United States
                    Environmental Protection
Risk Reduction
Engineering Laboratory
Cincinnati, OH 45268
                    Research and Development
EPA/600/SR-95/061    April 1995
vvEPA         Project Summary
                    Pollution  Prevention  Research
                    Within  the  Federal Community
                    N. T. Hoagland, J. S. Bridges, and TRC Environmental Corporation
                     This project summary describes the
                    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                    (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at
                    Federal Sites (WREAFS)  program to
                    support pollution prevention (P2) re-
                    search throughout the Federal commu-
                    nity,  and  the current  status on all
                    projects as of September 1994 is given.
                    Under the WREAFS program, new tech-
                    niques and technologies for reducing
                    waste generation are identified through
                    joint research, development, and dem-
                    onstration  (RD&D)  projects.  The
                    WREAFS program has cooperatively
                    supported  pollution prevention projects
                    at facilities within 10 of  the Federal
                    Government's major  departments,
                    agencies, or offices. The full report de-
                    scribes each WREAFS project com-
                    pleted as  of September 1994 and
                    provides brief synopses of projects on-
                    going or completed  from  September
                    1994 to March 1995.
                     This Project Summary was developed
                    by EPA's Risk Reduction  Engineering
                    Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce
                    key  findings of the  research project
                    that is fully documented in a separate
                    report of  the same title (see Project
                    Report ordering information at back).

                     Since 1988, the EPA's Office of Re-
                    search and Development, Risk Reduction
                    Engineering Laboratory (RREL) in Cincin-
                    nati,  OH, has conducted P2 opportunity
                    assessments (PPOAs) and technology
                    evaluations or demonstrations, or both at
                    Federal facilities through its WREAFS pro-
  The WREAFS program identifies new
technologies and techniques for reducing
wastes from industrial and other processes
performed by  Federal agencies and en-
hances the adoption of P2 through tech-
nology transfer.  Under  the  WREAFS
Program, new techniques and technolo-
gies for  reducing waste  generation  are
identified  through RD&D projects.
  The full report describes each project
conducted under the WREAFS program
with a brief description  of the facility, the
processes addressed, P2 options identi-
fied, needed research,  and the status of
implementation of the recommended op-
tions (as  of September 1994).

Completed  Pollution Prevention
  From its inception to September 1994,
the WREAFS program completed 18 joint
efforts: Department of  Defense (8);  De-
partment  of Veteran's Affairs (1); Depart-
ment of Transportation (2); Department of
Energy (1); Department of Agriculture (1);
Department of  Interior (1); U.S. Postal Ser-
vice (1);  White House Complex (1);  De-
partment  of  Treasury  (1) and  a
multiple-project interagency effort involv-
ing the EPA, Air Force, Army,  Navy, and
the National Aeronautics and Space Ad-
ministration.   Many of  the  WREAFS
projects for the Departments  of Defense
and Energy were funded under the Stra-
tegic Environmental Research and Devel-
opment Program (SERDP). Other projects
were funded by the Federal agency or
EPA or both.
  These  projects identified the processes
and waste streams and then identified re-

search opportunities to implement P2 for
a range of military and  industrial  opera-
tions  including metal cleaning,  solvent
degreasing,  spray  painting,  vehicle and
battery repair, ship bilge cleaning, torpedo
overhaul, buoy restoration, lens grinding,
hospital operations, laboratory  analysis,
and mail processing.
  Over 130  recommended  P2  options
have been identified as a result of these
project, and  these options can  be  readily
adapted to similar processes used by other
Federal facilities or by the private  sector.
Table 1 illustrates some of the  sites, pro-
cesses, and  waste streams addressed in
the WREAFS  program.  Each  project is
discussed in more detail  in the full report.
  In addition to the completed WREAFS
projects,  several new projects are under-
way or have been  completed since Sep-
tember 1994. These are summarized in
Table 2.  Other  pollution  prevention  re-
search projects  involving  Federal agen-
cies are shown in Table 3.

  A number of WREAFS RD&D projects
are completed and a number of efforts
are ongoing. Perhaps the most important
impact, however, will come from any re-
sulting cultural change  brought about by
conducing a PPOA or reading an RD&D
report. All Federal agencies must take an
active  role in  P2 and  set  examples for
others. The SERDP/WREAFS combina-
tion is an excellent illustration of the op-
portunities available for Federal agencies
to wisely use  funding and  manpower to
attain the goal  of pollution prevention.
  The full report was submitted  in partial
fulfillment of contract number 68-D2-0181
by TRC  Environmental,  Inc. under the
sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency.

Table 1.  Waste Reduction Evaluation At Federal Sites (WREAFS)
                                                      Summary of Completed Projects1

                                                                     Waste Streams
                                                                                                       Sample P2 Options
Philadelphia Naval Shipyard
Naval Undersea Warfare
Center Keyport Div
Tinker AFB
Scott AFB
AF Plant #6
Ft. Riley
Fitzsimmons Army
Medical Center
Painting, derusting
Design, test, maintain torpedoes
                                  Repair, maintenance
                                  Aircraft maintenance, printed
                                  circuit board manufacture
Steel, aluminum parts

Battery repair, auto sub-
assembly rebuilding

Eyeglass lens manufacturing
Paint solids, citric acid, TEA
Waste Otto fuel II, oil, plating
baths, paint, solvents, acids,
pesticides, dye, detergent,
chromate and cyanide salts

CFCs, solvents, plating baths
                                  Penetrant, emulsion, developer,
                                  solvents, paint solids, VOCs,
                                  reducing agents
Battery acid, chromium and
lead contaminated wastewater

Solvents, glass fines, lead-
bearing blocking compound,
rinse water
Training, dragout reduction,
2-stage rinsing

Disposable cuffs, automated fuel tank
draining, modify draining schedule,
spent solvents recover/reuse
Brush plating, MEK substitute,
MEK recovery/reuse

Alternate bath replacement, dry silica
developer, plastic blasting media, dry
paint booth, HVLP guns, substitute
reducing agents

Substitute water soluble emulsion
cleaner for TCE

Recycle battery acid, filter and
recirculate wastewater

Recycle glass fines in ceramics,
substitute non-lead blocking alloy,
filter wastewater
VA Cm-Fort Thomas
Medical Center

USCG Support
Center New York

USCG Base Ketchikan
DOE Sandia National
USDA Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center

DOI Bureau of Mines
Albany Research Center
Hospital operations
Buoy and vessel maintenance
and refurbishment

Aids to navigation and
vessel maintenance
Geotech analysis, printed
circuit boards made and

Agricultural research
Metals and minerals research
Disposable supplies
Paint, contaminated blasting
media, solvents

Blasting wastes, solvents,
waste paint, oil, bilge,

Solvent, lab trash, rinse water,
lead scraps, potting compound

Hazardous wastes, acid, base
wastes, solvents
                                  Solvents, combustibles, lead
                                  contaminated concrete,
                                  lab wastes
Reuse disposables, substitute

HVLP paint guns, plastic blasting
media, solvent recovery/reuse

Nontoxic paint, floor collector, plastic
blasting media, HVLP guns, solvent
recycling, solvent substitution, filtration

Test rinse water, eliminate steps,
use both ends of swabs, eliminate
sample bags

Training, waste segregation,
equipment/process mods, auto
nitrogen analysis, less solvent in HPLC

Inventory control, mod research design,
distill and reuse solvents
USPS Buffalo GMFand VMF
White House Complex
TIPPP (Ft Eustis, LangleyAFB,
NASA Langley Research Ctr
Naval Base Norfolk)
NASA Langley Photo Labs
                                  General mail facility and
                                  vehicle maintenance
Paint shop, grounds main-
tenance, HVAC, office

All types of base and
community functions
Photoprocessing and X-ray
Paper, plastic, oil, adhesives,
paints, cafeteria wastes,
cleaners, solvents

Solvents, paint, paper, water use
Chemical materials, land mgt,
depainting, solvents, metal
working, electroplating, solid
and painting wastes

Developers, fixers, bleaches,
silver-bearing wastes, scrap film,
photo paper
Reusable containers, inventory,
reusable food service materials,
low VOC paints, aqueous cleaners

Reduce/recycle solvents, exterior paint,
moisture sensor,  HVAC water recycler,
use recycled paper

Inventory control and tracking, pesticide
mgt, product sub, waste segregation,
equip/process modification
One print per negative, electrolytic
silver recovery with recovery cartridges
 ' The Department of Treasury project is not included.

Table 2.  Summary of WREAFS Projects Ongoing or Completed after September 1994
Naval Ophthalmic Support
and Training Activity (NOSTRA)
Naval Station Mayport,
Jacksonville, FL

U.S. Air Force Center for
Environmental Excellence

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Fort Eustis Army
Transportation Center
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG)
Air Training Center,
Mobile, AL

USCG Technology Assessments
DOE LCA Design Case Studies
DOE LCA Research and
Development Demonstration
Bureau of Indian Affairs
USPS Pollution Prevention
Opportunity Assessments
EPA, with technical support from NOSTRA, worked with the Optical Laboratories Association (OLA) and its member
companies to reduce or eliminate process wastes such as MEK, acetone, methanol, toluene, xylene, TCE, and TCA.
The technical evaluation was funded by the EPA's RREL. The results of the evaluation will be published in a journal

Through the  Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center (NFESC), implementation of fluid filtration, recovery, and
reuse technologies and rag-use reduction techniques were evaluated for application to the Public Works Operations.

Using the data from the PPOAs conducted at the OC-ALC, a lessons learned document has been developed for
aircraft repair P2 assessments and demonstrations.  The project was funded under SERDP.

PPOAs were conducted at four USAGE facilities as models for future  assessments at similar types of Corps facilities.
The facilities included in the assessment were:  a  hydropower plant, a repair station, an operational lock and dam
(with ongoing major maintenance occurring within the lock chamber),  and a flood control project.  The project was
funded under SERDP.

Under the TIPPP program, Fort Eustis has completed a base-wide P2 program plan, which identified a need to
evaluate and upgrade painting, depainting, and corrosion control operations.  Several improvements have  been
implemented. A Life  Cycle Assessment (LCA) of painting and depainting operations is being conducted, beginning
with an inventory analysis of improved chemical agent resistant coating  (CARC) painting and depainting operations
to determine the resources used and environmental  releases. An  impact analysis will determine the environmental
consequences associated with CARC operations, including corrosion control techniques. By evaluating the
environmental consequences, the improvement analysis will identify opportunities which will be implemented and
evaluated on-site.  The project is being funded under SERDP.

Joint assessments were conducted for P2 options in aircraft maintenance, aircraft fueling, flight simulators, and
aircraft cleaning. This project was funded by EPA-RREL.

A study was conducted to provide guidance for the USCG in choosing cost-effective parts cleaning chemicals that
have minimum environmental and safety impacts. The three bases chosen for this study were: Aviation Training
Center (ATC) Mobile, AL; Air Station Cape Cod (ASCC), Falmouth, MA; and Support Center NY (SCNY), Governors
Island, NY.  The project was jointly funded by USCG and EPA-RREL.

As a follow-on to the  joint Life Cycle Assessment Research and Development (LCA RD&D), cross-cutting pollution
prevention technologies and methodologies at DOE  laboratories are being developed and demonstrated. The
project is jointly funded by SERDP and DOE.

This will build on current DOE/EPA LCA work, which is developing a technical framework, Life Cycle Cost Assess-
ment (LCCA) to be included within a life cycle assessment. This project will take the framework to the next phase of
demonstration allowing for further development and  refinement of  DOE products and processes.  The project will be
jointly funded by SERDP and EPA-RREL.

Based in part on the work being done by tribal pueblos, a Pollution Prevention Resource Guide and workshop will be
developed to provide technical assistance on source reduction to Indian tribes and businesses operating on Indian
lands.  The project will be funded by RREL.

PPOAs are being conducted at six types of postal facilities, including an engineering and research development
center; a stamp distribution center; a bulk mail facility; an area supply depot; a forensics laboratory; and customer
service centers (small, medium, and large post  offices). The recommendations should have applicability to other
similar postal facilities throughout the United States. Also, an evaluation was conducted for recycling opportunities
between the  USPS and Federal Prison Industries. The project is jointly  funded by USPS and EPA-RREL.  Tech-
nology transfer will be in the form of project reports and an implementation workshop.

Table 2. (continued)

Project                         Description
Office of Federal Facility          To assist Federal managers in reducing waste generation and emission rates in order to meet compliance objectives
Enforcement (OFFE) - F2P2       by using P2 tools, a manual was produced by the WREAFS program titled, "Federal Facilities Pollution Prevention—
Manual                         Tools for Compliance."  The project was jointly funded by EPA-RREL and EPA-FFEO.

Office of Federal Facility          In a project jointly funded by FFEO and RREL, RREL is providing support to EPA Regions in developing Pollution
Enforcement (OFFE) -            Prevention Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPS) under the Federal Facilities Multi-Media Enforcement/
FMECI Support                  Compliance Initiative (FMECI). As requested, RREL will provide P2 solutions for violations and other identified areas
                               of noncompliance at Federal sites. The first P2 SEP developed under this program was at Eielson Air Force Base.

NASA Langley Research          In performing its mission, LaRC develops composite materials for use in subsonic and supersonic aircraft applica
Center - Dry Powder Towpreg     tions.  LaRC developed a new dry powder towpreg process to manufacture these composite materials.  The process
                               is a less hazardous way to  impregnate carbon fibers with dry powder resin (towpreg) by using powdered polymers to
                               coat fibers.  The TIPPP project is demonstrating this innovative P2 technology and conducting a life-cycle analysis of
                               its energy and environmental impacts. Final products are being compared with commercially produced  products to
                               determine comparable performance characteristics.  The project is jointly funded by EPA and NASA.

NASA Langley Research          Under TIPPP, a base-wide assessment of NASA-LaRC operations was conducted and a Pollution Prevention
Center - Pollution Prevention      Program Plan for the facility was developed under the WREAFS program. WREAFS continues to support the
Program Implementation          implementation of selected projects from the Pollution Prevention Program Plan.

This Summary was authored by N. T.  Hoagland, and J. S. Bridges with the
  Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268, and staff of
  TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC 27514.
N. T. Hoagland  is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
The complete report, entitled "Pollution Prevention Research Within the
    Federal Community," (OrderNo. PB95-209623; Cost: $27.00, subject to
    change) will be available only from:
        National Technical Information Service
        5285 Port Royal Road
        Springfield, VA22161
        Telephone: 703-487-4650
The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
        Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        Cincinnati, OH 45268
   United States
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Center for Environmental Research Information
   Cincinnati, OH 45268

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