United States
               Environmental Protection
               Agency
Research and Development
                                    Air and Energy Engineering
                                    Research Laboratory
                                    Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                                                    EPA/600/SR-93/213  February 1994
EPA      Project Summary

               Emissions  From  Burning
               Cabinet Making  Scraps
               Michael Tufts and David Natschke
                The object of this project was to make
              an initial determination of differences
              in  emissions  when burning ordinary
              cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet
              making  scraps.  The tests  were  per-
              formed in an instrumented woodstove
              testing laboratory  on a stove which
              simulated units observed in use  at a
              kitchen cabinet manufacturer's facility.
              Three test burns were  made using a
              stove made from a 55 gal. (0.208 m3)
              drum and a kit sold for that purpose.
              Test burn  1  used  seasoned  oak
              cordwood fuel, Test burn 2 used  par-
              ticle  board  scraps, and Test  burn  3
              used Formica®-faced particle  board
              scraps. The scraps for  tests 2 and  3
              were obtained from a kitchen  cabinet
              manufacturer in Vermont. In general the
              cordwood produced higher emissions
              of carbon monoxide and total  hydro-
              carbons, while the  composite  woods
              produced higher emissions  of  the
              heavier molecular weight organic com-
              pounds. There were significant differ-
              ences  in burnrate between the tests,
              which introduced some uncertainty in
              interpreting the analytical results.
               This Project Summary was developed
              by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering
              Research  Laboratory, Research  Tri-
              angle Park, NC, to announce key find-
              ings of the research  project that is fully
              documented in a separate report of the
             same title (see Project Report ordering
             information at back).

             Introduction
               Emissions  generated by the combus-
             tion of scrap wood composite products at
             small cabinet manufacturing companies in
             Vermont were characterized. The scrap is
                                   burned to heat the facilities and reduce
                                   the companies' waste disposal costs. The
                                   state of Vermont asked for assistance af-
                                   ter receiving citizens' complaints about vis-
                                   ible emissions and odors emanating from
                                   two facilities.
                                     One of the Vermont facilities (facility A)
                                   specializes in manufacturing countertops.
                                   The laminated-surface composite  wood
                                   material is received ready-to-use and then
                                   cut to specifications. Four simple steel
                                   furnaces with 10 ft3 (0.283 m3)combustion
                                   chambers are used for burning scrap. Draft
                                   on the furnaces is  regulated manually and
                                   the fuel is fed manually as needed. The
                                   smoke has an odor of  burning plastic,
                                   which is stronger at startup and refueling.'
                                   Complaints have come  mainly from  pass-
                                   ersby.
                                     Scrap produced  by the other facility (fa-
                                   cility B) consists of saw dust, small pieces
                                   of particle  board,  and plywood. The fur-
                                   naces have primary and secondary air
                                   controls. Scrap chunks  are fed by hand,
                                   but saw dust is fed automatically.
                                     Composite woods contain several typed
                                   of phenolic resins  including phenol-form-
                                   aldehyde resin and melamine resin. The
                                   chief components  of phenolic resins are
                                   formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and phenol.
                                   Characteristics  of these resins are resis-
                                   tance to moisture,  solvents, and heat up
                                   to  200° C. They are also dimensionally
                                   stable, sound absorbent, and noncombus-
                                  tible. Chief components of melamine  resin
                                  are formaldehydes, phenols, and cyano-
                                  benzenes.

                                  Experimental Approach
                                    This project's goal was to characterize
                                  emissions from the burning of common
                                  kitchen countertop  scrap  material (plain
                                                               Printed on Recycled Paper

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 particle board and particle board laminated
 with Formica). The conditions at Vermont
 facility A were emulated.  To reduce ex-
 penditures, sampling was performed in the
 woodstove testing laboratory of EPA's Air
 and Energy Engineering Research Labo-
 ratory in North Carolina. Three varieties of
 wood  were  burned:  cordwood  (virgin
 wood), particle board, and Formica® board
 (Formicas-covered   particle board).
 Cordwood was  sampled for comparison
 purposes. Both composite woods were
 provided  by Vermont facility A. Only one
 test was performed per day, lasting 2-5.3
 hours. Again, to reduce expenditures, only
 one  sample was planned for  each  fuel.
 Acurex Environmental performed all sam-
 pling, and prepared and analyzed all filter
and XAD-2 samples. Nonvolatile organic
compounds (NVOCs) were analyzed by
gravimetric (GRAV) methodologies . Semi-
 volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were
 analyzed by gas chromatograph/flame ion-
 ization detection (GC/FID) and gas  chro-
 matograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS).
 Samples for volatile organic compounds
 (VOCs) were transferred  to EPA/AREAL
 for analysis.

 Summary and Conclusions
   This study determined a number of dif-
 ferences between the combustion of  com-
 posite woods and  cordwood.  The  com-
 posite woods burned faster than cordwood
 because of the higher surface area of the
 former, which are burned as scraps,  rela-
 tive to the same mass of cordwood. Higher
 stack temperatures and oxygen concen-
 trations, and lower carbon monoxide and
total  hydrocarbons  (mass/mass  basis)
were observed during composite wood vs.
cordwood combustion.
   M. Tufts and D. Natschke are with Acurex Environmental Corp.  P O Box 13109
     Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
   Robert C. McCrillis is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
   The complete report, entitled "Emissions from Burning Cabinet Making Scraps "
     (Order No. PB94-130408/AS; Cost: $27.00, subject to change) will be available
     only from:
           National Technical Information Service
           5285 Port Royal Road
           Springfield, VA 22161
           Telephone: 703-487-4650
   The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
           Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Research  Triangle Park, NC 27711
   VOC levels were  much  higher during
 composite wood combustion, with the ma-
 jor components in the C4-C6 region. Total
 emission  levels  (based on the total cap-
 ture value) were also higher for the com-
 posite woods.  The  higher  total  capture
 results were due, in  large part, to higher
 NVOC levels.  SVOC levels,  on the other
 hand,  were equivalent (Formica10) to or
 even lower (particle board) than those gen-
 erated by cordwood. There  was  a trend
 towards larger  molecular weight  compo-
 nents for these emissions. The composite
 wood fitter extracts showed higher con-
 centrations of  higher retention  time
 analytes during the GC/MS analysis. These
 components were primarily straight-chain
 hydrocarbons.
   Significant differences were  observed
 in the compounds identified from  the ex-
 tractable organics. Most PAHs were asso-
 ciated with the cordwood  rather than the
 composite wood combustion. For example,
 isocyano-benzene was identified from the
 Formica10 samples  and  4-hydroxyl-
 benzenesuffonic  acid was found  in  the
 composite wood samples.
   No aldehydes were detected  from any
 of the samples collected during this study.
 What this  means is not clear. Based on
 airtight woodstove studies, aldehydes were
 expected  for  at least the cordwood
 samples. However, the combustion condi-
tions during this study were probably closer
to those of a fireplace than a woodstove.
No significance can be attached to these
aldehyde results without further testing.

   •U.S. Government Printing Office: 1994—550-067/80196
   United States
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Center for Environmental Research Information
   Cincinnati, OH 45268

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   EPA/600/SR-93/213

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