An English Compilation of
            Activities for
      Middle School Students
EPA 160-B-97-900a
                              November 1997

Cover illustration by Raymond Rohrer Roberts, 1933 - 1985.

                                      An English
                              Compilation of Activities
                             for Middle School Students
 Dr. Sharon H. Walker, Project Director
 The University of Southern Mississippi
 Institute of Marine Sciences
 Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
 Ocean Springs, MS 39566-7000
 Tel: (228) 374-5550
 Fax: (228) 374-5559
R. Amanda Newton, Project Coordinator
The University of Southern Mississippi
Institute of Marine Sciences
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
Ocean Springs, MS 39566-7000
Tel: (228) 374-5550
Fax: (228) 374-5559
                         Dr. Alida Ortiz, Project Translator
                         Sea Grant College Program of Puerto Rico
                         University of Puerto Rico
                         Humacao, Puerto Rico 00792
                         Tel: (787) 850-9360

The development of this teaching manual was sponsored by the U.S. Department of State and the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA Assistance No. X824403-01), in cooperation with the Institute of
Marine Sciences, administered by The University of Southern Mississippi, the National Sea Grant College
Program, and the Sea Grant College Program of Puerto Rico.  The articles and activities included in this
manual are authored by the contributors cited and do not necessarily reflect positions of the U.S.
Government, The University of Southern Mississippi, the Institute of Marine Sciences, or the Sea Grant
College Program of Puerto Rico.  Material in this manual may be copied solely for educational purposes
and may not be sold for a profit or presented without proper credit to the original sources.

Additional copies of this publication (EPA 160-B-97-900a) may obtained by writing to:

             National Center for Environmental Publications and Information (NCEPI)
             P.O. Box 42419
             Cincinnati, OH 45242-2419 - USA
             Tel:  (800) 490-9198, (513) 489-8190

             Order on line:

This publication is also available in Spanish (EPA 160-B-97-900b).

"The wonder is not that coral reefs are in danger—and they are—
    but rather, that they have tolerated so much for so long."

                     —Dr. Sylvia Earle, 1995

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
   Preface	j
1. Coral Reefs: A Fact Sheet	1
2. Pop-up Coral Reef	4

3. What Is a Coral Polyp?/ Plankton Roundup	6
4. The Edible Coral Polyp	8
5. Egg Carton Coral	.   .  10
6. Corals and their Cousins/ High-Powered Look at Hydra	11
7. Coral: What Portion Is Alive?	13
8. Two Types of Corals	13
9. Mealtime for Corals	  15
10. "You Scratch My Back and I'll Scratch Yours"	  .   .   .  .   .  15
11. A Closer Look:  Identifying Coral Species	19

12. Coral Reproduction/ Clay, Comics, and Other Crafts	22
13. A Chance of Success	24
14. Growing Coral	25
15. Making Coral Skeletons	 26
16. How Are Coral Reefs Formed?	27
17. Types of Coral Reefs/Cooking Up Coral Reefs	28
18. Biological and Physical Agents of Change on a Coral Reef  .  .   .  .  .  .   .  .   .30

19. Corals Need Crystal Clear Water	 32
20. Reefs Depend on their Surroundings	34
21. Where Do Coral Reefs Grow?	 35
22. The Reef Region	37
23. Mapping the Reefs	38
24. Recipe for a Happy Reef	42

25. Endless Variety/ Reef Scavenger Hunt    	43
26. Coral Reef Community Coloring Page	44
27. What's My Name?	.46
28. Classification of Reef Fish	50
29. Partner Wanted	54
30. Animals that Bite and Sting	56

31 Coral Reef Plants	57
32. Following a Friendly Fish	59
33. Importance of Color	60
34. Hide and Seek	62
35. Changing of the Guard	64
36. Who Eats Who?	65
37. Weave a Food Web	67
38. The Coral Reef Community	69
39. Feeding Frenzy	77
•40. Coral Reef Comparisons	78
41. Reef Homes: Zonation of a Coral Reef	79
42. Coral Reef Zones Color Page and 3-D Mural	81

43. The Importance of the Coral Reef	84
44. Threats to the Coral Reef	,	85
45. A Marine Story	86
46. Survival Factors	°7
47. Fishy Problems	fP
48. Can a Damaged Reef Recover?	»2
49. The "Coral Reef Race for Survival" Game	93
50. Coral Conservation Game	96
51. Design Tasks for a Coral Reef Reserve	102
52. "Grief On the Reef: A Soap Opera	1°5
53. Making Fish and Shell Prints	106

VII. REVIEW                                                                  „
54. Coral Reef Word Find	1°7
55. Questions to Stimulate Discussions and Test Understanding	110





       More than fifty millions of years ago, long, long, long before man built his
       first crude hut, a bizarre, intricate form of life began construction of the
       world's greatest edifices.  Time passed and Earth was transformed.
       Battling against wind and wave, thwarted and harassed by the icy breath
       of a planet in the throes of the ice ages, this pulsing mass worked on and
       on and on. While mountains lifted and seas drained and continents
       floated over the face of the Earth, the diaphanous creatures perfected
       their craft... the blind, unthinking workers toiled to the rhythms of the
       oceans, steadily building up and out.  From ions dissolved in the sea, they
       shaped delicate microscopic crystals that were wedded to older tissues-
       day after day, millennium after millennium. The accretions grew into
       massive boulders, and slowly, very slowly, into giant walls and buttresses
       that could withstand the poundings of the oceans.

                                  Douglas Faulkner, Living Corals (New York: Clarkson N.
                                  Potter, Inc., Distributed by Crown Publishers. Inc., 1979) p.17.
       The breathtakingly beautiful coral reefs of the world cover less than a half of one
percent of our planet's sea floor.  And yet, these magnificent underwater empires are
home to an estimated 25 percent of all oceanic species, a dazzling diversity of sea
creatures.  Like the teeming metropolis of Rome, a coral reef "was not built in a day."
Rather, the coral heads in a reef grow at a painstakingly slow average rate of half an
inch per year and require epochs of geological time to amass into reefs and coral cays.
       Coral reefs, in addition to providing food and shelter for countless varieties of
marine life, provide benefits beyond estimation for humankind. Healthy reefs are
essential for an adequate supply of seafood to nourish the world's populations and
sustain regional fishing industries.  Reefs enhance tourist businesses by attracting
millions of divers and by continuously supplying coastal beaches with shimmering white
sand, the fine-grained rubble of dead corals and calcareous reef algae.  By breaking
waves, reefs protect nearby shorelines from soil and sand erosion and from the brunt of
ravaging hurricanes.  A wealth of commercial and medical applications has been
discovered for corals and other components of the reef community.  From coral reefs
come additives for cement and mortar, compounds used in violin varnishes, substances
for surgically replacing broken human bones, and promising treatments for infections,
viruses, arthritis, asthma, and cancer.  Scientists agree that this is only the tip of the
iceberg as far as important findings and innovations which will result from continued
research of coral reefs.
       In recent years, as appreciation for the remarkable and irreplaceable coral reefs
has increased, so also has grown the alarming realization that the reefs are in trouble.
It has been said that we are literally "loving our reefs to death."  Souvenir shops have
taken their toll as reefs are chipped away to make coral curios for tourists to buy. The
most accessible reefs are rapidly deteriorating due to the sheer numbers of visitors.
Even the slightest touch of a hand or a swim fin can crush the fragile polyps that
constitute  a coral head, exposing the entire head to algal overgrowth or bacterial

       Over and above the damage done by careless snorkelers and divers, anchor
impacts, accidental boat groundings, and propeller damage, reefs around the globe are
dying as the result of pollution of their native waters. Fishing boats, cruise ships, and
cargo vessels jettison tons of garbage and debris into the oceans each year.  Coastal
deforestation and development are responsible for clouding near shore waters with
sediments that smother corals and deprive them of needed sunlight.  In some cases,
land development has led to  increased freshwater runoff which has killed or stunted
nearby reefs. Well-established agricultural practices have the unfortunate consequence
of tainting seawater with toxic pesticide runoff. Fertilizer, sewage, and phosphate-laden
detergents leaching into the sea have promoted algal blooms which rob the water of
oxygen and lead to coral disease. Oil drilling and manufacturing enterprises have also
contributed to the demise of coral reefs by diminishing water quality.
       Efforts are underway  around the world to reduce destructive reef fishing and pet
shop/aquarium collecting practices—especially those that use dynamite, cyanide, and
bleach—and to raise awareness of the problem of overcollecting which has been
documented to drastically upset the delicate natural balance of the reef ecosystem.
       Yet another dire threat to corals is the often irreversible "bleaching" which results
when corals are subjected to such stresses as excessive increase in water temperature.
It is reported that more than 80 percent of the Atlantic's reefs have suffered from
bleaching since 1988, and serious incidences of bleaching have been noted on the
Great Barrier Reef as well as on Indo-Pacific reefs.  Many investigators attribute the
bleaching to global warming which has resulted as modern civilization has filled Earth's
atmosphere with a variety of  pollutants that trap heat which otherwise would have
dissipated into outer space (i.e., the "greenhouse effect").
       In the face of these ominous worldwide threats to coral reefs,  now is the time to
take action to preserve the sea's finest treasures. The year 1997 has been officially
designated by the United Nations as THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE REEF, a
year to launch what must be  an ongoing campaign to educate people of all ages about
the marvels of coral reefs and the need for their conservation.
       This manual is a compilation of some of the finest teaching activities available on
coral reefs, gathered from around the globe. Teachers will find exercises and projects
for students in grades four through eight which can be integrated into all disciplines of
learning—reading, writing, math, science, social studies, arts, drama, recreation—and
even classroom refreshments.  Some of the activities are simple and can be quickly
conducted while others will require more  extensive preparation and time to perform.
       The text of many activities in this teacher's guide is written for classroom
instructors, however, some activities address students directly.  When utilizing this
manual, a photocopier may prove useful for preparing handouts or overhead transparen-
cies. Material in this manual may be copied solely for educational purposes and may not
be sold for a  profit or presented without proper credit to the original sources.
       Gratitude is extended to the many publishers, institutions, agencies, and
individual authors who have contributed the material reprinted in this  resource guide.
The views expressed by the  contributors  do not necessarily reflect positions of the U.S.
Government, the University of Southern Mississippi, the Institute of Marine Sciences, or
the University of Puerto Rico. Users of this manual are invited to submit outstanding
coral reef teaching activities to: CORAL REEF ACTIVITIES, c/o J.L. Scott Marine
Education Center and Aquarium, Institute of Marine Sciences, P.O. Box 7000, Ocean
Springs, Mississippi, U.S.A.  39566-7000.

 Source: Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, DC. Used with permission.

Why are they important?

Coral reefs have often been described as "underwater gardens." Their beautiful colors, intricate
shapes and exotic creatures remind us of the diversity and splendor of tropical rainforests. Like rain
forests, reefs are valuable resources and important parts of the global ecosystem.  Coral polyps,
because of their unique ability to grow in nutrient-poor water, are responsible for incredible
communities of fish and other marine life in waters that might otherwise have been barren. People ail
over the world depend on reefs for food and protection from waves; many tropical islands and beaches
are constructed completely of coral fragments. Despite the ecological significance and beauty of reefs,
they are being threatened around the globe by human activities such as boat groundings, overfishing,
and pollution. As in the case of rain forests, it will be up to humans to stop the damage and learn how
to protect coral reefs for future generations.
What is coral?

Coral reefs can be made up of hundreds of different species of coral. There are two main types: "hard"
coral with an outer skeleton of calcium carbonate (CaCOg) and "soft" corals that embed bits of CaCO3
inside their bodies. Although it comes in many shapes and sizes, all coral is composed of tiny
individual polyps. A polyp is a tiny animal that looks like an upside-down jellyfish. In soft corals, each
polyp contains little spikes of CaCO3 that help hold many polyps together in structures that look like
fans or whips.  In hard corals, polyps sit                                   .
inside little cups which they build out of
calcium carbonate. Many of these cups
are cemented together to make up a coral
colony.  Reefs are formed when hundreds
of hard coral colonies grow next to and on
top of each other. Since most species of
coral  polyps stay deep within their calcium
carbonate cups during the day, the casual
observer may think of coral as inanimate
rocks. At night, however, the polyps
emerge, and wave their tiny stinging
tentacles in the water to catch microscopic
organisms called plankton.

What makes coral polyps so unique is that plankton is only part of their diet. Each polyp harbors within
its body special algae called zooxanthellae. These one-celled plants use sunlight and carbon dioxide
to conduct photosynthesis, a process that produces oxygen ... and other nutrients needed by the
polyps. In return, the algae get protection and a constant supply of carbon dioxide and other raw
materials they need for photosynthesis. Such a mutually beneficial relationship is called symbiosis.
Without this special relationship, it is likely that there would be far fewer animals in clear, tropical waters
since they typically cannot support life. It is important to realize that the fish, crabs, snails, worms and
other reef creatures depend on the health and growth of the coral reef for their existence.

How do coral reefs form?

To start a new reef, coral polyps can reproduce sexually, using sperm and eggs. Male polyps send
sperm into the water where it enters female polyps and fertilizes the eggs within. [Fertilization is internal
in corals known as "brooders." "Broadcasters" shed their eggs and sperm into the water, and
fertilization is external.] Baby corals [called planulae] develop and leave the polyps, floating on the
current until they reach a suitable surface where they can attach and begin to grow into new coral
polyps. Sexual reproduction allows corals to distribute themselves.  To simply add onto an existing
colony, polyps undergo asexual reproduction in which new polyps "bud" off the parents and form their
own CaCO3 cup right beside the older polyp. Polyps formed this way are exact copies of each other,
creating entire colonies of coral with exactly the same genes.

How fast do reefs grow?

Some reef corals are capable of growing 15 centimeters (6 inches) in a year. [Massive corals such as
star coral and  brain coral grow considerably slower, typically only 1/8 inch to 3/4 inch per year.] As old
corals die,  new ones usually settle and grow over the dead skeletons.  Many generations of
settlement, competition, growth and death result in structures like the Great Barrier Reef in Australia,
which is hundreds of feet thick and millions of years old.
Where do coral reefs form?

True reef-building corals can only grow where the water is clear, warm and shallow. Average water
temperatures typically do not fall below 20 degrees Centigrade (68 degrees Fahrenheit) and it is
generally no deeper than 100 meters (325 feet).  [Most corals grow in depths of less than 40 meters.]
These conditions are met in tropical waters near the equator, on the eastern sides of continents and
around oceanic islands.
When a reef forms close to shore it is a fringing
reef. As the reef matures, the oldest corals
near the shore may die and the reef will become
an offshore barrier reef with a lagoon in
between it and the shore. When corals grow
around a volcanic island an atoll results as the
island gradually subsides, leaving only a ring of
coral visible near the sea surface.

Changes in sea level can also expose pieces of
a fringing or barrier reef, turning them into small
coral islands like the Florida Keys.
What threatens reefs?
Fringing Reef
Barrier Reef
Natural threats
Both hard and soft corals are vulnerable to unusually strong waves (e.g., those formed by a hurricane)
as well as dramatic changes in the temperature and saltiness of the water. Predation by fish, snails,
worms, crabs, shrimp and starfish, and overgrowth by fleshy algae can also kill corals. Parrotfish, for
example, have strong teeth with which they break through the CaCO3 cup to the polyp inside. Corals
also compete against each other for light and space. The faster growing corals usually dominate.
However, slow growers like brain coral are better at surviving physical disturbances such as storms.

Over thousands of years, corals have evolved ways to defend against the natural threats they face.
Extending polyps only at night, using toxic chemicals (fire coral is an example) and producing huge
numbers of larvae all help corals survive and prosper. Unfortunately, these adaptations may be of little
use when it comes to threats from humans.

Human activities
We are capable of damaging and destroying reefs in a variety of ways, including pollution,
deforestation, fishing and collecting.

There are basically two kinds of pollution that damage a reef. One is the introduction of any substance
into the water that increases its cloudiness. Zooxanthellae must have absolutely clear water in order to
get enough sunlight and still remain embedded in the tissues of the polyp.  Sediments stirred up by
boaters and swimmers, washed off land by rain or expelled by oil drilling rigs can kill a reef by depriving
it of light.  (Polyps can also be smothered by blankets of sediment.) The other type of pollution is
chemical. Fertilizer runoff and sewage discharge fill the water with nutrients that allow algae to grow
faster than the corals, overgrowing and smothering the polyps.  In addition, reef organisms are
poisoned by heavy metals, pesticides and oil.  Even low levels of oil can slow down reproduction by
making it difficult for microscopic larvae to swim and settle. Slower reproduction means that reefs
cannot repair damage as quickly as usual.

Power plants
Many power and desalination plants draw huge quantities of seawater into their machinery.  The filters
through which this water passes often become clogged with the bodies of fish that were attracted to the
intake pipes. Microscopic plankton that travel through the filter screens are killed by excessive heat
inside the pipes. Hot water discharged from plants can be as lethal as any poison  to organisms
accustomed to the stable temperatures of tropical seas. The location of such plants near coral reefs
upsets the normal balance of the reef ecosystem by serving  as a huge, indiscriminate predator and a
source of constant disturbance.

Extensive logging results in erosion of soil into rivers that carry it out to sea, increasing the cloudiness
and nutrient content of water. Another effect of deforestation is the possible rise of global temperatures
due to the increase  in carbon dioxide from the burning of trees (and fossil fuels). Changes in sea level
and water temperature brought on by global warming could affect reefs by making  shallow water too
warm for polyps. There is evidence that suggests higher than normal temperatures have already
affected corals around the world by causing polyps to eject their zooxanthellae.  This phenomenon,
known as "bleaching" [since the algae within corals gives them color], significantly  weakens the ability
of reefs to'grow, repair themselves and combat disease.

Fishing and Collecting
In many parts of the world reef fishes are a significant source of food. Fishing with a simple hook and
line is usually not harmful to coral reefs, but blasting with dynamite, setting traps and using poisons
such as cyanide can cause irreparable damage.  Besides the obvious physical  destruction of the coral,
underwater explosions  stir up sediment that prevents sunlight from penetrating to the polyps.  Traps
                    and poisons often kill far more animals than the fishers can use and fill the area
                        with decomposing bodies which use up dissolved oxygen. Recreational
                        fishermen can also cause damage by running aground on coral, breaking
                              coral with anchors/dumping trash into the water,  and taking too many
                               fish to allow populations to maintain their numbers.  Some reefs are
                                overwhelmed with divers and snorkelers who stand on and break off
                              & coral, collect indiscriminately and stir up sediment with their fins.

 Source: Reprinted with the permission of the National Wildlife Federation from the Diving Into Oceans issue
 ofNatureScope. For more informatin about NWF and our education programs please call 1-800-822-9919.
Make a 3-D coral reef.
Ages:  Intermediate and Advanced
Materials: copies of the following page (reef scene), construction paper, scissors, blunt pens or ball-
  point pens, glue, crayons, markers, or colored pencils, rulers.

This pop-up reef is easy and fun to make. Here's how to do it:

1. Spread a thin film of glue over the back of the page with the reef scene, and glue it to a sheet of
  construction paper.  (Be sure to cover the entire sheet with glue.) Trim away the excess construction
2. Remove the drawings of the reef animals at both ends of the sheet by cutting along the wavy lines.
  Set these drawings aside to use later.
3. Score all the dashed lines with a blunt pencil or ball-point pen. Press firmly, but be careful not to tear
  the paper.  (You might want to use a ruler to help you keep your lines straight.)
4. With the printed side facing out, fold the page in half along the dashed line.  Crease well with the
  edge of a pencil or ruler.
5. Cut through both layers of the paper along all the  solid lines. (You will cut some pieces out
  completely. But be sure that you don't cut along any dashed lines.)
6. Open the page carefully. Gently pull the cut-out features outward, in the opposite direction that they
  were originally folded in. Crease each construction paper feature along its folded edges.  Then
  carefully close the pop-up again.
7. Fold a different-colored piece of construction paper in half
  width-wise. Then glue the fold of the cut-out reef into the
  fold of the construction paper. Don't put glue on any of
  the cut-out parts. Trim excess  construction paper from        pull folds out
  the sides only, leaving extra paper at the top and
  bottom. Close the pop-up, making sure that the
  cut-out parts are folded out the right way, and put
  under a heavy book to dry.
8. Color the reef animals you set
  aside earlier and cut them out.
9. Glue the animals onto your pop-up
  reef. You can glue some of them
  to the pop-up part and some to the
  flat background. To  make the reef
  animals stand out from the
  background, make a tab by folding
  a small piece of construction paper
  in half. The folded tab should be
  smaller than the animal you are gluing
  it to so it won't show. Glue one side of
  the tab to the animal and the other side to
  the  reef. You can add pop-up rocks,
  different types of coral, or other features to        construction paper
  your reef.
        glue one side of tab
          to back of fish


          WHAT ARE CORALS?
 Source: Coral Reefs in the South Pacific Handbook. Produced by Dr. Michael King, illustrated by S. Belew
 and M. King. © 1993 South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, P.O. Box 240, Apia, Western Samoa.
 Reproduction authorized.                                                            ,

Most corals consist of many small polyps living together in a
large group or a colony. A single polyp has a tube-shaped
body with a mouth which is surrounded by tentacles.

The polyp of hard corals produces a stony skeleton of
calcium carbonate (limestone or chalk) beneath and around
its base. Often the skeleton forms a cup-like structure in
which the polyp lives.

The CORAL POLYP shown at the right is cut away to show
the gut and the skeleton beneath the polyp.  A skeleton
without its polyp is shown at the right.
. BY DAY. with the polyps
 withdrawn into
 thejr skeletons.
  ... BY NIGHT, with the polyps
    out feeding
                                                            When feeding, particularly at night,
                                                            the polyps stretch out their tentacles
                                                            to gather food.  During the day, or
                                                            when threatened, the polyps
                                                            withdraw into their protective cups.
                                                            Part of a coral branch is shown
                                            The tentacles have small stinging cells called
                                            nematocysts, which can shoot poison spears into
                                            small animals drifting by. These animals (called
                                            zooplankton) are used as food and are passed to the
                                            mouth by the tentacles.

                                            The drawing at the left shows an enlargement of part
                                            of a tentacle. Two stinging cells are shown. The top
                                            cell has not fired its poison spear. The bottom cell has
                                            fired its poison spear into a small floating animal.

                                            Only a few corals, such  as the fire corals (actually
                                            hydroids), have stinging cells which are powerful
                                            enough to affect humans.

                                                                  WHAT ARE CORALS?
Besides capturing food drifting in the water currents, coral polyps get food from small plant cells (called
zooxanthellae) which live inside their tissue.  The plant cells use sunlight and nutrients in the sea water
to produce food which is shared with the coral.

The plants gain shelter and the corals gain food from this relationship which is call symbiosis.  Corals
therefore, like plants, require sunlight for photosynthesis and can only live in clear, brightly lit waters.
              ; -I   '   ., ,-;\         VOCABULARY WORDS
  ' f  "" "f f  t     '' f       ''    •,**.*.                        e  f f f
              '"" r  '  ""/",,;,J,/',                      ,                       '''
  ' Symfelosls (pronounced "sin^by-p-sis"); A relationship between two different creaiuras which
   . live together- fbrtfie benefit of both,.  Plant eej|& (called ZoDxantheilae) have a symbiotic
              wlii.c^ralpolyps.       -      '   -                    _/;  '        s
              K Small animate, or the larvae of Istrgm, animals, which drift in fie sea.     %   ,,
  Source; The following activity is contributed by the J.L. Scott Marine Education Center, Biloxi, Mississippi.
  Used with permission.
Follow-up Activity: Plankton Roundup

Students will be intrigued to learn that the tentacles of corals bear an arsenal of pistol-like stinging cells.
The following game mimics this unusual hunting equipment and provides a magnified glimpse at the
zooplankton that are an important part of the diet of many corals.

1) Cut out the squares on the following page and write a point value (between 1 and 5) on the back of
   each.  Fold the squares in half, with planktonic pictures on the outside, and seal each with a small
   piece of tape.  Use short lengths of string or yarn to hang the folded squares from the rim of a paper
   plate.  Tie another piece of string or yarn to the middle of the plate and suspend it in a doorway, with
   plankton dangling below.

2) Tell students that they will pretend to be coral polyps.  Point out that a coral polyp has many very
   tiny stinging cells. Also remind the class that zooplankton are so small as to be all but invisible to
   the naked eye. The students will use blow-up party favors (pictured below) to mimic individual
   stinging cells being fired at zooplankton. Have the students ("coral polyps") take turns "shooting"
   zooplankton. If a student succeeds in hitting a zooplankton when he or she inflates a party favor,
   cut the folded square from the string and hand it to the
   student.  If a student hits more than one square, the
   turn is forfeited and no zooplankton are

3) After four rounds of "shooting" (or when all
   plankton are gone), have students unfold
   the squares they have collected.  The
   student with the most points is the winner.

      8    WHAT ARE CORALS?
Cut on solid ttnes. Fold on dashed lines.
 Source: Coral Forest Teacher's Guide. Coral Forest, 400 Montgomery Street, Suite 1040, San Francisco,
 California 94104 Tei:(415)788-REEF Fax:(415)398-0385 e-mail: Used with permission.

Objective: Students will review the parts of a coral polyp by building an edible coral polyp model.

Interdisciplinary index: Science, Math, Language Arts

Vocabulary: coral, polyp, limestone, coral colony, coral reef, tentacles, endosymbionts

  white baking chocolate, candiquik mix, or other hard candy coating (Vz ounce for each child)
  one marshmallow for each student (substitute: section of banana or strawberry)
  red licorice (regular or whip): six two-inch strips for each child. If regular licorice is used, cut the
   pieces into small, thin strips.
  blue, red or green sprinkles
  heat source (microwave or hot plate) for melting candy coating only
  pan for candy coating
  paper plates


You may want to prepare a model colony to show your students before they make their own.

1. Group the students into pairs.

                                                               WHAT ARE CORALS?   9
2. Give each pair of students a paper plate. The plate represents the limestone base to which the coral
  is attached.
                          (within cells)
                                                                 Mesenterial Filaments
                                                                      .Limestone Skeleton
3. Give each student
  a marshmallow
  on a toothpick
  and six strips of
  licorice. The
  represents the
  polyp body and
  The licorice
  represents the

4. Give each pair
  one ounce of
  melted candy
  coating from the
  heat source in a
  shallow container
  (the candy
  represents the

5. Have the students
  work together.
  Roll the sides of
  the marshmallow
  in the melted
  candy coating and                                                                    .
  stand the marshmallows on a paper plate.  If the marshmallows are placed close enough together,
  they will attach to each other and resemble a coral colony.

6. Have the students insert six licorice strips around the top of the marshmallow.  Children may want to
  use their toothpicks to help them poke the holes. [Be careful to remove all toothpicks!]

7. Slightly dampen the marshmallow with water and sprinkle it with the sprinkles^  The sprinkles
   represent the endosymbionts. Use only one color per polyp.

8. Discuss the edible polyp model.  Explain what the marshmallow, the candy, the licorice, the
   sprinkles, and the plate represent.

9. Now have the students pretend that they are parrotfish or crown-of-thorns sea  stars and eat their
   polyps. YUM!

 Students may want to write a story about their polyp or draw a diagram. For a math project, students
 can count the number of tentacles on their polyp and multiply by the number of students in the class to
 find the total number of tentacles in the classroom coral colony.

      10    WHAT ARE CORALS?
 Source: Developed by Alexander Goldowsky. Copyright 1995 New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.
 Educational use encouraged. Removal of credits or use in a publication offered for sale without written
 permission is a violation of copyright laws. Used with permission.

Egg cartons can be used to construct models of coral colonies showing many aspects of the coral's
natural history - including the structure of coral polyps and the coral colony's colonial life style.

Materials: Egg cartons, paper, tape, scissors, markers (especially green)

To make the model:
   Begin by cutting a sheet of paper into three strips horizontally.  Each strip will become a coral polyp.
Roll each strip into a tube about the diameter of your finger. Tape the bottom to keep the tube from
unrolling. Tape the bottom of the tube shut.
   To make the tentacles of the polyp, make several cuts from the top of the tube, 3/4 of the way to the
bottom of the tube.
   Get the tentacles to curl by running each fringe over the blade of a scissor or a metal ruler.
   To make the shell of the coral,  cut the top  and closing flap off an egg carton, leaving just the section
with the twelve egg cups. Place this upside down on a table and  punch a hole in the bottom of each
egg cup with scissors.
   Insert one polyp tube in each egg cup, pulling it partway through the hole. Tentacles should be on
the top of the egg carton.
   Using markers you can add small dots on the polyp to symbolize the zooxanthellae.  Although they
all have chlorophyll, like other plants, zooxanthellae can have a variety of other pigments giving them
different overall colors. It is the zooxanthellae that give reef building corals their color; the lime skeleton
is white, and the coral polyp itself is largely colorless.

Using the models:
   You can talk about many aspects of coral as you construct the  models with students. Some
important concepts you can illustrate with the models follow.
   The large reef is built by the shells of thousands of individual polyps. Although each polyp is a
separate animal, the polyps are linked in a colony.  The shape of the egg carton suggests the channels
that link neighboring polyps. Polyps in the colony share food.
   Corals get food in two ways. Small zooplankton are captured by stinging cells on the tentacles.
They are then brought into the polyp where they are digested. You can simulate this with the model.
The simple digestive cavity of the polyp is basically a hollow cavity, with one open end (surrounded by
the tentacles). Coral also get food from their symbiotic algae, the zooxanthellae, which live in their
   During daylight hours, coral polyps pull back as far as possible into their shells, though, of course,
they have no way of closing these shells, and living tissue always covers the coral colony.  You can
show this by pulling the tube back. During the night the tentacles extend to feed.

   The egg carton corals can be arched and taped, and added to  a coral reef model activity.
                                      © New England Aquarium

                                                                WHAT ARE CORALS?    11
 Source; Adapted from Survival Publication: The Great Barrier Reef by Harry Breidahl. © 1987,1989
 Gould League of Victoria, Inc., P.O. Box 446 (67 High Street), Prahran, Victoria 3181, Australia. Used with

Corals belong to a large group of colorful and fascinating animals called the Coelenterata, or Cnidaria.
As well as such well-known creatures as sea jellies Qelly fish), sea anemones and corals, the group
includes the lesser-known sea fans, sea pens and the fragile fem-like hydroids. Although coelenterates
show a wide range of shapes and sizes, they share the same basic body plan—a simple sack-like
stomach with a single mouth opening that is surrounded by a ring of stinging tentacles.  Apart from the
basic structural similarities, one feature common to all coelenterates is the presence of special stinging

Some Coelenterate Types
  Sea anemones live on
  the sea floor with tentacles
  pointing up.
Sea jellies float or swim in the
sea with tentacles trailing
Hydroids are fern-like
colonies of tiny polyps.
Corals are similar in appearance
to anemones but generally have
a hard outer skeleton and live
In colonies.
 Coelenterate Stings

 Despite their colorful flower-like appearance, coral polyps are in fact ravenous feeders. Their simple
 bodies have a sack-like stomach with a mouth that is surrounded by a ring of tentacles that capture food.

           Nematocyst capsule
                               Triggered Cnldoblast
                                       The surface of each tentacle has
                                       thousands of special cells called
                                       cnidoblasts. Each cnidoblast
                                       contains spring-loaded stinging
                                       capsules called nematocysts.
                                       When a fish, or other small animal,
                                       touches a tentacle, thousands of
                                       nematocysts are fired like
                                       poisonous harpoons to kill and hold
                                       the victim. The unfortunate animal
                                       is then passed to the mouth and
                                       into the stomach where it is

      12    WHAT ARE CORALS?
Corals and ail their relatives have cnidoblasts in their tentacles—thus the name Cnidaria for the group.
Human skin is too thick to feel the stings of most corals. However you should always be careful when
exploring a reef. Fire Corals can give a powerful sting. Stinging hydroids, close relative of the fire
corals, are also capable of producing a powerful sting.  Other cnidarians that are capable of stinging
humans are the sea jellies, including the deadly Sea Wasp, some sea anemones and the common
 Source: The following activity is contributed by the J.L. Scott Marine Education Center, Biloxi, Mississippi.
 Used with permission.
Follow-up Activity: High-Powered Look at Hydra

To enhance students' understanding of the preceding article, the teacher may wish to conduct the
following laboratory exercise in which a fresh-water relative of coral is observed.


  living hydra (Hydra, available from a biological supply company)
  brine shrimp larvae (Artemia, available from a biological supply company)
   that have been hatched in salt water and resuspended in fresh water
  small glass dish
  magnifying glass
  microscope slides and coverslips
  pond water

dissecting probe
medicine dropper
0.5% methylene blue
1. Place healthy specimens of hydra, attached to substrate, in a glass dish with a small volume of pond
   water. Observe a single hydra with a magnifying glass for several minutes. Note the body bending
   and the tentacles moving.
2. Many high-school and college biology textbooks will have an illustration of a hydra.  If such a
   diagram is available, look at a living hydra and try to locate all the anatomical structures that are
   labeled in the diagram.
3. Use a dissecting probe to dislodge a hydra. How long does it take for the hydra to reattach
4. Gently place a drop of brine shrimp larvae suspension near the expanded tentacles of a hydra,
   taking care not to cause the animal to contract. What happens to the larvae when they come in
   contact with the tentacles? Describe the hydra's behavioral sequence for feeding .
5. Use the forceps to remove several brine shrimp that appear to have made contact with the hydra's
   tentacles but have not been ingested.  Place these on a microscope slide and flatten under a
   coverslip. Under the high power lens of a microscope, look for discharged nematocysts.  These
   will appear as small seed-like structures at the ends of threads and are responsible for the paralysis
   and death of the hydra's prey. If you have trouble seeing the nematocysts, add a drop of 0.5%
   methylene blue and replace the coverslip.
6. Place some of the tentacles of a lively feeding hydra on a clean microscope slide.  Add a drop of
   0.5% methylene blue and flatten under a coverslip.  Can you see the see the nematocysts firing and
   taking up the stain? A drop or two of tap water may accelerate the nematocyst discharge.  Describe
   the firing  action of the stinging ceils that are characteristic of corals and their relatives.

                                                              WHAT ARE CORALS?   13
 Source: Activity developed by Laura Causey. Reprinted in part from The Monroe County Environmental
 Story; Teacher Activity Guide. © 1995 Monroe County Environmental Education Advisory Council, Big Pine
 Key, Florida. Used with permission.

Outcome/Objective:  Students will comprehend the living portion of stony corals are all on the exterior
   non-attached surface.

Materials: Assorted pieces of stony coral. Dome-shaped pieces (such as brain coral) are best.

Key words:  Surface area, displacement, volume.

Instructor notes: Do not collect samples of "live" coral for this activity. The kind of coral sample you
   choose will determine the difficulty of the task. It is easier with dome corals; difficult with irregular
   shaped pieces. Select your samples with the math skills of the students in mind.

Procedure:  Divide the class into groups. Give samples of coral to each group.  Provide them with
   plastic wrap.                                                            .  _.  . .   „  ,
    Instruct them to wrap the outer surface of the coral with the plastic wrap so that it fits into all of
   the convolutions.  Use a single thickness of wrap.  While they are doing this, you may teach them
   that the living coral on the surface is no thicker than the plastic wrap they are using.
    Have the students unwrap their coral. They then need to measure the total surface area of the
   plastic that represents the layer of living coral. They can divide the plastic into squares or use other
   techniques to determine the total surface area of the living colony.

Conclusions: Students should have a better understanding of the fragility and  importance of coral,
   and understand that it lives only on the surface.

Extensions:  The students may also investigate the volume of the coral sample by using a
   displacement method. Submerge the sample in water and measure how far the water rises in a
   graduated cylinder. They can do this for different shapes of coral. Then have them make  a graph of
   the relationship of surface area to volume for various shapes.
    This activity provides a good opportunity to discuss impacts of humans, vessel groundings,
   anchors and other impacts to coral.
 Source: Serie Educacion Ambiental "Sian Ka'an, Introduccion a los Ecosistemas de la Peninsula de
 Yucatan," Modulo "El Mar v sus Recursos." ©1993 by Amigosde Sian Ka'an A.C., Mexico. Used with

 Besides hard corals, there are others called soft corals or gorgonians.  These are also commonly
 known as sea fans, sea feathers or sea whips. They also form polyps, but of a different kind. The
 skeleton of soft corals is not massive but flexible and it does not have the little holes.  Furthermore, it is
 flattened and branched Ike a small tree.  In the drawing included in this exercise, you will see examples
 of hard and soft cprals. It is very easy to tell them apart. The hard ones look like stones and the soft
 ones resemble plants.  But they are not; rememeber, they are colonies (in other words, assemblages)
 of animals.


                                                             WHAT ARE CORALS?   15
 Source: Excerpted from Science and Children's Literature by Mary Cerullo, published by Heinemann,
 Portsmouth, New Hampshire.  Used with permission.

Concept: This activity illustrates the feeding activity of a coral colony.  Individual polyps, though
connected, feed independently.

  Cut X's in several places in an old bedsheet to create holes large enough for children's hands to fit
through. Give each child a surgical glove to represent one coral polyp. Discuss how much bigger their
polyps are than a real coral polyp (usually about the size of an eraser on the end of a pencil). Explain
that coral polyps live symbiotically with plants, single-celled algae called zooxanthellae. Students may
choose to put dots of gold  or green marker on their gloves to represent the zooxanthellae.
  Have students crouch beneath the sheet that is suspended between chairs or desks.  You can't fit
the whole class under one bedsheet, so you may take turns or use several sheets to do the feeding
activity.  When they reach  up through the holes in the sheet, feed them goldfish crackers or bits of
sandwiches, which they will have to pull back through the sheet to eat.


Concept: Corals recognize their own kind. They don't attack  their own species even if it's a different

   If you use several sheets, each  one may represent a different kind of coral. Explain to students that
sometimes coral colonies of different species attack each other when they grow too close together,
stinging each other with their nematocysts and leaving behind white, scarred dead coral on the other
   If neighboring "colonies" abut each other, they may attack each other.  However, you need to set
strict rules of engagement, such as, only a light tap on your neighbor is permitted,  so these coral
colonies aren't damaged!
   Tell students that different colonies of the same species, although they may look different depending
on factors such as the amount of sunlight each receives, don't attack each other.  Therefore, they need
to determine if the neighboring colony is the same species they are.
   Since all humans are the same species, why can't they get along??
  Source: Developed by Dr. Carol Landis. Math, Science, and Technology Education Section, Ohio State
  University, Columbus, Ohio. Used with permission.

 That old saying was used to refer to an informal agreement.  It usually meant, "I'll do this for you, if
 you'll do that for me." Actually, that kind of a relationship exists between many different kinds of living
 things. Such a "mutualistic" relationship exists where two different organisms benefit from living closely
 with each other. Can you think of some examples?

      16    WHAT ARE CORALS?

  For example, bees get nectar from flowers. While the bee gets the food it needs, some of the pollen from the flower gets
  caught on the bristles on the bee's body. The pollen is carried to the next flower the bee visits and may be transferred. This
  can pollinate the flower. Another example, from the ocean, can be seen by watching a fish called a goby (go'-bee). Gobies
  are small fish that set up "cleaning stations" where they pick particles and small parasitic living things out of the mouths and
  gills of larger fish (like groupers). The goby stays by a certain place—its "station." The grouper swims to the cleaning
  station and stops there, holding Its mouth open. The grouper does not close its mouth or try to eat the goby. Both
  organisms benefit; the goby gets a "free meal" without having to find food, and the grouper gets rid of some pesky parasites.

Background Information
Some corals and a certain group of algae have a mutualistic relationship as well. Scientists don't
understand  all of the factors that are important in this relationship.  However, it is well established that
certain kinds of brownish algae called "zooxanthellae" (zo'-uh-zan-thelF-ee) can live inside the body of
some kinds of corals. The algae live in the lining of the  "gut" of each of the coral polyps (paul'ips).

During the daytime, the algae carry on photosynthesis,  just like plants, to produce their food and
provide energy and materials for their other cell processes. The algae use carbon dioxide and give off
oxygen during photosynthesis.  While in the polyp, the algae get a protected place to live, a constant
source of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other substances for photosynthesis.  Meanwhile, the polyp
uses the oxygen given off by the algae and the sugars produced through photosynthesis.  This process
is called cell respiration. What is one exchange that occurs in this mutualistic relationship?

  The algae provide oxygen to the coral polyps, which give off carbon dioxide used by the algae. Likewise, polyps use the
  sugars produced by the algae as food and give off nitrogen compounds that are used by the algae.

  20 waxed paper sandwich bags, or translucent plastic cups
  wrapped  carmel candies, or butterscotch lifesavers
  a yellow circle made  of posterboard labeled" Sun"
  student chairs
  a blanket
  a ball of yarn, or a roll of string

Role Play - Round 1:  PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Set several  chairs (10-20) close to each other and all facing the same direction.  One student should sit
in each chair. Ask the students to move their chairs close together. Each student will hold a bag/cup
with about a half dozen yellowish-brown candies in it. Each bag/cup now represents a coral polyp with
algae in it, and the whole group of students represents a colony of coral. The set of chairs represents
the stony structure which we often call "coral" which is the basis of the larger structure known as a

Select a student to be the "Sun" and give him/her the yellow circle of posterboard to carry. Have this
student walk around the set of chairs, making a complete circle. Because the Earth spins, we see the
Sun in the daytime, but not at night.  As the person  representing the Sun moves in front of the chairs
and becomes visible to  the students seated in them, the seated students should shake their "polyp"
bags/cups with the "algae" in them to represent the chemical activity of photosynthesis. Since
photosynthesis requires sunlight, the shaking should cease when the Sun goes behind the chairs.  At
this time (i.e., night), the students should wave their arms ("tentacles") above their heads, as if they are
gathering food particles from the "water" and placing them into their mouths.

Note: The teacher should point out that the notion that the Sun moves across the sky is an historic
misrepresentation of the astronomical phenomenon of day and night.  To better represent what really
happens, the student representing the Sun should stand in one place while the set of chairs revolves
and spins around him/her. This is obviously impractical! A teacher-demonstration using a "lazy Susan"
and a flashlight may be useful before the Role Play.

                                                                WHAT APE CORALS?   17

Have the students remain in the chairs, as in Round 1, but this time ask a student to stand by the
chalkboard and write a different number (water temperature) on the board at 15 second intervals.  Have
another student assist by timing and keeping track of which temperature is next.  Begin with 26° C and
increase the temperature by one degree every 15 seconds until the temperature is 32° C. When the
temperature reaches 30°, have half of the students empty out  most of their "algae" candies and just
move their bags/cups once as the Sun passes in front of them. How do the "corals" look now?

  They are less colorful and the algae within them are less active.

Explain that the loss of algae is often referred to as "coral bleaching" since the corals look lighter than
normal in color. The polyps are still alive, but they do not benefit from the interactions with the algae at
this time.  If the polyps were to lose all of the algae, their tissue would be completely transparent and
would look white because of the background color of their stony cup.  (If photographs  of bleached coral
are available, show these to the class.)  Bleaching also occurs at times when the water temperature is
unusually low, when the oxygen level  is too high, when the water becomes too salty, when too many
particles are floating in the water making it less clear, when the amount of different wavelengths of light
changes, or when corals become diseased.  Scientists are still learning about the combinations of
factors that contribute to coral bleaching. What might cause the water to be less clear?

  This can occur when sand is stirred up from the bottom, or because of silt and mud washing off the land into the ocean.

Now have the student at the chalkboard successively decrease the temperature by one degree every
15 seconds until it reaches 26° again. As the temperature goes under 30° C, the "bleached" corals can
add "algae" to their "polyps" and, when the Sun shines on them, shake their bags/cups as before.

Explain that the algae remaining in the polyps can reproduce and restore themselves  to their normal
numbers inside the coral polyps once conditions become favorable again.  This can occur within days
of the bleaching event.  Scientists have learned that corals often recover from bleaching events that
last several weeks, or longer. However, the longer the corals remain bleached, the less likely they are
to recover. Prolonged periods of bleaching, without recovery, will ultimately lead to the death of polyps.

Have the group do another round where the temperature stays high and the polyps do not recover all
their algae, and therefore die.  Use string or yarn to rope off and cover the surface of  the chairs where
the coral died, representing filamentous algae that cover the surface of the coral skeletons in the
absence of living polyps.

This time, block the light from one section of the reef. Place a movable chalkboard or a blanket
between the path of the Sun and the "reef to prevent sunlight from reaching the algae. Can you
predict what might happen to the reef?

   The algae do not receive any sunlight, so they cannot carry out photosynthesis. (Algae, like plants, need adequate sunlight
   to thrive.) The coral polyps do not receive food and oxygen from the algae and also lose their ability to gather food.

 What are some things that might block the light from the algae?

   A coating of sand and silt covering the corals blocks the sunlight. Also, garbage bags, clothing and other things that are lost
   or tossed overboard from ships can get tangled and caught oh the reef.                        *

      18   WHAT ARE CORALS?

Remove the object shading the coral.  How might the corals respond to increased sunlight?

  The corals may recover if the algae are able to sufficiently reproduce.

Decide as a group whether or not the affected coral polyps will recover. Consider how long the
sunlight was blocked, and how long the polyps showed the effects of bleaching. Enact re-exposure to

Explain to students that the effect of severe shading on coral varies, depending on whether sunlight is
blocked due to suspended  sediments in the water, or whether an object (marine debris) rests on the
surface of the coral. In the latter case, the algae cannot photosynthesize productively, moreover the
polyps cannot feed by gathering particles from the water.  What will undoubtedly happen to polyps
that are shaded and also unable to feed from the water?

  They will die.

The close association of algae and coral polyps is not completely understood. Scientists have known
for a long time that algae live inside the coral polyps, and that they carry on photosynthesis and
respiration in a mutualistic relationship. More studies will help us to better understand the processes
and the  interactions between these different organisms. Coral reefs provide nutrition and a place to live
for many kinds of organisms. Some factors that cause stress for the organisms of the reef include:
Increased water temperature which can make the water more salty by evaporation, increased silt and
other things that cover the reefs surface, and changes in the amount and kinds of energy that are
received from the Sun.  Because coral reefs are important parts of the marine ecosystem, and recent
changes that can be seen are hard to explain, scientists will continue to study the organisms and
conditions that are associated with coral reef systems. We are conscious about the impact of a variety
of human activities on the complex system of living things, in  the oceans and elsewhere.

1. What kind of relationship exists between algae and coral polyps in reefs?
2. What does each of the organisms gain from this  relationship?
3. List some factors that affect the ability of the algae to survive.
4. Explain how corals feed.
5. What are some  examples of human actions that  interfere with the normal processes of coral reef
6. What are some ways that we can reduce the stresses on the reefs?
7. What are some factors that we cannot control?
Calcification: The hardening of tissue from the addition of calcium carbonate and other calcium»based;
   compounds (examples; formation of coral reefs and bones of humans and other mammals).
Core/ polyp: A single coral animaf wfth a cylindrical body and tentacles.' Many polyps form a colony.
  Over many years; a farge colony can produce a structure called a reef.
           Any living thing (examples; fish, butterfly, horse, or human).
Parasite: An organism thai lives on or 'm another one arid damages or weakens the host (examples
   tapeworms, fleas, toojh decay bacteria, etc.),
                A chemical reaction fcy which plants and afgae use energy from sunlfght to produce
   sugar. This reaction uses carbon dioxide and gives off oxygen.
            The process of using oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide, as part of the chemical
   reactions in cells.

                                                              WHAT ARE CORALS?    19
 Source: Klemm, E.B., S.A. Reed, P.M. Pottenger, C.Porter, T.W. Speitel. 1995. HMSS The Living Ocean.
 Honolulu, HI: Curriculum Research & Development Group, University of Hawaii, pp.179-83. Adapted and
 reformatted from the original. Used with permission.

To a person unfamiliar with corals, most corals look alike.  But the details of their skeletal structure
distinguish one type from another. In this activity you will learn how to identify different corals.

A distinguishing feature of coral is its calyx (the plural is calyces), or cup. The diameter of each calyx is
one of the first features to note when examining a coral skeleton. Fig. 1 shows living coral polyps and
empty calyces with the coral tissue removed.  The partitions radiating inward are called septa (Latin
septum = fence). In some solitary corals the calyx has side walls; in others it does not. See Fig. 1.

In colonial corals the calyces may be separated, leaving gaps, or not separated and touching. In some,
parts of their side walls are missing.  See Fig. 2. The edges of the calyx may be even with the coral
surface or raised above it.  In some species the septa may extend outside the calyx and join with the
septa of nearby calyces.  See Fig. 3. The septa may be solid, porous, or reduced in size. See  Fig. 4.

Examine five coral specimens and record their features.

  5 different reef-building coral skeletons
  dissecting microscope or hand lens
  copy of Table 1 (worksheet).
  centimeter ruler
  coral key references (optional)

1. Place each sample on the dissecting microscope stage. Adjust the lighting to show contrasts.
   Because coral skeletons are white, they may reflect light and be difficult to see.  Try to produce
2. Describe the features of the coral cups in Table 1. Refer to Figs. 2 through 4 as needed.
3. If a coral key is available, identify the corals by their scientific names.

1. How do the cup features of the colonial coral specimens differ?  Which differed most?
   a. Do different specimens have distinctive cup features? Describe or draw them.
   b. If your samples came from beach gravel, how might you positively identify the coral type?
2. Which coral cup parts are lacking in a solitary coral like Fungia? See Fig. 1.
3. How does a colonial coral seem to grow?  Explain by making sketches.
4. Which of the species you observed would probably break during a storm? What skeletal features
   make one coral more fragile than another?
5. Define the following terms :(a) polyp, (b) colonial, (c) elevated cup, (d) septa
6. Some coral polyps are as small as the little "o" in words in this text. How can these small animals
   create coral heads? Massive coral reefs?
      * Answers in Section VIII.

      20    WHAT ARE CORALS?
         A. Skte wall present
           (Tuba coral, genus Tu&asfrasa)
B. Side wall absent
  (Mushroom coral, genus Fungla)
                                   Uvlng animal
Figure 2:
Arrangement of
calyces (cups)
in some colonial
                        A. Calyces separated
                                                                                        Figure 1:
                                                                                        Solitary coral
     B. Calyces unseparated
C. Side walls of calyces missing
   (no distinct cups)
                                                       Section cut from coral specimen
                     C. Septa extended to other calyces
                                       Figure 3:
                                       Arrangement of
                                       septa in some
                                       colonial corals.
                                             © University of Hawaii

                                                                           WHAT ARE CORALS?    21
  Side wall
          A. Solid septa       B. Porous septa
                                  CandD. Reduced septa
                                                                                             Figure 4:
                                                                                             variations in
                                                                                             colonial corals
                                                                                             (shown with
                                                                                             part of side
                                                                                             walls removed)
Table 1:
of five
                         Description and measurements
                   Calyx description
                     Calyx diameter    mm
                     Gaps between calyces? yes__no_
                     Calyx elevated? yes_no	
                   Septa description
                     Number of septa per calyx,	
                     Entire	Porous	Reduced	
                     Join other calyces? yes.	no_	
Calyx description
  Calyx diameter	mm
  Gaps between calyces? yes	no_
  Calyx elevated? yes	no	
Septa description
  Number of septa per calyx_
  Entire	Porous	Reduced	
  Join other calyces? yes.	no	
                   Calyx description
                     Calyx diameter	mm
                     Gaps between calyces? yes   no
                     Calyx elevated? yes	no	
                   Septa description
                     Number of septa per calyx	
                     Entire	Porous	Reduced	
                     Join other calyces? yes	no	
                   Calyx description
                     Calyx diameter   mm
                     Gaps between calyces? yes	no_
                     Calyx elevated? yes	no	
                   Septa description
                     Number of septa percafyx
                     Entire	Porous	Reduced	
                     Join other calyces? yes	no	
                  Calyx description
                     Calyx diameter	mm
                     Gaps between calyces? yes	no	
                     Calyx elevated? yea	no	
                  Septa description
                     Number of septa per calyx	
                     Join other calyces? yes	no	
                                                       Drawing of coral
                                               © University of Hawaii

 Source: Text and illustration from Coral Reefs by Harry Breidahl. © 1994 Harry Breidahl. Macmillan
 Education Australia, Pty Ltd. Used with permission.

Corals reproduce by releasing their eggs and sperm into the water. This is called spawning.  Most
corals spawn at exactly the same time.  During a mass spawning, the water is filled with brightly colored
bundles of eggs and sperm. The sperm and egg cells join to form larvae called planulae. The
planulae drift in the ocean as plankton for up to thirty days. When a planula finally settles, it turns into a
single coral polyp. This polyp divides to make two polyps, and each new polyp continues to divide,
eventually forming a coral colony.

Corals spawn only once a year.  It is not known why corals spawn at the same time, but some
ecologists think that the answer might be related to the fact that spawning always occurs a night or two
after the full moon.

On different reefs, coral spawning happens at different times of the year. On the Great Barrier Reef,
corals spawn in late spring or early summer, often in November.  On Ningaloo Reef in Western
Australia, the mass spawning happens in autumn, in March or April.
                              & sperm unites with
                              an egg to fertilize it
ihe fertilized egg

                                         HOW DO CORALS REPRODUCE AND GROW?    23
 Source; The following activities are contributed by the J.L. Scott Marine Education Center and Aquarium,
 Biloxi, Mississippi. Used with permission.
Follow-up Activities: Clay, Comics, and Other Crafts

1.  Present an overview of coral reproduction to the class.  You may wish to use the figure on the
   preceding page to prepare a blackboard diagram or to make an overhead transparency.

2.  Give students lumps of modeling clay and instruct them to mold (i) a single coral polyp, (ii) a polyp
   as it begins to divide, with a "bud" appearing, and (iii) two polyps that have resulted from division.

3.  Ask students to draw comic strips that illustrate, in sequence, the process of coral reproduction.

4.  The massed coral spawning event that occurs annually on the Great  Barrier Reef has been
   described as an "upside down snowstorm," with flurries of egg and sperm packets released into the
   sea simultaneously. The following craft depicts the magical beauty of coral spawning.
          "Upside down snowstorm" jar
Provide each student with a clean empty baby-
food jar. Ask students to create miniature coral
reefs using styrofoam, waxed paper, foil, colorful
plastic tape,  toothpicks, pipe cleaners, beads, and
other supplies. The corals may be colored with
waterproof paint and permanent markers. Have
students anchor their corals onto their jar lids
using modeling clay (or a glue gun, used with
close teacher supervision). Fill the babyfood jars
with water tinted with blue food coloring. Add a
small amount of silver glitter to each jar and then
twist the lid tightly on the jar, sealing the outside
rim with rubber cement.  Have students turn their
jars over (so the reef will be at the bottom) and
gently shake them to simulate coral spawning.

Explain to students that coral spawning is a rare
event.  Furthermore, unlike snow flakes (and
glitter) which settle to the ground, coral egg and
sperm packets rise toward the surface of the

  Source: Corals and Coral Reefs: 4-8 Teacher's Guide. A Sea World Education Department Publication.
  Used with permission.

Objective: Students will learn about the physical factors that limit where coral reefs develop.

Materials:  1 die,  copy of score card

1. Lead students in a discussion about what things might limit where coral reefs develop. Ask them to
   name some of the conditions they know reef-building corals need to survive.  (Right water tempera-
   ture; clear, shallow water; strong wave action to bring in nutrients)  Write these on the board.
   Explain to students that a site must meet all these criteria for a reef to successfully establish and
2. Show students the die and explain that they'll be playing a game in which they'll all be coral planulae
  in search of a settling site. Each student will roll the die three times, once for each survival factor.
3. Explain that to survive, they must roll one of these numbers when casting the die for that condition:

       Temperature = 2,3,4,5 (1 too cold, 6 too hot)
       Substrate/depth = 1,2,3,4 (5,6 too deep)
       Wave action = 4,5,6 (1,2,3 too weak to bring in nutrients)

4. Place the score sheet on an overhead projector, or have a student keep score on the board.
5. Invite students up one at a time to roll the die.  Be sure to state what factor they're rolling for each
  time. If they get a good number for all three rolls, they qualify for the next round.
6. Gather the qualifying "planulas" [planulae] in front of the class for the final round.  Ask each student
  the following questions:

       • What are coral temperature requirements?
       • What are depth requirements?
       • Why do reef-building corals need strong wave action?

  Those students that can answer the questions are the winning polyps.
7, Remind your students that corals release thousands of eggs and  sperm, some of which join and
  develop into planulae.  Do they think all the planulae survive? Why not? Explain that the
  reproductive process leans towards high numbers to allow for high mortality. Many planulae are
  eaten by marine animals before they settle and attach to the bottom. By producing hundreds of
  thousands of eggs at a time, a coral polyp increases the chance that one of its offspring will mature
  and reproduce, the measure of a species' survival success.

Deeper Depth: Calculate the percentage of planulae that survive each round.




                                      © 1993 Sea World, Inc.

                                         HOW DO CORALS REPRODUCE AND GROW?    25
 Source: Corals and Coral Reefs 4 - 8 Teacher's Guide. A Sea World Education Department Publication.
 Used with permission.


Students will observe the growth of crystals that develop in a way similar to how coral polyps create
their calcium carbonate cups.

  plastic bowls (have students bring from home)
  pieces of charcoal, porous brick, tile, cement, or sponge
  table salt (iodized or plain)
  liquid bluing (found with bleaches at grocery stores)
  food coloring
  measuring tablespoons
  masking tape
  ammonia (to be handled by an adult)
  clear glass

1.  Ask students to label their bowl with pieces of masking tape with their names on them.  Have them
   put some pieces of charcoal, brick tile, sponge, or cement into their bowls.
2.  Students should pour two tablespoons of water, two tablespoons of salt, and two tablespoons of
   liquid bluing over the base material (charcoal, etc.). Set bowls on a table or counter top.
   Formations need free air circulation to develop.
3.  The next day have them add two more tablespoons of salt.
4.  On the third day, pour in the bottom of the bowl (not directly on the base material) two tablespoons
   each of salt, water, and bluing; then add a few drops of food coloring to each piece of base material.
5.  A crystal formation should appear by the third day. If not, it may be necessary to add two
   tablespoons of household ammonia to aid the growth.  (Only teachers or other adults should
   handle and add the ammonia). To keep your formation growing, just add more bluing, salt, and
   water from time to time.
6.  Ask students to describe what they think happened between the bluing, water, and dissolved salt to
   create the formation. Explain to students that when the three materials combined, a chemical
   reaction took place and formed a new substance. Tell them that coral polyps, with the help of
   zooxanthellae, remove dissolved calcium carbonate from seawater and use it to create the stony
   cup that protects their soft bodies.
7.  Demonstrate the concept of a dissolved substance by pouring some sugar into a glass  of water.
   Ask the students if they can see the sugar. Stir the water vigorously for about five seconds. Ask the
   students if they can see any of the sugar in the water.  Stir the solution again, this time  for about one
   minute, or until all the sugar has dissolved. Ask the students if there is still any sugar in the water.
   Stress that  although they can't see the sugar, it's still there, in dissolved form.
                                       ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

    Source; Reprinted from Life on a Coral Reef: Marine Science Curriculum. Grades 7-9. The Seattle
    Aquarium .  Used with permission.
1. The student will understand that the raw materials of coral skeletons are contained within sea water.
2. The student will realize that the coral polyp has the ability to extract these raw materials from sea
   water, and to produce a solid substance.

  One cup white vinegar in glass container.
  One stick white blackboard chalk, broken into several pieces.
  One cup tap water in glass container.
  Six teaspoons baking soda.
  A two-cup capacity glass container.

Teacher Preparation:
1. In nature, lime (composed of calcium and oxygen) is dissolved in sea water. A coral polyp extracts
   this lime from the surrounding water, combines it with carbon and oxygen within its cells, and
   produces aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate (CaC03). Thus, the clear sea water provides
   substance for the construction of solid white material by the coral.
2. In this demonstration, we suggest how corals are able to produce calcium carbonate from clear sea
   water.  Although we cannot duplicate, in the classroom, the exact process by which corals extract
   lime from sea water, we can show that the materials for making coral skeletons exist in the clear sea

1. Mix one cup white vinegar with one stick of white blackboard chalk, broken into small pieces.  Let
   stand for two hours. Pour off and save the clear liquid.  The remaining chalk can be discarded.
2. In another container, mix one cup tap water with six teaspoons baking soda. Stir occasionally for 15
   minutes. Let settle. Pour off and save the clear liquid.  Any remaining baking soda can be
3. Combine the two clear liquids in a glass container. A white precipitate will form and settle. This
   mixing process represents a coral polyp extracting calcium from the sea water, combining it with
   carbon dioxide, and producing aragonite, the hard white material of coral skeletons.
4. If the mixture does not become cloudy, add more baking soda solution until a precipitate forms.
5. Let the mixture stand until the white precipitate settles.  This white material represents the white
   coral skeleton produced by the coral polyp.
6. If desired, the liquid can be poured off, and the white precipitate dried to show its solid nature. This
   dried material can be further tested. Calcium carbonate, the substance of coral skeletons, reacts
   with week acid (such as vinegar). After explaining this to the students, add a small amount of white
   vinegar to the precipitate, and observe the fizzing reaction. This reaction demonstrates that the
   material is indeed calcium carbonate.
7. Discuss the chemistry of these reactions.

                                           HOW bO CORALS REPRODUCE AND GROW?    27
 Source: The JASON Project is internationally recognized as an outstanding interdisciplinary and technology
 rich approach to teaching and learning. These materials are selected components from a comprehensive
 curricular approach. For more background, check the JASON Project homepage:
 For more information on the JASON Project, contact: JASON Foundation for Education, 395 Totten Pond
 Road, Waltham, MA 02154 Tel: (617)487-9995 or send e-mail to: Copyright protected.
 Used with permission.

The following activity explores how the barrier reef was formed through lithification involving coral polyps
and encrusting calcareous algae (coralline algae).

Students will demonstrate how a limestone exoskeleton is produced from carbon dioxide and dissolved

  Lime water (Dissolve calcium hydroxide in water and filter until clear.)
  Small cup (empty)
  Small cup, filled to a depth of 3 cm (about 1 in) with lime water
  Two drinking straws
  Small (No.2) coffee filter
  Small cup filled with water

To demonstrate the formation of calcium carbonate, introduce to the students the idea of solids (such as
sugar or salt) that dissolve readily in water, and solids (shell, bone, or coral) that do not readily dissolve in
water.  Ask students to discuss where sugar, salt, shell, bone and coral come from? Are they made up of
other solids?  Ask students what the coral polyp cups are made of. (Calcium carbonate.) Suggest to them
that the coral polyp makes calcium carbonate with the help of zooxanthellae. They combine different
chemicals together. Ask for a student volunteer to tell the class the color of the liquid in the cup.  Have the
student blow into the cup filled with lime water.  Remind the student not to swallow or blow too hard. Tell
the student to stop blowing as soon as a white precipitate is seen.  Filter this precipitate out, using the
small coffee filter placed over the empty cup. Repeat the same exercise, using a cup of water instead of
the lime water.  No precipitate should form.  Ask students why the second cup did not produce a
precipitate. (The chemicals in the first and second cups are different.) Explain that both cups were
supplied with carbon dioxide when the student exhaled. In the first cup, the carbon dioxide combined with
a chemical to produce  calcium carbonate. What do you think the chemical was? (Calcium, hence calcium
carbonate.) In corals, calcium from the water and carbon dioxide from cell respiration are brought into the
polyp's gut, where the zooxanthellae assist in combining and moving the chemicals to the area where
calcification occurs and the protective cup is formed.

For older students

The chemical reaction  in forming calcium carbonate is:

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 = CaCO3 + H2O
                                  © The JASON Foundation for Education

 Source: King, Dr. Michael and illustrated by S. Belew and M.King. Coral Reefs in tha South Pacific
 Handbook. © 1993 South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, P.O. Box 240, Apia, Western Samoa.
 Reproduction authorized.

There are three basic types of coral reefs - fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls.
            FRINGING REEFS
            grow at the edges of
            continents and islands.
            The reef front contains
            actively growing corals,
            and pieces of broken
            coral are washed up as
            rubble on the reef flat.

            BARRIER REEFS
            are separated from the
            shore line by a lagoon
            which is often deep.
            Corals grow in the calm
            waters of the lagoon as
            well as on the reef front.
             are coral reefs growing in
             the shape of a circle.
             The reef, which often has
             small islets on it, surrounds a
 One explanation of how an atoll forms involves the gradual sinking of an oceanic island over thousands
 of years. The reef front of the fringing reef around the original island actively grows as the island s|owiy
 sinks.  Eventually a lagoon forms between the sinking island and the growing coral which becomes a
 barrier reef. When the island sinks beneath the sea, the barrier reef becomes a circular atoll.

                                           HOW DO CORALS REPRODUCE AND GROW?    29
  Source: Activity contributed by Jeannie Flint. J.L. Scott Marine Education Center and Aquarium, Biloxi
  Mississippi. Used with permission.
Follow-up Activity: Cooking Up Coral Reefs

These edible models of the different kinds of reefs are a fun way to reinforce teaching and involve children
in an explanation they will remember.

1) Fringing Reef
  A fringing reef is a submerged platfonn of living coral animals that extends from the shore to the sea.
Use a shallow (one inch thick or less) sheet cake to illustrate this type of reef. Cut the cake in half
lengthwise.  Lay the two halves end to end in the middle of a large piece of cardboard.
  To create a shore, spread a thick layer of pink or white icing on the cardboard along one of the long
sides of the cake. The icing "shore" should be a little deeper than the cake "reef." Sprinkle the shore with
sugar to simulate sand. Mention to the students that the sand is actually fragments of coral skeletons that
have been crushed by the action of waves and tides.
  Place assorted decorative candies on top of the cake as you describe various kinds of coral. Explain
how corals of a  fringing reefs extend the reef platform toward the sea.
  Tint a container of vanilla icing with blue-green food coloring.  Melt the icing to a watery consistency by
heating it for 40 seconds in a microwave oven. State that fringing reefs grow in shallow tropical waters as
you submerge the "reef by pouring the watery icing over the cake, candy, and a portion of the shore. The
"water" will harden while you handle questions and discussion.
  Eat the reef.

                        2) Barrier Reef
                          The Great Barrier Reef of Australia Is a grand example of this type of reef.
                       A lovely book to use while doing a presentation on barrier reefs is The Sign of
                       the Seahorse by Graeme Base (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers,
                                Repeat the above procedure to create a barrier reef. This time,
                               however, leave a wide separation between the cake "reef and icing
                              "shore." Pour blue icing "water" over the reef, filling the space
                              between the reef and shore. Point out to the students that reefs follow
                              (i.e., run parallel to) shore lines.

                                    3) Atoll
                                      Since an atoll reef is basically a ring-shaped coral island in
                                    the middle of the open sea, use a tube or bundt pan to prepare
                                    this cake. Again, use candies to show how the corals build up,
                                    usually around a crater of a sunken volcano or on a submerged
                                    mud bank.
                                           After you have built the reef, use watery (warmed) blue
                                         icing to create a lagoon in the center of the atoll. Cut out
                                        a slice of the cake to show how channels may connect the
                                        atoll to the open sea.  Pour more icing "water" into the
                                        lagoon, allowing it to run into the channel.

                                            This is fun marine science with a purpose.  Enjoy!

 Source: Kiemm, E.B., S.A. Reed, P.M. Pottenger, C.Porter, T.W. Speftel. 1995. HMSS The Living Ocean.
 Honolulu, HI: Curriculum Research & Development Group, University of Hawaii, pp. 187 - 89. Adapted and
 reformatted from the original.  Used with permission.
A reef is made of coral and coralline algae that form a structure used by other organisms as a dwelling
place A coral reef, like a forest, is a complex community of many associated plants and animals.
Organisms act as agents of change to cause the reef to grow or be destroyed. Physical conditions also
determine the growth or destruction of the reef.

Biological agents of change include all the plants and animals that build up and destroy reefs  See
Table 1   Reef-building agents are organisms that secrete the calcium carbonate skeletons that form
the reef.  Crack-filling agents are organisms that produce sediment or live in the cracks and crevices of
the reef  Passive agents use the structure of the reed to live and hide in. They do not affect the reef
structure but may eat other reef organisms or be eaten by them.  Destructive agents erode the reef by
grinding, chewing, or boring into it.

Physical agents of change—waves, currents, pollution, moving sand, silt deposits, fresh water, and
severe shifts in temperature—kill corals and wear away the reef. See Table 1.

Compare the agents of change on a coral reef and in a forest.

   copy of Table 2

1   Fill in Table 2 with examples of specific agents that affect the structure of a forest.
2.  Compare Table 2 with Table 1 and discuss the similarities and differences between the agents of
    change on a coral reef and in a forest.

 1.  What do we mean by the "structure" of a forest? Of a reef? Describe the structure of the reef.
2.  In what ways are corals in a reef like trees in a forest?  How are they different?
 s!  What happens to the trees when they die? To the corals?
4.  What are the differences between the growth of a tree and the growth of a forest? What are the
    differences between the growth of a single coral colony and the growth of a coral reef?
 5.  Compare the biological and physical agents that damage a forest and a coral reef. How are they
    similar? How are they different?
 6.  How does the amount of sunlight affect the growth of a coral reef? A forest?
       * Answers In Section VIII.
© University of Hawaii

                                       HOW DO CORALS REPRODUCE AND GROW?    31
         Table 1:  Agents of change affecting the growth of a coral reef.
             Agents of change
Constructive agents—reef builders
Calcareous corals
Encrusting coralline algae
Crack fillers
Encrusting coralline algae
Fragments of corals
Foraminifera (one-celled animals that make
   shells—for example, paper shells)
Passive agents
Many fish
Red, green, and brown algae
Many mollusks
Destructive biological agents (organisms that
  destroy by chewing, eroding, blanketing, or
  producing acid)
Boring sponges
Coral-eating fish (parrotfish)
Sea urchins and sea stars
Boring mollusks
Rapid-growing algae
Constructive physical agents (builders)
Calm water
Adequate sunlight
Optimum salinity
Clear water
Solid substrate
Adequate nutrients
Destructive physical agents
Pounding waves
Moving sand
Smothering sediments (silt)
Freshwater rain
Very low tides
Rising seafloor
Sinking seafloor
Rising or falling water temperature
Runoff from land
Excessive nutrients in water
                                     © University of Hawaii

Table 2:  Agents affecting the growth of a forest.
Agents and conditions of change
Forest builders
Forest floor organisms
Passive residents
Destructive organisms
Constructive physical agents
Destructive physical agents

                                      © University of Hawaii
  Source; The JASON Project is internationally recognized as an outstanding interdisciplinary and technology
  rich approach to teaching and learning. These materials are selected components from a comprehensive
  curricular approach. For more background, check out the JASON Project homepage:http://www.jasonproject
   org For more information on the JASON Project, contact: JASON Foundation for Education, 395 Totten Pond
  Road, Waltham, MA 02154  Tel:(617)487-9995 or send e-mail to: Copyright protected. Used
  with permission.

 Turbid water might be described as "murky" in appearance; the clearer the appearance of the water,
 the lower its turbidity. When turbidity is high, water loses its ability to support a diversity of aquatic
 organisms.  Solid particles—such as sediment—suspended in the water can block out light that aquatic
 plants and organisms need.  Suspended solids can also absorb heat from sunlight, raising the
 temperature of the water.  As the water becomes warmer, it loses its ability to hold oxygen. This
 causes dissolved oxygen levels to drop, further reducing the number of plants and animals that can live
 in the water.

 You will use a Secchi disk to measure turbidity. A Secchi disk is a scientific tool for measuring the
 relative clarity of deep water. The clearer the water, the lower the turbidity. The murkier the water, the
 higher the turbidity.
                                 © The JASON Foundation for Education

                                                 WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND?    33
   Plastic lid, white or light-colored, 20 cm (about 8 in) in diameter
   One black waterproof marker
   Several meters of fishing line
   Flagging tape or strips of colored ribbon
   Meter stick
   Eyebolt with 2 nuts and washers
   Several sharpened pencils

1. Use a sharpened pencil to punch a hole in the center of the plastic lid.
2. Use your waterproof marker to divide the top (outside) of the lid into four pie-shaped pieces of equal
   size (see illustration). Color the upper left and lower right sections black.
3. Thread a nut and washer (in that order) onto the eyebolt.
4. With the nut and washer on the eyebolt, insert the eyebolt through the hole in the center of the lid.
   Then add the other washer and nut (in that order) to the eyebolt on the underside of the lid (see
5. Tie one end of the fishing line to the eye of the eyebolt.
6. Using the meter stick, measure out from the eyebolt 250 centimeters (about 10 in) along the line,
   and tightly tie ribbon around the line. Continue tying ribbons to the line every 250 centimeters. In
   the field, you will lower the Secchi disk into the water.  As soon as you can no longer see it, you will
   stop and count the number of ribbons to determine the turbidity level.

Field Experiment
1. If possible, stand on a bridge over the water at your aquatic site.  If there is no bridge, simply
    conduct this experiment from the bank.  Lower the Secchi disk into the water just to the point
    where you can no longer see it.
2. When you can no longer see the Secchi disk, count the number of ribbons remaining above the
    surface of the water. Subtract this number from the total number of ribbons on the line to
    calculate the number of ribbons submerged with the disk.  This is your turbidity reading.

       Example: Suppose you count 10 ribbons above the water at the time you can no longer
       see your Secchi disk,  if your fishing  line has a total of 15 ribbons, you would subtract
       10 from 15, and your turbidity reading would be 5.

   If your Secchi disk reaches the bottom and you can still see it, you should still record the number of
   ribbons submerged with the disk.  If you are still able to see the disk after it/has reached the bottom,
   what do you think it means?
3. Repeat the experiment
one or two times.  Record
the turbidity each  time.
To .get an average of your
Readings, add the turbidity
readings and then divide
by the number of times
you did the experiment.
                                 © The JASON Foundation for Education

 Source: The Coral Reef Coloring Book by Katherine Orr. ©1988KatheirineOrr. Stemmer House
 Publishers, Inc., Owings Mill, Maryland. Used with permission.
Coral reef systems
cannot exist by
themselves. They
depend upon warmth
and light from the
sun. They need a
constant supply of
fresh, clear sea-water
from the surrounding
ocean.  Some reefs
need the help of
nearby mangrove
forests. The
mangrove roots keep
seawater clear by
trapping soil found in
muddy rain and river
waters. Many reef
animals depend on
the mangroves and
seagrass beds for
food and as nurseries
for their young.

Because the coral
reef depends on its
changes in the nearby
environment will also
affect the reef.
Because the reef is a
living system,
damage to  one part
will hurt the rest.  This
means  coral reefs can
be damaged easily.
And since corals grow
so slowly, the
damage is  not easily

                                                    WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND?    35
 Source: This activity is adapted from Coiral Reefs: A Gallery Program produced at the National Aquarium in
 Baltimore, Maryland. Used with permission.                              .



The term "reef refers to a hard structure that rises above the ocean floor. Sometimes reefs are large rocks; the
Exxon Valdez hit a rock reef. Coral reefs consist of calcium carbonate (CaCOg) deposited as skeletons by animals
related to anemones and jellyfish called stony or reef-building corals. In addition to corals, coraline algae also
produce calcium carbonate. These rock-like red algae live on dead coral. They cement the branches and mounds
of coral skeletons into a solid structure. Anytime there is a hard surface for plants and animals to attach to, ocean
creatures are abundant. Think of pier pilings or the bottoms of boats that become covered with seaweed and
marine animals. In addition, swimming animals like fish come to reefs for both food and shelter. Humans take
advantage of this when they make artificial reefs from ships, old cars or cement-filled tires. Coral reefs are exciting
places to visit. They have some of the greatest numbers of different kinds of organisms living in the world's
oceans; they are very diverse.

Where Do Coral Reefs Grow?

The coral animals that build the reef by depositing layer upon layer of calcium carbonate skeleton have very
specific requirements. Reef-building corals need warm water. They tolerate 18° to 29° C, but 24° C is optimum.
The sun shines most directly year round on areas near the equator. It warms tropical  oceans all year. This means
coral reefs usually occur in tropical waters.

1. Use the map on the following page (or your own world map) to locate the area between the Tropic of Cancer
and Capricorn. Do coral reefs grow everywhere in the tropics? List two tropical countries lacking coral reefs.

Winds along the equator blow from east to west, pushing water across the ocean. Coriolis forces caused by the
spinning of the Earth and the continents' location across the path of wind driven water, create circular currents in
the oceans. They move clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the southern.

2. Draw arrows showing these currents on the map.                                              ,

Water warms as it moves westward along the equator. It cools as it passes across the northern and southern
parts of the oceans.

3. Which coasts have the warm water? Cold?  Write a general hypothesis that explains coral reef distribution
based on water temperature.

Reef-building corals require ocean-strength saltwater (35 pptwith a range of tolerance from 25-40 ppt).  Fresh
water kills them. In addition to temperature and salinity, reef-building corals have a strange need for animals: they
require light! Anything that blocks light kills corals. They do not grow in water with sediment or dirt (turbid water)
nor do they grow in deep water where the water itself absorbs the light.

4. Look at a world map. Name a place that should have coral reefs if temperature were the only criterion.
Account for this lack of reefs based on light and salinity. Hint: think geography of the  adjacent land.
       * Answers In Section VIII.


                                              WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND?    37
 Source: Corals and Coral Reefs 4-8 Teacher's Guide. A Sea World Education Department Publication.
 Used with permission.


Use the latitudes and longitudes in the table below to mark the location of these coral reefs.  Study the
finished map and identify the area of the world where most reef-building corals grow.  Use colored
pencils or crayons to color in the "reef belt." Between what latitudes is the reef belt?
Great Barrier Reef
Maui, Hawaii
Key West, Florida
French Polynesia
Red Sea
Cabo San Lucas
Seychelles Islands
Philippines Islands
Celebes Islands
Bahama Islands
16° S
23° N
13° N
149° E
156° 20' W
145° W
38° W
110° W
55° E
122° E
110° E
121° 10' E
76° W
                                     Coral distribution map

Deeper Depths: Ask students to research what other habitats besides coral reefs are found in the reef
      * Answers In Section VIII.
©1993 Sea World, Inc.

 Source: Coral Forest Teacher's Guide. Coral Forest, 400 Montgomery Street, Suite 1040, San Francisco,
 California 94104 Tel:(415)788-REEF FAX: (415)398-0385 e-mail:  Used with

Objective:  Students locate coral reefs on a world map.
Interdisciplinary Index: Geography, Science
Vocabulary: longitude, latitude, equator, tropic of Cancer, tropic of Capricorn

Materials: a map of the world; copies of the Coral Reefs of the World map (below), the Coral Reef
  Map and the Geography Map Key (one of each for every group of two students); two copies of the
  list of Geography Clues; thin colored markers (ink pens may be substituted)

1. Before class, cut the two copies of the Geography clues sheet into strips with one clue per strip.
2. Divide the class into groups of two.
3. Hand out a copy of the Coral Reefs of the World map, a Coral Reef Map, and a Geography Map
   Key, one for every two students. Hand out one clue strip per group.
4. Referring to the Coral Reefs of the World map, students should mark the location of coral reefs
   around the world using a colored marker.  Referring to the world map, students then need to answer
   the geography clues and mark their location on the Coral Reef Map with the clue number.
5. Then they should record the name of the location on the Geography Map Key. The number of
   letters in the location will also serve as a clue.
6. After completing both of these steps for a clue, one member of the team should exchange the
  original clue for another clue.  This process should be repeated until all thirteen clues have been
7. As each group completes the locating and  recording section, have them work together (or
  separately) to complete the follow-up question.
                          Coral reefs of the world (illustration: Wendy Weir)
       Answers In Section VIII.

                            WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND?   3d

                        GEOGRAPHY MAP KEY
Follow up: Describe in general terms where these coral reefs are located.

                                      WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND?   41

                          GEOGRAPHY CLUES
                 Each of these locations has coral reefs.

1.  Group of islands northeast of Cuba

2.  Centra! American country bordering the Caribbean and Guatemala

3.  Fifteen percent of the world's coral reefs are located in this sea

4.  Large island off the eastern coast of Africa

5.  Largest ocean in the world

6.  Largest barrier reef in the world, located off the eastern coast of Australia

7. Island country south of Cuba

8. Central American country adjacent to South America

9. United States peninsula state

10. United States island state

11. Collection of many islands located in the South China Sea

12. Body of water between Africa and Asia

13. A group of islands in the Pacific where Kwajaiein,  the world's largest atoll, is

  Source: J.L.Scott Marine Education Center and Aquarium, Biloxi, Mississippi. Used with permission.

Write the following list of ingredients on the chalkboard:

       Recipe for a Happy Reef
       sunshine  corals flourish in lower latitudes where sunlight is intense
       shallow water corals ordinarily do not grow below 40 meter depths
       clarity  corals cannot thrive in water that is clouded with suspended particles
       salt corals require high salinity, ideally between 34 and 37 parts per thousand salt
       warmth reef-building corals grow best between 25 and 31 degrees Centigrade
       hard bottom corals prefer a firm footing to a shifting sand seafloor

Here is another recipe for a happy reef that will make your students happy too.
  2 envelopes Knox plain gelatin
  2 boxes blue Jello
  Vz cup sugar
  1 Vz cup boiling hot water
  % cup cool water
  2 cups cold water with ice cubes
2 or 3 sugar cookies
assorted candies
frosting or peanut butter
gummy fish
whipped cream
Place cookies in the bottom of a large (1 Vz quart) glass bowl or j'ar. Cover the tops of the
cookies with candies, creating a "coral reef."  Use frosting or peanut butter to cement the
candies in place.  In a separate dish, sprinkle plain gelatin over Yz cup cool water and let stand
for one minute before adding 1 Vz cups hot water, blue Jell-O and sugar.  Stir until dissolved.
To this mixture,  add 2 cups cold water with ice cubes.  Continue stirring until the gelatin is just
beginning to thicken. Immediately remove any remaining ice and pour the "seawater" around
the "coral reef."  Add gummy fish.  Refrigerate for one hour.  Before serving,  add whip cream
"waves." Serves 8-10.

                                                         LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    43
 Source: Text from The Living Reef by Harry Breidahl. © 1994 Harry Breidahl. Macmillan Education
 Australia Pty Ltd. Illustration from Coral reefs bv Harry Breidahl. ©1994 Harry Breidahl. Macmillan
 Education Australia, Pty Ltd. Used with permission.
                                                                          coral reefs
Coral reefs are
often regarded
as the rain-
forests of the
sea. Just as in
a rainforest,  a
coral reef scene
is a riot of
colors and
forms.  A coral
reef not only
supports an
infinite variety
of living things,
it also supports
an abundance
of each living
thing.  The
shoals of
colorful fish  that
dart in and out
of the labyrinths
of coral provide
a constant
reminder of this

 Nobody can say
 exactly how
 many species
 (different kinds)
 of marine
 organisms live
 on coral reefs of
 the world.  This is because scientists are only just beginning to explore the oceans in a systematic way.
 Modern equipment such as SCUBA enables scientists to explore reefs more closely. It has been
 estimated that coral reefs may be the home for a quarter of all the marine organisms on Earth.
  Source: The following activity is contributed by the J.L Scott Marine Education Center and Aquarium, Biloxi,
  Mississippi. Used with permission.

      44     UFE ON A CORAL REEF
 Follow-up Activity: Coral Reef Scavenger Hunt

 "Biodiversity" has been referred to as our "planetary insurance policy." In other words, the more varied
 the genetic blueprints on our planet, the more likely that life on Earth will find a way to survive by
 adapting to changes that will come over the course of time.  It is prudent for humans to seek to
 preserve rainforests on account of their "biodiversity," and likewise to protect the rich and largely
 unexplored variety found on coral reefs.
  To help students appreciate this incredible variety, hold a "Coral Reef Scavenger Hunt." Students
 may work individually or as teams to find a different item appropriate for each description on the list.
 The hunt may be done on a snorkeling fieldtrip, at an aquarium reef exhibit, in the classroom with
 magazine photographs and/or posters depicting coral reefs, or with students searching their imagina-
 tions.  The first student or team to find  all twenty items is "the winner."  For more advanced students,
 the teacher may wish to write new descriptions, such as "Something which can change color,"
 "Something that hunts at night," "Something that lives in a mutualistic relationship," etc.
  1. Something beautiful
  2. Something yellow
  3. Something sharp
  4. Something blind
  5. Something with legs
  6. Something slippery
  7. Something at least fifty years old
  8. Something you could not take home
  9. Something clear or translucent
10. Something long and slender
             11 Something swift
             12. Something with a shell
             13. Something valuable
             14. Something that lives in large communities
             15. Something ugly
             16. Something round
             17. Something edible to humans
             18. Something alive that would fit in a teacup
             19. Something shiny
             20. Something with stripes
 Source: Our Living Coral Reef. Illustrated by Deborah A. Coulombe. Produced by the "Living with Nature
 Committee1' of the Junior League of Miami, Inc.  Used with permission.
 1. Porkfish
 2. Elkhom coral
 3. Triggerfish
 4. Damselfish
 5. Christmas Tree worm
 6. Brain coral
 7. Neon goby
 8. Spotted drum
 9. Trumpet fish
10. Fiiefish
11. Nurse shark
12. Angelfish
13. Sea rod coral
14. Cowfish
15. Moray eel
16. Grunts
17. Moon jelly
18. Four eye butterflyfish
19. Hawksbill turtle
20. Long spiny urchin
21. Mountainous coral
22. Parrotfish
23. Queen conch
24. Neptune's shaving brush (alga)
25. Bristle worm
26. Turtle grass
27. Goatfish
28. Spiny lobster
29. Star coral
30. Blue tangs
31. Sponge
32. Grouper
33. Sea bisquit
34. Fire coral
35. Sea fan
36. Snapper
37. Barracuda
38. Bandtail puffer


      46    LIFE ON A CORAL REEF
  Source: Corals and Coral Reefs 4-8 Teacher's Guide. A Sea World Education Department Publication.
  Used with permission.
 27*.  WHAT'S MY NAME?

 Objective: Students will leam to use a dichotomous key to identify a variety of reef organisms.

   copies of the last two pages of this activity (one set of pages for each group of four students)

 1. Lead students in a discussion about organizing objects into groups based on things they have in
   common. For example, ask students to describe how books are organized in a library (alpha-
   betically for fiction, by topic for nonfictiori). Why is it important to have a system to organize books?
   (so ifs easy for people to find what they're looking for) What other examples of grouping by
   similarities can students think of? (items in a grocery store, businesses in a phone directory, record
   collections, etc.) Explain that  biologists also have a system to organize living things.  It places
   organisms into groups that have clear-cut similarities.  Ask students to name some of the charac-
   teristics of birds and to explain why a fish  isn't a mammal.
       Tell students that there is a scientific method for determining to what group an organism
    belongs.  It's a key that leads you through a series of choices based on your observation of the
    organism. Eventually, you make a final choice that identifies the organism.  Because there are two
    choices at every step, this system is called a dichotomous key (di means two, chotomous means
 2. Use an overhead projector to show the picture of the fireworm (card number C) or just hold the card
   up for the class to see.  Demonstrate how the key works by leading the class through two or three
   steps, but don't identify the creature for them.  Read the statements from the key out loud, and let
   students make the decisions based on their observations.
 3. Divide class into  groups of four students each.  Have students cut out picture cards of organisms
   and divide them among the members of their group. Each group should select one person to read
   from the key.
 4. One student selects an organism from her/his pile, and the person with the key reads the criteria.
   AH members of the group should agree on whether or not the organism fits the criteria before
   moving on to the next step of  the key.
 5. When the organism has been identified, the person whose pile it came from writes its name on the
   picture and sets it aside. The  next person selects a card from his/her pile and the group repeats the
   steps in keying it out.
 6. When all the groups have identified each organism, review their findings as a class. Explain that
   since they were using only pictures of the  animals, their criterion was limited to overall appearance
  "only. If they had  the actural organism in front of them, what other criteria could they have used?
   (size, color, weight, features that may have been hidden in the drawing)

 Deeper Depths:
The animals in this activity are invertebrates from the phyla Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echino-
dermata, Annelida, and Platyhelminthes.  Have the students hypothesize which animals are related.
Then have the students do research and determine the characteristics of animals in each of these
phyla and identify the phylum for each animal.
      * Answers fa Section VIII.
                                       ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

                                                            L/FE ON A CORAL REEF    47
                              CORAL REEF ANIMAL KEY
1.  a. Long spines: go to 2
   b. Very short spines or no spines: go to 4

2.  a. Spines all over body: go to 3
   b. Spines projecting only from the edge of
      the shell: Atlantic thorny oyster

3.  a. Spines are long, thin, and finely pointed:
      long-spirted urchin
   b. Spines shorter and very thick: club

4. a. Stonelike appearance with branches: go
      to 5
    b.  Not stonelike: go to 7

5.  a.  Branches extend horizontally and
       vertically: go to 6
    b.  Branches only extend vertically: pillar

6.  a.  Blunt, fingerlike branches: finger coral
    b.  Broad, flat branches: elkhorn coral

 7.  a.  Transparent: go to 8
    b. Not transparent: go to 9

 8.  a. Numerous, fine tentacles line edge of
       round body: moon jelly
    b. Two hairlike tentacles trail behind oval
       body: comb jelly

 9.  a. Five to six distinct arms: go to 10
     b. No distinct arms or more that six arms:
       go to 11

 10. a. Slender, whiplike arms, spines project
       from sides of arms: brittle star
     b. Thick, fingerlike arms with blunt tips:
       comet star

 11. a.  Numerous tentacles: go to 12
     b.  Few or no tentacles: go to 13
12. a. Tentacles long, slender, and fine-tipped:
     corkscrew anemone
   b. Tentacles short and blunt-tipped: sun

13.   a. Wormlike: go to 14
     b. Not wormlike: go to 16

14.   a. Tufts of bristles along both sides of
       body: fire worm
     b. No brisltes: go to 15

15.  a. Thick, tubelike body resembling a
       cucumber: soft sea cucumber
     b. Flat, ribbonlike body with smooth
       edges: polyclad flatworm

16.  a. Hinged shell with zigzag shell opening:
        Frons oyster
     b.  No hinged shell: go to 17

17.  a.  Round body shape: go to 18
     b. Body shape not round: go to 19

 18.  a. Five pointed star on surface: heart
     b. Grooves form wavy pattern on surface:
        brain coral

 19.  a. Crablike with prominent front claws:
        swimming crab
      b.  Not crablike: go to 20

 20.  a. Legs: go to 21
     b. No legs: trumpet triton

 21. a. Long antennae: go to 22
      b. Short, flat antennae: Spanish lobster

 22.  a. No spines on body: rock lobster
      b. Spines on body: spiny lobster
                                         ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

                                 ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

                         UFE ON A CORAL REEF   48
       ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

      50    UFE ON A CORAL REEF
  Source: Klemm, E.B., SA Reed, P.M. Pottenger, C. Porter, T.W. Spertel. 1995. HMSS The Living Ocean.
  Honolulu, HI: Curriculum Research & Development Group, University of Hawaii. Pp. 14 - 21. Adapted and
  reformatted from the original. Used with permission.
Butterflyfish are popular tropical reef fish. But there are more than a dozen species of butterflyfish.
Common names are not adequate for identifying fish species for several reasons:

1. Different common names are often used for a single species.  In English, for example, the fish
   pictured below is called a raccoon butterflyfish in Hawaii, a cross butterflyfish in other parts of
   Polynesia, and a red-striped butterflyfish in Melanesia.

2. A common name may refer to  several similar but different species. In Hawaiian, for example,
   only two common names, kikakapu andlauhau, are used for the 15 species of butterflyfish listed in
   Table 2 and shown in Figure 1.

3. Common names sometimes contain misleading descriptive  words. For example, starfish, jellyfish,
   and crayfish are not fish.
Binomial Nomenclature
Scientists around the world, no
matter what their language, use
a two-name or binomial system
for naming organisms.
Scientific names usually
combine word parts from Latin
(L) or Greek (G).  Table 1 shows
Latin and Greek word parts used
in naming the butterflyfish. A
scientific name includes the
names of both the genus and the
species. For example, the
scientific name of the raccoon
butterflyfish is Chaetodon lunula.
The genus name comes before
the species name. In writing,
both names are either underlined
or printed in italics (slanting
type). The first letter of the
genus name is always
capitalized. If the genus has
already been mentioned, its
scientific name may be
abbreviated: C. Lunula.

Identification Keys
Over 2 million species of
organisms  have been named by
A. Common names
  In Hawaii: raccoon buttorflyflsh
  In Polynesia: cross butterffyflsh
  In Melanesia: red-etrlped butterflyfish
B. Using biological classification
  ~ '   .      Kay characteristic
has a notochord (a supporting bony rod)
has a vertebral column (a 'backbone')
fish with a bony skeleton
shaped like a perch
teeth shaped Ike bristles
bristle teeth
shaped like a moon
C. Scientific name: Chaeftxfofl/unufe
  Abbreviated scientific name: C. lunula
       Answers In Section VIII.
                                        © University of Hawaii

                                                               LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    51

scientists; probably millions more are still unnamed. To distinguish species, biologists make keys using
easily identifiable features. A biological key is a series of decisions for identifying a species by its
   In a word key, each number on the left identifies a decision point related to a pair of descriptive
statements. The user selects a decision point, then looks at the number on the right (at the end of the
sentence) that tells where to find the next level of descriptions. A number in parentheses shows the
previous decision point, the one that led to this point in the key.
                                           Table 1. Some Latin (L) and Greek (G) word parts
                               Word part and its meaning
                               aor/-(L). Gold, golden
                               bi-(L). Two
                               chaet(G). Bristle
                               c/ncf(L). Girdled
                               eltrin(Q). A lemon
                               -gllus(L). Small  .
                               ephipp!(G). A saddle
                               fascist (L). Banded
                               frem(L). Roar, murmur
                               -latus (L). Side, broad, wide
                              //neo(L). Aline
                              /un-(L). The moon
                              macula (L). Spot, spotted
                              /n///ar(L). Millet (a grass) seed
                              multi-(L). Many
                              -octon(G). Tooth
                              ornat(L). Adorned
                              quadri-(L). Four
                              retlcul(L). A network
                              frf-(L). Three
Activity: Use a word
   classification key to
   identify several species
   of butterflyfish.

   copy of Table 2 and Fig. 1
   optional (glue and sheet
      of construction paper)

1. (Optional) Cut out the fish
   cards from Fig 1.

2. Select the butterflyfish M.  Using the word key in Table 2, key out butterflyfish M by following these
   a. Starting at decision point 1, read the two statements describing a feature of butterflyfish.
   b. Decide which statement fits the picture offish M. (The description "Pelvic fin dark" is the correct
      description for fish M.)
   c. Note the number to the right side of this statement. It is 2.
   d. Go to decision point 2.  Read the two descriptions. Decide which statement better describes fish
      M.  (The second statement "Lacks two large white spots below dorsal fin," is the correct choice.)
   e. Find the number in the  right-hand column for the statement you chose.  Go to the decision point
      with that number at the left.
   f. Again select the proper description.  (Of the two choices there, "Tail with one dark bar at tip" is the
      correct choice.) This description identifies the organism, and its  name appears: Chaetodon kleini.
   g. Record the name of your fish below its picture in Figure  1 (Because all fish in Fig. 1 are in the
      genus Chaetodon, the name of the genus may be abbreviated as C and Chaetodon kleini may be
      identified as C. kleini.)

3. Identify all the butterflyfish in Figure 1.
   a. Read the two descriptions at each decision point, then select the description that matches the
   b. When you identify a fish, write its scientific name  under  its picture. Continue until you identify all
      the fish.
   c. If you are using cards, remove each card from the deck when you identify the fish on it.

4. What kind of feature should be used to construct a key for a group of animals or plants?
5. How might biological keys handle the problem of a species of fish that has different color patterns
   in juvenile and adult stages?
6. Color and markings are usually poor characteristics  to use in identification keys.  Why?
       * Answers in Section VIII.
© University of Hawaii

Pelvic fin dark
Pelvic fin light
Two farge white spots below dorsal fin
Lacks two farge white spots below dorsal fin
Tail with two dark bars at tip
Tail with one dark bar at tip
Posterior or dorsal fin has long filament extension
Filament extension lacking from dorsal fin
Large dark spot on body near filament
Small dark spot on body near filament
No vertical band through eye
Vertical band through eye
Incomplete eyeband on face (does not go to top of head)
Complete eyeband on face (extends to top of head)
Nose area with band
Nose area lacks band
Fewer than eight diagonal bands on body
More than eight diagonal bands on body
Distinct white spot splits eyeband above eye
No white spot above eye; eyeband not split
Upper third of body under dorsal fin dark
Upper third of body under dorsal fin not dark
Distinct small spots arranged in rows
No distinct small spots; body has large spot or band
No black band on caudal fin
Obvious black band on caudal peduncle
Side with a large black teardrop; no dark bars on tail
Large black shoulder patch; tail with dark bars
C. quadrimaculatus
C. retlculatus
C. ephippium
C. aurfga
C. fremblii
C. multicinctus
C. omaiissimus
C. trifasciatus
C. lineolatus
C. tinker!
C. c'rtrinellus
C. miliaria
C. unimaculatus
C. lunula
Table 2.  Word key to the butterfly fish of the genus Chaetodon.
                 Tables. Fish fins.
                                   © University of Hawaii

                                                       UFE ON A CORAL REEF    53
I   N.
Figure 1.  Butterfly fish
                                    © University of Hawaii

      54    UFE ON A CORAL REEF
  Source: Reprinted with the permission of the National Wildlife Federation from the Diving Into Oceans issue
  of NatureScope. For more information about NWF and our education programs please call 1-800-822-9919.
 Partners for Life

 Clownfish and Sea Anemone:
   Several species of fish and invertebrates spend part or all of their lives in association with sea
 anemones. A clownfish, in fact, will never stray far from its anemone host.  The fish avoids its enemies
 by staying nestled among the anemone's stinging tentacles. Scientists believe clownfish have a
 special mucous coating that prevents anemone stinging capsules from firing.
   Many scientists think that the most important thing clownfish do for their anemone hosts is to protect
 them by chasing away animals such as butterfly fish, which often eat anemones.

 Pistol Shrimp and Goby:
   In sandy areas of a coral reef, the pistol shrimp sometimes shares its burrow with a fish called a
 goby. The pistol shrimp spends most of its time digging and cleaning out its burrow.  This shrimp finds
 food near the entrance of its home but can't sense when predators are near as well as the goby can.
 The goby hovers near the shrimp's burrow, and when a predator approaches, it flicks its tail and dives
 for cover inside the burrow.  This signals danger and sends the shrimp down into the burrow too.
 Without the goby's alarm signal, the shrimp might not be able to escape danger in time.

 Hermit Crab and Sea Anemone:
   A few species of hermit crabs—crabs that live in the empty shells of sea snails—usually have sea
 anemones attached to their shells. The anemones protect the crab from enemies—especially the
 octopus, which eats hermit crabs but is very sensitive to anemone stings. The  anemones may also
 help camouflage the hermit crab.
   Scientists aren't sure whether hermit crabs feed their anemone partners. But the anemones do get a
 free ride around the reef from the hermit crabs.  By riding from place to place on top of a crab, an
 anemone probably gets scraps of food it might not have been able to get on its own.

 Cleaner Fish and Grouper.
   Several species of small fish and shrimp perform a cleaning service for other fish.  A cleaner fish
 usually stays in a small territory known as a cleaning station. When a potential  "customer" enters the
 cleaning station, the tiny fish does a little "dance" identifying itself as a cleaner.  The customer may be a
 large predator such as a grouper.  But it recognizes the colors and movements  of the cleaner fish  and
 allows itself to be cleaned without harming the smaller fish.  The cleaner fish even cleans  up the
wounds of reef fish, which helps them heal. In turn, the cleaner fish gets its food as it picks off pests
 and food  particles from the larger animal's scales, mouth, and gills.


 Here's a fun way to reinforce what the kids have learned about coral reef partnerships. Make copies of
the "want ads" below and pass them out to the kids.  Have the kids try to identify which of the reef
 buddies (described above)  might have placed each ad and which might have responded to each ad.
To do this they should match up the "box numbers" for each ad.  For example, the first ad  (box 1)
represents an ad that an anemone might place. It goes with the ad in box 4, which represents a
clownfish's ad. The kids could write "box 1 box 4" for their answer.

                                                       LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    55
                          WANT ADS
Safe and secure place for rent. I'll take in
anyone that can keep unwanted company
away. Write only if you can stand my
"stinging" personality.
Write: Coral Reef/Box 1
Strong digger in need of a "watchdog."
Bonus: Plenty of extra space in my burrow.
Write: Coral Reef/Box 5
Seeking extra protection and a disguise.
Willing to take on hitchhikers.
Write: Coral Reef/Box 2
Worried about safety?  I can provide the
added protection you need in exchange for a
free ride around the reef.
Write: Coral Reef/Box 6
Need a cleaning?  Count on me! I'll keep you
spotless and healthy in exchange for meals.
Write: Coral Reef/Box 3
In search of a personal groomer. I have a
"tough guy" image, but with the right partner,
I'm gentle as a lamb. Write if you want to eat
in peace.
Write: Coral Reef/Box 7
Fish needs bodyguard and good home. (Not
easily "stung.") Willing to help protect home
from danger.
Write: Coral  Reef/Box 4
"Lookout" fish in search of a ready-made
underground hideout. Lots of guard-duty
Write: Coral Reef/Box 8
      Answers in Section VIII.

 Source: Australian UNESCO Project, Marine Science Curriculum Materials for South Pacific Schools,
 Volume 3, Corals and Coral Reefs. Used with permission.


The reef environment can be dangerous for those with no knowledge or understanding of the animals
that live there. It is natural for a reef animal to defend itself when it is threatened. Leam to recognize
and avoid animals that cause harm. Depending on what activities you are engaged in on the reef you
will be exposed to different animals.
                                                                    A. fire worm

                                                                    B. lion fish

                                                                    C. rabbit fish

                                                                    D. box jellyfish

                                                                    E. Stomatopod

                                                                    F. morayeel

                                                                    G. stingray

                                                                    H. surgeon fish

                                                                    I. fire coral

                                                                    J. bluebottle

                                                                    K. blue-ring octopus

                                                                    L Diademasp.

                                                                    M. stone fish

                                                                ri   N. Conus shell
                                                                $   O. Crown-of-Thoms

                                                                §   P. stinging hydroid
 Some of the animals on the Great Barrier Reef that can be dangerous to
 humans. Can you match the names with the pictures? Choose one animal
 to read about in an encyclopedia or reference book.

                                                           LIFE ON A CORAL REEF   57
 Source: William & Edwards. Coral and Coral Reefs of the Caribbean. © Caribbean Conservation
 Association, 1993.  Reprinted by permission.

Algae and seagrasses are the main types of plants found in a coral reef environment.  They are primary
producers and provide the basic food supply for the entire reef ecosystem.

Algae range in size from simple unicellular plants such as zooxanthellae, found in the coral polyp to
multicellular branching forms which are commonly called sea weeds. Pigments in the algae give each
type its characteristic color, for  example red algae, brown algae and green algae.

Two main types of multicellular algae found on reefs are coralline algae and calcareous algae. Not
only are these algae food for some coral reef animals, but they also contribute to the making of the
limestone framework of the reef.

Coralline algae are made up of masses of very fine thread-like filaments, that spread out in thin layers
over the reef rock surface. These filaments produce calcium carbonate thus giving the algae an
appearance more like a rock than a plant. The encrusting filaments trap sediments of sand, as well as
cement the particles of sand together. Thus coralline algae help to stabilize the coral reef structure.

Calcareous algae do not encrust like coralline algae, but grow erect. They too produce  calcium
carbonate (limestone).  When these algae die, the limestone remains produce sand. One type of
calcareous  algae known as Halimeda produces about fifty percent of the sand found on some of our
beaches in  the Caribbean.
Below are diagrams of some reef algae.
 Seagrass beds are often found in areas where coral reefs grow. Turtle grass, manatee grass and
 shoal grass are three types of seagrasses commonly found in the Caribbean Sea. Unlike algae,
 seagrasses are true flowering plants.

 Seagrasses serve as a habitat and shelter for reef animals such as the young or juveniles of conch and
 lobsters. These plants also provide food for many herbivorous reef fish.  The leaves of seagrass are
 also a habitat for very tiny organisms.

                           ENLARGED DIAGRAM OF A SEAGRASS LEAF
Seagrasses have extensive interwoven underground creeping stems with roots attached. These stems
are called rhizomes. They anchor the plant in the sandy sea bed and help to keep the sea water clean
by filtering and trapping large amounts of fine sediments. These rhizomes also bind the sand on the
sea bed and prevent the sand from being carried away by water currents. They are important in
preventing beach erosion.

Teachers' Notes and Follow-up Activity

The coral reef is a community.  Each organism depends on others and each has a role to play if the
community is to survive.  The interrelationships must therefore be stressed. Take students on a visit to
a nearby marine aquarium, or in a glass bottom boat (if available) to observe coral reef plants.

                                                             LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    SS
 Source: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Project Reef-Ed; Educational Activities. Used with
 permission.   .,                                                        -.._.-'.

Concepts: Fish structure, Fish behavior, Interrelationships, Adaptations

Skills: Observing, Recording underwater

Aim: To investigate the lifestyle of a single fish. This activity consists of two parts—an introductory
   exercise and an in-depth exercise for those who wish to investigate their fish further.

You will need:
   Snorkeling gear and appropriate protection from the sun
   Underwater slate and pencil

What to do:
Introductory activity
1. In a reef pool or harbor follow a particular fish quietly.
2. Observe its feeding behavior.  How much searching and "working" for food is performed?
3. What structural adaptations possessed by the fish help it to find and take its food?

In-depth activity—a single fish
4. Select one fish which you can observe carefully. (A parrotfish, butterfly fish or puffer fish is
   (a) Observe and record its general structure. Note its size; sketch it, noting scale; record exact
       color patterns, relative size and position of fins, size, shape and position of mouth.
   (b) Observe and record its
         method of locomotion (note use of all fins, tail, etc.)
         method of catching/obtaining food and ingesting—snorkel around with the fish to observe
         method of perceiving and reacting to the environment
         sense organs
         response to changes (wavest/depths/other fish/other groups/you)
         special behavior, e.g., territoriality, special relationships (symbiotic, commensal, parasitic).

Note: To get definitive data you will need to devise a record sheet which
       •  is easy to use and record on in the field,
       •  allows you to record factual data such as measurements,  numbers.
       •  allows you to obtain statistically valid data, i.e., number of observations, to enable you to put
         forward an hypothesis on behavior.

5. After your snorkel, identify your fish by reading.

Ideas for further things to do
6. Refer to library books and other resources and compare the authors' notes with your own

7. Check previous research findings on the species you've observed.

 Source: The Ocean Book; Consider the Connections... Center for Marine Conservation, Washington,
 D.C. and New England Aquarium. Reprinted with permission.


Coloration may help hide an animal or draw attention to its role in a coral reef community.

                                             Camouflage coloration helps animals blend in with
                                             their surroundings.  The octopus changes color
                                             instantly from black to gray to red to match its
                                             background. It can also change the texture of its
                                             skin, becoming bumpy or smooth to blend in with
                                             rocks and seaweeds.
                                             Disruptive Coloration
                                             Spots and stripes break up the body shape of some
                                             fishes and conceal them against their backgrounds.
                                             This kind of camouflage, called disruptive
                                             coloration, is common in coral reef fishes.
                                              False Eye Spots
                                              Unusual color patterns may hide vulnerable parts of
                                              an animal's body.  The true eyes of a four-eye
                                              butterflyfish are hidden in a band of black, but near
                                              the tail are two prominent "false eyes."  A confused
                                              predator may attack these instead of the real eyes,
                                              allowing the butterflyfish to escape in the opposite

                                              <3="four-eye butterfly
                                              Many open ocean animals have dark backs and
                                              light bellies. This protective coloration is called
                                              countershading.  Viewed from above, dark backs
                                              blend with the darkness of the deep ocean. From
                                              below, it is difficult for predators to see light bellies
                                              against bright sunlit surface waters.

                                                           LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    61
Advertising Coloration
Some animals have coloration that attracts
attention and advertises a special service.
Cleaner fishes help other fishes by removing
harmful parasites from their skin. Predators
recognize the bright color patterns of cleaners and
do not harm them because of the useful service
they perform.
Some animals are so well protected with spines,
poisons, and armor that their coloration is a
warning for other species to stay away. The
lionfish has brightly striped fins with poisonous
spines that it displays to would-be attackers.

                           WORKSHEET:  COLORATION

1. Protective Coloration helps animals survive in their natural habitats.  Protect the fish below by
  giving them the proper coloration:
Disruptive Coloration     False Eye Spots
2. What is Advertising Coloration and how does it help an animal survive?
3. What is Camouflage and how does it help an animal survive?
4. What is Warning Coloration and how does it help an animal survive?

      62    UFE ON A CORAL REEF
 Source: This activity is adapted from Living In Water: an aquatic science curriculum for grades 4 - 6
 produced at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland. Used with permission.


*  Students will be able to explain why color patterns that are easy to see in air may be hard to see
   under water.
•  Students will experience the problems predators face when searching for camouflaged prey and
   develop foraging strategies for these prey.

Some colors of light (wavelengths) are absorbed faster than others when passing through water,
particularly red and yellow. Blues are transmitted best. At night, red light is the least available. These
facts have interesting consequences for color and color patterns and their distribution among animals
that live in water.  Fish that live in shallow, well-lighted water may have color vision. But what do most
fish see? Fish that live in deep water or are active at night seldom have color vision. Fish that live in
murky or muddy water may be almost blind and depend on touch or electrical fields to sense their

In this exercise your students will experience what the world looks like to fish that live far enough below
the surface that the world looks blue, the only color to effectively penetrate very deep. This activity also
models shallow water species that are active at night. On coral reefs, red fish are nocturnal.

For Class:
•  blue cellophane from school art supply store
•  stapler
•  clear tape
•  string
•  underwater photographs cut from magazines that show bright colors and others that are of wide
   views that are predominantly blue; SCUBA magazines or National Geographic are good sources
For Each Student:                                                              ...    .     .
•  red construction paper 4" x 8"
•  other construction paper or poster stock 4" x 11"
•  scissors
•  pencil

Lesson Plan:
Before Class:
Have the students review their knowledge of fish anatomy in  drawing and cutting out a fish made of red
construction paper. Did they remember paired pectoral and pelvic fins, the tail (caudal),  dorsal and
anal fins?  [Refer to diagram on page 52.] Explain that the red color is typical of many saltwater fish
that hang out around rocks in 10  m  (33 ft) or more of water. Many shallow water nocturnal fish are also
red, and red is a very common color for deep sea animals generally.

                                                             LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    63
Have each student construct a pair of goggles. Inexpensive blue cellophane available in rolls from
school art supply stores is folded to make three,or four layers over the eye holes. Tape the cellophane
in place. Staple, tape or tie strings to hold the goggles in place. Explain they will use the goggles to
see as fish see.  Do nbt allow students to wear the blue goggles for more that five minutes. To do so
longer will bleach (temporarily) some of their visual pigments.

During Class:
When the students are not in the classroom, distribute all the red fish around the room against dark
backgrounds. Turn the classroom lights off and create dim light.  It is darker in 10 m of water, or in
shallow water at night, than at the surface.  Pin or tape the fish to bulletin boards, prop on shelves, put
them in corners on the floor.  Hold a pair of goggles up to check that you are placing the fish against
backgrounds with the same value.

Meet the class outside the room with the goggles. When the goggles are in place, have the students
enter the room and sit down. Tell them they are predators searching for red fish in 10 m of water. They
are wearing the goggles because blue is the primary color of light that penetrates very far into water.
Have them start searching for the fish at the same time.  Time them  if you want to repeat the exercise
without the goggles.

Stop them before all the fish are found and have them sit back down. Remove their goggles. Now can
they see the fish they missed? Why were the fish hard to see? The filter allowed only blue light
through. The fish reflect only red.  Under water there would be no red to see. If you wish, repeat the
exercise without the goggles to compare the time it takes to find the fish when red is visible.

A fish that appears very colorful to us (red) may, in fact, be very well CAMOUFLAGED from predators.
The fish is hard to see because red light is missing as it is being absorbed by the water and, therefore,
cannot be reflected to the fish's predator's eyes.                        -

Use the color photographs to illustrate. Any colorful underwater photograph was shot with a flash
which provided all the wavelengths of light. Any photo in which the predominant color is blue shows
what it really looks  like under water.                                                            .

You  cannot make judgments about animals based on human perceptions. Fish in shallow, clear water
may see things in a way that is similar to us, but fish that live in dark, murky water or deep water
probably do not have color vision and may use vision very little, depending on other senses.

 Source: Excerpted from Science and Children's Literature by Mary Cerullo, published by Heinemann,
 Portsmouth, New Hampshire.  Used with permission..


 Each of us has a biological clock that tells us when to wake up and when to go to sleep. Songbirds
(and most humans) wake with the day and return to roost at night.  Bats erupt from caves and barns at
nightfall to hunt for insects. Mosquitoes buzz around in search of blood at dawn and dusk.

Coral reefs are larger and more densely populated than any city on Earth. To make room for all its
residents, the coral reef community is divided into creatures of the day, the night, and twilight. As one
animal crawls out of its den, another prepares to take it over. The daytime crew depends mostly on
sight and color to find or to avoid other residents of the reef.  Nocturnal animals prowl a world without
light, relying on their keen senses of smell, taste, and touch.  In between day and night, large predators
roam the reef, alert for weary commuters going home after a day of foraging or groggily waking up for a
night on the town. Scientists estimate that one-half to two-thirds of all reef fishes are diurnal, that is,
active by day. Another one-quarter to one third sleep by day and hunt by night. Only ten percent of all
reef species are most active at dawn and dusk.


1)  Now that you know more about the coral creatures of the day shift, night shift and twilight, which
    would you rather be? Choose one coral reef animal and write a story about 24 hours in its life.
    Think about these questions as you prepare your biography: When are you most active? Where do
    you go to rest? What would you eat? Who eats you? How might you attract a mate or avoid
    predators? What problems or opportunities do you have in daylight/twilight/nighttime?

2)  Create a mural of twenty-four hours on the reef, with three different backgrounds: black for night,
    grey for dawn and dusk, bright blue for daytime.  Have students research which animals are active
    during each period. Draw them and mount the animals they researched on the most suitable part of
    the diurnal cycle.

                                                           UFE ON A CORAL REEF   65
  Source: From "Life on the Coral Reef," an educational pack comprising interactive wall-chart, fact/activity
  cards and teachers notes. Available from Coral Cay Conservation, 154 Clapham Park Road, London SW4
  7DE.UK. Tel:+44(0)171 498 6248 Fax:+44 (0)171 498 8447  WWW:
  home.tml  © Coral Cay Conservation Trust. Used with permission.

Food Chains
On the reef as elsewhere, all the living things feed on each other. Lets look at an example.  In a lagoon
green turtles eat seagrass, and sharks eat the green turtles. This is called a food chain.
                       eaten by
     sea grass
green turtle
Energy in a food chain moves from the plant to the first animal, and on the second animal. At each
stage energy is used for many things.  Seagrass uses some of its energy to flower and make seeds.
The turtle uses its energy to breed and move about.                                   .
Food chains tell us about one feeding relationship. In a place like a lagoon or the reef, there are many
different feeding relationships which are connected together to form a food web. Food webs are not
fixed because feeding relationships can change. In the food web below all the plants and animals
depend on each other.

Solve a Puzzle

Copy out the boxes arrows and species list onto a whole page and fill in the answers.

Facts to help you:
       Plankton are very small, there are two types: plants and animals.
       Food chains start with a plant.
       Arrows show the movement of energy.
       Sea slugs eat sponges and coral polyps.
       Puffer fish eat fan worms.
       Animal plankton eat plant plankton.
       Coral polyps eat animal plankton.
       Sharks eat angel fish, butterfly fish and blue chromis.
       Fanworms eat plankton.
       Butterfly fish eat coral polyps.
       Blue chromis eat animal plankton.
       Angelfish eat sponges.
       Sponges eat animal plankton.
                                                  Tick off the species when you have used them.
                                                                               sea slug
                                                                               coral polyp
                                                                               fan worm
                                                                               plant plankton
                                                                               angel fish
                                                                               butterfly fish
                                                                               blue chromis

                                                            UFE ON A CORAL REEF    67
 Source: Corals and Coral Reefs; 4-8 Teacher's Guide. A Sea World Education Department Publication.
 Used with permission.

Objective: Students will discover the food/energy relationships within a food web in a coral reef habitat.

Materials: Copies of the following page enlarged 200% (so that you have one animal for each student),
  yarn or string, large playing area

1. Cut out pictures of members of the reef ecosystem and use yarn to create signs students can wear
   around their necks. (Be sure you only have one sun.) Roll the rest of the yam into a ball.
2. Define a food web for your students: write the words sun, phytoplankton, jellyfish, and sea turtle on
   the board and draw pictures to symbolize each one. Share with students the idea that
   phytoplankton gets its energy from the sun, the jellyfish gets energy by eating the phytoplankton,
   and then the sea turtle gets its energy by eating the jellyfish. Explain that most animals eat more
   than one thing.  Tell them that the transfer of energy through food between life-forms in an
   ecosystem is called a food web.
3. Take students out to playing area, and  have them form a large circle.  Give everyone an animal card
    to wear.
4. Have the person who is wearing the sun card hold one end of the string. Ask students which
   member of the food web gets its energy from the sun (phytoplankton, a type of plant). As they
   volunteer answers, unroll the yarn and  have students wearing those signs hold onto the yarn.  Next,
   ask students which members of the food web get their energy directly from phytoplankton
   (coral polyps and zooplankton—refer to diagram below).  Have those students hold onto the yarn,
   too.  Continue until the food web  is complete.
5. Direct students to gently and carefully
   Jay. the yarn on the ground so that the
   web stays'intact. Have them step back                             SUN
   and notice the pattern created by the
   interaction of organisms.
6. Explain that many factors can disrupt a
   food web: pollution, overfishing, and
   habitat destruction. As you name each
   factor, use your foot to discreetly disturb
   part of the yam web.
7.  Have the students pick up the yarn
   again and ask them if the web looks the
    same. Explain that many factors
    including pollution, habitat destruction,
    and over-harvesting resources destroy
8.  Instruct students to set the web down
    again. Ask all corals to take a step
    back.  Have students pick up the web
    again. Ask students what happens to
    the food web when an animal becomes
                                        ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

                       FOOD WEB CARDS
     sea turtle
                          ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

                                                           LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    69
 Source; Coral Reef Teacher's Guide, produced by the World Wildlife Fund, 1250 Twenty-Fourth St. NW,
 Washington, DC 20037-1175. Used with permission.

Goal: to familiarize students with important members of a Caribbean coral reef ecosystem, and the
role they play there.

1. Students will be able to name at least six animals common to Caribbean coral reef ecosystems.
2. Students will be able to explain why some of these animals are restricted to certain parts of reef    ;
3. Students will be able to describe energy transfer from the sun, to plants, to plant-eaters, and finally to
4. Students will be able to define the term "food web," and ecosystem.

Materials Required:
  Coral Reef Clue Cards (following procedure)
  Coral Reef Cards (illustrated cards following Coral Reef Clue Cards)
      (Cut out and paste both sets of cards to light cardboard.)
  Thumb Tacks (about 30)
  Bulletin Board
  Large piece of newsprint with Reef Outline drawn upon it
  Blackboard and chalk

Student Background:
   Hundreds of different types of plants and animals live in coral reefs—certainly more than we could
learn about here. In the following activities, we will leam about members of important groups of reef-
dwellers and reef-neighbors.
   First, we will just get to know them, finding out about where they live on the reef, and interesting
details of the way they live.
   Next, we will investigate their eating habits. You know that you must eat food in order to grow and
to have enough energy to go to school, play, and just to be healthy. Think for a moment about that
phrase "to have enough energy." What do people mean when they talk about that kind of "energy"?
  All living things, plants and animals alike, need energy. Energy is the ability to do any kind of
work—to move, to grow,  even to think takes energy.
   If energy is so important, where does it come from? (Discuss.)
   We get it from the plants and animals we eat. But where do animals and plants get energy from?
   Animals get energy from eating plants and animals, just as do we. But what about plants? They
don't eat.  Does anyone know where plant energy comes from?  (Discuss.) They too need energy for
growing and reproducing. When you eat a mango, you are eating energy that the mango plant has
transformed into food.
   Plants harvest energy from the sun. That's where the whole business of energy begins—for us, and
for the creatures of the reef. Plants change the sun's energy into plant tissues—leaves, stems, or
seaweeds.  Large numbers of animals eat those plants, and other animals eat them, in turn.
   Some scientists organize communities of living things according to "who-eats-who." This type of
organizing tells them how energy from the sun is transferred among members of natural communities
such as coral reefs.
   There are three main groups in this system:

•  Animal-eaters or Carnivores.  These animals prey only upon other animals.
•  Plant-eaters or Herbivores. These animals eat plants only.
•  Plant-and-animal-eaters or Omnivores. These animals have a mixed diet of both plants and animals.

   Can you think of examples of these groups?  (Discuss.)
   Today's activity looks at the complex web of food and eating relationships that exist in a coral reef.
In fact, scientists call these relationships a food web.  You are going to make a coral reef food web in
the classroom, after you learn some of the creatures that live there.
   The food web you make here will not be totally realistic. This is because you will not learn the
amounts of various animals and plants that live in a coral reef. In the ocean, there are relatively larger
numbers of small bottom dwellers that eat plants, small fishes of all kinds, and the plants themselves.
Very large animals, such as sharks, have no other creatures that eat them—unless we are talking
about baby sharks.  Extremely small sharks probably get eaten by many large fish. It is hard to show
such a complex food web in your classroom. But, you will get the idea of how food webs work. That's
the most important idea.
   During this activity, remember this little poem written in the 1800s. The poet sums up the idea of a
food web in a funny way*.  (Ad infinitum is the Latin phrase meaning "and so on, forever.")

          Great Fleas have little fleas upon their back to bite'em,
         And little fleas have lesser fleas, and so,  ad infinitum.
         And the great fleas themselves in turn, have greater fleas to go on,
         While these again  have greater still, and greater still, and so on.
                           *from A Budget of Paradox. Augustus Morgan, 1806-1871

1. Prior to activity assign background reading to students. [E.g.. Coral Reef Coloring Book written
   and illustrated by Katherine Orr, © 1988, Stemmer House Publishers, Inc. This coloring book is
   derived from a project funded by World Wildlife—U.S. Encourage students to color the illustrations.]
     Cut out the Coral Reef Clue Cards (following procedure).  Paste them to light cardboard.
     Cut out the illustrated Coral Reef Cards (following Clue Cards). Paste them to light cardboard.
   Put them in a basket or box.                                                       •
    On a large sheet of newsprint, draw the outline of a coral reef system as shown below. Make a
   large drawing, so that there will be enough room to pin the Reef Cards in place. Color and add other
   details (no plants or animals on the cards) according to your artistic talents.
    Post this drawing on the classroom bulletin board. Keep extra tacks nearby.
    On the blackboard, write three headings: Plants, Animal-eaters, Plant-eaters, Plant-and-Animal-

2. In class read Student Background (above) aloud.

                                                            UFE ON A CORAL REEF   71

3. Pass out Reef Cards, one per student.  If there are cards left over, give some students two or more.
   If there are too few cards, have students team up.

4. Explain the outline of the reef you have drawn.  Tell students that they must do three things with their
   (a) First, they must listen to you read clues, raising their hands as soon as the Coral  Reef Clues
      describe the animal or plant on their Reef Card. You can call on students for the name of their
      animal or plant, or, for a livelier satmosphere, have students call out the name.
   (b) Secondly, the first student to name the correct animal or plant must pin their card to the part of
      the reef community where their creature belongs. They should explain their reasoning to the
   (c) Thirdly, they must write their animal or plant's name on the blackboard, underneath one of the
      headings you have written there.
        Pause to make sure that everyone understands these instructions.

5. Begin reading Coral Reef Clues at random, one card at a time.
     DO NOT READ THE LAST STATEMENT ON EACH CARD. Allow time for students to think about
   the clues. Repeat if necessary.
     (Sometimes, several students will raise their hands at once; Tell them keep their hands up until
   they hear a clue which does not apply to their creature. This will probably happen several times.
   Students will soon realize that your clues proceed from general  to specific information.)

6. When a student correctly identifies an animal or plant, have student show the class what it looks like,
   and then pin the card on the reef outline. The student should explain the position—why they place
   the card where they do—seaward beyond the reef, or between reef and shore, or on the reef itself.
   Also, tell the students to consider if the animal or plant is to be placed on the bottom, floating, or
   swimming in the water?

7. Give the student the corresponding Coral Reef Clues Card. Ask student to re-read the clues and
   decide which column on the blackboard applies to the creature on the card.  Student should  write the
   animal or plant's card under one column, explaining why to class.
     Student should sit down again, keeping the Clue Card.

8. Then read another Reef Card Clue. Continue until all cards have been pinned on the reef outline.
     If the game begins to lag, have students place cards on reef drawing, but write the plant or
   animal's name in the correct blackboard column while you go ahead and call new clue cards.

9. After all the plants and animals have been written in one of the three columns, discuss the following
   questions with the class:

       What common characteristics are shared within each group?
       Can we tell which group is the most important?
       What would happen if all the animal-eaters disappeared from the reef?
       What would happen if all the plant-eaters disappeared?
       What would happen if all the plants died?
       Can a coral reef be healthy if any of the groups disappeared?

       72     LIFE ON A CORAL REEF
 I live in a hard tube that I build for myself.
 I draw myself quickly Into my tube if I need to hide from some
 animal trying to eat me.
 With my gills, I catch tiny, drifting animals called "zooplankton."
 I have fine, thin gills on my head.  They filter my food.
 I am a type of worm with bristles.

               I am a FEATHER DUSTER WORM.
 I have a radial, or circular type body outline.
 I swim freely on the surface of the ocean.
 My stinging tentacles catch fish, which I eat.
 I am almost clear and transparent
 Loggerhead turtles eat me.
                                                                             I am a MOON JELLYFISH.
 I am a whole colony of animals, all alike.
 I grow Into a fan-shaped creature that waves back and forth in
 the water.
 With my tentacles I catch small drifting animals called
 Fireworms eat me.
 I am a type of "soft" coral.
                      I am a SEA FAN.
 I possess neither shell nor backbone.
 I crawl along the bottom and hide in cracks and holes of the
 I can change color quickly, and hide in a cloud of inky water.
 I catch clams and snails.
 Eels and groupers eat me.
 I have eight arms.
               I am an OCTOPUS or SCUTTLE.
 My body Is divided into many segments. Each segment has
 legs below and bristles above. My bristles stingl
 ! crawl around the reef and eat coral polyps.
 I am a type of worm with many bristles.
                     I am a FIREWORM.
 I have a backbone, four flipper-like legs, and a hard shell.
 I breathe air
 Lizards and snakes are closer relatives to me than fishes.
 I visit the coral reefs and seagrass beds.
 There I eat sponges and sea grasses, especially turtle grass.
 People kill many animals like me for our meat and shells.
 People and dogs eat our eggs, which are laid on beaches.
 We are in danger of disappearing from the face of the Earth.

                I am a GREEN SEA TURTLE.
I am a "Jointed-Ieg" animal, with a hard outer shell for a
I have ten limbs.
Two of my limbs are much larger than the others. They have
claws which I use to catch and crush my food.
I eat small fish, pieces of sea animals, and other things I find on
the sea bottom.
I especially like eating sea urchins and snails.
                    I am a CORAL CRAB.
I have a backbone, scales, and fins.
I am bright red, with big, round eyes.
I have very sharp spines on my top fin.
I hide under corals.
I swim through the water and eat shrimp and small fish.
I have to be careful though, because Groupers and Eels eat me.
                                                                     I am a SQUIRREL FISH or POPEYE ANTI.
I am one individual in a colony of animals just like me.
I have tentacles with stingers.
I deposit a stony skeleton below me.
I catch small drifting animals called "zooplankton."
Colonies of animals like me make up a coral reef.
Parrotftsh and Foureye Butterfly Fish eat me.
                   I am a CORAL POLYP.
I live in a beautiful, spiraling shell.
I move along the sea bottom and eat algae.
I lay my eggs in the sand.
Spiny lobsters eat me when I am small.
When I am bigger, people catch me for food.
I am a type of snail.
In the past, there were many like me in the Caribbean. Now we
have become harder to find.

             I am a "LAMBI" or QUEEN CONCH.
I have a radial, circular-type body form.
! drift freely through the water, though you may find me washed
up on the beach.
I feed on small animals called zooplankton.
I am almost clear and colorless.
Jellyfish eat me.
                 I am called a SEA WALNUT
My soft backbone and skeleton are made of cartilage.
I look like a fish, but I am not a true fish.
I have a good sense of smell, and two whisker-like "barbels"
near my mouth.
The barbels help me find food. I eat clams, crabs, and lobsters.
I sleep in coral reef caves.
Many people are afraid of me, but I am seldom dangerous to

                  I am a NURSE SHARK.

                                                                         UFE ON A CORAL REEF     73
I am a spiny-skinned animal, with a star-shaped body.
I have five long, thin arms. I move on many tiny feet on the
bottom of my arms.
If I lose an arm, I can grow one in its place!
I eat algae and bits of dead plants and animals on the reef.
I hide from daylight in dark cracks and crevices of the reef.
                 I am a BRITTLE STARFISH
I don't eat food because I make my own food using energy from
the sun.
I grow on the sandy bottom between the reef and land.
I am a plant
I have long, thin leaves.
Many young fish, shellfish, and other animals find shelter
among my leaves.
Turtles eat me.

                  I am TURTLE GRASS.
I have a backbone, fins, and scales.
I have a long, smooth body, and very sharp teeth.
I swim very fast.
I eat many small fish such as four-eyed butterflyfish, and
Few other animals bother me, but humans sometimes catch me.
                   I am a BARRACUDA.
I have a tube-shaped body with tentacles.
I usually grow attached to a solid surface, such as rocks or
My tentacles catch small fish.
Sometimes I grow on seashells in which crabs are living.
I steal bits of food from the crab, and protect it from octopuses
and other crabs.
I am eaten by starfish and sea slugs.

I have a soft body, with ten long arms. These arms help me
swim freely and quickly—to people it looks as if I am swimming
backwards.                                      ,
Two of my arms are long tentacles which catch my food—small
I can change color quickly.
Sharks and people eat me.
I am very fast.
               I am a SQUID or a CUTTLEFISH.
I belong to a group of unrelated animals that come in many
shapes. The only thing we have in common is that we are very
You could see me only through a magnifying glass or a
Some of my group grow up to be larger animals. Some stay
Probably trillions of animals like me drift through a reefs
Some of my group eat tiny algae plants. Others eat members of
our own group!
I have a backbone, fins, and scales.
I am round-shaped almost like a coin.
I eat zooplankton (during parts of my life), the soft polyps of
corals, and various worms.
I have two big spots near my tail. It fools bigger fish—such as
barracudas—that try to eat me.
             I am a FOUREYE BUTTERFLYFISH.
I am a jointed-leg animal, with a hard, outside skeleton.
I have ten legs.
After I lay my eggs, 1 carry them under my curled-under tail.
I have two large antennae which I use to defend myself.
I eat snails, worms, and crabs.
Groupers eat me.
People catch and eat so many like me that not many of us are
left.                             ,   .
                  I am a SPINY LOBSTER.
 I am a spiny-skinned animal, with a circular body shape.
 I eat algae growing along the reef and ocean floor.
 I have long spines to protect myself.
 Turbot, or queen triggerfish eat me.
 I have a backbone, fins, and scales.
 My funny mouth looks like the beak of a bird.
 I am brightly colored.
 I am one of the largest reef fish, but I also eat algae growing on
 dead coral and inside coral polyps.
 Barracudas eat me.

                    I am a PARROTFISH.
 I have a backbone and fins. I am quite big.
 I am not a shark or a fish, however. My body is warm, like
 yours. I breathe air.
 I come in from the open sea to visit the edge oif the reef.
 I often travel in schools, or groups.
 I eat tuna, sardines, and other fish that swim in schools.

                I am a DOLPHIN or PORPOISE.
 I have a backbone, fins, and scales.        .
 I have a soft skeleton, like my relative, the shark.
 I have a barb on my tail. It has a hasty sting.
 My body is very flat, and I spend most of my time lying partly
 buried on the sandy bottom.
 I eat snails, crabs, and clams.

                       I am a RAY.

      74    UFE ON A CORAL REEF
I have a backbone, fins, and scales.
I have a big mouth, and am marked with spots and stripes.
I can swim, but usually I keep still and try not to be seen.
I am eaten by sharks, and caught by fishermen.
I eat small fish like Squirrel fish.
                     I am a GROUPER.
I have a backbone, am an air-breather, and live on land.
I eat groupers, turtles, squid, parrotfish, conch, and many other
I often catch so many animals on the reef that they have a hard
time surviving.
Sometimes, things that I do on land hurt animals and plants of
the reef.
I use coral to decorate my body.
                  I am a HUMAN BEING.
I have a backbone, gills, fins, and tiny scales.
1 am well-known for my large, fierce Jaws.
I am long and snake-like.
I eat octopuses, squirrel fishes, and sometimes eat chunks off
careless SCUBA divers.
                    I am a MORAY EEL.
I am a plant.
Some plants In my group are so small that they drift In the water
without being seen.
Others grow large, leafy or grass-like.
Some plants in my group grow on stones or dead coral.
I need only sunlight, water, and substances dissolved in the
water to live.
I am eaten by snails like the queen conch, parrotfish, and many
baby fish and sea creatures.
                      I am ALGAE.
    When I drift in the water, I am called PHYTOPLANKTON.



                                                         LIFE ON A CORAL REEF   77
 Source: This acithrity is adapted from Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program produced at the National Aquarium
 in Baltimore, Maryland. Used with permission.
The graph below shows the results of samples taken from the stomachs of patch reef fish and from the
floor of the reef itself. Use the graph to answer the following questions:
  1. Which prey items are most abundant?
  2. Which prey items are eaten the most?
  3. According to these results, do you think that the reef fish studied rely on worms as a primary food
  4. What other factors might have affected these results?
          0.8 —i
•a  0.6 H
          0.4 —
                                                            from bottom samples
                                                            from fish guts
           crustaceans   echinoderms    worms      sponges
                                    Food Category
 Figure 1 Comparison between weight of prey consumed (from all fish guts) and the composition by
 weight of prey (from patch reef habitats), for a fish assemblage from the northwestern Hawaiian
 Islands. Data are from Parrish et al. (1985).
 §Peter F. Sale, The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1991, p. 161.
       Answers In Section VIII.

      78    LIFE ON A CORAL REEF
 Source: Coral Forest Teacher's Guide. Coral Forest, 400 Montgomery Street, Suite 1040, San Francisco,
 California 94104 Tel: (415)788-REEF FAX: (415)398-0385 e-mail:  Used with permission.

Objective: Students use compiled data to create a variety of graphs and use these graphs to draw
conclusions about coral reef populations.

Interdisciplinary Index: Math, Science

Vocabulary: data, species, population, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore

Materials: graph paper, colored pencils or markers, overhead projector and transparencies (optional)

1.  Tell students that they are going to compare the number of various coral reef species found on an
    Australian reef and a Caribbean  reef.
2.  Put the following data on an overhead or the chalkboard for everyone to see.

                        % of Total Community
Damselfish (herbivore)
Parrotfish (herbivore)
Giant dam (herbivore)
Barracuda (carnivore)
Grouper (carnivore)
Shark (carnivore)
Angelffsh (omnivore)
Hard coral (omnivore)
Sea star (omnivore)
(Note: The percentages given here are fictional, and are presented for
the sake of comparison only.)

3.  Discuss and describe the species listed.
4.  Have students construct a bar graph comparing the percentage of herbivores, carnivores, and
    omnivores which dwell on the Australian reef.
5.  Once the graphs are completed, discuss the following questions.
    - Which group accounts for the largest population in the Australian reef? Smallest?
    - What percentage of coral reef life eats plants? (Include both herbivores and omnivores)
    - Predict what would happen to the number of carnivores if the number of herbivores decreased.
    -  Predict what would happen to the number of herbivores if the number of carnivores decreased.
6.  Repeat steps 4 and 5 using data from the Caribbean reef.
7.  Have students construct a bar graph comparing the percentage of each species of herbivore in the
    Australian reef to the percentage of that species in the Caribbean reef.

                                                           LIFE ON A CORAL REEF    79

8.  Repeat this process for the carnivores and omnivores, and discuss any similarities or differences that
   may occur/

Have students average the two percentage figures for each species.  Once students have calculated the
average, have them graph it on a large piece of paper. Students can then draw pictures of each species
represented and arrange pictures and graphs on a bulletin board.
 Source; This activity is adapted from Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program produced at the National Aquarium in
 Baltimore, Maryland. Used with permission.

One interesting feature of reef-building corals is that their growth form varies with their location.  Green
plants show the same response. A plant that grows in the shade is usually taller than the same kind of
plant growing in the sun. Generally, corals grow in more flat or plate-like forms in deeper water—a
shape that efficiently captures the reduced available light needed to keep their zooxanthellae alive.

1. Place the platelike leaf coral on the reef cross section diagram.

Coral species, as well as other reef animals, differ in their need for light and wave action. They also vary
in tolerance for salinity, temperature, and ability to shed sediment. Hence coral reefs have distinct zones
of coral distribution.

A coral reef typically has the kind of zonation shown in the reef diagram.  In the lagoon or near shore
there may be a turtle grass bed. The lagoon may also have sandy areas and coral patches surrounded
by grass beds.  Sometimes a "halo" of bare sand occurs between a grass bed and a patch reef.  Sea
urchins and other grazers hide from their fish predators on the patch reef during the day. At night they
eat the turtle grass.

2.  Place turtle grass and staghom corals in the lagoon.  Use the above information to write a hypothesis
    about the formation of the "halo" around the patch reef and design a test for it.

Some corals grow best in heavy waves.  Thus at the reef crest (the front edge of the reef), a band or
corals forms that grows up to the surface.

Flat sheets of fire coral and colonial anemones called sea mat are typical of this high wave energy zone.
This reef crest provides protection from strong storms and waves for the lagoon and the shoreline.
Purple sea fans are also more common near the reef crest. They grow across the incoming waves
which carry the tiny animals from the open sea that feed sea fans and many other reef inhabitants.

3.  Place  sea fans and fire coral on the reef crest in the diagram.

As you move down the fore reef (seaward side of the reef), elkhorn corals (which really look more like
moose antlers) dominate.  In deeper water, flat leaf corals replace them.

4.  Place elkhom coral on the diagram.

       p.. • .
     I   I   I    I   I   I   I    I   I

                                                         UFE ON A CORAL REEF    81
 Source: Coral Forest Teacher's Guide. Coral Forest, 400 Montgomery Street, Suite 1040, San Francisco,
 California 94104 Tel: (415)788-REEF Fax:(415)398-0385 e-mail: Used with permission.

Objective: The students wjH be able to identify the following coral reef zones:
      a) Lagoon:
           Patch  Reef
      b) Reef Crest
      c) Reef Face:
           Upper Zone
           Lower Zone
  they will also be able to name at least one life form found in each zone.

Interdisciplinary Index: Science, Language Arts

Vocabulary: coral  reef zones, lagoon, reef crest, reef face, mangroves, beach, seagrass, patch reef,
  coral reef plants and animals

For the Color Page:
  Coral Reef Zones handout for each student
  crayons, colored pencils, and/or markers                                           .

For the 3-D Mural:
  overhead projector
  transparency of Coral Reef Zones handout
  tempera and watercolor paints
  paint brushes
  butcher paper (all colors)
  construction paper, tissue paper (optional)

For the Coral Reef Zones Color Page:
1.  Pass out a copy of the Coral Reef Zones to each student.
2.  Provide each student with markers, crayons, or colored pencils;
3.  Explain to the students that there are many parts!to the coral reef, and that all of these parts are
    interconnected. We call the different parts "reef zones" (areas where different plants and animals
    live).  Direct the student's attention to each reef zone and have him/her add animals and plants and
    color in each zone as you discuss it.
    a) The seaward facing slope of the reef is called the reef face. This is where life on the reef is most
      abundant. It is home to corals, fishes, sharks, turtles, and many other creatures.
    b) The reef crest is the highest and shallowest part of the reef. At low tide, shallow pools of water
      form among the coral and are home to nudibranchs, marine snails, crabs, sea stars, worms and
      small fishes.

      82    LIFE ON A CORAL REEF

   c) The lagoon is the protected body of shallow water between the beach and the reef. Many coral
      reef plants and animals live here on patch reefs and among the seagrass, like fish, lobsters, sea
      turtles, and small sharks.  The seagrass serves as a nursery for young fish.
   d) Mangroves grow in the area where the land meets the sea. Mangrove roots grow in the
      saltwater and serve as an important habitat for many marine animals.
   e) Beaches are often formed from the breakdown of coral skeletons.  Animals, such as sea turtles
      and certain birds, use the beaches to lay their eggs and build nests.
   f) Tropical rainforests often border the beaches. These rainforests are the home of thousands of
      plants and animals, such as parrots, monkeys, fruit bats, and snakes. Protecting the tropical
      rainforests also helps to protect the coral reefs.  When rainforests are cut down, the sediment
      that was once held down by the plants and tree roots washes into the water and out to the reefs
      where it smothers and kills the coral.
   g)  Have students draw a picture of their favorite coral reef creature in the box.

For the 3-D Coral Reef Zones Mural:
1. Make a transparency of the Coral Reef Zones handout.
2. Use an overhead projector to project the transparency onto white butcher paper (3 feet by 6 feet).
   Trace the Coral Reef Zones handout onto the paper, deleting the box and words.
   (If you do not have an overhead projector, lightly trace the Coral Reef Zones handout onto the
3. Let the students work in  groups of 6-8.  This works well as a learning center activity.  You will be
   creating three or four murals, depending upon the number of students in your class.
4. Have students use watercolors to paint in the water and sky.
5. Let other students use tempera to paint in the corals and other creatures on the sea floor.
6. Using brown butcher paper (or white paper painted brown), twist the paper into long strips that the
   students can form into mangrove roots and branches.  Glue these onto the mural.
7. Have students design a coral reef creature of their choice on construction paper. Color the creature.
   Place the colored sheet on top of a  plain sheet of construction paper and cut both sheets out together
   into the shape of the creature. Have students glue the outlines of the creatures together, leaving an
   opening to stuff in newspaper. Stuff in the newspaper and completely glue the two sheets together.
   The finished creature should look 3-D, sort of like a pillow.
8. Let students put their finished creatures in the appropriate reef zones.
   (Suggestion: You might want to assign different creatures to each student corresponding to
   different parts of the reef zone. For example, some students might make only young reef fishes that
   live among the mangrove roots. Other students might make fish that feed on corals.  Other students
   may create worms and sea stars that live on the reef crest, etc.)
9. Discuss the different reef zones and the interdependence of life in these zones.

1. Have students do reports on their creatures.
2. Have students look up more information on each of the coral reef zones and report to the class.

                                                    LIFE ON A CORAL PEEP


 Source: The Incredible Coral Reef bv Ton! Albert. Trickle Creek Books, 500 Andersontown Road,
 Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania 17055 Tel: 1-800-353-2791. Used with permission.

Directions: Read the sentences below.  Which do you think states the most important reason for
protecting coral reefs? Put an X next to the one you choose.  Then find out what your choice says
about you.


	 1.  The coral reef is a special place with an incredible diversity of animal life. It is home to
           many endangered and threatened species of marine wildlife.

	2.  The coral reef attracts visitors from all over the world who like diving, boating, fishing, and
           exploring nature.  Tourist dollars support many local businesses and are often crucial to
           local economies.

	3.  As our world population continues to grow, we look to the oceans as an important source of
           food. Many edible marine species depend on healthy coral reefs for breeding and nursery
           grounds in order to survive.

	4.  Scientists are discovering how to make new agricultural, industrial, and medical products
           from marine organisms. The coral reef has yielded new medicines, foods, fertilizers, and
           emulsifiers used in industry.

	5.  When thriving coral reefs become distressed, it is a warning sign that something is critically
           wrong—something that will ultimately affect our own survival too. It alerts us to examine
           what we are doing to our air, water, and earth.

	6.  Reefs help protect tropical shores from erosion. Waves caused by tropical storms are
           weakened as they break on the reefs before reaching the shore.


1. If you  chose the first reason, you are a nature lover. You know more about animals and plants than
   most of your friends do. You could help protect coral reefs by sharing what you know.
2. If you  chose the second reason, you have a good mind for business. You could help protect coral
   reefs by raising funds for an environmental organization.
3. If you  chose the third reason, you care about the basic needs of people.  You could help protect
   coral reefs by writing letters to politicians and businessmen who make decisions that affect people's
4. If you  chose the fourth reason, you are a person who values science and technology.  You could
   help protect reefs by coming up with a new idea for letting people know reefs are threatened.
5. If you  chose the fifth reason, you "think big" and accept responsibility for actively caring for the earth.
  You could help protect coral reefs by taking practical steps in your own life, such as conserving
   resources and recycling.
6. If you  chose the sixth reason, you are a practical person who respects the order and balance of
   nature. You could help others understand why coral reefs are important in the world.

                                                 CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS    95
 Source: The incredible Coral Reef by Toni Albert. Trickle Creek Books, 500 Andersontown Road,
 Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania 17055  Tel: 1-800-353-2791. Used with permission.


Coral reefs have existed for millions of years. They have survived countless large and small changes
in the environment. But today, coral reefs around the world are threatened as never before. Reefs in at
least twenty countries, including the United States, Mexico, Indonesia, Japan, and Australia, are
showing signs of stress and distress.  Coral reefs in Florida are disappearing at an alarming rate. Coral
diseases and coral bleaching occur when the water off Florida is no longer clear and clean, or when
the water temperatures rise. In Hawaii, beautiful coral reefs have been damaged or killed by sewage
pollution, dumped waste, or dredged mud. Many scientists agree that if the trend continues for another
twenty or thirty years, there may not be any healthy coral reefs left on earth.

Directions: Read below about threats to coral reefs.  Put an N next to the natural threats (caused by
nature) and an H next to the human threats (caused by people). Which do you think are more
dangerous to coral reefs—natural events or the activities of people?

	 1.    Hurricanes and tropical storms break and topple coral and batter fish.

	 2.    Construction on or near the reef destroys coral or muddies the water, so that corals

	3.    Overfishing and destructive fishing methods (such as using dynamite, cyanide, bleach,
             fish traps, gill nets, or huge forty-mile-long drift nets) spoil the reef ecosystem.

	4.    Too much rain dilutes the water, so that it isn't salty enough for corals.

	 5.     Marine debris is dangerous to corals, birds, sea turtles, fish, and other marine animals.

	6.     Divers, snorkelers, and fishermen damage the reef with boats, anchors, and heavy gear.
              Even touching coral or standing on it can kill it.

	7.     Changes in currents can smother corals in

	 8.     Collecting tropical fish, corals, and shells strips
              the reef of life.

	9.     Pollution from oil spills, chemical wastes, run-
              off from farms and factories,  and sewage ruins
              the water quality that corals need.

	 10.    Natural predators, such as parrotfish,  sponges,
              and sea urchins, eat corals or weaken it by
              boring into it.

Warmer water caused by the greenhouse
effect may cause coral bleaching, a dangerous
condition that occurs when corals lose their algae partners.
                                             Coral is often used in construction.
        Answers In Section VIII.

  Source: From Republica de Panama Ministerio de Educacion Gufa Didactica de Educacion Marina by
  William Irons. Produced in conjunction with Peace Corps/Panama, the Panamanian Ministry of Education, the
  Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and UNICEF. Used with permission.

 Learning Objective: To identify through a short story some of the damages inflicted on coral reefs by
   human beings.

 Technique: A short-story

 Ecological message: The coral reef is an important and fragile ecosystem. We must take care of it
   and not cause imbalance in the marine life.

 Materials: Color illustrations.

 1. Ask a student to read the following story aloud.

                                       CORAL REEF  '

            a very beautiful island, surrounded fcy an Immense sea, is * precious place.  It Is a
       place where multicolor ishes, lobsters of different sizes and many little animals live.
       Gveryone likes to go there to visit  Do you know what the name of 'trje place is? Coral
       reef.                      •  .         .                   '-,  -   -

     :  On© day, a boy went fishing with his father in a small boat To get hold of a lobster, they
       stepped all over the corals, breaking and destroying the delicate jsfru_eftire&  The little
       corals began to cry, Why do you all hurt ws so rflueht Don't kill us!  We help all the
       inhabitants of this island^                           ,,   -    --

       The little boy and his father were soared when they heard hear those words. With  "
       amazement, they askeo?, "Who hurt you?" *          -       *   -  -

       The little corals answered back, "People—grasping us, when they throw boat anchors '
      .overboard they hurt u$> the divers step on us, Also, when It rains yery hard, all the
       sediments that people drain run Into the sea and make it hard for us to breathe. Every
       day many of our brothers die,"                 '_       '               "

       the boy and his father were veiy saddened.  From that day on they promised to take
       good oare  of the corals in the reef and to tell other people what had happened to them so
       that others also would not destroy the reef.

2. Discuss the content of the story, reviewing the different ways in which corals are harmed.
3. Ask each student to write his/her own short  story, or they  can write collectively in a small group,
   about a coral reef and how we can protect it.
4. Comment on the students' stories.
5. Ask them to illustrate the above story.

                                                 CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS    87
 Source: Corals and Coral Reefs 4-8 Teacher's Guide. A Sea World Education Department Publication.
 Used with permission.


Objective: Students will be able to analyze the impact of humans on the coral reef ecosystem as a
    result of human social, political, and economic activities.

Materials: copies of Survival Factor cards, copies of Identity cards enlarged 200%, small construction
    paper squares (five per student), yarn


1.   Copy and cut Survival Factor cards and Identity cards. Attach yarn to Identity cards so students
    can wear them around their necks.

2.   Have students stand in a circle.  Pass out Identity cards. Each student now represents a life-form
    found in a coral reef ecosystem.

3.   Give each student five paper squares. Explain that each square represents a population of
    organisms.  [A population is made up of all the organisms found in a specific area.]

4.   Tell students that you're going to read some statements that describe events that take place
    everyday that might or might not affect the reef and its inhabitants. Explain that if they think the
    statement you read would make it difficult or impossible for their organism to survive, they must put
    one of their paper squares on the floor in  front of them. When students have one square left, they
    must stand on one foot. When they lose  their balance and fall, they must sit down—this species is
    no longer found on the reef. They also must sit down when they run out of squares.

5.  Continue to play until everyone is sitting.

6.  Discuss the game with students. Tell them that their species became endangered when they
    became few in number, as represented by the one paper square. Explain that endangered refers
    to a population that is in danger of extinction, or disappearing completely. Was it easy for the
    students to stay in the game when they reached the point of standing on one foot? When a
    species becomes endangered, they're on shaky survival ground.

Deeper Depths:

Have students compare and contrast other habitats (old growth forest, wetlands, desert) and their
survival factors. What survival factors are the same for each habitat? Different?  How can each one of
us make a difference in protecting the balance in each type of habitat?
                                       ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

                               SURVIVAL FACTORS
   Recreational boaters drop anchors on you.
A tourist takes you from the reef to carry home as
                a souvenir.
An oil tanker spills thousands of gallons of oil into
             the water over you.
   You swallow some abandoned fishing line.
 Agricultural fertilizers have washed into the sea,
  so now there is a lot more algae in the water
                around you.
  To make money from the tropical fish trade,
collectors use dynamite and cyanide, a poison, to
    stun and capture you and your relatives.
       You become tangled in a drift net.
Large pieces of your skeleton are broken off and
       sold for use in home aquariums.
 Ocean pollution from pesticides, heavy metals,
       and garbage is surrounding you.
  The water temperature surrounding the reef
  mysteriously rises, causing you to expel your
A snorkler sits on you and pokes around to get a
           better look at marine life.
A tropical forest is cleared, washing topsoil down
  river and into the ocean in the vicinity of your
        home, a large reef ecosystem.
 A scuba diver takes more than the legal limit of
                your species.
   Coastal development destroys the beach
               you breed on.
     Human population growth increases.
        Humans think you're delicious,
            and actively hunt you.
                                    ©1993 Sea World, Inc.

                                           CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS    89
                             IDENTITY CARDS
     pillar coral
  zebra moray eel
    monk seal
 hawksbill sea turtle
 queen conch (snail)
 painted triggerfish
  green sea turtle
four-eyed butterflyfish
trumpet triton (snail)
   lined sea horse
     king crab
    brain coral
   striped shrimp
   elkhorn coral
star-eyed hermit crab
 sharpnose pufferfish
 emperor angelfish
     sea urchin
   sea anemone
   anemone fish
blue-barred parrotfish
    stony coral
   little star coral
    slipper lobster
      sea star
   branching coral
    reef octopus
 moorish idol (fish)
                                © 1993 Sea World, Inc.

 Source: Coral Forest Teacher's Guide. Coral Forest, 400 Montgomery Street, Suite 1040, San Francisco,
 California 94104 Tel: (415)788-REEF Fax:(415)398-0385 e-mail: Used with permission.

Students gain a greater understanding of the problems facing coral reefs and native coastal people by
calculating the answers to the questions on the following page.

Interdisciplinary Index: Math

         1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds
      1 metric ton = 2,204.623 pounds
          1  kilometer- .621 miles
            1 mile = 5,280 feet
     one Fishy Problems handout per student

1.  Discuss the various anthropogenic threats affecting coral reefs and the native coastal people
    dependent upon them for survival.
2.  Distribute a copy of the Fishy Problems handout to each student and have them answer the
3.  Discuss the answers with the students and their feelings about the impact these situations are
    having on the environment., people, local and global economies, etc. What solutions might they
    recommend? Emphasize that all of the questions are based upon actual scientific information.
                                  FISHY PROBLEMS

1.  The world's oceans are fished by over one million large fishing ships and two million smaller ones.
    Around the world, 12.5 million people make their living catching fish, and another 150 million
    people are employed in on-shore operations or the processing of fish.

    a)  How many ships fish the world's oceans?

    b)  For every single fishing boat, how many people are needed, on the average, to catch fish?

    c)  For every single fishing boat, how many people are needed, on the average, to handle on-
        shore fishing operations and processing?

2.  "Almost all tuna stocks worldwide are in peril from overfishing, with the Atlantic bluefin tuna
    declining 90 percent in the last two decades, from 225,000 in 1970 to only	In 1990."

                                                   CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS    91

 3.   Shrimpers off the southern coast of the United States catch approximately 48,000 endangered sea
     turtles a year. It is estimated that one quarter of these are killed in the shrimp nets. How many
     turtles are killed each year?
 4.   In a coral reef area near Santiago Island in the Philippines, observers recorded 6 dynamite fishing
     explosions per hour, with an estimated catch of 1800 kg of fish per day.

     a)  Assuming there are eight hours in the fishing day, how many dynamite explosions occurred in
        one day?

     b)  How many kg of fish on the average would have been caught after each explosion?

     c)  How many pounds of fish would have been caught in a day?

     d)  How many pounds caught in one hour?

     Surveys indicated that more than half of the corals in that area had been killed by the dynamite

5.   In the Maldives, a coral reef was destroyed which  caused increased erosion of the beach and loss
     of sand. This could have the disastrous effect of increasing the loss of life and property during
     storms, decreasing income from tourism, and harming habitat. As a result, the government spent
     $12 million for 1 km of seawall to replace the destroyed  reef.

     a)  How many feet long was the seawall?

     b)  What was the cost per foot to build?

6.   It is important to consider the economic value, both short term and long term, of environmental
     conservation. However, often this is not done. For example, in the Philippines a logging
     concession was expected to yield $13 million from cutting down the rainforest over a 10-year
     period.  The  resulting environmental problems, such as erosion and siltation, would have severely
    damaged the adjacent coral reefs where fishing was done.  If this had happened, it was estimated
    that up to $75 million in fishing revenue would have been lost. If this logging concession had been
    granted, what would have been the net loss of revenue?

7.   In the Philippines, it is estimated that 1 square kilometer of coral reef in poor condition produces
    only 5 metric tons offish per year, just enough to feed 100 people.  A healthy reef, however, can
    feed between 400 to 700 people per year.

    a)  How many metric tons of fish would be produced by a healthy reef?

    b)  How many pounds of fish would this equal?

8.  At a conservative estimate, coral reef destruction in the Philippines  has meant a loss of 37% in fish
    production each year, or 159,000 metric tons.

    a)  If the coral reefs were healthy and fish production was at 100%, how many metric tons of fish
        would be produced?

 ,   This 37% loss means that 3 million people now get no seafood protein, or 6 million people get only
    half the protein they need.

    b)  How many pounds of fish does each of these  people now eat in a year?
      * Answers In Section VIII.

 Source: The Coral Reef Coloring Book bv Katherine Orr. © 1988 Katharine Orr. Stemmer House
 Publishers, Inc., Owings Mill, Maryland. Used with permission.

Certain snails,
worms, and fish
eat coral polyps.
They create small
dead spots on the
living coral
surface. On a
healthy reef this is
not a problem.
The surrounding
polyps can spread
over these small
spots and repair
the damage.  But
large spots of
dead coral cannot
be repaired
because the
polyps grow more
slowly than other

Algae and
sponges settle on
bare, hard
surfaces and grow
rapidly. They
quickly cover the
area and prevent
new polyps from
settling. Many
boring animals
also settle on
these dead spots.
Boring sponges,
sea urchins,
boring clams,
snails and worms
scrape holes for
their homes in
 coral rock. These
 animals weaken
 the coral.                                                                     ,
 Eventually it will crumble. If corals are weakened by silt or pollution, they may never grow back. A
 damaged  reef may take 20 or 50 years to recover.

                                                  CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS    93
  Source: Waikiki Aquarium Education Department, Waikiki Aquarium, Honolulu, Hawaii. Used with


 1. To foster an understanding of the survival needs of corals in their natural habitat and some of the
   destructive influences of human behaviors.
 2. To prompt discussion of coral conservation efforts.


 1. Four "planula" badges (or headbands).
 2. Enough "coral" badges (or headbands) to provide one for each student in the class.
 3. Three copies of each of the two planula survival cards listing requirements for a planula (larva or
   young stage coral) to successfully settle on the bottom.
 4. Three copies of each of the two planula disaster cards listing conditions in which planula can not
 5. Two copies of each of the four reef survival cards detailing coral survival needs.
 6. One copy of each of the eight reef disaster cards listing damage to coral reefs caused by human
 7. Two containers to hold the cards—one container (basket, bag, box) for planula survival and
   disaster cards and one for reef survival and disaster cards.
 8. Floor space for students to sit and form coral reefs by linking arms.
Procedures and Game Directions:

1. Divide the class into two. teams. The object of the game is to see which team will be the fastest to
   build a healthy reef.   >

2. Clear an area on the floor for children to sit and "form coral reefs."

3. Ask each team to choose one boy and one girl to represent planulae, (the coral larvae or young
   stage) that will start their reef formation. Each student wears a planula badge on a headband or
   pinned to clothes.

4. Each planula student takes a turn pulling a planula card from the planula card container.  If they
   chose a planula survival card listing appropriate places for corals to settle, ask them to read the
   card aloud to their classmates. Then they go to the front of the room and settle on the floor.  If both
   planulae from the same team are successful, they sit (settle) together, linking arms. Once they sit,
   they are no longer planulae, but have transformed into a young coral colony, and trade in their
   planulae badges for coral badges. The teacher might remind students that, "On a real reef, coral
   planulae are settling all the time, but for our game, we will just have them settle once to get us

5.  If the planulae students pull a pianuia disaster card, they cannot settle. They return to their seats.


  Their team has to choose another pair of planulae.  But they will be a turn behind the other team.

6.  The new corals take turns pulling numbers from the reef card container. If they choose a reef
   survival card listing appropriate conditions for coral growth, the coral students can then select two
   other students to join them. The chosen students link arms with their coral teammates and are
   given coral badges. A coral reef is beginning to form. If the corals choose reef disaster cards, the
   reef cannot grow so the reef loses a coral (the student who drew a reef disaster number returns to
   the team.)

7.  If a team has only one coral on the reef and that coral receives a disaster card, he or she returns to
   the team and two other students are selected as planulae.

8.  The teams keep taking turns drawing cards and adding or losing corals to the reef. (When choosing
   new "corals" try to give turns to students who haven't been chosen previously).  After each drawing,
   the students read their cards aloud to insure that students understand why their reef grew or not.
   The object is to see which team is fastest to build a reef of ten corals. (Or you may decide on the
   number that means a team has won.) You may not consider it a healthy reef until all the students on
   one team become corals.  But that may take considerable time, just like  building real coral reefs.


    You have just settled on a
      clean, hard lava rockl

     You grow and become a
          coral colonyl


    You have just settled on a
    clean, hard section of old
           coral reefl

    You grow and become a
          coral colonyl

        Too Bad!

  You have just settled in
 shifting sands and cannot
  attach and grow into a
       coral colony!

    Return to your team


         Too Bad!

A Hawaiian sergeant fish or
mamo eats you!  No chance
       to settle now!

    Return to your team.
         Too Bad!
People decide to save money
by dumping sewage close to
shore. This causes algae to
grow over the reef so that the
  corals cannot receive the
 sunlight they need to growl

         Too Bad!
 A golf course uses fertilizes
incorrectly. Rain washes the
fertilizer onto the reef helping
the algae to grow.  The coral
   is shaded from  needed

        YOUR REEFI

                                          CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS   95
         Too Bad!
  A huge oil tanker hits your
  reef, tearing a huge hole in
  the ship's side. The reef is
  bathed in thick, black oil.

       YOUR REEF!

         Too Bad!
  To prevent floods, humans
  line the stream beds with
concrete. They clear ground
 for new houses and roads.
 Now whenever it rains, mud
and freshwater pour over the
 reef, smothering the corals.
       YOUR REEF!
         Too Bad!
Someone decides to break off
  a coral head to take home.
 They spray paint it neon pink
     and sell it illegally!

       YOUR REEF!

         Too Bad!

  A fisherman pours bleach
 over you to force fish out of
      your branches!

       YOUR REEF!
        Too Bad!
 Hundreds of people come to
admire you. But they walk all
    over you, break your
   branches and tear your
   delicate living tissues.
       YOUR REEF!

        Too Bad!

 A sailboat pauses overhead
  so snorkelers can admire
   your coral community.
 Unfortunately, they drop an
anchor right on your "head."

       YOUR REEF!
You spend the day bathed in
sunlight. Your zooxanthellae
   make plenty of food for
  themselves and for you!
       YOUR REEF!

   You spend the year in
   saltwater just the right
temperature for your growth!
    (64 to 86 Degrees F.)
       YOUR REEF!
 You spend the year in clear,
clean saltwater free of silt and
sediment. This allows you to
 receive all the sunlight you
      need for growth.
       YOUR REEF!


  You capture several small
  plankton animals for food.
       YOUR REEF!

 Soiirce; Coral Reef Teacher's Guide, produced by the World Wildlife Fund, 1250 Twenty-Fourth St. NW,
 Washington, DC 20037-1175. Used with permission.

      Adapted from a game by Roseanne W. Fortner, Ohio State University

Goal: to show students the many factors that must be balanced to conserve a natural resource
   with commercial and other values.

  Students will be able to name four ways that coral reefs benefit people.
  Students will be able to name four ways that people damage coral reefs and corals.
  Students will be able to discuss important factors in "managing" a coral reef.
  Students will be able to debate: give pro and cons of exploiting commercial uses of coral reefs.

Time: 45 minutes to one  hour

   Game boards (You may duplicate the enclosed game board by copying its folded quarters and
     taping it together. Make enough game boards for four players per game.)
   One piece of notepaper per student,-and pen or pencil.
   Make copies in the following quantities:
    *Game Board: one board per game (four students)
    *Chance Cards: one set per game
    *Option, Spinner, Token page: one per game
    *Game Summary sheet: one per game
    *Currency: twenty pages per game

Student Background:                                                              «,-,«,„«»
   Today you will play a game called The Coral Reef Game. On  the game board you will use, the game
is drawn on  the outline of a coral that looks something like elkhorn coral—a rapidly-growing coral...
[illustrations of elkhorn coral appear on the cover of this manual  and on page 80].
   In this game, you are a fisherman who makes at least part of your living from coral. You have a
problem shared by nearly all fishermen—if you take lots of coral, you make good money at first  But if
you and others do this for too long, the coral will not be able to grow back fast enough. Then, there will
be none, or very little, and you will have lost the source of your business.
   The secret, of course, is wise use and protection of the natural resource you make a living from.  And
that Is no easy task, as you will see from the game you are about to play.
   The object of this game is to arrive at the FINISH space with the most coral.  Coral grows on offshore
 reefs around the island and amounts of coral are measured in centimeters. Players may also gain
 centimeters of other types of coral, such as the valuable but delicate black coral.
    Players should keep a record of all the centimeters of coral they gain or lose throughout the game.
 Use the tally sheet you have been given. You should also carefully control the amount of money you
 have. As the game starts, assume that one inch of coral is worth about $500.
 1   Prior to class assign background reading. [E.g., coral Reef Coloring Book written and illustrated
     by Katherine Orr, © 1988, Stemmer House Publishers, Inc. This coloring book is derived from a
     project funded by World Wildlife—U.S.  Encourage students to color the (Illustrations.]
 2   This game requires copying, if the entire class is to play the game at once. If you cannot make

                                                  CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS   97
     copies, have students play the game in groups of four, during several class periods. Use your
     judgement as to whether to have students help you assemble Game Boards, cut Chance and
     Option cards, assemble spinners and tokens (glued on cardboard, for best use), and cut up
     currency.                                                                  ,    .
     Divide the class into groups of four.  Have them move desks together to play.
     Distribute game boards, spinners, tokens, and currency (20 sheets of money per game, $2,000 per
     player).  Give each student an Option Card also. Keep spare currency on the side, "in the bank"
     for payments to players.
     Read Background and remaining instructions (5-11) to students.
     Begin at the START space with $2,000 and 25 centimeters of coral.  Shuffle the CHANCE cards
     and place them face down near the board. Now, write down your beginning assets on a sheet of

     Organize your notepaper like this:  (Show on blackboard...)

    Coral           Money
Start: +25 cm
Turn 1 ....
Turn 2 ....

    Two to four players may play at one time. Spin the spinner to see who moves first. The player
    with the highest number will move first. Play then goes around the board to the left.
    Move around the games board by moving your token the number of spaces shown on the spinner.
    Change your amount of money and coral as the board and CHANCE cards direct.
    Early in the game you will have to choose which path you wish to take around the board.  The
    regular path may be followed, or you may choose the "High Finance Bypass" and take extra risks
    in order to finish earlier. You may not back-track after choosing one path or the other.
    If you spin CHANCE or land on a CHANCE space, pick up the top CHANCE card and do as it
    instructs. Then put the card back on the bottom of the deck.
11. Each player receives on OPTION card as the game starts.  This card gives you an opportunity to
    make a deal with other players, buying or selling any amount of coral for which a price can be
    agreed. Once you have used your option card, you must give it up.
12. You cannot go "in the red" and spend more than you have, and if you  run out of money, you are no
    longer a competitor for coral.  The same rule applies to running out of coral. You may continue to
    play in hopes of gaining more money or coral, but if you should be required to spend money or lose
    centimeters that you do not have, you are out of the game.
13. You must land exactly on the FINISH space to complete the game. The first player to reach
    FINISH earns an additional $1,000, but the game is not over until all players have finished or been
    eliminated.  The winner is the person having the most coral. It is possible that there will be no
14. After each group has finished their game, fill out the Game Summary Sheet together.
15. Discuss the Game Summary with the class. If you live in a coral reef area, be sure to discuss
    important negative and positive influences going on nearby.

Summary Sheet
1.   In the chart on the following page, list human and natural factors your group encountered in
    the game.
2.   For each factor, note below its positive or negative effect on the amount of coral (+ or - cm) and its
    positive or negative economic impact (+or - dollars).
3.   Discuss how the results of human factors change. Can people alter natural events as well?  How,
    and with what impacts?

                                  Natural Factors
            Type of Factor
                                                    Effects on
 e.g. Hurricane
                                  Human Factors
             Type of Effect
                                                    Effects on
 e.g. Island Festival
                                CHANCE CARDS
                            (Paste on light card and cut out)
Island officials decide not to dredge the
harbors this year. Silting of reefs is
prevented, but trade drops off.  Lose
$2,000 and gain 5 cm of coral.
Fertilizers from fields wash into water.
Excessive algae growth threatens coral.
Spend $1,000 for runoff control, or lose 8
Hurricane Adam bypasses the island, and
expected rains do not come. Fresh water
can kill coral, but this time disaster was
prevented. Take another turn.
Loss of species diversity (fewer types of
animals) makes the reef more
susceptible to ecological disturbances.
All players lose 5 cm.

                                        CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS    99
People ail over the Caribbean watch a
television program about the impor-
tance of coral reefs. Surveys show
increased knowledge and improved
attitudes. All players gain 5cm.
Stop to visit the underwater park.
Skip one turn.
Coral reefs break the force of waves
and prevent destruction of beach
property when violent storms come.
Collect $3,000 for protecting the
A harbor festival brings in new
customers for coral. You may exchange
up to 10cm and receive $500 per 3cm.
Warm waters and gentle waves in the
coral lagoons encourage more
tourists to visit these areas. All
players earn an extra $1,000.
Classrooms teach children about the
value of the reef. Protection allows 5cm
more to grow for all players.
The price tourists will pay for good
coral specimens goes up 25%. You
may sell up to 25cm to other players if
a price can be agreed upon.
Brain corals resist damage better than
branching forms. Take another turn.
The island hosts a water festival,
drawing many tourists. Great damage
to reefs from anchors, hull-dragging,
and unlicensed collectors. ADI players
lose 12cm.
Parrotfish eat algae that competes with
coral. You gain 3cm.
Barracudas eat most of the queen
triggerfish. Urchin population
explodes and coral loses 5cm.  If you
choose to skip one turn, 3 cm of coral
can grow back.
Dead coral skeletons are inhabited by
sea anemones that compete with live
corals. Lose one turn.
Island-hopping. Exchange places with
any player you choose.
Corals provide shelter for cleaning
shrimp. Take another turn.
Scuba divers with spearguns take
many groupers from the reef.  Spend
$500 for protection against this.
Toxic chemical spill is caused by the
player on your left. Collect $2,000 in
damages from that player.

Paper factener
(Cat oat
and color)
Cut out the spinner and paste it on a
piece of cardboard. Punch a hole in the
center and put a paper fastener through
the hole so It will hold the paper clip and
allow It to spin.

                              CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS   101

500 ^^ig^t-^^                500



Source: Adapted from Marine Reserves: an education resource kit produced by Jock Whitley and Bill
Ballantine. Leigh Marine Laboratory of the University of Auckland, Warkworth, New Zealand. Used with

Explain to the class that a coral reef can be legally protected by setting up a coral reef marine reserve.
Specific rules and regulations will then govern the use of the reef and the waters surrounding it.  Some
countries such as New Zealand have enacted strict limitations to safeguard their marine reserves (e.g.,
no killing or removal of marine life, no construction or dumping nearby). Such tight controls have not yet
been imposed in reserves in the U.S.A. or many other parts of the world where reefs are endangered.

Tell the students to...
  Imagine that the Department of Conservation decides to establish a coral reef marine reserve in
  your area.  You accept the contract from the Department of Conservation or from regional
  authorities for the following design tasks:

       (Each class member chooses one of the following:)
       - a brochure or pamphlet advertising the coral reef marine reserve for local use
       - a notice-board display that describes reef etiquette for visitors (e.g., snorkelers, divers)
       - a brochure, describing the marine reserve, for oversea tourists
       - a poster about the marine reserve for distribution in grade schools or high schools

The class as a whole  may share ideas on what rules and practices will be enforced in the new reserve.
Post the accompanying examples in the classroom to assist students in coming up with ideas for their
projects.  Suggest that students use their imagination if they do not have facts.

Provide large sheets of newsprint, typing and ruled notebook paper, poster board, pens, markers and
poster paint for the design tasks. Encourge the students to make their designs "user friendly," presenting
important information, perhaps reducing the emphasis on what is not allowed and suggesting positive
things to do in the marine reserve. Tell them to do their best to create designs with impact.

Display the best efforts around the school, in local shops, or send them to the local newspaper for
 Source: Adapted from Palaces
 Under the Sea, a guide to
 understanding the coral reef
 environment written by Dr. Joe
 Strykowski. The Star Thrower
 Foundation, P.O. Box 2200,
 Crystal River, Florida 34423
 Tel: (352)563-0022, Fax: (352)
 563-2064. Used with permission.
                                  REMOVE NOTHING FROM THE REEF
                                    NOURISHMENT FOR THE SOUL,
                                    CONSOLATION  FOR THE HEART,
                                      INSPIRATION  FOR THE MIND.

                                                        CONSERVATION OF CORAL REEFS     103
    Because you are a diver, you're already more
 aware of and more alarmed by changes in our
 environment than most
    Living coral reefs attract millions of snorklers
 and scuba divers each year. By the year 2000
 there will be 10 million new divers in North
 America alone.
  The dive operators who gave you [this bulletin]
 share an increasing awareness and growing
 concern for the protection and wise manage-
 ment of the coral reef ecosystem.
   There is no question about divers causing
 damage. More than one million U.S. divers
 impact coral reefs 36 million times each year.
 Our coral reefs are being used up faster than
 they can replenish themselves.
    Many divers still believe corals are an inex-
 haustible resource composed of an inanimate,
 indestructible rock.
    A study by the University of South Florida has
 confirmed that divers can pose a serious threat
 to our coral reefs. The average scuba diver
 knocks, bumps into, pushes over, or kicks
 living corals an average of seven times for
 every 30 minutes under water. Snorklers have
 at least one negative contact with the corals for
 every 30 minutes in the water.
    Every diver,  novice and expert alike, is a vital
 link in nature's complex eco-system.
    Each of us can help protect the world's coral
 reefs. The problems are critical... but not
Source: Adapted from "Piggy Divers Wreck
Our Reefs" produced by Dr. Joe Strykowski.
The Star Thrower Foundation, P.O. Box 2200,
Crystal Crystal River, Florida 34423 Tel: (352)
563-0022, Fax: (352)563-2064. Used with
                                                         _     Marine
                                                                     REEF ETIQUETTE
          Your visit to the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary will
   delight you with beautiful ooral formations and & variety of reef
   organisms in a tropical reef Betting.
          Please follow the guidelines and regulations below while in
   the Sanctuary:

   Just touching coral may causa damage to this
   fragile animal, therefore, do not allow your hands,'
   knees, fins, gauges or tank to contact the coral.
        II When anchoring, the anchor, anchor chain or line should not be
          in contact with coral. Use mooring buoys that are provided.
          " T8 '? not availabtet ask to tie off to another stem. If neither
          option is available carefully anchor in sand.
  Corals, shells, sea biscuits and other animals, living or dead, cannot be
  removed from the Key Largo or Looe Key National Marine Sanctuaries.
  The red and white divers down dag must be flown while SCUBA diving or
  snorkeling. Boats must stow to no-wake speed within 100
  yards of a dive flag. Divers should slay within 100 yards of
  their diva flag.
             Spearfishing, possession of spearfishing equipment or of
             speared fish is not allowed within the boundaries of the
             Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary. Within the Looe
             Key National Marine Sanctuary, spearfishing is not
                 allowed, however, equipment may be stowed and not
                 readily available onboard. Call the Florida Marine
                 Patrol concerning other closed areas.
  Florida law requires a fishing license. Special stamps
  are required for lobster, snook and tarpon. Applicable
  size, bag limits and seasons must be observed
  whan harvesting seafood products. Consult State
  and Federal authorities for current regulations.
                                                                                              Marc Gil
Source; "Reef Etiquette/Safe Boating Tips." Florida Keys
National Marine Sanctuary, Upper Keys Region, P.O. Box
1083, Key Largo, Florida 33037.  Used with permission.

                       The living coral polyp DIES
                           when we step on it,
                              anchor in it,
                               or touch it
                          SNORKEL AWARE-

                          DIVE WITH CARE
Source: (Figure at left) © Reef Relief,
P.O. Box 430, Key West, Florida 33041
Tel: (305)294-3100 Fax: (305)293-9515
All rights reserved, reprinted with
Source; (Figure below) Lynne Hinkey-
Mac-Donald, "You can help protect our
coral," Coast Notes: Fact sheet #28, A Virgin
Islands Marine Advisory Services Publica-
tion, University of the Virgin Islands. Univer-
sity of Puerto Rico Sea Grant College
Program.  Used with permission.
                             You can help protect

                                    our corals

                      1. Never stand on or touch the coral reef.
                         Coral is not a rock. Each coral colony is made
                      up of tiny living animals called polyps, which are
                      closely related to sea anemones. Touching,
                      holding, standing on or kicking coral can crush and
                      kill these animals. The coral polyps are connected
                      and completely Interdependent. When you harm
                      one, you hurt the entfre colony.  It may take years
                      for a coral to fully recover from an injury, and corals
                      grow very slowly.  Even small breakages can cause
                      long-term or even irreparable damage. If you must
                      stand while swimming, snorkeling or diving, please
                      stand only on sandy-bottomed areas.

                      2. Dont feed the fish.
                         Bread, cooked vegetables, cheese and other
                      human foods are indigestible for fish. They may fill
                      up on these foods, but they can't assimilate the
                      nutrients so may easily become weakened or sick.
                      In addition, these foods disturb the natural balance
                      of ocean life and may contribute to harmful algae
                      growth and the decline of other species.

                      3. Swim without stirring up the sand.
                         Stirred up sand can cover corals, sponges and
                      other animals and plants.  This is called siltation,
                      and It can injure or even kill these organisms.
                      Besides, sand suspended in the water column
                      interferes with our view of fish and other marine life.
                      Keep track of where you kick your feet and flippers.
                      Make sure they dont touch the coral or stir up the
        4. Pick up any trash you find in the water and
        place it in a garbage can.
          If no garbage cans are available, take trash
        home and dispose of it properly. Plastic bags and
        other litter in the water may be mistaken for food by
        turtles, sea birds and other organisms.  If eaten,
        marine debris can suffocate and starve animals. Or
        it may entangle or otherwise fatally injure them.

        6. Use only waterproof sunscreen.
          Some sunscreens wash off in the water and
        become a pollutant. At high-use beaches, washed
        off sunscreen can pose a real problem for marine
        plants and animals. Use only waterproof sunscreen
        or wear a t-shirt when you swim.

        6. Use the restrooms.
          Urine adds unwanted nutrients to the water.
        These nutrients encourage algae growth, which can
        limit the amount of sunlight that reaches the reef.
        Corals depend on sunlight for energy. With
        insufficient light, reefs will die.

        7. Take only photos. Leave only footprints.
          The health of our marine ecosystems depends
        upon a delicate balance of many natural processes.
        Removing organisms from the waters or beaches,
        or adding any new substances (trash, food,
        pollutants) can seriously disturb the balance Nature
        has created. To ensure the beauty and health of
        the Virgin Islands' environment for future visits and
        for future generations, please take only photos and
        leave only footprints.

        8. Share this information with a friend.
          Teach others to care for the Virgin Islands' reefs
        and beaches for the enjoyment of all.

                                                COA/SERW/OA/OF CORAL REEFS   105
 Source: Adapted from an activity by Ann-Marie McCoy in Trees to Seas: educational activities
 contrasting forest and coastal ecology in New England and tropical climates to be published by New
 Hampshire Sea Grant Extension. Used with permission.

People trying to reach decisions about coral reef management and conservation can be much like a
daytime soap.  There are friends and there are enemies, there are triumphs and there are tragedies,
there is confidence and there is uncertainty.  In order to better understand the complexity of the issues
and stakes, students become representatives of various public and private interest groups in a fictitious
episode of "Grief on the Reef."

DAY ONE:  Write the following roles on slips of paper. You may wish to omit some of the roles.
  government authority
  commercial fisherman
  coastal native
  recreational scuba diver
  tourist resort developer
underwater photographer
manager of a souvenir shop
artist who draws inspiration from nature
owner of a coastal industry that pollutes
collector of tropical fish for pet shops
recreational angler
Explain to students that they will be writing and presenting a soap opera drama about a public hearing
on how nearby coral reefs will be managed.  The production will be called "Grief on the Reef." Have
students draw from a hat to discover their part in the soap opera drama. Then help the students
understand the concerns and perspectives of the various characters.  Raise questions about policies to
protect reefs that might be proposed at the hearing.  What would be the consequences to all the parties
involved? For example, should coastal industry and development be restricted if these pollute or
muddy the seawater?  If so, how would restrictions affect the local economy?  How much fishing and
collecting should be allowed? Will the tourist trade suffer if coral trinkets and shell souvenirs cannot be
sold? Would it be wise to make the reef a marine sanctuary that can be visited by divers, or to
completely restrict access except to scientists? You may wish to furnish some background information
for student research. Discuss what reef management proposals might be offered at the public hearing
by the different members of the cast.

DAY TWO: Lead the class in deciding on a story line for "Grief on the Reef." Once a coherent plot has
been agreed upon, appoint a group of students to collaborate on writing a script that includes parts for
all characters. Place another group of students in charge of scenery and props.

DAY THREE: The writing of the script should be completed. After the teacher has edited the script,
copies should be made and sent home with students so they can learn their parts.

DAY FOUR:  Rehearse the play several times. Scenery and props should be ready for the final

DAY FIVE:  Perform "Grief on the Reef before another class of students or an audience of parents.  If
possible, videotape the production, occasionally zooming in on the faces of the characters to create a
sense of melodrama. Allow students to replay and critique their soap opera.  How do they expect a real
public meeting would differ from their theatrical version?

 Source: From Save Our Coral Reefs, an educational manual published by Ocean Voice International,
 Ottawa, Canada. Used with permission.

Methods that enable a natural resource to be re-used several times to make saleable objects are much
gentler to the environment than methods where thousands of animals are sold directly, as in shellcraft.
Fish and shell-printing is one such gentle craft. Fish and shell-prints, printed in color on fine paper, are
craft-items enjoying a growing interest amongst American and Japanese tourists.

Gyo-taku is a method of making a print or illustration of an object using the object itself.  Fish, molluscs,
leaves and other natural objects may be used for gyo-taku.  In the direct method, the object is lightly
and evenly linked or painted. The painted object is then pressed against paper, leaving behind an
Image.  If the object is rounded, then the object may need to be rolled up and down or back and forth to
print the whole surface.  If the object is rolled, take care that it is not shifted during rolling or a double
image may be printed. In the indirect method, the object is wrapped smoothly in paper and a piece of
cloth lightly dipped in ink or paint, is rubbed over the outside of the paper; paper over ridges and bumps
on the object are inked more heavily, "valleys" remain white.

What do you need to make gyo-taku? Obtain a quality paper that will last well, has a nice color and
texture. Choose a paint or ink that is non-toxic (not poisonous)—then afterwards, if desired, a fish used
for printing can be eaten, and it will be safe to leave the ink or paint around the house where there are
young children.  Find inks or paints that will not bleach when exposed over time to sunlight. With good
paper and permanent-style ink, the purchaser of the gyo-taku will then be able to enjoy the print, for
many years. Chinese or Japanese sum! ink or India Ink can be used for black; non-toxic artist's water
colors, poster colors or gouache can be used for colors.

A clean dry shell requires no previous preparation.  But a fish should first be wiped clean with a cloth so
there is no mucus or moisture on the skin.  The object to be printed, is covered with ink using a brush or
a wad of cloth lightly dipped in ink or paint.  Only the raised higher points are inked, the grooves and
crannies are left free of ink.  The object is then pressed firmly on the paper and lifted off, or carefully
rolled once if it is rounded. With a fish, the fins can be spread out carefully and pressed separately
against the paper.  The print can then be left to dry.  The name of the mollusc or fish, your town and
province, and the artist  can be neatly written on the print.

By treating  the fish carefully a number of prints can be  obtained.
If non-toxic ink has been used, then the fish can be washed,
skinned and cooked. The hard structure of shells lets them
be used any number of times as a printing        *,
stamp.  You could sell one shell a hundred times
this wayl

Once the simple method of gyo-taku has been mastered, you
can try fancier ones.  If the fish you are using has stripes, like a
Moorish idol, then just paint the stripes, or paint two or more colors on
the fish for printing, matching the natural colors on the fish. It is also
possible to make simple scenes using fishes, seaweed and shells to print
the picture. Or you may wish to add value  to your print by mounting it on paper,  making a matte, framing
it with wood or bamboo, and covering the print with glass or plastic.

                                                                         REVIEW    107
      A damp cloth to wipe the fish clean, sumi ink, a brush or wad of cloth to spread the ink on the fish, and suitable
      paper are needed to make a gyoJaku or fish print.
 Source: Adapted from Coral Forest Teacher's Guide.  Coral Forest, 400 Montgomery Street, Suite 1040,
 San Francisco, California 94104 Tel: (415)788-REEF Fax:(415)398-0385 e-mail: Used
 with permission.

Objective: Students will review and become familiar with words related to coral reefs.

Interdisciplinary Index: Language Arts, Science

Materials: A blank Coral Reef Word Find, one for each student; pencils

1.  Review the vocabulary. (See lists above each Word Find grid.)
2.  Tell students they are going to make their own Word Find.
3.  Have students place the review words (one letter in each square) randomly across, down, or
   diagonally on the grid.
4.  When all of the words have been placed on the grid, students will fill in the empty squares with
5.  Have students exchange Word Finds and solve.

Give each student another Word Find sheet as homework. The student can make a word find for a
friend or relative to solve.

     108    REVIEW
                           CORAL REEF WORD FIND 1

Use the words related to coral reef benefits, threats, and solutions to make a word search.  See if
someone else can solve your puzzle.

                                                                     REV7EW    109
                           CORAL REEF WORD FIND II

Use the words related to life on the coral reef to make a word search. See if someone else can solve
your puzzle. Do they know what these words mean?

 Source: From Save Our Corai Reefs, an educational manual published by Ocean Voice International,
 Ottawa, Canada.  Used with permission.

55. Questions to Stimulate Discussions and Test Understanding

The answers given here do not include all possible replies.  And sometimes they may be wrong for a
particular area! Sometimes only partial answers are given.  Answers are often bigger than questions!

 1. Are corals alive, or are they just rock?
   Reef-building corals are live animals with tiny co-op algae in their soft parts.
 2. Why are the tiny coral-plants in the soft parts of the coral so important?
   The tiny coral-plants in the soft parts of coral are important because they provide four-fifths of the
   coral's food and energy.
 3. Why do corals need sunlight?
   The small co-op algae in the coral's soft parts need sunlight and share the sun's energy with the
 4. What do corals feed on at night?
   At night the corals feed on plankton,  using their tentacles.
 S. How do water currents help corals?
   Water currents carry plankton to the corals,  and clean salty sea water.
 6. Does fresh water kill corals?
   Fresh water kills corals if they are exposed to it for very long. Freshwater flooding or even a heavy
   rain at low tide can kill corals.
 7. Why is shore vegetation important to coral reefs?
   Shore vegetation is important to coral reefs  because it helps smooth the flow of harmful freshwater
   onto the reefs and it filters out cloudy water and mud.
 8. How long do corals live?
   Some corals reach 50, others hundreds or even over a thousand years in age.
 9. Where are the richest coral reefs in the world?
   The richest coral reefs in the world are in the "Coral Triangle" between the Philippines, Borneo, and
   New Guinea.
10. Do healthy reefs have more species of fishes and invertebrates than sand or mud bottomed
   areas? Why?
   Healthy coral reefs have more species of fishes and invertebrates than sand or mud bottomed
   areas because coral reefs provide them with more food and with shelter from predators and waves.
11. Name 10 different kinds of sea life that can be harvested from coral reefs.
   Kinds of sea life that can be harvested from coral reefs include: products for the food,
   pharmaceutical, aquarium and tourist industries through harvest of fishes, molluscs, seaweeds,
   betang [sea cucumbers], sea urchins, crabs, lobsters, and shrimps.  Tourists can also be caught!
12. How do coral reefs protect coastal communities?
   Coral reefs protect coastal communities by acting as a breakwater.  This weakens storm and
   typhoon waves, and reduces wave damage.
13. Where does the coral sand on our beautiful beaches come from?
   The beautiful coral sand comes from coral reefs. Coral is ground up into sand by parrot fishes,
   certain molluscs, and storm waves.
14. Why do tourists come to coasts with healthy reefs?
   Tourists come to coasts with healthy reefs because healthy reefs have many rich colorful corals of
   different shapes, active colorful fishes, and many astonishing invertebrates.  Healthy coral reefs
   produce fine coral sand beaches and calm water in which to swim and travel by [boat] behind the
   protection of the reef. And delicious seafood can be found there too.

                                                                       REVIEW    111

15. Name five businesses that benefit from coral reefs.
   Businesses that benefit from coral reefs include food fishing, boat making, restaurants, hotels,
   tourist guides, diving tours, aquarium fish industry.
16. How many metric tons of fishes does a square kilometer of healthy reef produce each year?
   How many tons of fishes does a square kilometer of degraded reef produce each year?
   A healthy coral reef produces up to 35 metric tons of fishes per square kilometer each year. A
   degraded reef produces only 5 metric tons.
17. Why are catches of fishes and invertebrates poor on degraded coral reefs?
   Catches of fishes and invertebrates on degraded coral reefs are small because such reefs provide
   less food and little shelter from predators and waves; as the dead coral breaks up there are fewer
   holes to hide in.
18. Why should one leave some "seed" fishes and shells on reefs?
   One should leave "seed" fishes and shells on the reef to produce babies for later catches.
19. Name four sources of cloudy water and mud.
   Cloudy water and mud that can harm coral reefs can come from clear-cut logging, farming on steep
   slopes, lack of stream-side vegetation, removal of trees from the coast, construction right on the
   coast, removal of mangrove swamps and seagrass beds.
20. What kinds of farm chemicals can harm coral fishes and reefs?
   Herbicides and insecticides can harm fishes and corals. Excess fertilizer washed into the sea can
   encourage growth of harmful seaweed or crown-of thorns starfishes.
21. Name three sources of wastes which are harmful to coral reefs.
   Untreated sewage wastes from cities, mine tailings,  and factory pollution can harm coral reefs.
22. How far can pollution travel in the oceans?
   Pollution of long-lasting substances can travel worid-wide in the oceans.
23. Do marine reserves have any advantages for coastal communities?
   Marine reserves provide seed fishes, shellfishes and corals for neighboring areas and slowly
   contribute to better catches. They are also attractive spots for tourists.
24. Is research important in conservation?
   Research is needed in conservation.  We need to complete the scientific description and mapping
   of nature and awareness of diversity.  We need to know the needs—the ecology and biology of
   animals and plants, and to understand what ecological services are provided by nature.

       112     ANSWERS
#11 A Closer Look: Identifying Coral Species (pp. 19-21)
Answers to Questions: 1. Answers will vary. Calyces
whose side walls are missing leave long grooves, giving the
coral skeleton a distinctly different appearance from species
whose cups are distinct a. Cup features are determined
genetically and therefore have different structures.
b. Answers will vary. If you have specimens from a shore-
line, use them as an example to help answer this question.
If some  of the features used for identification are still visible,
the species can usually be determined. The shape and
density of the skeleton can sometimes be used as clues to
the species.  2. The side walls are absent  3.  After the
larva settles down on a suitable substrate, it begins to
secrete  a skeleton. In colonial corals new polyps gradually
grow around the original polyp.  These new polyps continue
to secrete new material, making the skeleton grow in
diameter. The colony grows over the substrate in an ever-
Increasing encrusting mass. If the species is a branching
type, a stalk starts to grow upward from somewhere in the
center of the colony. New polyps and  more skeleton are
added to the tips of the branches, forming a bushlike shape.
If the coral is an encrusting type, the colony continues to
grow In  diameter over the substrate. 4. Most branching
coral species are subject to breakage during a storm.
Encrusting corals, because of their low profile, are less likely
to break.  During violent storms large chunks of coral break
off the reef, and heavy wave action batters them back and
forth, scouring other corals.  A coral reef may take several
decades to grow back to its original cover and beauty.
5a. A principal form of the body plan of cnidarians, consis-
ting of a bag-within-a-bag construction and a central mouth
opening ringed by tentacles. Polyps attach to hard surfaces
with their mouths pointing upward, b.  Many individuals
fused together In a cooperating biological unit  c. The
edges (side walls) of a calyx extending above the surface of
a coral skeleton, d. Radiating partitions inside the side wall
of the calyx The septa sometimes extend outside the side
wall to other calyces. 6. Most reef-building corals are
colonial. That is, individual animals fuse together at their
bases In vast colonies.  Skeleton is produced simultaneously
by all Individuals in the colony, forming large coral heads.
On a coral reef thousands of colonies live side by side, each
contributing to the formation of the reef structure.
     Biological and Physical Agents of Change on a
     Coral Reef (pp. 30-32)
 Suggested Answers for Table 2: Forest builders: Trees,
 shrubs, bushes, vines, plants; Forest floor organisms:
 Herbs, flowering annual plants, worms, snails, fungus,
 rabbits, deer, squirrels,  birds, insects;  Passive residents:
 herbs, plants, snails, rabbits; Destructive organisms:
 Deer, fungi, woodpeckers, beavers, bears, humans;
 Constructive physical agent: Rain, warm temperatures,
 sunlight, nutrients in soil;  Destructive physical agents:
 Wind, floods, severely cold winter, heavy snow, drought,
 landslides. Answers to Questions:  1. The structure is the
 arrangement of physical features in a habitat  In a forest, it
 Includes the number of trees and their shape, density, and
sizes, along with the kinds and sizes of shrubs. In a reef, it
includes the number of corals and their shapes, sizes,
density, height, and depth of growth.  2. Both supply the
structure of the habitat. Corals are animals; trees are
plants. The skeleton of corals is calcium carbonate; the
tree's skeleton is wood.  3.  Trees fall to the forest floor and
decay from the action of fungus. The chemicals of the tree
return to the soil to be recycled.  Coral skeletons move back
and forth by the action of wave energy, gradually grinding
the skeletons into sand. Some of the sand washes toward
shore, forming sandy beaches; some moves down the reef
face, forming deep water sand deposits. 4. A tree begins its
growth as a seed and grows bigger with time.  If a branch
breaks off, it dies, but the tree usually heals and continues to
grow. Eventually something (fire, disease, uprooting) kills
the tree.
  A forest is a complicated assembly of species of trees,
shrubs, bushes, herbs, and the animals that live there. The
growth of the forest depends on the relative rates of growth
of the organisms, primarily the trees, which grow at different
rates. Often one species of tree grows faster than another
species, changing the makeup of the dominant trees in a
process called succession.  Parts of the forest may be killed
by fire, wind, or other physical forces. A single species of
tree may be killed by disease.  Gradually the forest changes
in composition. If a major fire, landslide, or wholesale
logging occurs, the forest as a unit may die, along with the
individuals in all of the species, both plant and animal.
Seeds of some plants may survive to grow and start the
process of forest formation  again.
  A coral begins its growth when a larva settles on the
bottom of the shallow ocean and starts to grow. If a branch
is broken,  it dies, but the coral usually heals and continues
to grow. Eventually something (waves from a storm,
pollution, fresh water) kills the coral.
  A coral reef is a complicated assembly of species of
corals, algae, crabs, octopus, and the fish that live there.
The growth of the coral reef depends on the relative rates of
growth of the organisms, primarily the corals.  Different
corals grow at different rates.  Often one species of coral
grows faster than another species, changing the makeup of
the dominant corals on the  reef in a process called
succession.  Parts of the reef may be killed  by wave action,
sediments, or other physical forces.  Gradually the coral reef
changes in composition.  If a major storm, pollution, or
dragging of anchors by ships occurs, the coral reef as a unit
may die, along with all individuals in all of the species, both
plant and animal. Larvae of some corals may move into the
region with water currents and settle on the bottom to grow
and start the process of reef formation again.  5. Wind
directly damages a forest. Wind causes ocean waves that
damage the coral. Fresh water in the form  of a flood could
damage a forest Fresh water damages a coral reef
because corals cannot live  in fresh water. Air pollution (such
as acid rain) might kill many trees in a forest. Water
pollution and sediments might kill many corals on a reef.
6. Most reef-building corals have symbiotic algae growing in
their tissues.  The rate of coral growth depends on the
amount of sunlight the algae receive. Therefore corals do

                                                                                      ANSWERS     113
not grow in deep water or under ledges or in caves.
 The upper surfaces of the tallest trees receive most of the
sunlight, shading the smaller plants lower down. Plants on
the forest floor must be shade-tolerant to survive.
#21 Where Do Coral Reefs Grow? (pp. 35-36)
1. no; Brazil, all of Central Africa on west coast, all of
tropical South America on the west coast; 2. arrows are
counter clockwise in northern hemisphere and clockwise in
southern hemisphere;  3. eastern coastlines; western
coastlines; coral reefs grow only in warm water;  4. Brazil;
Sediment loaded fresh water flows from Amazon River into
the Atlantic Ocean.
#22 The Reef Region (p. 37}
See map below.  1. Great Barrier Reef;  2. Maui, Hawaii;
3. Key West, Florida;  4. French Polynesia;  5. Red Sea;
6. Jamaica;  7. Belize;  8. Cabo San Lucas; 9. Seychelles
Islands; 10. Philippines Islands;  11. Java; ,12. Celebes
 Islands;  13. Bahama Islands
anemone;  I. Spanish crab;  J. elkhorn coral;  K. club
urchin;  L. comb jelly;  M. moon jelly; N. soft sea
cucumber;  O. Frons oyster;  P. pillar coral;  Q. comet star;
R. long-spined urchin;  S. polyclad flatworm;  T. brain coral;
U. rock lobster;  V. spiny lobster; W. sun anemone
#28 Classification of Reef Fish (pp. 50-53)
Classification of Butterflyfish (decision points in sequence):
A. C. miliaris (1-4-6-7-8-10-11-12-13); B. C. citrinellus (1-4-
6-7-8-10-11-12-13); C. C. unimaculatus (1-4-6-7-8-10-11-
12-14);  D.C.tinkeri (1-4-6-7-8-10-11);  E. C. fremblii (1-
4-6);  F. C. quadrimaculatus (1-2);  G. C. lunula (1-4-6-7-8-
10-11-12-14);  H. C. auriga (1-4-5);  I. C. reticulatus (1-2-
3);  J. C. omatissimus (1-4-6-7-8-9);  K. C. multicintus (1-4-
6-7);  L.  C.trifasciatus (1-4-6-7-8-9);  M. C.kleini (1-2-3);
N. C. lineolatus (1-4-6-7-8-10);  O. C. ephippium (1-4-5);
Answers to Questions: 4. Features that do not vary within a
group (species) but differ from other groups (species).
Whenever possible, the features should be easy to see.
5. Use characteristics other than color to construct the key.
6. Some color patterns change as the animal grows or
#23 Mapping the Reefs (pp. 38-41)
Answers to Geography Clues:  1. Bahama Islands;  2.
Belize;  3. Caribbean; 4. Madagascar;  5. Pacific;  6.
Great Barrier Reef;  7. Jamaica; 8. Panama;  S.Florida;
10. Hawaii;  11. Philippines;  12. Red Sea;  13. Marshall
#27 Whaf s My Name? (pp. 46-49)
Coral Reef Animal Key: A. Atlantic thorny oyster;
B. swimming crab;  C. fire worm; D. club urchin;  E.  brittle
star;  F. finger coral; G. trumpet triton;  H. corkscrew
      Patterns and colors often differ with the sex of the
animal.  Patterns or colors sometimes change suddenly
when the animal becomes aggressive or fearful.  Some
color patterns fade rapidly when the animal dies; other
colors persist long after it dies.
#29 Partner Wanted (pp. 54-55)
Box 1 (sea anemone) and Box 4 (clownfish); Box 2 (hermit
crab) and Box 6 (sea anemone); Box 3 (cleaner fish) and
Box 7 (grouper); Box 5 (pistol shrimp) and Box 8 (goby)

       114    ANSWERS
#30 Animals that Bite and Sting (p. 56)
1. D/boxJellyfish; 2. UDiadema sp.;  3. G/stingray;
4. P/stfnging hydroid;  5. B/lion fish; 6. N/Conus shell;
7. I/fire coral; 8.0/Crown-of-thorns;  9, C/rabb'rtfish;
10. K/Wue-ring octopus; 11. H/surgeon fish; 12. M/stone
fish;  13. A/fire worm;  14. J/WuebotUe; 15. F/morayeel;
16. E/Stomatopod
#38 Who Eats Who? (pp. 65-66)
See figure below.
#39 Feeding Frenzy (p. 77)
1. crustaceans; 2. crustaceans and molluscs;
3. availability of prey, size of predator population
#41 Reef Homes: Zonation of a Coral Reef (pp. 79-80)
2. Hypothesis: Halo is caused by grazers moving between
patch reef where they hide and the grass bed where they
#44 Threats to the Coral Reef (p. 85)
1. N;  2. H; 3. H; 4. N; 5. H;  6. H; 7. N; 8. H; 9. H;  10.
N; 11. H.  The activities of people are the major cause of
destruction to coral reefs.
#47 Fishy Problems (p. 90)
1a. 3 million;   b. 4;   c. 50;   2. 22,500;  3.12,000;  4
a. 48;  b. 37.5 kg.;  c. 3969 IDS.;  d.496lbs.;  5a.
3279ft.;   b.$3,660/ft.;   6. $62 million;   7a. between 20
to 35 metric tons; b. 44,092.5 to 77,161.8 Ibs.;  8a.
429,730 metric tons;  b. 3 million people eat 0 Ibs. of fish,
6 million people eat 58.42 Ibs./person
      #36 Who Eats Who? (pp.65-66)
                                                      fan worm
                                                    blue chromis
                                                     butterfly fish
                                                      sea slug

                                                                     REFERENCES    115


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                                                                  /RESOURCES    117

UNITED STATES:  Arizona Sonoran Sea Aquarium, Tucson; California Marine World/Africa, U.S.A., Vallejo;
Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey; Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla; Sea World of
California, San Diego; Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco; Colorado Denver Zoological Gardens; Connecticut
Mystic Marinelife Aquarium, Mystic; District of Columbia The National Aquarium, Washington; The National
Museum of Natural History, Washington; Florida Bahia Honda State Park, Big Pine Key; Biscayne National Park,
Homestead; Clearwater Science Center Aquarium, Clearwater; DryTortugas National Park, Key West; The Florida
Aquarium, Tampa;  Key West Aquarium, Key West; Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuaries (305)451-1621; John
Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, Key Largo; "Living Seas" at the Epcott Center, Lake Buena Vista; Lowry Park
Zoological Gardens, Tampa; Marineland of Florida, St. Augustine; Miami Seaquarium, Miami; Mote Marine
Aquarium, Sarasota; Sea World of Florida, Orlando; Theater of the Sea, Islamorada;  Hawaii Sea Life Park
Hawaii, Waimanalo; Waik'iki Aquarium, Honolulu; Illinois Shedd Aquarium, Chicago; Indiana Fort Wayne
Children's Zoo, Fort Wayne; Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana; Kentucky Louisville Zoological Gardens, Louisville;
Louisiana Aquarium of the Americas (Audubon), New Orleans;  Maryland National Aquarium in Baltimore,
Baltimore; Massachusetts The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield; New England Aquarium, Boston; Michigan Belle
Isle Aquarium, Detroit; Minnesota Lake Superior Zoological Gardens, Duluth; Minnesota Zoological Garden,
Apple Valley; Missouri Mid-America Aquacentef, St. Louis; St. Louis Zoological Park, St. Louis; Nebraska Henry
Doorly Zoo, Omaha; Scott Aquarium, Omaha; New Jersey New Jersey State Aquarium, Camden; New Mexico
Albuquerque Aquarium, Albuquerque; New York Aquarium at Niagara Falls, Niagara Falls; New York's Aquarium
for Wildlife Conservation, Brooklyn; North Carolina North Carolina Aquarium, Fort Fisher; Ohio Cleveland
Metroparks Zoo, Cleveland; Sea World of Ohio, Aurora; Toledo Zoological Garden, Toledo; Oklahoma Oklahoma
City Zoological Park, Oklahoma City; Tulsa Zoo and Living Museum, Tulsa; Pennsylvania Carnegie Science
Center, Pittsburgh;  Pittsburgh Zoo, Pittsburgh; South Carolina South Carolina Aquarium, Charleston; Tennes-
see Memphis Zoo & Aquarium, Memphis; Texas Dallas Zoo & Aquarium, Dallas; Flower Gardens National Marine
Sanctuary, Bryan; Houston Zoological Gardens, Houston; San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarium, San
Antonio; Sea World of Texas, San Antonio; Texas State Aquarium, Corpus Christi; Washington Seattle
Aquarium, Seattle;  The Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium, Tacoma; Wisconsin Racine Zoological Gardens, Racine

BAHAMAS Coral World Marine Park, Nassau; BERMUDA Bermuda Aquarium, Museum & Zoo, Raft's FL BX;
CANADA Vancouver Aquarium, Vancouver; Ontario Science Center, Toronto; Montreal Aquarium, Montreal;
Quebec Aquarium, Quebec; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC El Acuario Nacional, Santo Domingo; DUTCH WEST
ANTILLES Aquarium  in Curacao; Antilles Underwater Park;  ENGLAND Aquarium at The Liverpooj Museum,
Liverpool; MEXICO Acuario Veracruz, Veracruz; Cabo Frailes near Cabo San Luca, Baja, California; Aquarium
Observatory, StThomas; Marine Biosphere Reserve, St. John; PANAMA Aquarium of the Smithsonian Tropical
Research Institute,  Panama City; SPAIN The Barcelona Zoo Aquarium, Barcelona

Amigos de Sian Ka'an, A.C., Av. Coba Numero 5,
Plaza America, Local 50,77500 Cancun, Q. Roo,
Mexico  El Mar v Sus Recursos student book and
workbook. (Sp)
Asociacion Oceanica de Panama, Apdo. Postal 6-
2305, El Dorado, Republica de Panama Fax:
(507)226-2020 quarterly bulletin, slides, brochure,
videos, exhibits, conferences, field programs, and
educational programs for students. (Sp)

 Caribbean Conservation Association, Savannah
 Lodge, The Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados
 (809)426-5373 Corals & Coral Reefs in the
 Caribbean guidebook.

 Center for Ecosystem Survival (CES),
 Department of Biology, San Francisco State
 University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San
 Francisco, California 94132 Adopt A Reef©

 Center for Marine Conservation, 1725 DeSales
 St., N.W., Washington,  DC 20036 (202)429-5609
 fact sheet

 Coral Cay Conservation (USA) Ltd., Suite 124,
 23012th Street, Miami Beach, Florida 33139
 (305)757-2955 WWW:
 coralcay/home.html "Life on the Coral Reef
 educational pack for students ages 9-11 comprising
 Interactive wall-chart, fact/activity cards and teachers
 notes; also pack for ages 11-16 and CD ROM.

 Coral Forest, 400 Montgomery Street, San
 Francisco, California 94104 (415J788-REEF
 e-mail:  curriculum for K-1'2,
 poster, scripted slide presentation, children's book,
 in-school and teacher in-service workshops. (Sp)

 Coral Health and Monitoring Program, Ocean
 Chemistry Division, NOAA/AOML, 4301 Ricken-
 backer Causeway, Miami, Florida 33149-1026
 homepage on World Wide Web—which includes
 underwater photographs, satellite images, news
 bulletins, marine environmental data, coral-related
 literature abstracts, directory of researchers, etc.—

 Coral Reef Alliance, 809 Delaware Street,
 Berkeley, California 94710 (510)528-2492 fact
 sheets; video; "Coral Reefs, the Vanishing Rainbow"
 slide presentation; coral reef calendar; speakers
 bureau; "International Year of the Reef brochure;
 "International Year of the Reef homepage, featuring
 calendar of IYOR activities and list of educational
resources available around the world, can be visited
 on World Wide Web at

 Curriculum Research & Development Group,
 University of Hawaii, 1776  University Avenue,
 Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (800)799-8111 e-mail: The Hawaii Marine Science
 Studies (HMSS) program is a one-year multidisci-
plinarycourse set in a marine context for students in
grades 9-12. There are two companion student
 books (The Fluid Earth and The Living Ocean) which
 explore the physics, chemistry, biology, and geology
 of the oceans and their applications in ocean
engineering and related technologies.
  HMSS is a product of the Curriculum Research &
Development Group (CRDG) of the University of
Hawaii.  CRDG conducts systematic research,
                                      design, development, publication, staff development,
                                      and related services for elementary and secondary
                                      schools. The CRDG has curriculum development
                                      projects in science, mathematics, English, Pacific
                                      and Asian studies, marine studies, environmental
                                      studies, Hawaiian and Polynesian studies, Japanese
                                      language and culture, music, nutrition, art, drama,
                                      technology, health, and computer education.
                                      Research and school service projects focus on
                                      educational evaluation, teacher development,
                                      reduction of in-school segregation of students, and
                                      programs for students educationally at risk.

                                      Departmento de Recursos Naturales y Ambien-
                                      tales, Area de Investigaciones Cientificas,
                                      Programa de Educacion en Recursos Acuaticos,
                                      Apdo. 5887, Puerta de Tierra, Puerto Rico
                                      (809)725-8619  posters, other resources. (Sp)

                                      Education/Information Section, Great Barrier
                                      Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), P.O. Box
                                      1379, Townsville, OLD 4810, Australia Project
                                      Reef Ed curriculum manual, teaching kits, books,
                                      pamphlets, videos, slides.

                                      ENCORE (Environment and Coastal Resources)/
                                      World Wildlife Fund, P.O. Box 1383, Castries, St.
                                      Lucia, West Indies (758)453-6780 studies /inven-
                                      tories on coastal resources including reefs, slides,

                                      Environmental Media & Marine Grafics, P.O. Box
                                      1016; Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514
                                      (800)368-3382  videos. (Sp)

                                      FishEye View-Cam, Coral Gables, Florida
                                      CD ROMs; World Wide Web site—from which
                                      remote underwater camera movies of a living coral
                                      reef may be downloaded—at

                                      Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Program,
                                      Education Department, P.O. Box 1083; Key
                                      Largo, Florida  33037 (305)451-1644 videos,
                                      posters, brochures. (Sp)

                                      FOR SEA/Marine Science Center, 17771 Fjord
                                      Drive NE, Poulsbo, Washington 98370 (360)779-
                                      5540 curriculum, CD ROMs.

                                      Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, 10 Ocean
                                      Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia 31411
                                      (912)598-2345 posters, other resources.

                                      James Cook University of North Queensland, Sir
                                      George Fisher Centre for Tropical Marine
                                      Studies, Townsville, OLD. 4811, Australia
                                      Australian UNESCO Project Marine Science
                                      Curriculum Materials for South Pacific Schools.

                                                                        RESOURCES    113
JASON Foundation for Education, 395 Totten
Pond Road, Waltham, Massachusetts  02154
(617)487-9995 e-mail: JASON
Project with teacher's curriculum manual, satellite
broadcasts, and computer components.

The Jean-Michel Cousteau Institute, 1933 Cliff
Drive, Suite #4, Santa Barbara, California 93109
(805)899-8899 "Jean Michel Cousteau's World,
Vol. 1: Cities Under the Sea—Coral Reefs" PC or
CD ROM curriculum.

Leave Only Bubbles, Inc., P.O. 2397, Key Largo,
Florida  33037 (800)890-0134 videos, CD ROMs,
jigsaw puzzles, stickers, etc.

Macmillan Education Australia Pty. Ltd., 107
Moray Street, South Melbourne 3205, Australia
Coral Reefs and The Living Reef books for children/

MARE: Marine Activities, Resources & Education;
Lawrence Hall of Science, University of Califor-
nia, Berkeley, California 94702  (510)642-5008
Teacher's Guide to Coral Reefs grade 7 curriculum.

Monterey Bay Aquarium, 886 Cannery Row,
Monterey, California 93940-1085  (408)648-4835
poster, brochures, bibliography, articles, "Underwater
World" site on World Wide Web—dive into a shark's
mouth, go on an underwater tour,  other activities—at

Mystic Marinelife Aquarium, Education Depart-
ment, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, Connecticut
06355-1977 (203)572-5955 articles, activities, bibli-

National Aquarium in Baltimore, Education
Department, Pier 3/501 East Pratt Street, Balti-
more, Maryland  21202  "Project ReefAction," reef
adoption program, "Rescue the Reef sticker, "Coral
Reefs Are Rainforests of the Sea" brochure,
articles. (Sp)

 National Audubon Society, 325  Route 4, Sharon,
 Connecticut 06069  (860)364-0520  "Coral Reef,
 Sunken Treasure" poster with leader's guide and
 student book available from Audubon Adventures

 National Wildlife Federation, 1412 16th St., N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036-2266 (800)822-9919
 "NatureScope: Diving Into Oceans" magazine for
 grades K-7.

 The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lyn Street,
 Arlington, Virginia 22209 (800)84-ADOPT
 "Rescue the Reef adoption packets, newsletter,
 annotated list of "Organizations Involved in the
 Protection of Coral Reefs."
New England Aquarium, Teacher Resource
Center, Central Wharf, Boston, Massachusetts
62110 (617)973-6590 books, videos, reprints. (Sp)

New World Publications, 1861 Cornell Road,
Jacksonville, Florida 32207 (800)737-6558 field
guides, other resources.

Newfound Harbor Marine Institute/SEACAMP
Association, 1300 Big Pine Avenue, Big Pine Key,
Florida 33043-3336  (305)872-2331 marine
science programs and camps for students, SCUBA..

Ocean Voice International, Box 37026,3332
McCarthy Road, Ottawa, ON K1V OWO, Canada
(613)264-8986  Save Our Coral Reefs manual.
quarterly bulletin, other resources.

Ocean Watch, P.O. Box 1618, Vienna, Virginia
22183-1618 (703)827-2591 e-mail:oceanwatch "The Fragile Ring of Life" video and
teacher's guide.

Planetary Coral Reef Foundation, 32038 Caminito
Quieto, Bonsall, California 92003 (619)723-7433
educational materials.

Reef Relief, P.O. Box 430, Key West, Florida
33041 (305)294-3100 on-the-water interpretive
program,  multi-media educational campaign,
newsletter, fact sheets. (Sp)

Sanctuaries and Reserves Division, Attn: Mr.
Justin Kenney, National Ocean Service, NOAA-
Building  4,1305 East-West Highway, Silver
Spring,Maryland  20910 posters.

Save Our Seas, P.O. Box 598, Hanalei, Hawaii
96714 (808)826-2525 "Project Ocean Pulse" enlists
the aid of middle school students in creating coral
reef databases.

Sea Grant Education Program, Humacao
University College, Humacao, Puerto Rico 00791
curriculum for grades K-9, videos, slides. (Sp)

Sea Grant Extension Service, 1000 Pope Road,
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (808)956-8191  curricul-
um for grades K-12, Pacific Island Network Marine
Science Summer Program at Fagatele Bay National
Marine Sanctuary in Samoa.

Sea World of California Education Department,
1720 South Shores Road, San Diego, California
92109-7995  (619)226-3834 All About Corals and
Coral Reefs curriculum with teacher's guide and
student books for grades K-3 and 4-8.

The Seattle Aquarium, 1483 Alaskan Way,
Seattle, Washington 98101  (206)386-4320
curriculum guides for grades K-3, 4-6, and 7-9.

Secret Sea Visions; P.O. Box 162931; Austin,
Texas 78716 (512)328-1201  videos.

Siwa-ban Foundation, 47 Caye Caulker, Belize,
Central America teacher training workshops on
marine ecosystems (mangroves, sea grass beds,
reefs). (Sp)

Small World Music and Videos, 117 30th Avenue
S., Nashville, Tennessee  37212 (800)757-2277
award-winning videos —"Coral Sea Dreaming"
(spectacular reef footage, orchestral sound track
without narrative is ideal for bilingual classrooms)
and "LJfe on the Coral Reef educational

Smithsonian Institution, Environmental
Awareness Program, 3123 Ripley Center, MRC
705, Washington, D.C. 20560  "Ocean Planet"
homepage on World Wide Web at http://seawifs.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Office
of Education, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Ancon,
Republica de Panama (507)227-6022 Guia
Didactics de Educacion Marina school book with
activities, marine posters with educational kits,
teachers workshop manual, teacher's guide and
courses for middle school teachers. "Our Reefs:
Caribbean Connections" traveling coral reef exhibit in
Spanish/English will visit sites throughout the
Caribbean—call for exhibit itinerary. (Sp)

South Coast Conservation Foundation, 91A Old
Hope Road, Kingston 6, Jamaica, West Indies
(809)978-4047 community marine education

South Pacific Regional Environment Programme,
P.O. Box 240, Apia, Western Samoa books,
brochures, other resources.

The Star Thrower Foundation, P.O. Box 2200,
Crystal River, Florida 34423  (352)563-0022
Palaces Under the Sea book, Piggy Divers Wreck
our Reefs comic book, "10 Things to Save the Reefs"

Trickle Creek Books, 500 Andersontown Roads,
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania 17055 (800)353-
2791 7778 Incredible Coral Reef activity book.

United States Environmental Protection Agency,
Public Information Center, 401 M Street S.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20460 student and teacher kits.
                                      University of Miami/RSMAS-MGG, Attn: Dr.
                                      Robert Ginsburg - IVOR, 4600 Rickenbacker
                                      Causeway, Miami, Florida 33149 Fax:(305)361-
                                      4094  "Coral Cities" slide presentation with teacher's
                                      manual. (Sp)

                                      University of Alberta, Earth and Atmospheric
                                      Sciences Department, Attn: Dr. Paul Blanchon,
                                      1-26 Earth Science Building, Edmonton, Alberta,
                                      Canada T6G 2E3 "Reef Resource Page" on World
                                      Wide Web—for students of coral reefs, includes
                                      critique of organizations and other web sites—at

                                      Resource Video Fish Book, 1825 NE149 St.,
                                      Miami, Florida 33181 (800)741-1112 videos.

                                      The Video Project, Media Consulting, 43124
                                      Manila Avenue, Oakland, California 94609 "Crisis
                                      In Our Oceans" brochure features list of videos,  CD
                                      ROMs, books and supplemental materials on coral
                                      reefs, and suggested activities for young people to
                                      help protect reefs.

                                      Virgin Islands Marine Advisory Services, Univer-
                                      sity of the Virgin Islands, Eastern Caribbean
                                      Center, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00802
                                      fact sheets, other resources.

                                      Waikiki Aquarium, Education Department, 2777
                                      Kalakaua Avenue, Honolulu, Hawaii 96815
                                      (808)923-9741 curriculum, student programs.

                                      The Wan Smolbag Theatre, P.O. Box 1024, Port
                                      Vila, Vanuatu  "On the Reef theatrical video,
                                      "Environmental Songs" audio cassette, other

                                      Wet Paper Publications, 14 Milbong Terrace,
                                      Ashmore, QLD 4214, Australia books, curricular

                                      World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219
                                      Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CBS ODL, United
                                      Kingdom  poster map. (Sp)

                                      World Wildlife  Fund, 1250 Twenty-fourth Street,
                                      N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037-11751 (202)293-
                                      4800 conservation projects, newsletter, reports,
                                      books, videos.

                                      XCARET, Depto de Educacion y Promocion
                                      Ambiental, KM 282 Carr. Chetumal-PTO.  Juarez,
                                      Playa del Carmen, Q.Rop, Mexico in-school reef
                                      education program coordinated with student
                                      aquarium visits. (Sp)
                                                      *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1988 - 620 - 569 / 90789