COMMITTEE ON                 EPA/600/R-98/065
   THE CHALLENGES OF                  June 1998
 *  MODERN SOCIETY              www.nato.int/ccms
       NATO/CCMS Pilot Study

     Clean Products and Processes
              (Phase I)
                1998
          ANNUAL REPORT
             Number 230
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

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   1998 Annual Report
NATO/CCMS Pilot Study
 Clean Products and Processes
           (Phase I)
        Report Number 230
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        University of Cincinnati
        Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
         23-26 March 1998
                              Printed on Recycled Paper

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                                 NOTICE
This report was prepared under the auspices of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization's Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (NATO/CCMS) as a
service to the technical community by the United States Environmental Protection
Agency (U.S. EPA). The document was funded by U.S. EPAs National Risk
Management Research Laboratory under the direction of E. Timothy Oppelt. The
Annual Report was edited and produced by Patrick Burke of U.S. EPAs Technology
Transfer and Support Division. Mention of trade names or specific applications does
not imply endorsement or acceptance by U.S. EPA.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)                   March 1998
                                     Contents
Introduction 	v

Welcome and Opening Comments	1

Formulating the Direction of the 5-Year Pilot Study	3

Guest Presentations	4

   European Cleaner Technology Research	4

   Industries of the Future: Creating a Sustainable Technology Edge	6

   NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally
   Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing	7

   Cleaner Technology and Production Islands in Economies in
   Transition  Concept and Realization	9

   Software Tools for Cleaner Production	 11

   Environmental Design of Industrial Products  Experience with the
   Danish EDIP LCA-method in Product Development	 13

   Economical Cryogenic Machining	 15

Conclusion	 17

   Discussion on Clean Manufacturing: Developing a Focus	 17

   Planning Topics and Logistics for Next Meeting	 18

Country Tours de Table	20

   Bulgaria	20

   Canada	23

   Chile	25

   Czech Republic	26

   Denmark	32

   Hungary	34

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998





   Lithuania	37




   Republic of Moldova	40




   Portugal	45




   Slovak Republic	46




   Switzerland	48




   Turkey	54




   United Kingdom	56




   United States	60




Field Trip Summaries	61




1998 Meeting Attendees	62
                                           IV

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)                   March 1998
                                    Introduction
       The Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established the Committee on
the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) in 1969. CCMS was charged with developing meaning-
ful programs to share information among countries on environmental and societal issues that
complement other international endeavors and to provide leadership in solving specific problems of
the human environment. A fundamental precept of CCMS involves the transfer of technological and
scientific solutions among nations with similar environmental challenges.

       The concept of sustainable development, universally accepted as the means of protecting the
environment for all mankind, demands that future manufacturing technologies must be cleaner, yet
economically sound. With continued industrialization and improving standard of living among
nations, and with increasing globalization of markets and means of production, all nations by and
large are facing similar environmental challenges in the manufacturing sectors. We established this
pilot on Clean Products and Processes to create an international forum where current trends, devel-
opments, and know-how in cleaner technologies, and in tools for measuring their cleanliness can be
discussed, debated, and shared. We hope that this pilot, through its annual meetings, will help stimu-
late productive interactions among experts, with the expected benefits of effective technology trans-
fer.

       The first meeting, held in Cincinnati, Ohio, on March 23-26, 1998, was devoted to creating
an agenda for the pilot. Delegates expressed their views on factors and developments that embody
clean manufacturing products and processes. There were several guest lectures on significant devel-
opments in Government programs, academic and industrial  efforts. The significant views expressed
by the delegates are all summarized in this report.

       We move on to the next meeting to be held in the Questor Center in the Queen's University
in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Prof. Jim Swindall, Director of Questor, will be Co-Director of the next
Pilot meeting.

                                                         Subhas K.  Sikdar, Director
                                                         Stephen C. James, Co-Director

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)                  March 1998
                                           VI

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Welcome and Opening Comments

       Welcoming the meeting attendees at 9:00 a.m., Monday, March 23, were E. Timothy Oppelt,
the Director of EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, and Robert Jenkins, Interim
Dean of Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Following the welcome, all participants were
introduced.
       Subhas K. Sikdar, the Pilot Study Director, followed with his opening comments. Dr. Sikdar
explained that the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study was recently approved by NATO and that the Pilot
Study is comprised of representatives from interested countries that meet once a year to discuss
issues important to the field of clean products and processes. It was stressed that Pilot Studies do not
sponsor research projects or try to create policy; they are a forum for sharing information  in this
case  technology and tools to assess, prevent and reduce pollution.
       While western nations have made significant gains in cleaning up the environment through
regulations, enforcement, public disclosure requirements, and emerging new technologies, an in-
creased knowledge of health and environmental impacts of pollutants has heightened the need for
cleaner products and processes. Environmental concerns have accompanied the accelerated industri-
alization occurring throughout the developing world. The proposed objective of the NATO CCMS
Pilot on clean products and processes is to facilitate further gains in pollution prevention, waste
minimization, and design for the environment. It is anticipated that the free exchange of knowledge,
experience, data, and models will foster innovations, collaborations, and technology transfer on
improving the environment worldwide.
       In the United States, the following government programs have helped to drive cleaner manu-
facturing:
     Industries of the Future (Department of Energy);
     Green Lights, Project Excel,  Green Chemistry Challenge, Common Sense Initiatives (U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency);
     Strategic Environmental Research & Development Program (Department of Defense);
     Advanced Technology Program (Department of Commerce)

American industry has responded with its own cleaner manufacturing initiatives such as Responsible
Care (Chemical Manufacturers Associations), Vision 2020 (the chemical industry), ISO 14000, and
Pollution Prevention. The public has also heightened the need for cleaner manufacturing through
environmental activism, litigation, protests,  and awareness programs.
       Citing a Tech Environmental source, air emissions such as nitrogen oxide, volatile organic
compounds, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide, are shown to have decreased
significantly since 1970 (accompanying significant environmental regulations) in the U.S. and are
expected to continue the downward trend. Similarly, since the advent of the Toxic Release Inventory
(where American companies must publicly report annual emission levels), reported releases have
continued to decline. These two broad trends demonstrate the efficacy of a three-pronged approach
to ensuring cleaner manufacturing: government regulations, industry cooperation (in response to
economic incentives), and public interest. By sharing our experiences and tools for cleaner products
and processes, related environmental concerns can be addressed more cost-effectively in each coun-
try.
       Dr. Sikdar concluded by listing the components of the first meeting of the NATO/CCMS
Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes:
    Guest lectures to address selected clean technology issues;
    A report on the U.S. Department of Energy's Industries of the Future program;

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

   Tour de Table presentations by participating nations;
   Site visits;
   Consideration of which industry sectors should be focused on for projects;
   Discussion on future meetings.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Formulating the Direction of the 5-Year Pilot Study (Stephen James,  United States
Environmental Protection Agency)

       Stephen James of the United States Environmental Protection Agency challenged the attend-
ees to consider during the meeting what directions they would like the Pilot Study to go during its
five years. Defining which industrial sectors should be focused on (e.g., textile industry) is very
important. It was further explained that the Pilot Study is a forum for government representatives to
share scientific information and perspectives on specific areas. Representatives can propose to
provide an in-depth report on projects in their countries that are associated with clean processes and
products. NATO CCMS fellowships, with the specific goal to investigate and report on projects
related to clean processes and products,  can be provided to help offset travel expenses. Applications
for these fellowships  are considered by NATO in Brussels. National representatives from each
country will remain the core group throughout the pilot study.
       Measures of success,  as developed from other pilot studies, include:
1) group input and interaction;
2) spin-offs from pilot studies  looking at specific issues which provide an exchange of informa-
   tion between groups;
3) keeping same representatives throughout the pilot study timeframe;
4) development of an industrial process  or helpful government policy as a result of the pilot study.

       Although details for future pilot  study meetings cannot be predicted, the following general
format is offered for consideration:
1) Special topic session. Topic to be decided by the meeting participants.  This topic would be se-
lected at the prior meeting. At this @ 1.5 day session, 7-12 papers would  be presented. A country
would volunteer to develop and chair this session.
2.  Tour de Table Presentations. At each meeting, the country representative would give a @10
minute presentation on an aspect of clean products and processes. Each country would provide a
hard copy (paper or electronic) of their presentation. This would be part of the meeting report. These
presentations would take approximately one-half day.
3.  Projects. Each country would be able to present to the pilot study projects which are of interest to
the pilot study. These would be in areas  that are interest to a country. Due to time constraints during
the meeting, a country would be allowed 2 active projects at any one time during the pilot study.
Project presentations  at the meeting would take @ one-half to one day.
4.  Guest Speakers. The host country for the pilot study meeting and other participating countries are
encouraged to have guest speakers who  would give @ 45  minute presentations to the pilot study.
There would be 2-3 of these per meeting.
5.  Fellows.  In accordance with NATO/CCMS Programs, fellowships for the pilot study will be
established. Fellows will be allowed to discuss their work at each meeting which they attend. (Guest
speakers and fellows  would take one-half day).
6.  Field trip. An integral part of the pilot study meetings is the field trip which would be to  an indus-
trial sector or a research facility addressing areas of interest to the pilot study. In general, the field
trip would be one day. Field trip would be developed by the country hosting the meeting.
Estimated time for the meeting, 4.5 days, excluding any pilot study management issues.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)                   March 1998
                               Guest Presentations
European Cleaner Technology Research (Michael Overcash, Pollution Prevention
Research  Center, North Carolina State University)

       European countries and the United States (US) have some common approaches toward clean
manufacturing. All seem to agree on pollution prevention as a hierarchic goal. Noticeable differences
occur when it comes to the practice of pollution prevention. An understanding of the associated
European research and development efforts (vs. practices) offers two insights: 1) the leading edge in
a technical  field includes understanding what the next alternatives are; 2) of key importance is the
idea of sustaining the momentum or success of clean technology over the years ahead. This discus-
sion is the result of the study of the environmental research and development (R&D) for cleaner
technologies in Europe and how these compare with similar activities in the United States.
       The Pollution Prevention Research Center visited and conducted detailed interviews at R&D
programs of government and industry, during 1993-4, in the following areas: European Union (EU),
Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the UK. Goals included the development of a better understanding
of the European research community, fostering trans-Atlantic cooperation, and gaining insights into
various approaches for pollution  prevention.
       Regarding the general evolution of cleaner production  in industry, new processes and manu-
facturing were given priority in Europe followed by more recent progression to improvements in
existing facilities. In the US, pollution prevention practices in  existing facilities were given priority
(because of short initial goals established by corporations) with some efforts focused on new facili-
ties (hindered by the incremental construction process). In both the US and Europe, cleaner produc-
tion competes for R&D funding with pollution control and the study of the environment. Both are
working toward a balance of old  and new. Also in common: "Rhetoric does not translate into funding
priorities."
       The similarities of government structure were considered. European countries were found to
be similar to states in the US. Likewise, the European Union is like the US federal
government...fostering multi-country R&D. The four European countries studied and the European
Union are expected to spend about $70 million US dollars per year on pollution prevention research
and development. In contrast, the US spends only $17 million on similar efforts.
       The structure of the EU from which R&D is funded follows. There are 15 directorates. The
Brite-EURAM and DG-12 are those with significant cleaner production R&D programs. Of the 700
proposals received, 140 involved projects for cleaner technologies. The EU funds roughly  10%.
Unlike the autonomous state R&D projects in the US, there seems to be multi-country collaboration
on R&D  projects in the EU. Of the total cleaner production R&D funding in the EU, "study of the
environment" is the greatest percentage. Next largest funded component is pollution control R&D.
Contrary to the rhetoric, pollution prevention is the third-most priority among EU cleaner production
R&D.
       The Brite-EURAM program on industrial materials and technologies has the following goals:
1) increase  competitiveness of European producers and user industries; 2) strengthen European
economic and social cohesion; 3) promote the scientific, technological, and economic integration of
European industries. Priorities include the development of environmentally friendly polymers, use of

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

wastes in paving materials, use of gypsum in the building industry, clean technology in the leather
industry, acid recovery, and catalyst recycle and recovery.
       In the German Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT), the project structure is as
follows: a) 2-4 industrial partners; b) a university partner; c) typically $1 million total US dollars per
project is allocated (60% government/ 40% industry). Six key topic areas are being investigated: 1)
low emission processes in industry; 2) low emission products; 3) CFC replacement; 4) chlorinated
hydrocarbon replacement; 5) reduction of volatile emissions; and 6) plastics recycling. As an indica-
tion of success, approximately 75% of the project results (e.g., new processes, technologies) have
been adopted by industry outside the original partners.
       A nonprofit technical and scientific society, DECHEMA, also funds cleaner production R&D
in Germany. Project structure includes $0.25-0.35 million US dollars for three years, project re-
searchers, and a project advisory committee. This action-oriented research follows market economies
and is competition neutral. Projects are focused in the following four areas: 1) recycling plastics and
metal/inorganics; 2) renewable resources; 3) plant protection and resistance; and 4) carbon dioxide
utilization.
       In the United Kingdom, the typical  clean technology project funded by the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council includes a university principal investigator and approximately
$55,000/year in US dollars over a three year period. There are a total of 220 projects per year with
total funding approximately $12 million US dollars. Key topics include cleaner synthesis, waste
minimization, sustainable cities, energy technologies, combustion, analysis and sensors, life cycle
assessment,  and novel and unconventional  ideas. There is also an R&D program within the  Depart-
ment of Trade and Industry with a variety of programs linked with industries.
       Italy, a significant participant in EU funded projects, is now funding environmental research
that includes cleaner technology R&D. Its targeted industries are textiles, metal finishing, and food
processing. Some of the key R&D topic areas include a) membrane systems for liquids and gases; b)
photocatalysis; c) recycling membranes and catalysts.
       In conclusion,  there is a large funding base existing for cleaner technology R&D in Europe
and the opportunity for synergy with the rest of the world is great. Of the eight organizations (in 4
countries) and the EU, the annual funding level is approximately $70  million US dollars. Europe is
making an investment in its knowledge base to achieve environmental solutions through pollution
prevention. In Europe there has become an advocacy for industrial innovation in the areas of com-
petitiveness  and environmental improvement. Recurring topics being  studied include: a) plastics and
polymer recycling and improved processes; b) expansion of the potential for use of renewable
chemicals and materials in products and processes; c) recycle of a steadily wider dimension of
chemicals, materials, or products; d) diverse CFC replacement and process improvement; e) carbon
dioxide utilization; f) reduced chemical use in  favor of natural approaches.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Industries of the Future: Creating a Sustainable Technology Edge (Louis Divone,
United States Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies)

       Mr. Divone began his presentation with a discussion of the primary U.S. energy flows.
Broken out broadly from 1994 data, the three largest areas of U.S. energy consumption are: industry
(35.8 exajoules); buildings (33.9 exajoules); and transportation (24.8 exajoules).
       For industry, competitive pressures include global markets and competition, technology/
product complexity, customer pressure on costs, environmental regulation, rapid pace of technology
change, competing materials, high cost of research and development, and stockholder demand for
near-term profits. Though energy use intensity (in BTU/$ GDP) decreased drastically for industry
during the period from 1974-1986, energy intensity leveled off during the past decade. In addition,
considerable research has been necessarily redirected toward the growing cost of pollution abate-
ment and industrial air emissions have continued to grow.
       Having the greatest pollution abatement costs and capital expenditures,  energy- and material-
intensive industries have been targeted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial
Technologies (OIT) to become Vision Industries to help improve energy efficiency and pollution
prevention. If one divides industry into three groups, the extraction industries, the process industries,
and the final product manufacturing industries, it can be seen that the bulk of energy consumption
and waste and emissions occurs within the process industries. Hence the program has focused on
those industries.
       While the high capital intensity of those industries makes change challenging, the Vision
Industries and OIT are focusing on improving those processes where change will be profitable.
These targeted Vision Industries employ 2.9 million workers, ship $800 billion  U.S. dollars worth of
products annually, account for 80% of manufacturing energy use, and are responsible for 90% of
wastes in manufacturing.
       Vision Industry partners will lead the improvement process with facilitation and coordination
by OIT. Industrial partners will prioritize technology needs, develop a technology strategy, commit
resources, direct  research and development partnerships, and ultimately implement the results. OIT
will leverage government resources, share project costs, provide access to the national laboratories,
and disseminate the results. Through partnership with OIT, industries can benefit from applied
research and development, demonstration capabilities, plant floor trials, decision tools,  best prac-
tices, and factory audits. Specific goals include productivity improvements, energy efficiency gains,
green house gas reduction, eliminated waste streams, new process development, raw material sav-
ings, and development of new energy  supply options.
       Setting goals and prioritizing technology needs (the roadmap stage) forms the basis for
research and development support. Roadmaps have been prepared for the following industries: forest
products, steel, metal casting, glass, and aluminum. Multiple roadmaps are being prepared for the
chemical industry. The agriculture and mining industry partnerships are just forming.
       Working  cooperatively, industries can leverage each others funds as well as the wide range of
available national programs and facilities. In many cases, an industry non-profit association coordi-
nates the competition for funding of research and development projects. The U.S. Department of
Energy reviews winners and decides which projects to fund (those that meet industry needs and
address DOE's energy mission and concerns). An association of laboratories is  formed to coordinate
how the research and development will be performed.
       More information on the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies can
be accessed through their website at the following address: www.oit.doe.gov

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

National Science Foundation/Semiconductor Research Corporation (NSF/SRC)
Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor
Manufacturing (Farhang Shadman, University of Arizona)

       The Engineering Research Center team currently includes 16 faculty members, four post-
docs, 50 students (33 of them are graduate students), seven academic disciplines, four founding
universities and two affiliated universities. In trying to improve the semiconductor manufacturing
process, there are many components to be considered. A challenge to this industry is its rapid change
and growth.
       Environmental issues associated with the semiconductor manufacturing industry include
water usage and wastewater production, global warming compounds (e.g., PFCs), hydrides, organic
solvents, highly corrosive liquid chemicals, slurry, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), energy, lack of
"relevant" environmental education in the training of process engineers and scientists.
       Environmental activities have been traditionally focused in this industry on the following
areas: equipment suppliers, material suppliers, regulations and permitting, environmental groups,
facilities, the process, and the products. Four strategies used in solving environmental problems
include: 1) alternative chemicals and processes, 2) reduced usage through process optimization, 3)
recovery/reclaim (recycle/reuse), and 4) reduced emissions (abatement). Strategies 1  and 2 are in-
process strategies; strategies 3 and 4 are post-process strategies.
       A large volume of water is used during the semiconductor manufacturing process; because of
this, great potential exists for increased water reuse through process design. Generally, over 2,000
gallons of water are used in the production of each wafer. Modern fabrication facilities use 3-4
million gallons of water per day. Factors contributing to the increasing water usage include: more
fabrication facilities; no viable replacement for water in the processes; more rinses per wafer are
required; higher water purity is being required; water use minimization disregarded when wet tools
are designed; and inefficient water purification processes are being used.
       The NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor
Manufacturing has forecasted water usage trends and technology gaps for the semiconductor manu-
facturing industry through the year 2012. Over the coming years, potential resource savings can be
realized through strategic solutions such as recycling, conservation, metrology, and advanced con-
trol. Among the key drivers for this effort is the high cost of water. In modern semiconductor fabri-
cating facilities, the average cost of water is $4 million U.S.  dollars each year.  The average cost of
feed water is $0.002 U.S. dollars per  gallon; the  average cost of waste water disposal is $0.003 U.S.
dollars per gallon; and the average finished cost  of DI water is $0.043 U.S. dollars per gallon. In
addition to cost reduction, other drivers for water conservation include potential improvements in
process and products performance, as well as insurance of sustainability in operation and growth.
       Water conservation strategies include: 1) development of dry processes; 2) development of
more efficient wet processes; 3) reclamation or the recovery and reuse of water for non-fabrication
process applications (e.g., such support processes as  cooling and gas scrubbing); and 4) recycling:
the recovery and reuse of water for fabrication process applications.
       Some of the obstacles and concerns about water recycling include: the  appearance of new
impurities and failure of available systems; accumulation of recalcitrant compounds; system upsets
and contamination surges; interactions among impurities and formation of recalcitrant contaminants;
and increased risk of biofouling.
       Another area with potential resource savings  in the semiconductor manufacturing industry is
energy usage. The NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center has forecasted trends and technology

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

gaps for energy usage through 2012 as was done for water usage. Tactical solutions are predicted to
occur beginning in 1998 yet a research gap is expected after the year 2006.
       To prepare for and address the anticipated research gaps, the NSF/SRC Engineering Research
Center includes in its mission the preparation of a new breed of scientists and engineers that are
trained toward cleaner production. Goals include the integration of science and engineering gradu-
ates, Center graduates, and graduates with general environmental courses among the many segments
(e.g., suppliers, process, facilities, and fabrication) of the semiconductor manufacturing process.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Cleaner Technology and Production Islands in Economies in Transition 
Concept and Realization (Lajos Nebb-Csorba, Hungary)

       In the 1990s the amount of professional information on cleaner technology and products has
been substantially increased due to the international cooperation and development of information
technologies. How can we finance and apply them is one of the major problems, especially for the
Central and Eastern European transitional economies.
       The following are several important characteristics of the economies in transition, and the
environmental status of these countries in the early 1990s. First, a few general trends: a) a growing
environmental awareness of the population, the activity of NGOs; b) severe international require-
ments, standards and emission limits (please remember our integration intentions); c) recession in
the home economy - lost markets; d) restructuring processes in the economy - bankrupted compa-
nies, regions with  a high unemployment rate, privatization.
       At the same time our environmental heritage consists in a) inadequate environmental regula-
tion and enforcement; b) environmental damages, contaminated sites, heavy pollution of several
industrial areas; c) low level of knowledge and experience on environmental matters; d) very unfa-
vorable structure of the whole industry, high energy and raw material consumption, high pollutant
emission levels; and e) shortage of financial funds for environmental programs, projects and invest-
ments
       This situation seems to be a disaster - but we can consider it a challenge as well. We shall
take measures both on short and long term ("fireman" and "strategic" actions). Considering the
requirements of the sustainable development, we will start from several basic ideas: prevention,
environmental liability ("polluter pays"), market relations, and step by  step evolution. We will
establish an environmental market of the environmental products and services.
       This field of economics has special characteristics:  it is a well regulated market and the most
determinant participant is the state. Since the environment is a common good of the modern society,
we shall maintain  the involvement of the state in this sector of the economy. But the basic market
mechanisms will be in force over the environmental market too. The profit-oriented companies, the
private entrepreneurs, the local governments and the municipality-owned companies are also partici-
pants. A well-regulated environmental market can offer a stable economic environment and an
acceptable profit for them.
       However, the main duty of the state is to establish and to guarantee the general conditions
(i.e., the legal frame) of the environmental activity. The state will fulfill this by creating the neces-
sary regulation: rules, standards, emission limits. It is essential  to create a suitable environmental
liability system. The legal frame will be created  step by step, considering in every moment  the actual
situation of the economy. However, the enforcement will be severe. These are our "hard tools"
during this work.
       The state has "soft tools" as well: the financial support of environmental investments, devel-
opments, the tax and other advantages, lower environmental charges for cleaner production/products
etc. It is important to establish and operate a special governmental fund for support. The Hungarian
solution is the Central Environmental Protection Fund.

Sources of Revenues
       The sources of revenues for the Central Environmental Protection Fund come from  the
following: a) environmental and nature conservation fines, b) environmental product charges, c) user
fees and emission  charges, d) levies on the exploitation of certain constituents of the environment, e)
contributions to the protection of historical buildings, f) building fines, g) incomes from selling or

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

utilization of state-owned historical buildings, and h) mining annuity. Funding also comes from a)
direct budget allocations, b) international aids serving environmental protection, c) voluntary pay-
ments and support to the Fund, d) principal and interest repayments to the Fund, and e) damage
removing costs repaid to the Fund by those causing damage and other sources of revenue. At the
same time the state will be the most important real market actor having both a direct and indirect
influence on the total demand and supply (of the environmental products and services). For example
direct influence on the demand can be obtained by the environment related public programs and
projects financed by the government (i.e. the National Clean-up Program in Hungary). On the other
hand an active supporting activity of the industrial background of environmental investments (pro-
ducer of environmental equipment) means an indirect influence on the supply.
       Using the "hard" regulatory and the "soft" economic tools and their synergetic effect, we will
establish a dynamic equilibrium between the "end of pipe" and  preventive actions. But remember:
the state is really powerful on this market and can modify this equilibrium. Starting as "firemen" on
short term, and on medium and long term we must put an increasing accent on "strategic" actions.
The prevention should gain a higher importance and weight in time.
       In order to realize this evolution at first we will help to create cleaner technology and product
"islands," then we will try to extend them. Examples of these islands are a) foreign investments in
industry; b) industrial parks; c) integrated waste management systems (on site waste reduction); d)
waste and pollutant emission reduction using organizational measures; e) regional  waste yards for
municipal solid waste; and f) special solutions: sterilization/incineration stations for the  hazardous
wastes of hospitals, biotechnological wastewater- and sewage treatment plants, etc.
       During the planning and realization we should consider  various environmental and economic
factors and effects. The preliminary environmental impact assessment, the environmental risk assess-
ment, the life cycle analysis will help us during the decision making process, but we shall  take in
consideration also the logistics, the economy of scale and the profitability. All these "islands" belong
to the environmental market.
       In transitional economies one of the major problems is the shortage of financial resources. It
is very hard to  obtain the necessary financial funds for these "islands" and their development. It is
clear that the government will not be able to increase its role in  the future. Moreover, a stronger
direct involvement could create damages in the normal market relations. The other ministries (Fi-
nance, Industry, Labor), the local governments, the banking sector (investment banks) and the
companies could help us, if we would realize a cooperation with all these partners.
       We can also promote the cleaner technologies and products with several "soft," but very
important actions. I will mention here only two fields: a) environmental protection-related research
and development; and b) environmental awareness through education.
                                             10

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Software Tools for Cleaner Production: 1) Chemical Process Simulation for
Waste Reduction and 2) Computer Aided Solvent Design (Heriberto Cabezas,
United States Environmental Protection Agency)

1) Chemical Process Simulation for WAste Reduction: WAR Algorithm
       The goal of the project was to develop a new methodology for minimizing waste generation
in chemical manufacturing processes through the use of chemical process simulation. In traditional
chemical process design, attention is focused primarily upon minimizing cost while the environmen-
tal impact of a process  is often overlooked. This may, in many instances, lead to the production of
large quantities of waste materials. In those cases, it is possible to reduce the generation of these
wastes and their environmental impact by modifying the design of the process. However, the appro-
priate design methodologies for waste minimization do not generally exist. Thus,  research activities
are now underway at the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory to develop
such methodologies.
       The method is based on a generic pollution balance for chemical processes. A "pollution
index," defined as the environmental and human health impact of the waste produced per unit mass
of a product, is calculated from the pollution balance. This index is used to provide a quantitative
measure of the impact of the generated waste. Note that the quantity that needs to be minimized in
pollution reduction is the environmental impact rather than mass of pollutants. The reason is that
different pollutants can have entirely different impacts, and one could conceivably reduce the mass
of pollution but increase its impact if the chemical impacts are disregarded. We have, therefore,
developed an algorithm for estimating the human health and environmental impact of chemicals by
adapting the results of several studies from the U.S. EPA and other sources. The impact estimation
algorithm is sophisticated and flexible enough to allow users to emphasize, underemphasize, or
disregard different hazards as needed for particular applications. For example, an  operation in an
area suffering from smog might emphasize air pollution effects, while an operation where workers
are routinely exposed to chemicals might emphasize human health effects. In using our entire meth-
odology for process design, a process simulator is used to construct and carry out the material and
energy balances, and the pollution index of the overall process is then calculated.  Next, pollution
reducing changes are made to the flowsheet, the mass and energy balances carried out, and the
pollution index is recalculated. This process is repeated until a flowsheet that is economically and
environmentally acceptable is obtained. The result is a robust process design that  integrally incorpo-
rates pollution reduction.
       Regarding project status, the mathematical basis of the WAR algorithm including the chemi-
cal impact estimation has been established, the database of chemical environmental impacts has been
created, and a computer algorithm for incorporating the WAR methodology into process simulators
has been developed. Presently, the first version of the WAR Algorithm is being integrated into the
commercial simulator ChemC AD under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with
Chemstations, Inc. It is expected that the software will be available with the next release of
ChemCAD.

2) Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention: PARIS II
       The project goal is to facilitate the replacement of environmentally objectionable industrial
solvents by using computer aided methods to design benign replacement solvents or solvent mix-
tures.  The method generates a short list of recommended replacement solvents or  mixtures.
There is presently a great need to replace solvents currently used in industry but whose continued
use presents a number of environmental difficulties. These difficulties include worker health con-

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cerns, environmental impacts such as ozone depletion, toxicity in the environment, etc. The replace-
ment of these objectionable solvents, however, is a rather difficult task. One reason is that in order to
successfully replace a solvent with another solvent or a solvent mixture, a great many solvent param-
eters and, for mixtures, different compositions need to be considered. The list of solvent parameters
that need to be considered can include density, viscosity, surface tension, solvent capacity, etc., and
can become quite large. Clearly, trying to accomplish this replacement search by  hand can become a
nearly interminable task. It is also frequently desirable and more economical to replace only the
solvent, but not the process or the equipment in which the solvent is being used. In order to replace
only the solvent, it is further necessary to consider the various performance requirements for the
solvent such as evaporation rate, flash point, etc. Including an appropriate set of solvent parameters
and performance requirements in considering replacement solvents is extremely important to insure
that the replacement will perform adequately. At the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Re-
search Laboratory, an effort is underway to address these complex problems by developing a com-
puter program that will allow users to design more benign replacement solvents and solvent mix-
tures.
       A new Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, entitled PARIS II, for
PC's using the WINDOWS operating system is  under development. The program is capable of going
beyond solvent substitution into solvent design. The solvent design capability allows the user to
match or enhance desirable solvent properties while simultaneously suppressing undesirable ones
such as, for example, toxicity. This is achieved by selecting appropriate mixtures of pure solvents
and manipulating the composition. The composition is manipulated by a solvent search algorithm
aided by a library of routines with the latest fluid property prediction techniques, and by another
library of routines for calculating solvent performance requirements. The program contains a data-
base of solvents, and lists of solvent properties and solvent performance requirements. The list of
solvent properties adequately characterizes both the static and the dynamic behavior of the solvents
and mixtures. The list of solvent performance requirements includes comprehensive measures of
toxicity and means to estimate volatile organic emissions among other items. The program develops
a list of ranked candidate replacement pure solvents or solvent mixtures for consideration by the
user.
       Regarding project status, a preliminary version of the program is now operational and under-
going initial testing in our Laboratory. An abbreviated validation process will follow with the aid of
a small group of beta testers. Negotiations are underway with companies to establish Cooperative
Research and Development Agreements with the U.S. EPA for public marketing and distribution of
the PARIS II software.
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Environmental Design of Industrial Products  Experience with the Danish
EDIP LCA-method in Product Development (Henrik Wenzel, Denmark)

       The Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP) program was a cooperative pro-
gram between a university, industry, and the Danish authorities. More specifically, five major Danish
companies were participants, along with the Federation of Danish Industries, the Danish Environ-
mental Protection Agency, and the Institute for Product Development associated with the Technical
University of Denmark. The general process to design cleaner products involved the following
components: a) an environmental assessment of the product to determine which impact potentials are
important, b) an environmental diagnosis (i.e., what can be changed and the potential consequences
associated with the changes), c) an environmental specification to determine what are the targets for
the new products, and d) an environmental design of products to discover how the changes are made
and what is achieved.
       A significant challenge to the program was the need to find a way to compare impacts  of
different products or product variations. Often, it is like comparing apples to pears; impacts (e.g.,
emissions) must first be translated into equivalents to have normalized environmental impact poten-
tials. In studying and comparing product impacts, the ever-varying background load must be factored
in with the weighting criteria. The EDIP used the 1990 background loads as a baseline.
       In developing weighting criteria, the following must be considered:
  Probability of consequences caused by environmental impacts
       - how sure are we of the relations between cause and effect?
       - how far are we from critical impact levels?
   Gravity of consequences
       - loss of species > loss of individuals > reduced lifetime
       - global > regional > local
       - population  density in the areas concerned?
       - highly valuable natural assets in the areas concerned?
  Duration of the consequences
       - when will we be able to feel them?
       - are they reversible or irreversible?
       - how long will the consequences last after the impacts have ended?
       The following is a sample EDIP Specification to determine what are the targets for develop-
ment of new refrigerator and freezer designs:
  increase implementation of LCAs in general;
  increase energy efficiency during use;
  continue improvements on the working environment;
  increase use of recycled materials and  recycling of materials after use  of the product;
  reduce the consumption of scarce resources such as copper and nickel and if possible, completely
   avoid their use;
  substitute other materials for softened PVC; and
  substitute for R134a (a greenhouse gas) with alternative when problems associated with potential
   alternatives are solved.
       Also considered in as weighting factors are the proposed targeted reductions through treaties,
etc. These political considerations help to define the priority of the targeted impact reductions. A life
cycle analysis (LCA) prior to design and production can provide some simple guidelines, as well,
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for designers to try to implement. Danish industry is beginning to use LCA professionally with
positive results. Currently, 80% of Danish companies doing LCAs are using the EDIP method.
       The EDIP uses LCA system software developed through funding by the Danish EPA. The
software has an automatic cutoff to avoid infinite calculation procedures (e.g., coal use - requires
electricity to produce, which requires coal to produce, which requires electricity to produce). It has
been found that when companies (e.g., manufacturers of medical products) do not use LCA tools, it
is often because there is no competitive pressure to do so. An effort is underway to establish a center
where the LCA and software will be available; availability of the software will be controlled by the
Danish EPA.
       The following general conclusions can be made about use of LCA:
1. LCA is a good tool to identify improvement priorities.

2. Environmental improvements of products are most often profitable and relatively easy to achieve
  compared to conventional environmental improvement measures.

3. An average of 30-40% environmental improvements has been achieved in a wide range of prod-
  ucts  during the 4-year EDIP program.

4. LCA is becoming a discipline taught at universities.

5. Danish industry has positive experience in using LCA and companies that have used LCA will
  most often continue to do so.
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Economical Cryogenic Machining (Shane Y. Hong, Columbia University)

       A practical and economical cryogenic machining technology has been developed. This
environmentally-safe process is able to increase the tool life, improve the work quality and boost
productivity. Using an innovative approach, the liquid nitrogen consumption is lowered to a level
more economical than that of a conventional coolant. The ongoing research adopts a new concept of
micro-manipulation of the cutting temperature distribution to further improve the performance of
this system through theoretical and experimental study.
       To eliminate both health problems and the environmental contamination of cutting fluid in
conventional machining, an economical and practical cryogenic machining technology was devel-
oped through the joint effort of the author and 12 companies. This new, dry, and clean process cools
the cutting tool with cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2). By taking an innovative approach, the con-
sumption of liquid nitrogen is  minimized to a level at which the nitrogen costs less than conventional
cutting fluid. Additionally, tool wear has been greatly reduced, and tool life extended up to five
times. This enables high speed cutting, improves productivity and reduces the production cost.
       The practicality and economy of the cryogenic machining process have been demonstrated. It
is an environmentally-safe manufacturing process, and it can compete with conventional machining
in all aspects. Parallel to transferring this technology to the  industry, this research is, through a
theoretical and systematic approach, to optimize the design of the LN2 nozzle  and the control of
flow rate to achieve the best performance.
       This research adopts a  new cooling approach, "Manipulating the cutting temperature in the
micro sense." LN2 allows us to effectively manipulate the temperature distribution in the machining
process. We may "program" the most desirable temperature to achieve the best material properties
for the specific function in the machining process in different micro locations,  such as the primary
shear zone, the formed chip, the friction zone, the bulk workpiece, the tool face and the tool body.
The cryogenic  nozzles with the best spray or injection pattern for different materials are, or will be,
designed to achieve the most desirable temperature distribution. Whether the desirable temperature
distribution can be achieved will be verified by computer simulation of the metal cutting process
cooled by LN2 through thermodynamic and heat transfer finite element analysis. The analysis result
will then be used to modify the cryogenic cooling approach and specific nozzle design. The mini-
mum amount of LN2 needed to execute the required cooling function is also theoretically and ex-
perimentally determined. Intelligent control for the dispensing of LN2 will be investigated. The
ultimate economical cryogenic machining system then will  be developed, which is believed to have
the least LN2 consumption,  longest tool life, highest production rate, lowest overall production cost,
and highest surface quality and optimum chip breakability.  The final result will be obtained through
actual machining tests on a CNC turning center.
       As the real advantages of this new environmentally-safe machining process have already
been demonstrated, this new technology is on its way to commercialization. Air Products & Chemi-
cals, Inc. has obtained non-exclusive license to use and the  exclusive right to market this technology
to third parties. The company also forms a business alliance with Monarch Machine Tools Company
and Kennametal, Inc., and are  preparing for beta-site testing. The key thrust of this industrial effort is
to develop a commercial version of a cryogenic delivery system through a multi-tool turret for fully
automatic cryogenic machining.
       This economical cryogenic machining technology is also being extended to the milling
process. The Boeing Company-Defense & Space Group, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.  and
Columbia University are running the cryogenic titanium milling test program.  Columbia University
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

has developed a high speed rotary liquid nitrogen coupling to facilitate the rotating multi-teeth tool
cooling. Air Products has also developed a liquid nitrogen sub-cooling system for improving the
cooling capacity in the metal cutting process.
       The fundamental research on micro-temperature manipulation has officially moved to Co-
lumbia University from Wright State University where the author started this research. Monarch Co.
has offered a CNC lathe with power rotary tooling to our research laboratory which allows both
turning and milling experiments on the same machine. The micro temperature manipulation concept
has been applied to the chip breaking improvement of cutting low carbon steel 1008. The result
demonstrated improved chip breaking which allows extended feed and speed range. In the mean
time we also achieved a cutting force reduction and tool life increase. The application of cryogenic
machining to very high speed cast iron turning using CBN tools has also been studied. The machin-
ing test showed that the tool life can be increased fivefold.
       Cooling power of liquid nitrogen is well known in the technical community, but it is still not
believed that it can be used as a lubricant. Because we achieved reduction of friction in our metal
cutting test, we are investigating the lubrication effects of the cryogen.
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                                      Conclusion
Discussion on Clean Manufacturing: Developing a Focus (Lead by Subhas Sikdar)

       To reiterate some fundamental guidance, it must be understood that the objective of the pilot
study is not to create policy. The focus is to be kept on the science and engineering involved with
cleaner technologies. From meeting to meeting, the study could maintain a continual core subject
with another agreed-upon component (e.g., technical tools) that changes each time.
       The Hungarian representative suggested that the core focus of the pilot study should be the
pollution associated with processes and products This core focus was agreed upon by the attend-
ees. Given this, pilot study representatives can then try to break down the problem and focus on the
technical solutions (perhaps in key industrial sectors). Additionally, the following clusters were
accepted to be a continual focus of the pilot study:
1) Tools and methods to assess, prevent and solve pollution (e.g., benchmarking; industry-specific
tools; life cycle analysis; cost-benefit tools; communication and information tools)
2) Industry- and sector-specific problems
3) Product- and service-specific issues
       The Canadian representative suggested that benchmarking or common minimum expecta-
tions would be useful information to develop and share. The Danish attendee offered that there are
generic solutions that can be shared and that all might benefit from the collective experiences;
however, a good way to categorize processes and common denominators was needed.
       Cost-benefit tools were  described that could monetize environmental impacts of environmen-
tal actions. The representative from Moldova stressed that economic effects must be balanced with
environmental gains. Also, sustainability could not be ignored when considering cleaner production.
The representative from UK stressed that communication is key to facilitating cleaner production
practices...the solutions to a specific problem may already exist in another country and can be
shared.
       In trying to prioritize industrial concerns,  each country was asked to list the industries with
the greatest environmental impacts in their respective countries. Criteria for choosing industries, it
was suggested, should include a great probability for positive impacts. While some wanted to focus
on regional issues, it was suggested that the charge would be more appropriately focused on cleaner
processes that help prevent those specific problems.
       A discussion ensued about products and services that could be focused on for cleaner produc-
tion and processes. Examples offered were: transportation, electronics, electromechanical (appli-
ances), green buildings, packaging, energy distribution.  Some distinct differences were highlighted;
for instance, in appliance manufacturing the focus should be on the product and not the process; in
chemical production, just the opposite was true.
       Also discussed were the information tools that could help further cleaner production and
processes. The representative from Canada pointed out that the information on the Internet was often
too general and of questionable validity; perhaps  greater awareness of cleaner production and pro-
cesses would be accomplished through seminars, workshops, etc. The representative from Portugal
recommended that a pilot study web site link up with other key related sites and that the information
be in a common format.
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Planning Topics and Logistics for Next Meeting (Subhas Sikdar and Stephen James,
United States)

       Drawing from an earlier-developed list of industry priorities, a representative of each country
present was asked to help prioritize by multivoting. Each voter was given 5 votes to place next to the
listed industries; a voter could not place more than 3 votes next to any one specific industry. Agree-
ment was reached earlier that "tools" would remain a high priority focus throughout the life of the
pilot study. The list of priority industries and results of the multivote follow:

Industry                                             #votes
Textiles                                                 12
Organic chemicals (inc. pharmaceuticals)                  10
Energy production                                        7
Pulp and paper                                           7
Food                                                    6
Leather                                                  4
Machinery                                               4
Metal finishing                                           3
Metal production                                         2
Agricultural                                              1

       For the next pilot study meeting, attendees should try to focus on projects in the higher
priority areas. However, information on the lower priority issues can be shared as well.

Projects, Products and Services
       The final product of the pilot project should at the very least lead to interaction and stimu-
lated technology transfer. The Canadian representative requested that pilot- and large-scale technol-
ogy demonstration information be shared by the attendees.  Regarding proposed projects for the pilot
study, a 1-page status report should be submitted twice each year to the Pilot Study Director, Subhas
Sikdar. Projects (1 or 2 per country) should be proposed to the Director one month after the proceed-
ings of the first meeting have been completed.
       Dan Murray, U.S. EPA will be responsible for information dissemination and planning
coordination for the next pilot study meeting.  He will create a list server and a web site with appro-
priate links. Stephen James explained that in general, a NATO pilot study suggests a series of 5
meetings (one each year). The UK, Denmark, and Switzerland have indicated interest in hosting
future meetings. Jim Swindall presented information on Belfast, Northern Ireland, for the attendees
to consider when picking the host site for 1999. After a vote, it was decided that the United
Kingdom's invitation was accepted. The meeting, March 23-26, 1999, will be held at Queens Uni-
versity in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
       Regarding the proceedings report from the first meeting of the pilot study, the NATO report
number will be 230. Approximately 20 copies will be sent to each attendee in hopes of collaboration
with others in their country. The report will include a copy  of the agenda, list of attendees, summary
of the meeting, and tour-de-table presentations. The United States is currently the director of this
pilot study. Additional countries can become co-directors. The U.S. EPA will take  responsibility for
the reports for the full 5 years of the pilot study. The format of the meetings was detailed early in this
proceedings. Fellowships associated with this pilot study are available through NATO. A format for
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

the 1-page, project-related updates will be developed and made available by Stephen James. A key
section on this update sheet will be "Outcomes."
       Each country is not required to propose a pilot study project. NATO does not fund the
projects so they should be  of interest, and likely already underway, in the attendees country. The
representative from Turkey recommended that each country try to propose at least one project or
cooperate on one to guarantee that there will be projects to report on next year. Some NATO funding
is available for guest speakers on special topics at the meetings. Attendees are encouraged to publish
journal articles (highlighting the pilot study accomplishments) in their respective countries.
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                            Country Tours  de Table
Clean Processes and Products in Bulgaria (Christo Balarew)

       Bulgaria is a country that has recently witnessed a deep economic crisis coupled with social
and political upheaval. The situation led to the election of a new government, that of the Union of
the Democratic Forces, in early 1997. Bulgaria is now undertaking responsible economic and re-
structuring measures, carrying out privatization and ambitious restructuring plans. This is a transition
from the totalitaristic socialist system to market economy.
       During the so called period of "socialist construction" in Bulgaria there were built large
enterprises in the field of the ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, of the chemical and pharmaceutical
industries, of the metal processing and machinery construction. They were mainly set up by applying
Soviet technologies, which were strongly power and raw-materials consuming while the quality of
their production did not comply with the international standards in most cases. While developing
these industries and particularly during the fifties and sixties of the century, no attention was paid to
environmental protection; as a result, many of those enterprises have generated serious pollution.
Moreover, the number of small and medium-sized enterprises was very limited due to the fact that
the legislation did not allow private ownership  on the means of labor production.
       These days, privatization of industry is under way in Bulgaria. One of the important require-
ments set to the privatization tenders is the realization of clean production processes either through
an appropriate replacement of certain technological units or through the application of respective
purification equipment. Great attention is paid to the creation of waste-free technologies, mainly
through the development of methods and technologies for the utilization of the waste products.
Bulgaria's governmental policy now supports the setting up of small and medium-sized enterprises
using clean processes. A special fund has been established within the Ministry of Education and
Science (MES) for  stimulating the small and medium enterprises willing to provide capacities for the
production of new products resulting from scientific research activity.
       This presentation is an attempt to illustrate some of the current activities of the scientific
organizations in Bulgaria (the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and some Universities) in the field of
clean processes and products without any ambition for the list to be complete.

I. Tools for the Assessment of Pollution Prevention

Life cycle analysis  methods and use
       In Bulgaria  Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)  as a tool of environmental management is under
development now. Studies are carried out in the following directions:
1. Creation of database of life cycle inventories for commodities from the chemical process industry.
2. LCA of waste disposal routes.
3. Product related standards for ecolabeling plan.

Computer-based simulation tools for process design.
       Development  of methods, algorithms and computer tools for process simulation and optimi-
zation of various industrial processes for helping experts in decision making, considering pollution
prevention.
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The following computer packages are in a process of improvement or development:
1. for refinery operations management;
2. for simulation and optimization of absorption columns and systems;
3. for optimal decision making and evaluation of priorities.
- A program is developed for determining the equilibrium in multicomponent complex systems for
  computer simulation of different practical cases of pollutants in order pollution prevention.

Measuring pollution prevention
       The research activities in this area are mainly oriented to development of analytical methods
for identification, control and measuring the pollution in atmosphere, water, soil and plants.
- Analytical strategy for defining the pollutants ( heavy metals, phenols, phosphor-organic com-
  pounds and carbamates) in water and soils, using electrochemical biosensors.
- Development of gas and electrochemical sensors on the bases of vacuum deposited films of
  oxides, halides, halcogenides, carbides and organic semiconductors, which are sensitive to the
  presence of various gases in the environment, for elaboration of tests for detecting and environ-
  mental cancerogenic pollution measurement.
- Production of analytical grade chemicals.

II. Technologies for Clean Processes

Development of advanced technologies that are cleaner and friendlier to the environment.
       Solving ecological problems arisen from the production and application of some organic
products by:
1. improving the technology  of production, e.g. by effective catalysis;
2. improving properties by special functionalization  or modification;
3. using products accelerating the degradation or the chemical destruction of polymers: self-degrad-
  able materials, photodegradation, destruction e.g. of polyurethanes;

- Technologies for extraction of valuable substances from plant resources;
- Technologies based on synthesis leading to a sole  and targeted products;
- Technologies for reducing the textile dyes content in textile effluents;
- A method of membrane emulsification for production of monodisperse and fine emulsion for
  preservation of shear sensitive emulsifiers or stabilizers like proteins and starch;
- Membrane technologies for waste water treatment and extraction of components;
- Ion exchange purification of effluents;
- Bonding the heavy metal ions from soil and waters into insoluble compounds;
- Studies for reduction the greenhouse gas emissions, e.g. from soil amended with mineral and
  organic-mineral agents;
- Effluent minimization of the bleaching processes in the pulp and paper industry by substitution of
  chlorine and chlorine containing chemicals by oxygen or oxygen containing compounds as ozone,
  peroxides as well as by a new group of enzymes ( oxidoreductases );
- Environmentally optimized processes for thermally sprayed coatings;
- Technologies for chemical and thermal processing of metals and alloys using low - temperature
  plasma;
- Replacement of toxic organic additives for surface processing with bio-acceptable and bio-soluble
  polymers;
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Studies on synthesis and application of sorbents
- Synthesis of polymer solvents on the basis of polyacrilonitrile for purification and extraction of
  elements from water effluents;
- Applied research of natural sorbents: clynoptinolite, montmorilonite and perlite aimed at obtaining
  new filter materials;
- Development of a method for obtaining active carbon (patent protected).

Technologies for utilization of waste products, regenerations, recycling.
- Utilization of phosphor - gypsum from apatite processing:
- Utilization the waste brines from the sea-salt production;
- Utilization the waste products from dimethylterephtalates production;
- Methods and apparatus for extraction of clean products from effluents and their rational use;
- Technology for regeneration of waste solvents from the antibiotics production;
- Technology and equipment for metals recycling.

III. Examination and Application to Industrial Sectors.
       An extremely important problem for Bulgaria  and for the entire Black Sea area is the protec-
tion of the Black Sea. The problem has two principal aspects:
- The environmental implications of the energy resources transportation through the Black Sea
  region. The oil transportation with tankers and gas transportation via gas pipelines are envisaged.
  A serious scientific assessment of the feasibility and opportunity of gas transportation under the
  Black Sea as well as the eventual consequences is strongly needed. The high content of hydrogen
  sulfide at the bottom layers and the risk bearing seismic region should also be taken into account.

- Protection of the Black Sea against pollutants, particularly bio-genetic elements, brought in
  through the rivers flowing into the Black Sea - the Danube, the Dnepar, the Dnestar, the Bug and
  the Don rivers.

       It is recommendable and worth to work up an international program for monitoring the
pollution and identifying its origin. This program should involve each Black Sea country as well as
those  countries, through which the above rivers empty their waters into the Black Sea.
       Stage two should point to the drawing up of a long-term plan (5 to 10 years), which should
stipulate the liquidation of the sources of pollution either through the construction of the respective
cleaning equipment (wastewater treatment plants - WWTP) or through closing enterprises - pollut-
ants.

There are also other problems related to the air, water and soil pollution caused by metallurgical and
chemical plants, such as:

       Kremikovtsi Metallurgical Works near Sofia
       Nonferrous Works near Plovdiv and Kardjali
       Copper Smelter in the town of Pirdop
       Chemical Works in the towns of Dimitrovgrad and Devnya, etc.

       The Bulgarian scientists work on all the above problems, but their efforts could hardly be
successful without the respective assistance and support of the international organizations.

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Cleaner Production & Cleaner Technology Activities within the Canadian
Government (Anthony M. Kosteltz)

       The Canadian government's activities on the issue of cleaner production and cleaner tech-
nologies (CP/CT) include a sustainable development strategy, greening government policies, and a
strategy for the Canadian environmental industry. UNEP defined cleaner production in 1989. It is the
application of an integrated preventative environmental strategy to processes and products for
reducing health and environmental risk. To accomplish cleaner production, know-how must be
applied, technologies must be improved, and attitudes must be changed.
       The objectives of CP/CT are to prevent pollution, reduce costs, and improve operation
efficiency. Tools to reach these objectives include: a) pollution prevention, b) life cycle assessment,
c) material conservation, d) renewable energy, e) waste minimization, f) R&D, g) standard regula-
tions training, h) voluntary compliance, and i) tax incentives.
       The Canadian policy framework on CP/CT includes the Canadian Environmental Protection
Act, the Auditor General Act, the Motor Vehicle Safety Act, and the Pest Control Act. Related
Environment Canada initiatives follow:
    Toxic Substances Management Plan
    Chlorinated Substances Action Plan
   Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxins
   Pollution Prevention Strategy
   Montreal Protocol Commitments
    Guidelines on Energy Management Systems
   National Gasoline Standards
   Sound Management of Chemicals under NAFTA
   UNECE LRTAP Convention
   ISO Committee on Environmental Management Systems
    State of Environment Reporting
   National Pollutant Release Inventory
   Green Chemistry
   Environmental Biotechnology
   Climate Change and CP/CT
   Environmental Management System Standards
   Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Centers
   Technology Solutions Network
Related Industry Canada initiatives include:
   Canadian Environmental Solutions Database
   Business Environmental Performance Office
   Technology Partnerships Canada Program
Related Health Canada initiatives include:
   Safe Drinking Water Act
   Pest Management Regulations
   Bureau of Chemical Hazards
   Lead Reduction in Products
Natural Resources Canada initiatives include:
   Voluntary Challenge and Registry
   Efficiency and Alternative Energy Program

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

  Energy Taxation Options
  Metal Recycling Program
  Sustainable Forestry Management Centers
  Greening Government Program
  Energy Sector Website
National Research Council initiatives include:
  Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology
  Institute for Research in Construction
  Industrial Research Assistance Program
  Biotechnology Research Institute
  Industrial Materials Institute
C2 P2 initiatives include:
  Pollution Prevention Clearinghouse
  Pollution Prevention Dialogue Forum
  Customized Sectoral Training
  List serve for EST Information
Agriculture Canada initiatives include:
   Sustainable Development Strategy
  Biodiversity Action Plan

       Some Canadian Internet sites associated with cleaner processes and cleaner technologies are
listed below. There are several success stories which are generally grouped under the following
categories: a) water and energy conservation; b) process modification; c) product reformulation; d)
material substitution; e) management improvements; and f) clean technologies.

http://c2p2.sarnia.com/          http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/
http://www.ec.gc.ca             http://www.bri.nrc.ca/
http://virtualoffice.ic.gc.ca/      http://www.irc.nrc.ca/

       The above are only examples of some of the major initiatives on CP/CT within the Federal
government. Additional surveys will be done to establish in greater detail as to how CP/CT is ad-
vanced in Canada through the various governments at the Federal, Provincial and Municipal levels
as well as within the private sectors. CP/CT is considered a mechanism which will ensure an acceler-
ated progress towards sustainable development. Climate change may turn out to be the best driver to
accelerated the development of CP/CT.
       The key to success in this endeavour will be innovation and partnerships. Innovation cannot
be limited to 'Technological Development' but must also be applied in engineering, management,
marketing and financing. In today's competitive environment, environmental solutions must be
closely tied to  the economic bottom line and only then will CP/CT be widely accepted. National and
international partnerships will be required for effective communication, collaboration and team
work. Many of the environmental issues are becoming global in scope and will only be addressed
satisfactorily through such cooperation. This NATO/CCMS pilot study is an excellent start to ensure
such progress.
       The next  steps for Canada are to compile information,  survey updates, coordinate methodol-
ogy, analyze material, exchange information,  and link CP/CT to sustainable development. The key to
success is innovation and partnerships. Some of the P2 success stories are: a) water and energy
conservation; b) process modification; c) product reformulation; d) material substitution; e) manage-
ment improvements; f) clean technologies.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Cleaner Production in Chile (Maria Elena Torres M.)

       Cleaner production process development must catalyze, encourage and facilitate the increase
of competitiveness and the environmental performance of the companies, support the development
of preventive environmental management to generate cleaner production processes, including the
efficient use of energy and water.
       The overall goal can be accomplished through five actions which can be independent or
combined among themselves:

1. Minimization and the efficient consumption of inputs, water and energy;
2. Minimization of the use of toxic inputs;
3. Minimization of the volume and toxicity of all the emissions generated by the production
  processes;
4. Recycling of the maximum amount of wastes; and
5. The reduction of the environmental impact of the products in their cycle of life.

       The objective of the FONSIP project is the creation of capabilities for solving pollution
problems caused by liquid industrial wastes, applying prevention programs in order to control
contamination  in origin, as well as clean technology concepts and "end of pipe" treatments. The
FONSIP project focuses on the following industrial sectors: a) tannery; b) textile dyeing; c) plating;
d) paint production. Targeted are the small and medium-sized companies (PYMEs) in the 8th, 5th,
and metropolitan regions.
       Project achievements include: 1) setting up environmental management in a pilot group of
PYMEs, using methods and tools applicable to their characteristics; 2) training companies and
environmental  consultants in methodologies for environmental management for PYMEs and in the
efficient use of existing economic instruments for implementation; and 3) linkage of state bodies and
industrial sectors in order  to generate programs for supporting environmental management in the
PYMEs; 4) Transfer to industry of PYMEs pollution prevention and technological alternatives for
reducing environmental pollution, in order to improve their environmental performance; 5) training
enterprises and consultants in pollution prevention, clean technologies and control treatments in
order to support PYMEs in the process of change; 6) encouragement of the private sector in order to
accomplish efforts and investments in the  establishment of pollution prevention, clean technologies
and end of pipe treatment  (worked through a pilot plan).
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Clean Products and Processes in the Czech Republic (Dagmar Sucharovovd)

       The fundamental postulate which guides the formulation of environmental policy in the
Czech Republic which was approved by the Czech Government in 1995, is the responsibility of the
present generation to preserve and transmit fundamental life values to future generations (healthy air
and water, productive land, consumable foods, a safe climate and the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs). State environmental policy therefore stresses the rational and efficient use of
resources. Emphasis is placed on recycling, limiting pollution (to a level which does not produce
irreversible damage to human health and/or nature), respecting the importance of biological diversity
and seeking economically favorable ways of meeting mans basic needs without jeopardizing envi-
ronmental systems.
       The goals of environmental policy and the tools for their attainment are formulated to maxi-
mize the potential for creating an optimal system. This process proceeds from finding a socially
acceptable level of environmental and health risks. The system of policy tools which is  selected and
which is based on an acceptable level of risk needs to be environmentally and economically accept-
able and integrated with the social, political, regional and international aspects.
       An analysis of the state of the environment between 1989-1995 has indicated the priority
problems for the State environmental policy. The order of priorities established for 1995-1998
follows:
  Improving air quality through the reduction of harmful emissions
  Improving water quality by limiting pollution discharges
  Reducing the production of wastes (namely hazardous wastes)
  Eliminating the impacts of harmful physical and chemical factors
  Remedying previous environmental damage

       In the medium-term context (1999-2005), projections indicate that a significant portion of the
above-mentioned priority problems will be, at least partially, resolved and therefore resolution of the
following  problems:
   Creating land use provisions which will safeguard the efficient protection of the individual
   components of the environment (water,  soil, climate)
  Increasing the water retention capacity of land by improving the revitalizing measures
   Continuing the  reconstruction of forest growth in areas  damaged by air pollution
   continuing reclamation of areas devastated by mining activities

       Long-term priority areas (post 2005) of the State's environmental policy include:
   Climate protection
  Protection of the Earth's ozone layer

Protection
       In the field of science and technology, the primary strategy will be to support activities which
focus on identifying solutions for the above-mentioned priority  problems. In scientific research, the
study of environmental and health risk and cumulative impacts and/or synergistic effects of pollution
on human health and the environment is of major importance. With regard to technological develop-
ment, primary interest will be directed on the  low and no waste  (cleaner) technologies (those which
produce lower demands on energy and lower emissions), technologies which utilize secondary  raw
materials and technologies to treat hazardous wastes. Important role in the State environmental
policy play so called new environmental tools on voluntary basis, which are utilizing by industry.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

These tools were and are prepared as a part of Integrated product oriented policy. For the meeting
NATO/CCMS Pilot study on Clean products and processes we would like to introduce some of
them.

A. Eco-Labelling in the Czech Republic
       The Czech Republic believes that the eco-labelling is an important instrument to raise public
awareness regarding sustainable consumption patterns. Consumers are able to make more informed
choices about the products they will purchase if products which meet certain environmental stan-
dards are given an eco-label. Eco-labelling represents an important step toward the goal of substitut-
ing more efficient and less polluting products and services. In order to provide clear information to
the public, criteria regarding the labelling of individual products needs to be clearly defined within
product categories. It is also important that the public is informed and participates in the determina-
tion of the criteria for eco-labelling so that this process is transparent and creditable.
       The Czech Eco-labelling program was initiated by a resolution of the Czech Government
(Resolution No. 159) on April 7, 1993 and was announced on April 22, 1994 following a one year
preparatory period.

Basic principles
       The primary objective of the Czech Eco-labelling Program is to encourage environmental
protection via the production and utilization of products which have a reduced environmental im-
pact. In accordance with the labelling programs of OECD countries and EU Member States, the
Czech Program includes the following principles:
   Voluntary involvement of producers
   Credibility,  transparency and public participation
   Equal access for domestic as well as imported products
   Full compliance with environmental laws and regulation
   Clearly defined criteria for product categories

Product Categories
       Under the Czech Eco-Labelling Program, the draft guidelines for the criteria of the indi-
vidual product categories is prepared by an ad hoc group of experts and is then submitted to the
Board of the Czech Eco-labelling Program. The criteria for the product categories are determined in
close cooperation with manufacturers so as to encourage improvements in product design and
development. The criteria established for each product group are valid for two years so that modifi-
cation of existing product categories may be introduced at the expiration of the two year period. At
this time, food,  beverages and pharmaceuticals are not included under the Czech Eco-labelling
Program.

Administration
       For this reason we have the following administration:
1) Minister of Environment awards the rights to use the Eco-label for a given product and approves
  the Guidelines for individual product categories
2) Board of the Czech Ecolabelling Program,
3) Agency for Eco-Labelling

Registration Fee
       The costs for testing the product(s) and preparing the documents required for the processing
and commencement of the selection process are paid by the applicants. A registration fee is collected

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

by the agency for work related to the assessment of the application and the temporary right of the use
of and eco-label. A single payment of 20,000 CZK is paid by the applicants for processing the appli-
cation and the rights to use the eco-label. At the present time were awarded
  21  product categories
  251 products

B. Cleaner Production
       Generally we understand CP as an environmental strategy, with its focus on prevention,
which reduces or eliminates wastes or pollutants at the source during production process. CP gener-
ates financial, as well as environmental, benefits by encouraging companies to use inputs - from raw
material to energy - more productively. Unnecessary wastes are avoided through enhanced process
efficiencies. By way of CP, environmental improvement and competitiveness can go side by side.
       The Czech Republic is facing further challenges ahead in the course of transition. Czech
companies are under competitive pressure of a free market economy, while faced with increasingly
tougher environmental regulations. CP is a win-win strategy to overcome those two seemingly
conflicting challenges.
       A comprehensive policy proposal was submitted in November 1996 to the Ministry of Envi-
ronment in the CR under the project called "Cleaner Production Programme," which was launched
by the Ministry, further to the project "Environmental Sound Production" in 1995. In the latter
project the focus had been placed on exploring the possibilities of integrating CP, EMS, eco-labelling
and voluntary agreement between government and industry as well as analyzing CP potential in the
Czech industry.  Both projects were elaborated within the Environmental Protection Programme of
the Ministry of Environment. Dissemination of information included indirect campaign (publica-
tions, radio and TV talks) and direct campaign.
       By November 1996 was developed a CP manual, a handbook on CP methodology for indus-
trial companies, with financial support from the Ministry of Industry and Trade. In addition, within
the framework of the project "Cleaner Production Programme" a manual for the state administration
was completed.  These were the first domestic materials of the kind.
       Based on the proposal under the project "Cleaner Production Programme" the following
items were priorities among the areas of the CP activities in 1997:
 achieving a broader consensus on a prevention policy and CP programme
 integrating CP into EMS. Both are mutually supportive. CP is focused on operation system while
  EMS is on management systems.
 further promoting CP on a regional and local basis.
The Cleaner Production Centre will keep assisting government and industry as an independent and
non-profit organization.

Czech Cleaner Production Centre
       Introduction of cleaner production (CP) in the Czech Republic is a mission of the Czech
Cleaner Production Centre (further referred only as "Centre"), which is a non-governmental and non-
profit organization. The Centre initiates and coordinates many activities.

The Centre:
 built up basic expert capacities (there were more than 150 experts trained in the long-term
  courses). The large network of experts helps to decentralize the CP activities and to transfer the
  knowledge to other organizations.
 carried out demonstration projects (in more than 50 industrial enterprises)
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

  prepared background materials for the policy development (in 1996 Integrated Pollution Preven-
   tion Policy and National Cleaner Production Programme was prepared for the Ministry of the
   Environment, in January 1998 a Cleaner Production Programme of the State Environmental Fund
   as a concrete result started. Companies have possibility to obtain support in form of a soft-loan
   for the realization of the investment-demanding CP measures).
  provided information (e.g. prepared first Czech CP manuals for industry and state administration
   (Ministry of Environment, 1997)).

       Since 1995 the Centre has been a member of the international network of the National
Cleaner Production Centres of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and develops its international activities. In
1997 the Centre started in cooperation with UNIDO realization of large projects on capacity build-
ing in the field of cleaner production in Croatia and Uzbekistan. The project in Croatia is financed
by the Czech government in the framework of multilateral international support and in addition to
training of Croatian lecturers and consultants and demonstration projects carried out in the industrial
companies, it also includes establishment of the national CP centre.

C. Environmental management system
       Environmental management system (EMS) means an integration of elements of sustainable
development into a management system. Implementation of the system into management aims to
integrate environment protection requirements into management procedures so as to ensure a perma-
nent economic growth and prosperity of the organization.
       In the initiation of interests of the business sphere in the environment by means of EMS
implementation and by creation of appropriate preconditions for assessing the level of these systems
by authorized verifiers, a new function of the state may be seen in the area of the environment. The
resulting benefits are economically measurable savings (of raw material, materials, power, reduced
fees and minimal fines) and other indirectly measurable benefits such as better competitiveness on
foreign markets, increased credibility in negotiations of an organization with financial and insurance
institutions as well as a better image in the eyes of the public. Implementation of an environmental
management system is projected step by step into a better quality of production that is closely
related to the impact of management activities on the environment. At a time when technical re-
quirements in production can be achieved by available technologies, the implementation of EMS
becomes a new element of competition on the market and we wish to create a stimulating climate
for our businesses to support their participation in the process leading to improving their export
capability especially in the international market. We understand implementation of EMS/EMAS as a
tool for elimination of non-tariff trade barriers and support competitiveness of the Czech product on
the international market.
       There exist two main ways  for implementation of EMS in the Czech Republic. They are:
  according  ISO 14000 series
  according Council Regulation of EEC No. 1836/93.

       In June 1997 approval was given for the implementation of ISO 14 000 series within the
Czech normalization system. The following standards have been edited :
  ISO 14 001 (Environmental management systems - specifications and methodical guidance on
   their use)
  ISO 14 004 (Environmental management systems - general methodical guidance on the prin-
   ciples, systems and supporting techniques),
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

 ISO 14 O10, ISO 14 Oil, and ISO 14 012 containing guidelines concerning the environmental
  audit. The mentioned standards have been edited by the Czech Institute of Normalization.

       EMAS (Environmental Management and Audit Scheme) has been implemented in the EU
according the Council Regulation (EEC) No. 1836/93 and it was approved by the Minister of
Environment in March,  1998. The mentioned standards are very close as to their contents and
represent the integration of aspects of the environment into the management process of an organiza-
tion on the basis of self-declaration. In addition it should be noted that the Program respects the
existing legislation in the CR on environmental protection.
       The program rules are being developed by  the Ministry of Environment of the Czech
Republic in cooperation with other institutions: Ministry of Industry  and Trade; Ministry of Agricul-
ture; Ministry of Transport; Ministry of Interior; Ministry of Education, Youth and Physical Educa-
tion; Ministry of Finance; Ministry of Medical Care; Ministry of Defense, and the Czech Office for
technical normalization/standardization, metrology and state testing; Czech institute for accredita-
tion; Association of Industry and Transport; Association of Chemical Industry and, if necessary,
other institutions.

National accreditation body
       The national accreditation body is most frequently responsible for developing a national
accreditation scheme. In the Czech Republic this body is the Czech Institute for Accreditation,
which  performs accreditation activities, by LawNo.20/1993/Gaz., prepares the accreditation of
certification authorities in compliance with Art. 12  of the EEC Statute No. 183 6/93.

Benefits of EMS for companies
    The implementation of EMS is a voluntary activity of the industrial companies. Both in the
short-term and mid-term horizons the companies should record positive results of EMS in the form
of:
 invigoration of social awareness regarding good relation toward environmental protection,
 effective defense against claims regarding eco-dumping, foremost in relation to the exports,
 operational costs reduction, savings of power, raw material, and other sources,
 reduced risk  of failures affecting the state of environment, for which the organization is
  responsible,
 savings in fines  or other sanctions related with damaging the environment,
 easier acquisition of sale or other certificates, permissions, licences,
 reduction of insurance costs,
 meeting investment criteria, easier provision of capital,  credits,  eventually placement of state
  orders,
 enforcement of better relations with the public etc.

Role of the public
       Sufficiently informed and so motivated public favorably affects the implementation of EMS
in the organizations. Under the pressure of public meaning and by means of public control of the
organization, the public exerts in the locality its right to adequate living conditions directly  close to
sources whose affect on the environmental quality is of the greatest significance at a given place.

State technical assistance
       A continual and very important task of the  competent body will lie in seeking tools stimulat-
ing the organization to implementing EMS. For example, at the present time we have prepared

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

several projects as a technical assistance concerning implementation of EMAS to managers in
industry, financing institutions, government institutions, to NGOs and to the public, as a basis for
minimizing risks, minimizing wastes, improving environmental management, and incorporating
public concerns into the decision-making process. This will include an introduction to the environ-
mental management systems proposal presently being considered by the Czech government, and the
procedural manuals which are prepared.

The immediate objectives of projects are:
 increased awareness of the benefits of EMAS among industry, government, financing institutions
  and the public in a selected area; and
 improved environmental management, reduced pollution loads and minimized risk in selected
  industries and publicly  owned enterprises.

The proposed project is intended to address the following issues:
 There is a need to develop more environmentally responsible management procedures in industry,
  and in particular in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).
 Decision-makers in industry generally have a low level of environmental awareness.
 There is a lack of consistency in the enforcement of environmental legislation by the regulatory
  authorities.
 Finance for treatment facilities or for management systems is either difficult to obtain, and usually
  in the form of commercial loans: this makes projects which rely upon such financial support
  unattractive to enterprises.
 Industrial developers do not generally take account of public concerns about industrial risks or
  emissions.
 The potential benefits of an environmental management and auditing system (EMAS) are not well
  appreciated by either industry or the public.
 Public access to environmental information is difficult.

       The proposed project will  introduce to selected industries, government officials and the
public the draft legislation being prepared by the MoE on EMAS (based upon approximation of
Council Regulation (EEC) No. 1836/93,  1993, on voluntary participation by industry in community
eco-management and audit schemes). Proposals for legislation have been prepared under the aus-
pices  of an inter-ministerial committee, and these proposals have been presented to the Czech gov-
ernment. In addition, procedural manuals are prepared (financed from the Czech state budget), aimed
at the target groups such as:  senior management in major industries, owners and managers in SMEs,
financing institutions (banks  and financial corporations), government officials in the municipalities
and in the regional offices of the MoE, NGOs, and the general public in selected areas.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Some Essential Elements in the Danish Proposal on an Intensified Product-
Oriented Environmental Initiative (Henrik Wenzel)

       This is an extract of an outline paper presenting the Danish Environmental Protection
Agency's (DEPA) proposal for an intensified product-oriented environmental initiative. The original
paper is available from the Danish EPA.

Danish environmental focus till now
Supplementary focus on products
Product, market and players

       Danish environmental policy and administration have till now focused on environmental
media (air, water, soil), on use of chemicals and on the sources of impact (industrial effluents, mu-
nicipal wastewater plants, agricultural activities, etc.). This policy has in many aspects been a suc-
cess, and environmental impacts from, for example, point source emissions from industry, has on
average been reduced by 80-90% during the last one or two decades. Industry's focus on effluents
from production processes has lead to large investments in treatment plants and to a wide extent in
introduction of cleaner technologies.
       This success in reduction of hazardous emissions from production processes is unfortunately
counterbalanced by an increase of problems on other environmental aspects. The volume of products
used in society has increased substantially,  implying a heavy increase in resource consumption and
waste volumes. Furthermore, an increasing number of chemicals are introduced in society; the
environmental properties are known, however, for only a small percentage.
       The outset of the Danish proposal for an increased product-oriented environmental initiative
is an acknowledgment of the global challenge in handling the environmental problems that derive
from the increasing amount of products. Growing population and growing economy is judged to lead
to a substantial increase in human consumption  of services and products, and the proposal suggests
to meet this by policy initiatives that lead to a substantial improvement of the environmental perfor-
mance of products. The proposal is, thus, to supplement the present focus on media, chemicals and
point sources by an equal focus on products as the fourth leg of the total environmental policy.
       In other words, the environmental impact associated with the production, use and disposal of
products needs to be reduced. Such efforts must ensure that products are developed with far better
environmental properties than those we know today. But those efforts must also ensure that such
environmentally more friendly products can be sold in competition with environmentally inferior
products - and in sufficient volumes to bring about environmental improvements. The focus there-
fore needs to be on the market the products are competing in, as well as on the players influencing
that market.

New role of authorities
Public purchase
Long term targets and expectations
Pilot areas

       This approach to environmental administration of industrial production implies a change in
the point of control. Until now, the control has been done in the contact point between the effluent
and the environment, i.e. between the company  and the authority. The focus on products implies that
the contact point is between the company and the customer. The authorities have within such an

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environmental administration a more indirect, but not less important, role with a major focus on
ensuring the strength of environmental parameters within the competition on the market.
       One important part of the initiative is to facilitate the inclusion of environmental consider-
ations in public purchase. This part is already given high attention and guidelines for environmen-
tally conscious public purchase are under preparation for quite a large number of product categories.
       In order to facilitate the debate with stakeholders, the proposal  sets up long term environmen-
tal targets and expectations of the behavior of the stakeholders. To gain experience with the intensi-
fied product-oriented initiative, it is proposed to initiate an effort for three product areas which have
already been analyzed in such depth that a panel of stakeholders can be set up and an action plan
drafted immediately. The three areas are:
       Textile products
       Electronics products
       Freight transportation

The areas have been selected because they cause major, but different, environmental impacts, and
function under very different commercial and market conditions. Together, they will reflect essential
parts of the spectrum that may be included by a general product action with regard to objectives,
instruments and the involvement of different players. The areas have also been chosen because
progress on environmental action in general is advanced and/or because there are central players
who are willing to spearhead a product initiative.

Conclusion
    the emission
    the process
    the product
    the need

       The product-oriented environmental initiative is proposed as a supplement to the present
environmental administration practice. This opens new potentials for environmental improvements
compared to the traditional focus on effluents and processes.
       Treatment measures that focus on the emissions alone take the process for granted. The
existence and composition of the emissions, i.e. the operation of the process, is not questioned by
such measures, and improvement potentials in altering  the process are not identified.
       Cleaner technology implementation that focuses on the process alone takes the product for
granted. The existence of the process and the composition of the product life, i.e. the way the product
is produced, used or disposed of, is not questioned by such measures. Improvement potentials in
altering the product are not identified.
       Product oriented measures open the possibility to identify and achieve improvements by
altering the product. By bringing about the service provided by the product (fulfilling the customer's
need) in an environmentally more elegant way, i.e. by composing an altered product life cycle. Very
large improvement potentials are found within this approach, and they are most often very inexpen-
sive to achieve.
       A product oriented initiative then in turn takes the product's service/the need of the customer
for granted, not realizing the improvement potentials that lie in questioning the need.
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Cleaner Technologies and Cleaner Products in Hungary (Lajos Nebb-Csorba)

       Before World War II in Hungary, the environmental effect of industrial activity was ne-
glected, but the situation got worse in the first period of the centrally planned economy. It has be-
come an official ideology that man should subdue and dominate nature. The implementation of the
economic policy lead to heavy pollution of several industrial areas. From an environmental point of
view, a very unfavorable structure of the whole industry had formed. High energy and raw material
consumption and low efficiency were characteristic.
       The first Environmental Act (Act II. /1976.) was adopted by the Parliament in 1976. It is well
known that the efficiency of the rules is determined by the practice of the authority, and by the
consistency and efficacy of the application. However, the constraint of the fulfillment of the plan
was stronger, the environmental control was occasional, and the applied fines, punitive sanctions
were insignificant. Moreover, with such politic  and economic background, the society had no basic
information about the importance of the environmental aspects. Because of this and of the absence of
real information and data about the environmental status, the level of environmental awareness was
low. As a result, the general environmental status of the country was grave. However the situation
was better than in some other centrally planned economies.
       Since the late 1980s, because of the increasing environmental awareness of the population,
the government has constrained industry to a responsible attitude. Environmental regulation was the
main tool in this process: legal rules, national standards and limits have been elaborated.
       Privatization and foreign investments have lead to the formation of companies with a high
environmental performance and an excellent promotion of their results in this field. On the other
hand, during the politic and economic transition, Hungarian companies have faced at the same time
financial difficulties (caused by their lost market positions in the collapsed East and the sharp com-
petition in the home market) and the severity of the environmental regulation due to the population's
expectations and international requirements.
       In line with the sustainable development principle Hungary established the necessary legisla-
tive base and economic conditions to promote clean technologies  and clean  products.

Legal base

Act nr. LIE.  /1995 on the protection of environment - frame-law

The two main ideas declared by the law are:

1. the "polluter pays" principle

       The effect of severe environmental regulation on the Hungarian economy is evident. This
effect is growing with the evolution of the national environmental legal system. In accordance with
the "polluter pays" principle of the Environmental Act, if a company by its activity - permanent
damages the environment, it is liable to execute the necessary remediation (e.g., the Hungarian
Railway Company /MAV Rt./ for the marshaling yard from Zahony). The cost of these clean-up
works could be considerable, and therefore could affect substantially the financial status of the
company. In the worst case the company will not survive. For example, it is well known in Hungary
that the "Gare" case: the incineration of the 16,0001 hazardous waste and the site remediation, will
cost the Chemical Works Budapest Co. (Budapest! Vegyimuvek Rt.) about 5-7 billion HUF.
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2. "prevention"

       The preventive measures are preferred as against "end of pipe" solutions because they are
cheaper, more flexible and more profitable on long term. They represent certain advantages even in a
pure economic approach. It is easy to understand that the role of cleaner technologies and cleaner
products is essential in this activity.

National Environmental Program -  strategic plan adopted by the Parliament for the next 6 years.
By this Program, national priorities are defined, certain programs are elaborated in order to achieve a
substantial improvement of the general environmental status of the country.

Economic tools
       Compliance with environmental (legal and technical) regulation often requires new, environ-
ment-friendly industrial technologies. Very  few companies are able to finance the necessary environ-
ment-related investments from their own sources. The Ministry for Environment and Regional
Policy of Republic of Hungary  (MERP) is operating a financial supporting system to encourage
environmental investments and other actions and projects aimed at improving the general environ-
mental situation in Hungary.
       The financial supporting system of the Central Environmental Protection Fund (CEPF) has
some priority areas, and special conditions for the applicants as well (competitive bidding proce-
dure). These priorities are in line with those of the National Environmental Program and they are
reviewed and published annually. The environmental fines, taxes and product charges are creating
the necessary financial base for this activity.
       These days, MERP is supporting financially the establishment of clean technologies in  every
professional area (air quality, waste reduction and management, wastewater and sewage treatment,
etc.). We are also supporting investments related to production of clean products - those products
that will cause a lower environmental load.  Life cycle analysis is used to evaluate the whole environ-
mental effect.
       We are using an eco-label (Environment Friendly Product) for clean products. They - and
their production process - shall  fulfill special requirements; compliance is verified from time to time.
This sign - followed by a suitable promotion of the environmental performance of the company -
provides an  advantage in the environmentally sensible Hungarian market.
       The Ministry helped the establishment of the Hungarian Cleaner Production Centre. Together
with the Regional Environmental Center (Szentendre), these institutions are representing a real help
in our work. Several university centers (at Budapest, Miskolc, Veszprem) are also involved in this
activity.
       Concerning our recent tasks and future trends: at the Ministry we are just preparing unique
regulations on the environmental assessment (classification) of materials, products, technologies and
activities.  Of course this shall be in line with the international standards, EU requirements and  will
have effect on the licensing activity of the environmental authorities.
       Next year we intend to introduce (step by step) the charge for the use of the environment
(charge for environmental load). Both companies and private individuals will pay for their pollutant
emissions (including household wastewater). Since this money will be collected by the CEPF, the
Ministry will be able to increase the support for environmentally-related investments. We hope for a
quick response due to the synergetic effect of the regulation and economic incentives.
       At present the R&D activities are helped by the government through two systems: the CEPF
and the tendering system of the National Agency for Technical Development. Together with the
mentioned institution, we intend next year to start a special joint program to support the environment
related R&D, especially in the "green" industry area.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

       In the last years, the whole structure of the Hungarian industry has been changed, at the same
time we started to introduce more effective modern industrial technologies. These days, the environ-
ment-friendly industrial technologies are preferred in every sector of the economy as a prevention of
potential environmental problems and damages. As a single example: the refrigerator producing
LEHEL Co. has developed and introduced a recycling technology for their products. Because of
Hungary's characteristics (small and wide open market), it is essential that used foreign refrigerators
can also be recycled by this facility.
       We will continue to help the progress in this field. The growing environmental awareness of
the population and the EU joining will have a favorable effect on the propagation of modern, envi-
ronmental technologies and clean products in Hungary. As a result, we are expecting continued
improvement of the environmental status of the country and living conditions.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Clean Products and Processes in Lithuania (Ms. Gerda Sviezauskaite)

       The Lithuania Parliament established the Environmental Protection Department for ensuring
the effective implementation of environmental legislation. In June 1994 the department was reorga-
nized as the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP). According to the Environmental Protec-
tion Act, the MEP is responsible for environmental protection, management and state regulation of
the use of natural resources. The MEP includes eight regional departments which have jurisdiction
over at least five districts. There are environmental protection divisions on regional levels and in
severalties which belong to the MEP as well.
       The MEP currently focuses on developing national environmental quality standards and
norms for environmental policy implementation,  the development of appropriate and effective
economic instruments to create the required levels of environmental investments.
       In 1996, the  Lithuanian Parliament adopted the National Environmental Strategy which
provides a program of short- and long-term actions for reducing the generation of pollution at the
sources; sets priorities for environmental policy; and identifies more than 40 goals for water, air, and
soil protection and waste management.
       A basic condition for effective environmental protection management is a proper legal sys-
tem that clearly determines competencies,  duties and responsibilities. General Environmental
Protection Law, passed  in 1992,  is the core of the system. Currently there are more than 10 laws
directly related to environmental protection; among them are the Law on Water Management; the
Law on Pollution Charges; the Law on Waste Management; the Law on Monitoring; and others.
       The Lithuanian Government has declared its intention to join the EU. In June 1995, an
Association Agreement with EU was signed. The MEP is responsible for harmonizing Lithuania's
environmental laws with those of the EU and for the implementation of those laws. Implementation
will involve establishment of effective administrative and enforcement in physical infrastructure
required to meet EU standards. Many of Lithuanian environmental standards set by MEP have
already met some of the EU requirements and in several cases are even more stringent.  Lithuanian
standards are driven in the first place by both national policies and the need to meet the obligations
arising from participation in International conventions which Parliament has ratified.
       Lithuania's environmental problems are diverse.  Levels of air pollution have dropped in
recent years because of a drop in industrial production and in consumption of fuel in the energy and
transport sector. The main source of pollution in Lithuania is transportation (cars) which produces
70% of the overall amount of pollutants. Environmental pollution from industries  and energy is 25%
and 12%,  respectively.  Among the most polluting industries are chemical enterprises, oil refinery
and the building materials industry. Water pollution is one of the country's most serious problems.
Surface waters are polluted by biogenic substances (nitrogen,  phosphorous) and untreated wastewa-
ter discharges. Lithuanian surface waters are slightly polluted with heavy metals, oil products and
others. Last year 252 million cubic meters  of wastewater that was discharged into  surface water
bodies had to be cleaned,  but 16.7% was untreated while 83. 3% went for treatment. Only 39.5% of
treated wastewater met the quality standards.
       Annually 7. 5 million ton of solid waste is dumped into landfills. In most cases landfills have
not been designed properly.  From a geographical point of view, they have been located in the wrong
place. Many of them are too small and in a neglected state (800 in total). Also, there is lack of
adequate operational facilities. Therefore,  they pose a threat to surface and ground water. The same
problem exists for former military sites.  Investigations show that these territories are mainly con-
taminated with oil products, heavy metals, specific chemicals and radioactive substances. For these
reasons these sites cannot be used in an optimal way.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Investments
       Total public sector comprising the state and municipalities as well as the environmental funds
collected 88mln Litas and used 123mln Litas in 1996. 75% of all public sector environmental spend-
ing was financed from the state budget while the municipal funds accounted for 25%.  Based on set
priorities, the main part (as much as 92%) of environment protection funding out of the state budget
is allocated to the construction of wastewater treatment facilities.
       MEP is responsible for the planning of expenditures for the environmental protection system
(Ministry, regional department) and environmental programs (other than investment). The funds are
provided for in the Law on State Budget and are managed by the MEP directly.
       The Lithuanian Environmental Investment Fund (LEIF) was created in 1996. LEIF is created
to provide soft loan and limited grant financing to the private  and public sectors. The Parliament is
discussing amendments to the Law on Pollution Charges, which would make it possible to direct
20% of the revenue to LEIF. The responsibility for the decision making is divided into two parts: (1)
the fund will estimate the project proposal from an environmental point of view; (2) the fund's
partner bank will estimate the financial part.
       One of the environmental protection priorities set by the MEP is industrial pollution preven-
tion. Now that economic growth has returned to Lithuania, there is a need to avoid a resurgence in
industrial pollution. In particular, there is an opportunity to introduce cleaner technology concepts
and practices. The most important steps of the policy objectives for introduction of cleaner technolo-
gies are: the development of national policies and donor strategies in support of cleaner production
and technologies; and development of capacities for managing technological  changes for cleaner
processes. However such measures as legislation, regulatory actions and administrative actions are
also necessary.
       The MEP and Ministry of Economy will prepare the program for implementation of cleaner
production and technologies until 2000. The main environmental aspects of this program  are:

1. Implementation of the new environmental management concept: precautionary actions by integra-
  tion of environmental issues in all major sectors of economy such as food processing, construction
  materials, chemical industry, energetic, textile and leather industries.

2. New regulatory development: adoption and implementation of EMAS and ISO 14000 series
  Environmental Management System standards.

3. Prevention of environmental pollution by introducing cleaner technologies.

4. Setting environmental requirements and criteria for new environmentally-sound products.

       In 1991, a bilateral environmental agreement was signed between Danish EPA and Environ-
mental Protection Department Lithuania on Danish Environmental Assistance. The general environ-
mental areas of cooperation should include projects concerning environmental education and train-
ing,  environmental aspects of energy production, industrial pollution and wastewater protection and
environmental aspects of agriculture and nature conservation. The term "cleaner technology" means
changing investments from end-of-pipe solutions to an integrated system where production and
protection are related. The assistance has to date supported cleaner technology projects dealing with
the electroplating industry, plating industry, waste minimization in different industries and reduction
of pollutants in wastewater treatment plants.
       Many international institutions such as United Nations Environmental Programme Industry
and Environmental (UNEP IE) office in Paris, RELCOM and U.S. EPA, in collaboration with
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Lithuanian environmental organizations and scientific institutions such as Confederation of Industri-
alists, Kaunas Technological University, have implemented a few projects in cleaner production
(e.g., ecoaudit) in textile, tannery and other industries. This cooperation is based on bilateral agree-
ments to exchange experiences in technology assessment and capacities, and developing a national
information network.
       A Protocol has been signed between MEP and Norwegian Environmental Ministry to con-
tinue the Norwegian Capacity Building Programme for CP in Lithuania (first program was started in
1995). The aim of this program is the development of increased capacity and skill of engineers and
managers in selected industrial companies through training courses and demonstration projects.
Industrial companies participating in this program shall commit themselves to undertake a waste
minimization assessment of their production processes and to identify and prepare technically- and
financially-sound projects that can qualify for a loan. The executive parties  of the program are the
Norwegian Society of Chartered Engineers and the Institute of Environmental Engineering.
       In early 1996, a new structure called the Eco-labeling Division was organized in the MEP. On
the basis of EEC regulations, the order was established which is applied to all products produced and
imported into Lithuania (with the exception of food products, beverages, pharmaceutical preparates,
and medicines.
       In order to achieve the successful implementation of cleaner production concepts in
Lithuania, administrative institutions must set up the priorities for relevant  industrial branches in
Lithuania that can be supported by international organizations with cleaner technology programs,
establishing centers for active dissemination of information, arranging training courses, technical
support, and building local capacities. Another important step would be for Lithuania to look at and
learn from experiences from the EU, USA and elsewhere.
       The following are components of the strategy for introduction of cleaner technologies in
Lithuania:

1. Implementation of the new environmental management concept: precautionary actions by inte-
  gration of environmental issues in all  major sectors of economy: a) food processing industry; b)
  construction and construction materials  industry; c) chemical industry; d) energetics; e) transport;
  f) textile and leather industry; g) biotechnologies.

2. New regulatory development: adoption and implementation of EMAS (ecomanagement and audit
  scheme) and ISO  14000 series "Environmental Management Standards System. "

3. Prevention of environmental pollution,  introducing cleaner technologies.

4. Setting the environmental requirements and criteria for new ecologically sound products.

5. Use of market economy through shared responsibility by producers  and consumers.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Industrial Situation in the Republic of Moldova and Possibilities to Launch
Clean Processes Activities (Sergiu Galitchii)

Background
       As an independent state, the Republic of Moldova (which is situated in the South-East part of
the European continent, with neighbors in West, Romania and in the North, East and South, Ukraine)
was created as a result of the collapse of the former Soviet Union. In the past, the territory, with
pedologic resources of rare fertility, attracted the major colonization and agricultural valorification of
the space for immediate economic interests, alien as a rule, to the native population. Policies oriented
toward reaching the declared objectives at any price, sometimes accompanied by official voluntarism
and ignorance, have led to hasty transformations in the planning structures of localities, not taking
into account natural factors and effects of transboundary pollution. The actions for environmental
protection foreseen by the industrial zones management projects,  is mostly passive  meaning the
use of protection zones and not modern production technologies.
       The general urbanistic plans and other documents on urbanism and territory organization
were tools of centralized planning. The methodology and technical norms were based on extensive
development principles. In industrial zones enterprises with outdated technologies prevail.

National economy
       The country is considered a zone with a surplus of human resources (labor force). In all the
five-year plans and projects, this factor was used as the reason for industrialization of Moldova (the
machine building, light, furniture industries, services, etc). On the basis of imported raw materials
and semi-fabricated goods, an industrial complex was created which was connected with the inter-
ests of the center, while no industrial complex was developed on the basis of local specific opportu-
nities and needs. An eloquent example are the eight military enterprises (six of them located in
Chisinau), as well as other heavy and light enterprises, all of them having Ail-Union subordination.
       The leadership of the country has overdone of the decision of the USSR Central Committee
considered as a strategic direction for Moldova socialist agriculture development.

National Economy Restructuring
       The new structure of the national economy is a result of and necessary for the independent
state status of the country, with its own national interests, including the ones for environmental
protection and efficient use of resources, viable development, according to the requirements of a
market economy.
       Currently, the national economy of the Republic of Moldova is affected by an imbalance
characterized by the following functional disproportions:
 A relatively developed agroindustrial complex with a nonrational structure in some branches, with
  outdated and inefficient technologies and techniques in agriculture and processing industries,
  which leads to low quality, external markets uncompetitive production fabrication, irrational uses
  of natural and material resources (especially energy), to  environmental pollution and degradation.
 An imbalanced industry (except the agricultural products processing industry), totally lacking
  horizontal integration, eating up a lot of energy and materials, based completely on raw materials
  import, equipped mainly with outdated installations and devices,  having excessive production
  capacities fixed up in the USSR period. As a consequence, the produced goods are demanded
  neither by external or internal markets.
 The structure of industry, like in the past, is not able to hire equitably the local labor resources to
  efficiently utilize natural resources.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

 Energetic complex: Currently, the technical and economic indices in the branch show alarming
  figures. Sixty percent of the thermal power plants in the country have been functioning for more
  than 21 years, while the rest (40%) have been functioning for 26 years. The energetic intensity
  exceeds in the one in Western countries about 7 tines, while the corresponding index for Central
  Europe countries in transition is exceeded over 1. 7 times. The political events of 1992 fully
  demonstrated the vulnerability on the national energetics system

Industry development and reorganization.
       Starting with 1990 until now, the main macroeconomic figures continue to decrease. So, the
level of Gross Domestic Product of the republic in 1994 decreased in contrast with 1990 with 60-
65%, a material net product with 58-63%. The volume of industrial product in 1995 decreased with
60% in respect with the 1990, including electric energy - 51%, thermic energy - with 40% building
materials - with 80-85%. During January through October, 1995, the volume of agricultural produc-
tion was reduced by 35% in respect to 1990.
       Actually in the Republic, more than 430 large industrial enterprises with autonomous bal-
ances are in function.

The main industry branches:
1. Heavy industry                                             47.6%
Includes:
       Electroenergetical                                       17.8%
       Chemical industry                                        0.6%
       Machine building and metal
          processing industry                                   10.7%
       Timber industry, cellulose
          and paper products                                    4.3%
       Building materials                                        4.5%
       Gl as s producti on                                         2.1 %

2. Light industry manufacturing                                6.2%
Includes:
       Manufacturing textile production                           3.0%
       Leather articles production                                1.7%
       Sewing articles                                           1.5%
       Food industry                                        -  423%
       Includes:
          Food stuffs production                                31.8%
          Meat and milk production                             10.3%
          Fishing industry                                       0.2%
          Milling industry                                       3.9%
       In  1995, the economy was starting to stabilize; and during 1996 - 1997, economic and living
standards began to grow. The priority directions follow:
      providing food and medicine;
      providing energy, heat and water;
       creation of branches specialized in science and high technologies;
      transport and telecommunications;
      house building;
      key branches of a science and social sphere.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

       As relationships between production and nature are balanced in the technical - technological,
economic, social-environmental aspects, the current approach to production can no longer be used
without essential modifications.
       Taking into account the safe design of a plant as well as the provisions during the plant
operation, industry must guarantee the prevention of accidents which might lead to significant
danger to man, to the environment, and to goods of great value, we begin the elaboration of respec-
tive criteria of cause assessment and the inventory of such activities.
       The evaluation of installation safety is accomplished by a hazard analyses of the response of
the installation to postulated disturbances of the process variables, and/or to postulated malfunctions
or failures in systems or components. It is unrealistic and insufficient to rely exclusively on indus-
trial restructuring and modernization to reduce industrial pollution.
       The decision of how to solve this problem should be built not only on technical moderniza-
tion of industries (based on advanced resource-saving, low waste technologies and providing the
industries with highly efficient environmental protection equipment and installations which require
large scale investments as a rule), but on application of other efficient approaches to optimization of
production, taking into consideration environmental protection measures which  do not require large
investments.
       Therefore, cleaner production (CP) should not be considered only as on environmental
strategy. It also includes economic consideration. Moreover, implementation of a CP strategy is such
an efficient measure based on preventing and/or reducing emissions generated in production pro-
cesses by realization of low cost measures of organizational and maintenance type. In other words ,
"A Kilogram of Prevention is Worth a Tonne of Cure!"
       The major task of reforms must not only be  increasing  product asset and its quality, but
upgrading product quality in accordance with international export market standards.  CP must be an
important factor of economic and environmental performance improving in industrial enterprises.
Inside production processes, introduction of the CP strategy includes the development and imple-
mentation of organizational, methodical and technical measures for rational use  of natural resources.
       For further actions, we have identified following major problems to be solved.

A. Strategy for Achieving Project Goals:
Activities
1. Arrangements of seminars and presentations  on the relevant benefits of CP activities implementa-
  tion; these would be offered by international  and national experts to the officials, supervision
  institutions and employees.

2. Transform knowledge about good housekeeping into operational skills.

3. Initiate and  support drafting, publication and distribution of textbooks, teaching aids and other
  pedagogical materials on CP activities.

4. Render methodological support, provide access for interested organizations and individuals to the
  data bank of the Center and establish joint projects within the framework of its purposes and
  activities.

5. Fulfillment of an ecological audit of enterprises and recommendation with low cost of technology
  transfer and modernization.

6. Distribution of information about efficiency technologies, Know How and non-traditional sources
  of energy generation.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

7. Assisting government in setting appropriate standards enhancing operator responsibility and goods
  production quality.

8. Establishment of computer and other means for links with foreign organizations to enlist their
  support for technology transformation in Moldova.

9. Establishment of contacts at governmental level in order to explore the possibilities of government
  assistance.

10. Establishment of connections with international databases, such as the Task Force (OECD)
  France, BARPI Lyon, France, secretariat of "Convention of transboundary effects of industrial
  accidents" and Environment and Human Settlement Division  UN, Geneva.

Timeline for this activity.
Project realization it is provided, resulting from a placed assignment complexity and large specter of
problems that should be covered, for two years main stages have been following:
      Creating demand
      First stage 6 months

11. Location preparation and equipment acquisition; -2 months.

12. Organization of International Seminar, "Market Economy and Implementation of High Effi-
  ciency Technologies in Moldova".

13. Establishment of computer and other electronic devices with links to foreign Organizations, 2
  months.

14. Aggregation of materials about high efficiency technologies and receiving of information about
  the experiences of the other similar centers (e.g., Poland, Czech Republic) on how effectively to
  manage with low cost with process operation; -2 months.

       Second stage -6 months
      Data base creation;

15. International Standard of Industrial Classification (ISO 14000);

16. Data files with information about solid waste generation and releases to air and water categorized
  by environmental mode and industrial activities and processes.

17. Data files for contaminated soils and ground water treatment technologies.

18. Date base about potential donors and funds.

19. Spreading the information about benefits from implementation of high efficiency and good
  housekeeping.
 Third stage-12 months
 Demonstration and implementation project to prove in practice the  existence of a large potential
  for CP

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

20. Holding of training courses and seminars.

21. Designing of CP projects and implementation in industry, proving environmental and economical
  effects of the CP strategy in practice with;
  a. the yield of production increases;
  b. increase in saleable products;
  c. improving quality of products;
  d. lowering of water use;
  e. fat and oil emissions down;
  f. energy savings;
  g. sustainable development of agriculture sector in one region of Moldova

22. Waste Minimization Circles. Obligatory Waste Minimization Audits. Waste Minimization Dem-
  onstration Projects.

23. Thermal saving technologies and effective heating system based on experience of Weselling
  Consulting Company, common project with Holland.

24. An energy saving project in water supply economy by pump substitutions with 30% lower
  energy (for example manufacturing by Grundfos Company);

25. Inventory, in cooperation with Ukrainian and Romanian sites, of all potential sources of
  transboundary pollution and argumentation for technology transfer.

Costs
To project cost is $21,390 US dollars.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Clean Products and Processes in Portugal (Susete Dias)

       Asked to offer an impromptu status report on the use of clean products and processes in
Portugal, Professor Dias explained that the Portuguese Environmental Ministry has signed agree-
ments with industry segments to meet regulatory targets in two years. End of pipe approach is being
used. Technology has been sold by vendors but has not been found to be successful in its implemen-
tation. The sectors being focused on include:
  agricultural     --^^
  leather            J^>  Seasonal problems
  olive oil        ./^
  tomato    ^^
  dairy
  chemicals (organic intermediates)
  petroleum refineries

       The industrial sectors are trying to apply environmentally friendly technologies whenever
possible. Some use of constructed wetlands to treat wastes from the organic chemical sector has been
observed.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Clean Processes and Clean Products in the Slovak Republic (Lubomir Kusnir)

       Slovakia possesses heavy industry and raw materials processing, mining, armaments manu-
facture, paper production, petrochemical industries and well - developed chemical industry. Indus-
trial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals and chemical manufacturing equipment are some of
the better - known products. Other strengths lie in the manufacture of engines and machine tools, in
wood processing and agroindustries and in suppliers to the automotive industry.
       The status of Clean Processes and Products is rapidly increasing year by year. The most
significant industrial companies in the Slovak Republic have well-developed technology and all their
products have quality system management complying with the ISO 9000, ISO 9001, ISO 9002 or
ISO 14001 requirements.
       The key representative of the metallurgical industry in Slovakia, VSZ j. s. c. KOSICEmade a
contract with U.S. Steel Group, Pittsburgh, last month. The common enterprise will produce the
packing metals. This production is based on the technology of electro-tin plating.
       The largest aluminum producer,  ZSNPj. s. C. ZIAR NAD HRONOM, which produces alumi-
num from alumina and other raw materials, aluminum alloys and prebaked anodes, guarantees a high
and stable production quality. With top modern production equipment, including a permanent fluxing
station and a new laboratory, the foundation for excellent quality control is in place. The company
completed a new aluminum smelter in 1995 which has a major beneficial effect on occupational
health and external air quality. The  plant has a new Hydro Aluminum 230 kA Technology.
       The company NOVACKE CHEMICKE ZAVODYj. s. c. is a prominent representative of the
Slovak industry occupying, through its production and commercial activities, a firmly established
position on the European chemical  market. Present production facilities manufacture  electrolysis
products, basic organic chemicals, vinyl chloride,  PVC and its downstream fabrication products and
calcium carbide. Development activities set to promote product placement on the market, enhance
quality, raise production effectiveness and to improve environmental protection include projects for
broadening of product range by new tapes of polyvinyl alcohols and poly ether polyol, development
of a new technology of propylene chlorohydrin dehydrochlorination and a modification of propylene
glycols rectification.
      SLOVENSKEENERGETICKESTROJARNEj. s. c. (SES) supplies for both power plants
and combined heating and power plants on the "turn - key" basis.  SES also delivers steam boilers,
fluidized-bed boilers, waste heat boilers, heat exchangers and condensers for steam turbines, compo-
nents  for nuclear power plants, steel structure, etc. Significant efforts are being made to solve the
reduction of sulphur dioxide ( SO2 ) and nitrogen  oxide ( NOX ) emissions in boiler flue gases. Solid
fuels firing in fluidized-bed belongs among latest technologies enabling solid fuels to be burnt in an
ecological clean way at high efficiency and minimum air pollution.
      As a leading coatings manufacturer in the  Slovak republic, CHEMOLAKj. s. c. SMOLENICE
strives to decrease or minimize the  use of harmful components, such as chromates in  pigments, and
organic solvents (particularly  aromatic), in its products. Chemolak j. s. c. Smolenice also manufac-
tures such types of coatings which do not contain  organic solvents (or only negligible amounts) such
as waterborne coatings, powder coatings, high-solid coatings. Used organic solvents are recycled
using  their own distillation equipment.
      Within its manufacturing process, old-fashioned pieces of equipment was replaced with
modern ones (for instance, horizontal dispersion mills) which prevent volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) emissions into the atmosphere.
      SCPj. s. c. RUZOMBEROKis the most advanced utility for production of pulp, paper and
paper products. It is the most significant enterprise in Slovakia and also takes an important position
within Europe. Assumption for production of bleached pulp grades, quality CHLOR - ARM (during
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

bleaching process, only a little amount of gas chlorine is used) have been achieved by oxygen
bleaching process in its sulphate pulp mill since 1993. Wood free fine papers produced in SCP j. s. c.
Ruzomberok are neutral-sized and filled by calcium carbonate, which act as puffing agent for hun-
dred of years.
       During paper surface finishing, use of a spirit coloring agent has been eliminated and at
present, flexographic colors diluted by water are used exclusively. All technological procedures
using coats with dissolvent have been excluded.
       All kinds of products in SCP j. s. c. Ruzomberok are fully recyclable and the company is able
to recycle them in one  of its production mills. It handles its own waste paper together with purchased
waste paper for production of recycled cardboard materials, core boards, and folding boards. The
company desisted from use of harmful NH4OH, formaldehyde and unacceptable optical brighteners.
       SLOVNAFTj. s. c. BRATISLAVA is the largest petrochemical company and the most impor-
tant oil processor in  Slovakia. New technological units are in place to treat heavy oil fractions, thus
eliminating the high sulphur content of the products, and producing more lead free gasoline without
a higher demand for raw materials. Technology was bought from USA and France.
       The only one producer of copper in Slovakia KOVOHUTYKROMPACHYj. s. c., which
produces copper from ore raw materials and copper waste, had started reconstruction and moderniza-
tion smelting of copper concentrates in 1997 (it will be completed in 1998). The technology contrac-
tor is a German firm. This new technology provides an air quality improvement and definitely solve
this problem.
       The biggest producer of corrugated cardboard packages implemented technology from a
Swedish company, Assi Doman, which became a major JCPj. s. c. STUROVO shareholder in 1997.
The company also produces asphalt materials, asphalt hydroisolated belts, asphalt folio in a top
quality.
       One of the biggest printing factories, DANUBIAPRINTj. s.  c., has a modern offset printer for
producing the news, magazines, and books. Modern disk and sheets offset machines are directed by
computers and by electronics, has closed damping and dye works systems which reduce evaporation
to the air. Company will build a new rotary press UNIMAN this year.
       The leading producer of solid and corrugated cardboard packs and other graphic arts products
in our country, GRAFOBAL SkALICAj. s. c. , has top modern technology. The company has six color
offset machines with two varnish units and in Spring 1998 will start work on a new corrugated line
with screen printing  of materials.
       Industrial enterprises are integrating  environmental investments into their overall restructur-
ing process. I mentioned top producers in the Slovak republic which have modern technology.
However, there are still a lot of manufacturers that are looking for foreign investors for purposes of
investment in new technology and environmental improvements.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)	March 1998

Cleaner Production in Switzerland (Christiane Maillefer)

       In Switzerland there exist different institutions that handle the topic of cleaner production.
There are mainly the six Swiss federal technical institutes, including the Federal Laboratories for
Material Testing and Research (EMPA). Others include, universities, technical universities
(Fachhochschulen), and private consultants, and last but not least, the Swiss Agency for the Environ-
ment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL). The Swiss industry has several decades of experiences in
implementing cleaner production.

Environmental Policy in Switzerland
       The first Swiss environmental policy, the Forest Preservation Law, was created in 1902. It
declared that for each tree cut down a new one had to be planted. Therefore, forests in Switzerland
still cover about the same surface today as 100 years ago. Around 1950, the first water policies were
launched, followed by policies on air pollution, solid waste and soil contamination. Due to the strict
laws, currently 94% of the used water is discharged in waste water treatment plants. The small size
of Switzerland is also influencing the waste disposal processes. Presently: currently more than 80%
of the waste is incinerated, and this amount will rise in the future due to a new environmental law.
By the year 2000, all the landfill sites will be closed. Waste minimization and material recycling are
therefore also important issues for the research in cleaner production.
       In the last decade the reactive (end-of-pipe) policies have moved toward preventive regula-
tions. Several economical instruments  have been developed, which provide a financial incentive for
companies to lower emissions. The idea behind this was to prevent, reduce, recycle, and as a last
resort, discharge used goods. As an example, Switzerland has committed itself to reduce the amount
of CO2 emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2010. This reduction is planned to be done on a volun-
tary basis by the companies. However  if the goal isn't achieved by 2004, the Swiss government will
introduce an economical instrument, in the form of a CO2 tax, on the basis of energy consumption.
       It was realized, that the pollution was not only dependent on technique but also on human
behavior. This is why mainly technically oriented policies evolved in a way so the organizational
aspects were taken into account. A good example is the ISO 14001 norm which involves both techni-
cal and organizational aspects. This evolution in environmental policies is similar to countries of the
European Community.
       In the 1990s in the USA there was pollution prevention, a concept to reduce the toxic emis-
sions. From this concept the cleaner production was developed where also no toxic waste should be
reduced and processes should be more efficient.
       The environmental laws in Switzerland are some of the most severe in the world and there-
fore a lot of work has already been done on the environmental end of pipe solutions. For example
94% of the used water is discharged in waste water treatment plants. The cleaner production projects
in Switzerland are now focused more on an active avoidance of pollutants than of reactive actions
after the emissions or waste have been created. The small size of Switzerland  is also influencing the
waste disposal processes: currently more than 80% of the waste is incinerated and this amount will
rise in the future due to a new environmental law. By the year 2000, all the landfill sites will be
closed. Waste minimization and material recycling are therefore also ,important issues for the re-
search in cleaner production.

Pressure Groups for Cleaner Production
       During the first years  of environmental policy in Switzerland, the efforts of the Swiss indus-
try were mainly driven by the law and  NGOs. Other new pressures successively developed:
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Consumers
       The consumers are becoming a non negligible pressure group, as they are increasingly aware
of the environmental problems. For products with the same characteristics (quality and price), the
average consumer now prefers less environmentally damaging products.

Banks and Insurance Companies
       The banks and insurance companies are more and more looking at the environmental shape
and capabilities of the industry they want to trade with. The banks and insurance companies are
conscious of the potential environmental and economical dangers not taking into account environ-
mental concerns. Therefore these service companies are more likely to give a credit or a good insur-
ance deal to companies which can show their environmental commitment. One of the usual ways to
show the environmental commitment is to establish an environmental management system.

Industrial clients
       Some industries demand their suppliers to provide more environmentally responsible prod-
ucts. This can be done by taking into account environmental aspects as a criteria for the evaluation of
the suppliers. This enhances the pressure on the suppliers and forces them to go toward a higher
consideration of the environment.

       Cleaner production activities in Switzerland can be distinguished in three categories: 1)
Cleaner production instruments; 2) Clean processes; and 3) Clean products. Coming from the side of
the cleaner production instruments, this paper will focus on that subject.

Instruments for Cleaner Production
       Instruments for cleaner production are also called the soft environmental technologies. They
include all tools which are not considered as hard technology.  In the following, we would like to
present some instruments for cleaner production, which are widely used in the Swiss industry and
research institutes and universities.

Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001)
       The Environmental Management System  (EMS) is based on the same principles as the
quality management systems. It is a tool which allows the industries or the service companies to
manage the environmental issues of their companies in a more systematic way. In  contrast to QMS,
the emphasis of EMS is put on the continuous improvement of the environmental performance. The
implementation of environmental management systems  is growing very fast in Switzerland. By now
about 150 industries are certified ISO 14000, which has shown to be a very efficient tool for enhanc-
ing cleaner production.
       The EMS is based on the same principles as the quality management systems. It is a tool
which allows the industries or the service companies to manage the environmental issues of their
companies in a more systematic way. In contrast to QMS, the emphasis is put on the continuous
improvement of the environmental performance.  The benefit of implementing an environmental
management system is mainly not only that environmental matters are under control. Nevertheless
the companies also gain some indirect benefits such as better credibility towards the banks and
insurance companies, as well as a better consumer image.  In addition, the governments of different
counties are looking with interest at the development of this tool as they are in charge of the control
of conformity with the environmental laws. It is possible that environmental controls will be less
frequent for companies that have an environmental management system, and thereby the control
costs could be reduced. The integration of the stakeholders is also an important issue of the EMS.
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       The two examples below show possible benefits of the implementation of an Environmental
Management System (EMS).

Success story 1: Establishment of an EMS according to ISO 14001 norm at the EMPA
Problem:  The cistern of the heating system of the EMPA did not work properly. The cause was a
lack of maintenance.
Solution:  A change in the organizational structure and a small investment (payback 2.5 months).
This allowed savings of 25,000 US$ per year.

Success story 2: Establishment of an EMS according to ISO 14001 norm in a furniture factory
Problem:  A furniture factory had problems in the compliance with laws concerning the emissions
of VOC. They were obligated by the local authorities to meet the law in a very short term, which
would incur substantial costs for them.
Solution:  The establishment of an EMS included a very  detailed program of environmental invest-
ments, including, among other issues, the specific VOC problem. This  showed a real commitment of
the company to  solve the problem step by step and also to improve continuously their environmental
approach. This allowed the enterprise to obtain an extension from local authorities to comply.

Swiss certifying bodies
       At the moment, five Swiss institutions are accredited to certify according ISO 14001. EMPA
is one of these, and is also certified itself according to ISO 14001. The  director of EMPA St. Gallen,
Dr. Xaver Edemann, is the president of the Swiss Association for Normalization.

SWICO concept for electronic waste management: Implementation of EMS
       SWICO  (Swiss Economic Association for Information-, Communication- and Organization
Technology) is awarding a license to the companies which dispose electronic scrap according to their
environmental concepts and guidelines. The expertise of the accordance with the SWICO rules is
performed by the EMPA as an independent body. In order to prevent and minimize the waste produc-
tion, it is important that the entrepreneurs are taking care  about the produced wastes. SWICO is one
concept to dispose electronic scrap in an environmental responsible way.

Life Cycle Assessment
       Life Cycle Assessment is a tool which is used to assess the impacts on the environment for a
product, while taking into consideration the whole life cycle of the product. This refers to the point
from which the raw materials are extracted for production up to the final treatment of the waste. The
tool is used to assist in decision making for the industries, administration, stakeholders, consumer
organizations, and others,  etc.
       In the beginning, the tool was used for packaging. LCAs are still used for the ecological
optimization of packaging solutions but are also applied to other goods. This tool is widely used in
Switzerland, and research is going on in different institutes. LCAs have been carried out on energy
production, waste treatment, transportation systems, agriculture, and more. Anew project between
different institutes will consolidate the acquired ecological data into one huge database.

EMPA St. Gallen
       At the EMPA St. Gallen, Ecology Department, PW. Gilgen and his group are working on
different LCA projects.
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Environmental data base on packaging materials:
       In collaboration with BUWAL (Engl. SAEFL: Federal Agency for the Environment, Forests
and Landscape, Swiss Ministry of Environment) and the Swiss Packaging Association, EMPA
carried out the renewal of the environmental inventory database for different packaging materials
(glass, different plastics, aluminum, iron, paper and cardboard). This study aims to give a good and
actual database to the users of such information (packaging producers, packaging buyers, consumers
organizations, etc.).

Methods for environmental impact assessment:
       In collaboration with BUWAL and the  Swiss Packaging Association, EMPA assesses the life
cycle impact assessment for the inventory database BUWAL 250. This project aims to give to the
user of the data base a guidance to use the impact assessment in order to perform  an evaluation of
their products. Also, other Swiss institutes work on specific aspects of the environmental impact
assessment of inventory data this topic.

LCAfor decision making:
       In collaboration with Swiss and European industrial associations, LCA is also performed at
the EMPA to give an ecological view of a problem  and to help decision makers. Some of the projects
of the EMPA considered, for example, the comparison of two ways for the treatment of aluminum
tubes after use (recycling or incineration). The analysis of the retro-distribution system of PET
bottles was analyzed and the comparison of different wastewater pipe systems were compared.
       As an example, a project with the CEFIC (European Chemical Industry Council) is shown
below:
Problem: Phosphates have generated a series of environmental problems in European rivers.
Solution: The EMPA, in collaboration with CEFIC, has established an environmental data base for
average values for the production of zeolites. The specific information for each company was com-
pared to the average of all the companies (benchmarking), which allowed industries to discover
improvement opportunities in their own production processes. One company, for example discov-
ered that its energy consumption in the drying  process of zeolites was much higher than the average.
They decided to go on a more in depth study, which, in the end, allowed the savings of 30% of the
energy consumed for the production of one ton of zeolites.

       Several different Swiss institutes have carried out sophisticated LCA assessment:

ETHZ: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
    Life Cycle Assessment of energy production.
    Life Cycle Assessment of waste treatment.

EPFL: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne
    Life Cycle impact assessment.

Infras, Bern
    Life Cycle Assessment of transportation systems.

FAT Tanikon
    Life Cycle Assessment of agriculture.
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Eco-Efficiency and Eco-Controlling, Cost Benefit Analysis
       Eco-efficiency assessment is a tool which takes into account both the environmental and
economical aspects of a product or process. Several Swiss universities and technical institutes work
with these tools.
       At the ETHZ in the department of Industrial Management and Manufacturing engineering,
Institute of Industrial Engineering and Management, Professor R. Zust and his group are working on
different projects:
  Implementing Environmental Objectives into the tasks of research & development and procure-
ment.
  Entrepreneurial environmental management systems; base for an environmentally compatible
performance.
  Environmental orientated product design: The project aims to show how the environmental
aspects of an earlier stage can be considered during the design of a future product.
The University in Basel (WWZ): is also working in the field of LCA and Eco-controlling.

Dynamic Modeling
       Environmental assessment and solution searching with dynamic  modeling are becoming
more and more important for environmental projects in Switzerland.
Example: Effects of thermal and material recycling of plastic waste on Swiss management systems
are analyzed. The goal of the project is to develop and apply an instrument which allows the identifi-
cation of sustainable solutions for plastic waste management under consideration of its dynamic
behavior. On the basis of simulations carried out according to scenarios, the resulting material-,
energy- and cost-flows will be assessed and action recommendations addressed and formulated to
decision-makers in politics, economy and public management.

Eco Design
       Together with the Swiss industry, EMPA developed new surfaces for packaging materials,
which allow to produce efficient packages with less raw material but the same barrier properties.

Cleaner Production Products and Eco-labelling
       The consumers'  awareness regarding environmental issues increased dramatically during the
last years, and therefore, the following Swiss programs have been successful:

Packaging
       Companies invested in lighter packaging, in reusable containers, and refill packaging. In this
way  Switzerland's relatively small size enables an efficient logistic. Furthermore, the consumers are
willing to  separate their waste and bring it to specific recycling collecting boxes (for glass, alumi-
num, metal, plastic bottles and paper board (cartons)).

Electricity/Energy
       People have become more willing to pay more for environmentally responsibly produced
electricity (like  solar energy). In many Swiss cities there is not enough of this solar electricity avail-
able  for the consumer. Some years ago, the Swiss government launched  the Energy 2000 Program.
This program allows for the labeling of electronic equipment, which is especially energy efficient.
Solar panels are not  anymore special  on houses and other places. Also, the Swiss technical universi-
ties have increased their research in the area of alternative energy (solar  and wind power).
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Food
       The large retailers (Verteiler) in Switzerland are distributing food which is produced accord-
ing to strict environmental guidelines. The progressive retailers have, therefore, increased their
market in Switzerland.

"Export" of Cleaner Production Know How
       The exportation/transfer of cleaner production technologies (hard and soft) is becoming more
and more important in Switzerland.  There is awareness that money might be spent more eco-effi-
ciently in less developed countries (e.g. joint implementation). The activities in this field range from
giving lectures on specific topics in  developing countries to the establishment of Cleaner Production
centers in developing countries. Several Swiss universities are offering lectures and collaborating in
projects with developing countries.

Cooperation with Colombia
       Due to the cooperation between Switzerland (EMPA St. Gallen with financial support of
Federal Office of foreign economic  affairs (BAWI))  and Colombia, an environmental technology
center has been created in Colombia. The goal of this center, is to promote environmental conscious-
ness of the application of environmental technologies (soft and hard) in the Colombian industry and
municipalities. This center will act as a service and information center and will establish and support
a network between the industries and different organizations in Colombia and Switzerland.

Cooperation with International Standard Organization
       EMPA carried out several workshops in ISO 14001, organized by ISO in Central America,
South America and Asia. In  all these activities with other countries we also have a chance to learn.
Therefore, we see each cooperation  as a two way or mutual cooperation.

If you want to know more  about the environment in Switzerland:
Swiss Federal Statistical Office and Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape:
"The Environment in Switzerland 1997 - Facts, Figures, Perspectives", Bern, 1997

Cleaner products
       As consumer awareness regarding environmental issues increases, the companies try to meet
this need with their products. Another influence on the production of clean products is the legisla-
tion. In Switzerland a lot of work  has been done on packaging for the consumer goods. Examples:
refill packaging, reusable containers, lighter milk packaging, etc. In the food industries some clean
products have also become a great success: "eco-tome"
Eco-Investment is supporting alternative products  like solar panels, wind power, etc.

Clean processes
       Different universities, institutions and enterprises are working on the optimization of pro-
cesses and development of new processes for a cleaner production.
VSM: the Association of the Swiss Machinery Producer, for example, have a department for cleaner
production and are offering system solutions.
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Status of Clean Processes and Clean Products in Turkey (Akin Geveci)

       In Turkey, although the expression "Cleaner Production" (CP) started to be used in 1995,
waste minimization, recycling, energy, water, chemical and raw material saving were considered in
production going back many years for cost reduction purposes, especially in large chemical plants.
       The first organized approach was started by the Ministry of Environment when UNIDO/
UNEP initiated a program for the extension of NCPC program by establishing a RCPC for Mediter-
ranean Sea and Black sea regions. After evaluation by UNIDO experts, the three countries (Turkey,
Greece and Romania) decided Greece would host the RCPC in Athens, and Turkey and Romania
would be affiliated countries responsible from Mediterranean  and Black Sea regions, respectively,
provided that they both have NCPCs.
       Turkey decided to establish her NCPC and the responsibility was given to TUBITAK-
Marmara Research Center. Marmara Research Center (MRC), which is the biggest Research Center
of TUBITAK (the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey), decided to start Cleaner
Production in the textile industry which is the biggest industry in the country, exporting 40% of
Turkish industrial produce. For that, the Textile, Finishing and Apparel Clean Technology Institute
was formed in  1996 with the aim, to promote the application of CP in textile manufacturing plants,
to conduct R&D for the upgrading of the quality of textile products and to improve the production
techniques and, to establish an accredited laboratory to test the textile products according to eco-
textile standards.
       The two-year project, having the aims above, was started in June 1997, with financing ob-
tained from the World Bank. Danish Technological Institute was selected as consultant to give
training and consultancy  during CP auditing of the textile plants for the assessment and development
of CP projects. For the application of the CP projects, a system to finance the investments is re-
quired. A working group  within TUBITAK was formed, working in cooperation with Ministry of
Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade and Ministry of Finance to devise a system to promote
CP application and include CP in industrial and environmental policies and action plans of Turkey.
       The ultimate goal is to establish an NCPC by the end of 1999 which will give service to all
the sectors of industry. There is already interest from olive-oil manufacturers, electroplaters and the
leather tanning industry.
       Another program, which Turkey is participating in, TUBITAK-MRC being the National
Focal Point, is the Regional Activity Center for C.P (C.PIRAC) formed under UNEP's Mediterra-
nean Action Plan (MAP). The CP/RAC was organized by the  Spanish government in Barcelona to
form a network within Med-countries to transfer clean technologies. Technologies are planned to
transfer by having expert groups' meeting twice a year. The first meeting was held in December,
1997, on olive-oil production and electroplating. In 1998, two meetings, one on electroplating and
one on leather tanning, are planned. The program will continue with leather tanning and paper
manufacture in 1999.
       Turkey is at the initial stage of this new trend of Cleaner Production (pollution prevention).
But there is a strong interest both from the industry and the  authorities. We are trying to organize the
activities so that a systematic approach can be obtained. The industries which have high input into
Turkey's GDP and which have hazardous wastes, therefore more harmful to the environment are:
   Textile industry
   Leather tanning industry
   Electroplating industry
   Metal finishing and metal plating
   Fine chemicals (pharmaceutical etc.) industry
   Pulp and paper industry and
   Automotive industry.

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       Among these, the most difficult and important to deal with are electroplating industry and
metal finishing and plating, because the plants in these industries are mostly SME's and they are not
organized in industrial parks or under associations. Additionally, environmental concern has not yet
developed in this industry except in some large plants.
       Among the technologies for clean processes which gained considerable momentum is the
process integrated cleaner biotechnology. There is research conducted in the Genetic Engineering
and Biotechnology Institute of MRC. Biotechnological methods (e.g., using enzymes, etc.) that can
replace some chemical processes are being researched.
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Clean Products and Clean Processes in the United Kingdom (Jim Swindall)

       Material substitution is a simple concept but a difficult and diverse discipline. Before at-
tempting to summarize the contributions from the plenary session, I will attempt to substantiate my
opening remark by reviewing the wide range of applications where material substitution has oc-
curred, and perhaps more importantly, look at the driving forces which have led to the changes. I will
then address the issue of the availability and 'fitness of purpose' of current tools and what may be
needed in order to optimize the process of selecting and using alternative materials.
       Economic imperatives have been the main driving force in the past. Recognition of the finite
availability of supplies of indigenous fossil fuels and minerals has led to both less wasteful use and
to material substitution. The desire for enhanced performance, especially in the field of microelec-
tronics, has led to much research and development on improved or substitute materials.
       However, these days another driving force has arisen. Environmental concerns about issues
as wide as global climate change, persistent chemicals in groundwater, oestrogen and other hormonal
mimics, air quality, toxic effects on human health and reduced biodiversity are forcing us to consider
how to reduce the 'footprint' of our economic activities.
       Available models such as LCA and process simulation tools are not methodologies for identi-
fying candidate substitute materials - only for judging their fitness of purpose. It is in this region
where most remains to be done. We need  tools to identify areas of crucial concern - in order to direct
our efforts to the most pressing problems, and to identify candidate substitute materials.

UK Government Funding for Research in the Area

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Clean Technology Programme
       The aim of the EPSRC clean technology programme is: To stimulate the UK research com-
munity to generate the knowledge and trained people needed to enable industry to adopt clean
technologies which will give competitive advantage and enhance the quality of life.
       Clean technology aims to find ways of forestalling pollution, instead of removing it at the
"end of pipe"; and to give the message that technology is not the cause of pollution, but part of the
solution.  SPEND 1996-97 5 .8 million
       The users of the programme include the chemical, pharmaceutical, oil, energy, water, extrac-
tive, and  automotive industries; local authorities, regulatory bodies; and university researchers who
use results from the programme as a source of ideas for further research.
       The Clean Technology programme works primarily  through calls for proposals,  which have
been developed in consultation with researchers and users. It also uses responsive mode and the
Realizing Our Potential Award scheme to stimulate creative, unconventional ("blue sky") ideas. The
programme concentrates on technologies  to forestall pollution and waste, rather than end-of-pipe
remediation.
       A substantial portfolio of projects  has been established on Cleaner Synthesis of industrial
chemicals; support will continue within the framework of a managed programme in partnership with
EPSRC's Chemistry and Process Engineering programmed and BBSRC's Chemistry and Pharma-
ceuticals Directorate. Clean Technology also co-sponsors a complementary programme in Catalysis
and Catalytic Processes (with Chemistry and Process Engineering), and is active in bringing users
and providers together, especially process engineers and chemists.
       In the field of alternative energy technologies, Photovoltaic Technologies is an on-going
programme. Clean Technology  contributes to two existing managed programmes in Fuel Cell Tech-
nologies  and Combustion, and will continue to do so. Because of their importance for energy effi-
ciency, another Foresight priority, Clean Technology is collaborating with the Electrical Engineering
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programme in developing a focused activity in Electrical Machines and Drives. A programme in
Clean Design, in conjunction with DIP, will include design for whole life cycle.
       Unconventional "blue sky" ideas are solicited annually via the responsive mode, with young
researchers in particular encouraged to make proposals. The assessment of proposals has included a
step where proposers discussed their ideas with 13-year old school children, as part of EPSRC's
Pupil Researcher Initiative. Feedback from both the researchers and the pupils was encouraging.
       The supply of trained researchers will be enhanced through the support of approximately 35
PhD students each year, mainly holding project studentships linked to research grants. Their perspec-
tives are broadened through a summer school to bring together students, supervisors and leading
experts from industry and universities. Eight Clean Technology fellowships have been awarded, in
partnership with the Royal Academy of Engineering.

1. The Foresight Steering Group identified "technologies to secure a cleaner and more sustainable
  world" as one of its main themes.

2. A key priority is environmentally sustainable technology. This includes alternative energy tech-
  nologies, energy efficient machines and systems, and social issues relating to energy usage.
  Among the intermediate priorities is chemical and biological synthesis, where the report of the
  Chemicals Panel emphasized the need for cleaner and more selective methods. Among the emerg-
  ing topics is what the Steering Group describes as "an interesting subset of three topics ... classi-
  fied under A Cleaner World": clean processing technology, aspects of energy technology such as
  minimizing emissions from combustion, and product and manufacturing life cycle analysis.

3. The Transport Panel put forward an imaginative proposal for "Clear Zones", to demonstrate
  "liveable" city centres where the contribution of technology to resolving the car/community
  conflict can be promoted and developed. Clear zones would exemplify several of the Steering
  Group's generic priorities.

4. Alternative energy technologies. A call for proposals on photovoltaic technologies has been issued
  in partnership with the Materials, IT, Built Environment, Chemistry and Electrical Engineering
  programmes.

5. Synthesis EPSRC, in partnership with BBSRC, has a strong portfolio of projects on clean synthe-
  sis. A further call for proposals has been issued in partnership with Chemistry and Process Engi-
  neering, and in conjunction with a call on catalysis and catalytic processes.

6. Processing technology. A call for proposals on waste minimization in the process industries has
  been issued in partnership with the Materials and other EPSRC programmes, DTI, DOE and  TCD,
  and  incorporating a new LINK programme. It is intended to make at least two further calls, adjust-
  ing their scope to concentrate on particular industrial sectors and key technologies in the light of
  results and users' comments.

7. Energy technology. The Clean Technology  programme has contributed to the current managed
  programmes on fuel cells and combustion, and plans to continue to  do  so.

8. Life cycle analysis. ESRC, in partnership with EPSRC, supports a small portfolio of projects on
  life cycle analysis and design for upgradability. EPSRC's programme on electronic product design
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  and manufacture includes projects which address life cycle issues. A partnership of the Clean
  Technology and DIP programmes is preparing a call for proposals on clean design, to be handled
  in responsive-mode. The scope will include design for whole life cycle.

9. Clear zones. Both EPSRC and ESRC support interdisciplinary projects which are consistent with
  the concept of clear zones, as part of their joint activities on the sustainable city.

Fellowships
       The Royal Academy of Engineering has joined with the clean technology programme to
award up to five senior research fellowships each year, in order to enhance the capacity for clean
technology research in UK universities.  EPSRC awards quota and project research studentships for
clean technology.
       Improving the way we use resources to obtain the materials and products we need can be just
as intellectually challenging as research in basic science. Many UK universities are implementing
research programmes in clean technology. Northern Ireland received i2.74m to build a clean technol-
ogy research and demonstration facility.

UK Government Support for 'Clean' Industry

Department of Trade and Industry Environmental Technology Best Practice Programme (ETBPP)
       The Environmental Technology Best Practice Programme promotes the use of better environ-
mental technologies and practices that reduce costs for UK industry,  and is jointly funded by DTI
and DETR. The broad themes are waste minimization and cost effective cleaner technology.

THE ENVIRONMENTAL HELPLINE
       The Environmental Helpline has access to a wide range of environmental information. It
offers free advice to companies on technical matters, environmental legislation, conferences and
promotional seminars.

GOOD PRACTICE GUIDES
       These provide practical information on how to carry out procedures that will help reduce
costs and improve environmental performance.

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE GUIDES
       Environmental Performance Guides contain data on current environmental performance for a
particular industry sector, technology or operation and  are compiled on the basis of replies to confi-
dential questionnaires. The Guides enable individual companies to compare their performance with
that of companies involved in similar operations and to identify potential areas for improvement.

CASE STUDIES OF BEST PRACTICE IN ACTION
       GOOD PRACTICE. Good Practice Case Studies are prime examples of proven cost effective
technologies and techniques that have already improved environmental performance. Independent
experts evaluate projects that have been implemented in industrial companies, and the details are
published in Programme literature. In return for co-operating with this process, host companies are
eligible for access payments.
       NEW PRACTICE. The aim of New Practice  is  to encourage UK industry and commerce to
adopt new technologies and techniques that save money and reduce waste and pollution. New Prac-
tice Case Studies are the first commercial applications  of innovative  measures that improve environ-
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mental performance. As with Good Practice, independent experts evaluate the projects and the
details are published in Programme literature. In return for cooperating with this process, host
companies are eligible for access payments.
       FUTURE PRACTICE. This is the Programmers Research and Development element. It
supports work progressing toward novel environmental technologies and techniques. The results of
Future Practice projects are published to encourage companies to take up successful developments.
The list of companies using the ETBPP is increasing each year as the advantages of attention to the
need for clean products and clean processes becomes more widely appreciated.
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Cleaner Products and Processes in the United States (Subhas K. Sikdar)

       The Pollution Prevention Act (1990) encouraged US Industry to combat pollution, wherever
possible, by pollution prevention methods, i.e., by reformulating processes and products, in prefer-
ence to recycle/reuse, waste treatment, and disposal. The Industry responded with programs of its
own. For instance, the Chemical Manufacturers Association, launched the Responsible Care Pro-
gram, on behalf of the chemical industry. Responsible Care is a code of ethics that provides corpo-
rate environmental stewardship. Separately, the chemical industry has also launched a planning
program, Vision 2020, which is in part, a roadmapping exercise for developing efficient environmen-
tally preferable processes and products. For several years now, the electronics industry has been
updating its Electronic Industry Association (EIA) roadmap with increasing emphasis on environ-
mentally friendly manufacturing processes. ISO 14000 is also taking hold in most US industries.
       Various Government agencies have launched programs in order to stimulate the development
of clean technologies in selected industry sectors. The Department of Energy, in close cooperation
with US industries, has been working on the program, Industries of the Future. The main aim of this
program is to significantly improve energy efficiency, while at the same time emphasizing  clean
manufacturing. Several of the industries chosen for this program, such as glass, steel, primary met-
als, and petroleum refining, are also some of the worst emitters of pollutants to the environment. The
EPAs program, the Common Sense Initiative (CSI), is a program conceived in a regulatory setting,
but is similarly collaborative with industry. CSI is meant to lead us from Government-industry
confrontation to cooperation in reducing adverse environmental impacts of products and processes.
The industry sectors chosen are petroleum, electronic, automotive, steel, metal finishing, and print-
ing. The other EPA programs for stimulating clean technologies are Green Chemistry Challenge,
Green Lights, Project Excel, all of which are based on cooperation with industry. The Department of
Defense has similar programs, Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program
(SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). The Department
of Commerce (DOC) supports industry efforts via its Advanced Technology Program, which is also
increasingly oriented towards environmentally preferably technologies.  The DOC also maintains
manufacturing extension partnerships (MEP) throughout the country to assist small and medium
sized companies with technical assistance in waste minimization and pollution prevention.  The
dominant funding agencies,  such as the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection
Agency, and the Department of Energy support academic research in the development of pre-com-
petitive enabling technologies that are cleaner as well.
       The current research and development efforts in clean products and processes can be classi-
fied into four categories:
1. Modeling Tools: Life cycle assessment tools (LCA), design tools for cleaner processes via process
  simulation and integration, tools for material designs (such as solvent design), tools for identifying
  cleaning  fluids for metal parts,  softwares for selecting environmentally friendly sealants and
  adhesives, computer software for assessing pollution prevention progress, assessment tool for
  environmental impacts of chemicals, and softwares for costing technologies.

2. Technology Tools: Separation technologies, especially sorption for metals and VOC recovery,
  membranes for organics recovery and recycle, green chemistry and engineering.

3. Industry-specific cleaner technology development in cooperation with industry: Focus is on metal
  finishing, textile, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, and electronic industries.

4. Verification of clean technologies: Identification of clean technologies for performance verifica-
  tion conducted by impartial third parties with the objective of stimulating market acceptance. This
  program  is conducted via EPAs ETV or environmental technology verification program.

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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)                   March 1998
                              Field Trip Summaries
       On March 25th, meeting participants visited several locations to observe ongoing technology
demonstrations and research activities being conducted in the greater Cincinnati area. Tours of the
Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Sciences and the University of Cincinnati's College of Engi-
neering were conducted to familiarize meeting participants with several projects related to clean
manufacturing and clean products. In addition, the meeting participants were given the opportunity
to enjoy Cincinnati's Museum of Fine Arts which displays a wide range of art from ancient times
through the modern era.

Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Sciences, Cincinnati, Ohio
       The Institute of Advance Manufacturing Sciences (IAMS) is a private, not-for-profit organi-
zation, supported by the State of Ohio, Department of Development. The mission of IAMS is to
enhance the competitiveness of manufacturers and related businesses by increasing productivity,
improving business practices and accelerating the implementation of new technology.
       Representatives from IAMS described ongoing pollution prevention activities and activities
relating to lead-free steel and "green" fluids. In addition, the participants were given a tour of the
high bay facility where IAMS  conducts various machine tool demonstration projects.

University of Cincinnati, College of Engineering, Cincinnati, Ohio
       The University of Cincinnati (UC), College of Engineering was founded in 1900 to meet the
demands for top quality engineers in the rapidly expanding industrial region of turn of the century
Cincinnati. Today, this goal  continues with the mission of the College of Engineering being "to
educate engineers of recognized quality, many of whom will become leaders in both the corporate
community and the public sector."
       Meeting participants were given tours  of several UC  research laboratories. Tours included
presentations on research activities in the areas of material science, environmental engineering and
micro-mechanical engineering.
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)
                         March 1998
                           1998 Meeting  Attendees
I. INTERNATIONAL ATTENDEES

Christo Balarew
Bulgaria
balarew@ipchp.ipc.acad.bg

Susete Dias
Portugal
pcsdias@alfa.ist.utl.pt

Sergiu Galitchii
Moldova
eco@cni.md

Akin Geveci
Turkey
geveci@yunus.mam.gov.tr

Anthony M. Kosteltz
Canada
tony.kosteltz@ec.gc.ca

Lubomir Kusnir
Slovakia
kusnirl@mod.gov.sk

Christiane Maillefer
Switzerland
christiane.maillefer@empa.ch

Lajos Nebb-Csorba
Republic of Hungary
Iajos.nebbcsorba@ktm.x400gw.itb.hu

Dagmar Sucharovova
Czech Republic
sucharovova_dagmar@env.cz

Gerda Sviezauskaite
Lithuania
standartu. skyrius@nt.gamta.lt

Jim Swindall
Northern Ireland
j .swindall@qub.ac.uk
Maria Elena Torres M.
Chile
mtorres@intec.el

Henrik Wenzel
Denmark
hwc@ipt.dtu.dk
II. US ATTENDEES

Paul Bishop
paul.bishop@uceng.uc.edu

Elizabeth Brown
ebrown@iams.org

Carla Chifos
carla.chifos@uceng.uc.edu

Louis Divone
lou.divone@ee.doe.gov

Amit Gupta
amit.gupta@uceng.uc.edu

Shane Y. Hong
sh295@columbia.edu

Ravi Jain
ravi.jain@uc.edu

Catherine M. Osborne
osbornc@ttemi. com

Michael Overcash
overcash@dsl .che.ncsu.edu

Lise Rodgers
lrodgers@uceng.uc.edu

Farhang Shadman
shadman@erc.arizona.edu
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NATO/CCMS Pilot Project on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)
                                 March 1998
Makram Suidan
msuidan@uceng.uc.edu
III. USEPA ATTENDEES

Andy Avel
avel. andy @epamail. epa.gov

Jane Bare
bare.jane@epamail.epa.gov

Patrick Burke
burke.pat@epamail.epa.gov

Heriberto Cabezas
cabezas.heriberto@epamail.epa.gov

Greg Carroll
carroll.gregory@epamail.epa.gov

Mary Ann Curran
curran.maryann@epamail.epa.gov

Emma Lou George
george.emmalou@epamail.epa.gov

Teresa Harten
harten.teresa@epamail. epa.gov

Jon Herrmann
herrmann.jonathan@epamail.epa.gov

Terri Hoagland
hoagland.theresa@epamail.epa.gov

Stephen C. James
james.steve@epamail.epa.gov

Ivars Licis
licis.ivars@epamail.epa.gov

Dan Murray
murray. dan@epamail. epa.gov

E. Timothy Oppelt
oppelt.tim@epamail.epa.gov
Tom Powers
powers .thomasj @epamail. epa.gov

JAi chard Scharp
scharp.richard@epamail.epa.gov

Subhas Sikdar
sikdar.subhas@epamail.epa.gov

Johnny Springer
springer.j ohnny @epamail. epa.gov

Ken Stone
stone.kenneth@epamail.epa.gov

Brian Westfall
westfall .brian@epamail. epa.gov
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