September 1996
                  KANSAS CITY, MO
   Carole O. Bell, Mary Hoel, Henry Huppert, Steven Rolander
         Science Applications International Corporation
                   Newport, RI02840
               EPA, Contract No, 68rC2-pl48
           SAldTroject Na 01-0828-07-1717-050
                      •  .. -  ' :?-'
                    Project Officers

                    James S. Bridges
                  N. Theresa Hoagland
              Sustainable Technology Division
        National Risk Management Research Laboratory
                 Cincinnati; Ohio 45268
       * This study;wasjconducted in cooperation with the
               United States Postal Service
     ,          ;CINCINNATI, OHIO 45268

The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency under EPA contract No. 68-C2-0148 WA 3-10 to Science
Applications International Corporation. It has been subjected to peer and administrative review,
and it has been approved for publication as an EPA document. Mention of trade names or
commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by .the United States
Environmental Protection Agency under EPA contract No. 68-C2-0148 WA 3-10 to Science
Applications International Corporation.  It has been subjected to peer and administrative
review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA  document.  Mention of trade
names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

James Bridges and N. Theresa Hoagland are the EPA contacts for this report.  They are
presently with the newly organized National Risk Management Research Laboratory's
Sustainable Technology Division in Cincinnati, OH (formerly the Risk Reduction
Engineering Laboratory). The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is
headquartered hi Cincinnati, OH, and is now responsible for research conducted by the
Sustainable Technology Division in- Cincinnati.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with protecting the
Nation's land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws,
the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance
between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life.  To
meet this mandate, EPA's research program is providing data and technical support for
solving environmental problems today and--building a science knowledge base neeessaiy to
manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how poEutaats affect our health, and
prevent or reduce environmentalrisks inthe future.

The National Risk ManagementResearchLaboratory is the Agency's center for investigation
of technological and management approaches for reducing risks from threats to human health;
and the environment.  The focus of the Laboratory's research program is on methods for the
prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection
of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites and  ground
water;'--and prevention and--.control of.-indoorair pollution.The goal of this research effort is
to catalyze development and implementation of innovative; cost-effective environmental
technologies; develop scientific and engineering information needed by EPA to  support
regulatory and policy decisions; and provide technical support and information transfer to
ensure effective implementation of environmental regulations>and strategies.

This publication has been produced as part of the Laboratory's strategic long-term research
plan.  It is published and made available by EPA's Office of Research and Development to
assist the user community and to link researchers with their clients.

              E. Timothy Oppelt, Director
              National Risk Management Research Laboratory

The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk
i^ment Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in meffort to mtegra^waste
prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postalfacilmes
KTreport the findings of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment of the United
^pS'service, StLp Distribution Network (SDN) locatedJnKaiisas City  Missoun
are described.  This assessment was conducted during the week of March 6,  1995.

The report describes the mission of each of the functional areas of the SDN including
operations performed, processes and materials employed and me wastes and emissions
geneS SLenitions are then made concerning the procurement of office supplies
SteSnceApplies and hazardous  materials; management of hazardous materials; purchase
of chemicals on EPA's 33/50 list; improvement of source separation and recycling of paper
and products, metals, and plastics; management of unwanted equipment; and other
r^ommendations that can lead to the elimination, reduction or improved management of the
 facility's solid and hazardous waste  streams and emissions to air and water.

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

DISCLAIMER ...	. .		...-.	   i

CONTACT	 ......	. . ii

FOREWORD	 ... ... ... ... .'	 .  ...  . ... ..'....	 . . iii

ABSTRACT	. .	  iv

EXHIBITS  . . .... ... . . .  ... .'...'	......'	 ,  .... ....... vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  .... ..... . .....	  . . ... ..... viii

1.0   INTRODUCTION	 .               1
     1.1   SITE DESCRIPTION . .	..../..... .... . .  . . . . . . . .  . .  2

     DEPOSITORY  . . . .....	 .  .... .	  4
          2.2.1  Solid Waste Management	 ..'..	  6
          2.2.2  Hazardous Materials .	  6
          2.2.3  Stamp Destruction		  7
          2.2.4  Air Quality	  7
          2.2.5  Humidity Control . . . .  . .	  8
          2=2.6  Battery Charging	  8
          2.2.7  Energy	  8

     3.1   REDUCE PAPER USE	  9
     3.2   RECYCLING .  . . . . . . . . ....	  11
     3.3   PALLETS .	 . ..'..	  13
     3.6   PACKAGING	  19
     3.7   SDN MAINTENANCE SHOP	  23

     3.8  BATTERY CHARGING . . •	 .  24
     3.9  LIGHTS AND ENERGY	  26
     3.10 INDOOR AIR QUALITY	  30



         CHEMICALS	 . .'	  39
     F.   ENERGY STAR EQUIPMENT INFORMATION ...............  68

Funding for this project was provided by the United State Postal Service under an
interagency agreement. Jim Bridges and Tern Hoagland of the EPA Office of Research and
Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory managed the project and
participated in* the opportunity assessments.  Special thanks are extended to Charlie Bravo
and Bernie Denno of the USPS Office of Environmental Management Policy and the staff of
the USPS Stamp Distribution Network in Kansas City, Missouri.


                                    SECTION  1.0


       The United States Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA) is actively supporting the
 development ofpollutionprevention program plans for Federal: facilities.  Since 1988, the
 EPA has managed a technical support effort known? as the Waste Reduction Evaluations at
 Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. WREAFS was established to provide pollution
 prevention solutions to environmental issues through research, development and-
 demonstration of pollution prevention techniques and technologies, and transferring lessons
 learned within the Federal community andi related private sector support industries.
 WREAFS has conducted more than 37 separate RD&D efforts under funding from both EPA
 and nine other Federal departments and agencies via interagency agreements.

       The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk
 Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste
 prevention: and recycling activities into the waste management programs at postal facilities,
 The purpose of this project is to perform pollution prevention opportunity assessments
 (PPOAs)_at several types of Postal Service facilities, to identify the pollution prevention
 opportunities for those facilities, to recommend implementation strategies and to develop
 facility guidance that can be incorporated into a revision of the USPS Waste Reduction
       In this report, the findings of the PPOA conducted for the United States Postal
Service Stamp Distribution Network located in Kansas City, Missouri are described.  The
site assessment was conducted during the week of March 6, 1995.

       The Assessment Team performed a multi-media pollution prevention assessment.
Wastes of concern included wastewater discharges; hazardous material acquisition, use and
storage; hazardous waste storage and disposal; procurement; and solid waste management,
including recycling.  The report begimwim a brief description of the facility.  This is
followed by descriptions of specific operations and the wastes and emissions generated. Bioth
site-wide and operation-specific recommendations are made that may lead to the elimination,
reduction, or improved management of the facility's waste streams. Mention of trade names,
commercial products, or vendors does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for


       The Stamp Distribution Network is located in North Kansas City, on Underground
Drive in the Hunt Midwest Subtropolis.  Subtropolis- is the world's largest underground
business complex, housing more than 60 local, national and international businesses in more
than 10 million square feet of developed  space located 100 feet underground. The developed
space is used for office operations, light manufacturing, warehousing and cold, storage.
Subtropolis is located in a rural residential area adjacent to an urban industrial area.
Appendix A provides a brochure on the Subtropolis complex.  The SDN is nearly a mile
from the entrance to the complex.  The Postal Service selected this location for security, low
rent, and consistent heating and cooling requirements. Subtropolis has a constant
temperature between  65 and 72 degrees Fahrenheit.  Exhibit 1.1 diagrams the Subtropolis
complex.  The USPS site contains two operations: the Stamp Distribution Network (SDN)
and the National Stamp Depository (NSD).

                o o o o o
                O Q O O O
                O O O O 0
                Q O Q o 0
                O O BOO
                a o o o Q
            o o- o oo o o
  o a a a <> oooo o
  oooo} o ao»a o
  o a a a i o oo*a a
 , O o a a
  o a on o " -o oa
                              a e o o
                              o e a o
                              o 0,0 o
                              O'O*O O
                              o o a a
                       o oo o o pa o o o
                • o o. a o o a ao o o
                  si a a o oo a o
                        oa a oooo
                        oo o o o a o
                        oo o o o a a
                    O o o a o
                    a o o a o
        O 00
       o o oo
      O O O 00
   n o o o o o a
   U a a o o oo
    o o o o
    o ooa
    a a a o oe
    a Q a o o o
 fU \J o o o a oo
      n a o oo
  oo„Un oao
                                                                          0  o o° O oV1-xa-/0^li
                aoooaoooaoooo oooooaooo
                                                        o o o o
                                                        o o a o oiio
                                                        o o a a o a
  o o a o o o oo a o o a o a o a o o oooo
  o. o a ao a a a, o a a oo oo o o o oa-a o
  o a o a o o oa a a a a oooaaaooaa
  o o Q ft Q o ao aaaoaaoaoo.Qo oo
  a a a o o o oe a o o ooooaoooooo
  o o o o a a oe o o a a a o a a o o o a o o
  oaooao-.oo aooooooooooooo
O DrfJC 0
4 00,0 OI^«|KO Q go
          oooooouoo 0*0 000000;
              t-joooooooooonnli gi-'a a
                                  	a1 a Q a a
                               000 00 00 00000000000000000
                     oao oo oooooooo a o a.o


                                   SECTION 2.0

      This section addresses the operations performed within the SDN and the NSD and the
wastes and emissions generated by those operations.  The section includes a description of
current waste management practices,


      The SDN facility in Kansas City mcludes two operations: the Stamp Distribution
Network and the National Stamp Depository.  These operations employ 20 people, including
one manager, four supervisors, one building engineer, two custodians and 12 clerks.

      The Postal Service currently distributes stamps through numerous Stamp Distribution
Offices (SDO). Each SDO supplies only a few post offices and employs two to three
workers. The Postal Service is in the process of switching from the local SDO system to a
regional stamp distribution system with; 12 to 15 regional SDNs. The Kansas City facility
was the  first SDN and has been in operation for nearly two years.  A second SDN has
recently opened hi the Washington, DC area and a third, in Dallas, TX, is under
construction. The Kansas City facility  also houses the National Stamp Depository, which
provides storage for stamps prior to distribution through the SDN, or through six
Accountable Paper Depositories (APDs).

      The mission of the Kansas City  SDN is the distribution of stamps, stamped products
such as postcards, food stamps and money orders to more than 4,000 post offices in Iowa,
Missouri, Kansas and Illinois, in response to orders/requests received from individual post
offices.  The SDN stocks more than 1,200 different types of stamps.  In addition, the facility
can be the national supply point for special items.  For example, the SDN was responsible
for the national distribution of "G" stamps, following the recent postal rate increase.

      The Kansas City SDN occupies  approximately 100,000 square feet including a 35,000
square foot workroom, 5,000 square feet of office space and 60,000: square feet of bulk
storage space. The facility has two loading docks for the receipt of stamp shipments from
private and government printers (Bureau of Engraving or the Government Printing Office)
and for the shipment of orders.  Stamp shipments come in on an irregular schedule,
depending on demand.

       Local Post Office employees submit orders for stamps and other items by regular mail
on Order Form 17.  The orders are delivered to North Kansas City post office and an SDN
staff person picks up the mail every morning. SDN staff open the envelopes and enter the
order information into the computer. The paper orders and envelopes are held for one
accounting period (four weeks) and are then discarded as waste.

       Post offices typically order stamps once per four week accounting period, but larger
post offices order twice per accounting period.  A new computerized phone system for
ordering stamps is being tested at the SDN.  A local post office can use the system to order
up to three items by phone. Currently this system is used for emergency orders only.

       The computerized orders are sent to one of three active stamp vaults.  The vault
manager downloads the orders as  a group and picks the stamps required to fill the orders.  A
fourth vault in the SDN is currently used for bulk storage, but will be converted to an active
vault, shortly.  The stamps pulled from the vaults are sent to a clerk who breaks down the
group into individual post office orders and gets the order ready for packaging.  A second
clerk verifies each order and completes and seals the packaging.

       Orders are packaged in a variety of corrugated cardboard cartons and jiffy bags,
depending on the size of the order.  Packaging requirements are set by the Postal Inspection
Service.  Clerks reuse some boxes and dunnage if the correct size is available.  The
completed orders are then sent to  the shipping clerk who prepares them for final shipment by
certified mail.  The shipping clerk locks the orders in metal over the road (OTR) containers
for shipment via the Kansas City General Mail Facility (GMF). The SDN typically fills and
ships 350 to 375 boxes and 200 envelopes per day in two shipments.  Depending on the day
of the week, the number of orders may range from a low of 50 to a high of 500.

       The NSD is primarily a warehouse for stamps and other products.  The NSD occupies
approximately  100,000 square feet of space in two warehouse-areas. The NSD supplies
stamps to six Accountable Paper Depositories (Memphis, Chicago, Denver, New York,
Washington, and San Francisco) which distribute them to the SDOs. APDs are required to
order full pallets of stamps, although if warehouse stock of an item is low, they may receive
smaller quantities.


       Wastes  generated by SDN  operations include excess and obsolete equipment and
supplies; corrugated cardboard; computer paper; white paper; mixed office paper, including
forms and envelopes; magazines;  laser toner cartridges; employee wastes including cat -%
bottles, wrappers and food; pallets; shrink and stretch wrap; cellophane and plastic stamp
wrap; plastic and metal strapping; paper and  plastic dunnage;  fluorescent lighting tubes, air
filters and waste oil.

  2.2.1  Solid Waste Management

         Solid waste from SDN activities is consolidated in one six cubic yard container that is
  emptied daily by the contracted waste hauler (five times per week).  Deffenbaugh Disposal
  Service charges $188.00 per month for this service. SDN staff stated that the container
  typically is, not full when emptied, since they have begun separating cardboard for recycling.
  The SDN is negotiating a new contract'that would reduce the number of pickups per week
  and/or reduce the container size.

         The SDN reuses- some cardboard boxes as well as polystyrene cushioning and
  cardboard pallet comers to protect palleted material during shipping. In addition, the SDN
  has begun a cardboard recycling program.

         The SDN and1 NSD receive a variety of pallets from their operations.  Typically,
  pallets arrive with, deliveries of stamps or other supplies.  The SDN personnel noted that the
  large skids from deliveries of postcards from the Government Printing Office have a label
  stating that they should be returned  SDN staff does not know of a mechanism for returning
  them.  Stamps delivered from private printers often are on pine pallets that cannot be reused
  for stamp distribution because they are not durable enough.  These pallets are discarded or
  recycled. The SDN typically uses the orange plastic USPS pallets, but stated that, with a full
  load of stamps, the plastic pallets could not be stacked more than two« high because they
  sagged under the weight

         Mixed" paper from the incoming orders, office paper, computer printouts,, and other
  miscellaneous paper is currently discarded.

         The facility also has an equipment storage cage for damaged, defective or obsolete
  equipment  Some equipment, such as- computers, is cannibalized as needed. When no longer
  useful, the equipment is discarded as solid waste.  The staff knew about the Central Repair*
  Facility in Topeka; KS but expressed concern that they had not received good quality repair
  service from the facility in the past

  2<,2o2   Hazardous Materials

         The Assessment. Team did not note any hazardous waste generated by the facility.
  Waste oil is generated in very small quantities from maintenance of machinery. The SDN has
- a verbal agreement with Hunt Midwest allowing them to deposit the used oil in Subtropolis'
  waste oil  tanks.

        The facility has a maintenance cage where all of the chemicals and  cleaners are stored.
  The maintenance room contained a solvent based parts cleaner, a freon  12 reclamation system,
  and several flammable materials cabinet containing a variety of paints, oils, greases and
  lubricants. Several materials in the flammable materials cabinet contain constituents listed on

the EPA's 33/50 list.  Appendix B! provides a list of the 17 chemicals EPA has targeted for
reduction or elimination.

2.2.3   Stamp Destruction

       The SDN is an accumulation point for stamps designated for destruction;  Obsolete or
damaged stamps that are returned to the SDN are destroyed by the SDN and the Postal
Inspection Service;  Stamps destined for destruction are packaged in many ways  including
cellophane, plastic coil covers and cardboard boxes. Destruction of stamps must be certified
by three independent employees.  The SDN has tried to use. a commercial shredder and baler.
Staff found that the shredder allowed whole stamps to pass through undamaged, which was
unacceptable to the Postal Inspection Service.  In addition, the upkeep and maintenance for
the shredder was extremely expensive and time consuming.

       The SDN has, in the past, used an on=site hammer mill to destroy stamps prior to
disposal. While the destruction of the stamps was effective, it was also very time consuming.
The material generated from these destruction processes is^not desirable to paper recyclers
because of the plastic contamination^ and the short fiber length of the shredded paper.

       Currently the SDN brings stamps to an incinerator in Indianapolis, IN for destruction.
The transportation and processing of the stamps at the incinerator is extremely time
consuming and expensive. The SDN is currently investigating a process that  shreds the
stamps and packaging materials and uses the resulting material for landscape mulch.  This
process currently is being tested and appears to be acceptable to the Postal Inspection Service.

2.2.4   Air Quality

       The only source of fresh air for Subtropolis is the entrances.  The location of the SDN
deep in the cave prohibits increased flow of fresh air from outside sources.  Blowers, located
hi the interior, exhaust air out of the complex. Since mining of lime is ongoing^ and truck
access is allowed, the air contains high levels of diesel soot.  Many of the underground
facilities draw air from the access road through filters.

       The SDN has closed off the access road air inlets because of the high  levels of diesel
soot  The soot is deposited on everything and the maintenance personnel clean extensively
and constantly to keep the soot under control.  The SDN recirculates the air in their faculty,
filtering it at the blower.  The filters for office air are changed weekly; those in the storage
areas every three weeks.  The facility generates the following waste filters on a monthly basis:

                    Four 20"x 25" x T filters for office air
                    Four 16" x 20" x 2" filters, for the NSD
                    Forty 20" x 25" x 2" filters* for the SDN

2.2.5  Humidity Control

       The air in the facility must be dehumidified to 50 percent humidity to protect the
stamps.  Filters on the dehumidifiers are replaced monthly. The coils on the dehumidifiers
are cleaned periodically with a pressure washer. Wastewater is discharged via-the floor

2.2.6  Battery Charging

       The facility has several fork lifts that are serviced on-site. There is a battery charging
room where water is added to the batteries, as needed. There was evidence of batteries
overflowing during the charging process; apparently the overflow ran down an open drain to
the sanitary sewer system.

2o2.7  Energy

       The facility is lighted by fluorescent  lights that, are spaced in rows approximately four
to six feet apart  No motion sensitive lights were in use.  Lights were on at all times for
safety and security reasons. The facility currently generates 15 to 30 eight foot fluorescent
tubes per month,  which are disposed with other solid waste.


                                   SECTION 3.0

       This section describes pollution prevention opportunities specific to the operations of
the Stamp Distribution Network and National Stamp Depository.  Exhibit 3.1 presents a
summary of the SDN and NSD waste generation, current management and potential pollution
prevention opportunities.


Current Conditions

       Personnel interviewed by the Assessment Team in offices, while aware of the double-
sided copying capabilities of duplicating equipment, do not consistently use those options.
Staff is not aware of any efforts to encourage reduction in the quantity of paper used and
disposed.  The Assessment Team observed a significant amount of computer printout (CPO)
in-the waste containers. White and mixed office papers and magazines are not recycled.  The
Post Offices and the SDN use a paper ordering system for stamps.

Pollution Prevention Opportunities

1.      Adopt Paper Waste Reduction Techniques

       Before initiating an enhanced recycling program, facility managers and staff should
adopt and promote a variety of techniques to prevent or reduce the quantity of paper
generated for disposal.

•      Establish a duplex copying policy for all multi-page documents  and provide staff
       training in the use of the double-sided function on copying equipment. As equipment
       is replaced, specify easy to use, rapid, duplex capability.

•      In office and warehouse settings, expand and encourge the use of electronic mail
       rather than paper memos and distribution copies.
      Limit distribution lists.  If paper copies are necessary, circulate one memo or report
      with a cover sheet indicating distribution.

Obsolete, damaged or
defective equipment
Corrugated cardboard
Computer print-out
White paper
Mixed paper
Toner cartridges
Plastic stretch wrap
Fluorescent tubes
Current Management
Some reused, most recycled
Discarded as waste
Discarded as waste
Discarded as waste
Discarded as waste
Returned for recycling
Some reused, many discarded as
Discarded as waste-
Discarded as waste
Discarded as waste
Discarded as waste
Discarded as waste
Reduce- generation, Send to CRF, send
to computer recyclers
Reduce incoming boxes, Reuse boxes,
Improve diversion for recycling
Reduce generation, divert for recycling
Reduce generation, divert for recycling
Reduce generation, divert for recycling
Reduce generation, divert for recycling
Continue recycling
Reduce variety, Reuse, Establish
recycling options
Reduce generation, divert for recycling
Divert for recycling
Reuse, divert for recycling
Divert for recycling
Procure more efficient filtering system
•      Identify opportunities to reuse paper and paper products.  Corrugated cardboard boxes,
       jiffy bags, manila envelopes and other packaging materials are reusable for their
       original function; paper can be turned over and used as scratch paper or made into
       message pads.

•      Encourage staff to proofread on screen and save information on disks rather than as
       paper file copies.

2.     Establish an electronic ordering system for stamps

       The SDN already has a computerized order system set up for ordering stamps on an
emergency basis. The SDN staff said that the process is slow but eventually the system may
be updated so that all orders  can be processed * y a computer system. Before the system
could be expanded, however, the Postal Service must consider that not all Post Offices have a
touch tone telephone system and that local staff may not be trained in computer use.

       The Postal Service should develop and implement an electronic ordering system on a
larger scale. An electric ordering system would simplify the ordering process, eliminate the

need to key in information; from the order forms, increase the efficiency of the SDN, and
reduce the amount of paper waste generated at the facility.  Since many small post offices do
not have computers, the electronic system could consist of a telephone voice recognition


Current Conditions

       Currently, the SDN only separates its cardboard and aluminum cans for recycling.
Staff accumulates flattened cardboard in a bin on a pallet; when the bin is full, the cardboard
is strapped to the pallet with metal banding and removed from the bin. The pallet loads are
stored near the loading dock until sufficient quantity is accumulated for recycling. The SDN
generates approximately 2,000 to 3,000 pounds per month of cardboard. The  SDN has
recycled one batch of cardboard. Approximately three tons of cardboard were recycled and
the USPS received $100.00 per ton. The aluminum cans are collected in  a container near the
soda machines, and-recycled.

       The  SDN generates other wastes which can be recycled; however,  these wastes are
currently disposed in the six cubic yard container located outside the SDN. The contain®- is
serviced by Deffenbaugh, waste hauling company and is emptied five times per week for a
cost of $188.00 per month ($2,256.00 per year).

       Mixed paper fromthe incoming orders, office paper, computer printouts, and other
miscellaneous paper is currently discarded.  The offices in the SDN currently  do not separate
computer printout for recycling. The Assessment Team saw significant quantities of white
paper and mixed office paper in the waste containers.  In addition, other materials are
discarded into the waste container that can be recycled including metal banding and shrink

Pollution Prevention Opportunities

1.     Reduce Quantities of Materials Entering the Facility

        See  Section 3.6 for a discussion of packaging review and reusable packaging.

2.     Coordinate Recycling Efforts withOther Postal Facilities

       The quantity of recyclable material generated by the SDN is relatively small.
Materials such as corrugated cardboard, paper or metal may not be generated  in sufficient
quantities to interest local recyclers or command a reasonable price. To make the recycling
program more economically attractive, the SDN should consider establishing a joint recycling
program with the Philatelic Order Processing Center located just down the road in
Subtropolis. During the site visit, the Assessment Team noted that the Philatelic Center


generated large quantities of OCC that are currently discarded into the compactor. By
consolidating the OCC collection program and dedicating a separate container to OCC, the
SDN and Philatelic Center may improve the marketability of this commodity.

3.     Coordinate Complex-Wide Recycling Efforts through Hunt Midwest

       There are approximately 60 companies operating in the Subtropolis Complex. Since
each is likely to generate similar  wastes, the owner pf the complex (Hunt Midwest) may be
convinced to help coordinate recycling efforts site-wide for several; common commodities such
as OCC, paper, and metal since these are readily marketable  commodities.  Revenues from
this type of effort may be minimal for the SDN but may produce savings through avoided
disposal costs.

4.     Coordinate Recycling; Efforts with Kansas City GMF

       SDN personnel visit the Kansas  City GMF daily to pick up mail. Because the quantity
of recyclable material generated by the SDN is small, the SDN may be able to  combine
materials with recyclables generated at the Kansas City GMF, which has an established
recycling: program.

5.     Set Up an Office Paper Recycling System

       Given the current market value of all grades of office paper, the SDN should begin
separating paper for recycling. The SDN should seek a market for paper and enter into a.
paper recycling contract indexed to the paper market The SDN should provide individual
desktop/area collection containers for recyclable paper.  These containers should be clearly
labeled and/or a distinct color to distinguish them from the waste containers. A collection
container for paper recycling should be located next to each printer  and copying machine.
Employees should be encouraged to empty their desk collection boxes into centralized
 consolidation containers.  The recyclable paper should  be regarded as a valuable commodity,
not a waste. Employees need information concerning the kinds of paper that can and should
 be recycled. Employees should  be involved in the planning and implementation of the
 recycling program so that they will value participating in it.  Exhibit 3.2 provides information
 on some local companies, interested in discussing paper recycling opportunities.

 6.     Expand the recycling program to other commodities

        To expand the recycling program, the SDN should provide individual collection
 containers for shrink wrap and metal.  These containers should be clearly labeled and/o: a
 distinct color to distinguish them from the waste containers.  Collection containers  should be
 placed in a central location for metals and shrink wrap.

        By expanding the recycling program to include metals, paper, and shrink wrap; the
  SDN should be able to significantly reduce the number of pulls  of its six cubic yard container.


The SDN should consider revising its co|tract withj)eftenbaugh to establish the container
pulls on an on-call basis.  In addition, til SDN sholld consider reducing the size of the
container, since less material will be placed in the container. By reducing the number o±
container pulls byhalf, the SDN-could potentially save $1,080  per year on waste disposal.

7. Establish Contract with Multi-material Recycler

       The SDN should identify and establish a recycling contract with a multi-material
recycler  in the Kansas City metropolitan area. There are several recycling companies that
accept a variety of materials for recycling. Exhibit 3.2 presents information on reeyclers of
other commodities-as well.  When establishing a contract with the recycler, the SDN should
enter into a long-term contract indexed to the market price  for each material. In addition ^
each material should have a minimum price which the recycler must guarantee that the bDN
will receive for the material.

       For additional information concerning recycling opportunities the SDN can contact the
Mid-American Regional  Council Recycling Hotline at (816) 889-7827 Ext. 1211.  The hotline
provides specific recycling information and contacts for recycling centers.

       The USPS is developing a- draft recycling contract as well as guidance to assist postal
 facilities m. selecting a recycler.

 3.3    PALLETS

 Current Conditions

        The SDN and NSD receive a variety of pallets mcludmgpme, HOPE plastic, and
 heavy duty GPO  pallets with deliveries of stamps, postcards and other supplies.

 Pollution Prevention Opportunities

  1.      Return GPO Skids to Source

         The Assessment Team contacted the GPO to  determine a method for returning GPO
  pallets  and skids. The Assessment Team spoke with personnel in the GPO Shipping Office
  (202-512-0924) who outlined the following options for returning pallets and skids:

         Pallets and skids can be returned to the driver at the time of delivery.

  .      GPO will arrange to pick up loads of 300  or more pallets that have been accumulated.
         Call GPO shipping at the above number with quantity and pick up location.  They will


      initiate a government bill of ladinf so GPO tilMncur the transportation costs.  A local
      common carrier will be dispatched, to pick up the pallet load.

      Return of skids and pallets, can include  broken pallets.  GPO will repair pallets with
one or two broken "strings" and recirculate them. Pallets that are broken beyond repair are
either sold as firewood or disposed of in a landfill.

2.    Require Use of USPS Pallets onStamp Deliveries fromPrivate Printers

      In future contracts for printing of stamps, require the stamps be  delivered on USPS^
pallets.  This would allow the reuse  of the pallets and reduce  the quantity of pallets discarded
because of the lack of durability:  USPS could also require the printers to backhaul their

3.     Investigate Mulching of Pallets with Stamps Destined  for Destruction

       The  SDN should investigate  the feasibility of sending  pine pallets to the mulch
manufacturer with stamps destined for destruction.

 Current Conditions
        The offices, warehouses and work areas are lighted with hundreds of fluorescent tubes
 arranged in pairs spaced four to six feet apart.  The SDN generates approximately 15 to 30
 fluorescent tubes per month. Expired lamps are disposed with other solid waste.

        USPS Memorandum for Managers, Operations Support, dated December 16,  1994,
 states that "Under no circumstances should these lamps be mechanically crushed or ground
 into smaller pieces.  This method of disposal increases.the exposure of hazardous materials to
 both employees and the environment. Lamps should be boxed prior to disposal.

        Fluorescent lights are one of me most energy efficient lighting sources available
 However, fluorescent lighting  tubes contain mercury, which is used as  an element to conduct
 me flow of Hie electric current.  Historically, fluorescent lighting tubes were discarded into
  landfills. When the tubes broke, mercury was released to the: environment.  This potential
  hazard caused many states to classify fluorescent lighting tubes as hazardous waste and
  require that they be managed  in accordance with applicable hazardous  waste laws and

         Recycling  spent fluorescent lighting tubes offers an environmentally sound alternative
  to expensive hazardous waste disposal. Additionally, recycling may relieve the generator of
  futoHSty concerns associated with tube disposal.  Several companies provide recycling
  Srv^ces for spent fluorescent lighting tubes and some of these companies also  accept ballasts,

a component of the light fixture.  Ballasts manufactured prior to 1980 contain polychlonnated
biphenyls (PCBs), which also present disposal problems.  However, ballasts produced after
1980 do not contain PCBs.  The useful life of ballasts is approximately 15 years.

       Some states allow ballasts that do not contain PCBs to be disposed of in sanitary
landfills  However, according to Stephanie Small of DYNEX Environmental, Inc., non-PCB
ballasts contain diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Evidence indicates that DEHP is a human
carcinogen.  Due to either the PCBs or DEHP content, Ms. Small recommends that customers
manage all ballasts as hazardous.

Pollution Prevention Opportunities

1.     Establish a recycling program

       Store expired bulbs  in boxes in a safe area.  USPS facilities should ship expired bulbs
to an approved facility for recycling of glass, metals, and mercury. Expired ballasts should be
shipped to an approved facility for appropriate disposal of hazardous constituents.

       Exhibit 3.3 provides information  on the specific services offered by companies that
provide fluorescent tube recycling services, the cost of the services and the geographic area
 serviced by each company.  For further information on the services of each company, see
 Appendix C.


 Current Conditions

        The Stamp Distribution Network does not make it a standard practice to purchase
 items with recycled content, such as paper. Instead, most items purchased contain virgin
 material. It appears that the purchasing officials at the  SON are unaware of USPS policy and
 Federal legislation requiring the purchase of materials with recovered content.  The United
  States Postal  Rwviee. Waste Reduction Guide (AS552. February, 1992, p. 32) directs
  Requiring offices to  "review purchase specifications to eliminate prohibitions or limitations on
  use of recovered materials" and to modify specifications to encourage use of recycled

        Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) directs Federal
  agencies to purchase "items composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials
  practicable."  EPA iias established procurement guidelines for paper and paper products,
  retread tires, re-refined lubricating oil, building insulation, and cement and concrete containing
  fly ash. EPA recently finalized the Comprehensive Guideline for Procurement of Products
  Containing Recovered Materials (60 FR 21370, May 1, 1995) adding 19 additional products
  including engine coolant,  trash bags, toner cartridges, binders and desktop accessories.

  I CO
•n 3 1
j if
•» J& ***
'3 H 8

' a 1 1
Is § tS .S ^s 5

. i .
• *~i is §
S S s ** ' 5.'

2 ... .


       o w
       vo oo


         cS  w
                 0. U
                                                            , 0,


                                                                 ~ «N rn u

            = *
            o -—
       ^ !"••  QJ

       5*2  §
       0> O '•?
       04 S 2

                  S - <
                 03 >» Oe t^
                 -      f ee

These guidelines provide information about the recommended percentage of recovered
material, product availability and performance, and specification language.

       In Executive Order 12873, dated October 22, 1993, President Clinton directs,agencies
to develop and implement affirmative procurement programs, for all EPA guideline items and
ensure that these programs require that 100 percent of their purchases of products meet or
exceed, the EPA guideline standards.  While the USPS is not an Executive Agency, USPS
policy requires compliance with Executive Orders to the maximum extent feasible. Exhibit
3.4 presents products for which EPA has established minimum recovered content levels.

       The SDN was not able to document successful implementation of EPA procurement
guidelines for products manufactured with recovered content  In addition, the operations
cannot demonstrate successful elimination of the seventeen products on EPA's 33/50  list.
Purchasing officials are not sure whether procurement specifications have been updated to
include recycled content in paper products.  Current supplies of printing, duplicating  and
computer paper do not contain any recovered content

Pollution Prevention Opportunities

 1. Purchase products with recycled content and train staff

        The SDN should establish preference programs  and adopt specifications for the
 purchase of products made with the percentages of recovered materials specified in EPA
 Guidelines.  The GSA catalog has special sections for environmentally sound products, such
 as paper with recycled content. These items are highlighted in green throughout the  catalog.
 The SDN purchasing official should make it a standard practice to purchase items with the
 highest amount of recycled content.  Changes in the procurement system will create  staff
 training opportunities and staff will need training on Federal affirmative procurement


 Current Conditions

        The SDN receives stamp shipments from private  and government printers on an
 irregular schedule depending on demand;  According to Mr. Al Fatah, a materials engineer in
 the USPS Stamps Services Office, because of the value of stamps, the USPS has developed
 strict packaging and labeling requirements for shipping stamps.  Special receipt requirements
 have been  developed.  The requirements include:

Percent Recovered Content
High grade bleached printing and writing paper
Mimeo and duplicator paper
Computer paper
Tissue Products
Toilet tissue
Paper towels
Paper napkins
Facial tissue

Unbleached packaging
Corrugated boxes
VeMealar Products.
Lubricating Oil (re-refined oil)
Construction Produetr
Fiberglass (glass cullet)
Cellulose loose-fill and spray-on (post-consumer paper)
Structural fiberboards
laminated paperhoards
Cement and Concrete (coal fly ash)
Cement and Concrete (ground granulated blast furnace slag)
Polyester Carpet Face Fiber (PET resin)
Patio blocks (rubber or rubber blends)
Patio blocks (plastic or plastic blends)
Floor tiles (rubber)
Floor tiles (plastic)
Transportation products
Traffic cones (PVC, LDPE, Crumb Rubber)
Traffic barricades (HOPE, LDPE, Pet Steel)
Traffic barricades (Fiberglass)
Park and Recreation Products
Playground surfaces (rubber or plastic)
Running tracks (rubber or plastic)
Landscaping Products
Paper-based hydraulic mulch (post-consumer recovered paper)
Wood-based hydraulic mulch (recovered wood and/or paper)
Non-paper Office Products
Office recycling containers and waste receptacles (plastic)
Office recycling containers and waste receptacles (steel)
Plastic desktop accessories (polystyrene)
Plastic-covered binders (plastic)
Chipboard, paperboard, pressboard binders
Plastic trash bags

retread tires






       •      Stamps must be shipped itf boxes; all Seams must be sealed with tape.

       °      The boxes must contain one or two covered windows enabling Postal Service
             employees to lift the cover and count the sets of stamps without breaking the

       •      The box must include a bar code^ that lists the item number, printer, date of
             printing, and the total value of stamps contained in the box.

       9      The sets of stamps contained in the box must be packaged in secure bundles to
             enable the individual sheets, rolls or books of stamps to be counted without
             breaking the seal.

       To ship the stamps to the post offices, the SDN must send the packages by registered
mail to ensure the delivery of the stamps. SDN staff place the orders into either cardboard
boxes or jiffy bags, depending on the number of stamps being shipped.  Then, the packages
must be wrapped in brown paper, each seam must be sealed with tape, and ink seals must: be
stamped over tape and brown paper.  These precautions are made to prevent tampering with
the shipments. At each post office en route, a Postal employee must examine the integrity of
the packages to certify that they have not been tampered with.-  In many cases, there may be
direct shipments which eliminates the need to certify the packages at each stop. For these
types of shipment, the packages are placed into metal mail transport equipment called over the
road containers or OTRs and locked with a special lock.

       The SDN purchases thousands of single use corrugated boxes to ship stamps to post
offices. Once the shipments from the SDN are received at then- final destination, the
packages become waste. The USPS incurs additional costs for the labor to unpack and
manage the boxes as  well as the costs associated with their ultimate recycling or disposal.

       According to the USPS  Waste Reduction Guide (AS552, February, 1992, p.  36) USPS
priorities for packaging are (1)  no packaging, (2) minimal packaging, (3) refillable or reusable
packaging, and (4) packaging that is recyclable and contains recycled materials. USPS policy
states,  "Returnable packaging—such as some shipping containers—can be returned to suppliers
for reuse and redistribution.  Refillable or reusable packaging may be refilled or reused by
postal employees, manufacturers and consumers . . . Requirements-generating offices should
investigate the potential for using these types of packaging. Packaging that can be refilled or
reused for its original purpose is preferable ..."

       The USPS has addressed the question of how to move mail between or among
facilities and, at  the same time, reduce the generation of waste  and the cost and labor to
manage that waste. The USPS maintains an inventory of more than 75 million pieces of
reusable mail transport equipment ranging from trays and hampers to rolling stock.  Wire
containers, OTRs, and multi-purpose containers are considered  desirable because the increased

capacity of these containers reduces the number of trips, resulting in savings from reduced
labor and transportation costs.

       At present, each USPS facility must document its requirements for mail transport
equipment (MTE).  Local areas are encouraged to establish "closed loop" systems to ensure
the availability of containers (Container Methods  Handbook PO-502, pp. 116f).  However,
imbalances in container availability affect facility operations and inventory control remains a
complex problem. To improve inventory control, the USPS plans to establish a network of
31 Mail Transport Equipment Service Centers (MTESC).  The MTESC will provide
computerized inventory tracking and maintain repair records.  Facilities will be able to call the
MTESC to find out where excess MTE should be sent as well as to order additional MTE.

Pollution .Prevention Opportunities

1.     Reviewstamp packaging requirements for stamp producers

       Review all packaging requirements for redundancy.  Develop a policy that minimizes
the packaging of the product yet maintains security.

2.     Initiate cost/benefit analysis on reusable packaging

       The USPS should apply the same policy to the movement of USPS materials and
supplies that they have applied to the movement of mail. USPS should initiate a study to
determine the cost/benefit of replacing single use  corrugated boxes in certain USPS  shipping
operations with distribution packaging that can be reused hundreds of times.

       According to a 1994 report entitled Delivering the Goods: Benefits of Reusable
Shipping Containers (INFORM Inc., 1994), reusable distribution packaging is most  effective:

•      for frequent deliveries,
•      over short distances.,
•      between a small number of parties, and
•      using company-owned or "dedicated" vehicles.

       Since there are defined shipping destinations, the SDN could initiate closed loop
packaging systems, especially for the larger receiving  facilities.

       The five major obstacles to expanding reuse of distribution containers include: 1)
capital expense, 2) tracking containers, 3) cost of returning containers to point of origin, 4)
lack of storage space and 5) resistance to change. Storage space should not provide a major
obstacle since the containers will mover in and out of the facility on a daily basis.

3.    Establish closed loop network for reusable packaging
       Specifically, the SDN should establish a closed loop network for stamp distribution
packaging.  Since the stamps are distributed within a confined geographic area (Missouri,
Kansas, Iowa, and Illinois), the SDN should be able to establish a closed loop system for
returning stamp packaging to the SDN for reuse.  See Appendix D for USPS instructions for
completing and implementing "Closed Loops".


Current Conditions

       The SDN has its own maintenance shop where parts and equipment are stored
This shop has a solvent sink. The SDN uses several products that contain either ozone
depleting chemicals (ODCs) or chemicals on EPA's 33/50 list for materials targeted for
reduction. Exhibit 3.5 provides a list of materials used by the SDN that contain these
constituents.,  The parts washer is a solvent-based unit and SDN personnel state that the
solvent has not been changed

Trade Name/Company
Dry Spice
Dymon Inc.
AR-94 Ant and Roach Spray
3.5 Ib VOC Lead & Chromate
Free Quick Dry Enamel
Hard Hat Primers and Topcoats
Bathroom cleaner
Ant and Roach Spray
ODC or 33/50 Chemical
5.2-817 % 1,1,1-trichloroethane
1-5 % 1,1,1-trichloroethane
10-25% toluene
0-3% methyl ethyl ketone
Pollution Prevention Opportunities

1.    Replace Products contaming ODCs and EPA 33/50 Chemicals

      The SDN provided MSDS for all of the products used. The Assessment Team
identified four materials that contained, constituents of concern, either ozone depleting
chemicals or others on EPA's 33/50 list

      Dry Spice produced by Dymon Inc. is used as a bathroom cleaner and contains
between 5.2 and  8.7 percent 1,1,1-trichloroethane.  There are numerous bathroom cleaners
that do not contain EPA 33/50 chemicals that can be used instead of this material. GSA

offers numerous cleaning products that are environmentally preferable and in many cases
biodegradable.  Systems are available, that use cleaning product dispenser units that measure
exact amounts of product for use.  These systems reduce the quantity of cleaning products
purchased and used and save money.     \          :
                                      I          •                                ••
       AR-94 Ant and Roach Spray is used as a pesticide and contains  1 to 5 percent 1,1,1-
trichloroethane. There are over the counter pesticides that do not contain EPA. 33/50
chemicals.  Please note that only personnel trained and certified for pesticide application
should be allowed to use pesticide products.

       The SDN uses paints in small quantities for spot painting of equipment or other small
items.  Specifically they use many paints that contain EPA 33/50 chemicals.  For example
MSDS were provided that showed that they used 3.5 fb VOC Lead & Chromate Free Quick
Dry Enamel Paint that contains 35 percent ;xylene and Hard Hat Primers and Topcoats that
contain 15 to 25 percent xylene, 10 to 25 percent toluene, and 0 to 3 percent methyl ethyl
ketone. There were several other off-the-shelf paints in the maintenance flammable materials
cabinet  The SDN should strive to purchase low-VOC products from GSA or off-the-shelf.
These paints do not dry quickly but the applications for the SDN do not require quick dry

2.     Eliminate solvent sink or replace: with an aqueous washer

       Eliminate the parts washer in the maintenance room or replace with a non-petroleum
based or  an aqueous cleaning system.  The SDN should evaluate the frequency of use of the
parts cleaner and make a determination concerning the need for a parts cleaner in this shop.
If the SDN ever chooses or is required to replace this parts cleaner, they should select an
aqueous cleaning system. The USPS has already conducted an evaluation of six aqueous parts
cleaning systems and compared them to the standard solvent-based cleaning system. Exhibit
3.6 summarizes the results of this study.  For a more complete description of the study please
see Environmental Compliance Model Vehicle  Maintenance Facility, United States Postal
Service, Northeast Area, Hartford,  CT: Vehicle Maintenance Alternative Technologies
Demonstrations and Evaluations, February 28,  1994.


Current Conditions

       The SDN uses several battery powered fbrklifts for the movement of materials.  These
forklifts are stored in the bfttery charging room.  When needed, the batteries are filled with
water and recharged.  The Assessment Team noted, and the maintenance supervisor
confirmed, that batteries have been overfilled and, on occasion, have overflowed during the
battery charging.  This acid battery overflow runs down a nearby drain to the sanitary  sewer
system without any neutralization.

 a •

5 a.

Performance Rating
(10 = best performa
CERCLA List of
Hazardous Substa
list of Hazardous
oxic Substances
CAA list of Hazardou
Air Pollutants
5.5 or g
pH b
Tangible Costs ($/yea
(Based on YMF usage

Pollution Prevention Opportunities

1.     The drain in the battery room should be diked to prevent the accidental discharge of
       battery acid to the sanitary sewer.  There are devices commercially available to dike
       drains. Once spills are contained, staff should neutralize the battery acid with sodium
       bicarbonate (baking soda) and then wash the neutralized acid down the drain with
       water.  Neutralizing the acid will reduce the likelihood of corrosion of pipes.

2.     Review procedures on the proper charging of batteries to prevent accidental acid


Current Conditions

       Since the SDN is located underground, sufficient internal lighting is very important for
SDN activities. However, the Assessment Team observed that lights were routinely left on in
restrooms, break rooms, and offices. In addition, the warehouses have several lights that
remain on constantly.  There are two reasons for this: (1) many of the lights are emergency
lights, and (2) several rows of lights are connected to the lighting switch outside the
warehouse.  The SDN staff is aware of the lighting problems in the warehouses and plans to
reduce the number of emergency lights and to rewire the lights.  Based on information
provided by the SDN  staff, the USPS facility in Kansas City pays more than $89,000 for
electricity per year.  This expense breaks down as follows: SDN $72,096.94 and NSD

       The Federal government is a major consumer of energy, using more than two percent
of all energy consumed in the United States.  The Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires Federal
agencies to reduce energy consumption per gross square  foot 20 percent by the year 2000 and
Executive Order 12902 requires Federal agencies to reduce energy consumption 30 percent by
the year 2005. Both reductions are from a 1985 baseline.  In addition, Federal agencies must
conduct comprehensive energy audits and install cost-effective energy conservation measures;
agencies are encouraged to audit 10 percent of their facilities each year, using "no-cost"  audits
where practicable.  These requirements are summarized hi Exhibit 3.7.

             Energy Policy Act of 1992
   Reduce energy consumption per .gross square foot 10
   percent by 1995 (198S baseline)
                                                         Executive Order 12902
                                             Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 30
                                             percent by 2005 (1985 baseline)
   Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20
   percent by 2000 (1985 baseline)
                                             Reduce energy consumption per gross square foot 20
                                             percent in industrial facilities by 2005 (1990
Conduct comprehensive facility..'audits' and install
cost-effective energy conservation measures
                                               Conduct surveys and comprehensive audits
In Federally owned buildings* install all energy and
water conservation measures that have payback
periods of less than 10 years
 Pollution Prevention Opportunities
                                               Implement recommendations for energy efficiency,
                                               water conservation and renewable energy that have
                                               payback periods of less than 10 years
     Motion sensitive lighting
        Install motion sensitive lighting in warehouses and other infrequently used areas  In
 warehouses, turn lights off in unused sections or maintain only low-level security lighting.
 Install motion sensitive lighting in restrooms and breakrooms to conserve energy.  A Postal
 facility in Merrifield, Virginia has placed motion sensitive lighting in its restrooms and staff
 has been pleased with the change and the amount of energy conserved.

 2.      Establish a "Lights Out" policy

        Establish a policy of turning off lights and equipment when leaving an area.  Where
 machine design permits, turn photocopiers to low power when not in use.  Each kilowatt hour
 saved prevents the formation of air pollutants, including 0.7 kg of carbon dioxide, 5.8 g of
 sulfur dioxide and 2.5 g of nitrogen oxides.

 3.      SDN lighting plans

       The  SDN should move ahead with its plans to reduce the number of emergency lights
 and to rewire the lighting in the warehouses. This will help to reduce the amount of energy
 that the SDN consumes.

4.     Install energy efficient lighting

       In many Federal buildings, approximately 25  percent of the energy consumed is for
lighting; hence,  replacement of inefficient lighting systems results  hi substantial energy and

cost savings. EPA operates Green Lights, a voluntary, non-regulatory program promoting
pollution prevention through the installation of energy efficient lighting. Federal partners
agree to upgrade lighting to maximize energy savings wherever it is profitable.  The Green
Lights program benefits participants by lowering electricity bills, improving lighting quality,
and increasing worker productivity.  Energy efficiency also reduces the quantity of pollutants
released in the generation of electricity.  For example, EPA estimates that if Green Lights
were fully implemented, where profitable, in, the United States, it would save over 65 million
kilowatts of electricity annually, reducing the national electric bill by $16 billion per year.
The program would also result in reductions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen
oxides equivalent to 12  percent of U.S. utility emissions, curbing acid rain and smog and
helping to slow the greenhouse effect

       According to the New York Tunes of Wednesday, February 22, 1995, "One of the first
Federal agencies to try this green technology was the Postal Service, which installed $300,000
worth of energy-efficient lighting in its Reno office in the early  1980s.  Postal officials say
that office has saved $52,000 a year in electricity bills in the years since, more than covering
the initial costs. Moreover, a study of the Reno office in the late 1980s found that the better
lighting helped make the mail sorters there the most productive in the Western United States.
The officials said that the better lights helped reduce the errors the workers were making,
allowing them to achieve a productivity gain that the Postal Service calculated to be worth
$400,000 to $500,000 a year."

5.     Become a Federal Partner hi the Green Lights Program

       Federal organizations can become Green Lights Partners by signing a Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU) with EPA (see Appendix E) agreeing to:

•      Survey agency facilities and identify lighting upgrades that will reduce energy use 50
*      Upgrade 90 percent of the square footage of agency facilities no later than September
       1,2005, and
•      Appoint a coordinator to oversee participation in the program and document annual
       energy efficiency improvements.

       Green Lights provides free technical assistance to participants through written
materials, information hotlines, and thorough survey and analysis software products that allow
Green Lights participants to analyze then* options for installing energy-efficient lighting.  The
system helps participants survey the lighting systems hi their facilities, assess their retrofit
options,  select the option that maximizes energy and pollution savings while simultaneously
rating or improving lighting quality and meeting the Green Lights profitability criteria, and
produces reports suitable for use by facility managers, financial staff, and senior management

       EPA provides the following support systems to help Green Lights participants obtain
information on energy-efficient lighting technology, financing options, and public recognition
opportunities.                          ^        ^

•      Lighting Services Technical Support: provides extensive technical support through a
       hotline, a comprehensive Lighting Upgrade Manual, and workshops.

•      Survey and Analysis Tools: state-of-the-art computer software helps participants survey
       facilities and select lighting upgrade options that maximize energy savings and meet
       profitability goals.

•••      Financing Directory: Federal agencies may utilize third party financing or traditional
       procurement mechanisms.  In addition, however, Federal participants may consider
       utility financing, energy savings performance contracts and the Federal Energy
       Efficiency Fund. EPA can also provide survey and analysis services through an inter-
       agency agreement.

e      The National Lighting Product Information-Program:  objective source of current
       performance and price information on energy- efficient lighting products.

e      Public Recognition: participants receive public recognition for their environmental.
       leadership through EPA-generated news articles, media events, and public service
       advertisements.  EPA encourages participants to promote their own Green Lights
       activities by distributing free, ready-to-use promotional materials.

       In the MOU, EPA and the Federal agency agree: "that the commitment to survey
buildings and complete lighting upgrades is contingent upon the availability of appropriated
funds or third-party financing resources."

       The USPS can commit to the Green Lights program by signing a Memorandum of
Understanding with EPA agreeing to assign  a coordinator, survey facilities and begin
installation of energy efficient lighting. The Green Lights Federal Program Manager,
Gwendolyn Taylor, is confident that the USPS could realize annual savings in the $40,000
range for the Kansas City facility, based on  average savings of $.22 per square foot currently
being realized by all Green Lights participants. Even if the facility does not join the Green
Lights program, it should strive to incorporate the goals of the program into its lighting plans.
For further information on Green Lights for Federal Facilities contact:

       Gwendolyn Taylor, Federal Program Manager
       Green Lights & Energy Star  Programs
       501 3rd Street, NW (Mail Code 62 02J)
       Washington, DC 20001
       Telephone: (202) 233-9472
       Fax: (202) 233-9578


 6.     Procure computers that meet Energy Star requirements

       Future computer equipment purchases should specify equipment that is energy
 efficient.  Executive Order 12845 requires Federal agencies to purchase computer equipment
 that meets EPA Energy Star requirements for energy efficiency. The EPA Energy Star
 Program is a voluntary partnership with ther computer industry to promote energy-efficient
 personal computers, monitors and printers. Participating companies have committed to
 develop computer equipment that powers down when not in use;  The "sleep" feature cuts
 energy use by 50 to 75 percent  Energy Star also includes a category for controlling devices,
 external retrofit products that reduce the energy consumption of existing computer equipment
 by automatically turning them off when not in use.  The Federal Supply Service offers a
 product called the Intelligent Energy Saver, a PC add-on device that controls electrical power
 to the PC and its peripherals. The complete PC system can be powered on and off at user-
 defined dates and times. Appendix F provides information on how to purchase Energy Star
 equipment and a list of participating companies and manufacturers of equipment that meets
 Energy Star requirements.


 Current Conditions

       The assessment raised concerns about air quality because of the underground location,
 regular truck traffic, the continuous presence of a fine black dust on equipment and surfaces,
 and the quantity and condition of the paniculate filters.  A lack of fresh air sources and
 potential need for additional filter systems was noted.

       The location of the USPS SDN and NSD facilities in an underground,  active,
 limestone and shale mine raises questions regarding the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the space.
 Observation reveals that the USPS has all  the potential chemical release sources of typical
 office space (hydrocarbons from computers, printers, and other electrical equipment;
 hydrocarbons from carpet glues and upholstery etc.) as well  as diesel exhaust from mining
 equipment, trucks and other vehicles. The  USPS also utilizes fork lifts, which may affect the
 air quality or present explosion hazards, depending on the type of lift and battery charging
procedures.  Given the unusual office ventilation configuration (the only entry point for
outside air is one mile away), the potential for poor air quality exists. Poor IAQ can manifest
itself as complaints of headaches, eye or lung irritation, or fatigue. Unhealthy IAQ can
produce more serious health effects.

Pollution Prevention Opportunities

 1.     Perform An Indoor Air Quality Study

       The Assessment Team believes that an indoor air quality study would provide hard
data to support recommendations for additional ventilation or improvements to the particulate


filter system and the addition of other air treatment units. Of particular concern in such a
study would be unbumed hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide from vehicle exhaust.  In
addition, the forklift battery charging operation may release hydrogen, a potential explosive.
This may be an OSHA issue.

       Since the air handler units (AHUs) serving the USPS space cannot deliver "outdoor
air," and can only ventilate the space with either air from the road space or recirculated air
that has passed through particulate filters, the USPS should monitor the air for specific
pollutants.  Normally, indoor air quality can be improved; by increasing the volume of
"outdoor air" to a space to dilute or remove airborne chemicals in an office area, Smce this is
not currently possible, the airborne concentrations of suspected pollutants should be monitored
to determine if the levels are  harmful or irritating;  Specifically, diesel-powered mining
equipment, trucks, and cars will release diesel exhaust  The air should be monitored for the
following exhaust constituents:

•      Carbon monoxide; an  odorless, asphyxiant gas is a coimnon air contaminant.  While
       high concentrations can result in  death, repeated exposure up to 100 parts per million
       (ppm) is generally believed to cause no sign of poisoning.  Carbon monoxide is not
       filtered easily from the air, and high concentrations can collect in poorly  ventilated

•      Carbon dioxide, an odorless, asphyxiant gas that can be used as a rough guide of air

•      Nitrogen dioxide, a toxic gas that will effect the human pulmonary system and cause
       death at elevated concentrations.

•      Nitrogen monoxide, a gas that can cause severe irritation of eyes, skin and mucous

       Diesel  soot,  contains benzo[a]pyrene which is an potential carcinogen.  The soot can
       contain hundreds of hydrocarbons and particulates including carbon and oxidized
       carbon compounds, metal oxides, oil additives, and fuel additives.  Some of these soot
       constituents  (e.g., PNAs) are carcinogens.

e      Hydrogen, a gas that can asphyxiate or explode, if encountered in sufficiently high
       concentrations.  Fork-lift batteries of a particular type can produce hydrogen-during re-

2.     Install Monitors

       Where  toxic gases are present and gases do not possess adequate physiological warning
properties (e.g., carbon monoxide), continuous environmental monitors should be installed.
These will warn the occupants should the engineering controls fail.


3.     Evaluate Filter Effectiveness

       The USPS should also conduct an evaluation of the USPS ventilation system. This is
based on visual observation of the filters, the contaminants suspected to be present^ and the
lack of outdoor air.  The filters observed at the USPS facility will collect some of the
particulates in the air. The USPS should evaluate the ventilation system and seek to improve
its efficiency.  The frequency with which the filters become black with particulate (5 to 10
days)  suggests an unusually high particulate concentration in the air.

       The filters presently in use will not decrease the airborne gases in the space.  If
monitoring results indicate high gas levels, then decreasing the concentrations for some of the
gases  may need to be investigated.  The space may have sufficient amounts of outdoor air
delivered by the current  system.  If additional air is needed, this could be accomplished by
increasing mechanical ventilation or opening holes to the outdoors through drilling.  This can
be determined through a ventilation system evaluation.


Current Conditions

       During the site visit, USPS staff indicated that they would like information on
accessing pollution prevention information through the Internet

Pollution Prevention Opportunities

       There are several sources of pollution prevention information on the Internet. Perhaps,
the best source is EnviroSenSe.  This Internet-based information source is funded by the
Environmental Protection Agency and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development
Program.  EnviroSenSe allows those implementing pollution prevention programs or
developing research and  development projects to benefit from the experience, progress, and
knowledge of their peers. EnviroSenSe includes a pollution prevention forum for all levels of
government, researchers, industry, and public interest groups.  EnviroSenSe has been
developed to host an  expert architecture known as the Solvent Umbrella. The Solvent
Umbrella will allow users to  access solvent alternative information through a single,
easy-to-use command structure. EnviroSenSe is also modem accessible via Bulletin Board
System (BBS). Through Netscape, EnviroSenSe address is:


       The EPA also has a World Wide Web  Server (WWW), which is being run as a
prototype system to provide Public Access to EPA information. The EPA provides the
comprehensive Access EPA document describing environmental information, as well as a
number of other pointers to Information Locators that can be obtained from the EPA and
related organizations. In addition to this document, the EPA's Public Information Center is


available to provide assistance in accessing environmental information.  An experimental EPA
People Locator is also available. ThrougkNetscapej EPA's WWW server can be accessed
through http://www.epa.gov.            **

       The EPA WWW server provides information on EPA Agency information and
environmental data, including:

       •      Press Releases, Calendar * Announcements, Speeches,
       •      EPA Offices and Regions,
       e      Consumer Information,
       e      EPA Initiatives, Policy and Strategy Documents,
       «•     Rules, Regulations and Legislation,
             EPA Standards,
       •      Science., Research and Technology,
       e      Information about Grants,  Contracts (RFPs), and Job Vacancies,
       •      Newsletters and Journals and
       »      Software and Databases.                                       -

       Another source of environmental information is the Air Force Center for
Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), Pollution Prevention Directorate, located at Brooks AFB
in Texas.  AFCEE produces PRO-ACT fact sheets on various pollution prevention topics,
ranging from corrugated cardboard pallets to a summary of environmental executive orders.
Through Netscape,  the PRO-ACT fact sheets can be accessed through:

       http://chppm-meis.apgea.army .mil/pro-act/index_txt.html.

       Appendix G provides information on a variety of additional pollution prevention
information sources.


                                   SECTION 4.0

      This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment report documents the processes
performed, wastes generated and current waste management practices at the USPS Stamp
Distribution Network in Kansas City, Missouri.  During the assessment process, the
Assessment Team identified opportunities to reduce both the quantity and toxicity of the
wastes generated by this facility and recommended techniques for implementation of those
pollution prevention options. The opportunities  described in the previous sections constitute
the recommendations of the Assessment Team.  Exhibit 3.1 presents a summary of the major
facility-specific and facility-wide recommendations.

      Dissemination of this report will encourage-application of the pollution prevention
opportunities in USPS Stamp Distribution Network operations.


             APPENDIX A.


Hunt Midwest SubTropolis is...

The world's largest underground business complex with over 10 million
square feet of developed space located 100 feet underground.  Hunt
Midwest SubTropolis will have more than 50 million square feet available
when fully developed.  This subsurface development, with its constant
(55-72 degree year-round temperature, is now home to more than 60 local.
national and international businesses.

SubTropolis was created through, the mining of a 270-million-year-old
limestone deposit. When mining, limestone is removed by the "room and
pillar" method. By working on an exact 65-foot grid system, a series of
"rooms'* are created with evenly spaced, 25-foot-square pillars to support
the 10-foot-thick. solid rock ceiling. This mined space is then used for
office operations, light manufacturing, warehousing and cold storage.

Tenant spaces in SubTropolis range in size from 300 square feet up to
nearly 500.000 square feet. By locating underground, companies take
advantage of:
v Low rental rates
T Low utility costs
T Safe and secure environment
T Controlled climate
v Maximum flexibility
r Improved employee productivity
Hunt Midwest corporate offices
                                                                     Underground executive office
                                                                     Underground warehouse space

Suhlropolis Facts,
r 4 million leasable square feet
T- 4 miles of lighted, wide paved streets
Y> 1.9 miles of railroad track
v 314 truck dock locations served by 200 national truck lines
v 16 foot ceiling height
^ 1.300 plus total employees
v 1,500 parking spaces
T 10,000 stone pillars
v Fire protected
v Strength of limestone is 10,000 to 12,000 pounds per square inch, which
  is three times stronger than concrete
Y: 1 million square feet (tons of rock) are now mined every year
Y- 38 million square feet (tons of rock) have been mined out since mining
  began in 1945
Y Crushed limestone is used to make asphalt, concrete and general
  construction materials
T^ Finely ground limestone is rich in calcium, and is  also used as mineral
  filler in-cereals and foodstuffs
            Geological Cross-section of SubTropolis
Hunt Midwest Enterprises
(owner of SubTropolis) is
made up of 3 subsidiaries:

Hunt Midwest Real Estate
Development, Inc.
A multi-faceted real estate develop-
ment company with residential,  •
commercial, industrial and under-
ground developments on over 3,500
acres of land in Kansas City, North

Hunt Midwest Mining
The mining operation within Hunt
Midwest Underground began in
1945. Underground mining has pro-
ceeded at a rate of approximately
25 acres per year and is calculated
to continue for the next 15 to 20

Hunt Midwest
Entertainment,  Inc.
Hunt Midwest Entertainment is the
operator of Missouri's number one
theme park complex. Worlds of Fun
and Oceans of Fun. Construction of
Worlds of Fun began in 1971 and
opened in 1973 with 60 rides,
shows and attractions. Now the
entertainment complex has over
140 rides, shows and attractions.
Oceans of Fun is America's number
one waterpark.  Over 3.5 million
people have visited Oceans
of Fun since it opened
in 1982.

                                 sB-g 	   _  ,
                                  c o a 3 a1 f> o a a.
                                  C = a,,o c P o_a _
                                  c a oSo o p 080 Q
                                      o a 5 o o o
                   ,         r. ' J - - -»= oo a cC-g-WA c_  « /. - o *0  c
                 * * * * * * ,. i _. fr i - ? J Qo oras^fe"-  o8^ o \ •-JB-^
12 ^3   ^ °o Qfi^ v--  c?"  o \ ~ jsr^'* v   y A^
l^^^^fe^^^^^4 %
>o P^s^^sT^^^^^^^v?  , "i^r^ \v
:° § ! ! ' 2 2 ? V^°, -'tl o. ^\^\i>fiOb 7/v:
                                j.a.fcjuBJL^^SjFf '- -  ?-  •-  ^
                                         i^< "ikarT^-. ~ 4 „ ^..2 i n Q d _<° ,J C!
                  ,-_-< -r^-^r.n«i-ji*   vjTr» J"'3OOOr!C3aO
                      o a a a c
         e = :• "> 3 'j-o c ") a c, ;• c. ." -s o
          c c o o o o c o o c n c. ~ G a
FOR LEASING INFORMATION, call Dick Ringer or Connie Kamps at (816) 455-2500.
Hunt Midwest Real Estate Development. Inc.. 8300 NE Underground Drive. Kansas City, MO 64161.



      •••'•-              ,. >* ..'.;,  :,;|  •              '

                        OZONE DEPLETING CHEMICALS
Halocarbon Number

Halon 1211
Haloa 1301
, CFC-13
Carbon Tetrachloride
Methyl Chloroform
Methyl Bromide

Chemical Name- Primary Uses*'
Trichlorofluoromethane 1^,4,5
Dichlorodifluoromethane 1^,4
Trichlorotrifluoroethane 2.3.4
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane 1"A3,4,6
Chloropentafluoroethane 6
Bromochlorodifiuoromethane 3,7
Bromotriflueromethane 1,3,5
Dibromotetrafluoroethane 1,3
Chlorotrifluoromethane 6-7
Pentachiorofluoroethane . 0 "
Teteaehiorodifluoraethane 4
Heptachlorofluoropropane 0
HeKachlorodifluoropropane 0
Peratachlorotrifluoropropane 0
Tetmehlorotetrafluoropropane 0
Trichloropentafiuoropropane 0
Oichlorohexafluoropropane 0
ChloFoheptafluoropropane 0
Tetrachloroethane 1,4,5,8
Trichloroethane (all isomers) 4,5,8
Dichlorofluoromethane 1,4
Chlorodifluoromethane 1,4,5
Tetrachiorofluoroethane 0
Trichlorodifluoroethane 0
Dichlorotrifluoroethane 1,3
Chlorotetrafluoroethane 1,3
Triehiorofluoroethane 0
Dichiorodifluoroethane 0
Chlorotrifluoroethane 0
Dichlorofluoroethane 2
Chlorodifiuoroethane 1,4,5
* The eight use categories are as follows:

1.     Refrigeration; Air Conditioning
2.     Blowing Agents for Plastics
3.     Fire Extinguishing Agent
4.     Solvent: Dry Cleaning Agent; Degreaser
5.     Intermediate for Synthesis of Other Compounds
6.     Dielectric Gas
7.     Aerospace Chemical
8.     Fumigant: Pesticide

                        CHEMICALS ON EPA'S 33/50 LIST
Cadmium and Cadmium compounds
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chromium and Chromium compounds
Cyanide compounds and Hydrogen Cyanide
Lead and Lead compounds
Mercury and Mercury compounds
Methylene Chloride
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone
Nickel and Nickel compounds
Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene)

                                    APPENDIX C.

                        FLUORESCENT TUBE RECYCLERS

       This Appendix summarizes information from several fluorescent tube recycling
 companies.  The information was developed in April, 1995.

 A-TEC Recycling, Ins.
 HO. Box 7391
 Des Moines, IA 50309
 (800) 551-4912

       A-TEC Recycling offers complete fluorescent lighting tube recycling services.  The
 company's service area includes Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska and
 Wisconsin.  The company requires that the generator pack used lamps in a box, preferably the
 original box in which the tubes, were received, and store the boxes in a safe manner (i.e., a
 properly marked area in which they are unlikely to be damaged).  A-TEC Recycling will pick
 up the boxes containing the lamps and bring them to its facility for processing.

       The tubes are fed into a machine which breaks the tube and separates the mercury
 from the glass,  the mercury is further processed to be used in otherapplications, such as
 new fluorescent tubes, thermometers, thermostats, etc. The glass is processed and used hi
 other applications, such as asphalt or cement.  In addition, metals  from the end caps of the
 tube also are recovered.

       A-TEC Recycling also accepts ballasts. The ballasts are shipped to FulCircle Ballast
 Recyclers  for processing.  FulCircle Ballast Recyclers is an EPA-approved facility located in
 New York City.

       The cost of A-TEC's recycling services is dependent upon volume and the type and
 size  of the lamps. General prices  for A-TEC Recycling services are: 54 cents per 4 foot
 lamp; 72 cents per lamp over 4 feet; and $2.29 per high intensity  discharge (HID) lamp.

 DYNEX Environmental, Inc.
 4751 Mustang Circle
 St. Paul, MN 55112
 (612) 784-4040

       DYNEX Environmental provides lamp recycling and ballast disposal services.
DYNEX can arrange for lamp pick up or the lamps may be delivered.  The company requests
that the generator place the lamps  back-into the boxes in which they were received.  If the

customer does not have the original boxes, DYNEX provides a rental service: for reusable

       DYNEX maintains a nationwide service area. The lamps are processed in the
company's Milwaukee, WI facility where they are placed in a lamp machine; The machine
breaks the glass and separates the glass,, mercury and. metal into separate containers^ The
metals are recovered for reuse, the recovered glass is used hi products,, such as fiberglass, and
the mercury is purified and reused in various commercial applications.

       The company accepts PCB and non-PCB ballasts. As mentioned above, the company's
representative recommends that generators manage all ballasts as hazardous. DYNEX offers
the following three options for ballast disposal:

       1.    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Approved Landfill Method - the
             ballast is transported in Department of Transportation (DOT)  approved drums
             to an EPA approved hazardous,waste  landfilL This option  is the least
             expensive of the three (disposal cost: $1.1-9 per pound, 1 drum minimum at
             $795); however, future liability concerns remain because the waste has not been

       2.    EPA Approved Reclamation Decap Method - The capacitor within the ballast
             contains the PCB oil.  Under this method, the capacitor, which comprises
             approximately 20 percent of the total  weight of the ballast is transported to an
             EPA-approved facility for incineration, eliminating future liability.  The
             remaining 80 percent of the ballast contains metals that are recovered and
             reused.   This decap process is conducted at DYNEX's Detroit, MI facility.
             This method is not an option if the ballast is leaking.  The  disposal cost is
              $1.49 per pound, 1 drum minimum at $1100.

       3.     EPA-Approved Total Incineration - The whole ballast is* transported in DOT
              approved drums to an EPA approved facility for total incineration, eliminating
              any future liability for the waste. This is the only  option available for leaking
              ballasts. The disposal cost is $2.59 per pound, 1 drum minimum at $2000.

       The price of DYNEX's recycling services are dependent upon volume, lamp type and
 transportation.  General price information, excluding transportation, is: 39 cents per 4 foot
 lamp, with a minimum of 100 lamps; 66 cents per lamp over 4 feet, with a minimum of 100
 lamps; and $2.89 per  HID.

 Lighting Resources,  Inc.
 386 S. Gordon Street
 Pomona, CA  91766
 (800) 572-9253

       Lighting Resources is an ally of EPA's Green Lights Program, which is a voluntary
 program to encourage American corporations to assist with pollution prevention by using

more efficient lighting systems.  Lighting Resources provides complete lamp recycling
services throughout the continental UnitecNStates.  The company picks up lamps from the
generator. Lighting Resources requires that the customer pack the lamps and prepare the bill
of lading.

       The lamps are processed in a manner similar to the processes described above. The
glass recovered from the process is sent to a cullet broker and is ultimately used in products,
such as fiberglass.  The aluminum recovered from the lamp end caps is also recovered for
reuse.  After an Mtial distillation process, the recovered mercury is sent to Bethlehem
Apparatus Company for additional processing and ultimate reuse (for more information on
Bethlehem Apparatus Company., see the contact summary below).

       Lighting Resources accepts ballasts and processes them at two of its three facilities.
The company's Greenwood, IN facility handles both lamps and ballasts. The PCB ballasts are
disassembled and the capacitors are incinerated or landfilled. The remaining metals are
recovered for reuse.

       Cost for services provided by Lighting Resources is dependent on lamp and ballast,
volume and shipping distances.  Jerry Balch provided a price range for the recycling services:
7 to 10 cents per lamp; 75 cents to $2.75 per HID; and approximately 75 cents per pound of
ballasts or $700 to $750 per 55 gallon drum of ballasts.

Mercury Technologies International
1940 Westwood Blvd., No. 218
Los Angeles, CA  90025

       Mercury Technologies International (MIT) also is an ally of EPA's Green Lights
Program. MTI provides complete fluorescent lighting tube recycling services.  The
company's facilities located in California, Florida and Pennsylvania provide nationwide
service.  However, MTI does not accept ballasts.

       MTI can arrange for lamp pick up. The lamps are processed in- house and all
materials are recycled; according to Sandy Factor, nothing is land disposed. MTI also
performs a triple distillation process to prepare the mercury for immediate commercial reuse.

       The recycling fees vary based on volume and shipping distance. Generally, MTI
charges between 7.5 and 10.5 cents per linear lamp foot. For HIDs, MTI charges $3.00 each.

2010 E. Hennepin Avenue
Minneapolis, MN  55413-2799
(800)  831-2852 or  (612) 378-9568

        Recyclights offers lamp recycling services on a nationwide basis, but does not handle
ballasts.  The company can arrange to pick up the spent lamps. The lamps are processed

within 24 hours after arriving at the Recyclights facility. The materials recovered from the
process include purified liquid mercury, aluminum, metals, soda-lime glass and a
calcium/iron-based powder. Following processing, Recyclights provides the customer with a,
certificate of conversion, a formal record of disposal in accordance with regulatory

      The price of the services provided by Recyclights depends upon the type and quantity
of the lamps and transportation requirements. Generally, Recyclights charges 40 to 60 cents
per 4 foot lamp.  Lamps measuring longer than 4 feet cost between 60 and 83 cents per lamp
and HIDs cost between $2.50 and $5.00 per lamp;

Mercury Refining Company
1218 Central Avenue
Albany,  NY 12205
(518) 459-0820

      The Mercury Refining Company provides fluorescent lighting tube recycling services
on a nationwide basis.  The company does not accept ballasts.

      Mercury Refining Company can arrange for pick up of the spent lamps. The
company, a permitted treatment, storage and disposal facility, processes the lamps, recovers
the metals for reuse and processes the mercury using a thermal distillation process, called
retorting, for future commercial use.  The glass is disposed of in a hazardous waste landfill,
even though the glass is not considered hazardous. According to Steve Graves, this option
avoids future liability concerns.

       The prices of the recycling services, which do not include transportation, are: 8 cents
per linear foot for whole tubes; and $650 per 55 gallon: drum containing crushed lamps. The
price of processing HIDs received hi  55 gallon drums are: $15 per gallon for HIDs with a
diameter larger than 1.5 niches; and $20 per gallon for HIDs with a diameter of less than 1.5

Bethlehem  Apparatus Company, Inc.
890 Front Street
P.O. Box Y
Hellerton, PA 18055
(610) 838-7034

       The  Bethlehem Apparatus Company, Inc. provides fluorescent lighting tube recycling
services  on  a nationwide basis.  The company does not accept ballasts.

       Bethlehem Apparatus  does not provide or arrange for any transportation/pick up
services.  The customer may  ship whole tubes in their original box or  another appropriate
box, or ship crushed lamps in 55 gallon drums.  The company processes the lamps, recovers
the mercury and disposes of all other materials including the glass and metals.

     Bethlehem Apparatus charges the .following for various volumes and types of lamps:
                                                           Whole 8 ft Fluorescent
Whole 4 ft Fluorescent

  1-3000 Lamps
                                  $4.50 each
$3.00 each
                                                                 $3.50 each
      $2.25 each
  3000-6000 Lamps
                                                                 $2.25 each
  > 6000 lamps
      Number of;-5S Gallon- Steel Drams
  I • - 5 Drums
  > 10 Drums
USA Lights Environmental Inc.
2007 Country Road C-2:
Roseville,MN  55113
       USA Lights provides complete fluorescent lighting tube recycling services on a
nationwide basis. The company claims that it is the only fluorescent lamps recycling
company that owns and operates its own transportation system, which services only facilities
located in Minnesota and Wisconsin.  USA Lights would arrange for pick up and
transportation services from facilities located in other states.
       USA Lights requests that me customer pack me spent lamps in the original box and
secure the box with tape, if necessary. The customer should record the number of lamps on
the box.
        USA Lights processes the materials using the USA Lights Model 2000 system, which
 is a self-contained, continuous,flow process. The glass,  metals and mercury all are recovered
 for reuse.  The lamps are processed within 24 hours of receipt and the company issues a
 certificate of recycling to document that lamp processing has been completed.
        The company has $6 million Pollution Liability Insurance coverage, which protects the
 customer from financial  responsibility should an accident occur either during transport or at
 the facility.
        USA Lights' prices for recycling services, excluding transportation, are: 44 cents per 4-
 foot lamp;  62 cents per 8 foot lamp; and $2.29 per HID lamp.  USA Lights does not accept


            APPENDIX D.



Container Methods

       STBP QMgi
              1nt«*-°ivi«ion Bock Shrnvtm, V,8, Fora 5398  Intoound/Oufe&ound for a pre-
              iM* amount: of tfcsa to analyze eeateainisr utilization.   Suggsatnd aooante
       of tia*, minimus 14 days.
               Hov«i|tMr 1-4, the GMF Xndianapolia Inbeuad/Outbetmd aowsmnt of GPJ*C«/ERMC«
       w«e* -scviwMd fee further mtalyza G?HC/SRMC atilisatien.                       /«»»••
                          * f "Yf*9*" -««*y P^iod te«u««n Oe*eb«E 15-28,     .
                   *      t«»Hat«i? b.iew Bh«^d fehat  IndisaapeliB eeasi8t«ntly
                cossfeaiaar* than w«r«
       Met* feh* Mjoaat of contatnae* e«e»4,v«d/di«pmfeefe«S by Hes/fegig.  (S«® exasssele. thafe
       XO4JL@WC;g              .

       1.  HER goal* Chicago - (SAfayafefeaj •=•  (Sasy)  -  Jadiasssgelis
           801 - Chicago - Indianapolis                       59

           802•- Indianapolis - &afay«tt« - Chicago.                  180    =>    -13.3,

           803 - Chicago - Indianapolis'                        Q
           804 - Indianapolis, - Chicago                               362    »    -202
           10i • - Chicago - t»f ay«tte« - Zndi«n*poli«          36«
           102 ~ Indianapolis - Chicago                               3,44

           103 •=• Chicago - !*f aycttec - Indianapolis           22
           104 . - Indianapolis,- &afay««tc - Chicago                    13
           US o Chicago — Indianapolic
           806- Zndiaaapolis - l^fmymtAm - Saty  - Chicago           252:
                 MIT DimraTOeg -- -113 OR -

       2.  HCR 46090 - Indiaaapoli* - BMC Ciacinaafei

           TOESt IH - 251   TCSTM, OOT - 555   HBT BIFFlUgHeS - -30* OR -29 PSR BAY
                                                      8MC «HCXHI»SI SBGMUSIHO
                                 GPMC8/SKMC8.  THI Fi«!XX.JSISS AE* WORKING OS

       3.  HCR 46011 - Indianapoli* -  (Caluabus,  I»)  - ioui«Till«p icr
           1 & 2 - Indianapolis - Columbsaa - &oui«vill«     1S6      346        -ISO

           3 84- Indianapolis - coluatms .- toaiarill*     122      22S        -103

           5 fi 6 - Indianapolis - Loui»viU»                 so      173        -133

                 HET SIFPBRBNCg « —376 OB —29 PER BAY

                      oo                              .  MS - BMC B«troifc, MI
                    - 99   TOtAS. OUT - 266   80» BIFFgRBHCB « -167 OR -13 MR BA*
                                          -Pago 1-
ESHIBIT 322.42 Cp.l of 3) — Instroctions for "dosed Loops"

                                                                                 Handbook PO-502

                                                              CbaptarB — Planning and Contest

Review Zntsa-Oivisioa Dock Sheefes, P.S. Fesa S398 Xnbowad/e«sfetee«aa«S for a; p8?*=>
determined aaoont. o£ t4a»- to analyse? eanfeainez u&ilizafciono.  Sagg«st«d< amount.
of tiaer miraiwine 14 days.
Mote Zntca->Qivision the eaouat o£ eontaiasvs- rae*iv«5          " 11J

     107' - Gary - Indianapolis                          27
     IOC - Indi»n»polis - taf»y«tt« - Gcsy                      193
     109 - GmSY •= XsdifiisaipcliB                           0
     116 -
     113. - easy - I^gaywfefes •>. Ja4i*n*pol,iB              2
     112 -= ladimnapolis <=     179
     2 - Indianapolis - Pt. Wayne                                1§S          - 2.6

     3 - rt.Hayao; - Xndiaaapoil*                       2QS
     4 - Iw4i*S£psii« =• F5oH*5fTJ«                                29ffl          - 8S>
      5 •= Ft.Kayne *• Kssaeia- •
          ZiKJieEsapslic                                  14S
      6 - Zndi*napoli« - Haaeie - re.Hayra                      214          - ?4
      7 « Pt.lfayn* - AMT Zndianapolis                    4
      * » Indianapolis - AMT Zndianapolia •» rfe.tfayna            9@           - S£
              PlgggBgMCg - -261 OR -2O PER PMf

      Hdt 46012 - Zndianapoli* -  (Mir Zndianapolia) - (Kokooo)  - So

                                                           MOMBgS Of
      1 « So.Send - Zndianapolia                       144
      2 - Zndianapolia - Kokaa» - So.Baad                        183        •> 39

      3 « SOoBsnd -' KoJsoes •= HUT Zndianapolia          122
      4- - Indianapolis - So°Bens&                                 374        °2S2

      5 •- Kokoas -  Indiaaapalia                        264
      & » ZndianapoliB •> Kokonw                                  131        +133

      7 <- So. Band - AMff  Indianapolis - Indianapolis    203
      8 - Indianapolis - So.Band                                  77        -t-126

                                      -Pag* 2-
   322.42 Cp.2 of 3) — Instruoions for "dosed Loops"


Cowtaimar Methods

      STEP TWO? (eonfd)

      4.  HCR 46012 (confd)

                                                                     OF CONTAINERS
          TR.TP                               '               IN      qqr       DIFFERENCE
          9 •= So. Bend - AMP Indianapolis - Indianapolis     43
         10 - Indianapolis - AMF Indianapolis - So* Band              180          -137
                             * "169 OK-   PER
      The Xntra-Oivision analysis was included in this report because  of  the possibility
      that th« of t icon which are receiving a. surplus may b» dispatching the containers
      outside the Bivisien.  Fog example, our study indicates that  a deficit condition
      (-21 pee day) exists on HCS 60893,, Gary to Chicago.  Other-possible routes* in
      which a similar situation, may assist ares
                 4SS10 -> SOoSend - Kalassase©
                 46711 - rt=Wayn« - Tolsdap OH
                 4€712 - FtoWayna - Jackson, MX
                 46714 - Ft. Ways* - Chicago
                 46990 - Kokome - BMC Cincinnati
                 47311 - Muneie- - Dayton, OH
                 47490 - Muneie •= BMC Cincinnati
                 47991 - t^fayatta - BMC S
       For these routes ait analysis will be p»?«o£faed to  detaraiin* whether or not there is
       a closed loop for
       The main objective  is to develop a permanent  solution to the existing shortfall of
       2SO GPHCS/ERMCS pee weak or -36 per  day.   The total  deficit for the Inter-Divisi<3n
       routes detailed in  this exhibit is -74  per day.   if  the data on the inbound/
       outbound sheets is  correct, the shortfall  quantity appear* to be obtainable- by
       modifying current mail processing operation*  that affect the deficit routes and
       mon,5°f  9     dispatch to ensure balance. Correction of the Inter-Division losaes
       would leave an ample supply of containers  available  for Intsa-Division operation*.

       In view of  the expansion of  eontainerization it is imperative that "CtOSED LOOPS"
       am established and adhered to  on an ongoing basis.  The Division must analysis, all
       their routes  and  develop the "CLOSES LOOPS- necessary to insure availability of
       rolling stock both Intra and Inter-Oiviaion.

       Leepe will  be closed as follows with assistance from the next lovsl necessary:


          IST8A-TRAMSPORT&TION                  MSC                          MSC
          ISTSH-TRIUISPORTATSOM                  KSS                      MSC/BIVISIOM
                                             DXVSSZOM                     BIVISSON
          IHTES-TSWHSPORTATSON               BEVISIOH                BSVtSIOH/TSS SPEC.

          IRT8A-TRM»SPORTATtOM                 TMSC                   ys£ spEC /liaTES
          IHTER-TRAHSPORTATION                 TMSC                   T^ SPEcI /AMTES

          When cooperation from other facilities cannot be obtained to close loop
          containers then _ the shipping facility must consider changing their way of
          dispatching their mail.   The supply of GPMCs/ERMCs are in nhort supply due to
          the increasing demands to containerize wherever possible.  When you ship
          containers and lose them replacement of those containers may not be readily
          available, thus,  forcing facilities to bed load and increase their man hours.
          Forscast^and procurement of container* will continue to be a priori"? to keep
          UP,?^Jh* IT^X °f eoilin? 8toek' howler, everyone must reSliz. that an
          unlimited budget does not exist to allow unlimited buys to replace uncontrolled
          dispatches due to lack of replacement procedures within the faculty
                                          -Page 3-
 EXmBrT322.42Cp.3of3) — Instructions for "dosed Loops"

 126                                                                            HandbookPO-502



                         APPENDIX E.


United States
Environmental Protection
Air and Radiation
                                                                            EPA 430-B-94-001A
                                                                            December 1994
Green  Lights for
Federal  Participants
   When EPA launched Green Lights- its flagship
   voluntary pollution prevention program - it engaged
   the free market by promoting profitable investment in
   energy-efficient lighting.  Since 1991. more than 1.500
   organizations across the country have joined Green
   Lights to conserve energy, cut their electricity bills, and
   reduce the amount of air pollutants released into the
   atmosphere. This dynamic program continues to grow
   and meet the energy needs of the country. Currently,
   Green Lights is helping Federal agencies comply with
   mandated: energy conservation goals.

   The Federal government is a major consumer of
   energy, using over 2 percent of all energy consumed
   in the US. Two mandates —The Energy Policy Act of
   1992 (EPAct) and Executive Order 12902 (EO 12902)
   — require Federal agencies to cut energy use^  Green
   Lights provides mechanisms for Federal agencies to
   meet these mandates by offering extensive technical
   expertise and planning support.


The Energy Policy Act of 1992

EPAct requires Federal agencies to reduce energy
consumption per gross square foot 20 percent by the
year 2000 (compared to 1985).  it also requires that
agencies install energy conservation measures with
less than 10-year payback periods.  Certain buildings
are excluded from this mandate (see box).  EPAct
encourages Green Lights participation in Section 543
(paragraph b.4).

"An agency may participate in the EPA's Green
Lights program for purposes of receiving
technical assistance in complying with the
requirements of this section."

            FEDERAL ENERGY


            FINANCING OPTIONS	.5
            Executive Order 12902

            EO 12902 requires Federal agencies to reduce energy
            consumption 30 percent per gross square foot by the
            year 2005 (as
            compared to
            1985).  It also
                                                                       Buildings exempt from

                                                                       •   Federal agency facilities
                                                                          that generate or transmit
                                                                          electric energy
                                                                       «   Uranium enrichment
                                                                          facilities operated by DOE
                                                                       •   Buildings in which
                                                                          compliance with the
                                                                          requirements would be
            requires a 20
            reduction in
            consumption in
            facilities by
            (compared to
            1990). The
            order compels
            agencies to
            facility audits and install cost-effective energy
            conservation measures. Agencies should audit about
            10 percent of their facilities each year. However, if a
            facility has had a comprehensive audit within the last
            three years, it counts as current. Agencies must use
            "no-cost" audits wherever practicable. The actions
            required of Federal agencies by EO 12902 are
            summarized below.
         Green Lights for Federal Participants • Lighting Upgrade-Manual -EPA's Green Lights Program * December 1994


     Goals for Energy Use/SqFt Reduction
         in Existing Federal Buildings

  EPACT, 1992	20% by 2000 relative to 1985

  EO 12902. 1994	30% by 2005 relative to 1985
Activities Required  by EG 12902

September 1994

*  Begin implementing cost-effective
   recommendations from comprehensive facility  '
   audits performed within the last three years to
   install energy efficiency, water conservation, and
   renewable energy technologies

^  Designate one major building to showcase energy
   or water efficiency (and other renewable energy
   technologies if possible)

v  Develop showcase implementation plan

March 1995
•  Identify high priority facilities to

'  Complete first 10 percent of
   comprehensive facility audits

Within six months of each

'  Begin installing cost-effective
   recommendations (l.e., those
   with less than 10 year
   payback) for energy efficiency,
   water conservation,  and
   renewable energy technologies

September 1995

•s  Complete prioritization surveys
   for all facilities
                   December 1995

                   *  Reciassify "exempt" or "industrial" facilities
                      based on prioritization surveys, and report to the
                      Federal Energy Management Program and the
                      Office of Management and Budget
                   I interaction Between EPAct and
                   EO 12902

                   Both SPAct and EO 12902 require Federal agencies
                   to reduce energy consumption per gross square foot
                   and to implement energy conservation measures.

                   EO 12902 effectively extends the EP Act  timeline for
                   Federal energy conservation measures to 2005 and
                   requires additional energy savings by that time. It
                   also requires energy conservation in industrial
                   facilities. Finaily, while EPAct allowed exemptions of
                   entire facilities due to specialized, energy-intensive
                   activities, EO 12902 requires agencies to designate
                   specific buildings as exempt and implement cost-
                   effective conservation measures wherever possible in
                   other parts of those facilities.

-X reduce energy consumption per gross ft210 percent by 1995 (compared
   to 1985)
S reduce energy consumption per gross ft2 20 percent by 2000 (compared
   to 1985)
>* install all energy and water conservation measures with payback periods
   of less than 10 years in Federally owned buildings
S exempt buildings in which energy intensive activities are carried out

EO 12802

S reduce energy consumption per gross ft2 30 percent by 2005 (compared
   to 1985)
> reduce energy consumption per gross ft2 20 percent in industrial facilities
   in aggregate by 2005 (compared to 1990)
y" conduct surveys and comprehensive audits and implement
   recommendations with payback periods of less than 10 years
S reclassify "exempt" facilities
     Green Lights for Federal Participants • Lighting Upgra.     5 2    ^PA's Green_Uohts_

   To assist in overcoming many of the
   obstacles that may have stalled lighting
   upgrades in the past, participants will
   receive extensive support materials and
   services from EPA. We currently provide
   participants with the following products,
   information, and services.
Information Hotlines
Green Lights Electronic Bulletin Board
Energy Star Fax-Line System
•Specifier Reports"
Lighting Answers"
Ught Briefs"
Lighting Upgrade Manual
Lighting Upgrade Workshops
Green Lights Financing Directory
Lighting Waste Disposal Information
Decision Support System
Directories of Green Lights Allies
Implementation Planning Assistance
Communications Assistance

In Federal buildings, approximately 25 percent of the
energy consumed is for lighting. Retrofitting such
systems could result in substantial energy savings,
providing cost-effective options for meeting Federal
energy mandates.

EPAct encourages participation in Green Lights
because it provides Federal agencies with many of the
tools they need to get moving on lighting retrofits.  It
offers comprehensive, up-to-date lighting information
and responsive support services. The program also
has analytic tools to help participants rapidly analyze
lighting systems and select appropriate upgrade
solutions. Additionally, Green Lights helps
participants effectively plan upgrades and publicize
their successes once upgrades are complete.
Who Can Be a Federal Partner?

Green Lights is open to any Federal organization
(including sub-agencies) that has control over its own
                                               facilities and budget, and has its own management
                                               structure. In other words, legislative branch agencies.
                                               executive branch departments/and administrations,
                                               bureaus, and services within departments can join. A
                                               diverse mix of Federal Partners has already joined the
                                               program, including the Bureau  of Reclamation, Kelly
                                               Air Force Base, the National Security Agency, and
                                               several Department of Energy  and Department of
                                               Defense facilities.
What Do You Agree to D©
by Joining?

Federal Partners agree to reduce lighting energy use
by SO percent, provided lighting quality is not
compromised. In the Memorandum of Understanding
(MOU), Federal Partners agree to conduct a variety of
energy saving activities in owned facilities:

*  Survey all agency facilities and identify lighting
    upgrades that will reduce energy use 50 percent
    without compromising lighting quality.

*  Upgrade 90 percent of the square footage of
    agency facilities no later than January 1, 2005.

*  Implement all lighting projects with payback
    periods of less than 10 years by January 1, 2005.

 »•  Re-survey and, if necessary, upgrade each facility
    within five years  of the initial surveys and

 <•  Appoint an implementation director who oversees
    participation in the program.

 *  Document annual energy efficiency

 *  Encourage regulatory reform and public
    awareness efforts.

 Design new facilities in compliance with applicable
 codes and regulations (e.g., 10 CFR Part 435 Subpart

 EPA encourages organizations to look at lighting as
 an investment opportunity, not as an overhead cost.
 Green Lights asks federal participants to cut lighting
 energy use 50 percent, contributing to the overall 30
 percent energy reduction required by EPAct.  This
 goal is achievable, because Green Lights participants
 are accomplishing average returns of over 40 percent
       Green Lights for Federal Participants •• Lighting Upgrade Manual • EPA's Green Lights Program • December 1994

and reducing their lighting electricity
use by an average of 46 percent.
 Upgrading Leased Space

 Federal Partners also agree to
 upgrade leased facilities.  However.
 several factors can limit their ability to
 upgrade these facilities: the length of
 the lease, the cooperation of the
 landlord and tenants, and whether the
 building is federally owned.  The
 following MOU agreements take these
 limits into account.

 »   Survey leased facilities where the
    agency pays directly for electricity
    or where the General Services
    Administration (GSA) delegates
   • management authority
Definitions of Financial Terms*

LCC = (investment costs - salvage values) + (non-fuel O&M costs) •*•
       (replacement costs - salvage costs) + (energy costs)

NPV = LCC wunout oroiect - LCC witn project

Savings to Investment Ratio

     = PV Savings in energy and non-fuel Q&M costs	
       PV Costs in investment and replacement costs - salvage values

IRR  =  [(terminal value of savings/present value of costs) !'"1 -1], where
       n = the number of years in the study period

Simple Payback

     =  Number of years required for  investment costs to equal
       (cumulative energy cost savings  - non-fuel costs), not
       considering future price changes  or discount rates

" as defined in 10 CFR Part 436
 »   Identify lighting upgrades in
    applicable facilities that will reduce energy use 50
    percent without compromising lighting quality

 *   Upgrade 90 percent of the square footage of
    qualifying leased facilities no later than January 1

Non-delegated GSA buildings are the responsibility of
the GSA, not the Federal Partner. However, Partners
agree to work with the GSA to expedite surveys and
upgrades of these buildings.  If landlords or tenants
refuse to cooperate. EPA will conduct meetings to
identify the benefits of Green Lights and to seek GSA

Three circumstances generally preclude upgrades in
leased spaces:

*   payback penod exceeds the remaining1 duration of
    the lease term

*   lease expires less than five years from the date
    the MOU is signed

*   Federal Partner does not pay utilities directly
                   EVALUATING UPGRADE

                   Green Lights encourages Partners to choose
                   profitable lighting alternatives that are the most
                   energy-efficient, thereby maximizing energy savings.

                   As they begin their upgrades, participants use the
                   Decision Support System (DSS) to select the mix of
                   technologies that  maximize energy savings. Next
                   they use internal rate of return (IRR) and net present
                   value (NPV) to measure profits from lighting
                   investments. A Green Lights upgrade is considered
                   profitable if the IRR is equal to or greater than 20%.
                   Green Lights chooses this hurdle rate because of the
                   low risk involved in lighting upgrades and the added
                   benefit of pollution prevention.  NPV calculations help
                   participants select the most profitable project among
                   several that meet the IRR test.  ProjectKalc (another
                   Green Lights analytical tool) can analyze NPV on a
                   system- or building-wide basis.  For more information.
                   see Financial Considerations, a section of the Lighting
                   Upgrade Manual.
      Green Lights for Federal Participants . Lighting l    54    ial . EPA.S Green UqhK Pr>virgm .
                                                                                      o__ <00<1

                   Internal rate of
                   return (IRR) is an
                   acceptable LCG
                   method provided
                   that the-IRR (as-
                   described in 1Q
                   CFR 436.22) is
                   greater than the
                   discount rate as set
                   by DOE.
.ife-Cycle Costs

PAct refers to 10 CFR Part 436 to specify life-cycle
ost calculations. According to these regulations,
ife-Cycie Costs (LCC) refer to the total costs of
wning, operating, and maintaining a building over its
seful life, and are determined by evaluating and
Iternative building
ystems. For
eased buildings,
ne LCC are
;alcuiated over the
emaining term of
he lease. The
nethod of
:alculating LCC.
specified in 10
3FR436. is a
analysis of
•elevant costs « excluding costs incurred before the
analysis - producing a discounted cash flow and
;alculating the net present value. Future versions of
:he DSS and ProjectKalc will calculate LCC.


Building energy conservation measures are deemed
cost-effective if one of the following criteria is met.

'  LCC are estimated to be lower than other

*  NPV is estimated to be positive.

*  Savings-to-investment ratio is estimated to be
   greater than one.

•  Adjusted IRR is estimated to be greater than the
   discount rate as set by DOE.

'  Simple payback is significantly less than the life of
   -the system and the federal building in which it is

Investments are not deemed cost-effective for
buildings that are...

*   under a short-term lease, with less than one year
    remaining and without a renewal option or with  a
    renewal option that is not likely to be exercised.
                                                   pccupied under a lease that includes utilities in the
                                                   lent and does not provide a pass-through of
                                                   energy savings to the government.

                                                   scheduled to be demolished or retired from
                                                   service within one year or less.

Besides third-party financing and traditional
procurement routes. Federal agencies have several
options for financing lighting upgrades. They are:

«•   utility financing
*•   energy savings performance contracts
*   Federal Energy Efficiency Fund

The Federal MOD includes a financial disclaimer
stating that "both parties agree that the commitment
to survey buildings and complete lighting upgrades is
contingent upon the availability of appropriated funds
or third-party financing resources."
                                                Utility Financing

                                                EPAct authorizes agencies to participate in utility
                                                programs that increase energy efficiency, conserve
                                                water, or manage electricity demand. According to
                                                EPAct, agencies may accept rebates or other
                                                incentives to increase energy efficiency and may not
                                                be denied them if they satisfy the criteria other
                                                customers must meet. Agencies may also enter into
                                                negotiations to address any unique needs of their
                                                 Energy Savings Performance

                                                 Energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are
                                                 also authorized by EPAct.  ESPCs are contracts with
                                                 energy service companies that guarantee energy
                                                 savings to an agency and require annual energy
                                                 audits. The contractor incurs the costs of
                                                 implementing  energy savings measures - including
                                                 the costs of audits, equipment installation, and training
                                                 — in exchange for a share of the energy  savings. The
                                                 head of a federal agency may enter into these
                                                 contracts to achieve energy savings and benefits.

                                                 The term -- which may not exceed 25 years — and
                                                 conditions of any government payments and
Green Lights for Federal Participants • Lighting Upgrade Manual « EPA's Green Lights Program •
 performance guarantees are specified in the contract
 Aggregate annual payments to utilities and contractors
 cannot exceed the amount an agency would have paid
 for utilities without an ESPC. Additionally Federal
 agencies may incur debt to finance energy
 conservation measures using ESPCs, provided
 guaranteed savings exceed payments.

 To facilitate the selection of contractors, DOE has
 developed an annually-updated list of qualified energy
 service firms. Federal agencies are required to use
 contractors from this list.
Federal organizations that make the commitment to
Green Lights are profiting by reducing their energy
consumption and electricity bills, improving lighting
quality, and increasing worker productivity. By using
energy-efficient lighting, they are also reducing the air
pollution caused by power generation (particularly
carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and
heavy metal emissions), As one of the first market-
driven, non-regulatory programs sponsored by EPA,
Green Lights is revolutionizing the way America
cleans up the environment.
 Federal Energy Efficiency Fund

 The Federal Energy Efficiency Fund was established
 by EPAct to provide grants to assist agencies in
 meeting its requirements. Guidelines for submitting
 proposals were issued on June 30,1993.,

 Funds have been appropriated through 199S. Up to
 $6 million was available for fiscal yean 994  and up to
 $50 million is available in fiscal year 1995  These
 funds will be distributed to agencies based on a
 combination of several factors:

 *  cost-effectiveness of project

 *•  amount of energy and cost savings anticipated

 *  amount of funding committed to the project bv the
    agency                                 '

 *-  the extent to which proposals leverage financing
    from non-Federal sources

To encourage energy efficiency EPAct mandates that
some of the energy and water cost savings remain
available to Federal agencies. An amount equal to 50
percent of the cost savings (from utility rebates or
ESPCs) remains available for additional energy
efficiency programs, particularly at those facilities
where energy savings are achieved. To maintain
these savings, agencies must establish a fund and
maintain strict financial controls, documenting savings
realized and expenditures made. These records must
be made available for public inspection upon request
      Green Lights for Federal Particle

A Bright Investment in the

Green Lights is an exciting; and innovative programs
sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agen-
cy (EPA) that encourages major US corporations and
other organizations to install energy-efficient lighting

Organizations that make the commitment to Green
Lights will profit by lowering their electricity  bills,
improving lighting quality, and increasing worker
productivity. They will also reduce the air pollution
caused by electricity generation.

For more information contact:

Green Lights Program
US Environmental Protection Agency
401  M Street, SW (62G2J)
Washington. DC 20460

Green Lights Information Hotline
(for program, technical, and software support)

 a  (202)775-6650
'Fax (202) 775-6680

 Green Lights Ally Information

 »  (202)293,4527
 Fax (202) 223-9534

 Energy Star Fax-Line System

' 9  (202) 233-9659
Green Lights for Federal Participants is an appendix
to the Lighting Upgrade Manual.  Other documents in
the Manual are listed beiow.

Lighting Upgrade Manual


«••  Green Lights Program
•••  Implementation Planning Guidebook
«  Financial Considerations
*  Lighting Waste Disposal
e  Progress Reporting
o  Communicating Green Lights Success


«  Lighting Fundamentals
«•  Lighting  Upgrade Technologies
»••  Lighting Maintenance
*  Lighting Evaluations,
••  7?7e Lighting Survey
       To order other
       documents or appendices
       in this series, contact the
       Green Lights Hotline at
       (202) 775-6650. Look in
       the monthly Green Lights
       Update newsletter for
       announcements of new
       and relevant publications.
                                                               lw Green

       Green Lights for Federal Participants • Lighting Upgrade Manual « EPA's Green Lights Program .December 1994

    In order to maintain consistency and fairness among program participants, this Memorandum of Understanding may not be changed.

                                     Memorandum of Understanding Between
                                The United States Environmental Protection Agency
                                                   Federal Agency
I. Common Agreements and Principles

          Program.  Either or both of those programs may be entered by signing addenda to this Memorandum of Understanding.
         o^^                                      "•'"•'« ™— prof^iHcy and competitiveness, reduce govern

                                                                  ***** «•*•• MOU> • ******
           «he vitality of the free enterprise system in reducing costs, and
           the capability of voluntary programs ro achieve national goals with minima! regulation.

                                              ****** *• ^'^ «>f *e Green Lights Program and its parocipan* is cri

                               ** j°ining Green U8hK con«toues Pwicipation in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fetteri-
                         agencies may pamcspate in the Federal Relighting Initiative without joiningGreen Lights.
                                                      ™ ln ^"^ w'* E-»- Order 12902 Energy Efficiency and
  . Federal Faslaer's Respoosibilitiea
                - U                                       * Fcdeni "n^iiarioa mat joins the Green Lights Program by signing
             of Undersaadm.  Any autfaonty of the Government of the United Stales, in the Executive, Legislative, or Wki
                                                                                      co«ii of any of its o^
                                                         executive branch departments, and administrations, bureaus/and serviees

                                   Policy Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-486) authorizes Federai agencies to participate in the Green Ligte
       ^r                                                 --                      -                   ..
^A^^Tc^Sf^i^LT^n3™1 ** EXCCUtiVe Oldep l2902 "*S«i« 543 of the Natiosal Energy Conservation asd
Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8253). as amended by me Energy Policy Act of 1992, provide authorities for Federai enesgy maiiagemem.
                                  "Ki °PeratiOMl Control of some or all of its facilities, and further agrees mat its membership in Gran
                                 t                                            ,
                     f™lp?nent "*««W|WW (s«ch as subsidises, divisions, campuses, etc.) over which it can and/or does exercise
                            """'""S «e square footage tally on Appendix A. Federai Partner agrees to include all facilities
A               Imf?e°lttfat*on »»*».  P«te«l Pamwr agrees to appoint a senior represenative of the organization (designated on
£T!^ l^STiSJlS1 lemeT0" DireCt°r  ^ Gree" LightS faP»«"«««ion Direc»r will be me person responsible for ensuring
that Federal Parmer successftilly completes its commitments as stated in this MOU. and Federai Partner agrees to assignthe authority to the
Implementanon D,rector needed to execute that responsibility.  The Green Lights Impiemenation Director'f^nsSes        ^

             •  esoousnmg ana overseeing Green Light Partner's implementation plan, which includes the securing of personnel
                and financial resources, and the scheduling of upgrade projects.
             • directing Federal Partner's lighting upgrades.
             • cooidinating Federal Partner's participation in Green Lights activities.
             • facilitating communication with the Green Lights Program Office at EPA. and
             • annual reporting to EPA of Federal Partner's lighting surveys and upgrades.

  Federal Farmer agrees » notify EPA in writing within two weeks of any chassge in the designates! of the Green Lights Implementation

                   * Dfa*«ff- &*** Pwner agrees to appouc a representative of the organization (designated on Appendix A) as Green Lighe.
                  ucaor. TTw Communications Director will direct Federal Partner's communtcati®®* effort to ensure (as deemed appropnW
            »«*"*«*« organization is  properly  recognized for its environmental  protection achievements through Greera Lights, and. in
  addraon. to educamall employees and the general public about the Program.  Federal Fareser agrees to notify EPA in writing within two weeks
  of any change in the designation of the Green Lights  Co.ni
  ™d !?8rade l five years after the dm Is MOU
  «L m^B^T,?Sy fT8 ft°IB:* T Fedefal landi°f Under »' W"«« «P*™
  enters into force, and (2) Federal Pamter pays for electricity cosiidireedy to an'lleetric utility.
             *r5?^^hS1^"TeTLTlifPllK!- Notwithstanding paragraph n.F. if Federal Farmer's facilities are comprised of mess
             man 75 percent stum-term (less than 5 years remaining) leased space. Federal Parater agrees to-
                •  survey at least 50% of its short-arm leased space.

                                          ing teehn°i0gy' «*•"•»-««* mainaianee options dm can reduce energy use; and
                                             ^^ 5^ « * whote «•» f«'»«V- aggregate basis^ maximizes energy savings and
                                           meets Federal Partner's lighting quaiky objectives.

                                               ^^^^0^^ W^«P™V^ « Paybaok term shorter than the remaining^™
                                              UPil8fL!S%« °f ** SqUare fo0age of i«sh°«'«™ 'eased facilities omer tlmn thoL tot
                                             recommended 5-year period.

                                                       S^ ^^ leased bv *e General Services Adminisaation (GSA) and in whksts
                                                     to Feiterai Pa^^
                                                                                         -wWwi delegstion to FsderaS
              corii            a! eowm or majority owner) to other pmnies and Federal Partner pays for electricity
              costs direetiy to an eiecme ooh*. Federal Pamer agrees to treat such btiildmp as in parafraph H.F.

   H. Quick Statt.  WithgH 180 days of signing mis MOU. Federal Fanner agrass se-

                                     "100'*1^"*1" demonsBaiSen «W«ta8 «Pg«*ie w«* ttctahal cooperation from .'EPA. if needed.
                                                    o rupgraded ui^der ftis agreement, meir loc^n.soiMre fooage^

                                                *kk*^ff ffie«»S-  EPA agrees mKitwill provide materials. oriemat»:» information
                                                                                       .  Federal Para»r agrees that all
                                                                     ment, environment compliance, huma^re
              o.T'  T   "^"^ eB-) ^-<*"P«— ^ a senior manner at the ktek^ff miag.
              Ltata ^«™« ^Y   *    "" °f SUPplymg """'^ fanKipatmg via telephone or videoeonference. or sending Grees
              Lights staff or consuiams to the meetmg at me request of Federal Farmer.     ^^
   I.        estrtftiortoJoliiin               EPA and Federal Farmer agree that Federal Partner may count ttwsid its upgrade
         Program sanduds and proper documenonon ts provided (see "Reporting.' betew).  EPA and Federal Farmer agree that facilities in
                                                                     in *e Greea "*• ^i«« common that a new lighting
                                     ™«sures «• warranted in a previously upgraded facility, provided that the earlier upgrade was doi
                                    *,$!l?inil Gre8n UglMS &nP|em"««*on R*PO«s (blank copy attached as Appendix D) or the equivalent

               .. establish me credibility of Federal Farmer's pollution-prevention achievements.
               . demonstrate the benefits ofenergy-efficiem lighting to Partner's management, customers, and other stakeholders, and to
               • increase participation by other organizations in Green Lights

                  SSt!!^                                                                               EPA agrees
                  Partner with compienng Partner's first implementation report, if Farmer requests.

            STI! E^rSSTT T f"*""" °f UPgra
                   y* «   . «^ ___

attention to 10 CFR P« 435 Sub^T
tnanufecnimi or commercial or mdtwmi ^teees
1'Stam? energy standants. define « faltawK^^

           I. Ucci Oceera&ggK3l  199$
                                                          «•!*«» wrt apptotete eote-and
                                                                   ne* Sifests   **    »• «"»'U« are m MM** for
         , .f no new
          2.  Foilowtng January i  1995
                                                                                            ac ny-
           te ASHRASIES 90.

Federal Partner agrees that all new leases that it simn
Commicnan.*                        ™* * SI8B»
                                                     a a tesaer or tarn- tuft* S yews. or lOBSer will be «remnd .as

M. Erofrioyec Edm

O. No»«£ndor

P. Rcfoiataiy Rtfonn.



         : PH* 202.2334H20:

B. Technical Support. EPA agrees to assist Fedeni P»rm«.
           1      1" "
                   ightias *«* imptemenmio
                                       n ni«toods
           u» of
                                                         samnary of die ben available information about energy-

                                                                                     The** workshops and

          EPA agrees to provide lighntg analysis software desiglwi ee heip Fedeni Partner conduct their lighting
                                                                         of each rep™*^ by this

                                                                              as ^^^ by
                                                                                        oussondlng tighting opgndes.
                                       PasmKS iwle?««to^y «*/«» in eonjuncnon with otter Psnnen to deveiop id
                          meis in die Green Lights Pregnm.  One n iimini adverming space and varying audK^. E?A may. on


C.  EPA Material*  EPA agrees to provide to Federal Partner, at Partner s request, available camera-ready negatives, mechanicals. and other
•iirectiy reproducible matenai. from which Federal Farmer can crease:
           I.    Green Lights brochures. Lighs Briefs, and video js)
           2.    Gnsen Lights Program logo
           3.    Other Green Lights masmis
Federal  Partner agrees to return to EPA the directiy-reprodueible maaerai identified above wkhin 30 days of reeeipt.

D.  NoCharfe. EPA agrees not to charge Federal Partner for such materials.

E.  R*productk»of EPA Maferafe. Federal Partner agrees to reproduce such EPA-deveioped materials faimfally. widraut altering their for^u
content, or appearance in any way. except at Federal Partner's opne&u to add me phrase -Dissites* at no cost by [Federai Parmerj. wstte
permtsswn of EPA s Green Lights Program. * as well as Federal Partner's own logo, ad&ess. and phene number.

F.  Recycled Paper.  Federal Partner agrees to use reeyeled paper for all of its s«pr«^aenoas of HPA-d«wdopad inferasawiial isiaarais.

G. Dfettfautioo. F«ieniParineragn^tsdisml»eEPA«S6veiope^
 Parmers to promote and expasd me use of energy-effiejgBg lighasi as^ meratsershsp in the drees Ligfess Program.

 VI. Criteria and Stxadszdi)

 A.  Es«± parry w mis agreeraem agrees to assupe me good firim of the edi^

 B. Bo«P»raesagn»«iic^eacfaosherifanyp!B«eifsafiseaad89wc^                                                      Eitfegp
 pKnycan termmae ma agreement watout penalty, via 10 days' wnoen nstiee ss the e&ef, asd bcsSs wSI men eeaae as putsllcize F«ider«l Parmef 's
 pKBapammmte Green Lights Prefrara. Reasons mas eeuid cause EPA to ^rmisage mis agreemem wish Federai Partner incfeide (but are n«
            • Partner's failure to proride anauai repen(s).
            • Partner's faalure m mate adequate progress on lighting upgrades, to d» poutt whete it Is evident titiat Partner *ili
               not be awe to nilral its upfrade camnnanents as staead in diis MOU. anil
             • Pinner's USB of the Green Lights logo in an inappropria
  B«»» pubifecpnftfcsBo in *ecs^4®jjr of Federai Pawers' at£tef%mKm is ss napessas,, EPA will maioE s fetas-laim effenio asufe Fedmi
  Partner m mcesmg ail of the goals of *is MOU.

  D. EPA agrees dutiiUbinutioo provided by Federai Partner to EPA w«l be trea^ pumam » EPA's publks infortmition regulatiora a!i^^ ^
  Code of Federal Regulaooms. Part Two.

  E. Both parties; agree tiutms wumiuueuito survey buildings sad complete lighting upgrades is contingem upon the availability of anpfaptgi^
  funds or third-parry financing resources.

  Th« ondernfned hereby execute mh Memorandum of Understanding on behalf of meir parties. This Memorandum takes effcec when siga^ by
  both parties.

  For the *T.S. Enrfrorimeiitai Protection Agency (EPA):
   Paul Stolpman, Director
   Office of Atmospheric Programs

For Federal Ageneys
Name (Please Print)
of eoBapany logos in Green Ligha btoehuses, newsiesm ami adve^SL«^      y "fIm" °f y°W "•""»*«I« »°8° - ----
     E&icanon (classrooms)

     Food Sales & Services

     O*er(         )
                                                    Lodging (ho«ls. dormi»ries).

                                      please specify
                                                              Parking Garage

Is the organization signing this MOU a component of another organization? If so. please pra*«ds *t name of *e paremorganizaeeris
Wfcas is the first day of yourorgmBtssBea's ness fiscsi

Wto referred you as Green
      B: Dcfinttan
uade^agteereents dm expire more thari five years after die
HP™*™*1"3 temninatjnf sooner than free years after ate dass dm agreesHgSg
ncsbtrs where Federal Paraer is die majority or eea  ""
property nanigmitia Tuna). FaaJksesrfss the Federal.
earn ina fores are exceed from "digSrie faeiii&g.   _
l«»cr and lessee, are discussed under 'New ConsnteBsn.
                                                    Eraser ewrass (2) all demise fm&iees, ie rasrsissdy teases fcasa esfee? psraes.
                                                                        imo feree.,  Spase *a Federal Ptrtser leases
                                                            .enmn mm foree are exeiuoed ftwn "eligible facUiiieK" and (3>
                                                                        ases as ether panics Unduding fecsliries mamged by
                                                          ffiaeipates seiiing sooner thac five years from the date this agreentesg
                                                          F«teraS Farmer to ineWe facsJJaes outside the U,S. New teases* as-


                                                                                                              «i any
                                                     P8reier — "^ •• ^«*n«^ns affe«ing lighting quality and quarry.
     that such etrotmstaiKes are rare
                                                                                    "^ "^ **
                                                          need not be upgraded.  It has been the experience of Federal
                                   to seek the
     Program.  If the landtord still declines to cooperate,
                                                                    ^ EPA presessation on te tenefits of the Green Ugte
                                                          ility need net be apgrated
     Itaner.  If.
                                                                                         """"" """"^ for

                                      *  Federal Xfency

'••	___. *•—_             -.   a.
*•-	___      .7.
5.    	          in                      , _ '
     ————    —'	   .     	—  IS.                     . 20.


            APPENDIX F.



                                EXECUTIVE ORDER #12845
                             Requiring Agencies to Purchase
                         Energy Efficient Computer Equipment

      Whereas, the Federal Government should set an example in the energy-efficient operation of its
facilities and the procurement of pollution preventing technologies;

      Whereas, the Federal Government should minimize its operating costs, make more use of
taxpayer provided dollars and reduce the Federal deficit; and

              , the Federal Government is the largest purchaser of computer equipment in the world,
and therefore has the capacity to greatly accelerate the movement toward energy efficient computer

       Now, therefore, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of
the United States of America, including section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conversation Act, as
amended (42 U.S.C, 6361), section 205 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act, as
amended (40 U.S.C. 486), section 152 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), and
section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and to ensure the energy-efficient operation of the Federal
Government's facilities and to encourage the procurement of pollution-preventing technologies that will
save taxpayer money, reduce the Federal deficit and accelerate the movement to energy-efficient:
designs in standard computer equipment, it is hereby ordered as follows:

       Section 1. Procurement of Computer Equipment That Meets EPA Energy Star Requirements for
Energy Efficiency.
       (a)  The heads of Federal agencies shall ensure that, within 180 days from the date of this
order, all. acquisitions of microcomputers, including personal computers, monitors and  printers, meet
"EPA Energy Star" requirements for energy efficiency.  The heads of Federal agencies may grant, on
a case-by-case basis, exemptions to this directive for acquistions, based upon the commercial
availability of qualifying equipment, significant cost differential of the equipment, the agency's
performance requirements and the agency's mission.
       (b) Within 180 days from the date of this order, agencies shall specify that microcomputers,
including personal  computers, monitors and printers, acquired by the agency shall be equipped with the
energy-efficient low-power standby feature as defined by the EPA Energy Star computers program.
This feature shall be activated when the equipment is shipped and shall be capable of entering and
recovering from the low-power state unless the equipment meets Energy Star efficiency levels at all
times. To the extent permitted by law, agencies shall include this specification in all existing and
future contracts, if both the Government and the contractor agree, and if any additional costs would be
offset by the potential energy savings.
       (c) Agencies shall ensure that Federal users are made aware of the significant economic and
environmental benefits of the energy-efficient low-power standby feature and its aggressive  use by
including this information in routine computer training classes.
       (d)  Each agency shall report annually to the General Services Administration on acquisitions
exempted from the requirements of this Executive order, and the General  Services Aministration shall
prepare a consolidated annual report for the President.

       Sec. 2. Definition. For purposes of this order, the term "agency" has the same meaning given
it in section 151 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

       Sec. 3. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or
procedural, enforceable by a nonfederal party against the United States, its officers or employees, or
any other person.


                     United States
                     Environmental Protection
                     Air and fiadiasisn
Energy Star  Computer
The Energy Star Computers
The U.S. Environmental
 (ERA) promotes energy
    efficiency because
  electricity generation
 contributes to air pollu-
  tion, Indu&ing 35 per-
   emissions at caiBon
       dtoxiae. ft also.
          TS percent
 US. emissions of sutfiir
   dioxide ana nitmgen
    addes, respectively.
  By using mom energy-
   tffirient equipment in
  afhomes, offices, and
      factories, we csn
  re&ice this pollution—
    wfjffesswng money!
Why Energy-Efficient Computers?
                                                             are on,
They account for 5 percent
ofissmweiGsal electricity
coasumotan—and if action
                       on weekends.
What Is EPA Doina About it?
           tN Indus*
 Upseeompaaiesara intao-
 ttoctpg deskb
 actamatlcaity power-down to
 saua enerqy vunenthty are
 noctiamg imiL Hits "sleep"
 feafiire couidcut a product's
 annual eseoricityiuse oy
 atxsit one-half.
 recognize the new, more
 efficient systen
  tnay will be identified by the.
  H»A Energy Stallage
  shown here.
Eaanjy Star**-
eooogti electricity
Hampshire, aad Mains?
lioOf ff"rf redaca COy poilution etjost to tbtn
fnos StttUIidaautos.

                An EPA Energy Star

           computer can save users a

      great deal'of money by going to

sleep. And according to manufacturers.

  a majority of their products will have

    this feature within just a couple of

 years. This added functionality will be

   invisible to the user, both in terms of

    performance and in terms of price

 tag—making it noticeable only by the

     ffi4 Energy Star™ logo—-and, of

      course, the lower electricity bill.
          How Much Can My  Energy Star Save?*
                         Conventional System
                         On all the time
                         Annual Cost $165
                               *As compared to a typical
                               computer, monitor, and laser
                               primer on all day and night,
                               assuming 235W,8e/kWh.
                               Dass not include heat gain
                               from computer equipment
                                               On ail the time
                                               Annual Cost $84
                                                                  Energy Star Syst
                                                                  Turned off at nig
                                                                  Annual Cost $2£
Wno Buys  Energy Star Computers?
  EVERYONE! Everyone
who values high perfor-
mance at a lower cost—ana
the extra satisfaction of
owning an environmentally
superior product.
  The U.S. Government
—the largest buyer of com-
puter equipment in the
world—will take the lead  in
purchasing Energy Star
  President Clinton, in an
Earth Day address empha-
sizing the link between the
environment and a growing
economy, released an
Executive Qrder directing
U.S. agencies to purchase
only desktop computers.
monitors, and printers that
 meet EPA Energy Star
 requirements for energy effi-
 ciency—provided that they
 are commercially available
 and meet the agencies' per-
 formance needs. The
 Executive Order took effect
 in October'1993 and will
 save taxpayers $40 million
' annually. In fact. EPA itself
 will save enough money.
 using the new. energy-effi-
 cient products to pay for the
 Energy Star Computers pro-
 gram several times over-
 making it one of the most
 cost-effective government'
 initiatives in history.
   EPA is also encouraging
 public- and private-sector
 consumers to buy product?
bearing the Energy Star™
logo. Many of these organi-
zations are already part of
EFA& Green Lights program.
on other smart energy-effi-
ciency investments.
  In addition, electric
utilities will purenase
Energy Star™-bearina com-
puters for their own use and
will encourage companies in
their service territories to do
the same.
  If your organization is
interested in learning more
about maximizing its pur-
chasing power to help the
environment, contact EPA
about available Energy Star

For more information afaoi
Energy Star Computers,
pieast; contact:

Energy Star Comouters
Washington. DC 20460
Orcall: 202775-6650

For more information by f;
(available 24 hours a day).
call: 2132 233-9659.

                     United States
                     Environmental Protection
                              Air and Radiation
                       EPA 430-K-94-006
                       July 1994
                        Energy lltar*€dmputer
                                                   EPA POLLUTION PREVENTED

 cqmputeni n dustry

   to prpmptfcthe?


personal, computers,

 printers; Reducing

energy consumption

 can help to combat


 gipbaL warming by

 reducing emissions

   from- electricity

generatipnr-By using

    moref energy-

 efficient equipment

    in ourrhomes>.
    off ices?-and,


  both: improve: the

  What is Energy Star


"Energy Stars" are energy-efficient
computers, monitors, and printers
that save energy by powering down
and going to "sleep" when not being
used. An Energy Star computer has ail
the performance features of a regular
computer—Ht simply has the addi-
tional ability to "power-down." These
energy-efficient machines save money
on electricity bills and reduce pollu-
tion, improving your bottom line and
the earth's environment

EPA has signed partnership agree-
ments with industry-leading manufac-
turers who sell more than 75 percent
of all desktop computers and 90
percent of ail laser printers sold in^the
United States. These companies have
introduced more than 2,000 desktop
computers, monitors, and printers
that have earned the right to bear the
EPA Energy Star5* logo, shown at the
top of the page.

Computer equipment is the fastest
growing electric load in the business
world, and energy use by computers
could double by
the year 2000.
Ironically, much
of this energy is
wasted: re-
search shows
that most of the
time personal
computers are
on they are not
                                          SO/year savings
 actively in use—and 30 to 40 percent
 are left running at night and on week-
 ends. By the year 2000, Energy Star
 equipment could save enough electric-
 ity to power Vermont, New Hampshire,
 and Maine for a year, cut electricity bills
 by $2 billion, and reduce CO2 pollution
 equal to the emissions from 5 million

         Real Savings

 Energy Star computers are available at
 no additional cost, and a single Energy
 Star computer and monitor can save
 anywhere from $7 to $52 per year in
 electricity, bills. If you notice computers
 and printers left on when leaving the
 office at night and on weekends, your
 savings will be toward the higher end of
 this range.

 If you add an Energy Star printer to your
 system, you can increase your savings
 by an additional $35 per year.

 For  an office environment where one-
 third of the computers are left on all the
 time, purchasing 100 Energy Star PCs
 and monitors instead of non-efficient
 equipment could save you $2,400 per
 year. In addition, Energy Stan; generate
	-:   .	     less heat, and
                     upgrading your
                     existing equip-
                     ment: to Energy
                     Star as it natu-
                     rally turns over
                     can lead to
                     cooling reduc-
                     tions of up to
                     25 percent
 100 New Computers and Monitors

Non-inergy Star          Energy Star

                                                      PURCHASING AN ENERGY STAR COMPUTER
               How to Find

         Energy Star Products

Consumers can easily recognize the new, more effi-
cient systems because they will be identified by the
EPA Energy Star5"* logo. Since there are now more than
2,000 products available from all  major manufactur-
ers, EPA is encouraging companies and organizations
to specify Energy Star compliance in all future pur-
chases of computer equipment

•  If you are a business, ask your MIS or procurement
   official about purchasing Energy Star equipment,
   and look for the Energy StarSM logo in advertise-
   ments and on specification sheets.

•  If you work in the Federal Government, the Gen-
   eral Services Administration has issued  guidelines
   on the acquisition of Energy Star computers. Call
   (202) 519-4860 for a copy.

•  If you need a computer for home, look for the
   Energy Star5** logo on display models in local retail
   stores—if you do not see it, ask for it.
To help, EPA offers a database of available products
which is updated monthly. Just call or write EPA to
receive a copy.

            User Advantages

Besides the cost savings, Energy Star equipment offers
users several key advantages.

•  Energy Star PCs can be quieter since some have
   no fans.

•  Sleeping Energy Star monitors emit fewer electro-
   magnetic fields (EMF) since they are not display-
   ing any visual image when "asleep."

•  Energy Star monitors can also  increase file secu-
   rity since the "sleeping" screen is dark.

•  All Energy Star equipment produces less heat and
   thus contributes to a cooler and more comfort-
   able workspace.

•  Energy Star PCs tend to be a less intrusive desk-
   top item since they are usually smaller than tradi-
   tional PCs.
         Increased Reliability

In addition, Energy Star equipment may actually last
longer than conventional products because it will most
likely spend a large portion of time in a low-power
sleep mode. Non-Energy Star computer equipment
left on at night and over weekends may last only 2 to
3 years, but Energy Star computers "sleeping" during
the day and turned off at night could last almost 10
times as long (see graph).
        (2 years)
(Source: Dataquest, 1993)
                 (10 years)
                                        (22 years}
By spending time "sleeping," Energy Star equipment can reduce
wear and tear, leading to extended life and increased reliability.
             Is Right for Me?

Committing to an "Energy Star purchasing strategy" for
your organization is the first crucial step. The second
step is figuring out which  Energy Star products to buy.
It is important to realize that not all Energy Star com-
puters are the same, and your choice will depend on
your needs and preferences.

If you operate on a Loca.  Area Network (LAN), make
sure that your Energy Star computer is compatible
with that network system. Most Energy Stars are now
being network tested, but specify your particular
environment—whether its Novell Netware, Banyan
Vines, Windows NT, Lan Manager, or others, to ensure
that it is compatible (see sample procurement lan-
guage on page 4).

                            PURCHASING  AN
                                                                                STAR COMPUTER
You also may want to specify certain "user-friendly"
features, such as an Energy Star or power manage- <
ment "icon", which is easily accessible and gives &i6
user a quick and simple way to change the "sleep":/
settings. Some users may want to set their computer to
go to sleep after 15 minutes of inactivity, while others
may choose 30 minutes. Having a user friendly power
management feature to
customize an Energy Star
computer to your own
schedule contributes to
productivity and increases
energy savings.
   What If No-

  Energy Star Is


If you need an expert
computer system or an
extremely high speed
printer, there might not
yet be an Energy Star
model available. Because
high-end equipment was
designed to give you
maximum performance, it
also tends to use more
power. Until the design-
ers of this higher end
equipment develop
Energy Star models, you
wil! have to buy non-
Energy Star. The goal of
the Energy Star program is to save energy with no
sacrifice in performance or cost. If you need a high-
end system to do your job, and there is not an Energy
Star available, then buy what you need.

Hqwever, if you are considering the purchase of a
computer with certain specifications and have the
choice between an Energy Star and a non-Energy Star
machine, buy the Energy Star. If both machines have
the exact same performance and are similar in cost,
purchasing the- Energy Star system will give you the
additional benefits of saving on your electric bill and
helping to prevent pollution.
         President Clinton's

           Executive Order

In April 1993, President Clinton signed Executive
Order 12845 requiring ail federal agencies to pur-
chase Energy Star computers, monitors, and printers
where commercially available. This order, which
took effect on October 18,1993, reads in part:

      Agencies shall specify that microcom-
      puters, including personal computers/
      monitors, and printers, acquired by the
      agency, shall meet the EPA Energy Star
      specifications. This feature shall be  ,
      activated when the equipment is
      delivered to the customer and shall be
      capable of entering and recovering from
      the low-power state unless the equip-
      ment meets Energy Star efficiency levels
      at all times.
        Should I Still Turn My

      Energy Star Off  at Night?

Yes. Power-managed Energy Stars will go to sleep by
themselves, but remember that the sleep mode does
not mean "off." Sleeping Energy Stars use less power
                        than when fully activated,
                        but they still draw some
                        power when in the sleep
                        mode. To save additional
                        energy and increase the
                        lifetime of the equipment,
                        be sure to turn your
                        system completely off at
                        the end of each day. It is a
                        common myth that turning
                        computer equipment off
                        and on  is bad for it; in
                        fact, the exact opposite is
                        true.  Turning off your
                        computer at night may
                        actually increase its life
                        because it will reduce
                        susceptibility to heat and
                        mechanical stress, the two
                        leading causes of personal
                        computer failure. The
                        recommended approach:
                        set your Energy Star to
                        sleep when you are away
                        during the day, and turn off
                        the system when you  leave
                        at night.

           What Can I  Do for

       My Existing Equipment?

Again, turning off your existing equipment at night is
the easiest and most cost-effective strategy for reduc-
ing the energy consumption of non-Energy Star equip-
ment. However, if you are unable to turn off existing
equipment or wish to make additional savings, con-
sider retrofitting your equipment with  an Energy  Star-
compliant controlling device. These devices are fairly
easy to install and can completely shut off the power
to your PC, monitor, or printer after a  period of
inactivity or at a specified time of the day.

                    What to Specify When Ordering

                          Energy Star Equipment

Energy Star   "Provide computer products that meet the EPA Energy Star requirements for energy
Compliant    efficiency in the requested conftgurationo" This means that PCs, monitors, and printers
             shall be able to enter and recover from a low-power standby mode when not in use. For
             PCs and monitors, the low-power mode is defined as 30 watts or less (30 watte; for the PC
             and 30 watts for the monitor). For printers with speeds of less than 15 pages per minute,
             the requirement is 30 watts; and for printers with speeds of 15 or more pages per minute;
             the requirement is 45 watts. All  high-end color printers must not exceed 45 watts in low-'
             power mode.

             "Ship all products with the Energy Star low-power feature activated or enabled." This
             eliminates the need for users to configure the power management feature after delivery
             and helps to ensure that the energy-saving feature is used.

             "If equipment will be used on  a local area network, the PC must be fully compatible
             with the specified network environment? PCs resting in a low-power state should not
             be disconnected from the network." Many manufacturers are now testing their Energy
             Star equipment on networks and can report, for exarnpie, that they are compatible on
             Novell Netware,  Banyan Vines,  Windows NT, Lan Manager, and other network, systems.

             "Ensure monitors are capable  of entering a low-power mode when connected to the
             accompanying PC" Most monitors cannot power down by themselves, and must rely on
             some ecternal  input to-trigger their low-power state. This is typically accomplished via one
             of the following:  (1) VESA Display Power Management Signalling (DPMS), a signalling
             protocol that allows a PC equipped with DPMS to control a DPMS compatible monitor
             (both the computer and monitor must be DPMS compatible), (2) the actual shut off of
             power to the monitor via a special plug from the PC (this does not require an Energy Star
             monitor), or (3) the use of a proprietary software utility shipped with the monitor. Organi-
             zations  may wish to specify one  approach or the other. DPMS compatible PCs and moni-
             tors will provide seamless power management and immediate recovery from the low-
             power state, but  only when used with each other. PCs that include the power switch
             approach can shut off power to  any monitor, not just an Energy Star monitor.

             System must be  able to run commercial off-the-shelf software both before and after
             recovery from a  low-power state, including retention of files opened before the power
             management feature was activated.
What Products are Available?

More than 2,000 products are now available that meet
the Energy Star guidelines.

To receive an abbreviated list of qualified products, call
the Energy Star fax-back line. Dial 202 233-9659 and
enter #5306 for PCs, #5309 for monitors, and #5307
for printers.

To receive the detailed list of qualified products hv mail.  II    75
                                           To fax yourself general progttm informa-
                                           tion? oalLthe jEnergy Star fax-back iine.at
                                           202.233-9659;orcal! orwrite us:


                       EP& ENRGY STAR
                    Participant List as of Feferaaiy I,
 3D Microcomputers
 if A Plus Info
 Achtetra Computer
 •fc ACMA Computers
 AeUoa Electronics
 if Acute Technology
 Addtech Computer
 Advanced Integration
 •i? Advanced lalcliigcncu
 Akron Systems
 Allen Bradley Company
 Altima Systems
 if Ambra Computer
 American Business
   Computers (ABC)
 •& American Megatrends
 *• Amrcl Technology
 ANT Computer
 Antecbron Research
 Apaq Technology
 if Apple
 •*» Applied Digital Data
 ir Aquarius System
                            if Arehe Computer &
                            if AST Research
                              Mbrmatiion Solutions
                            if AustifiComputer
                            if Avaee Computer
                            Aak Computer
                            if Bankers Systems
                            Barron Microcomputer
                            Blue Star Marketing
                            if Bridge Information
                            Brother International
                            Byte Technology
                            if Caliber
                            if Caaoa
                            if Capetronic
                            if Cemtech
                            CFC Technoiogy Services
                            Channel Electronics
                            if Cheer Hleetronies
                            if Chien Hou Electronics
                            Commax Technologies
                            * Communication Lab
                            if CompalElectronics
                            if Compaq
                            * CumpuAdd
                            if Compudyne
                            -tr Computer Creations
                            Computer Dealers Source
Computer Tec
CorapuTrend Systems/
Comteeh Micro System
Conrae Eleietron
Cantinent^i ResnunreK
Ccrion Industrial
if Cornerstone Imaging
Corporate Micro Sysstems
-*• CP & G Technologies
(CSS) Computers, Etc.
if CSS Lafaoratories
if CTX IntematipniJl
Cube Computer
ir Daesun Industrial
Daewoo Electronics
•*> Daewoo Telecom
•Ar Daly Computers
ir Data General
if Daw Storage Marketing
•sfcr DataErpert
DD & TT Enterprise USA
if DDI Dyssx
if Delta Produces
if Desktop Displays
   Diamond Technciiogies
if Indicates companies which have announced Energy Star compliant products

 ir Digital Equipment
 Dimension Computer
 Display Technologies
 Doich Computer Systems
 if Duracom Computer
 •j*r DyaaCokir
 EKM Computer
 Electronic Technology
 * EPS Technologies
 * Epson
 Ergo Compuiiisg,
 •*• Essex Mbaitor Company
 if Everest Systems ,
 Evergreen Systems
 if Fair Electronic Company
 Fcdcom Mlcrosource
 * FfeUtworlfs
 if First International
 •jlr Flyteeh Technology
 * Fosaan Wlngbao
   Information Enterprise
 if Fountain Technologies
 * Gateway 2000
 GCH System,
 •dr Giga-Byte Technology
 * GoldStar
 Grand Micro
 Great Lakes Electronics
 Greco I -*bs
 Green PC
 Hammond and Hammond
 ikr Hectronic
 -*- Hewitt Rand
 * Hewlett-Packard
Highwave Technologies
HIQ Computer Systems
  if Hitachi America
  ie Hitachi European Centre
  Hitachi, Office Systems
  HX°VI Electronics
 * Hyundai Electronics
 if Ideality Systems
 feteiligeet Computers and
 £atsUlgeat Decisions
 Ihtersetfve Computing
     Electronics USA
 ^ we
 if L5.L. Automatiseriag
J-MAJUC Computer
Key Power
if Korea Computef
* Lite-Qn Technology
if Liusid International
if MAG Innovision
 MaaTesfa Systems
  * MASS Research
  if MassusMt

 MferaNIdae faforoiaiiion
                               ie Mmaaks Computers
                                                             Mind Cbaspicer Peodycts
 Modem Instruments
 Monitor Technology
 MSSI Consultants
 if Mustek
National Advantages
National MiczpCompiiiteis
•&• Nttiei Soogyo
                              Northern Electronic
Nortbwesi Micro
Ocean information
Ocean Interface
Ocean State Computers
  Indicaces companies which hav«s announced Energy Star compliant products

Office Automated
* Olivetti
if Orion Electric
Osbome Computer
if Packard Bell
Pam Pauulc Associates
•*• Panasonic
Paragon Development
Patrick Computer
PC Channel
PC Ware International
•if Percomp Microsystems
Perpetual Technologies
if Philips Consumer
Pine Technology
Pioneer Technologies
if Planar Systems
* Precision America
if Precision Tcchnoiogy
if President Technology
•£• Primax Data Products
ir Progen
•*• FT Pembina Cialindra
  Eteetric  •
  • QHT Systems
*QNDC Computer
* Quaneex Microsystems
if Quest Group
R & S Computers &
if Radius
if Regent Technologies
ir Relays
Repco Data
if Republic Tccfanoiogy
Rayai Electronic
 •Jr Sampn Teehnbgy
 Ttr Samsung Elcetrome
 if Samsrosi Displays
 Sanyo Informasioo
   Sceptre Technoiogies
   Scion Computers
   Shamroek Techoaiogy
 ir Shuttle Computer
 if Sidus Systems  "
  Systems (SCIS)
Silicon Graphics
SiO Technology
•*• SKV Intematinnai/
Smith Corona
SsangVoog Computer
if STD Technology
Summit Micro Design
if Sun Microsystems
Super Distributor
if Swan
Sywxex Technology
if Sysorcx
Tae n Media
* Taiwan & Hong Kong
if Taiwan Video and
if Tandberg Data Display
•*• Tandy
i*r Tangent Computer
 if TECO
 Tempest Micro
 ie Ttsxsa Instruments
 if Tobishi Eiectronk
 if Toshiba
 Total Coatcoi Products
 Total Perlpffiiirais
 Tri-Cor Industries
 Trl=Slar Computer
 if TdGem Microsystems
 TDC Computer Pfoducte
 if Tulip Computers
 * Tmchead
 Twinhead Enteraatiooeii
 Twin T Distributors
 •*• Tyh Fa Electronic
 Tystar Hectroous
 if Unisys
 Unisys  Canada
 if United Solutions
 ie Unitek Technology
 * USA Teioiik
    Systems and
Ve&eec Tcchnoiogy
Vserra Computers
if ViewSonic
if Vision Computer
if Vita Electronics
Vobis Microcomputer
VTech Computeis
Waag Laboratories
if Wearnes Technology
Wedge Technology
WEN Technology
  indicates companies which have announced Energy Star compliant products

   Western Imaging
   if Win Laboratories
   Wyle Laboratories
   -*" Wyse Technology
            (number: 56)
   T!C Advanced Matrix
   TlrAIps Electric
   •jfr Apple
   * Brother
   if Bull Italia
 Xyst Infrnek
 Yanjen Electronic
 * Hewlett-Packard
  if C-TJbCH
  •*• Canon
  CIH America
  Citisen Watch
  * Data General
  4- Data Rental & Sales
  T*r Digital Equipment
  * Enabling Technologies
  * Fujitsu
  * GCC Technologies
  if General Farametrics
•if Lexmark
•^ MaaE
 it Output Technology
 * Fenuuc T«sdmulogks
Qnk Computer
  •*• Alpha Mkro
  Antechron Research
  if Aten International
  Bayvicw Technology Group
  * B & B Electronics
  Corapu Set
Energy Interface
Eagram Intemafionat
if Ergoaomies
Eskel-Porter  .
 (CCS.) Computers Etc.
 Curtis Manufacturing
 Cypress Computer
 * Defenders Network
Graenware Technologies
Hibernation Software
if Image Plus
if King Jaw Isdustriai
                               Z&M Advanced
                               ie Zeaith Data Svstems
                              Seiko .lr» laments USA
                              Senricewockr Dimiibutian
                              "^ Sfearp Eleetronics
                              ^ ^ Tens Insttuments
                                   T Distributors
                              * Xerox
                              MSSI Comukants
                             Qisantum Gompmers
                             Sequence Electronics
                             Sophisticated Circuits;
                             Tripp Lite
ALLIES2 (Components aad Software: number: 144)
 Aehieva Computer
 Aeronics Systems
 Advanced Micro Devices
 Advanced Integration
 Allied Signal, Amorphous
 Alpha Technology
 Asaericasi Proimage
 American Power
 Artek Innovations
 Axvee Systems
 Asian Compeer
 AT&T Microelectronics
 Award Software
 B&B Electronics
 Beyond Technology
 Chips and Technologies
 Cirrus Logic
 Computer Resources
 Connor Peripherals
 OIA Semicaa Systems
 Diablo Scientific
 Diamond Computer
 EFAR Microsystems
 EH Electronics
 Elsa GmbH
 Energy Concepts v
 Engram International
 Exide Electronics
 First ftuernarionai
 Free Computer
 Glitch Master
 Gulden Power Systems
 Greets Labs
 Greeraware Technologies
Hibernation Software
fflPRO Electronics
Holiy Electronic
         Power Systems
Jabil Circuit
Lattice Semiconductor
Lead Year Enterprise
LION America
LLR Technologies
M Teshnoiogy
Macase Industrial
Market Central
Maxx Switch
Midxada Computers
Mlchi TeehSystem
Micro Energetics
Minta Technolopes
Moretec Electronics
Morex Information
New Bios
North American Power
 Nova Distributing
 Ogdea Atlantic Design
 Orchid Technology
 Palo Alto Digital Systems
                                                              Plaaaele Mlero
ProfssionaS Sound
      I Engineering
SciTeefa Software
Seagate Technology
Sejazi America*
Sequence Hiecttonics
Senrer Technology
Silicon Star International
Silicon Valley Technology
Smart (ndustries
Soya USA
Speaking Devices
Sprint Manufacturing
Standard Microsystems
Symphony Laboratories
T & T Computer
Teach Me How Company
Texas Instruments
Texas ISA
TMC Research
Topower Computer
Tripp Lite
U5. Power & Technology
United Solutions
    Toe Ally agreement does not contain individual product specifications, so no prodncts are "compiiiini.*

USAR Systems
Vasco Import und
  Vertriebs GmbH
Vextrcu Technology
VLSI Technology
Wave Energy
Western Digital
Western Telematic



 1.   Pollution Prevention Information
     Clearinghouse (PPIC)

     Pollution Prevention Information
     US. EPA
     401 M Street, SW
     Washington, DC 20460
     Phone:   202-260-1023
     Fax:      202=260-0178

     The Pollution Prevention Information
     Clearinghouse (PPIC) is dedicated to
     reducing or eliminating industrial pollutants
     through technology transfer, education, and
     public awareness.  It is a free,
     nonregulatory service of the U.S. EPA and
     consists of a repository of pollution
     prevention information, a telephone
     reference and referral service and a
     computerized Information exchange

2.   The International Cleaner Production
    information Clearinghouse (ICPIC)

    Industry and Environment Program Activity
    United Nations Environment Programme
    39-43 quai Andre Citroen
    75739 Paris CEDEX 15
    Phone:    33=1-30-58-68-50
    Fax:       33-1-40-58-88-74

    The international  Cleaner Production
    Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC) is a
    clearinghouse operated by the United
    Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
    The ICPIC provides information to the
    international community on all aspects of
    low-and non-waste technologies and
 3.  O^onAction

     Industry and Environment Program Activity
     United Nations Environment Programme
     39=43 quai Andre Citroen
     7573S Paris CEDEX 15
     Phone:    33=1-30-58-88-50
     Fax:      33=1-40-58-88-74

     OzonAetion reiays technical and
     programmatic information on alternatives to
     all ozone depleting substances identified by
     the Interim Multilateral Ozone Fund of the
     Montreal Protocol Agreements.

 4.   American institute for Pollution
     Prevention (AIFP)

     Thomas R. Hauser, Ph.D., Executive
     American Institute for Pollution Prevention
     Department of Civil and Environmental
     University of Cincinnati
     Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071
     Phone:    513-556-3693

    The AIPP was founded jointly by U.S. EPA
    and the University of Cincinnati in 1989 to
    assist EPA in promoting the adoption of
    pollution prevention concepts.

5.   Center for Environmental Research
    Information (CERI)

    Dorothy Williams
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    Center for Environmental Research
    Information (CERI)
    26  West Martin Luther King Drive
    Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Phone:    513-569-7562
    Fax:       513-569-7566

    CERI serves as the exchange of scientific
    and technical environmental information
    produced  by EPA by publishing brochures

     capsula and summary reports, handbooks,
     newsletters, project reports, and manuals:

 6.   C@nter for Waste Reduction
     Technologies (CWRT)

     Center for Waste Reduction Technologies
     American Institute of Chemical Engineers
     345 East 47th Street
     New York, NY 10017
     Phone:     212-705-7407
     Fax:       212-752-3297

     CWRT was established in 1989 by the
     American Institute of Chemical Engineers to
     support industry efforts in meeting the
     challenges of waste reduction through a
     partnership between industry, academia;.
     and government

 7.   Hazardous Waste Research and
     Information Center (HWRIC)

     Alisa WIckiltf
     Hazardous Waste Research and
     Information Center
     One East Haziewood Drive
     Champaign, IL 61820
     Phone:    217-244-8905
     Fax:      217-333-894*

     HWRIC is & division of the Illinois
     Department of Energy and Natural
     Resources. HWRIC combines research,
     education, and technical assistance in a
     muWdiscipUnary approach to manage and
     reduce hazardous waste in  Illinois.  HWRIC
     collects and shares this information through
     its library/clearinghouse and several
    computerized waste management tools.

8.  The National Roundtabie of State
    Pollution Prevention Programs

    David Thomas
    National Roundtabie of Pollution Prevention
    One East Haziewood Drive
    Champaign, IL 61820
    Phone:    217-333-8940
    Fax:      217-333-8944
    The Roundtabie is a group of pollution
    prevention program at the State and ioeal
    level In both the public and academic
    ssetors. The m@mb@r programs are
    ©ngaged in activities including muiti-
    audienee training and primary to post-
9.  Northeast States Pollution Prevention
    R@uraifabl@ (NE Roundtabie)

    TerrS Goldberg, Program Manager
    Northeast States Pollution Prevention
    Roundtabie / Northeast Waste
    Management Officials" Association
    85 y@mmac Street
            MA 02114

    Th® NI Roundtabte was initiated in 1989 by
    th© Northeast Waste Management Officials'
    Association to assist State programs,
    industry, and the public implement effective
    source reduction programs.

10. Pgeifte Northwest Pollution Prevention
    Research Center

    Madeline GnJich, Director
    Paeifle Northwest Pollution Prevention
    Research Center
    411 University Street, Suite 1252
    Seattle, WA §8101
    Phone:    206-223-1151
    Fax:       206-467-0212

    The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention
    Research Center is a non-profit public-
    private partnership dedicated to the goal of
    furthering pollution prevention in the Pacific

11. Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse

    LeH Swain, Manager
    Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse
    Solid Waste Association of North America
    P.O. Box 7219
    Silver Spring, MD 20910
    Phone:    1-800-677-9424
    Fax:       301-585-0297

    SWICH Is an information clearinghouse
    covering a wide range of solid waste
    issues.  SWICH components include an
    electronic bulletin board, a library and a

12. Waste Reduction Institute for Training
    and Applications Research, Inc.

    Terry Foeeke or Al Innes
    Waste Reduction Institute for Training and
    1313 5th Street, SE
    Minneapolis, MN 55414-4502
WRITAR is designed to identify waste
reduction problems, held find their
solutions, and facilitate the dissemination of
this information to a variety of public and
private organizations.

Waste Reduction Resource Center tor
fh« Southeast (WRRC)

Gary Hunt
Waste Reduction Center for the Southeast
3825 Barrett Drive
P.O. Box 27687
        NC 27611-6787
    WRRC was established to provide
    multimedia waste reduction support for the
    eight states of U.S. EPA IV (Alabama,
    Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi,
    North Carolina, South Carolina, and
                                             FACILITY PLANNING AND GENERAL
                                             POLLUTION PREVENTION MANUALS
    Audit and Reduction Manual for
    Industrial Emissions and Wastes

    United Nations Environment Programme
    (UNEP) and United Nations Industrial
    Development Office (UNIDO), 1991
    1889 F Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20006
    Phone:    202-289-8456
         Contact UNEP for cost and
    The manual addresses the following topics:
    introduction to waste auditing, the audit'
    procedure, pre-assessment, material
    balance, process inputs and outputs, and
    synthesis, and three technical case studies.

2.   Facility Pollution Prevention Guide

    US. EPA Office of Research and
    Center for Environmental Research
    26 West Martin Luther King Drive
    Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Phone:    513-569-7562
    Cost:  Free

    The manual describes how to conduct a
    waste assessment, from the
    planning/organization stage through the
    assessment and feasibility analysis to final
    implementation of pollution prevention
                                                3.  Industrial Waste Minimization Manual

                                                    Center for Hazardous Materials Research
                                                    University of Pittsburgh Applied Research
                                                    320 William Pftt Way
                                                    Pittsburgh, PA 15238
                                                    Phone:    412-826-5320
                                                    Cost: $40

                                                   . This manual provides information and
                                                    guidance to all industrial waste generators

    on pollution prevention practices and
    suggested compliance requirements for
    RCRA and other related Federal acts.

4.  Industrial Waste Prevantien

    Waste Advantage, Inc. 1988
    17117 West Nine Mile Road, Suite §02
    SoutMeld, Ml 48075
    Phone:     313-569-8150
    Cost $195 (Includes access to technical
    assistance hotline)

    This practical guide provides step-by-step
    instructions for developing an effective
    waste minimization program.

5.  Pollution Prevention Case Studies

    U.S. EPA
    Office of Research and Development
    Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
    Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Phone:    513-569-7562
    Cost Free from CERI

    The studies are a collection of summaries
    of pollution prevention demonstrations,
    assessments, and research projects
    conducted with the Risk Reduction
    Engineering Laboratory.

6.  Pollution Prevention Pays Instnsetion

    Dr. Susan Smith
    Center for Improving Mountain Living
    Bird Building
    Western Carolina University
    Cullowhee, NC 28723
    Phone:    704-227-7492
    Cost: $28

    This manual concentrates on (1) current
    legal artu environmental Issues that create
    tha need for an industrial pollution
    prevention program and (2) an innovative
    systems approach to industrial-resource
    management that can reduce pollution.
7.  Pollution Prevention Resoureo Manual

    Chemical Manufacturers Association
    2§01 M Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20037
    Phone:    202-887-1100
    Cost: $75

    This manual was designed for use by
    personnel of alf levels who are involved
    with planning or implementing a pollution
    prevention program.

8.  Wast© Minimization Training Manuate

    Department of Toxic Substances Control
    Attention: Robert Ludwig
    Alternative Technology Division
    P.O. Box 806
    Phone:    916=324=1807
    This includes three pollution prevention
    modules on waste minimization.  Each
    manual consists of a workbook and video.

    Waste Reduction Assessment and
    Technology Transfer (WRATT) Training
    University of Tennessee
    266 Capitol Boulevard Building
    Suite 606
    Nashville, TN 37219-1804
    Phone:    615-242-2456

    This manual includes information on waste
    reduction awareness and incentives,
    Federal safety standards, State and Federal
    regulations, how to establish a waste
    reduction program and conduct a waste
    assessment and waste reduction
    approaches for specific industries and
    waste types.


 1.   1990 Glean Air Act Overview
     (20 min.)

     Sylvia Gordon
     WRATT Case Studies
     University of Tennessee, 1991
     Center for Telecommunications and Video
     Suite 61,1345 Cirde Park Drive
     Knoxviile, TN 37996-0312
     Phone:     615-974-1313
     Cost      $2i (available only from the
The n@w dean Air Aet is reviewed,
especially TO© 1,3,4, and 6. Pollution
prevention implications are discussed.

Beyond Business as Usual: Meeting the
Challenge el Hazardous Waste
(28:30 min.)

999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2405
Phone:   303-293-1603
Cost:     Contact EPA Region VIII for
          cost and availability information

This video promotes source reduction and
recycling as the best hazardous waste
management options and includes success
stories from industry, Federal agencies, and
state and local government programs.

The Competitive Edge
(17:50 min.)

Ontario Waste Management Corporation,
2 Bloor Street West, 11th Floor
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4W3E2
Phone:   416-923-2918
Cost:      $24 (available only from the

The video is designed to acquaint
empioyess with the industrial auditing
process by explaining the six steps of an
audity in dear and simple terms.
 Pollution Prevention: The Bottem Une
 (24 min.)

 Coastal Video Communications Corporation
 3083 Brickhouse Court
 Virginia Beach, VA 23452
 Phone:    800-767-7703
                                                  The video indudes interviews with official of
                                                  major international corporations and deals
                                                  with environmental legislation, cost
                                                  motivation, and the identification and
                                                  implementation of pollution prevention
                                                      Reducing Waste in the Workplace
                                                      (24 min.)

                                                      Coastal Video Communications Corporation
                                                      3083 Brickhouse Court
                                                      Virginia Beach, VA 23452
This video discusses materials handling
and inventory control, equipment
operations and scheduling, deaning and
maintenance, and waste collection and

Waste Not...Want Not
(15 min.)

US. EPA Region IV, 1989
345 Courtiand Street, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
Phone:    404-347-7109
Cost:      Contact EPA Region IV for cost
          and availability information

The video presents EPA's waste
management hierarchy, led by source
reduction and recycling, to handle the
current municipal solid waste crisis.

7.  Waste Reduction Assessment
    (32 min.)

    Tennessee Valley Authority, University of
    University of North Carolina Ashevil!e-EQI,
    Attention: Carrol! Duggan
    Waste Technology Program
    2F 71B Okl City Hall Building
    Knoxvflle, TN 37902
    Phone:    615-632-3160
    Cost:     $25

    This video summarizes the multimedia
    waste reduction assessment procedure and
    its application at several businesses,

8.  Why Waste? Waste Minimization f@r
    Today's Businesses
    (28 min.)

    California Department of Toxic Substances
    Control, 1990
    Attention: Kathy Varwick
    Alternative TEchnolgy Division
    Technology Clearinghouse Unit
    P.O. Box 806
    Sacramento, CA 95812-0806
    Phone:    916-324-1807
    Cost:     $15

    The video defines waste minimization and
    illustrates waste reduction successes in
    several different types if businesses.