United States
Environmental Protection
k Aguncy
Considerations in
Risk Communication

A Digest of Risk
Communication as a
Risk ManagementTool

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                       Notice

This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for
publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

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                          Foreword

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by
Congress with protecting the Nation's land, air, and water resources.
Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives
to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance
between human activities and the ability of natural systems to sup-
port and nurture life.To meet this mandate, EPA's research program
is providing data and technical support for solving environmental
problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary
to manage our ecological  resources wisely, understand how pollut-
ants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in
the future.
    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL)
is the Agency's center for investigation of technological and
management approaches  for preventing and reducing risks from
pollution that threaten human health and the environment.The
focus of the Laboratory's research program is on methods and their
cost-effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air,
land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water qual-
ity in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites,
sediments and ground water; prevention and control of indoor air
pollution; and restoration  of ecosystems. NRMRL collaborates with
both public and private sector partners to foster technologies that
reduce the cost of compliance and to anticipate emerging problems.
NRMRL's research provides solutions to environmental problems by:
developing and promoting technologies that protect and improve
the environment; advancing scientific and engineering information
to support regulatory and policy decisions; and providing the techni-
cal  support and information transfer to ensure implementation of
environmental regulations and strategies at the national, state, and
community levels.
    This publication has been produced  as part of the Laboratory's
strategic long-term research plan. It is published and made available
by EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist the user com-
munity and to link researchers with their clients.

                  Hugh W. McKinnon, Director
                  National Risk Management Research Laboratory

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About This Digest
   This communication digest describes how risk
communication tools can be developed to help manage
an environmental risk to a community.The tools are key
components of effective risk communication programs.
These tools can be used by public health departments,
county governments, local environmental organiza-
tions, and other agencies faced with possible environ-
mental or health risks to a community.This document
outlines some planning and implementation steps to
consider when communicating risks to the public.Tools
and techniques developed for successful environmen-
tal risk communication are also discussed, along with
details on collaborative decision making and how it
relates to risk communication.
   The  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
places a strong value on effectively communicating
environmental risks to the public, and has developed
programs emphasizing risk communication.The EPA's
Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Com-
munity Tracking (EMPACT) program was established
to demonstrate new monitoring and communication
technologies that make it possible to provide environ-
mental information to the public in near real-time.This
program worked with the 86 largest metropolitan areas
of the U.S. to help communities collect, manage and
distribute time-relevant information, and provide resi-
dents with easy-to-understand information they could
use in making informed, day-to-day decisions. Specific
case studies on new technologies developed through
the EMPACT program are cited in the "Risk Communi-
cation in Action: Case Studies" section of this digest.

Introduction to Risk Communication
    Risk Communication is the process  of informing
people about hazards to their environment or their
health. Communicating risk is a two-way exchange in
which organizations inform target audiences of pos-
sible risks, and gather information from those affected
by the risk.
    Risk communication is a critical step in effectively
defining and managing any crisis situation. Communi-
cating a  message with specific instructions and alter-
natives regarding a health or environmental risk to  a
community can lead to successful risk management of
a crisis.

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   Appropriate risk communication tools will commu-
nicate to the public the magnitude of the risks involved
in a particular situation and lay the groundwork for the
trust that needs to be established between the commu-
nity and the agency dealing with the risks involved.
   In many cases, risk communication is a parallel
approach to traditional risk management. For example,
while efforts are underway to reduce mercury levels in
the air that pollute lakes and streams, risk communi-
cation to reduce human consumption of affected fish
populations can help  reduce overall  risk at a faster rate.
   For many environmental risks, such as skin can-
cer caused by solar ultraviolet radiation, or mercury
poisoning from contaminated fish, the challenge is to
get people to participate in their own risk management
by taking personal precautions. However, most people
tend  to make wise decisions about risk and ways to
avoid it when they are given information they under-
stand and can use in their everyday lives.
   In the  21st Century, the public is becoming more
concerned with its environment, human health and
safety. Citizens want answers to questions such as:
  How safe is the water we drink?
  How polluted is the air we breathe?
  Is it  dangerous to be outside?
  What risk does the landfill down the street pose to
   my family and my community?

   When  a community is faced with an environmental
or human  health risk such as a chemical spill, or a "boil
water" emergency, it  is essential for local and state
environmental agencies and health departments to

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have a plan of action in place. Being able to communi-
cate with the public in a prepared and organized way
can allow a potentially chaotic situation to remain un-
der control until there is no longer a threat.This guide
is intended as a reference to help proper authorities
take specific steps during a crisis situation to success-
fully communicate and manage environmental risk.

Basic Risk Communication Elements

    Communication experts generally agree that there
are three main elements to focus on when communi-
cating an environmental risk:

   Message
   Medium
   Audience

Message

    Messages are the overall information an agency
wants its audience to walk away with, even if it forgets
the details.
    A message is usually phrased as a  brief (often
one-sentence) statement. An example of this would be,
"The ozone map provides you with real-time informa-
tion about ozone levels in your community."
    When sending a message, two main objectives are
to inform and  persuade. A good way to help an audi-
ence understand a message and be persuaded to take
a certain action is by taking it through the four phases
of knowledge: awareness, understanding, decision, and
implementation. In the awareness phase, messages
should be short, catchy, and just barely informational.
Messages such as "Think Green" fall into this group.
Messages intended to reach the understanding level
usually deliver more information such as "Cigarette
smokers are 12 times more likely to die of lung cancer
than non-smokers." Decision-making messages often
compare options such as choosing the best time of day
to fill gas tanks during a smog alert. Messages intended
to help people implement some action are often crisis
related. An example of this would be a "boil water"
advisory during a drinking water emergency.

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Medium
   The medium for the message, whether it is the in-
ternet, a brochure, a refrigerator magnet, or some other
form of communication, has specific properties. For
example, billboards are best for brief messages, bro-
chures for complex information, television for moving
images, and radio for specific target audiences. Cost
is also a factor; generally the broader the outreach,
the higher the cost.The choice of medium can be very
important to the successful transmission and reception
of the message.
    Medium selection is also related to the type of mes-
sage an agency is sending. For example, refrigerator
magnets work well for short messages at the aware-
ness level, but don't contain space for the understand-
ing level of communication. Brochures present infor-
mation at the understanding level, but unless people
have already been reached at the awareness level, they
won't devote the time to read them.

Audience
   The target audience for the message is a key con-
sideration.Target audiences for a water quality out-
reach program might include, for example, the general
public, local decision makers and land management
agencies, educators and students (high school and col-
lege), and special interest groups (e.g., homeowner as-
sociations, fishing and boating organizations, garden-
ing clubs, lawn maintenance/landscape professionals).
    Risk may vary dramatically in different populations.
Subpopulations have different risks when exposed to
the same concentration of a pollutant. It is imperative
to the risk communication process that the makeup of
a community and its cultural diversity be studied and
matched to the appropriate message and medium.
Persons of lower socioeconomic means probably will
not be effectively served by messages delivered via
the internet. For this particular audience, television and
radio messages may be more suitable.
    Successful risk communicators must also know
how the public perceives  risk. When researching audi-
ence dynamics, it is important to distinguish between
objective and subjective risk. Objective risk is calcu-
lated by scientists based on research.  Subjective risk is
the risk that the public perceives to be hazardous. It is
affected by issues of familiarity, dread, fairness, avoid-
ability, and personal control.

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Suggestions for Collaborative Decision
Making When Communicating Environmental Risk
    Communicating with diverse audiences can be
challenging, both because of the difficulty of translat-
ing scientific information to nonscientists, and also
because of the differences in priorities.These differ-
ences in priorities are illuminated by understanding the
differences between objective and subjective risk, and
are bridged by several tools and techniques including
collaborative decision  making.
    By incorporating other environmental experts into
the decision making process, agencies can thoroughly
assess and manage environmental and human health
risks. Some basic rules have been developed by Cov-
ello and Allen1 for collaborative decision making with
regard to risk communication:
      1.  Accept and involve the public as a partner.
         An agency's goal is to produce an informed
         public. When thoroughly and adequately
         informed, the public can often play a key role
         in creating excellent ideas for helping its own
         communities. Because different cultures have
         different risk perceptions, it is important to
         have a representative of each affected com
         munity involved in the risk communication
         process.
      2.  Plan carefully and evaluate your efforts.
         A plan of action for situations that can pose
         significant health risks to the public and risks
         to the environment should be in place ahead
         of time. Develop ways to evaluate how
         effectively you have communicated your
         message to the public.
      3.  Listen to the specific concerns of
         community members.
         People often  care more about trust, credibil
         ity, competence, fairness, and empathy than
         about statistics and details. It is an agency's
         job to protect communities by communicating
         appropriate information and conveying an
         action  plan if necessary. In order to be able to
         make an accurate diagnosis of the problem,
         an organization must first listen.
      4.  Be honest, frank, and open.
        Trust and credibility are difficult to obtain;
      once lost they are almost impossible to regain.

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        The public will have more respect for you and
        your agency if you are straightforward and
        honest.
      5. Work with other credible sources.
        Conflicts and disagreements among
        organizations make communication with the
        public much more difficult. When dealing
        with a crisis situation, bring in the
        appropriate experts, such as scientists or
        public health officials, to answer question
        or make recommendations to a concerned
        public about the best way to handle the
        situation.
      6. Meet the  needs of the media.
        The media usually prefer simple facts.
        Think of their perspectives; know their dead
        lines and  policies. When talking with news
        reporters, be specific about the  risk. Do not
        make assumptions or give possible
        out-comes. Messages can be misinterpreted,
        which can create  a panic situation with
        information that is not solid and factual. Be
        prepared  ahead of time to have your informa-
        tion and facts in order. Be clear  and to the
        point.
      7. Speak clearly and with compassion.
        When you are dealing with a health threat or
        an environmental risk, you must be prepared
        to show compassion.This is a time when the
        community will need understanding. Let
        community members know that you will work
        with them as a  partner and will  keep them
        informed  as things happen.

    In order to more deeply understand communi-
ties and their needs, it is important to incorporate risk
perception into the definition of risk.The EPA's Office of
Air and Radiation2 considers some attributes that may
affect a person's perception of a risk:
       How serious and dreaded is the illness?
       How certain is scientific knowledge?
       What is the catastrophic potential?
       Who bears the risk?
       Is the risk voluntary?
       Who benefits from  the "risky" activity?

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Figure 1.3 "Air Quality
Index (AQI)" is an
example of how EPA
and other organizations
make information about
outdoor air quality
available to the public.
The AQI is used as a key
tool to provide the public
with timely and easy-to-
understand information
on local air quality and
what associated health
concerns it should be
aware of.The AQI  uses a
scale of values to
indicate the level of health
concern and associated
color-coded warning.
                       Risk Communication Tools and Techniques
                          Risk communication tools focus on helping commu-
                       nities, agencies, and individuals make informed deci-
                       sions that either minimize negative impacts, or directly
                       improve health and environmental quality. Some exam-
                       ples of public participation tools and techniques for risk
                       communication follow.
                       Surveys
                          Surveys conducted on a regular basis for a particu-
                       lar environmental issue or concern will allow citizens to
                       express their concerns and opinions about possible risks
                       that may affect them. Information obtained from surveys
                       often help managers and agencies make appropriate risk
                       management and assessment decisions.
                       Modeling
                          Modeling can sometimes be a good surrogate for
                       environmental sampling. In many crises, continuous
                       monitoring can lead to an understanding that allows de-
                       termination of trends.This can then allow forecasting and
                       warnings.
                       Indexing Techniques
                          Indices like an air quality index, a water quality index,
                       or a fish quality index, allow complete scientific informa-
                       tion and data collected through monitoring to be trans-
                       lated in a way the public can understand.

Air Quality Index (AQI)*
AQI Number   Health Concern  Color Code

Oto50
51 to 100
101 to 150
Good
Moderate
Unhealthy for
Green
Yellow
Orange


201 to 300
Very unhealthy  Purple
*Although ozone reports are primarily made for
metropolitan areas, ozone can be carried by the
wind to rural areas, where it can cause health
problems.


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Exhibits
    Visual displays are an effective way to present
information because people can sometimes better un-
derstand an idea or concept presented in a visual form.

Internet
    The internet is the electronic gateway to an array of
multimedia (audio, video, photographic) databases and
textual resources for searching and posting informa-
tion.The internet has powerful, intuitive search technol-
ogies that can help agencies find specific information
quickly, communicate with the public, and recommend
information resources to others.

Maps and Aerial Photographs
    Maps and aerial photographs are visual aids that
facilitate the communication of complex issues such
as contamination and risk factors.They can  be used at
community involvement activities such as public meet-
ings, and poster sessions.
    Easy-to-read maps that have been developed
through a geographic information system (CIS) are an
invaluable source of information for pinpointing par-
ticular areas of concern with regard to environmental
risk. CIS is a computer-based information technology
that incorporates graphical features such as maps and
other data in order to assess real-world problems  and
situations.
Figure 2.3 "Online
Dynamic Watershed
Atlas (Seminole County,
Florida)" is designed to
provide citizens, scien-
tists, and planners of the
Seminole County region
with comprehensive and
current water quality,
hydrologic and ecological
data, as well a library of
scientific and educational
resources on ecology
and management.This
online atlas is an example
of an online service cre-
ated to give citizens and
scientists easy access to
specialized information.

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Figure 3.4 "Lake
Independence and Lake
Minnetonka Watersheds
- Lake Access Project"  is
a color coded map used
to distinguish land uses
surrounding the lake (e.g.,
agricultural, residential,
commercial, indus-
trial, forest, and wetland).
Maps of this type can
help inform the public
and local officials about
connections between
local water conditions
and current uses in their
communities.
Figure 4.4 "Lake
Independence Bathymetry
- Lake Access Project" is
an example of a GIS map
created to include two-
dimensional representa-
tions of various lake pa-
rameters. In this particular
graphic, depth is shown.
By using this capabil-
ity of GIS, agencies can
combine different types
of data layers to predict
how quickly sediments or
contaminants might move
through a stream system.
 GIS and other data visu-
alization tools offer better
support and communi-
cation of observations,
conclusions, and recom-
mendations to resource
managers, students,
regulators, and the public.
These groups can then
use displays and analy-
ses to help make day-
to-day decisions that can
affect the quality of their
lakes and streams.
Mass Media
    In many communities, print and broadcast me-
dia play a crucial role in conveying information to the
public.The  news media provide a principal and speedy
means for members of a community to communicate
and interact.  However, an organization cannot control
what the press will cover and how. Newspaper report-
ers or television cameras usually cover town meetings
or press conferences to observe firsthand how the
public is reacting to the information  they are receiving.
                              LAKE INDEPENDENCE
                                 BATHYMETRY
                                      8ATHYMBRT(fffi)
                                           BH010
                                           no 3t
                                           11038
                                           JTQ4I
                                           11(150
                                            51*
                                         10

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Toil-Free Hotline
    Establishing toll-free hotlines for information up-
dates and community questions can be a very effective
tool for promoting public involvement and feedback.

Workshops
    Workshops are formal, participatory seminars used
to explore a subject, develop or improve public aware-
ness and involvement, allow citizens to see firsthand
how  risks are assessed and managed, or to design a
risk communication message.They can be developed
as mini-courses on a discrete topic relevant to an af-
fected community. A technical expert can be invited to
offer an inside perspective and to increase the effec-
tiveness of a workshop.
  Mailing lists
  Phone/fax
  E-mail/Internet
  RadioATV
  Journals or newsletters
  Meetings, community events, or
  locations (e.g., libraries,
  schools, marinas, public
  beaches, tackle shops, etc.)
  where products are made
  available.
Brochures
Newsletters
Fact sheets
Utility bill inserts or stutters
                               Promotional hotline
                               Newsletters
                               E-mail messages
                               Web pages
                               Subscriber list servers
Cable TV programs
Public service announcements
Videos
Media interviews
Press conferences/releases
                               Newsletters
                               Editorials
                               Newspaper and magazine articles
Exhibits
Kiosks
Posters
Question-and-answer sheets
Novelty items (e.g., mouse pads,
golf tees, buttons, key chains,
magnets, bumper stickers, coloring
books, frisbees, etc.)
Banners
Briefings
Fairs and festivals
Meetings (i.e., one-on-one and public)
Community days
Speeches
Educational curricula
Table 1.s "Methods of
Communication" gives
additional examples
of various distribution
avenues and outreach
products for effectively
communicating environ-
mental data to the public.
                                          11

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Designing a Risk Communication Plan
    Once the target audience has been identified, an
agency should be able to easily identify the desired out-
comes.The plan should also include long-term goals for
the overall risk communication program and short-term
objectives for a specific project. Once the appropriate
tools are selected that match the particular environmental
or health risk, a timeline and assignment of responsibili-
ties should be put in place. An agency's program is likely
to be most effective if a variety of appropriate profession-
als are involved. Where possible, consider the following:
       A communication specialist or someone who has
       experience developing and implementing an out
       reach plan.
       Technical experts in the subject matter (both sci
       entific and policy).
       Someone who represents the target audience,
       i.e., the people or groups you want to reach.
       Key individuals who will be involved in imple
       menting the plan.

    Factoring in estimated costs for putting a plan in
motion should also be included. Many adjustments may
be made throughout the process, but it would be  a good
idea for  an initial plan to have these guidelines and time-
lines in place.

Following Up
    What follow-up mechanisms should an agency
establish to obtain feedback? Successful outreach might
generate requests for further information or concern
about issues that have been raised. It is important for
an agency to consider whether and how it will handle
this interest.The following questions can help an agency
develop this part of its strategy.
      What types of reactions or concerns are audience
       members likely to have in response to the out
       reach information?
      Who will handle requests for additional informa-
      tion?
       Does the agency want to indicate on the out
       reach product where people can go for further
       information (e.g., provide a contact name,  num-
       ber, address, or establish a hotline)?
              12

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Effectiveness Measures
    Because of the importance of communicating risk
to the public, it is useful to measure how effectively an
agency is communicating. Many methods and tech-
niques have been  developed to allow an agency to
hear firsthand from the public what it does and does
not understand to be the risk. Town meetings as well as
telephone and mail surveys  are some examples of ef-
fective ways to obtain feedback from the public regard-
ing understanding and concerns about a potential risk
to a community.

Risk Communication in Action: Case Studies
   The EPA through the EMPACT program worked
with large metropolitan areas to help collect and dis-
tribute environmental risk information.This program
involved EPA working with different communities to
provide residents with easy-to-understand information
used in making informative  decisions based on envi-
ronmental issues and health risks.
    Here are three examples of risk communication in
action.

Air Quality Risk  Communication Study
    Ozone, at ground level, presents a serious air
quality problem in many parts of the U.S. because
ozone plays a major role in respiratory health effects.
Residents  in communities with  high ozone levels can
use timely risk information to help  them take action to
reduce local ozone levels.
    One of the most successful risk communication
projects is the Ozone Mapping Project, which creates
maps that provide hourly ozone data taken from moni-
toring networks in different  regions of the country.The
maps use color-coded contours to depict the level of
health concern associated with different categories of
ozone concentration.
    In addition, the AIRNOW web site, part of the Ozone
Mapping Project, was created by the EPA's Office of Air
and Radiation to provide real-time air pollution data in
an understandable, visual format; information about
public health and  environmental effects of air pollu-
tion; and information about  ways in which the public
                                   13

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Figure 5." Map taken
from the project, " Ozone
Monitoring, Mapping
and Public Outreach:
Delivering Real-Time
Ozone Information to Your
Community." The map
represents ozone values
in the northeastern United
States on August 24, 1998.
can protect its health and reduce pollution (http://
www.epa.gov/airnow).This web site, which is beneficial
to people with asthma or other health conditions that
relate to ozone and air quality, also offers links to state
and local air pollution control agencies with real-time
ozone data.

Soil-Based Risk Communication Study
    Over the past few decades, blood lead levels in
children have declined dramatically. However, lead
poisoning remains a serious environmental  health
threat for children today.The legacy of lead-based paint
and leaded gasoline will be with us for many years to
come. Without further action, large numbers of young
children will continue to be exposed to lead  in amounts
that could impair their ability to learn.
   A project entitled, "Community Based Environ-
ment Lead Assessment and Education Demonstration
Program," also know as the Lead  Safe Yard Project7 was
a risk communication program that showed Boston
residents low-cost techniques to reduce lead risks in
soil. It was jointly sponsored by EPA's New England
Regional Laboratory and several community partners
in the Boston area: Boston University School of Public
Health, Bowdoin Street Community Health Center, and
two non-profit landscaping companies: Garden Futures,
and Dorchester Gardenlands Preserve.
    Other key objectives of this project were to:
      Develop an education outreach program to in
       form the  community  of the dangers of lead and
       reduce the risk of lead in and around the home.
      Demonstrate real-time delivery of data to resi-
       dents to encourage future community-based
       lead in soil remediations.

   The initial target community selected for this pilot
project was the Bowdoin Street area, consisting of ap-
proximately 150 wood-framed, mostly older houses in
the North Dorchester section of Boston.This is an inner-
city community with a large minority and immigrant
population, located in the "lead belt" of Boston, where
the majority of children in the city with elevated blood
lead levels reside.
                                    14

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   This project was funded in two phases that took
place in the summer of 1998 and 1999. A free "tool
kit" for homeowners containing helpful information on
lead levels in the blood, what the different levels mean
with regard to health risks, and important numbers to
call to receive a free lead analysis in the home, was
developed. Numerous seminars were conducted in
different communities on lead-safe yard work. Outreach
activities ranged from  distributing  flyers and knocking
on doors, to speaking at community meetings.These
efforts were culturally specific to the neighborhood and
conducted at an appropriate literacy level.

Water-Based Risk Communication Study

   The Lake Access Minneapolis Project5 provided the
public with time-relevant and historical water quality
data for lakes within the largest, most populated wa-
tershed districts in Minnesota.This timely and accurate
risk information about lake water quality helps com-
munity members  make day-to-day decisions about lake
use and lake issues. For example, information about
fecal coliform levels can be used by swimmers to  help
decide when swimming is a health risk.
    In order to make the project more effective, the
EPA formed a partnership with the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Geologi-
cal Survey.The  EPA worked closely with these federal
agencies to help achieve nationwide consistency in
measuring environmental data, managing the informa-
tion, and delivering it to the public.
The Lake Access Project team  used Remote Underwater
Sampling System (RUSS) devices to collect time-rel-
                                                     This photograph captures
                                                     a presentation on lead
                                                     poisoning and soil-based
                                                     hazards given to en-
                                                     courage ongoing yard
                                                     maintenance within the
                                                     community.
                                   15

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   Design, site, operate,
   and maintain a
   system to gather
   time-relevant water
   quality data.
Figure 6." Process of col-
lecting, transferring, and
managing time-relevant
data.This process was
used in the Lake Access
Project.
                       evant water quality data from three locations involved
                       in the project, to observe the way storms and other
                       seasonal changes can affect the water and impact the
                       fish and fishing, and to see how lakes and streams have
                       changed with time.
Design, operate, and
maintain a system to
retrieve, manage,
and analyze your
time-relevant water
quality data.
                 Use data visualization
                 tools to graphically
                 depict these data.
communicate the
results of your
time-relevant water
quality monitoring
efforts to residents ir
your community.
Conclusion
    Successful risk assessment and risk management
involve effective risk communication. By effectively
conveying risk information to the public, risk communi-
cators can minimize environmental exposures and save
lives.
    It is important to develop ways of not only com-
municating in a clear, concise manner, but also deter-
mining how messages are perceived. In the real world,
information communicated to reduce environmental
risk must compete with the barrage of other messages
communicated from outside  sources.These outside
sources can cloud a message and distort key informa-
tion that is necessary for successful risk communica-
tion.
   The public is becoming increasingly aware of the
state of the environment and the possible health risks it
may face. By developing partnerships with the con-
cerned public, risk communication becomes the key
resource for developing solutions that meet the needs
of everyone involved, and minimize impacts on  human
health and the environment.The considerations identi-
fied in this digest help define a risk communication
strategy for any agency.
   Well-designed communication of risk information
and careful attention to feedback will help to maintain
the credibility of all environmental agencies involved,
                                     16

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and will help ensure that public values and concerns
are incorporated into the decision making process. Ef-
fective risk communication helps environmental agen-
cies and communities make good decisions.
         Bost__>-od Co-op and the City of B<
                  RECYCLING CENTER
                                  17

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References
1.  Covello, VT and Allen, FW (1988) Seven Cardinal
   Rules of Risk Communication OPA-87-020. April
   1988. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
   Washington, DC, http://www.kfa-juelich.de/mut/rc/
   covaN88.html
2.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Of  ce of
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This  publication  was written  and  produced by
Jane  Ice and  Dan  Petersen, Ph.D.,  of  the  United
States Environmental Protection Agency's National
Risk  Management  Research Laboratory  (NRMRL)
within the Office  of Research and  Development.

An  electronic  version of this  publication can be
viewed  and  downloaded from NRMRL's Technol-
ogy  Transfer  web  page  at  http://www.epa.gov/
ttbnrmrl. Printed copies of this publication can be
requested from the EPA  by calling 1-800-490-9198.
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