United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Health and
Environmental Assessment
Washington, DC 20460
Research and Development
EPA/600/SR-93/187
November 1994
Project Summary
Wildlife  Exposure  Factors
Handbook
Margaret McVey and Susan Braen Norton
  The Wildlife Exposure Factors Hand-
book is a compendium of data and ref-
erences for conducting exposure and
risk  assessments for wildlife species
exposed to toxic chemicals in their en-
vironment. We hope that this project
will (1) promote the application of risk
assessment  methods to wildlife  spe-
cies, (2) foster a consistent approach
to wildlife risk  assessments, and (3)
increase the accessibility of the litera-
ture applicable to these assessments.
  This Project Summary was developed
by EPA's Office of Health and Environ-
mental Assessment, Washington, DC,
to announce key findings of the re-
search project that is fully documented
in a separate report of the same title
(see Project Report ordering informa-
tion at back).

Purpose
  The purpose of the Handbook is to pro-
vide  a  convenient source  of information
and  an analytic  framework  to facilitate
screening-level risk assessments for com-
mon wildlife species. These  screening-level
risk assessments may be used to support
site-specific decisions (e.g., for hazardous
waste sites), to support the development
of water quality  or other  media-specific
criteria for limiting environmental levels of
toxic substances to protect wildlife  spe-
cies, or to focus research and monitoring
efforts.

Contents
  The  Handbook primarily summarizes
values for parameters useful for the expo-
sure  assessment component of risk as-
sessment.  In addition, data  provided  in
the Handbook on population parameters
(e.g., birth and death rates) may be useful
for placing estimates of risks in a broader
ecological context. Values  and extrapola-
 tion methods required for the toxicity as?
 sessment component are not covered in
 this Handbook. In addition no chemical-
 specific parameters (e.g.,  bioavailability
 factors) are provided.

 Species
  This Handbook focuses on a selected
 group of mammals, birds, amphibians and
 reptiles. Fish and aquatic or terrestrial in-
 vertebrates were not included in the cur-
 rent effort. We do not intend to imply that
 risk assessments for  wildlife should be
 restricted to the species described  here,
 or should always be conducted for these
 species. In addition, the species included
 in the Handbook have broad  geographic
 ranges, and the  parameter values pre-
 sented may not be representative for all
 parts of their ranges.

 Organization
   Section 1 provides an overview of the
 Handbook. Section 2 presents values for
 the exposure factors for the selected spe-
 cies and brief descriptions of relevant as-
 pects of their natural history.

 Contents of Section 2: Species
 Profiles
   For 34 Selected Species (Table 1):
    Description of natural history
    List of similar species
    Exposure factor values (Table 2)
    Selected bibliography
  The summary for each species includes
 an introduction  to the general taxonomic
 group, a qualitative description of the spe-
 cies, tabulated  values for the exposure
 factors, a  list of similar  species, and a
 selected bibliography for that species.
  Section  3 provides  allometric  models
 that may be used to estimate various ex-
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posure factors on the basis of body size.
Section 3 also provides equations for esti-
mating food ingestion rates on the basis
of metabolic rate and diet.

Contents of Section 3:
Allometrlc  Equations
    Food ingestion rates
    Water intake rates
    Inhalation rates
    Surface areas
    Metabolic rates
                      The Handbook includes  an appendix
                    that presents all of the parameter values
                    identified in our literature survey, with more
                    details concerning sample size, methods
                    and qualifying  information than listed in
                    the main Handbook.
                      Section 4 provides common equations
                    used to estimate  exposure of wildlife spe-
                    cies.  Section 4 also  discusses available
                    information on soil and  sediment inges-
                    tion by wildlife species.
                                           Contents of Section 4:
                                           Exposure Equations
                                              General exposure equations
                                              Drinking water
                                              Diet
                                              Soil and sediment ingestion
                                              Air
                                              Dermal exposure
                                              Caloric and water content of various
                                               diets
                                              Analysis of uncertainty
Table 1.  Species included in EPA's Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook
Birds
Great Blue Heron
Canada Goose
Mallard
Lesser Scaup
Ospray
Red-tailed Hawk
Bald Eagle
American Kestrel
Northern Bobwhite
American Woodcock
Spotted Sandpiper
Herring Gull
Belted Kingfisher
Marsh Wren
American Robin
Mammals
Short-tailed Shrew
Red Fox
Raccoon
Mink
River Otter
Harbor Seal
Deer Mouse
Prairie Vole
Meadow Vole
Muskrat
Eastern Cottontail




Reptiles and Amphibians
Snapping Turtle
Painted Turtle
Eastern Box Turtle
Racer Snake
Water Snake
Eastern Newt
Green Frog
Bullfrog







 Tables.  Exposure Factors Included in the Handbook
 Normalizing &
 Contact Rate
 Factors
  Dietary
Composition
 Population
  Dynamics
Timing of
Seasonal
Activities
 body weight
 metabolic rate
 surface area
 water ingestion rate
 inhalation rate
 food ingestion rate
by season:
  spring
  summer
  winter
  fall
by habitat/
location
home range size
population
density
litter/clutch
per year
growth rates
annual mortality
rates
mating
nesting/egglaying
parturition/
hatching
hibernation
dispersal
migration

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Margaret McVey is with ICF, Inc., Fairfax, VA 22031
Susan Braen Norton is the EPA Project Manager (see below).
The complete report, entitled "Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook,
  Volume I: (Order No. PB94-174778; Cost: $61.00, subject to change);
  Volume II: (Order No. PB94-177789; Cost $52.00, subject to change) will be
  available only from:
        National Technical Information Service
        5285 Port Royal Road
        Springfield, VA 22161
        Telephone: 703-487-4650
The EPA Project Manager can be contacted at:
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (8603)
        401 M Street, SW
        Washington, DC 20460
 United States
 Environmental Protection Agency
 Center for Environmental Research Information
 Cincinnati, OH 45268

 Official Business
 Penalty for Private Use
 $300

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