EPA/600/R-96/111 September 1996 POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE BULK MAIL CENTER DALLAS, TX by Carole O. Bell, Mary Hoel, Henry Huppert Science Applications International Corporation Newport, RI 02840 EPA Contract No. 68-C2-0148 SAIC Project No. 01-0828-07-1717-060 Project Officers James S. Bridges and N. Theresa Hoagland Sustainable Technology Division National Risk Management Research Laboratory Cincinnati, OH 45268 This study was conducted in cooperation with the United States Postal Service NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CINCINNATI, OH 45268 ------- DISCLAIMER The information in this document has been funded wholly or hi part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under EPA contract No. 68-C2-0148 WA 3-10 to Science Applications International Corporation. It has been subjected to peer and administrative review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA document. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. ------- CONTACT James Bridges and N. Theresa Hoagland are the EPA contacts for this report. They are presently with the newly organized National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Sustainable Technology Division in Cincinnati, OH (formerly the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory). The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is headquartered hi Cincinnati, OH, and is now responsible for research conducted by the Sustainable Technology Division in Cincinnati. n ------- FOREWORD The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with protecting the Nation's land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the Agency's center for investigation of technological and management approaches for reducing risks from threats to human health and the environment. The focus of the Laboratory's research program is on methods for the prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites and ground water; and prevention and control of indoor air pollution. The goal of this research effort is to catalyze development and implementation of innovative, cost-effective environmental technologies; develop scientific and engineering information needed by EPA to support regulatory and policy decisions; and provide technical support and information transfer to ensure effective implementation of environmental regulations and strategies. This publication has been produced as part of the Laboratory's strategic long-term research plan. It is published and made available by EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist the user community and to link researchers with their clients. E. Timothy Oppelt, Director National Risk Management Research Laboratory 111 ------- ABSTRACT The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the findings of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment of the United States Postal Service, Bulk Mail Center located in Dallas, TX. This assessment was conducted during the week of May 15,1995. The report describes the mission of each of the functional areas of the BMC including operations performed, processes and materials employed and the wastes and emissions generated. Then, the Assessment Team makes recommendations concerning the procurement of office supplies, maintenance supplies and hazardous materials; management of hazardous materials and Wastes; purchase of chemicals on USEPA's 33/50 list; improvement of source separation and recycling of paper and paper products, metals and plastics; management of unwanted equipment; and other recommendations that can lead to the elimination, reduction or improved management of the facility's solid and hazardous waste streams and emissions to air and water. IV ------- TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER - • i CONTACT • ii FOREWORD iii [ - ABSTRACT iv EXHIBITS '. - vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS '• vii INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 SITE DESCRIPTION 2 BULKMAIL CENTER J 3 2.1 BULKMAIL CENTER 3 2.1.1 Physical Description of Facility .. 3 2.1.2 Mail Handling .... 4 2.2 BMC WASTE GENERATING OPERATIONS 5 2.2.1 Solid Waste Management : 5 2.2.2 Sorting Floor 5 2.2.3 Lube Room 6 2.2.4 Tow Lines 6 2.2.5 Cafeteria 6 2.2.6 OTR Repair. Vehicle Fueling/Maintenance 7 2.2.7 Purchasing and Stock Room 7 2.2.8 Maintenance Shops , 7 2.2.9 Battery Charging Room 8 2.2.10 Administrative Offices 8 2.2.11 polity Perimeter 8 2.2.12 Crossdock Pallet Facility 9 2.2.13 Warehouse 9 2.3 ADDITIONAL WASTE STREAMS 9 2.3.1 Hazardous Waste 9 2.3.2 Used Oil 10 2.3.3 Pest Control 10 ------- 2.3.4 Lighting 10 BULK MAIL FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES 11 3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL OVERSIGHT 12 3.2 REDUCE PAPER USE 12 3.3 REUSE AND RECYCLING 13 3.4 PALLETS 17 3.5 LIGHTING AND ENERGY 18 3.6 FLUORESCENT LIGHTING .... 22 3.7 RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 26 3.8 AFFIRMATIVE PROCUREMENT ...26 3.8 OVERSIGHT OF CHEMICAL STORAGE 29 . 3.9 RAGS 30 3.10 BATTERY CHARGING 31 3.11 DEDICATED OIL CONTAINERS 32 3.12 POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES 32 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 34 APPENDICES 35 EPA33/50 PROGRAM 36 OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 38 EPA GREEN LIGHTS PROGRAM & THE FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 40 • EPA ENERGY STAR® PROGRAM 42 FLUORESCENT TUBE AND BALLAST RECYCLING 43 POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES 45 EXHIBITS 3.1 BMC SOLID WASTE GENERATION n 3.2 COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR OTRS VERSUS GAYLORD USE 14 3.3 PECYCLERS IN THE DALLAS/FORT WORTH AREA 16 3.4 EXAMPLES OF PALLET RECYCLERS IN THE DALLAS AREA 18 3.5 FEDERAL ENERGY POLICIES ; .19 3.6 SQUARE FEET OF COVERAGE PER DAYLIGHTING UNIT 20 3.7 FLUORESCENT LIGHTING TUBE RECYCLERS 24 3.8 EPA ESTABLISHED MINIMUM RECOVERED CONTENT LEVELS 28 3.9 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF LAUNDERING RAGS 31 vi ------- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Funding for this project was provided by the United State Postal Service under an interagency agreement. Jim Bridges and Terri Hoagland of the EPA Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory managed the project and participated in the opportunity assessments. Special thanks are extended to Charlie Bravo and Beirnie Denno of the USPS Office of Environmental Management Policy and the staff of the USPS Dallas Bulk Miail Center. vn ------- SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is actively supporting the development of pollution prevention program plans for Federal facilities. Since 1988, the EPA has managed a technical support effort known as the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. WREAFS was established to provide pollution prevention solutions to environmental issues through research, development and demonstration of pollution prevention techniques and technologies, and transferring lessons learned within the Federal community and related private sector support industries. WREAFS has conducted more than 37 separate RD&D efforts under funding from both EPA and nine other Federal departments and agencies via interagency agreements. The United States Postal Service (USPS), hi cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), is engaged hi an effort to integrate pollution prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at postal facilities. The purpose of this project is to perform pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) at several types of Postal Service facilities, representing a cross-section of the USPS inventory; to identify the pollution prevention opportunities for these facilities; to recommend implementation strategies; and to develop facility guidance that can be incorporated into a revision of the USPS Waste Reduction Guide. This report describes the findings of the PPOA conducted for the United States Postal Service Bulk Mail Center (BMC) located in Dallas, TX. The site assessment was conducted during the week of May 15,1995. The Assessment Team performed a multi-media assessment. Issues of concern included: hazardous material acquisition, use and storage; hazardous waste storage and disposal; procurement and solid waste management, including recycling. The report begins with a brief description of the facility. This is followed by descriptions of specific operations and the wastes and emissions generated. The report makes both site-wide and operation-specific recommendations that may lead to the elimination, reduction, or unproved management of the facility's waste streams. While energy was not part of the multi-media assessment, the Assessment Team makes energy-related recommendations where appropriate. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or vendors does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. ------- 1.1 SITE DESCRIPTION The BMC is located in Dallas, TX, at 2400 Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike. The facility occupies 75 acres along the 1-35 corridor west of downtown Dallas. The surrounding area is devoted to mixed commercial/industrial and residential uses. The site is bordered on the north by Route 35 and an industrial park, on the south by a residential area, on the east by Hampton Road and a commercial area and on the west by an additional commercial area. The USPS operations include one major building and several smaller buildings that house maintenance, groundskeeping and traffic control operations. ------- SECTION 2.0 BULK MAIL CENTER (BMC) This section addresses the operations performed within the BMC and associated facilities and the wastes and emissions generated by those operations. The section includes a description of current waste management practices. 2.1 BULK MAIL CENTER The national-bulk mail system is a network of mechanized bulk mail centers that process 3rd and 4th class mail. The USPS operates two large BMCs, five medium BMCs and 14 small. BMCs. Classification is based on facility size, rather than mail throughput. The Dallas BMC with approximately 450,000 square feet is considered a medium-sized BMC arid processes between 500,000 and 800,000 parcels per day. The BMC facility in Pallas, TX performs the sorting and routing of packages and bulk business mail for TX, Oklahoma and parts of Kansas, Arkansas, and Louisiana. In addition, mail is routed to the twenty other regional BMCs. The facility employs approximately 1,600 individuals, of which approximately 150 are supervisors and clerical workers. The facility operates three eight-hour shifts per day, six days per week and two shifts on Sunday. An additional 300 workers are hired during the Christmas holiday season. 2.1.1 Physical Description of Facility The BMC facility occupies 75 acres. The main building contains approximately 452,000 square feet of space which houses administration, workroom floor, facility electrical utilities, air handlers and air chillers. The space is divided as follows: Penthouse (air chillers, air handlers, electrical service) 30,064 sq. ft. 3rd Floor (Administrative/Conference Rooms) 16,128 sq. ft. 2nd floor (Administrative) 16,128 sq. ft. 1st floor (Administrative) 16,128 sq. ft. Workroom floor 374,000 sq. ft. In addition, the facility houses a 2,000 sq. ft. lubrication storage area (lube! room) that contains supplies of petroleum products used in the BMC, a used oil storage tank, a staging area for cardboard recycling and a staging area for oil, rags, and filter disposal. ------- At the east end of the site is a 2,048 sq. ft. former vehicle repair shop that is now used to repair aluminum mail transport equipment known as over the road containers (OTRs). This shop also serves as a fuel and oil dispensing area for postal vehicles. On the west end of the site is a 1,000 sq. ft. "tin shed" that houses groundskeeping equipment and miscellaneous machinery. The BMC also has two remote sites: a USPS-owned warehouse at 1982 Fort Worth Ave. which is shared with the Dallas General Mail Facility (GMF), and a leased facility of 59,000 sq. ft. located at 3706 La Reunion Parkway that houses the Crossdock Pallet Facility (CPF). 2.1.2 Mail Handling Mail enters the main facility via trucks through loading docks on one of 42 inbound docks, on the east and west side of the facility. Mail is processed and sorted and leaves the facility via 78 outbound docks on the south of the building. Mail is handled through the facility according to its physical characteristics and destination. Mail comes in four basic forms: sacks, parcels, nonmachinable outsides (i.e., those pieces that can not be machine sorted), and bulk business mail. Sacks enter from the inbound docks on extendible conveyors. The conveyor transports the sacks to slides which feed keying stations. The keyer locates the sack label, positions the sack in a cradle and keys in the zip code on the label. The cradle tips the sack onto a moving tray sorter that travels at 70 trays per minute. Sacks placed on a tray travel to the destination chute where the tray tips and the sack slides into the chute. The chute leads to an extendable conveyor on the outbound docks where the sacks are bedloaded (stacked on the bed of the vehicle rather than containerized) onto the outgoing trucks. Parcels arrive at the facility in mail transport equipment (heavy-duty aluminum OTRs, cardboard gaylords, or wire cages), sacks or bedloaded individually. Containers are rolled of f the trucks at the inbound docks and placed onto the Fixed Mechanization Automated Container System (FMACS or tow line) and brought to the container unloaders. The unloader dumps the parcels on to a conveyor which moves them to the parcel keying stations on the primary sorters. Parcels hi sacks are sent through the sack sorter (see above) and then sorted to the sack shakeout operation where the sacks are opened and the parcels removed and placed on conveyors leading to the primary parcel sorter. Bedloaded parcels are unloaded directly onto conveyors which bring them to the keying stations on the parcel sorters. Once sorted, packages slide onto a tray sorter that dumps them to chutes according to destination. Parcels are loaded into OTRs, wire cages or gaylords, depending on destination, and moved onto outgoing trucks. Bulk business mail enters the BMC on pallets and hi mailer-prepared sacks which are distributed by the sack system to the east wing annex. Sacks are opened and dumped onto a belt where individual bundles are sorted to mail transport equipment and sacks. ------- 2.2 BMC WASTE GENERATING OPERATIONS Wastes generated by BMC operations include excess and obsolete equipment and supplies; corrugated cardboard; computer paper; white paper; mixed office paper, including forms and envelopes; magazines and newsprint; employee wastes including cans, bottles, wrappers and food; pallets; shrink and stretch wrap; aluminum and other metals; wood; fluorescent tubes and lighting ballasts; batteries; plastic and metal strapping; rags; and oil filters and waste oil. 2.2.1 Solid Waste Management The main building at the BMC has a 40 cubic yard compactor provided by Southwest Paper Stock. Prior to the segregation of cardboard gaylords for recycling, the compactor was pulled 30 tunes per month. Currently, the compactor is pulled approximately 12 tunes per month. The BMC is charged $147.50 per pull which includes compactor rental. The waste collected by Southwest Paper is sent to a materials recovery facility for separation prior to disposal in a landfill. The BMC recycles aluminum and other metals, cardboard gaylords, high grade white office paper, and some scrap wood. In addition, there is a six cubic yard container at the Crossdock Pallet Facility (CPF) that is pulled 26 tunes per month for a cost of$3,774 per year. There is no recycling occurring at the CPF. The BMC spends approximately $27,000 per year on waste disposal. 2.2.2 Sorting Floor As noted above, all bulk mail entering the facility is sorted and routed on the sorting floor. The sorting floor generates large amounts of cardboard, metal from equipment repair, oils, grease, and paper. Cardboard gaylords used for the movement of packages are the largest-single source of old corrugated cardboard (OCC). After packages that enter the facility in gaylords are dumped for sorting, the gaylords are broken down and placed hi an OTR. The OTR is attached to the tow line and sent to the lube room where the gaylords are processed for recycling. Staff stated that the lack of storage space and the inability of staff to segregate reusable from damaged gaylords prevents the wide reuse of gaylords. Reuse of gaylords is limited to tunes when no new gaylords are available. The BMC currently recycles only cardboard gaylords; other OCC is put into the compactor. Weyerhauser places a trailer at the dock in the lube room. The gaylords are placed on pallets in the lube room. Strapping, shrinkwrap and other contaminants are removed, and the OCC is placed in the trailer. The BMC staff believe that they recycle approximately 70 to 80 percent of the OCC. The BMC plans to consolidate the recycling in a separate area, purchase a horizontal auto-tie baler and become the USPS regional collection point for OCC recycling. The BMC recycles approximately 60 tons of gaylords per month and receives$ 140 per ton, representing revenue of approximately $8,400 per month. ------- The sorting floor also generates significant quantities of undeliverable bulk business mail (UBBM) and loose-in-mails (LIMs), the USPS term for loose or damaged bulk mail. UBBM is currently discarded into the compactor. There are nine LIMs chutes that generate approximately five to six wire cages of LIMs per day. The LIMs are sorted to verify that no deliverable mail is present and the remains are discarded into the compactor. The Rewrap Section processes mail that has been damaged or is otherwise undeliverable. Broken, leaking or questionable packages are sent to the Rewrap Section where they are opened, examined and, if possible, repackaged using new cardboard boxes and returned to the mail processing system. This section generates a substantial amount of mixed paper and corrugated cardboard that is currently discarded into the compactor. 2.2.3 Lube Room The lube room is located in the southeast corner of the main building and contains an oil storage rack, a used oil storage tank, a parts washer, a tow line grease storage container and two flammable materials cabinets. The flammable materials cabinets were completely filled with paints, oils, cleaners, and degreasers. Several products contained ozone depleting substances (ODS) and constituents included on the EPA 33/50 list of chemicals targeted for reduction. See the appendices for further discussion of ozone depleting substances and EPA 33/50 chemicals. The lube room had an open drain that leads to the sanitary sewer. The lube room also serves as .the staging area for loading of cardboard for recycling. 2.2.4 Tow Lines During routine maintenance, the tow lines are cleaned out quarterly, generating a thick heavy grease. The BMC generates approximately four 55-gallon drums of tow line sludge per quarter. The sludge is placed in a closed basin in the lube room. The sludge is then biotreated using microbes to reduce the viscosity of the grease so it is pumpable. Following treatment the grease is filtered and pumped to the used oil tank hi the lube room. See Section 2.3.2 for a discussion of used oil management. 2.2.5 Cafeteria The cafeteria/lunch room serves food via vending machines. Wastes from the cafeteria include wastes disposed by employees such as paper and plastic bags, aluminum foil and other containers, such as yogurt or soup, brought hi from home. Food waste is mixed with these materials. Beverages are sold in aluminum cans and glass and plastic bottles. An aluminum can collection box was present in the cafeteria. Deliveries of food products generate corrugated boxes and packaging which are sent to the compactor. ------- 2.2.6 OTR Repair. Vehicle Fueling/Maintenance The BMC has a 2,000 sq. ft. repair facility that consists of two buildings at the east end of the site. One building is used for the mechanical repair of OTRs, wire cages and other equipment. This building houses welding equipment as well as other machine shop equipment. Repairs performed include structural repairs as well as replacement of tow pins, wheels, or other parts. The shop is typically staffed with five to six employees. The OTR shop repairs between 10 and 18 OTRs per person per day. The repair area had at least 300 OTRs and wire cages stockpiled awaiting repair. Numerous additional pieces of mail transport equipment requiring repair arrive each day from all parts of the country. The second building is a maintenance shop for painting and prep of OTRs and other maintenance. This building is adjacent to the fueling area so no "hot" work occurs in this building. In addition, this facility readies new OTRs for use by painting on the marking area and adding a Dallas identification number. Each building has a flammable materials cabinet that contains numerous containers of paints, oils, and degreasers. Several partially used containers of insecticide were also found in. the two buildings. Adjacent to the fueling area is a flammable materials cabinet that contains drums; of motor oil for vehicles. An inspection of the flammable materials cabinet in the OTR repair shop revealed the bottom filled with several inches of oil. 2.2.7 Purchasing and Stock Room The stock room at the BMC stores parts and materials used by the BMC staff and is the central ordering area for equipment. All parts and supplies are ordered through the stock room. The stock room staff uses a computerized ordering system to acquire materials from GSA or the Materials Distribution Center in Topeka, KS. The staff also orders from local suppliers. Approximately 25 people have access to the stock room. Nine individuals have the authority to order parts and materials. These orders are approved by one of three maintenance supervisors, the maintenance manager and the purchasing officer. Parts requests from staff are entered via a computer terminal on a shelf outside of the stock room. The stock room staff retrieves the part if it is in stock or orders the part if necessary. 2.2.8 Maintenance Shops The maintenance department performs repairs on sorting equipment as well as building maintenance and upkeep. The maintenance shop contains two degreasers that use "Powersolv" solvent, an aqueous-based cleaner degreaser. Rags used by the maintenance staff tend to be very oily and the staff has found that they cannot be cleaned and reused. The facility was using a rag service, but found that they were continually purchasing new rags because the service could not clean the rags. All rags are now purchased either locally or through GSA and disposed via incineration. The BMC purchased 6,250 pounds of rags in 1994 for$2,375 and hi 1995 through ------- April have purchased 3,750 pounds for $555. The facility generates three to four 55-gallon drums of rags per month which are incinerated for approximately$400 per drum ($1200 to$1600 per month). All flammable materials storage cabinets contained products with chemical constituents listed on the EPA 33/50 list. The BMC staff has discontinued ordering products containing these chemicals, found suitable replacements and is in the process of depleting stocks. 2.2.9 Battery Charging Room The battery room, located on the main floor of the BMC, is used for recharging and storage of batteries used in BMC vehicles, approximately 37 forklifts and 20 jitneys. Each vehicle has three batteries: one hi use, one charged and ready, and one charging. The facility estimates there are 150 batteries on-site. The room has an open floor dram with no diking to prevent spills from entering the sanitary sewer. The BMC is presently in the process of upgrading the battery charging room to increase storage capacity, install better ventilation and lighting and provide a limestone tank for the neutralization of any acids released hi the battery room. In 1994, the BMC recycled 30 batteries to Exide Corporation, a battery manufacturer. 2.2.10 Administrative Offices The BMC contains three floors occupied by offices and conference rooms (approximately 48,000 sq. ft.). The significant wastes include computer printouts, white paper, mixed office paper, toner cartridges and employee wastes. The BMC has initiated a white paper recycling program. While some employees were participating hi the recycling program, most were not, as evidenced by white paper in nearly all trash containers. Lighting in all offices, conference rooms and restrooms is motion sensitive. The BMC plans to install new carpeting manufactured from recycled polyethylene. '. 2.2.11 Facility Perimeter During a walk around the facility perimeter, the Assessment Team noted the presence of a "tin shed", several roll-off containers and several miscellaneous material storage areas. The tin shed houses groundskeeping equipment and a variety of excess equipment and materials including tires and other parts. Near the tin shed is a 30 cubic yard container dedicated to the collection of wood wastes. According to the BMC staff, this container is pulled for recycling by Southwest Paper on an "on-call" basis. The contents of the container were contaminated with plastic and cardboard boxes. There is also a 30 cubic yard container for metals recycling. The BMC generates 10 to 12 tons of scrap metal per month. The container is typically pulled twice per month by Atlas Scrap and the USPS receives approximately $70 per ton, generating revenue of approximately$800 per month. The facility also generates 15 to 20 tires per year. These tires are either removed by the tire company performing the replacement or are sent to the VMF hi Dallas for management. Scrap equipment piles were located all around the west and northwest 8 ------- perimeter awaiting use or disposition. Bulk aluminum is typically sold at auction in 20,000 pound lots; however, in fiscal year 1995 there has been one sale of approximately 97,000 pounds of aluminum for which the USPS received approximately $7,929. 2.2.12 Crossdock Pallet Facility The Crossdock Pallet Facility (CPF) is a 59,000 sq. ft. leased facility located at 3706 La Reunion Parkway in an industrial park approximately one mile from the BMC. The CPF redistributes palletized materials from bulk mailers. Palletized materials arrive on trucks from bulk mailers. The CPF personnel unload the trucks and determine if the materials on each pallet are already sorted by BMC or are mixed. Those pallets that are correctly separated for other BMCs are put directly onto trucks. Pallets that contain mixed loads are broken down, sorted, re- palletized, shrinkwrapped and put on the correct truck for shipment If the pallets are for the Dallas region, the packages are sent to the BMC for sorting and routing. The CPF is also the accumulation point for all sacks for the Dallas BMC region. Sacks arrive from all over the Dallas region loose, bagged, or in OTRs and wire cages. The sacks are sorted by type, checked for mail, removed from service if damaged, repackaged, and sent to the annex. Sacks are shipped to local Post Offices or bulk mailers, as required. All waste generated at the CPF is disposed in a six cubic-yard container that is emptied daily for a cost of$3,774 per year. No recycling is performed at this facility. Wastes generated include pallets, shrinkwrap, cardboard, damaged sacks, and strapping. USPS plastic and pressboard pallets are shipped to the Arlington TX pallet distribution center. Wood pallets are disposed. The facility also has a fork truck battery charging operation with no safety or spill prevention equipment present. 2.2.13 Warehouse The warehouse, located at 1982 Fort Worth Ave., is a facility shared by the BMC and the GMF. The facility is approximately one mile from the BMC. The BMC uses this space prirmirily for the storage of cardboard gaylords for use in the BMC and some excess equipment. It was unclear which material belonged to the BMC and which to the GMF. The warehouse aiso had a fork lift battery charging station in operation with no safety or spill prevention equipment present. One area hi the facility is used for records storage. There is no trash service at this facility. All wastes generated here are discarded of at the BMC or GMF facilities. 23 ADDITIONAL WASTE STREAMS 2.3.1 Hazardous Waste The BMC does not generate large amounts of hazardous waste on a regular basis. The BMC has begun to take all aerosol cans to a central depository. The aerosol cans are punctured ------- and drained into one of two drums. One drum is designated for paints, the other for oils. Once emptied, the cans are recycled with the metal scrap. The BMC has not yet generated a full drum for disposal. The BMC generated one 55 gallon drum of hazardous waste in 1994, which was waste paint classified F003 and F005. 2.3.2 Used Oil Used oil from sorting machines and motors is typically filtered and reused on the tow line. The BMC uses a portable filtering unit that can be used for motor oils and cooling oils. After final use the oils are sent to the used oil collection tank. Used oil is collected by Worldwide Reclamation who sends it to CSC Disposal for rerefining. In 1994, the BMC generated approximately 11,500 pounds (1,500 gallons) of waste oil. The facility generates 10 to 20 oil filters per year from the compressors and other equipment. The oil filters are collected by Worldwide Reclamation and sent off-site for incineration. . , _ 2.3.3 Pest Control The facility has discontinued the application of pesticides by its employees and contracts all pest control to licensed applicators. The staff has attempted on more than one occasion to remove all aerosol pesticides from the facility, but several containers were found during the assessment 2.3.4 Lighting The BMC primary lighting is provided by fluorescent fixtures. The facility is in the process of changing over to halogen lighting; however, capital improvements funding for the lighting systems were recently denied by the regional environmental office. The BMC staff stated that it is then- goal to eliminate all fluorescent lights from the facility because of the environmental impacts of the disposal of fluorescent tubes. The BMC discards 21 fluorescent tubes per day, five days per week into the compactor. The staff collects lighting ballasts and batteries for recycling. The staff is currently investigating the use of new sulfur-based lighting systems under development by Fusion Lighting and the Department of Energy. Motion sensitive lights were in use in me office spaces, but nowhere else. 10 ------- SECTION 3.0 BULK MAIL FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES This section describes pollution prevention opportunities specific to the operations of the Bulk Mail Facility. Exhibit 3.1 presents a summary of the BMC waste generation, current management and potential pollution prevention opportunities. EXHIBIT 3.1 BMC SOLID WASTE GENERATION Waste Obsolete, damaged or defective equipment Corrugated cardboard Computer print-out White paper Mixed paper Magazines Toner cartridges Pallets Plastic stretch wrap Rags Fluorescent tubes Strapping. Oil Alkaline Batteries Lighting Ballasts Current Management Disposed or sold as scrap Some reused, gaylords recycled, other cardboard disposed Discarded as waste Some recycled Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Returned for recycling USPS pallets sent to Arlington facility for redistribution. Pine pallets sold as scrap for mulch Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Rerefined Recycled PCB ballasts managed as hazardous, non PCB ballasts recycled Opportunities Repair at USPS Computer Repair Facility (CRF) in Topeka, KS, Reuse Reduce use of gaylords;Increase use of OTRs; Reduce incoming boxes; reuse boxes; Improve diversion for recycling Reduce generation, divert for recycling I Reduce generation, improve diversion for recycling Reduce generation, divert for recycling Reduce generation, divert for recycling Continue recycling Reduce variety, reuse pine pallets, establish recycling options for pine pallets Reduce generation, divert for recycling Investigate rag service feasibility Improve ambient light, install motion sensitive lighting, divert for recycling Divert for recycling Purchase rerefined oil Use rechargeable batteries Improve ambient light, install motion sensitive lighting, turn lights off 11 ------- 3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL OVERSIGHT Current Conditions The Dallas BMC does not have an environmental coordinator who is responsible for environmental activities at the facility. Instead, environmental activities are addressed on an as- needed basis by either the facility maintenance supervisors or other staff members. More importantly, no one is designated to monitor environmental compliance and issues at the site. Ultimately, the highest ranking USPS employee on site is responsible and liable for all environmental activities. BMC personnel attend meetings sponsored by the area environmental compliance coordinator to share ideas on reducing the environmental impacts of USPS operations. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Appoint an Environmental Coordinator The Dallas BMC should appoint at least one environmental coordinator for the facility. This individual should monitor environmental issues and implement opportunities to reduce waste disposal and emissions at the facility. 3.2 REDUCE PAPER USE Current Conditions Office personnel interviewed by the Assessment Team, while aware of the double-sided copying capabilities of duplicating equipment, do not consistently use those options. Staff is not aware of any efforts to encourage reduction in the quantity of paper used and disposed. The Assessment Team observed a significant amount of white paper and computer print-out in the waste containers. White paper is recycled by some personnel, but mixed office papers and magazines are not recycled. Some older copy machines do not have double-sided copying capabilities, Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Adopt paper waste reduction techniques Before initiating an enhanced recycling program, facility managers and staff should adopt and promote a variety of techniques to prevent or reduce the quantity of paper generated for disposal. 12 ------- • Establish a duplex copying policy for all multi-page documents and provide staff training in the use of the double-sided function on copying equipment. As equipment is replaced, specify easy to use, rapid, duplex capability. . - . • Expand and encourage the use of electronic mail rather than paper memos and distribution copies. • Limit distribution lists. If paper copies are necessary, circulate one memo or report with a cover sheet indicating distribution. • Identify opportunities to reuse paper and paper products. Corrugated cardboard boxes, jiffy bags, manila envelopes and other packaging materials are reusable for their original function; paper can be turned over and used as scratch paper or made into message pads. • Encourage staff to proofread on screen and save information on disks rather than as paiper file copies. 3.3 REUSE AND RECYCLING Current Conditions Currently, the BMC separates cardboard gaylords, aluminum cans, other aluminum and metals, used lubricating oil and some paper for recycling. Staff flatten the gaylord boxes after one use and place them in an OTR on the tow line for staging for recycling. All other OCC is placed hi the trash compactor. The.BMC staff predict that they will spend more than $1,000,000 hi fiscal year 1995 to purchase gaylord boxes, each of which will be used only once. USPS plastic and pressboard pallets are sent to the Arlington, TX pallet distribution center. Wooden pine pallets are recycled as wood scrap. The recycling program for paper is limited to collection of high grade white paper. The office staff has not been trained to participate in recycling; some offices had recycling containers, many did not. Many desks had small recycled paper holders which typically are inadequate to hold a sufficient quantity of recycled paper and often are not used. No other paper is being recycled. UBBM and LIMs are currently discarded into the compactor. All waste generated at the Crossdock Pallet Facility is discarded; no recycling is occurring at this facility. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Use OTRs instead of cardboard gaylords ; The use of gaylords for moving packages has increased significantly in the last several years. BMC staff stated that this is caused by the inability to obtain adequate supplies of mail transport equipment, especially BMC OTRs. As a result, OTRs are used only to transport packages within the Dallas region. Packages that leave the Dallas region are packed in gaylords 13 ------- or are bedloaded. OTRs are hoarded by all USPS facilities to cope with seasonal mail volume increases. According to USPS Headquarters Mail Transport Equipment Office, aluminum OTRs cost$1,138 and have an expected life of 10 years. Gaylords are used for a single trip at the Dallas BMC and cost approximately $6.00 each, depending on the size. The Dallas BMC predicts that it will purchase in fiscal year 1995 approximately 28,425 30- inch gay lords for a cost of$147,969 and 143,000 54-inch gaylords for $875,000. The BMC will spend more than$1,000,000 to purchase new gaylord boxes in fiscal year 1995. Exhibit 3.2 provides a simple cost/benefit analysis of OTR versus gaylord use. This analysis shows that an OTR could be used as few as 39 times per year and be more cost effective than the use of gaylords. As a result, the USPS should increase the number of OTRs hi the system and increase the repair staff to keep OTRs in service to reduce the reliance on gaylords: EXHIBIT 3.2 COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR OTRS VERSUS GAYLORD USE* Cost/Activity a. Initial Cost b. Number of Trips c. Maintenance Cost d. Scrap Value e. Total Cost f. Cost Per Trip Aluminum OTR $1,138.00 1500 (150/year for 10 years)$1000($100/yearforlO years)$30 $2,108$1.40 ; Double-Walled Cardboard Gaylord $6.00 1 None$0.70 $5.41$5.41 ' Assumptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. An OTR is used for three trips per week, 50 weeks per year for a total of 150 trips per year. An OTR is in repair two weeks per year; for an annual cost of $100.00. Life expectancy of an OTR is 10 years. An OTR weighs 385 pounds. Scrap aluminum value is$0.08 per pound based on recent auction price for aluminum scrap. A gaylord is used for one trip (based on Dallas BMC usage). A gaylord weighs 10 pounds and scrap yalue is $0.07 per pound ($140 per ton). 2. Cancel the Integrated Mail Handling System USPS has an existing inventory of mail transport containers, including both aluminum and steel BMC OTRs, originally intended for use in the immediate service area of each Bulk Mail Center. Although OTRs were not intended to be used to move mail between BMCs or PDCs and BMCs, workers found it too time consuming to unload bedloaded trucks. Now, postal employees use OTRs to move mail between facilities. BMCs and PDCs hoard OTRs for the 14 ------- holidaiy season, and bulk mail customers take OTRs and do not return them. The BMCs have no control over the OTR inventory, thus OTRs are not readily available to move the mail. To solve the problem of access to mail transport equipment, the USPS has designed the Integrated Mail Handling System (IMHS). The planned IMHS would substitute disposable, corrugated cardboard gaylord boxes for the permanent, reusable OTR containers. In addition, because gaylord boxes of adequate volume are too tall, existing BMC mail handling equipment, designed to accommodate OTRs, will require modification. Rather than invest in costly equipment and program modifications that will increase solid waste quantity and handling costs, the USPS should purchase enough additional OTRs or other permanent mail transport equipment for the nationwide movement of non-peak period mail volume and design and implement a nationwide bar-code labeling and tracking system for the OTRs. By utilizing Regional Equipment Processing Centers to track and distribute OTRs in a timely fashion, the need for the cardboard gaylords will be eliminated. The gaylords currently stocked for the IMHS can be used only during the Christmas season. 2. Reuse cardboard gaylords that enter facility As noted above, gaylords that enter the BMC are sent to the lube room for recycling. Gaylords are only reused when no new gaylords are available. USPS employees believe that it is too difficult to determine the structural integrity of a used gaylord and that it is too time consuming to flatten the used gaylord and return it to the storage area for reuse. The BMC should establish a procedure to evaluate each gaylord entering the facility. Reusable gaylords should be broken down and staged for reuse. Damaged gaylords should continue to be managed by recycling. One reuse of each gaylord will reduce the costs for gaylords in half, saving the BMC $500,000 in purchasing expenses. 3. Reuse cardboard boxes in other processing operations All corrugated cardboard, with the exception of gaylords, is sent to the trash compactor. Boxes of the appropriate size in good condition should be reused in other operations. For example, the Rewrap Section uses all new boxes for repackaging parcels. The BMC should segregate the appropriate sized boxes for use hi Rewrap and only use new boxes when reusable boxes are not available. 4. Segregate for recycling the OCC that cannot be reused The BMC believes that it is recycling 70 to 80 percent of its cardboard by recycling the gaylords and that only 20 to 30 percent is sent to disposal. The Assessment Team believes these figures are accurate. The BMC recycles approximately 60 tons of OCC each month and receives$140 per ton. In fiscal year 1995, to date, the BMC has received revenues totaling approximately $39,000. Collecting the additional 20 to 30 percent of OCC would reduce disposal costs and 15 ------- could yield additional revenues. To increase the recycling rate, however, would require additional labor to evaluate and separate the OCC for reuse or recycling. This will be economically justifiable when the proposed recycling center is built and the baler utilized. 5. Improve office paper recycling system Given the current market value of all grades of office paper, the BMC should improve the separation of paper for recycling. The BMC should provide more individual and area collection containers for recyclable paper. These container should be clearly labeled and/or a distinct color to distinguish them from the waste containers. A collection container for paper recycling should be located next to each printer and copying machine. Employees should be encouraged to empty their desk collection boxes into centralized consolidation containers. The recyclable paper should be regarded as a valuable commodity, not a waste. Employees need information concerning the kinds of paper that can and should be recycled. Employees should be involved in the planning and implementation of the recycling program so that they will value participating in it Exhibit 3.3 provides information on some local companies interested hi discussing paper recycling opportunities and the materials and prices currently quoted. USPS Environmental Management Policy Office is developing a draft recycling contract and guidance to assist postal facilities in selecting a recycler. EXHIBIT 3.3 RECYCLERS m THE DALLAS/FORT WORTH ARE A Recycler Recycle America Of Dallas (Waste Management) 12260 Garland Rd Dallas, TX Daltex Recycling Company 408 Singleton Blvd. Dallas, TX 75212 Rock Tenn 9233 Denton Drive Dallas, TX 75235 i Material Accepted Paper Mixed Paper Cardboard Paper OCC OCC Mixed office Paper Computer Paper White Ledger Material Price (September, 1995) OCC$169 per ton Mixed Office $60-70 per ton White Paper Varies depending on grade Computer Varies depending on grade OCC$205-2 15 per ton baled $80 per ton on skids CPO$150 per ton Mixed $30 per ton White$90 per ton OCC $190 per ton baled$150-170 per ton loose Mixed office $30 per ton Computer$400 per ton White Ledger $300 per ton 6. Reduce quantity of UBBM and LIMs USPS bulk mail policies and support services to bulk mailers contribute to the quantity of undeliverable bulk business mail (UBBM), including magazines and newsprint, in the USPS 16 ------- waste stream. Current USPS policy promotes recycling of UBBM; a policy promoting UBBM reduction is not under consideration. UBBM and LIMs constitute a substantial input into the BMC wastestream and the USPS incurs significant costs to process, transport, deliver and dispose of UBBM. To determine whether reduction or recycling is the most cost effective management practice for UBBM, the USPS should perform a cost analysis to compare the combined revenues from bulk mailing and recycling of UBBM to the costs associated with sorting, handling, transporting and processing undeliverable mail and associated packaging. To reduce the quantity of UBBM managed by postal facilities, the USPS could expand its mailing list maintenance service. Annual mailing list updates, particularly for third and fourth class mail, could be integrated into the bulk mail permitting process. 7. Begin UBBM and LIMs recycling At a rninimum, the Dallas BMC should begin to recycle UBBM and LIMs to avoid the disposal costs and potentially earn revenues. There would be a minimal additional handling costs because the UBBM and LIMs are already hand-verified prior to disposal and would only need to be segregated for recycling. Many areas have initiated hauling of UBBM, magazines and newsprint to a central location by integrating hauling of UBBM into the existing mail transportation system. A separate transportation system to move UBBM to an accumulation point will increase costs and environmental impacts. 8. Set up additional recycling bins in cafeteria Metal, glass and plastic food and beverage containers should be separated for recycling. Metal containers can be accommodated in the existing metals recycling containers. A new recycliing program should be established for glass and plastic food and beverage containers. 3.4 PALLETS Current Conditions The BMC receives a variety of pallets including pine, HDPE plastic, and pressboard pallets. The BMC currently does an excellent job of collecting and sending the plastic and pressboard pallets to the Pallet Distribution Center hi Arlington, TX facility. Purchasing staff believe that pine pallets also are sent to the Arlington facility. The wood container on the north side of the facility, however, contained numerous pallets which were being sold as wood scrap. In addition, pine pallets at the CPF are discarded into the waste container. 17 ------- Pollution Prewnt'9" Opportunities 1. Establish a recycling program for pine pallets Establish a formal recycling system for pine pallets. Recyclers will repair or rebuild pallets for resale. Exhibit 3.4 provides a summary of some pallet recycling services available in the Dallas area. EXHIBIT 3.4 EXAMPLES OF PALLET RECYCLERS IN THE DALLAS AREA Company Size Collected and Price American Pallet Rebuilders Phone: (214) 744-4840 The company will only purchase 48"x 48" pallets and will pay up to$2.50 per pallet, depending on condition. Will collect, at no charge, a minimum of 400 to 500 pallets. • AAA Pallets Phone:(214)445-0036 AAA Pallets will pay 50 to 75 cents per pallet, depending on condition, Accept all sizes of pallets for recycling. For once-a-week pickup, AAA will leave a van onsite; for once-per-month pickup, AAA will send a van. AAA recycles and repairs pallets. Nothing goes to the landfill. All Size Pallet Supply Phone: (800) 281-8150 All Size Pallet Supply will pay $1.00 for 48" x 48" pallets. All other sizes will be collected at no cost, but the company will not pay for them. Pallets are torn down and rebuilt into needed sizes or repaired and sold to customers. Summers Pallet Service Phone: (800) 992-2052 Summers will collect all pallet sizes but only pays for certain sizes. Prices range from 50 cents to$3.00. For a 48" x 48" pine pallet, they quoted $2.00. Would provide drop trailers if volume is considerable. Summers recycles pallets, disassembles odd sizes and remakes them, and grinds rotten pallets for compost. • 3.5 LIGHTING AND ENERGY Current Conditions The Federal government is a major consumer of energy, using more than two percent of all energy consumed in the United States. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20 percent by the year 2000 and Executive Order 12902 requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption 30 percent by the year 2005. Although the USPS is not an Executive Branch Agency, it is Postal Service policy to adhere to Executive Orders whenever feasible. Both reductions are from a 1985 baseline. In addition, Federal agencies must conduct comprehensive energy audits and install cost-effective energy conservation measures; agencies are encouraged to audit 10 percent of then- facilities each year, using "no-cost" audits where practicable. These requirements are summarized hi Exhibit 3.5. 18 ------- The BMC is in the process of upgrading the lighting on the floors with high intensity lighting and hopes, over tune, to eliminate the use of fluorescent lights completely. The BMC is a 22 year old building and is in need of significant lighting upgrades. One potential improvement is to switch all the fluorescent lights to sulfur lighting tubes. The Dallas BMC has volunteered to be a "model facility" for sulfur lighting. The USPS regional environmental coordinator will purchase the lights, and the Department of Energy will install the lighting system in the facility. The BMC is willing to consider other methods to improve the floor lighting as well as the lighting efficiency. EXHIBIT 3.5 FEDERAL ENERGY POLICIES Energy Policy Act of 1992 Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 10 percent by 1995 (1985 baseline) Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20 percent by 2000 (1985 baseline) Conduct comprehensive facility audits and install cost-effective energy conservation measures In Federally owned buildings, install all energy and water conservation measures that have payback periods of less than 10 years Executive Order 12902 Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 30 percent by 2005 (1985 baseline) Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20 percent in industrial facilities by 2005 (1990 baseline) Conduct surveys and comprehensive audits Implement recommendations for energy efficiency, water conservation and renewable energy that have payback periods of less than 1 0 years In a separate, but related issue, the roof at the BMC is also in need of repairs. In several locations throughout the building, leaks have developed in the roof. There has been some discussion about replacing the roof and, as a result, ambient lighting projects may be considered. Pollution Prevention Opportunities . 1. Increase the Use of Motion Sensitive Lighting While motion sensitive lighting was used hi office areas it was not apparent hi other parts of the facility. The BMC staff should review the lighting plans and install motion sensitive lighting hi infrequently used areas. 2. Establish a "lights out" policy Establish a policy of turning off lights and equipment when leaving an area. Where machine design permits, turn photocopiers to low power when not in use. Each kilowatt hour saved prevents the formation of air pollutants, including 0.68 kg of carbon dioxide, 5.8 g of sulfur dioxide and 2.5 g of nitrogen oxides. 19 ------- 3. Investigate Increasing the Use of Ambient Lighting The Dallas BMC should study the possibility of installing daylighting systems (i.e., skylights) to allow more energy efficient lighting into the building. An estimated 30 to 50 percent of the energy used in a commercial building is spent illuminating the interior. Daylight can significantly reduce energy consumption and peak energy use in commercial buildings. There are two basic systems for daylighting, active and passive. Active daylighting systems employ a system of stacked reflective mirrors and a robotics unit with an infrared, light- sensitive photo diode that tracks the sun as it travels through the sky. The units are set for the specific latitude of the building. During the day, the units turn to catch the sun at its maximum angle, then reflect the light down through the skylight. With passive daylighting systems, the sunlight penetrates the external dome and directs the light into the building. Exhibit 3.6 presents the approximate square feet of coverage per daylighting unit. EXHIBIT 3.6 SQUARE FEET OF COVERAGE PER DAYLIGHTltNG UNIT Ceiling Height (feet) 8to9 10 to 15 16 to 19 20 to 40 Low Levels of Light (30-50 foot candles) 400 sq ft 700 sq ft 900 sq ft 1000 sq ft High Levels of Light (50-100 foot candles) 300 sq ft SOOsqft TOOsqft 800 sq ft There a several companies that produce and install daylighting systems. Two compani.es provided information for this report: So-Luminaire Daylighting Systems Corporation and The Natural Lighting Company. The So-Luminaire system is an active daylighting system that is installed in 4' x 4' casings on the roof of a building and reflects natural sunlight through a skylight into the ulterior of a building. A cluster of diffusion lenses spreads the daylight inside the building. So-Luminaire's two diffusion lenses create dead air spaces which act as thermal barriers to reduce conductive heat gam/heat loss by approximately 50 percent. So-Luminaire estimates that each unit eliminates the use of over two million watts of fluorescent lighting per year, and only consumes one cent in energy costs per year. The Natural Lighting Company manufactures both active and passive daylighting systems. The active daylighting system uses sun-tracking mirrors to redirect sunlight into a reflective light well and diffusing lens. The passive daylighting system uses an innovative prismatic dome, reflective light well and diffusing system to light interior spaces. The Natural Lighting Company also produces the So-Dark motorized shade screen which is built into the skylight frame allowing a skylight to be partially or completely darkened at the flip of a switch. This product can be used with either the active or passive daylighting systems. 20 ------- There are several benefits to daylighting and improved facility lighting. The most important is that energy-efficient building design can significantly increase worker productivity. A recent study by the Rocky Mountain Institute found that efficient lighting (as well as heating and cooling) measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. The study presents eight case studies of improved productivity resulting from increased lighting efficiency. One case study included the main post office hi Reno, Nevada which found that a lighting retrofit with a six-year payback led to a six percent gain in productivity — worth more than the cost of the retrofit. Other benefits of daylighting include: • reducing electric lighting utility costs • reducing electric lighting maintenance costs • reducing electric lighting heat loads on air conditioning systems 4. Investigate Technical Assistance from Green Lights Program The staff at the BMC expressed interest in technical assistance to modify the lighting at the facility. USEPA operates Green Lights, a voluntary, non-regulatory program promoting pollution prevention through the installation of energy efficient lighting. Federal partners agree to upgrade lighting to maximize energy savings wherever it is profitable. The Green Lights program benefits participants by lowering electricity bills, improving lighting quality, and increasing worker productivity. Energy efficiency also reduces the quantity of pollutants released in the generation of electricity. For example, EPA estimates that if Green Lights were fully implemented, where profitable, in the United States, it would save over 65 million kilowatts of electricity annually, reducing the national electric bill by$16 billion per year. The program would also result in reductions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides equivalent to 12 percent of U.S. utility emissions, curbing acid rain and smog and helping to slow the greenhouse effect. See the appendices for additional information on Green Lights and the Federal Energy Management Program. 5. Procure computers that meet Energy Star requirements Future computer equipment purchases should specify equipment that is energy efficient. Executive Order 12845 requires Federal agencies to purchase computer equipment that meets EPA Energy Star requirements for energy efficiency. The EPA Energy Star Program is a voluntary partnership with the computer industry to promote energy-efficient personal computers, monitors and printers. Participating companies have committed to develop computer equipment that powers down when not in use. The "sleep" feature cuts energy use by 50-75%. 21 ------- Energy Star also includes a category for controlling devices, external retrofit products that reduce the energy consumption of existing computer equipment by automatically turning them off when not in use. The Federal Supply Service offers a product called the Intelligent Energy Saver, a PC add-on device that controls electrical power to the PC and its peripherals. The complete PC system can be powered on and off at user-defined dates and times. See the appendices for additional information on the Energy Star Program. 3.6 FLUORESCENT LIGHTING Current Conditions The BMC offices, warehouses and work areas are lighted with approximately 1,500 fluorescent tubes. The BMC discards at least 21 fluorescent tubes per day, five days per week into the trash compactor. Staff believe that if they limit their disposal to 24 tubes per day, they do not need to dispose of them as a hazardous waste. According to the TX Natural Resources Conservation Commission, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Division, fluorescent lights are not automatically hazardous. A determination must be made using TCLP or by simply declaring them as hazardous. The determination on whether they must be managed as a hazardous waste is dependent on the RCRA status of the facility. Fluorescent lights are one of the most energy efficient lighting sources available. However, fluorescent lighting tubes contain mercury, which is used as an element to conduct the flow of the electric current. Historically, fluorescent lighting tubes were discarded into landfills. When the tubes broke, mercury was released to the environment. This potential hazard caused many states to classify fluorescent lighting tubes as hazardous waste and require that they be managed in accordance with applicable hazardous waste laws and regulations. Recycling spent fluorescent lighting tubes offers an environmentally sound alternative to expensive hazardous waste disposal. Additionally, recycling may relieve the generator of future liability concerns associated with tube disposal. Several companies provide recycling services for spent fluorescent lighting tubes and some of these companies also accept ballasts, a component of the light fixture. Ballasts manufactured prior to 1980 contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which also present disposal problems. However, ballasts produced after 1980 do not contain PCBs. According to Ron Newman of A-TEC Recycling, the useful life of ballasts is approximately 15 years. Since ballasts manufactured after 1980 do not contain PCBs, ballasts containing PCBs should not present significant disposal problems beyond the near term. Some states allow ballasts that do not contain PCBs to be disposed of in sanitary landfills. However, according to Stephanie Small of DYNEX Environmental, Inc., non-PCB ballasts contain diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Evidence indicates that DEHP is a human carcinogen. Due to either the PCBs or DEHP content, Ms. Small recommends that customers manage all ballasts as hazardous. 22 ------- USPS Memorandum for Managers, Operations Support dated December 16,1994 states that "Under no circumstances should these lamps be mechanically crushed or ground into smellier pieces. This method of disposal increases the exposure of hazardous materials to both employees and the environment. Lamps should be boxed prior to disposal." Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Establish Fluorescent Tube Recycling Program Store expired bulbs hi boxes in a safe area. USPS facilities should ship expired bulbs to an approved facility for recycling of glass, metals, and mercury. Exhibit 3.7 provides information on the specific services offered by companies that provide fluorescent tube recycling services, the cost of the services and the geographic area serviced by each company. 23 ------- I I I *•: tn H 1 U QJ !3 o "S *S m* C Cfl gj S 0 ! tS •1 t .a & o CO 1 O s .2 £ t5 a *•* Company/Address/Cor X H illjfl o en 0- o. g. IS r5! 1 fe •a n. j3 • • "o I .S e J o ;| s i| aj j2 *a o »£H J9 *-* ^ PT) £Q P5 ^ ^ §- o P* rS Ig ,1 C-> jo CQ .. •— .O oo 2 «> S B .S 0 i y= oa'5 e ^» 'C £ ° &g S « a-s §•! n, «« ? ™ E &•£ CO s E .a o nJ S CU CU »-• CM en , Envirosol 212 South Mesquite Suite 2A Arlington, TX 76010 (800)488-7974 Q) "O '5 B O 'i S5 to E tS E t3 S |||||| en \o *-^ Q? Tf *-* *o c? ^3 ^5 •«• (*» i-^ ^^ f>^ fs) *» W» 6* «0 SO 6* SO «ft '-SX-N O O jg «•- C S 'H' &'B> 2 'a OO 'OBcaBBG . ° BBOS-r;3 1 1 3 1 s 1 1 1 '-' ^^ — 'B cs '5 en "B e. ^4-1 B B B g " tn tJ g t3 g T3 - — S3.2T«5S ** ffl "•^ J2 O c° B •§ g cu s |5b g '? § |.s|| l.|^ c3 £ 2 Ui .32 cj *^ J>2 «-» CN en Tf u C *c3 |l| ^ 2 § T 5 i- C-; 0 v* *^ "S3 £j 22^2 t~- v~> o sss«s 1*8 ^ o <3 "3 CU CU CQ ^S o S. Bb II IS 3-S •• ra oo .sl.S I "o a. £ >, &"g i 8 e a g-i &S.JJ s i .a "« nJ ^3 CU M -^ csen Lighting Resources, Inc. 386 South Gordon Street Pomona, CA 91766 (800) 572-9253 u 12 °S£ s o 1 7, o i 2 o en *^ ** Q. | i s II oD t Q> O e/j. .. It § .a J CU -- CN Mercury Technologies International 1940 Westwood Blvd., No. 218 Los Angeles, CA 90025 (310)475-4684 1^ 13 > B .2 ts z O en O vo oo o C3 ^3 */"i «0 «» €ft 222 o o o «s o ri 0. S ^" *? "^ L- *M cK p "3- O CU 00 u ti f(J r^ o> O en If 5 u ,j S -ci ON o r~- oo B rvj C~- Recyclights 2010 East Hennepin Aven Minneapolis, MN 55413-: (800) 83 1-2852 or (612) 3 9568 ------- 03 U O IS g> w u ° § 1 1 •S +•> a O (A o trt s 'E Cl C3 •o •o 1 03 O. I Q. O U U c S III tG *rs 0 >% U s U Q> ^^ •" 1-^ U !H o I u o u V5 O I O - 01 ' &. (7 cT °® S? • ro "3 o> <;^ £ 1 ^r vq (S o ei r>i oo eu § S "2 "~ "^ « ^ I H) OO sill J < ------- 3.7 RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Current Conditions The Dallas facility uses numerous alkaline batteries for various functions. The batteries are used predominantly in flash lights utilized during machine repairs and maintenance activities. The BMC uses numerous AA, C, D, and 9v batteries. The stock room maintains a barrel to collect the batteries for recycling. The Dallas facility generates one 55-gallon drum of used alkaline batteries every three months; these are recycled with other rnetals. Pollution Prevention Opportunity 1. Purchase Rechargeable Batteries , The Dallas BMC should purchase rechargeable batteries and a charging unit to recharge the batteries. By using rechargeable batteries, the BMC would reduce the purchase cost of batteries. Rechargeable batteries, however, do not provide power for as long as alkaline batteries before recharging is necessary. GSA has Rayovac rechargeable alkaline batteries which are now available through Muffin or FWW-19. Rayovac's patented Renewal batteries offer the high performance attributes of regular alkaline batteries along with the cost and environmental benefits of a reusable system. Renewal batteries are available in battery sizes AAA, AA, C, and D. The power stations for recharging batteries also are available from GS A. Stock numbers and prices are listed below. For additional information, call Ms. Genni Brown 817-334-8377. Rayovac Rechargeable batteries SizeD Model 713 6140-01-413-3925 ! Box (20 per box) $32.80 SizeC Model 714-2 6140-01-413-3923 Box (20 per box)$32.80 SizeAA Model 715-4 6140-01-413-3926 Box (40 per box) $35.90 Size AAA Model 724-4 6140-10-413-3928 Box (40 per box)$35.90 Charger Model PS2 6140-01-413-3929 Box (4 per box) $90.08 (All Sizes) 3.8 AFFIRMATIVE PROCUREMENT Current Conditions The BMC does not make it a standard practice to purchase items with recycled content, such as paper. Instead, most items purchased are made of virgin material. It appears that the purchasing officials at the BMC are unaware of USPS policy and federal legislation requiring the 26 ------- purchase of materials with recovered content. The United States Postal Service Waste Reduction Guide (AS552, February, 1992) directs Requiring offices to "review purchase specifications to eliminate prohibitions or limitations on use of recovered materials" and to modify specifications to encourage use of recycled products. Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) directs Federal agencies to purchase "items composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable." In 1995, EPA published the Comprehensive Guideline for Procurement of Products Containing Recovered Material (60 FR 21370, May 1,1995) providing requirements for procurement of seven categories of products including paper and paper products, vehicular products, construction products, transportation products, park and recreation products, landscaping products and non-paper office products. Items of particular interest to the USPS include printing and writing paper, re-refined oils, engine coolant, trash bags, toner cartridges, binders and desktop accessories. These guidelines provide information about the recommended percentage of recovered material, product availability and performance, and specification language. In Executive Order 12873, October 22,1993, President Clinton directs agencies to develop and implement affirmative procurement programs for all EPA guideline items and ensure that these programs require that 100 percent of their purchases of products meet or exceed the EPA guideline standards. The BMC was not able to document successful implementation of USEPA procurement guidelines for products manufactured with recovered content. The BMC is, however, hi the proceiss of eliminating products containing the seventeen chemicals on USEPA's 33/50 list. Purchasing officials are not sure whether procurement specifications have been updated to include recycled content hi paper products. Current supplies of printing, duplicating and computer paper do not contain any recovered content. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Purchase products with recycled content and train staff The BMC should establish preference programs and adopt specifications for the purchase of products made with the percentages of recovered materials specified hi USEPA Guidelines. The GSA catalog has special sections for environmentally sound products, such as paper with recycled content. These items are highlighted hi green throughout the catalog. The BMC purchasing official should make it a standard practice to purchase items with the highest amount of recycled content. Changes in the procurement system will create staff training opportunities and staff will need training on Federal affirmative procurement requirements. Exhibit 3.8 presents products for which EPA has established minimum recovered content levels. 27 ------- EXHIBIT 3.8 EPA ESTABLISHED MINIMUM RECOVERED CONTENT LEVELS Category/Product Paper High grade bleached printing and writing paper Mimeo and duplicator paper Computer paper Envelopes Percent Recycled Content 20% 20% 20% 20% Tissue Products Toilet tissue Paper towels Paper napkins Facial tissue Unbleached packaging Corrugated boxes 20-100% 40-100% 30-100% 10-100% 25-50% Vehicular Products Lubricating Oil (re-refined oil) i Tires 25% retread tires Construction Products Fiberglass (glass culler) Cellulose loose-fill and spray-on (post-consumer paper) Structural fiberboards Laminated paperboards - i Cement and Concrete (coal fly ash) Cement and Concrete (ground granulated blast furnace slag) Poly ester Carpet Face Fiber (PET resin) Patio blocks (rubber or rubber blends) Patio blocks (plastic or plastic blends) Floor tiles (rubber) Floor tiles (plastic) 20-25% 75% 80-100% 100% 0-40% 25-50% 25-100% 90-100% : 90-100% 90-100% 90-100% Transportation products Traffic cones (PVC, LDPE, Crumb Rubber) Traffic barricades (HOPE, LDPE, Pet Steel) Traffic barricades (Fiberglass) 50-100% ; 80-100% 100% Park and Recreation Products Playground surfaces (rubber or plastic) Running tracks (rubber or plastic) Landscaping Products Paper-based hydraulic mulch (post-consumer recovered paper) Wood-based hydraulic mulch (recovered wood and/or paper) Non-paper Office Products Office recycling containers and waste receptacles (plastic) Office recycling containers and waste receptacles (steel) Plastic desktop accessories (polystyrene) Plastic-covered binders (plastic) Chipboard, paperboard, pressboard binders Plastic trash bags 90-100% 90-100% 100% 100% 20-100% 25-100% 25-80% 25-50% 80% 10-100% I 28 ------- EPA has developed lists of manufacturers and vendors of the items designated in the Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines. These lists will be updated periodically as new sources are identified and EPA becomes aware of changes in product availability. To assist procuring agencies, the lists will be made available at no charge by calling EPA's RCRA Hotline at (800) 424-9346. TItie U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) publishes an Environmental Products Guide. which lists items available through its Federal Supply Service. This guide, formerly the Recycled Products Guide, has been prepared to assist Federal civilian and military agencies to identify the environmentally oriented products and services available to them through the supply system of the General Services Administration's Federal Supply Service. The guide contains information about more than 2,900 such items from GSA's supply system. In the general category of recycled-content paper products done, there are more than 900 entries. Some of these items contain 100% post-consumer recovered materials and all meet or exceed guideline requirements established by the Environmental Protection Agency. This publication is available to federal agencies at no cost from the GSA Centralized Mailing List Service in Fort Worth, TX 76115 or at (817) 334-5215. In addition to the information provided by EPA and GSA, there are other publicly-available sources of information about products containing recovered materials. For example, the Official Recycled Products Guide (RPG) was established in March 1989 to provide a broad range of information on recycled content products. Listings include product, company name, address, contact, telephone, fax, type of company (manufacturer or distributor), and minimum recycled content. Price information is not included. The RPG is available on a subscription basis from American Recycling Market, Inc. at (800) 267-0707 The Defense General Supply Center hi Richmond, VA also distributes the Environmentally Preferred Products Catalog which lists hundreds of environmentally preferable products in its supply system, ranging from aqueous degreasers to remanufactured laser printer toner cartridges. Environmentally preferable means products and services that have less or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance or disposal of the product or service. For more information about environmentally-preferable products, call or write: Defense General Supply Center Alttn. Marketing Office 8000 Jefferson Davis Highway Richmond, VA 23297-5762 1-800-848-4847 3.8 OVERSIGHT OF CHEMICAL STORAGE Current Conditions Alii shops and flammable materials cabinets in the BMC contained products with chemical constituents listed on the EPA 33/50 list. The BMC staff has discontinued ordering materials with EPA 33/50 chemicals, found suitable replacements and is hi the process of depleting stocks. The BMC has established a system in which all material purchases are reviewed for ODS and EPA 33/50 constituents prior to purchase. Over time the BMC staff believes that this system will eliminate the use of ODS and 29 ------- EPA 33/50 chemicals. The maintenance shop has a solvent sink that uses an aqueous degreaser. Flammable materials cabinets were filled with products, many apparently very old. One flammable materials cabinet in the OTR repair shop had several inches of oil in the bottom. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Evaluate the Contents of all Flammable Materials Cabinets The BMC staff should perform an inventory on all flammable materials cabinets in Order to determine if materials are old, expired, or no longer needed by an operation. Old or expired chemicals should be removed from the shops and disposed of properly. Products no longer needed should be inventoried and used as needed in other operations. 2. Perform, periodic inspections of flammable materials cabinets The BMC staff should perform periodic inspections of flammable materials cabinets to determine if contents are intact and that products brought hi from sources other than procurement are elirninated. Periodic inspection and cleanout of cabinets will rninimize the risk of spills and interaction of incompatible chemicals. 3.9 RAGS Current Conditions The maintenance staff currently use rags to wipe up and clean up during maintenance operations. These rags tend to be very oily. The facility was using a rag service in the past but found that they were continually purchasing new rags because the service could not clean the rags. All rags are now purchased either locally or through GSA and disposed via incineration. The BMC purchased 6,250 pounds of rags in 1994 for$2,375 and hi 1995 through April have purchased 3,750 pounds for $555. The Facility expects to purchase approximately 6,900 pound of rags for an approximate cost of$1,000. The facility generates three to four 55-gallon drums of rags per month which are incinerated for approximately $400 per drum. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Test another rag laundering service Several rag recyclers and linen services hi the Dallas/Fort Worth area were contacted; only one would launder oily rags. National Uniform (a division of National Linen Service) (817) 429-5891 will pick up, launder and deliver rags from the Dallas BMC at a cost of$1.50 per pound. National stated that they will accept oily rags but not rags with chemicals, solvents, degreasers etc and that they would appreciate MSDS on oils used by the USPS. An analysis of the costs show that laundering rags may be 30 ------- cheaper than purchasing new rags. Laundering rags may save between $400 and$1,100 per year., Exhibit 3.9 presents a simple cost/benefit analysis of laundering rags. EXHIBIT 3.9 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF LAUNDERING RAGS* Cost/Activity Initial Rag Purchase Cost Laundering Cost Disposal Costs Year 1 cost Cost Savings Year 2 rag replacement cost Year 2 cost Cost Savings Laundering $1,030$10,350 ($1.50 per pound)$3,600 (25 percent of $14,400)$2. 17 per pound $414$258 $2.06 per pound$1,173 New $1,030 none$14,400 based on three 55 gallon drums per month at $400 per drum.$2.23 per pound $2.23 per pound Assumptions: 1. BMC uses 6,900 pound of rags per year. 2. Under reuse option BMC replaces 25 percent of the rags each year. 3. Disposal cost is$400 per drum and the BMC currently generates 3 drums per month. 3.10 BATTERY CHARGING Current Conditions The BMC uses numerous battery powered forklifts for the movement of materials. For the main facility the batteries are stored and charged in the battery room. Typically for each forklift there zire three batteries; one in use, one charging and one ready for use. When needed, the batteries are filled with water and recharged. The Assessment Team noted that there was an open drain in the battery room that leads to the sanitary sewer. The battery room in the BMC is scheduled to be upgraded to increase the space, lighting, ventilation and add lime neutralization tanks. Forklift batteries are charged at several other BMC locations. For example, both the warehouse and the CPF facility had battery charging occurring with no supervision, no spill containment, and no safety equipment. Pollution Prevention Opportunity 1. The drain in the battery room should be diked to prevent the accidental discharge of battery acid to the sanitary sewer. There are devices commercially available to dike drains. Once spills are contained, neutralize the battery acid with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and then wash the 31 ------- neutralized acid down the drain with water. Neutralizing the acid will reduce the likelihood of corrosion of pipes. 2. Review procedures on the proper charging of batteries to prevent accidental acid overflows. 3. Remove battery charging operations from remote facilities if possible or provide the appropriate safety and containment equipment for these sites. 3.11 DEDICATED OIL CONTAINERS Current Conditions The Dallas BMC oil room has a bulk distribution system which stores several types of oil and a solvent called Pro-Power, which is an oil emulsifier. This distribution system stores materials hi 55 gallon containers and has clear PVC tubes that connect to corresponding lockable, self closing faucets to distribute the materials: Several unmarked, open containers are stored under the bulk distribution system. These containers are used to distribute and transport the materials for use. After each use, staff must empty the remaining oil into the waste oil drum and then clean the container with solvent for reuse. This process generates unnecessary waste because excess oil is disposed, instead of being reused, and because the containers must be cleaned with solvent after each use. Pollution Prevention Opportunities *rff.«fc,Turm_:r:.im_™__iii._T ----- IT-_ ~ r r "~"; The BMC should purchase and dedicate containers for specific materials. These containers should have tight-sealing lids and be clearly marked with the type of material for which the container is intended. There are many containers on the market that also have marks indicating the volume. This will ease distribution and help to reduce the amount of excess material dispensed from the bulk distribution system. Also, by having closed, clearly marked containers, the excess materials can be left in the container for reuse. This will eliminate the need to clean the containers with solvent after each use, thereby reducing solvent use. 3.12 POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES Current Conditions During the site visit, Dallas BMC staff indicated that they would like information on accessing pollution prevention information: Pollution Prevention Opportunities There are numerous sources of pollution prevention information nationwide. 32 ------- There are several sources of pollution prevention information on the internet. Perhaps, the best source is Enviro$en$e. This internet-based information source is funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. Enviro$en$e allows those implementing pollution prevention programs or developing research and development projects to benefit from the experience, progress, and knowledge of their peers. Enviro$en$e includes a pollution prevention forum for all levels of government, researchers, industry, and public interest groups. Enviro$en$e has been developed to host an expert architecture known as the Solvent Umbrella. The Solvent Umbrella will allow users to access solvent alternative information through a single, easy-to-use command structure. Enviro$en$e is also modem accessible via Bulletin Board System (BBS). Through Netscape. Enviro$en$e address is: http://wastenot.inel.gov/envirosense. The EPA also has a World Wide Web (WWW) Server, which is being run as a prototype system, to provide public access to EPA information. The EPA provides the comprehensive Access EPA document describing environmental information, as well as a number of other pointers to Information Locators that can be obtained from the EPA and related organizations. In addition to this document, the EPA's Public Information Center is available to provide assistance in accessing environmental information. An experimental EPA People Locator is also available. Through Netscape, EPA's WWW server can be accessed through http://www.epa.gov. The EPA WWW server provides information on EPA Agency information and environmental data, including: • Press Releases, Calendar, Announcements, Speeches, • EPA Offices and Regions, • Consumer Information, • EPA Initiatives, Policy and Strategy Documents, • Rules, Regulations and Legislation, EPA Standards, • Science, Research and Technology, • Information about Grants, Contracts (RFPs), and Job Vacancies, • Newsletters and Journals, and • Software and Databases. See the appendices for additional information on pollution prevention information sources. 33 ------- SECTION 4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment report documents the processes performed, wastes generated and current waste management practices at the USPS Bulk Mail Center in Dallas, TX. During the assessment process, the Assessment Team identified opportunities to reduce both the quantity and toxicity of the wastes generated by this facility and recommended techniques for implementation of those pollution prevention options. The opportunities described hi the previous sections constitute the recommendations of the Assessment Team. Exhibit 3.1 presents a summairy of the major recommendations. Dissemination of this report will encourage application of the pollution prevention opportunities hi USPS bulk mail facilities nationwide as well as in other Federal facilities with similar operations. 34 ------- APPENDICES 35 ------- EPA 33/50 PROGRAM The 33/50 Program, one of EPA's Partners for the Environment Program, began in the late 1980s as a voluntary program to reduce toxic emissions of seventeen high priority chemicals reported on the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). These high priority chemicals, chosen because of their relative toxicities, volumes of use, and potential for reduction through pollution prevention include: Benzene Cadmium and compounds Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Cyanide compounds Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Methyl isobutyl ketone (MTBK) Nickel and compounds Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Dichloromethane *• 1,1,1-trichloroethane Lead and compounds *• Trichloroethylene Mercury and compounds *• Xylenes The 33/50 Program gets its name from the original goals to reduce the 17 priority chemicals by 33% by 1992 and by 50% by 1995. U.S. EPA celebrated the early achievement of the 50% reduction goal in September 19969 when the 1994 Toxic Release Inventory data became available for public release. Between 1988 and 1994,33/50 Program participants reduced environmental releases and off-site transfers of the 17 target chemicals by 757 million pounds. Companies and organizations participate hi the 33/50 Program by submitting a letter to EPA stating then- intention to participate and outlining their reduction targets and strategies. More than 1,300 parent companies operating about 6,000 facilities in the U.S. have participated hi the 33/50 Program. For more information about the participation in the EPA 33/50 Program, contact EPA's TSCA Assistance Hotline at (202) 554-1404. Or contact the 33/50 Program staff directly at: 33/50 Program (Mail Code 7408) ; Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 401 M Street Washington DC 20460 Phone: 202-260-7538 POC: Ms. Chris Tirpak Email: tirpak.chris@epamail.epa,gov Information on the 33/50 Program is also available on-line through the Enviro$en$e web site: http://es.uiel.gov/partners/3350/3350.html. This web site contains background information on the 33/50 program, including history and accomplishments. It includes a series of documents related to the 33/50 program that can be accessed directly from the web site. 36 ------- 37 ------- OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects life on earth from exposure to dangerous levels of ultraviolet light. When CFCs and other ozone-degrading chemicals are released into the atmosphere, they will eventually rise to the stratosphere where they destroy the protective ozone layer. This destruction is occurring at a more rapid rate than ozone can be created through natural processes. Destruction of the ozone layer leads to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth's surface. This can lead to higher incidences of skin cancer, cataracts, and weakened immune systems. It is also expected to reduce both crop yields and ocean productivity. The U.S., in cooperation with over 140 other countries, is phasing out the production of ozone-depleting substances. In 1985, the Vienna Convention was adopted to formalize international cooperation in stratospheric ozone protection. Additional efforts resulted hi the signing of the Montreal Protocol hi 1987. In the United States, Title VI of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 addresses the phase out of ozone-depleting substances. There are two classes of ozone depleting substances. A Class I substance, as defined In section 602 of the Clean Air Act, is any chemical with an ozone-depleting potential of 0.2 or greater (based on CFC-11 having a ozone depleting potential of 1.0). Class I substances (CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform) were phased out of production by the end of 1995 and halons were phased out by the end of 1993. Class n substances, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), will be phased out of production and use by the year 2030. Accelerated phase outs of the most damaging Class II substances include HCFC-141b (by January 1,2003), and CFC-142b and HCFC-22 (by January 1,2010). To address the availability of approved alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, the EPA's Office of Stratospheric Protection was mandated to establish the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program. The purpose of the SNAP Program is to identify alternatives to ozone-depleting substances and to publish lists of acceptable and unacceptable substitutes. Information on the SNAP Program is available through the Stratospheric Ozone Hotline at (800) 296-1996. Executive Order 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone- Depleting Substances, signed in 1993, requires Federal agencies to comply with Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments dealing with stratospheric ozone protection, to maximize the use of safe alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, and to revise procurement practices to eliminate the requirement for ozone-depleting substances. The best source of technical, policy, and substitute chemical information is the U.S. EPA's Stratospheric Ozone World Wide Web Home Page: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/index.html This web site contains information on the science of ozone depletion, substitutes for ozone depleting substances, international policy, and links to other sources of information. It can be used as a "jumping off' point for a wide variety of information related to ozone depletion available on the World Wide Web. 38 ------- The U.S. EPA Office of Stratospheric Protection also operates the Stratospheric Ozone Hotline at (800) 296-1996. It can be accessed between 10am and 4pm EST. They can field any technical or policy related questions on elimination of ozone depleting substances at U.S. Postal Service facilities. The mailing address for the Office of Stratospheric Protection is: Office of Stratospheric Protection U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mail Code 6205J 401MSt,SW Washington, DC 20460 Enviro$en$e also has access to several material substitution databases. Then- World Wide Web address is: http://es.iQel.gov Select "Solvent Substitution Data Systems" for links to several material substitution databases including those that specialize in solvents with ozone depleting ingredients. 39 ------- EPA GREEN LIGHTS PROGRAM & THE FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM (FEMP) The Green Lights Program hi a voluntary pollution prevention program that encourages the use of energy-efficient lighting. It is one of the several ENERGY STAR® Programs sponsored by the U.S. EPA's Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division. : The purpose of the Green Lights Program is to encourage organizations to install energy-efficient lighting to prevent the creation of air pollution including greenhouse gases, acid rain emissions, air toxics, and tropospheric ozone, as well as prevent the generation of solid waste and minimize other environmental impacts of electricity generation. Green Lights partners agree to install energy efficient lighting where it is profitable as long as lighting quality is maintained or unproved. Participants realize average rates of return on their initial investment of 30 per cent or more. Most reduce thek lighting electricity bill by more than half while maintaining and often improving lighting quality. , Federal regulations and directives require Federal agencies to reduce energy use. Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, requires each agency to achieve a 10 percent reduction in energy consumption hi its Federal buildings by FY 1995, when measured against a FY 1985 baseline on a Btu per gross-square-foot basis and a 20 percent reduction in Btu per gross-square-foot by FY 2000. In 1994, the President signed Executive Order 12902, Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation at Federal Facilities, which requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption by 30 percent by the year 2005, based on the agency's 1985 energy use. •& In response to these mandated requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program was established to assist Federal agencies to reduce energy costs by advancing energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. FEMP accomplishes its mission by creating partnerships, leveraging resources, transferring technology, and providing training and support. For information on the Federal Energy Management Program contact the FEMP Help Desk at (800) DOE-EREC or the FEMP Office at (202) 586-5772. The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program has teamed up with the EPA's Green Lights Program to assist Federal agencies to achieve the mandated energy reductions. A kick-off is planned hi March 1997. The U.S. Postal Service is one of the first to sign up to this new collaborative effort as a pilot agency. For more information, contact Rob White, National Marketing Director for Green Lights and ENERGY STAR® Buildings, at (202) 233-9242. EPA provides a range of Participant Support Programs to help Green Lights members obtain information on energy-efficient lighting technology, financing options, software analysis tools, and public recognition opportunities. 40 ------- For more information about the Green Lights Program, contact: Manager, Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division U.S. EPA 401 M Street SW(6202J) Washington DC 20460 Tel: (202) 233-9190 Toll Free: (888) STAR-YES Fax:(202)233-9569 Fax-back system: (202) 233-9659. The Green Lights World Wide Web Home Page is at: Green Lights Home Page http://www.epa.gov/greenlights.html This web site includes general information about the Green Lights program, manuals and publications, software tools, and other technical information. The Federal Energy Management Program Home Page is at: Federal Energy Management Program Home Page http://www.eren.doe.gov/femp/ This web site provides news, technical assistance, project financing information, and procurement information to assist Federal agencies achieve the mandated energy use reductions. U.S. Postal Service participates as a member of the Federal Interagency Energy Management Task Force. Contact Mr. Bernie Denno, Environmental Programs Analyst, at (202) 268-6014 for specific information on U.S. Postal Service involvement in FEMP and Green Lights Programs. 41 ------- EPA ENERGY STAR® PROGRAM The ENERGY STAR® Program is a voluntary pollution prevention program aimed at reducing energy consumption to help to combat smog, acid rain, and climate change through decreased emissions from electricity generation. It includes programs aimed at homes, residential HVAC, office products, buildings, and lighting. Programs of interest to the U.S. Postal Service include: * Office Products. The EPA ENERGY STAR® Office Equipment program is a partnership with the office equipment industry to promote energy-efficient personal computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, and copiers. In 1993, an Executive Order 12845 was issued requiring all U.S. Federal agencies to purchase ENERGY STAR® computers, monitors and printers. >• Buildings. EPA's ENERGY STAR® Buildings program is a voluntary energy-efficiency program for U.S. commercial buildings. Partners can expect to reduce total building energy consumption by 30% on average. For more information about the ENERGY STAR® Program, contact: ENERGY STAR® Programs U.S. EPA Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division 401 M Street SW(6202J) Washington DC 20460 POC: Ms. Jeanne Birskin, Chief, ENERGY STAR® Programs Tel: (202) 233-9190 Toll Free: (888) STAR-YES Fax: (202) 233-9569 Fax-back system: (202) 233-9659. The ENERGY STAR® World Wide Web Home Page is at: ENERGY STAR® Home Page http://www.epa.gov/energystar.html This web page contains news and information on all of the ENERGY STAR® initiatives. The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division also prepares a newsletter, The Update, which communicates events, highlights, and news affecting Green Lights and ENERGY STAR® program participants. It is available on-line through the ENERGY STAR® Home Page. 42 ------- FLUORESCENT TUBE AND BALLAST RECYCLING Fluorescent tubes and lighting ballasts contain hazardous constituents that can make their handling and disposal problematic. Fluorescent tubes contain mercury, which under Federal regulations, may be subject to hazardous waste regulations if deemed hazardous by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 CFR 261). Fluorescent lamp ballasts may contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ballasts manufactured before 1979 will contain PCBs, while those manufactured after 1979 should contain a label staling "NO PCBs." If there is no label, you should assume that it contains PCBs. PCB-containing ballasts that are intact and are not leaking can be disposed in a municipal solid waiste landfill in properly packed and sealed 55-gallon drums (40 CFR 761). Again, municipal disposal of PCB-contaminated waste poses potential liabilities to the generator. Individual, states may have other specific regulatory requirements governing the disposal of fluorescent tubes. However, in most cases fluorescent tubes can be legally handled and disposed as municipal solid waste, creating a potential liability to the waste generator. To minimize potential environmental impacts, fluorescent tubes can be recycled. The mercury containing material can be extracted, while the remaining glass and metal parts can be recycled. This eliminates mercury going to the landfill, while decreasing the volume of solid waste disposal through recycling. Before disposing of fluorescent tubes or lighting ballasts, you should contact your state or local regulatory agency for specific handling and disposal requirements. They may also have information on fluorescent tube recycling in your state or area. Consult your local telephone directory for phone numbers. For information on Federal requirements, contact the following: Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA/Superfund/Right-to-Know Hotline Phone: (800) 424-9346 or (703) 412-9810 in the Washington DC area. Request documents such as EPA Fact Sheet: Options for Disposal of Lights that Contain Mercury and Lighting Waste Disposal, a general document published by the EPA's Green Lights Program on best management practices that includes recycling. Memorandums on the subject are also available through the fax-on-demand system. Dial (202) 651-2060 from the fax phone receiver, press 1 to order documents, press 11906 and 11907 (press 1 to confirm ordering each document), press # to finish ordering, then press start on your fax machine. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Hotline Phone: (202) 554-1404 Request regulatory guidance on the management and disposal of ballasts that contain PCBs. 43 ------- Several fact sheets are available over the World Wide Web that contain background information as well as lists of fluorescent tube and lighting ballast recyclers: U.S. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, PRO-ACT hl^://wvvw.afcee.brooks.af.mil/pro-act/mam/proact4.htm Select "Fact Sheets" from Home Page menu. Information hi the PRO-ACT web site is public domain. However, telephone inquiries and requests for research or information are only available to Air Force users. Enviro$en$e http://es.inel.gov/techuifo/facts/lamps-fs.html Fact sheet on disposal of spent fluorescent light tubes, developed by the Department of Public Works, City of Los Angeles. Contains a list of additional resources. 44 ------- POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES Pollution prevention information sources are widespread. There are Federal-, state-, regional, and even local sources of pollution prevention information. At the Federal level, the U.S. EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) distributes a variety of pollution prevention information and oversees several pollution prevention initiatives. They publish the Pollution Prevention News, available in hard copy or through the U.S. EPA Pollution Prevention Home Page (see below for URL). OPPT also operates the Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC). It is a free, non-regulatory service which provides telephone reference and referral, document distribution for selected EPA documents, and a special collection available for interlibrary loan. Publications available from PPIC are listed on the U.S. EPA Pollution Prevention Home Page (see below for URL). Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) Phone: 202-260-1023 (8:30 AM to 4:00 PMEST) Fax: 202-260-4659 E-Mail: ppic@epamail.epa.gov Mail: Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse Environmental Protection Agency, MC 7409 401 M Street, SW Washington, D.C. 20460 EPA Comtact: Beth Anderson 202-260-2602 When calling PPIC for the first time, request a listing of all available documents. A more useful document for the first time user is the Pollution Prevention Directory (EPA/742/B-94/005) which identifies Federal, state, regional, and commercially-available pollution prevention resources. Some of the more popular World Wide Web starting points for Federal, state, and regional pollution prevention information include the following: U.S. EPA Pollution Prevention Home Page http://www.epa.gov/opptmtr/p2home/ This web site provides general information on pollution prevention, pollution prevention initiatives, and links to olher pollution prevention-related web sites. Enviro$eri$e http://es.inel.gov/ Enviro$en$e is a "one-stop" repository for pollution prevention, compliance assurance, and enforcement information and data bases. Included are pollution prevention case studies, technologies, points of contact, environmental statutes, executive orders, regulations, and compliance and enforcement policies and guidelines, Enviro$en$e has numerous links to other Federal, regional, state, industry and academic pollution prevention resources. Enviro$en$e is an excellent "jumping off' point for additional pollution prevention information available on-line. 45 ------- Defense Environmental Network & Information Exchange (DENIX) http://denix.cecer.army.mil/denix/public/public.html DENIX is a source of information for the Department of Defense agencies and other authorized users. It has a public access menu which allows users from the public domain to obtain a variety of environmental information. Under the "Public" web cage, select "Library" then "Pollution Prevention" for numerous pollution prevention articles and information. 46 ------- EPA/600/R-96/111 September 1995 POLLUTION PREVENTION ASSESSMENT: U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BULK MAIL CENTER, DALLAS, TX by Carole O. Bell, Mary Hoel, Henry Huppert Science; Applications International Corporation Newport, Rhode Island 02840 EPA Contract No. 68-C2-0148 SAIC Project No. 01-0828-07-1717-060 Project Officers James S. Bridges and N. Theresa Hoagland Sustainable Technology Division National Risk Management Research Laboratory Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 This study was conducted hi cooperation with the United States Postal Service NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CINCINNATI, OHIO 45268 ', ------- ------- DISCLAIMER The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under EPA contract No. 68-C2-0148 WA 3-10 to Science Applications International Corporation. It has been subjected to peer and administrative review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA document Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. ------- ------- CONTACT James Bridges and N. Theresa Hoagland are the EPA contacts for this report. They are presently with the newly organized National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Sustainable Technology Division in Cincinnati, OH (formerly the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory). The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH, and is now responsible for research conducted by the Sustainable Technology Division in Cincinnati. 11 ------- FOREWORD The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with protecting the Nation's land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actiojns leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks hi the future. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the Agency's center for investigation of technological and management approaches for reducing risks from threats to human health and the environment. The focus of the Laboratory's research program is on methods for the prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites and ground water; and prevention and control of indoor air pollution. The goal of this research effort is to catalyze development and implementation of innovative, cost-effective environmental technologies; develop scientific and engineering information needed by EPA to support regulatory and policy decisions; and provide technical support and information transfer to ensure effective implementation of environmental regulations and strategies. This publication has been produced as part of the Laboratory's strategic long-term research plan. It is published and made available by EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist the user community and to link researchers with their clients. E. Timothy Oppelt, Director National Risk Management Research Laboratory in ------- ABSTRACT The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the findings of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment of the United States Postal Service, Bulk Mail Center located in Dallas, Texas. This assessment was conducted during the week of May 15, 1995. The report describes the mission of each of the functional areas of the BMC including operations performed, processes and materials employed and the wastes and emissions generated. Then, the Assessment Team makes recommendations concerning the procurement of office supplies, maintenance supplies and hazardous materials; management of hazardous materials and wastes; purchase of chemicals on USEPA's 33/50 list; improvement of source separation and recycling of paper and paper products, metals and plastics; management of unwanted equipment; and other recommendations that can lead to the elimination, reduction or improved management of the facility's solid and hazardous waste streams and emissions to air and water. IV ------- TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER ...'........ . . . .'. . i CONTACT ii FOREWORD HI ABSTRACT iv EXHIBITS . . .; . . . _ vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS '................... . . . viii 1.0 INTRODUCTION . .'. l 1.1 SITE DESCRIPTION . - '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 2 2.0 BULK MAIL CENTER . 4 2.1 BULK MAIL CENTER . . j. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 4 2.1.1 Physical Description of Facility 4 2.1.2 Mail Handling ............... 5 2.2 BMC WASTE GENERATING OPERATIONS '.'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 6 2.2.1 Solid Waste Management g 2.2.2 Sorting Floor ...'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 6 2.2.3 Lube Room .....................;...,.... 7 2.2.4 Tow Lines 7 2.2.5 Cafeteria '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 7 2.2.6 OTR Repair. Vehicle Fueling/Maintenance „ . g 2.2.7 Purchasing and Stock Room g 2.2.8 Maintenance Shops . . . ; g 2.2.9 Battery Charging Room 9 2.2.10 Administrative Offices 9 2.2.11 Facility Perimeter '.'.'.'.'.['.'.'.'.'. 9 2.2.12 Crossdock Pallet Facility ; 10 2.2.13 Warehouse . . 10 2.3 ADDITIONAL WASTE STREAMS '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 10 2.3.1 Hazardous Waste ....;..;...... 10 2.3.2 Used Oil ; '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 11 2.3.3 Pest Control 11 2.3.4 Lighting ; '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 11 ------- 3.0 f^KAMlL FACTTT^ f**^ j 3.6 isSSSgp D * SPA 33/50 CHEjur ------- / f £ 3 12 15 17 19 20 21 26 30 33 vu ------- 3.0 BULK MAIL FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES 12 3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL OVERSIGHT n 3.2 REDUCE PAPER USE fl, 3.3 REUSE AND RECYCLING ... 'W ' \A 3.4 PALLETS ' " ' • }j 3.5 LIGHTING AND ENERGY .... • " "' " ' " j! 3.6 FLUORESCENT LIGHTING ' " ^ 3.7 RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES " •••..•••• ^ 3,,8 AFFIRMATIVE PROCUREMENT . •••••• M> 3,,8 OVERSIGHT OF CHEMICAL STORAGE ' ' v, 3.9 RAGS................... •••....... ^ 3.10 BATTERY CHARGING ....... •••••. ^ 3.11 DEDICATED OIL CONTAINERS ........'"'"""""'"' 34 3.12 POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES ! . . . ','. ' \ ' ' 35 4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 37 APPENDICES A,, EPA 33/50 CHEMICALS AND OZONE DEPLETING CHEMICALS 38 B. GREEN LIGHTS INFORMATION AND .SAMPLE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING (MOU) FOR GREEN LIGHTS PARTNERS 40 C. ENERGY STAR EQUIPMENT INFORMATION ss D. FLUORESCENT TUBE RECYCLERS . . " " " >n E. POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES' .' '. '. '.'. '.'.'.'.'. 77 VI ------- EXHIBITS MAP OF BMC . . . . 3 BMC SOLID WASTE GENERATION 12 COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR OTRS VERSUS GAYLORD USE 15 RECYCLERS IN THE DALLAS/FORT WORTH AREA 17 EXAMPLES OF PALLET RECYCLERS IN THE DALLAS AREA 19 FEDERAL ENERGY POLICIES , 20 3.6 SQUARE FEET OF COVERAGE PER DAYLIGHTING UNIT 21 3.7 FLUORESCENT LIGHTING TUBE RECYCLERS 26 3.8 EPA ESTABLISHED MINIMUM RECOVERED CONTENT LEVELS 30 3.9 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF LAUNDERING RAGS .............. 33 1.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 vu ------- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding for this project was provided by the United State Postal Service under an interagency agreement. Jim Bridges and Tern Hoagland of the EPA Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory managed the project and participated in the opportunity assessments. Special thanks are extended to Charlie Bravo and Bernie Denno of the USPS Office of Environmental Management Policy and the staff of the USPS Dallas Bulk Mail Center. Vlll ------- ------- SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is actively supporting the development of pollution prevention program plans for Federal facilities. Since 1988, the EPA has managed a technical support effort known as the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. WREAFS was established to provide pollution prevention solutions to environmental issues through research, development and demonstration of pollution prevention techniques and technologies, and transferring lessons learned within the Federal community and related private sector support industries. WREAFS has conducted more than 37 separate RD&D efforts under funding from both EPA and nine other Federal departments and agencies via interagency agreements. The United States Postal Service (USPS), in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), is engaged in an effort to integrate pollution prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at postal facilities. The purpose of this project is to perform pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) at several types of Postal Service facilities, representing a cross-section of the USPS inventory; to identify the pollution prevention opportunities for these facilities; to recommend implementation strategies; and to develop facility guidance that can be incorporated into a revision of the USPS Waste Reduction Guide. This report describes the findings of the PPOA conducted for the United States Postal Service Bulk Mail Center (BMC) located in Dallas, Texas. The site assessment was conducted during the week of May 15, 1995. The Assessment Team performed a multi-media assessment. Issues of concern included: hazardous material acquisition, use and storage; hazardous waste storage and disposal;; procurement and solid waste management, including recycling. The report begins with a brief description of the facility. This is followed by descriptions of specific operations and the wastes and emissions generated. The report makes both site-wide and operation- specific recommendations that may lead to the elimination, reduction, or improved management of the facility's waste streams. While energy was not part of the multi-media assessment, the Assessment Team makes energy-related recommendations where appropriate. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or vendors does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. ------- 1.1 SITE DESCRIPTION The BMC is located in Dallas, Texas, at 2400 Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike. The facility occupies 75 acres along the 1-35 corridor;west of downtown Dallas. The surrounding area is devoted to mixed commercial/industrial and residential uses. The site is bordered on the north by Route 35 and an industrial park, on the south by a residential area, on the east by Hampton Road and a commercial area and on the west by an additional commercial area. The USPS operations include one major building and several smaller buildings that house maintenance, groundskeeping and traffic control operations. Exhibit 1.1 presents the layout of the Dallas BMC. ------- fe © ------- ------- SECTION 2.0 BULK MAIL CENTER (BMC) This section addresses the operations performed within the BMC and associated facilities and the wastes and emissions generated by those operations. The section includes a description of current waste management practices. 2=1 BULK MAIL CENTER The national bulk mail system is a network of mechanized bulk mail centers that process 3rd and 4th class mail. The USPS operates two large BMCs, five medium BMCs and 14 small BMCs. Classification is based on facility size, rather than mail throughput. The Dallas BMC with approximately 450,000 square feet is considered a medium-sized BMC and processes between 500,000 and 800,000 parcels per day. The BMC facility in Dallas, TX performs the sorting and routing of packages and bulk business mail for Texas, Oklahoma and parts of Kansas, Arkansas, and Louisiana. In addition, mail is routed to the twenty other regional BMCs. The facility employs approximately 1,600 individuals, of which approximately 150 are supervisors arid clerical workers. The facility operates three eight-hour shifts per day, six days per week and two shifts on Sunday. An additional 300 workers are hired during the Christmas holiday season. 2.1.1 Physical Description of Facility The BMC facility occupies 75 acres. The main building contains approximately 452,000 square feet of space which houses administration, workroom floor, facility electrical utilities, air handlers and air chillers. The space is divided as follows: Penthouse (air chillers, air handlers, electrical service) 30,064 sq. ft. 3rd Floor (Administrative/Conference Rooms) 16,128 sq. ft. 2nd floor (Administrative) 16,128 sq. ft. 1st floor (Administrative) 16,128 sq. ft. Workroom floor 374,000 sq. ft. In addition, the facility houses a 2,000 sq. ft. lubrication storage area (lube room) that contains supplies of petroleum products used hi the BMC, a used oil storage tank, a staging area for cardboard recycling and a staging area for oil, rags, and filter disposal. ------- At the east end of the site is a 2,048 sq. ft. former vehicle repair shop that is now used to repair aluminum mail transport equipment known as over the road containers (OTRs). This shop also serves as a fuel and oil dispensing area for postal vehicles. On the west end of the site is a 1,000 sq. ft "tin shed" that houses groundskeeping equipment and miscellaneous machinery. The BMC also has two remote sites: a USPS-owned warehouse at 1982 Fort Worth Ave. which is shared with the Dallas General Mail Facility (GMF), and a leased facility of 59,000 sq. ft. located at 3706 La Reunion Parkway that houses the Crossdock Pallet Facility (CPF). ! 2.1.2 Mail Handling Mail enters the main facility via trucks through loading docks on one of 42 inbound docks, on the east and west side of the facility. Mail is processed and sorted and leaves the facility via 78 outbound docks on the south of the building. Mail is handled through the facility according to its physical characteristics and destination. Mail comes in four basic forms: sacks, parcels, nonmachinable outsides (i.e., those pieces that can not be machine sorted), and bulk business mail. Sacks enter from the inbound docks on ejctendible conveyors. The conveyor transports the sacks to slides which feed keying stations. The keyer locates the sack label, positions the sack in a cradle and keys in the zip code on the label. The cradle tips the sack onto a moving tray sorter that travels at 70 trays per minute. Sacks placed on a tray travel to the destination chute where the tray tips and the sack slides into the chute. The chute leads to an extendable conveyor on the outbound docks where the sacks are bedloaded (stacked on the bed of the vehicle rather than containerized) onto the outgoing trucks. Parcels arrive at the facility in mail transport equipment (heavy-duty aluminum OTRs, cardboard gaylords, or wire cages), sacks or bedloaded individually. Containers are rolled off the trucks at the inbound docks and placed onto the Fixed Mechanization Automated Container System (FMACS or tow line) and brought to the container unloaders. The unloader dumps the parcels on to a conveyor which moves them to the parcel keying stations on'the primary sorters. Parcels hi sacks are sent through the sack sorter (see above) and then sorted to the sack snakeout operation where the sacks are opened and the parcels removed and placed on conveyors leading to the primary parcel sorter. Bedloaded parcels are unloaded directly onto conveyors which bring them to the keying stations on the parcel sorters. Once sorted, packages slide onto a tray sorter that dumps them to chutes according to destination. Parcels are loaded into OTRs, wire cages or gaylords, depending on destination, and moved onto outgoing trucks. Bulk business mail enters the BMC on pallets and in mailer-prepared sacks which are distributed by the sack system to the east wing annex. Sacks are opened and dumped onto a belt where individual bundles are sorted to mail transport equipment and sacks. ------- 2.2 BMC WASTE GENERATING OPERATIONS K; • -ST7 • : Wastes generated by BMC operations include excess and obsolete equipment and supplies; corrugated cardboard; computer paper; white paper; mixed office paper, including forms and envelopes; magazines and newsprint; employee wastes including cans, bottles, wrappers and food; pallets; shrink and stretch wrap; aluminum and other metals; wood; fluorescent tubes and lighting ballasts; batteries; plastic and metal strapping; rags; and oil filters and waste oil. 2.2.1 Solid Waste Management The main building at the BMC has a 40 cubic yard compactor provided by Southwest Paper Stock. Prior to the segregation of cardboard gaylords for recycling, the compactor was pulled 30 times per month. Currently, the compactor is pulled approximately 12 times per month. The BMC is charged $147.50 per pull which includes compactor rental. The waste collected by Southwest Paper is sent to a materials recovery facility for separation prior to disposal in a landfill. The BMC recycles aluminum and other metals, cardboard gaylords, high grade white office paper, and some scrap wood. In addition, there is a sb? cubic yard container at the Crossdock Pallet Facility (CPF) that is pulled 26 times per month for a cosit of$3,774 per year. There is no recycling occurring at the CPF. The BMC spends approximately $27,000 per year on waste disposal. 2.2.2 Sorting Floor As noted above, all bulk mail entering the facility is sorted and routed on the sorting floor. The sorting floor generates large amounts of cardboard, metal from equipment repair, oils, grease, and paper. Cardboard gaylords used for the movement of packages are the largest single source of old corrugated cardboard (OCC). After packages that enter the facility in gaylords are dumped for sorting, the gaylords are broken down and placed in an OTR. The OTR is attached to the tow line and sent to the lube room where the gaylords aire processed for recycling. Staff stated that the lack of storage space and the inability of staff to segregate reusable from damaged gaylords prevents the wide reuse of gaylords. Reuse of gaylords is limited to times when no new gaylords are available. The BMC currently recycles only cardboard gaylords; other OCC is put into the compactor. Weyerhauser places a trailer at the dock in the lube room. The gaylords are placed on pallets in the lube room. Strapping, shrinkwrap and other contaminants are removed, and the OCC is placed in the trailer. The BMC staff believe that they recycle approximately 70 to 80 percent of the OCC. The BMC plans to consolidate the recycling hi a separate area, purchase a horizontal auto-tie baler and become the USPS regional collection point for OCC recycling. The BMC recycles approximately 60 tons of gaylords per month and receives$140 per ton, representing revenue of approximately $8,400 per month. ' 6 ------- The sorting floor also generates significant quantities of undeliverable bulk business mail (UBBM) and loose-in-mails (LIMs), the USPS tenn for loose or damaged bulk mail. UBBM is currently discarded into the compactor. There are nine LIMs chutes that generate approximately five to six wire cages of LIMs per day. The LIMs are sorted to verify that no deliverable mail is present and the remains are discarded into the compactor. The Rewrap Section processes mail that has been damaged or is otherwise undeliverable. Broken, leaking or questionable packages are sent to the Rewrap Section where they are opened, examined and, if possible, repackaged using new cardboard boxes and returned to the mail processing system. This section generates a substantial amount of mixed paper and corrugated cardboard that is currently!discarded into the compactor. 2.2.3 Lube Room } The lube room is located in the southeast corner of the main building and contains an oil storage rack, a used oil storage tank, a parts washer, a tow line grease storage container and two flammable materials cabinets. The flammable materials cabinets were completely filled with paints, oils, cleaners, and degreasers. Several products contained ozone depleting substances (ODCs) and constituents included on the EPA 33/50 list of chemicals targeted for reduction. Appendix A provides a list of ODCs and EPA 33/50 chemicals. The lube room had an open drain that leads to the sanitary sewer. The lube room also serves as the staging area for loading of cardboard for recycling. 2.2.4 Tow Lines During routine maintenance, the tow lines are cleaned out quarterly, generating a thick heavy grease. The BMC generates approximately four 55-gallon drums of tow line sludge per quarter. The sludge is placed in a closed basin in the lube room. The sludge is then biotreated using microbes to reduce the viscosity of the grease so it is pumpable. Following treatment the grease is filtered and pumped to the used oil tank in the lube room. See Section 2.3.2 for a discussion of used oil management. 2.2.5 Cafeteria j The cafeteria/lunch room serves food via vending machines. Wastes from the cafeteria include wastes disposed by employees such as paper and plastic bags, aluminum foil and other containers, such as yogurt or soup, brought in from home. Food waste is mixed with these materials. Beverages are sold in aluminum cans and glass and plastic bottles. An aluminum can collection box was present hi the cafeteria. Deliveries of food products generate corrugated boxes and packaging which are sent to the compactor. ------- 2.2.6 OTR Repair. Vehicle Fueling/Maintenance 1 '.*:•• % „ - The BMC has a 2,000 sq. ft. repair facility that consists of two buildings at the east end of the site. One building is used for the mechanical repair of OTRs, wire cages and other equipment. This building houses welding equipment as well as other machine shop equipment. Repairs performed include structural repairs as. well as replacement of tow pins, wheels., or other parts. The shop is typically staffed with five to six employees. The OTR.' shop repairs between 10 and 18 OTRs per person per day. The repair area had at least 300 OTRs and wire cages stockpiled awaiting repair. Numerous additional pieces of mail transport equipment requiring repair arrive each day from all parts of the country. The second building is a maintenance shop for painting and prep of OTRs and other maintenance. This building is adjacent to the fueling area so no "hot" work occurs in this building. In addition, this facility readies new OTRs for use by painting on the marking area and adding a Dallas identification number. Each building has a flammable materials cabinet that contains numerous containers of paints, oils, and degreasers. Several partially used containers of insecticide were also found hi the two buildings. Adjacent to the fueling area is a flammable materials cabinet that contains drums of motor oil for vehicles. An inspection of the flammable materials cabinet in the OTR repair shop revealed the bottom filled with several inches of oil. 2.2.7 Purchasing and Stock Room The stock room at the BMC stores parts and materials used by the BMC staff and is the central ordering area for equipment. All parts and supplies are ordered through the stock room. The stock room staff uses a computerized ordering system to acquire materials from GSA or the Materials Distribution Center hi Topeka, KS. The staff also orders from local suppliers. Approximately 25 people have access to the stock room. Nine individuals have the authority to order parts and materials. These orders are approved by one of three maintenance supervisors, the maintenance manager and the purchasing officer. Parts requests from staff are entered via a computer terminal on a shelf outside of the stock room. The stock room staff retrieves the part if it is in stock or orders the part if necessary. 2.2.8 Maintenance Shops The maintenance department performs repairs on sorting equipment as well as building maintenance and upkeep. The maintenance shop contains two degreasers that use "Powersolv" solvent, an aqueous-based cleaner degreaser. Rags used by the maintenance staff tend to be very oily and the staff has found that they cannot be cleaned and reused. The facility was using a rag service, but found that they were continually purchasing new rags because the service could not clean the rags. All rags are now purchased either locally or through GSA and disposed via incineration. The BMC purchased 6,250 pounds of rags in 1994 for$2,375 and in 1995 through April have purchased 3,750 pounds for $555. The facility generates' ------- three to four 55-gallon drums of rags per month which are incinerated for approximately$400 per drum ($1200 to$1600 per month). ! All flammable materials storage cabinets contained products with chemical constituents listed on the EPA 33/50 list The BMC staff has discontinued ordering products containing these chemicals, found suitable replacements and is in the process of depleting stocks. 2.2.9 Battery Charging Room • The battery room, located on the main floor of the BMC, is used for recharging and storage of batteries used in BMC vehicles, approximately 37 forklifts and 20 jitneys. Each vehicle has three batteries: one in use, one charged and ready, and one charging. The facility estimates there are 150 batteries on-site. The room has an open floor drain with no diking to prevent spills from entering the sanitary sewer. The BMC is presently in the process of upgrading the battery charging room to increase storage capacity, install better ventilation and lighting and provide a limestone tank for the neutralization of any acids released hi the battery room. In 1994, the BMC recycled 30 batteries to Exide Corporation, a battery manufacturer. 2.2.10 Administrative Offices i The BMC contains three floors occupied by offices and conference rooms (approximately 48,000 sq. ft). The significant wastes include computer printouts, white paper, mixed office paper, toner cartridges and employee wastes. The BMC has initiated, a white paper recycling program. While some employees were participating in the recycling program, most were not, as evidenced by white paper hi nearly all trash containers. Lighting hi all offices, conference rooms and restrooms is motion sensitive. The BMC plans to install new carpeting manufactured from recycled polyethylene. 2.2.11 Facility Perimeter During a walk around the facility perimeter, the Assessment Team noted the presence of a "tin shed", several roll-off containers and several miscellaneous material storage areas. The tin shed houses groundskeeping equipment and a variety of excess equipment and materials including tires and other parts. Near the tin shed is a 30 cubic yard container dedicated to the collection of wood wastes. According to the BMC staff, this container is pulled for recycling by Southwest Paper on an "on-call" basis. The contents of the contaiiner were contaminated with plastic and cardboard boxes. There is also a 30 cubic yard container for metals recycling. The BMC generates 10 to 12 tons of scrap metal per month. The container is typically pulled twice per month by Atlas Scrap and the USPS receives approximately $70 per ton, generating revenue of approximately$800 per month. The facility also generates 15 to 20 tires per year. These tires are either removed by the tire company performing the replacement or are sent to the VMF hi Dallas for management. Scrap equipment piles were located all around the west and northwest perimeter awaiting use or disposition. Bulk aluminum is typically sold at auction in 20,000 pound lots; however, in 9 ------- fiscal year 1995 there has been one sale of approximately 97,000 pounds of aluminum for wWch the USPS received approximately $7,929. 2.2.12 Crossdock Pallet Facility The Crossdock Pallet Facility (CPF) is a 59,000 sq. ft. leased facility located at 3706 La Reunion Parkway in an industrial park approximately one mile from the BMC. The CPF redistributes palletized materials from bulk mailers. Palletized materials arrive on trucks from bulk mailers. The CPF personnel unload the trucks and determine if the materials on each pallet are already sorted by BMC or are mixed. Those pallets that are correctly separated for other BMCs are put directly onto trucks. Pallets that contain mixed loads are broken down, sorted, re-palletized, shrinkwrapped and put on the correct truck for shipment. If the pallets are for the Dallas region, the packages are sent to the BMC for sorting and routing. The CPF is also the accumulation point for all sacks for the Dallas BMC region. Sacks arrive from all over the Dallas region loose, bagged, or in OTRs and wire cages. The sacks are sorted by type, checked for mail, removed from service if damaged, repackaged, and sent to the annex. Sacks are shipped to local Post Offices or bulk mailers, as required. t All waste generated at the CPF is disposed in a six cubic-yard container that is emptied daily for a cost of$3,774 per year. No recycling is performed at this facility. Wastes generated include pallets, shrinkwrap, cardboard, damaged sacks, and strapping. USPS plastic and pressboard pallets are shipped to the Arlington TX pallet distribution center. Wood pallets are disposed. The facility also has a fork truck battery charging operation with no safety or spill prevention equipment present. 2.2.13 Warehouse The warehouse, located at 1982 Fort Worth Ave., is a facility shared by 'the BMC and the GMF. The facility is approximately one mile from the BMC. The BMC uses this space primarily for the storage of cardboard gaylords for use in the BMC and some excess equipment. It was unclear which material belonged to the BMC and which to the GMF. The warehouse also had a fork lift battery charging station in operation with no safety or spill prevention equipment present. One area in the facility is used for records storage. There is; no trash service at this facility. All wastes generated here are discarded of at the BMC or GMF facilities. 2.3 ADDITIONAL WASTE STREAMS 2.3.1 Hazardous Waste • ] ITie BMC does not generate large amounts of hazardous waste on a regular basis. The BMC has begun to take all aerosol cans to a central depository. The aerosol cans are punctured and drained into one of two drums. One drum is designated for paints, the other 10 ------- for oils. Once emptied, the cans are recycled with the metal scrap. The BMC has not yet generated a full drum for disposal. The BMC generated one 55 gallon drum of hazardous waste in 1994, which was waste paint classified F003 and F005. 2.3.2 Used Oil \ Used oil from sorting machines and motors is typically filtered and reused on the tow line. The BMC uses a portable filtering unit that can be used for motor oils and cooling oils. After final use the oils are sent to the used oil collection tank. Used oil is collected by Worldwide Reclamation who sends it to CSC Disposal for rerefining. In 1994, the BMC generated approximately 11,500 pounds (1,500 gallons) of waste oil. The facility generates 10 to 20 oil filters per year from the compressors and other equipment. The oil filters are collected by Worldwide Reclamation and sent off-site for incineration. 2.3.3 Pest Control The facility has discontinued the application of pesticides by its employees and contracts all, pest control to licensed applicators. ;The staff has attempted on more than one occasion to remove all aerosol pesticides from the facility, but several containers were found during the assessment 2.3.4 Lighting The BMC primary lighting is provided by fluorescent fixtures. The facility is in the process of changing over to halogen lighting; however, capital improvements funding for the lighting systems were recently denied by the regional environmental office. The BMC staff stated that it is their goal to eliminate all fluorescent lights from the facility because of the environmental impacts of the disposal of fluorescent tubes. The BMC discards 21 fluorescent tubes per day, five days per week into the compactor. The staff collects lighting ballasts and batteries for recycling. The staff is currently investigating the use of new sulfur-based lighting systems under development by Fusion Lighting and the Department of Energy. Motion sensitive lights were in use in the office spaces, but nowhere else. 11 ------- SECTION 3=0 BULK MAIL FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES the BuIr Prev^on opportunities specific to the operations of the BulJc Mail Facility. Exhibit 3.1 presents a summary of the BMC waste generation, current management and potential pollution prevention opportunities generation, current EXHIBIT 3,1 BMC SOLID WASTE GENERATION Obsolete, damaged or defective equipment Corrugated cardboard Current Management •""^"^—•SSSSSSSSSSSSSS Disposed or sold as scrap White paper •"~>««—WW^MH^ Mixed jpaper i ii Magazines ^••^^••••••••B™ ^M»^H Toner cartridges Pallets Some reused, gaylords recycled, other cardboard disposed Discarded as waste Some recycled Reduce generation, divert for recycling Discarded as waste Returned for recycling Plastic iitretch wrap Rags _ Fluorescent tubes USPS pallets sent to Arlington facility for redistribution. Pine pallets sold as scrap for mulch Discarded as waste Strapping Oil •••MM Alkaline Batteries --- . ___ Lighting Ballasts Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Rerefined Recycled PCB ballasts managed as hazardous, non PCS ballasts recycled Repair at USPS Computer Repair Facility (CRF) in Topeka,iKS, Reuse Reduce use of gaylords;Increase use of OTRs; Reduce incoming boxes; reuse boxes; Improve diversion for recycling Reduce generation, divert for recycling Reduce generation, improve diversion for recycling Reduce generation, divert for recycling Continue recycling Reduce variety, reuse pine pallets, establish recycling options for pine pallets VBOBBBMinnB Reduce generation, divert for recycling Investigate rag service feasibility Improve ambient light, install motion sensitive lighting, divert for recycling Divert for recycling Purchase rereflned oil ••^ Jse rechargeable batteries Improve ambient light, install motion sensitive lighting, turn lights off 12 ------- 3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL OVERSIGHT Current Conditions x j The Dallas BMC does not have an environmental coordinator who is responsible for environmental activities at the facility. Instead, environmental activities are addressed on an as-needed basis by either the facility maintenance supervisors or other staff members. More importantly, no one is designated to monitor environmental compliance and issues at the site. Ultimately, the highest ranking USPS employee on site is responsible and liable for all environmental activities. BMC personnel attend meetings sponsored by the area environmental compliance coordinator to share ideas on reducing the environmental impacts of USPS operations. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Appoint an Environmental Coordinator \ The Dallas BMC should appoint at least one environmental coordinator for the facility. This individual should monitor environmental issues and implement opportunities to reduce waste disposal and emissions at the facility. 3.2 REDUCE PAPER USE Current Conditions Office personnel interviewed by the Assessment Team, while aware of the double- sided copying capabilities of duplicating equipment, do not consistently use those options. Staff is not aware of any efforts to encourage reduction in the quantity of paper used and disposed. The Assessment Team observed a significant amount of white paper and computer print-out in the waste containers. White paper is recycled by some personnel, but mixed office papers and magazines are not recycled. Some older copy machines do not have double-sided copying capabilities. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Adopt paper waste reduction techniques Before initiating an enhanced recycling; program, facility managers and staff should adopt and promote a variety of techniques to prevent or reduce the quantity of paper generated for disposal. • Establish a duplex copying policy for all multi-page documents and provide staff training in the use of the double-sided function on copying equipment. As equipment is replaced, specify easy to use, rapid, duplex capability. 13 ------- 9 Expand and encourage the use of electronic mail rather than paper memos and distribution copies. ; e Limit distribution lists. If paper copies are necessary, circulate one memo or report with a cover sheet indicating distribution. •• Identify opportunities to reuse paper and paper products. Corrugated cardboard boxes, jiffy bags, manila envelopes and other packaging materials are reusable for their original function; paper can be turned over and used as scratch paper or made into message pads. 0 Encourage staff to proofread on screen and save information on disks rather than as paper file copies. 3.3 REUSE AND RECYCLING Current Conditions Currently, the BMC separates cardboard gaylords, aluminum cans, other aluminum and metals, used lubricating oil and some paper for recycling. Staff flatten the gaylord boxes after one use and place them in an OTR on the tow line for staging for recycling. All other OCC is placed in the trash compactor. The BMC staff predict that they will spend more than $1,000,000 in fiscal year 1995 to purchase gaylord boxes, each of which will be used only once. USPS plastic and pressboard pallets are sent to the Arlington, Texas pallet distribution center. Wooden pine pallets are recycled as wood scrap. The recycling program for paper is limited to collection of high grade white paper. The office staff has not been irained to participate hi recycling; some offices had recycling containers, many did not. Many desks had small recycled paper holders which typically are inadequate to hold a sufficient quantity of recycled paper and often are not used. No other paper is being recycled. UBBM and LIMs iire currently discarded into the compactor. All waste generated at the Crossdock Pallet Facility is discarded; no recycling is occurring at this facility. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Use OTRs instead of cardboard gaylords The use of gaylords for moving packages has increased significantly in the last several years. BMC staff stated that this is caused by the inability to obtain adequate supplies of mail transport equipment, especially BMC OTRs. As a result, OTRs are used only to transport packages within the Dallas region. Packages that leave the Dallas region are packed in gaylords or are bedloaded. OTRs are hoarded by all USPS facilities to cope with seasonal mail volume increases. According to USPS Headquarters Mail Transport Equipment Office, aluminum OTRs cost$1,138 and have an expected life of 10 years. Gaylords are used for a 14 ------- single trip at the Dallas BMC and cost approximately $6.00 each, depending on the size. The Dallas BMC predicts that it will purchase in fiscal year 1995 approximately 28,425 30- inch gaylords for a cost of$147,969 and 143,000 54-inch gaylords for $875,000. The BMC will spend more than$1,000,000 to purchase new gaylord boxes hi fiscal year 1995. Exhibit 3.2 provides a simple cost/benefit analysis of QTR versus gaylord use. This analysis shows that an OTR could be used as few as 39 times per year and be more cost effective than the use of gaylords. As a result, the USPS should increase the number of OTRs in the system and increase the repair staff to keep OTRs in service to reduce the reliance on gaylords. EXHIBIT 3.2 COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR OTRS VERSUS GAYLORD USE* Cost/Activity a. Initial Cost b. Number of Trips c. Maintenance Cost d. Scrap Value e. Total Cost f. Cost Per Trip Aluminum OTR $1,138.00 1500 (150/year for 10 years)$1000 ($100/year for 10 years)$30 $2,108$1.40 [ Double- WaUed Cardboard Gaylord $6.00 1 None$0.70 $5.41$5.41 Assumptions: 1. An OTR is used for three trips per week, 50 weeks per year for a total of 150 trips per year. 2. An OTR is in repair two weeks per year; for an annual cost of $100.00. 3. Life expectancy of an OTR is 10 years. 4. An OTR weighs 385 pounds. Scrap aluminum value is$0.08 per pound based on recent auction price for aluminum scrap. 5. A gaylord is used for one trip (based on Dallas BMC usage). 6. A gaylord weighs 10 pounds and scrap value is $0.07 per pound ($140 per ton). 2. Cancel the Integrated Mail Handling System USPS has an existing inventory of mail transport containers, including both aluminum and steel BMC OTRs, originally intended for use in the immediate service area of each Bulk Mail Center. Although OTRs were not intended to be used to move mail between BMCs or PDCs and BMCs, workers found it too time consuming to .;.-»iload bedloaded tracks. Now, postal employees use OTRs to move mail between facilities. BMCs and PDCs hoard OTRs for the holiday season, and bulk mail customers take OTRs and do not return them. The BMCs have no control over the OTR inventory, thus OTRs are not readily available to move the mail. 15 ------- To solve the problem of access to mail transport equipment, the USPS has designed the Integrated Mail Handling System (IMHS). The pjanned IMHS would substitute disposable, corrugated cardboard gaylord boxes for the permanent, reusable OTR containers. In addition, because gaylord boxes of adequate volume are too tall, existing BMC mail handling equipment, designed to accommodate OTRs, will require modification. Rather than invest in costly equipment and program modifications that will increase solid waste quantity and handling costs, the USPS should purchase enough additional OTRs or other permanent mail transport equipment for the nationwide movement of non-peak period mail volume and design and implement a nationwide bar-code labeling and tracking system for the OTRs. By utilizing Regional Equipment Processing Centers to track and distribute OTRs in a timely fashion, the need for the cardboard gaylords will be eliminated. The gaylords currently stocked for the IMHS can be used only during the Christmas season. 2. Reuse cardboard gaylords that enter facility As noted above, gaylords that enter the BMC are sent to the lube room for recycling. Gaylords are only reused when no new gaylords are available. USPS employees believe that it is too difficult to determine the structural integrity of a used gaylord and that it is too time consuming to flatten the used gaylord and return it to the storage area for reuse. The BMC should establish a procedure to evaluate each gaylord entering the facility. Reusable gaylords should be broken down and staged for reuse. Damaged gaylords should continue to be managed by recycling. One reuse of each gaylord will reduce the costs for gaylords in half saving the BMC $500,000 in purchasing expenses. 3. Reuse cardboard boxes hi other processing operations All corrugated cardboard, with the exception of gaylords, is sent to the trash compactor. Boxes of the appropriate size in good condition should be reused hi other operations. For example, the Rewrap Section uses all new boxes for repackaging parcels. The BMC should segregate the appropriate sized boxes for use in Rewrap and only use new boxes when reusable boxes are not available. 4. Segregate for recycling the OCC that cannot be reused ; The BMC believes that it is recycling 70 to 80 percent of its cardboard by recycling the gaylords and that only 20 to 30 percent is sent to disposal. The Assessment Team believes these figures are accurate. The BMC recycles approximately 60 tons of OCC each month and receives$140 per ton. In fiscal year 1995, to date, the BMC has received revenues totaling approximately $39,000. Collecting the additional 20 to 30 percent of OCC would reduce disposal costs and could yield additional revenues. To increase the recycling rate, however, would require additional labor to evaluate and separate the OCC for reuse or recycling. This will be economically justifiable when the proposed recycling center is built and the baler utilized. 16 : ' ------- 5. Improve office paper recycling system Given the current market value of all grades of office paper, the BMC should improve the separation of paper for recycling. The BMC should provide more individual and area collection containers for recyclable paper. These container should be clearly labeled and/or a distinct color to distinguish them from the waste containers. A collection container for paper recycling should be located next to each printer and copying machine. Employees should be encouraged to empty their desk collection boxes into centralized consolidation containers. The recyclable paper should be regarded as a valuable commodity, not a waste. Employees need information concerning the kinds of paper ;that can and should be recycled. Employees should be involved hi the planning and implementation of the recycling program so that they will value participating hi it. Exhibit 3.3 provides information on some local companies interested in discussing paper recycling opportunities and the materials and prices currently quoted. USPS Environmental Management Policy Office is developing a draft recycling contract and guidance to assist postal facilities in selecting a recycler. EXHIBIT 3.3 RECYCLERS IN THE DALLAS/FORT WORTH AREA Recycler Recycle America Of Dallas (Waste Management) 12260 Garland Rd Dallas, TX Daltex Recycling Company 408 Singleton Blvd. Dallas, TX 75212 Rock Tenn 9233 Denton Drive Dallas, TX 75235 Material Accepted •Paper Mixed Paper i Cardboard ! Paper OCC OCC | Mixed office Paper Computer Paper White Ledger Material Price (September, 1995) OCC Mixed Office White Paper Computer OCC CPO Mixed White OCC Mixed office Computer White Ledger$169 per ton $60-70 per ton Varies depending on grade Varies depending on grade$205-215 per ton baled $80 per ton on skids$150 per ton $30 per ton$90 per ton $190 per ton baled$150-170 per ton loose $30 per ton$400 per ton $300 per ton 6. Reduce quantity of UBBM and LIMs USPS bulk mail policies and support services to bulk mailers contribute to the quantity of undeliverable bulk business mail (UBBM), including magazines and newsprint, hi the USPS waste stream. Current USPS policy promotes recycling of UBBM; a policy promoting UBBM reduction is not under consideration. UBBM and LIMs constitute a substantial input into the BMC wastestream and the USPS incurs significant costs to process, transport, deliver and dispose of UBBM. 17 ------- To determine whether reduction o| recycling is the most cost effective management practice for UBBM, the USPS should perform a cost analysis to compare the combined revenues from bulk mailing and recycling of UBBM to the costs associated with sorting, handling, transporting and processing undeliverable mail and associated packaging. To reduce the quantity of UBBM managed by postal facilities, the USPS could expand its mailing list maintenance service. Annual mailing list updates, particularly for third and fourth class mail, could-be integrated into the bulk mail permitting process. 7. Begin UBBM and LIMs recycling At a minimum, the Dallas BMC should begin to recycle UBBM and LIMs to avoid the disposal costs and potentially earn revenues. There would be a minimal additional handling costs because the UBBM and LIMs are already hand-verified prior to disposal and would only need to be segregated for recycling. Many areas have initiated hauling of UBBM, magazines and newsprint to a central location by integrating hauling of UBBM into the existing mail transportation system, A separate transportation system to move UBBM to an accumulation point will increase costs and environmental impacts. 8. Set up additional recycling bins in cafeteria Metal, glass and plastic food and beverage containers should be separated for recycling. Metal containers can be accommodated hi the existing metals recycling containers. A new recycling program should be established for glass and plastic food, and beverage containers. . . | 3.4 PALLETS Current Conditions ; The BMC receives a variety of pallets including pine, HDPE plastic, and pressboard pallets. The BMC currently does an excellent job of collecting and sending the plastic and pressboard pallets to the Pallet Distribution Center in Arlington, TX facility. Purchasing staff believe that pine pallets also are sent to the Arlington facility. The wood container on the north side of the facility, however, contained numerous pallets which were being sold as wood scrap. In addition, pine pallets at the CPF are discarded into the waste container. Pollution Prevention Opportunities • ! 1. Establish a recycling program for pine pallets Establish a formal recycling system for pine pallets. Recyclers will repair or rebuild pallets for resale. Exhibit 3.4 provides a summary of some pallet recycling services available in the Dallas area. 18 i - ------- EXHIBIT 3.4 EXAMPLES OF PALLET RECYCLERS IN THE DALLAS AREA Company Size Collected and Price American Pallet Rebuilders Phone: (214) 744-4840 The company will only purchase 48"x 48" pallets and will pay up to$2.50 per pallet, depending on condition. Will collect, at no charge, a minimum of 400 to 500 pallets. AAA Pallets Phone: (214) 445-0036 AAA Pallets will pay 50 to 75 cents per pallet, depending on condition. Accept all sizes of pallets for recycling. For once-a-week pickup, AAA will leave a van onsite; for once-per-month pickup, AAA will send a van. AAA recycles and repairs pallets. Nothing goes to the landfill. All Size Pallet Supply Phone: (800) 281-8150 All Size Pallet Supply will pay $1.00 for 48" x 48" pallets. All oilier sizes will be collected at no cost, but the company will not pay for them. Pallets are torn down and rebuilt into needed sizes or repaired and sold to customers. Summers Pallet Service Phone: (800) 992-2052 Summers will collect all pallet sizes but only pays for certain sizes. Prices range from 50 cents to$3.00. For a 48" x 48" pine pallet, they quoted $2.00. Would provide drop trailers if volume is considerable. Summers recycles pallets, disassembles odd sizes and remakes them, and grinds rotten pallets for compost. 3.5 LIGHTING AND ENERGY Current Conditions The Federal government is a major consumer of energy, using more than two percent of all energy consumed in the United States. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20 percent by the year 2000 and Executive Order 12902 requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption 30 percent by the year 2005. Although the USPS is not an Executive Branch Agency, it is Postal Service policy to adhere to Executive Orders whenever feasible. Both reductions are from a 1985 baseline. In addition, Federal agencies must conduct comprehensive energy audits and install cost-effective energy conservation measures; agencies are encouraged to audit 10 percent of their facilities each year, using "no-cost" audits where practicable. These requirements are summarized in Exhibit 3.5. The BMC is in the process of upgrading the lighting on the floors with high intensity lighting and hopes, over time, to eliminate the use of fluorescent lights completely. The BMC is a 22 year old building and is in need of significant lighting upgrades. One potential improvement is to switch all the fluorescent lights to sulfur lighting tubes. The Dallas BMC has volunteered to be a "model facility" for sulfur lighting. The USPS regional environmental coordinator will purchase the lights, and the Department of Energy will install the lighting system in the facility. The BMC is willing to consider other methods to improve the floor lighting as well as the lighting efficiency. 19 ------- EXHIBIT 3.5 FEDERAL ENERGY POLICIES Energy Policy Act of 1992 Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 10 percent by 1995 (1985 baseline) Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20 percent by 2000 (1985 baseline) Conduct comprehensive facility audits and install cost-effective energy conservation measures In Federally owned buildings, install all energy and water conservation measures that have payback periods of less than 10 years Executive Order 12902 Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 30 percent by 2005 (1985 baseline) : Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20 percent in industrial facilities by 2005 (1990 baseline) \ Conduct surveys and comprehensive audits Implement recommendations for energy efficiency, water conservation and renewable energy that have payback periods of less than 10 years In a separate, but related issue, the roof at the BMC is also in need of repairs In several locations throughout the building, leaks have developed in the roof. There has been some discussion about replacing the roof and, as a result, ambient lighting projects may be considered. Pollution Prevention Opportunities , f 1. Increase the Use of Motion Sensitive Lighting 'While motion sensitive lighting was used in office areas it was not apparent in other parts of the facility. The BMC staff should review the lighting plans and install motion sensitive lighting hi infrequently used areas. 2. Establish a "lights out" policy Establish a policy of turning off lights and equipment when leaving an area. Where machine design permits, turn photocopiers to low power when not hi use. Each kilowatt hour saved prevents the formation of air pollutants, including 0.68 kg of carbon dioxide, 5.8 g of sulfur dioxide and 2.5 g of nitrogen oxides. ' . 3. Investigate Increasing the Use of Ambient Lighting The Dallas BMC should study the possibility ef installing daylighting systems (i e skylights) to allow more energy efficient lighting into the building. An estimated 30 to 5o' percent of the energy used in a commercial building is spent illuminating the ulterior. Daylight can significantly reduce energy consumption and peak energy use hi commercial buildings. i 20 ------- There are two basic systems for daylighting, active and passive. Active daylighting systems employ a system of stacked reflective mirrors and a robotics unit with an infrared, light-sensitive photo diode that tracks the sun as it travels through the sky. The units are set for the specific latitude of the building. During the day, the units turn to catch the sun at its maximum angle, then reflect the light down through the skylight With passive daylighting systems, the sunlight penetrates the external dome and directs the light into the building. Exhibit 3.6 presents the approximate square feet of coverage per daylighting unit. EXHIBIT 3.6 SQUARE FEET OF COVERAGE PER DAYLIGHTING UNIT Ceiling Height (feet) 8 to 9 10 to 15 16 to 19 20 to 40 Low Levels of Light (30-50 foot candles) 400 sq ft 700 sq ft <>66 sq ft 1000 sq ft High Levels of Light (50-106 foot candles) 300 sq ft 500 sq ft 766 sq ft 806sqtt There a several companies that produce and install daylighting systems. Two companies provided information for this report: So-Luminaire Daylighting Systems Corporation and The Natural Lighting Company. The So=Luminaire system is an active daylighting system that is installed in 4' x 4' casings on the roof of a building and reflects natural sunlight through a skylight into the interior of a building. A cluster of diffusion lenses spreads the daylight inside the building. So-Luminaire's two diffusion lenses create dead air spaces which act as thermal barriers to reduce conductive heat gain/heat loss by approximately 50 percent. So-Luminaire estimates that each unit eliminates the use of over two million watts of fluorescent lighting per year, and only consumes one cent in energy costs per year. The Natural Lighting Company manufactures both active and passive daylighting systems. The active daylighting system uses sun-tracking mirrors to redirect sunlight into a reflective light well and diffusing lens. The passive daylighting system uses an innovative prismatic dome, reflective light well and diffusing system to light ulterior spaces. The Natural Lighting Company also produces the So-Dark motorized shade screen which is built into the skylight frame allowing a skylight to be partially or completely darkened at the flip of a switch. This product can be used with either the active or passive daylighting systems. There are several benefits to daylighting and unproved facility lighting. The most important is that energy-efficient building design can significantly increase worker productivity. A recent study by the Rocky Mountain Institute found that efficient lighting (as well as heating and cooling) measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. The study presents eight case studies of unproved productivity resulting from increased lighting efficiency. One case study included the mam post office in Reno, Nevada which found that a 21 ------- lighting retrofit with a six-year payback led to a six percent gain in productivity — worth more than the cost of the retrofit. S 4! ; Other benefits of daylighting include: !• reducing electric lighting utility costs • reducing electric lighting maintenance costs -•-• reducing electric lighting heat loads on air conditioning systems 4. Investigate Technical Assistance from Green Lights Program The staff at the BMC expressed interest in technical assistance to modify the lighting at the facility. USEPA operates Green Lights, a voluntary, non-regulatory program promoting pollution prevention through the installation of energy efficient lighting. Federal partners agree-to upgrade lighting to maximize energy savings wherever it is profitable. The Green Lights program benefits participants by lowering electricity bills, improving lighting quality, and increasing worker productivity. Energy efficiency also reduces the quantity of pollutants released in the generation of electricity. For example, EPA estimates that if Green Lights were fully implemented, where profitable, in the United States, it would save over 65 million kilowatts of electricity annually, reducing the national electric bill by$16 billion per year. The program would also result in reductions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides equivalent to 12 percent of U.S. utility emissions, curbing acid rain and smog and helping to slow the greenhouse effect 5. Become a Federal Partner in the Green Lights Program Federal organizations can become Green Lights Partners by signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with USEPA (see Appendix B) agreeing to: Survey agency facilities and identify lighting upgrades that will reduce energy use 50 percent, \ • Upgrade 90 percent of the square footage of agency facilities no later than September 1,2005, and • ; 0 Appoint a coordinator to oversee participation in the program and document annual energy efficiency improvements. Green Lights provides free technical assistance to participants through written materials, information hotlines, and thorough survey and analysis software products that allow Green lights participants to analyze their options for installing energy-efficieiif lighting. The system helps participants survey the lighting systems in their facilities, assess their retrofit options, select the option that maximizes energy and pollution savings while simultaneously rating or improving lighting quality and meeting the Green Lights profitability criteria, and produces reports suitable for use by facility managers, financial staff, and senior management. 22 ------- EPA provides the following support systems to help Green Lights participants obtain information on energy-efficient lighting technology, financing options, and public recognition opportunities. • Lighting Services Technical Support: provides extensive technical support through a hotline, a comprehensive Lighting Upgrade Manual, and workshops. • Survey and Analysis Tools: state-of-the-art computer software helps participants survey facilities and select lighting upgrade options that maximize energy savings and meet profitability goals. • Financing Directory: Federal agencies may utilize third party financing or traditional procurement mechanisms. In addition, however, Federal participants may consider utility financing, energy savings performance contracts and the Federal Energy Efficiency Fund. EPA can also provide survey and analysis services through an inter- agency agreement • The National Lighting Product Information Program: objective source of current performance and price information on energy- efficient lighting products. • Public Recognition: participants receive public recognition for their environmental leadership through EPA-generated news articles, media events, and public service advertisements. EPA encourages participants to promote their own Green Lights activities by distributing free, ready-to-use promotional materials. In the MOU, EPA and the Federal agency agree: "that the commitment to survey buildings and complete lighting upgrades is contingent upon the availability of appropriated funds or third-party financing resources." ' The USPS can commit to the Green Lights program by signing a Memorandum of Understanding with USEPA agreeing to assign a coordinator, survey facilities and begin installation of energy efficient lighting. For further information on Green Lights for Federal Facilities contact: Gwendolyn Taylor, Federal Program Manager Green Lights & Energy Star Programs 501 3rd Street, NW (Mail Code 62 02J) Washington, DC 20001 Telephone: (202) 233-9472 Fax: (202) 233-9578 : 23; ------- 6. Procure computers that meet Energy Star requirements , -I • 4if *. . ; Future computer equipment purchases should specify equipment that is energy efficient. Executive Order 12845 requires Federal agencies to purchase computer equipment that meets EPA Energy Star requirements for energy efficiency. The EPA Energy Star Program is a voluntary partnership with the computer industry to promote energy-efficient personal computers, monitors and printers. Participating companies have committed to develop computer equipment that powers down when not hi use. The "sleep" feature cuts energy use by 50-75%. Energy Star also includes a category for controlling devices, external retrofit products that reduce the energy consumption of existing computer equipment by automatically turning them off when not in use. The Federal Supply Service offers a product called the Intelligent Energy Saver, a PC add-on device that controls electrical power to the PC and its peripherals. The complete PC system can be powered on and off at user-defined dates and times. Appendix C provides information on how to purchase Energy Star equipment and a list of participating companies and manufacturers of equipment that meets Energy Star requirements. 3.6 FLUORESCENT LIGHTING Current Conditions The BMC offices, warehouses and work areas are lighted with approximately 1,500 fluorescent tubes. The BMC discards at least 21 fluorescent tubes per day, five days per week into the trash compactor. Staff believe that if they limit their disposal to 24 tubes per day, they do not need to dispose of them as a hazardous waste. According to the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Division, fluorescent lights are not automatically hazardous. A determination must be made using TCLP or by simply declaring them as hazardous. The determination on whether they must be managed as a hazardous waste is dependent on the RCRA status of the facility. Fluorescent lights are one of the most energy efficient lighting sources available. However, fluorescent lighting tubes contain mercury, which is used as an element to conduct the flow of the electric current. Historically, fluorescent lighting tubes were discarded into landfills. When the tubes broke, mercury was released to the environment. This potential hazard caused many states to classify fluorescent lighting tubes as hazardous waste and require that they be managed hi accordance with applicable hazardous waste laws and regulations. ; Recycling spent fluorescent lighting tubes offers an environmentally sound alternative to expensive hazardous waste disposal. Additionally, recycling may relieve the generator of future liability concerns associated with tube disposal. Several companies provide recycling services for spent fluorescent lighting tubes and some of these companies also accept ballasts, a component of the light fixture. Ballasts manufactured prior to 1980 contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which also present disposal problems. However, ballasts produced after ' 24 ' ------- 1980 do not contain PCBs.. According to Ron Newman of A-TEC Recycling, the useful life of ballasts is approximately 15 years. Since ballasts manufactured after 1980 do not contain PCBs, ballasts containing PCBs should not present significant disposal problems beyond the near term. Some states allow ballasts that do not contain PCBs to be disposed of hi sanitary landfills. However, according to Stephanie Small of DYNEX Environmental, Inc., non-PCB ballasts contain diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Evidence indicates that DEEP is a human carcinogen. Due to either the PCBs or DEHP content, Ms. Small recommends that customers manage all ballasts as hazardous. USPS Memorandum for Managers, Operations Support dated December 16, 1994 states that "Under no circumstances should these lamps be mechanically crushed or ground into smaller pieces. This method of disposal increases the exposure of hazardous materials to both employees and the environment. Lamps should be boxed prior to disposal." Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1 1. Establish Fluorescent Tube Recycling Program Store expired bulbs hi boxes hi a safe area. USPS facilities should ship expired bulbs to an approved facility for recycling of glass, metals, and mercury. Exhibit 3.7 provides information on the specific services offered by companies that provide fluorescent tube recycling services, the post of the services and the geographic area serviced by each company. For further information on the services of each company, see Appendix D. 25 ------- < u s, y e °E I & ~ I is I lli "~) ^* _a O __ 1° 1 1 O\ OO ^o o o o o _ oo •S e 4 o n u T3 1 I O «r> s s s Q f* n -— °. ^ "^ o o o o r«. la s Jffi S SS S3. T3 0. 0, 03 § I c- o 0 0 O en a. :§£ C. a- s S o I 3 .S J •« c ••* "P 'C c. o. u J a. — • (N u C3 Company/Address/Co U 1 |-§a s "S » O o '& CO O vd., lo B 25 9 hno oo 3 S Mercury Tec International 1940 Westw No. 218 Los CA 684 es, 4 s Angel 10)475- ------- hi U, ' "§.' g' O 3 an s at en 1° 1 o o o o —1'=' oSS 53 C^ ** ** 5 i — « SC O -8 § ?M a VO (N «c» oi <«« b •^ oe eu I C/3 oo S «•• — c 3S n 8 8 r- CN 60 11 ™ I x s II 81 §"•0 JJ Ig. 02 a- S ( — (N «N en y/Address/ a 5^§ |S) S Q.cn s f u U § M 12 Al Q. o 2 2 ca ui I S « • ------- 3.7 RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES | Current Conditions The Dallas facility uses numerous alkaline batteries for various functions. The batteries are used predominantly in flash lights utilized during machine repairs and maintenance activities. The BMC uses numerous AA, C, D, and 9v batteries. The stock room maintains a barrel to collect the batteries for recycling. The Dallas facility generates one 55- gallon drum of used alkaline batteries every three months; these are recycled with other metals. Pollution Prevention Opportunity 1. Purchase Rechargeable Batteries The Dallas BMC should purchase rechargeable batteries and a charging unit to recharge the batteries. By using rechargeable batteries, the BMC would reduce the purchase cost of batteries. Rechargeable batteries, however, do not provide power for as long as alkaline batteries before recharging is necessary. ; GSA has Rayovac rechargeable alkaline batteries which are now available through Muffin or FWW-19. Rayovac's patented Renewal batteries offer the high performance attributes of regular alkaline batteries along with the cost and environmental benefits of a reusable system. Renewal batteries are available in battery sizes AAA, AA, Cs and D. The power stations for recharging batteries also are available from GSA. Stock numbers and prices are listed below. For additional information, call Ms. Genni Brown 817-334-8377. Rayovac Rechargeable batteries Size D Model 713 6140-01-413-3925 Box (20 per box) $32.80 Size C Model 714-2 6140-01-413-3923 Box (20 per box)$32 80 Size AA. Model 715-4 6140-01-413-3926 Box (40 per box) $35.90 Size AAA Model 724-4 6140-10-413-3928 Box (40 per box)$35.90 Charger Model PS2 6140-01-413-3929 Box (4 per box) $9008 (All Sizes) ' 3.8 AFFIRMATIVE PROCUREMENT Current Conditions ' >• . The BMC does not make it a standard practice to purchase items with recycled content, such as paper. Instead, most items purchased are made of virgin material. It appears that the purchasing officials at the BMC are unaware of USPS policy and federal legislation 28 ; ------- requiring the purchase of materials with recovered content. The United States Postal Sen/ice Waste Reduction Guide (AS552, February, 1992) directs Requiring offices to "review purchase specifications to eliminate prohibitions pr limitations on use of recovered materials" and to modify specifications to encourage use of recycled products. Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) directs Federal agencies to purchase "items composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable." To date, USEPA has established procurement guidelines for paper and paper products, retread tires, re-refined lubricating oil, building insulation, and cement and concrete containing fly ash. EPA recently published the Comprehensive Guideline for Procurement of Products Containing Recovered Material (60 FR 21370, May 1, 1995) adding 19 additional products including engine coolant, trash bags, toner cartridges, binders and desktop accessories. These guidelines provide information about the recommended percentage of recovered material, product availability and performance, and specification language. In Executive Order 12873, October 22, 1993, President Clinton directs agencies to develop and implement affirmative procurement programs for all EPA guideline items and ensure that these programs require that 100 percent of their purchases of products meet or exceed the EPA guideline standards. The BMC was not able to document successful implementation of USEPA procurement guidelines for products manufactured with recovered content. The BMC is, however, in the process of eliminating products containing the seventeen chemicals on USEPA's 33/50 list Purchasing officials are not sure whether procurement specifications have been updated to include recycled content in paper products. Current supplies of printing, duplicating and computer paper do not contain any recovered content. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Purchase products with recycled content and train staff The BMC should establish preference programs and adopt specifications for the purchase of products made with the percentages of recovered materials specified hi USEPA Guidelines. The GSA catalog has special sections for environmentally sound products, such as paper with recycled content These items are highlighted in green throughout the catalog. The BMC purchasing official should make it a standard practice to purchase items with the highest amount of recycled content Changes hi the procurement system will create staff training opportunities and staff will need training on Federal affirmative procurement requirements. Exhibit 3.8 presents products for which EPA has established minimum recovered content levels. 29 ------- EXHIBIT 3.8 EPA ESTABLISHED MINIMUM RECOVERED CONTENT LEVELS Category/Product . Percent Recycled Content Paper grade bleached printing and writing paper?! & o and duplicator paper uter paper ipes Tissue Products Unbleached packaging Vehicular Products Construction Products lass (glass cullet) ise loose-fill and spray-on (post-consumer paper) iral fiberboards aited paperboards it and Concrete (ground granulated blast furnace slag) ter Carpet Face Fiber (PET resin) docks (rubber or rubber blends) •locks (plastic or plastic blends) lies (rubber) lies (plastic) Transportation products cones (PVC, LDPE, Crumb Rubber) barricades (HOPE, LDPE, Pet Steel) barricades (Fiberglass) Park and Recreation Products jund surfaces (rubber or plastic) g tracks (rubber or plastic) 50% 50% 50% 50% 20% 40% 30% : 5% 35% i 25% retread tires 20-25% 75% 80-100% 100% 0-40% 25-50% 25-100% 90-100% 90-100% 90-100% 90-100% 50-100% 80-100% 100% 90-100% 90-100% Landscaping Products jased hydraulic mulch (post-consumer recovered paper) based hydraulic mulch (recovered wood and/or paper) 100% 100% Non-paper Office Products recycling containers and waste receptacles (plastic) recycling containers and waste receptacles (steel) desktop accessories (polystyrene) covered binders (plastic) ard, paperboard, pressboard binders trash bags 20-100% 25-100% 25-80% 25-50% 80% 10-100% Tires 30 ------- EPA has developed lists of manufacturers and vendors of the items designated hi the Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines. These lists will be updated periodically as new sources are identified and EPA becomes aware of changes in product availability. To assist procuring agencies, the lists will be made available at no charge by calling EPA's RCRA Hotline at (800) 424-9346. The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) publishes an Environmental Products Guide, which lists items available through its Federal Supply Service. This guide, formerly the Recycled Products Guide, has been prepared;to assist Federal civilian and military agencies to identify the environmentally oriented products and services available to them through the supply system of the General Servicbs Administration's Federal Supply Service. The guide contains information about more than 2,900 such items from GSA's supply system. In the general category of recycled-content paper products alone, there are more than 900 entries. Some of these items contain 100% post-consumer recovered materials and all meet or exceed guideline requirements established by the Environmental Protection Agency. This publication is available to federal agencies at no cost from the GSA Centralized Mailing List Service in Fort Worth, Texas 76115 or at (817) 334-5215. In addition to the information provided by EPA and GSA, there are other publicly-available sources of information about products containing recovered materials. For example, the Official Recycled Products Guide (RPG) was established in March 1989 to provide a broad range of information on recycled content products. Listings include product, company name, address, contact, telephone, fax, type of company (manufacturer or distributor), and minimum recycled content Price information is not included. The RPG is available on a subscription basis from American Recycling Market, Inc. at (800) 267-0707 The Defense General Supply Center hi Richmond, VA also distributes the Environmentally Preferred Products Catalog which lists hundreds of environmentally preferable products hi its supply system, ranging from aqueous degreasers to remanufactured laser printer toner cartridges. Environmentally preferable means products and services that have less or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance or disposal of the product or service. For more information about environmentally-preferable products, call or write: Defense General Supply Center Attn. Marketing Office 8000 Jefferson Davis Highway j Richmond, VA 23297-5762 1-800-848-4847 31 ------- 3.8 OVERSIGHT OF CHEMICAL STORAGE y • «ft • Current Conditions All shops and flammable materials cabinets in the BMC contained products with chemical constituents listed on the EPA 33/50 list. The BMC staff has discontinued ordering materials with EPA 33/50 chemicals, found suitable replacements and is hi the process of depleting stocks. The BMC has established a system in which all material purchases are reviewed for ODC and EPA 33/50 constituents prior to purchase. Over tune the BMC staff believes that this system will eliminate the use of ODCs and EPA 33/50 chemicals. The maintenance shops has a solvent sink that uses an aqueous degreaser. Flammable materials cabinets were filled with products, many apparently very old. One flammable materials cabinet hi the OTR repair shop had several inches of oil in the bottom. Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. - Evaluate the Contents of all Flammable Materials Cabinets The BMC staff should perform an inventory on all flammable materials cabinets in order to determine if materials are old, expired, or no longer needed by an operation. Old or expired chemicals should be removed from the shops and disposed of properly: Products no longer needed should be inventoried and used as needed in other operations. 2. Perform periodic inspections of flammable materials cabinets The BMC staff should perform periodic inspections of flammable materials cabinets to determine if contents are intact and that products brought in from sources other than procurement are eliminated. Periodic inspection and cleanout of cabinets will minimize the risk of spills and interaction of incompatible chemicals. 3.9 RAGS Current Conditions The maintenance staff currently use rags to wipe up and clean up during maintenance operations. These rags tend to be very oily. The facility was using a rag service in the psist but found that they were continually purchasing new rags because the service could not clean the rags. All rags are now purchased either locally or through GSA and disposed via incineration. The BMC purchased 6,250 pounds of rags hi 1994 for$2,375 arid hi 1995 through April have purchased 3,750 pounds for $555. The Facility expects to purchase approximately 6,900 pound of rags for an approximate cost of$1,000. The facility generates three to four 55-gallon drums of rags per month which are incinerated for approximately $400 per drum. 32 ------- Pollution Prevention Opportunities 1. Test another rag laundering service Several rag recyclers and linen services in the Dallas/Fort Worth area were contacted; only one would launder oily rags. National Uniform (a division of National Linen Service) (817) 429-5891 will pick up, launder and deliver rags from the Dallas BMC at a cost of$1.50 per pound. National stated that they will accept oily rags but not rags with chemicals, solvents, degreasers etc and that they would appreciate MSDS on oils used by the USPS. An analysis of the costs show that laundering rags may be cheaper than purchasing new rags. Laundering rags may save between $400 and$1,100 per year. Exhibit 3.9 presents a simple cost/benefit analysis of laundering rags. EXHIBIT 3.9 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF LAUNDERING RAGS* Cost/Activity Initial Rag Purchase Cost Laundering Cost Disposal Costs Year 1 cost Cost Savings Year 2 rag replacement cost Year 2 cost Cost Savings Laundering $1,030$10,350 ($1.50 per pound)$3,600 (25 percent of $14,400)$2.17 per pound $414$258 $2.06 per pound$1,173 New $1,030 none$14,400 based on three 55 gallon drums per month at $400 per drum.$2.23 per pound $2.23 per pound Assumptions: 1. BMC uses 6,900 pound of rags per year. 2. Under reuse option BMC replaces 25 percent of the rags each year. 3. Disposal cost is$400 per drum and the BMC currently generates 3 drums per month. 3.10 BATTERY CHARGING I Current Conditions j The BMC uses numerous battery powered forklifts for the movement of materials. For the main facility the batteries are stored and charged in the battery room. Typically for each forklift there are three batteries; one in use, one charging and one ready for use. When needed, the batteries are filled with water and recharged. The Assessment Team noted that there was an open drain in the battery room that leads to the sanitary sewer. The battery room in the BMC is scheduled to be upgraded to increase the space, lighting, ventilation and 33 ------- add lime neutralization tanks. Forklift batteries are charged at several other ,BMC locations. For example, both the warehouse and the CPF facility had battery charging occurring with no supervision, no spill containment, and no safety equipment. Pollution Prevention Opportunity 1. The drain hi the battery room should be diked to prevent the accidental discharge of battery acid to the sanitary sewer. There are devices commercially available to dike drains. Once spills are contained, neutralize the battery acid with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and then wash the neutralized acid down the drain with water. Neutralizing the acid will reduce the likelihood of corrosion of pipes. 2o Review procedures on the proper charging of batteries to prevent accidental acid overflows. 3. Remove battery charging operations from remote facilities if possible or provide the appropriate safety and containment equipment for these sites. 3dl DEDICATED OIL CONTAINERS Current Conditions The Dallas BMC oil room has a bulk distribution system which stores several types of oil and. a solvent called Pro-Power, which is an oil emulsifier. This distribution system stores materials in 55 gallon containers and has clear PVC tubes that connect to corresponding loekable, self closing faucets to distribute the materials. Several unmarked, open containers are stored under the bulk distribution system. These containers are used to distribute and transport the materials for use. After each use, staff must empty the remaining oil into the waste oil drum and then clean the container with solvent for reuse. This process generates unnecessary waste because excess oil is disposed, instead of being reused, and because the containers must be cleaned with solvent after each use. Pollution Prevention Opportunities The BMC should purchase and dedicate containers for specific materials. These containers should have tight-sealing lids and be clearly marked with the type of material for which the container is intended. There are many containers on the market that also have marks indicating the volume. This will ease distribution and help to reduce the amount of excess material dispensed from the bulk distribution system. Also, by having closed, clearly marked containers, the excess materials can be left hi the container for reuse. This will eliminate the need to clean the containers with solvent after each use, thereby reducing solvent use. 34 ------- 3.12 POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES Current Conditions During the site visit, Dallas BMC staff indicated that they would like information on accessing pollution prevention information. Pollution Prevention Opportunities There are numerous sources of pollution prevention information nationwide. Appendix E provides a summary of pollution prevention information sources. There are several sources of pollution prevention information on the internet. Perhaps, the best source is Enviro$en$e. This internet-based information source is funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. Enviro$en$e allows those implementing pollution prevention programs or developing research and development projects to benefit from the experience, progress, and knowledge of their peers. EnviroSenSe includes a pollution prevention forum for all levels of government, researchers, industry, and public interest groups. Enviro$en$e has been developed to host an expert architecture known as the Solvent Umbrella. .The Solvent Umbrella will allow users to access solvent alternative information through a single, easy-to-use command structure; EnviroSenSe is also modem accessible via Bulletin Board System (BBS). Through Netscape, EnviroSenSe address is: http://wastenot.hiel.gov/envirosense. The EPA also has a World Wide Web (WWW) Server, which is being run as a prototype system, to provide public access to EPA information. The EPA provides the comprehensive Access EPA document describing environmental information, as well as a number of other pointers to Information Locators that can be obtained from the EPA and related organizations. In addition to this document, the EPA's Public Information Center is available to provide assistance in accessing environmental information. An experimental EPA People Locator is also available. Through Netscape, EPA's WWW server can be accessed through http://www.epa.gov. The EPA WWW server provides information on EPA Agency information and environmental data, including: • Press Releases, Calendar, Announcements, Speeches, • EPA Offices and Regions, • Consumer Information, • EPA Initiatives, Policy and Strategy Documents, • Rules, Regulations and Legislation, EPA Standards, 35 ------- • Science, Research and Technology, • Information about Grants, Contracts (RFPs), and Job Vacancies, « Newsletters and Journals, thd " e Software and Databases. Another source of environmental information is the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), Pollution Prevention Directorate located at Brooks APB in Texas. AFCEE produces PRO-ACT factsheets on various pollution prevention topics, ranging from corrugated cardboard pallets to a summary .of environmental Executive Orders. Through Netscape, the PRO-ACT fact sheets can be accessed through: http://chppm-meis.apgea,army.mil/pro-act/uidex_txt.html. 36 ------- ------- SECTION 4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment report documents the processes performed, wastes generated and current waste management practices at the USPS Bulk Mail Center in Dallas, Texas. During the assessment process, the Assessment Team identified opportunities to reduce both the quantity and toxicity of the wastes generated by this facility and recommended techniques for implementation of those pollution prevention options. The opportunities described in the previous sections constitute the recommendations of the Assessment Team. Exhibit 3.1 presents a summary of the major recommendations. Dissemination of this report will encourage application of the pollution prevention opportunities hi USPS bulk mail facilities nationwide as well as in other Federal facilities with similar operations. 37 ------- ------- APPENDIX A. EPA 33/50 CHEMICALS AND OZONE DEPLETING CHEMICALS Benzene Cadmium and Cadmium compounds Carbon Tetrachioride Chloroform Chromium and Chromium compounds Cyanide compounds and Hydrogen Cyanide Lead and Lead compounds Mercury and Mercury compounds Methylerie Chloride Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Nickel and Nickel compounds Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) ' Toluene 1,191 -Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Xylenes 38 ------- OZONE DEPLETING CHEMICALS Halocarbon Number CFC-11 CFC-12 CFC-113 CFC-114 CFC-115 Halon 1211 Halon 1301 Halon 2402 CFC-13 CFC-111 CFC-112 CFC-211 CFC-212 CFC-213 CFC-214 CFC-215 CFC-216 CFC-217 Carbon Tetrachloride Methyl Chloroform Methyl Bromide HCFC-21 HCFC-22 HCFC-121 HCFC-122 HCFC-123 HCFC-124 HCFC-131 HCFC-132 HCFC-133 HCFC-141 HCFC-142 Chemical Name Primary Uses* CLASS I ODCs Trichlorofluoromethane 1,2,3,4,5 Dichlorodifluoromethane - 1,2,4 Trichlorotrifluoroethane 2.3.4 Dichlorotetrafluoroethane 1,2,3,4,6 Chloropentafluoroethane 6 Bromochlorodifluoromethane 3,7 Bromotrifluoromethane 1,3,5 Dibromotetrafluoroethane 1,3 Chlorotrifluoromethane 6J Peatachlorofluoroethane o Tetrachlorodifluoroethane 4 Heptachlorofluoropropane 0 Hexachlorodifluoropropane 0 Pentaehlorotrifluoropropane 0 Tetrachlorotetrafluoropropane 0 Trichloropentafluoropropane 0 Dichlorohexafluoroprbpane 0 Chloroheptafluoropropane 0 Tetrachloroethane 1458 . " : *5^^S*'?*' Trichloroethane (all isomers) 4,5,8 4,5,8 CLASS II ODCs Dichlorofluoromethane 1 4 ~ *^r Chlorodifluoromethane 1,4,5 Tetrachlorofluoroethane Q Trichlorodifluoroethane o Dichlorotrifiuoroethane 1,3 Chlorotetrafluoroethane 1,3 Trichlorofluoroethane \ Q Dichlorodifluoroethane o Chlorotrifluoroethane ; Q Dichlorofluoroethane 2 Chlorodifluoroethane 1,4,5 * The eight use categories are as follows: 1. Refrigeration; Air Conditioning 5. 2. Blowing Agents for Plastics 6. 3. Fire Extinguishing Agent 7. 4. Solvent: Dry Cleaning Agent; Degreaser 8. Intermediate for Synthesis of Other Compounds Dielectric Gas Aerospace Chemical Fumigant: Pesticide 39 ------- APPENDIX B. GREEN LIGHTS INFORMATION AND SAMPLE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING (MOU) FOR GREEN LIGHTS PARTNERS 40 ------- United States Environmental Protection Agency Air and Radiation 6202J i EPA430-B-94-001A December 1994 Green Lights for Federal Participants Green Lights When EPA launched Green Lights - its flagship voluntary pollution prevention program - it engaged the free market by promoting profitable investment in energy-efficient lighting. Since 1991. more than 1.500 organizations across the country have joined Green Lights to conserve energy, cut their electricity bills, and reduce the amount of air pollutants released into the atmosphere. This dynamic program continues to grow and meet the energy needs of the country. Currently, Green Lights is helping Federal agencies comply with mandated energy conservation goals. The Federal government is a major consumer of energy, using over 2 percent of all energy consumed in the US. Two mandates — The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) and Executive Order 12902 (EO 12902) — require Federal agencies to cut energy use. Green Lights provides mechanisms for Federal agencies to meet these mandates by offering extensive technical expertise and planning support. FEDERAL ENERGY CONSERVATION MANDATES The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) EPAct requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20 percent by the year 2000 (compared to 1985). It also requires that agencies install energy conservation measures with less than 10-year payback periods. Certain buildings are exc'^ded from this mandate (see box). EPAct encourages Green Lights participation in Section 543 (paragraph b.4). "An agency may participate in the EPA's Green Lights program for purposes .of receiving technical assistance in complying with the requirements of this section." CONTENTS FEDERAL ENERGY CONSERVATION MANDATES. .1 FEDERAL GREEN LIGHTS 3 EVALUATING UPGRADE OPTIONS 4 FINANCING OPTIONS 5 Executive Order 12902 EO 12902 requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption 30 percent per gross square foot by the year 2005 (as compared to 1985). It also Buildings exempt from EPAct • Federal agency facilities that generate or transmit electric energy • Uranium enrichment facilities operated by DOE • Buildings in which compliance with the requirements would be impractical requires a 20 percent reduction in energy consumption in industrial facilities by 2005 (compared to 1990). The order compels agencies to conduct comprehensive facility audits and install cost-effective energy conservation measures. Agencies should audit about 10 percent of their facilities each year. However, if a facility has had a comprehensive audit within the last three years, it counts as current. Agencies must use "no-cost" audits wherever practicable. The actions required of Federal agencies by EO 12902 are summarized below. Green Lights for Federal Participants • Lighting Upgrade Manual • EPA's Green Lights Progra.m • December 1994 41 ------- Goals for Energy Use/SqFt Reduction in Existing Federal Buildings EPACT. 1992 ...20% by 2000 relative to 1985 EO 12902. 1994 30% by 2005 relative to 1985 Activities Required by EO 12902 September 1994 •/ Begin implementing cost-effective recommendations from comprehensive facility audits performed within the last three years to install energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy technologies •/ Designate one major building to showcase energy or water efficiency (and other renewable energy technologies if possible) ^ Develop showcase implementation plan March 1995 ^ Identify high priority facilities to audit ' Complete first 10 percent of comprehensive facility audits Within six months of each audit • Begin installing cost-effective recommendations (i.e., those with less than 10 year payback) for energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable esnergy technologies September 1995 ' Complete prioritization surveys for all facilities December 1995 ' Reclassify "exempt" or "industrial" facilities based on prioritization surveys, and report to the Federal Energy Management Program and the Office of Management and Budget Interaction Between EPAct and EO 12902 Both EPAct and EO 12902 require Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption pel- gross square foot and to implement energy conservation measures. EO 12902 effectively extends the; EPAct timeline for Federal energy conservation measures to 200J5 and requires additional energy savings by that time. It also requires energy conservation in industrial facilities. Finally, while EPAct allowed exemptions of entire facilities due to specialized; energy-intensive activities, EO 12902 requires agencies to designate specific buildings as exempt and implement cost- effective conservation measures wherever possible in other parts of those facilities. EPAct ^ reduce energy consumption per gross ft2 10 percent by 1995 (compared to 1985) ^ reduce energy consumption per gross ft2 20 percent by 2000 (compared to 1985) • . • : ^ install all energy and water conservation measures with payback periods of less than 10 years in Federally owned buildings; ^ exempt buildings in which energy intensive activities are carried out E012902 I ^ reduce energy consumption per gross ft2 30 percent by 2005 (compared to 1985) ; y reduce energy consumption per gross ft2 20 percent in industrial facilities in aggregate by 2005 (compared to 1990) ^ conduct surveys and comprehensive audits and implement recommendations with payback periods of less than 10 years ^ reclassify "exempt" facilities Green Liahts for Federal Particioants • Liahtir 42 ------- To assist in overcoming many of the obstacles that may have stalled lighting upgrades in the past, participants will receive extensive support materials and services from EPA. We currently provide participants with the following products, information, and services. * Information Hotlines * Green Lights Electronic Bulletin Board * Energy Star Fax-Line System * Specifier Reports" * lighting Answers" * Light Briefs" * Lighting Upgrade Manual * Lighting Upgrade Workshops * Green Lights Financing Directory * Lighting Waste Disposal Information * Decision Support System * ProjectKalc * ReportKalc * Directories of Green Lights Allies * Implementation Planning Assistance * Communications Assistance FEDERAL GREEN LIGHTS In Federal buildings, approximately 25 percent of the energy consumed is for lighting. Retrofitting such systems could result in substantial energy savings, providing cost-effective options for meeting Federal energy mandates. EPAct encourages participation in Green Lights because it provides Federal agencies with many of the tools they need to get moving on lighting retrofits. It offers comprehensive, up-to-date lighting information and responsive support services. The program also has analytic tools to help participants rapidly analyze lighting systems and select appropriate upgrade solutions. Additionally, Green Lights helps participants effectively plan upgrades and publicize their successes once upgrades are complete. Who Can Be a Federal Partner? Green Lights is open to any Federal organization (including sub-agencies) that has control over its own facilities and budget, and has its own management structure. In other words, legislative branch agencies. executive branch departments, and administrations. bureaus, and services within departments can join. A Diverse mix of Federal Partners has already joined the .program, including the Bureau of Reclamation. Kelly Air Force Base, the National Security Agency, and ! several Department of Energy and Department of Defense facilities. What Do You Agree to Do by Joining? Federal Partners agree to reduce lighting energy use by 50 percent, provided lighting quality is not compromised. In the Memorandum of Understanding , (MOU), Federal Partners agree to conduct a variety of : energy saving activities in owned facilities: ] *• Survey all agency facilities and identify lighting upgrades that will reduce energy use 50 percent without compromising lighting quality. »> Upgrade 90 percent of the square footage of agency facilities no later than January 1, 2005. + Implement all lighting projects with payback periods of less than 10 years by January 1, 2005. • Re-survey and. if necessary, upgrade each facility within five years of the initial surveys and upgrades. i o Appoint an implementation director who oversees participation in the program. r i o Document annual energy efficiency improvements. «• Encourage regulatory reform and public awareness efforts. Design new facilities in compliance with applicable codes and regulations (e.g., 10 CFR Part 435 Subpart A). EPA encourages organizations to look at lighting as 1 an investment opportunity, not as an overhead cost. : Green Lights asks federal participants to cut lighting i energy use 50 percent, contributing to the overall 30 percent energy reduction required by EPAct. This goal is achievable, because Green Lights participants I are accomplishing average returns of over 40 percent Green Lights for Federal Participants • Li 43 Manual • EPA's Green Lights Program • December 1994 ------- and reducing their lighting electricity use by an average of 46 percent. Upgrading Leased Space Federal Partners also agree to upgrade leased facilities. However. several factors can limit their ability to upgrade these facilities: the length of the lease, the cooperation of the landlord and tenants, and whether the building is federally owned. The following MOD agreements take these limits into account. * Survey leased facilities where the agency pays directly for electricity or where the General Services Administration (GSA) delegates management authority Definitions of Financial Terms* i LCC = (investment costs - salvage values) + (non-fuel O&M costs) + (replacement costs - salvage costs) + (energy costs) N"V — LCC witnout oroiect * LCC ..Vitn protect I Savings to Investment Ratio . ! = PV Savings in energy and non-fuel Q&M costs! PV Costs in investment and replacement costs - salvage values IRR = [(terminal value of savings/present value of co?ts) !/n - 1], where n = the number of years in the study period | Simple Payback ' = Number of years required for investment costs-to equal (cumulative energy cost savings - non-fuel costs), not considering future price changes or discount rates * as defined in 10 CFR Part 436 ; * Identify lighting upgrades in applicable facilities that will reduce energy use 50 percent without compromising lighting quality *- Upgrade 90 percent of the square footage of qualifying leased facilities no later than January 1 2005. Non-delegated GSA buildings are the responsibility of the GSA. not the Federal Partner. However, Partners agree to work with the GSA to expedite surveys and upgrades of these buildings. If landlords or tenants refuse to cooperate. EPA will conduct meetings to identify the benefits of Green Lights and to seek GSA cooperation. Three circumstances generally preclude upgrades in leased spaces: * payback period exceeds the remaining'duration of the lease term * lease expires less than five years from the date the MOU is signed * Federal Partner does not pay utilities directly EVALUATING UPGRADE OPTIONS Green Lights encourages Partners to choose profitable lighting alternatives thait are the mosit energy-efficient, thereby maximizing energy savings. As they begin their upgrades, participants use the Decision Support System (DSS) to select the mix of technologies that maximize energy savings. Next they use internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) to measure profits from lighting investments. A Green Lights upgrade is considered profitable if the IRR is equal fo or greater than 20%. Green Lights chooses this hurdle rate because of the low risk involved in lighting upgrades and the added benefit of pollution prevention. NPV calculations help participants select the most profitable project among several that meet the IRR test. ProjectKalc (another v Green Lights analytical tool) can analyze NPV on a system- or building-wide basis. For more information. see Financial Considerations, a section of the Lighting Upgrade Manual. Green Lights for Federal Participants • Liaht 44 ------- .ife-Cycie Costs PAct refers to 10 CFR Part 436 to specify life-cycle ost calculations. According to these regulations, ife-Cycie Costs (LCC) refer to the total costs of wning, operating, and maintaining a building over its sefui life, and are determined by evaluating and omparing Itemative building ystems. For jased buildings, ne LCC are Calculated over the jffective emaining term of he lease. The nethod of :alculattng LCC. specified in 10 Internal rate of return (IRR) is an acceptable LCC method provided that the IRR (as described in 10 CFR 436.22) is greater than the discount rate as set by DOE. DFR 436. is a systematic analysis of •elevant costs — excluding costs incurred before the analysis ~ producing a discounted cash flow and calculating the net present value. Future versions of :he DSS and ProjectKalc will calculate LCC. Cost-Effectiveness Building energy conservation measures are deemed cost-effective if one of the following criteria is met. • LCC are estimated to be lower than other alternatives. v NPV is estimated to be positive. * Savings-to-investment ratio is estimated to be greater than one. • Adjusted IRR is estimated to be greater than the discount rate as set by DOE. ^ Simple payback is significantly less than the life of the system and the federal building in which it is installed. Investments are not deemed cost-effective for buildings that are... * under a short-term lease, with less than one year remaining and without a renewal option or with a renewal option that is not likely to be exercised. occupied under a lease that includes utilities in the rent and does not provide a pass-through of energy savings to the government. scheduled to be demolished or retired from service within one year or less. FINANCING OPTIONS : Besides third-party financing and traditional procurement routes. Federal agencies have several options for financing lighting upgrades. They are: . * utility financing *• energy savings performance contracts : * Federal Energy Efficiency Fund The Federal MOU includes a financial disclaimer ; stating that "both parties agree that the commitment ; to survey buildings and complete lighting upgrades is \ contingent upon the availability of appropriated funds or third-party financing resources." Utility Financing EPAct authorizes agencies to participate in utility programs that increase energy efficiency, conserve water, or manage electricity demand. According to EPAct, agencies may accept rebates or other incentives to increase energy efficiency and may not be denied them if they satisfy the criteria other customers must meet. Agencies may also enter into negotiations to address any unique needs of their facilities. Energy Savings Performance Contracts Energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are also authorized by EPAct. ESPCs are contracts with energy service companies that guarantee energy savings to an agency and require annual energy audits. The contractor ir urs the costs of implementing energy savings measures — including the costs of audits, equipment installation, and training - in exchange for a share of the energy savings. The head of a federal agency may enter into these contracts to achieve energy savings and benefits. The term - which may not exceed 25 years - conditions of any government payments and and Green Lights for Federal Participants • Lighting 45 iual • EPA's Green Lights Program • December 1994 ------- performance guarantees are specified in the contract Aggregate annual payments to utilities and contractors cannot exceed the amount an agency would have paid for utilities without an ESPC. Additionally, Federal agencies may incur debt to finance energy conservation measures using ESPCs, provided guaranteed savings exceed payments. To facilitate the selection of contractors, DOE has developed an annually-updated list of qualified energy service firms. Federal agencies are required to use contractors from this list. Federal organizations that make the commitment to Green Lights are profiting by reducing their energy consumption and electricity bills, improving lighting quality, and increasing worker productivity. Ely using energy-efficient lighting, they are also reducing the air pollution caused by power generation (particularly carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and heavy metal emissions). As one of the first market- driven, non-regulatory programs sponsored by EPA, Green Lights is revolutionizing the way America cleans up the environment. Federal Energy Efficiency Fund The Federal Energy Efficiency Fund was established by EPAct to provide grants to assist agencies in meeting its requirements. Guidelines for submitting proposals were issued on June 30, 1993. Funds have been appropriated through 1995 Up to 36 million was available for fiscal year 1994, and up to $50 million is available in fiscal year 1995 These funds will be distributed to agencies based on a combination of several factors: * cost-effectiveness of project * amount of energy and cost savings anticipated * amount of funding committed to the project bv the agency * the extent to which proposals leverage financing from non-Federal sources FEDERAL AGENCY ACCOUNTING REQUIREfl/IENTS To encourage energy efficiency, EPAct mandates that some of the energy and water cost savings remain available to Federal agencies. An amount equafto 50 percent of the cost savings (from utility rebates or ESPCs) remains available for additional energy efficiency programs, particularly at those facilities where energy savings are achieved. To maintain these savings, agencies must establish a fund and maintain strict financial controls, documenting savings realized and expenditures made. These records must be made available for public inspection upon request Green Lights for Federal Participants • Liohtino 46 ------- NOTES: Green Lights for Federal Participants • Light 47 yianual • EPA's Green Lights Program • December 1994 ------- GREEN LIGHTS A Bright Investment in the Environment Green Lights is an exciting and innovative programs sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agen- cy (EPA) that encourages major US corporations and other organizations to install energy-efficient lighting technologies. Organizations that make the commitment to Green Lights will profit by lowering their electricity bills, improving lighting quality, and increasing worker productivity. Thesy will also reduce the air pollution caused by electricity generation. For more information contact: Green Lights Program US Environmental Protection Agency 401 M Street. SW (6202J) Washington. DC 20460 Green Lights Information Hotline (for program, technical, and software support) » (202)775-6650 Fax (202) 775-6680 Green Lights Ally Information » (202)293-4527 Fax (202) 223-9534 Energy Star Fax-Line System S (202)233-9659 Green Lights for Federal Participants is an appendix to the Lighting Upgrade Manual. Other documents in the Manual are listed below. '. Lighting Upgrade Manual PLANNING ; « Green Lights Program -« Implementation Planning Guidebook « Financial Considerations ; • Lighting Waste Disposal •• Progress Reporting ' » Communicating Green Lights Success TECHNICAL • Lighting Fundamentals I « Lighting Upgrade Technologies « Lighting Maintenance \ • Lighting Evaluations ' • The Lighting Survey To order other. documents or appendices in this series, contact the Green Lights Hotline at (202)775-6650. Look in the monthly Green Lights Update newsletter for announcements of new and relevant publications. EPA IW Green Lights Green Liahts for Federal Participants . i 48 ------- In order to maintain consistency and fairness among program participants, this Memorandum of Understanding may not be changed. Memorandum of Understanding Between The United States Environmental Protection Agency and Federal Agency I. Common Agreements and Principles Computers Program. Etther or both of those programs may be entered by signing addenda to this Memorandum of Undemanding. 'ightin* ^ ""•""• P"*-* ** «-P-*~ nsiuce gove_ D. Federal Partner and EPA agree that energy^mciem lighting can maintain or enhance lighting quality and ean improve employee productivity. agree thai :communicating Farmer's commteents (as satsd in .his MOU) to the public demonstrates: of Federal Partner for die environment. • the vitality of the free enterprise system in reducing costs, and • me capability of voluntary programs to achieve national goals with minimal regulation. confidenM in *• credibility of *e Green Water II. Federal Partner's Responsibilities • L> 102-486> authorizes ft**-«P— » P^cip^ in the Green Lights Pollution *»*«*» Act (42 U.S.C. 13101) fc7 Att TrLT^n3™1 *tl ^^ 0rdeF 12902 ^ Secsi011 543 of *e National En«sy Conservation aSKl Polwy Act (42 U.S.C. 8253). as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, provide authorities for Federal energy ^ °'?eratioMl conttoj of «™ or •" of to fteBWet. and farmer agrees mat te membership in Green SUborgsnKanons <«*» » «**««ita. divisions, campuses. «B.) over whkh it can and/or doTs «««» e square footage tally on Appendix A. Federal Partner agrees to include ail facilities .owl rn- Ceral ^amWr agreea W appoint a «"*«• ^"^"""ve of the organization (designated on p™ Director- Th« Green Lights Implementation Director will be the person responsible for ensuring Serr^naL^^rlSS rn P IB cominitmems « ««« ™ *« MOU. and Federal Partner agrees to assize aumority to the Implementaoon D.rector needed to execute that responsibility. The Green Lights Implementation Director's responsibiHties include: 49 ------- • estaeusning ana overseeing Green Light Farmer's implementation plan, which includes the securing of personnel and financial resources, and the scheduling of upgrade projects. : • directing Federal Partner's lighting upgrades. • cooirdinating Federal Partner's participation in Green Lights activities. « facilitating communication with the Green Lights Program Office at EPA. and • annual reporting to EPA of Federal Partner's lighting surveys and upgrades. 1 Federal Parmer agrees to notify EPA in writing within two weeks of any change in the designation of the Green Lights Implementation Director. C. CoasmtHkationg Director. Federal Partner agrees to appoint a representative of the organization (designated on Appendix A) as Green Lights Communications Director. The Communications Director will direct Federal Partner's communications effort to ensure (as deemed appropriate by Federal Farmer) that the organization is properly recognized for its environmental protection achievements through Green Lights, and. in addition, to educate ail employees and the general public about the Program. Federal Partner agrees to notify EPA in writing within two weeks of any change in the designation of the Green Lights Co>ni:iuitk3uons D. Staff CarasmfaaisK. Based on the experience of Partners who have already joined the Green Lights Program. Federal Partner should anticipate devoting a combination of internal (staff) and external (consultant/contractor) personnel resources at the approximate level of I person-year for every 5 million square feet of facility space, for the purpose of surveying buildings, specifying upgrades, supervising upgrade installations, and managing other aspects of Federal Partner's participation in Green Lights. Federal Partner agrees to provide adequate staff to fulfil! the commitments it undertakes in the MOU. E. FErandaS Comaatment. Federal Partner recognizes that, although energy-efficient lighting upgrades are highly profitable (typically earning 20-40% post-tax rates of retumj. an initial investment of S0.5Q-2.00 per square foot (depending upon existing equipment, purchasing strategy, and scope of the lighting upgrades? will be required on average to implement its participation in Green Lights. Federal Partner agrees to allocate each year sufficient funds (or secure third-party financing) to allow for the investment in energy-efficient lighting to meet its commitments under this agreement. > . • F. Energy-EJftitient Lighting Upgrades (terms in bold defined at Appendix B). Federal Partner agrees to: . ° survey the lighting in ail of the square footage of its eligible facilities. j ' consider the full range of lighting technology, design, and maintenance options that can reduce energy use. and o upgrade the lighting with the set of options that, taken as a whole on a facility- aggregate basis, maximizes energy savings and tot also (I) reduces lighting energy use by 50% and (2) meets Federal Partner's lighting quality objectives. « maximize energy savings while meeting lighting quality objectives: where lighting quality concerns prevent energy (eductions of 5056 or more . Partner agrees to maximize energy savings while meeting quality objectives. ' ', ' Federal Partner agrees to complete no later man January I. 2005: : « lighting surveys of 100% of die square footage of its eligible facilities, and . » upgrades of 90% of the square footage of its eligible facilities other than those that are no-upgrade facilities. • projects with payback of less than 10 years, using methodologies for estimating payback consistent with Section 544 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8234) and implementing regulations at 10 CFR Pan 436 Subpart A ("A Methodology for Life Cycle Cost Analyses). ', '. . • The following is a recommended implementation schedule: , Cumulative Percentage of Squire Footage End of Year 1 3 5 Completed Surveys 5% 90% 100% Completed Upgrades 1% 40% 90% 50 ------- criteria morc *• flve yeara ater *• *• *is MOU ^f ?"*• Notw.ilhsonfn8 P^P" H.F. if Federal Partner's facilities are comprised of more ,. (less than 5 years remaining) leased space. Federal Fanner agrees to: « survey at least 5055 of its short-term leased space. l0I "ghlinS technoio«y- desisn. and maintenance options that can reduce energy use and VkleS a P&ybSCk ffl™ shoner *"" *• — «» term of te neaonA !Msed «V *e Generai Services Adminisnation (GSA) »nd in which n^tgcrnentauinonty has been delegated by GSA to Federal Farmer. Federai Partner agrees to neat such buildings us in paragraph agree m« space managed by GSA without deiegadon « Federal Farmer FCdeni Pa™e^-» - ^ -* GSA in good ft* c, Panner WSfor H. Qukk SUrt. Wmin 180 days of signing mis MOU, Federal Partner agrees to- g UpgmSe Whh "ctakil ««l»«tai ft« KPA. if needed. «»nWP« wiil do « *««"«ton upgrade of at least 50% 0 - upgrade budget. EPA agrees to provide assistance with budges estimation, upon PsdenUPtrmer' s "ick^ff meeting. EPA agrees mat it will provide materials, orientation informatien. 2? networking ideas at or to mis kfctoff meeting. -FedemS Fanner agrees that all pam of envimrmScompiiance. humanSrees. o£L upS^cSS^e^l^rSo TSf (ft R(^nW«" fc**)- EPA and Fedmi Partner 8gree that fecslitiei m which Sti^^S.^Tn I1ff JJ'."1 J"1 to ""^^ arad- accordin8 " *• ^^ o i.n J'i^.^"1^ J"1 to ""^^ arad- accordin8 " *• ^^ suivey wouWc^Sn^ thwro additio^ m^^OT w^^ in a thorough manner. waiDonai measures are warranted in r, previously upgraded facility, provided mat me earlier upgrade was done a, " Pinner agrees to submTrepom at least anSTi °f MCh hghOng ""^ "^ Upgnde projecl *« ievemems. Federal Partner is encouraged to submit this information to DOE's Annual Report on Federal Eniny Management. Fanner Memorandum of Understanding 10/94 51 ------- MB. Fedeni Farmer agrees to design ail IFR Pan 43$ <;.•>.«.» A • _., •« —— - i ii "« • «*4*e**o* 4HlEdi •HCSUXBO to 10 CFR Part 43S Suboan A. as renu^r»ri hv in u/i.^ —™~t"—«—» "•»« «^vi»l**«"s coaes ana reguuaons. vriai panscajsg' mmnufaeamng or commerciai or indusmai praossin*FV»deni pi* ^^ desi8nins ne* ''Shoag systeass in areas that are not intended for lighting energy stanianis. defined as follows: «nner runner agrees to at least meet (and attempt to exceed) trie most current -'• '" ' ' com*iiance *«h *PPiKafaie code* and reguiations. vrrtfa paraeote deM8nins ne* "snoas systems in anas that are not intended for . if no new IIS stanoatd * issued). M ASHRAE/ffiS 90.M9H9 *• ASHRAE/Q3 90. 1 Federal Farmer agrees that ail new leases that it signs - in* ****** «««" , » lesser or lessees lasting 5- yews or longer will be treated as ' L, . eeause o te ojnnnuing improvement m and re-survey niaiiries «t reanalyze opsons « all eligible fadiiuTno tot the teiluy was a 'no^pgrade facility." Federal PannTr aRreeTt exist withm fivc years of the-re-survey. *"** to Mo Employee Eduction. Federal Fanner agrees to edueaiE lighting a*d. . *e extern mat . possAle and consent wJ their homes. N. •««*««. F«ler,t Farmer agrees Je ***** comPiennS an UP8"^ at that facility or detemnmng opnons that meet the Green Lights upgrade criteria that then environmencU ^vantages ra encourage employees to purchase such products for Federal Farmer agrees to cooperate with EPA *«„«. u. of ener,gy^ffScient lighting in general. TO, couW tactetofei .^ ra'Se PUbHc awareness ^ *? Green Lights Program and of Ceases and their distribunon to the media, employees, o^r Gre«fu^ * $""P"8™11 of «««• «^i«. advertisements, and press Fanner agrees to provide at least one case study to ^A™ the^S of S ^^^"^oT^1"^ V™**3*"*- ^ »« gwenl public. Federai O. NonoEndcii^sexaent. Fedeni Fanner agrees that ' ' publicity relating » itt participation in the Green Ugh *» commit to insallenergy.fficient lighting. P. Refuiatorf Reforra. Federai partner agrees to work with the widespread adoption of energy-efficient lighting. the widespread adopoon of energy-efficient authority. f"?™n- «» «f *•» Green Ughtt Prcgimm logo, ^ **" My unjusdfied ««8rtMoiy. administzative. and other barriers to mmOtti addirionai ™**™*™ and incentives tim will encourage . consistent with overall Federai policy and l-ederai Partners Preaervasion Act. as amended. OL Associated Bm te ««t"Ked to underake any actions that would violate the National Histene A. The. EPA strongly encourages and recommends that Partner* as heating or air conditioning. EPA experience has show sigiuficandy impact and reduce HVAC reqairements and IV. EPA's RRttpoimbflittet A. Liaison. EPA agrees to designate a single liaison mint fa weeks of any change in the designated liaison. TTie liaison is- DC 20460: PHI :ro2-233-oi2o: FAX B. Technical Support. EPA agrees to assist Federal 1. H?A agrees to ptovide ID Federal P efficient lighting and implementation Hghthlg Up8nde projecxs prior * omer ***** ****«>* ™& accomplisned fn>m "rt** improvement projects can ' f"8nun. and will attempt to notify Fedend Partner within 2 *""** U'S' EPA (6202J): ^01 M Street- - TOW cost-effecjive "ghting technologies in the following ways: summary of *« bea available infonnation about energy- use of technical tool, developed by the Green UghaTPn.^ 52 anaiyticai techniques, anol the ------- i!^ *^ ^mg "aiysis "*""* ^ned »' t«lP F«teni Panner conduct thek iigiuiag surveys. ««8Pfctt *«r options analyses. and choose the most enerfy-efficietti and profile iightmg upgrade paeteute. *A »^f« » ">*»«« G«tn Lights Allies Programs in which JigtahT.n^aS iS^ untaes. lighting equipment distributors, and lighting surveyors agree to follow specific entera. . P«**«es mtonmnoa pragma that will an* iigtttmg products on a ftumer agrees mpnwide Federal Parrot wi* a ^ F^al Paraaer whh * ""P"*"** dkeemry (updated sessi-anraoity) of milky reiaes In mddioa^. EPA agrees se pnmie a siraimriy updaa^d direese^ of nattily firsaneisi CompMie* ««» enet«y ^^ companies^ dm provide finding for ene T-BRAagrees 0 operae infcnratjomi hodina for Federal Partner m provide Federal to prwnoemodel Requests for Proposals (RFPj) for Ftdesai Puraen wishing so proeare iighi^t pnxiuos asd S ^'JliS*iPannCrlS """^ EPA 88teeS " un!iemte «"•)« »nd anmlyses for pan or ail of Federal Partner's facilitte cotragem upon die compleoonof xpame mnagency agreements that contain sufficient funds to support such activities by EPA's expert «nu V. Use of EPA-Dfrreloped Materials A. EPA Mmlerials. Bothparries to this agreement agree mat EPA-developed publications are a valuable tool in educating the public abom fee pollunon-preveraion benefhs of energy-efficient lighting and me Green Lights Program. ^^ "* ** Gree° Ughls Panner io*° for ttse on "» Product-specific matemls hv* h htS Pt0gnin- Fedenl Panner agrees *« *PP"Pri«e use of me EPA Gr^n gmn togo a encouraged by EPA. but that such use does not constitute EPA's endorsement of Fe' ,Tal Pmrmer's products or services 53 ------- C. EPA Materials. EPA agrees to provide to Federal Fanner, at Fanner s request, available camera-ready negatives, mechanicals, and other 'iirectly reproducible material, from which Federal Farmer can create: ; 1. Green Lights brochures. Light Briefs, and video • Partner's failure to nuke adequate progress on lighting upgrades, to the point where it is evident that Panner will not be able to fulfill its upgrade commitments as stated in mis MOU. and < . • Panner's use of the Green Lights logo in an inappropriate manner. Because public confidence in the cred&flay of Federal Partners1 achievements is so important. EPA will make a best-faith effort to assist Fedesml Panner in meeting; all of the goals of this MOU. ' C. Each pany's coramionenB will be subject to any legal restrictions that may apply. J l D. EPA agrees ttait information provided by Federal Partner to EPA wild be treated pursuant to EPA's public information regulations under 40 Code of Federal Regulations. Pan Two. E. Both pareas agiiee that me commtimem as survey buildings and complete lighting upgrades is contingent uponithe availability of appropriai^ funds or mini-parry financing resources. ; The undersigned hereby execute mis Memorandum of Understanding on behalf of their parries. This Memorandum takes effect when signed by bom parties. • I For the U»S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Paul Stoipmam. Director Office of Atmospheric Programs On: ------- For Federal Agency: — —. On:. Name (Please Print) (1) the signed MOU in its emrrry including ces a.ix n\ of company logos in Green Lights bnxhures. .SteerTandttoiS.?!?^1*"1**1* Ve™On °f y°UF Or8an*2ati°n's »°S® (EPA uses colhfes is given the opportunity to review and approve the loco use > w^W r f^1"!1* orSanizaaon ts ^^ focussed on. thai organisation 401 M Street. SW: Washington. DC 20460 Gree" Ughts Branch: US Enviiomnental Pro««tion Agency (62Q2J): Thmnkyou. Welcome aboard. " : Federal Agency Appendix A: Please enclose the following information with the signed MOU: Secretary/Administrator's Name: • Tide:. Address:. Telephone Number: Pkue identify your Green Lights Implementation Director «_ ;H|lfwH. Comrnunkations Director: pte"Sffi ldeanfy ™. __ ^_ Address ! -—__ ; _„„. Address ,Fax ' Fax What is the Nature of Organization's Business _. glC Code Approximate number of empioyees__Approximaie number of facilities Headquarters location ; Approximate square footage: Oflffce —— Warehouse Health Care_ Indusmal/Manufacturing Lodging (hoe|S. donnitories) Education (classrooms) Assembly (auditoriums) Food Sales & Services ^^ Other< ) please specify 55 Parking Garage ------- Is die onnuzanon signinf this MOU a csmponem of aoAer o ? If ». pie^ provide the «a»W ft* parent organisms What is the first: day of your organization's next fiscal year?. Who referred you m Green Lights? terminating Fed* ewers into force an! lessor and less^. are di *- ««o force. Space that Federal Fanner leases under *" "fcligiWe ^^ Ml -(3) ri! °e!i»ibie faciK FPA » five years from the date this agreement er' New €0^00? enCOUn8e$ Fcderai Panner • ine"«te ^««es outside the U.S. New teases, as energy^ent pnxiuots and *e tangiNe. butdifficuit . m^re. be^fits Lights partners to include measurWwtoin « indtviduai nuaara distress may quaiify «i ^ ** «*««. EPA doe, not expect Greea * . EPA defines a nor. sast-sffecrive nwmsure as anv ra« of ««^ of less than tweive percentage points. (Organizations in financial — ai« detenninanons affe«ing| iighdng ouaiit,. and puannty -* « that such cireumsances are rare obJ««ves. such a "J" — perate in the proposed ihstaHation program and in the Panner. If. lowing good-fiai* ^om inu^pln ofT^eS tZFS££?? ?' ^^ «**«*•,««** le for FederaJ prov.de EPA ^ . opponunity . ^ the ,L,ort, c^nuo^ ^ i division of financial benefits ------- Federal Agency ency ^'">^-^~±i^rs^^^ zm or IMMMH of ma „, f -r a"aifs «teP""««. environment "na^es a^S^S^Sv^ """ *"""*- """* " ' " 6. _ -- _ _ _. - : — • -- — - - __ 11. _ -- — __ ' — — — — — ____ 16... 7 — - - - : -- _ 12. _ -- — -^ ~ - ~~"=- - ! — ! — — 17. 4- — - - ~~ - — , _ _.. _ ~~~ -- — - - - 14. 57 ------- APPENDIX C. ENERGY STAR EQUIPMENT INFORMATION 58 ------- EXECUTIVE ORDER #12845 Requiring Agencies to Purchase Energy Efficient Computer Equipment Whereas, the Federal Government should set an example in the energy-efficient operation of its facilities and the procurement of pollution preventing technologies; Whereas, the Federal Government should minimize its operating costs, make more use of taxpayer provided dollars and reduce the Federal deficit; and Whereas, the Federal Government is the largest purchaser of computer equipment in the world, and therefore has the capacity to greatly accelerate the movement toward energy efficient computer equipment; Now, therefore, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conversation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6361), section 205 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act, as amended (40 U.S.C. 486), section 152 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and to ensure the energy-efficient operation of the Federal Government's facilities and to encourage the procurement of pollution-preventing technologies that will save taxpayer money, reduce the Federal deficit and accelerate the movement to energy-efficient designs in standard computer equipment, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Procurement of Computer Equipment That Meets EPA Energy Star Requirements for Energy Efficiency. (a) The heads of Federal agencies shall ensure that, within 180 days from the date of this order, all acquisitions of microcomputers, including personal computers, monitors and printers, meet "EPA Energy Star" requirements for energy efficiency. The heads of Federal agencies may grant, on a case-by-case basis, exemptions to this directive for acquistions, based upon the commercial availability of qualifying equipment, significant cost differential of the equipment, the agency's performance requirements and the agency's mission. ^ (b) Within 180 days from fee date of this order, agencies shall specify that microcomputers, including personal computers, monitors and printers, acquired by the agency shaE be equipped with the energy-efficient low-power standby feature as defined by the EPA Energy Star computers program. This feature shall be activated when fee equipment is shipped and shall be capable of entering and ' recovering from fee low-power state unless fee equipment meets Energy Star efficiency levels at all times. To fee extent permitted by law, agencies shall include this specification in all existing and future contracts, if both fee Government and fee contractor agree, and if any additional costs would be offset by fee potential energy savings. (c) Agencies shall ensure feat Federal users are made aware of fee significant economic and environmental ^benefits of fee energy-efficient low-power standby feature and its aggressive use by including this information in routine computer training classes. (d) Each agency shall report annually to fee Ger ,ral Services Administration on acquisitions exempted from fee requirements of this Executive order, and fee General Services Aministration shall prepare a consolidated annual report for fee President. Sec. 2. Definition. For purposes of this order, fee term "agency" has fee same meaning given it in section 151 of fee Energy Policy Act of 1992. Sec. 3. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by a nonfederal party against fee United States, its officers or employees, or any other person. 59 ------- United States Agency rotection Air and Radiation 6202J EPA 430-1^3.549 November 19S3 Energy Star Computers Introdudng^ i. < The Energy Star Computers Procjram Pmteafon Agency (EPA) promotes energy efficiency because electricity generstipn contributes to air pollu- tion, Inducing 35 per- mit of all US. emissions at caioan accounts for 75 percent, and38pemehtofail US. emissions of sulfur dioxide ana nitrogen oxides, respectively. By using more energy- efficient equipment in our homes, offices, and factories, we can reduce this pollution— while saving money! Why Enersy-Efficient Computers? fasust-growing eieeeicity lecaicity action .is not taken, this could rise to 10 percent by the year 2QQQ. Ironlcaihr. much of tiis eiesmcny is wasted: nresarch snows that most:ot oersonai computers What Is EPA Doins About It? are on, they in use — ami 3Q-4ff perein£ on weekends. tiffliading nanufecturar desktop csmoutersand 9Q peasnt at all.laser printers iesktep computers. *non'rtois, ornrimers tnat can automatically power-down to save energy when they are wscbe&ig used. This "sleep" feature could cut a product's annual electricity, use dy about one-naif. Consumers will easily recognize the new, more efRcJent systems because they will be identified by the. EPA Energy Star™ logo 1 shown here. Euaigy SCarnK-&eainiff attics equipment eo eoo^electrntye^yeartopowrVeimoatftaw Hampshire, and Maine,, cat electricity tttits tyr^M- Ron, and reduce GOi pollution equal ito too Bdissjans front 5 million autos. ------- An EPA Energy Star ' computer can save users a great deal of money by going to sfeep. And according to manufacturers. a majority of their products will have this feature within just a couple of years. This added functionality will be invisible to the user, both in terms of performance and in terms of price tag—making it noticeable only by the EPA Energy Star™ logo—and, of course, the lower electricity bill. How Much Can My Energy Star Save?* Conventional System On all the time Annual Cost $165 *As compared to a typical computer, monitor, and laser printer an all day and night, assuming 23S W, 8e/kWh. Does not include heat gain from computer equipment Energy Star System On ail the time Annual Cost$84 Who Buys Enersy Star Computers? EVERYONE! Everyone who values high perfor- mance at a lower cost—and the extra satisfaction of owning an environmentally superior product. The U.S. Government —the largest buyer of com- puter equipment in the world—will take the lead in purchasing Energy Star equipment. President Clinton, in an Earth Day address empha- sizing the link between the environment and a growing economy, released an Executive Order directing U.S. agencies to purchase only desktop computers, monitors, and printers that meet EPA Energy Star requirements for energy effi- ciency—provided that they are commercially available ; and meet the agencies' per- formance needs. The Executive Order took effect in October 1993 and will save taxpayers $40 million ' annually. In fact, EPA itself will save enough money using the new, energy-effi- cient products to pay for the Energy Star Computers pro- gram several times over- making it one of the most cost-effective government initiatives in history. ERA is also encouraging public- and private-sector consumers to buy product!? bearing the Energy Star™ logo. Many of these organi- zations are already part of EPA's Green Lights program, and are asking EPA for advice on other smart energy-effi- ciency investments. Iri addition, electric utilities will purcnase Energy Star^bearina com- puters for their own use and will encourage companies in their service territories to do the same. If your organization is interested in learning more about maximizing its pur- chasing power to help the environment, contact EPA about available Energy Star products. Energy Star Turned off at nigf Annual Cost$28 PQIUJTISM PSEVENTE For more information abci Energy Star Computers, please contact Manager Energy Star Comouters U.S.EPA{62Q2J) Washington, DC 2Q46Q fax: 202 775-6680 Or call: 202 775-6850 For more information by fe (available 24 hours a day), call: 202 233-9659. ggr? i 61 ------- United States Environmental Protection Agency Air and Radiation 6202J EPA 430-K-94-006 July 1994 Purchasing An Energy Stai^'Computer EPA POLLUTION PREVENTER Cbmputersjprpgramr is a. partriershiir ! r •. effbrtwijihdher computer? jidustrp to promt jtediifc introduclion-of energy-effiici enfc personaLcokjnphters, monitors|.aud. printers; Reducing - |! 5 energy co nsum ption cairhelp.toi jcoi nbat smog^acidrr^ir ^and- globaL warmin g: fay reducing emissions fronrelectricity generationr-lBy using efficient eqi nptnent in ourhomels), . *! ! I offices? j^uic factories; WCM ran bothTimproyethe- environmeiitraijc/. savetmoiiiey What is Energy Star Equipment? "Energy Stars" are energy-efficient computers, monitors, and printers that save energy by powering down and going to "sleep" when not being used. An Energy Star computer has ail the performance features of a regular computer—it simply has the addi- tional ability to "power-down." These energy-efficient machines save money on electricity bills and reduce pollu- tion, improving your bottom line and the earth's environment EPA has signed partnership agree- ments with industry-leading manufac- turers who sell more than 75 percent of ail desktop computers and 90 percent of all laser printers sold in the United States. These companies have introduced more than 2,000 desktop computers, monitors, and printers that have earned the right to bear the EPA Energy StarSM logo, shown at the top of the page. Computer equipment is the fastest growing electric load in the business world, and energy use by computers could double by the year 2000. Ironically, much of this energy is wasted: re- search shows that most of the time personal computers are on they are not 100 New Computers and Monitors Non-Energy Star Energy Star $0/year savings actively in use—arid 30 to 40 percent are left running at|night and on week-' ends. By the year 2000, Energy Star equipment could save enough electric- ity to power Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine for a year, cut electricity bills by$2 billion, and reduce CO2 pollution equal to the emissions from 5 million automobiles. i Real Savings Energy Star computers are available at no additional cost,! and a single Energy Star computer and; monitor can save anywhere from $7\to$52 per year in electricity bills. If ypu notice computers and printers left on when leaving the office at night and on weekends, your savings will be towkrd the higher end of this range. ' If you add an Energy Star printer to your system, you can increase your savings by an additional $35 per year. For an office environment where one- third of the computers are left on all the time, purchasing 100 Energy Star PCs and monitors instead of non-efficient equipment could save you$2,400 per year. In addition, Energy Stars generate ; less heat, and upgrading your existing equip- ment to Energy Star as it natu- rally turns over can lead to cooling reduc- tions of up to 25 percent $2,400/year savings 62 ------- PURCHASING AN ENERGY STAR COMPUTER How to Find Energy Star Products Consumers can easily recognize the new, more effi- cient systems because they will be identified by the EPA Energy Star5" logo. Since there are now more than 2,000 products available from all major manufactur- ers, EPA is encouraging companies and organizations to specify Energy Star compliance in all future pur- chases of computer equipment. • If you are a business, ask your MIS or procurement official about purchasing Energy Star equipment, and look for the Energy StarSM logo in advertise- ments and on specification sheets. • If you work in the Federal Government, the Gen- eral Services Administration has issued guidelines on the acquisition of Energy Star computers. Call 1202) 519-4860 for a copy. • If you need a computer for home, look for the Energy Star5" logo on display models in local retail stores—if you do not see it, ask for it. To help, EPA offers a database of available products which is updated monthly. Just call or write EPA to receive a copy. User Advantages Besides the cost savings, Energy Star equipment offers users several key advantages. • Energy Star PCs can be quieter since some have no fans. • Sleeping Energy Star monitors emit fewer electro- magnetic fields (EMF) since they are not display- ing any visual image when "asleep." • Energy Star monitors can also increase file secu- rity since the "sleeping" screen is dark. * All Energy Star equipment produces less heat, and thus contributes to a cooler and more comfort- able workspace. * Energy Star PCs tend to be a less intrusive desk- top item since they are usually smaller than tradi- tional PCs. increased Reliability In addition, Energy Star equipment may actually last longer than conventional products because it.will most likely spend a large portion of time in a low-power sleep mode. Non-Energy Star computer equipment left on at night and over weekends may last only 2 to 3 years, but Energy Star computers "sleeping" during the day and turned off at night could last almost 10 times as long (see graph). (2 years) ON ALL THE TIME OFf AT "ISIGHT ENERGY STAR AND OFF AT • NIGHT (Source: Dataquest, 1993) (10 years) (22 years) ^^^^^^^^^•••^^^^^^••^^^^^•^••^^^^••••••^^^•••^•••••••MBaH By spending time "sleeping," Energy Star equipment can reduce wear and tear, leading to extended life and increased reliability. Which Energy Stair Is Right for Me? Committing to an "Energy Star purchasing strategy" for your organization is the first crucial step. The second step is figuring out which Energy Star products to buy. It is important to realize that not all Energy Star com- puters are the same, and your choice will depend on your needs and preferences. If you operate on a Local Area Network (LAN), make sure that your Energy Star computer is compatible with that network system. Most Energy Stars are now being network tested, but specify your particular environment—whether its Novell Netware, Banyan Vines, Windows NT, Lan Manager, or others, to ensure that it is compatible (see sample procurement lan- guage on page 4). 63 ------- PUR'CHA.SING AN ENERGY STAR COMPUTER You also may want to specify certain "user-friendl.y" features, such as an Energy Star or power managt- ment "icon", which is easily accessible and gives the user a quick and simple way to change the "sleep" settings. Some users may want to set their computer to go to sleep after 15 minutes of inactivity, while others may chooseJIO minutes. Having a user friendly power management feature to customize an Energy Star computer to your own schedule contributes to productivity and increases energy savings. What If No Energy Star Is Available? If you need an expert computer system or an extremely high speed printer, there might not yet be an Energy Star model available. Because high-end equipment was designed to give you maximum performance, it also tends to use more power. Until the design- ers of this higher end equipment develop Energy Star models, you will have to buy non- Energy Star. The goal of the Energy Star program is to save energy with no sacrifice in performance or cost, If you need a high- end, system to do your job, and there is not an Energy Star available, then buy what you need. However, if you are considering the purchase of a computer with certain specifications and have the choice between an Energy Star and a non-Energy Star machine, buy the Energy Star. If both machines have the exact same performance and are similar in cost, purchasing the Energy Star system will give you the additional benefits of saving on your electric bill and helping to prevent pollution. President Clinton's Executive Order In April 1993, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12845 requiring ail federal agencies to pur- chase Energy Star computers, monitors, and printers where commercially available. This order/which took effect on October 18, 1993, reads in part: Agencies shall specify that microcom- puters, including personal computers, monitors, and printers, acquired by the agency, shall meet the EPA Energy Star specifications. This feature shall be , activated when the equipment is delivered to the customer and shall be capable of entering and recovering from the low-power state unless the equip- ment meets Energy Star efficiency levels at all times. Should I Still Turn My Energy Star Off at Night? Yes. Power-managed Energy Stars will go to sleep by themselves, but remember that the sleep mode does not mean "off." Sleeping Energy Stars use less power than when fully activated, But they still draw some power when in the sleep rhode. To save additional energy and increase the lifetime of the equipment, be sure to turn your system completely off at the end of each day. It is a common myth that turning computer equipment off and on is bad for it; in fact, the exact opposite is true. Turning off your computer at night may actually increase its life because it will reduce susceptibility to heat and mechanical stress, the two leading causes of personal computer failure. The recommended approach: set your Energy Star to sleep when you are away during the day, and turn off the system when you leave ait night. What Can 1 Do for i - • . My Existing Equipment? Again, turning off your existing equipment at night is the easiest and most cost-effective strategy for reduc- ing the energy consumption :of non-Energy Star equip- ment. However, if you are unable to turn off existing equipment or wish to make additional savings, con- sider retrofitting your equipment with an Energy Star- compliant controlling device, These devices are fairly easy to install and can completely shut off the power to your PC, monitor, or printer after a period of inactivity or at a specified time of the day. 64 ------- PURCHASING AN ENERSY STAR COMPUTER What to Specify When Ordering Energy Star Equipment Energy Star Compliant ref Shipped Activated Ef Network Compatibility Monitor Control ~ljr Software —I Compatibility "Provide computer products that meet the EPA Energy Star requirements for energy efficiency in the requested configuration/' This means that PCs, monitors, and printers shall be able to enter and recover from a low-power standby mode when not in use. For PCs and monitors, the low-power mode is defined as 30 watts or less (30 watts for the PC and 30 watts for the monitor). For printers with speeds of less than 15 pages per minute, the requirement is 30 watts; and for printers with speeds of 15 or more pages per minute, the requirement is 45 watts. All high-end color printers must not exceed 45 watts in low-' power mode. « "Ship all products with the Energy Star low-power feature activated or enabled." This eliminates the need for users to configure the power management feature after delivery and helps to ensure that the energy-saving feature is used. "If equipment will be used on a local area network, the PC must be fully compatible with the specified network environment? PCs resting in a low-power state should not be disconnected from the network." Many manufacturers are now testing their Energy Star equipment on networks and can report, for example, that they are compatible on Novell Netware, Banyan Vines, Windows NT, Lan Manager, and other network systems. "Ensure monitors are capable of entering a low-power mode when connected to the accompanying PC".Most monitors cannot power dqwn by themselves, and must rely on some external input to. trigger their low-power state. This is typically accomplished via one of the following: (1) VESA Display Power Management Signalling (DPMS), a signalling protocol that allows a PC equipped'with DPMS to control a DPMS compatible monitor (both the computer and monitor must be DPMS compatible), (2) the actual shut off of ' power to the monitor via a special plug from the PC (this does not require an Energy Star monitor), or (3) the use of a proprietary software utility shipped with the monitor. Organi- zations may wish to specify one approach or the other. DPMS compatible PCs and moni- tors will provide seamless power management and immediate recovery from the low- power state, but only when used with each other. PCs that include the power switch approach can shut off power to any monitor, not just an Energy Star monitor. System must be able to run commercial off-the-shelf software both before and after recovery from a low-power state, including retention of files opened before the power management feature was activated. What Products are Available? Vtore than 2,000 products are now available that meet ;he Energy Star guidelines. Ib receive an abbreviated list of qualified products, call :he Energy Star fax-back line. Dial 202 233-9659 and inter #5305 for PCs, #5309 for monitors, and #5307 or printers. Ib receive the detailed list of qualified products by mail, "all fhp Fncrm- ------- EPA ENERGY STAR Participant List as of February I, 1995 iPA P9UUTIOM PHEVIEMTER COMPUTERS AND MONITORS (aumben 387) 3D Microcomputers * A Plus Info if Acer/Acros Achieva Computer if ACMA Computers ACME •*• ACTech Aciiois Electronics if Aeuia Technology Addtech Computer * Adtec * Advanced Digital Systems Advanced Integration Research •Jr Advanced Intelligence Akran Systems if Alikris Allen Bradley Company •Ar AL,R Aitima Systems AMAX if Anibra Computer American Business Computers (ABC) ir American Megatrends •*• Anirei Technology ANT Computer Antecbron Research Apaq Technology APF ir Apple *• Applied Digital Data Systems Apricot ir Aquarius System ir Aquaiine if Arcbe Computer & Technologies Area Elecrtrossies Systeim * Aspect Computer ir AST Research ir AT&T Global Mbrmatioa Solutions Atima Techisoiogy ATS if Austio Computer if-Avaot Computer Aak Computer if Bankers Systems Barron Microcomputer Blue Star Marketing •sir Bridge Information Brother International Europe Byte Technology *• Caliber if Canon if Capetronic CTC Technology Services Channel Electronics ie Cheer Electronics CHEM ir Chien Htm Electronics Cognisoft Commas Technologies Commodore ir Communication Lab International ir Cumpal Electronics ir Compaq ir Compudyne ir Computer Creations Computer Dealers Source Computer Extension Systems Computer Management Professional Computer Tec CompuTrend System!!/ Premio Cbmtech Micro System Comirade Conrac SJektron Continental Reaourcts? Corion Dodustriai ir Cornerstone Imaging Corporate Micro Systems if CP & G Technologies (CSS) Computers, Etc. if CSS Laboratories CTL .: * CTX Internationa], Cube Computer T*rCyberStar ir Daesun Industrial Daewoo Electronics Canada •*- Daewoo Telecom if Daly Computers ir Data General •*• Data Storage Marikcting if DataExpcrt , '^atavarehuset DD & TT Enterprise USA if DDI Dynex * Delta Producis ir Desktop Displays Destiny if Diamond Technologies Indicates companies which have announced Energy Star compliant products 6-6 ------- if Digital Equipment (DEC) Dimension Computer Display Technologies Duich Computer Systems it DTK it Duracnm Computer Systems T*r DynaColor EFA EKM Computer Electronic Technology Group itEbnex ElsaGmbH EMPaG * EPS Technologies ^r Epson itEquix Ergo Computing •rfr Essex Monitor Company Tir Kverex Systems . Evergreen Systems •A* Fair Electronic Company Fedcom Microsource it Kcldworks Firepower it First International Computer it Flytech Technology it Foshan Wingbao Inforrnation Enterprise •*• Fountain Technologies Fujitsu i(t Gateway 2000 GCH Systems Gcnova it Glga-Byte Technology it GoldStar Grand Micro Great Lakes Electronics Distributing Green Labs Green PC GVC Hammond and Hammond •*• Hectronic •*• Hewitt Rand it Hewlett-Packard Highwave Technologies HIQ Computer Systems •*• Hitachi America it Hitachi European Centre Hitachi, Office Systems Division ffl-Vl Electronics Hil ie Hyundai Electronics it IBM itICL it IDEA it Identity Systems Technology itIDP Ikegami Electronics Infotel/Midwest Micro itXnmac *& Insight Distribution Integrated Systems Group, jjio, Intelleom USA ImeUIgent Computers and Technologies Intelligent Decisions Intelligent Notebook Interactive Computing Devices Intergraph Icttermec <& laternadonal Data Systems Intra Electronics USA itlPC it LS.L. Automatisering J-MARK Computer JTA Key Power Keydata Keypomt it Korea Computer it Korea Data System, •& Korea Electronics LCC Computers it Leading Edge •st Leo Systems LION America if Lite-On Technology it Lhiski International it MAG lonovision ManTech Systems Manufacture Technology Resource it MASS Research T*T Matsushita Eiecoic IndysxriaJ it Max Group Max Vision •JfcMeeer it Memores Telex Metrovision Microsystems Micron Computer MicroNiche Information Systems it Mierouics Computers MlcroPen Computer (TX) Mini-Micro Supply m&o Computer Products •i-Mtac- it Mltsuba it Mitsubishi Modem Instruments Modular Monitor Technology MSSI Consultants Multimax •& Mustek MynoE Technologies NAI Technologies Systems Division it Nanao USA National Advantages National Microcomputer itNCD it NEC NETiS it Ntuei Sangyo America/Hitachi it Nokia Northern Electronic Technologies Northern. Micro itNotthgate Northwest Micro Ocean Informatian Systems Ocean Interface Ocean State Computer Indicates companies which have announced Energy Star compliant products 67 ------- Office Automated Technology •Ar Olivetti * Opiiquest if Orion Electric Osborae Computer * Packard Bell Paid Pacific Associates if Panasonic Paragoin Development Systems Patriot Computer PC Channel if PC-iExpanders PC Pros •*• PC&.C PC Ware International if' Percomp Microsystems Perpetual Technologies if Philips Consumer Elmrantcs\Magaavox Pine Tixhnology Pioneer Technologies Group 'if Planar Systems * Precision America if Precision Technology if President Technology if Primax Data Products if Projjjcn PSI * FT Pembina Oalindra Electric . QHT Systems *QNDC Computer if Quantex Microsystems if Quest Group -*• Qume R & S Computers & Enhancements "*• Radius Random RasterGps if Kegient Technologies Reiialogic •A-ReJisys Repco Data if Republic Technology Royal Electronic .'; «-1i- ie Royal Information Electronics ^ if Sampo Technology if Samsung Electronics ^r Samtron Displays Sanyo Information Business if Sceptre Technologies •& Scion Computers -jtr Seanix Technology Sarviceworks Distribution •&- Shamrock Technology if Sharp Electronics •Ar Sherwood Terminals DhHsion, Inkel (USA) * Sbix Ho Tech/Hi-Com •ArShinlee if Shuttle Computer ir Sidus Systems if Siemens Nkdarf Sigma Designs Sigma Designs Imaging Systems (SOS) •&• SOeni Systems Silicon Graphics StO Technology Sirex USA ir SKV International/ Compuiermill Smith Corona *Sony SsangVoag Computer Systems if STD Technology Summit Micro Design if Sun Microsystems Super Distributor •*• Taiuisg Synaex Technology Tnternationul •Ar Sysorcx Tae fl Media if Tagram -*- Taiwan & Hong Kong Monitor ir Taiwan Video and Monitor if Tandberg Data Display if Tandy •*• Tangent Computer TCP TeamMax Tempest Micro if Texas Instruments Tk Tobbhi Electronic Company * Toshiba Total Coatroi Praducti Total Peripherals Tri-Cor Industries l&Star Computer if TriGem America •^r TriGism Microsystems Tripote I TS Micro! TTX Computer Prodmcts •^r Tulip Computers TWC Twinhead Intemationai Twin T Distributor * Tyh Fa Electronic Tystar Electrooics if Unisys Unisys Canada if United; Solutions *• Unitek Technology Uoitron * USA Teknik usrr ! Systems and Technologies -ArVeridata Vextrec Technology Vierci Computers if ViewSonic Vision Computer Technologies if Vita Electronics Vobis Microcomputer VTech Computers Wang Laboratories A- Wearnes Technology Wedge Technology WEN Technology if Indicates companies which have annuuaced Energy Star compliant products 58 ------- Western Imaging if Win Laboratories Winnet WyJe Laboratories ic Wyse Technology xcv PMNTERS (number: 56) Tk- Advanced Matrix Technology if Alps Electric if Apple * Brother * Bull Italia *CalComp *C-TECH •*• Canon CIE America Citizen Watch •*• Data General * Data Rental & Sales Dataproducts T*r Digital Equipment (DEC) if Enabling Technologies Epson * Fujitsu * GCC Technologies if General Parametrics Xiociron Xpro Systems Xyst Infotek Yanjen Electronic Young Microsystems * GENICOM Goldstar •*• Hewlett-Packard IBM Intergraph * Kodak if Kyocera •irLsssaek ie Manncsrnaan Tally if Olympus Image Syssems if Output Technology if Panasonic if Pentax Technologies Printronix Qnk Computer Ricoh CONTROLLING DEVICES1 (number: 36) if Alpha Micro Technologies Antechron Research T*r Aten International Bayvicw Technology Group T*rB 48:8 Electronics Comraunica - CompuSci •A-Coonectix (CCS.) Computers Etc. Curtis Manufacturing Cypress Computer * Defenders Network Dinexcom Energy Interface Engram International * Ergonomics Eskei-Porter Glitch Master Greenlnk Greenware Technologies Hiberaation Software Z & M, Advanced Technology ie Zenith Data Systems if Zenon •drZeos Sanyo Inforaiaiion Business Seiko Instruments USA Senneeworks Diatril)uition ^r Sharp Electronics Sony Electronics Computer cs if Tesas losduments Toshiba America buTormation Systems Twin T Distributors •^.Unisys Westrex if Xerox * Star if if Mecer MSSI Consultants Newpoint Optiquest Panamax if Image Plus ir King Jaw Industrial Quantum Composers Sequence Electronics snc Sophisticated C~cuits Tripp Lite ** K*W* *? 6ttergy «"-?«« of no^-En^gy Star compuu.n, ^r Indicaies companies which have announced Energy Star compliant producis 69 ------- ALLIES2 (Components and Software: number. 144) Achieva Computer Acromcs Systems Advanced Micro Devices Advanced Integration Research AFEQT Allied Signal, Amorphous Metais Alpha Technology American Proimage Americas Power Conversion Amkly Systems Anigma Artek Innovations Arvee Systems Asian Computer Astec ATMEL AT&T Microelectronics Award Software Axeiea B&B Electronics BCM, Bevond Technology CAREO Cartaco Chips and Technologies Chisholai Cirrus Logic Computer Resources Connor Peripherals CreSonic Cypress (roraputer Cyrix Databouk DELTEC: DPI DIA Semicoa Systems Diablo Scientific Diamond Computer Systems DynaComp EFA EFAR Microsystems EH Electronics Elitegroup Elsa GmbH d' % ^ oncepts Engram International Exide Electronics First fmernational Computer Free Computer Technology Glitch Master Gulden Power Systems Grees Labs Greoiware Technologies HatBsooy Power Hibernation Software HIPRO Electronics Hoily Electronic image Plus Infoffiadc Power Systems Lite! Iomega J-MARK Cumpuier Jabii Circuit Lattice Semiconductor Lead Year Enterprise LION America Lite-On LLR Technologies M Technologr Macase industrial Market Cuntrdi Maxi Switch Maxtor Metasoft Michada Computers Mlchi Tech System Micro Energetics Microsoft Micro test Minta Technologies Moretec Electronics Industrial Morex Information Enterprise New Bios NMB North American Power Supplies Nova Distributing Ogdcn Atlantic Design OFT! Orchid Technology Palo Alto Digital Systems Pauamax PAOKU P^C Para Systems Pboenix Technoiogies PieoPower Technology Pise Technology Ptonacb Micro Power Monitors Professional Sound PSC : Puikzi Engineering Quadcovatipn RuDsatson Technologies SdTech Software Seagate Technology Sejin America- Sequence Electronics Server Technology Silicon Star 'international Silicon Valley TechnolofQr Smart Industries SOLA Southeastern-Facts SoyoUSA ! Speaking Devices Sprint Manufacturing Standard Microsystems SuaPics ! Symphony Laboratories SystemSoft T & T Computer Takes ' Tamarack Teach Me How Company TEKRAM i Texas Instruments Texas ISA ' TMC Research Topowcr Computer Tripp Lite , US. Power & Technology Unlpower > United Solutions 2 The /Uly agreement does not contain individual product specifications, so no products are "compliant.* 70 ------- USARSysUsms VLSI Technology Western Telonatic Vasco Import und Wave Energy Zylee Vertriefas GmbH WCLC Vcxtrcc Technology Western Digital 71 ------- APPENDIX D FLUORESCENT LIGHTING TUBE RECYCLING SERVICES Envirosol 212 South Mesquite Suite 2A Arlington, TX 76010 (800)488-7974 Envirosol provides lamp recycling and ballast disposal services. Envirqsol can arrange for lamp pick up or the lamps may be delivered. The company requests that the generator place tiie lamps back into the boxes in which they were received. PCB ballasts. recycled for$ shipping. Envirosol's service area is Texas. The company accepts PCB and non- The cost of fluorescent recycling is $0.10-0.12 per linear ft. HID lights are 3.00 each. Ballasts are recycled for$0.80-0.90/lb. The above costs do not include There is a $300 minimum per shipment. DYNEX Environmental, Inc. 4751 Mustang Circle St. Paul, MN 55112 (612)784-4040 ! DYNEX Environmental provides lamp recycling and ballast disposal services. DYNEX can arrange for lamp pick up or the lamps may be delivered. The company requests that the generator place the lamps back into the boxes in which they were received. If the customer does not have the original boxes, DYNEX provides a rental service for reusable boxes. I DYNEX maintains a nationwide service area. The lamps are processed; in the company's Milwaukee, WI facility where they are placed in a lamp machine. The machine breaks the glass and separates the glass, mercury and metal into separate containers. The metals are recovered for reuse, the recovered glass is used hi products, such as!fiberglass, and the mercury is purified and reused in various commercial applications. • • - i The company accepts PCB and non-PCB ballasts. As mentioned above* the company's representative recommends that generators manage all ballasts as hazardous. DYNEX offers the following three options for ballast disposal: 1. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA') Approved Landfill Method - the ballast is transported in Department of Transportation (DOT) approved drums to an EPA approved hazardous waste landfill. This option is the least expensive of the three (disposal cost:$1.19 per pound, 1 drum minimum at 72 ------- $795); however, future liability concerns remain because the waste has not been destroyed. 2. EPA Approved Reclamation Decap Method - The capacitor within the ballast contains the PCB oil. Under this method, the capacitor, which comprises approximately 20% of the total weight of the ballast is transported to an EPA- approved facility for incineration, eliminating future liability. The remaining 80% of the ballast contains metals that are recovered and reused. This decap process is conducted at DYNEX's Detroit, MI facility. This method is not an option if the ballast is leaking. The disposal cost is$1.49 per pound, 1 drum minimum at $1100. 3. EPA-Approved Total Incineration - The whole ballast is transported in DOT approved drums to an EPA approved facility for total incineration, eliminating any future liability for the waste. This is the only option available for leaking ballasts. The disposal cost is$2.59 per pound, 1 dram minimum at $2000. The price of DYNEX's recycling services are dependent upon volume, lamp type and transportation. General price information, excluding transportation, is: 39 cents per 4 foot lamp, with a minimum of 100 lamps; 66 cents per lamp over 4 feet, with a minimum of 100 lamps; and$2.89 per HID. Lighting Resources, Inc. 386 S. Gordon Street Pomona, CA 91766 (800) 572-9253 (800) 866-6818 Lighting Resources is an ally of EPA's Green Lights Program, which is a voluntary program to encourage American corporations to assist with pollution prevention by using more efficient lighting systems. Lighting Resources provides complete lamp recycling services throughout the continental United States. The company picks up lamps from the generator. Lighting Resources requires that the customer pack the lamps and prepare the bill of lading. The lamps are processed in a manner similar to the processes described above. The glass recovered from the process is sent to a cullet broker and is ultimately used in products, such as fiberglass. The aluminum recovered from the lamp end caps is also recovered for reuse. After an initial distillation process, the recovered mercury is sent to Bethlehem Apparatus Company for additional processing and ultimate reuse (for more information on Bethlehem Apparatus Company, see the contact summary below). Lighting Resources accepts ballasts and processes them at two of its three facilities. The company's Greenwood, IN facility handles both lamps and ballasts. The PCB ballasts are disassembled and the capacitors are incinerated or landfilled. The remaining metals are recovered for reuse. 73 ------- Cost for services provided by Lighting Resources is dependent on lamp 'and ballast volume and shipping distances. Jerry Balch provided a price range for the recycling services: 7 to 10 cents per lamp; 75 cents to $2.75 per HID; and approximately 75 cents; per pound of ballasts or$700 to $750 per 55 gallon drum of ballasts. ! Mercuiy Technologies International j 1940 Westwood Blvd., No. 218 • ! Los Angeles, CA 90025 i (310)475-4684 j -• • ' r Mercury Technologies International (MTI) also is an ally of EPA's Gre^n Lights Program. MTI provides complete fluorescent lighting tube recycling services. The company's facilities located in California, Florida and Pennsylvania provide nationwide service. However, MTI does not accept ballasts. MTI can arrange for lamp pick up. The lamps are processed in- house and all materials are recycled; according to Sandy Factor, nothing is land disposed. MTI also performs a triple distillation process to prepare the mercury for immediate commercial reuse. ! The recycling fees vary based on volume and shipping distance. Generally, MTI charges between 7.5 and 10.5 cents per linear lamp foot. For HIDs, MTI charges$3 00 each. Recyclights 2010 E. Hennepin Av^ue ', Minneapolis, MN 55413-2799 J (800) 831-2852 or (612) 378-9568 Recyclights offers lamp recycling services on a nationwide basis, but dobs not handle ballasts. The company can arrange to pick up the spent lamps. The lamps are processed within 24 hours after arriving at the Recyclights facility. The materials recovered from the process include purified liquid mercury, aluminum, metals, soda-lime glass and; a calcium/iron-based powder. Following processing, Recyclights provides the customer with a certificate of conversion, a formal record of disposal in accordance with regulatory requirements. ; The price of the services provided by Recyclights depends upon the type and quantity of the lamps and transportation requirements. Generally, Recyclights charges 40 to 60 cents per 4 foot lamp. Lamps measuring longer than 4 feet cost between 60 and 83 cents per lamp and HIDs cost between $2.50 and$5.00 per lamp. __~ ( 74 ------- Mercury Refining Company 1218 Central Avenue Albany, NY 12205 (518) 459-0820 The Mercury Refining Company provides fluorescent lighting tube recycling services on a nationwide basis. The company does not accept ballasts. Mercury Refining Company can arrange for pick up of the spent lamps. The company, a permitted treatment, storage and disposal facility, processes the lamps, recovers the metals for reuse and processes the mercury using a thermal distillation process, called retorting, for future commercial use. The glass is disposed of in a hazardous waste landfill, even though the glass is not considered hazardous. According to Steve Graves, this option avoids future liability concerns. The prices of the recycling services, which do not include transportation, are: 8 cents per linear foot for whole tubes; and $650 per 55 gallon drum containing crushed lamps. The price of processing HIDs received in 55 gallon drums are:$15 per gallon for fflDs with a diameter larger than 1.5 inches; and $20 per gallon for fflDs with a diameter of less than 1.5 inches. Bethlehem Apparatus Company, Inc. 890 Front Street P.O. Box Y Hellerton, PA 18055 (610) 838-7034 The Bethlehem Apparatus Company, Inc. provides fluorescent lighting tube recycling services on a nationwide basis. The company does not accept ballasts. Bethlehem Apparatus does not provide or arrange for any transportation/pick up services. The customer may ship whole tubes in their original box or another appropriate box, or ship crushed lamps in 55 gallon drums. The company processes the lamps, recovers the mercury and disposes of all other materials including the glass and metals. Bethlehem Apparatus charges the following for various volumes and types of lamps: Quantity 1-3000 Lamps 3000-6000 Lamps > 6000 lamps Whole 4 ft Fluoreseeir* Lamps$3.00 each $2.25 each$1.50 each Whole 8 ft Fluorescent Lamps . $4.50 each$3.50 each $2.25 each 75 ------- Number of 55 Gallon Steel Drums 1-5 Drums 6-10 Drums > 10 Drums Crushed Fluorescent Lamps$1235 each' $910 each ;$650 each USA Lights Environmental Inc. | 2007 Country Road C-2 I Rosevffle, MN 55113 (612) 628-9370 USA Lights provides complete fluorescent lighting tube recycling services on a nationwide basis. The company claims that it is the only fluorescent lamps recycling company that owns and operates its own transportation system, which services only facilities located in Minnesota and Wisconsin. USA Lights would arrange for pick up land transportation services from facilities located in other states. i USA Lights requests that the customer pack the spent lamps in the original box and secure the box with tape, if necessary. The customer should record the number of lamps on the box. ! USA Lights processes the materials using the USA Lights Model 2000 system, wlu'ch is a self-contained, continuous flow process. The glass, metals and mercury all are recovered for reuse. The lamps are processed within 24 hours of receipt and the company issues a certificate of recycling to document that lamp processing has been completed: The company has $6 million Pollution Liability Insurance coverage, which protects the customer from financial responsibility should an accident occur either during [transport or at the facility. ! USA Lights' prices for recycling services, excluding transportation, are: 44 cents per 4 foot lamp; 62 cents per 8 foot lamp; and$2.29 per HID lamp. ' USA Lights does not accept ballasts. 1 76 ------- ------- APPENDIX E. POLLUTION PREVENTION INFORMATION SOURCES CLEARINGHOUSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 1. Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse u.a EPA PM211-A 401 M Street, SW Washington, DC 20460 Phone: 202-260-1023 Fax;; 202-260-0178 The Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) is dedicated to reducing or eliminating industrial pollutants through technology transfer, education, and public awareness. It is a free, nonregulatory service of the U.S. EPA and consists of a repository of pollution prevention information, a telephone reference and referral service and a computerized information exchange system. 2. The International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC) Industry and Environment Program Activity Center Uniteid Nations Environment Programme 39-43 quai Andre Citroen 7S739 Paris CEDEX 15 France Phone: 33-1-30-58-88-50 Fax: 33-1-40-58-88-74 The international Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC) is a clearinghouse operated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The ICPIC provides information to the ' international community on all aspects of low- and non-waste technologies and methods. 3. OzonAction I Industry and Environment 'Program Activity Center ; United Nations Environment Programme OzonAction 39=43 quai Andre Citroen 7S739 Paris CEDEX 15 France Phone: 33-1-30-58-88-50 Fax: 33-1-40-58-88-74 OzonAction relays technical and programmatic information on alternatives to all ozone depleting substances identified by the Interim Multilateral Ozohe Fund of the Montreal Protocol Agreements. 4. American Institute for Pollution Prevention (AIPP) Thomas R. Hauser, Ph.D., Executive Director American Institute for Pollution Prevention Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering ; University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 i Phone: 513-556-3693 The AIPP was founded jointly by U.S. EPA and the University of Cincinnati in 1989 to assist EPA in promoting the adoption of pollution prevention concepts. 5. Center for Environmental Research Information (CERI) '- Dorothy Williams U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Center for Environmental Research Information (CERI) 26 West Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, OH 45268 ; Phone: 513-569-7562 Fax: 513-569-7566 CERI serves as the exchange of scientific and technical environmental information produced by EPA by publishing brochures, 77 ------- capsule and summary reports, handbooks, newsletters, project reports, and manuals. 6. Center for Waste Reduction Technologies (CWRT) Center for Waste Reduction Technologies (CWRT) American Institute of Chemical Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017 Phone: 212-705-7407 Fax: 212-752-3297 CWRT was established in 1989 by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers to support industry efforts in meeting the challenges of waste reduction through a partnership between industry, academia, and government 7. Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center (HWRIG) Allsa WteMiff Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center One East Hazlewood Drive Champaign, IL 61820 Phone: 217-244-8905 Fax: 217-333-8944 HWRIC is a division of the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. HWRIC combines research, education, and technical assistance in a muitldlsclplinary approach to manage and reduce hazardous waste in Illinois. HWRIC collects and shares this information through fts library/clearinghouse and several computerized waste management tools. 8. The National Roundtable of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Roundtable) David Thomas National Roundtable of Pollution Prevention Programs One East Hazlewood Drive Champaign, IL 61820 Phone: 217-333-8940 Fax 217-333-8944 The Roundtable is a group of pollution prevention program at the State and local level in both the public and academic sectors. The member programs are engaged in activities including multi- audience training and primary to post- secondary pollution prevention education. 9. Northeast States Pollution Prevention Roundtable (NE Roundtable) Terri Goldberg. Program Manager Northeast States Pollution Prevention Roundtable / Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association 85 Merrimac Street Boston, MA 02114 Phone: 617-367-8558 Fax: 617-367-2127 The NE Roundtabie was initiated in 1989 by the Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association to assist State programs, industry, and the public implement effective source reduction programs. 10. Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center Madeline Grulich, Director Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center 411 University Street, Suite 1252 Seattle, WA 98101 Phone: 206-223-1151 Fax: 206-467-0212 The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center is a non-profit public- private partnership dedicated to the goal of furthering pollution prevention in the Pacific Northwest 11. Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse (SWICH) Lori Swain, Manager Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse Solid Waste Association of North America P.O. Box 7219 Silver Spring, MD 20910 Phone: 1-800-677-9424 Fax: 301-585-0297 78 ------- 12. 13. SWICH is an information clearinghouse covering a wide range of solid waste issues. SWICH components include an electronic bulletin board, a library and a hotline. Waste Reduction Institute for Training and: Applications Research, Inc. (WHITAR) Terry Foeeke or Al Innes Wasite Reduction Institute for Training and Applications Research 1313 5th Street, SE Minneapolis, MN 55414-4502 Phone: 612-379-5995 Fax; 612-379-5996 WRITAR Is designed to identify waste reduction problems, held find their solutions, and facilitate the dissemination of this information to a variety of public and private organizations. Waste Reduction Resource Center for the Southeast (WRRC) Gary Hunt Waste Reduction Center for the Southeast 3825 Barrett Drive P.O. Box 27687 Raleigh, NC 27611 -6787 WRRC was established to provide multimedia waste reduction support for the eight states of U.S. EPA IV (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). FACILITY PLANNING AND GENERAL POLLUTION PREVENTION MANUALS I 1. Audit and Reduction Manual for Industrial Emissions and Wastes United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and United Nations Industrial Development Office (UNIDO), 1991 UNEP ! 1889 F Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 ; Phone: 202-289-8456 Cost: Contact UNEP for cost and availability information ; The manual addresses the ifollowing topics: introduction to waste auditing, the audit procedure, pre-assessment, material balance, process inputs and outputs, and synthesis, and three technical case studfes. 2. Facility Pollution Prevention Guide U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development Center for Environmental Research Information 26 West Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7562 Cost: Free | The manual describes how to conduct a waste assessment, from the planning/organization stage through the assessment and feasibility analysis to fireil implementation of pollution prevention options. ; i 3. Industrial Waste Minimization Manual Center for Hazardous Materials Research University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center \ 320 William Pitt Way j Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Phone: 412-826-5320 800-334-CHMR Cost: $40 This manual provides information and guidance to all industrial waste generator!! 79 ------- on pollution prevention practices and suggested compliance requirements for RCRA and other related Federal acts. 4. Industrial Waste Prevention Waste Advantage, Inc. 1988 17117 West Nine Mile Road, Suite 902 Southfleld, Ml 48075 Phone: 313-569-8150 Cost:$195 (Includes access to technical assistance hotline) This practical guide provides step-by-step instructions for developing an effective waste minimization program. 5. Pollution Prevention Case Studies Compendium U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development Rfsk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7562 Cost: Free from CERI The studies are a collection of summaries of pollution prevention demonstrations, assessments, and research projects conducted with the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. 6. Pollution Prevention Pays Instruction Manual Dr. Susan Smith Center for Improving Mountain Living Bird Building Western Carolina University Cuilowhee, NO 28723 Phone: 704-227-7492 Cost $28 This manual conce-trates on (1) current legal and environmental issues that create the need for an industrial pollution prevention program and (2) an innovative systems approach to industrial-resource management that can reduce pollution. 7. Pollution Prevention Resource Manual Chemical Manufacturers Association 2501 M Street, NW : Washington, DC 20037 Phone: 202-887-1100 Cost:$75 This manual was designed for use by personnel of all levels who are involved with planning or implementing a pollution prevention program. 8. Waste Minimization Training Manuals Department of Toxic Substances Control Attention: Robert Ludwig ; Alternative Technology Division 714/744 P Street P.O. Box 806 Sacramento, CA 9SS12-0806 Phone: 916-324-1807 916-322-3070 This includes three pollution prevention modules on waste minimization. Each manual consists of a workbook and video. 9. Waste Reduction Assessment and Technology Transfer (WRATT) Training Manual George Smelcer Center for Industrial Services University of Tennessee 286 Capitol Boulevard Building Suite 606 Nashville, TN 37219-1804 Phone: 615-242-2456 This manual includes information on waste reduction awareness and incentives, Federal safety standards, State and Federal regulations, how to establish a waste reduction program and conduct a waste assessment and waste reduction approaches for specific industries and waste types. 80 ------- POLLUTION PREVENTION VIDEOS 4. ' £ 1. 1990 Clean Air Act Overview (20min.) Sylvia Gordon WRATT Case Studies University of Tennessee, 1991 Center for Telecommunications and Video Suite 61.1345 Circle Park Drive Knoxvilie, TN 37996-0312 Phone: 615-974-1313 Cost $25 (available only from the producer) The new Clean Air Act is reviewed, esp------- 7. Waste Reduction Assessment Opportunities (32 min.) Tennessee Valley Authority, University of Tennessee-CIS University of North Carolina Asheville-EQI, 1989 Attention: Carroll Ouggan Waste Technology Program 2F 71B Old City Hall Building Knoxville, TN 37902 Phone: 615-632-3160 Cost*$25 This video summarizes the multimedia waste reduction assessment procedure and its application at several businesses. 8. Why Waste? Waste Minimization for Today's Businesses (28 min.) California Department of Toxic Substances Control, 1990 Attention: Kathy Varwick Alternative TEchnoIgy Division Technology Clearinghouse Unit P.O. Box 806 Sacramento, CA 95812-0806 Phone: 916-324-1807 Cost: $15 The video defines waste minimization and illustrates waste reduction successes in several different types if businesses. 82 ------- POLLUTION PREVENTION ASSISTANCE CLEARINGHOUSES AND ASSOCIATIONS 1. Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse US,, EPA PM211-A 401 M Street, SW Washington, DC 20460 Phone: 202-260-1023 Fax,; 202-260-0178 The Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) is dedicated to reducing or eliminating industrial pollutants through technology transfer, education, and public awareness. It is a free, nonregulatory service of the U.S. EPA and consists of a repository of pollution prevention information, a telephone reference and referral service and a computerized information exchange system. 2. The International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC) Industry and Environment Program Activity Center Untasd Nations Environment Programme 39-43 quai Andre Citroen 7S739 Paris CEDEX 15 Ranee Phone: 33-1-30-58-88-50 Fax: 33-1-40-58-88-74 The International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC) is a clearinghouse operated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The ICPIC provides information to the international community on all aspects of low- and non-waste technologies and methods. 3. OzonAction Industry and Environment Program Activity Center United Nations Environment Programme OzonAction 39-43 quai Andre Citroen [- 75739 Paris CEDEX 15 France Phone: 33-1-30-58-88-50 Fax: 33-1-40-58-88-74 OzonAction relays technical and programmatic information on alternatives to ail ozone depleting substances identified by the Interim Multilateral Ozone Fund of the Montreal Protocol Agreements. 4. American Institute for Pollution Prevention (AIPP) Thomas R. Hauser, Ph.D., Executive Director American Institute for Pollution Prevention Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering - ; University of Cincinnati j Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 Phone: 513-556-3693 ! ! The AIPP was founded jointly by U.S. EPA and the University of Cincinnati in 1989 to assist EPA in promoting the adoption of pollution prevention concepts. I 5. Center for Environmental Research Information (CEHI) Dorothy Williams U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Center for Environmental Research Information (CER1) 26 West Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7562 Fax: 513-569-7566 CERI serves as the exchange of scientific and technical environmental! information produced by EPA by publishing brochures, 83 ------- capsule and summary reports, handbooks, newsletters, project reports, and manuals. 6. Center for Waste Reduction Technologies (CWRT) Center for Waste Reduction Technologies (CWRT) American Institute of Chemical Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017 Phone: 212-705-7407 Fax: 212-752-3297 CWRT was established in 1989 by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers to support Industry efforts in meeting the challenges of waste reduction through a partnership between industry, academia, and government 7. Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center (HWRIC) Allsa WIctdiif Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center One East Hazlewood Drive Champaign, IL 61820 Phone: 217-244-8905 Fax: 217-333-8944 HWRIC Is a division of the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. HWRIC combines research, education, and technical assistance in a muitWIsciplInary approach to manage and reduce hazardous waste in Illinois. HWRIC collects and shares this information through its library/clearinghouse and several computerized waste management tools. a The National Roundtable of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Roundtable) David Thomas National Roundtable of Pollution Prevention Programs One East Hazlewood Drive Champaign, IL 61820 Phone: 217-333-8940 Fax: 217-333-8944 9. The Roundtable is a group of pollution prevention program at the State and locafi level In both the public and academic sectors. The member programs are engaged In activities including multi- audience training and primary to post- secondary pollution prevention education. Northeast States Pollution Prevention Roundtabie (NE Roundtable) Terri Goldberg, Program Manager Northeast States Pollution Prevention Roundtabie / Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association 85 Merrimac Street Boston, MA 02114 Phone: 617-367-8558 617-367-2127 10. The NE Roundtable was initiated in 1989 by the Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association to assist State programs, industry, and the public implement effective source reduction programs. Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention •Research Center Madeline Grulich, Director Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center 411 University Street, Suite 1252 Seattle, WA 98101 Phone: 206-223-1151 Fax: 206-467-0212 The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center is a non-profit public- private partnership dedicated to the goal of furthering pollution prevention in the Pacific Northwest 11. Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse (SWICH) Lori Swain, Manager Soiid Waste Information Clearinghouse Solid Waste Association of North America P.O. Box 7219 i Silver Spring, MD 20910 Phone: 1-800-677-9424 Fax: 301-585-0297 84 ------- SWICH is an information clearinghouse covering a wide range of solid waste issues. SWICH components include an electronic bulletin board, a library and a hotline. 12. Waste Reduction Institute for Training and Applications Research, Inc. (WH1TAR) Teny Foecke or Al Innes Wasste Reduction Institute for Training and Applications Research 1313 5th Street, SE Minneapolis, MN 55414-4502 Phene: 612-379-5995 Fax;: 612-379-5996 WRITAR is designed to identify waste reduction problems, held find their solutions, and facilitate the dissemination of this information to a variety of public and private organizations. 13. Waste Reduction Resource Center for tie Southeast (WRRC) Gary Hunt Waste Reduction Center for the Southeast. 3825 Barrett Drive P.O. Box 27687 Raleigh, NC 27611-6787 WRRC was established to provide multimedia waste reduction support for the eight: states of U.S. EPA IV (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and FACILITY PLANNING AI^D GENERAL POLLUTION PREVENTION MANUALS 1. Audit and Reduction Manual for Industrial Emissions and'Wastes United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and United Nations Industrial Development Office (UNIDO), 1991 UNEP i 1889 F Street, NW ; Washington, DC 20006 ' Phone: 202-289-8456 Cost: Contact UNEP for cost and availability information ; The manual addresses the following topics: introduction to waste auditing, the audit procedure, pre-assessment, material balance, process inputs and outputs, and synthesis, and three technical case studies. 2. Facility Pollution Prevention Guide U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development Center for Environmental Research Information 26 West Martin Luther King; Drive Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7562 Cost: Free The manual describes how;to conduct a waste assessment, from th^ planning/organization stage through the assessment and feasibility analysis to finial implementation of pollution prevention options. 3. industrial Waste Minimization Manual Center for Hazardous Materials Research University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center 320 William Pitt Way Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Phone: 412-826-5320 800-334-CHMR Cost:$40 This manual provides information and guidance to all industrial waste generators 85 ------- on pollution prevention practices and suggested compliance requirements for RCRA and other related Federal acts. 4. Industrial Waste Prevention Waste Advantage, Inc. 1988 17117 West Nine Mile Road, Suite 902 Southfield, Ml 48075 Phone: 313-569-8150 Cost: $195 (includes access to technical assistance hotline) This practical guide provides step-by-step instructions for developing an effective waste minimization program. 5. Pollution Prevention Case Studies Compendium U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development Rfek Reduction Engineering Laboratory Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7562 Cost: Free from CERI The studies are a collection of summaries of pollution prevention demonstrations, assessments, and research projects conducted with the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. 6. Pollution Prevention Pays Instruction Manual Dr. Susan Smith Center for Improving Mountain Living Bird BuHdlng Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723 Phone: 704-227-7492 Cosfc$28 This manual concentrates on (1) current legal and environmental issues that create the need for an industrial pollution prevention program and (2) an innovative systems approach to industrial-resource management that can reduce pollution. 7. Pollution Prevention Resource Manual Chemical Manufacturers Association 2501 M Street, NW ; Washington, DC 20037 Phone: 202-887-1100 I Cost: $75 This manual was designed for use by personnel of all levels who are involved with planning or implementing a pollution prevention program. 8. Waste Minimization Training Manuals Department of Toxic Substances Contrd Attention: Robert Ludwig Alternative Technology Division 714/744 P Street P.O. Box 806 Sacramento, CA 9S512-0806 Phone: 916-324-1807 916-322-3670 This includes three pollution prevention modules on waste minimization. Each manual consists of a workbook and video. 9. Waste Reduction Assessment and Technology Transfer (WRATT) Training George Smelcer Center for Industrial Services University of Tennessee 266 Capitol Boulevard Building Suite 606 Nashville, TN 37219-1804 Phone: 615-242-2456 This manual includes information on waste reduction awareness and incentives, Federal safety standards, State and Federal regulations, how to establish a waste reduction program and conduct a waste assessment and waste reduction approaches for specific industries and waste types. 86 ------- POLLUTION PREVENTION VIDEOS 1. 1990 Clean Air Act Overview (20 min.) SyKia Gordon WRATT Case Studies University of Tennessee, 1991 Center for Telecommunications and Video Suite 61,1345 Circle Park Drive Knoxville, TN 37996-0312 Phone: 615-974-1313 Cost:$25 (available only from the producer) The new Clean Air Act is reviewed, ©specially Title 1,3,4, and 6. Pollution prevention implications are discussed. 2. Beyond Business as Usual: Meeting the Challenge of Hazardous Waste (28:30 min.) U.S. EPA Region VIII 999 18th Street, Suite 500 Denver, CO 80202-2405 Phone: 303-293-1603 Cost: Contact EPA Region VIII for cost and availability information This video promotes source reduction and recycling as the best hazardous waste management options and includes success stories from industry, Federal agencies, and state and local government programs. 3. The Competitive Edge (17:50 min.) Ontario Waste Management Corporation, 2 Bloor Street West, 11th Roor Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4W3E2 Phone: 416-923-2918 Cost: $24 (available only from the producer) The video is designed to acquaint employess with the industrial auditing process by explaining the six steps of an audity in clear and simple terms. 4. Pollution Prevention: The Bottom Unis (24 min.) i Coastal Video Communications Corporation 3083 Brickhouse Court Virginia Beach, VA 23452 Phone: 800-767-7703 i Cost:$195 The video includes interviews with official of major international corpors|tions and deals with environmental legislation, cost motivation, and the identification and implementation of pollution prevention techniques. ! 5. Reducing Waste in the Workplace (24 min.) Coastal Video Communications Corporation 3083 Brickhouse Court ! Virginia Beach, VA 23452 Phone: 800-767-7703 Cost: $495 i This video discusses materials handling and inventory control, equipment operations and scheduling, cleaning and maintenance, and waste collection and management. ; 6, Waste Not...Want Not (15 min.) I U.S. EPA Region IV, 1989 345 Courtland Street, N.E. Atlanta, GA 30365 ; Phone: 404-347-7109 ' Cost: Contact EPA Region IV for cost and availability information r The video presents EPA's waste management hierarchy, led py source reduction and recycling, to handle the current municipal solid waste crisis. 87 ------- 7. Waste Reduction Assessment Opportunities (32 mia) Tennessee Valley Authority, University of Tennessee-CIS University of North Carolina Asheville-EQI, 1989 Attention: Carroll Duggan Waste Technology Program 2F 71B Old City Hall Building Knoxville, TN 37902 Phone: 615-632-3160 Cost$25 This video summarizes the multimedia waste reduction assessment procedure and Its application at several businesses. 8. Why Waste? Waste Minimization for Today's Businesses (28 mia) California Department of Toxic Substances Control, 1990 Attention: Kathy Varwick Alternative TEchnolgy Division Technology Clearinghouse Unit P.O. Box 806 Sacramento, CA 95812-0806 Phone: 916-324-1807 Cost: $15 The video defines waste minimization and Illustrates waste reduction successes in several different types if businesses. 88 ------- PROJECT SUMMARY POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE BULK MAIL CENTER, DALLAS, TX Abstract ! i As part of its Waste Reduction Evaluation at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) worked cooperatively with the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at various Postal facilities through the conduct of pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOA). The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at the USPS Bulk Mail Center (BMC) located in Dallas, TX. The report describes the mission of the BMC including operations performed, processes and materials employed and the wastes and emissions generated. Thd report makes recommendations concerning the procurement of office supplies, maintenance supplies and hazardous materials; management of hazardous materials and wastes; purchase of chemicals on USEPA's 33/50 list; improvement of source separation and recycling of paper and paper products, metals and plastics; management of unwanted equipment; and other options for reducing or eliminating pollution. • i This Project Summary was developed by USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH to announce key findings of the research project that is fully documented hi a separate report of the same title. ; INTRODUCTION ! Since 1988, EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has managed a technical support effort known as the Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. WREAFS was established to provide pollution prevention solutions to environmental issues through research, development and demonstration of pollution prevention techniques and technologies, and transferring lessons learned within the Federal community and related private sector industries. : ------- ------- The United States Postal Service (USPS), in cooperation with NRMRL's WREAFS program is engaged hi an effort to integrate pollution prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at postal facilities. The purpose of this project was to perform pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) at Postal Service facilities, recommend implementation strategies, and develop facility guidance that can be incorporated into a revision of the USPS Waste Reduction Guide. The project was funded by the U.S. Postal Service through an interagency agreement (IAG) with EPA NRMRL. : This report describes the findings of the PPOA conducted for the United States Postal Service Bulk Mail Center (BMC) located in Dallas, TX. The site assessment was conducted during the week of May 15, 1995. ' FACILITY DESCRIPTION The BMC facility in Dallas, TX performs the sorting and routing of packages and bulk business mail for Texas, Oklahoma and parts of Kansas, Arkansas, and Louisiana as part of a national network of mechanized bulk mail centers that process third and fourth class mail. The facility employs approximately 1,600 individuals and operates three eighth-hour shifts per day, six days per week and two shifts on Sunday. An additional 300 workers are hired during the Christmas holiday season. ; The BMC facility occupies 75 acres; the main building contains approximately 452,000 square feet of space. In addition, the facility houses a 2,000 sq. ft. lubrication storage area; a 2,048 sq. ft. former vehicle repair shop that is now used to repair "over-the-road" aluminum mail-transport equipment (OTRs) and as a fuel and oil dispensing area for postal vehicles; and a 1,000 sq. ft. shed that houses groundskeeping equipment and miscellaneous machinery. The BMC also has two remote sites: a USPS-owned warehouse, which is shared with the Dallas General Mail Facility (GMF), and a leased facility of 59,000 sq. ft. that houses the Crossdock Pallet Facility (CPF). ; WASTE MANAGEMENT ; -•• Wastes generated by BMC operations include excess and obsolete equipment and supplies; corrugated cardboard; computer paper; white paper; mixed office paper, including forms and envelopes; magazines and newsprint; undeliverable bulk business mail (UBBM) and "loose-in-mail" pieces (LIMs); employee wastes, including cans, bottles, wrappers, and food; pallets; shrink and stretch wrap; aluminum and other metals; wood; fluorescent tubes and lighting ballasts; batteries; plastic and metal strapping; rags; and oil filters and waste oil. Additionally, the BMC facility generates small quantities of hazardous wastes from aerosol cans, primarily paints and oils. In 1994, one 55-gallon drum of F003 and F005 waste was generated. Exhibit 1 presents the composition of the solid waste stream, the current management practice for each component, and a summary of pollution prevention opportunities. Exhibit 2 summarizes the current costs of waste collection. ' ------- ------- Exhibit 1. BMC Solid Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Opportunities Waste Obsolete, damaged or defective equipment Corrugated cardboard Computer print-out White paper Mixed paper Magazines Toner cartridges Pallets Plastic stretch wrap Rags Fluorescent tubes Strapping Oil Alkaline Batteries Lighting Ballasts Current Management Disposed or sold as scrap Some reused, gaylords recycled, other cardboard disposed Discarded as waste Some recycled Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Returned for recycling USPS pallets sent to Arlington facility for redistribution. Pine pallets sold as scrap for mulch Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Discarded as waste Rerefined Recycled PCB ballasts managed as hazardous, non PCB ballasts recycled Opportunities Repair at USPS Computer Repair Facility (CRF) in Topeka, KS, reuse Reduce use of gaylords, increase use of OTRs, reduce incoming boxes, reuse boxes, improve diversion for recycling Reduce generation, divert for recycling Reduce generation, imprpve diversion for recycling • ' Reduce generation, divert for recycling Reduce generation, divert for recycling Continue recycling ; Reduce variety, reuse pine pallets, establish recycling options for pine pallets ' Reduce generation, divert for recycling Investigate rag service feasibility Improve ambient light, install motion sensitive lighting, divert for recycling \ Divert for recycling '. Purchase rerefined oil Use rechargeable batteries ; Improve ambient light, install motion sensitive lighting, turn lights off ------- ------- Exhibit 2. Current Cost of Waste Collection Material Mixed Waste at BMC Mixed Waste at CPF Oily Rags Container size 40 cu yd 6 cu yd 55-gallon drum Collection frequency 12 per month 26 per month 3-4 drums per month Total Monthly fee$147.50 per pull or $1,770 per month$3,145 $400 per drum or$1,200 to $1,600 per month Annual Cost$21,240! . i $37,740$14,400'to $19,200i$73,380 -$78, 180 ' POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES Exhibit 3 presents the pollution prevention opportunities that offer the 1JSPS significant cost reductions hi addition to reducing pollution. The primary pollution prevention opportunities identified by the PPOA are addressed in the sections below. : i Environmental Oversight ', ', • Appoint an Environmental Coordinator to monitor environmental issues and implement opportunities to reduce waste and prevent pollution at the facility. i Reuse and Recycling • The BMC presently receives approximately$100,000 in annual revenue from its old corregated cardboard (OCC) recycling program (recycled gaylord boxes), approximately $9,600 hi annual revenue from scrap metal recycling, and in 1995, to date, the BMC has received$7,929 hi revenue from scrap aluminum recycling. Postal employees use metal "over-the-road" (OTR) containers to move mail between facilities, although this was not their intended use, and facilities hoard OTRs for the holiday season. The BMCs have no control over the OTR inventory 5 thus OTRs are not readily available to move the mail in the BMC service area. To solve the problem of access to mail transport equipment, the 'USPS has designed the Integrated Mail Handling System, which would substitute cardboard gaylord boxes for the reusable OTRs and require modifying existing mail handling equipment to accommodate the gaylords. Recommendations are: i ------- ------- Cancel the Integrated Mail Handling System, (IMHS) and use OTRs instead of cardboard gay lord boxes. Purchase enough additional OTRs or other permanent mail transport equipment for the nationwide movement of non-peak period mail volume and design and implement a nationwide bar- code labeling and tracking system for the OTRs. Reuse cardboard gaylord boxes that enter facility, rather than recycling them after one use. One reuse of each gaylord will reduce costs by $500,000. Reuse cardboard boxes in other processing operations Segregate for recycling the OCC that cannot be reused Improve the office paper recycling system Reduce the quantity of undeliverable bulk busines mail (UBBM) and recycle rather than dispose of "loose-in-mail" pieces (LIMs) Pallets Establish a formal recycling system for pine pallets. Recyclers will repair or rebuild pallets for resale. Several pallet recycling services are available in the Dallas area. Fluorescent Lights \ • Establish a fluorescent tube recycling program for the 1,500 flurpescent tubes used at this facility. ------- ------- Cancel the Integrated Mail Handling System, (IMHS) and use OTRs instead of cardboard gay lord boxes. Purchase enough additional OTRs or other permanent mail transport equipment for the nationwide movement of non-peak period mail volume and design and implement a nationwide bar- code labeling and tracking system for the OTRs. Reuse cardboard gaylord boxes that enter facility, rather than ; recycling them after one use. One reuse of each gaylord will reduce costs by$500,000. ' Reuse cardboard boxes in other processing operations , Segregate for recycling the OCC that cannot be reused Improve the office paper recycling system Reduce the quantity of undeliverable bulk busines mail (UBBM) and recycle rather than dispose of "loose-m-mail" pieces (LIMs). ------- ------- Exhibit 3. Cost-Saving Pollution Prevention Opportunities Item(s) of Concern Gaylords/OTRs Cardboard Gaylords Old Corrugated Cardboard Rags Current Practice Use disposable gaylords in place of durable aluminum OTRs. Recycle after single use. Recycle cardboard gaylords Dispose remaining 30 percent of OCC stream as waste. Purchase new rags Dispose rags via incineration Pollution Prevention Opportunity Purchase sufficient quantity of reusable OTRs and maintain for 10 years t Reuse gaylords Continue current recycling practices. Utilize baler and recycle remaining OCC. Launder rags Dispose 25 percent of rags annually Summary of Estimated Potential Cost Per Trip: Aluminum OTR1 Cardboard Gavlord $1.40$5.41 (150 trips/ ' (single use) yr for 10 yrs) After 39 trips/year, OTRs are more cost effect Potential savings of $4.01 per trip. 1$1,138 purchase cost and $1,000 lifetime mai Based on annual purchase costs of$1,000,000, reuse of each gaylord equal $500,000. ' Approximately$100,000 revenue (at 60 tons/ gaylords. Approximately $100 to$140 per ton in revenu corrugated cardboard recycled. Yearl Laundering New Cost Saving $2.17/lb '$2.23/lb $414 ! Year 2 Laundering New Cost Saving$2.06/lb $2.23/lb$1,173 * Purchase of new rags costs approximately $1 disposal costs are$14,400. * Cost of laundering rags is approximately $10 disposal costs with laundering are$3,600. Pallets Establish a formal recycling system for pine pallets. Recyclers will repair or rebuild pallets for resale. Several pallet recycling services are available hi the Dallas area. Fluorescent Lights : p • Establish a fluorescent tube recycling program for the 1,500 flurpescent tubes used at this facility. ------- ------- Rechargeable Batteries • Purchase rechargeable batteries and a charging unit to recharge , the batteries. GSA has available rechargeable alkaline batteries that offer the high performance attributes of regular alkaline batteries along with the cost and environmental benefits of a reusable system. ' > Affirmative Procurement • Establish preference programs and adopt specifications for the purchase of products made with the percentages of recovered materials specified in USEPA Guidelines. . Lighting • Increase the use of motion sensitive lighting • Install motion sensitive lighting in infrequently used areas. i • Establish a "lights out" policy • Establish a policy of turning off lights and equipment when leaving an area. Where machine design permits, turn photocopiers to low power when not in use. i i • Increase the use of ambient lighting • Become a Federal Partner in the Green Lights Program Computers : i • Procure computers that meet Energy Star requirements ; Battery Charging • Review procedures on the proper charging of batteries to prevent accidental acid overflows. - ,- , , -i Dedicated Oil Containers j The Dallas BMC has a bulk distribution system which stores several types of oil and a solvent called Pro-Power, an oil emulsifier, but the facility uses one container to transfer the products. This process generates unnecessary waste because excess oil is disposed, instead of ------- ------- being reused, and because the containers must be cleaned with solvent after each use. Therefore, dedicated containers should be purchased and used for each specific material. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The BMC facility has taken admirable steps hi terms of implementing a relatively aggressive recycling and reuse program for many commodities, such as OCC, metal, and pallets. In terms of OCC, the BMC should focus on reusing cardboard gaylord boxes, replacing these with durable aluminum OTRs, and capturing for recycling the 20- to 30- percent of the OCC stream that is disposed. The BMC should investigate a rag laundering service and also should implement more aggressive policies to reduce the amount of paper waste generated and disposed, most notably UBBM and LIMs. Facility staff showed an openness to pollution prevention ideas and should continue to explore new options such as energy savings through daylighting, the Green Lights program, and procurement of Energy Star computers, as well as more simple options such as lights out policies, double-sided copying, and adopting an affirmative procurement policy. ; The full report was submitted hi partial fulfillment of Contract No. 68-C2-0148, Work Assignment 3-10 by Science Applications International Corporation under the sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. i ' - ------- -------