VVATETi
               CONTROL RESEAKCH SERIES  t?024 QQ.U
        Urban  Runoff
           Characteristics
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY • WATER QUALITY OFFICE

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                    WATER POLLUTION CONTROL EESEARCH SERIES
 The Water Pollution Control Research Reports describe the results and progress
 in the control and abatement of pollution of our Nation's waters.  They provide
 a central source of information on the research, development and demonstration
 activities of the Water Quality Office of the Environmental Protection Agency,
 through in-house research and grants and contracts with the Federal,  State
 and local agencies,  research institutions,  and industrial organizations.

 Previously issued reports on the Storm and  Combined Sewer Pollution Control
 Program:
11023  FDB  09/70
11024  FKJ  10/70
11024  EJC  10/70

11023  	  12/70
11023  DZF  06/70
11024  EJC  01/71
11020  FAQ  03/71
11022  EFF  12/70

11022  EFF  01/71
11022  DPP  10/70
11024  EQG  03/71

11020  FAL  03/71
11024  FJE  04/71
11024  DOC  07/71
11024  DOC  08/71

11024  DOC  09/71

11024 DOC  10/71
11040 QCG 06/70
 Chemical  Treatment  of  Combined  Sewer Overflows
 In-Sewer  Fixed  Screening  of  Combined Sewer  Overflows
 Selected  Urban  Storm Water Abstracts,  First Quarterly
 Issue
 Urban  Storm Runoff  and Combined  Sewer  Overflow Pollution
 Ultrasonic Filtration  of  Combined  Sewer Overflows
 Selected  Urban  Runoff  Abstracts, Second Quarterly  Issue
 Dispatching System  for Control of  Combined  Sewer Losses
 Prevention and  Correction of Excessive Infiltration and
 Inflow into Sewer Systems - A Manual of Practice
 Control of Infiltration and Inflow into Sewer Systems
 Combined  Sewer  Temporary  Underwater  Storage Facility
 Storm Water Problems and  Control in  Sanitary Sewers -
 Oakland and Berkeley,  California
 Evaluation of Storm  Standby Tanks  -  Columbus, Ohio
 Selected Urban  Storm Water Runoff  Abstracts, Third
 Storm.Water Management Model, Volume 1 - Final Report
 Storm Water Management Model, Volume II - Verification
and Testing
 Storm Water Management Model, Volume III -
User's Manual
 Storm Water Management Model, Volume IV - Program Listing
Environmental Impact of Highway Deicing
                                    To be continued on inside back cover...

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URBAN     RUNOFF
CHARACTERISTICS
            BY
   DIVISION OF WATER RESOURCES
  DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    UNIVERSITY OF, CINCINNATI
     INTERIM REPORT FOR THE
  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
     WATER QUALITY OFFICE
    RESEARCH GRANT 11024 DQU
       OCTOBER, 1970

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                           EPA/WQO Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Water Quality Office and approved
for publication.  Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily
reflect the views and policies of the Water Quality Office, nor does
mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use.

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                        ABSTRACT


      This  is an  interim report on  investigations  for the
refinement  of the comprehensive Environmental Protection
Agency, Water Quality Office, Storm Water Management Model.

      Detailed information on the watershed characteristics
and data on runoff quantity and quality have' been  compiled
from a one  year study of a combined sewer.watershed of
approximately 2380 acres in Cincinnati, Ohio.  Collection
of these data is  planned to continue over a three  year
period.

      The information collected will be used to test and
refine the  Storm  Water Management Model, developed for the
Environmental Protection Agency, Water Quality Office under
contracts 14-12-501, 502, 503 with  Metcalf & Eddy, Inc.
et al (draft final report dated September 1970).

      In addition, work has been done under this grant at
the University of Cincinnati on urban runoff mathematical
models.   Information on these models is included in this
report.   It is intended that these models will be improved
and verified as additional watershed data become available.

      This  interim report; was submitted on the first year
of investigations under research grant 11024 DQU between
the Water Quality Office of the Environmental Protection
Agency and  the University of Cincinnati.
                            111

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                        CONTENTS
Section                                                Page
    I    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS	   1
   II    INTRODUCTION	   3
  III    DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOODY RUN SEWER
         WATERSHED	   5
   IV    DESCRIPTION AND LAYOUT OF THE SEWER
         AND MONITORING SYSTEMS	,	  27
    V    RAINFALL AND RUNOFF QUANTITY AND
         QUALITY DATA	  63
           1. Rainfall Data from U. S. Department
              of Commerce  	  63
           2. Dry Weather Flow  Data	  91
           3. Rainfall and Runoff Data from the
              Bloody Run Sewer  Watershed	  97
   VI    MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SIMULATION OF
         HYDROLOGIC RUNOFF FROM AN URBAN
         WATERSHED	  225
           1. Introduction	  225
           2. Review of the Literature	  226
           3. Description of the Cincinnati
              Urban Runoff Model	  229
           4. Infiltration	  232
           5. Surface Retention	  240
           6. Overland Flow	  244
           7. Gutter Flow	  258
           8.. Routing through Lateral and
              Main Sewers	  261
           9. First Case Study  on  Simulation of
              Urban Storm  Water Runoff by Using
              the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model	  266
           10. Second Case  Study on Simulation  of
              Urban Storm  Water Runoff by Using
              the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model	  272
           11. Conclusions  and Suggestions for
              Further Study	  278
                              v

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Section                                                Page
           Appendix I.    Dimensional Analysis
                         of Gutter Flow	 280
           Appendix II.  Manning's Roughness
                         Coefficient	 282
           Appendix III. Computer Program for the
                         Cincinnati Urban Runoff „,
                         Model	 283
           Appendix IV.  Data Cards Preparation	 301
           Appendix V.    Data Cards for the First
                         Case Study.	.305
  VII    MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SIMULATION OF RUNOFF
         QUALITY FROM AN URBAN WATERSHED	 . 307
           1. Introduction	 307
           2. Previous  Work		 307
           3. Development of; the Mathematical Model
              for Urban Runoff Quality.	,	 307
             3.1 Mathematical Formula for Surface
                 Pollutant Removal	 308
             3.2 Significance of K Value.	 314
             3.3 Removal of Pollutant from Catch-
                 basins . . . .	 316
             3.4 Routing of Soluble Pollutant
                 through Lateral and Main Sewers	 318
             3.5 Routing of Settleable Solids in
                 Sewer Systems	 320
           4. Application of the Model	 325
           5. Conclusions and Suggestions for
              Further Study	 333
  VIII   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS	 335
    IX   REFERENCES	 337
                             VI'

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                         FIGURES
                                                       Page
 1.  General Location of the Bloody Run Sewer
     Drainage Area in Cincinnati	   7

 2.  Aerial Photograph of the Bloody Run Sewer
     Watershed	   g

 3.  Division of Bloody Run Sewer Watershed
     into Different Land Uses	   9

 4.  Division of Bloody Run Sewer Basin into
     Subareas	  11

 5.  Census Tracts 1960 Covering Bloody Run
     Sewer Watershed	  14

 6.  Screed Diagrams for 20-24 & 27 Ft. Roadways	  17

 7.  Screed Diagrams for 34, 36, 40, 44, 56 &
     70 Ft. Roadways	  18

 8.  Standard 24 Ft. & 36 Ft. Concrete Roadway
     Sections	  19

 9.  Division of Bloody Run Sewer Watershed for
     Street Cleaning Information	  20

10.  Flooding-type Tube Inf iltrometer	 .  26

11.  Flooding-type Tube Inf iltrometer	  26

12.  General Sewer Layout Map of Bloody Run
     Sewer Basin	  29

13.  Division of Bloody Run Sewer Basin into
     Subareas and Numbering of the Sewer System's
     Elements	  30

14 .  Standard Single Gutter Inlet. . .	  34

15.  Standard Castings Single Gutter Inlet	  35

16 .  Standard Double Gutter Inlet Manhole	  36

17 .  Standard Castings Double Gutter Inlet	  37

18.  Standard Pavement Detail for Single or
     Double Gutter Inlet	  38
                            VII

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                                                      Page

19 .  Standard Combination Inlet	  39

20.  Standard Single Valley Inlet	  40

21.  Standard Double Valley Inlet	  41

22 .  Standard Ditch Inlet	  42

23 .  Standard Double Ditch Inlet	 .  43

24.  Standard Precast Mahole on Conduits 42"
     and Under	  44

25.  Standard Manhole on Conduits 48" and
     Over. .-	 .  45

26.  Typical Manhole on 10' x 8', 11' x 9' and
     12' x 9' Sewers	  46

27.  Manhole on Rectangular 10 ' , x 15' Sewer	  47

28 .  Standard Drop Manholes	 .  48

29.  Bloody Run Sewer Watershed Monitoring
     Stations and Rain Gages	  49

30.  Typical Raingage Unit, on Laidlaw Avenue
     near the Outlet of Bloody Run Basin	  50

31.  Monitoring Station BANK next to Swifton
     Shopping Center	  50

32.  BANK Monitoring Station.  Sampling and
     Flow Measuring Apparatus Connected with
     a 54" and a 78" Sewer	  51

33.  BANK Monitoring Station.  Air-Compressor and
     Taylor Plow Recorder	  51

34.  BANK Monitoring Station.   Manometers and
     Taylor Flow Recorder	  52

35.  BANK Monitoring Station.   Junction of two
     Sewer Pipes,  54"  and 78"  in diameter	  52

36.  Sewer, 78"  in Diameter,  during Dry Weather
     Flow (BANK Monitoring Station)	  53
                           vnx

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                                                       Page

37.  Sewer, 54" in Diameter, during Dry
     Weather Flow (BANK Monitoring Station)	  53

38.  General View of the LONGVIEW Monitoring
     Station Area	  54

39 .  LONGVIEW Monitoring Station		  54

40.  LONGVIEW Monitoring Station.  Sampling
     and Flow Measuring Apparatus	 .  55

41.  LONGVIEW Monitoring Station.  The Two
     Sampling Installations Connected with
     11' x 9' and 12' x 9' Sewers	  55

42.  OUTLET Monitoring Station on Prosser
     Street.	  56

43.  OUTLET Monitoring Station and Power Pole	  56

44.  Storm Water Outfall from the Bloody Run
     Basin at the OUTLET Monitoring Station	  57

45.  OUTLET Monitoring Station.  Flow Measuring
     and Sampling Apparatus	  57

46.  OUTLET Monitoring Station.  Sewage Sampling
     Installation (Sentry Sequential Effluent
     Sampler and Pump)	  58

47.  OUTLET Monitoring Station.  Flow Measuring
     Installation (Air-Compressor, Manometer and
     Flow Recorder)	  58

48.  Measured Specific Energy versus Computed
     Discharge for  54" Circular Sewer with
     Slope 0 . 013  (BANK)	  59

49.  Measured Specific Energy versus Computed
     Discharge for  78" Circular Sewer with
     Slope 0.009  (BANK)	  59

50.  Semi-Circular  Sewer Cross-Section 11' x 9'
     at Monitoring  Station LONGVIEW	,	  60

51.  Measured Specific Energy versus Computed
     Discharge for  11' x 9" Semi-Circular Sewer
     with Slope 0.004  (LONGVIEW) . .	  60
                             IX

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                                                       Page

52.  Semi-Circular Sewer Cross-Section 12' x 9'
     at Monitoring Station LONGVIEW.	>. . . .     61

53.  Measured Specific Energy versus Computed
     Discharge for 12'  x 9'  Semi-Circular Sewer
     with Slope 0.003 (LONGVIEW)	 .     61

54.  Rectangular Sewer Cross-Section 15'  x 10'
     at Monitoring 'Station OUTLET	     62

55.  Measured Specific Energy versus Computed
     Discharge for 10'  x 15'  Rectangular Sewer
     with Slope 0.003 (OUTLET)	     62

56.  U. S. Weather Bureau Raingage Stations
     Surrounding the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed	     64

57.  Topographic Map of Hamilton County
     (Scale 1:250,000)		„	     65

58.  Daily Rainfall Data.  Metropolitan Area of
     Cincinnati, Ohio (March to October,  1970)	  82-89

59.  Bloody Run Sewer Watershed.  Dry Weather
     Flow Sampling Points	     92

60.  Dry Weather Sampling Points and Major
     Land-Use Classifications	     93

61.  Rain of April 1, 1970.   Hyetograph	     98

62.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 1, 1970;
     Station BANK - 54 " Sewer	    100

63.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 1, 1970;
     Station BANK - 78" Sewer	 .    102

64.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 1, 1970;
     Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer	    104

65.  Rain of April 24,  1970.   Hyetograph	    105

66.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 24, 1970;
     Station BANK - 54" Sewer	    107

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67.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 24,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	 109

68.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 24,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer	 Ill

69.   Rain of April 27, 1970.  Hyetograph	 112

70.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm:  April 27,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer		114

71.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm:  April 27,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer	 .. 116

72.   Rain of May 12, 1970.  Hyetograph	 117

73.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm:  May 12, 1970;
     Station OUTLET - 10 '  x 15 ' Sewer	 119

74.   Rain of September 3,  1970.  Hyetograph	 120

75.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 3,
     1970; Station BANK - 54" and 78" Sewers	 122

76.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 3,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer	 124

77.   Rain of September 5,  1970.  Hyetograph	 125

78.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 5,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer	 127

79.   Rain of September 8,  1970.  Hyetograph	 128

80.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 8,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer	 130

81.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 8,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer	 132
                             XI

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                                                        Page

82.  Rain of September 13, 1970.  Hyetograph	 133

83.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	 135

84.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer	 137

85.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer	 139

86.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer	 141

87.  Rain of September 18, 1970.  Hyetograph	 142

88.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 18,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	 144

89.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 18,
     1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer	 146

90.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 18,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer	 148

91.  Rain of September 21, 1970.  Hyetograph	 149

92.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 21,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer	 151

93.  Rain of September 22, 1970.  Hyetograph	 152

94.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 22,
     1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer	 154

95.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 22,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer....	 156
                             XII

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                                                        Page

 96.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 22,
      1970; Station OUTLET - 10 '  x 15' Sewer	 158

 97.  Rain of September 24, 1970.  Hyetograph	 159

 98.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 24,
      1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer	 161

 99.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 24,
      1970; Station LONG-VIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer	 163

100.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 24,
      1970; Station OUTLET - 10'  x 15' Sewer	 165

101.  Rain of September 25, 1970.  Hyetographs.......... 166

102.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
      1970; Station BANK - 54" Sewer	 168

103.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
      1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	' 170

104.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
      1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer.	 172

105.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10 ' x 15' Sewer	 174

106.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
      1970; Station OUTLET -10'  x 15' Sewer	 176

107.  Rain of September 26, 1970.  Hyetograph	 177

108.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
      1970; Station BANK - 54" Sewer	 179

109.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
      1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	 181
                             Xlll

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                                                        Page
110.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 9' x 11' Sewer	 183

111.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 9' x 12' Sewer..	 185

112.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
      1970; Stations LONGVIEW  (10' x 15') &
      OUTLET (lO'-x^lS1)	 187

113.  Rain of OctoFer 9 & 10, 1970.  Hyetographs..	 188

114.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
      1970; Station BANK - 54" Sewer. . .	 190

115.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
      1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	'192

116.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' Sewer	 194

117.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 12 ' x 9' Sewer	 196

118.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
      1970; Station OUTLET - 10'  x 15' Sewer	 198

119.  Rain of October 12 & 13, 1970.   Hyetographs	 199

120.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 12 & 13,
      1970; Station BANK - 54" and 78" Sewers	 201

121.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 12 & 13,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' and 12' x 9'
      Sewers	 203 ,

122.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 12 & 13,
      1970; Station OUTLET - 10'  x 15'  Sewer	 205
                             xiv

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                                                       Page

123.  Rain of October 14, 1970.  Hyetographs	 206

124.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 14,
      1970; Station BANK - 54" and 78" Sewers	 208

125.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 14,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' & 12' x 9'
      Sewers	 210

126.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 14,
      1970; Station OUTLET - 10 '  x 15 '  Sewer	 212

127.  Rain of October 20, 1970.  Hyetographs	 213

128.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
      1970; Station BANK - 54" & 78" Sewers	 215

129.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' Sewer....	 217

130.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
      1970; Station LONGVIEW -12' x 9' Sewer...	 219

131.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
      1970; Station OUTLET - 10'  x 15'  Sewer	 221

132.  Rain of October 20 (afternoon), 1970.
      Hyetographs	 222

133.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data  - Bloody
      Run Sewer Watershed - Storm:  October 20
      (afternoon),  1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15'
      Sewer	 224

134.  Infiltration Capacity Curves for  Wet and
      Normal Antecedent Conditions of Turf Areas	 234

135.  Storm Pattern and Infiltration Capacity in
      Case iQ>  fQ	 235
                             xv

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136.  Storm Pattern and Infiltration Capacity in
      Case io 
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154.  Hypothetical Frequency Distribution and
      Cumulative Distribution of Settling
      Velocities of a Suspension	  313

155.  Relationship of Flow into Catchbasin and
      Reduction of Concentration on Salt (NaCl)	  317

156.  Diagrammatic Representation of Soluble
      Pollutant Routing	  321

157.  Sieve Analysis Plot for Sewer Sediment	  324

158.  Mass Flow in a Sewer Conduit	  324

159.  San Francisco Laguna Street Combined Sewer.
      March 10, 1967 Storm.  Runoff Quality	  328

160.  San Francisco Laguna Street Combined Sewer.
      Storm of March 15,  1967.  Runoff Quality	  330

161.  Cincinnati Bloody Run Sewer Watershed.  Storm
      of April 1, 1970.  Runoff Quality	  332
                            xvi i

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                          TABLES


                                                   Page

 1.   Division of Bloody Run Sewer Watershed into
     Different Land Uses 	    10

 2.   Physical Characteristics of the Bloody Run
     Sewer Watershed	    12

 3.   Computed Average Slope of Subareas of Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed	    13

 4.   Census Data, Year 1960, for Bloody Run Sewer
     Watershed (Census Tracts) 	    15

 5.   Census Data, Year 1960, for Bloody Run Sewer
     Watershed (for each Subarea) 	    16

 6.   Street Cleaning of the Bloody Run Sewer
     Watershed (Area I to Area V)	21-25

 7.   Bloody Run Basin Sewer Elements 	31-33

 8.   Hourly Precipitation (March to October
     1970)	66-73

 9.   Daily Rainfall Data.  Metropolitan Area of
     Cincinnati, Ohio (March to October 1970) ... 74-81

10.   Dry Weather Flow Quantitative and Quali-
     tative Data	 94-95

11.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 1, 1970;
     Station BANK - 54" Sewer 	    99

12.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 1, 1970;
     Station BANK - 78" Sewer 	   101

13.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 1, 1970;
     Station OUTLET. - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   103

14.   Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 24, 1970;
     Station BANK - 54" Sewer	   106
                            xix

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                                                    Page

15.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 24,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer .	   108

16.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 24,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   110

17.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 27,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer 	   113

18.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: April 27,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   115

19.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: May 12, 1970;
     Station OUTLET - 10 ' x 15' Sewer	   118

20.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 3,
     1970; Station BANK - 54"  & 78" Sewers 	   121

21.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 3,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW -  10' x 15' Sewer  	   123

22.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 5,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   126

23.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 8,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW -  10' x 15' Sewer  ....   129

24.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 8,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer ..	   131

25.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station BANK  - 78"  Sewer  	   134

26.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station BANK  - 96"  Sewer		   136
                             xx


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27.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer .
                                                   Paqe
138
28.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 13,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   140

29.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 18,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer  	   143

30.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 18,
     1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer  	   145

31.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 18,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer  ...   147

32.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 21,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   150

33.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 22,
     1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer  	   153

34.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 22,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x  15' Sewer  ...   155

35.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 22,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   157

36.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 24,
     1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer  	   160

37.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 24,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x  15' Sewer  ...   162

38.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 24,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15' Sewer 	   164
                           xxi

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                                                       Paqe
39.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
     1970; Station BANK - 54" Sewer	 167

40.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	 .. 169

41.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed,- Storm: September 25,
     1970; Station BANK - 96" Sewer	 171

42.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' Sewer	 173

43.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 25,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10' x 15'  Sewer	 .... 175

44.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
     1970; Station BANK - 54" Sewer 	. ...	 178

45.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer	 180

46.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 9' x 11' Sewer	 182

47.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 9' x 12' Sewer 	 184

48.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: September 26,
     1970; Stations LONGVIEW (10' x 15')  &
     OUTLET (10' xl5')	 186

49.  Runoff Quantity and. Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
     1970; Station BANK - 54" Sewer	 189

50.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
     1970; Station BANK - 78" Sewer....	 191
                            .xxii

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                                                       Page

51.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' Sewer . .	 193

52.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 12' x 9' Sewer 	 195

53.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 9 & 10,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10'  x 15' Sewer 	 197

54.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 12 & 13,
     1970; Station BANK - 54" and 78" Sewers	 200

55.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 12 & 13,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' & 12'  x 9'
     Sewers	 202

56.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 12 & 13,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10'  x 15' Sewer 	 204

57.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 14,
     1970; Station BANK - 54" and 78" Sewers 	 207

58.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 14,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' & 12'  x 9'
     Sewers 	,	 209

59.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data .-: Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 14,
     1970; Station OUTLET - 10 '  x 15' Sewer . .,	 211

60.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
     1970; Station BANK - 54" &  78" Sewers 	 214

61.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 11' x 9' Sewer 	 216

62.  Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
     Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
     1970; Station LONGVIEW - 12 ' x 9' Sewer 	 218
                             XXlll

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63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
                                                       Paae
Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20,
1970; Station OUTLET - 10'  x 15'  Sewer 	 220

Runoff Quantity and Quality Data - Bloody
Run Sewer Watershed - Storm: October 20
(afternoon), 1970; Station OUTLET -
10' x 15" Sewer 	
                                                        223
San Francisco Laguna Street.  March. 10,
1967 Storm.  Runoff Quality 	 327

San Francisco Laguna Street.  March 15,
1967 Storm.  Runoff Quality 	 329

Cincinnati Bloody Run Sewer Watershed.
April 1, 1970 Storm.  Runoff Quality  	 331
                            xxiv

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                        SECTION I

              CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCLUSIONS

     Automatic equipment for discharge measurements and
sequential sampling of water quality has been installed
for five sewer locations, including the outlet, in the
combined sewer system of the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed
in Cincinnati, Ohio.

     Detailed physical information on the sewer system and
watershed have been compiled along with runoff quantity
and quality data beginning in the spring of 1970.  The
physiographic compilation includes parameters required for
a storm water management model, i.e., imperviousness of
surfaces, street cleaning operations, sewer system design,
slopes of overland flow areas, usage of areas, storm in-
lets, curb and gutter design, etc.  The runoff data
include the following:

     1.  Discharge hydrograph measurements have been made
at the five sewer locations for eighteen rain storms.

     2.  Runoff water quality samples have been collected
on a sequential basis and analyzed for approximately
eighteen rain storms at the five sewer locations.  The
analyses included BOD, COD, suspended solids  (total and
volatile), and chloride  (for a portion of the samples).

     3.  Detailed measurements and analyses of the
quantity and quality of dry weather flow were accomplished
during the summer period.

     Two mathematical models for simulation of urban
runoff have been developed under this grant.  They are
presented in basic form in this report.  One of the
models is for simulation of the rate of water runoff and
the other is for simulation of the rate of pollutional
runoff.  Examples for application of the water runoff
hydrograph simulation model are provided with a complete
computer program.  These models will be improved and
tested as additional data become available along with the
Storm Water Management Model developed by Metcalf &'Eddy,
Inc., et al, under contracts 14-12-501, 502, 503, with the
Environmental Protection Agency, Water Quality Office
 (draft final report dated September, 1970).

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RECOMMENDATIONS

     1.  It is recommended that the collection of runoff
quantity and quality data continue for the Bloody Run
combined sewer watershed and that one additional station
be added in the upper part of the watershed if possible.

     2.  It is recommended that a second watershed having
a separate sewer system be instrumented and that data
be collected similar to that from the Bloody Run combined
sewer area.  Plans are being prepared to carry this out
for a watershed near the .Bloody Run sewer area.

     3.  It is recommended that observations on the runoff
of chloride concentrations be made during the winter
period for the Bloody Run sewer area, so as to obtain in-
formation on pollution from street salting operations.  A
program for this sampling and analysis has been set up
and is intended as a part of the 1971 winter operations
under this grant.

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                       SECTION II

                      INTRODUCTION
     This is an interim report on the first year progress
 (October 1, 1969-September 30, 1970) under the research
grant 11024 DQU to the University of Cincinnati by the
Environmental Protection Agency, Water Quality Office.

     The general objective of this project is to develop
and verify a reliable method for control of the magnitude,
frequency, and quality of combined sewer overflows from
urban watersheds.  The final'result is expected to be a
mathematical model and computer program verified for
practical usage.

     The main effort during the first year has,been to
establish a monitoring system and to gather as much field
data as possible.  In addition, considerable effort has
been given to the development of mathematical models which
will simulate and control a storm water overflow system.
The monitoring system which has been established differs
from various systems that have been set up for past
studies in that it provides for observations of the rates
of runoff (quantity and quality) at a number of locations
within the sewer system as well as at the outlet of the
drainage area.  Many of the past studies have included
observations only at the outlets.

     The second year's program  (October 1, 1970-Septem-
ber 30, 1971)  will continue the gathering of field data
to a maximum extent on the existing combined sewer water-
shed.  It is also planned that a separate sewer drainage
area, adjacent to the existing combined sewer watershed,
will be set up with a monitoring system and that
observations would begin there in the spring of 1971.

     Testing and verification of the mathematical models
will be carried out also during the second year with
available data.  These models will include the Storm
Water Management Model furnished by EPA/WQO (developed
by Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. and others under their
contracts 14-12-501, 502, 503) and also those being de-
veloped by the University of Cincinnati as included in
this report on a preliminary basis.

     In testing and developing the models, study will be
oriented toward the benefits which may be gained by the
use of different forms of runoff storage at various

-------
points within a system during peak runoff periods.

     Because of growing concern over the runoff of salt
from streets during the winter period in northern urban
areas, an ancillary program has been established to make
chloride concentration observations at various points in
the Bloody Run Sewer drainage system.

     It is intended that the collection of samples and
data would continue for at least a third year and that the
overall operations would then be finally summarized for
engineering application purposes.


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                       SECTION III

     DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
     A combined sewer watershed of diversified usage in
the City of Cincinnati was selected for the purpose of
collecting data to develop and verify storm water manage-
ment models for urban areas.  The watershed is referred
to as the Bloody Run Sewer System.  It was so named be-
cause of an Indian massacre which took place in that area
during an early historical period.  Its location is in
the northeast section of the City of Cincinnati as shown
in Figure 1.

     The area is comprised of 2,380 acres of rolling
terrain.  Topographically, the area is characterized by
two main valleys running approximately east and west.
Most of the commercial and industrial sections are located
in these valleys; the residential housing is found on the
ridges.

     About 55% of the area is residential, 17% commercial,
5% industrial, and 22% open land and parks.  A more
detailed division of the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed into
different land uses is presented in Figure 3 and Table 1.

     The Bloody Run Sewer Watershed was divided into 37
subareas by using sewer, topographical, and zoning maps,
with the concept that each area should include one major
type of land use and should incorporate an individual
inlet manhole.  The resulting division is shown in
Figure 4.  The subareas have been numbered in such a way
to follow the sewer network and facilitate the data
tabulation for computer programming.

     The physical characteristics of the subareas, such
as the number of acres, length, average width which is
used to calculate the distance that the overland runoff
must travel before entering the inlet manhole, maximum
and minimum elevation, average slope, and perviousness,
are given in Tables 2 and 3.

     The total population according to the 1960 census is
approximately 26,000 with an average of about 11 persons
per acre.  Figure 5 presents the 1960 census tracts cover-
ing the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed and Table 4 summarizes
the data collected for these tracts.  In Table 5, the same
data have been extracted for each one of the 37 subareas
which constitute the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed.

-------
     In order to calculate the overland flow from the
street surfaces feeding the roadside gutters, the screed
diagram of the streets according to their width is needed
as given in Figures 6 and 7.  For the estimation of the
gutter flows, the details of rolling and battered curbs
are given in figure 8 together with two common sidewalk
cross-sections^
             -,'v
     Information on street cleaning operations, i.e.
number of miles of streets swept and number of cubic yards
of litter and debris removed, have been obtained from the
City of Cincinnati Department of Public Works.  These data
are provided in Table 6 for each one of five areas which
cover the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed as shown in Figure 9.

     Infiltration tests are being performed at various
locations of the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed in order to
estimate the infiltration capacity curves for various
types of soil and vegetative cover.  The purpose of these
tests is to obtain values for the maximum infiltration ,
capacity rate, the minimum infiltration capacity rate, and
the decay rate of infiltration.  Tube flooding-type
infiltrometers are being used.  They consist of a metal
tube 25" long with wall thickness 5/8" and inside diameter
8 7/8".  To perform the infiltration test, the tube is
jacked into the soil to a depth of about 21 inches. Water
is then applied from graduated burettes to maintain a
constant head of water sufficiently deep to submerge the
vegetation.  The burettes are read at successive time
intervals to determine the rates and amounts of infil-
tration.  A typical installation for infiltration test is
shown in Figures 10 and 11.

     The infiltration tests will be continued in the
future under dry and wet antecedent conditions and with
frost conditions until sufficient information is obtained
to permit conclusions on the influence of vegetative cover,
soil type, and temperature.

-------
                                                                    t    -

                                                     \ HKAD1NG ^---J.--^.^^-   .
                                               JOHIO RIVER 
                                                                  O^    ~;
   ^DOWNTOWN

^""VvCINCINNATI
                                                           ^   .//   ./.
    Figure   1  .   GENERAL LOCATION OF  THE BLOODY RUN  SEWER

                         DRAINAGE AREA  IN CINCINNATI

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     Table   1  .  DIVISION OF BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED INTO
                             DIFFERENT LAND USES

Char.*
0-1
0-2
0-3
0-4
0-5
0-6
0-7
0-8
RS-1
RS-2
RS-3
RS-4
RS-5
RS-6
RS-7
RM-1
RM-2
RM-3
RM-4
C-l
C-2
C-3
C-4
1-1
1-2
S-l
S-2
H
Area
(acres) Land Use
38.5
18.8
275.0
9-2 Open Land and Parks
34.5
34.5
138.0
32.2
27.6
113.0
169'° Residential
396-0 Single Family Housing
2 lo.O
78.0
137.5
27.6
85.5 Residential
57.5 Multi-Fami ly Housing
11.5
39.2
•jQ r\
,?,?",, Commercial
160.0
46.0
;••;; Industrial
79.5
?„ „ Schools
40.0
39.0 Hospital
* referring to Figure  3
                                10

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-------
         Table  2 .   PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
                       BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
Subarea
Number *
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Length in
Feet (L)
5010.0
2625.0
2526.5 '
625.1
1062.5
1500.0
3062.5
1375.0
4562.5
750.0
1125.0
1375.0
1375.0
2312.5
2687.5
1437.5
2500.0
1125.0
1250.0
1125.0
875.0
1125.0
1062.5
1562.5
1562.5
1000.0
750.0
1125.0
1000.0
1125.0
2312.5
2600.0
1300.0
2625.0
' 3250.0
710.0
875.0
Average
Width in
Feet (A/L)
1530.0
1138.4
1262.1
4112.1
1557.9
969.9
481.4
1701.2
2388.8
2625.2
1486.8
2591.4
1522.7
380.1
1167.0
5515.1
1597.8
693.1
2052.5
1645.6
1797.8
1 544. 9
3570.9
2461.7
839.1
1310.0
1071.5
2334.8
2090.9
1954.2
1243.2
900.0
800.0
896.0
837.7
7600.0
1138.4
Area in
Acres (A)
176.0
68.6
73.2
59.0
38.0
33.4
69.0
53.7
250.2
45.2
38.4
81.8
49.8
20.2
72.0
116.0
91.2
17.9
58.9
42.5
36.1
39.9
87.1
88.3
30.1
29.9
21.9
60.3
48.0
50.6
66.0
54.0
25.0
50.1
62.5
122.0
49.0
Perviousness
(%)
66.3
71.3
46.5
65.3
63.2
61.1
26.7
43.2
! 48.1
41.5
18.6
45.5
89.2
65.3
79.3
54.4
35.5
75.5
60.2
60.3
57.7
53.6
39.2
61.3
55.4
28.3
43.6
51.3
60.1
70.3
95.0
95.1
83.2
89.1
60.5
50.3
66.2
*referring to Figure  4
                                12

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Table 3
COMPUTED AVERAGE SLOPE OF SUBAREAS OF BLOODY  RUN  SEWER WATERSHED
Subarea
Number *
1
2**

3**

IpV*

5
6
7**


8**

9**
,
10 /
"/
12
/1 3
7 14
15**

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30**

31**

32
33
34
35
36**

37
Maximum
E 1 eva t i on
845
750
785
700
730
680
715
720
685
650
675
675
620
620
800
715
625
585
610
595
580
600
590
595
600
590
595
590
575
600
620
725
625
635
670
725
660
735
730
590
580
600
575
575
610
585
575
575
Minimum
E 1 eva t i on
690
675
750
645
675
650
650
605
625
600
650
650
575
575
625
625
560
555
555
550
545
560
560
540
550
550
575
575
555
575
590
605
575
600
605
640
610
660
660
540
540
535
540
535
600
530
540
525
Distance
(feet)
5000
2400
450
1800
700
1300 . „
850
1050
600
2300
500
400
400
600
4000
2600
2400
700
1700
900
1000
1300
700
1200
2100
1000
900
1000
600
1000
1400
1900
600
550
1100
2000
1400
1400
900
1200
700
2600
1300
1700
800
750
600
700
Slope
(%)
3.1
3.1
7.8
3.1
7.8
2.3
4.1
11.2
10.5
2.2
5.0
6.3
11.3
7.5
4.4
3.4
2.0
4.3
3.2
5.0
3.5
3.1
4.3
3.7
2.3
4.0
2.2
1.5
4.2
2.5
5.7
6.3
8.3
6.4
5.9
4.3
3.6
5.4
7.8
4.2
5.7
2.5
2.7
2.3
1.2
7.3
5.8
7.1
 •''referring  to  Figure 4.
**Subareas comprised of  two or more smaller areas, each sloping in
  different  directions.
                                  13

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o
o
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15

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         TABLE 5  - CENSUS DATA, YEAR I960, FOR BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
                         (Sub-area Boundaries on Sub-Area Division Map)
Sub-
Area*
#
I
2
3
k
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2k
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Total #
Persons
per Acre
9.29
9-72
8.72
13.^6
15-19
13.97
8.30
14.68
18.19
17.09
16.74
12.57
8.39
10.48
10.48
10.48
12.54
10.48
10.48
5.86
10.48
6.67
6.73
10.98
11.01
9-22
11.26
11.62
11.26
13.09
10.48
5.38
7.93
5.38
5.38
8.38
10.48
Total #
Dwel 1 ing
Units
608
230
215
178
111
98
203
302
1620
307
223
395
105
40
140
100
335
40
140
130
50
110
192
321
91
58
81
231
179
57
124
100
47
93
116
266
113
# People
Living
in Avg.
Dwel 1 ing
Unit
2.83
2.65
2.79
2.78
2.78
2.78
2.78
2.89
2.63
2.63
2.75
2.71
3.91
4.53
4.53
4.53
3.90
4.53
4.53
4.53
4.14
4.53
3.26
3.12
3.89
2.79
3-02
3.15
3.02
3-70
4.53
2.88
3.37
2.88
2.88
3.99
4.53
Median
Fami ly
Income
($1000)
8.34
7-62
7.64
7.64
7.64
7.64
7.64
7.60
7-38
7.38
7.47
7.29
8.34
8.61
8.61
8.61
8.16
8.61
8.61
8.61
12.72
8.61
11.21
8.33
8.23
7.39
7.53
7.55
7.53
7.58
8.61
7.24
7.21
7-24
7.24
8.24
8.61
Avg. Market
Value Owner
Occup ied
Units
($1000)
21.31
17.42
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
18.20
17-30
17.30
17.38
17.08
20.91
22.70
22.70
22.70
20.85
22.70
22.70
22.70
31.30
22.70
26.32
19.23
20.49
17-81
17.30
17.43
17.30
18.54
22.70
17-00
18.07
17.00
17.00
20.95
22.70
•"referring to Figure 4.
                                       16

-------
                                 1O-G.'
                     2O FT. ROADWAY - ROLLING COT2B
                                12-G"
                    04TT. ROADWAY- EOLLUOG
                                 14-0"
                   17 FT ROADWAY-COLUWG CUES
                     7O TT. GOADWA.Y-UPG1GHT
                     24-FT. J2OADWAY-UPE1OHT C(JT2B
                       FT. J2OADWAY-UPJ25GHTC-UJ2B
Figure 6  .   SCREED DIAGRAMS  FOR 20-24  & 27 FOOT ROADWAYS
                                 17

-------
                                         rf-v
                                  34 FT. COADWAY
                                  2>C>FT ROADWAY
                                         20'--?'
                                   40FT.EOADWAY
                                         22-7'
                                    44 FT. EOAOWAY
                                   &&FT. J20ADWAY
                                   70 FT ROADWAY
    h4OTEL' Eoatiway widths ara. '
          or? iba osa. of 7'wida
          Cone. Cork.
Figure  7  .   SCREED DIAGRAMS  FOR 34-,  36, **0, ^,  56 &  70 FOOT  ROADWAYS
                                        18

-------
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Table  6  .  STREET CLEANING OF THE BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
                    (data from City of Cincinnati)

                           AREA  I*

Date
3/ 2/70
3/16/70.
3/31/70
4/13/70
4/26/70
5/11/70
5/25/70
6/ 9/70
6/22/70
7/ 6/70
7/20/70
8/10/70
8/31/70
9/21/70
10/12/70
ll/ 2/70
Mi 1 es of
Streets
Swept
t
3
~01
2.
'I
O

-------
Table 6  .   STREET CLEANING OF THE BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
                    (data from City of Cincinnati)

                          AREA I I*

Date
3/ 9/70
3/23/70
V 7/70
4/20/70
5/ 5/70
5/18/70
6/ 1/70
6/15/70
6/30/70
7/13/70
7/27/70
8/17/70
9/ 8/70
9/28/70
10/19/70
H/ 9/70
Mi les of
Streets
Swept
t
c
s_
Q)
'i
oo

-------
 Table 6  .   STREET CLEANING  OF THE BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
                     (data  from City of Cincinnati)
                           AREA III*

Date
3/16/70
3/30/70
4/13/70
4/28/70
5/11/70
5/25/70
6/ 8/70
6/29/70
8/ 3/70
8/24/70
9/14/70
10/ 5/70
10/26/70
11/16/70
Mi les of
Streets
Swept
t
c
4;
0)
'e
0^
0)
Ol
a;
03
20.0
18.0
14.0
18.0
18.0
10.0
Litter-Debris
Cubi c
Yards
8.1
8.6
9.6 .
5.7
8.9
9.9
12.7
8.5
10.0
15.0
10.0
10.0
25. 0+
60.0+
Removed
Pound s**
19500
20500
23000
14000
21500
24000
30500
20500
24000
36000
24000
24000
unknown
unknown
 * referring to Figure 9  .
** one cubic yard has an average weight from 2200 to 2400 Ibs.
 + Leaf removal  operations.   Normal  street sweepings and leaves mixed.
                               23

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Table 6  .   STREET CLEANING OF THE BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
                    (data Jrom City of Cincinnati)
                           AREA IV*

Date
3/12/70
3/26/70
4/ 9/70
4/23/70
5/ 7/70
5/21/70
6/ 4/70
6/18/70
7/20/70
8/10/70
9/31/70
9/21/70
10/12/70
ll/ 2/70
Mi 1 es of
Street
Swept
t
tn
^
'i
oo

-------
 Table  6 .   STREET CLEANING  OF THE  BLOODY RUN  SEWER  WATERSHED
                     (data  from City of  Cincinnati)
                            AREA  V*


Date
3/ 6/70
3/20/70
V V70
VI 7/70
5/ 1/70
5/15/70
5/29/70
6-/l2/70++
Mi les of
Streets
Swept
t
c
in
(U
*E
\G
O1
1-
0)
(0
1
Li tter-Debri s
Cubic
Yards
4.3
4.1
3.6
3.7
2.1
2.9
3.9
4.3
Removed
Pounds'''*
10000
9500
8300
8500
5000
7000
9000
10000
 * referring to Figure 9  .
** one cubic yard has an average weight from 2200 to 2400 Ibs.
++ no data available after this date
                               25

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                 ffe
         Figure 10  .
FLOOD ING-TYPE TUBE INF!LTROMETER
         Figure 11.
FLOOD ING-TYPE TUBE  INF ILTROMETER
              26

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                         SECTION IV

 DESCRIPTION  AND  LAYOUT  OF  THE  SEWER AND  MONITORING SYSTEMS


     _The Bloody  Run  Sewer  network  is a combined  system with
 a main  trunk line  that  splits  into three branches  following
 the  valleys  of the watershed.   Figure 12 presents  the
 general sewer layout with  the  dimensions of  the  bigger than
 27 inches pipes.

     The sewer outfall  is  located  at the southwestern  tip
 of the  watershed and discharges  into an  interceptor  leading
 to the  Mill  Creek  Waste  Water  Treatment  Plant.   Overflows
 from storms  are  discharged directly into the Mill  Creek
 through an open  channel.

     In Figure 13, the  elements  of the sewer system  (pipes
 arid  manholes) are  numbered for identification.   Manholes
 are  located  wherever there is  a  significant change in  pipe
 size, direction, or  slope.  Each of the  37 subareas,
 previously described, has  its  individual inlet manhole.
 The  size, slope, and length of the sewer pipes is  tabulated
 in Table 7.

     Other elements  of  the Bloody  Run Sewer System such as
 standard gutter  inlets,  standard valley  inlets,  standard
 ditch inlets, standard manholes  for all  the pipe sizes,
 and  standard  drop manholes are presented in Figures  14 to
 28 .

     Three raingages manufactured  by the  Belfort Instrument
 Company, record automatically  the  accumulative mass  curve
 of each rainfall.  The raingages (Figure  30)  record  the
 rainfall by use of a weighing mechanism which causes a pen
 to trace changes on  a chart in a pre-balanced collection
 system.  The  charts, which can be  of 24  or 48 hours, re-
 cord up to 6  inches of total rainfall.  The location of
 the  three raingages  is shown on  Figure 29.  The first
 raingage is located  immediately  southwest of the study area
 on the roof of the Environmental Protection Agency, Air
 Pollution Control Office at 1055 Laidlaw Avenue.  The
 rotation period of this raingage is 48 hours.  The second
 raingage is located immediately  southeast of the study area
 on the roof of the Environmental Protection Agency, Solid
Wastes Office and Water Quality Office at 5555 Ridge
Avenue.  This raingage has a rotation period of 48 hours.
The third raingage is installed in the Bloody Run Sewer
Basin,  on the roof of Woodward High School, at Reading
 Road in front of Swifton Shopping Center.  This raingage
has a rotation period of 24 hours.
                            27

-------
     Three monitoring stations are taking flow measurements
and samples automatically during each rainfall.  The
locations of these stations are shown on Figure 29.

     The "Bank" monitoring station is located off the rear
of the parking lot of the Central Trust Bank near Swifton
Shopping Center at the corner of Reading Road and Losanti-
ville, as shown on Figure 31.  The sampling and flow
measuring apparatus  (Figures 32, 33, and 34) are connected
with a 54" and a 78" sewer which join there (Figure 35).
These two pipes have been photographed during dry weather
flow arid are presented in Figures 36 and 37.

     The "Longview" monitoring station is located at the
back yard of the Longview Hospital on the corner of Paddock
Road and Seymour Avenue as shown on Figures 38 and 39.  The
sampling and flow measuring apparatus shown on Figures 40
and 41 are connected with a 11' x 9'
circular sewer which join there.
and a 12'  x 9'  semi-
     The "Outlet" monitoring station is located 50 yards
from the intersection of Murray and Prosser Streets, on
Prosser Street as shown on Figures 42 and 43.  The gate
covering the storm water outfall is shown on Figure 44.
Automatic equipment has been installed (Figures 45, 46, and
47) which takes samples and flow measurements from the 10*
x 15' sewer, 20 feet upstream from the interceptor.

     The flow measuring apparatus consists of a compressor,
a manometer, and a Taylor pressure type recorder.  This
recorder operates by measuring the pressure due to the
depth and velocity of water flowing into the pipe by
bubbling air through a long tube inserted into the water.
The gage releases air at a constant pressure and as the
depth and the velocity of flow changes, the pressure
differential is recorded on a circular chart in inches of
water.  This pressure differential is actually the specific
energy which is equal to the sum of the pressure head

(depth of flow y) and the velocity head (V /2g).  To obtain
readily the discharge corresponding to the measured
specific energy, Manning's equation has been used to ex-
press the depth and the velocity of flow as functions of
the discharge and the hydraulic radius of the sewer cross
sections.  Thus the curves on Figures 48,49, 51, 53 and
55 have been calculated relating the measured specific
energy and the corresponding discharge at the five
monitored locations.
                             28

-------
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                    30

-------
              Table  7 .   BLOODY RUN BASIN SEWER ELEMENTS
E 1 etnen t
Number *
}
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2k
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
3^
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
Location
or Diameter
input manhole
54"
man hoi e
54"
manhol e
48"
manhol e
48"
input manhole
66"
manhole
72"
manhole
75"
input manhole
72"
input manhole
72"
input manhole
78"
input manhole
84"
manhol e
60"
input manhole
90"
input manhole
60"
manhole
60"
input manhole
10' x 8'
i'nput manhol e
10' x 8'
input manhole
10' x 8'
input manhole
1 I1 x 9'
input manhole
11 ' x 9'
input manhole
12' x 9'
input manhol e
12' x 9'
input manhole
96"
Slope

2.60%

2.30%

2.20%

2.60%

1.40%

0.90%

1.00%

1.40%

1.80%

1 . 25%

1 . 1 0%

1 . 0 0%

1 . 3 0%

1 . 2 0%

1 . 0 0%

0.70%

0 . 7 0%

0 . 7 0%

0 . 4 0%

0.40%

0 . 3 0%

0.28%

0.6 0%
Contributing Subarea*
or Lenqth (feet)
Drainage Subarea 1
394.0

689.3

380.4

467.0
Drainage Subarea 2
319.4

345.3

577.0
Drainage Subarea 3
462.7
Drainage Subarea 4
1 428 . 5
Drainage Subarea 5
1432.0
Drainage Subarea 6
664.0

149.7
Drainage Subarea 7
1238.5
Drainage Subarea 8
750.0

700 .0
Drainage Subarea 9
700 .0
Drainage Subarea 10
900 .0
Drainage Subarea 11
438.3
Drainage Subarea 12
1473.6
Drainage Subarea 13
350.0
Drainage Subarea 14
1673.1
Drainage Subareas 1 5 Ŗ- 1 6
1433-4
Drainage Subarea 17
595.4
--'-referring to Figure  12.
                                  31

-------
Element
Number
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
Location
or Diameter
input manhole
54"
manhol e
42"
input manhole
36"
input manhole
78"
manhole
42"
input manhole
78"
input manhole
66"
input manhole
60"
manhol e
54"
input manhole
. 78"
manhol e
72"
manhol e
66"
input manhole
66"
manhol e
66"
input manhole
48"
input manhole
48"
manhole
42"
manhole
36"
manhol e
33"
manhol e
27"
input manhole
48"
input manhol e
42"
input manhole
15' x 10'
input manhole
Slope

1 . 30%

2.40%

3.40%

0 . 90%

2.10%

0.80%

1 . 30%

1.50%

1.50%

0.86%

1.00%

1.90%

2.30%

1 . 1 0%

1 . 57%

2.18%

5.70%

1.42%

1.67%
drop 24"
1.65%

2.1 0%

1 . 5 0%

0 . 28%

Contributing Subarea*
or Length (feet)
Drainage Subarea 18
291.2

231.0
Drainage Subarea 19
76.0
Drainage Subarea 20
698.7

209.3
Drainage Subarea 21
442.8
Drainage Subarea 22
1086.0
Drainage Subarea 23
463.4

475.5
Drainage Subarea 24
1251.9

930.4

365-0
Drainage Subarea 25
404.7

800.2
Drainage Subarea 26
481.0
Drainage Subarea 27
354.4

253.6

389.4

342.0

325.9
Drainage Subarea 28
858 .0
Drainage Subarea 29
1700 .0
Drainage Subarea 30
2190.0
Drainage Subarea 31
32

-------
E 1 emen t
Number
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
Location
or Diameter
48"
input manhole
15' x 10'
input manhole
15' x 10'
man hoi e
54"
input manhole
15' x 10'
manhol e
15' x 10'
input manhole
15' x 10'
manhole and sewage
Slope
0.90%

0.32%

0.32%

0.50%

0.32%

0.34%

0.34%
outlet
Contributing Subarea*
or Length (feet)
170.0
Drainage Subarea 32
775-0
Drainage Subareas 33,34,35
495.0

706.5
Drainage Subarea 36
500.0

1556.0
Drainage Subarea 37
334.0

33

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        •b
i       r
 Outlet Pipe--'
 l-Z'Min.
                                               Curb-.
                   2
                   D
             //•p
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         PLAN C-C
      SECTION A-
                                      Inlet chamber shall be built of
                                      concrete or brick, masonry in
                                      accordance, wrth 6O4.
           SECTION
        STANDARD

SINGLE eUTTEfZ INLET
          PLAN 5.6.1.
           Figure  \k .   STANDARD SINGLE GUTTER INLET
                            34

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*-*"• STANDARD CASTINGS
SIMG-LE G-UTTEE 1KILET
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PLAN SECTION B
FRAME DETA'L
Figure 15. STANDARD CASTINGS SINGLE GUTTER INLET
    -t — i
35

-------
 &-*5 bora ffa" o.c. 5'-lO"long
'<*>-*%> bars Š6' o C. 'Z; I" long
 Bottom clearance 'Z"
            ,.--E>ack of upright curb

        ••'" '"  ,--5ack oP rolling curb
                                       , Standard
                                       Ace. No
     SECTION
 &" I
SECTION 5-
                               Concrete slab rooy ba precasf
                               DPI holes II" Prom each end.Mark.
                               top oP slab.
                               Inlet Chamber shaH be built of;
                               concrete or bricU masonry in
                               accordance: with 6O4 .
                                     STANDAE0
                      DOUBLE SUTTEE INLET MANHOLE
                                     PLAND.G-.I-.M.H.
           JI
   PL/\WC-C
     Figure 16 .  STANDARD DOUBLE GUTTER INLET MANHOLE
                           36

-------
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boH-S-%
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       — *-, ^, ' ,.

       ^' 'I/'/'"
                   . Costings ^

                       Dcam  \
Curb-:
          •//:
                    c
SECTION A-A
                                    SECTION  6-5
                                Inlet Chamber shall bo buitt oP
                                concrete or brick, masonry in
                                accordance wi-Vh  604.
PLAN C-C
                                  5TANDA.I2D
                          COMBINATION INLET
                                   PLAN  C.f.
     Figure 19  .   STANDARD  COMBINATION  INLET
                      39

-------
''OUTLET PIPE.
 f-2" M/W.
         PL AKf   C.- C
SECTION A-A
                                     Intet chamber shall be built oP
                                     concrete or bri'cU. ma&orira In
                                     accordance with 6O4.
                                        STANDARD
                                'SINGLE VALLEY INLET
           SECTION 13-13            PLAN S.V.I.
            Figure 20 .   STANDARD SINGLE VALLEY INLET
                            40

-------
                ^a PLANC-C
                          Inlet Chamber shall be built of1
                                 or brick masonry in
                                    vj-fh 6O4.
                               STANDAIZD
                         POODLE VALLEY INLET
                               PLAN  D.V.I.
SECTION A- A1-*
     Figure 21 .  STANDARD DOUBLE VALLEY  INLET
                    41

-------
   c
  "5
  b
   o
  "I
                               ,Class'G'Concrete Ŗ>!ab
                              / Reinforce wil-h A^Wire
                             / Mesh or equivaierrh N,
                                             /''  2'-a"        i
                                            T-	" "~     I
            SECTION
                                   5ECT1OM&-&'
A
         \-
             &'- 10'
      71
      •o
      -1-
r~
   

         il
1
       SLOPE. -\t
                  -J
              JPtAM:
         TOP  REMOVED
                               NOTE/
                                 The, Inlet is shown open on
                               •Poor aides. Any of these
                               opanmgs may be closed ae>
                               direcfcd toy the enginezr.
                                    STANDARD
                                DITCH  INLET
                                     PLAN .D.I.
                 Figure  22 •  STANDARD DITCH  INLET
                             42

-------
                             	_v^-2-e>!ab&C2'-6~Ģ2MoV Class,"G
                     x , ' "       I ,'' Eelnrorce with iff Vv'ire Mee>t
                               ~    equivalent^
                                                  Concrete.
                                             Mesh or
   b
            SECTION A-A
                                 SECTION
&
  o
     \3
                n
                  ll2"Min.
                   If
              I"
              ft
                    I
              SLOPE. T(j> DEAIW
                 ^J^i&	l-i'_.
       PLAN
TOP REMOVED
                             NOTE/
                             The inlet is shown open on Tour
                             sideŖ>. Any of these openings may
                             be closed as directed by the
                             engineer.
                                     Inlet shall bz. built of brick or
                                     concrete
                                          ģ5TAKIDAI2D
                                     DOUBLE DITCH  INLET
                                            PLAN D.D.I.
           Figure 23 .   STANDARD DOUBLE DITCH INLET
                              43

-------
      Standori
      Dome.-;
                 	_3;.a%'
               JS^.^/A.^4
Adj casting to   r^.," , " '33%'.'. fTluoTE : sĢt Prarnz
gradz. with bnct *~"'*~*	•'! '-—' flush vrmpavt.ane
                 Ŗj    -    herH t>c
                                            cut in I or Q foot sections oP manhole
                                            barrel. Not more, t nan 2 inlet connections
                                            spaced d ą feet apart hori-zontolly
                                            permitted in t> or 4 Toot M.H. sections
                                            Inlet pipz scl on I'/.
                                                   r greater.
                                                         t'izou MAIM PIPE .TO at USED AS
                                                         DiBECTED BY THE EUGUJEEE.
                                                         FILL COMPLETELY WITU &EOUT
                                                         AFTEG. TI2EUCU HAS liEEW Fl-USWEO j
                                                         Akll?
                   SECTION  A-A
                                                         STANDARD
               70&02 Class m T-onduif - 70' !o^0' Dioih
               7C6.OTGbS5 Er.,n^.il-Cvor 40!OĢ>h QN CONDUITS A2& UWDE12

                TYPE BPH
Figure  24 .    STANDARD  PRECAST  MANHOLE  ON  CONDUITS  42" AND UNDER
                                          44

-------
Use. some barrc.l and dome as shown for stondord manholes
on oonduiis 42" and under. Ace. Nos. 49OOO or 4S<'
                       		Manhole Step's-
                      ——^T"->v-   See Purchasing
                      k   ~~-
-------
                                         UJ
                                         CTi
                                          X

                                         CM
V
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                                         o
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-------
    [\	* /I- ^\r\. EVn m g. and cover
                 SCALK '/A"= I'-O"

       NOTE:-
             Tl>e cos^omaģ-q aedo'cfion of 4-OH.o?
       sewer will no! be made -for manholes  on
       l!JiO"x 10-0" sewer.
Figure 27.  MANHOLE ON RECTANGULAR 10'  x 15'  SEWER
                      47

-------
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-------
                      Figure 30.
       TYPICAL RAINGAGE UNIT, ON LAIDL.AW AVENUE
          NEAR THE OUTLET OF BLOODY RUN BASIN
                      Figure J>\ .
MONITORING STATION BANK NEXT TO SWIFTON SHOPPING CENTER
                         50

-------
              Figure 32.
        BANK MONITORING STATION
 SAMPLING AND FLOW MEASURING APPARATUS
 CONNECTED WITH A 5^" AND A 78" SEWER
              Figure 33.
        BANK MONITORING STATION
AIR-COMPRESSOR AND TAYLOR FLOW RECORDER

-------
                      Figure 3^.
                BANK MONITORING STATION
          MANOMETERS AND TAYLOR FLOW RECORDER
                      Figure 35-
BANK MONITORING STATION.  JUNCTION OF TWO SEWER PIPES,
                54" AND 78" IN DIAMETER
                          52

-------
                  Figure 36 .
 SEWER,  78" IN DIAMETER, DURING DRY WEATHER FLOW
            (BANK MONITORING STATION)
                              IS. If
                  Figure 37 .
SEWER, 54" IN DIAMETER, DURING DRY WEATHER FLOW
           (BANK MONITORING STATION)
                        53

-------
                    Figure 38 .




GENERAL VIEW OF THE LONGVIEW MONITORING STATION  AREA
                    Figure 39 .
             LONGVIEW MONITORING STATION
                          54

-------
              Figure 40 '.
       LONGVIEW MONITORING STATION

  SAMPLING AND FLOW MEASURING APPARATUS
              Figure 41 .

       LONGVIEW MONITORING STATION
THE TWO SAMPLING INSTALLATIONS CONNECTED
    WITH 11' x 9' AND 12'  x 9' SEWERS
                   55

-------
               Figure k2 .




OUTLET MONITORING STATION ON PROSSER STREET
               Figure ^3 .




  OUTLET MONITORING STATION AND POWER POLE
                     56

-------

                Figure kk .
STORM WATER OUTFALL FROM THE BLOODY RUN BASIN
      AT THE OUTLET MONITORING STATION
                Figure  45 .
         OUTLET  MONITORING  STATION
   FLOW MEASURING AND SAMPLING  APPARATUS
                     57

-------
                Figure 46  .

          OUTLET MONITORING STATION
        SEWAGE SAMPLING  INSTALLATION
(SENTRY SEQUENTIAL EFFLUENT SAMPLER AND  PUMP)
           OUTLET MONITORING STATION,
          FLOW MEASURING INSTALLATION -  "'•
(AIR-COMPRESSOR,  MANOMETER,  AND FLOW RECORDER)
                      58

-------
   100
S
•S
8
Ul
5
o  50
in  -/w
                                                              Specific Energy (E) is
                                                               measured at point A
                                   100
                                 COMPUTED DISCHARGE  (cfs)
                                                                 200
               Figure  1)8.   MEASURED  SPECIFIC  ENERGY  VERSUS  COMPUTED  DISCHARGE
                            FOR  $4"  CIRCULAR  SEWER WITH  SLOPE  0.013  (BANK)
                                       Specific Energy (E)  Is
                                        measured at point A
               100
200        '     ' '  300
    COMPUTED DISCHARGE  (cfs)
                 Figure ^9.  MEASURED SPECIFIC ENERGY VERSUS COMPUTED DISCHARGE
                              FOR 78" CIRCULAR SEWER WITH SLOPE 0.009 (BANK)
                                                                                          500
                                             59

-------
                       Specific Energy  (E) is measured at point A

  Figure 56.   SEMICIRCULAR SEUER CROSS-SECTION  Jl' X 9' AT MONITORING STATION LONGVIEW
100
         200
                  300
    500      600      700
COMPUTED DISCHARGE (cfs)
                                                                           900
                                                                                    1000
                                                                                              II00
            .,  Figure %\ >   MEASURED .SPECIFIC, ENERGY VERSUS  COMPUTED DISCHARGE
                     FOR U'  x 9' .SEMICIRCULAR  SEWER WITH  SLOPE 0.004  (LONOVIEW)
                                         60

-------

                              Specific  Energy (E)  is measured a?  point A

            Figure 52".--SEMIC I.RCUI.AR  SEWER  CROSS-SECTION  12' x, 9' AT MONITORING STATION UJNGVIEW
100
           100       200       300
                                                  500       600        700
                                           COMPUTER DISCHARGE (cfs)
800       900      IQCd
                       Ffgure 53.  MEASURED SPECIFIC ENERGY'VERSUS COMPUTED DISCHARGE
                             FOR 12" x 9' SEMI-CIRCULAR SEWER WITH SCOPE 0,003 (LONGVIEW)
                                                  61

-------
                                  Specific  Energy  (Ŗ)  is measured at point A

            Figure 5%.  RECTANGULAR SEWER CROSS-SECTION 15' x  10' AT MONITORING STATION OUTLET
  150
I
   50
          7\
                       500
                                           1000                1500
                                           COMPUTED DISCHARGE (cfs)
                                                                                                      2500
                        Figure 55.   MEASURED  SPECIFIC ENERGY VERSUS COMPUTED DISCHARGE
                              FOR 10'  x  15' RECTANGULAR SEWER WITH SLOPE O.OOJ (OUTLET)
                                                62

-------
                         SECTION V
        RAINFALL AND RUNOFF QUANTITY AND QUALITY DATA


1.  Rainfall Data from U. S.  Department of Commerce


     The U. S. Department of Commerce has four raingages
surrounding the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed.  Their
locations are shown on Figure 56.

     Figure 57 is a topographic map of Hamilton County which
can be used to interpret the variations in precipitation
between the four above mentioned raingages.

     On Table 8, the hourly precipitation in inches is tabu-
lated from March, 1970 through October, 1970 for the Abbe
Observatory raingage and the Greater Cincinnati Airport
raingage.

     On Table 9 the:daily rainfall in inches is tabulated
from March, 1970 through October/ 1970 for the Abbe
Observatory raingage, the Greater Cincinnati Airport rain-
gage, the Cherry Grove raingage, and the West Fork Dam
raingage.  These data are also plotted on Figure 58 for
convenience.
                             63

-------
64

-------
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                                                un
65

-------
                    Table   8 .   HOURLY PRECIPITATION
                                      MARCH  1970
               CINCINNATI,  OHIO - ABBE OBSERVATORY STATION
1IOUKLY PRECIPITATION" (Water equivalent, in inches' ...
4
2
3
4
i
6
7
t
t
10
JJ
u
13
14
15
16
17
1C
19
20
21
22
29

15

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23
29
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21
22
23
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26
27
29
29
30
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       BOONE COUNTY,  KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI AIRPORT STATION
                       HOURLY PRKCIPITAT1ON 
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21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
•ĢData from the  Department of  Commerce
'-•'•T indicates  trace
                                    66

-------
                      Table  8  ,   HOURLY 'PRECIPITATION*
                                        APRIL  1970
               CINCINNATI, OHIO  -  ABBE OBSERVATORY STATION
                      . HOURLY PBESSPIWWN tWater equivalent in inches)
3
D
~T
2
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4
5
7
1
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10
11
12
13
14
15
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24
25
26
27
26
29
30
      BOONS COUNTY, KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI  AIRPORT STATION
                                    'Water equivalent in inches)
I
2

4
6
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26
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29
30
 *Data from  the Department  of Commerce
'>-*T indicates  trace
                                   67

-------
                    Table  8  .  HOURLY PRECIPITATION*
                                        MAY  1970
               CINCINNATI, OHIO  -  ABBE OBSERVATORY  STATION
                        HOURLY I'RECirn'ATlON 'Water cquivglrat ill inchrs)
|
-T
3
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5
6
7
1
9
10
11
12
19
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      BOONE COUNTY,  KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI  AIRPORT STATION
                        HOW.I.Y 1'KECIJ'ITATION lWģtĢ equivalent in inchos)
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 "•Data  from  the Department of Commerce

**T  indicates  trace
                                     68

-------
                     table  8  .   HOURLY PRECIPITATION'1-'
                                        JUNE  1970
                CINCINNATI, OHIO  - ABBE OBSERVATORY STATION
                      HOURLY PRECIPITATION iVVjter equivalent in inches)
a
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4
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ID
11

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       BOONE'COUNTY,  KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI AIRPORT STATION

4
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6
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9
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11
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HOURLY PKECli'lTATION )V.V.Ģ equivalent in inches'
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?0
 -Data from the Department  of Commerce
"-*T Indicates trace
                                   69

-------
                                    Table 8   .   HOURLY PRECIPITATION*
                                                       JULY 1970
                               CINCINNATI, OHIO  - ABBE OBSERVATORY STATION
                                       HOURLY PRECIPITATION 'W'nlw KiUIValctil in
i'.V

•*••
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BOONE COUNTY, KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI AIRPORT STATION
HOURLY PRKClVlTA.'OON 'Water equivhlŖ3Ult-i(HilĢl
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                  *Data from  the Department of  Commerce

                  *T indicates  trace               v
                                                    70

-------
                     Table  8 .   HOURLY PRECIPITATION*
                                        AUGUST  1970
                CINCINNATI,  OHIO  -  ABBE OBSERVATORY  STATION
                       HOURLY I'RKCIl'lTATION 'Water equivalent in inches'
5
4
2
3
4
5
6
7
B
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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If
19
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3.L
       BOONE COUNTY, KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI AIRPORT STATION
                       HOURLY PRKClPITATiON i\Vuur tqnivalmt in in-.!-,csl
* j i A, M. Hour, ending 'al ' ' 	 I
Q ( 1 j 2 ! 3

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 '"'Data froni  the Department of Commerce
**T  indicates  trace
                                     71

-------
                  Table  8 .   HOURLY PRECIPITATION*
                                 SEPTEMBER 1970
             CINCINNATI, OHIO - ABBE OBSERVATORY STATION
	 f

2
3
4
t
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10
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to
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      BOONE COUNTY,  KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI  AIRPORT  STAT.ION

J-MMH""
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20
21
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23
24
26
27
2t
2V
30

 ĢDate from the Department of Commerce

**T indicates  trace
                                 72

-------
                   Table 8  .   HOURLY PRECIPITATION*
                                     OCTOBER ,1970
              CINCINNATI,  OHIO - ABBE OBSERVATORY STATION
                     HOURLY PBECU'ITATIOX HV
                                       uivjj'ii! in :ii.*es'
.*:
-,_.
2
3

5
6
7
6

10
i j
12
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14
15
16
17
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25
26
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12
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19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
79
30
31
      BOONE COUNTY, KENTUCKY - GREATER CINCINNATI AIRPORT
                      HOf iil.Y PRi:ariTATiOS (Walcr equivalent in Inmts'
rc:







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8
9
10
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1*
15
16
17
IS
19
20
21
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23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1L
'•''Date from  the Department of Commerce

~'>T  indicates  trace
                                  73

-------
                                                                    <_
      Table  9 .   'DAILY: RAINFALL DATA* (WATER EQUIVALENT IN INCHES)
                   METROPOLITAN AREA .OF CINCINNATI ,'OHIO

                              -MARCH 1970
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Abbe '
Observatory
0.02
1.16
0.12
0.73
T
0
0
0
0
0.04
T
0.40
0.01
0.02
0.04
0
0.06
0.10
T
0.01
0
0.21
0
T
0.72
0.32
0
0
0.15
T
T
Greater
Cincinnati
Airport
0.02
0.86
0.15
0.74
T
0
0
0
0
0.01
T
0.51
0.01
0.01
0.06
0
0.72
0.10
T
0.03
T
0.25
0
T
0.69
0.35
0 ,
0
0.30
T
T
Cherry
Grove
0
0.52
0.43
0.57
0.04
0
0
0
0
0.08
0
0.34
T
0.17
0.10
T
0.30
0.28
0
0
0
0.26
T
T
0.70
0.17
0
0
0.29
0
0
West Fork ? ,
Dam
0
0.02
0
.0.50
^ 0.42-
• -0- ^_ —
0
0
o -
0
: 0.04
T
0.25 V
T
0.06
T
0
0.70
- T
T ;
• o •'-
0.05
0.15
T
o ;;
1.00
" T ,•;
0 :
0.14 :
T
0
T  Designates trace

*  Records from U. S. Department of Commerce
                                   74

-------
     Table 9> .DAILY RAINFALL DATA* (WATER EQUIVALENT IN INCHES)
              •?•  METROPOLITAN AREA OF CINCINNATI, OHIO

                               APRIL 1970
Date
V
2
3
4 , ,
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15 .-
16
17
18 .
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Abbe
Observatory
"l.54
0.90
0
0.02
o ;
0.12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.24
0.01
0
0
0
0.03
0.96
0.03
0.04
T
0,87
1.26
0.16
0.05
0.33
0.07
0.20
0
Greater
Cincinnati
Airport
1.53
0.86 ,
0
0.02
0
0.13
0
0
0
0
0
T
0.21
0.04
0
T
0
0.01
0.81
0.01
0.01
T
0.91
1.26
0.13
0.02
0.40
0.05
0,79
0
Cherry
Grove
0.45
2.09
0
T
0
, 0.08
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.07
0
0
0
0
0
0.45
0.09
0
0
0.88
1.78
0
0.11
0.12
.: o.o4
0
0.10
West Fork
Dam
0.04
2.45
T
0
0.05
0
0.15
0
0
0
0
0
0.18
T
0
0
0
0
0.35
0.40
0.05
0.04
0.11
1.25 .
0.07
0.20
0
0.10
0.40
T
T  Designates trace

*  Records from U. S.  Department of Commerce
                                  75

-------
      Table  9  .DAILY RAINFALL DATA*  (WATER EQUIVALENT  IN  INCHES)
                   METROPOLITAN AREA OF CINCINNATI, OHIO

                                MAY 1970
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2k
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Abbe
Observatory
0.14
0.13
0
0
T
0
0
0
0
0.01
0.10
0.74
T
T
0
0.22
T
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.62
0.42
0
0
0
0
0
0
Greater
Ci ncinriati
,' Airport
0.23
/ 0.10
0 -
0
T
0
0
0
0
0.01
0.16
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.10
0.20
T
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.03
0
0
0
T
0
T
Cherry
Grove
0
0.22
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
0
T
0.94
T
0.12
T
0.09
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T
0.44
0
0
0
0.07
0
West Fork
Dam
0
T
0.05
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T
0.15
1.13
0.25
0
0.25
0.10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0.10
0.65
0
0
0
0
0
T  Designates trace

•'Ģ  Records from U. ,S. Department of Commerce
                                  76

-------
       Table 9  .   DAItY RAINFALL DATA-'- (WATER EQUIVALENT IN INCHES)
             }-.     METROPOLITAN AREA OF, .CINCINNATI ,  OHIO

                                 JUNE 1970
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2k
25
26
27
28
29
30
Abbe
Observatory
0.
0.
0.
1,
0.
T
0
0
0
0
0
0
_/0.
0
0.
T
0
0
T
0
0.
0
0
0
0.
1.
0
0
0
0
22
54 ,
25
6k
66





/

28

16





13



01
29




Greater
Cincinnati
.Ai rport
0.
0.
0.
1.
0.
0.
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.
0
0.
T
0
0
T
0
0.
0
0
0
T
0.
0
0
0
0
41
59 '
56 ..-.
47
60
01






53

02





01




53




Cherry
Grove
0
T
1.
0.
0.
0.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.
0
0.
0
0
0
0
0
0.
0
0
0
0
1.
0.
0
0
0


83
44
74
11






14

63





15




14
28



West Fork
Dam
0
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.
T
0
0
0
0
0
T
0
0
0
0
0
0.
0
0
0

50
50
80
87
50







40












43



T  Designates trace

*  Records from U. S. Department of Commerce
                                  77

-------
       Table  9 .  DAILY RA.INFALL DATA* '(WATER EQUIVALENT  IN  INCHES)
                    METROPOLITAN AREA OF CINCINNATI, OHIO

                                 JULY 1970
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2k
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Abbe
Observatory
0
0
0.01
T
0
0
0
1.23
0.44
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.20
1.10
0
0.02
0.10
0
0
0.02
0.06
0
0
0.01
0.02
Greater
Cincinnati
Airport
0
T
0.03
0
0
0
0
2-25
0.02
0
0
0
0
0
T
0
0
0
0.17
0.75
0
0.04
0.09
0
0
T
0.05
0
0
T
0.07
Cherry
G rove
0
0.20
0
0.08
0
0
0
1.70
0.25
0
0
T
0.22
0
0.12
0.04
0
0
T
0.42
0
T
0.14
0
0
0.09
0.11
0.10
0
0.05
T
West Fork
Dam
0
0
o •
T
0
0
0
0
1 . 30
0.65
0
0
0
0
0
T
0
0
0
0.05
0.95
0
0.05
0,05
0
0
T
0.50
0
0
0.15
T.  Designates, trace

"  Records from U. S. Department of Commerce
                                  78

-------
       Table   9~,   DAILY  RAINFALL  DATA* (WATER  EQUIVALENT  IN  INCHES)
             ,=H'     METROPOLITAN AREA  OR  CINCINNATI,  OHIO

                             '  AUGUST 1970
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 ....
13
J4
^15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
16 ,.
27
28
29
30
31,
Abbe
Observatory
0.28
0
0.48 ;
0
0
0
0
0.06
1.86
0.08
0
0.28
0.45
0 •;-.:_ .' .
0
0.01
0
0
0.05
T
0
0,84
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T
0
Greater
Cincinnati :
A i rpo r t
0
0
0.36 .
0
0
0
0
0.05
0.83
0.02
0
0.16
0.02
0
0
T
0.02
0
0.42
0.43
0.55
T
0
0
0
0
0 .
0
0
0.12
0
Cherry
Grove
0
0
0.66
0
0
0
0
0
1.94
0.83
0
0
0
T
0
0.10
0
0
0.15
0
0
0.18
0.42
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.07
0
West Fork
Dam
T
0
0
0.65
0
0
0
0
0.05
1.20
0.10
0
0
0.04
0
0
0.05
0
0
1.25
0
0
0.25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T
T  Designates trace

*  Records from U. S. Department of Commerce
                                 79

-------
       Table  9 .   DAILY RAINFALL DATA-1' (WATER EQUIVALENT

                    METROPOLITAN AREA OF CINCINNATI,  OHIO


                              SEPTEMBER 1970
IN  INCHES)
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2k
25
26
27
28
29
'30
Abbe
Observatory
0
0
0.23
0.09
0.05
0
0.01
0.55
0
0
0
0
0.55
0.02
0
0
0
0.02
0
0
T
0.49
0
0.30
0.65
0.51
0.08
0
0
0
Greater
Cincinnati
Ai rport
0
T
0.30
0.14
0.01
T
0.11
0.54
0
0
0
0
0.05
0.02
0
0
0
0.18
0
0
0.09
0.42
T
0.47
0.72
0.74
0.08
0 .
0
0
Cherry
Grove
0
0
0.37
0.11
0
0
T
T
0
0
0
0
0
0.22
T
0
0
0.42
0
0
0.04
0
0.08
0
1.53
0.20
0.37
0
0
0
West F.ork
Dam
0
0
0
0.25
T
0
0
0
0.70
0
0
0
0
1.15
0.10
0
0
0
0.17
0
0
T
0.25
0
0.05
0.90
0.60
0
0
0
T  Designates trace
               •\

*  Records from U. S. Department of Commerce
                                  80

-------
      Table  9 .   DAILY RAINFALL DATA--1- (WATER EQUIVALENT IN
             •-!     METROPOLITAN AREA OF CINCINNATI, OHIO

                              OCTOBER 1970
INCHES)
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Abbe
Observatory
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.08
0.34
0.04
0
0.29
0.16
0.44
0
0
0
0
0
0.89
T
0
0
T
0
0
0
0.03
0.27
T
0
Greater
Cincinnati
Ai rport
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
0.24
0.06
0
0.27
0.21
0.48
0.01
0
0
0
0
0.96
T
0
0
T
0
0
T
0.02
0.15
T
0
Cherry
Grove
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T
T
0.34
0
0.14
0.80
0.52
0.03
0
0
0
0
0.94
0.27
0
0
0
0
T
0
0.04
0.24
0.29
0
West Fork
Dam











01
CO
_i
5
>
,.-.
P
o
o











T  Designates trace

*  Records from U. S. Department of Commerce
                                  81

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-------
2-  Dry Weather Flow Data


      n addition to the five storm flow monitoring stations
      are also able to sample and measure the dry weather
flow automatically at any time, six dry weather flow
stations were set up temporarily during the summer of 1970
and located as shown in Figures 59 and 60.

     Flow quantity and quality data obtained from these
stations are presented on Table 10.  At the end of this
table, the detailed location of each sampling point is
                           91

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-------
   TABLE JO - PRY WEATHER FLOW
QUANTITATIVE'AND QUALITATIVE DATA
Location*
DPI (78")








DF2 (78")






DF3 (5**")






DF4
(10' x 15')





DF5 (54")







Date
7/10/70

7/12/70
7/13/70
7/14/70

7/15/70
7/16/70

6/29/70
6/30/70

7/01/70

7/02/70

6/29/70
6/30/70

7/01/70

7/02/70

6/29/70
6/30/70

7/01/70

7/02/70

7/10/70
7/13/70

7/1 V70

7/15/70
7/16/70

Time
10:30 am
1 :00 pm
11 :00 am
12:00 noon
9:00 am
2:05 pm
9:15 am
10:30 am
1:00 pm
11:30 am
9:15 am
1 : 45 pm
9:00 am
1 : 40 pm
9:30 am
2 : 00 . pm
11:30 am
9:15 am
1 : 45 pm
9:00 am
1:40 pm
9:30 am
2:00 pm
2:45 pm
1:15 pm
2:40 pm
9:45 am
2:30 pm
10:20 am
3:00 pm
10:50 am
11:30 am
1:15 pm
9:30 am
1 : 30 pm
9:40 am
10:40 am
1 :20 pm
Di scharge
(cfs)
.26
.10
.15
.24
2.51
^53
.50
2.20
1.13
1.05
1.18
1.10
0.85
0.58
0.81
0.99
0.52
0.55
0.65
0.49
0.53
0.56
0.50
13.7
15.6
18.5
13.8
15.6
14.9
16.7
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
Suspended
Sol ids
(mg/1)
472
388
112
178
118
234
102
176
162
290
224
152
394
198
162
138
176
470
284
308
1 26 . <
118
130
184
220
216
303
228
482
220
256
274
150
142
138
198
142
146
COD
(mg/1)
3229
9828
291
242
1587
400
2257
1743
920
181
381
398
543
,495
582
444
398
398
362
343
— .
160
269
1629
1882
1520
1158
757
2519
1340
364
261
546
463
364
3495
562
350
BOD
(mg/1)
1300
5600
240
210
980
360
2000
1530
800
160
390
320
420
410
- —
__
385
—
380
350
.
—
. —
450
700
600
720
--
—
—
160
150
290
210
440
260
495
330
                94

-------
Table 10 (continued)
Location* Date
DF6 7/1 0/70
(10' x 15')
7/12/70
7/13/70

7/14/70

7/15/70
7/16/70

Time
11:40 am
1 : 30 am
11:10 am
11:30 am
1:00 pm
9:40 am
1:30 pm
- 9:45 am
10:20 am
1:20 pm
Discharge
(cfs)
14.77
12.13
11.82
15.01
14.50
15.02
12.38
14.8
15-12
13.85
Suspended
Solids
(mg/l)
385
346
174
252
282
238
288
f68 "
156
230
COD
(mg/l)
2063
6552
650
400
386
815
466
728
673
392
BOD
(mg/l)
1000
4100
590
180
220
610
380
670
596
374
*Locations where the dry weather flow measurements have been taken

     DPI
     DF2
     DF3
     DF4
     DF5
     DF6
At Seymour Avenue about 300 yards southeast  from Cincinnati  Gardens  and
about 300 yards downstream from Hilton Davis Chemical  Company.

At the location of Monitoring Station "BANK"

At the golf course of Maketawah Country Club.

About 75 yards from the corner of Coad and Lois Drive.

About 100 yards from the corner of Coad and Lois Drive.
                                         95

-------

-------
3.  Rainfall and Runoff Data from the Bloody Run Sewer
    Watershed

     In the following pages, the data collected from the
five monitoring locations of the Bloody Run Sewer Watershed
are presented.

     The laboratory analyses of the samples taken at the
monitoring stations have been carried out according to the
standard test procedures in "Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Waste Water", 12th Edition, 1965.

     A list of the tests performed and their page numbers
in the reference are given below:
          (1) Total Solids  (TS)
p. 244
           (2) Suspend Solids  (SS)               p. 246

           (3) Volatile Suspended Solids  (VSS)   p. 247

           (4) Biological Oxygen Demand  (BOD)    p. 415

           (5) Chemical Oxygen Demand  (COD)      p. 510

           (6) Chlorides  (Cl)                    p. 370

           (7) pH                                p. 422

     The data tabulation has been set up in a comprehensive
pattern.  For every rainfall, a plot of the rain hyeto-
graphs comes first and five tables follow with the field
data corresponding to the five monitoring locations.  Each
one of these five tables is accompanied by a plot of the
data versus time for the convenience of the reader.
                             97

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         Figure 61  .   RAIN OF APRIL  1,  1970

                           HYETOGRAPH
   '•Until  August 1971 these two  raingages  had a  7  day rotation period;
    therefore, no difference  in  readings from the  charts could be detected.
                                 98

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                                         99

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          Figure 62.  RUNOFF QUANTITY AND QUALITY DATA

                        BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED

                       DATE OF STORM:  APRIL  1,  1970

                   MONITORING STATION:  BANK  - 5V SEWER
                             100

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  Figure 63.   RUNOFF  QUANTITY AND  QUALITY DATA
                BLOODY  RUN  SEWER WATERSHED
               DATE OF  STORM:  APRIL  1,  1970
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                     102

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103

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           Figure 6k.  RUNOFF QUANTITY AND  QUALITY  DATA

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                                104

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               Figure 66.   RUNOFF QUANTITY AND QUALITY DATA
                              BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
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                                107

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                              BLOODY RUN  SEWER  WATERSHED

                            DATE OF STORM;   APRIL  24,  1970

                        MONITORING STATION:   BANK  -  78" SEWER
                                109

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                Figure 68.   RUNOFF  QUANTITY AND  DUALITY  DATA
                               BLOODY  RUN  SEWER  WATERSHED
                             DATE OF  STORM:   APRIL  24,  1970
                     MONITORING STATION:   OUTLET -  10' x 15'  .SEWER
                                 111

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                      Figure 69.  RAIN OF APRIL 27,  1970


                                        HYETOGRAPH
 *tlntil August  197'  these two raingages had a 7 day  rotation  period;

  therefore,  no difference in readings from the charts could  be  detected.
                                  112

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                                          113

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               Figure 70.  RUNOFF  QUANTITY  AND QUALITY DATA
                              BLOODY  RUN  SEWER WATERSHED
                            DATE OF STORM:   APRIL 27, 1970
                        MONITORING STATION:   BANK - 78" SEWER
                                 114

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                                              115

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143

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            Figure 88.   RUNOFF QUANTITY AND QUALITY DATA

                           BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED

                      DATE OF STORM:  SEPTEMBER  18,  1970

                    MONITORING STATION:  BANK -  78"  SEWER
                              144

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        Figure 89.   RUNOFF QUANTITY AND DUALITY DATA
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                   DATE OF STORM:   SEPTEMBER 18,  1970
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                          146

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             Figure 90.  RUNOFF QUANTITY AND QUALITY DATA
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                        DATE OF STORM:  SEPTEMBER 18, 1970

                 MONITORING STATION:  LONGVIEW - 10' x 15' SEWER
                              148

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                                 149

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         Figure 92.  RUNOFF QUANTITY AND  QUALITY  DATA

                        BLOODY RUN SE.V/ER  WATERSHED

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              MONITORING STATION:  OUTLET -  10' x 15' SEWER
                            151

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                      152

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                        DATE OF STORM:   SEPTEMBER 22,  1970

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                           ,154

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          'F'ig'urc 95.   RUNOFF QUANTITY AND'QUALITY DATA
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                             156

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                     Figure 96.  RUNOFF QUANTITY AND QUALITY PATA
                                    BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED
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                          MONITORING STATION:  OUTLET -  10' x  15' SEWER
                                     158

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                               161

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                      162

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                             DATE OF STORM:  SEPTEMBER 2*t, 1970
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                                    163

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                           DATE OF, STORM:   SEPTEMBER 2k, 1970
                     MONITORING STATION:   OUTLET -.10'  x 15' SEWER
                                165

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                         166

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                                 BLOODY RUN SEWER WATERSHED

                             DATE OF STORM:  SEPTEMBER 25,  1970

                           MONITORING STATION:  BANK - 5V1 SEWER
                               168

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                                   198

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                             201

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                               208

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                                210

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                                   DATE OF STORM:  OCTOBER  14, 1970
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                               BLOODY RUN SEWER  WATERSHED

                            DATE OF STORM:   OCTOBER 20, 1970

                      MONITORING STATION:  BANK  - 5^" & 78" SEWER
                               215

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                                        MONITORING  STATION:  OUTLET  -  10' x  15' SEWER
                                                224

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                        SECTION VI
           MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SIMULATION  OF
         HYDROLOGIC RUNOFF FROM AN URBAN WATERSHED

                    1.  INTRODUCTION


     The purpose of this mathematical.model,termed  herein
as Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model, is to provide  a quick
and reliable method for obtaining the hydrograph of runoff
at any selected point in a sewer system for any  given
rainfall.  This is accomplished by simulating separately
the processes involved-during a rainfall:  infiltration,
depression storage, overland flow, gutter  flow,  and
routing through the sewers.  The Cincinnati Urban Runoff
Model has been developed by using independent hydraulic
and hydrologic principles and equations, and  by  combining
the above processes into the sequential flow  diagram
below:
                            RAINFALL
           I
  DEPRESSION STORAGE
OVERLAND FLOW
INF
LTRATION
                           GUTTER FLOW
                         PIPE FLOW ROUTING '
                             OUTFLOW
     It is believed that  the  output of  this  mathematical
model may be helpful  in the management  of existing sewer
systems.  It also  should  be useful  in the design of new
sewer systems.
                            225

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               2.  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


      System simulation techniques fall into two principal
 categories:  deterministic methods and stochastic methods.

      The_deterministic methods attempt to develop re-
 lationships among the physical parameters and processes
 involved in the hydrologic cycle based on recorded data.
 These relationships are then used to generate or to
 predict non-recorded hydrologic sequences.  The principal
 input function is rainfall, and the principal output
 function is runoff.

      The_stochastic methods use statistical measures of
 hydrologic variables to generate non-recorded sequences
 to which evaluation of probability levels are attached.
 Sufficient long-term records of the variables are required
 to give a  true representation of their statistical nature.

      Deterministic approaches can be subdivided into both
 parametric system synthesis and transformation methods.

      The parametric system synthesis approach has much  to
 recommend  it.   The basis  of synthesis of  the hydrologic
 system is  the  law of conservation of mass.   Thus,  during
 a  given^time interval,  the amount of water entering the
 system is  equal to the  amount stored in the system plus
 that  leaving the  system.   The structure of the model is
 based on the knowledge  of the physical processes  involved
 in the cycle.   These processes start with the input;
 precipitation  and include interception, depression
 storage, infiltration,  runoff distribution,  etc.   Mathe-
 matical  equations are used to represent the component
 processes.

      The foregoing discussion assumes  the  use of  a
 digital  or analog computer.

      The engineering literature  contains  countless  ana-
 lytical methods designed  to yield  the  hydrograph of. urban
 runoff, given  the input rainfall and  the  catchment
 structure.  These methods  range  from  the very simple
 Rational Method to the very detailed Chicago  Hydrograph
Method.  To a  varying degree,  all methods rely upon
 empirical relationships and experience rather than upon
 the basic differential equations characterizing the  flow.
An example is  the  Rational Method based on the equation
Q = ciA, known also  as the Lloyd-Davies Method in the
United Kingdom.
                           226

-------
     In 1932, Gregory and Arnold [1]  developed a modifi-
cation of the Rational Method to take in consideration
catchment shape and slope.

     In 1944, Hicks [2] developed a method of computing
urban runoff for the Los Angeles area based on experimental
work for the determination of the principal abstractions
from rainfall and actual gaging of local drainage areas in
the metropolitan region.

     In 1946, Izzard [3] developed a method to simulate
flow on a paved surface.

     In 1960, extensive studies of a hydrograph method
were made by the City of Chicago.  A detailed explanation
of this hydrograph type of analysis was presented by Tholin,
and Keifer [4].  This method simulates flow on grassed
areas, roofs, paved streets, and through gutters and storm
drains to the basin outlet.  The method provides separate
hydrographs representing the impervious areas and the
pervious or grassed areas.. The runoff hydrograph from the
impervious area of an urban basin dominates the runoff
regime .and provides the peak flows which must be used in
designing a storm drain system.

     In 1963, Kaltenbach  [5] summarized the Inlet Method
of approach studied at the Johns Hopkins University.  The
method determines the flow to each inlet, attenuates the
peak flow from each subarea as it moves down the pipe,
and sums the attenuated peaks to determine the total peak
at the design point.
                                  i-  „,,.--•.
     For an existing urban basin, a unit hydrograph can
be developed if observations are made of actual storm
rainfalls and runoff.  Eagleson  [6] has discussed the unit
hydrograph method, mentioning the utility of such unit
hydrographs and the degree to which their characteristics
can be related to properties of the urban basin.

     The RRL (Road Research Laboratory) Method  [7] is now
widely used in Great Britain.  The RRL Method uses only
the impervious areas of a catchment connected to the
storm drainage system.  One important feature making the
RRL Method superior to the inlet hydrograph method is that
the RRL Method is readily applicable to basins before urban
development takes place,  so the storm drainage system can
be adequately designed prior to construction.
                            227

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     The Stanford Watershed Model IV has been developed
for the simulation of runoff from unsewered watersheds
larger than urban basins [8].  Because a non-urban water-
shed is more pervious than an urban area, the Stanford
Model properly gives greater emphasis to the moisture
content of the soil and the movement of ground water with
no consideration to routing through urban gutters and
sewers.

     Under the sponsorship of the Environmental Protection
Agency, Water Quality Office, a consortium of contractors—
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., the University of Florida, and Water
Resources Engineers, Inc., [9], have developed a compre-
hensive mathematical model, termed herein as EPA Storm
Water Management Model, capable of representing urban storm
water runoff and combined sewage overflow phenomena.
Correctional devices in the form of user selected options
for storage and/or treatment are provided with associated
estimates of cost.  Effectiveness is portrayed by computed
treatment efficiencies and modeled changes in receiving
water quality.  This model resembles several of the
previous methods, but it provides for more detailed handling
of input parameters.  The solution of a particular problem
is accomplished on a high speed digital computer.  Further
testing of this model will be accomplished under the
current project at the University of Cincinnati.
                            228

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         3.  DESCRIPTION OF THE CINCINNATI URBAN

                       RUNOFF MODEL

     The Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model is intended for an
urban watershed of at least several hundred acres or more
in area; however, it may be applied to any size by approp-
riate scaling.  For the development of the model, a
deterministic method with parametric system synthesis has
been used.  A number of requirements and procedures are
prescribed in general form below.

     a.  The total drainage basin is divided into a number
of catchments having an area between 10 and 20 acres;
however, bigger catchments can be used with a relative
loss in accuracy.  Each catchment is then further divided
into a number of subareas or subcatchments.  Subcatchments
should be areas with uniform slope and ground cover.  The
subdivision of each catchment into subcatchments can be
done accurately  (i.e. the roof of a house can be repre-
sented by two subcatchments of different slope) or can be
done approximately (considering larger areas as subcatch-
ments) .

     b.  There is a wide flexibility in dividing a catch-
ment into subcatchments for runoff computations.  The
maximum number of subcatchments is limited by the computer
storage availability and by the large amounts of computer
time needed to execute a program with many subcatchments.
Also, while the subdivision described can be taken to
infinitesimal detail in theory, manpower requirements
become prohibitive in practice.  Sensitivity analyses with
coarser subdivisions have indicated substantially the same
answers at savings in time and cost [9].

     c.  Street gutters are considered to conduct the
overland flow from the subcatchments to the inlets and
catch basins of the sewer system.  From there the flow is
routed through the sewer pipe system of the catchment to
the junction with the main sewer of the drainage basin.

     d.  This approach is followed sequentially for each
catchment and finally the discharges from each catchment
are routed through the main sewer to the sewer outlet of
the entire watershed.

     e.  The Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model can employ a
different rainfall pattern over each catchment if a
sufficient number of rain gages covers the watershed
defining the different rainfall patterns.  However, the
rainfall pattern has to be considered uniform over each
                            229

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catchment.  This is reasonable because of the relatively
small area of the catchments.

     f.  The developed computer program accepts as input
any rainfall in the form of an hyetograph curve.  However,
in order to select a design storm pattern, consideration
should be given to the fact that high-intensity, short-
duration rainfall is normally the main, if not sole, type
of precipitation contributing to critical runoff rates.
This type of rainfall is usually associated with thunder-
storms.  Intensity-duration-frequency data of such rainfall
in the United States were first analyzed by Yarnell [34],
but are now being modified and improved with additional
data by the U.S. Weather Bureau [30].

     g.  It is considered that infiltration in pervious
subcatchments follows Horton's equation  [10], suitably
modified if the initial rainfall intensity is less than
the initial infiltration capacity.  Infiltration capacity
is estimated from the "infiltration capacity curves" of
Jens [12] if infiltration data are not available from the
basin under consideration.

     h.  An equation by Linsley [14] has been used as the
basis for the derivation of the equation for the rate of
depression storage supply.

     i.  By subtracting the actual infiltration rate and
the depression storage supply from the rainfall intensity,
the rainfall excess which produces the overland flow is
found.

     j.  Differential equations of continuity and momentum
are used to compute the overland flow in connection with
an empirical relationship proposed by Crawford  [8].
Considering that at least one subcatchment feeds a gutter,
the lateral inflow to the gutters due to the overland flow
can be obtained.  The flow into the gutters is unsteady
spatially varied.  Simplifying the continuity and momentum
equations, there results the inflow hydrograph, i.e. the
discharge versus time entering to each catch basin.

     k.  For flow inside the sewer system, a method of
routing through the sewers by time-offset is used because
of its simplicity and accuracy.  However, the sewer outlet
must be unsubmerged and free flowing without backwater
effects.  If backwater effects exist, the routing method
must be modified accordingly.
                            230

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     Summarizing, the proposed mathematical model requires
a rainfall hyetograph and data from topographic maps and/or
aerial photographs; it simulates infiltration, surface re-
tention, overland flow, gutter flow,/and calculates the
hydrographs of the flow inside the sewer system of the urban
area under consideration.  The model can be used to improve
existing sewer systems or to design new ones before urban
development takes place.
                            231

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                     4.  INFILTRATION
     It has generally been found that during continuous
rain the infiltration capacity of a given terrain decreases
at first rapidly, then approaches an asymptotic line giving
a constant infiltration capacity (commonly 1.5 or 2 hours
after the beginning of the rain) .

     During infiltration into a soil surface, the rate of
change of the infiltration capacity can be assumed pro-
portional to the difference between the present and
ultimate infiltration capacity.  In the equation—below,
f is the present and f  the ultimate value of the infil-
tration capacity.

     Considering proportionality:

                      (f - f )  where K is a positive con
                           c   stant
                df
              (f - fc)
                      = K dt
          d In  (f - f ) =  - K dt
                     \~r


          In  (f - f ) = - Kt_ + C
                   O        -L


     When t- =  0 then f = f , therefore C = In  (f  - f )
           IT            ,   O                     O    C


              f - f
then:
In
              fo - fc
or
so
f - fc = (fo -
                               -K t.
          f = f
         (fo - fc> e
(D
     Equation  (1) is Horton's equation of infiltration
capacity  [10], where:

f = infiltration capacity in  (in/hr)
                             232

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fo =
time in minutes measured from the beginning of the
infiltration capacity curve

the constant.rate at which f is approached
asymptotically as time continues

infiltration capacity when tf =  0
K  =  decay rate of infiltration which  is a positive
      constant, with per minute units.

      The main advantage of equation  (1) is that  f  , f  , K

may be related to physical characteristics of the soil
types for which curves are available, and this may  there-
fore eventually make possible predictions of the  infil-
tration capacity of soil types for which no experimental
data have been obtained  [11].

      For present purposes streets and mechanically com-
pacted soil will be considered as having negligible
infiltration capacity.

      If there are no' data available concerning infiltration
capacity, K, ąc, and f  can be evaluated from S.W. Jens'

infiltration capacity curves (Figure 134)' which have been
made for turfed areas of airfields and have been used
widely for city lawns [12].  Evaluations of infiltration
capacity for different soils and cover classifications
can be found also in the Soil Conservation Service Hand-
book [13] and in the ASCE Hydrology Handbook [11].

      Curve (a)  is representative of generally wet ante-
cedent conditions and heavy rainfall within the preceding
24 hours.  Curve (b)  is representative of normal
antecedent conditions with no considerable application of
precipitation for the preceding three days.

      Infiltration capacity values shown in Figure 134 can
be accepted as reasonably representative of the values for
a turfed cover for a rather wide range of soils [12].
f  and
                                         = (fo -
                                           fc>e
      The constant K in equation (1) can be determined if

       f  are known by plotting (f - f )

in semilogarithmic paper for an observed series of values
of f and tf.  Then the plot will be a straight line with
slope K.
                            233

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        u.
               1Q   JO    30    Ģ0   50   60   70   80   90   100



                 TIME  FROM BEGINNING OF RAINFALL (MIN)
          Figure \3b.  INFILTRATION CAPACITY CURVES FOR WET AND

                  NORMAL ANTECEDENT CONDITIONS OF TURF AREAS [l2j
      Considering normal antecedent conditions  of turf

areas (curve  b):



            f    =  0.53 in/hr
             c



            f    =  3.00 in/hr




             K  =  0.0697 1/min



      Considering wet  antecedent conditions of  turf

areas (curve  a):



            f    =  0.30 in/hr
             o



            f    =  3.00 in/hr




             K  =  0.0894 1/min
                              234

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      The area under the infiltration capacity curve repre-
 sents the accumulated mass infiltrated, which is:
           F =
                    60
dt
or
fc
60"
           T     ~Ktfl
           I1-*..  I
                                                        (2)
Where F  is  the  total  inches  infiltrated up to the time t

    For  normal  antecedent  conditions in turf areas,
equations  (1) and  (2)  become:
          f = 0.53+2.47  e
                            -0.0697tJ
          F = 0.00883 t^ +  0
      .59 [l - e"°'0697tfj
    If the rain starts and continues with  an  intensity i
greater than f, then time tf in all the  above mentioned

equations is also the time t in minutes  from  the  beginning
of the rainfall.  Therefore, the infiltration capacity
curve and the rainfall intensity curve start  together
(Figure 135).
                                  storm pattern
                                    infil.capacity curve
                                  t(min)
         Figure 135.  STORM PATTERN AND INFILTRATION CAPACITY
                            IN CASE i  > f
                                   o   o
                            235

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     But if at  the  beginning of the rainfall the rain
intensity rate  is less  than the infiltration capacity,
then the actual infiltration rate is less than the in-
filtration capacity and the infiltration capacity curve
will be offset  by an amount of time t .   Then t,. in
                                      o         f
equations  (1) and  (2) is the time from the beginning of
the infiltration capacity curve, and the corresponding
time t from the beginning of the rain now becomes
t = t  + t...
     o    t

     When the rain  starts, the actual infiltration curve
follows the rainfall intensity curve until it intercepts
the offsetted infiltration capacity curve at a point B,
following which it  proceeds along the latter, as shown
in Figure 136.

     Assuming that  overland flow and depression storage
supply commences when the antecedent mass of rainfall
equals the antecedent mass of infiltration, the offset
time t  can be  defined  as the time necessary for

(area ABGH) = (area EBGF).  If the intensity of the rain
is known at all instants,  t  can be found as just ex-
plained.                    °
                                          t(min)
         Figure 136.
ABC  storm pattern
ABD  actual infiltration rate
EBD  infiltration capacity curve

STORM PATTERN AND INFILTRATION CAPACITY
         IN CASE i  < f
                  ^
                             236

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     The critical time tf  from the beginning of  the  rain-

fall excess required for the infiltration capacity  f'to
drop from its initial value fQ to its asymptotic  constant

value f  (i.e. to drop from ŖQ to approximately 1.01  fc)
is:
                        100
           'fc
               =     ln

-------
     It is reasonable to assume that the segments of
duration DT of the rainfall hyetograph are straight lines.
The accuracy of this assumption is greater when the
increments of time DT become smaller.

     Two conditions have to be satisfied at the point of
the intersection A:

     (a) rainfall intensity at A = infiltration rate at A

     (b) accumulated mass precipitated until A = accumu-
         lated mass infiltrated until A.

     From the condition  (a):
or
so
      -Kt
             i(I) +
                       [id + i)
     t = - i in
                id) +
                        fo - fc
                          [id + i) - id)] - f
                             fo - fc
if and only if the argument of the logarithm is between
0.0 and 1.0.

     From the condition (b):
fŖ,^
60 T
      60K
           (l-e"Kt) =
 x
60
                                                         (3)
                                                         (4)
where mi(I) = mass precipitated until a time (I-DT)

and i(I) = ordinates of the rainfall intensity curve.

     Each time increment DT can be divided in as many n
increments as desired.  Therefore x = DT/n where n = 1,2,..

     The computer will solve equation (3) for 1=1 and

                    2DT       „ = (n-1)  DT. fQr M and
x = 0  x =
x   u, x
            n
                X=
                x
           DT
x = 0 , x = — ,
                     n
                        fn—
                    x = -
                              x
                              DT
                                     n

                                 ;  and so on .   The time t
which will be found for each combination of I and x will
be substituted (together with the corresponding values of
I and x) into equation (4) .
                             238

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     When equation (4) is satisfied, then the computation
will stop and the values of t, I, and x will be stored.
The computation of the actual infiltration curve will
follow, and the stored value of t will be used to start
the calculation of the surface retention.
                              239

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                  5.  SURFACE RETENTION


     Surface retention includes interception, depression
storage, and evaporation during a storm.

     Interception by vegetation may range from 0.01 to 0.5
inches in forest areas, but is not usually significant in
urban drainage.

     Evaporation is of little significance for the short
rainfall duration encountered in urban storm drainage
design.

     Therefore, for simplicity of the model, interception
and evaporation will be assumed negligible for an urban
area.

     Some investigators have assumed that all depressions
must be filled before overland flow begins.  The real
situation is that almost immediately after the beginning
of the rainfall excess, the smallest depressions become
filled and overland flow begins.  Most of this water in
turn fills larger depressions, but some of it follows an
unobstructed path to the collecting gutters.

     Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus [14] recommended an
exponential relationship
                V
1 - e
                              -N(P - F)
(5)
where V  = volume of water in depression storage at any
           time throughout a storm, in inches

      S, = total depression storage capacity of the basin,
           in inches

      P  = accumulated volume of water precipitated in
           inches

      F  =  accumulated volume of water infiltrated in
            inches

      N  =  storage constant
                            240

-------
     Assuming that the initial  increment  of  rainfall
excess is completely retained by depressions:
             dV
           d(p - F)
                    = 1   when  (P  -  F)  is  near  zero.
Then by differentiation can be found that

     N _  1
     ^\j _ --^---i-------"
                                                        (6)
     If the depression storage  supply  is  s  (in/hr),  then:
            •t
              s dt = V
           0
where t is time in hours from the beginning of  the rainfall
excess .
     Then
     or
                   s =
                   s =
                   d
                  dt
__d
dt
                                          P - F
     Sd
                       (P - F) e
                                       P  - F
     but
     therefore
                   dt
                (P - F) =  (i - f)
                      (in/hr)
                                   P  -  F
              s =  (i - -f) e
                                 (7)
     Of course on impervious  areas  where infiltration is
zero and also accumulated volume  of water infiltrated does
not exist, equations  (5) and  (7)  become
                             241

-------
                    V
                           3d
1 - e
                    s = i e

     Horton  [15] stated that the depression storage
"commonly ranges from 0.125 to 0.75 inches for flat areas
and from 0 .-5 to 1.5 inches for cultivated fields and for
natural grass lands or forests".  On moderate or gentle
slopes he estimated that pervious surface depressions
"can commonly hold the equivalent of 0.25 to 0.5 inch depth
of water and even more on natural meadow and forest land".

     Hicks  [16] has used depression storage losses of 0.20
inch for sand, 0.15 inch for loam, and 0.10 inch for clay,
considering high rates of rainfall and runoff.

     Recent gagings show depression storage to be about
0.3 inch in forest litter, 0.2 inch in good pasture, and
0.05 to 0.10 inch in smooth cultivated land [17].

     If there are no data available, the overall de-
pression storage capacity can be assumed equal to 0.25
inch on pervious urban areas which usually present
individual depressions with depths from 0 to 0.5 inches.
The overall depression storage on impervious urban areas
can be assumed equal to 0.0625 inch with the depth of de-
pressions ranging from 0 to 0.125 inches.  These assump-
tions, when there is lack of data about the basin under
consideration, seem reasonable from observations made
during rainfalls [4], [9] , [18] .

     A typical computer output of the developed computer
program (Appendix III) simulating infiltration and
depression storage supply is presented graphically in
Figure 138.

     Subtracting the calculated values of infiltration
and depression storage supply from the rainfall intensity
at any time, the rainfall excess which produces the over-
land flow is obtained.
                            242

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O


CM
              O
O
 *

o
       243

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                     6.  OVERLAND FLOW
     En route to a channel or gutter/ the water is desig-
nated as overland flow.

     Because of the complex nature of flow, models are
generally simplified to two dimensions.  This was the
approach used by Keulegan  (1944) who first worked on the
spatially varied unsteady flow problem.

     Horton  [19] and Izzard [3] studied unsteady flow
across sloping plane surfaces.  However, Horton's equation
for overland flow has limited experimental support, and
Izzard^s dimensionless hydrograph is limited to situations
where iL < 500, where i is the rainfall intensity in in/hr
and L is the length of overland flow in ft.

     In the following the build up of the flow over a
sloping plane is treated starting with the partial differ-
ential equations of momentum and continuity governing the
two-dimensional overland flow on a plane surface  with
vertical inflow (rainfall excess).

     Subtracting retention and infiltration from the rain-
fall intensity, the overland flow supply is obtained.  As
this supply increases,  a sheet of water builds up over the
surface and the water starts to flow toward the collecting
gutter.   This movement of water is overland flow  and the
volume of water on the surface is the surface detention

Continuity Equation

     Considering flow of unit  width on a surface  with
small bottom slope (sin B = 0)  and uniform velocity dis-
tribution,  the continuity equation can be written:
                   J II  I  Id)
                   mi
^
                 Figure 139.   OVERLAND FLOW
                           244

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~Sx
              .
                  9A
                  ŖFt
                         =  i  Ax  -  f  Ax  -  s  Ax
or
         la
         9x
                   9t
           =   i-f-s
because Area A = y  • 1, where y  is the depth of  flow  in  ft,
g is the discharge  in cfs/ft of  width, and  (i  -  f  - s) is
the inflow or supply rate in cfs/sq.ft.

Momentum Equation

     The momentum equation can be written in the following
form, neglecting the raindrop momentum due to  the  impact of
the raindrops on the surface
 9V
Tt
          9V
        8y _
                  9x
                     =  (i-f-s)
                                           PY
                                    + g sinO   (9)
where V is the velocity of flow
       r  is the shear stress at the bottom
        o

       p  is the water density


       b  is the width of flow perpendicular to the direc-

          tion of flow. For overland flow bģ y, so Ŗ = 0.
     In comparison with gravity, the rainfall-infiltration
process has a negligible effect upon the flow dynamics  [20]
Therefore the term (i-f-s) can be omitted from the
momentum equation.

     An order of magnitude analysis for overland flow can
lead to the conclusion that free surface slope and inertia
terms in equation (9) are negligible in comparison with
those of bottom slope and friction.
                            245

-------
      Equation  (9) then reduces to the well-known relation
for steady uniform flow in a wide channel:
                     TQ =  Y y sine                    (10)

where y  is the .specific weight of water.
Laminar Flow
      For laminar flow Newton's law of viscosity applies:
                             dv
                             dy'
relating the dynamic viscosity y and the shear  stress  T
at a distance y' from the bottom.  Equation  (10) can be
written for any laminar layer:
                                      (11)
       = Y
                               ~ y1 ) sin9
                 or
T =-^~ (y - y') sine
where v  is the kinematic viscosity in  (ft /sec)
      Then from equations  (11) and  (12):
                     dv = g
                            sin9
                        _
                              V

                        _ gsinB
                  (y - y1 )
                                  (yy. -
                             v    %-*J     2 '
      Therefore the average velocity V will be:
                     V  =
so  q  =
          1  P
          7
             Jo
             Vdy-  =
                                      (12)
                            3v
                                                       (13)
                            246

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Turbulent Flow

     For turbulent flow, Manning's equation can be used,
considering the hydraulic radius R equal to the depth y.
          q = 1..49
                      n
                      (14)
          with q  (cfs/ft width) and y  (ft).

     Equations (13) and  (14) are of the general form

          q = K ym                                    (15)
           (a) for laminar flow!


          m = 3  and  K =
-[— i
 [sec.
                                     _
                                     ft
                           2.              2
          with g in  (ft/sec ) and V in  (ft /sec)
          (b) for turbulent flow:
          m =    and  K = 1.49
                                 Vsine
                                  n
                                         sec
     Equation (15) is a good approximation for discharge
of surface flow for practical purposes, supported by
Keulegan  [21], Chow [22], and Eagleson  [20].

Criteria of Flow Regime

     Horton [23] believed that the Reynolds criterion is
not satisfactory for sheet flow over relatively rough
surfaces.  He found that the point of equal velocities
represents the minimum amount of energy capable of main-
taining turbulent flow.

     Equating the velocities for laminar and turbulent
flow, the following relationship is obtained:
          gsin9
            v    3
1.49   2/3
  n   y
     or
           2/3
                         32.17 n y
   VsinG
                                  2/3
                            247

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Substituting the above in Manning's equation.we get:

                     v
          V  =
                4.83 n2 y2/3
                                                      (16)
     The flow cannot be turbulent if the velocity is less
than that given by equation (16) .

     Therefore because q = Vy, turbulent flow occurs if:
          q <
               v
                  1/3
                                                      (17)
              4.83 n

otherwise the flow is laminar .

     Izzard  (1946) believed the overland flow to be
turbulent for:

          i L > 500

     where i = supply rate  (in/hr)

           L = length of overland flow  (ft)

     But the experimental data of Izzard and Augustine and
of Ekern  (1950) support the hypothesis  that rainfall
causes the flow to be turbulent even when  i L Ģ: 500.

     Field investigations have shown that  overland  flow  in
thin sheets may be entirely turbulent,  or  partly turbulent
and partly laminar.  For smooth surfaces,  it appears that
laminar flow exists with the  possibility of changing from
laminar to turbulent, and vice versa, within a  short
distance,.  For subdivided flow through  grass, most  of the
experimental data indicate  that the flow is laminar to
some extent  and may be represented by a condition of 75%
turbulent flow, in which case the profile  of overland^
flow can be  assumed parabolic [24] with an equation like
 (15), having an m = 2.

     Also experimental measurements of  surface  detention
show that high intensity rainfalls often yield  Reynolds
numbers that indicate turbulent flows.

     However, because the division between the  laminar  and
turbulent ranges  is difficult to  establish and  because  of
the nature of urban areas,  the turbulent range  equations
have been finally selected  in the development of  the
                            248

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 Cincinnati  Urban Runoff Model.

 Overland Flow Equations

      Overland flow can be defined by the system:
            9t
                  ax
                                                        (8)
             =  Ky11
                                                       (15)
     These  equations  constitute  a  Kinematic  wave  problem
which has been  solved by  Eagleson  [20]  for s =  0,  i  and  f
constants in  time  and space,  using the  method of
characteristics.

     Here,  an attempt has been made to  solve equations  (8)
and  (15) considering  rainfall intensity,  infiltration, and
depression  storage supply as  variables  of time.

     The only rigorous general methods  for simulating un-
steady overland flow  are  finite  difference techniques for
the numerical solution of the governing partial
differential  equations.  However,  the accuracy to  be
gained by using so laborious  methods for  overland  flow is
still subject to question because  of the  limited accuracy
of the basic  field data.            •

     Therefore  an analytical  method based finally  on an
empirical relationship between outflow  depth  and detention
storage [8]  has been  chosen in connection with a routing
equation.

     From the continuity equation  (8),  at equilibrium:
           ay _
           Tt ~
                0
          and q = rx
                                                       (18)
where r = (i -
       2
                      is the overland flow supply rate in
(cfs/ftz) and q is the discharge at equilibrium in cfs/ft of
width at any section x on the flow plane.  Therefore the
outflow at equilibrium is q  = rL.
                            249

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     Also as Wolf  [25] stated, the change  in  discharge as
a function of x on a uniformly sloping plane  must  be zero,
before local equilibrium is reached.  Therefore  the depth
at any point on the plane prior to local equilibrium
(Figure 140) is
          y = rt
                     (19)
           Figure 140.  OVERLAND FLOW ON A UNIFORMLY
                            SLOPING PLANE
     Between time t =  0  and  t  =  t   (where t  = time to
                                 s          s
equilibrium in sec), the total inflow will be equal to the
total runoff  (outflow) plus  the  surface detention (storage)

in units ft /ft of width.

     The total inflow  during this time will be:
          I = r L t
                      (20)
     The surface detention  will  be:
                   ydx
but equation  (15) gives  y  =    -)/    and also the discharge

at equilibrium from  equation  (18)  is q = rx
     SO
/'
Jo
dx
                            250

-------

                                                       (21)
      Accepting that the total runoff is some fraction  (a)
of the total inflow:
           R = arLt
but also   R
 _r
 ~4>
qdt
      From equation  (19), from t
at x = L should be:
           v =  (—-) v
                V  *
      Then equation  (15) becomes:

               _, m   T,  / tģm   m
           q = Ky  = K  (^—)  y
                         e

Therefore equating  (22) and  (23):
                          m
           arLt  = K
(22)


(23)
                       0 to t = te/ the depth
                    e tmdt
                     m
from where arL =
                  m + 1
but
qe ģ  rL =
                          m
so
                  m + 1
      Then the total runoff will  be  R =

                                                       (24)
                                           (25)
      The necessary  time  to  reach  equilibrium now can be
found from the equation:   I  =  D  + R substituting the ex-
pressions of equations  (20) ,  (21) , (25).   Therefore:
                             251

-------
     rLt  =
     rje
                           K
from where
                     K
                      1/m
                                                       rLt
                                                       (26)
                                          5             I/IT
      For turbulent flow has been found m=j and K-1.486 n


where S is the slope in ft/ft equal to the sine for small

slopes.
      Then from equation  (24):  a = 0.375
From equation (21): Dg =






From equation (26): t  =
                               0.493  r
                                 °'6
                                                  1 ' 6
                               0.01315 L°'6  n°'6
Where:  D  = detention storage at equilibrium  in  ft /ft  of

         e   width


        t  = time to reach  equilibrium  in minutes
         e

                                                2
         r = overland flow  supply rate  in cfs/ft


         S = slope of the plane  in  ft/ft


         L = length of overland  flow in ft


         n = Manning's roughness coefficient


       Detention  storage  in  inches depth per unit  area and

overland flow  supply rates  in inches per hour _ are more easy

to visualize.  Therefore changing in these  units:
            De =
           0.009792
                                n° - 6 L° ' 6
                 0.94 L
                         S


                       0.6
                    0.3
                                                       (27)
                   0.4  C0.3
                  JT     O
                             252

-------
where now DQ  (in/unit area),  tQ  (min),  r  (in/hr), L  (ft),
S  (ft/ft).      ,

     The rate of discharge  from  overland  flow based  on
Manning's equation is:

          a = 1'486 v5/3 S1/2
          ^         y    to
where q in cubic feet per second per foot of width and y
the depth in feet at the lower edge of the  flow plane.

     Rewriting Manning's equation with q in inches per
hour per unit area, y in inches, and L in ft:
          q .
                           l/2
                                        (28)
     The most satisfactory empirical relationship found
between outflow depth and detention storage for repro-
ducing experimental hydrographs  [8] is:
          y =
D  1.0
+ •0.6 (5)
        e
                                          (29)
where y is the outflow depth in inches
     DS is the detention storage required at equilibrium
        for the current rate of inflow in inches per unit
        area, calculated from equation (27)

      D is the current detention storage in inches per
        unit area

     During recession flow, when D  is less than D, the
                                  ti
ratio D/Dg in equation (29) is assumed to be one .
     Then equation (28) becomes

          q
= 1020.7 sl/2 D5/3 r
     with units q (in/hr/unit area)
                        0.6
                                   5/3
                                   (30)
                L (ft) and D, D  (in/unit area)
                            253

-------
     To determine the overland flow runoff hydrograph, a
storage routing procedure is used.

     The storage equation can be written:
where r is the inflow  (overland flow supply, known from
the infiltration model), q is the outflow, dD is the change
in detention storage, and dt is the time increment in
minutes.

     This equation can be written in an incremental form
form [26]
            :1 + r2 _ ql + q2 _
                               60
               D2 - D]
                  At
     or
                                           D
                                        60
                                            AT
                                   (31)
where the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate values at the begin-
ning and the end of the routing increment  At.

     Combining equation  (31) with equation  (30) we get:
             D.
	 —
At
nL
                                        D
                                              ,5/3
                                                   D.
                                                + 60-
                                 At
                                      (32)
where D  can be found  for each corresponding r  from
       e
equation  (27).

     Now all the known values are at the  left-hand side of
equation  (32).  Starting at the  first  time  increment with
q_ =0, D, =0 the value of DĢ is found from equation  (32)

and then q2 is found from equation  (30).  Then  the calcu-
lated values of q2, D2 become q^ and DI for the subsequent

period and the above process is  repeated  giving the hydro-
graph of the overland  flow in inches per  hour which can be
directly compared to the rainfall rates.
                            254

-------
     However, in order to calculate the discharge entering
into the gutters due to the overland flow supply, it is
easier to have available the overland flow in cubic feet
per second per foot of width.  This can be done by
multiplying the values of q found from the routing pro-
cedure by a factor, i. e.
cfs
                                     in/hr
ft width
         43200
                                   unit area
Where L is the length of the overland flow.

     This method has the advantage in using the Manning ' s
roughness coefficient for which there are, a lot of experi-
mental data available for different ground covers (see
Appendix I) .

     This method agreed satisfactorily with the well known
Izzard's method [3], [27].  An example output is presented
in Figure 141.  Overland flow rates by using Izzard's
method are less during the beginning of the rainfall excess
and higher near the peak than these calculated by using the
Urban Runoff Model.  But finally the volume of water which
ran off is approximately the same  (areas under the overland
flow curves) .  The differences can occur due to the fact
that Manning's n =0.35 may not well correspond to Izzard's
C = 0.06.

     Several computer runs have shoxvn that the Cincinnati
Urban Runoff Model simulating the overland flow, finally
comes out with a volume of water ^ which ran off, approxi-
mately equal to the total volume of water which was
available for overland flow.  Differences of less than 5%
proved that the model follows adequately the continuity
principle.

     A brief sensitivity analysis has been done for the
overland flow model which proved ever more its accuracy.
An example is presented in Figure 142.  For bigger
Manning's roughness coefficients, the peaks of overland
flow hydrographs tend to be higher and to occur at earlier
times.  For bigger lengths of overland flow the peaks tend
to be lower and to occur at a later time, resulting in a
flatter overland flow hydrograph.

     The described overland flow model offers simplicity
and calculating speed compared with other more exact
methods, while attempting to maintain a reasonable
approximation to physical behavior.
                             255

-------
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                                             257

-------
                      7.  GUTTER FLOW

     Gutters will gather overland flow in a continuous
fashion along their lengths, to feed the catchment's inlets
and catch basins.

     Experiments by W. I. Hicks, introducing equal
increments of flow at regular intervals along the length of
a gutter, showed the difference between the water-surface
slope and the construction grade.  The upstream water slope
was much flatter. ;

     The type of flow in roadside gutters is spatially
varied unsteady flow with increasing discharge.

     In this type of flow, the energy loss is of relatively
high magnitude and uncertainty, and is due to the turbulent
mixing of the added water and the water flowing in the
channel  [26].  The momentum equation will be found more
correct than the energy equation in solving this problem.

     Considering the x component of the Velocity of the
lateral inflow negligible, the general differential
equation for spatially varied unsteady flow, based on the
momentum principle, is:
         _iY_ + Y-
          3x   g  3x
                                4. _Y- _iQ + I  8V
                                  gA  9x   g  at
(33)
where     S  = slope of the gutter bottom


          Sf = slope of total head line

          Q,V,y are the discharge, velocity and depth at a
               certain cross section of the gutter

           g = acceleration of gravity

     The total head line slope Sf will be computed from
Manning's equation, i. e.:
where
          Sf =
                  C
    2.22 A2 R4/3
                                           (34)
n = Manning's roughness coefficient

A = area of gutter cross section
                            258

-------
Also
           R = hydraulic radius of gutter cross section

                           / Qx_ _Q   3Q    Q2  3A
V  3V = J2  3
g  3x   gA  3x
                                ..
                               gA
                                 __  .
                                 2  3x
therefore  ^ _3V = _Q^ _3Q _ Q^T
           d  ,} %r     v  ^ *v      <
           y  O-'i   x-rA ^  °X   — •ģ J
                                           3  3x
                                                       (35)
where
           T = width of the water surface.
            V  JQ = _Q	3C2
               3x   _,2  3x
Also:
     By using equations  (35) and  (36), equation  (33)
becomes:
                                                       (36)
           S  - S  -  -    n -
            °    f "  3X      gA3
                                   + 2
                                        Q   9Q
                                               (37)
     The continuity equation for unsteady flow with lateral
inflow gT , is:
       '
                                                        (38)
     The lateral inflow qT , available from the overland

flow, will be constant along the length of the gutter for
a time interval.  So qT is a function of t but not of x.
     Because only the discharge entering the sewer catch
basins at the downstream end of the gutters is required,
equation (37) can be discarded and the Q at the end of the
gutters can be obtained by using only equation (38).

     For an urban area the lengths of the gutters are
relatively small.  Also the overland flow supply in cfs/ft
is small.  Therefore, in a time increment, the change of
the depth in the gutter will be very small in comparison
with the other terms of equation (38) (see Appendix I).
Omitting the term
                      T equation  (38) becomes:
                            259

-------
            3Q
               =
     and integrating:  Q = q   • L + Q
(39)
where QQ is the discharge entering the gutter from an up-

stream gutter, otherwise zero  (Figure 143)
            q =q
                ^
                        Figure ]k3.  GUTTER FLOW

     Once the hydrpgraph of  the  discharge  entering  into  an
inlet  (inflow hydrograph)  is obtained  from equation (39)
it will be routed through  the  sewer  until  the  next  inlet
downstream, where a new inflow hydrograph  will be added  to
the routed one and the summation will  be routed downstream,
and so on.
                             260

-------
      8.  ROUTING THROUGH LATERAL AND MAIN SEWERS
     In Chicago, Tholin and Keifer  [4] used a time-offset
method for conduit routing because of its simplicity com-
pared with other routing methods and because more refined
procedures (storage routing) had not led to significantly
different results.

     Storage routing can be applied if satisfactory dis-
charge-storage relationships are available.  This makes
necessary the computation of instantaneous backwater
curves.  Since only the rate of change in storage is
necessary to solve the storage equation, it is considered
expedient to assume a uniform flow condition for each dis-
charge rate  [22] and compute the conduit volume occupied
by the flow.

     Other methods used in Europe, like the semigraphical
method of Hauff and the Italian storage method, are
relatively easy to use, but are based on broader
assumptions  [28].

     Generally there are many points of entry (inlets)
into a lateral sewer.  As points of entry for a main sewer
are considered the junctions with the lateral sewers.

     Considering a lateral sewer of uniform flow and
cross-section, for each inlet a hydrograph of the inflow
is available from the gutter flow.  It seems more
reasonable to use a hydrograph simplified as constant
discharge rates for each time increment, rather than a
smooth curve discharge-time relationship (Figure 144).


       Q
               DT
              Figure 144.  TRANSFORMED HYDROGRAPH
                           261

-------
     Assuming a uniform flow condition for each discharge
rate, Manning's equation can be used to find the depth and
the velocity of flow into the sewer for each discharge.
So the velocity with which each water volume element is
moving downstream will be known.

     The average velocity with which the total inflow
volume (represented by the area under the hydrograph curve)
moves downstream is considered to be the weighted average
of all the partial velocities with respect to the
corresponding volumes, i. e. multiply each volume element
by its velocity, sum the products and divide the sum by
the total volume of the water which moves downstream.

     Once the average velocity of flow is found and knowing
the length of the conduit between inlets, the time needed
for the inflow water volume to travel this distance can be
found.

     Each inflow hydrograph is shifted in time without
changing in shape.  This has been found satisfactory and
convenient, producing only a slightly higher peak rate of
flow occurring at a somewhat later time than other more
exact methods.

     Therefore, for a lateral sewer of uniform slope and
cross-section, the computer shifts the first inflow hydro-
graph the time required  to reach the  second inlet.  ;Then,
it adds the new inlet hydrograph and  the  shifted one and
shifts the summation hydrograph until the next inlet,  and
so on until it reaches a critical point.

      Changes  in slope or changes in cross-section are  con-
sidered as critical points.  After a  critical point,_the
procedure is  repeated from the  beginning, with the_first
inflow hydrograph the one found at the critical point.
This  continues until the junction of  the  lateral sewer
under consideration with a main sewer.

      The routing through the lateral  sewers  is done first,
in order to  find the hydrographs entering into  the  main
sewer at the  junctions.  These  hydrographs  are  used as
inflow hydrographs  for  the main sewer and the  same  method
is followed  to find  the  hydrographs  at selected points of
the  main  sewer.

      Overflow of  the  sewer  system  is  not  allowed.   The
                             262

-------
 computer compares continuously the maximum capacity of the
 conduits and the routed discharges.  If the capacity of a
 conduit is not sufficient, the computer indicates that in
 the output.  This justifies the purpose of the present
 "Model" to design a sewer system or improve an existing
 one.  In case of:.overflow, the cross-section of the in-
 sufficient conduit or its slope or both have to be changed
 and the computer program rerun.

  ; •   It is assumed that the Manning's roughness coefficient
 remains constant as the depth changes (actually the rough-
 ness coefficient decreases as the depth of flow increases).

      For practical purposes also, it can. be assumed that
 the  maximum discharge of a circular conduit does occur at
 the  full depth,  because the depth for maximum discharge is
 sp.close to the  top that there is always a possibility of
 slight backwater to increase this depth closer or equal to
 the  full depth [22.3 .

      Time steps,  for  the computer solution,  may be chosen
 to coincide with the  spacing of the.ordinates of the
 inflow hydrographs for convenience.   However, 1 minute
 intervals will facilitate the addition of the hydrographs.

      Let us suppose now that the discharge entering into
 the  sewer during a time increment At is  Q,  taken from the
 inflow hydrograph.  In order to find the velocity with
 which the volume  (Q .  At)  is traveling downstream,  Manning's
 equation is used:                                ,  .    .    .
                       R2/3  sl/2
                                          (40)
where
Q
discharge in' cf s
           n = roughness coefficient of the conduit  (see
               Appendix I)

           A = cross-sectional area of flow in ft2

           R = hydraulic radius in ft

           S - slope of the invert of the conduit in ft/ft

     The present method is used for sewers of circular and
rectangular cross section.  Other shapes can be transformed
•into these basic two cross sections.
                            263

-------
     (A) Circular  shape:
                                   A =
                           (x -  sinx)   (41)
                                                  sinx
                                   "   P   4       x

                                   where x in radians and

                                   0 ^. x  =^ 2-rr
     The maximum capacity of the pipe is  (full  flow):
                  0.46417 n8/3  1/2
           Q    =     ' '   L)    D
           ~max      n
For partially full flow conditions  equation  (40)  becomes:
              - sinx)
                     5/3
              x
            13.566 Q n
          ~ rs8/3 . ci/:
(42)
     The riaht hand part  of  equation (42)  is known,  so
equation  (42) can  be  solved  by trial to find the angle x.
Knowing x, the area of  flow  A is  obtained from equation
 (41) and the velocity of  flow V is obtained from the
equation:
           V
| (ft/sec)
      (B)  Rectangular shape
H
I

5 (A)
L PI 	 — -4
                                                        (43)
                                       A = Dy


                                       P = D + 2y


                                       R = Dy/(D + 2y)
                             264

-------
     The maximum discharge passing through  the  conduit
 (full flow, y = H) is:
           Q.
                  0.9361  (D H)
                              5/3
                                     a/2
            max
                    n
                          (D + H)
                                2/3
     For partially full flow, equation  (40) becomes
               5/3
                               Q n
            (D + 2y)
                   2/3
                         1.486 S1/2 D5/3
                                                       (44)
     The right hand part of equation  (44)  is known,  so  can
be solved by trial to find the depth of flow y  (in  ft).
Then the velocity of flow will be
           V =
                   (ft/sec)
(45)
     If an inflow hydrograph consists of N time  increments
 At with the corresponding discharges Q,  , QĢ  ,  .. ., Q,,  ,
then the average velocity with which the total inflow
volume travels downstream until the next inlet is:
Vav=(VlQl At+V2Q
                                      At+Q2 At+...+QN At)
or
       =  (V1Q1
where V, , V~ ,  ... are the velocities with which the
volumes Q, At, Q2 At,  ... travel downstream.  'These
velocities are given from equations  (43) or  (45) ..
                            265

-------
  9.  FIRST CASE STUDY ON SIMULATION OF URBAN STORM WATER

     RUNOFF BY USING THE CINCINNATI URBAN RUNOFF.MODEL


     A catchment of 10 acres in,Chicago, Illinois, has been
selected to verify the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model be-
cause detailed data were available and because it is
typical of the Chicago street pattern and may be typical of
some other cities.

     The catchment has been divided into six basic types of
subcatchments:
     Type
                  Length         Manning's
Description        (ft)*  Slope*     n	
       I   Dense blue grass turf,
           pervious

      II   Dense blue grass turf,
           pervious

     III   Dense blue grass turf,
           pervious

      IV   Street pavement,
           impervious

       V   Alley pavement,
           impervious
      VI   Common composition
           roofing, impervious
                    16
                    40
                    70
                    17
                     8
                    12
                                     0.0100   0.350
                                     0.0100   0.350
                                     0.0100   0.350
                                     0.0200   0.013
                                     0.0375   0.013
                                     0.6670   0.012


*Parallel to the direction of overland flow
     The 10 acres catchment constitutes 5.37 acres (53.7%)
of pervious areas and 4.63 acres (46.3%) of impervious
areas.

     Building roofs are not discharging through the down-
spouts on the lawn areas, but are connected directly to the
underground sewers.  To reduce the amount of computations,
six roofs were considered directly connected with each
catch basin.

     The garage roofs, because they discharge onto backyard
lawns, were considered a part of the pervious areas.
                            266

-------
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     The lateral sewer was of circular cross section with
a diameter of 3 ft, a slope of 0.0045 ft/ft, and a
Manning's roughness coefficient of 0.013.

     The subdivision of the catchment into subcatchments,
the sewerage, and the directions of overland flow and
gutter flow are shown in Figure 145.

     Figure 146 represents the catchment as a system of
geometric elements, the types of overland flow, gutters,
catch basins, and sewer system.  The way of numbering the
gutters, the points of entry into the sewer system, and the
numbering of the pipes is shown on Figure 146.

     The computer program for the Cincinnati Urban Runoff
Model is inserted in Appendix III.  Complete information
for the preparation of the data cards is in Appendix IV,
and the data cards for the Chicago 10-acre catchment are
presented in Appendix V.

     A 181-minute design storm was applied to the drainage
basin and the computations were made at 5-minute
intervals.  A detailed computer output for the present
case study is available at the Division of Water Resources,
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cincinnati.

     For the purpose of comparison, the runoff hydrograph
at the outlet of the Chicago 10-acre catchment was calcu-
lated by three methods:  the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model,
the EPA Storm Water Management Model, and the Chicago
Method.  The resulted hydrographs are plotted in Figure
147 together with the 181-minute design storm hyetograph
which was applied to the drainage basin.
Comments on the Results of the First Case Study

     1.  The Chicago Method, the EPA Storm Water Manage-
ment Model, and the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model, calcu-
lated that the peak would occur at about the same time,
i.e., 75 minutes from the start of the rainfall as shown
in Figure 147.

     2.  The Chicago Method and the EPA Storm Water Manage-
ment Model calculated a peak of 18.2 and 22.6 cfs respec-
tively.  The Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model calculated a
peak of 23.0 cfs, which agreed satisfactorily with the EPA
Storm Water Management Model.  However, the latter divided
the Chicago 10-acre catchment into 80 subcatchments, 40
gutters, and 4 pipes, while the Cincinnati Urban Runoff
                           269

-------
                                                           CHICAGO,  10-ACRE TRACT
                                                                DESIGN STORM
                                          80       100
                                          TIME (MINUTES)
                                                                                         ISO  190
   22

   20

   18

   16

? 14
o

S 12

S 10
O
     8

     6

     it

     2

     0
                       CINCINNATI
                  URBAN RUNOFF MODEL
                        EPA STORM WATER
                        MANAGEMENT MODEL
                                     CHICAGO METHOD
               20
                                 60
           80         100

            TIME  (MINUTES)
                                                                                        IfaO  190
                   Figure
RAINFALL HYETOGRAPH AND CALCULATED RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS
                 CHICAGO,  10-ACRE TRACT
                     DESIGN  STORM
                                             270

-------
Model used repeatedly 6 basic types of subeatchments, 40
gutters, and 8 pipes, therefore reducing the computer time
to about 5.5 minutes using the IBM 360/65 computer of the
University of Cincinnati.

     Comparing the peaks obtained by the three above
methods with the Rational Formula Q = ciA , the following
is obtained:

          c = coefficient of runoff equal to 0.40 for
              relatively flat residential areas, 30%
              impervious [29]

          A = catchment area, 10 acres

          i = average rainfall intensity in inches per hour
              for a duration equal to the time of concen-
              tration of the catchment
          Q = peak flow rate, in cfs

     During the rainfall used in the previously presented
study case/ 2.50 inches of water precipitated on the
catchment.  The duration of the rainfall was 181 minutes.
This rainfall has a return period of 10 years for the
Chicago area [30].  Then the average rainfall intensity,
for a time of concentration equal to 15 minutes and a re-
turn period of 10 years, is i = 5 inches per hour [31].
Therefore, Q=0.4x5xlO=20 cfs, which agrees
satisfactorily with the peaks in Figure 147.

     3.  The three methods gave a comparable rising limb.
However, the Chicago Method and the Cincinnati Urban Runoff
Model calculated a lower recession than that obtained from
the EPA Storm Water Management Model.  This can only be
accounted for by a larger infiltration loss.  Actually the
Chicago Method and the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model com-
pute the mass curve for infiltration loss.  Thus, the
infiltration rate tends to be satisfied at any given time
even though there is not sufficient rainfall at that
moment, under the condition that the accumulated mass
precipitated is bigger than the accumulated mass infil-
trated.

     4.  The EPA Storm Water Management Model maintained
the mass continuity within 0.1% of the rainfall.  No such
information was available on the Chicago Method for com-
parison.  The Cincinnati Urban Runoff Mathematical Model
maintained the mass continuity within an acceptable 2% of
the rainfall as has been shown by a series of case studies
performed at the University of Cincinnati.  Manpower and
computer time did not justify an effort for more accuracy.
                            271

-------
  10. SECOND CASE STUDY ON SIMULATION OF URBAN STORM WATER

      RUNOFF BY USING THE CINCINNATI URBAN RUNOFF MODEL


     The Oakdale Avenue drainage basin in Chicago, Illinois,
has been selected to verify the Cincinnati Urban Runoff
Model because rainfall and runoff have been periodically
measured and recorded since 1959 by the Chicago Department
of Public Works, Bureau of Engineering [32].

     The Oakdale Avenue catchment is an urban drainage area
12.9 acres in size (approximately 2 1/2 blocks long by one
block wide) and consists entirely of residential dwellings.
The catchment has been divided into six basic types of
subcatchments:
     Type     Description

       I   Grassed, pervious

      II   Grassed, pervious
        \

     III   Grassed, pervious

           Grassed, pervious
IV

 V


VI
           Street pavement,
           impervious

           Common composition
           roofing, impervious
Length
 (ft)*

  35

  35

  50

  23

  15


  11
Slope*
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.020
Manning ' s
n
0.350
0.300
0.350
0.350
0.013
0.667
0.012
     *Parallel to the direction of overland flow

     The 12.9 acres catchment constitutes 7.05 acres
 (54.7%) of pervious areas and 5.85 acres (45.3%) of im-
pervious areas.

     Building roofs and garage roofs are draining directly
into the underground sewers.

     The existing 30-inch diameter combined sewer was in-
stalled in 1958 and replaced a smaller combined sewer of
inadequate storm water capacity.  The slopes of the 30-inch
lateral sewer vary from 0.0045 upstream to 0.0030 down-
stream, and the Manning's roughness coefficient is
considered to be 0.013.

     The plan of the 12.9-acre Oakdale Avenue drainage
                            272

-------
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                           273

-------
 basin is  presented in Figure  148.   In order  to  use  the
 Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model,  the  Oakdale Avenue drainage
 basin has been divided into 6 basic types of subcatchments,
 52  gutters and 9 sewer pipes.

      Two  storms were  applied  to the Oakdale  Avenue  drainage
 basin,  the second storm of  July 2,  1960  having  a duration
 of  66 minutes  and the storm of  July 7, 1964  having  a
 duration  of 86 minutes.   The  computations were  made at
 1-minute  intervals.   A detailed computer output for this
 case  study is  available at  the  Division  of Water Resources,
 Department of  Civil Engineering, University  of  Cincinnati.

      For  the storm of July  2, 1960  the runoff hydrograph
 at  the  outlet  of the  Oakdale  Avenue drainage basin  was
 calculated by  three methods:  the Cincinnati  Urban Runoff
 Model,  the EPA Storm  Water  Management Model  and the RRL
 Method.   The resulting hydrographs  are plotted  in Figure
 149 together with the recorded  hydrograph and the 66-
 minute  storm hyetograph.

      For  the storm of July  7, 1964,  the  runoff  hydrograph
 at  the  outlet  of the  Oakdale  Avenue drainage basin  was
 calculated by  three methods:  the Cincinnati  Urban Runoff
 Model,  the RRL Method and the Chicago Method.   The
 resulted  hydrographs  are plotted in Figure 150  together
 with  the  recorded hydrograph  and the 86-minute  storm hye-
 tograph .

 Comments  on  the  Results of  the  Second Case Study

 (a) Second Storm of July 2, 1960:

      1.   The  two  peaks calculated  by the three methods
 occurred  at  about  the same  time, i.e. around 38 and 62
minutes from the  beginning  of the rainfall.  The recorded
 first peak,  however occurred  sometime earlier,  32 minutes
 from the  beginning of  the rainfall.   The second peak was
not recorded.

      2.   The Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model, the RRL Method
and the EPA  Storm Water Management Model calculated a first
peak of 18.13 cfs, 14.30 cfs  and 15.60 cfs respectively
and a second peak of  10.58  cfs,  6.90 cfs and 12.50 cfs
respectively.  The first peak calculated by the Cincinnati
Urban Runoff Model (18.13 cfs) was closer to the recorded
peak^  (17.40 cfs) because it considered a reduced infil-
tration capacity due to the wet antecedent condition of
the soil caused by the previous  rain which occured earlier
                            274

-------
           u
                  I       J     1
                                                                     OAKDALE AVENUE. BASIN

                                                                 SECOND STORM OF JULY 2. I960
              10        20         30       kO        50       60


                                            TIME  (MINUTES)
                                                                      70
                                                                               80
                                                                                        90
                                                                                                 100
   19




   18




   17



   16



   15




   \k




   13




   12




*-. 11
Ģ/i
u.

ii 10

LU


I  9

5
w>

o



    7




    6
RECORDED
                         CINCINNATI  URBAN


                           RUNOFF MODEL
                                               EPA STORM WATER

                                                IAGEMENT MODEL
             10
                       20
           30
                                                   50       60



                                             TIME  (MINUTES)
                                                 70
                                                                              80
                                                                   90
                                                                                                100
              Figure  H9.   RAINFALL  HYETOGRAPH.  CALCULATED AND OBSERVED RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS


                                              OAKOALE  AVENUE  BASIN, CHICAGO ,



                                              SECOND STORM OF JULY 2,  I960
                                              275

-------
i   3
§  0
 OAKDALE  AVENUE BASIN
STORM OF  JULY 7.  196U
                                          40       50
                                        TIKE  (MINUTES)
                                                                              80
                                                                                      90
                                                                                      90
                                        TIME  (MINUTES)



         Figure  '50.  RAINFALL HYETOGRAPH,  CLACULATED AND OBSERVED RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS.

                                     OAKDALE  AVENUE BASIN, CHICAGO

                                          STORM OF JULY 7, 196*4
                                        276

-------
the same day.  Therefore, some overland flow was generated
from the pervious areas and contributed to the first peak.
In comparison, the RRL Method without taking into con-
sideration flow from pervious surfaces calculated lower
peaks.

     3.   The three methods gave a comparable first rising
limb.  However, the RRL Method calculated a lower re-
cession than that obtained by the other two methods,
producing a smaller total runoff than that recorded.

(b)  Storm of July 7, 1964:

    •1.   The two peaks predicted by the Cincinnati Urban
Runoff  Model and the Chicago Method occurred at'about the
same time, i.e. around 17 and 36 minutes after the begin-
ning of the storm.  The two peaks predicted by the RRL
Method  both delayed for about 3 minutes.  The recorded
peaks occurred 20 and 37 minutes after the beginning of
the storm.  Therefore the three methods agreed quite satis-
factorily in the timing of the peaks.

     2.   The Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model, the RRL Method
and the Chicago Method calculated a first peak of 3.95 cfs,
6.00 cfs and 6.00 cfs respectively, and a second peak of
8.83 cfs, 11.40 cfs and 12.13 cfs respectively.  Again the
peaks predicted by the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model
(3.95 cfs and 8.83 cfs) were closer to the recorded peaks
(4.2 cfs and 9.6 cfs).  By using the Cincinnati Urban
Runoff  Model, the storm under consideration generated a
very small amount of overland flow from pervious areas 30
minutes after the beginning of the rainfall and for 10
minutes only.  Since the RRL Method does not take into con-
sideration flow from pervious areas and since the overland
flow from pervious areas predicted by the Cincinnati Urban
Runoff  Model was very small, a better agreement between
these two methods was expected.

     3.   The three methods calculated comparable rising
limbs for both peaks.  However the two recessions calcu-
lated by the Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model were consider-
ably lower than the recessions predicted by the other two
methods.
                            277

-------
    11. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY


     The Cincinnati Urban Runoff Model consists of five
sub-models:

     1.  The Infiltration Model uses Horton's equation to
find the shape of the proper infiltration capacity curve.
If data from the urban basin under study are not available,
the use of Jens' Infiltration Capacity Curves is recom-
mended.  A method has been developed for the computer to
shift the infiltration capacity curve in time, so Horton's
equation can be used when i  < f  .

     2.  The Depression Storage Model uses an equation
proposed by Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus, and a new
equation has been developed from it relating rates of de-
pression storage versus time.

     3.  The Overland Flow Model has been developed using
the continuity equation, the momentum equation, and an
equation by Crawford relating the depth of flow at the
downstream end of the overland flow plane with the surface
detention.  Several computer runs showed a satisfactory
degree of sensitivity of this model to changes of ground
slope, ground cover, and length of overland flow.

     4.  The Gutter Flow Model used the continuity
equation for steady flow since the change in depth with
respect to time was found negligible.  The validity; of
this simplification is shown in Appendix I.

     5.  The Routing Model routes the flow through the
lateral and main sewer by shifting an inflow hydrograph
from one inlet to the next, adds the shifted hydrograph
with the new one, and proceeds downstream.  This solution
does not reduce the peak flows, but it has been proved to
compare sufficiently close to the solution obtained from
more rigorous methods  (i.e., backwater curves computation).

     A computer program has been developed and combines
the five mentioned sub-models in the sequence with which
they appear above.

     It is believed that although a great deal of time
has been spent in the development of the presented Mathe-
matical Model, each step can and should be improved when
more field data are available for verification.

     Since depression storage reduces significantly the
                           278

-------
 overland  flow,  especially  from  pervious  areas, more  re-
 search  is needed  to  determine the proper depression  storage
 to  be used in  the Model.

     Other factors reducing  the overland flow which  can be
 considered in  the future are:   evaporation,  interception,
 and wetting of surfaces.

     More exact storage routing procedures can be  de-
 veloped to route  the flow  through the  gutters and  the
;lateral and main  sewers.   However,  each  improvement  of the
 Mathematical Model has to  be justified by manpower and
 computer  time  needed.

     Further research is recommended concerning  the
 capacity  of the storm-water  gutter  inlets, because during
 hea\sy rainstorms  there exists a carry-over flow  (i.e., the
 portion of the gutter flow that does not go  into an  inlet).

     If the water table of an urban basin is high, then
 groundwater infiltration or  seepage through  pipe joints,
 broken  pipes,  cracks, or openings in manholes and  similar
 faults, should be taken into account.  Research  can  be
 oriented  to find  a relation  between pipe material, age of
 the sewer system, and groundwater infiltration or  seepage.

     The  Cincinnati  Urban  Runoff Model as presented  is
 considered to  be  preliminary and will  be improved  as
 additional testing is accomplished  with  actual field data.
                            279

-------
                       APPENDIX I

          DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS  OF  GUTTER FLOW
     Gutters are usually  triangular channels with the one
side approximately vertical  (this  depends on the shape of
the curb).  As can be  seen in Figure 151, a typical
battered  curb has a  height of 5.5  inches and if the water
is flowing with this depth then it is covering the corres-
ponding half of the  roadway.
<*>

"• i
Ŗ..
• .7'
-t -- -p
1 wax
6
lr-s*

"
	 ou —

p.
- — ( 	
"'Concrete Povt..




.1

17' i
3% Slops !^.5SSlc35'|
' ,' *
6% Slops •••'
5" One course .concJ
walk.-
                -
     Curb grade-?^ -fr-
t
                 X
                     0
        BATTERED  CURB
    Figure 151.

CONCRETE ROADWAY WITH
BATTERED CURB DETAIL
     The Rational  formula gives:

                 .  A
          q =  c  i  E


where     q is the discharge in cfs/ft width

          A is the contributing area in acres

          b is the width of overland flow  (ft)

          c is runoff factor < 1

          i is average rainfall intensity  in inches per
            hour for a storm duration equal to the time  of
            concentration of the area which provides  the
            overland flow.  Usually i is not less than 1
            nor  more than 3 inches per hour for urban
            areas.
                            280

-------
     Through the assumption of orders of magnitude/  it  is

possible to show that the term  [T-^] in equation  (38) on
page 259 can be neglected.

     It seems reasonable to assume: [the symbols " =  ORD ( )"
mean "is of the order ( )"]


          T = ORD (10°) ft


         Ay = ORDUO"1)  ft
         At =' ORD(10) sec


          c = ORD (10"1)


          i = ORD (10°) in/hr


          A = ORD (10°) acres
          b = ORD(10 ) ft

then the ratio
      t AZ
       At = 1. Ay/At
      q     c   i
                             = ORD(10 2)
Therefore the term  [T--j can be neglected from equation
(38) as being small in comparison with the rest of the
terms of this equation.

     As an illustration, for a certain rain, two values of
overland flow have been considered in a 5 minute inverval,
namely q.^ = 0.00069 cfs/ft and q2 = 0.00115 cfs/ft at the
beginning and the end of the interval.  The length of the
gutter was 100 ft with a slope 0.03 ft/ft and a Manning's
coefficient 0.017.  The slope of the street pavement was
1:27.

     The corresponding depths of flow have been found by
Manning's equation to be y1 = 0.0774 ft and y_ = 0.0852 ft,

The average surface width of the flow was T = 2.195 ft.
Then T-IT T = 0.000057-
                              which is a 6% of the average
inflow q.
                           281

-------
                        APPENDIX II

              MANNING'S ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT

1.  For Overland Flow

      Manning's n for overland flow can be estimated from
the table below [8], or from other more detailed sources •
[22].
           Watershed
             Cover
      Smooth asphalt
      Asphalt or concrete paving
        Packed clay
        Light turf
        Dense turf
      Dense shrubbery & forest
      litter
                      Manning's n For
                       Overland Flow

                           0.012
                           0.014
                           0.030
                           0.200
                           0.350

                           0.400
      When there is a mixture of ground cover in a sub-
catchment of area A, then a harmonic mean Manning's rough-
ness coefficient n can be obtained from the expression:
           A
           n
B_
n.
(A -  B)

  n2
where B is a part of the subcatchment area having a
Manning's roughness coefficient n, and the rest of the

subcatchment area (A - B) has a roughness coefficient equal
to n2  [8] .

      The same procedure can be used if an area has more
than two different kinds of ground cover.


2.  For Pipe Flow

      For a combined sewer system, the same coating of
slimes form on the inside of all materials used for the con-
struction of the sewers.  This means that all materials used
in the construction of combined sewers will have the same
hydraulic roughness coefficient  [31].  In Manning's formula
that coefficient is n =  0.013.  Proof of this was demon-
strated by extensive tests at the Ohio State University
 [33].
                             282

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                        APPENDIX  III
  COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR THE CINCINNATI URBAN RUNOFF MODEL
      The volume of computations required by the Cincinnati
Urban Runoff Model would have been too formidable without
the use of an electronic computer.  A digital computer IBM
1130 with an available storage of 16K was used to run parts
of the present program.  Because usually more storage is
required, the whole program was run on the digital computer
IBM 360/65, of the University of Cincinnati, which has a
maximum storage capacity of 512K.  The computer program is
written in FORTRAN IV language.
      The differences in programming for the IBM 1130 and
the IBM 360/65 are only:
1
2
3
4
    IBM 1130
job cards
READ (-2 , . . .)
WRITE (3, ...)
Only arithmetic IF
statements
     IBM 360/65
job cards
READ (5, ...)
WRITE (6, ...)
Both logical and arith-
metic IF statements
      The program presented here consists of three parts,
the main program and two subroutines, namely:
I/ MAIN program:

2/ GUTFL subroutine:
3/ PIROU subroutine:
           for infiltration, depression storage,
           and overland flow
           for the gutter flow
           for the routing through the lateral
           and main sewers
                            283

-------
C
c
C
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
    21
              "CINCINNATI  URBAN  RUNOFF  MODEL"

                       COMPUTER PROGRAM
 *********************** ************ *******************
 INFILTRATION AND  DEPRESSION  STORAGE  IK PERVIOUS AREAS
 *Ģ#*ģ****##*##*******#*************Ģ*************#***

 DIVIDE  THE  TOTAL  RAINFALL  TIME IN N  EQUAL SMALL INCREMENTS
 READ  N+l  VALUES OF AVAILABLE RAINFALL HYDROGRAPH ( I M/HR )
 EACH  TIME INCREMENT DT  IS  IN MINUTES
 AT  TIME ZERO 1=0.  AT THE  END OF THE  TIME PERIOD I=N
 RAINFALL  INTENSITY AT TIME ZERO IS R01FOR 1=0)                   .^
 RAINFALL  INTENSITY AT A TIME T=DT*I  IS RItl)
 AT  A  TIME T=DT*I . INFILTRATION CAPACITY IS F(I) AND ACTUAL
 INFILTRATION IS AFU) IN  (IN/HR)
 THE CONSTANT RATE AT WHICH F(I) APPROACHES ASYMPTOTICALLY
 AS  TIME CONTINUESģIS FC
 THE RATE  OF INFILTRATION  CAPACITY WHEN TIME=0(I.E.  1=0)  IS FO
 CK  IS A POSSITIVE CONSTANT
 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RAINFALL AND ACTUAL INFILTRATION  S(I)
 ACCUMULATED MASS  PRECIPITATED UNTIL A TIME DT*I IS RMII) INCHES
 ACCUM^MASS ACTUALLY INFILTRATED UNTIL A TIME DT*I  IS AFM(I) INCHES
 WHERE RMtl) OR AFM1I) INDICATE THE MASS FROM TIME  DT*(I-1) UNTIL
 TIME  DT*I ģPLUS  THE PREVIOUS MASS
 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MASSES UNTIL A TIME DT*I IS P(I) IN  INCHES
 VOLUME OF WATER  IN DEPRESSION STORAGE IS VS ( I ) INCHES
 TOTAL DEPRESSION  STORAGE CAPACITY SD  INCHES
 DEPRESSION STORAGE SUPPLY IS Dfl)  INCH/HOUR
 SS(I) IS THE RATE OF ( RA IN-I NF I LTR-DEPRESS ION STORAGE)
 PPU) IS THE ACCUMULATED MASS OF ( RA I N- INF I LTR-DEPRESS ION STORAGE)
 COMMON    RK70) ,AF(70) iS<70> ģRMt70) tAFM(70> ,P ( 70 ) , D < 70 ) , VS I 70 ) ,SS
1(70) tPP(70) ISSIM170) tPPIM(70) iVSIMt70) .DIM (70) .DATE(S) ģDC(70) ģOE(7
20) ģOVQ(250i 30) ģOVQW(70) ģNEW( 30) ĢQ!NL( 70.20) .QINLOI20) t IW(250 1 ģV(25
30) ĢQLEAV<250) ģN,DT,NNĢN INLtQINP ( 250 ģ20 )
 WR1TE16.1)
 FORMAT ( ' 1 ' )
 READ! 5*21) (DATE (I) ģI=1Ģ8>ģDT.N
 FORMAT(8A4ģF5t2ĢI5)
 READ (5ģ4)  RO
 FORMAT (F5. 2)
 READ(5ģ5)  (RI(I)tI=lģN)
 FORMAT (12F5t2)
 READ (5ģ6)  FC.FO.CK.SD.SDIM
 FORMATOF1045.2F8.4)
 READ(5t20)AN
 FORMAT (F5. 2)
 WRITEC6*501)
 FORMAT ( 5X ģ ' *******************************************************
l****Ģ*i,/,5X. "SIMULATION  OF  INFILTR.AND  DEPRESSION STOKAGE IN  PERV
2 IOUS AREA" ģ/ģ5X.'*** **********************************************
    20
   501
       WRITE (6.221 (DATE! 11,1=1.5)
    22  FORMAT (5X. "RAIN OF ' , 6X Ģ 5 A4 , // )
       WRITE(6.23)(DATEII)ģI=6t8)
    23  FORMAT(5Xģ "TIME OF RAIN  START • i3X ,3A4 •// I
                                 284

-------
    WRITE (6t605)
605 FORMAT!1IX.•FC'ģ8Xģ•FO1ģ9Xģ'CK')
    WRITE(6ģ606)FCģFOģCK
606 FORMAT(10X,F4.2ģ6X,F4.2Ģ6XĢF6.4,//)
    WRITE(6Ģ607)  SD
607 FORMAT<5XĢ'TOTAL DEPRESSION STORAGE CAPACITY OF THE'ģ/ģ5X*'SUBCATC
   1HMENT IS   (IN INCHES)  ='t15X.F8.4t//)
    IF (RO-FO) 10ģ7ģ7
  7 DO 8 I=liN
  8 AF(I)=FC-M (FO-FC)*(2.718**(-CK*DT*I)>>
    SO=RO~FO-
    DO 9 IĢ=1ģN
  9 S(1)=RI(I)-AF+RI < I-U ) /2.0)*OT/60.0
    DO 13 1=1iN   •
 13 AFMfI)=((FC/60.0)*DT*I) + ((< FO-FC ) / (60.0*CK.))*(1tO-(2.718**<-CK*DT*
   II))))
    DO 14 I=1ģN
 14 PU )=RMf I )-AFM< I )
    OD=SO
    SSO=0.000
    NCON=0.0
    DO 800 I=1*N -
    IFIRKI)-AF(I))  900.900ģ799
900 0(11=0.000
    NCON=1Ģ0
    VS(
    SS(
    PP(
    GO
     )=SD
     )=S(I)
     )=P(I1-SD
    TO 800
799
798
 IF(NCON) 798*798*900
800

 15
 16
 17
 18

805

806
 DU =S( I)*(2.718**(-P( I )/SD) )
 VS( )=SD*(1.0-12.718**t-PtI1/SD)))
 SSI )=S(I)-D  TTĢRI( I)*AF(I)ģD(I 1*SS!I )
 FORMAT!5XĢF8.2.6XjF6.3ģ8X.F6.3ģ8XĢF6.3*8X*F6.3)
 WRITE(6,805)
 FORMAT('1')
 WRITE(6ģS06)
 FORMAT(5X*'TIME FROM        MASS           MASS      DEPRESSION
   1DIFFERENCE'ģ/.5X,'KAIM START   PRECIPITATED
                                                INFILTRATED
STORA
                                  285

-------
     2GE     (MR-MI-DS)'ģ/*5X.'(MINUTES)         (IN)           (IN)
     3    (IN)         (IN)    'ģ/)
      00 807 1*1ģN
      TTĢDT*I
  807 WRITEt6ģ808) TT.RM(I)ģAFM(I)ģVS(I)ģPP(1/
  808 FORMAT(5XĢF8,2.8XiF6.3ģ9X,F6.3ģ7X.F6.4ģ7XģF6.3i
      GO TO 118
C     IF INFILTRATION CAPACITY GREATER  THAN  RAINFALL  INTENSITY
C     AT THE BEGINNING OF  THE  RAINFALL  (WHERE  TIKE=0  AND  1=0) THEN
C     INFILTRATION CAPACITY CURVE STARTS AFTER A  TIME ( I*DT-t-X*L) FROM
C     THE BEGINNING OF THE RAINFALL
C     WE HAVE DIVIDED DT IN (NN+1) EQUAL INCREMENTS X(L FROM  1 TO NN)
c     THE SHIFTED  INFILTRATION CAPACITY  CURVE  WILL  INTERSECT  THE
C     RAINFALL  INTENSITY CURVE AFTER  A  TIME  TJ=J*DT+Y AFTER THE
C     BEGINNING OF THE INFILTRATION CAPACITY CURVE.OR AFTER A TIME
C     (I*DT+X#L) FROM THE  BEGINNING OF  THE  RAINFALL
C     THE I AFTER WHICH  THE SECTION OF  THE  CURVES TAKES PLACE IS(ISEC)
   19 XsDT/AN
9999
 299
      00 299 L=1ĢNN
      ALLL=< (RI ( I )+*(X*L/60.0)
      B2*(FC*TJ/60.0)-K ( FO-FC )*( 1. 0- (2.718** t-CK.*TJ ) ) ) / ( 60.0*CK.ģ
9998
 300
 301
 100
      LSEC=L
      B12T=ABS(B1-B2)
      IF(B12T-0.01)  301ģ301i299
      CONTINUE
      DO 300  I=2.N
      DO 300  L=1ģNN
      RMl I )=RM( I-1) + {(RI(I)+RHI-1> > /2 .0 )*DT/60.0
      ALLL=((RI(I)+(X*L*(RI(I-H)-RI < I )) /DT 1-FC) /( FO-FC) )
      IFIALLL.GT.O.ANDtALLL.LT.l. )  GO  TO  9998
      GO TO 300
      TJ*-tl.O/CK>*ALOGt (R I ( I >-KX*L*< RI t 1 + 1 1-RI t I) 1 /DT )-FC )/( FO-FC ))
      B1=RM+-RI (I ))/(2.0*DT) ) )*tX*L/60. 0)
      B2-(FC*TJ/60.0)-M (FO-FC ) * 1 1. 0-1 2.718**(-CK.*T J ) ) )/ ( 60. 0*CK.) )
      ISEC=I
      USEC=L
      B12T>=ABS(B1-B2)
      IF(B12T-0.01)  301ģ301ģ300
      CONTINUE
      BEFORE  THE SECTION
      AFO=RO
      S0=0ģ0
      00-0.000
      550=0.000
      DO 100  I=1ģISEC
      AF(1)=RI(I)
      S(I)=0Ģ0
      D(I)=0.000
      ssm=o.ooo
                                   286

-------
    AT THE SECTION
    IISEC=ISEC-H
    RISEC=(LSEC*X*(RI( II.SEO-RH I SEC) J/DTl+RK I SEC)
    AFSEC=RISEC
    SSEC=0.0
    DSEC=0.000
    SSSEC=0.000
    AFTER THE SECTION
    IISEC=ISEC-H
    DO 101 I=IISECģN
    AFU) = FC+()))
101 sm=RI(I )-AF(I)
    BEFORE THE SECTION
    DO 102 I=2ģISEC
102 RM(I)=RM( I-l) + ĢRim+RI(l-l))/2.0)*DT/60.0
    DO 103 I*1ĢISEC
    AFM(I)=RM(I)
    VSU>=0.0000
    PPU)=0.000
103 P(I)=AFM+RI < 1-1 ) )/2 .0 )*DT/60Ģ0
    DO 105 I=IISECĢN
105 AFM(1) = {FC/60.0)*{(I-1SEC)*OT-X*LSEC+TJ) -K (FO-FC)/(60Ģ0*CK))*(
   1(2ģ718Ģ*(-C<*((I-ISEC)*DT-X*LSEC+TJ))11
    DO 205 1=1 ISECģN
205 P(I)=RM(I)-AFM(I)
    NCON=0.0
    DO 810 I=IISECģN
    IFIRIfI)-AF(I)) 901ģ901ģ795
901 D(I!=0.000
    NCON=1Ģ0
    VS(
    sst
    pp(
    GO
        )=SD
        )=StI)
        )=P(I1-SD
        0 810
795
794
    VS(
    SS<
    IF1NCON) 794t794i901
        =St I)*(2.718**(-P(
        )=SD*<1.0-<2.718**<-P(I 1/SD)))
        )=S(I)-DfI)
    PPII)=P(1)-VStI)
810 CONTINUE
    TĢ=DT*I SEC+X*LSEC-TJ
    WRITE(6ģ106) T
106 FORMAT(5Xģ'INFILTRATION CAPACITY CURVE
   1INNING OF THE  RAINFALL (IN MINUTES)
    WTT = DT*ISEC-i-X*LSEC
    WRITE(6ģ108)WTT
                                            STARTS AFTER -THE1t/ģ5Xf'BEG
                                           ••ģ5XģF8.2.//)
                                287

-------
r
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
                   c
108 FORMATI5X."INFILTRATION CAPACITY CURVE  INTERSECTS  THE'Ģ/.5X,'RAIN
   1FALL INTENSITY CURVE AFTER THE BEGINNING*ģ/ģ5X."OF THE  RAINFALL
   2  (IN MINUTES)  ='ģ12XģF8Ģ2Ģ//)
    WRITE (6.110)
110 FORMAT!5Xģ'TIME FROM    RAINFALL        ACTUAL      DEPRESSION
   10VERLAND  Ģģ/.5X.*RAIN START    INTENSITY    INFILTRATION   STOR.SUPP
   2LY   FLOWSUPPLY'./ģ5X,'(MINUTES)      (IN/HRJ       UN/HR)         (
   31N/HR)       (IN/HR)  'Ģ/>
    W=0Ģ00
    WRITE(6ģ111)W.ROĢAFOģODģSSO
111 FORMATt5XtF8.2ģ6XģF6.3ģ8XģF6t3.8X.F6.3ģ8XģF6.3)
    DO 112 I*1ģISEC
    WW"=DT*I                   .
112 WRITE(6ģ113)WWģRI(I)ģAF(I)ģD(I)ģSS(I)
    FORMAT(5XģFS.2 ģ6X.F6.3 ģ 8X *F6•3i8X•F6 4 3ģ8 X ģF6•3)
    WRITE(6ģ114)WTTģRISECģAF5ECģDSEC.SSSEC
    FORMAT(5XģFS.2.6XģF6.3ģ8XtF6.3tSX.F6.3Ģ8X.F6.3)
    DO 115 I=IISECģN
    WWWģDT*I
    WRITE(6ģ116)  WWW.RItI)ģAF(I)ģDtI)ģSS(I)
    FORMAT!5X.F8.2ģ6XģF6.3ģ8XtF6.3i>8XģF6.3ģ8XģF6.3)
    WRITE(6ģ120)
    FORMAT!'!')
    WRITE!6ģ121)
    FORMAT!5X,'TIME FROM         MASS            MASS      DEPRESSION
   1D!FFERENCE',/ģ5Xģ'RAIN START    PRECIPITATED   INFILTRATED     STORA
   2GE  *   tMR-MI-DS)'ģ/.5X,'(MINUTES)         (IN)            (IN)
   3     (IN)          (IN)    './)
    DO 122 I=1ģISEC
    WW=DT*I
    KRITE(6*123)  WWģRM(I).AFM!I)ģVS(I)ģPP!I)
    FORMAT!5XģF8.2Ģ8XĢF6.3ģ9X.F6.3.7X.F6.4ģ7XģF6.3)
    WRITE(6.124)WTTģRMSECĢAFMSE.VSSECģPPSEC
    FORMAT!5XģF8.2ģ8X.F6.3ģ9XģF6.3ģ7XģF6Ģ4.7X.F6t3)
    DO 125 I=IISEC.N
    WWWĢDT*I
    WRITE(6. 126)  WWW.RM!I)ģAFMtI)ģVS(I)ģPP(I)
    FORMAT(5XģF8.2.eXtF6.3ģ9X,F6.3.7X,F6.4,7X.F6t3)
    WRITE (6.119)
    FORMAT  ('1')

    ********#**********************************************
    INFILTRATION AND  DEPRESSION STORAGE IN IMPERVIOUS AREAS
    **#********************************#*******Ģ***********

    INFILTRATION CAPACITY  IS  ZERO
    VOLUME OF WATER  IN  DEPRESSION STORAGE IS VSIM(I)  INCHES
    TOTAL DEPRESSION  STORAGE  CAPACITY IS SDIM (INCH)
    DEPRESSION  STORAGE  SUPPLY IS DIM!I) INCH/HOUR
    SSIM(I)  IS  THE RATE OF  IRAINFALL-DEPR.STORAGE)
    PPIM(I)  IS  THE ACCUMULATED  MASS OF (HAIN-DEPR.STORAGE)
    WRITE(6ģ500)
 500 FORMAT < 5Xt'*********#***********Ģ*******•********ģ*****************
    1*#******Ģ ,/,5X.'SIMULATION  OF INFILTR.AND DEPRESSION STORAGE IN  IM
    2PERVIOUS AREA1 t/Ģ5Xt '#**********#********•**#***#*#*******•ģ********
                        t//)
                    113

                    114
                    115
                    116

                    120

                    121
                     122
                     123
                     125
                     126
                     118
                     119
                                                       288

-------
                              CAPACITY IS ZERO'.//)
   WRITE<6ģ25>
25 FORMAT(5XĢ'INFILTRATION

26 FORMAT!5X.'TOTAL DEPRESSION STORAGE CAPACITY  OF  THE••/ģ5XĢ'SUSCATC
  1HMENT IS   (IN INCHES)  =*ģ15XģF8.4 . //)
   DO 28 1=1ģN
   DIM
   SSIM(I)=RI(I1-DIM1I I
   PPIMt I )=RMC I J-VSIMU)
   CONTINUE        .                                  '
   WRITE(6.29)
   FORMAT(5Xģ'TIME FROM    RAINFALL    DEPRESSION   OVERL.FLOW't/,5X
                  INTENSITY   STOR.SUPPLY      SUPPLY1•/i5Xģ'(MINUTES)
                      (IN/HR)        
-------
    READ(5i649)IAģINDWĢALWĢARWģSW
649 FORMAT(2I2t3F7.4)
    WRITE(6.652>
652 FORMAT ( /ģ5Xģ ' **•*****#*****#*********#***********#**#****#****ģģ*##
   1**' I
    IFUNDW-1)  653ģ654ģ653
653 WRITE(6Ģ655)IA
655 FORMAT(5Xģ'OVERLAND FLOW SIMULATION OF IMPERVIOUS AREA NUMBER  ĢģI2
   1)
    GO TO 657
654 WRITE(6i656)IA
656 FORMAT(5Xi'OVERLAND FLOW SIMULATION OF  PERVIOUS AREA NUMBER  'ģI2)
657 WRITEI6.658)
658 FORMAT 15X ģ'**ģ*******ģ*ģ******•******ģ*****#*#**********************
   !Ģ*//)
    WRITE(6ģ659)ALW
659 FORMAT(5Xģ'LENGTH OF OVERLAND FLOW IN FEET        ĢĢĢF7.2>
    WRITE(6ģ690) SW
690 FORMATOX.'SLOPE AT THE DIRECTION OF FLOW  (FT/FT) ='ģF7.4)
    WRITE<6ģ691) ARW
691 FORMAT(5Xt'MANNINGS  ROUGHNESS  COEFFICIENT
    AAA=510.35*(SW**0.5)/
-------
     IF851ģ852,852
 851 CONTINUE
 852 DC(I)=G
     OVQW( I )=(2.0*AAA)*(DC( I >**1.6666>*( ! 1.0+ < AA* ( DC t I)**3.0) J )** 1.6666
    1)
     OVQ( I ģIA) =ALW*OVQW( I ) /43200.0
 829 TIME=DT*I
     WRITE (6 ,85 3) TIME,OVOW( I ) ,OVQ( I , I A ) ģDE ( I I • DC < I ) ģSS t I >
 853 FORM AT { 7X.F6.2 ģ 11XģF7 .4 ģ 14X ģF8 .6 ģ 10X ,F8. 5 ģ 10XģF8.5ģ10X,F6.3)
     NWN=N+8
     NSTAR=N+1
     DO 661 I=NSTARģNWN
     ssm=ss
     IF(STB-STA)  664,665,665
     CONTINUE
     DO 679  10=1,20000,1
     WD=ID
     GĢ=WD/100000.0
     STBĢ( ( (BA*G)-t-(ABA*(G**4.0) ) ) **1 .6666 l-t- 1 ABB*G )
     IF(STB-STA)  679,665,665
     CONTINUE
                                  291

-------
1650 DO 646 IDnlĢ2000ģl
                                ) **1ģ6666 )+ ( ABB*G >
     G=WD/1000.0
     STBģ ( ( (BA*G)+{ ABA*(G**4.0)
     IF(STB-STA) 646ģ665i665
     CONTINUE
     DC(K)=G
     1F(DE(K)-DCĢ) )  666.667,667
     IF(INOW-l) 5060.1651.5060
     IFtSW-0.5) 5027.5026*5026
     DO 668 10=1.20000.1
     WD=ID
     G*WD/10000.0
     STB- ( AAA* t G**l . 6666 ) *AB ) + ( ABB*G )
     IF/43200.0
                                  292

-------
      SUBROUTINE GUTFL
C
c     ģ#*********#***ģ******
C     GUTTER  FLOW  PROGRAMM
C     *#*##ģ***•****#********
C
C     NINL IS THE NUMBER OF INLETS
C     N IS THE NUMBER OF TIME  INCREMENTS
C     NW IS THE NUMBER OF SUBCATCHMENTS
C     THE PROGRAM WILL TREAT  INLETS ACCEPTING  A  NUMBER OF
C     NBRAN  SYSTEMS OF GUTTERSiAND DIRECT CONNECTIONS
C     Nl IS THE NUMBER OF THE  FIRST UPSTREAM GUTTER OF
C     EACH GUTTER SYSTEM
C     N2 IS THE NUMBER OF THE  LAST DOWNSTREAM  GUTTER OF
C     EACH GUTTER SYSTEM
C     ITYPL IS THE NUMBER OF  SUBCATCHMENT FEEDING  A  GUTTER
C     FROM THE LEFT SIDE
C     ITYPR IS THE NUMBER OF  THE SUBCATCHMENT  FEEDING  A  GUTTER
C     FROM THE RIGHT SIDE
C     GLEN IS THE LENGTH OF THE GUTTER
C     IROOF IS THE NUMBER OF  HOUSE 'ROOFS DIRECTLY  CONNECTED WITH  AN  INLET
C     IWRF IS THE NUMBER OF THE TYPICAL HOUSE  ROOF SUBCATCHMENT
C     ROOFL IS THE WIDTH OF A  ROOF IN FEET
      COMMON    RIt70).AF(70>,S<70),RM(70) ģAFM<70) tP ( 70 ) .0(70 ) ģVS t 70 ) ģSS
     1 (70) ģPP{70) ģSSIM(70) tPP!M(70) ģVSIM(70) ģDlM<70) i DATE (8 ) .DC ( 70 ) ,DE ( 7
     20) ģOVQ(250ģ30) iOVQW(70> .NEW (30) ģQINL( 70.20) ĢOINLO(20) ģIW(250).V(25
     30) ģOLEAV(250) tN.DT.NN.N INL ,G INP < 250ģ20 )
     READt5Ģ?000) NINL
3000 FORMAT I 15)
     DO 3004 I IN = ltNINL
     DO 3004 1=1 ĢN
3004 QINL( I ģ I IN 1=0.0
     DO 4001 I !N=1ģNINL
     READ<5ģ3009) NBRAN
3009 FORMAT f 15)
     DO 4010 11=1, NBRAN
     READ(5,3010) N1ģN2
3010 FORMAT (215)
     DO 4002 J=N1ģN2
     READ(5ģ3011) ITYPL.ITYPR.GLEN
3011' FORMAT(2I5.F10.2)
     DO 4002 I=1.N
     QGUT=(OVO( IĢITYPL)+OVQ< I .ITYPR) )*GLEN
4002 QINL( I ģIIN)=OINL( I. I IN1+QGUT
4010 CONTINUE
     READI5.3013) IROOF, IWRF .ROOFL
3013 FORMAT (215. F5. 2)
     GTIMO=0.00
     QINL01 II,M)=0. 00000
     DO 4005 1=1 .N
     HERE QGUT  SHOUS FLOW ENTERING  THE  INLET
     OGUT*IROOF*2.0*ROOFL*OVQ( I , IWRF)
     QlNLt I . IIN)=QINL( I ģI INI+QGUT
4005 CONTINUE
4001 CONTINUE
     DO 5890 NINI=1ģ6
     WRITE(6.5500)
5500 FORMAT t ' 1 ' )
     N15=5*NINI-4
     N16*5*NINI
                                               FROM  DIRECT  CONNECTIONS
                                   293

-------
     WRITE(6,5555)(I,I=N15,N16)
5555 FORMAT(5X,1TIME FROM   DISCHARGE
    1 DISCHARGE',/.5X,'RAIN START
    2ERING   ENTERING'ģ/,5X.'     IN
    3INLET ',12,'   INLET '.12,'   INLET
    4    IN  CFS    IN  CFS     IN  CFS
     IFIN16-NINL) 5800,5800.5810
     N16=NINL
     WRITEI6.3014) GTI MO,IQINLOt1 IN),IIN = N15ģN16>
     FORMAT(6XģF7.2i4XĢF8.5ģ4(3XģF8.5))
     DO 5850 1=1.N
     GTIMSI*DT
     WRITE(6.5820) GTIM.tQINL
5810
5800
3014
5820
5850
     THIS  IN ORDER  TO  FACILITATE  THE  ADDITION  OF THE  HYDROGRAPHS
     DURING THE  ROUTING  THROUGH  THE LATERAL  AND MAIN  SEWERS
     KK=DT/DDD
     NN=KK*N
     DO  6901  IIN=1.NINL
     DO  6901   1=1.N
     JJ=N+2-I
     JJJ=N+1-I
     QINL(JJ,HN)=QINLUJJģIIN>
 6901 CONTINUE
     DO  6900  I IN = 1.NINL
 6900 QINLU ģI IN)=OtOOOOO
     DO  6912  I IN=1,NINL
      11*0
     00  6911  1=1,N
     DO  6911  K=1,KK
      11=11+1
     QINPdltllNl
     1NL(I,IIN)1)
 6911  CONTINUE
 6912  CONTINUE
      DO  6922  NINI=1ģ6
      WRITE(6,6916)
 6916  FORMAT('!')
      N15*5*NINI-4
      N16=5*NINI
      WRITE(6,6917) { I , I=N15.N16)
 6917  FORMAT(5X,ĢTIME FROM   DISCHARGE  DISCHARGE   DISCHARGE  DISCHARGE
     1  DISCHARGE',/,5X,'RAIN START  ENTERING    ENTERING   ENTERING   ENT
              ENTERING' ,/,5X, Ģ
                                   IN
12
                     INLET  '.12.'
                     IN  CFS     IN
                   6918.6918.6919
                                     INLET
                                     CFS
 6919
 6918
 6921
 6920

 6922
 6923
2ERING
3INLET '
4    IN  CFS
 IF(N16-NINL)
 N16=NINL
 DO 6920 1=1. NN
 TRTIM=DDD*( 1-1)
 WRITE(6.6921) TRTIM. (QlNPt I ģJ> ģJ=N15.N16)
 FORMAT (6XĢF7ģ2Ģ4XiF8ģ5ģ4J3XĢF8ģ5) )
 CONT 1MUE
 IFIN16-NINL) 6922.6923.6923
 CONTINUE
 RETUR'N
 END
INLET '.12.'    INLET '.12.'
',I2./.6X.'MINUTES     IN  CFS
 IN  CFS'.//)
                                    294

-------
      SUBROUTINE PIROU
C     **#*ģģ******#*****'***#****#**#**********
C     ROUTING THROUGH LATERAL AND MAIN  SEWERS
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
  909
  917
  907
  905
  912
  913
  925

  906
      USE OF MANNING'S EQUATION  TO  FIND  THE  AVERAGE  TIME NEEDED
      FOR A DISCHARGE HYDROGRAPH TO TRAVEL DOWNSTREAM UNTIL  A
      POINT ( INLET tMANHOLE ) WHERE  A SECOND DISCHARGE HYDROGRAPH
      ENTERS THE  SEWER SYSTEM. ADD THE  SHIFFTED  AND THE NEW
      HYDROGRAPH  AND CONTINUE UNTIL THE  POINT FOR WHICH WE SEEK
      THE OUTFLOW HYDROGRAPH
      ĢAREA' IS THE AREA OF FLOW IN SQUARE FEET
      'SLOP' IS THE SLOPE OF THE INVERT  IN FT/FT
      ĢALEN' IS THE- LENGTH BETWEEN  TWO CRITICAL POINTS ( INLETS ģ
      MANHOLES* CHANGE IN SLOPE OR DIAMETER OR SHAPE)
      (WHEN THERE IS A CHANGE  IN SLOPE OR DIAMETER OR SHAPE  WE
      CONSIDER THERE AN HYPOTHETICAL MANHOLE WITH ZERO  INFLOW)
      ĢPIPN' IS THE MANNING'S ROUGHNESS  COEFFICIENT  OF THE PIPE
      'Y1 IS THE  DEPTH OF FLOW  IN THE  CONDUIT  IN FEET
      •HR'  IS THE HYDRAULIC RADIUS  IN  FEET
      ĢDIA' IS THE DIAMETER OF  THE  SEWER PIPE  IN FEET OR  ITS WIDTH
      IF  IT IS RECTANGULAR
      ĢHĢ   IS THE HEIGHT OF RECTANGULAR  SEWER  IN FEET
      14=1  INDICATES CIRCULAR PIPE*I4=2  RECTANGULAR  CONDUIT
      NINL=NUMBER OF INLETS. MANHOLES AND CHANGES IN  SLOPE AND DIAMETER
      NPIPE=NUMBER OF PIPES
      COMMON    RI (70) ģAF(70) ģS(70) ģRM<70) ĢAFM(70) tP(70)ĢD(70) iVS(70) ģSS
     1(70) Ģ'PP(70) .SSly,(70) .PPIM(70) ģVSIM(70) .DIM I 70) .DATE(8) *DC(70) ģDE(7
     20) iOVQ( 250.30! iOVQW(70 ) ģNEW( 30) .01 NL( 70.20) ģQiNLO(20) .IW(250)ģV(25
     30) *QLEAV(250) ģN ģDT ģNN ģN INLģQ I NP (250*20 1
      READ<5*909) NPIPE
      FORMAT (15)
      NIN=NINL-1
      DO  1050  1IN=1*NIN
      J=IIN
      WRITE(6ģ917)
      FORMAT ( '!Ģ )
      READ (5*907) 14 .SLOP.P IPN ĢDI A.H* ALEN
      FORMAT! I 5 ģF10.6 *F 10.4.2F5.3 ģF10Ģ3 >
      KK=DT/1.0
      NNĢ=KK*N
      IFU4-1) 950*905*950
      QMAX=(0.46417*
-------
    SA-K
    X*SA/1000.0
    BB"=nx-SIN(X> )**1.6666)/(Xģ*0.6666>
    IF ) 955*951*951
955 IW(I)Ģ=1
    GO TO 960
951 IWU)Ģ0
    BĢ(QINP(IiIIN>*PIPN)/U.486*CSLOP**0Ģ5)*JDIA**lģ6666) )
    MĢ=H*1COOĢ0
    DO 959  K=1.M
    SA=K
    Y=SA/1000.0
    BBĢ=(Y**1Ģ 66661/1 ( DIA-H 2.0*Y) )Ģ*0.6666)
    IF(B-BB) 953ģ953Ģ959
959 CONTINUE
953 V(I )=OINP( IĢI IN!/(DIA*Y)
960 CONTINUE
970 SUKĢ:0.0
     DO 1000 I=1ĢNN
     SUM=SUM-f-tV( I )*QINP( I • UN) )
     SE=SE+QINP( IģIIN).
1000 CONTINUE
     AVERV=SUM/SE
     AVT=ALEN/(AVERV*60Ģ0)
     1AVT=AVT
     DIF=AVT-IAVT
     IF(DIK-0Ģ5) 991.992*992
     AVERT=IAVT
     GO TO 993
     AVERT=IAVT+1
     IAVET=AVERT
     DO 994  I=1.IAVET
     OLEAVt I 1=0.000
     IIAVT=IAVET+1
     NNEW=NN-KAVET
 991

 992
 993

 994
     DO 995  I=IIAVTtNNEW
     KL-I-IAVET
     OLEAVt H=OINP(KLĢ I IN)
     DO 996  I=NEEWiNNEW
     OINPtI ģIIN)=0.000
 995
 996 VU)=0ģ00
                                   296

-------
997
     WRITE16.997) J
     FORM AT t 28Xģ '•ģ*************#*Ģ ģ/ģ28Xģ 'PIPE
                                                NUMBER  'ģI2i/.28Xģ'**ģ
                                      INVERT  IN FT/FT   IS
                                     PIPE   IN   FEET   IS
                                          COEFFICIENT   IS
      IF(I4-1) 968,969,968
 969 WRITE16.967) DIA
 967 FORMAT15Xģ'CIRCULAR CONDUIT   OF  DIAMETER   
     WRITE<6ģ964) ALEN
 964 FORMAT(5X,'THE LENGTH    OF   THE
    l',F7.2)
     WRITE(6ģ963) PIPN
 963 FORMAT(5X,'THE  MANNINGS ROUGHNESS
    l'.F7.5)
     WRITE(6ģ998)OMAX
 998 FORMAT(5X,'MAXIMUM CAPACITY  OF  THE  CONDUIT IS (CU.FEET/SEC)
    1 ĢģF6.2)
     WRITEI6.999) AVERV
 999 FORMAT(5X.'AVERAGE VELOCITY  OF  ENTERING DISCHARGES (FT/SEC)
    1  '.F5.2)
     WRITE(6,1001) AVERT
1001 FORMAT<5Xt=0.000
1070 Vtl)=0Ģ00
     DO 1074 I=1,NNEW
1074 OLEAVfI)=QLEAV(I)+QINP(IģNINLI
1069 DO 1003 I=1.NNEW
     TIMP=(1-1)*1.0
     IF(lWtl)-l)  1072.1080,1072
1072 WRITE(6.1004) TIMP.OINP
-------
Comments on the Developed Computer Program
                        i
      1.  The Program does not take into account the dry
weather flow.  If information and measurements are avail-
able from the urban area under consideration, the dry
weather flow simply can be taken as an additional input for
the routing through the sewers.

      2.  The SUBROUTINE subprogram "PIROU" has been written
based on the assumption that only one lateral sewer drains
the catchment under consideration.  This is usually true
for catchments of about 10 acres area.

          If a broader subdivision of the whole basin will
be preferred, then the catchments probably will be drained
from a network of lateral sewers.  In cases like this the
SUBROUTINE "PIROU" has to be replaced by the program pro-
posed on the next page, which deals with a pipe network.
This program will use SUBROUTINE "PIROU" in the place of the
statements 6, 9, 12, and 15.  In Figure 152 a complex pipe
network is presented with constant inflows at the inlets.
Figure 152 shows the way of numbering the inlets and the
pipes, necessary for the computer input.
                            298

-------
Computer Program Dealing with a Pipe Network
       DIMENSION QINL(100)ĢIPIPS(100)ģI PIPE(100)ģPIPQ(100)
C
C
C
    50
    51
   150
    11

   100

    20
    21
     7
    10
     8
    12
   102

    13
NUMB.OF DOWNSTREAM LAST POINT  OF
N NUMBER OF INLETS OR CHANGES  IN.
NN  NUMBER OF PIPES
READ(5ģ50)NģNNģMAIN
FORMAT(315)
READ(5ģ51) (QINLU) ģI = 1ģN)
FORMATt12F5.2)
READ(5ģ3) dPIPS(J)ģIPIPE(J)ģJģltNN)
FORMAT(2I5>                 ......
WRITE(6ģ150)
FORMAT(10X.'DISCHARGE AT PIPE  NUMBER&
TOTQ=0.0
TEMPQ=0Ģ0
00 1 I=1ģMAIN
DO 2 J*1ģNN
IFdPIPE(J)-I) 2ģ5ģ2
K=IPIPS(J)
PIPQ(J)=OINL(K)
TEMPQ=PIPQ(J)
TOTQ=TOTQ+TEMPQ
WRITE<6ģ100)TOTQģJ
FORMAT(10XģF9.2ģ10XiI3)
GO TO 21
TOTQ=TOTQ+TEMPQ
TEMPQ=0.0
IPIPS(J)=1
GO TO 2
IDUM=J
IFdPIPS(J)-l) 6>6ģ7
IFdPIPSl IDUM)'-1J  9ģ9ģ10
JK=IDUM
DO 8 JJ=1ģNN
IDUM=JJ
IF(IPIPEtJJ}-IPIPS(JK))8ģ7ģ8
CONTINUE
GO TO 12
K=IPIPS(JK)
PIPQ(JK)=QINL(KJ
TEMPQ=TEMPQ+PIPQ(JK>
IPIPS(JK)=1
IFMPIPEI JKJ-I )10ģ11ģ10
K=IPIPS(JK)
PIPQ(JK)=QINL(K)
TEMPQ=TEMPQ+PIPQ ( JK)
WRITE(6ģ102)TEMPO*JK
FORMAT(10X,F9.2ģ10Xģ13)
IF(IPIPE
-------
      IP(IPIPSUJ)-IPIPEUK) )
   15  K=IPIPS(JJ)
      PIPQfJJ)=QINL(K)
      TEMPQ=TEMPQ+PIPO(JJ)
      WRITE(6ģ103)TEMPQģJJ
 103  FORMATUOXģF9.2ģ10X,I3)
      JKSJJ
      IFUPIPE(JK)-I) 13*20,13
   14  CONTINUE
   2  CONTINUE
   1  CONTINUE
      CALL EXIT
      END
II
 I
             113
             13
13
i
                     114
                               115
   (<)
           C2)
19
             112 --
\k
!
i.
        no
         \
     (S)
         -V
              C?)
                                          — 116
                                           117
                               5  C5)
                                   16
                                               17
                                               I
                                               i
                                               t
                                                       K
                                                       tu

                                                       ui
                                                       M
                                                  (7)  6
                                                         Z

                                                         s:
            Figure 152.  COMPLEX PIPE NETWORK WITH
                   CONSTANT INFLOWS AT THE INLETS
                        300

-------
                       APPENDIX IV

                  DATA CARDS PREPARATION

A. Rainfall Data Cards
  I. card  1  (8A4, F5.2, 15)
                                       Variable   Example
                                         Names    Values
     col.  1-20 Date of storm
                (day, month, year)

     col. 21-32 Hour of start of storm
                (hours, min.,AM or PM)   DATE
     col. 33-37 Time interval between
                intensity values
DATE  24 SEPT 1970


        5:35 AM


 DT       5.00
     col. 38-42 Number of time steps
                to be calculated           N

 II. card 2   (F5.2)

     col.  1-5  First value of rainfall
                intensity                 RO

III. Rainfall intensity cards, each  (12F5.2)

                Intensity,in in/hr      •  RI

B. Infiltration Data Cards

  I. card 1 (3F10.5, 2F8.4)

     col.  1-10 Const, infiltr. rate
                (in/hr)         _           FC :
     col. 11-20 Initial infiltr. rate
                (in/hr)'                    FO
     col. 21-30 Decay rate of infil.
                (1/min)                    CK
     col. 31-38 Retention storage of
                pervious areas (in)       SD
     col. 39-46 Retention storage of
                impervious areas (in)    SDIM
            36
          0.20
          0.53


          3.00


         0.0697


         0.250


         0.0625
                           301

-------
   II. card 2 (F5.2)
                                         Variable
                                           Names
         Example
         Values
       col.  1-5 A number to divide DT
                 in smaller intervals
                 (see statement 19. If
                 DT = 5.0 min, a logical
                 value of AN is 20.0 or
                 30.0. Then the new
                 intervals will be of
                 0.17 min. each)

C. Overland Flow Data Cards

    I. card 1 (15)

       col.  1-5 Number of subcatchments
                 to be simulated

   II. One card for each subcatchment
       (212,  3F7.4)

       col.  1-2 Number of the subcatch-
                 ment
       col.  3-4 Indication number (1 for
                 pervious, 2 for imper-
                 vious)
       col. 5-11 Length of area at the
                 direction of flow (feet)

       col.12-18 Manning's roughness coef.

       col.19-25 Slope of the area at the
                 direction of flow (ft/ft)

D. Gutters Data Cards

    I. card 1 (15)

       col. 1-5  Number of entry points
                 into the sewer system

    (Data cards of type II, III, IV, V to
     be repeated for each entry point)
 AN
 NW
 IA



INDW


 ALW

 ARW


 SW
NINL
30.0
16.0

0.35


0.01
                             302

-------
 II. card 2 (15)
                                       Variable
                                         Names
     col.  1-5
Number of gutter
branches leading into
the entry point
 (Data cards of type III, IV to be
  repeated for each gutter branch)

III. card 3 (215)

     col.  1-5  Number of the first up-
                stream gutter segment
                of the gutter branch

     col.  6-10 Number of the last down-
                stream gutter segment
                of the gutter branch

 (Data cards of type IV to be repeated
  for each gutter segment)

IV.  card 4 (215,  F10.2)

     col.  1-5  Number of the subcatch-
                ment providing flow to
                the gutter segment from
                the left

     col.  6^-10 Number of the subcatch-
                ment providing flow to
                the gutter segment from
                the right

     col. 11-20 Length of the gutter
                segment in feet

 V.  card 5 (215,  F5.2)
                                  Example
                                  Values
                                         NBRAN
                          Nl
                          N2
                         ITYPL
                         ITYPR
                          GLEN
   5


297.0
     col.   1-5  Number of roofs directly
                connected with entry
                point                    IROOF
     col.   6-10 Number of subcatchment
                corresponding to the  -
                roof type                 IWRF

     col.  11-15 Length of the roofs (ft)  ROOFL
                                     6

                                   30.0
                           303

-------
E.  Pipes Data Cards

    I. card 1 (15)

       col.  1-5  Number of pipes

   II. one card for each pipe
       (15, F10.6, F10.4, 2F5.3, F10.3)

       col.  1-5  Indication number, 1
                  for circular pipe, 2
                  for rectangular

       col.  6-15 Slope, of the pipe
                  invert

       col. 16-25 Manning's roughness
                  coefficient

       col. 26-30 Diameter of circular
                  pipe or width of rec-
                  tangular pipe (ft)

       ^col. 31-35 Height of rectangular
                  pipe (0.0 for circular)
                  (ft)

       col. 36-45 Length of pipe (ft)
Variable
 Names


 NPIPE
   DIA



    H

  ALEN
Example
Values
14
SLOP
PIPN
1
0.0045
0.013
  3.0



  0.0

120.0
                           304

-------
             APPENDIX V




DATA CARDS FOR THE FIRST CASE  STUDY
24
0.20
0.20
5.30
0.35

30.0
6
1 1
2 1
3 1
If 2
$ 2
6 2
9
2
1
3
1
3
5
If
0
if
5
2
6
If
7
ii
8
2
12
If
9
2
10
It
11
if
12
2
12
if
13
2
1ft
It
15
if
16
2
12
ft
17
SEPTFMBER 1,970 5 35 AM 5.0 36,

0.20
5.25
0.25
0.53


16.
Iģ0.
70.
17.
8.
12.


2
5
\i
if
3
1
6

5
If
6
2
7
2
8
it
6

9
ft
10
2
11
2
12
ft
6

13
It
1ft
2
15
2
16
ti
6

18

O.?0 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.42 0.42 0.50 0.62 0.87 1.63
2.80 1.75 1.25 0.88 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.47 0.47 0.47
0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
3.00 0.0697 0.2500 0.0625


0 0.35 0.01
0 0.35 0.01
0 0.35 0.01
0 0.013 0.02
0 0.013 0.0375
0 0.012 0.667



297.0
IftO.O

297.0
IftO.O
30.0


105.0

105.0

105.0

105.0
30.0


105.0

105.0

105.0

105.0
30.0


105.0

105.0

105.0

105.0
30.0


                  305

-------
5
19
3
1
21
3
1
23
5
0
It
25
2
26
E}
27
1}
28
2
12
29
2
30
It
31
It
32
2
12
L
1
33
2
3J
35

36
2
12
2
37
5
k
39
3
1
0
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3 297.0
20
5 297.0
I* 140.0
22
5 - 297.0
k 140.0
21*
3 297.0
6 30.0

25
lģ 10 5-. 0
26
2 105.0
27
2 105.0
28
I* 105.0
6 30.0
29
U 105.0
30
2 105.0
31
2 105.0
32
I* 105.0
6 30.0
33
lģ 105.0
2 105.0
35
2 105.0
36
it 105.0
6 30.0

38
3 297.0
1 11*0.0
1(0
5 297.0
4 11*0. 0
6 30.0

0.001*5 0.013 3.0 0.0
0.001*5 0.013 3.0 0.0
0.001*5 0.015 3.0 0.0
O.OOU5 0.013 3.0 0.0
O.OOU5 0.013 3.0 0.0
0.001*5 0.013 3.0 0.0
0.001*5 0.013 3.0 0.0
0.001*5 0.013 3.0 0.0



















-


























120.0
210.0
210.0
120.0
120.0
210.0
210.0
120.0
306

-------
                        SECTION  VII

           MATHEMATICAL  MODEL FOR  SIMULATION  OF

          RUNOFF  QUALITY FROM AN URBAN  WATERSHED

                      1.  INTRODUCTION

     This  study  is devoted  to the development of  a mathe-
matical  formula  for  the concentration  of pollutants at  any
location within  a combined  sewer  system of an urban water-
shed.  A stochastic  process  is  used to describe the removal
of surface pollutants by the runoff water and inertial
effects  of solids during motion are taken into account.  The
pollutants are routed from  the  inlets  through the lateral
and main sewers.
                     2. PREVIOUS WORK
     A lot of information concerning urban runoff pollution
is available, but only a few studies have included data on
both runoff quantity and quality in sufficient detail so
that the quality of direct surface runoff can be evaluated
as a function of runoff intensities.      .

     A recent study under the sponsorship of the Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Water Quality Office by a con-
sortium of contractors—Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., the University
of Florida, and Water Resources Engineers, Inc.  [9] --
provides probably.the most comprehensive runoff quality
model currently available.  The model presented here, as
developed at the University of Cincinnati, has similarities
with the above referenced model; however, a major difference
is that an integral solution has been developed instead of
a stepwise solution.
        3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

                FOR URBAN RUNOFF QUALITY
     Wastewater, surface dust and dirt, catch basin trap-
pings, and air pollutant residues are the major sources of
storm runoff pollution.

     The pollutants in this study are classified as soluble
and non-soluble.  The following are soluble: BOD, COD,
                             307

-------
total hydrolyzable phosphates, various forms of nitrogen,
and various forms of coliforms; while suspended solids  are
recognized as non-soluble.

3.1 Mathematical Formula for Surface Pollutant Removal

     Surface pollutants consist of street litter and
dustfalls that appear on the surface at the start of an
oncoming storm.

     The following assumptions are made as the basis for
the development of the mathematical formulation:

     a. Decaying effects of pollutants due to chemical
changes or biochemical degradation during the running-off
period are neglected.

     b. The amounts of pollutants percolating into the
soil by infiltration are neglected.

     c. The rate of removal of pollutants by runoff water
is assumed to be proportional to the amount of pollutant
remaining, and to the runoff intensity.

     d. Because the distribution of air pollutants in the
atmosphere is non-uniform, spatially and unsteady, varying
from time to time, it is difficult to formulate the amount
which runs off in rainfall; therefore, this source has  not
been evaluated separately but is considered to be included
in the overall runoff constituents.

     The amount of a pollutant remaining on a runoff
surface at a particular time, the rate of runoff at that
time, and the general characteristics of the watershed  can
be related in a simplified form as follows:
           -dP
            dt
        KqP
(D
Rearranging,
            -dP
Integrating,
               = Kqdt
 rp
 I   dP
J   "*"'
•'•n
                       Kqdt =
                             308

-------
            In ^ = - K
                o
                qdt = - K V.
 where
Vt =  J  qdt
             P    -KV
            — = 6
            P  =
                                                        (2)
      In  equations  (1)  and  (2) ,       '

           PQ  =  amount of  pollutant  on  the  surface  drainage
                 area at  the  start  of an oncoming  storm

            P  =  amount of  pollutant  remaining  on  the  surface
                 at time  t

            g  =  runoff intensity at  time t

           Vt  =  accumulated  runoff water volume up  to  time t
            e = the base of natural logarithms

            K = a constant characterizing the drainage area.

     Thus, the remaining amount of pollutant at any instant
on the surface is assumed to be decreasing exponentially as
a function of the accumulated runoff volume.

     Probabilistically, P/PQ = e~KVt can be considered as

the probability that a polluting particle on the surface
will still remain at its original position when .storm runoff
water volume has accumulated to V.  at time t.
     Consequently,
                                                       (3)
where 0 is the probability that a polluting particle will
be removed from its original position after time t.  Differ-
entiating equation (3) with respect to V:
                              309

-------
            *-  f(V) =
                                                        (4)
where  f (V) is the probability density function for 4>. The
integral of  f(V) over all possible values of V is unity:
          1
               f (V) dV =
Ke~KV dV
       -too
= -e-KVl   = 1
       Jn
It is assumed that the function  f(V) is nowhere negative,
and is single-valued.

     Therefore the probability that a particle is removed
from its original position during the time from ^ to t2/.
with corresponding accumulated volume of runoff from ^
VĢ, is
                                                         to
Pr (V, -Ŗ V ^ V,) =
    •*•    •Ģ.   ^*
                           -KV     -KV
                         Ke KVdV=-e KV
                                           =-KVi_e-KV2
                                        V-
     Assuming  that  once  a  soluble pollutant is picked up by
runoff water it will  flow  into  an inlet ,the amount of
pollutants  which  are  flushed into a sewer inlet is :
 Figure  153  schematically represents the removal of soluble
 surface pollutants by runoff water.

      For the transport of s'olids by runoff water, the drag
 force exerted by flowing water on a particle varies as the
 square  of the flowing velocity, i.e.
      Hence, the portion of the solids that are removed from
 their original positions and flushed into a sewer inlet is
 assumed to be proportional to the square of the runoff
 intensity.
            r = X q'
                                                           (6)
                              310

-------
  LU
>-
h-


-------
In equation (6),  r is the fraction of the removed solids
that is carried off into a sewer inlet at the instant when
the runoff intensity is q;  X  is a proportionality factor.
     Thus, the amount of solids that are flushed into a
sewer inlet during the same time interval from t, to t0
                                                JL     Ŗ
with mean runoff intensity


           -   ql + q2
           q = 	^	 , 'is
           P0 X q
 (e
                     -KVl
e-KV2)
(7)
Thus, with the previous assumptions and this formula, it is
obvious that the closer a particle is to the inlet, the
smaller the runoff rate necessary to wash it into the inlet,
and the larger the particle, the greater the runoff rate
required.,

     Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., et al,  [9] found that a rainfall
rate of 0.14 in/hr would begin to move 20 micron material,
and a rate of 0.65 in/hr would begin to move 40 micron
material.  Also a runoff rate of 0.01 in/hr would transport
20 micron material and a rate of 0.03 in/hr would transport
40 micron material.

     If the sewer inlet is a catch basin, then the retention
of solids in the trap should be taken into consideration.
In its relation to sedimentation, the size-weight
composition of a suspension can be expressed by the
frequency distribution of the settling velocities of constit-
uent particles  [35].

     A hypothetical cumulative distribution of settling
velocities of a suspension carried into a sewer inlet is
presented in Figure 154.

     Thus, with the size distribution of the flushed-in
suspension and the flowing rate of runoff,  u  , the portion
of the flushed—in suspension that is retained in the catch
basin can be estimated at any instant during the running-
off period.

     The proportion 1-9   of particles settling with
velocities u
is retained in its entirety.   The remainder
                             312

-------
   100
CtL
o
r  6o-
O
o
o
U-
o
                                                         - 20
                                                           10
              0.02      0.04       0.06      0.08

                SETTLING VELOCITY  V  (CM/SEC)
0. 10
 Figure 154. HYPOTHETICAL FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION AND CUMULATIVE

           DISTRIBUTION OF SETTLING VELOCITIES OF A SUSPENSION
                              313

-------
                      de
reaches the bottom, and the overall retention portion be-
comes
                   - eo)

                                  U
                                  u
                                      de
(8)
     Since the catch basin is generally short in the
direction of flow, hence 1 - 6  is the portion of the
suspension that is retained, and 9  is that portion which
is carried by runoff water into a sewer.  Consequently,
during the time interval from t.. to t2 the amount of solids
that are flushed into a sewer is
           Po X q2  (e

while the amount that is retained in a catch basin is
                                                        (9)
                                                       (10)
3.2  Significance of K Value

     In all these derivations K is a very important para-
meter presumably characterizing the drainage area.

     Suppose that a continuous random variable x has a
probability density function  f (x) .

     The expectation  E (x) of the random variable x is de
fined as  [36] :
            E
              (x) =   f x f(x) dx
                    •J —00
which may be interpreted as the center of gravity of the
probability density function  f (x) .

     In this study, the probability density  function is

            f (V) = Ke~KVt
                             314

-------
           E(V) =
           V f (V) dV =
V K e~KV dV
d(VKe KV) = KVde~KV + e KV d(KV) = -K2 Ve~KV dV + Ke~KV dV
           KVe~KV dV = i |Ke~KV dV - d(KVe~KV)
E(V) =
                  i\
                      KVe •   dV
             I
-------
                  = 0.1
           K = 4.6

     The factors that will affect the K value presumably
are;
        (a)  size and shape of a drainage area,

        (b)  slope of gutters,

        (c)  types of storm water inlets,

        (d)  time of concentration of a drainage area,

        (e)  kind of pollutant to be transported.

3.3 Removal of Pollutant from Catchbasins

     Catchbasins historically have been constructed on in-
lets to combined sewers and storm drains for the purpose of
removing heavy grit and detritus which might otherwise
settle out in the piping system and providing a water seal
to confine sewer gas.

     The trapped pocket of liquid and solids in which
organic materials undergo decomposition between storms con-
tributes a substantial amount of pollutants to urban runoff
water.

     The American Public Works Association  [37] determined
the way the soluble pollutants in a catchbasin at the start
of a storm are flushed into the sewer.  They experimented
by adding 15 to 45 pounds of sodium chloride dissolved in
water to a catchbasin containing 353 gallons.  Water from a
hydrant was discharged through a hose and water meter to
the gutter near the catchbasin.  Samples were taken from
the effluent when various quantities of water up to 1685
gallons had been added to and passed through the catchbasin,

     Figure 155 presents the cumulative percent of salt dis-
charged as a function of gallons of liquid added.

     A formula regressioned by Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. [9]
to fit the'curve in Figure 155 came out to be
           R =
1.0 - e
100
(12)
                            316

-------
  100
   80
o
o:
o
-  60
O
o
Q_

1-

LU
O
o:'
LU
Q.
   20
                                        e
                                   Theoretical values with
                                   perfect mixing
                                   Observed values at
                                   flow rate of
                             1 cu. ft./min. O
                             4 cu. ft./min. 4-
                             7 cu. ft./min. 9
                  353
             706

GALLONS OF LIQUID ADDED
                                                               1059
             Figure 155.RELATIONSHIP OF FLOW  INTO CATCHBASIN AND

                        REDUCTION OF CONCENTRATION ON SALT  (NaCl)
                                    317

-------
 In equation (12),

            R = percent of salt removed,

            V = cumulative inflow volume  to the catchbasin,
                and

            G = trapped volume of liquid  in a catchbasin.

      A scrutiny of equation (12)  reveals the similarity of
 this  empirical equation and the equation derived  previously

 for soluble pollutant removal in the  form of  =  1  -e~KVt  ,
 equation (3).   Hence,  it might be inferred that K value is
 inversely  proportional to the size of a  drainage,  area.

      If Y  is the amount of soluble pollutants in  a  catch-
 basin at the start of a storm,  then
               R = Y
                                 V,
                       1.0 - e
                                 1.6G
will be the amount of  soluble pollutant in the catchbasin
to be flushed out into the  sewer when the runoff volume
                        During the time interval when the

                                               , the per-
centage of removal during that time interval is
has accumulated to V  .

volume of runoff has accumulated from V, to V
                                       •!•
                    V,
           R =
                   1.6G
                                                     (13)
     For solids removal from a catchbasin, the portion of
the solids flushed out into the sewer by the incoming
runoff could be estimated from Figure 154.  Assuming that
an amount of solids Z is retained in a catchbasin at the
instant the flushing velocity is UQ , the amount of solids
to be flushed out into the sewer is Z
Z (1
       9Q)
           is to be retained.
                                      &  while the amount
                                       o
3.4 Routing of Soluble Pollutants through Lateral and Main
Sewers

     For simplicity in routing soluble pollutants through
sewer systems, it is assumed that the decaying effects due
to chemical and biochemical changes are negligible.
                             318

-------
     The soluble pollutant is assumed to travel at current
velocities along the distance from where it enters the
inlet to any point downstream in the sewer system.

     Routing takes account of the volume of runoff 'water
and amount of pollutant removed into an inlet from the
farthest inlet area upstream.

     At the next inlet point, the contributions from the
next inlet area are added to the previously routed
pollutant from upstream.  This process is continued at
successive points.

     The total amount of soluble pollutant at the outlet
end of the lateral sewer at the mean time, from t^ to t^

can be expressed mathematically as
          n
                   n
W =
                       01
                       -KV,
                                          -KV,
                                       - e
 n
5>i
                      1.6G
                      - e
                             1*6G
                                                        (14)
     The concentration of the routed soluble pollutant at
the outlet end of the lateral sewer is
          c =
                          W
           r
           /
          Jt
                    Qdt-f
                                               (15)
In equations  (14) and (15)
          n
              x.
               """
              estimated amount of pollutant due to
              rainfall contamination in the air, and
              n is the number of inlet contributions
              routed.
          n
         z
          oi
                    -KV
                  tl~tr
                             -KV
                          - e
                            t2~tr
                            319

-------
total amount of surface soluble pollutant flushed into in-
lets by runoff water, and P .  denotes the amount of soluble

pollutant on the surface drainage area served by the i-th
inlet, and t  is the travel time from the i-th inlet to the

outlet end.
           n
               Y
                      v
       tl-tr
       1.6G
                    V
                               - e
t0-t
 2  r
1.6G
total amount of soluble pollutant flushed out from catch
basins.
           r
           AI
                c q dt = total amount of pollutants in dry
                         weather flow from tn to t9,  and c
                                            -L     ĢŖ       S
                         is the concentration of the pollu-
                         tant in dry weather flow, and q
                                                        S
                         is the dry weather flow rate.
q dt  = dry weather flow volume monitored
        at the outlet end from t, to t~.
                Q dt  = runoff volume at the outlet end
                        during the routing period from
                           to t  .
     Routing of soluble pollutants through the main sewer
follows the same method as that used for the lateral sewers
by taking the outlet pollutants of the laterals as the
individual contributions to the main sewer.

     Diagrammatical representation of the routing of sol-
uble pollutants through a sewer system is shown in Figure
156.

3.5 Routing of Settleable Solids in Sewer Systems

     Heavy solids in sanitary sewage water and in runoff
water are swept down the sewer invert like the bed load of
streams.  Light materials float on the water surface.
                             320

-------
 Latera
 Sewer
              i-th
              inlet
Mai n
Sewer
\
Outlet end
of lateral
sewer
                                                   V. Cumulat i ve
                                                  I   runoff  volume
                                     Time
                            Lateral  Sewer     ,
                            Outlet Hydrograph]
             Figure 1 56. D1AGRAMMAT1C REPRESENTATION OF
                           SOLUBLE  POLLUTANT  ROUTING
                              321

-------
When the velocity in the conduit falls, the heavy solids
are left behind as bottom deposits; when velocities rise
again, gritty substances are picked up once more and moved
along in heavy concentrations.

     This section of the study is devoted to the estimation
of the amount of sediments in sewers to be scoured from the
sewer bottom or to be deposited on the sewer bottom with
respect to the varying velocities involved in the water
transport in sewers.

     The channel velocity [35] initiating scour of parti-
cles deposited in sewers is defined as
           V =
               1.486
                 n
           R'
            1/6
B (ss - 1)
              1/2
(16)
In equation (16)
         n = Manning's n roughness coefficient

         R = hydraulic radius of the conduit

         d = particle diameter

         B = shield magnitude of sediment
             characteristics
        s  = specific gravity of particles
         s
Manning's formula for flow velocity is

                       ,2/3 -1/2
V =
                 n
                      R
                         (17)
After equating equations  (16) and  (17) and solving for d:
           d =
               B  (ss - 1)
                                           (18)
     In equation  (18), S is the slope of the invert of the
sewer; B varies from 0.04 for unigranular sand to 0.06 or
more for nonuniform sticky materials; and s  is taken as
                                           s
2.70.  Equation (18) is used to find the critical diameter
of sediments to be deposited or scoured up.

     Case I.  Sediment Uptake:  that portion of sewer sedi-
ments that has particle sizes greater than or equal to the
critical diameter found from equation  (18) will remain at
the bottom of the sewer.  Those particles with diameters
smaller than the critical diameter will be scoured up and
transported downstream.
                             322

-------
     Case II.  Sediment Deposition:  that portion of the
suspension in the incoming flows with particle diameters
greater than or equal to the critical diameter found from
equation (18) will settle to the bottom of the sewer. Those
particles with diameters smaller than the critical diameter
will be transported farther.

     The sewer sediment characteristic is approximated by a
plot prepared by Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. [9] and shown in
Figure 157.

     Routing of solids in sewer systems can be accomplished
by applying the continuity equation of mass transport,
starting from the farthermost upstream point of the sewer
and moving downstream.

     Routing procedures for settleable solids take the
following steps:                      ,

     (a) Calculate the average velocity in each conduit.

     (b) Calculate the hydraulic radius in the conduit of
         concern.

    -- (c) Determine the critical diameter of particles by
         equation (18).

     (d) Determine the fraction of particles with diameters
         greater than that calculated in step (c).

     (e) Determine sediment scour and deposition by con-
         sidering the mass balance in the sewer conduit
         considered.

     Figure 158 shows the contributing settleable suspen-
sion flow sources in a sewer conduit considered for
routing of solids.

         M, = amount of sediments at the sewer bottom at
              time t, ,

         x, = fraction of M, with particle diameters greater
              than or equal to the critical diameter calcu-
              lated in equation (18),

         M9 = amount sediments at the sewer bottom at time

              fc2  '
                             323

-------
            1.00


            0.80
          lo.60
          E 0.40
          o
          <
          u-0.20


            0.00
                                      5.0
                            PARTICLE DIAMETER (mm)
10.0
               Figure 157.SIEVE ANALYSIS PLOT FOR SEWER SEDIMENT

                               (AFTER METCALF & EDDY,  INC.)
      Settleable Suspension Flow
      Rate  F_  From Runof
Settleable Sus-  m
pension Flow Rate
F| From Upstream
                                     Settleable Suspension Flow Rate
                                     F_  From Incoming Sewage
                  Figure 158.MASS FLOW IN A SEWER CONDUIT
                                  324

-------
            At = t2 - t1


            Fl = settleable suspension flow rate from sewer
                 conduit immediately upstream,

            F2 = settleable suspension flow rate of incoming
                 sewage,

            F3 = settleable suspension flow rate of incoming
                 runoff,

            x2 = fraction of settleable suspension flows with
                 particle diameters greater than the critical
                 diameter calculated in equation (18),

            VQ = current volume of wastewater in the sewer
                 conduit under consideration,

            QQ = incoming flow rate at the sewer conduit con-
                 sidered.

      Then the total amount of sediment at the sewer conduit
 under consideration at time t0 is
           M2 = Ml
     X
                                        At
                                                            (19.).
      The  concentration of the suspension which will  flow
 into  the  next  sewer  conduit is
Concentration =
(1.0 - x,) M
- - - -
     V
                               +
                                 (1.0  -  x,)  (F,  +  F0  +  F_)
                                         2     1.2     3
                                           Q
                                            o
                 4. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL
     At the present stage, equation  (15) is tested by con-
sidering the drainage area as a whole, instead of being made
up- of a number of individual inlet drainage areas with
individual inlet hydrographs which are routed through the
system and combined with other inlet areas as the routing
proceeds downstream.  Contribution of the pollutants from
the air was neglected, and catchbasin,contributions were
included in surface loadings.  Dry weather flow was assumed
,to have a constant rate and a constant level of quality
during the whole period of storm runoff.  Furthermore, in
                             325

-------
these tests the K value is chosen as 4.6, based upon the
assumption that after a runoff of 1/2 inch, 90% of the
surface pollutants are removed from the whole drainage
area.

     The Laguna Street combined sewer draining a steep
drainage area of 370 acres in San Francisco  [9] was se-
lected as a demonstration site for the verification of the
model.  One storm occurred there on March 10, 1967 yielding
a total runoff of 0.22 inch, and another storm occurred 5
days later with a total runoff of 0.33 inch.  Both storms
were analyzed assuming a dry weather flow of 1.5 cfs with
a 250 mg/1 BOD concentration.  The surface loading of BOD
at the start of the storm was estimated to be 3.85
pounds/acre.  Tables 65 and 66 tabulate the computations,
and Figures 159 and 160 show the computed results and the
measured values.  The results reveal a good agreement of
the trends of the variation of BOD concentrations during
the whole period of runoff.

     The "Bloody Run" combined sewer watershed of approxi-
mately 2380 acres in Cincinnati, Ohio, was also selected
to test the model.  A storm occurred there on April 1, 1970
with a total runoff of 0.10 inch.  The dry weather flow
was at 1.5 cfs with BOD at a level of 300 mg/1.  The
surface BOD loading was estimated to be 5.65 pounds/acre.
The results of computations and trends of variations of
BOD concentrations are shown in Table 67 and Figure 161.
                            326

-------
San Francisco  Lagunn  Street
    'March 10,  1967 Storm

           TABLE 65
Time
20:35

21:05

21:20

21:35

21:50

22:05

22:35

22:50

23:05

23:20

23:35

23:50

24:05

24:25
q
in/hr
Av
in
V
in
^V,^.^-
Po'D
^V*83.8
Di luted
• Sewage
BOD
Result
BOO
mg/1
0.0
0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

,02

,02

03

045

055

02

025

03

13

21

13

08

04

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

.01

.005

.0075

.01125

.014

.01

.00625

.0075

0.0449&
0.
,01


0.02172
0.
015


0.03165
0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.
0225

03375

04775

05775

064

0715
0.0325


0.
1040
0.0525


0.
1560
0.0325


0.
1890
0.02


0.
2090
0.013


0.
2190

0.

0.

o.

o.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.


04547

05340

03609

02173

02526

09994

13297

0676

03685

01719

76.1

74.0

72.0

68.5

64.8

61.5

59.0

57.3

52.3

43.0

37.4

31.4

22.5

41.6

41.6

29.4

20.4

17.0

41.6

29.4

7.5

4.7

7.5

4.7

11.9

22.7

117.7

115.6

101.4

88.9

81.8

103.1

88.4

64.8

57.0

50.0

42.1

43.3

45.2

                327

-------
^o.oo.


I


C-0.10

u_
u.
o

§ 0.20




    250





    200




? 150


Ŗ
T 100
o
m
    50
                                    Reported BOD




                                    Computed BOD
r
                                    TIME
           Figure 159. SAN  FRANCISCO  LAGUNA STREET COMBINED  SEWER


                                 March 10, 196?  Storm
                                    328

-------
San Francisco Laguna Street
    March  15, 1967 Storm

          TABLE  66
Time
20:15

20:30

20:45

21:00

21:15

21:30

21:45

22:00

22:15

22:30

22:45

23:00

23:15

23:30

23:45

24:00
q
in/hr

0

0

0

0

0

0
'
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0


.02

.03

.025

.015

.01

.005

.0

.06

.205

.21

.08

.12

.19

.18

.15

Av
in

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0


.005

.0075

.00625

.00375

.0025

.00125

.0

.015

.05125

.0525

.02

.03

.0475

.045

.0375

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
V
In
.0

.005

.0125

.01875

.0225

.025

.02625

.02625

.04125

.0925

.1450

.1650

.1950

.2425

.2875

.3250
D
e-KVe-' t

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.


02274

03314

02676

01569

01031

00511

0

05909

17372

14020

04511

0&034

08004

06128

04222

Po.D
1^*83.8

77.4

75.0

73.0

71.2

70.0

69.5

0,0

67.2

57.5

45.5

38.4

34.2

28.7

23.1

19.2

Di luted
- Sewage
BOD"

41.6

29.4

34.5

52.6

71.4

ni.o

250.0

1.5.6

4.8

4.7

11.9

8.05

5.15

5.43

6.5

Result
EGD
mg/1

119.0

104.4

107.5

123.8

141.4

180.5

250.0

82.8

62.3

50.2

50.3

42.3

33.9

28.5

25.7

                329

-------
  0.00
Q
O
CO
 0.10



 0.20



  200



  150



1 100



   50
      o
      o
      o
      CM
                                                 Reported BOD


                                                 Computed BOD
            o
            CM
                   O
                   o
                    CM
o


CM
 O
 O
 CM
 CM
TIME
                                          o
CM
CM
       O
       O
O
CO
               CM
         Figure 160. SAN  FRANCISCO  LACUNA STREET COMBINED SEWER

                             Storm  of March 15, 196?
                                330

-------
Cincinnati  Bloody  Sewer
 ' April  1,  1970  Storm

        TABLE 6?
Time
5:05
X • *' Ģ^
5:12.5

5:20

5:27.5

5:30

5:37.5

5:50

5:57.5

6:05

6:12.5

6:20

6:27.5
q Ŗ
in

0.

0.

0.

0,

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.


06

107

123

118

102

087

074

056

03*1

026

022


0

0

0

0

0

'0

0

0

0

0

0

^v
in

.0075

.013375

.015375

.01*475

.01275

.010875

.009375

.007

.00*125

.00325

.00275


0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
V
in
.0

.0075

.020875

.036250

.05100

.06375

.07*ģ625

.084

.091

.09525

.09850

.10125
-KV
e

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

D
U-KV2

03391

057&5

06203

05552

0*f505

03639

02994

02153

0127**

00957

00799

P .D
o
ŖV*57.0

113.0

108.0

101.0

94.0

88.5

83.7

80.0

77.0

75.0

7*i.O

72.6

Di luted
Sewage
BOD

62.6

35.0

30.5

31.8

36.8

42.2

50.8

67.2

110.0

I*t5.0

170.0

RGSLI] t
BOD
ir.g/ 1

175.6

1*O.O

131.5

125.8

125.3

125.9

130.8

144.2

185.0

219.0

242.6

              331

-------
u.
u.
o
 0.00



 0.02



 0.0k



'0.06



 0.08



 0.10


 0.12







  300
   200
o

§  100
                                 Reported  BOD


                                 Computed  BOD
               LA
               O
               r-
                                          o
                                          LA
                                                    o
                                                    oo
o
CS
oo
                                  TIME
                 Figure  161-CINCINNATI BLOODY  RUN  SEWER

                               Storm of Apr!1 1 ,  1970
                                  332

-------
               5. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

                     FOR FURTHER STUDY
 Conclusions

      1. The quality of urban runoff can be modeled from
 .urban runoff hydrographs and pollutant contributions from
 the associated environments.

      2. The amount of surface pollutants in an inlet
 drainage area removed during the time that the volume of
 runoff water increases from V.  '   "
       to Vģ is expressed by
                 -KV.,
                      - e
-KV2
and correspondingly the amount of soluble pollutants in a
catchbasin is indicated by

                   v,        v.  \
                  1.6G
              \
                       - e
   1.6G
     3. The concentration of soluble pollutants at any moni-
toring station in the drainage area can be found from
equation (15) after finding W from equation (14).  Equation
(15) is repeated below.
            c =
                X!
                         W
Suggestions for Further Study

     The present study is confined to theoretical consider-
ations of pollutant, removal and transport in the drainage
system.  Verification or modification is anticipated as
field data become available.

     A determination of the surface pollutant removal con-
stant K as a function of the physical characteristics of
various drainage areas would be worthwhile research.

     Experimental determination on the proportionality
factor A in equation (7) for the removal of solids into .an
inlet by runoff water would make the formula for solid
removal more reliable.
                            333

-------

-------
                         SECTION VIII      ;

                       ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     A  list  is given below of various people  in the Division
of Water  Resources  at  the University of Cincinnati who have
contributed  significantly to this research project.
     Dr. Herbert C. Preul   •
     Associate Professor of
     Civil Engineering

     Dr. Louis M. Laushey,
     Head, Civil Engineering
     Department

     Constantine Papadakis
     Research Assistant
     A. S. Rashidi
     Research Assistant

     T. C. Wu
     Research Assistant

     J. S. Chien
     Research Assistant
     D. D. Dasnurkar
     Research Assistant

     Paul F. Carlson
     Research Assistant

     David L. Maase
     Research Assistant

     R. T. Kuo
     Research Assistant

     John B. Malouf
     Research Assistant
Principal Investigator
and Project Director
Acting Project Director,
Summer period, 1970
Project Engineer and Co-
ordinator  (also contrib-
uted M.S.  thesis on "Cin-
cinnati Urban Runoff Model")

Project Engineer
Spring, 1970

Laboratory Analyst
and Field Assistant

Laboratory Analyst (also
contributed M.S. thesis on
"Mathematical Model for
Urban Runoff Quality")

Laboratory Analyst,
Civil Engineer

Field & Office Engineer
Field & Equipment Engineer
Laboratory Analyst,
Civil Engineer

Laboratory Analyst,
Civil Engineer
     Appreciation is extended to the following officials of
,the Water Quality Office of the Environmental Protection
Agency for their assistance and cooperation during the
                             335

-------
course of the Project:

     Mr. Darwin R. Wright, Project Manager, Storm and Com-
                           bined Sewer Pollution Control
                           Branch

     Mr. Robert L. Feder, Director of Regional Research and
                           Development Office

     Mr. William A. Rosenkranz, Chief, Storm and Combined
                           Sewer Pollution Control Branch
                             336

-------
                         SECTION IX

                         REFERENCES

 1.  Gregory, R. L. and C. E. Arnold
     "Runoff - Rational Runoff Formulas"
     Trans. Amer. Soc. Civil Eng., Vol. 96, 1932.

 2.  Hicks, W. I.
     "A Method of Computing Urban Runoff"
     Trans. ASCE, Vol. 109, 1944.

 3.  Izzard, C. F.
     "Hydraulics of Runoff from Developed Surfaces"
     Proceedings, 26th Annual Meeting, Highway Research
     Board, Vol. 26, 1946.

 4.  Tholin, A. E. and C. J. Keifer
     "The Hydrology of Urban Runoff"
     Trans. ASCE, Vol. 125, 1960.

 5.  Kaltenbach, A. B.
     "Storm Sewer Design by the Inlet Method"
     Public Works, Vol. 94, 1963.

 6.  Eagleson, P. S.
     "Unit Hydrograph Characteristics for Sewered Areas"
     Journal of the Hydraulic Division, ASCE, Vol. 88,
     No. HY2, March, 1962.

 7.  Terstriep, M. L. and J. B. Stall
     "Urban Runoff by Road Research Laboratory Method"
     Jour, of Hydraulic Division, ASCE, Vol. 95,
     No. HY6, November, 1969.

 8.  Crawford, N. H. and R. K.  Linsley
     "Digital Simulation in Hydrology:  Stanford  Watershed
     Model IV", July 1966, Tech.  Rep. 39,  Stanford Univer-
     sity.

 9.  Metcalf and Eddy, Inc.; University of Florida',1 Water
     Resources Engineers, Inc.
     "Storm Water Management Model"
     Draft Report; Environmental  Protection Agency, Water
     Quality Office; September, 1970.

10.  Horton, Robert E.
     "An Approach Toward a Physical Interpretation of In-
     filtration Capacity"
     Soil Science Society Proceedings, Vol. 5, 1940.
                             337

-------
11.  ASCE - Manual of Engineering Practice 28
     "Hydrology Handbook".
     1949

12.  Jens, Stifel W.
     "Drainage of Airport Surfaces - Some Basic Design
     Considerations", ASCE Transactions, Vol. 113,  1948.

13.  U. S. Soil Conservation Service
     "National Engineering Handbook"  Section 4,
     Hydrology, Supplement A

14.  Linsley, R. K., M. A. Kohler, and J. L. H. Paulhus
     "Applied Hydrology"

15.  Horton, R. E.
     "Surface Runoff Phenomena. Part I, Analysis of the
     Hydrograph", Horton Hydrol. Lab. Pub. 101,1935.

16.  Hicks, W. I.
     "A Method of Computing Urban Runoff"
     Tfans. ASCE, Vol. 109, 1944.

17.  ASCE Manual of Practice No. 9
     "Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers"
     1969.

18.  Keifer, C. J. and H. Hsien Chu
     "Synthetic Storm Pattern for Drainage Design"
     ASCE Proceedings, HY4, August 1957.

19.  Horton, R. E.
     "The Interpretation and Application of Runoff  Plot
     Experiments, with Reference to Soil Erosion Problems"
     Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Vol. 3, 1938.

20.  Eagleson, P. S.
     "Dynamic Hydrology"
     McGraw-Hill, 1970.

21.  Keulegan, G. H.
     "Spatially Variable Discharge over a Sloping Plane"
     Trans. Amer. Geophysical Union, Pt. VI, 1944.

22.  Chow, Ven Te
     "Open Channel Hydraulics"
     McGraw-Hill 1959.

23.  Horton, R. E., H. R. Leach, and R. Van Wiet
     "Laminar Sheet Flow"                          '
     Trans. Amer. Geophysical Union, Vol. 15, 1934.
                            338

-------
24.  Horner, W.  W.  and S.  W.  Jens
     "Surface Runoff Determination from Rainfall without
     Using Coefficients"
     Trans. ASCE, Vol. 107,  1942.

25.  Wolf, P. O.
     "The Influence of Flood Peak Discharges of Some Meteo-
     rological,  Topographical, and Hydraulic Factors"
     In srnational Assoc.  of Scientific Hydrology,  General
     Assembly of Toronto,  Tome III, 1958, pp 26-34.

26.  Henderson,  F.  M.
     "Open Channel Flow"
     1969.
27
28
29
30
31
Izzard, C. F.
"The Surface Profiles of Overland Flow"
Trans. Amer. Geophysical Union, Part VI, 1944.
Papadakis, C.
"Sewer Systems Design"  p,
Athens, Greece, 1969.
                                45 and 96
Horner, W. W. and F. L. Flynt
"Relation between Rainfall and Runoff from Small Urban
Areas", Trans. ASCE, Vol. 101, p. 140, 1936.

U. S. Weather Bureau Technical Paper No. 40
Chart 26, p. 59, May, 1961.

American Concrete Pipe Association
"Concrete Pipe Field Manual"
1966
32.  Tucker, L. S.
     "Oakdale Gaging Installation, Chicago-Instrumentation
     and Data"
     ASCE Urban Water Resources Research Program, Technical
     Memorandum No. 2, August 15, 1968.

33.  Cosens, K. W.
     "Sewer Pipe Roughness Coefficients"
     Sewage and Industrial Wastes Journal, January, 1954.

34.  Yarnell, D. L.
     "Rainfall Intensity-Frequency Data"
     Miscellaneous Publication No. 204, U.S.D.A., Washing-
     ton, 1935.
                              339

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35.  Pair, G. M.,  J. C. Geyer, and D.  A.  Okun
     "Water and Wastewater Engineering" Vol.  I
     John Wiley and Sons,  New York  1966

36.  Gutman, Irwin and S.  S. Wilks
     "Introductory Engineering Statistics"
     John Wiley &  Sons, Inc., 1965

37.  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     "Water Pollution Aspects of Urban Runoff"
     by the American Public Works Association, 1969
                            340

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     Accession Nt.mihor
                             Subject /*"io/r/&-. Group
                                                 SELECTED WATER  RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
                                                        INPUT TRANSACTION  FORM
     Organization
                University of Cincinnati;  Division of Water  Resources;
                Department of Civil  Engineering; Cincinnati,  Ohio 45221
     Title
                URBAN RUNOFF CHARACTERISTICS
10

22
Author(s)
Preul , Herbert C.
and
Papadakis, Constantine
•IJL Project Designation
EPA Rebearcli Grant No. 11024 DQU
2] Note ^ 	

Citation
 23
Descriptors (Starred First)

 *Storm Water,  *Runoff,  "'Overflows, ''-Watershed  Characteristics, *Hydrographs,
 *Pollutographs, "'Management Model, Theoretical  Models, Computer  Program,
 Sequential Sampling,  Pollution Analyses.
 25
Identifiers (Starred First)

    Storm V/ater Management,  Model Testing
 •yj  Abstract
     This  i s  an  interim report on  investigations for the  development of a comprehensive
     storm  water management model

     Detailed information on the watershed characteristics  and data on runoff  quantity
     and quality have been compiled  from a one year study of a combined sewer  watershed
     of approximately 2380 acres  in  Cincinnati, Ohio.   Collection of these data  is
     planned  to  continue over a several  year period.   The information collected  will  be
     used  to  test and develop practical  storm water management models.
Abstractor
         Herbert C. Preul
                               Institution
                                 Un 5 ve r s 5 ty  of Cin.c i_nn_a_tj ;_Dj_yJ sion  of Water Resources
 WR:I02 (REV JULY 1969)
 WHSIC
                                           SEND TO: 'YVATEIR RESOURCES SCICNTIFIC INFORMATION
                                                   U.S. DECP ARTMENLT OF THE INTERIOR
                                                   WASHINGTON. D. C. 20140
                                    U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1979 — 657-060/5335

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Continued from inside front cover.
11022
11023
11020
11023
— 08/67
	 09/67
	 12/67
	 05/68
11031 	 08/68
11030 DNS 01/69
11020 DIH 06/69
11020 DES 06/69
11020 	 06/69
11020 EXV 07/69

11020 DIG 08/69
11023 DPI 08/69
11020 DGZ 10/69
11020 EKO 10/69
11020 	 10/69
11024 FKN 11/69

11020 DWF 12/69
11000 	 01/70

11020 FKI 01/70

11024 DDK 02/70
11023 FDD 03/70

11024 DMS 05/70

11023 EVO 06/70
11024 	 06/70
11034 FKL 07/70
 11022 DMU 07/70
 11024 EJC 07/70

 11020  	 08/70
 11022  DMU 08/70

 11023  	  08/70
 11023  FIX 08/70
 11024  EXF 08/70
Phase I - Feasibility of a Periodic Flushing System for
Combined Sewer Cleaning
Demonstrate Feasibility of the Use of Ultrasonic Filtration
in Treating the Overflows from Combined and/or Storm Sewers
Problems of Combined Sewer Facilities and Overflows, 1967
(WP-20-11)
Feasibility of a Stabilization-Retention Basin in Lake Erie
at Cleveland, Ohio
The Beneficial Use of Storm Water
Water Pollution Aspects of Urban Runoff, (WP-20-15)
Improved Sealants for Infiltration Control, (WP-20-18)
Selected Urban Storm Water Runoff Abstracts, (WP-20-21)
Sewer Infiltration Reduction by Zone Pumping,  (DAST-9)
Strainer/Filter Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflows,
(WP-20-16)
Polymers for Sewer Flow Control, (WP-20-22)
Rapid-Flow Filter for Sewer Overflows
Design of a Combined Sewer Fluidic Regulator,  (DAST-13)
Combined Sewer Separation Using Pressure Sewers,  (ORD-4)
Crazed Resin Filtration of Combined Sewer Overflows,  (DAST-4)
Stream Pollution and Abatement from Combined Sewer  Overflows •
Bucyrus, Ohio, (DAST-32)
Control of Pollution by Underwater Storage
Storm and Combined Sewer Demonstration  Projects -
January 1970
Dissolved Air Flotation Treatment of Combined  Sewer
Overflows,  (WP-20-17)
Proposed  Combined Sewer Control by Electrode Potential
Rotary Vibratory Fine Screening of Combined Sewer Overflows,
 (DAST-5)
Engineering  Investigation of Sewer Overflow Problem -
Roanoke,  Virginia
Microstraining and Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows
 Combined  Sewer Overflow Abatement Technology
 Storm Water  Pollution  from Urban Land Activity
 Combined  Sewer Regulator Overflow Facilities
 Selected  Urban Storm Water Abstracts, July  1968  -
 June 1970
 Combined  Sewer Overflow  Seminar Papers
 Combined  Sewer Regulation  and  Management - A Manual of
 Practice
 Retention Basin  Control  of  Combined  Sewer Overflows
 Conceptual Engineering Report  - Kingman Lake Project
 Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement Alternatives -
 Washington,  D.C.

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