United States
                        Environmental Protection
                       Office of V\
          Number 6
          August 1992
                        Sediments  News'
               EPA Continues Development of
               Sediment Management Strategy

EPA is continuing to develop its national contaminated sediment management
strategy. The strategy is currently being revised to incorporate comments re-
ceived during the past few months. A draft outline of the strategy was widely
circulated for review and public comment in March, and many written comments
were received prior to the close of the comment period on July 15. Three national
fora were also held by EPA to discuss the sediment management strategy and to
receive public comments. The forum topics included national extent and severity
of sediment contamination; federal and state agency cooperation to address the
issue of sediment contamination; and public awareness, education, and outreach
related to the issue of sediment contamination. A revised draft of the sediment
management strategy is expected to be completed this fall, and will be circulated
for internal EPA review before being submitted for Office of Management and
Budget Approval and publication in the Federal Register. For more information
contact Tom Armitage, EPA HQ, at (202) 260-5388.
   Sediment Activities
   Around the Country

   EPA Headquarters
Economic Analysis of SQC on
Dredging Program

OPPE, in conjunction with the Office
of Water, has initiated a study, "Eco-
nomic Analysis of the Benefits and
Costs of Sediment Quality Criteria:
Impacts on the Army Corps of Engi-
neers Dredging Program."  This study
will analyze existing data of COE
dredging projects from 1989 to the
present, as well as estimates for
projected projects through 2000, to
determine what percentage of COE
dredging projects would fail the
proposed sediment quality criteria.
Three categories of dredged material
will be evaluated: (1) dredged
material that the COE did not test
because it was deemed to be clean
sediment, (2) COE-tested dredged
material that was considered nontoxic,
and (3) dredged material that was
tested and failed the COE criteria.
OPPE will determine the costs of
current dredging and disposal prac-
tices under the three scenarios and
increased costs due to failure to meet
the criteria. This study is scheduled to
be completed by the end of November
1992. Contact Brett Snyder, EPA-
OPPE, at (202) 260-5610 for more

Sediment Criteria

On June 10-11,1992, presentations
were made to the EPA Science
(continued on p. 2)
                                 Contaminated Sediment
                                    Activities Timeline
September 1-3,1992. 3rd National
Meeting: Water Quality Standards for
the 21st Century. Las Vegas, NV.
Contact Patti Morris at (202) 260-2806.

September 16-18,1992. Tiered
Testing Issues for Freshwater and
Marine Sediments.  Washington, DC.
Contact Bev Baker at (202) 260-7037.

September 30-October 2,1992.
International Environmental Dredging
Symposium. Buffalo, NY. Contact
Environmental Education Institute, Inc.,
at (716) 858-6370.

November 7-8,1992. Meeting of
ASTM Subcommittee on Sediment
Toxicology (E47.03). Cincinnati
Convention Center, Cincinnati, OH.
Contact Chris Ingersoll at (314) 875-

November 8-12,1992. 13th Annual
SET AC meeting. Cincinnati Conven-
tion Center, Cincinnati, OH. Fax (904)
469-9778 or call (904) 469-1500 for
more information.
 CS tfews 1« produced by 1FA*
 OST to exehaage Mcvant infor-
 mation cm contaminated sedi-
 ments and to increase communi-
 cation amortg interested parties.
 To obtain eogiesurf this report <*r
 to contribute to&n»atfo», cen«
 tact Beverly Baker* ETA BQ* at
                                                                   Printed on Recycled Paper

  Advisory Board (SAB) as part of its
  review of the methodology to derive
  national sediment criteria and the first
  sediment criteria documents. EPA
  provided draft sediment criteria
  documents, field validation studies,
  the criteria development methodology,
  supporting documentation, and
  presentations on likely uses of sedi-
  ment criteria to the committee.  The
  final report identifying the SAB's
  findings is expected in the latter part
  of August. A favorable review is
  expected, and it is anticipated that the
  draft sediment criteria documents will
 be distributed for Red Boarder and
 public review and comment shortly
 after the SAB review is completed.
 For more information contact Chris
 Zarba, EPA HQ, at (202) 260-1326.

 National Inventory for
 Contaminated Sites

 At both the first and second public
 forums on the Draft Contaminated
 Sediment Management Strategy, all
 EPA program and other Federal
 agency representatives supported the
 development of a national inventory of
 contaminated sediment sites.  The
final planning for this inventory is
under way.  The completion of a
national inventory of contaminated
sediment sites is one of the major
  EPA Sediment Strategy
    Forum Proceedings

Proceedings from all three Sedi-
ment Management Strategy Fo-
rums will be available by Sep-
tember 1,1992. Forum attendees
and participants  will automati-
cally receive a copy of the pro-
ceedings.  Others wishing to re-
ceive a copy of the proceedings
may contact Esther Williams at
(202) 260-7049.
   assessment elements of EPA's Draft
   Contaminated Sediment Management
   Strategy. The purposes of this activity
   are (1) to obtain the best possible
   near-term assessment of the national
   extent and severity of sediment
   contamination, (2) to identify areas
   that may be contaminated and in need
   of further assessment, and (3) to
  identify areas with sufficient data to be
  characterized as causing high risks or
  severe effects so that Agency pro-
  grams can target those areas for
  appropriate action. For more informa-
  tion contact Bev Baker, EPA HQ, at
  (202) 260-7037.

  Marine and Coastal Enforcement
  Training Course

  A Marine and Coastal Enforcement
  Training Course will be held later this
  year.  This pilot training course has
  been developed primarily to provide
  EPA Regional personnel in coastal
  States with a
  ing of the
 roles of
 EPA, the
 U.S. Army
 Corps of
 and the U.S.
 Guard, as
 well as
 procedures for responding to viola-
 tions under the following statutes:
• The Marine Protection, Research,
  and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) -
  Title I

• The Clean Water Act (CWA) -.
  §§301(h), 402, and 403 (NPDES
  permitting of ocean point source
  discharges); §311 (oil spills);  and
  §312 (marine sanitation devices)

•  The Shore Protection Act (SPA)
                                                                        • The Act to Prevent Pollution from
                                                                          Ships (APPS) as amended by the
                                                                          Marine Plastics Pollution Research
                                                                          and Control Act (MPPRCA).

                                                                        A fundamental theme of this course is
                                                                        the importance of interagency team-
                                                                        work in responding to potential
                                                                        violations under the statutes listed
                                                                        above, given the limited enforcement
                                                                        resources available to each Federal
                                                                        agency and the need for effective
                                                                        marine  and coastal pollution enforce-
                                                                        ment programs.  For more information
                                                                        contact Catherine Crane, EPA HQ, at
                                                                        (202) 260-9177.
 Sarasota Bay Estuary Program

 Members of the Baywide Monitoring
 Program, a three-part study conducted
 by Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota,
 FL, are about to publish a report on the
 benthic habitat, sediment, and water
 quality of Sarasota Bay, FL. The
 report describes the collection and
 characterization of sediments from
 105 stations for heavy metals and
 organic contaminants. Preliminary
 results indicate elevated levels of lead,
 zinc, and copper in sediments depos-
 ited at the mouths of large industrial
 tributaries and elevated levels of
 pesticides and polynuclear aromatic
 hydrocarbons in sediments of large,
 more urbanized tributaries. For more
 information contact Dean Ullock,
 Region IV, at (404) 347-1740.

 Tampa Bay Estuary Program

 An agricultural nonpoint source
 proposal developed by the Tampa Bay
 Estuary Program, entitled "Agricul-
 tural Runoff Treatment for Sediment
 Contamination Control in Cockroach
 Bay, Florida," was selected to receive
FY92 section 319(h) set-aside funding
in the amount of $400,000. The
(continued on p. 3)

money will be awarded to the State of
Florida to support final design and
construction of a stormwater treatment
system for agricultural runoff prior to
discharge into Tampa Bay.  The
constructed system will consist of a
sediment sump, a detention basin, and
scrubber marshes to remove pesticide-
contaminated particulates. Sediment
and water quality monitoring is also an
important part of the project. For
more information contact Catherine
Fox, Region IV, at (404) 347-1740.

     Regional Activities
 Region I

 Harbor Tunnel

 The Massachussetts Department of
 Public Works is proposing a $5 billion
 project to construct approximately 7
 miles of roadways in Boston. In-
 cluded in the project is the construc-
 tion of an underground "central artery"
 to replace an elevated highway that
 runs through the City of Boston and a
 third Harbor Tunnel under Boston
 Harbor to Logan Airport in East

 This project will result in the genera-
 tion of approximately 12 million yd3
 of dredged and excavated material.
 The disposal of this dredged and
 excavated material has been an issue
 under discussion for several years.

 The surface sediments from Boston
 Harbor along the new tunnel align-
 ment were determined to be unsuitable
 for ocean disposal because of the
 toxicity in one test sample and signifi-
 cant bioaccumulation of several metals
 and organics in the other two test
 samples. The underlying native
 marine clays were determined to be
 suitable for ocean disposal.  Most of
 the contaminated surface sediments
 are being taken to a newly constructed
 confined disposal  facility located at
 Governor's Island adjacent to Logan
Airport. A portion of the contami-
nated sediments will be taken to
Spectacle Island in Boston Harbor,
which is an old landfill historically
used by the City of Boston.  Contami-
nated sediments will be deposited in
the landfill and then that layer will be
capped with clean excavated material
from the construction project.  Spec-
tacle Island will then be converted into
a park, adding to the Boston Harbor
Islands State Park. The underlying
clean native marine clay is being
disposed of in an ocean dump site
approximately 22 nm offshore in
Massachusetts Bay.  For more infor-
mation contact Kym Keckler, Region
I, at (617) 565-4432.

Radioactive Barrel Study

Massachusetts Bay, a largely oceanic
coastal embayment east of Boston
Harbor, has been a depository for a
variety of permitted (and possibly
unpermitted) wastes for the better part
of this century. In particular,  the
disposal of industrial/chemical wastes
during the mid-1940's through the
mid-1970's and low-level radioactive
wastes during the 1940's and  1950's
took place at a number of sites
throughout the Bay.  Most noteworthy
is the  so-called "Industrial Waste Site"
(IWS) located 20 miles east of Boston
in 300 ft of
water. In an
 1991 study, the
estimated that
the most
 densely distrib-
 uted area of the
 IWS contained
 about 21,000
 containers, half of which still may
 have their contents intact.

 Recent concerns have been raised by a
 number of agencies and environmental
 groups regarding the status of these
 wastes and their potential effects on
the fisheries of Massachusetts Bay, the
ecosystem at large, and public health.
A number of fishermen have retrieved
and redeposited waste containers
during their trawling activities. In one
case, toxic fumes generated from
retrieved barrels caused a
dehabilitating injury to a fisherman
and eventual loss of his boat. U.S.
Representative Gerry Studds has asked
EPA to evaluate all Bay disposal sites
for eligibility under the Superfund

In response to these concerns, EPA
Region I has formed a task force to
address the problem.  Its objectives

• Perform a records investigation  that
  includes interviews with dumpers
  and fishermen.

• Develop a study strategy and public
  outreach program.

• Plan and coordinate field investiga-
  tions to assess potential risks to
  public health and the ecosystem.

•  Assess potential management

Given the lack of records confirming
the types and amounts of wastes and
                     the actual
                     location of
                     eventual dis-
                     posal, the task
                     force identified
                     four broad  areas
                     of the Bay
                      (totaling more
                     than 100 mi2) as
                      possible waste
                      depositories that
                      would be
                      candidates  for
 further study over the long term.

 To date, a total  of about 30 mi2 of the
 Bay's bottom, including the IWS, has
 been mapped for the  distribution  of
 waste containers using side scan sonar
 (continued on p. 4)

  and remotely operated vehicles.  A
  more recent EPA Region I/ERL-
  Narragansett study of another more
  inshore disposal site (Lightship Survey
  Area) indicated a much lower density
  of probable waste containers (perhaps
  as much as three orders of magnitude
  lower than that of the IWS).

  Most recently, a multiagency study
  collected sediment and animal tissue
  (lobster and fish) samples for a variety
  of toxics and radionuclides from the
  IWS. This cooperative effort included
  EPA Region I, Narragansett and
  Environmental Monitoring Systems
  (Las Vegas) Labs; NOAA; FDA; and
  the Massachusetts Marine Fisheries,
  Public Health, and Coastal Zone
  Management agencies. Preliminary
  analysis of one sediment sample
 indicated a higher-than-background
 presence of Strontium-90, but much
 below the level for public concern.
 The remaining samples did not exhibit
 any radioactivity during safety screen-
 ing but will be further analyzed.  The
 results should be available this fall.
 For more information contact Dave
 Tomey, EPA Region I, at (617) 565-

 Region II

 Decontamination Technology
 Demonstration Project

 Section 412 of the Water Resources
 Development Act (WRDA) of 1990
 provided for the New York District
 Corps of Engineers, in consultation
 with EPA Region II, to implement a
 decontamination technology demon-
 stration project in New York/New
 Jersey Harbor. The Corps has been
 appropriated $1 million to carry out
 the project. The intent of the demon-
 stration project is to evaluate a method
 of disposing of material dredged from
the harbor region in an environmen-
tally sound manner other than ocean
disposal.  The application of decon-
tamination technology will be evalu-
ated for a portion of dredged material
  from the harbor that would otherwise
  be disposed of at the Mud Dump
  ocean disposal site. Potential sites for
  future pilot-scale implementation are
  currently being assessed. Bench-scale
  tests are planned to be performed
  using at least three technologies with
  selected sediments from the harbor.
  Continued funding for this program is
  being considered for inclusion in the
  WRDA of 1992. For more informa-
  tion contact Alex Lechich, Region II,
  at (212) 264-1302.

  Region IV

  Region IV's Contaminated Sediments
  Workgroup is currently developing a
  Guidance Memorandum on Sediment
  Quality Assessment in Wetlands for
  use in both Waste and Water Division
  Regulatory Programs. The draft
  memorandum uses the tiered-testing
  approach for determining sediment
 quality: sediment chemistry studies
 (with recommended chemicals of
 concern, methodologies, and detection
 limits), followed by acute toxicity and
 bioaccumulation studies with appro-
 priate species and
 test conditions.
 The use of in situ
 tissue concentra-
 tions of fauna and
 flora is also dis-
 cussed. This
 information, along
 with other types of
 information, (e.g.,
 quality of the
 wetland), will be
 used to help determine the mode of
 cleanup to be used, if any, in each
 specific wetland case.

 The Regional Implementation Manual
 of the 1991 Green Book for the
 Southeast is nearing completion.
 Protocols described in this manual are
 already being applied in the assess-
 ment of many harbors, including
Wilmington Harbor, NC, and
Canaveral and Fort Pierce Harbors,
FL.  Use of the more stringent testing
  approach has revealed sediment
  quality concerns in Charleston Harbor
  and Winyah Bay, SC, and Miami
  River, FL.  Sampling and testing plans
  for both Savannah and Brunswick
  Harbors, GA, are currently being
  developed for the first time, with
  collection scheduled to begin later this

  Region IV's Coastal Sediment Quality
  Inventory (more than 40,000 records
  from NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, and MS)
  is now complete, with copies available
  for distribution. Evaluation of the
  database is currently in progress and
  scheduled for completion by October
  1,1992. The evaluation, designed to
  determine the nature and extent of
  coastal sediment contamination in the
  Southeast, has recently been expanded
 to include information on the types
 and loadings of point source contami-
 nant discharges. A Contaminated
 Fish/Shellfish Tissue Data Inventory is
 also under way for use in identifying
 areas of concern and as an aide to
 States in issuing fish/shellfish con-
 sumption advisiories. For more
 information contact Catherine Fox,
 Region IV, at (404) 347-1740.

 Region VI

 Region VI is overseeing a special
 Supplemental Environmental Project
 (SEP) called for in a consent decree
 between the City of Houston and EPA.
 The consent decree was developed as
 an enforcement action in response to
 violations of the City's NPDES permit.
 A multi-agency oversight committee
 has been formed to develop a Scope of
 Work for the project. A draft Scope of
 Work has been completed and is
 presently under review. The emphasis
 of the project will be assessment of
 toxicity and toxic substances in water
 and sediments in tidally influenced
 tributaries to the Houston Ship Chan-
 nel. The sampling will include wet
 weather and dry weather (summer and
winter) conditions. The project will be
(continued on p. 5)

carried out over a period of about 18

A nonpoint source proposal entitled,
"City of Austin, TX, Proposal for EPA
Contaminated Sediment 319(h) Grant,
Urban Control Technologies" was
selected to receive $400,000 in FY92
funds. The project will include
installation of inlet filters, oil sediment
treatment chambers, and a detention
pond to control toxic sediment con-
taminants entering Town Lake in
Austin, TX. The use of a new and
innovative technology, perforated
aluminum inlet filters, will also be
demonstrated in this project.  For more
information on the above projects,
contact Phil Crocker, Region VI, at
(214) 655-7145.

Region IX

Region IX is conducting the  following
contaminated sediment-related activi-

• Region IX is working with the Army
  Corps of Engineers (Corps) San
  Francisco District and State of
  California regulatory agencies in
  San Francisco Bay on draft sediment
  testing guidance for Clean Water
  Act Section 404 dredged material
  disposal.  The new draft will include
  bioassays, sediment chemistry
  method detection limits and evalua-
  tion of a reference area around the
  Alcatraz disposal site. Agreement
  by all  of the regulatory agencies is a
  significant and major accomplish-
  ment for dredged material manage-
  ment in San Francisco Bay. For
  more information contact Brian
  Ross,  Region IX, at (415)  744-1979.

 • Region IX is working with the
  Corps San Francisco District to
  develop a methods manual for
  sediment and water collection,
   water, sediment, and tissue testing
   and bioassay tests.  The manual will
  be useful to other Regions and other
   sediment-related programs. The
 primary contact for this manual is
 Richard Stradford, Long-Term
 Management Strategy Coordinator,
 Corps San Francisco District, (415)

 Comments on draft regional testing
 agreements for the Ocean Dumping
 Program are expected from the
 Corps Los Angeles and San Fran-
 cisco Districts by the end of August
 1992. For more information on
 these manuals, contact Patrick
 Cotter, Region IX, at (415) 744-
        ORD Activities

Field Verification

ERL-Duluth is continuing field
verification efforts for sediment
quality criteria.  At a heavily DDT-
contaminated site in Huntsville, AL,
sediment chemistry, laboratory
toxicology, and benthic community
structure are being evaluated relative
to exposure conditions using the
Equilibrium Partitioning (EP) ap-
proach. A gradient of contamination
was discovered showing some changes
in benthic community structure.
Using Toxicity Identification and
Evaluation (TIE) techniques to assess
the toxicity at the site, ODD and DDE
were also determined to have an
impact on the organisms.  The Duluth
lab will conduct tests to develop
toxicity models to determine the
interactive properties of these com-
pounds.  These toxicity models will  be
used in conjunction with the EP
exposure model to determine the
reasonableness of what is  being
observed in the test sediment.

Model Evaluations

ERL-Duluth is continuing to evaluate
models to predict bioavailabiltiy of
metals in sediments. Research is
being conducted on long-term expo-
sures using a sediment-ingesting
organism (oligochaete) to examine
metal bioaccumulation relative to
sediment AVS concentrations or pore-
water metal concentrations.

Contaminated Sediment Database

A database has been established at
ERL-Duluth to determine the reason-
ableness of the sediment quality
criteria with respect to sediment
        • Sediment Chemistry
        • Toxicity
        •Benthic Community
 chemistry, toxicity, and benthic
 community structure. Freshwater data
 sets that include sediment chemistry,
 toxicity, and/or benthic community
 structure are still desired.

 For more information contact Gary
 Ankley, ERL-Duluth, at (218)720-


 Sediment Sorption of Basic lonizable

 As the scope of the Sediment Quality
 Criteria (SQC) Program broadens, the
 need for the development of SQCs  for
 ionizable compounds will undoubtedly
 arise. This requires a better under-
 standing of the sorptive processes of
 these chemicals in sediments because
 sorption will significantly affect their
 environmental movement, persistence,
 and bioavailability.  Sorption mecha-
 nisms that must be considered for the
 (continued on p. 9)

 Development of Dredged
 Material Testing Manual

 EPA, in conjunction with the Corps, is
 developing a regional manual to
 determine the suitability of dredged
 material for open water disposal. The
 Great Lakes Dredging Material
 Testing Evaluation Manual will
 include standardized test methods for
 all Great Lakes dredging projects. The
 Region is  currently developing five
 bioassay tests and one
 bioaccumulation test to be used for
 effects-based testing in addition to
 sediment chemistry. The regional
 effort is interacting closely with the
 development of a national testing
 manual for dredged material disposal
in inland and near coastal waters. For
more information contact Marc
Tuchman, EPA Region V, at (312)
                      Site Summary Inventory

                      Over the last 10 to 15 years there has
                      been an increase in the amount of
                      sediment data collected, both from
                      routine ambient monitoring and from
                      efforts to better define suspected areas
                      of contamination.  To date, no re-
                      gional effort has been made to compile
                      all this information into one reposi-
                      tory. To remedy this situation, Region
                      V has developed a sediment site
                      inventory summary. This summary
                      includes sediment contamination data
                      from the States of Wisconsin and
                      Minnesota, as well as the basins of
                      Lakes Michigan and Superior. Exist-
                     ing data on sediment chemistry and
                     any available biological components
                     (e.g., fish tissue, bioassay) were
                     collected from over 400 sites. Sum-
                     mary information on fish consumption
                     advisories and potential sources of
                     contamination are also included. A
                     draft of this pilot inventory is expected
                     to be out later this month. For more
                     information contact Marc Tuchman,
                     EPA Region V, at (312) 886-0239.
 Nonpoint Source Sediment
 Pilot Projects

 EPA has provided funding to three
 States (Illinois, Indiana and Wiscon-
 sin) to conduct a total of five pilot
 nonpoint source sediment contamina-
 tion prevention/remediation projects as
 part of EPA's National Sediment
 Management Strategy. These grants
 are managed by the Nonpoint Source
 Program within Region V. A brief
 summary of each project is provided

 Butterfield Creek

 Butterfield Creek, located southeast of
 Chicago, IL, is contaminated with
 metals and organics due to urban
 runoff. The Northeastern Illinois
 Planning Commission received a grant
 from EPA to conduct the following
 activities: (1) develop a stormwater
 ordinance; (2) construct a sediment/
 stormwater control structure within the
 Butterfield Creek watershed that will
 be used to demonstrate to communities
 and developers that the control mea-
 sures specified in the ordinance are
implementable; and (3) provide
technical assistance to the communi-
ties within the Butterfield Creek
(continued on p. 7)

 Little Lake Butte des Morts

 Little Lake Butte des Morts is located
 in Neenah-Menasha, Wisconsin, in the
 Lake Michigan Basin, and its sedi-
 ments are heavily contaminated with
 PCBs. Little Lake Butte des Morts is
 a major source of PCBs to the Lower
 Fox River and Southern Green Bay,
 which have fish and waterfowl con-
 sumption advisories posted.

 The Wisconsin Department of Natural
 Resources (DNR) has initiated a
 program called SMART (Sediment
 Management and Remediation Tech-
 niques) to study approaches and
 conduct demonstration projects for
 cleaning up contaminated sediments
 within the State.  Little Lake Butte des
 Morts was selected by the Wisconsin
 DNR to be one of the first demonstra-
 tion projects for the SMART program.
 In addition, EPA gave DNR a grant to
 develop a remedial investigation and
 feasibility study (RI/FS) for Little
 Lake Butte des Morts.

 Ruck Pond/Cedar Creek

 Ruck Pond is located in the Lake
 Michigan Basin north of Milwaukee,
 WI. The pond's sediments are heavily
 contaminated with PCBs, due in part
 to discharges from a storm sewer.
 Ruck Pond is the upstream source of
 PCBs to Cedar Creek, which flows
 into the Milwaukee River, a tributary
 to Lake Michigan.

 The Wisconsin DNR received a grant
 from EPA to develop a PCB transport
 model to estimate the loading of PCBs
 to the Milwaukee River.  Results from
 this model will provide a basis for
 approaching potentially responsible
parties (PRPs) for funding an RI/FS
and the subsequesnt remediation. The
model will also be used in selecting
remediation alternatives, locating
remediation sites, and setting clean-up
goals for PCBs in the Cedar Creek
Starkweather Creek

i> ..ark weather Creek is located in
Madison, WI, in the Lake Monona
Basin. As a result of urbanization, the
creek has received significant pollu-
tion from stormwater and industrial
discharges. Its sediments contain
elevated levels of mercury, zinc, lead,
oil, and grease. The Wisconsin DNR
received a grant from EPA to conduct
a demonstration project for
remediating the sediment contamina-
tion at Starkweather Creek.  The actual
dredging of the sediments will be
managed by the City of Madison's
Engineering Department. Approxi-
mately 17,000 yd3 of sediment will be
dredged with a
backhoe, loaded
into lined dump
trucks, and
hauled to a
retention site,
and used as daily
cover at the Dane
County Landfill.


Wolf Lake is located on the Illinois/
Indiana border near Lake Michigan.
The lake's sediments are contaminated
with metals and other contaminants
from nonpoint source runoff from
highways and industrial sites.

The Lake County Soil and Water
Conservation District (LCSWD)
received a grant from EPA for the
demonstration of various BMPs for the
control of shoreline/bank erosion.
Two methods for controlling shore-
line/bank erosion have been selected:
(1) installation of a limestone ^.atc
designed to capture sediment and (2)
installation of limestone blocks along
a 1,000-ft stretch of highly credible

For information on the above pilot
demonstration projects, contact
Thomas Davenport, EPA Region V, at
(312) 886-0209.

Contaminated Sediment
Activities Funded Under State
Lake Water Quality Assessment

A variety of contaminated sediment
activities are being conducted by the
six States in Region V which are
partially funded through the U.S. EPA
Lake Water Quality Assessment
grants. These activities range from
compilation of existing sediment data
to sampling and analysis of sediments
for organic and inorganic pollutants,
as well as nutrients. Each state
received Federal LWQA grants  of
$60,000 for FY91 -92. One of the
requirements was for the States to
include an inland lake sediment
element valued at $10,000 to $20,000
of the total project costs in their
LWQA workplans. EPA Region V
provided additional guidance which
said that the inland lake sediment
efforts using LWQA-funded grants
should be: 1) consistent with Reigon V
draft Great Lakes sediment monitoring
guidance, 2) used to compile existing
(continued on p. 8)
         Sediment Enforcement/Remediation Training

   A  multimedia training  program  regarding sediment-related legal
   authorities and the methods of employing them to obtain remediation
   is scheduled for August 17-19 at Region V.  Discussions will include
   legal authorities, program and agency strategies, case development
   approaches, and ease examples. For more information contact Rick
   Nagle, Region V, at (312) 353-8222.

 lake sediment data, and 3) used to
 monitor sediments in lakes where data
 are inadequate or unavailable or where
 contaminated sediments are known or
 expected. For more information
 contact Linda Hoist, Region V, at
 (312) 886-0215.

 History of Confined Disposal
 Facilities on the Great Lakes

 The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is
 authorized to maintain some 131
 navigation projects around the Great
 Lakes. These projects include harbors
 and channels for commerical and
 recreational navigation users. In order
 to maintain safe navigation depths at
 these projects, the Corps dredges
 between 4-6 million yd3 of sediments

 Up until the mid 1960's, dredged
 material was disposed with economics
 as the key concern. This meant
 unconfmed, open-water disposal in
 most cases. In the mid 1960's, envi-
 ronmental concerns were raised about
 the degradation of water quality in the
 Great Lakes. These concerns prima-
 rily focused on the eutrophication of
 the lakes, and controls on the
 pollutional loadings of nutrients such
 as phosphorus and nitrogen.  The
 practice of open water disposal of
 dredgings from polluted harbors and
 waterways was criticized and called
 into question.

 In 1966, the Corps began investigating
 the feasibility of using alternate
 dispsoal areas at a number of harbors.
 In 1967, the corps, in cooperation with
 the Federal Water Pollution Control
 Administration (the predecessor of US
 EPA) initiated a 2-yr pilot investiga-
                                       tion on alternate methods for
                                       dredged material disposal.
                                       This investigation examined
                                       the pollutional status of the
                                       Great Lakes, provided a
                                       detailed look at existing
                                       dredging and disposal
                                       practices, described its
                                       effects of these operations on
                               water quality, and examined potential
                               modifications and control measures to
                               abate environmental impacts. A
                               variety of disposal alternatives were
                               investigated, including several innova-
                               tive treatment technologies.  Pilot
                               projects conducted included the
                               construction and operation of the first
                               confined disposal facilities (CDFs) on
                               the Great Lakes.

                               The River and Harbors Act of 1970
                               (PL 91-611, Section 123) authorized
                               the Corps to construct and operate
                               confined disposal facilities for pol-
                               luted dredged
                               materials on the
                               Great Lakes.  The
                               Act had specific
                               requriements  for
                               local sponsors,
                               and provided that
                               CDFs be con-
                               structed to hold
                               10-years worth of
                               dredgings. It was
                               presumed that
                               after 10 years, the
                               provisions of the
                               Federal Water
                               Pollution Control Act would have
                               produced clean sediments, and future
                               dredgings would no longer need to be
                               A CDF is an upland or in-water
                               structure constructed solely for the
                               disposal of contaminated dredged
                               materials. The Corps has constructed
                               42 CDFs around the Great Lakes with
                               16 constructed at upland sites and 26
                               constructed in water.

                               Upland CDFs are typically constructed
                               of earthen dikes or located in existing
                pits or depressions.  In-water CDFs
                are generally formed by stone-filled
                dikes, and are constructed attached to
                the land, breakwaters, or as detached
                islands. The size and shape of a CDF
                are determined by the required storage
                capacity, local site conditions, and the
                ultimate use plans of local sponsors.
                The siting of a new CDF can be a
                controversial and lengthy process.

                The primary objective of a CDF
                design is to retain as high a percentage
                of the sediment particles as practical.
                CDFs basically function as settling
                basins, with solids retention efficien-
                cies greater than 99.9%.  Excess water
                is discharged through permeable dikes,
                over adjustable weirs, or through filter
                cells. As a CDF becomes filled, the
                dredged materials tend to clog perme-
                able dikes and restrict lateral or
                vertical movement of water from the
"Over 60 million  yd3  of
contaminated sediments
from the Great Lakes
and  its tributaries have
been  disposed in CDFs."
                The monitoring and management
                practices at CDFs are as individual as
                the sites and designs. Special studies
                which have been conducted at CDFs
                include dye tracer tests, biological
                monitoring with indigenous and caged
                organisms, plant and animal uptake
                studies, volatile loss monitoring, and
                contaminant loss modeling.

                The environmental impacts of CDFs
                on the Great Lakes is the subject of
                many opinions and theories. An
                interagency work group of EPA,
                (continued on p. 9)

Corps, and Fish & Wildlife staff
examined the long-term significance
of CDF releases through modeling and
biomonitoring studies between 1985
and 1988.  The model studies provided
"order-of-magnitude" estimates of
PCB losses, although biomonitoring
was not able to detect significant PCB

To date, over 60 million yd3 of con-
taminated sediments from the Great
Lakes and its tributuaries have been
disposed in CDFs. For more informa-
tion contact Jan Miller, COE-North
Central Division, at (312)353-6354.

Public Involvement in the
Great Lakes

Along the Grand Calumet River in
northwest Indiana, there is standing
room only at a meeting to discuss
"dredging, treatment and disposal
options for contaminated sediment as
it affects the Lake Michigan water-

Why and how has the public gotten so
excited about this issue, not just in the
Great Lakes  but along marine coasts
and, increasingly,  along other public
waterways as well? Is there a clear
"public involvement model" here that
we can all follow for other complex
environmental issues? The answer is
probably almost as complicated as the
problem itself.

The success  of public involvement in
the Great Lakes is due to several

• A ready-made platform or venue
exists within the Great Lakes region
for detailed discussion of this issue.
Those platforms are the public advi-
sory committees assembled to develop
Remedial Action Plans (RAP) for the
43 Great Lakes geographic toxic hot
spots, called "Areas of Concern."

• There is also already in place a very
strong network of citizen groups
focusing on environmental protection
through a watershed/ecosystem
approach, both in the Great Lakes and
along North America's marine coasts.
Aino    he larger giuups facihuiUiifc
this i   ,v ork, through virtually daily
contact, are Great Lakes United, the
Coast Alliance, Great Lakes office of
both the Sierra Club and the National
Wildlife Federation, Environmental
Defense Fund, Natural Resources
Defense Counsel, and the Lake
Michigan Federation.

• Working with these groups as "eyes
and ears on the scene" are dozens of
local groups such as the Grand Calu-
met Task Force ,IN, Clean Ocean
Action in Sandy Hook, NJ, and
Coastal Advocates in Oakland, CA.

• The U.S. EPA has been willing to
take the time to encourage broad
public involvement from the begin-
ning and throughout two important
processes: 1) the development of
national sediment criteria; and 2) a
Great Lakes-coordinated program
called ARCS(Assessment and Reme-
diation of Contaminated Sediment) to
develop guidance on assessment
techniques and technology evaluation
for contaminated sediment treatment.
In both efforts, both formal and
informal efforts have been made to
include all federal and state agencies
as well as public interest groups,
university researchers, and the regu-
lated community.

An important starting point for coa-
lescing all of these groups was a
binational conference on contaminated
sediment, held in December of 1988,
by the Lake Michigan Federation and
Great Lakes United with support from
both the U.S.  EPA and Environment
Canada. Congressman Henry Nowak
(D-NY) was the keynote speaker.
Participants included citizen groups
nationwide, the Corps of Entgineers,
state and local governments, the two
federal environmental agencies,
private engineering consultants and
vendors of sediment technology. For
more information contact Glenda
Daniels, Lake Michigan Federation, at
(continued from p. 5)
basic ioniz-
able cL-ii >i-
cals (e.g.,
amines and
interactions, cation or ligand exchange
reactions, and chemical reactions
leading to the formation of covalent
bonds through nucleophilic and/or
oxidative processes.  Differentiation
between these processes is necessary,
because in general, sorption through
the formation of covalent bonds with
constitutents of the sediment matrix is
an irreversible process, as opposed to
sorption partitioning or cation ex-
change that can be described by
equilibrium constants.

Studies  at ERL-Athens are currently in
progress to determine the sorption
mechanisms of basic ionizable organic
chemicals.  Initially, the sorption
kinetics of a series of 2- and 4-  substi-
tuted anilines were measured in a
sediment-water system. Removal of
the anilines from the aqueous phase
was fast over the first 24 hours fol-
lowed by a much slower rate of
removal. Furthermore, a general trend
between sorption kinetics and sub-
strate pKa was observed:  As the pKa
of the aniline increased, there was an
increase in both the rate and extent of
sorption. Sequential extraction studies
of a sediment treated with 14C-aniline
suggested that hydrophobic partition-
ing and cation exchange processes do
not contribute significantly to the
aniline sorption and that irreversible
sorption through covalent binding to
the organic matter of the sediment
matrix dominates  the sorption process.
On the other hand, in similar experi-
ments with 14C-pyridine, a nitrogen
containing heterocycle, the dominant
sorption process was determined to be

 cation exchange. In other studies, we
 found that the sorption of aniline and
 pyridine in a resaturated pond sedi-
 ment was independent of pH over the
 pH range of 4 to 8.

 To provide direct spectroscopic
 evidence for covalent binding of the
 aromatic amines, 15N NMR was used
 to analyze fulvic acid that had been
 treated with 15N-aniline. These studies
 were conducted in conjunction with
 Dr. Kevin Thorn at the USGS labora-
 tory in Denver, Colorado.  INEPT and
 ACOUSTIC 15N NMR spectra exhib-
 ited resonances for imine, anilide,
 aniline-quinone, and anilino-hydro-
 quinone nitrogens in the 15N-aniline-
 reacted fulvic acid, providing further
 evidence for covalent binding through
 nucleophilic addition to carbonyl
 moieties. These studies suggest that
 aromatic amines will be rendered
highly immobile in sediment-water
systems. For more information
contact Eric Weber, ERL-Athens, at
                            ASTM Update

 The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee E47.03 01
 Sediment Toxicology met April 28-30,1992, during the 2nd ASTM Symposiu
 on Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment in Pittsburgh, PA. Ballot
 results were discussed for (1) a revision to E 1383-90 (freshwater invertebrate
 toxicity) Annex 4 on Daphnia and Ceriodaphnia, (2) fish bioaccumulation, (3)
 sediment design, (4) a revision to E  1367-90 (marine and estuarine amphipod
 toxicity) Annex 5 on Leptocheirus plumulosus, (5) a revision to E 1383-90
 Annex 5 on Hexagenia sp., and (6) terminology.

 The subcommittee discussed the status of additional documents, including: (1)
 invertebrate bioaccumulation; (2) polychaete testing; (3) revisions to E 1383-9C
 on (a) Tubifex tubifex, (b) mollusks,  (c) Dioporeia sp., and (d) Lumbriculus sp;,
 (4) bacterial testing; (5) earthworm testing; (6) sediment resuspension; and (7)
 Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) of sediment.

 Rick Scroggins discussed the status of two documents being developed by
 Environment Canada: Guidance Document for the Collection, Storage, and
 Manipulation of Sediments for Chemical Characterization and Biological
 Testing and Guidance Document on  the Use of Spiked-Sediments for Reference
 Toxicity Testing.

 The next meeting of Subcommittee E47.03 will be Saturday, November 7, and
 Sunday, November 8,1992, before the 13th Annual SETAC meeting at the
 Cincinnati Convention Center in Cincinnati, OH. Contact Chris Ingersoll at
 (314) 875-5399, or FAX (314) 876-1896, if you would like more information
concerning the activities of the subcommittee.
                                     New Publication

   Recently published, Sediment Toxicity Assessment provides information relating to sediment contamina-
   tion and its effects on aquatic ecosystems.  It presents an integrated ecosystem approach by detailing
   effective assessment methods, considerations, and effects on each major component of marine and
   freshwater systems, including the benthos, plankton, and fish communities. The approach emphasizes
   defining habitat conditions (physical and chemical), toxicant bioavailability, factors influencing toxicity
   (lab and field), biomarkers, acute and chronic toxicity, study design, collection methods, and EPA
   management strategies. For more information contact Lewis Publishers at (407) 994-0555.

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