United States
               Environmental Protection
               Agency
Risk Reduction
Engineering Laboratory
Cincinnati, OH 45268
               Research and Development
EPA/600/S-95/001
March 1995
EPA       Project Summary
               Pollution  Prevention Opportunity
               Assessment: General  Mail and
               Vehicle  Maintenance  Facility,
               United States  Postal  Service,
               Buffalo,   NY
                The Pollution Prevention Opportunity
               Assessment (PPOA) summarized here
               was conducted at a U.S. Postal Service
               (USPS) Facility In Buffalo, NY.  The
               PPOA documented and quantified
               waste generation at the General  Mail
               Facility (GMF) where mail Is processed,
               and at the Vehicle Maintenance Facility
               (VMF), where 1,200 postal vehicles are
               serviced and refinished. The  report
               identified potential source reduction
               and recycling initiatives, as well as ar-
               eas where further  research  is needed.
               The economic and technical feasibility
               of  selected opportunities  and tech-
               niques to eliminate, reduce, or recycle
               wastes were investigated. A limited
               implementation plan was developed.
                 This Project Summary was developed
               by EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering
               Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce
               key findings of the research project
               that Is fully documented In a separate
               report of the same title (see Project
               Report ordering Information at back).

               Introduction
                 This PPOA of the USPS GMF and  VMF
               in Buffalo, NY, was conducted for the U.S.
               Environmental Protection Agency (Region
               II) and the  USPS (Northeast Region) to
               investigate potential pollution prevention
               alternatives for GMF mail processing op-
               erations and VMF vehicle servicing and
               refinishing operations.
                 The PPOA report identifies and dis-
               cusses the economic and technical feasi-
               bility of potential  source  reduction and
               recycling opportunities and presents a lim-
               ited implementation plan. It should be
noted that although USPS facilities were
the subject of the assessment, the alter-
natives presented also apply to commer-
cial package handling operations, as well
as other government and commercial ve-
hicle servicing facilities.

Procedures
  The assessment was conducted using
the procedures outlined in EPA's Facility
Pollution  Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-
92/088). The assessment had two major
phases. The first phase quantified waste
generation and management practices.
The second phase identified and evalu-
ated the  feasibility of opportunities and
techniques to eliminate, reduce, or recycle
wastes. The project included:

   Selecting assessment targets;
   Assessing onsite pollution prevention
   capabilities;
   Generating pollution  prevention
   options;
   Preparing a feasibility  analysis of
   selected options;
   Preparing  a limited implementation
   plan.

  The PPOA Team that conducted the
assessment was composed of employees
from an outside environmental consulting
firm and USPS representatives.

Results and Discussion

General Mail Facility
  The Buffalo GMF processes 5 million
pieces of mail  a day. Three areas are
responsible for generating the majority of

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the facility's wastes: the offices, the mail
sorting floor, and the unloading and load-
ing docks.  The GMF generates approxi-
mately 537 tons of waste/yr. Approximately
253 tons  is  cardboard.  Major  waste
streams are shown in Table 1. The com-
position of  much of the waste is undeter-
mined; the  "missing" tonnage may include
corrugated plastic containers, pallets, alu-
minum, or metals  improperly  discarded
instead of  recycled, or  it  may be com-
posed of materials, such as pallets, plas-
tic film, and corrugated cardboard at the
Buffalo facility which  is  not easily  moni-
tored and may have been underestimated.
Annual solid waste disposal costs are ap-
proximately $42,000.
Table  1. Estimated Solid Waste  Genera-
tion.USPS Buffalo General Mail Facility, 1991-
1992
                  A number of source reduction and recy-
                cling options were identified and are  dis-
                cussed  in the full report.  Major source
                reduction and recycling options are:

                   Switching  to  waterborne low volatile
                    organic compounds (VOC) paints;
                   Using high-volume/low-pressure
                    (HVLP) spray guns;
                   Switching to aqueous cleaners;
                   Using a paint mixer system;
                  * Installing a gun washer station;
                   Training operators.

                  The economic  feasibility of the HVLP
                spray guns and the paint mixing system is
                shown in Table 3.

                Conclusions
                  Postal service employees have enacted
                a number of activities to reduce or recycle
                VMF  and GMF wastes. Additional pollu-
                                         tion prevention opportunities  to  further
                                         eliminate or reduce wastes are identified
                                         in the report.  Painting operation and en-
                                         gine and brake parts washing present the
                                         most opportunities for pollution prevention
                                         at the VMF. Waterborne coatings and high
                                         transfer efficiency paint delivery systems
                                         will eliminate  or significantly reduce haz-
                                         ardous wastes and VOC emissions from
                                         painting  operations. Replacing organic
                                         cleaning solvents  with  aqueous parts
                                         washers and chemicals will eliminate haz-
                                         ardous solvent wastes from engine and
                                         brake parts washing operations. Enacting
                                         these  options  can potentially  reduce
                                         annual  hazardous waste generation  by
                                         5,954 Ib.
                                            Implementing options recommended in
                                         the  report can assist the Buffalo facility
                                         staff  in meeting the USPS goal to reduce
                                          1992 waste levels by 25% by 1993 and
                                         an additional  25%  by  1995. Eliminating
  Waste Stream
Quantity, tons
Cardboard
Computer paper
Mixed office paper
Aluminum cans
Other metals
Plastic film
Undetermined
    253.5
      2.0
     46.0
      0.6
     30.0
     13.0
    191.9
  The major recommended source reduc-
tion and recycling options are shown be-
low.  Discussions for each of the options
are included in the GMF portion of the full
report.

   Establishing recycling programs for
    each waste stream;
   Reducing packaging;
   Establishing a duplex copying policy;
   Improving waste  management  cost
    accounting;
   Improving employee involvement in
    pollution prevention;
   Changing procurement specifications.
Table 2.  Estimated Waste Generation, USPS Buffalo Vehicle Maintenance Facility 1991
            Waste Type
                Oil Filters
                Lead acid batteries
                Brakes
                Cracked corn absorbent
                Soiled rags
                Paint equipment cleaning solvent
                Waste paint thinner
                Solvent brake cleaner
                Solvent engine parts cleaner
                Used oil (engine, brake fluid, transmission fluid)
                Used antifreeze
                Radiators
                Table 3. Cost Benefit Analysis for Selected Options
Annual Quantity
                                                            1,800 filters
                                                            280 batteries
                                                          1,200 -  1,500 sets
                                                            30 - 60 gal
                                                            8,515 rags
                                                              1,664 Ib
                                                              2,106 Ib
                                                              5,746 Ib
                                                             2,830 gal
                                                              300 gal
                                                           280 radiators
 Vehicle Maintenance Facility
  The Buffalo VMF operations include ve-
 hicle  maintenance  and automotive ^fin-
 ishing operations. The Buffalo USPS fleet
 consists of 1,200 vehicles including pas-
 senger cars, trucks, and semi-tractor trail-
 ers. Major waste  streams  generated at
 this facility are shown in Table 2. Waste
 disposal costs are approximately $21,645
 annually.
                               Option
                                                                                                       Cost Benefit
                HVLP paint application system:
                  Total annual avoided costs
                  Net annual benefit
                  Pay back period

                Gun washer station:
                  Total annual avoided costs
                  Net annual benefit
                  Pay back period
                                                             $11,196
                                                             $ 8,138
                                                            Immediate
                                                              $8,567
                                                              $3,000
                                                            Immediate

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solvent-borne paints will  significantly re-
duce  emissions  of four EPA 33/50  Pro-
gram  target chemicals generated  during
painting operations at the VMF. (The 337
50  Program is EPA's voluntary pollution
prevention initiative to reduce national re-
leases and off-site  transfers  of 17 toxic
chemicals by 33% by the end of 1992 and
50%  by  the end of 1995).  The  options
                   identified  in  the report will also  reduce
                   operating costs  by decreasing disposal
                   costs.  By  implementing  the  options de-
                   scribed in  this report  the USPS  has the
                   potential to save over $100,000 on waste
                   disposal costs/yr, as  shown  in Tables 4
                   and 5. Additionally, there are  unquantified
                   benefits such as reduced  liability, paper
                   work, and  spills  and spill control/disposal
                                costs. The options identified in this report
                                are  generally  applicable  to the  350  ve-
                                hicle maintenance facilities and 270 gen-
                                eral mail facilities nationwide.
                                  The full report was submitted in fulfill-
                                ment of Contract No. 68-C8-0062 by Sci-
                                ence Applications International Corporation
                                under the sponsorship of the U.S.  Envi-
                                ronmental Protection Agency.
Table 4. Estimated Annual Return from Source Reduction and Recycling, USPS General Mail Facility,
Buffalo, NY
               Action
                                                     Potential Monetary Benefit ($)'
Current practices:

  Recycle laser printer cartridges
  Recycle aluminum cans
  Recycle scrap metal
  Recycle loose cardboard1
Subtotal

Additional recommended measures:
  Recycle plastic  film
Subtotal

Recently implemented or proposed:

  Recycle computer paper
  Recycle mixed office paper
  Replace paper hand towels with electric air dryers3
Subtotal

Total
                                      1,740
                                      1,011
                                     2,125
                                    34,000
                                    38,876
                                     5,485
                                     5,485
                                       240
                                      1,955
                                    50,000
                                    52,195

                                    96,556
 Notes:
 1  Monetary benefits include a $85/ton avoided disposal cost and payment for recyclable materials
   (aluminum, plastic film, and  computer paper).   Disposal costs  for other locations may differ
   significantly. Payment for recyclable materials is based on the September 1992 market in the Buffalo
   area. Any use of these numbers must recognize the fact that markets for recyclable materials vary
   greatly with time and tocation.
 1  Cardboard recycling began as a result of the preliminary assessment findings.
 3  Includes replacing hand towels at Buffalo GMF and Station Branches.
 Table 5. Potential Waste Reduction and Cost Savings for Selected Options, USPS Buffalo Vehicle
 Maintenance Facility, 1991-1992
      Option
 Annual Waste Reduction
Annual Cost Saving Potential
 Waterborne paints


 Aqueous parts washer
 HVLP paint application
 system
 Gun washer station
  2,782 Ib of hazardous
waste paint/ solvent/thinner

  3,163 Ib of hazardous
    engine and brake
  parts cleaning solvent

     50% less VOC
 emissions and 30% less
    paint solid waste

    75% to 90% less
     VOC emissions
  $3,088 in reduced waste
         disposal

       Undetermined
     $8,138 in reduced
      raw material and
      waste disposal

     $2,978 in reduced
     raw materials and
      waste disposal

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 Science Applications International Corporation, Falls Church, VA 22043, authored the
  report.
 John Filippelli (Region II, New York, NY) and Kenneth Stone (see below) are the
  EPA Technical Project Monitors.
 The complete report, entitled "Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment: General
    Mail and Vehicle Maintenance Facility, United States Postal Service, Buffalo, NY,"
    (Order No. PB94-129798AS; Cost: $27.00, subject to change)  will be available
    only from:
        National Technical Information Service
        5285 Port Royal Road
        Springfield, VA 22161 
        Telephone: 703-487-4650
 The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
        Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        Cincinnati, OH 45268
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Center for Environmental Research Information
Cincinnati, OH 45268
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use
$300
      BULK RATE
POSTAGE & FEES PAID
         EPA
   PERMIT No. G-35
EPA/600/S-95/001

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