United States
 Environmental Protection
 Risk Reduction
 Engineering Laboratory
 Cincinnati, OH 45268
 Research and Development
 EPA/600/S2-90/062  Feb.  1991
 Project Summary
 Waste  Minimization  Opportunity
 Assessment,  U.S.  Coast  Guard
 Support  Center,
 Governors  Island,  New York
  The U.S. Coast Guard facility at Gover-
nors Island, New York, was chosen for a
waste reduction assessment under the
Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal
Sites (WREAFS) Program. The Coast
Guard mission on the Island, which
serves as a support center for Coast
Guard activities in the New York area,
generates a substantial amount of haz-
ardous waste (e.g., lead-acid batteries,
lead-contaminated blast grit, paint, and
paint-related material).
  Suggested initiatives for management
included expanded employee training/
awareness programs, modified storage
areas to prevent product freezing, and
central procurement to reduce duplicated
inventories. Opportunities to minimize
waste through technology included
substituting plastic for steel shot when
removing paint and rust from buoys and
using high volume/low pressure paint
guns to reduce overspray.
  This Project Summary was developed
by EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering
Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce
key findings of the waste reduction as-
sessment that is fully documented in a
separate report of the same title (see
Project Report ordering information at

  The WREAFS Program  identifies new
technologies and techniques for reducing
wastes from industrial processes used by
federal agencies and facilities, and facili-
tates the adoption of pollution prevention/
waste minimization practices through tech-
nology transfer. New techniques and tech-
nologies for reducing waste generation are
identified through waste minimization op-
portunity assessments and may be further
evaluated through joint research, develop-
ment, and demonstration projects.
  The purpose of this project was to de-
velop waste minimization initiatives for the
U.S. Coast Guard Support Center New York
at Governors Island using the Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Mini-
mization Opportunity Assessment Manual
(EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). This manual
provides a systematic, planned procedure
for identifying ways to reduce or eliminate
  Governors Island, 175 acres located off
the southern tip of Manhattan, is primarily
accessible by a Coast Guard operated ferry.
The Island serves as a support center for
Coast Guard activities conducted within the
New York area and for tenant commands
located on the Island. On the Island, home
port for a number of Coast Guard cutters,
live approximately 530 officers, 1,370 en-
listed personnel, 660 civilians, and 2,500
  It has been estimated by the Hazardous
Waste Office that actual disposal costs for
hazardous wastes total $150,000/yr, while
total costs for disposal  including overhead
to handle these materials are approximately
  This project was conducted in coopera-
tion with the Hazardous Waste Office in the
Industrial Division of the Coast Guard facil-
ity at  Governors Island. The Coast Guard
                                                Printed on Recycled Paper

  has been active in implementing successful
  waste minimization programs. This EPA
  funded project provides additional ideas to
  complement and augmentthe Coast Guard's
  existing waste minimization efforts.

  Waste Minimization
  Assessment  Procedure
    WREAFS assessments consist of the
  major phases as shown below:
    (1) Planning and Organization: organi-
        zation goal setting;
    (2) Assessment, careful  review of a
        facility's    operations    and
        wastestreams and the identification
        and screening of potential options to
        minimize waste;
    (3) Feasibility Analysis: evaluation of the
        technical and economic feasibility of
        the options selected and subsequent
        ranking of options; and
    (4)  Implementation: procurement,  in-
        stallation, implementation, and
        evaluation (at the discretion of the
        facility surveyed).
   This project recommended both  man-
 agement initiatives and technical changes
 that can be made at Governors Island to
 minimize waste.  The management  initia-
 tives can be applied at governmental and
 industrial facilities throughout the country.
 The technical waste minimization evalua-
 tions focused on the following operations:
    Paint removal operations using blasting
    Buoy painting
    On-site solvent recovery

   The  Coast  Guard has  actively imple-
 mented successful waste minimization ini-
 tiatives. National waste minimization pro-
 grams include the following: lead-free paint
 is now being used; new paint with a lower
 volatile organic compound (VOC) content is
 being developed; recyclable solar batteries
 are being installed for  aids-to-navigation;
 engine coolants containing dichrornate ad-
 ditives have been eliminated; a waste mini-
 mization policy has been established through
 the Commandant; and instructions specifi-
 cally citing waste  minimization objectives
 have been provided.
  At the Support Center  New York, the
 following initiatives have been implemented:
 a hazardous waste tracking system  has
 been established; a compactor for paint
 cans has been purchased; blasting grit vol-
 ume has been reduced by the installation of
 a new baghouse  and  recycling  system;
disposable brushes are used to reduce paint
thinner waste;  a silver  recovery unit  has
  been installed on the X-ray unit in the sickbay;
  Safety-Kleen*  products are used and re-
  cycled; attempts are made to reuse certain
  materials sent for disposal by others; and a
  waste minimization policy has been estab-
    Because governmental organizations lack
  a profit motive, they function differently than
  private institutions; therefore, waste minimi-
  zation successes may trail programs in pri-
  vate industry. One problem common to the
  Coast Guard and other uniformed services
  is the  turnover experienced  by military
  personnel assigned to hazardous waste
  duties. This turnover affects continuity of
  services and the  "learning curve" neces-
  sary to become proficient in hazardous waste
  management practices. Lack of employee
  awareness has contributed to the genera-
 tion of hazardous waste on the Island.
   The Hazardous  Waste Office has limited
 authority and influence over waste activities
  Island-wide. Each of the over20 commands
 on the Island has its own independent pur-
 chasing officer and system, which can lead
 to  duplicate inventories and unnecessary
 waste generation.

 Conclusions and
   A successful waste minimization program
 at any facility depends primarily on  man-
 agement commitment to implement cultural
 changes within the organization. This com-
 mitment, which already exists within the
 Coast Guard, needs to be  expanded to
 reach and influence all levels and person-
 nel. Further improvement  will require the
 cooperation of  both Coast Guard Head-
 quarters in Washington and Support Center
 New  York. Technology transfer between
 Coast Guard sites, research and develop-
 ment efforts, and funding are Headquarters
 functions.  At Support Center New York,
 recommendations  for waste  minimization
 that require management initiative include:
   Storage areas  should  be modified to
    minimize degradation of product due to
    exposure to freezing winter tempera-
    tures. Central warehousing should be
   Centralized procurement  practices
    should be investigated. Centralization
    would reduce duplicate inventories and
    alleviate product loss due to shelf life
    expiration.  In  addition, centralization
    would  allow purchasing officers to
    practice product substitution measures
    so that waste  minimization  methods
"Mention of trade names or commercial products, does
 not constitute endorsement or recommendation for
      could start at the beginning of the life
     Individual commands on the Island
      need to be more aware of their waste
      generating potential. Expanded
      accountability and reporting protocols
      may be useful in accomplishing this
    In addition to the above recommenda-
 tions, several process-oriented waste mini-
 mization opportunities were identified as a
 result of the qualitative audit of the wastes
 generated at Governors Island. The EPA
 Manual served as a guideline in evaluating
 each of these options. A set of 19 worksheets
 was used as a framework for economic and
 waste volume assessment.
   Three processes were selected for in-
 depth analyses: spray painting of buoys,
 using plastic shot instead of steel shot to
 remove paint from  buoys, and recovering
 paint and thinner solvents by distillation.
 The analyses are summarized in Table 1.

 High Volume/Low Pressure
 Spray Gun
   Once buoys have been adequately blast-
 cleaned to assure good adhesion of paint,
 they are presently removed to a spray booth
 for spray painting. Buoys  are spray painted
 with several different paints using a Sinks
 Airless 1 spray gun and a high pressure air
 system. Generally, the transfer efficiency of
 paints using this equipment is only about
   Replacement  of the airless gun with a
 highyolume/lowpressure (HVLP) gun would
 significantly reduce overspray from an esti-
 mated 50% to only 15%, reduce the amount
 of paint  used, and  significantly decrease
 emissions of VOCs to the atmosphere.
 Considering that the cost of the new gun
 system,  with  its  compressor,  is  less than
 $1,000 and retraining of operators is mini-
 mal, this option  is considered to be very

 Replacement of Steel Shot with
 Plastic Media
  Paint on buoys (and small boats) is pres-
 ently removed by being  bombarded with
 steel shot blasted through a high-pressure
 air gun. The unpulverized shot is recycled
 approximately five cycles. Fragmented shot
 and blasted products (steel and paint) be-
 come dust-like and are collected through a
 baghouse system. In 1988, approximately
 120 drums (55 gal) weighing about 750 Ib
 each were disposed of as hazardous waste
 because  of low levels of lead.  The annual
cost of disposal, at  $0.23/lb,  is  $20,700.
 Magnetic separation and  air classification

Table 1.  Waste Minimization Options for Governors Island
                           Cost Savings
Option	     $/yr
                    Waste Reduction
                       tons T/yr
HVLP spray gun
0.5 mo
9 Toverspray,
                                                                         Save 2,260 gal
Plastic shot
Reclaiming and
                         3.4 mo
24 mo
                    45 T steel dust,
                    add 2 T plastic
2 T paint,
5.4 T thinner
 Replace 24 T steel
shot waste with 1 T
plastic shot

Also eliminates
purchase of 1,500 gal
 that the use of plastic shot will not eidversely
 effect the paint application process and will
 remove rust from the buoys.

 Waste Paint and Solvent
  Waste paint and solvent (thinner) was
recognized as a major source of waste and
a significant contributor to disposal cost.
On-site reclamation of solvents now being
discarded as hazardous waste might have
cost and environmental benefits.
  Reclamation by distillation was analyzed
assuming a single still with between 15 and
            20  gal/day capacity.  On this basis, this
            option appeared to be marginally attractive.
              In summary, the following recommenda-
            tions are made:
               The changeover to the  low pressure
                 spray gun  system  should  be imple-
                 mented immediately, if only to reduce
                 VOC emissions. Estimated payout for
                 the conversion is only 0.5 mo.
               Prior to the decision to change over from
                 steel shot to plastic media, the techni-
                 cal impact should be examined in more
                 detail. The impacts should be discussed
                 with vendors and factors such as ex-
                 tent of rust removal from buoys and the
                                  durability of the coating on a plastic-
                                  media cleaned buoy must be evalu-
                                  ated.  The option is highly cost-effec-
                                  tive, with payout in only 3.4 mo.
                                 Purchase of a still is not highly recom-
                                  mended at this time, because of the
                                  cost (2-yr payout), the anticipated
                                  changes in paint and solvent manage-
                                  ment, and the question of acceptability
                                  (and safety) of any recovered solvent.
                                The full report was subm rtted in fulfillment
                              of Contract No. 68-C8-0061, WA 1-05, by
                              Science Applications International Corpo-
                              ration, under the sponsorship of the U.S.
                              Environmental Protection Agency.
                                                                                   . S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1991/548-028/20161

 Science Applications International Corporation, Paramus, NJ 07652.
 James S. Bridges is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
 The complete report, entitled 'Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment, U.S. Coast
   Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New Yorks" (Order No. PB91-136 556/AS;
   Cost: $23.00, cost subject to change) will be available only from:
         National Technical Information Service
         5285 Port Royal Road
         Springfield, VA 22161
         Telephone: 703-487-4650
 The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
         Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
         Cincinnati, OH 45268
 United States
 Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental
Research Information
Cincinnati, OH 45268
   PERMIT No. G-35
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300