United States
 Environmental Protection
 Risk Reduction
 Engineering Laboratory
 Cincinnati, OH 45268
 Research and Development
 EPA/600/SR-93/012   September 1993
 Project Summary

 Pilot Study  on  Demonstration  of
 Remedial Action
 Technologies for Contaminated
 Land  and Groundwater
 Volumes  1  and 2
Naomi P. Barkley
  This two-volume report* presents in-
formation on a 5-yr pilot study (1986-
1991) sponsored by the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization's (NATO) Commit-
tee on the Challenges of Modern So-
ciety (CCMS) entitled "Demonstration
of Remedial Action Technologies for
Contaminated  Land and Groundwa-
ter." Volume 1 discusses the findings,
conclusions,  and recommendations
produced by the  study—a study pro-
posed by the U.S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency (EPA) in May 1986 and
accepted by NATO member countries
in November  1986.  Volume 2,  in two
parts, contains the appendices: The fi-
nal Project Reports, NATO's CCMS fi-
nal  Fellow Reports,  invited expert
speaker contributions, representatives'
discussions of their  country's national
regulatory and research and develop-
ment programs and other overview top-
ics,  detailed information on specific
case studies, and a listing of all partici-
  The study's purpose was to identify
and evaluate innovative, emerging, and
alternative remediation technologies
and to transfer technical performance
and economic information to potential
users.  Twenty-nine  remediation tech-
nology projects that treat, recycle, sepa-
rate, or concentrate contaminants in
soil, sludges, and groundwater were
examined. The seven technology areas
studied were chemical treatment of con-
* The documents described are not publications by the
 United States Environmental Protection Agency nor of
 any agency or department of any other country.
taminated soils, microbial treatment,
physical/chemical extraction, pump and
treat groundwater, soil vapor extrac-
tion, stabilization/solidification,  and
thermal treatment.
  The detailed CCMS report of the find-
ings, conclusions, and recommenda-
tions is intended to serve as a reference
to the state-of-the-technologies exam-
ined by the participants and as a guide
to the potential application of different
technologies to various types of soil
and groundwater contamination. Con-
clusions from the study reveal both the
strengths  and weaknesses of current
technologies and identify efforts needed
to increase their application and effec-
  This Project Summary was developed
by EPA's  Risk Reduction Engineering
Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce
key findings of this CCMS Pilot Study
that is fully documented in a separate
report (Volume 1) and  in two appendi-
ces (Volume 2) of the same title (see
Project Report ordering information at

  Land and groundwater contamination
from improper handling  and  disposal of
hazardous  materials/waste is an interna-
tional concern and  is among the most
complex and challenging environmental
problems faced  by most countries.  The
complex geochemical, physical, and bio-
logical nature of contaminated subsurface
soils and groundwater coupled with lim-
ited knowledge of the behavior and inter-
action of pollutants in these matrices and
                                               Printed on Recycled Papei

the magnitude of the contamination adds
to the challenge.  Reliable, cost-effective
technologies are needed to remediate sites
contaminated  with  complex  hazardous
  Governmental and private organizations
in many countries  have committed  re-
sources to developing and evaluating, un-
der field conditions, advanced, innovative
remediation technologies to  solve  prob-
lems associated  with hazardous  waste
sites. These organizations  require a con-
duit through which information concerning
technology advancements  can be  effec-
tively transferred to decision makers  re-
sponsible  for  implementing  remedial
  This  CCMS pilot study maximized the
member  country  technology demonstra-
tions' results  and utility through effective
technology transfer. The purpose of this
study was to identify, discuss, evaluate,
and transfer  technical  performance and
economic information concerning innova-
tive, emerging,  and alternative treatment
technologies for remediating contaminated
land and  groundwater. A  specific  study
objective was to identify "lessons learned"
from the demonstrations,  including both
successes and failures or  limitations.  Al-
though failures  or limitations or both are
rarely presented  in conferences or dis-
cussed in the technical literature, they are
important for making informed decisions
that involve critical time and monetary re-

Pilot Study Structure
   During the 5-yr study, 29 different  re-
mediation technology projects conducted
by  non-NATO-sponsored  organizations
within member countries were described.
Table 1 lists the projects accepted by the
study and their  country of origin.  Three
categories of technologies (alternative, in-
novative, and emerging) were examined.
Technologies where barrier walls and con-
tainment were the primary techniques were
specifically excluded from the study. The
remediation technology projects were the
primary source for discussion and final
report information. This project-specific in-
formation was supplemented by reports of
scientists supported by the NATO/CCMS
Fellowship Program, guest expert speak-
ers, and the knowledge and experience of
the individual chapter authors.
   Projects were  selected  during an an-
nual spring  administrative meeting. Pre-
sentation and  in-depth  discussions  of
technical  and cost data contained  in  the
interim and final reports of the demonstra-
tion projects were the key aspects  of  an-
nual fall international conferences.
  The  study  conducted under the joint
leadership of the United States, the Fed-
eral Republic  of Germany,  and the Neth-
erlands was directed by Donald E. Sanning
of the  EPA. Canada,  France, and  Den-
mark were also active  participants; Nor-
way was an "observer" country; and the
United  Kingdom Department of the  Envi-
ronment was represented at the nine con-
ference and workshop meetings hosted
by the  participating countries. Japan was
represented at the First International Con-
ference, and Hungary and Austria attended
the Fifth.
  Results of the pilot study are presented
by technology area in Volume 1, Chapters
2 through 8  Technology  areas  included
are Thermal, Soil Vapor Extraction, Stabi-
lization/Solidification,  Physical  Chemical
Extraction, Pump and Treat Groundwater,
Chemical Treatment of Contaminated Soil:
APEG, and  Microbial  Treatment. These
reports are reproduced as submitted, along
with summaries and detailed information,
when  available, on specific case studies
of projects examined,  in the appendices
(Volume 2).
  Of the  12  CCMS  Fellows associated
with the pilot study, 9 conducted related
studies and submitted  reports on their re-
search; the other 3 contributed to prepar-
ing the  Final  Report.  The  fellows
represented private, university, and gov-
ernmental organizations in Germany, Italy,
The Netherlands, Turkey, the United King-
dom, and the United States.

Pilot Study Accomplishments
   Project  Reports  revealed an evolution
of innovative and advanced technologies.
The pilot study was instrumental in  facili-
tating development of these technologies,
stimulated significant exchange of experts
and their knowledge, and provided oppor-
tunity for collaborative projects among the
represented countries.
   Technology transfer of  pilot study in-
formation was accomplished through fre-
     quent involvement of  members in con-
     ferences, symposia,  journal article au-
     thorship, and  reports  of pilot  study
     meetings.  Understanding  policy  differ-
     ences and management strategies of the
     various representative countries was pro-
     moted through the "tour de table" state-

     Technology-Based Conclusions

     Thermal Technologies
       •  Existing high-temperature incineration
         (onsite  and  offsite)  successfully
         destroys  organic contamination;
         however,  not all nations allow its use
         for chlorinated compounds.
       •  Low-temperature thermal  desorption
         is a successful technology for treating
         volatile and semivolatile wastes.

     Stabilization/Solidification (S/S)
       •  S/S can  immobilize  most inorganics
         but not materials containing organic
       •  Scientifically based S/S leaching tests
         would   provide  a   more   easily
         comparable data  base  than thai
         available  today.

     So/7 Vapor Extraction (SVE)
       •  SVE is  a viable technology  for
         unsaturated  zone  remediation ol
         volatile  and  semi-volatile  con
       •  Off-gases  can  be   treated  by
         conventional  technologies including
         activated carbon, condensation, and
         thermal destruction processes.

     Physical/Chemical Extraction
       •  Conventional extractive techniques
         have  limited  in  situ applications
         because  of their limited applicability
         to soils with high permeability.
 Table 1.  Review of Pilot Study Projects by Treatment and Country of Origin

 Type of Project             CAN    DEN   FRG    FN    JPN  NETH  USA
 Thermal treatment
 Physical/chemical treatment
 Microbial treatment
 Pump and treatment






 CAN = Canada
 DEN = Denmark
 FRG = The Federal Republic of Germany
 FN = France
JPN = Japan
NETH = The Netherlands
USA = The United States of America

  •  Conventional, above-ground extraction
    methods are powerful techniques for
    a large range of soils containing heavy
    metals and organic contaminants; they
    are limited, however in the soil size
    fraction they can effectively clean. A
    major drawback is the production of
  •  Electroreclamation is a promising new
    technology for the  in situ cleanup of
    clayey soils contaminated with heavy

Pump and Treat Groundwater
  •  Groundwater extraction and treatment
    is not an effective  stand-alone
    approach for the ultimate remediation
    of aquifers to health-based cleanup
  •  Treatment  by  air stripping and
    activated carbon, as illustrated in  the
    Canadian  Ville Mercier Case study,
    was  only  partially  effective.  A
    subsequent pilot-scale study, using an
    alternative  iron-removal  process
    involving diffused  air combined with
    sand filtration, effectively removed iron
    to acceptable levels. This approach
    combined with  an alternative  air
    stripping system designed to remove
    the most difficult contaminant, rather
    than volatile contaminants generally,
    effectively  reduced the  organics  to
    acceptable levels.
  •  An ultraviolet  radiation/oxidation
    process (Ultrox™)* was  effective in
    reducing the concentration of volatile
    organics in groundwater to acceptable
  •  A precipitation  process involving  the
    use  of  lime and sodium  sulfide
    effectively reduced the concentrations
    of zinc and  cadmium  to  acceptable

Chemical Treatment of
Contaminated Soils: Alkaline
Polyethylene Glycol (APEG)
  •  Long-term stability and  behavior of
    products of  partial dechlorination in
    APEG processes require investigation.
  •  The combination of thermal pyrolysis
    and  APEG  treatment  successfully
    reduced PCB concentrations to below
    target cleanup levels.

Microbial Treatment
  •  Bioremediation process scale-up from
    laboratory  to the field  is difficult.
*  Mention of trade names or commercial products does
 not constitute endorsement or recommendation for
    Generally, either bench and/or pilot-
    scale studies in the laboratory need
    to  be followed  by pilot- and/or full-
    scale testing (treatability  studies)  in
    the field.
  •  Both data on oxygen behavior in the
    subsurface and  improved methods of
    providing  it  are needed  for in situ
    bioremediation.   One   promising
    technique is  the  use of  soil vapor
    extraction methods.  The combined
    effect of  vapor extraction  and
    biodegradation appears to provide a
    method for achieving remediation  of
    a wide range of organic contaminants.
  •  Further  research is  needed  on
    bioavailability and  achievable residual
  •  Soil  inoculation  of artificially supplied
    microorganisms has not been proven
    to  enhance in situ bioremediation.
  •  Permeability is the key parameter that
    determines the  applicability  of in situ

General Conclusions
  Remediation efforts  should strive for a
complete solution to the hazardous waste
  Treatability studies must be conducted
early for  effective remedy selection, and
technologies  should be judged on their
overall performance.
  Vitrification s a promising technique for
treating  mixed  organic  and  inorganic
  Energy efficiency  practices  influence
plant design  and, therefore,  processing
costs differently.
  Treatment technologies and permanent
solutions are preferred to containment.
  Modular-designed, integrated, technol-
ogy treatment systems are needed for site
  Field treatability/pilot studies should be
conducted for each candidate technology,
under the range of  potentially applicable
site field  conditions.
  Technology scale-up problems need to
be addressed during the design  and test-
ing phase.
  A mass balance approach to  remedia-
tion is desirable.
  Technology remedies that transfer con-
taminants from  one  media to  another
should be avoided if possible.
  All remediations require proper opera-
tion and management.
  Long-term monitoring of permanent re-
mediation activities may be  necessary to
ensure that cleanup goals are met.
  Basic records of site investigations and
associated remediation actions should be
preserved for future reference and evalu-
  Collection of uniform data is needed.
  Independent technology evaluations are
needed for effective technology transfer.
  The  CCMS network  is an  important
source of information about the successes
and failures of technologies  used within
the hazardous waste treatment arena.
  There is a continuing  need to  develop
new  technologies  and  use common re-
search protocols.
  Scientific understanding of processes is
essential to ensure against formation of
harmful end products.
  Standardized analytical methods  are
needed within the worldwide hazardous
waste community  as well as within coun-
  Techniques are needed to remove con-
tamination beneath urban structures with-
out significantly disturbing activities within
the structures.

  This CCMS pilot study should  be  con-
tinued to report results of technology field
demonstrations and information  on  new
and  emerging technologies  including
cleanup criteria,  project design  method-
ologies, and documentation of completed
  Pauicipation of NATO and non-NATO
countries in the continuation study should
be encouraged.
  CCMS should encourage  more active
participation by all member countries.
  The  NATO Science Committee is en-
couraged to establish  a special scientific
program  and advance study institute for
soil and groundwater contamination issues.
  CCMS should support the transfer/ap-
plication  of results of the current study
through workshops and seminars within
NATO  and non-NATO countries.
  CCMS should encourage annual tech-
nology transfer reports  from each of its
individual pilot studies.
  A  more formal  interface of the contin-
ued  pilot  study with the Office  of  Eco-
nomic  Community  Development (OECD),
the European Community (EC), and other
international groups should be created.
  CCMS should  establish a  budget for
writing the final  report  to encourage its
timely preparation.
  The  full  report was  submitted  in fulfill-
ment of Contract No. 68-C8-0062 by  Sci-
ence Applications International Corporation
under the sponsorship  of the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency.
                                                                    •&U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1993 - 7SO-071/8007Z

 Naomi P. Barkley is the Project Summary author and EPA Project Officer (see
 The complete NATO/CCMS report, entitled "Pilot Study on Demonstration of
     Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater,"
     consists of the following volumes:
       "Volume 1" (Order No. PB93-218238, Cost: $27.00, subject to change)
         reports on the results of the CCMS Pilot Study.
       "Volume 2, Appendices, Part 1": Pages 1 through 662 (Order No. PB93-
         218246, Cost: $77.00, subject to change) contains overviews of
         national environmental regulations, and guest speakers' presenta-
       "Volume 2, Appendices, Part 2": pages 663 through 1389 (Order No.
         PB93-218253, Cost: $84.00, subject to change) contains final project
         reports and CCMS Fellow reports.
 The volumes of this  report will be available only from:
         National Technical Information Service
         5285 Port Royal Road
         Springfield, VA 22161
         Telephone: 703-487-4650
 The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
         Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
         Cincinnati,  OH 45268
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Center for Environmental Research Information
Cincinnati, OH 45268

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