United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5305W)
EPA530-S-97-022

august
                               530S97022
&EPA      Executive Summary

    %**     The National Biennial RCRA
             Hazardous Waste Report
             (Based on 1995 Data)
                                    Printed on paper that contains at least
                                    20 percent postconsumer fiber.

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                                                                   Executive Summary
                              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

       The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the
States,1  biennially collects information regarding the generation, management, and final
disposition of hazardous wastes regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended. The purpose of The National Biennial RCRA Hazardous
Waste Report (Based on 1995 Data)  is to communicate the findings of EPA's 1995 Biennial
Reporting System (BRS) data collection efforts to the public, government agencies, and the
regulated community.2  The Report consists of six volumes:

       o      Executive Summary: An overview of national hazardous waste generation
              and management practices;
       o      National Analysis: A detailed look  at waste handling practices in the EPA
              Regions, the States, and at the largest facilities in the nation, including
              quantities of generation,  management, shipments and receipts, and  interstate
              imports and exports, as well  as counts of generators and managers;
       o      State Summary Analysis: A two-page  overview of the generation and
              management practices of individual States;
       o      State Detail Analysis: A detailed look at each State's waste handling
              practices, including overall totals for generation, management, and shipments
              and receipts, as well as totals for the largest fifty facilities;
       o      List of Large Quantity Generators: Identifies every hazardous waste generator
              in the United States that reported  itself to be a large quantity generator in
              1995; and
       o      List of Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities: Identifies every hazardous
              waste manager in the United States that reported itself to be a treatment,
              storage, or disposal facility in 1995.
   'The term "State" includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Navajo Nation, the Trust Territories, and the
Virgin Islands, in addition to the 50 United States.

   2Some respondents from the State of Georgia have submitted Confidential Business Information (CBI) pursuant to 40
CFR 260.2(b). While not included in any public BRS database, CBI has been incorporated into the Executive Summary and
National Analysis volumes of this  Report wherever possible. Where CBI has been omitted from these volumes, a footnote
has been provided.

                                          ES-1

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report: Based on 1995 Data	
                         RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE

      Throughout this Report, the term RCRA hazardous waste refers to solid waste
assigned  a Federal hazardous waste code and regulated by RCRA, either because it was
managed in a unit subject to RCRA permitting standards or because it was shipped and
subject to RCRA transportation requirements.  Individual States may choose to regulate
additional wastes not identified as hazardous by EPA.  Hazardous wastes assigned only a
State hazardous waste code are not included in this Report.  Similarly, hazardous wastes
managed only in units subject to State permitting standards, or wastes that are managed
only in units exempt from RCRA permitting standards,  are not included in this Report.

                 RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION

      RCRA hazardous waste generation information is obtained from data reported by
RCRA large quantity generators (LQGs). The RCRA hazardous waste generation quantities
in this Report are limited to generation quantities that are managed in units subject to
RCRA permitting standards. All hazardous waste generation reported to be managed
on-site in units exempt from RCRA permitting standards, such  as treatment systems
permitted by the National Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System (NPDES), is excluded
from the  RCRA generation quantities provided in this Report.  Although some off-site
shipments of hazardous waste may ultimately be managed in units exempt from RCRA
permitting standards, this determination cannot be made from information reported by the
generator. Therefore, all hazardous waste generation shipped off-site is included in the
RCRA generation quantities provided in this Report.

      Hazardous waste generators are included in this Report if they identified themselves
as an LQG.   It is important  to note that the LQGs identified in this Report have been
included on the basis of the best available and most current information provided
electronically to EPA by the States. Both EPA and the States have made significant efforts
to ensure the accuracy of these data. However, the LQG  counts may include some
generators that, when determining whether they were LQGs, used a lower State-defined
threshold for LQGs, counted wastes regulated only by their States, or counted wastes that
are exempt from Federal regulation.
                                      ES-2

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                                                               Executive Summary
        A generator was defined as a Federal large quantity generator in 1995 if it met or
exceeded any one of the following Federal criteria:

      o     The generator generated in any single month 1,000 kg (2,200 pounds or 1.1
             tons) or more of RCRA hazardous waste; or
      o     The generator generated in any single month, or accumulated at any time, 1
             kg (2.2 pounds) of RCRA acute hazardous waste; or
      o     The generator generated, or accumulated at any time, more than 100 kg
             (220 pounds) of spill cleanup material contaminated with RCRA acute
             hazardous waste.

      In 1995, 20,873 LQGs produced 214 million tons of hazardous waste regulated by
RCRA.  This is a decrease of  3,489 LQGs and a decrease of 44 million tons of waste
compared to 1993.  As identified in Exhibit 1, the five (5)  States whose LQGs generated
the largest amount of hazardous waste were Texas (69 million  tons), Tennessee (39 million
tons), Louisiana (17 million tons),  Michigan (13 million tons),  and Illinois (13 million tons).
Together, the LQGs in these States accounted for 70% of the national total waste
generated.

      Wastewater generation is identified in BRS by the use of certain form codes, or by
waste management in units typically associated with wastewater management (i.e.,
management in aqueous treatment units, neutralization tanks, underground injection wells,
or other wastewater management systems).  See Chapter 1,  Waste Generation, of the
National Analysis, for a  list of the form codes and system type  codes  used to identify
wastewater.  (A complete list of system type codes can be found in Appendix A of the
National Analysis, and a complete list  of form codes can be found in Appendix B of the
National Analysis.) In 1995,  wastewater generation accounted for 95% of the national
generation total, while in 1993, wastewater generation accounted for 92% percent of the
national generation total.

      Overall, total hazardous waste generation decreased from 258  million tons  in 1993
to 214 million tons in 1995.  Wastewater generation decreased from 237 million tons in
1993 to 202 million tons in 1995, and non-wastewater generation decreased from 22
million tons in 1993 to over 11 million tons in 1995.
                                       ES-3

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report: Based on 1995 Data	
      In comparing 1995 data with those of earlier Reports, it is important to note that
many new wastes were captured by RCRA in 1990 with the promulgation of the Toxicity
Characteristic (TC) Rule.  The TC Rule added 25 new hazardous waste codes (D018 to
D043) and required more stringent analytical tests for the presence of toxic constituents in
waste.  For 1995, these codes captured, at a minimum, 63 million tons of wastes not
regulated before 1990.  An additional 42 million tons were described by D018 to D043
when mixed with other waste codes. This suggests that, in 1995, the new toxicity
characteristic wastes captured as much as 105 million tons of wastes not regulated before
1990. In contrast, the 1993 data reported as much as 135 million tons of waste not
regulated before 1990.

               RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

      RCRA hazardous waste management information is obtained from data reported by
RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal facilities (TSDs).  The RCRA hazardous waste
management quantities in this Report are limited to waste that was received or generated
by a reporting TSD and managed at the reporting TSD in treatment units subject to RCRA
permitting standards.   All hazardous wastes either received for transfer shipment or
managed at a reporting TSD in units exempt from RCRA permitting standards, such as
treatment systems permitted by the NPDES, are excluded from the RCRA management
quantities provided in this Report.

      Note that the total quantity of RCRA hazardous waste generation does not equal the
total quantity of hazardous waste management. Some of the reasons for this variance
include: off-year generation (generation that occurred at the end of a non-biennial reporting
year, but was shipped off-site for management during a reporting year) and wastes
received for management from generators in foreign countries.

      In 1995,  1,983 TSDs subject to RCRA permitting standards managed 208 million
tons of hazardous waste. This represents a 601 facility decrease in the number of  TSDs
and a 27 million ton decrease in the amount of waste managed as compared to  1993. As
identified in Exhibit 2, the five (5) States whose TSDs managed  the largest quantities of
hazardous wastes were Texas (75 million tons), Tennessee (39 million tons), Louisiana (18
million tons), Michigan  (14 million tons), and California (14 million tons).  Together, the
TSDs in these States accounted for 77% of the national total waste managed.

                                      ES-4

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                                                             Executive Summary
      Wastewater management is identified in BRS by the use of certain form codes or by
waste management in units typically associated with wastewater management (i.e.,
management in aqueous treatment units, neutralization tanks, underground injection wells,
or other wastewater management systems).  See Chapter 2, Waste Management, of the
National Analysis, for a list of the form codes and system type codes used to identify
wastewater. (A complete list of system type codes can be found in Appendix A of the
National Analysis, and a complete list of form codes can be  found in Appendix B of the
National Analysis.)  In 1995, wastewater management accounted for 95% of the national
management total, while in  1993 wastewater management accounted for 94% of the
national management total.

      Overall, total hazardous waste management decreased from 235 million tons in
1993 to 208 million tons in 1995.  Wastewater management decreased from 220 million
tons in 1993 to  198 million tons in 1995, and non-wastewater management decreased
from 15 million tons in 1993 to 10 million tons in 1995.

      The majority (73%) of the waste managed in the nation was managed in aqueous
treatment units. Aqueous treatment units consist of:

      Aqueous Organic Treatment Units                  117 million tons
      Aqueous Organic and Inorganic Treatment Units       28 million tons
      Aqueous Inorganic Treatment Units                  8 million tons

      Land disposal accounted for 12.3% of the national management total.  Land
disposal units include:

      Deepwell/Underground Injection                     24 million tons
      Landfill                                             1 million tons
      Surface Impoundment                         575 thousand tons
      Land Treatment/Application/Farming                11 thousand tons
                                      ES-5

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report: Based on 1995 Data	
      Thermal treatment accounted for 3% of the national management total.  Thermal
treatment units are:

      Incineration                                        4 million tons
      Energy Recovery (Reuse as Fuel)                      2 million tons

      Recovery operations accounted for 1.8% of the national management total.
Recovery operations include:

      Fuel Blending                                       2 million tons
      Metals Recovery (for Reuse)                     610 thousand tons
      Other Recovery                                422 thousand tons
      Solvents Recovery                             356 thousand tons

      The remaining management quantities (9.6%) were from other treatment and
disposal units:

      Other Treatment                                   18 million tons
      Stabilization                                        1 million tons
      Other Disposal (specified in comments)           663 thousand tons
      Sludge Treatment                              481 thousand tons

        RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE SHIPMENTS AND RECEIPTS

      RCRA hazardous waste shipment information is obtained from data reported by both
RCRA LQGs and RCRA TSDs. RCRA hazardous waste shipment quantities include all
RCRA waste shipments reported by RCRA LQGs and TSDs.  Although some off-site
shipments may ultimately be  managed in treatment units exempt from RCRA permitting
standards, this determination cannot be made from information reported by the shipper.
Therefore, the shipment quantities provided in this Report may include some waste that is
ultimately managed in units exempt from RCRA permitting standards.  In some instances,
reported waste shipments are actually the movement of wastes across contiguous physical
locations that are regulated under different EPA identification numbers.  These waste
transfers are correctly reported as shipments and  cannot be distinguished from transport
shipments based on the information reported.
                                      ES-6

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                                                               Executive Summary
      RCRA hazardous waste receipt information is obtained from data reported by RCRA
TSDs.  RCRA hazardous waste receipt quantities are limited to waste reported by a
receiving TSD as either received for transfer or received and managed at the reporting TSD
in units subject to RCRA permitting standards. Received wastes managed at the reporting
TSD in units exempt from RCRA permitting standards, such as treatment systems
permitted by the NPDES, are excluded from receipt quantities provided in this Report.

      Limitations in the reported  information  prevents the direct comparison of  shipment
and receipt quantities. Hazardous waste shipment quantities may include hazardous waste
shipments that are ultimately managed by  the receiver in units exempt from RCRA
permitting standards.  Hazardous  waste receipt quantities exclude waste managed in units
exempt from RCRA permitting standards.  Therefore,  hazardous waste shipment quantities
can be expected to exceed hazardous waste receipt quantities because exempt waste may
be included in shipment quantities and excluded from receipt quantities.  Exempt waste
reporting will be eliminated beginning with the 1997 biennial reporting cycle. This change
should mitigate this discrepancy in future reports.

      RCRA hazardous waste exports are waste shipments where the destination is a
different  State from the State in which the waste was generated. Exports are calculated
from information provided by waste shippers.   RCRA  hazardous waste imports are waste
receipts where the waste originated in another State.  RCRA hazardous waste imports are
calculated from  information provided by RCRA TSDs.

      In 1995, 20,497 shippers reported  shipping a total of 10.7 million tons of hazardous
waste. This is a decrease of 3,467 shippers and a decrease of 6.7 million tons of
hazardous waste that was  shipped as compared to 1993.  The States whose shippers
reported  shipping (in or out of State) the largest quantities of waste were Texas (2.4 million
tons), California (1.3 million tons), Ohio (760 thousand tons), New York (650 thousand
tons), and Michigan (510 thousand tons).  Together the shippers in these States accounted
for 53%  of the total quantity of hazardous waste shipped nationwide.

      Nationwide, of the 10.7 million tons of hazardous waste shipped,  5.3 million tons
were exported to other States.  This is  a 1.5 million ton decrease compared with 1993.
The States whose shippers exported the largest amount of waste were California (1.1
million tons), Ohio (330 thousand  tons), Pennsylvania (280 thousand tons), Texas (240

                                       ES-7

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report: Based on  1995 Data	
thousand tons), and Illinois (230 thousand tons).  Together the exports in these States
accounted for 41 % of the national total of hazardous waste exports.

      In 1995, 644 RCRA TSDs reported receiving 9.3 million tons of hazardous waste.
This is a decrease of 95 TSDs and an increase of 360 thousand tons of hazardous waste
compared with 1993. The States whose receivers reported receiving the largest quantities
of waste, from both in or out of State, were Michigan (1.2 million tons), New Jersey (1.2
million tons), Texas (970 thousand tons), Ohio (700 thousand tons),  and Nevada (650
thousand tons). Together, the receivers in these States accounted for 50% of the national
total of waste receipts.

      Nationwide, of the 9.3 million tons of hazardous waste receipts, 5.9 million tons
were imported from other States.  This is an increase of 1.7 million tons compared with
1993. The States whose receivers reported importing the largest amount of waste were
New Jersey (1.1  million tons), Michigan (820 thousand tons), Nevada (650 thousand tons),
Ohio (440 thousand tons),  and Texas (280 thousand tons).  Together the receivers in these
States accounted for 56%  of the national total of waste imports.
                                       ES-8

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                                                                             Executive Summary
Exhibit 1    Quantity of RCRA Hazardous Waste Generated and Number of Hazardous Waste Generators, by State, 1995


STATE
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
GUAM
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NAVAJO NATION
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
PUERTO RICO
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
TRUST TERRITORIES
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGIN ISLANDS
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING
CBI DATA
HAZARDOUS WASTE QUANTITY

RANK
17
51
41
20
6
36
32
44
54
31
28
55
24
18
5
14
42
15
19
3
45
30
23
4
39
16
27
50
56
37
48
46
7
35
11
33
25
13
26
40
9
21
43
34
53
2
1
47
29
49
52
38
10
8
22
12
N/A
TOTAL
TONS
GENERATED
1,409,582
3,432
66,865
992,794
11,109,924
169,554
295,928
22,263
764
368,904
459,543
299
592,900
1,209,841
12,756,271
1,733,026
39,329
1,722,380
1,149,881
17,460,601
19,459
448,707
610,135
13,446,389
77,720
1,579,260
508,963
7,668
195
99,702
11,354
15,169
10,342,432
204,494
2,306,232
286,339
520,226
1,823,547
511,918
68,187
6,446,730
900,567
25,428
261,015
1,119
38,686,622
68,513,285
15,134
456,847
10,497
3,329
98,678
3,088,487
8,489,828
664,609
1,972,177
5,977
214,092,505

PERCENTAGE
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.5
5.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.6
6.0
0.8
0.0
0.8
0.5
8.2
0.0
0.2
0.3
6.3
0.0
0.7
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.8
0.1
1.1
0.1
0.2
0.9
0.2
0.0
3.0
0.4
0.0
0.1
0.0
18.1
32.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
4.0
0.3
0.9
N/A
100.0
LARGE QUANTITY GENERATORS

RANK
24
43
29
28
2
32
18
43
49
17
16
53
45
46
6
10
30
27
15
21
34
25
13
9
23
33
22
46
54
40
41
35
5
48
1
11
52
3
31
26
7
39
37
19
50
14
4
55
38
42
56
19
8
36
12
50
N/A


NUMBER
279
64
199
204
1,640
156
395
64
18
418
430
13
53
52
1,156
609
170
210
440
359
144
221
476
718
284
152
354
52
11
86
80
130
1,178
44
2,144
587
16
1,373
168
220
1,134
88
112
371
17
467
1,329
3
101
66
1
371
748
117
558
17
6
20,873

PERCENTAGE
1.3
0.3
1.0
1.0
7.9
0.7
1.9
0.3
0.1
2.0
2.1
0.1
0.3
0.2
5.5
2.9
0.8
1.0
2.1
1.7
0.7
1.1
2.3
3.4
1.4
0.7
1.7
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.6
5.6
0.2
10.3
2.8
0.1
6.6
0.8
1.1
5.4
0.4
0.5
1.8
0.1
2.2
6.4
0.0
0.5
0.3
0.0
1.8
3.6
0.6
2.7
0.1
N/A
100.0
Note:    Columns may not sum due to rounding.
        Percentages do not include CBI data.
                                               ES-9

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report: Based on  1995 Data

Exhibit 2   Quantity of RCRA Hazardous Waste Managed and Number of TSDs, by State, 1995

STATE

ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
GUAM
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NAVAJO NATION
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
PUERTO RICO
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
TRUST TERRITORIES
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGIN ISLANDS
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING
CBI DATA
HAZARDOUS WASTE QUANTITY1

RANK
16
35
43
18
5
30
33
46
54
32
26
53
49
17
9
14
42
11
37
3
47
27
44
4
34
15
25
48
56
38
20
54
6
31
23
28
22
12
21
36
8
19
40
29
51
2
1
45
24
52
50
39
13
7
41
10
N/A
TOTAL
TONS
MANAGED
1,247,637
141,610
11,029
1 ,000,465
13,631,078
191,047
154,729
2,004
0
161,763
348,359
0
476
1,240,434
3,274,425
1,486,318
12,061
1,761,658
123,709
17,633,877
1,780
201,744
7,288
14,381,917
153,657
1,446,886
437,962
1,368
0
113,395
650,032
0
10,979,933
1 88,444
509,446
199,439
518,043
1,754,399
563,381
137,302
6,314,049
836,505
29,806
191,309
1
38,675,221
75,074,857
2,980
461,970
0
20
51,995
1,577,079
8,395,116
17,492
1,970,452
4,088
208,272,032

PERCENTAGE
0.6
0.1
0.0
0.5
6.5
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.6
1.6
0.7
0.0
0.8
0.1
8.5
0.0
0.1
0.0
6.9
0.1
0.7
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
5.3
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.8
0.3
0.1
3.0
0.4
0.0
0.1
0.0
18.6
36.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
4.0
0.0
0.9
N/A
100.0
TSD FACILITIES

RANK
18
43
28
36
2
20
17
48
53
11
13
51
47
41
4
5
27
14
19
15
35
31
21
3
25
34
10
43
56
38
37
53
11
38
7
8
45
6
22
40
8
33
41
28
50
25
1
51
32
45
53
22
16
28
24
48
N/A


NUMBER
42
9
26
17
136
36
43
5
1
56
51
2
6
10
107
76
28
50
40
49
18
22
34
112
29
19
68
9
0
14
15
1
56
14
70
69
7
74
31
11
69
20
10
26
3
29
192
2
21
7
1
31
47
26
30
5
1
1,983

PERCENTAGE
2.1
0.5
1.3
0.9
6.9
1.8
2.2
0.3
0.1
2.8
2.6
0.1
0.3
0.5
5.4
3.8
1.4
2.5
2.0
2.5
0.9
1.1
1.7
5.7
1.5
1.0
3.4
0.5
0.0
0.7
0.8
0.1
2.8
0.7
3.5
3.5
0.4
3.7
1.6
0.6
3.5
1.0
0.5
1.3
0.2
1.5
9.7
0.1
1.1
0.4
0.1
1.6
2.4
1.3
1.5
0.3
N/A
100.0
'Quantity managed only by storage is excluded.

Note:   Columns may not sum due to rounding.
       Percentages do not include CBI data.
                                           ES-10

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                                                          Executive Summary
            WHERE TO OBTAIN ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

      All volumes of The National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report (Based on 1995
Data), as well as the 1995 Biennial Reporting System (BRS) database, can be obtained via
the Internet at: "http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/data/" or they can be purchased
from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at (703) 487-4650.
                                    ES-11

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