United States
                    Environmental Protection
                    Agency
Risk Reduction
Engineering Laboratory
Cincinnati, OH 45268
                    Research and Development
EPA/600/S2-90/054  Mar. 1991
4? EPA       Project  Summary
                    Workshop  on  Innovative
                    Technologies for  Treatment  of
                    Contaminated  Sediments
                    June  13-14,  1990
                    Summary  Report

                    Roxanne Breines Sukol and Gregory D. McNelly
                      The U.S. Environmental Protection
                    Agency's (EPA's) Risk Reduction Engi-
                    neering Laboratory (RREL) developed
                    and organized this workshop at the re-
                    quest of the EPA Office of Water Regu-
                    lations and Standards (OWRS). Its two-
                    fold purpose was 1) to provide interested
                    individuals and organizations with cur-
                    rent information on innovative treatment
                    technologies for contaminated sedi-
                    ments, and 2) to provide RREL staff with
                    an opportunity to increase their under-
                    standing of the problemsassociated with
                    the management of contaminated sedi-
                    ments treatment at various locations
                    throughout the United States.
                      The workshop was organized into six
                    sessions related to policy and technol-
                    ogy development. "Setting the Scene"
                    included  presentations by representa-
                    tives from RREL, OWRS, EPA's Great
                    Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO),
                    Environment Canada, and the U.S. Army
                    Corps of Engineers (COE). The suc-
                    ceeding four sessions were  entitled
                    "Dredged Materials Removal, Pretreat-
                    ment, and Disposal," "Extraction Tech-
                    nologies," "Biological/Chemical Treat-
                    ment Technologies," and "Other Tech-
                    nologies of Interest." The final session,
                    an open  discussion, provided an  op-
                    portunity for attendees to raise ques-
                    tions, to provide input, and to exchange
                    ideas
                      This Project Summary was developed
                    by EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering
                    Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce
                    key points of interest in the workshop,
                    which is fully documented in a separate
                    workshop summary report of the same
title (see Project Report ordering infor-
mation at back).

Introduction
   The scope of the contaminated sedi-
ments problem  encompasses ecological
damage, potential human health risks, and
high cleanup costs. A total of 362 toxic
chemicals have been identified in the bot-
tom sediment of the Great Lakes. Fish and
birds exhibit tangible effects of this pollution
in disease, tumors, and deformities, but
adequate health and ecological risks have
not been quantified. It is estimated that
remediation of Great Lakes sediments could
cost $10 billion. It would entail treatment of
40 million cubic yards of material at costs
ranging from $1 0 to $1 500 per cubic yard.
   The Workshop on Innovative Technolo-
gies for Treatment of Contaminated Sedi-
ments was held in Cincinnati, OH, on June
13-14, 1990. The intent of  this workshop
was to provide interested individuals and
organizations with current information on
innovative treatment technologies and to
give the RREL staff an opportunity to in-
crease their understanding of the problems
associated with the management of con-
taminated sediments treatment at various
locations throughout the United States.

Scope of the Workshop
   Individual presentations were made by
representatives of the  major contributing
organizations, i.e., RREL, OWRS, GLNPO,
Environment Canada, and the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers. Panel discussions were
scheduled at regular intervals throughout
the workshopto encourage afree exchange
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of ideas and to maximize the opportunities
to obtain additional useful information (see
Photographs 1 and 2). An open discussion
was held during the last workshop session
so that attendees and workshop organizers
could share their thoughts on  approaches
for treating contaminated sediments. Table
1 lists the subjects and technologies cov-
ered in the workshop presentations.

Workshop Highlights
   "Setting the Scene"panelists addressed
concerns about a  lack of sufficient infor-
mation,  data,  and goals for  remediation
technologies. They noted the wide diversity
of site-specific conditions and the need to
focus on treatment options for bioaccumu-
lative compounds.
   "Dredged Materials Removal, Pretreat-
ment, and Disposal" panelists noted that
operator experience  is directly related to
successful dredging and acknowledged the
difficulty of controlling contaminant  volatil-
ization.  They  discussed permitting and
monitoring  of confined disposal  facilities
(CDFs).
   "Extraction Technologies" panelists an-
swered specific questions about the tech-
nologies  they presented. These  included
the Low Energy Extraction Process (LEEP),
a countercurrent process developed spe-
cifically for treating sediments; the Basic
Extraction Sludge Treatment (BEST) pro-
cess, for which treatability studies are
needed to determine the level of fines that
can be handled; and the CF Systems Sol-
vent Extraction  Process. They discussed
the inadequacy of analytical methods for
evaluating new technologies, and concluded
that whereas existing analytical  methods
may be sufficient for regulatory purposes,
they are  insufficient for research and de-
velopment.
   "Biological/Chemical  Treatment Tech-
nologies" panelists acknowledged that mi-
croorganisms acclimate  less easily in the
field  than in  the laboratory. In  the field,
surfactants are being  used to  increase
contact between microbes, which are found
in the aqueous  soil fraction, and  the con-
taminants found in the organic soil fraction.
Panelists agreed that a bioslurry reactor
was an excellent option for treating sedi-
ment slurries with high oil concentrations
and a maximum of 15 to 20 percent solids,
but that soil tillage would be more useful for
sediments with highersolidsconcentrations.
    Members of the "Other Technologies of
Interest" panel answered questions about
the technologies they presented. Low-tem-
perature thermal  treatment technology is
expected to compete with  incineration be-
cause of its anticipated low cost and absence
of byproduct formation (e.g.,  dioxins and
furans). The absence of long-term moni-
toring data for solidification/stabilization is a
source of uncertainty in consideration of its
use for treatment of various organic com-
pounds. Investigators continue to work on
solving a corrosion problem associated with
wet air oxidation. An ultraviolet radiation/
ozonation  technology,  which may be  of
particular interest for treating contaminated
sediments, will be demonstrated in fall 1990.
   Questions submitted for the open dis-
cussion covered  future  plans to conduct
treatability studies, the treatment and man-
agement of  residuals, the development of
 Photo 1.  Panel Discussion I "Setting the Scene."

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Table 1.  Technologies Covered in Workshop Presentations

         Workshop Session
                                 Title of Presentation
Setting the Scene
        Welcome and Challenge to Participants
        Overview of EPA Efforts on Contaminated Sediments
        The GLNPO Program and Contaminated Sediments Management
        The Canadian Experience with Contaminated Sediments
        ARCS Engineering/Technology Work Group Status
        SITE Program Overview
        Panel Discussion and Question and Answer Session
Dredged Materials Removal, Pretreatment, and Disposal
        Dredging and Pretreatment Operations for Contaminated Sediments
        Material Handling Research at RREL
        Disposal of Dredged Material: Current Practices
        Research on In Situ Techniques and their Application in Confined Treatment Facilities
        Panel Discussion and Question and Answer Session
Extraction Technologies
        Review of Removal, Containment, and Treatment Technologies for Remediation of
            Contaminated Sediments in the Great Lakes
        Extraction Technology Research at RREL
        Low Energy Solvent Extraction Process
        Solvent Extraction Using the BEST Process
        Liquid Propane Extraction Using the CF Systems Process
        Panel Discussion and Question and Answer Session
Biological/Chemical Treatment Technologies
        Biodegradation of Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons
        Chemical Treatment Research at RREL: Base Catalyzed
        Decomposition
        Biological Technologies in the SITE Program
        Panel Discussion and Question and Answer Session
Other Technologies of Interest
        Low Temperature Thermal Treatment Technologies
        Ultraviolet/Ozonation SITE Project
        Solidification/Stabilization of Dredged Materials and Sediment
        Panel Discussion and Question and Answer Session
Future Direction for Contaminated Sediments Treatment
        Issues Identification and Presentation
        Open Discussion (including legislative issues)
risk assessment methodology, the deter-
mination of target  and action levels, im-
proved understanding of the natural envi-
ronment, and relative costs of sediment
treatment vs. confinement. Some questions
addressed  communication among inter-
ested parties [e.g.,  EPA Headquarters,
RREL, Superfund Innovative Technology
Evaluation  (SITE)  Program, U.S. Army
Corps  of Engineers, Bureau  of  Mines,
National Pollutant  Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) Enforcement, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA)] to prevent duplication of efforts.
   Representatives from OWRS presented
a brief description of EPA's recent efforts
regarding contaminated sediments man-
agement. They announced that the Sedi-
ment Oversight Technical Committee recently
drafted a "Sediment Classification Methods
Compendium," which describes  various
methods to assess the quality of sediments
containing unknown concentrations of toxic
compounds. Four work groups are develop-
ing 14 papers that will provide the basis for
an Agency-wide sediment management
strategy. The Assessment and Remediation
of Contaminated  Sediments  (ARCS)
Program's  Engineering Technology Work
Group recently  completed a technology
screening  report.  Selected technologies
profiled in the report have been chosen for
bench-scale testing, which is scheduled to
begin soon. This workshop, sponsored by
RREL, OWRS, and GLNPO, was convened
to provide a forum for exchanging this type
of information.
   The full report was submitted in fulfill-
ment of EPA Contract No. 68-03-3413, Work
Assignment No. 2-66, by PEI Associates,
Inc., under the  sponsorship of  the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.
                                                                                         *U.S. Government Printing Office: 1993  750-071/60254

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Photo 2. Workshop attendees participate in panel discussions.
   Roxanne Breines Sukol and Gregory D. McNelly are with PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45246.
   Jonathan G. Herrmann is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
   The complete report, entitled "Workshop on Innovative Technologies for Treatment of Contaminated Sediments, June 13-14,
     1990, Summary Report" (Order No. PB91-148296/AS; Cost: $17..00, subject to change) will be available only from:
          National Technical Information Service
          5285 Port Royal Road
          Springfield, VA 22161
          Telephone: 703-487-4650
   The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
          Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
          Cincinnati, OH 45268
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Center for Environmental Research
Information
Cincinnati, OH 45268
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