United States
 Environmental Protection
 Risk Reduction Engineering
 Research Laboratory
 Cincinnati OH 45268
 Research and Development
 EPA/600/S2-90/031 Aug. 1990
 Project Summary
 Waste Minimization
 Opportunity Assessment:
 Fort  Riley,  Kansas
   The  Waste Reduction Evaluations
at Federal Sites (WREAFS)  Program
consists of a series of demonstration
and  evaluation  projects for waste
reduction conducted cooperatively
by the  U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency and various parts of  the
Department of  Defense  (DOD),
Department  of Energy  (DOE), and
other federal agencies. The  WREAFS
program focuses on waste minimiza-
tion research opportunities and tech-
nical assessments at federal sites.
The  objectives  of  the WREAFS
Program  include: (1)  conducting
waste minimization workshops; (2)
performing  waste  minimization
opportunity assessments;  (3)
demonstrating  waste minimization
techniques or technologies at federal
facilities;  and (4) enhancing waste
minimization benefits  within the
federal  community.
   Fort  Riley, Kansas, was a WREAF
site chosen  for a waste reduction
assessment.  Maintenance operations
carried  out at one of the U.S. Army
Forces  Command  (FORSCOM)  Fort
Riley facilities generates waste
battery  acid and metals-contaminated
alkaline wastewaters. Acid from  car
and  truck   batteries  requiring
maintenance  or disposal is currently
collected in drums and shipped from
Building 8100 to  the Defense
Reutilization  and Marketing Office
(DRMO)  at  the  installation  for
disposal as hazardous waste (DOO2,
DOO6, D008).  The metal-contaminated
waste detergent solution results as
automotive parts are cleaned  with hot
aqueous alkaline detergent in a batch
washer  at the installation. This waste,
currently being reclassified as RCRA,
DOO7, and DOO8,  is drained to an
onsite   nonhazardous  waste
evaporation pond.
   The  waste minimzation asseess-
ment at Ft.  Riley developed  the
following recycling options for these
RCRA wastes:
1. Filtering,  restrengthening, and
   recycling waste battery acid as a
   replacement for virgin battery acid.
2. Purifying  and reusing alkaline
   detergent  solution for further
   automotive parts cleaning.
   This  Project Summary  was
developed by EPA's Risk Reduction
Engineering Research  Laboratory,
Cincinnati, OH,  to announce  key
findings of the research project that is
fully documented in a separate report
of the same  title  (see  Project Report
ordering information at back).

   Results of the  Fort  Riley, Kansas,
waste minimization  assessment identified
two waste reduction opportunities in a
multipurpose  building  (Building 8100)
used for automotive  subassembly
rebuilding, lead acid battery repair, and a
number of other  Army maintenance
operations. The two waste reduction
opportunities are summarized below.

Waste Battery Acid
   Battery  acid (32% to 37%  sulfuric
acid) containing trace concentrations of
lead and cadmium  is currently  drained
from  both dead  batteries and  batteries
requiring  repairs (e.g.,  replacement of
battery terminals) and shipped in  15-gal.
drums to the DRMO storage facility at the
installation for  ultimate  disposal as a
hazardous waste. The WREAFS Program
instead proposed that the waste acid  be
gathered  in a holding tank, filtered to
remove any particulates,  and adjusted in
concentration to 37% sulfuric acid (using
60 Baume commercial sulfuric acid) as
needed for reuse in  reconditioned or new
batteries. To prevent buildup of dissolved

 metal impurities in this recycling system,
 part of the acid would be purged from the
 system.  This  assessment assumes that
 25% of  the acid would be  purged and
 75% reused.  The acid  being  purged
 would  be neutralized, treated to remove
 trace heavy metal, and disposed of onsite
 to a lagoon  as a nonhazardous waste.
 Figure 1  presents a  schematic of the
 proposed  equipment  for  this  waste
 reduction option.

 Automotive Parts Washer
   The dirty aqueous alkaline detergent
 solution  that  results  from  cleaning
 automotive  parts   contains  trace
 concentrations  of lead,  chromium,  and
 cadmium at a pH > 12 as well as the oils,
 grease,  and  dirt removed from  the
 automotive parts. Currently,  the  solution
 is drained  to  an onsite  nonhazardous
 waste  evaporation  pond. This  waste,
 heretofore regarded as nonhazardous,  is
 being reclassified as  a RCRA hazardous
 waste  because of its  characteristics
 (DOO7, D008). When reclassified, it will
 have to be disposed of as a hazardous
waste  through  DRMO. The proposed
waste minimization option for this stream
would involve  using equipment external
to the automotive parts washer, as shown
in Figure  2. The proposed process would
       include  emulsion  breaking  to  cause
       emulsified  oils to float,  removal  of  de-
       emulsified  oils and other tramp oils  and
       grease by  skimming,  filtration  to remove
       particulates in an inline cartridge filter,
       and addition of fresh alkaline detergent
       as  necessary.  The cleaned  washwater
       would then  be recirculated  to  the
       automotive parts cleaner.  Buildup  of
       impurities  in  the recycled  washwater
       would be prevented  by purging  25% of
       the used alkaline detergent and recycling
       75%. The  material  being purged would
       be  neutralized  with  an  appropriate
       amount of waste battery  acid  (in  the
       equipment  shown in Figure  2), treated to
       remove precipitated  trace  heavy metal
       impurities,  and  disposed  of  as a
       nonhazardous  waste.
         Some mplant  experimentation  would
       be  needed to determine the type of filter
       elements that are best suited for this
       operation,  whether  multiple  cartridge
       filters are needed, how many  cycles can
       the recovered wastewater effectively
       clean  automotive  parts,  etc. The
       uncertainty in the proposed procedure is
       reflected  in a 25% contingency  in  the
       capital cost estimate.
                         Results of Waste Reduction
                           The  results  of the waste  reduction
                         audit are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

                         Observations and
                           The waste reduction options identified
                         in this study are recycle/reuse  options.
                         Source  reduction  would  require  the
                         decreased  use  of motor vehicles by the
                         infantry division stationed at Fort Riley
                         and  is not  a  realistic waste  reduction
                           Since  the expected payback  periods
                         for the two  waste reduction options are
                         very short,  it is  recommended that these
                         options  be  implemented.  It should be
                         noted that successful application of these
                         options at Ft. Riley  creates the potential
                         for applying similar  waste  minimization
                         options in at least  10 other U.S. Army
                         FORSCOM installations.
                           The full  report  was  submitted  in
                        fulfillment of Contract 68-C8-0061  by
                        Versar, Inc., under the sponsorship of the
                         U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency.
                  Table 1. Summary of Fort Riley, Kansas, Building 8100 Waste Reduction Assessment
Source of Hazardous Waste
Battery repair shop
Automotive parts washing
7,200 gal/yr D002,
0006, 0008*
29,000 gal/yr 0007,
Current Disposal
Current Raw
                  * D002--Corrosive waste (<2 pH > 12).
                   D006-Cadmium-containing RCRA characteristic hazardous waste.
                   D008--Lead-containing RCRA characteristic hazardous waste.
                  f D007'--Chromium-containing RCRA characteristic hazardous waste .
                  t Although this waste currently is drained to an onsite evaporation pond, if it were disposed of as a
                   RCRA hazardous waste via DRMO at the same cost per gallon as the waste battery acid , the costs
                   and savings would be as indicated
          Table 2. Summary of Economic Analysis for Proposed Waste Minimization Options at Fort Riley, Kansas, Building 8100
Source of Hazardous
Waste Stream
Battery repair shop
Waste Reduction
Recycle of
battery acid
Capital Investment
Operating Cost
Saving, $/yr
Payback, yr
           Automotive parts washing
Recycle of purified
alkaline detergent

                    Explanation of Flowsheet Symbols

                      txj     Block Valve

                      \A-     Check Valve

                      Lpx    Hose Connection
       In-Line Filter
(^     In-Line Strainer
       Demineralizing Cartridge
PI )   Pressure Gauge
                                                                   Tl  )   Temperature Indicator
            Being Drained
            YYY    YYY .ZHX}
            Existing Battery
          Acid Drain Trough
                                20 GPM x 25
                                 1/4 HP Motor
Figure 1. Proposed equipment for waste battery acid option.

V v ;


                                            Drum Pump
                                                                                         Sewer Inlet
                                                                                      Draining to Lagoon

         Mart Tornado
         Parts Washer
                                             Explanation of Flowsheet Symbols
                                                                                            Block Valve

                                                                                   |_p  x   Hose Connection
                                                                                            In-Line Filter
                                                                                            Pressure Gauge
                                                                                            Drum Pump
                        P-1/50 GPM x 25
                          7/2 HP Motor
                                                                                                         :   75 or
                                                                                                         :  55 gal
                                                                                                         :  Drums
    Figure 2. Proposed equipment for tornado parts washer wastewater option.
 The authors are with Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA 22101.
 James S. Bridges is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
 The complete report, entitled "Waste Minimization
   Opportunity  Assessment: Fort Riley, Kansas," (Order No.
   PB 90-250 176iAS; Cost: $23.00, subject to change) will
   he available  cnly trom:
                                      National Technical Information Service
                                      5285 Port Royal Road
                                      Springfield, VA 22161
                                      Telephone: 703-487-4650
                              The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
                                      Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
                                      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                      Cincinnati, OH 45268
United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
   PERMIT  No. G-35
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300