remover: The  emulsion remover  worked very well and both facilities
expressed an  interest in continuing to  use the product after the  demonstrations were
complete.  Facility 10 found the product worked best when diluted at one part emulsion
remover to  one part water. Facility 11 used a dilution of one part emulsion remover to three
parts water.                           I
                                      i   ,
       Haze Remover: Neither facility regularly documented  the performance of the ink
remover used in a second application as a haze remover.  Facility 10 used it a few times and
found that it did not remove the haze satisfactorily.  On subsequent screens where a haze
remover was needed, they used their standard haze remover product.  At Facility 11, the ink
remover and emulsion remover cleaned the screen well enough that a haze removal step was
not needed.                            I
                                        38

-------
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                                                     I     39

-------
i
TABLE 6. 10
COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE DELTA
Description
Baseline Alternative
Facility 1 1

System Delta
Facility 10
Facility Characteristics
Averaae screen size (in2)
Average # screens/day
2.127 5.292
6 5
7.767
8
f •
Cost Elements oer Screen '
Labor
Materials
Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products (mir
Cost {$)
and # of rags used
Equipment _ ...
Cost ($)
•
Reclamation Ink Remover
Product Average Volume (oz.)
Use
Cost {$)


Hazardou
Waste
Disposal
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
s Amount (g)
Cost ($)
i) 24.4 12.3
$5.33 $2.69
3 0.0
$0.45 0.0
8.0 7.7
$0.22 0.99
3.5 8.0
$0.13 0.28
not
3.0 used
$0.12
34 0
$0.02 0
30.9
$6.76
6.5
0.97
9.9
1.27
8.6
0.30
1.0
0.13
0
0
JFotate
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$6.27 3.96
$6.27 3.28
$9,399 4,953
$9,399 4,917
9.43
7.66
17,675
1 1 ,489
* Normalized values adjust product usage; number of screens cleaned, and number of rags
laundered to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per day under the baseline
scenario. Labor costs, however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows a comparison between
the baseline and facility results.
i
                                          40

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PRODUCT SYSTEM EPSILON       j
                                      i
                                      i
       For Product System Epsilon, this section describes the performance results from the
laboratory  performance  tests and  from the volunteer facility demonstrations,  and also
presents two tables: one  summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For  information on the operating conditions of the two volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Epsilon was demonstrated, or on the specific details of the product
system performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.
                                      i
       Product System Epsilon consisted of an ink remover, emulsion remover and haze
remover. It's performance was demonstrated at Facility 20 and Facility 24.  Facility 20
employs approximately  10 people  and prints mainly banners and displays.  Facility 24
employs 15 - 20 people  in their production area with 4 employees involved in the screen
printing operations of their business.   They print pressure sensitive labels and Lexan face
plates.  Over a thirty-day period, Facility 20 reclaimed 48 screens and Facility 24 reclaimed
16 screens using Product System Epsilon.  Both facilities used solvent-based inks, and
Facility 24 also used UV-cured inks. Facility 20 used a dual-cured emulsion and Facility 24
used a  direct photo stencil.

Performance in the Laboratory

       Product System Epsilon was used at  SPTF on three screens (one with a solvent-based
ink, one with a UV-cured ink, and the third with water-based ink).  Performance of the
products varied depending on the ink type' tested.

       The ink remover  dissolved the solvent-based ink well and was easy to use. A light
grey haze was left on the screen.   On the;  screen with UV ink, the ink dissolved quickly,
wiped off easily, rinsed  clean of residue, put left a moderate ink stain. When used on the
screen  with water-based ink, more time and effort were needed to remove the ink which
seemed to dry in the screen.  With the extra effort, the ink was removed except for a light
ink stain.   For each of the three screens, one rag  was used to remove the  ink.  The
technician noted that the  ink remover had an unpleasant odor, but that it was not very strong.
                                      • s
       On all three screens, the emulsion remover dissolved the stencil with some scrubbing.
The remainder of the stencil came off easily with the pressure wash. There was no emulsion
stain or residue on any of the screens.  On |the screen with the solvent-based ink, a moderate
ink stain remained after using  the emulsion remover.  The UV ink screen and  the water-
based ink screen had light stains.   On all! the screens, the haze remover lightened the ink
stain, but did not remove it completely; a light ink stain was still visible.

Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
                                      j_              ^       ....

       This section summarizes the product system performance as recorded by the printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities.  The table at the end of the section
summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results of the product tests

                                         41

-------
performed at SPTF.

       Ink Remover: There  were somej differences between the two facilities  in their
evaluations of the performance  of Product  System Epsilon.  Facility 20 found the  ink
remover was effective, but it took longer jto breakdown the ink than their standard product.
Facility 24 had very good results with thp ink remover.  They felt it worked as well as the
products they had used previously and they were using less product per screen.   The  ink
remover worked well on both UV and solvent-based inks, but the UV ink was easier to clean
than the solvent-based ink.             |

       Emulsion Remover: The alternative emulsion remover performance was very good
at both facilities.  The two facilities reported that the performance was even better than their
standard products; it dissolved the stencil quickly and easily.

       Haze  Remover:  Both  facilities tt ought that the  haze  remover performance was
acceptable, and in most cases, it worked as well as their other products.
                                        42

-------
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                                43

-------
                                      TABLE 6.12
                      COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE EPSILON
Description
Baseline
Alternative System
Epsilon
Facility 20
Facility 24
Facility Characteristics '•••'•" •:-.'•• ' :,.'' ••'..-:.- J..-.^ ":^' '\^^;^r.-'--^.l^. .-•:• -••-.':. :: ••:'".'•'• ' •
Average screen size (in2)
Average # screens/day
2,127
6
2,538
8
1,296
1
• Cost Elements per Screen
Labor Time spent applying, J
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products (min) 24.4
Cost ($)
Materials and # of rags used
Equipment Cost ($)
Reclamation Ink Remover
Product Average Volume (oz.)
Use
Cost ($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Hazardous Amount (g)
Disposal Cost ($)
$5.33
3
$0.45
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
3.0
$0.12
34
$0.02
9.7
$2.12
7.0
1.05
3.0
0.18
3.3
0.09
4.0
0.27
112
0.08
18.3
$4.00
3.8
0.57
4.2
0.26
4.2
0.11
1.5
0.10
57
0.04
Totals ' , i -- ' " : - ' 5 ,-
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$6.27
$6.27
$9,399
$9,399
3.79
3.08
7,097
4,624
5.08
5.29
1,269
7,930
* Normalized values  adjust product usage,;  number of screens cleaned, and  number of rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per
day under the baseline scenario.  Labor costs, however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows
a comparison between the baseline and facility results.
                                          44

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM GAMMA        j

       For Product System Gamma, this section describes the performance results from the
laboratory  performance  tests and from  jthe volunteer facility  demonstrations, and  also
presents two tables: one summarizes the p'erformance results and the other presents costing
data.  For  information on the operating conditions of the two volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Gamma was demojnstrated, or on the specific details of the product
system performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.

       Product System Gamma, demonstrated at Facilities 16 and 25, consisted of an ink
remover, an emulsion remover, and a haze remover.  Facility 16 prints vehicle markinjgs;
Facility 25 prints appliance panel overlays, back-lit automotive panels, and store displays.
During the four week demonstration period, Facility 16 reclaimed 55 screens although ink
remover was only used on seven screens and haze remover was only used on three screens;
Facility 25 reclaimed 54 screens but the ink remover and haze remover were only used on
about half of these.  During the demonstrations, both Facility 16 and 25 used solvent-based
inks; Facility 16 used a capillary film emulsion and Facility 25 used a direct photo stencil.

Performance in the Laboratory

       Product  System Gamma was testejd at SPTF on three  screens (one with a solvent-
based ink,  one with a UV-cured ink, and one with a water-based ink).  The ink remover
performance varied depending on the typie of ink used.  The emulsion remover and haze
remover performance was  consistent for all  three screens.  All products  were applied
according to the manufacturer's instructions.

       On the screen with the solvent-based ink and the screen with UV ink, the ink remover
dissolved  the ink well with no effect on the stencil.   On  the water-based ink screen,
however,  heavy scrubbing and more product were needed  to remove the ink.   While
scrubbing, the stencil started to break down in the half-tone area. For all the screens, only
one rag was used for ink removal.
                                       .
       The emulsion remover easily dissolved the stencil with only light scrubbing on all
three screens,  leaving no ink or emulsion residue behind.  The technician noted that miost
of the stencil dissolved  while  she was j brushing, and the pressure wash took off the
remainder. The screens did have a moderate ink stain remaining.  Subsequent application
of the haze remover lightened the ink stains so that a light to very light ink stain remained.
                                      !
                                      |
Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
                                      I    -  -
       The operating conditions for each' facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
using Product System Gamma for one riionth are described below.  This information is
provided as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of alternative product
system at each of these two facilities.
                                        45

-------
       Ink Remover: Facility 16 reported that the ink remover left an unacceptable amount
of ink on the screen and required a lot of jphysical effort.  Facility 25 also reported that the
ink remover was not acceptable,  leaving ink residue on the screen, especially in the open
areas of the screen mesh.  The ink removsr required much more time to apply (up to more
than twice as  long in some cases) with much greater physical effort than  the products
normally used at these facilities.  Leaving the ink remover to sit for 3-5 minutes on the
screen  helped improve performance on the screen areas covered with emulsion, but did not
help to remove the ink on the open screen areas.

       Emulsion Remover: Both facilities reported that the emulsion remover worked very
well.   Facility 16  was able  to shorten  the time between application and rinse from the
recommended one or two minutes to less than one minute without compromising the product
performance. Facility 25 improved the emulsion remover performance by wetting the screen
before  applying the emulsion remover.
       Haze Remover: Neither facility found the performance of the haze remover to be
acceptable. They found the haze remover did not remove the ink haze left in the screen,
which resulted in ghost images in future print jobs. Both facilities had to use their standard
haze remover on their screens before they could be reused.
                                        46

-------
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             TABLE 6.14
COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE GAMMA
•
Description
,
Baseline

Alternative System
Gamma
Facility 1 6 Facility 25
Facility Characteristics
Averaae screen size (in2) 2,127
Average # screens/day 6
2.294 1 .848
20 25
Cost Elements oar Screen >
Labor Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products (mir
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Cost ($) $5.33
Materials and # of rags used 3
Equipment ^ {$) $Q 4{_
Reclamation Ink Remover
Product Average Volume (oz.)
Use
Cost ($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
3.0
$0.12
i ...
Hazardous Amount (g) 34
Waste
Disposal Cost ($)
Totafs
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
* Normalized values adjust product usage,
laundered to reflect the screen size and nur
scenario. Labor costs, however, are not norr
the baseline and facility results.
•
:.-'•
.
$0.02
15.9 16.9
$3.48 $3.70
5.0 7.0
0.75 1 .04
5.0 10.8
0.43 0.92
2.3 1.2
0.24 0.12
3.3 5.3
0.24 0.39
0 0.0
0 0.0
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$6.27
$6.27
$9,399
$9,399
5.14 6.17
5.06 5.61
25,708 38,547
7,590 8,417
-
number of screens cleaned, and number of rags
nber of screens cleaned per day under the baseline
lalized. Normalization allows a comparison between
48
-

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM MU

       For Product System Mu, this section describes  the performance results from the
laboratory  performance tests and  from the volunteer  facility demonstrations, and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For  information on the operating Conditions of the two volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Mu was demonstrated, or on the specific details of the product system
performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.

       Product System Mu consisted of an ink remover, an emulsion remover,  and a haze
remover. The performance of the product! system was demonstrated at Facilities 17  and 22.
Facility 17 prints decals; Facility 22 prints back-lit automotive overlays.  During the four
week demonstration period, Facility 17 reclaimed 18 screens and Facility 22 reclaimed 44
screens. For the performance demonstrations, Facility 17 used primarily UV-cured inks, and
Facility 22  used solvent-based inks; both facilities used a direct photo stencil.
                                      |     -     -  -
Performance in the Laboratory

       Product System Mu was tested at ^PTF on three screens (one with a solvent-based
ink, one with a UV-cured ink,  and one with a water-based ink). The ink remover  and the
haze remover performance varied depending on the type of ink used. The emulsion remover
and the haze remover performance was consistent on all three screens.

       On the screen with the solvent-based ink and the screen with UV ink, the ink remover
dissolved the ink easily with little scrubbing and no effect on the emulsion.  On the water-
based ink screen, however,  the ink drieji in the screen and  heavy scrubbing and more
product were needed to remove the ink.  While scrubbing, the stencil started to break down
in the half tone area.  For all three screens, one wipe was used to remove the ink.
                                      I                          -
       The emulsion remover easily dissolved the stencil with only light scrubbing on all
three screens, leaving no ink or emulsion residue behind. The screens did have a light-to-
moderate ink stain was remaining. Subsequent application of the haze remover lightened the
ink stains of the  UV ink arid  the water-jbased ink screen, so that a very  light ink stain
remained.  The haze remover did not lighten the moderate ink stain on the screen with the
solvent-based ink.                      j

Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
                                      I
       This section summarizes the product system performance as recorded by the  printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities. The table at the end of the section
summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results of the product tests
performed at SPTF.                    j

       Ink Remover: Facility 17 reported that the ink remover worked well, although blaick
(UV-cured) inks were more difficult to remove than the other UV-cured inks.  Facility 22
                                      i
                                     '!  49

-------
reported  that the ink remover performance was unacceptable for their solvent-based ink
system.  Extra physical effort and time were needed, and a lot of product was applied, but
an ink residue still remained on the screen. The standard ink remover used at Facility 22
is chemically very different from the alternative ink remover supplied as part of Product
System Mu.  These differences may have caused adverse chemicals interactions on older
screens.

       Emulsion Remover: The emulsiojn remover performance was very good at both
facilities.  It removed the emulsion quickly, easily, and completely. Facility 22 commented
that the emulsion remover performance wjas "excellent."
                                      I   .     •
       Haze Remover: Facility 17 reported that the haze remover worked better and faster
than one of their usual  products, but not as well as the  haze remover that they use for
difficult  stains.   The  haze remover's performance  was also affected by the number of
impressions in the previous  test run: it did not work  as well after  runs with many
impressions.  Facility 22 reported that the; haze remover did not work at all and they had to
use their standard product before they could reuse the screen. There was no visible change
in the haze when the haze remover was applied.
                                         50

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                                                      51

-------
                                     TABLE 6.16

                        COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE MU
Description
Facility Characteristics
Averaae screen size (in2)
Baseline
Alternative
Facility 17
System Mu
Facility 22

2.127
Average # screens/day j 6
2.270
25
1.520
12
Cost Elements oer Screen i
Labor Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products (m
n) 24.4
Cost ($) $5.33
Materials and # of rags used 3
Equipment _
Cost ($) $0.45
Reclamation Ink Remover
Product Average Volume (oz.)
Use
Cost ($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
•
3.0
$0.12
Hazardous Amount (g) 34
Waste
Disposal Cost($) $0.02
17.2
$3.75
1.0
0.15
2.7
0.16
2.6
6.21
2.9
0.17
110
0.08
34.6
$7.58
10.8
1.61
11.6
0.70
1.1
0.09
1.3
0.08
73
0.05
Totals - j
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$6.27
$6.27
$9,399
$9,399
4.53
4.79
28,295
7,185
10.11
9.33
30,338
13,997
* Normalized values adjust product usage, number of screens cleaned, and number of rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflebt the screen size and number of screens cleaned per
day under the baseline scenario. Labor costs, however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows
a comparison  between the baseline and facility results.
                                         52

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM OMICRON-AE

       Product System Omicron-AE and Product System Omicron-AF were submitted for
demonstration by the same manufacturer.! They have the same ink remover and the same
emulsion remover, but each one has  a  different haze remover to  complete  the system.
Although these systems do share a common ink remover and emulsion remover, Omicron-
AE and Omicron-AF are each evaluated as a separate product system  in this documentation.
It was the intention of the Performance Demonstrations to evaluate reclamation systems as
a whole, not individual products, whenever possible.

       For Product System Omicron-AE, this section describes the performance results from
the laboratory performance tests and from the volunteer facility demonstrations, and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For information on the operating conditions  of the two volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Omicron-AE, was demonstrated, or on the  specific details of the
product system performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.
                                      I          ••   •
       The performance  of Omicron-AE was demonstrated at Facilities 2 and 19. This
product system consisted of an ink remover, an emulsion remover, and a haze remover. A
degreaser  also accompanied this product system and was  used by one of the facilities,
however, detailed information on the perjfonnance of the degreaser  is not included in the
scope of this project.  Facility 2 prints signs, and displays; Facility 19 prints overlays, and
membrane switches.   During the demonstration, Facility  2  reclaimed 30  screens using
solvent-based inks and a direct photo  stencil over a 4 week period.  Facility 19 did  not
participate in the demonstrations after the, observer's one day visit.  During the visit, they
reclaimed four screens, but based on the poor results of those first reclamations, they decided
not to participate in the project.  Neither I facility tried alternative application techniques to
improve product performance.           |

Performance in the Laboratory

       Product System Omicron-AE was tested at SPTF on three screens (one with a solvent-
based ink, one with a UV-cured ink, and one with a water-based  ink).  Products were
applied according to the manufacturer's recommended application procedure. On the screens
with the solvent-based ink and with UV ink, the ink dissolved well with little effort.  On the
solvent-based ink screen, the stencil wasj affected in the half-tone area, but there  was no
effect on the stencil on the UV ink screeh.  Six wipes were used to remove the ink from
each screen.  On the screen with water-biased ink, the ink dissolved well, however, extra
scrubbing was needed. The stencil was 'affected in the half-tone area.  Again, six wipes
were used.                            I
                                      I   .   i

       On all three screens, the emulsion remover dissolved the stencil effectively.  On the
screen with  solvent-based ink and the U\[ ink screen,  moderate scrubbing was required to
break up the stencil and the pressure wash remove  the stencil completely.   A light to
moderate ink stain remained on each screen. On the  screen with water-based ink, the stencil
                                      i                                  .
                                      !  53

-------
                                      I
dissolved easily  with only light scrubbing, but there was a small amount of ink residue
remaining in the half-tone areas, in addition to a moderate ink stain.

       The haze remover lightened the stains on all three  screens and removed the ink
residue on the water-based  ink screen, j However, all * screens did have some ink stain
remaining after the application of the haze remover.
                                      I  ' ;v
Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
       This  section summarizes the produjct system performance as recorded by the printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities. The table at the end of the section
summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results of the product tests
performed at SPTF.          •          |
                                      |
       Ink Remover: Facility 2 reported that the ink remover performed poorly and required
a lot more scrubbing than their usual product.  The chemical composition of the alternative
ink remover was extremely different than the constituents of the facility's standard product.
Adverse interactions may have occurred 'because of these chemical differences. The ink
remover seemed to work better when useji immediately after printing, but the performance
was still not acceptable. At Facility 19, the ink remover had to be re-applied and scrubbed
into the screen repeatedly, and all residual ink was still  not removed.
                                      i   •  •  •   •    •  • '
       Emulsion Remover: In general, facility 2 liked the  emulsion remover better than
their usual product, although it took  extra time to  use the hand sprayer and the emulsion
remover was not as effective when thick ink  residue was present.   Facility 19 was not
satisfied with the emulsion remover performance. They reported that the emulsion remover
had to be re-applied and scrubbed into the screen repeatedly; even then residual emulsion
was left on the screen.                  |
                                     • i                  .
       Haze  Remover:  Both facilities j found the  haze  remover  performance  to  be
unacceptable.  Facility  2 saw no reduction in haze after applying the product.  At Facility
19, the haze remover did not completely remove the haze. This facility, however, had very
high standards in terms of haze removal; other facilities would have been satisfied with this
level of haze removal.  It should be noted that both facilities used standard haze removers
that were very different chemically than the alternative haze remover.  On screens that were
reclaimed many times, there is potential fojr adverse effects due to interaction of the standard
and alternative products.                j
                                        54

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                                                      55

-------
                                     TABLE 6.18
                   COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE OMICRON AE
                                                               Alternative System
                                               Baseline           Omicron AE
Description
Facility Characteristics [
Average screen size (in2) 2,127
Average # screens/day 6
5,663
6
957
70
Cost Elements per Screen
Labor
Materials and
Equipment
Reclamation
Product
Use
Hazardous
Waste
Disposal
Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products (min) 24.4
Cost ($)
# of rags used
Cost($)
Ink Rernover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Amount (g)
Cost ($)
Totals
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$5.33
3
$0.45
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
;
3.0
$0.12
34
$0.02
40.2
$8.80
16
2.43
12.6
0.96
7.5
0.56
12.6
0.89
0
0
20.7
$4.52
0
0
2.3
0.18
1.3
0.10
2.3
0.16
0
0

$6.27
$6.27
•
$9,399
-
$9,399
13.65
10.85
20,470
16,278
4.96
5.49
86,787
8,240
* Normalized values adjust product usage, number of  screens cleaned, and number of rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflect the screen  size and number of screens cleaned per
day under the baseline scenario. Labor costs;, however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows
a comparison  between the baseline and facility results.
                                         56

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM OMICRON-AF
                                     i
       Product System Omicron-AE and Product System Omicron-AF were submitted for
demonstration by the same manufacturer.  They have the same ink remover and the same
emulsion remover, but each one has a different haze remover to complete the system.
Although these systems do share a common ink remover and emulsion remover, Omicron-
AE and Omicron-AF are each evaluated as a separate product system in this documentation.
It was the intention of the Performance Demonstrations to evaluate reclamation systems as
a whole, not individual products, whenever possible.

       For Product System Omicron-AF, this section describes the performance results from
the laboratory performance tests and from the volunteer facility demonstrations, and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For information on the operating conditions  of the two volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Omicron-AF, was  demonstrated, or on the specific details of the
product system performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.

       Product System Omicron-AF is a water-based system and  it consisted of an ink
remover, an emulsion remover, and a haze remover.  A degreaser accompanied this product
system, however, detailed information on | the performance of the degreaser is not included
in the scope of this project. The performance of the product was demonstrated at Facilities
4 and 18.  Facility 4 prints decals using UV-cured inks and direct photo stencils; Facility 18
prints nameplates, panels, and graphic overlays  using solvent-based inks and either direct
photo stencils or capillary film emulsions, i During the demonstration periods, Facility 4 used
the alternative products to reclaim 19 screens over a 2 week period and Facility 18 reclaimed
32 screens over 4 weeks. Facility 4 discontinued use of the alternative product system  after
two weeks, due to the poor performance of the ink remover and the haze remover.
                                     i       .   •    •
Performance in the Laboratory

       Product System Omicron-AF was tested at SPTF on three screens (one with a solvent-
based ink, one with a UV-cured ink, and pne with a water-based ink).  On the screen with
the solvent-based ink, the ink dissolved well with moderate effort (5 wipes were used).  On
the last rag there was a slight blue color (the color  of the stencil) which may indicate that
the ink remover could deteriorate the stencil. Ink remover performance on the screen with
UV-cured  ink was similar expect there was some red coloring on the rag as well as blue.
The red tint could indicate an effect on the adhesive (which is red) that holds the screen to
the frame.  The UV-cured ink screen also required  moderate effort to remove the ink and
6 rags were used.  Compared to the other two screens, the screen with water-based ink
required additional time, effort (7 rags), and product to loosen the ink. Also on the water-
based ink screen, the technician noted that the ink remover started to deteriorate the stencil.

       On all three screens, the emulsion  remover  dissolved the stencil quickly and with
moderate scrubbing effort and the pressure rinse removed it completely. On the screen with
solvent-based ink, a moderate ink stain remained on the screen after using the emulsion
                                     i             '      '   '
                                       57

-------
remover.  The UV screen had a lighter stain. The water-based ink screen had a moderate
stain with some ink residue remaining in the half-tone area.  The haze remover lightened the
stains on all three screens and removed the ink residue on the water-based ink screen.
                                      I
       Products were applied according |to  the manufacturer's  recommended application
procedure. After using the haze remover!  the technician noted that there was a small hole
in the screen with solvent-based ink that was not there before using the haze remover.

Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
                                      i
                                      I       -,        ;
       This section summarizes the produU system performance as recorded by the printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities.  The table at the end of the section
summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results of the product tests
performed at SPTF.

       Ink Remover: At Facility  4,  thej  ink remover removed the ink from the  mesh
satisfactorily, however, residue remained; in  the stencil area on most of the screens.   The
printer felt the ink residue was minimal, and if he were using his standard haze remover, this
residue would not have been a problem. 'Facility 18 reported that the ink remover worked
as well as their standard products.       j
                                      i     .    ,   . .  ."       ,
       Emulsion and Haze Remover: The  emulsion remover worked  very well at both
facilities.  It removed the stencil completely and easily.  The haze remover performance was
not acceptable at either facility. Facility 4 reported that the haze remover was not effective
in removing any of the ink haze, even with vigorous scrubbing and procedural modifications.
A ghost image appeared on subsequent print jobs,  which required that the printer clean the
screens again with his standard product. At Facility 18, the haze remover left too much haze
under all  conditions and their standard haze remover had  to be used after the alternative
products before the screen could be reused.  Because of this poor performance, the facility
stopped using the haze remover during the first week of demonstrations.
                                         58

-------

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                                  TABLE 6.20

                COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE OMICRON - AF
                                            Baseline
Alternative System
  Omicron - AF
Description
                                                        Facility 4
         Facility 18
Facility Characteristics !:.!.•• • '"•' •'••"".'•. '•'^}br?ฃ'- •"' "v" • >•& • '-''-^f^^^^^^'^fr''^: " •;:v:7:'- . • '•.
Average screen size (in2)
2,127
Average # screens/day 6
1,210
6
1,150
13


Cost Elements per Screen
Labor Time spent applyjng,
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products (min) 24.4
Cost ($)
Materials and # of rags used
Equipment - t ,_.
Reclamation Ink Remover
Product Average Volume (oz.)
Use
Cost ($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost {$)
Hazardous Amount (g)
$5.33
3
$0.45
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
'
3.0
$0.12
34
Disposal Cost <$) $0.02
15.0
$3.28
1.3
0.20
1.6
0.12
1.4
0.10
2.1
0.15
0
0
10.8
$2.37
1.3
0.20
2.2
0.17
3.6
0.27
1.9
0.14
0
0












Totals '
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$6.27
$6.27
$9,399
$9,399
3.86
4.45
5,784
6,675
3.14
3.89
9,823
5,836




* Normalized values adjust product usage, number of screens cleaned, and number of rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per
day under the baseline scenario. Labor costs, however, are not normalized. Normalization allows
a comparison between the baseline and facility results.
                                      60

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM Pffl

       For Product System Phi, this  section describes the performance results from the
laboratory  performance tests and  from jthe  volunteer facility  demonstrations, and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For  information on the operating Conditions of the two volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Phi, was demonstrated, or on the specific details  of the product
system performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.

       Product System Phi consisted of ah ink remover, an emulsion remover, and a haze
remover.   It's performance was demonstrated at Facility 5 and Facility 23.  Facility 5
employs approximately 15 people with 3j employees involved in the screen printing area.
They print  interior signs, markings on parjts., and identification badges.  Facility 23 employs
five people and prints mainly on plastics. Their products include front panels, overlays, and
labels. Over a four week period, Facility 5 reclaimed 40 screens. Facility 23 used Product
System Phi for two weeks and reclaimed 8 screens.  During the demonstrations, both
facilities primarily used solvent-based vinyl inks, but they also tried System Phi on acrylic
vinyl, epoxy,  and metallic inks. Facility 5 used a capillary film emulsion on a polyester
screen and  Facility 23 used a dual-cure emulsion on a multifilament polyester screen.

Performance in the Laboratory
	•*-          i

       Product System Phi was tested at SPTF on two screens (one with a solvent-based ink,
and one with a UV-cured ink).  This product is not recommended for use  on water-based
inks. Oil both screens, the ink dissolved {quickly with minimal effort.  There was a slight
blue color on the wipe (the color of the stencil), but the stencil did not appear to be damaged
or deteriorated. On the screen with solvent-based ink, six rags were needed to remove the
ink, and on the UV ink screen,  five rags jwere used.  The technician noticed a slight odor.
       The emulsion remover also worked well; it completely dissolved the stencil with only
light scrubbing on both screens. After using the emulsion remover, the screen with solvent-
based ink had a very light stain and slight ink residue in small areas.  The haze remover
lightened the stain only slightly, but it removed the ink residue. The screen with UV-cured
ink had a dark ink stain and the haze remover lightened it somewhat, but did not remove it
completely.  The technician noted that the haze remover was very easy to use and required
minimal effort. There  was a slight odor to the product, but it was not unpleasant.

       The recommended application procedure  was followed with a few slight variations.
The ink remover was allowed to sit on the  screen for 30 seconds before it was rubbed in
with a sponge. The haze remover was removed with a  pressure wash.

Summary  of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
                                      i

       This section  summarizes the product system performance as recorded by the printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities. The table at the end of the section
                                      i
                                      I   61

-------
summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results of the product tests
performed at SPTF.                    |

       Ink Remover: Both facilities reported similar results with Product System Phi.  At
Facility 5, the ink remover broke down the1 ink effectively but required more effort than their
own ink remover.  Facility 23 found that (the ink remover performance was inconsistent; it
worked well on metallic inks, but did not] remove ink from around the edges of the stencil
when using vinyl ink.  Both facilities noticed that the ink remover tended to deteriorate the
stencil if it was not wiped off immediately after application. For this reason, the facilities
felt that this product should not be used for in-process ink removal.

       Emulsion Remover: The emulsion} remover was very effective and it easily removed
the stencil with  very  little scrubbing.  Both facilities reported the System Phi emulsion
remover performed better  than the product they were using before the demonstrations.

       Haze Remover: Facility 5 reported that a haze remained on the screen after using the
haze remover, but it did not affect future print image quality. Over time,  the printer felt this
haze  could potentially deteriorate the  screen mesh.  Facility 23 reported that the haze
remover left a ghost image and some screens could not be reused for reverse printing or for
printing with transparent inks.
                                         62

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63

-------
TABLE 6.22
1 	
COST ANALYSIS FOR ALTERNATIVE PHI
'
Description
Facility Characteristics
Average screen size (in2)
Baseline
'
Alternative
Facility 5
System Phi
Facility 23
- :
2,127
- Average # screens/day 6
Cost Elements per Screen
2,815
3
883
4

Labor Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and removing
reclamation products (min) 24.4
Cost ($)
Materials and # of rags used
Equ-pment Cost ($)
Reclamation Ink Remover
Product Average Volume (oz.)
Use
Cost($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost {$)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Hazardous Amount (g)
Waste 	 	
Disposal Cost <$)
$5.33
3
$0.45
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
3.0
$0.12
34
$0.02
8.0
$1.74
2.9
0.43
1.3
0.25
1.7
0.33
1.1
0.35
0
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22.0
$4.81
1.3
0.19
2.0
0.39
1.0
0.19
1.2
0.37
0
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Totals - ' !' *>....
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
Normalized*
$6.27
$6.27
$9,399
$9,399
3.11
6.10
1,991
9,233
5.96
7.82
5,957
1 1 ,728
* Normalized values adjust product usage, number of screens cleaned, and number of rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflept the screen size and number of screens cleaned
per day under the baseline scenario.  Labor costs, however, are not normalized. Normalization
allows a comparison between the baseline and facility results.
                                          64

-------
PRODUCT SYSTEM ZETA

       For Product System Zeta, this section describes the performance results from the
laboratory  performance tests and from| the volunteer facility demonstrations,  and also
presents two tables: one summarizes the performance results and the other presents costing
data.  For information on the operating conditions of the three volunteer printing facilities
where Product System Zeta,  was demonstrated, or  on the specific details of .the product
system performance at each of the facilities, see Appendix I.

       Product System Zeta consisted of an ink remover,  emulsion remover,  and  a haze
remover.  The performance of the products  was demonstrated at Facilities 6, 7, and 15.
Facility 6 prints store displays, traffic markings, and movie posters; Facility 7 prints decals,
labels, vehicle markings, and store displays; Facility  15 prints plexiglass displays, store
displays, and banners. During the demonstration period, Facility 6 reclaimed seven screens,
Facility 7 reclaimed four screens, and Facility 15 reclaimed eight screens.  Facility  6 used
solvent, UV-cured, and water-based inks; Facility 7 and Facility 15 used solvent-based and
UV-cured inks, and capillary  film emulsions.
                                      I      .                       '            '
Performance in the Laboratory

       Product System Zeta was  tested ai SPTF on three screens (one with a solvent-based
ink, one with a  UV-cured  ink,  and one with a water-based ink).    The ink remover
performance varied depending on the type of ink used.  The emulsion remover and haze
remover performance was consistent for jail three screens.
                                      !•••••
                                      i ,
       On all three screens, the modifications were made to the manufacturer's instructions
for applying ink  remover.   First, the  technician  applied the ink remover following the
recommended method (spray on both sides of the screen, wait two minutes, squeegee off fink,
and rinse with pressure washer).  This application method did not satisfactorily remove the
ink from any of the three screens.  To improve the ink remover performance, the technician
reapplied the product using a different method. For the second ink remover application, the
technician wiped the screen with a dry j rag to remove excess water, sprayed more ink
remover over the entire screen, and wiped with rags until the rag was no longer picking up
the ink. On the screen with solvent-based ink, the screen had some spots of ink residue and
a medium gray haze after the first ink remover application.  The stencil was affected in the
half-tone area and it turned a light blue color in some areas.  A second application of ink
remover on the solvent-based ink screen removed the ink residue, but the stencil color came
up on the rag.  Four rags were used.  On the  screen with the UV ink, after the first ink
remover application procedure, there was a heavy gray stain over the entire screen,  ink
residue  remained in some areas, and  the  stencil  had  a dull finish.  After the second
application of the ink remover, the screen still had some ink stains remaining, but the gray
haze was removed.  Three rags were used.  On the water-based ink screen,  after the first
application of ink remover was squeegeed off, ink residue remained, mainly on the emulsion.
The ink wiped off easily when the ink remover was applied again.  The rag was blue with
the emulsion from the half-tone areas.  Two rags were used.

                                        65

-------
       On all three screens,  the stencil dissolved easily with moderate scrubbing.   A
moderate ink stain  remained on all of the  screens, but there was no stencil stain or ink
residue.  The haze  remover did not appear to lighten the ink stain on any of the screens.
The technician also noted that the odor [of. the haze remover was so strong, she felt an
exhaust fan or a respirator was required, j  Overall, although an ink stain remained on the
screens,  SPTF did not think the stain would  affect future print quality and therefore,
evaluated the product system as acceptable.

Summary of Performance at the Volunteer Facilities
       This section summarizes the product system performance as recorded by the printers
using the products at both of the demonstration facilities.  The table at the end of the section
summarizes both the field demonstration performance data and the results of the product tests
performed at SPTF.

       Ink Remover: Facility 6 reported that the performance of the alternative ink remover
was poor, and they had to reclean their screens using their standard ink remover after the
alternative product.  Although the ink remover performed poorly with solvent and UV-cuired
inks in general, Facility 6 reported that tiie alternative ink remover worked well on one
screen with water-based inks  and on one jwith UV-cured ink.  Facility 7 reported that for
solvent-based inks, the ink remover seemed to dry on the screen and did not take the ink out;
the alternative product did work well withj UV-cured inks.  To improve performance of the
ink remover, the screen reclamation employee needed to begin wiping the ink remover off
the screen immediately after spraying instead of waiting, as  recommended.   If the  ink
remover was not wiped off immediately, it dried on the screen and then they needed to use
their regular ink remover. Facility 15 reported that the ink remover did not work at all for
this facility; it had to be applied a numbjer of times and,  even with more scrubbing than
usual, it had to be followed with their standard product.
       Emulsion Remover: Both Facility J6 and Facility 7 found the emulsion remover did
not work well when diluted with five parts -water. When the facilities increased the emulsion
remover concentration by diluting with only three parts  water,  the emulsion remover
dissolved the stencil.   At Facility 6, the performance of the emulsion  remover was mot
consistent,  even at the stronger concentration.  Facility 7 was generally pleased with the
performance of the emulsion remover at the stronger concentration, however, they still had
problems if the emulsion remover was permitted to dry in the mesh.  Facility 15 reported
that the emulsion remover was passable, but the facility still preferred their own product.
The alternative emulsion remover required extra scrubbing effort (even at full strength)  at
Facility 15.                           j

       Haze Remover: All three facilities; reported that the haze remover did not have any
effect on the haze.  They all had to use j their own haze remover in many cases.  These
facilities did not reclaim many screens using the Product System Zeta for several reasons:
they were disappointed and discouraged by the early results, the products arrived later then
expected and  the observer was not  present to assist the printers  with  the  application
                                      I
                                         66

-------
procedure or to offer suggestions for improving performance, and the production schedules
of the shops was unusually busy.  Because  of these  factors,  none of the facilities put
extensive effort into attempting to alter application techniques to make the products work at
their shop.
                                         67

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COST ANALYSIS FOR i
Description
BI.E6.24
ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM
ZETA

Baseline Alternative System Zeta
Facility 6
Facility 7
Facility 15
Facility Characteristics
Average screen size (in2)
Average # screens/day
2,127 3,926
6 13
3,060
11
2,084
5
Cost Elements per Screen • '
Labor
Time spent applying,
scrubbing, and removing
reclaim products (min)
Cost ($)
Materials,
Equipment
Reclamation
Product
Use


Hazardous
Disposal
Totals
# of rags used
Cost ($)
Ink Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost {$)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost{$)
Amount (g)
Cost ($)

Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year

Normalized*
24.4 17.6
$5.33 3.85
3 0.0
$0.45 0.00
8.0 8.3
$0.22 1.50
3.5 6.5
$0.13 0.23
3.0 2.8
$0.12 0.64
34 115
$0.02 0.08
_,
$6.27 6.31
$6.27 5.39
$9,399 19,704
$9,399 8,080
21.0
4.59
3.8
0.56
8.5
1.53
1.3
0.04
2.0
0.47
90
0.07
-
7.26
6.51
19,973
9,772
32.8
7.18
0.0
0.00
3.0
0.54
4.1
0.15
2.3
0.55
61
0.04

8.46
8.99
9,521
13,479
                                        I
* Normalized values adjust product usage, \ number of screens cleaned, and  number of rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per
day under the baseline scenario. Labor costs; however, are not normalized.  Normalization allows
a comparison between the baseline and facility results.
                                          70

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ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION TECHNOLOGY THETA
                                      I
        The performance of the Alternative Technology Theta was demonstrated at Facility
1 under conditions similar to those used atjSPTF for alternative product system testing. TTiis
facility,  however, demonstrated  the  performance of  an alternative  screen  reclamation
technology, instead  of  an alternative  bhemical system.   The alternative technology
demonstrated was a  high pressure water] wash system with a 3000 psi spray applicator.
When reclaiming screens with this high pressure washer,  an emulsion remover and  a haze
remover are used, but no ink remover is needed. Several different types of emulsion and
haze removers are sold with this technology. The performance demonstration was conducted
using the chemical products that are  normally used by this volunteer facility which are
supplied by the System Theta equipment manufacturer.  Therefore, this performance
evaluation of this technology is based  only on those chemicals used in the testing.

       During the demonstration,  the ink was carded off on both sides of the screen which
caused some complications during testing. Since the screen was prepared specifically  for the
demonstration and was not actually used for printing, the ink on the stencil side transferred
through to the print side when the screen 'was carded. To  remove this excess ink, the pirint
side was also scraped. The ink on the print side of the screen was more difficult to remove
and this ink also made it harder to remove, the emulsion. Under normal printing operations,
ink does not reach the print side of the screen, therefore some of the difficulty caused by the
ink on both sides of the screen would notioccur.  During the demonstrations, System Theta
efficiently and effectively clean the screen], while reducing the labor, effort, and quantity of
chemicals required for reclamation.

Summary of System  Theta Performance  Evaluation
                                      |.
       Alternative Screen Reclamation  Technology Theta was demonstrated  using three
screens; one with a solvent-based ink, one with a UV-cured ink, and one with a water-based
ink.   Results  on the demonstrations  are detailed here and are summarized  in the table
following this section. Test screens were prepared using the same parameters as were used
for the testing  of alternative chemical systems (these parameters are listed in the appendix).
At the printing facility, the inks were applied to the stencil side of the screen, and excess ink
was carded off (on both sides of the screen).  Inks were allowed to dry for 18 hours  before
reclamation. The ink residue on both sidles of the screen does not accurately represent the
conditions in typical printing operations,  liowever, it does represent a worst case condition.

       On the screen with the solvent-based ink and the screen with water-based ink, the
stencil dissolved easily with the application of the high pressure water; no scrubbing was
needed.  There was no emulsion or ink residue left in the screen, but there was a medium
ink stain remaining on the screen with solvent-based ink and a very light stain on the  waiter-
based ink screen.  On both screens, all of 'the ink and stencil did dissolve after less than four
minutes of washing with the high pressure isprayer, however, the areas of the emulsion where
the ink was on the print side of the screen did not dissolve as quickly as the  areas where
there was no ink on the print side.  The haze remover completely eliminated the  stains.
                                      i         •-.'•'
                                        71

-------
When the haze remover was applied, the product immediately dissolved the ink stain, even
before the waiting period or the pressure wash.
                                       i                                           "
       Results were similar for the screen jwith UV ink. In most areas the stencil dissolved
very easily without any scrubbing.  After 4 minutes of water blasting, emulsion was still
present in blocks where the ink was scraped on the print side of the screen.  It is possible
that the residual emulsion was caused by the test conditions and that it did not indicate poor
performance on the part of System Theta.  |Some ink stain was remaining, especially in areas
where the emulsion was left.  The haze remover removed all of the ink, leaving only a very
light stain, but the emulsion was still remaining in approximately one-third of the blocks.
To remove the emulsion,  the emulsion remover was reapplied and allowed to sit for 20
seconds.   After water blasting the screen again,  the emulsion was completely removed.
                                       I              '   •
                                       i
       Overall, System Theta was an efficient and effective technique for screen cleaning.
Use of the system could minimize the quantity of chemicals needed for screen reclamation
by eliminating the ink remover and by using the high water pressure to  reduce the quantity
of emulsion and haze remover required. System Theta also reduces the labor time and effort
needed to reclaim a screen.              i
                                       !  72

-------
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                        i  73

-------
                                    TABLE 6.26
                COST ANALYSIS FOR HIGH PRESSURE WASHER THETA
Description
Baseline
Description
System
Theta
Facility 1
Facility Characteristics
Average screen size (in2)
Average # screens/day
2,127
6
Average screen size (in2)
Average # screens/day
360
13
Cost Elements per Screen j
Labor Time spent applying,
scrubbing, removing
reclamation products
(min)
Cost ($)
Materials # of rags used
and
Equipment Cost ($'
Reclamation Ink Remover
Product
Use Average Volume (oz.)
Cost($)
Emulsion Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Hazardous Amount (g)
Waste 	 	
Disposal Cost <$>
24.4
$5.33
3
$0.45
8.0
$0.22
3.5
$0.13
3.0
$0.12
34
$0.02
Time spent pressure
washing, applying, and
removing reclamation
products (min)
Cost ($)
Pressure Wash Equipment
Cost ($)
Water Use (gal.)
Electricity Use (kWhr)
Utility Cost ($)
Emulsion Prep Product
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Haze Remover
Average Volume (oz.)
Cost ($)
Amount (g)
Cost ($)
5.4
$1.18
0.25
10.7
0.65
0.11
0.8
0.11
1.5
0.36
0
0
Totals " •*- * -J
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
$6.27
$6.27
$9,399
; $9,399
Total Cost/Screen
Normalized*
Total Cost/year
NnrmaliypH*
2.02
4.53
6,315
6,797
* Normalized values adjust product usage] number of screens  cleaned, and number of rags
laundered at demonstration facilities to reflect the screen size and number of screens cleaned per
day under the baseline scenario. Labor costs, however, are not normalized. Normalization allows
a comparison between the baseline and facility results.
                                         74

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ALTERNATIVE SODIUM BICARBONATE RECLAMATION TECHNOLOGY
                                      I .           "       •     •  "" .   ,  .'
       The sodium bicarbonate screen reclamation technology consists of an enclosed spray
cabinet where pressurized sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water are sprayed onto the
parts  inside the cabinet to clean them.  Currently, this technology is used primarily for
removing coatings, such as paint, grease, or teflon from metal parts, however, as part of the
Dffi Performance Demonstration, this technology was tested to determine if it is potentially
adaptable as an alternative screen reclamation technology.  Prior this project, the sodium
bicarbonate technology was never tested for screen reclamation applications. The cleaning
procedure used during the test was the method developed for cleaning metal parts and was
adapted to screen reclamation where the screen was placed inside the enclosure and held
under the pressurized baking soda spray |to  remove  the ink, emulsion and haze from the
screen simultaneously.  The advantage ofj such a system for screen reclamation is that no
hazardous chemicals are used, and the need for ink remover, emulsion remover, and haze
remover is eliminated.  In preliminary testing, the sodium bicarbonate technology showed
potential for effectively removing solvent- or water-based inks. Results on a screen with IJV
ink, however,  were poor.  In all cases, further development and testing are needed before
the technology could be used in a screen printing facility.
                                      I .                              •
Sodium Bicarbonate-Based Screen Reclamation Technology Application Method
                                      i          -
       At this time, the sodium  bicarbonate-based technology has  not been developed
specifically for screen reclamation. It has been successful in replacing hazardous cleaning
chemicals in other applications such as in metal parts degreasing and paint and adhesives
removal.  To determine if this technology could be adapted for screen reclamation, three
screens were prepared for cleaning: one with solvent-based ink, one with UV-cured ink, and
a  third  screen with  water-based ink.  All  tests were conducted at  the  equipment
manufacturer's facility.  This particular manufacturer developed the enclosed spray cabinet,
and is a distributor of the sodium bicarbonate.   Because this technology is  still under
development and is unproven for screen reclamation, no demonstrations were conducted at
printing facilities. An observer from the DfE project was present to record information on
the system's performance in cleaning the three test screens.

       Tests were conducted in two different enclosures.  Half of each screen was first
cleaned in an enclosure which delivered dry, pressurized baking soda to the screen.  The
second half of each screen was cleaned in an enclosure which delivered both pressurized
water and baking soda. The same cleaning procedure was used for the two systems. After
excess ink was carded off, the  screen was placed inside the enclosure with the flat  side
down. The door was locked and the operator placed his hands through the gloves built into
the box.  By stepping on the foot pedal, the operator started the flow of pressurized sodium
bicarbonate from the fan nozzle mounted in the  top of  the enclosure.  The fan nozzle,
designed by the enclosure manufacturer, spreads out the impact of the sodium bicarbonate
to reduce the  stress  on the screen.  The nozzle  used for testing dispersed  the sodium
bicarbonate over an area approximately ojne inch wide by three inches long.  On the wet
system, the same nozzle was used to deliver the sodium bicarbonate, and the water nozzle
                                      i
                                      ! 75 "   •

-------
was mounted on the fan nozzle, so that the water and baking soda mixed together as they.
were discharged.  Holding the screen under the fan nozzle, the operator moved the screen
from side to side. The operator was able tb see where the ink or emulsion remained on the
screen by watching through the primary viewing area.  This window was purged with air to
enhance visibility by clearing the dust from the viewing area.  When the first side was clean,
the operator flipped the screen  over and repeated the cleaning procedure on the other side
until all ink, emulsion, and haze were removed.

Summary of Alternative Sodium Bicarbona'te Technology Performance Results

       Cleaning without Water         i
       During the demonstration,  several  different application methods  were tested to
optimize the system performance.  First, the screen with solvent-based ink was cleaned in
a dry box; only pressurized baking soda was  delivered,  without any water.  At a pressure
of 5 psi,  some of the ink and emulsion were removed, but very slowly.  A heavy haze and
some ink and emulsion residue remained.  To accelerate the removal, the pressure was
increased to 10 psi.  This pressure proved to be too high and the screen developed pin holes
and eventually ripped.  The pressure was!reduced to 5  psi.  To reduce the stress on the
mesh, a flat plate was placed behind the scjreen.  Screen  damage was  reduced, but was not
eliminated.
                                        the water-based ink screen. Significant ink and
                                        after cleaning a 4 inch by 4 inch area for 5
       Similar results were obtained with
emulsion residue remained on the screen
minutes.  Again, screen wear and small holes were visible in some areas.   After these
disappointing results, dry testing was discontinued in favor of the wet delivery system. The
water serves to soften the sodium bicarbonate, making it less abrasive than the dry delivery
process.  Because of the softening effect,j a higher pressure could be used with the wet
delivery system without damaging the screen.

       After such poor performance was demonstrated using the dry cleaning process on the
solvent- and water-based ink screens, the decision was made to skip the dry process for the
UV ink screen, and start with the wet cleaning process.  Additionally, the UV ink does not
dry (unlike the solvent- and water-based inks), and the manufacturer felt that the application
of the dry sodium bicarbonate would stick t!o the wet ink across the entire screen, instead of
removing the  ink.  If the sodium bicarbonate was  covering the screen, the wet cleaning
process test would not be valid.

       Cleaning with Water             ,
       All three screens were tested using the wet process (cleaning with water). Water was
sprayed onto the screen at 200 - 250 psi, vjrhile the sodium bicarbonate was sprayed out of
a fan nozzle at varying pressures.  On the screens where the dry process was used to clean
half the screen, the wet process was used for the other half.  Performance clearly improved
using the wet technology.

       On the screen with UV ink, the sodium bicarbonate-based technology was completely
                                        i         ••',-       '.  -
                        '       .   .      176	,    	'

-------
 ineffective. After about 5 minutes of cleaning, there was almost no removal of the ink or
 the  emulsion.   The  operator increased the pressure  to 20 psi to improve  the system
 performance.  When there was no improvement at 20 psi, the pressure was increased to 30
 psi. Even at the higher pressure, there was no significant removal of the ink or the emulsion
 from the screen.  The operator put a glass! plate behind the screen to concentrate the sodium
 bicarbonate and to support the screen, but this did not help to remove the ink or emulsion
 After approximately 10 minutes of cleaning without any noticeable removal of ink, the test
 was stopped.

       The solvent-based ink screen was | cleaned first.  At 5 psi, it took approximately 5
 minutes to remove the ink and emulsion from a 4 inch by  4 inch area of the screen. At this
 point the screen was visually inspected.  There was no visible damage to the  screen, so the
 pressure was increased to 10 psi.  Another! 4 inch by 4 inch area was cleaned, and at 10 psi,
 it took approximately  3 minutes.   Some greas of the emulsion came off in stringy pieces.
 After cleaning the rest of the screen, a liglit haze remained in the image area. Around the
 edges of the screen where the ink was fairly thick, a heavy residue remained, but there was
 no ink or emulsion residue in the image area.  Total screen cleaning time for the half of the
 screen that  was cleaned with the wet cleaning process (a 10 inch by 10 inch area), took
 approximately 16 minutes.

       Performance on the screen with water-based ink was similar to the screen with
 solvent-based ink.  On the water-based inkj screen, all testing was conducted with the sodium
 bicarbonate pressure at 10 psi. Initially, the ink started to come off fairly well, but very
 slowly. After a few minutes, the ink began flaking off, instead of dissolving. The flakiing
 made it significantly easier to remove the iiik. Again, the emulsion came off in stringy rolls.
 Ink residue  remained around the edges of I the screen, but the image area was clean with a
 very slight  haze.  After closer inspection, some very small spots  of ink;  residue were
 apparent.  In an effort to remove these spots, the operator concentrated the spray on the
 small effected area. After one or two minutes, this concentrated pressure ripped the screen.
 Total cleaning time for the portion of the screen that was cleaned with wet cleaning (10
 inches by  10 inches), was approximately 13 minutes.

 Alternative Sodium Bicarbonate Technoloev Potential
                                       i
       The cleaning procedures used during testing were the methods used for cleaning metal
parts and were not specifically developed for screen reclamation.  With further testing and
research, this application method could be (improved to clean the screens faster and with less
possibility for screen damage. For example, during the test, a piece of rigid material (safety
glass) was held behind the screen to reduce the pressure on the mesh.  From the limited
testing performed, this support seemed to concentrate the cleaning media on the desired area
while reducing the stress on the screen.  As another change that may improve performance,
the operator suggested using hot water. W^ien cleaning the screens with solvent- and water-
based ink, the emulsion came off in string'y pieces that rolled off the screen. This reaction
did not seem to increase or decrease the ijemoval efficiency, however, hot water may help
dissolve  the  emulsion,  potentially accelerating the removal process.   A third possible
                                       i  .-,",-•••- .'.-,.-       ,,        i

                                        77
                                      • i".  .••';"•               :  -          .   .'  •  .

-------
                                       I                      •    •
improvement in the application technique may be to add a small platform inside the enclosure
which would help the operator hold the screen closer to the spray nozzle.
                                       i
       In addition to equipment modifications,  several other variable changes that may be
specific to each facility should also be investigated.  These factors include increasing or
decreasing the particle size of sodium bicarbonate, changing the pressure of the water or the
sodium bicarbonate, and changing the rate Jof delivery of the medium. With further research
into improvements in the sodium bicarbonate application, this technology could potentially
reduce chemical use during screen reclamation for printers using solvent-based or water-
based inks.                             I
                                         78

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         APPENDIX A: FACILITY BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE
                Design for the Environment Screen Printing Project
1. Business Profile
      a. Products
      Approximately what percentage of your products are printed on  the following
      substrates? (Please check all boxes
that apply).

Plastics (rigid/flexible)
Paper (coated or uncoated)
Metal
Ceramic
Glass
Other (specify)
<50%
D
D
D
a
a
a
50-95%
a
n
a
a
a
a
95 - 100%
n
n
n
a
n
a
      b. Please list the major products produced at your facility:
      c. Approximately what percentage |of your shippable product, by sales dollars, is
      produced through screen printing? I
                                     I
      d. Approximately how long is your typical run?
      e. Approximately what percentage |of your orders are repeat orders?
                                       79

-------
2. Screen Reclamation Operations
       a. Screen Size: Specify the average size frame used at your facility:
       	(Jforin2)       |
                                      i
       b. Tracking: Describe how your screens are tracked or numbered in the facility:
      c. Volume:
      What is the average number of screens cleaned/reclaimed each day for future use?
      (Please check the appropriate box)i
      0-5	D  5-10	D 10-15	D        >15	D (specify	;

      d. Employees
      Please fill in  the table below. For the purposes of this questionnaire, "Ink
      Removal" is not defined as press-slide operations, unless this is the only site used
      for ink removal. Assume a 5-day Work week with  one 8-hour shift each day.
      Please check  all boxes that apply.
Number of
Employees
at this
Location
0-5 D
6-10 n
11-15 n
16-30 D
31-50 D
>5o . n
Number of
Employees
Involved in
Ink Removal
1-3 n
4-6 n
7-10 n
>n n
specify

Number of i
Involved i
Cleaning/R(
1-3
4-6
7-10
>11
specify

employees
i Screen
clamation
a
a
a
n

Average time
(hr/day) a single
individual is
involved w/ ink
removal

-------
             - If "yes", check all that apply in the first four columns of the table below.
                                       i
             - If "no", check all that apply in the last 2 columns of the table below.
Separate areas for ink removal and screen
cleaning/reclamation activities
Ink
Removal
Area (ft2)
<2o n
20-50 D
50 - 100 D
100-20CD
>200 D
(specify):
Type of
Ventilation
local (mechanical)!]
plant D
natural D
other D
(specify):
Screen
Reclamati
Area (ft8)
<20
20-50

m
D
n
50- 100 JD
100-200
>200
(specify):
"
n
n
Type of
Ventilation
local (mechanical P
plant D
natural D
other D
(specify):
Combined Ink Removal/
Screen Reclamation Areas
Size of
Combined
Area (ft2)
<2o n
20-50 D
5o-ioo n
100 - 200 n
>2oo n
(specify):
Ventilation
local D
plant D
natural D
other D
(specify):
3. Rates
       a. Record the electric rate:

       b. Record the water rate:
       c. Record the sewer rate:
       d. Record the screen reclamation employee's wage rate:
                                       I   -,• .     .    •    .
       e. Record the printer's wage rate:
(Use the rate for the
      printer who would determine ifthe\print image quality is acceptable).
4. Current Ink Remover Procedures (NOT process cleaning)
       a. What type of ink(s) do you use?
                                         81

-------
b. Do you recycle ink removal products? Yes	D   No	D

                               |
       - Do you recycle on-site or! off-site?


       - Do you use the recycled product in-house? Yes	D  No	D
             If so, how much do; you use annually?
gallons
       - If recycled off-site, does the recycler sell the recycled product?


       - What are the costs and income associated with recycling ink removal
                               !
                               I
       products?
c. On average, to how many screens/day is ink remover applied?


d. Describe the current method of j applying ink remover:
e. Do you use a pressure washer (or other equipment) for ink removal?


       - If so, specify the type of equipment, manufacturer, and model (from


       nameplate):      ,


       - Specify the pressure (psi) and flowrate (gpm):

                               i  -
       - What are the equipment energy use specifications (from nameplate):
                               I
       - How long is it in use for each screen?


f. Fill in the table on the next page for each of your ink remover products.
                                  82

-------
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8. Waste Disposal
                                      I
       a. Please indicate the quantity of Waste you dispose of annually as hazardous
       waste for:                ,      |
       spent solvent waste:  	
       drums)
  (gal. in bulk)  OR
       ink waste:
       drums)
       used shop rag waste
       drums)
j (gal. in bulk)  OR
  (gal. in bulk)  OR
(# of 55 gal.

(# of 55 gal.

(# of 55 gal.
      b. Ink Removal and Screen Cleaning Wastes
      Fill in the table below to describe the treatment and disposal methods used for
      waste (not only hazardous wastes) generated by the ink removal and screen
      cleaning/reclamation operations:  j
Ink Removal Area Wastes !
Quantity
Generated
Annually

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9. Drying                             \
      a. Are screens dried between ink removal and emulsion removal?
             - If yes, how are they dried? (air dried or dried with equipment such as
             fans, heater, etc.)    - If drying equipment is used, note:
                          - Duration of drying step:
                          - Manufacturer and model of the equipment:
                          - Energy usej specifications:

      b. Are screens dried between emulsion removal and haze removal?
             - If yes, how are they dried? (air dried or dried with equipment such as
             fans, heater, etc.)
                   - If drying equipment is used, note:
                          - Duration of drying step:
                          - Manufacturer and model of the equipment:
                          - Energy use specifications:

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                                            APPENDIX B:

                                   Observer's {Evaluation Sheet
Facility name: 	

Date:	

Screen reclamation employees(s):_
                 Location:

Facility contact name/phone:_	
1. Type of Demonstration:
         check one: Standard Products
                                          Alternative Products _
2. Operating Conditions
        Record the information on the screen being cleaned on the table below:

                                            Screen Information
scsE^foa-GDmos
Screen identification
and history
Screen size
tt impressions of the
last nun
Screen degreaser
Ink type
Ink color
Emulsion type
Ink coverage
Ftttm&t blank or. eiretftfe np^fOfruKe-fitafae^fistte, &rice&fytttiteป arteii'uiie.ntz in &ปtpwปta tb?
rt&t. ""/"" "' '" """ '
• Enter the identification marking code that is on the screen:
• Estimate the number of impressions printed over the life of this screen:
i
• Estimate how much ink was left\on the screen? (< avg., avg., > avg.)
x " ("specify units: ir? or ff)

* Specify manufacturer and series] # or name:
• i
• Circle one: ' '
Solvent-based, UV, or water-based
• Specify manufacturer and series, ft or name:
• Circle one: "
Blue, Black, Other (specify):
• Circle one:
Capillary film, Direct photo stencil, Dual cured, Other (specify):
• Specify manufacturer and series] it or name:
• Check one:
. 0-25%. ..IH 25 -5096... D 50- 7556... D 75- 10096... D
                                                   89

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Screen condition
Screen mounting
Thread count
Thread diameter
Tension level (measure
both major axes; specify
units)
Mesh type (record type
of mesh material)
Mesh treatment (has
the mesh been abraded?
calendared? or
treated?)
Calibration of
measurements
Temperature fin the
work area)
../
Humidity fin the work
area)
Note any rips, holes, corrosion
Is a retensionable frame used?
Is the screen glued to the frame?
threads/inch
(specify unite)
major axis:


•
N/cm
!
minor axis: ; N/cm


scoop(s) of haze remover


= ounces
• Ink removal area: i ฐF
• Emulsion/Haze removal area:
• Ink removal area:
• Emulsion/Haze removal area:
ซF
%•
%
! 90

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3. Cleaning Procedure
        • Clean the screen using the application (technique designated by SPTF for alternative products or
        follow your typical screen reclamation procedure if demonstrating the currently used products.
        Observe all actions taken by the employee Jin reclaiming the screen and record any differences between
        the technique used and the  technique specified by SPTF for alternative products or the technique
        documented in the facility questionnaire for products currently used at the facility.

        Cleaning Procedure:
        • For currently used products, are any variations of the reclamation procedure used, and if so, under
        what circumstances? For what percentage of screens, or how often are these method variations used?
        • Describe any temperature or humidity controls in the screen reclamation area.
                                              i     •  •     •              •:    •
                               	i	__        -   •
4. Performance                                j
        Complete the performance evaluation table on the next page for alternative products and for currently
        used products.                          I
                                                 91

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Performance Evaluation
       I

Drying Time
(specify units; hours or mins.)
Dilution
(record dilution ratio or enter
"None")
Quantity of Product Used
Time to clean
(do not include screen
positioning or equipment clean
up time)
Physical effort required
(circle one for each step and
describe effort used)
If wipes were used for ink
removal, specify the type,
size and quantity used.
Was a pressure washer used?
(check one for each step)
Enter quantity, comments^ and notes
• Time from end of press run to start of ink removal with product:
• Time from ink removal
completed to start of emulsion removal:
• Time from emulsion removal completed to start of haze removal:

• Ink Remover
• Emulsion Remover
• Haze Remover
• Ink Remover
• Emulsion Remover
• Haze Remover
• Ink Remover
• Emulsion Remover
• Haze Remover
• Ink Remover:
circle one: Low, Modert
• Emulsion Remover:
circle one: Low, Modera
• Haze Remover:
circle one: Low, Modera

• For Ink Removal:
No T

(enter ratio) or "none"
(enter ratio) or "none "
(enter ratio) or "none"
(enter # of ounces)
(enter # of ounces)
(enter # of ounces or scoops)
minutes
minutes
minutes
te, High. Describe:
'
te, High. Describe:
'
te, High. Describe:
:

fes (specify length of time used mins.)
• For Emulsion Removal:'
No Yes (specify length of time used mins.)
• For Haze Removal:
No Yes (specify length of time used mins.)
       !  92

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Was tap water (NOT
pressure wash) used in any
part of screen
cleaning/reclamation?
Was (non-pressurized) w|ater used in (check all that apply):
 Ink Removal...D or Emulsion Removal...D  or  Haze Removal...D
Flowrate:
                              Length of time used:	j_
                                _(gallons/minute)

                                	(specify seconds or minutes)
Examine screen after ink
removal.
• Did the product effectively and easily remove the ink? Also note any side effects of the
product on the mesh):   j
Examine screen after
emulsion removal.
                              • Is there any ink haze or stencil stain on the mesh? If so, describe in detail:
                                If any emulsion is still
                      present, describe the residue left on the screen in detail:
                                                    I
                              • Note any side effects on the screen (e.g., mesh damage, corrosion, etc.)
Examine screen after
reclamation is complete.
• Can the screen be reused for all jobs?  (check one) Yes	  No	
    If "No", describe why the screen cannot be reused or what limitations apply:
    (e.g., Is there is a ghost image? Can the screen be used for reverse printing?       for
close tolerance work? Can transparent inks be used with it?)
Remeasure the screen tension
of both major axes and record
(specify units)
• major axis: _

• minor axis:
_N/cm

 N/cm
Examine the substrate image
after the screen is reused.
Comniciit on the print u
quality.
Comments or suggestions - Use the back of this sheet to note anything unusual about this demonstration, (e.g., did you have
to reapply any of the products? was mis screen more difficult to clean than others?)
                                                        93

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5. Experience with Alternative Screen Reclamation Products

        a. Have you tried any alternative chemical products to  replace your  current screen reclamation
        products?                             I
                - If yes, please list the product trade name(s)  and  the generic product type(s):
                - Why were the alternative prodi ;ct(s) better, the same, or worse than your old product?
                - If you have not tried a different chemical product, please check the box that best describes
                your reason for not trying alternatives:
                   Lack of adequate information to evaluate environmental performance:
                   Operators do not believe alternatives will work:
                   Not impressed with product descriptions:
                   Cost is prohibitive:          j
                   Other: (please  explain):      j
                                              I
n
n
n
n
n
        b. Besides alternative chemical products, have you implemented any changes in equipment, procedures
        or work practices that reduced your use of screen reclamation chemicals, or reduce the time, effort
        or water required to use those products? :Yes	D   No	D
                                              i
                - If yes, please describe:        I
        c. Does this facility have a pollution prevention, waste minimization, or source reduction program?

               - If yes, please describe:
                                                94

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                                        APPENDIX C:
                                          1
                          Ink Remover Evaluation Sheet for Printers
Facility name and Location:
1, . .
1 . ' '
Date: , ! Ink Remover employee's name:
1
Answer Ihtfittemng questions r^afi^sff^^ii^^^tAfntaa^pnfi^ff^Tmamei
' Screen identification and history
Screen size
Screen condition and threads per
inch
Mesh
# impressions of the screen's last
run
Ink type
Ink color
Emulsion type
% Ink Coverage
Drying Time
Ink Remover Dilution
Quantity of Ink Remover
Time
Physical effort required
How many wipes did yon use?
Was a -pressure washer used?
Examine screen after ink
removal.
• Enter the identification marking code for the screen:
1
• Estimate how much jfcfc was left on the screen?
1
inches x 1 inches
• Note screen condition including any rips, holes, corrosion:
• Record the screen mesh size: threads/inch
• Mesh material type:\
\
• Mesh treatment: \
\
\
• Circle one: Solvent-based, UV, Water-based
• Specify manufacturer and series #:
• Circle one: \ Blue, . Black, Other (specify):
1
• Circle one: Capillary film, Direct photo, Dual cure, Other:
• Specify manufacturer and series #:
• Check one: 0^2556. .in 25-5056. .D 50-7556. .D 75-100%. .D
Time from end of press run to start of ink removal
|
(enter ratio) or "none"
oz.i
Enter time from application of ink remover product until screen is
\
mins.
ready for the next step:
(circle rating and comment)
Low, Moderate, High
1
' ' i
(check one) Yes i No
Did the ink remover effectively and easily remove the ink? (Also note any side effects of the
product on die screen)
i
Comments or suggestions - Record any comments and note {anything unusual about the reclamation on a
(e.g., did you have to reapply the product? why was the screen hard to clean?)
separate sheet of paper.
                                             95

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                                             I
                                         APPENDIX D:




                         Emulsion Remover Evaluation Sheet for Printers
Facility name and location:




Date:
waiuati
   Screen Reclamation employee's name:
                                             I
Fill in the blank/circle the appropriate answer. Make any notes or comments in the space to the right.
Screen Identification
Drying Time
(Specify units; hours or mins.)
Dilution
Quantity of Product Used
Product Use .Time
Was a pressure washer used?
Physical effort required
(circle one for each step and
describe the level of effort)
Examine screen after emulsion
removal.
Examine screen after
reclamation is complete.
Examine the substrate image
after the screen is reused.
• Enter the identificatior.
marking (tracking) code for the screen:
• Time from ink removal completed to start of emulsion removal:
• Time from emulsion removal completed to start of haze removal:
• Emulsion Remover
• Haze Remover
(ratio) or none
(ratio) or none
Enter # of ounces used:
• Emulsion Remover ounces
• Haze Remover • ounces
Enter time from applicat
• Emulsion Remover
• Haze Remover
'on of product until screen is ready for the next step
mins.
mins.
• For emulsion removal? (check one) Yes No
• For haze removal? | (check one) Yes No
• Emulsion Remover:
circle one: Low, Med.,
Describe if the stencil di
took place:
• Haze Remover:
circle one: Low, Med.,
Describe the effort requi
• Is there any ink haze c
• If any emulsion is still
• Can the screen be reui
If "No", describe whj
screen be used for revei
inks be used with it?)
High;
ssolved easily or slowly, and if a great deal or very little scrubbing
_
High;
red for haze removal:
r stencil stain on the mesh? If so, describe:
present, describe the residue left on the screen in detail:
ed for all jobs? Yes 	 No
the screen cannot be reused: (e.g., Is there is a ghost image? Can the
se printing? Can it be used for close tolerance work? Can transparent
Comment on the print image quality:
i
Comments - Record any comments and note anything unusu
reapply the product? why was this screen more difficult to cl
il about the reclamation on a separate sheet, (e.g., did you have to
ian?)
                                               96

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                                  APPENDIX E:
                     Weekly Follow-up Call to Screen Printers
                    in the DfE Performance Demonstration Project

Once a week, the observer will contact the facility by phone. This form is to guide the
conversation, but let the printer discuss any problems, changes or concerns. Remind them
to send in the envelope with this week's forms.
                                      I  :
1. In your opinion, is the performance of ijhe alternative products better, worse or about the
same as the products you used before this! demonstration? Why?
2. Have you found any conditions where the products did not work? (e.g., is there any fink
type or emulsion type where the product did not work?) If so, describe the condition(s).
3. Have you found any conditions (ink type, emulsion type, etc.) where the products work
particularly well? If so, please describe the conditions).
4. Have you changed the application procedure in any way to improve product performance?
If so, please describe. For example,     i
             • do you apply the product I to the screen sooner?
             • do you let the product sitlsoak on the screen longer?
             • have you used a different! type of brush? or scrubber? or wipe?
                                        97

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5. Have you tried any different application techniques that did not improve performance?
       • What did you change? • Why diji you make the change?
       • Was product performance worse! after the change? How?
6. Have you changed the quantity of product you use? Why?
7. How are you timing how long you use! each product? (i.e., are you estimating the time
or are you actually tuning it?)
8. What measurement method are you using? Are you still using the same spray bottle and
the same scoop provided?
9. Do you think the screen failure rate has increased, decreased or remained the same as a
result of using the new product? What signs have you seen that suggest the failure rate may
differ?                                I
10. Do you have any other comments or concerns regarding the alternative products?
                                        98

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     APPENDIX F: Methodology Used in the Screen Reclamation Performance
                                 Demonstrations
Note:  This methodology incorporates comments from discussions with the Screen Printing
       Technical Foundation, the Screen printing Association International, screen printers,
       and manufacturers and suppliers of screen reclamation products and equipment.

I. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION OVERVIEW
                                      |              .                             •
A. Goal                              i
                                      I-   "    '  •    "
       The objective of this performance) demonstration is twofold: (1) to obtain specific
information from printing facilities concerning the performance of commercial chemical amd
mechanical screen reclamation systems;  (2) to encourage printers to experiment with new
products and work practices that reduce human health and environmental risk. This data will
be incorporated into the Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment.

B. General Plan
       The majority of printers participating in the performance demonstration will evaluate
the effectiveness of one manufacturer product line/system for screen reclamation,  using a
method that includes the use of ink removisr, emulsion remover and haze remover products
in screen reclamation.  Each facility will b<3 responsible for reclaiming screens over a thirty-
day period, utilizing  the  specified  product system. The  performance of one  or two
substitution processes relying on specially equipped mechanical and/or chemical reclamation
cleaning systems will be demonstrated, including: (1) high-pressure water blaster; (2) sodium
bicarbonate reclaim system.            j
                                     |            •              •              -
C. Desired Characteristics to be Reported from Performance Demonstrations

       1.     Actual cost of chemical product or reclamation equipment
             Definition:    Cost per volume used per area of screen cleaned (ft2).

             We will ask that product manufacturers include the average purchase price of
             their  individual products (haze remover,  stencil remover,  ink remover,
             reclamation equipment) when  the product/equipment is  submitted  for the
             performance demonstration] The adjusted or actual cost of screen reclamation
             products will be determined through incorporation of product purchase price,
             product application cost, labor costs, and safety and disposal costs.
                                        99

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                         I
Product constraints      I
Example: Whether the prcjduct category (e.g. ink remover) is incompatible
          with certain types of inks

This information should be! submitted by the manufacturers and may also be
discovered as a result of the' performance testing. If the manufacturer does not
provide any information regarding product incompatibilities, we will assume
that there are no incompatibility concerns.

Special storage, safety and disposal requirements
Examples:   Flammability or volatility of the product
                         i

This information will be requested on the manufacturer questionnaire and will
vary according to the chemicals comprising the products/equipment to be
submitted. We  will ask tiiat  manufacturers provide recommendations on
disposal or treatment of wastes associated with the use of their products, irhe
storage costs will be a factor in determining the adjusted cost of the product.
Ease of use
Definition:
The physical effort required to effectively clean the screen
using the test product
This is a subjective standard based on the judgment of the screen cleaner and
printer. As a frame of reference, the screen reclamation employee or facility
point-of-contact will be asked to describe  their current work practices  for
screen reclamation and the physical effort required with their current system.
When the performance information is tabulated for each manufacturer system
demonstrated at a facility, the data regarding the products currently used at
the facility will also be noted.
                         I
Duration of the Cleaning Cycle
Definition:   The measured  time  of the  screen  cleaning  process  (e.g.
             beginning with the application of ink removal product to  the
             screen until the final water wash is completed)
This will attempt to measure the labor costs associated with the use of the
products. Labor costs will be based on the time required for the screen
reclamation with the specific products and a standard screen cleaning wage.
                           100

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6.     Physical/Chemical properties of the screen reclamation system
                                !
       Definition:    Characteristics associated with use of the individual system,
                    such as chemical components or pressure at which chemicals
                    are applied.  {
                                I            . . „  .
       The chemical components of each product system must be submitted by each
       manufacturer participating j in  the  demonstration  project. The physical
       characteristics  of each system as  used, including such factors  as  water
       pressure  as applied and  |type  of  specialized  equipment  used,  will  be
       documented.
                                |
7.     Effectiveness of the screen reclamation system
                                i
       This is a subjective criteria! and depends on the judgment of the printer and
       the employee reclaiming screens at the facility. They will examine the screen
       after the reclamation proces's is complete and answer two questions: (1) Can
       this screen  be  reused for general screen printing purposes?; (2) Can this
       screen be used to print a reverse image? These questions will not be answered
       solely on the basis of the screen appearance. When the screen is reused for
       printing,  any  problems with  ghost  images or weak screens will  be
       documented.              |

8.     Screen, stencil and ink information
                                i -     •      •  "'    ..          . •
       The majority of screens reclaimed in the demonstration project should have
       a monofilament polyester mesh with a nominal thread count in the range of
       230-390 Me/in. However, if the screen mesh thread count is outside of this
       range, the data will be documented. Data recorded for each screen reclaimed
       should include threads per inch, the age of the screen and the prior printing
       history of the screen. The length of time between the end of the press run and
       the actual screen reclamation should be estimated. The color and type of ink,
       and the type of emulsion will also be reported. If possible, the tension level
       (N/m) of the screen should! be recorded. The condition of the screen  (rips,
       tears) before and after the test will be reported. The printing performance of
       the  screen  after it  has been reclaimed will also be documented. This
       descriptive information serves two purposes: (1) it provides data to determine
       the specific effectiveness of jthe methods and various product lines; (2) it may
       assist in discovering and reporting incompatibilities between the products and
       types of inks and emulsions.
                                I 101

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H. METHODOLOGY FOR ON-SITE PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION
                                     i  -
A.  Selection of Products for the Performance Demonstration
       1.
       2.
       3.
       4.
       5.
                        i     ' - •                                 .
Products will be submitted jby manufacturers in two shipments. One shipment
of screen reclamation products, in bucket; containers with manufacturer labels,
will be sent to SPTF/SPAl] along with a [standard OSHA MSDS; the quantity
shipped should  be sufficient to clean 3  screens  of  10 ft?  each.  The

manufacturer will also shipjto SPAI a quantity of product necessary to reclaim
50 screens at the volunteer jprinting facility. SPAI will determine the quantity
required for each site and notify the manufacturer prior to shipment.

SPTF will determine the effectiveness of all of the products submitted. Iftiis
will include evaluating the standard manufacturer instructions for each product
and ensuring that the application technique specified for that product will
enable the product to work effectively.! ^Y instructions for an individual
product pertaining to dilution or mixing' will be followed. If the application
technique  specified for a  particular product  is  determined  to limit  the
effectiveness of the  product or in  |any other way  negatively affect
performance, a second application technique will be chosen and tested.
                        i    .  .       i
The effectiveness of each j product system will be tested with up to three
different ink types (solvent-based, UV-cured, and water-based), depending on
the recommendations of the manufacturer. The specific methodology for the
SPTF testing is detailed in a separate  document  (see Appendix G).  Only
products deemed effective by SPTF will be used hi the field demonstration
portion of the project.
The selection of printers will take into account the type of inks primarily used
and any  specialized application equipment. SPAI will match  printers with
appropriate screen reclamation products. The in-field demonstrations will only
include screens on which solvent-based or UV inks have been used. However,
if screens on which water-based inks have been used are reclaimed with the
product system, the data will be documented.
After SPTF  has completed the initial screening  of the  effectiveness  of
products, SPAI will ship the screen reclamation products to the screen printers
participating  in  the field  demonstrations.  Products will  be packaged  in
generic containers (no screen product manufacturer markings). The printer
will receive the masked product that has a masked OSHA MSDS and a
generic label.  For all other aspects of the demonstration project,  products
will be identified only by a letter code.
                                        102

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B. Documentation of Standard Work Practices at Facility

       1.     The observer will visit the facility and explain the project thoroughly to both
             the facility point-of-contactj and employees involved in printing and screen
             reclamation. Prior to the observer's visit,  the facility will have received, a
             Facility Background Questionnaire.  When on-site, the observer will verify
             that this questionnaire has bben accurately completed. Information categories
             on the questionnaire include; 1) general facility operations (types of products,
             number of employees), 2) |screen reclamation operations (equipment used,
             number of screens reclaimed), 3) current reclamation products (application
             procedures, trade names), 4) storage and disposal practices.

       2.     The observer will verify the questionnaire and document any other relevant
             information on the general! facility operations. Recorded information will
             include the types of products printed, the printing substrates, the typical run
             length, and the water, sewer, and electric rates for the facility.

       3.     The observer will verify the questionnaire and document any other relevant
             information on the  screen  reclamation  operations.  The  observer will
             document the  size and  general specifics of the  screen reclamation area(s),
             including the type of ventilation. The observer will also briefly describe the
             experience of  the employee(s)  participating in  the  test,  including past
             experiences with testing of'screen reclamation products, and document any
             potential biases.           j

       4.     The observer will verify the questionnaire and document any other relevant
             information on the facility's current reclamation products. The observer will
             record the trade name and purchase price of the current screen reclamation
             products. The observer will document the current work practices by observing
             screen reclamation utilizing the present method and products used by the
             facility. The specifics of the screen to be cleaned,  such as threads per inch,
             ink type, color of ink,  emulsion type,  age, size, tension level and printing
             history (including estimated time between the  end of the press  run and
             reclamation), will be recorded. The physical condition of the screen (small
             rips, etc.) will be documented before and after the reclamation. The observer
             will note any pie-application dilution  of  the product.  The observer will
             measure the quantity of each' product applied to the screen and record the time
             required for each cleaning step, and the overall cleaning of the screen, from
             application of the ink remover product to the final water wash.
                                       i    '••--.
       5.     The observer will verify the questionnaire and document any other relevant
             information on the facility's storage and disposal practices. The  observer
             will note how the products jare stored in bulk and  in the screen reclamation
             area. The  current waste and rag disposal practices  and  costs  will  be
             documented by the observer..
                                       I   •
                                       ! 103

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                 il Demonstration an
t the Printi
       1.     The employee involved in! the performance demonstration will prepare to
             clean one screen using the masked products supplied for the ink removal,
             emulsion removal  and haze  removal steps.  The  employee will  use the
             application technique designated by SPTF for each product. Prior to the
             reclamation process, the observer will document any pre-application dilution
             of the products that is necessary. The observer will note all characteristics of
             the screen as outlined hi BJ4.
                                       I   "
       2.     The employee will begin screen reclamation. The observer will record the
             quantity of each product that is applied  to the screen.  The observer will
             record all actions taken byj the employee hi reclaiming the screen to ensure
             adherence  to  any specific j instructions. The observer will tune  the  entire
             process, from the application of the ink remover to the final water wash.
                                       !   •'
       3.     The observer will record the effectiveness of the product system in reclaiming
             the screen, based on visible appearance and the judgment of the printer and
             the screen cleaning employee.  The observer will ask if the screen can be used
             again for printing and if there are any printing limitations, such as whether
             it can be used to print a reverse. After the screen is used again for printing,
             any problems with the screen, such as ghost images or damaged mesh, will
             be documented by the printer.

       4.     A second and third screen Will then be cleaned using the same method. The
             observer will follow  the process outlined in steps  1-3. The purpose of
             cleaning three screens  is  to  ensure that the screen cleaning employee: is
             familiar with the cleaning method and products, before beginning longer-term
             testing.                   |
                                       j   •- ' :      *                 '       -
D.  Phase II; Further Demonstration of System Effectiveness at the Printing Facility

       1.     After  completion  of the j above demonstration,  the  screen reclamation
             performance demonstration will continue to  be  performed  by the facility
             through the  next  thirty  jdays.  The  masked products  supplied by the
             manufacturer will be used to reclaim these screens. The observer will not be
             present during this phase  jof  testing. The employee responsible  for screen
             reclamation will record the characteristics of each screen cleaned (see B.4.),
             the volume of product used! for each step in the process, and the effectiveness
             of  the manufacturer  system  in  reclaiming the screen (taking into account
             future printing performance of each screen). To simplify this process, a short
             evaluation sheet will be used.
                                         104

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                                      I
       2.     During the thirty day demonstration period, the observer will interview the
             facility contact  every w^ek over  the telephone to document facts  or
             perceptions  concerning the  reclamation process that could be helpful in
             determining the  effectiveness of the  products  used.  The observer will
             determine if there has  been any deviation  from the initial  reclamation
             procedures.  If there has Iseen a  deviation, the observer shall record the
             reasons for the deviation.  A work sheet will be developed that will guide the
             observer through the questions they should ask. The observer will document
             each conversation on the york sheet,  which will subsequently  become the
             telephone log for the facility.
                                      I
       3.     If at any time during the long-term phase of the demonstration there is a
             problem, the screen reclamation employee or facility point of contact will
             document the specific problem and call SFTF for guidance. Any corrective
             action  will be documented' by both the industry specialist and the  facility
             employee.                j
                                      1          •  '
ฃ.  Trouble-shooting

       1.     If problems  arise during  the field demonstration of the screen  reclamation
             methods and products, the following  procedures will be followed.  If the
             observer is present, the problem will be documented and the observer will call
             SPTF/SPAI for guidance.  If the observer is not present, the facility employee
             will document the problem land contact SPTF/SPAI.
                                      1 •
       2.     SPTF will first review the procedures used by the facility employee to ensure
             they are in compliance with the instructions provided with the product. If the
             procedures  are  correct,  then SPTF  will  contact the  manufacturer  for
             assistance. SPTF will relay and filter the recommendation of the manufacturer
             to the printer. SPTF/SPAI (will ensure the confidentiality of the products is
             maintained during this period. The identity of the product in the field will
             remain masked. The observer will document all actions taken.
                                      i            .,      -

       3.     If the recommendations provided by SPTF/SPAI are unsuccessful, the facility
             employee can attempt to solve the problem. The observer will document the
             actions taken by the employee responsible for screen reclamation and the
             success or failure of the actions.
                                      i
                                      !         •             -       •
       4.     If a medical emergency arises, CHEMTREC, the emergency response center
             of the Chemical  Manufacturers Association, has volunteered to respond to
             emergency phone calls to the manufacturer by identifying masked products
             with chemical components and providing  medical information.  The phone
             number for CHEMTREC  will be the emergency phone number listed on the
             MSDS.                   i
                                       105

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        APPENDIX G: Methodology for SPTF Performance Demonstrations
A.     Purpose of Testing

       Performance data will be collected jfor each product system in a laboratory setting at
the Screen Printing Technical Foundation (SPTF) and also in production runs at 23 volunteer
facilities. The testing methodology for thejboth phases of the demonstrations was developed
by consensus with the involvement of EPA; product manufacturers, and screen printers.  The
protocol was designed to allow the evaluation of the maximum number of product systems
given the resources available to the project.

       The intent of the  SPTF evaluations  is to assure that the product systems sent to
printers would provide an acceptable level of performance.   Screening at SPTF  will also
provide another set of observations to compare with in-facility demonstration results.   AIL
evaluations will be conducted under consistent screen conditions (e.g., tension,  mesh type,
emulsion type, thread count, image) and ezich product system will be tested on three imaged
screens; one with solvent-based ink, one tyith UV-cured ink and one with water-based ink.
B.     Testing Methodology
                                      |    :          ..                      -
       Evaluate each product system as follows:
                                      i
       1.     Prepare three screens for printing according to the parameters listed in section
             C.      '                 |
       2.     Place a sufficient quantity of the solvent-based ink in the stenciled screen and
             thoroughly work into the screen with a squeegee.  Card out extra ink ajid
             allow the screen to sit for approximately 15 minutes.  Remove the ink from
             the screen following the instructions provided to SPTF by the manufacturer.
             Wipe or wash off the ink (depending on instructions) until it appears that no
             more ink is coming off on the cloth or in the rinse.  Use only enough product
             to accomplish ink removal to this degree.  Record the application procedure,
             the time it takes to complete, the ink removal (time using a digital stop watch),
             the  amount  of  product used (measure to the nearest  0.5 ounce), the
             temperature, humidity, product dilution ratio, number of wipes used, ease of
             use, and comment on the product performance.
                                      i
       3.     Repeat step 2 on  the second screen using  UV-cured ink and on the third
             screen using water-based ink.
                                      j                                      .
       4.     Allow each screen to sit {for approximately 8 hours  to  simulate a shop
             situation.   Record the time  delay  for each screen.   Apply  the  emulsion
             remover to the screen according to the manufacturers instructions.  Record the
             application procedure, the time it  takes to complete the emulsion removal

                                        106

                                      i
                                      i                           •    -

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              (time using a digital stop watch), the amount of product used (measure to the
              nearest 0.5 ounce), productjdilution ratio, number of wipes used, and ease of
              use. Also document if the sjtencil dissolved easily or slowly, an evaluation of
              how much scrubbing was needed, if any emulsion was still present, and if amy
              ink haze or  stencil stain  remained on the mesh.  If an initial attempt to
              remove all the stencil fails, record the screen condition and apply the product
              again.                   i
                                      I
       5.     Apply the haze remover product according to the instructions supplied by the
             manufacturer. Record the application procedure, the time it takes to complete
             the haze removal (time using a digital stop watch), the amount of product
             used (measure to the nearest 0.5 ounce), product dilution ratio, number of
             wipes used, and ease of use. Also report if any ink haze or stencil stain is
             present on the mesh. If an initial attempt to remove the haze fails, document
             the screen condition, and apply the product to the screen again.

       6;     Based on the testing method  described  above,  SPTF will determine the
             effectiveness of all of the products submitted.  This will include evaluating the
             manufacturer's application instructions for each product and ensuring that the
             application technique specified for that product will enable the product to
             work effectively.   If the application technique  specified for  a particular
             product is determined to limit the effectiveness of the product or in any other
             way negatively affect performance, a second application  technique will be
             chosen and tested. Only products deemed effective by SPTF will be used
             in the field demonstration; portion of the project.


C.     Testing Parameters - Alternative Chemicals

       For each ink type tested  (solvent-based, UV-cured, and water-based), use  the
       following screen parameters:     ;

       Mesh Count per Inch/Thread Diameter:
                                        39Q/34 LE for UV ink
                                        260/40 LE for solvent- and water-based ink

       Supplier/Manufacturer: Tetko/Swiss Silk of Switzerland

       Brand Name of Fabric: PeCap LE (Low Elongation)
                                      i      '       " • -                 •
       Mesh Opening: 26 microns      !

       Fabric Thickness:  60 microns

       Twill or Plain Weave: Twill Weave
                                      i
                                      i
                                      !  107

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Suggested Tension:        26 N/cm for UV ink
                         20 N/cm for solvent- and water-based ink

Frame Type: Aluminum

Frame Size: 18" x 20" Outside Dimensions

Tensioning System: Tetko SST Pneumatic Clamp System

Adhesive: KIWO Kiwobond 1000JHMT
                              !           '   '       :
Tensioning Procedure:         I
1.     Bring screen directly up to tension using predetermined pressure settings on
      pneumatic gauges.
2.     Let screen set 5 minutes.  |
3.     Check tension, and retension if necessary.
4.     Adhere with frame adhesive.
5.     Check final tension and record.

Stencil Brand and Type: KIWO Poly Plus SRX dual cure direct emulsion
                              !•'•••         -          -      '
Scoop Coater Brand and Edge: Tetko Pro-EM round edged coater 12" length
                              j                         •        •
Coating Method: 2 coats on print side, 3 coats on squeegee  side, wet on wet.
                              I ,           ,
Image Description: A 10" x 8" pattern of Vz" checkers and  a ByChrome halftone
             exposure image.

Exposure System Description: Olec 5KW Metal Halide lamp with 36" distance
             and light integrator.!

Wipe Type: Molnlycke brand P-Tork made from rayon and pure cellulose.
             •          •    .   ].'••-•"'   •   •      .'   •"•
Tnk Types                     !
Solvent-based Ink: Naz-Dar 9700 Series All Purpose Ink 9724 Black
UV Ink: Nor-Cote CD 1019 Opaque Black
Water-based Ink: TW Graphics WB-5018 Black
                                108

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Testing Parameters - Sodium Bicarbonate Alternative Technology

During the sodium bicarbonate test, the following parameters were used:
      Sodium Bicarbonate:     j 75 micron particle size
                                 Delivered at 1 - 1.5 pounds/minute
                                 Sodium Bicarbonate delivered at 5 - 30 psi
       Screen:
      Inks:
      Ink application:
     j  Water delivered at 200 - 250 psi

       Polyester mesh mounted on wood frames
       Dual-cure emulsion
       13" x 23" outside diameter

     |  Same inks  as were  used for the alternative
     !  chemical systems testing
Each type of ink was applied to one screen, carded off,
and th|e screen was allowed to dry for 18 hours before
starting the cleaning test.
                                 109

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                                 APPENDIX H:
                                      i  , .
                                      j
                            Participating Manufacturers

  The participation of the following screen printing manufacturers was critical to the success
  of the performance demonstration.  These manufacturers can be contacted through the
  information given below:
Amerchem
165 W. Mittel Drive
Wood Dale, IL 60191
Contact: J.P. Godinez
708-616-8600

Autotype Americas
2050 Hammond Drive
Schaumberg, IL 60173-3810
Contact: Neil Bolding
708-303-5900

Ciot International Services
48 Marlin Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981-1279
Contact: George Ciottone
201-503-1922

Franmar Chemical Associates
P.O. Box 483
Normal, IL 61761
Contact: Frank Sliney
309-452-7526

Hydro Engineering, Ihc;
865 West 2600 South
Salt Lake City, UT  84119
Contact: Bob Roberts
801-247-8424

Image Technology,  Inc.
1170 North Armando St.
Anaheim, CA 92806
Contact: Harry Emtiaz
714-632-5292
KIWO
P.O. Box 1009
Seabrook, TX 77586
Contact: Clark King
1-800-KIWO-USA

Nichols and Associates, Inc.
111575 Rupp Drive
Burnsvffle, MN 55337
Contact: Oliver Nichols
612-895-1766

Ruemelin Manufacturing
3860 N. Palmer St.
Milwaukee, WI 53212
Contact: Charlie Ruemelin
414-962-6500
                                       110

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                                  APPENDIX!:
      VOLUNTEER FACILITY PROFILES AND PERFORMANCE DETAILS
 PRODUCT SYSTEM ALPHA
 .(  •
 Facility Profiles
       	                            I
       The operating conditions for each ifacility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
 using Product System Alpha for one month are described below.   This  information is
 provided as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of Product System
 Alpha at each of these three facilities.   j
                                     I
       Profile of Facility 8            I  '
       Facility 8 prints labels, nameplates[  and graphic overlays, primarily on plastics, but
 they also do some printing on paper and metals.  Their typical run length is 100 sheets, and
 approximately 75%  of their orders are repeat orders.  Of the 40 - 50 employees at this
 facility, approximately 3 are involved inj screen reclamation.  All printing is done with
 solvent-based inks; both vinyl and epoxy kiks are used. All screens used in the Performance
 Demonstrations were made of a monoester mesh that was treated with a roughening paste
 and  a degreaser when each  screen  was  initially  stretched.   Mesh  count during the
 demonstration period ranged from 195 - 330 threads/inch and an indirect stencil was used
 for all screens.  The average screen size used at this facility is 24.5 inches x 31.75 niches
 (778 in2) and 10 - 15 screens are reclaimeid daily.
                                     ]•          . -         . ...        ...       .

       Currently, Facility 8 uses an ink remover that is a solvent blend of 50% toluene and
 50% methyl ethyl ketone, as well as a proprietary blend of propylene glycol ethers (< 30%),
 Stoddard Solvent (apetroleum distillate) (<:5%), and d-limonene (<20%)i Asanemulsion
 remover, they use a formulation consisting primarily of sodium periodate.  Haze remover
 is  only  applied to  approximately 25% of the screens and information on the chemical
 formulation of their haze remover is not currently available. Standard application procedures
 at  this facility are comparable to the procedures recommended for the alternative productis.

      Profile of Facility 13           ]
      Facility 13 prints store  displays, decals, and outdoor signs.  Their products aire
printed on plastics,  paper, and metal.  A typical  run length  is 500 -  1000 sheets  and
 approximately 25 % of their orders are repeat orders.  There are about 70 employees
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 390 threads/inch.  The screen size typicality used in this facility is 49 inches x 41 inches,
and approximately 20 screens are reclaimed daily.
       Profile of Facility 14           |
       Facility 14 prints  three-dimensional panels, pressure-sensitive labels, and specialty
items for advertising.  Primarily, they print on plastics and metals, but they also do some
printing on paper.  A typical run is 100 - 300 sheets and approximately 85 % of their orders
are repeat orders.  Of the approximately112 employees at this facility,  3  are involved in
screen reclamation activities.  Several different types of ink are commonly used at Facility
14, including thermal setting,  vinyls, ahd UV-cured, and  small amounts  of lacquers,
enamels, and epoxies. All screens used  in the Performance Demonstrations were made of
a monofilament polyester  and a direct photo stencil emulsion was applied. Mesh count during
the demonstration period ranged from 305 i- 390 threads/inch.  The average  screen size used
at this facility is 12 ft2 and approximately 112 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                      I  ,
       For ink removal,  Facility 14 uses either a product consisting of 99% tripropylene
glycol methyl ether, or a  proprietary solvent blend sold by a manufacturer not participating
in the performance demonstration. MSDS information on the latter product  states it contains
no hazardous substances,  is non-flammable, has no SARA reportable chemicals, and meets
California's South Coast  Air Quality Management District requirements.  Their emulsion
remover is a formulation  consisting primarily of sodium periodate.  For haze removal, they
use  either  an  aqueous  blend which  {consists  of  potassium  hydroxide (27%)  and
tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (11 %), or an aqueous blend that contains sodium hydroxide (5 %)
and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (17%).  ijhe application procedures the facility  uses when
applying their standard products are very similar to the methods used to apply the alternative
products, however, haze  remover is only applied to approximately 6% of the screens when
using the standard product.             [
Product System Aloha Performance Details
       Performance Details from Facility 8
       Over the four week demonstration
period, this facility reclaimed 48 screens with the
       — - — — ~   — - -	_-_--__.	  A     f          ^
Product System Alpha.  The screen printing manager reclaimed the screens himself during
the demonstration period. He was willing jto experiment with different application techniques
to improve the performance of the alternative products.

       The printer thought the ink remover performance was satisfactory, but results were
inconsistent and the product required extra scrubbing effort to achieve acceptable results.
He noted that the ink remover performante was unacceptable on epoxy inks, even with the
extra effort.  One specific observation was that the ink remover did not stay wet on the
screen which made wiping more  difficult.  Performance improved,  however, when he
sprayed the product both on the rag  and Jon the screen.  After using the ink remover, the
printer evaluated each screen and reported that the ink was removed effectively on 62% of
the screens.                           i
                                         112

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       Typically, this facility uses hot water to start the breakdown of their emulsion. When
following the manufacturer's application instructions for the Alpha emulsion remover, which
does not require hot water, the printer found the emulsion came off in "strings," instead of
dissolving.  The stringy, solid mass clogged the drain.  To solve this problem, the printer
rinsed the screen with hot water before applying the emulsion remover. This additional step
took an extra 3-5 minutes, but the emulsion remover performance improved.

       The haze remover did not sufficiently remove the haze on approximately 20% of the
screens.  The printer wiped these screens with lacquer thinner (which easily removed the
haze) before reusing the screen.  The observer confirmed that this supplementary wipe down
was necessary and noted that the white rag| with lacquer thinner on it turned black as the dark
haze was removed from the screen.  Overall, the printer felt the alternative haze remover
performance was not acceptable.

       Data from the printer's product evaluation forms was analyzed to determine if there
were  any correlations between variations' in the product performance and changes in the
demonstration conditions (e.g., ink type, e'mulsion type, screen condition). The printer was
asked to evaluate the screen after using each product (ink remover, emulsion remover, and
haze remover).  In addition, the printer recorded the amount of ink remaining on the screen
at the start of reclamation.  In reviewing this data, it was found that for screens where the
initial ink remaining on the screen was high (i.e., it was not carded off well), there was an
ink stain remaining on the screen after emulsion removal (for 100% of the screens in the
demonstration). When the initial ink remaining on the  screen was recorded as "low", an ink
stain remained after emulsion removal for [only 33 % of the screens.  This could indicate that
if the screen is effectively carded before ink removal (as the manufacturer recommends), the
product performance may improve significantly.  Overall, 76% of the screens had an ink
stain or stencil stain after using the emulsion remover.  After applying the  haze remover,
20% of the screens could not be reused because of the remaining haze.
       During the four week demonstration, this facility did not notice any change in screen
failure rate or any deterioration of the screen mesh.  The printer had no problems with print
image quality while using Product System Alpha, however, he felt he avoided potential print
quality problems by cleaning the screens! again with his own ink remover before reusing
them.                                 !
                                      I
                                      !
       Performance Details from Facility 13
     , Overall, this facility was not satisfied with the performance of System Alpha. The
alternative products required more time and effort than their standard products and were not
as effective.in cleaning the screens as their standard products.  Because of the extra time
required, the facility could not reclaim screens fast enough  to keep up with their need to
reuse the screens.  The screen reclaimer also did not like the strong smells associated with
the alternative products.   For these reasons, the printing manager made the decision to
discontinue participation in the demonstrations after two weeks. More experimenting with
application methods could have lead to improved performance, but this facility did not seem
willing to try.  The facility contact also mentioned  that  the reclamation employee  was not

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 reliable  and that he  did  not feel confident in the screen reclamation results that  were
 provided.  In analyzing the limited data from this facility, the performance of the alternative
 products did  not seem  to be  affected Iby ink  type,  ink color, mesh type, or  other
 demonstration conditions.               |

       The ink remover did not perform as well as their usual product.  It removed ink less
 effectively than was expected and involved more applications and rinsing (which meant more
 time) to get the ink out of the mesh.  The only application changes attempted were to use
 more product and effort.  The added scrubbing was considered a very negative characteristic
 of the ink remover.                     !

       Even at full strength the emulsion remover required more scrubbing and time to
 remove the emulsion  from the screens than their usual product.  The alternative emulsion
 remover did remove the  stencil, however] because of the extra time required, the  facility
 discontinued use of the emulsion remover after the first week of demonstrations.

       The haze remover did not reduce stains  in the mesh as effectively as  the facility's
 usual haze remover.  Almost every time the haze remover was used, the facility had to
 follow with their usual haze remover to get the screen clean enough for reuse.  When using
 their standard product system, this facility! needed to use a haze remover for only about 30
 percent of their screens. Facility 13 did not experiment with application methods other than
 extra  scrubbing  and   they stopped using the haze  remover after the  first  week  of
 demonstrations.

       No changes were noted in the screens used with the alternative products. Longer-
 term use of the alternative products may liave damaged the screens or reduced screen life
 because of the excessive scrubbing that was needed with Product System Alpha.

       Performance Details from Facility 14
       Performance of System  Alpha  w,as average at  Facility  14.    The results are
 complicated by the fact that three different' people were involved in the demonstrations and
 the two original screen reclamation employees were terminated after about three weeks into
 the demonstration period. The initial data quality seemed good, but a lot of information was
 missing from the forms that were submitted from the last week(s) of employment of the
 terminated employees.   The new  screen reclaimer may  not have followed  the same
procedures when using the alternative products.

       The ink remover  worked fairly well, but  sometimes had to be reapplied for the
 screens to be thoroughly  cleaned.  The prpcluct worked particularly well with vinyl inks.
The ink remover's performance was improved by applying the ink remover immediately after
a print run and letting it sit on the screen fjor up to a day before it was pressure rinsed off.
The manufacturer's directions do not give any recommendations of the soaking time for the
ink remover.                            !
       The emulsion remover was reported
to have worked well at this facility and it worked
                                        114

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faster than their usual product.  In one case, however, the emulsion remover left a slight
green tint in the screens, but this was removed by their usual haze remover.

       The initial screen reclaimers felt that the haze remover had average performance, but
the final reclaimer felt that it left more of ja haze in the mesh than she expected.  This later
reclaimer only used the product on a few screens and may not  have applied the ink remover
immediately after the press run which the original employees were doing to improve the
performance of the ink remover. This may| explain why the new employee thought that more
haze than usual was left on the screens.  The alternative haze remover and the standard hzize
remover used at this facility are almost identical chemically.  Also, the print quality was very
rarely documented by this facility, although it may be safe to assume that problems with
print quality would have been reported, ifi obvious.
                                      j                       .
       The analysis of the data from this ifacility did not show any correlation between the
performance of the alternative products and any variations in ink type, ink color, mesh type,
or other demonstration conditions.  No side effects on the screens or changes in the screen
failure rates were noted during the demonstrations.
                                        115

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ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT BETA

Facility Profile

       The operating conditions for the facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
using Product Beta for one month are described below. This information is provided as a
basis of comparison to review the performance results of Product System Beta at the facility.

       Profile for Facility 12           j
       Facility  12 prints  graphic overlays,  labels,  and flexible membrane  switches on
plastics,  paper, and metals.  Their typical run length is one hour, and approximately 70%
of their orders are repeat orders.  There are about 10 employees involved in screen printing
at this location, and approximately 4 are inyolved in screen reclamation. Solvent-based vinyl
and polyester inks used at this facility. Screens with mesh counts of 195 - 390 threads/inch
and capillary film emulsions were used during the demonstrations. The average screen size
at this facility is 9 ft2 and 10 -  15 screensj are reclaimed daily.
                                      i         •
       This  facility uses a solvent blend, ink remover containing 50% toluene and 50%
acetone.  Their emulsion remover consists Iprimarily of sodium periodate. For haze removal,
they use a proprietary solvent blend which includes sodium hydroxide and cyclohexanone.
The method Facility 12 typically uses for ink removal is similar to the method recommended
for the alternative ink remover.         i
                                        116

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PRODUCT SYSTEM CHI

Facility Profiles

       The operating conditions for both facilities that volunteered to reclaim their screens
using Product System Chi for one month are described below. This information is provided
as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of Product System  Chi at each
of the two facilities.                     I
                                       r                  -
                                       i      ,.    .           ป
       Profile of Facility 3              i
       Facility 3 prints decals and vacuum formed sheets on plastics and paper.  A typical
run is  250 sheets,  and 71 % of their ordejrs are repeat  orders.   Of the approximately 40
employees at this facility, 1 - 3 are involved in screen reclamation.  All printing is done with
solvent-based inks.  Screens used  in the Performance Demonstrations were polyester or
monoester/polyester with a mesh count of 180 - 370 threads/inch. The facility used a dual
cure emulsion.  The average screen size at this facility is 15 ft2 and approximately 15 screens
are reclaimed daily.                     j
                                       I          *"•"•      -        ,         '     •
       As their standard ink remover, Fajcility 3 uses a proprietary  solvent blend, which
consists of n-butyl acetate (81%) and toluene (19%).  For emulsion removal, they use  a
formulation consisting of 100% sodium periodate.  They use two different haze removal
products at this facility. One product is a proprietary solvent blend which contains at least
sodium hydroxide and  cyclohexanone.   Their other haze removal product, sold by  a
manufacturer who is not participating in  the performance demonstration,  contains no
carcinogens, no ingredients with TLVs or PELs, and no petroleum derivatives, according
to the  MSDS.  Application procedures for the alternative products were the same as the
facility's standard procedures,  except in the case of the  ink remover.  In their standard
practice they rinse the ink off with a pressure wash, and when using the alternative method,
the ink is wiped off with a cloth.         j
                                       I
                                       i        "
       Profile of FacUity 21            1
       Facility 21 prints decals for glass  and ceramics.  Their typical run length is  1000
sheets  and approximately 50%  of their orders are repeat orders.  There are approximately
15 -20 employees at this facility, and 1-3 people are responsible for screen reclamation.
During the Performance Demonstration, this facility used solvent-based inks, a capillary film
emulsion, and screens  with mesh counts  that ranged from 60  - 390 threads/inch.  Their
average screen size is 3 feet x 3 feet and 20 - 25 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                       I   -  "            •    • - .
       The  standard ink remover at Facility 21  is a proprietary product, sold by  a
manufacturer  not  participating  in the  performance  demonstration,  that contains no
carcinogens, no ingredients with TLVs orj PELs, and no petroleum derivatives, according
to the MSDS.  Their emulsion remover contains primarily sodium periodate.  Their standard
haze remover  is a  proprietary solvent I blend  which includes sodium hydroxide and
cyclohexanone. The application procedure: recommended for the alternative products is very
similar to the  application method the facility uses for their standard  products.  Typically,

                                        117

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 their standard haze remover is only used Jon 1 % of the screens reclaimed.  The need for the
 alternative haze remover was similar;  it
 reclaimed during demonstrations.
was required on one screen out of the 48 screens
 Product System Chi Performance Details from Each Facility
       Performance Details from Facility 3
       Throughout the performance demonstration period, the facility contact was asked
about the performance of the components1 of Product System Chi. He was generally pleased
with the performance of the ink remover and emulsion remover, although the ink remover
took longer to solubilize the inks than thpir standard product in some cases,  when used as
a haze remover, the ink remover usually! did not remove the ghost image from the screen.
Overall, the facility contact remarked that he did not think that System Chi would be a viable
long-term alternative reclaiming system for his plant.

       The ink remover worked acceptably on all screens, although it was somewhat slower
to dissolve the inks than the facility's  regular ink remover.   The printer tried using the
product to clean the squeegee and flood bar on the press after printing  runs, but found that
it was slow to break down the ink and lefjt an oily film.  After several cycles of printing and
reclaiming with the demonstration screens, a noticeable ink haze began to build up in the
screens,  indicating that the ink remover was not removing all the ink from the mesh.  The
buildup was not enough to prevent successful printing of regular jobs with the screens, but
the facility contact felt that the performance of the screens on a transparent ink image or a
flood coat would be unacceptable.  There were some variations in the time it took to  remove
the ink,  ranging from 2 to 12 minutes. However, the recorded data does not show any
correlation between the ink remover time! and any of the variable screen conditions, such as
ink color or number of impressions.
       The emulsion remover worked well, with no notable variations in performance among
the screens used for the demonstration period. The facility contact did not think the product
was chemically different from what he hid been using previously.

       This system did not include a haze remover; instead the manufacturer recommended
applying the ink remover again to remove any remaining haze.  At Facility 3,  the ink
remover did not satisfactorily remove-thje haze.  Ghost images continued to build on the
screens throughout the demonstration period.  The facility normally uses two haze remover
products.  One haze remover is a milder chemical, which leaves a small amount of ink haze
in the screens.  This product is used by [itself on a regular basis until ghost images in the
screen become unacceptable. The other haze remover, which is a stronger chemical, is then
used to de-haze the screen to a baseline clean state, after which the screen reclaimer returns
to the milder chemical for as many reclaimings as possible. The facility contact remarked
that the performance of the alternative haze remover is similar to their "milder" regular haze
remover, except that the ink haze built up faster using the alternative product.

                                     i    -.--.._.    .    -   ••,...-           •
                                     I                               -
                                     1   118

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       Product System Chi did not appear to cause screen failure, or have any noticeable
permanent effects  on the screens  or frames.  The three squirt bottles shipped with the
products started leaking around the triggers during the first week of the demonstration, and
had to be replaced. It is  not known if this is an effect of the products or not.
                                      j'..     -     '   -  .
       Performance Details from Facility 21
       This facility was generally pleased jwith the performance of System Chi.  Currently,
the facility uses an automatic screen washer, which cleans the screens in a closed system that
recycles the solvent.  This was a very organized facility and the quality of the data received
was probably quite high.  They thoroughly documented the  demonstrations and only one
screen reclaimer was involved in the demonstrations.   The production manager  was
responsible for monitoring the future print| quality on screens reclaimed with the alternative
products.  He paid very careful attention to screen conditions and would have noticed any
deleterious effects of the alternative products.  No changes in the screen mesh or print
quality were noted during the demonstrations.
                                       I • 	•  	-•  • .--   '•   - •  •   -•-  •;.   	;•
       The  ink remover  worked well,  however it was  not as efficient as their standard
product.  The facility particularly liked  the ink remover's performance with metallic inks.
When used on screens with cover (flux) coats or with other clear ink coats, the ink remover
did not work well,  although the facility has| similar problems with their current ink remover.
Added scrubbing was needed to remove  ink from very coarse (low mesh count) screens. Ink
color and number of impressions did not seem to affect ink remover performance.

       The emulsion remover worked muj;h better ("excellent") than the product they had
been using.  Although it  worked very well on both emulsion types, the emulsion remover
required a little more effort to remove capillary film emulsion than direct emulsion.

       For Product System Chi, a second {application of the ink remover was used in place
of a haze remover as needed.  At this facility, a haze remover was  needed on only one
Screen.  On that screen, a ghost image remained in the mesh after using the ink remover one
tune.  After reapplying the ink remover two more times, the image was lightened enough
to reuse the screen. Normally, this facility does not use a haze remover.
                                       i             .  •    •
                                      I  119

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PRODUCT SYSTEM DELTA

Facility Profiles

       The operating conditions for eachi facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
using Product System Delta for  one month are described below.   This information is
provided as a basis of comparison to revibw the performance results of alternative product
system at each of these two facilities.

       Profile of Facility 10
       Facility  10 prints store displays, ppmarily on paper, but they also print on plastics,
metal, ceramic, glass, and other materials-! Their typical run length is 200 - 500 impressions
and less than 5 % of their orders are repeat  orders.  Of the approximately 25 employees at
this facility, 1 - 3 are involved in screen reclamation activities.  The screens used in the
Performance Demonstrations were twill mesh with mesh counts of 305 - 390 threads/inch
and a direct photo stencil was applied.  The average screen size at this facility is 70 inches
x 100 inches and 5-10 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                      I                            :
       Facility  10 uses  a proprietary blejid ink remover consisting of at least propylene
glycbl ethers and dimethyl adipate.  For emulsion removal, they use a proprietary aqueous
mixture which contains periodate salt (< 10 %). Their haze remover is a proprietary aqueous
mixture which contains sodium hydroxide (< 15%) and is only required on 2 - 5%  of the
screens reclaimed, The application method recommended by the alternative product system
manufacturer is the same as the procedure used for this facility's standard product system
with the exception of the ink remover. The alternative ink remover is washed off with a
pressure wash and the standard ink removed is wiped off with rags.

       Profile of Facility 11           \
       Facility 11 prints fleet graphics and pressure sensitive decals. Typically, they print
about 100 units per run and 50 % of their orders are repeat orders. There are approximately
35 employees at this facility, and 1-3 people are involved in screen reclamation activities.
During the Performance Demonstrations, this facility used UV-cured inks and a direct photo
stencil.  Screens with a monofilament twill! weave and a mesh count of 390 threads/inch were
used.  The average screen frame size us|ed in this facility is 68 inches  x 88 niches and
approximately 5 screens are reclaimed peir day.
                                      i.                                  .         .
       Facility  11 uses  a standard ink remover that is  a proprietary product, sold by a
manufacturer not participating in this project. According to the MSDS, this product contains
no  carcinogens,  no  ingredients with TLVs or  PELs,  and no  petroleum derivatives.
Information on the emulsion remover used at Facility 11 was not available.  Their haze
remover is a proprietary aqueous mixture jthat contains sodium hydroxide (< 15 %), but it is
used on only 1 - 3 % of the screens reclaimed. The application procedures for the alternative
product system  are very similar to this facility's standard application methods.
                                      I
Product System Delta Performance Details from Each Facility
                                      I             .                    '     •'   ,
                                      I  120

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       Performance Details from Facility 10
       System Delta had average success at this facility. The ink remover performance was
acceptable and the emulsion remover wojrked very well.  A second application of the ink
remover as a haze remover did not remove the haze from the screens, therefore the facility
used their standard haze remover when'needed.   After three weeks, the print manager
decided they did not want to continue their participation in the performance demonstrations
because their standard ink  remover and haze remover worked better than the alternative
products.                             !

       The ink remover's effectiveness was considered average at this facility.  Prior to the
performance demonstrations,  the facility (was using an ink remover that had a chemical
composition very similar to that of the ink remover supplied in Product System Delta.  This
facility cards off excess ink and also wipes the screen with a rag so there is very little ink
left on the screen when the ink remover j product is applied. The reclaimers did not like
using this product because of its strong sinell and many of the employees felt that the ink
remover gave them  headaches. Facility 10 did not use a pressure wash to remove the ink,
as recommended by the manufacturer.  [Instead,  they wiped off the dissolved ink with
reusable rags.                          I

       The emulsion remover was very effective when diluted one part emulsion remover
to one part water (the manufacturer recommends diluting with 4-5 parts water).  At this
dilution level, the reclaimers were very pleased with its performance and wanted to continue
using the product. This facility also liked the emulsion remover's lack of odor. When they
first started using this emulsion remover, jthey diluted it in 4 parts water, as recommended.
They found it did not work as well as their usual emulsion remover, so they tried diluting
it in two parts water, and found it worked [best when one part emulsion remover was diluted
in one part water.                      j

       The facility infrequently documented the performance of the ink remover as a haze
remover when applied  a second time. After only a few screens, they felt that their usual
haze remover worked much more effectively. On most of the screens, no haze remover was
needed, however, when it was required, Facility 10 used their standard haze remover alter
using the alternative ink remover and emulsion remover.
                                      !                '               •-
       Facility 10 did  not notice that the  alternative products performed differently with
screen conditions. The data did not showjany correlations between screen conditions (e.g.,
ink color, ink drying time)  and indicators of performance (e.g.,  time to clean, quantity of
product used). The printer felt that screens  that sat around for days before reclamation were
more difficult to clean than screens cleaned immediately after the print run ended.
                                      I                •-           •
       No changes  were noticed  in screen wear or in screen failure rates.  Print image
quality was good, however, since they we're using their own haze remover, it is difficult to
determine if there would have been any changes to the print image quality as a result of
using only the alternative product system.!
                                        121

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       Performance Details from Facility 11
       Overall this facility felt that System Delta worked well. The printing manager felt that
if the alternative products are actually safer for  his workers or for the environment, then he
would like to use this, product system at! his facility.  The application procedures for the
alternative products closely resembled their usual reclamation procedures and this similarity
may have made Facility 11 more receptive to using System Delta.

       The ink remover effectively remoyed the ink from the screens in all instances.  A
UV-cured ink system was  used with all screens in the demonstrations.   The, printer
commented that the ink remover was "less effective" when the ink dried on the screen for
a long time.  The data from this facility  shows that screens  where the reclaimer took 5
minutes or less to remove the ink had dried an average of 2.7 hours prior to ink removal.
Screens where the ink removal step took longer  than 5 minutes had dried an average of 21.6
hours. By applying the ink remover immediately after the press run, as recommended by
the manufacturer, it appears time spent on ink removal could possibly be reduced.  Facility
11 followed the manufacturers instructions and used a pressure wash to remove the ink from
the screen. Before the ink removal step, jmost  of the ink was carded off the screen.
       The  emulsion remover  worked
very
                                             well for  this  facility at  a variety  of
concentrations.  The initial reclamations were performed without diluting the emulsion
remover and performance was very good, j After trying several different dilution ratios, they
found a mix of one part product to three parts water worked very well at this facility. After
applying the ink remover and emulsion reinover, the screens were clean enough that a haze
removing  step was unnecessary.  Even without a haze remover step during the reclamation
process, the print quality  was excellent.  When using their usual products, this facility
attempts to minimize their use of haze remover; they only uses haze remover to clean a
screen when there is a haze that has built up over time or when  much adhesive remains in
the screen.                            j
            '                          j"  '   :  "   ...     ',             .         :
       The same  screen reclaimer performed all of the demonstrations and evaluated the
printing performance of the reclaimed screens. However, the reclaimer was moved to the
position of printer during the demonstrations period.  Undoubtedly, this change reduced the
number of screens that were reclaimed wijth the alternative product and the forms were also
lacking in details.  Since he was pleased with the alternative product performance, he did not
take the time  to  record many specific details.  Overall the use of System  Delta did not
produce any deleterious effects of the screen mesh or subsequent print image quality. The
printing supervisor noted that the  alternative products may be reducing their screen failure
rate.          • •            .           I
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 PRODUCT SYSTEM EPSILON       j
                                       i
                                       I    .        .             ..      .
 Facility Profiles                        j
                                       i                       .

       The operating conditions for each [facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
 using Product System Epsilon for one mjonth are described  below.  This information is
 provided as a basis of comparison to review the performance  results of alternative product
 system at each of these two facilities.

       Profile of Facility 20            |
       Facility 20 prints banners and point-of-purchase displays on paper, plastic, metals,
 ceramics, and glass. Their typical run  is 20 parts and about 20% of their orders are repeat
 orders.   Of the  approximately 10 employees at this  facility,  1 - 3 are involved in screen
 reclamation activities.  The facility uses a variety of solvent-based inks including vinyl,
 enamel, and a multipurpose ink.  They use  a  dual  cure emulsion.  Screens used in the
 Performance Demonstrations  were  polyester (untreated) with a mesh count of 83  -280
 threads/inch. The average screen size at this facility is 4 feet x 5 feet and approximately 5 -
 10 screens are reclaimed daily.         ;

       The standard ink remover product ;it Facility 20 is an acetone blend. For emulsion
 removal, they use a proprietary aqueous imixture which includes periodate salt (<10%).
 Their standard haze remover is a  proprietary  aqueous mixture with sodium  hydroxide
 (< 15%).  There are some differences between  the application method for the alternative
 product system and that of their standard system.  The alternative ink remover is rubbed into
 the screen with rags and then pressure washed.  For the standard product, the ink is wiped
 off with rags and there is no wash.  When using the alternative haze remover, the facility
 lets the product  set on the screen for ones or two minutes, however,  with the alternative
 product, the wait time is 10 -  30 minutes.  These differences  in application procedure did
 not seem to affect the opinions of the printers evaluating the products.

       Profile of Facility 24            j
       The majority of the products printed by Facility 24 are pressure sensitive mylar labels
 and polycarbonate Lexan face plates.  Run lengths are typically 500 -  1000 impressions, and
 approximately 50% of their business is for repeat orders.  There are 15 - 20 employees
 involved in production operations at this facility and 2 - 3 are involved in screen reclamation
 operations.  The facility uses both solvent-based inks  and UV  inks; sometimes on the same
 screen.  They use a direct photo stencil andi a monofilament (untreated) polyester mesh.  AH
 screens used in the Performance Demonstrations had a mesh count of 355 threads/inch.  Tide
 average screen size at this facility is 36" x|36" and 3 - 5 screens are reclaimed each week.

       Facility 24 uses a proprietary solvent blend  ink remover consisting primarily of
 cyclohexanone, diacetone alcohol and  dipropylene glycol methyl ether.  Their emulsion
remover is a proprietary aqueous mixture'with  at least sodium periodate.  Their standard
 haze  remover   is  an  aqueous blend  consisting  of  sodium hydroxide   (5%)  and
tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (< 15%). Application procedures for the alternative products were
                                       i                         .
                                       i 123    '   " •"                  ...-..-

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 very similar to the methods of application^ for this facility's standard products.

 Product System Eosilon Performance Details from Each Facility

        Performance Details from Facility 20
        Users of the reclaiming products jwere  asked to evaluate the performance of the
 components of System F^silon relative to the facility's regular system. The screen reclaimer
 thought that  the products  were generally  better than their previously used ones,   llie
 operations manager, however, felt that the ink remover did not perform quite as well in
 cutting some inks as their previously used products.   No evaluation sheets were received
 from Facility 20, although the facility repojrted that they sent them. Unfortunately, they did
 not make  copies of the sheets  before  they  were mailed.   Therefore,  all performance
 information from Facility 20 was received [through the observer's on-site documentation and
 through weekly telephone conversations with the facility.  The observer interviewed both the
 reclamation employee and the operations manager, who was also one of the printers who
 used the ink remover.                   j

        The ink remover worked acceptably! in the facility, although some of the printers who
 used it complained that it acted slowly. Performance was not as good on catalyzed inks as
 on other solvent-based inks. The catalyzed inks also require more effort to remove with the
 facility's regular ink remover, but the alternative product did not perform as well as the
 regular product in this case. The alternative product did eventually remove all the ink from
 the screens.  The operations manager, who also used the product, commented that it was
, moie of an respiratory irritant than their previously used product; he said that the alternative
 product smelled bad and made him dizzy.
                                        i  .            -
       The emulsion remover worked well at this facility.  One  screen, with an 83 mesh
 screen that had been used with an aggressive ink system, required at least two applications
 of emulsion remover to clean.  Two applications of emulsion remover are also required when
 using the facility's standard emulsion rempver with this type of screen. The reclaimer felt
 that either the coarse mesh or the ink system could have made the screen more difficult to
 clean.
                                        I
       Haze remover performance was acceptable.  Again, when reclaiming screens with a
 mesh count of 83 threads per inch, the haze remover also had to be applied 2 or 3 times.
                                        i                      •     . •   •
       Overall, the use of Product System; Epsilon had no deleterious effects on the screen
 mesh or on the subsequent print quality image and the printer did not notice any change in
 screen failure rate over the time period that the alternative products were in use.

       Performance Details from Facility 24
       This facility felt the ink remover and the emulsion remover worked better than their
 standard system, and the haze remover performed as well as their own product.  Screen
 printing is a relatively small part of the operations at this facility, and although they used
 Product System F^silon on all the screens ^hey reclaimed, the total number of screens over
                                      -  i   	  -.•• -.   	- •  -           .'
                                        i 124

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four weeks was 14.                     I
                                       i             •     •   '          .
       The ink remover consistently removed the both the solvent-based and the UV-cured
inks.  Although the product performance was good for both ink types, this printer found the
UV inks easier to clean than the solvent-based inks.  In  addition, the facility found the
quantity of alternative ink remover used per screen was significantly less than the quantity
used of standard product.                |
                                ;•'      I    -       •:
       The printer felt the emulsion remoyer was as effective as their standard product, and
it dissolved the stencil quickly.  Product System Epsilon haze remoyer  performance was
evaluated as the same as the facility's standard haze remover.  Although the data from this
facility  indicates that there were several jcases where  the screen could not be reused for
reverse  printing or for use with transparent inks, the printer felt that these restrictions were
not entirely due to the alternative products!  Some of the remaining ink stains may have been
on the screen prior to the start of the alternative products demonstrations.
                                       i-
      During the four weeks the products were used in this facility, no change in the screen
failure,  mesh  deterioration, or print quality were noted.  The observer felt the facility
evaluated the alternative product's performance objectively and conscientiously.  At  the
conclusion of the demonstrations, the prinier mentioned that he was interested in continuing
to use the alternative ink remover and emulsion remover.
                                        125

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PRODUCT SYSTEM GAMMA

Facility Profiles

       Profile of Facility 16
       Facility  16 prints fleet vehicle markings on vinyl film. Their typical run length is
200 sheets, and approximately 60% of their orders are repeat orders.  There are over 50
employees at this location, and 7 - 10 are involved in ink removal and 1 - 3 are involved in
screen reclamation.  For the performance demonstrations, all inks used were solvent-based
on polyester or monoflex screens with capillary film emulsions. Screens mesh counts of 200
- 390 threads/inch were used for the demonstrations. Average screen size at this facility is
12 ft2 and approximately 20  screens are reclaimed daily.

       The standard ink remover at this facility contains at least tripropylene glycol methyl
ether.  For emulsion removal, they use a proprietary aqueous mixture with at least sodium
periodate.  This facility uses two  different haze removers: a paste which contains 25%
sodium hydroxide, and a liquid which contains cyclohexanone (25 %), butyl cellosolve acetate
(25%), benzyl alcohol (25%), and  diacetone alcohol (20%).  The application methods for
the standard ink remover and  haze remover were the same as the procedures for the
alternative products.  The alternative hazej remover, however, required a waiting time one
hour longer than the standard product. This change in procedure did not seem to affect the
results.  .      .                       I            -
                                      i
                                      |
       Profile of Facility 25           i
       Facility  25 prints point-of-purchase displays  and  overlays for appliances and
automotive applications. Print runs at this jfacility average 16 hours and approximately 80%
of their orders are repeat orders. During the Performance Demonstration, this facility used
solvent-based inks and a direct photo stencil on polyester screens with mesh counts of 175 -
 420 threads per inch. The most common screen sizes at  Facility 25 are 42 inches x 42
inches and 42 inches x 50 inches.  Approximately 25 screens are reclaimed  daily.
                                      1                      '
       This facility's standard ink remover is a solvent blend which includes the following
chemicals:    cyclohexanone   (<60%), j  xylenes   (<5%),   ethyltoluene   (<15%),
trimethylbenzenes (<35%),  C-10 aromatics (<5%), and cumene (<5%).  They  also use
another solvent blend which contains methyjl ethyl ketone (< 35 %), toluene (< 55 %), n-butyl
acetate (<20%),  and  heptane (<15%). Their emulsion remover is a proprietary  aqueous
mixture with at least  periodate salt (<10%).   For haze removal,  this facility uses  a
proprietary aqueous mixture with at least sodium hydroxide ( < 15 %). Use of the alternative
products required some changes from the application  procedures typically used by this
facility.  When using  the alternative ink remover, the screen is rinsed to remove the ink,
whereas the standard  ink remover is wipjed off the screen.  The standard haze remover
requires a one minute wait, and the alternative product required at least a one  hour wait, and
up to 24 hours.  This additional waiting time may have inconvenienced the operators and
influenced their opinions of the  product performance.
                                        126

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 Product System Gamma Performance Details from Each Facility

       Performance Details from Facility 16
       Product System Gamma ink remover and haze remover did not work well and Facility
 16 decided not to use these products  during the demonstration period.  The emulsion
 remover seemed to work very well; it was j evaluated for the entire four-week demonstration
 period. During the demonstrations, there did not appear to be any change in  the screen
 failure rate, or any noticeable effects on the screen mesh or frames.
                                      I
       The ink remover was only used to  clean four screens.   The printer sprayed the
 product on and let it sit for 30 second befpre wiping.  In all cases it took a lot of effort to
 clean the screens. The ink remover left an oily film and an ink residue hi the mesh.  The
 facility decided to discontinue using the alternative ink remover based on these results.

       The emulsion remover worked well j with no notable variations in performance among
 the screens used during the demonstration period. Although the product instructions require
 waiting 1-2  minutes after applying the [product before  pressure washing, the reclaimer
 found that the emulsion began to fall off thje screen within 30 - 45 seconds after application.
 Screens were therefore pressure  washed sooner than specified, with no noticeable effect on
 product performance.  Facility 16 uses J screens encompassing  a large range of sizes,
 including some very large screens used foi producing fleet markings for semi-trailers.  The
 amount of emulsion remover used to clean the  screens varied accordingly, although the
 results were consistent.                 !

       At this facility, the haze remover did not remove ghost images from the screens.
 After initial printing using the prescribed procedure, the screen reclaimer left the  haze
 remover on a screen for 48 hours in an attempt to remove the ghost image, with no success.
 The facility had to use their regular haze rejmover on the screens in order to be able to reuse
 them  in production.  Use of the alternative haze remover was discontinued and the product
 was not included in the performance demonstration. For both the haze remover and the ink
 remover, an insufficient number of screens! were reclaimed with these products to determine
 any correlations between demonstration conditions (e.g., number of impressions, ink color)
 and the product performance.            j
                                      i
                                      i   • '    ' •
       At Facility 16, one employee applied, the ink remover, and a second reclaimed the
 screens and evaluated the printing quality on subsequent runs.  Neither  of these employees
 had direct contact with the observer during the performance demonstration. Three different
people served as the facility contact during the course of the study. The confusion of so
 many different contacts probably  prevented the performance  demonstration from being
 managed as closely as it was in other  facilities.

       Performance Details from Facility 25
       Although all three  components of System Gamma were  used  during part  of the
performance demonstrations, the ink remo|ver and haze remover did not work well enough
to be used for the complete four week period. The emulsion remover worked well and was

                                       127

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 used for the entire demonstration period, i During the demonstrations, the printer did riot
 notice any changes in the screen failure rate or any detrimental effects on the screen mesh,
 or frame.                              ;
                                       I           ,;..,-       .      -       ...
       The ink  remover did not work well at Facility 25.  It should be noted that the
 standard ink remover used at this facility 'is chemically very different from the alternative
 ink remover supplied as part of Product System Gamma. Adverse chemical interactions may
 have occurred on some of the older screens due to the differences in the chemicals, and may
 have affected all phases of the alternative product performance.  The employee who used the
 alternative  ink  remover  tried  several different procedures  in  order to  improve  the
 performance such as using presoaked ragsj to get more ink remover on the screen, waiting
 3-5 minutes after application before wiping the ink, and laying rags soaked in ink remover
 over the screen as soon as it came off the press. Although these procedures helped remove
 the ink from the stencil surface, there was still a large amount of ink left in the screen;
 enough to completely block the mesh in so|me cases.  The residual  ink was not removed by
 the emulsion and haze removal steps.  The facility used the alternative ink remover for a
 week and a half before they had to  stop because of the poor performance.  None of the
 screens cleaned with this alternative product worked well in production, so they all had to
 be reprocessed with the facility's regular (products before acceptable printing quality was
 achieved.  The facility used several different solvent ink systems and,  in reviewing the data
 from the printer's observations, the ink system and the length of the ink drying time seemed
 to be the most influential variable in determining the level of performance of the alternative
 products.   However, the ink remover performance was not acceptable for any of the ink
 systems used.

       The emulsion remover performed consistently  well on all screens and stencils.  The
 reclaimer found that the product acted faster on the stencil if the screen was wetted before
 applying the emulsion remover.          j          .
                                       i
       The haze remover did not work well. The haze remover was allowed to react on the
 screens as  long as 24 hours, without successfully removing the ink haze.  The reclaimer
 continued to use the haze remover after use of the ink remover was suspended, to see if it
 would perform better if the haze was less severe. She found that the haze remoyer worked
better if the screens were dried before the product was applied. Even so, too much ink haze
 was left in the screens to be able to successfully reuse them.  Ink residue left in the  mesh
caused ghost images in subsequent jobs, and eventually solubilized in similar ink systems,
which caused the inks to become discolored during the printing runs. Facility 25, therefore,
discontinued the use of the alternative haze removersafter the second week of demonstrations.
                                       j   "•-.'..
       At Facility 25, printing quality judgements were made by the printer, along with the
other employees involved in the study.  Thje personnel involved seemed to work hard to try
to get acceptable results from the products!.
                                        128

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 PRODUCT SYSTEM MU

 Facility Profiles
                                       j
        The operating conditions for each j facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
 using Product System Mu for one month are described below.  This information is provided
 as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of alternative product system at
 each of these two facilities.

        Profile of Facility 17  -         !
        Facility 17 prints decals on paper, plastics, metals, ceramics, and glass. Their typical
 run length is 400 impressions, and  approximately 5% of their orders are  repeat orders
 There are about 5 employees at this locatibn, and 1 - 3 are involved in screen reclamation.
 Both solvent-based and UV-cured ink systems are used at this facility; primarily UV inks
 were used during the performance demonstrations. Screens with mesh counts of 280 - 390
 threads/inch and direct photo stencils werelused for the demonstrations.  The average screen
 size at this facility is 16 ft2 and approximately  25 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                       j
        The standard ink remover used at Facility 17 is a proprietary blend consisting of at
 least propylene glycol  ethers (<50%).  l^heir emulsion remover is a proprietary aqueous
 mixture which contains periodate salt (< 10%).  For haze removal, they use a proprietary
 aqueous mixture with sodium hydroxide (< 15 %). This facility did not have to modify their
 application procedures  significantly when! switching from their standard  products to the
 alternative product system.      '     .   ;
                                       j               -               •   •
       Profile of Facility 22            j      '
       Facility 22 prints back-lit automotive graphic overlays on plastics.  Typically, they
 print about 500  sheets  per run and approximately 90% of their orders  are repeat orders.
 There are approximately 40 employees at this facility, and two people are involved in screen
 reclamation.  During the Performance Demonstration, this facility used solvent-based inks
 and a direct photo stencil.  Polyester screens with mesh counts of 230 - 305  threads per inch
 were used.    The average screen size in this facility  is 40 inches  x  40 inches and
 approximately 12 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                       L   ,      ,  '       •:  ,   :
       For ink removal, Facility 22  uses ja custom solvent blend which consists of  ethyl
 acetate  <20ซ'- 27%),  methyl ethyl ketonb (20%),  and xylene (20%).  As an  emulsion
 remover,  they use a proprietary aqueous mixture with at least sodium periodate.   Their
 standard haze remover is a proprietary blenjd which consists primarily of tripropylene glycol
 methyl ether. To use the alternative product system, this facility did not have to change their
 standard procedures  for application of the  ink remover or the emulsion  remover.  The
 alternative haze remover, however, did require a waiting time of at least one hour (and up
 to 24 hours), whereas their standard haze re|mover did not have a wait time.  This additional
time may  have influenced the printer's opinion  of the product performance.
Product System Mu Performance Details from Each Facility
                                       !
                                       il29

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       Performance Details from Facility 17
       Facility 17 thought that Product Syjstem Mu cleaned the screens well and the screen
reclaimer noted that the fumes associated jwith the alternative products were not as bad as
those produced by the facility's usual products.

       The ink remover performed well. Compared to their standard product, the reclaimer
noted that when using the alternative product he did not have to scrub the screens as much
and did not have to use as much product tjo get the screens clean.  The printer commented
that it was more difficult to  remove all of jthe ink from the screen when the previous print
run was a long one.  However, the data,; although limited, do not show a change in the
scrubbing tune required corresponding to a change in the length of the previous run.  Black
UV inks were not removed as effectively as other UV ink colors.
                                       i
       The emulsion remover performancej was very good on all screens. The haze remover
worked well in most cases, except when the haze was unusually dark. This facility normally
uses two haze  removers: one is a weaker chemical that is used more frequently  and the
other, stronger chemical, is  only used fori stubborn stains.  The Product System Mu haze
remover worked better than the weaker of; their two usual haze removal products, but mot
as well  as the stronger chemical.  On the one screen they reclaimed that had solvent-based
ink on it, the alternative haze remover did not remove the haze and the printer had to use
their stronger haze remover to clean the screen.  All other screens reclaimed had been used
with UV ink,  and  on these screens, thej facility felt that the alternative haze remover
performed as well as and more quickly than the weaker of their two haze removers.
                                       i
       Using the alternative products did not substantially change the screen cleaning routine
at this facility. The printer did not notice any changes in the screen condition during the time
the alternative products were in use.  If less scrubbing is associated  with the use of the
alternative products, then screen abrasion ahd possibly the screen failure rate could decrease
with continued use of the alternative products.
                                       |       •  •
       Profile of Facility 22            j
       This facility found the performance of Product System Mu ink remover and haze
remover was not acceptable. The printer 'thought the emulsion remover performance was
very good.                             |
                                       !
                                      . 'I                       -
       The ink remover was  applied to the Iscreens immediately after completion of the press
runs.  Cleaning the  screens still took a  high level of effort and a long  time to accomplish.
All screens took at least 20 minutes to  clean, and two screens took 60  minutes.  Screen
cleaning required 10 - 16 ounces of product; because of the large quantity required, the
facility  ran out of ink  remover after cleaning the twentieth screen. Even with this extra
effort, and extra product, an ink residue remained on the screens. The ink remover was
especially ineffective on ink  which built up partially dried on the edge of the screen during
long runs. Overall, the facility contact commented that the product did not seem to cut the
ink at all. It should be noted that the standard ink remover used by this facility contains
strong hydrocarbon solvents and  is cheinically very different from  the alternative  iiik

                                       I 130

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remover.  These chemical differences may have led to an adverse chemical interaction.

       The emulsion remover worked well, with no notable variations in performance among
the screens used.  It required a low level ojf effort, and consistently removed all the emulsion
from the screens.  The performance of jthe haze  remover proved to be unacceptable  at
Facility 22.  Ghost images were not removed from the screens and the facility was not able
to reuse the screens until they were treated with their standard haze remover.  For this
reason, use of the alternative haze remover was suspended during the first week of the
demonstration.
                                      i      •  •
       At Facility 22 the facility contaqt, who was the product development manager,
removed the ink, reclaimed the screens and evaluated the printing quality on subsequent
runs. Although these were not tasks he usually performs, it should have ensured consistency
of judgement on the product performance! evaluations.  Product System Mu did not appear
to cause screen failure, or have any noticeable effects on the screens or frames.
                                       131

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 PRODUCT SYSTEM OMICRON-AE  I
                                       I
 Facility Profiles
                                       1
       The operating conditions for each facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
 using Product System Omicron-AE for one month are described below.  This information
 is provided as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of alternative product
 system at each of these two facilities.     !

       Profile of Facility 2             j
       Facility 2 prints signs, banners, and store displays on plastics and paper.  A typical
 run  is 150 pieces  and  approximately 40%  of their orders are  repeat orders.  Of the
 approximately  12 employees at this facility, 5 are involved in screen reclamation.   All
 printing  is done  with  solvent-based  inks  and  the screens  used in  the  Performance
 Demonstrations all  had a mesh count of 230 threads/inch with a direct photo stencil.  The
 typical screen size at this facility is 50 ft2 knd about 6 screens are  reclaimed daily.

       Facility 2 uses a proprietary ink remover that includes at least toluene (31 %), xylene
 (24%), methyl isobutyl ketone (19%), etnylbenzene (6%)  and  diacetone alcohol.  Their
 standard emulsion remover contains at least sodium periodate. For haze removal, they use
 a  proprietary solvent  blend that contains  either  at least dichloromethane (90%)  and
 isopropanol (1 %), or a blend that includes sodium hydroxide  and cyclohexanone. Typically,
 the haze remover is only used once a week at this facility.  The  application procedures for
 the alternative products  were significantly; different from the facility's  standard methods,
 including use of the alternative haze remover on every screen instead of once a week. These
 changes may have  inconvenienced the operators and influenced their opinions of product
 performance.

       Profile of Facility 19
       Facility  19 prints graphic overlays, front panels, and membrane switches.  They print
 on plastics, metals, and paper.  Their jobs usually run for 5 - 1500 impressions  and
 approximately 70%  of their orders are repjsat orders. This facility uses solvent-based  inks
 and a direct photo stencil.  The alternative products were used on screens with mesh counts
 ranging from 156 -  390  threads/inch.  Typical screen size in this facility is 30 inches x 33
 inches, and approximately 60-80 screens'are reclaimed daily.
                                       I
       At Facility 19, their press-side ink remover is a proprietary  solvent blend consisting
 of at least 20% propylene glycol ethers,land petroleum hydrocarbons (<10%).  Their
 standard haze remover is a proprietary solvent  blend  which contains  sodium hydroxide
 (< 15%).   This facility uses the haze remover for ink, emulsion, and haze removal.  The
alternative product  system is  applied as Jan ink  remover,  emulsion remover,  and haze
lemover separately.  This change in the application procedure may have taken more time and
inconvenienced the  screen reclaimers,  possibly influencing their  opinion of the product
system performance.                    :
                                       i      •  •              •

                                       1132

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                                      I


Product System Omicron-AE Performance Details from Each Facility
                                      i               :
       Performance Details from Facility 2
       Except for the emulsion remover, Product System Omicron-AE performed poorly at
this facility. Unfortunately, this facility became very busy during the demonstration period.
The excessive workload reduced the  ambunt of time available for using the alternative
products and for experimenting with the application procedures. A total of 30 screens were
reclaimed with Product System Omicron-AE over a 4 week period, but the Omicron-AE ink
remover and haze remover were only  used on 7 of the screens, due to poor performance.
The Omicron-AE emulsion remover was used on 26 screens and worked very well.

       The ink remover did not work well at this facility, which used solvent-based ink
during the demonstrations.  The screen reclaimer scrubbed one screen for 40 minutes trying
to get the ink out of the mesh, whereas no scrubbing is needed with their usual ink remover.
The alternative ink remover was chemically very different than this facility's standard
product and chemical interactions could have occurred. Their usual ink removing method
involved spraying solvent onto a screen in a small, closed  room. This was a particularly
unpleasant room in that there was a high concentration of solvents in the air, and there v/as
also a lot of build-up of ink solids on the |fioor and walls.  No respirators  were seen when
the observer was on-site, although the  facility reported that respirators are usually worn in
the "solvent room."  Use of the alternative ink remover did not require the reclaimer to be
in the ink reclamation room.            i
                                      I
       Facility 2 liked the performance of the emulsion remover very much and they thought
it performed better than their usual product, even when diluted at one part emulsion remover
to two parts water.  The manufacturers application procedure did not instruct the printer to
dilute the  emulsion remover.  When there was a thick ink residue left in the screen, the
emulsion was more difficult to remove,  j
                                      i      -
                                      i          -   •
       The haze remover did not reduce the haze in the screen mesh at all.  The standard
haze remover at this facility contains some very strong chemicals such as dichlorometbane
and has a very different chemical composition from the alternative haze remover.  These
differences could result in adverse chemical  interactions on the screen,  to improve
performance, this facility used the alternative haze remover concurrently with Comet cleanser
to remove the  haze.  Comet is typically used at this facility as a degreaser.

       No changes in screen failure rate were noted during the demonstrations, but it could
be speculated that a reduced screen failure rate  would result from longer term use of the
alternative products at this facility because of the abrasiveness of their usual products (such
as Comet). Unfortunately, the lower abrasiveness of the alternative products may be offset
by the amount of scrubbing required to get the screens clean. The reclaimer noted that his
scrubbing was producing visible wear in the screen mesh.
                                      i
       Performance Details from Facility 19
       This facility did not continue using System Omicron-AE after the initial demonstration
                                      !        '          •  ..   .
                                        133

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                                        .    ,  ,. .      ,         .-      ,
during the observer's visit.  The alternative products did not clean the screens to a level at
all  acceptable to this  facility  and they jvere not willing  to  experiment with  different
application procedures that may have unproved performance. Also, the alternative products
seemed to require more time and effort than the facility's usual procedures.
       This facility has one screen reclaimer per shift and neither speak English.  Forms
were going to be translated into Spanish and the printing manager was present for much of
the demonstrations and served as an interpreter.  This facility tends to wash about 24 screens
at a time in groups  of eight.  Using the alternative products  severely interrupted  the
reclamation process established at this facility.  This facility reclaims about 60 to 80 screens
per shift. Currently, they only use one product for ink removal, emulsion removal, and haze
removal.  It is a very effective product, but the observer noticed it is also corrosive and
emits strong vapors.  Other facilities that use this product try to limit its use.  This facility
uses no other reclamation products and expects all screens to  be completely without haze
when reclamation is finished. Other facilities have less stringent haze removal requirements
or expectations.  The alternative product performance would probably have been considered
acceptable at many other facilities.  Also tiote that there may have been adverse chemical
interactions  between  this facility's standard haze  remover and  the  alternative product,
because the two haze  removers are chemically very different.
                                     '  i"-';''
       During the observer's  visit  the alternative products were used  with different  ink
systems and several application techniques jwere evaluated.   The type of ink did not seem to
affect the alternative product performance levels.  No changes in the rate of screen wear or
failure were noted during the product demonstration. It is likely that the alternative products
would be less corrosive than their standard product in the long term.

       The ink remover did not work effectively enough for this  facility.  Average  ink
removal was observed, but the ink remover often had to be applied and scrubbed into  the
screen multiple times.  Ink often remained in the screen at the edges of the print image and
stencil.  This level of removal did not compare to the results this facility has using their
standard product as an ink remover, where usually no scrubbing is needed.

       The emulsion remover often did not remove all of the emulsion from the screen. The
emulsion remover required more scrubbing than with their standard product. Often, multiple
applications were required to remove all of the emulsion.  Still, emulsion tended to remain
hi the screen around the edges of the stencil.
                                       i       ',        '...-•          •.   .
       The haze remover worked fairly well leaving only a light haze.  This haze,  which
would have been acceptable at many of the other facilities participating in the project, was"
unacceptable for this  facility.  Even when the haze remover was allowed to  stay on  the
screen for longer than the directions suggested, no appreciable improvement in performance
was noted. When Facility 19 uses their usual haze remover, the haze disappears from  the
screen.
                                         134

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PRODUCT SYSTEM OMICRON-AF  i
                                       |  .   :
Facility Profiles                        j
                                       I   ;     .       :  ."•".'"•'
                                       I
       The operating conditions for each j facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
using Product System Omicron-AF for one month are described below. This information
is provided as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of alternative product
system at each of these two facilities.    j

       Profile of Facility 4             j
       Facility 4 prints decals  on plastijc sheets.   A typical run is 3,000 sheets,  and
approximately 50%  of their orders are repeat orders. Of the 30 - 40 employees at this
facility, approximately 4 are involved in screen reclamation.  All printing is done with UV-
cured inks. All screens used in the Performance Demonstrations were polyester (calendared)
with a typical mesh count of 390 threads/inch with a direct photo stencil.  The average
screen size at this facility is 35 inches x 38 inches and approximately 6 screens are reclaimed
daily.                                  j
                                       j .....
       As their standard  screen reclamation  products,  Facility  4 uses two proprietary
products for ink removal, and also uses proprietary products for emulsion and haze removal.
These  products  are sold  by  a manufacturer not participating  in the performance
demonstration.  The MSDSs for all of thes;e products state that they contain no carcinogens,
no ingredients with TLVs or PELs, and no petroleum derivatives. The application procedure
for the alternative ink remover recommended that the ink be wiped off the screen.  This
facility's standard ink removal practice is !to rinse the screen. The screen reclaimers were
trained on this change in application method, but the extra physical effort required may have
influenced their opinions  of the product performance.  The emulsion and haze remover
application techniques are very similar for the alternative  and standard products.

       Profile of FaciUty 18            j
       Facility  18 prints graphic overlays) for the electronics industry and nameplates and
panels.  All of their printing is done on plastics.  Their typical run length is 16 hours and
approximately 80% of their orders are repejat orders.  There are approximately 40 employees
at this facility,  three of which are involved in screen reclamation activities.  During the
Performance Demonstration, this facility used solvent-based inks and they used both a direct
photo stencil and a capillary film stencil.  High  tension monofilament  polyester mesh
(untreated) screens  with mesh counts ranging from  110 -  460 threads/inch were used.
Typical screen sizes hi this facility are lj,596 in2 or 952 in2,  and approximately  10 - 15
screens are reclaimed daily.             j
                                       I
      As their standard ink remover,  Facility  18  uses  a proprietary solvent blend that
contains  at least pentanedioic acid and dimethyl ester (<20%).  Their standard emulsion
remover  is a proprietary aqueous mixture with at least sodium periodate. For haze removal,
this facility uses a proprietary aqueous mixture that contains sodium hydroxide (<15%).
Facility 18 typically rinses the ink remoter from the screen, but the alternative product

                                        135

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required the screen reclaimer to wipe thฃ ink off the screen.   The extra physical effort
required may have influenced the screen Reclaimers opinions of the product performance.
The emulsion and haze remover application techniques are similar for the alternative and
standard products.                      !
                                      • \
                                      i
Product System Omicron-AF Performance Details from Each Facility
                                      i
       Performance Details from Facility 4
       After using Product System Omicron-AF for two weeks, Facility 4 decided they did
not want to continue participation in the, performance demonstrations.  When using the
screens reclaimed with Omicron-AF in subsequent print jobs, the printer noticed a ghost
image. He cleaned the screens again usingl his own product to remove the haze and was then
able to reuse the screens.  Faced with a tight production schedule, the printer was unable to
continue using  Product System OmicronjAF  since additional time would be  required to
reclean the screens with his standard product.
                                      I
                     .-.                I             •   -
       After using the ink remover, the printer evaluated the screen and reported that the ink
was removed effectively on 80% of the  screens.  However,  after  using the  emulsion
remover, the printer noted that on every screen an ink residue remained in the stencil area.
He felt that this ink residue normally would  not have been  a problem, because his haze
remover could remove it.  The alternative! haze remover could not.
                                     ' i                   •        '   •
       The printer was pleased with the performance of the emulsion remover. He reported
that it removed the stencil completely and; easily.

       The performance of the haze remover was unacceptable at this facility.   When
following the manufacturers application instructions, the haze remover reduced the residue,
but did not remove it or significantly lighten the ink stain on the mesh,  even after vigorous
scrubbing and a long high pressure wate,r wash.  A ghost image was clearly visible on
subsequent print jobs which required the printer to clean the screen again with his standard
haze remover.                          |
                                      !
       To improve the product performance, the printer varied several conditions: he
increased the soaking time on the screen) for the ink remover and the haze remover, he
increased the quantity of ink remover and {haze remover, he sprayed the haze remover on a
scrubber pad instead of directly onto the screen, and he tried drying the screen before using
the haze remover. These techniques did not improve the performance of the product system.
During the two  weeks of demonstrations, product performance was quite consistent as were
the demonstration conditions (e.g., ink type, emulsion type, screen condition).  The printer
did not think further use of the product wiould provide any different data.
                                     , i
                                      i
       Overall, the printer did not notice' any change in screen failure rate over the time
period that the alternative products were in use, however, he did need to clean each screen
a second time with his own haze remover i!n order to be able to reuse it.  The printer thought
this haze would build up on the screen and would eventually prevent the emulsion from

                                      I  136

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adhering to the screen.                  j
                                       ,                  _.

       Performance Details from Facility 18
       Facility 18 used Product System |Omicron-AF for four weeks.  The press  area
supervisor was asked to comment on the performance of the system several times during the
performance demonstration period. He felt that, in general, the ink remover and emulsion
remover products worked as well as the products they were previously using.  The  haze
remover, however, did not give acceptable; results, and they stopped using it during the first
week of the demonstrations.              j
                                       J •    :     .. •'•    -    -.         '
       The ink remover worked well in most cases.  Two of their solvent based inks which
were difficult to clean with  their regulajr products also required more effort with the
alternative products.  The facility's  standard procedure for these inks is  to  apply haze
remover twice after reclaiming. Ink residue left by the alternative chemicals required this
practice to be continued during the performance demonstration.
                                       i
       The emulsion remover performed well on all screens and stencils.  The reclaimer
noted.that the stencil dissolved easily with this product.  The haze remover did not work
well.   After reclaiming several screens, it was determined  that the screens could not be
reused until the facility's regular haze remover was applied to them.  Facility 18 therefore
discontinued the use of the alternative haze remover.
                                      i "  '.
                                      I                       .         .
       Screen size at this facility was relatively uniform, and careful controls were placed
on screen condition and tension. Retensionable frames were used exclusively.  The screens
were brought to the reclaiming area with most of the ink removed from them already, having
been carded off at the press.  Facility 18 had tried other products which were advertised as
"safer", and they had one bad experience w,here one of the products damaged their plumbing
system. The same person reclaimed the screens and evaluated the print image quality. Tins
employee was knowledgeable about the entire screen printing process.
                                      i          .......
       The products  in  System Omicron-AF were not observed to be detrimental to the
screen mesh,  the  printing equipment during the performance demonstration.  Print image
quality was not affected.                !
                                       ! 137

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 PRODUCT SYSTEM PHI             i
                                       I
                                       !                               '
 Facility Profiles                        |
                                       i '
        The operating conditions for each facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
 using Product System Phi for one month are described below. This information is provided
 as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of alternative product system at
 each of these two facilities.             j
                                       i
        Profile of Facility 5             |
        Facility 5 makes interior signs, j marks  parts,  and prints  identification  badges.
 Primarily, they  print on  plastics  and on  metals.   A typical run  is  100 pieces,  and
 approximately 80% of their orders are repeat orders.  Of the 15 employees at this facility,
 approximately 3 are involved in screen printing operations and 1 employee is responsible for
 screen  reclamation activities.  The facility uses a variety of solvent-based inks including
 vinyl-based inks, epoxy  inks and a multipurpose ink.  They use capillary film for their
 emulsion. All screens used in the Performance Demonstrations were polyester (no treatment)
 with a typical mesh count of 305 threads/inch.  The average screen size at this facility is 20"
 x 20" and approximately 2-3 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                       I       :;      .         '             .   '  '
       The standard ink  remover used ati Facility 5 is a blend which contains 55% - 56%
 propylene glycol ether. For emulsion reinoval, they use a product which contains sodium
 metaperiodate (5%) and their standard halze  remover contains sodium hydroxide (< 15%).
 The application procedure for the alternative product system was very similar to the standard
 procedures used at this facility.          j

       Profile of Facility 23            I
       The majority  of the products printed by Facility 23 are front panels, overlays,  and
 labels on plastics.  They also do some printing on paper, metals, and glass. Run lengths are
 typically 150 impressions,  and approximately  82% of their  business is for repeat  orders.
 There are less than 5 employees at this facility and two are involved in screen reclamation
 operations.  The  facility  uses several types of solvent-based inks including  vinyls,  acrylic
 vinyls,  and epoxy inks.  They use a dual-cure emulsion and a multifilament (untreated)
 polyester mesh.  Mesh counts used in the! Performance Demonstrations ranged from 195 -
 305 threads/inch. The average screen size at this facility is 1,305 in2 and approximately 3 -
 5 screens are reclaimed daily.           ;

       For ink removal, Facility 23 uses a proprietary blend which contains at least xylene,
propylene glycol  methyl  ether, and diacetone alcohol.  Their standard emulsion remover
product is 100% sodium periodate, and their standard haze remover is a proprietary aqueous
 mixture which contains sodium hydroxide (< 15%). This facility did not have to  modify
their product application procedures when switching from their standard ink and emulsion
removers to the alternative products.  The alternative haze  remover required up  to a 30
minute  wait, which  tended to disrupt the production schedule at this facility.  This
inconvenience may have influenced the printers opinion of the products.
                                        138

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Product System Phi Performance Details from Each Facility
                                      I
                                      I
       Performance Details from Facility 5
       At the conclusion of  the Performance. Demonstrations,  the printer was asked to
compare the performance of each component of Product System Phi to the system they
previously used at this facility.  Overall, thb printer felt the emulsion remover worked better,
and the ink remover and the haze remover 'did not work as well as their previous reclamation
products.                              I
                                      i.........'.         ,
       On most screens the printer reported that the ink was removed effectively, however,
there was an light to moderate ink haze remaining on 35% of the screens after using the Ink
remover.  This facility found the ink rempver performance was the same whether used on
vinyl inks or on epoxies. Although not included in the Performance Demonstration protocol,
the printer used this product as an in-process ink remover, not just as a reclamation ink
remover.  He found it would start to deteriorate the stencil if left on the screen for more than
a few seconds. By spraying on the ink remover, wiping it off very quickly, and allowing
the screen to dry before printing, he was able to use it in-process without affecting the print
quality.                               \

       The printer was very enthusiastic about the  emulsion remover, commenting that it
consistently dissolved the stencil very quickly with minimal effort.  After the conclusion of
the Performance Demonstrations, he requested more information on the product so he could
continue to use it in his facility.         I

       The haze remover performance was not up to the standards of this printing facility.
When following the manufacturer's application instructions, the haze remover did not remove
the haze satisfactorily.  The printer commented  that he thought the haze remaining on the
screen would deteriorate the screen over time.  To improve the performance, the printer let
the haze remover sit on the screen overnight (instead of the recommended 3-5 minutes),
he wiped the product off with rags before pressure washing, and he tried using more ink
remover hoping that there would be less ink stain later.  None of these techniques improved
the performance of the product.  The printer did note that he preferred the very mild odor
of this product to the strong, unpleasant ojdor of his own haze remover.

       In reviewing the data from the printer's evaluation forms, there does not seem to be
a correlation between any specific screen! condition (e.g.,  ink type, ink color, number of
impressions) and variations in the product performance. Overall, the use of Product System
Phi had no deleterious effects on the screen mesh or on the subsequent print quality imaige
and the printer did not notice any change in screen failure rate over the time period that the
alternative products were in use.

       Performance Details from Facility 23
       Generally, this facility felt the emulsion remover worked well, but they were not
satisfied with the ink remover and the haze remover of Product System Phi.  While the
actual performance of the alternative products was often adequate, the procedures involved
                                      i           •    .               .
                                      i
                                      !  139   "   .

-------
                                      I
with using the products disrupted the facility's routine. After two weeks of demonstrations,
this facility discontinued their participation in the project and only submitted data on 8
screens.   In addition to problems  with !the product application procedures, this facility
experienced personnel problems  that contributed to their decision to discontinue their
participation after two weeks.  The  main (screen printer/screen reclaimer involved with the
demonstrations was absent for  two weeks in the  middle  of the project.  No  screen
reclamation with the alternative products continued during her absence.  When she returned,
so much work had accumulated that the facility decided they could not spare the time for the
demonstrations.                        j
                                    •'!''-'
                                      i
       The printer found the performance 3f the ink remover to be inconsistent. When using
metallic inks, the alternative ink remover worked better than their standard product.  With
other ink types, the ink remover did not (effectively remove the ink from the edges of the
stencil and it did not remove as much ink] from the screen as their standard product.  Their
standard ink remover is a solvent blend wjhose chemical composition is very different from
that of the alternative ink remover.  On older screens that have been reclaimed many times,
adverse chemical interactions between the standard product and the alternative product comld
occur due to these differences.          j

       The printer felt the emulsion  remoter was as effective as their standard product, and
it dissolved the stencil faster than their standard emulsion remover. Product System Phi haze
remover required more contact time with the screen than this facility's usual haze remover.
This additional waiting time impeded the facility's ability to reuse screens at the needed rate.
In addition to  the inconvenient wait time,1 the haze remover often did not reduce the haze
sufficiently and the facility had to follow up  with their usual product before the screen could
be reused.   The printer noted that the hajze remover was less  irritating to the respiratory
system than their usual haze remover.   !

       During the two weeks the products: were used in this facility there was no noticeable
mesh  deterioration,  no change in the screen failure rate, and no change in print quality.
                                      i
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PRODUCT SYSTEM ZETA           !  -
                                       |                                  .
Facility Profiles                        I
                                       I            •
       The operating conditions for each {facility that volunteered to reclaim their screens
using Product System Zeta for one month are described below.  This information is provided
as a basis of comparison to review the performance results of alternative product system at
each of these three facilities.             I

       Profile of Facility 6             i
       Facility 6 prints store  displays, transit markings, and movie posters on plastics aind
paper.  Their typical run length is 250 - 3100 sheets, and approximately 5% of their orders
are repeat orders. Of the approximately 25 employees at this facility, 1 - 3 are involved: hi
screen reclamation.  Currently, they used solvent-based, water-based, and UV inks, but they
are in the process of discontinuing their use of solvent-based ink systems.  All screens used
in the Performance Demonstrations were made of a polyester mesh with thread counts
ranging from 280 - 420 threads/inch. The average screen size used at this facility is 35 ft2
and 10 - 15 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                       i   ..-..-   i
       Facility 6 uses a proprietary blend which contains propylene glycol ethers (<50%)
as their standard ink remover.  Their emulsion remover is a proprietary  aqueous  mixture
with periodate salt (< 10%).  For haze reinoval, they use a proprietary  blend consisting of
at least sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and propylene glycol ether. The application
procedures for the alternative products were similar to the methods for applying the standard
products.                              i

       Profile of Facility 7             j
       Facility 7 prints roll labels, fleet markings, point of purchase displays, and decais.
A typical run length is 275 sheets.  There: are less than 5  screen printing employees at this
facility.  The facility uses  both UV ink and  solvent-based ink.  During the Performance
Demonstrations they used a capillary film emulsion and the screen mesh was an abraded
polyester. Mesh counts ranged from 230 4 390 threads/inch. The screen size typically used
in this facility is 60" x 52", and 10 -12 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                       |        '-..-.
       For ink removal, Facility 7 uses lacquer thinner, as well as a proprietary product sold
by a manufacturer not participating in the performance demonstration.  The MSDS states that
this product contains no carcinogens, no ingredients with TLVs or PELs, and no petroleum
derivatives.   Their standard  emulsion remover is a proprietary  aqueous mixture which
contains periodate salt ( < 10%). As a haze remover, they use a proprietary aqueous mixture
with  sodium hydroxide (< 15%).   At tnis facility,  the  application procedures for their
standard products were  very similar to | the methods recommended for the alternative
products. However, the facility only applies their standard haze remover to about one screen
per month.  The alternative haze remover was needed for all screens.  This additional effort
may  have  influenced the screen reclaimers  opinions of the  alternative product system
performance.                           |
                                       I
                                       I  141

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       Profile of Facility 15           !
       Facility 15 prints  store fixtures, | banners and point-of-purchase displays.   They
primarily print on plastics, but they also do some jobs on paper, metal, and wood. A typical
run is 800 sheets and 70% of their orders are repeat orders.  Of the approximately 5
employees involved in screen printing at this facility, 2 are involved in screen reclamation
activities. Several different types of ink are commonly used at Facility 15, including vinyls,
epoxies and UV-cured inks.  All screens used in the Performance Demonstrations were
polyester and a direct photo stencil emulsion  was applied.   Mesh counts during the
demonstration period ranged from 156 - 305 threads/inch. The average screen size used at
this facility is 35 inches x 45 inches and 4-5 screens are reclaimed daily.
                                      |    '         •  •	
       For ink removal, Facility 15 uses acetone, as well as  a proprietary product sold by
a manufacturer not participating in the performance demonstration.   The MSDS states that
this product contains no carcinogens, no ingredients with TLVs  or PELs, and no petroleum
derivatives.   For emulsion removal, they use a proprietary aqueous mixture with at least
sodium periodate.  Their standard haze remover is an aqueous blend consisting of potassium
hydroxide (27%) and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (11%).  At this facility,  the application
procedures for their standard products were very similar to the methods recommended for
the alternative products. However, the facility only applies their standard haze remover to
about 5 % of their screens.  The alternative haze remover was needed for all screens.  This
additional effort may have influenced the screen reclaimers opinions  of the alternative
product system performance.            i
                                      I    ' '            '                  "
Product System Zeta Performance Details1 from Each Facility
           .                           j                   ...          .
                                      1
       Performance Details from Facility 6
       This  facility had mixed  success with System  Zeta.  The demonstrations  were
complicated by the fact that the screen reclaimers spoke almost no English and the forms had
to be translated into Spanish. Two different reclaimers participated in the demonstrations,
but another person was involved to either) translate the reclaimer's forms or to write down
results.  Because of this situation, the observer was not confidant that all the information
received was  accurate. Another confounding factor was that the product arrived late at the
facility and the observer was not present to assist the printer with the application instructions
and with trouble-shooting, as was done alt most  other facilities.  It  is possible that belter
results could have been achieved had the pbserver been present.
                                      j              .,„           ..   ,   .
       At Facility 6, the ink remover did'not work as well as their usual product.  During
the demonstrations, this facility used the alternative products on  screens with solvent-based,
UV-cured, ซปndswater-based| inks.   The alternative ink remover performed poorly with
solvent-based inks, it  worked well on one screen with water-based inks, and performance
was mixed on screens with UV inks.  Facility 6 needed to use their regular remover to get
the ink out of several  of the screens after using the alternative ink remover.

       This facility had mixed results with the emulsion remover.   In general, when the
emulsion remover was used at a strength; of three parts of product  to one part water, or
                                      I                  -        '

                                      I  142

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 stronger, the stencil dissolved quickly,  kt weaker concentrations, the emulsion remover
 worked much more slowly than their usuai product and the printer needed to use their usual
 emulsion remover to get the screens clean!  However, these results were not consistent, and
 on some screens  where the stronger formulation was used, the stencil did not dissolve
 completely.                             i
                                        I   -
       The haze remover worked very poorly for this facility.  It did  not seem to reduce
 haze produced by UV-cured or solvent-based inks and it was not used with water-based inks.
       Performance Details from Facility 7
       The alternative products arrived at Facility 7 during a very busy period.   The
facility's initial response to the alternative products' performance was negative.  The poor
initial performance combined with increased activity at the facility led to a situation where
little information  was collected on alternative product performance.   This facility  also
received the alternative products shipment late and the observer did not have the opportunity
to assist the printer with the application! technique or to suggest  procedures to improve
performance.   This assistance  was given through telephone conversations between the
observer and the facility contact, however!  this may not have been as effective as in-person
support.                               !

       The ink remover performance at Facility 7 was poor.  The facility was particularly
unhappy with the  directions which said to let the ink  remover sit on the screen.  The ink
remover dried quickly into the screens, stuck into the mesh and it was  then completely
ineffective at  removing ink.  This facility was only able to use the ink  remover if  they
applied additional ink  remover and began wiping it out of the mesh immediately.  These
changes improved the  performance of the;  ink remover slightly, but often  the facility used
their usual  ink remover to remove all ink from the screens.  Facility  7  did use the ink
remover on one screen with UV ink and fciund it worked much better. As their standard iink
remover, this facility uses a lacquer thinner in some cases.  Adverse interactions could occur
when using the alternative ink remover because its chemical composition is very different
from lacquer.                           i
     ... _ ._„        ....   ....	 _        ...}.. ...,.,....... ^ •   .,,;...- ...•••-,.-..;.... ...',.-.......  -.;:..• •.  .",'„.•

       Initially, the facility diluted one pate emulsion remover to five parts water.  At this
concentration, the emulsion remover did j not dissolve the stencil unless the product  was
reapplied.   When they changed the dilution to one part emulsion  remover  to three parts
water, the stencil dissolved easily with little scrubbing effort. The facility did have problems
with the emulsion remover drying quickly into the mesh.  Wiping the  emulsion remover
immediately off of the screen aided the product's performance.
       .  .- •:'.::*:r:'.- "-•;.;. A-AX-fciv;:.: .   -  '   :... l>: • "•;,L'>: .•,..."-'.- -••..'.•  ,'i'->•-••"••,'::•.'•,  *.-  ••••  ..,.-•  . •
          -•--'•*-• '•••  •"•  . .;• .'Y, -"••"• -•    - '   |  •"•--,:';• •. ,--.-•:".'.. '.. -,"  ;•.••-".-."..•:- ' '-,-,  '..•.'.  - - '
       The  haze remover was not effective at this facility; they did not think that the haze
remover worked at all. Facility 7 only filled in the haze remover information on the  data
sheets for one screen,  although they tried it on several screens and the performance  was
consistently disappointing,               1                             .
                                         143

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       Performance Details from Facility 15
       Facility 15 did not like System Zeta compared to their usual products. Under most
conditions, they  were unhappy with thej performance of all three alternative  products.
Because the alternative products did not wjork well, the facility recleaned their screens with
their usual products after each demonstration.  This double cleaning greatly increased the
time required for screen reclamation.  Each time the facility tried the alternative products,
their confidence in the product's abilities to clean the screen decreased making it even harder
to convince the facility to continue with the demonstrations. They submitted data on only
eight screens.                           i
                                       i                  •                    '
       The ink remover did not effectively remove the ink from the screens unless it was
applied several times.  Compared to their standard product, more scrubbing was required and
the facility often  had to follow up with their usual ink remover to get the ink out of the
screens.  The standard ink remover is very) different chemically than the alternative product.
This difference may cause adverse chemical interactions.
                                       i                .-...'
       At Facility 15, the emulsion removjer had to be applied  multiple times to effectively
clean the screens. Using the emulsion remover undiluted did  not eliminate the need for a
second application to remove all emulsion from the screen. Even with multiple applications
of the undiluted emulsion remover, Facility 15 often had to use their usual emulsion remover
to get the screens to the level of cleanliness that they wanted.
                                      . i  •  .      ' ,      .           .   .
       The haze  remover required harder scrubbing than their usual product and did not
seem to reduce the haze.  Once again, Facility 15 had to resort to using their usual haze
remover to reduce the haze to an acceptable level.

       The performance of the alternative products did not seem to be affected by the types
of ink or by ink color, although there was!a possibility that the alternative products worked
slightly better with UV-cured inks than with solvent-based inks.  Since the data available was
so limited, it  is  not possible to draw any conclusions on correlations  between product
performance variations and screen conditions.  No screen  side effects were noticed during
the performance demonstrations, although; increased scrubbing will produce a greater level
of mesh abrasion, which may in turn lead! to higher screen failure rates.
                                       j  144

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