United States
Environmental Protection
Air and Energy Engineering
Research Laboratory
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
Research and Development
EPA/600/SR-93/108a  September 1993
 Project Summary
Catalog  of Materials as
Sources of Potential Indoor Air
Emissions, Volume  I.  Insulation,
Wallcoverings,  Resilient Floor
Coverings, Carpet, Adhesives,
Sealants and Caulks,  and
A. Leininger, K. A. Scott, E. C. Sarsony, L. C. Huff, C. R. Blackley,
and M. B. Stockton
  This report discusses and presents
data on constituents  and emissions
from products that have the potential
to affect the indoor air environment. It
is a tool to be used by researchers to
help organize the study of materials as
potential sources of indoor air emis-
sions.  Included in it are sections on
seven  product categories: insulation,
wallcoverings, resilient floor coverings,
carpet, adhesives, sealants and caulks,
and pesticides. Each section presents
a classification scheme for the prod-
uct, sales and usage volume data, quali-
tative data on product composition, and
quantitative and qualitative data on
emission rates to the indoor air. Emis-
sions information is presented only for
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) be-
cause these are the compounds most
likely to be emitted from materials found
in homes and office  buildings.  Data
tables summarizing available emissions
and constituent data are provided and
are organized according to the classifi-
cation  scheme present for each prod-
uct category.
  This Project Summary was developed
by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering
Research Laboratory, Research Triangle
Park, NC, to announce key findings of
the research project that is fully docu-
mented in a separate report of the same
title (see Project Report ordering infor-
mation at back).

  The report gives information on con-
stituents and emissions from products that
have the potential to contribute to indoor
air contamination. It is a tool to be used by
researchers to help organize study of ma-
terials as potential sources of indoor air
emissions. The materials  addressed  in
Volume I include adhesives, caulks, and
sealants, carpet, insulation products, pes-
ticide  products, resilient floor coverings,
and wallcoverings. Additional products will
be addressed in Volume II. Information on
product usage volumes, volatile organic
compound (VOC) constituents, and VOC
emissions data are included.  The emis-
sions  information presented focuses on
VOCs. Information on the volatile constitu-
ents in products gives an indication  of
pollutants that could potentially be emitted.
Finally, a summary compilation of existing
emissions data indicates how well-charac-
terized different products are  in terms of
their contribution to indoor air emissions.
Classification of Materials as
  Prior to development of this catalog, a
classification system  was  developed  to
identify all products that could potentially
                                           ) Printed on Recycled Paper

 be brought into homes and  office build-
 ings. The system identifies and classifies
 material of all types brought into or used to
 construct and renovate  homes and office
 buildings. The classification study was de-
 signed to lay a foundation for a systematic
 analysis of the role of materials in influenc-
 ing  indoor air quality.  The products in-
 cluded  were  organized  based  on the
 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) sys-
 tem.  Sales information  was  included for
 each product.  From this  list of materials, a
 subset  was developed  that  represented
 those products thought to contribute  to
 indoor  air pollution.  Three factors  were
 used to develop this list:
      The quantity of product produced:
      How pervasive  is  the product in the
      Compositional  information: Based
      on readily  available published in-
      formation, what volatile compounds
      could potentially be emitted?
      The nature of its  use:  What is the
      likelihood of human contact  with
      emissions from these materials?
   The  categories presented  in this cata-
 log were  chosen from  the classification
 scheme based on the above criteria. Each
 category studied  was further defined to
 make data gathering efforts and presenta-
 tion of data useful. Individual classification
 schemes  were developed  for each  cat-
 egory with two goals in mind: to develop a
 useful scheme to  present the variety of
 products in the category; and to present
 usage and constituent and emissions data
 for the  various products in each product
 category in a manner  that allows  easy
 comparison of available  information.

 Sources of Information
   A wide variety  of information sources
 were identified that provided data on chemi-
 cal constituents and emissions from the
 materials  under study.  Table  1 summa-
 rizes the information source type used to
 develop the catalog. In  addition, several
 databases  were identified that contain in-
 formation potentially useful to  the catalog.
 Table 2 summarizes these  databases.
 While data-gathering efforts were not ex-
 haustive because of time constraints, they
were  extensive for each  product category
 studied. Information presented in this cata-
 log is a good representation of the current
 state of  knowledge regarding constituents
 and their emission rates.
   Note that the  data presented  in  this
catalog  did not go through EPA  quality
assurance. Rather, data from published
sources are assumed  to have undergone
quality assurance and  peer review checks
prior to  publication. For information  and
 assessment of the quality of any particular
 study presented here, the reader  should
 refer to the originally cited reference.

 Data Management
    Data gathered for each product include
 sales data, emissions data, and constitu-
 ent data. Because of the large volume and
 diversity  of the data collected, data man-
 agement tools were developed to assist in
 tracking,  sorting,  searching, and summa-
 rizing the collected information. Pertinent
 data from each reference were recorded
 on data  entry forms and entered  into a
 simple database to store, sort, and report
 the information. Use of a  standard data
 entry form ensured that all data obtained
 from each reference were recorded in the
 same manner and could  be reported in a
 manner that allows easy comparison across
 products. Data identified in the literature
 did not undergo extensive quality  assur-
 ance as part of this project, and the techni-
 cal accuracy  of the data presented in the
 catalog may  vary from source to source.
 Complete reference citations for all data
 presented in the  catalog  are included.
 Readers  are  encouraged to refer to origi-
 nal references  to  learn  more about the
 studies for which data are presented.
 VOC  Emission Rates from Mate-
   An  appendix to the catalog  includes
 tables presenting  information on emission
 rates from materials included in the cata-
 log. The emission rates presented in these
 tables were determined through test cham-
 ber experiments and headspace studies.
 The data are sorted by compound and, for
 each  compound,  a list of  materials that
 were  found  to  emit that particular com-
 pound is  given. In some cases, qualitative
 data on compounds emitted are given. In
these cases,  the  information is often de-
 rived from a headspace study  where it is
 possible to identify the chemicals emitted,
          but not at what rate. For example, all mate-
          rials that were found to emit formaldehyde
          are listed in one table.

             The approaches used to identify and
          collect relevant constituent and emissions
          information for building materials, fixtures
          and furnishings,  and consumer products
          were  successful for most product chap-
          ters. Literature surveys and telephone con-
          tacts  with trade  associations proved
          lucrative in all product chapters. Industry
          studies, in which manufacturing processes
          were  examined and retailers/wholesalers
          contacted, were good sources of informa-
          tion for products that were not well charac-
          terized  elsewhere. For example,  many
          formulary references describe the constitu-
          ents in most adhesives, but  no such refer-
          ence was identified for wallcoverings.
             Information presented in each product
          chapter allows determination of a product's
          potential to emit VOCs to the  indoor air.
          How  a product is formulated often deter-
          mines its potential to emit.  Determination
          of the extent  to which each product in a
          product chapter influences indoor air qual-
          ity varied from chapter to chapter based on
          the extent of constituent and  emissions
          data  available for that product chapter.
          This catalog represents a valuable resource
          for developing emission testing plans, ex-
          perimental design parameters,  and proto-
          cols. For example, the sealants and caulks
          chapter describes  the emission mecha-
          nisms for chemicals that are emitted, and
          the insulation chapter describes differences
          between wet and dry samples.
             Finally, the information  presented in
          this catalog provides a clear message that
          many product categories are not well stud-
          ied with respect to their potential impact on
          indoor air quality. The  data  gaps that are
          evident in the catalog provide useful infor-
          mation for organizing future  studies  on
          emissions from materials found in homes
          and offices.
Table 1. Summary of Data Sources

   Literature Searches
                                Industry Contacts
                             Other Sources
Published Technical Studies
Conference Proceedings
On-line Technical Databases
Trade Publications
Trade Associations
Independent Researchers
State and Federal Agencies
Academic Institutions

Table 2.  Databases Identified

         Database Name                            Responsible Organization

NASA                                     Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company
Concentration of Indoor Air Pollutants          Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories
Building Performance                        Theodor Sterling Associates
Navy                                      U.S. Department of the Navy
NIOSH                                    National Institute of Occupational Safety and
FIFRA and TSCA Enforcement System,        Radian Corporation
Non-occupational Pesticide Exposure Study,    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Atmospheric
   (HOPES)                                 Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory
Eco-Search                                Eco-Search
                                                                               GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19*3 - 750-071/MOS4

   A. Leininger, K. Scott, C. Sarsony, L. Huff, C. Blackley, and M. Stockton are with
     Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
   James B. White is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
   The complete report, entitled "Catalog of Materials as Sources of Potential Indoor
     Air Emissions, Volume I. Insulation, Wallcoverings, Resilient Floor Coverings,
     Carpet, Adhesives, Sealants and Caulks,  and Pesticides," (Order No. PB93-
     212041; Cost: $36.50; subject to change)  will be available only from:
           National Technical Information Service
           5285 Port Royal Road
           Springfield,  VA 22161
           Telephone: 703-487-4650
   The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
           Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Center for Environmental Research Information
Cincinnati, OH 45268

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