US - MEXICO
     Border XXI Program
    Framework Document

        October 1996
           EPA16O-R-9B-003
Environment • Natural Resources ฎ Environmental Health

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 US - MEXICO
 Border XXI Program
Framework Document
    October 1996

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     M
S
IS SIGN STATEMENT
The mission of Border XXI is to achieve a clean environment, protect public
health and natural resources^ and encourage sustainable development along the


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 m,
     iOtf-0
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
        *                       WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460
^iPW
                                        OCT - 7 1996
                                                                          THE ADMINISTRATOR
The President
The White House                                              i
Washington, DC 20500

Dear Mr. President:

       Secretary Babbitt, Secretary Shalala, and I are pleased to present you with a
comprehensive plan for protecting public health and the environment along the U.S.-Mexico
border.  The U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program is an unprecedented binational effort to address
the environmental and public health challenges facing the border communities of our two
nations. Border XXI will help to ensure a commitment to sustainable development along the
border ~ so that economic growth and environmental protection will go hand in hand.

       Residents on both sides of the border participated extensively in the development of
Border XXI. The program is flexible enough to allow different approaches for different
communities. Community concerns, changing  conditions, and economic and budget realities
will be taken into account when setting priorities under the program.

       This plan represents an important milestone in the long history of cooperation among
numerous environmental, health and natural resources  agencies in the U.S. and Mexico. Border
XXI will further this cooperation by strengthening the  partnerships among our federal agencies
as well as among local, tribal, and state governments, and business, academic and non-
governmental organizations.

       We are committed to meeting the challenge of translating the plan's long-term goals into
tangible environmental improvements. Both governments have agreed to develop performance
measures that can track progress and inform future program and budget decisions.

       Wre are committed to the success of Border XXI and the protection of our most valuable
resources — our people and our environment.
                                                     Sincerely,
                                                     Carol M. Browni
                                                                         Recycled/Recyclable
                                                                         Printed with Soy/Canola Ink on paper that
                                                                         contains at least 50% recycled fiber

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TO:
FROM:
SUBJECT:
                        SECRETARY OF ENVIRONMENT
                    NATURAL RESOURCES AND FISHERY

                                 Mexico, D. F. October 15,1996
DR. ERNESTO ZEDILLO PONCE DE LEON

M. EN C. JULIA CARABIAS LILLO

INTRODUCTION OF THE BORDER XXI PROGRAM
It is a pleas;ure to inform you that the Border XXI Program has been concluded and is responsive to the
commitment made by your Government to generate environmental alternatives for the border communi-
ties of our country.

The Program establishes objectives, projects, and actions for the protection of the environment, natural
resources, and the health of residents of the northern border area of our country. This document has been
negotiated with the United States Government and continues previous efforts in the interinstitutional
collaboration, both domestically and binationally.  The participation of state governments, municipalities,
and local governments, as well as that of academia, the private sector, and non-governmental organiza-
tions, have been equally important in this effort.

Through an intense process of public participation, the residents of both sides of the border have enriched
the document by sharing their concerns and proposing solutions for their communities.

Together with Secretaries Rojas and De la Fuente, we believe we have achieved an integrated Program
that addresses the complex environmental problems affecting the border communities.  The document
attempts to promote a transition toward sustainable development in the border area by seeking a balance
among social and economic factors, the protection of the environment and natural resources.

Likewise, our commitment is to face the challenge of translating the medium-range goals of the Program
into visible and tangible results. To this end, both governments have agreed to take actions to develop
environmental performance indicators that will allow qualitative and quantitative tracking of the
progress achieved by the Program and guide future budgetary decisions.

We consider that the present Program will  contribute significantly to the long history of bilateral environ-
mental cooperation in the border area, through the different levels of Government and through new
channels of collaboration facing the twenty-first century. With this, we want to reinforce our commitment
to the environment, natural resources, and the well-being of the population of the region.

In order to publicly inform the border community of the Border XXI Program, we will make a public
presentation in the City of Tijuana, B.C., next November 21.
 (Signed: Ma. Julia Carabias)

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                     SECRETARIA DE MEDIO AMBIENTE,
                       RECURSOS NATURALES Y PESCA
                             Mexico, D. F. a 15 de octubre de 1996
PARA:
DR. ERNESTO ZEDILLO PONCE DE LEON
DE:          M. EN C. JULIA CARABIAS LILLO

ASUNTO:     PRESENTACION DEL PROGRAMA FRONTERA XXI.

Me es grato dirigirme a usted para informarle que el Programa Frontera XXI ha sido concluido y responde
al compromiso asumido por su gobierno de  generar alternativas ambientales para las comunidades
fronterizas de nuestro pafs.

Dicho Programa establece objectives, projectos y acciones para el cuidado del medio ambiente, los recursos
naturales y la salud de los residentes de la frontera norte de nuestro pais. Este documneto has sido
negociado con el gobierno de los Estados Unidos y continua esfuerzos anteriores en.la colaboracion
interinstitucional,  tanto al interior de cada uno de los paises, como a nivel  binacional.  Igualmente
importante has sido en su conformacion la actuacion de los gobiernos estatales, municipales  y locales, asi
como la de los sectores academico, empresarial  y las organizaciones no gubernamentales.

A trayes de un intense proceso de consulta publica, los habitantes de ambos  lados de la frontera han
enriquecido  el documento  al  transmitirnos  sus  preocupaciones  y proponer soluciones  para sus
comunidades.

Creemos haber logrado, junto con los secretaries Rojas y De la Fuente, un Programa integrador para abordar
la compleja problemaiica que en materia ambiental, padecen las comunidades fronterizas.  El documento
pretende promover la transicion al desarrollo  sustentable en la franja al buscar un equilibrio entre  los
factores sociales y economicos, la proteccion al ambiente y los recursos naturales.

Asimismo, es nuestro compromiso enfrentar el reto que significa traducir las metas de mediano plazo del
Programa, en resultados visibles y tangibles. Para ello, ambos gobiernos hemos acordado acciones para
desarrollar  indicadores de desempeno  ambiental,  que permitan dar un sequimiento cualitativo y
cuantitativo de los avances que se vayan logrando dentro del Programa, y sirvan como quia para decisiones
presupuestales futuras.

Consideramos que el presente Programa puede contribuir significativamente  a la larga trayectoria de
cooperacion bilateral ambiental en la frontera, a traves de los distintos niveles de gobierno,  y de nuevos
canales de colaboracion de cara al siglo XXI. Con esto, queremos af ianzar nuestro compromiso con el medio
ambiente, los recursos naturales y el bienestar de la problacion de la region.

A fin de dar a conocer publicamente al Programa Frontera XXI a la comunidad de la franja, haremos una
presentation publica en la Ciudad de Tijuana, B.C., el proximo 21 de noviembre.

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                        Table  of Contents
Glossary of Abbreviations

Chapter I: Introduction

Chapter II: Description of the Border XXI Program
     Page

Glossary. 1
      I. 1
      H. 1
Chapter III: Borderwide Issues and Objectives
      Overview	 IQ. 1
      1. Natural Resources	......:..	 HI. 3
      2. Water	.. IH 13
      3. Environmental Health	HI. 20
      4. Air	HI. 24
      5. Hazardous and Solid Waste	 ..	m- 30
      6. Contingency Planning and Emergency Response	ffl. 36
      7. Environmental Information Resources	IE. 39
      8. Pollution Prevention	HI. 46
      9. Cooperation Enforcement and Compliance	ffl. 50

Chapter IV: California-Baj a California
      Brief Overview	• • • • IV. 1
      Environmental Issues and Problems	IV. 2
      Past and Ongoing Projects	IV. 6
      Objectives for the Next Five Years	IV. 14

Chapter V: Arizona-Sonora
      Brief Overview	• •	V. 1
      Environmental Issues and Problems	•	V. 2
      Past and Ongoing Projects	  V. 9
      Objectives for the Next Five Years	V. 18

Chapter VI: New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
      Brief Overview	VI. 1
      Environmental Issues and Problems	VI. 2
      Past and Ongoing Projects	 VI. 7
      Objectives for the Next Five Years	VI. 22

Chapter VII: Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
      Brief Overview	VII. 1
      Environmental Issues and Problems	VII. 2
      Past and Ongoing Projects	VII. 5
      Objectives for the Next Five Years	VII. 15
 October 1996

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Table of Contents

Chapter VIE: Texas-Tamaulipas
      Brief Overview	 VIOL 1
      Environmental Issues and Problems	 VIE. 2
      Past and Ongoing Projects	 VTTT. 6
      Objectives for the Next Five Years	 Vm. 22

BIBLIOGRAPHY

TABLES
      TableS.1    Population in the Border Area	:		m. 1
      Table 3.2    Natural Resources Past and Ongoing Projects - Borderwide  ...... ffl. 6
      Table 3.3    Number of Completed Planning and Design Studies	 ffl. 16
      Table 3.4    Water Past and Ongoing Projects - Borderwide	HI. 17
      Table 3.5    Projects Certified by the BECC Through September 1996	 m. 18
      Table 3.6    Resource Requirement Estimates for Water Infrastructure	m. 20
      Table 3.7    Environmental Health Past and Ongoing Projects - Borderwide .... ffl. 22
      Table 3.8    Comparison of U.S. and Mexican Health-Based Ambient Air Quality
                   Standards	ffl. 24
      Table 3.9    Border Cities that Exceed Ambient Air Quality Standards	ffl. 25
      Table 3.10   Air Quality Past and Ongoing Projects - Borderwide	ffl. 27
      Table 3.11   Hazardous and Solid Waste Past and Ongoing Projects -
                    Borderwide	ffl. 31
      Table 3.12   Contingency Planning and Emergency Response Past and Ongoing
                   Projects - Borderwide	;	ffl. 37
      Table 3.13   Environmental Information Resources Past and Ongoing Projects -
                   Borderwide	.,	ffl. 40
      Table 3.14   Pollution Prevention Past and Ongoing Projects - Borderwide	ffl. 47
      Table 3.15   Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance Past and Ongoing Projects -
                   Borderwide	 ffl. 51
      Table 4.1     Population (in California - Baja California border region)   	IV. 1
      Table 4.2     Resource Requirement Estimates for Water Infrastructure (by the
                   government of Mexico for  Baja California) 	IV. 4
      Table 4.3     Past and Ongoing Projects - Califoraia-Baja California	IV. 6
      Table 5.1     Population (in Arizona-Sonora border region)	V. 1
      Table 5.2     Resource Requirement Estimates for Water Infrastructure (by the
                   government of Mexico for Sonora)	V. 6
      Table 5.3     Past and Ongoing Projects - Arizona-Sonora	  V. 9
      Table 6.1     Population (in New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua border region)	VI. 1
      Table 6.2     Resource Requirement Estimates for Water Infrastructure (by the
                   government of Mexico for Chihuahua) 	VI. 4
      Table 6.3     Past and Ongoing Projects - New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua	VI. 7
      Table 7.1     Population (in Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon border region)	  VH 1
      Table 7.2     Resource Requirement Estimates for Water Infrastructure (by the
                   government of Mexico for Coahuila and Nuevo Leon)  	VH. 3
      Table 7.3     Past and Ongoing Projects - Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon	VH. 15
                                                                          October 1996

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                                                                       Table of Contents
      Table 8.1     Population (in Texas-Tamaulipas border region)	 VIH. 1
      Table 8.2     Resource Requirement Estimates for Water Infrastructure (by the
                   government of Mexico for Tamaulipas)	 VDI. 4
      Table 8.3     Past and Ongoing Projects - Texas -Tamaulipas  	 VIII. 6
MAPS
      U.S.-Mexico Border  	HI. b
      California-Baja California Region	IV. b
      Arizona-Sonora Region	 V. b
      New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua Region	VI. b
      Texas-Cqahuila-Nuevo Leon Region	 VII. b
      Texas-Tamaulipas Region .......		 VIII. b
APPENDICES
       Appendix 1

       Appendix 2
       Appendix 3

       Appendix 4
       Appendix 5

       Appendix 6
       Appendix 7
       Appendix 8
       Appendix 9

       Appendix 10
       Appendix 11
       Appendix 12
A Brief Description of U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Agreements
and International Institutions
Directory of Contacts
A Brief Description of Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI
Program
Meeting the Financial Needs of Border XXI           <
State and Municipal Decentralization and Strengthening in Mexico in the
Context of Border XXI
Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy
Border XXI Community Grant Projects U.S.-Mexico Border Region
Social and Economic Overview of the U.S.-Mexico Border
Summary of Health Impacts from Air Pollution Criteria Pollutants
(O3, CO, SO2,PM-10, lead, andNOJ
Ongoing U.S. State and Local Hazardous and Solid Waste Projects
Additional Sources of Information
Border XXI Maps
October 1996
                                                                                  iii

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ACAAN
ADEQ   ,
ADHS
ADWR
AGFD
AID
APHIS
ASU
ATSDR

BANDAN
BBS
BECC
BHO
BLM
BMP
BOR
BRD

Cal-DTSC
CAMEO
CARB
CCA
CCPC
CDC
CDFG
CDHS
CEAS

CEC
CEQ
CERCLIS

CES
CESPM

CFC
CFP
CICA
CICOPLAFEST
CICTUS

CIDESON

CIESIN
CILA
CITES
CLAM
Glossary of Abbreviations

 Acuerdo de Cooperation Ambiental del Norte (see NAAEC)
 Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
 Arizona Department of Health Services
 Arizona Department of Water Resources
 Arizona Game and Fish Department
 U.S. Agency for International Development
 Agriculture Pest Health Inspection Service
 Arizona State University
 Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry

 Banco para el Desarollo de America del Norte (see NADBank)
 Bulletin Board System
 Border Environment Cooperation Commission (see COCEF)
 Border Health Office
 Bureau of Land Management
 Best Management Practices
 Bureau of Reclamation
 Biological Resources Division of USGS

 California Department of Toxic Substances Control
 Computer aided Management of Emergency Operations
 California Air Resources Board
 Comision de Cooperation Ambiental de America del Norte (see CEC)
 Comite Consultivo Publico Conjunto de la CCA (see JPAC)
 Centers for Disease Control
 California Department of Fish and Game
 California Department of Health Services
 Comision Estatal de Aguas y Saneamiento de Coahuila (Coahuila State
  Commission for Water and Sanitation)
 Commission for Environmental Cooperation (see CCA)
 Council on Environmental Quality
 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
   Information System
 Centre Ecologico de Sonora (Sonora Ecological Center)
 Comite Estatal de Servicios Publicos de Mexican' (State Committee for Public
 Services of Mexican')
 Chlorofluorocarbons
 Cooperative Fisheries Program
 U.S.-Mexico Information Center on Air Pollution
 Comision InterSecretarial para el Control de Plaguicidas, Fertilizantes y Subtancias
   Toxicas (rnteragency Commission for Control of Pesticides, Fertilizers and Toxic
   Substances)
 Centre de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (Center for Scientific and
   Technological Research)
 Centre de Investigation y Desarollo de Sonora (Sonora Center for Research and
   Development)
 Consortium for International Earth Sciences Information Network
 Comision International de Limites y Aguas (see IBWC)
 Convention on International Trade for Endangered Species
 Comite Local para Ayuda Mutua (Local Committee for Mutual Assistance)
October 19%
                                                              Glossary 1

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Glossary of Abbreviations
CNA
CO
COAPES

COCEF
COLEF
CONABIO

CONACYT

COSAE

CWS
Comision Nacional de Agua (National Water Commission)
Carbon monoxide
Comision de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del Estado de Sonora (Sonora State
  Commision for Drinking Water and Sewers)
Comision de Cooperation Ecologico Fronterizo (see BECC)
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (College of the Northern Border)
Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (National
  Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity)
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (National Advisory Council for Science
  and Technology)
Comision de Servicios de Agua del Estado de Baja California (Water Utilities
  Commission for the State of Baja California)
Canadian Wildlife Service
DEM
DFG
DGPS
DIAAPROY

DLG
DOC
DOD
DOE
DOI
DOJ
DOQ
DOS
DOT
DRGs
DUMAC

EOF
EJ
EPA
EPA/OW
EPAR6
EPAR9
EPCCHED
EPOMEX
FCC
FDA
FONSI
FWS
FY

GCD

GGA
GIS
Digital elevation model
Department of Fish and Game (California)
Differential Geographic Positioning System
Diseno, Asesoria, y Administration de Proyectos, S.A. de C.V. (Project Design,
  Assistance, and Management, Inc.)
Digital line graph
U.S. Department of Commerce
U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Interior
U.S. Department of Justice
Digital ortho-quadrangles
U.S. Department of State
U.S. Department of Transportation
Digital raster graphics
Ducks Unlimited de Mexico, A.C.

Environmental Defense Fund
Environmental Justice
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Office of Water
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region 6
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region 9
El Paso City and County Health and Environment Department
Programa de Ecologia, Pesca, y Oceanografia del Golfo de Mexico (Gulf of
Mexico Program for Ecology, Fisheries, and Oceanography)

U.S. Field Coordinating Committee (DOI)
Food and Drug Administration
Finding of No Significant Impact
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Fiscal Year

Grupo Coordinador Estatal del Proyecto de Descentralizacion (State
  Coordinating Group for the Decentralization Project)
Grupo de Gestion Ambiental Estatal (State Environmental Management Group)
Geographical Information Systems
Glossary 2
                                                            October 1996

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                                                                           Glossary of Abbreviations
GNEB
GPS

HAZTRAKS
HHS
HMMD
HRSA
HUD

IB
IBEP

IBWC
ICC
ICMA
IID
IMADES
IMSS
INAH

Inc.
INE
INEGI

INIFAP

INP
ISO 14000

ISSSTE

ITESM

IWMB
IWRC
IWTP

JCP
JMAS

JPAC
JRT

LEPC
LIDAR
LOI
Ips

MEXUS
Good Neighbor Environmental Board
Global Positioning System

Hazardous Waste Tracking System
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
County of San Diego - Hazardous Materials Management Division
Health Resources and Services Administration
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Institute de Biologia, UNAM (Biology Institute, UNAM)
Integrated Border Environmental Plan, Integrated Environmental Plan for the
  U.S.-Mexico Border Area, First Stage (1992-94) (see PIAF)
International Boundary and Water Commission (see CILA)
Interagency Coordinating Committee
International City/County Management Association
Imperial Irrigation District
Institute del Medio Ambiente y el Desarollo Sustentable del Estado de Sonora (State
  of Sonora Institute for the Environment and Sustainable Development) •• formed
  through the joining of CIDESON and CES
Institute Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute for Social Security)
Institute Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (National Institute for Anthropology
  and History
Incorporated (see S.A. de C.V.)
Institute Nacional de Ecologia (National Institute for Ecology)
Institute Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia, e Informatica (National Institute for
  Statistics, Geography, and Information)
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricola y Pecuaria (National
  Institute for Investigations of Forests, Agriculture and Livestock)
Institute Nacional de Pesca (National Institute of Fisheries)
International Standards Organization 14000 (14000 is a series of standards on
  environmental management)
Institute de Seguridad Social y Servicios para los Trabajadres del Estado
  (Institute for Social Security & Services for State Workers)
Institute Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Technology Institute of
  Superior Studies of Monterrey)
Integrated Waste Management Board
Iowa Waste Reduction Center
International Wastewater Treatment Plant                                   ;

Joint Contingency Plan
Junta Municipial de Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de Ciudad Juarez (Sewer and
  Sanitation Municipal Authority for Ciudad Juarez)
Joint Public Advisory Committee for the CEC (see CCPC)
Joint Response Team

Local  Emergency Planning Committee
Light, intensity, distancing, and ranging
Letter of intent
Liters per second

MOU on fisheries investigation between Mexico and the U.S. for the Gulf of
  Mexico and the Pacific Ocean
 October 1996
                                                                  Glossary 3

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 Glossary of Abbreviations
 MMS
 MOU

 NAAEC
 NAAQS
 NADBank
 NAFTA
 NAS
 NASQAN
 NAWCC
 NAWQAP
 NBEP
 NBH
 NGO
 NIEHS
 NIH
 NIWTP
 NJDEP
 NMBHO
 NMDFG
 NMDOH
 NMED
 NMFS
 NM-GIC
 NMSU
 NOAA
 NOS
 NOx
 NPS
 NRCS
 NTDs
 NWR
 OCRM
 ONG
 OPS
 OWM

 P2
 PAFN
 PAH
 PAHO
 Pb
 PCS
 PEMEX
 PHS
 PM-10
 PND
 PROFAUNA
 U.S. Minerals Management Service
 Memorandum of Understanding

 North American Agreement on Evironmental Cooperation (see ACAAN)
 National Ambient Air Quality Standards
 North American Development Bank (see BANDAN)
 North American Free Trade Agreement (see TLC)
 National Audubon Society
 National Stream Quality Accounting Network
 North American Waterfowl Conservation Commission
 National Water Quality Assessment Program
 Northern Border Evironmental Program (see PAFN)
 National Biological Information Infrastructure
 Nongovernmental organization
 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
 National Institute of Health
 Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant
 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
 New Mexico Border Health Office
 New Mexico Department of Fish and Game
 New Mexico Department of Health
 New Mexico Environment Department
 National Marine Fisheries Service
 New Mexico Geographic Information Council
 New Mexico State University
 U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
 U.S. National Ocean Service
 Oxides of Nitrogen
 National Park Service
 U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service
 Neural tube defects
 National Wildlife Refuge

 Ozone
 Ocean and Coastal Resource Management
 Organizaciones no Gubernamentales (see NGO)
 Organization Panamericana para la Salud (see PAHO)
 Office of Wastewater Management

 Pollution Prevention/Prevention de la Contamination
 Programa Ambiental de la Frontera Norte (see NBEP)
 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
 Pan American Health Organization (see OPS)
 Lead
 Permit and Compliance System
 Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexican Petroleum Company)
 Public Health Service
 Paniculate matter (size = less than 10 microns)
 Plan Nacional de Desarollo (Mexico's National Development Plan)
Asociacion para la Protection de la Fauna, A.C. (Association for the Protection of
  Wildlife)
Glossary 4
                                                                                October 1996

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                                                                          Glossary of Abbreviations
PROFEPA

PRTR
PSU

QA/QC

RMRS
RTF
RWQCB

S.A. de C.V.
SAGAR

SAHOPE

SARH

SCT

SCERP
SE
SDSU
SEAGO
SEDESOL
SEDUE

SEMARNAP

SFFS

SIP
SIUE

SO2
SRE
SRN

SSA
 SWRCB

TB
 TDK
 TDPS
 Texas (STEP)
 TGLO
 TIGER
 TLC
 TNRCC
 TNRIS
 TPWD
 TRI
Procuraduria Federal de Protection al Ambiente (Federal Attorney General for
  Environmental Protection)
Pollution Release and Transfer Registry
Pennsylvania State University

Quality Assurance/Quality Control

Rocky Mountain Research Station
Research Triangle Park
Regional Water Quality Control Board

Sociedad Anonima de Capital Variable (see Inc.)
Secretaria de Agriculture, Ganaderia, y Desarollo Rural (Mexican Secretariat for
  Agriculture, Cattle, and Rural Development)
Secretaria de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras Piiblicas del Estado (Baja California
  State Secretariat for Human Housing and Public Works)
Secretaria de Agriculture y Recursos Hidraulicos (Mexican Secretariat for
  Agriculture and Hydraulic Resources)
Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes (Mexican Secretariat of
  Communication and Transportation)
Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy
Secretariat of Energy
San Diego State University
Southeastern Arizona Governments Organization
Secretaria de Desarollo Social (Mexico's Secretary for Social Development)
Secretaria de Desarollo Urbano y Ecologia (Mexican Secretary for Urban
  Development and Ecology)
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente Recursos Naturales y Pesca (Mexico's Secretary for
  the Environment, Natural Resources, and Fisheries)
Subsecretaria Forestal y de la Fauna Silvestre (Subsecretariat for Forestry and
  Wildlife)
State Implementation Plan
Secretaria de Infraestrucura Urbana y Ecologia, Sonora (Secretary for Urban
  Infrastructure and Ecology, Sonora)
Sulfur dioxide
Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores - (Mexico's Secretariat for External Affairs)
Subsecretaria de Recursos Naturales, (Undersecretariat for Natural
  Resources, under SEMARNAP)
 Secretaria de Salud (Mexico's Secretary of Health)
 State Water Resources Control Board (California)

 Tuberculosis
 Texas Department of Health
 Texas Department of Public Safety
 Texas Small Towns Environment Program
 Texas General Land Office
 Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
 Tratado de Libre Comercio (see NAFTA)
 Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission
 Texas Natural Resource Information System
 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
 Toxics Release Inventory
 October 1996
                                                                                       Glossary 5

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 Glossary of Abbreviations
 TRIP
 TSP
 TWDB
 TX-GISPC

 UAAAN

 UABC

 UACH
 UAG

 UAM
 UANL
 UAS
 UAT
 UCANP

 UCAI

 UCD
 UNAM

 UNISON
 UNM
 UNT
 UofA
 USAGE
 USD
 USDA
 USFS
 USGS
 USMBHA
 UT
 UTA
 UT-BEG
 UTEP
 UofU

 VOCs

 WEF
 WGA
 Transboundary Resource Inventory Project
 Total suspended particulates
 Texas Water Development Board
 Texas Geographic Information Systems Planning Council

 Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro (Antonio Narro Autonomous
  Agrarian University)
 Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (Autonomous University of Baja
  California)
 Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (Autonomous University of Chihuahua)
 Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara (Autonomous University of
  Guadalajara)
 Universidad Autonoma Metropolitania (Autonomous Metropolitan University)
 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon)
 Universidad Autonoma de Sonora
 Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas
 Unidad Coordinadora de Areas Naturales Protegidas, INE (Division of
  Coordination of Natural Protected Areas)
 Unidad de Coordination de Asuntos Internationales, SEMARNAP (Office of
  Coordination of International Activities)
 University of California at Davis
 Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Autonomous National University of
  Mexico)
 Universidad de Sonora (University of Sonora)
 University of New Mexico
 University of North Texas
 University of Arizona
 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
 United States Dollars
 U.S. Department of Agriculture
 U.S. Forest Service
 U.S. Geological Survey
 U.S.-Mexico Border Health Association
 University of Texas
 University of Texas at Austin
 University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology
 University of Texas at El Paso
 University of Utah

Volatile organic compounds

Water Environment Federation
Western Governors Association
Glossary 6
                                                                                 October 1996

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          HAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
Overview

The Border XXI Program (Border XXI or Program) is an innovative binational effort which brings
together the diverse U.S. and Mexican federal entities responsible for the shared border environment
to work cooperatively toward sustainable development through protection of human health and the
environment and proper management of natural resources in both countries.

Attempts to address border environmental concerns require a coordinated binational response. The
ecosystems, watersheds, and air basins that make up the environment1 and natural resource base of
the border region transcend political  boundaries.  Regardless of  where  they originate, border
environmental problems significantly impact communities and ecosystems on both sides of the border.
Border XXI Program activities will respect the sovereign rights of the U.S.  and Mexico to manage
their own resources according to their own policies, ensuring that such activities do not cause damage
to the emdronment of the neighboring country.

The  central  strategy  of Border  XXI consists of three  components:  public involvement,
decentralization of environmental  management through state and local  capacity building, and
improved communication and cooperation among federal, state and local government agencies. The
federal governments of both nations acknowledge the importance of cooperative efforts.  To this end,
they are committed to working with their state and local counterparts and with residents of the border
region to further define and realize the vision of sustainable development underlying Border XXI.

This Border XXI Framework Document (Framework Document), a product of significant public
input, defines five-year objectives for the border environment and describes mechanisms for fulfilling
those objectives.  Considerable efforts have been made to incorporate public comments, into this
Framework Document.  A separate report, entitled The Border XXI Comment and Response Report,
will address in more detail all major issues raised during the public  comment period. A significant
element of Border XXI will be the development of an agreed upon set of environmental indicators
or measures of success that track progress toward achieving the Program's long-term objectives.2

 Goal: Sustainable Development

 The principal goal of the Border XXI Program is to promote sustainable development in the border
 region by seeking a balance among social and economic factors and the protection of the  environment
 in border communities and natural areas.
    throughout this document, the terms "environment" and "environmental" are broadly defined so as to encompass issues related to
 the environment, environmental health, and natural resources of the border region.

    2This activity supports the goals of the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act in the United States and similar efforts in
 Mexico.
 October 1996
                                                                                      LI

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 Introduction

 Agenda 21, a series of international environmental objectives, which emerged from the United
 Nations Conference on Environmental Development (UNCED), held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro,
 Brazil, provides guiding  principles for sustainable development  on a global basis.  Agenda 21
 encourages citizens and governments at various levels to define specific programs that support
 sustainable development, as it applies to their own community.

 In accordance with these concepts, Border XXI promotes sustainable development in the border
 region which "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
 to meet their own needs."3

 Sustainable development is, in principle, a global concept of development which considers at least
 four interrelated features: environmental, social, economic, and technological.  Given the nature of
 the governmental agencies participating in the Border XXI Program, the Program emphasizes the
 environmental aspects (including natural resources) of sustainable development, as well as social
 features as they pertain to environmental health.  It also provides a point of departure for economic
 and technological considerations by promoting pollution prevention and the use of clean technologies.

 Social considerations are central to sustainable development. To advance the goal of sustainability,
 the Border XXI Program must be aligned with efforts undertaken by both governments to further
 social progress for border residents.

 In Mexico, various sectoral programs derived from the National Development Plan seek to improve
 the living conditions of the population throughout the country. The Border XXI Program will be
 coordinated with programs that are oriented toward social development including the Programs for
 Poverty Eradication, Agricultural Development and Rural Development, Industrial Policy  and
 Economic Deregulation, and New Federalism, among others.

 In the United States, the number of people, per capita, living in poverty is significantly higher in the
 border area than in other parts of the country. Under direction from Presidential Executive Order
 12898, which was issued on February 11,   1994,  U.S. federal  agencies  are  incorporating
 environmental justice into  their mission.  Environmental justice  efforts attempt to address the
 disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental impacts experienced by minority
 and low income populations in the U.S.

 Any attempt to promote sustainable development must evaluate and address environmental concerns
 at the local level.  The governments of the U.S. and Mexico hope to enlist the  aid of border
 communities, including nongovernmental organizations, academia and the private sector, to help
 define and apply the principles of sustainable development as they pertain specifically to each local
 community.
   TTic World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission), Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford
University Press), 1987, p. 43.

12                                                                             October 1996

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                                                                              Introduction
Historical Background

For many years, the U.S. and Mexico have been involved in formal and informal cooperative efforts
associated with protecting the environment and natural resources of our common border.  Numerous
bilateral agreements guide both countries' efforts in the border area. These agreements are described
in greater detail in Appendix 1.

Despite these bilateral efforts,  unsustainable  practices  in the border region have resulted in
degradation of environmental conditions. Industrialization has brought important economic benefits
to the border region; however, it has also been accompanied by accelerated population growth and
unsustainable production and consumption which surpass the capacity of the natural resource base
as well as that of basic infrastructure (particularly with regard to water resources). These conditions
present a threat to biodiversity and air and water quality, and pose health risks to border residents.

Since its creation in 1889, particularly since its consolidation as a binational organization with the
Treaty on Utilization of Waters in February 1944, the International Boundary and Water Commission
has fulfilled an important role in coordination, assessment, supervision, administration, and operation
and maintenance of binational sanitation infrastructure and public works along the border, efforts that
have contributed to the resolution of problems faced by the border population.

In order to protect, improve, and conserve the environment of the border region, in 1983 both
governments signed the Agreement for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the
Border Area (La Paz Agreement) which provided a formal foundation for cooperative environmental
efforts. The La Paz Agreement defined the border region as the area lying 100 kilometers or 62.5
miles to the north and south of the U.S.-Mexico boundary. Work carried out under the La Paz
Agreement is coordinated by two National Coordinators: the International Affairs Coordinator in
SEMARNAP and the Assistant Administrator for International Activities of EPA.

In February 1992, the environmental authorities of both governments released  the Integrated
Environmental Plan for the Mexican-U.S. Border Area  (IBEP).  While the  IBEP represented a
reasonable point of departure for addressing environmental concerns in the border region and resulted
in significant investments in infrastructure, critics held that it was limited in scope, implemented
without sufficient public input, and failed to adequately address natural resource and environmental
health concerns. The Border XXI Program builds on the efforts of the IBEP:  As the next phase of
binational planning, Border XXI is designed to overcome the identified shortcomings of the IBEP.
To this end, the scope of Border XXI has been expanded to include health and natural resource
issues. In addition, this Framework Document reflects extensive public input, and the Program is
organized to facilitate federal, state and local involvement.

Funding for implementing Border XXI is based on annual appropriations by the U.S. Congress and
by Mexico's Ministry of Finance. To fulfill Border XXI objectives in the Mexican border region, the
Government of Mexico  will draw on two additional sources  of funding: the Northern Border
Environmental Program (1994-2000) and the Second Project for Solid Wastes (1995-2000). Both
are loan agreements between the World Bank and the Government of Mexico and were signed in
 1994 and 1995, respectively.
 October 1996
                                                                                     L3

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Introduction

Participants

The success of Border XXI is contingent upon broad-based, binational participation by federal, state
and local governments, Indian tribes,  international  institutions,  academia,  nongovernmental
organizations, the private sector, and border citizens and communities.

The key federal agencies involved in developing and implementing Border XXI are:

1)     Environmental Protection: the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Mexico's
       Secretariat for Environment, Natural Resources and Fisheries (SEMARNAP) and Secretariat
       for Social Development (SEDESOL),

2)     Natural Resources:  the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Department of
       Agriculture (USDA), and SEMARNAP.

3)     Border Water Resources: U.S. and Mexican Sections of the International Boundary and
       Water Commission (ffiWC), DOI, EPA, and SEMARNAP.

4)     Environmental Health:  the  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and
       Mexico's Secretariat of Health (SSA).

Other  important federal participants involved in the Border XXI Program  include  the U.S.
Department of State (DOS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), the
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and Mexico's
Secretariat of Foreign Relations (SRE), National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Information
(ENEGT), Secretariat of Interior (Civil Protection), Secretariat of Communication and Transportation
(SCT), and Secretariat of Energy (SE).

In a parallel agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the United States
and Mexico established the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North
American Development Bank (NADBank) to improve environmental infrastructure in the border area.
The BECC and the NADBank will be integral partners in fulfilling the goals of Border XXI.

To further their commitments to environmental protection, the NAFTA partners (Mexico, the United
States and Canada) signed an environmental side agreement to NAFTA on September 3, 1993. This
agreement established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) headquartered in
Montreal, Canada. Some of the Border XXI projects complement aspects of the CEC cooperative
work program.  This interface provides an opportunity  for improving U.S.-Mexico border
environmental and natural resource management as part of a North American solution.

State and local governments and indigenous communities have a broad understanding of the particular
problems and solutions impacting their communities.  In the U.S., the four border states, as well as
counties, municipalities, and Indian tribes located in the region, will be involved in the Program. In
Mexico, the six border states and principal border municipalities will be actively  engaged in
Border XXI.
L4
October 1996

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                                                                                     Introduction

In order to facilitate public input into  Border XXI, the federal governments are  enlisting the
assistance of their respective public advisory boards, the Good Neighbor Environmental Board
(GNEB) for the U.S., and the Advisory Council for Sustainable Development (Region 1) in Mexico.4

Nine binational Border XXI Workgroups will implement the Program by integrating the efforts of
participating entities and defining specific projects to meet Border XXL objectives.  Each Workgroup
operates under the  guidance of a U.S. and Mexican  Cochairperson (Cochair).  Many of the
Workgroups have a long-standing history of binational cooperation. The Workgroups will ensure
effective coordination of bilateral efforts by bringing together federal agencies from both countries
with interests in a given issue. All of the Workgroups are committed to actively encouraging state
participation in their endeavors.  The Workgroups will explore the development of subgroups or
other mechanisms to facilitate the participation of border communities in their implementation of the
Program.

The six Workgroups that were initiated under the La Paz  Agreement are (1) water, (2) air, (3)
hazardous  and solid waste, (4)  pollution prevention, (5) contingency planning and emergency
response, and (6) cooperative enforcement and compliance. Recognizing that the environment needs
to be considered from a comprehensive perspective, Border XXI integrates three new Workgroups.
These are (7) environmental information resources,  (8) natural resources, and (9) environmental
health.5

These nine Workgroups will meet individually as necessary and will convene  as a whole at least once
a year.  New workgroups may be added  in the  future  should the need arise  on a  specific
environmental concern.

The National Coordinators (EPA and SEMARNAP) will guide the Border XXI Workgroups in their
efforts to implement the Program.  The National Coordinators will rely on and coordinate with policy
makers from DOI, HHS and SSA. Contact information for the National Coordinators, Workgroup
Cochairs and Workgroup staff is included in Appendix 2.  Additional information on participating
agencies appears in Appendix 3 of this document.
    *&! the U.S., the GNEB is congressionally mandated to advise the President and Congress on matters concerning environmental and
 infrastructure needs within the US. states contiguous to Mexico. In Mexico, the Regional Advisory Council for Sustainable Development
 is a national advisory council with four regional subgroups created by SEMARNAP in 1995 to provide for public consultations with
 SEMARNAP. Region 1 covers the northern border of Mexico.               .

    5Each group will build on past and ongoing efforts and will determine its own organizational structure and mechanisms for funding
 and implementing specific projects. The Water, Air, Hazardous and Solid Waste, Contingency Planning and Emergency Response,
 Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance, and Pollution Prevention Workgroups will continue and expand on the work of the EPA-
 SEMARNAP La Paz Workgroups which have been in existence for a number of years. The Natural Resources Workgroup will build
 on existing binational agreements and cooperative projects between the two countries. The Environmental Information Resources
 Workgroup will build on recent binational attempts to improve environmental data collection and management efforts in the border region.
 The Environmental Health Workgroup will build on the efforts of the U.S. foteragency Coordinating Committee (ICC) and its ongoing
 and expanding work with Mexico's Secretary of Health (SSA).
 October 1996
                                                                                             15

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 Introduction

 Implementation

 The central challenge facing Border XXI participants is translating long-term Border XXI objectives
 into tangible environmental improvements. As part of their overall strategic planning efforts for the
 border region, both governments recognize the importance of program evaluation and are committed
 to developing performance measures for the Border XXI Program.

 In the next few years, U.S. federal agencies will be incorporating performance-based management
 into the development and implementation of federal programs. A similar process, which incorporates
 environmental performance measures into long-term strategic planning, is being initiated in Mexico.
 Accordingly, the Border XXI Program will attempt to link budget processes and programmatic
 management to specific results through environmental performance measures. The two governments
 will provide the public information on specific Border XXI performance measures as  they are
 developed.

 To this end, the National Coordinators will lead a Strategic Planning and Evaluation Team to review
 the long-term Border XXI objectives, develop indices to measure progress toward meeting these
 objectives, and report on performance to both those respective U.S. and Mexican entities responsible
 for annual budget allocations, and the general public.  Considering that funding for Border XXI is
 received on an annual basis, it is essential that progress be clearly measured and reported to ensure
 the continued support of the general public and federal budget decision-makers in both countries.

 Each year the nine Workgroups will develop Border XXI Annual Implementation Plans. These
 Annual Implementation Plans will identify federal funding levels for a given year and, based upon
 available funds, describe specific projects that will advance the long-term objectives contained in this
 Framework Document.  The development of these Annual Implementation Plans will ensure
 correlation of short-term budget realities with the long-term planning required to fulfill the Border
 XXI objectives. Accordingly, it must be emphasized that project implementation is contingent upon
 the availability of resources.6

 Currently, the Annual Implementation Plans provide basic information on specific projects to be
 initiated  by the Workgroups  in 1996. In the future, the Workgroups will develop their Annual
Implementation Plans at the beginning of each calendar year.  From  1997 forward, the Annual
Implementation Plans will include the following components: federal funding levels for the year,
 specific projects for the year based  on  those funding levels, and  an  assessment  of progress in
implementing specific projects.

All of the objectives in the Framework Document have been identified as priority concerns by both
governments and border communities. In order to track the extent to which actual projects identified
in the Annual Implementation Plans build toward Border XXI objectives, the two governments have
agreed to issue Biennial Progress Reports on the Border XXI Program.
   Appendix 4 includes infomration on annual budgets, the process for developing binational estimates for Border XXI resource needs,
and a description of additional funding sources.

16
                                                                               October 1996

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                                                                              Introduction

While the Workgroups will  assess  progress  on their  particular  projects in their  Annual
Implementation Plans, the Biennial Progress Report will provide a more comprehensive evaluation
of the entire Program. In conjunction with the annual status updates, the Biennial Progress Reports
will support a macro analysis of resource investments and progress on fulfillment of Border XXI
objectives. As they are developed, environmental indicators will be used to measure progress and
will be incorporated into the Biennial Progress Reports.  This will enable the two governments to
detect gaps,  inconsistencies, and regional disparities in  Program implementation  and guide
development of future Annual Implementation Plans accordingly.

To  ensure public input into this evaluation, both the Annual Implementation Plans and the Biennial
Progress Reports will be publicly available. In addition, every two years, in conjunction with the
release of the Biennial Progress Reports, the two governments will hold public meetings to foster
discussion on the success of Border XXL implementation.

Active participation of the border states is central to the implementation of the Program.  In the U.S.,
some aspects of Border XXI implementation,  such as facilities permitting, are the responsibility of
states under federally approved programs. U.S. state participants share responsibilities and dedicate
resources to carry out implementation of the Program in the U.S. border region.  In Mexico, state
responsibilities include,  among others, determination of tariffs, urban pavement, and vehicle
inspections.

Under SEMARNAP's decentralization program (described in Appendix 5), Mexican states will have
an  increasingly direct role in Border XXI  implementation.  Therefore, both federal governments
consider state environmental, natural resource, and health agencies essential participants in Border
XXI implementation and will support their participation through the decentralization mechanisms
described in Chapter n.

Border communities also have an important  role to play in the Program.  The idea behind the
development  of  regional subgroups  to the Border XXI Workgroups and other mechanisms to
facilitate public involvement is to create a forum for participation of local governments, academic
institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector in implementation of Border XXI
at the regional level.

Diagram 1, "Strategic Planning for Border XXI," depicts the relationship between mechanisms for
reporting and public involvement, and the planning and implementation process.  Diagram 2 depicts
the complex  organizational structure  through  which entities  of both countries participate in
Border XXI.

Organization of the Border XXI Framework Document

This Border XXI Framework Document identifies general environmental objectives for the border
region through the year 2000, and describes mechanisms and strategies for fulfilling these objectives.

Chapter II describes the strategies which will guide the efforts  of the partners involved in Border
XXI:  public  participation,  decentralization  of environmental management,  and interagency
cooperation. Chapter HI identifies borderwide environmental issues, past and ongoing projects, and
five-year objectives for each of the nine Border XXI Workgroups.

October 1996                                                                          L 7

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Introduction
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    October 1996
                                                                                 L9

-------
 Introduction

 In recognition of the diversity of the border area and the need for integrated, regional planning,
 Chapters TV through Vm of the Framework Document are organized around five distinct geographic
 regions: California-Baja California, Arizona-Sonora, New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua, Texas-Coahuila-
 Nuevo Leon, and Texas-Tamaulipas. These chapters describe environmental issues and problems,
 past and ongoing projects, and five-year objectives for each of these geographic regions.

 The appendices include supplemental information on environmental agreements and international
 institutions that impact the border, Border  XXI contacts, governmental agencies involved in the
 Program, financial aspects of Border XXI and social and economic considerations for the border
 region.

 Finally, the Border XXI1996 Implementation Plans are being released under separate cover in
 conjunction with this Framework Document.
no
October 1996

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c
HAPTERII
BORDER XXI STRATEGIES

The Border XXI Program emphasizes the following strategies in advancing the goal of sustainable
development:

•     Ensure public involvement in the development and implementation of the Border XXI
      Program.

•     Build capacity and decentralize environmental management in order to augment the
      participation of state and local institutions in implementing the Border XXI Program. ,

•     Ensure interagency cooperation to maximize available resources and avoid duplicative
      efforts on the part of government and other organizations, and reduce the burden that
      coordination with multiple entities places on border communities.


Public Involvement

Both governments aim to engage the creativity, ideas, and energy of border residents in the evolution
and ongoing implementation of the long-term objectives identified in this Framework Document. The
border community is closest  to border environmental problems and experiences the effects of
degradation of the environment, environmental health, and natural resources most directly.  As a
result, the border community is uniquely positioned to help identify solutions to localized problems.
Through input from border communities, under Border XXI, both federal governments will have
better information when making decisions on how environmental resources are allocated and
managed.

Environmental goals and objectives for Border  XXI were developed  by  the federal agencies
participating in the Program taking into account views expressed by the public, academic institutions,
the private sector, state and local governments, nongovernmental organizations, and public advisory
committees.

The public participation process included a series of domestic and binational meetings and concluded
with a 45-day period of public comment on the Draft Border XXI Framework Document. The public
comments received during the domestic and binational meetings, as well as written comments
submitted to the two governments, are reflected throughout this Framework Document and will be
addressed in greater detail in the Border XXI Comment and Response Report.

Through the initial Border XXI public comment  period, the need to clearly specify mechanisms
through which border communities can participate in Border XXI implementation became evident.
Public involvement is a shared responsibility.  On one hand, the federal Border XXI participants must
establish effective mechanisms to channel public input to the Border XXI Workgroups.  On the other
hand, border communities must take an active role in organizing themselves to leverage those
October 1996
                                                                                  III

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Border XXI Strategies

mechanisms.  To this end, Border XXI contemplates the following information, reporting, and
communication mechanisms:

1.      The Border XXI Annual Implementation Plans and the Biennial Progress Reports will be
       available to the public.  In conjunction with the Biennial Progress Reports, the two
       governments will hold public forums along the border every two years. Through this process,
       the public will have the opportunity to suggest modifications to long-term Border XXI
       objectives, and ensure that the objectives reflect the changing dynamics of the border region.
       Public input will be compiled and summarized in a Border XXI Summary of Biennial Public
       Comments.

2.      In order to allow for ongoing direct communication between the public and members  of the
       Border XXI Workgroups, a directory which includes contact information for Border XXI
       Workgroup cochairs, Border XXI Workgroup staff, and regional offices involved  in the
       Program is provided in Appendix 2.

3.      The Border XXI Workgroups will explore the formation of binational subgroups or other
       mechanisms which will provide the Border XXI Workgroups with regional perspectives. It
       is envisioned that the subgroups will include, as appropriate, local and state government
       representatives, members of nongovernmental organizations, academia, and representatives
       of the private sector. These subgroups will be developed at the Workgroups' discretion and
       may be organized around geographic areas, specific projects, or particular issues. To date,
       the Air, Hazardous and Solid Waste, Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance, Information
       Resources, and Water Workgroups have initiated subgroups.

       In addition, the two governments have established a Joint Advisory Committee for the
       Improvement of Air Quality which will recommend strategies for the control of air pollution
       in the Paso del Norte air basin. The Joint Advisory Committee includes representatives of
       both local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations.  The two nations will
       analyze the results of this effort as a  model for local involvement in transboundary
       environmental management.

       Finally, the Border XXI Workgroups will explore additional channels for public input such
       as existing federal and state offices in the border region.

4.      Both governments have agreed to engage the assistance of the Good Neighbor Environmental
       Board (U.S.) and the Advisory Council for Sustainable Development, Region 1 (Mexico) in
       the implementation of the Border XXI Program.  At least once a year,  the two advisory
       boards will  convene a joint meeting to evaluate the progress of the Program.  Both
       governments encourage these advisory committees to expand public involvement in their
       activities. Appendix 2 includes information on the membership of these advisory boards.

5.      Access to information is a necessary condition for public participation and represents one of
       the most frequent requests of border communities.  Accordingly, the Border XXI Program
       must offer better mechanisms for public access to information. To this end, the U.S. and
       Mexican governments  have agreed to take a variety of domestic and bilateral actions
       including:
n.2
                                                                              October 1996

-------
                                                                      Border XXI Strategies

      •      Establishment of SEMARNAP public environmental information centers in the
             Northern Mexico border area. These centers will include public computer stations
             with Internet access.

      •      Establishment of public computer workstations connected  to the  Internet  and
             maintenance of the toll free Border XXI information telephone line in the EPA Border
             Liaison Offices.

      •      Development of a binational environmental information  and data  management
             directory which includes available resources  and general data  and information
             generated by the Border XXI Workgroups.

      These activities and objectives  are discussed  in  greater detail in Chapter HI  under
      Environmental Information Resources.

6.    Support for academic institutions can help further Border XXI objectives. The numerous
      research projects undertaken by universities in both countries will serve as  an important
      contribution to the realization of Border XXI objectives.  In this regard,  advances in scientific
      knowledge should be reflected in policy and incorporated into the efforts of the Workgroups
      through the assistance of the Environmental Information Workgroup.

      In the past five years, the U.S.  Congress has appropriated money  through EPA to the
      Southwest Center for Research and Policy (SCERP), a consortium of U.S.  and Mexican
      universities that develop research projects related to the border environment.1 In addition,
      the U.S.-Mexico  Science Foundation has undertaken academic research on appropriate
      environmental technologies.

      In Mexico, Program efforts will be supported by the research of institutions such as JtMTA,
      INP.,  INIFAP, INE and other universities and research centers established in  the border
      region.

7.    EPA. will publicize information on the availability of grants which could be applied to further
      Program objectives such  as Border XXI community grants, (described in  Appendix 7)
      environmental education,  environmental justice, pollution prevention,  and  sustainable
      development grants. In addition, EPA and SEMARNAP will publicize the Commission for
      Environmental Cooperation's North American Fund for Environmental Cooperation which
      can support public involvement in Border XXI efforts.

Institutional Strengthening and Decentralization

Both governments recognize that, in order to further the goal of sustainable development, the
authority and resources for environmental management must be located at the level of government
that is closest to the community  as possible. To this end, the Border XXI  Program emphasizes
    For more information on SCERP, please see Appendix 6.

October 1996
n.3

-------
Border XXI Strategies

mechanisms for strengthening  state and  local government and  decentralizing  environmental
management.

Sustainable development is contingent upon consideration of local issues such as water availability,
needs and costs, current and future population growth, adequate infrastructure to support housing
developments, and the inclusion of environmental issues and limiting factors in local and regional
planning. Many of these considerations are the responsibility of state and local institutions. Federal
support of these institutions and their local planning efforts will foster sustainable environmental
management at the regional level.

The information and notification mechanisms established in the La Paz Agreement are part of the
commitments  undertaken by federal authorities in the U.S.  and Mexico.   Accordingly, both
governments will continue to encourage direct cross-border communication between state and local
authorities,  with the understanding that formal agreements must be raised through DOS and SRE
diplomatic channels by means of the Border XXI Workgroup Cochairs.

Current Status

Both governments have domestic and bilateral programs in place to foster institutional strengthening.
In Mexico, decentralization and institutional strengthening to support environmental management are
being pursued through two avenues.

SEMARNAP  has  initiated an ambitious national program of decentralization of environmental
management by incorporating all of its programs into a Network which will integrate and coordinate
decentralization actions. Under this Network, decentralization is conceived as a process through
which political and administrative actions, as well as resources, are transferred from the federal
government to state and municipal governments and, by extension, to organizations in the public and
private sector.  To date,  participants in the Network have identified  45 federal decentralization
actions. This decentralization effort will come under the legal umbrella of Coordination Agreements
signed between SEMARNAP and the states.  SEMARNAP will enter into Coordination Agreements
with border region states this year.

In  a complementary effort, since 1995, INE has been implementing a project for institutional
strengthening of state and municipal environmental management in the border region.  This project
is part of the Northern Border Environmental Program (funded via a World Bank loan) which aims
to  strengthen the technical environmental capacity  in the Mexican border states as well as in  10
principal municipalities.  This will be achieved through personnel training, capacity building, the
provision of appropriate equipment,  and specific studies that will allow authorities to develop a
strategy for environmental planning and management.   For more details on the Decentralization
Program for environmental institutional strengthening in Mexico, see Appendix 5.

Mexico's Secretariat of Social Development (SEDESOL) supports the strengthening of states and
municipalities through implementation of the Solid Waste Section of World Bank loan 3752ME. The
General Directorate of Infrastructure and Equipment serves as the technical agent for this effort.
n.4
                                                                               October 1996

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                                                                         Border XXI Strategies

.Mexico's Secretariat of Health (SSA) initiated its process of decentralization many years ago and was
able to establish the basis for coordination with the Mexican states. In 1996, Mexican states began
to manage their own resources and health programs.

In the U.S., the federal government has delegated certain authorities to state and local governments
and has increased consultations on the management and implementation of federal responsibilities.
The delegated authorities are uniform and have federally established minimum requirements.
Consistent -with the effective implementation of its programs, EPA has retained federal enforcement
authority  and oversight of its delegated authorities.  In addition to the delegation of many of its
programs and associated resources, EPA has  enlisted the direct assistance of state and local
environmental authorities in the implementation of its border projects.   EPA and DOJ often
coordinate 'with state and local officials on enforcement of various laws protecting the environment.
EPA and  HHS have included state and local health authorities in the Interagency Coordinating
Committee (ICC) for U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Health, the federal vehicle for interagency
coordination on border environmental health issues.

The USDA's Natural Resources Conservation  Service (NRCS) works with locally established
Resource Conservation Districts to identify and resolve conservation concerns related to soil, water,
air, plant, and animal resources.  In addition, USFS has a state and private Forestry staff that
collaborates with state Forestry agencies, local and indigenous communities, and private landowners
to manage forest and range lands beyond the USFS's boundaries.  DOI, state natural resource
agencies,  and tribal governments have shared authority over  natural  resource management.
Generally, the  federal government  is responsible for  migratory  species and nationally-listed
endangered species, and the states are responsible for resident species of wildlife, particularly certain
nonmigratory game species.  The tribes have management authority of natural resources within the
confines of their nations.

Finally, the BECC and NADBank are both charged with assisting state and local authorities and
private sector entities  in coordinating, preparing,  developing,  implementing,  and overseeing
environmental infrastructure projects in the border area through various mechanisms.

Future Activities

The U.S. and Mexico  are  committed to meeting the goals of institutional strengthening and
decentralization of environmental management. To this end, both governments have agreed to the
following:

1.     Encourage state participation in all Border XXI Workgroups, as well as state and local
       government participation in the subgroups.

2.     Convene an annual binational Border XXI meeting of policy makers from all border states and
       tribes charged with environmental protection, environmental health, and natural resource
       concerns.  The purpose of the meeting will be to facilitate state and tribal input into the
       Border XXI Program and discuss state and tribal concerns regarding Border XXI
       implementation.
 October 1996
                                                                                      n.5

-------
Border XXI Strategies

3.     EPA,  SEMARNAP, SEDESOL, ffiWC, BECC, NADBank and other entities from both
       countries will continue cooperative efforts to reinforce environmental planning capabilities in
       state  and local authorities,  especially with  respect  to  environmental  infrastructure
       (wastewater, drinking water, solid waste, and road paving). Both governments will work
       with BECC  and NADBank to deliver technical  assistance to these entities for project
       certification and to ensure funding.

4.     SEMARNAP will develop and implement the aforementioned decentralization project which
       attempts to bring decision-making  and associated resources to the local level and foster
       environmental planning, implementation, and evaluation at the level of government closest to
       the community.

5.     In the U.S., the federal government will continue to provide resources to the states to help
       implement Border XXI Program activities.

6.     DOI has been involved in and will continue to develop international, state, and local training
       programs in environmental education, outreach, ecosystem management, protected areas
       management, resource protection, and planning for protected areas.

7.     Both governments will provide access to federal  research which supports state and  local
       environmental decision-making.

Interagency Cooperation and Coordination

Border XXI  brings together the efforts of U.S. and Mexican governmental agencies conducting
border environmental work and strives to integrate efforts to address border environmental, natural
resource and environmental health issues. This integration will create new mechanisms for problem-
solving and will support the effective use of available resources as the two governments work toward
the goal of sustainable development in the border region.

The creation of SEMARNAP in 1994 unified the environmental responsibilities which had previously
resided in  numerous federal agencies under one  Secretariat,  thereby enhancing efficiency in
environmental planning and programs in Mexico. As a result, in Mexico, environmental protection,
environment-related enforcement and inspections, natural resources management (including water),
and  fisheries all come under the authority of SEMARNAP (without  limiting the domestic
responsibilities and commitments derived from international  agreements and accords by other federal
agencies).  This new organization has created an historic opportunity to  integrate binational
environmental and natural resource programs in the border region.

To improve upon this  process for coordinating the multitude of federal, state, tribal, and  local
programs, both governments have agreed to the following domestic and bilateral actions:

1.     At least once a year, both governments will organize a plenary meeting of the Border XXI
       Workgroups. These meetings will enable the Workgroups to review their progress, develop
       their Annual Implementation Plans, and exchange information about all of their programs with
       other Workgroups.
n.6
                                                                             October 1996

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                                                                        Border XXI Strategies

2.     Department of the Interior will continue to utilize the U.S. Field Coordinating Committee
       (FCC) which is  composed of representatives of seven bureaus to promote, facilitate, and
       enhance communications  and  coordination  among DOI bureaus  and other U.S.-Mexico
       federal and state entities  in addressing natural resource issues at the local level along
       the border.2

3.     USFS will continue to collaborate with SEMARNAP and INIFAP through research and
       management of resources particularly in the areas of forest and rangeland health, conservation
       of biological diversity, and promotion of sustainable production of forest products and
       sendees.

4.     Multiagency groups  work to advance natural  resources on  a regional scale through
       participation in  the North American Forestry Commission.  This Commission, under the
       auspices of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, is led by forestry
       representatives from Mexico, Canada, and the United  States.

5.     HHS and SSA  have  signed an umbrella agreement to  provide a framework for bilateral
       cooperation and foster collaboration in areas of mutual  interest.  This agreement supports
       existing linkages and relationships, and will facilitate future collaborative efforts in all public
       health areas, including environmental health.  In 1995, SEMARNAP and SSA signed a
       cooperative agreement for research and coordination on environmental health concerns.

6.     The Interagency Coordinating Committee for U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Health
       (ICC) will continue to serve as the coordination vehicle between EPA and the U.S. Public
       Health Service (PBS) to address environmental health issues in the border area.  The ICC will
       also continue to involve the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the U.S..-Mexico
       Border  Health  Association,  as well as actively engage the collaboration of SSA and
       SEMARNAP.

7.     Several  of the  Border XXI Workgroups including Water, Air,  Natural Resources, and
       Environmental Health are presently carrying out different projects related to pesticides. These
       Workgroups will coordinate their efforts, as necessary, to address this area of public concern.
       In addition, these Workgroups will build  upon existing trilateral  efforts in the sound
       management of chemicals being pursued by the CEC.

8.     EPA and SEMARNAP Water and Hazardous and Solid Waste Workgroup representatives
       will  serve as technical advisors to their respective representatives on the BECC and
       NADBank Boards of Directors.  BECC and NADBank representatives will also participate
       in meetings of the Border XXI Water and Hazardous and Solid Waste Workgroups. Because
       of its role in solid  waste infrastructure, Mexico's  Secretariat  of Social Development
       (SEDESOL) will also actively participate in these activities.

9.     Improve communication  between  Indian tribes in the U.S. border area and the authorities
       designing and implementing the Border XXI Program. With support from EPA, a border area
    2 The eight DOI bureaus are described in Appendix 3.

 October 1996
n.7

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Border XXI Strategies

       tribe is currently developing a plan to convene an environmental  conference and fund
       attendance by all U.S. border tribes. The purpose of the tribal-led conference will be to
       discuss how to ensure effective integration  of tribal participation into federal border
       environmental programs, including Border XXI implementation.

10.    While not all transportation issues are within the scope of Border XXI, the Program will
       consider specific environmental impacts related to transportation issues through the Border
       XXI Workgroups. The Federal Highway Administration within the U.S. Department of
       Transportation is preparing, in conjunction with Mexico's SCT, a binational report on
       transportation. The Border XXI Air Workgroup will encourage the participation of the
       Federal Highway Administration, SCT, U.S. Customs, and Aduana (Mexican Customs) in its
       new subgroup on Congestion and Air Pollution at Border Crossings, to ensure coordination
       of efforts to alleviate the environmental impacts caused by congestion at ports of entry.  The
       Contingency Planning and Emergency Response Workgroup will consider the issue of
       transportation of hazardous substances as a critical element of binational contingency
       planning.

11.    While not all energy concerns are within the scope of Border XXI, the Program will consider
       specific environmental impacts related to energy issues through the Border XXI Workgroups.
       The Air Workgroup is exploring the development of a subgroup on Fuel Use Strategies to
       review ongoing efforts and make recommendations on ways to promote energy efficiency and
       the increased use of renewable energy sources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and
       Mexico's Federal Energy Commission will be invited to participate in the subgroup.  The
       Information Resources Workgroup will be encouraged to identify, collect and disseminate
       information on energy conservation. The Pollution Prevention Workgroup will also be
       encouraged to incorporate energy conservation into its efforts.
                                                                             October 1996

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                                                            Border-wide Issues and Objectives
c
HAPTER III
BORDERWIDE ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES
Overview

The border area encompasses four states in the United States (California, Arizona, New Mexico, and
Texas) and six. states in Mexico (Baja California Norte, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon,
and Tamaulipas).  There are 14 major sister city pairs along the border.  The 200-kilometer wide
border area is home to more than 10 million people.

Almost 90 percent of the border population lives in urban areas. For the most part, these urban areas
are sister city communities composed of a U.S. and Mexican city closely related by proximity,
commerce., and shared resources. The sister cities are the main points of commercial and human
transboundary movement and are the industrial centers of the region. The sister city pairs are San
Diego-Tijuana, Calexico-Mexicali, Yuma-San Luis Rio Colorado, Nogales-Nogales, Naco-Naco,
Douglas-AguaPrieta, Columbus-Palomas, El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Presidio-Ojinaga, Del Rio-Ciudad
Acuna, Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras, Laredo-Nuevo Laredo, McAllen-Reynosa and Brownsville-
Matamoros.

                                     TABLE 3.1
                           POPULATION IN THE BORDER AREA
v -- ,- f J&rtte; ""• >
California
Baja Calif arnia
Arizona
Sonora
New Mexico
Chihuahua
Texas
Coahuila
Nuevo Leon
Tamaulipas
Total
Vs^* J9M^Oฃttkftoi* ,
2,607,000
1,401,000
235,000
395,000
21,000
870,000
1,549,000
191,000
17,000
1,015,000
8,301,000 , ,
: ,cyrtft8^P^t*fctbwL'' ' ":
2,850,000
2,108,000
287,000
440,000
63,000
1,085,000
2,030,000
230,000
18,000
1,194,000
10,305,000
 October 1996
                                                                               mi

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 Borderwide Issues and Objectives

  Notes for Table 3.1, Population in the Border Area:
  •The 1990 information for Mexican cities was obtained from the XI National Census of Population and Housing, INEGI;
  •The 1995 information for Mexican cities was obtained from the Population and Housing Count, INEGI1995;
  •The 1990 California, Texas, and New Mexico figures are from the 1990 U.S. Census;
  •The 1990 Arizona figures are from the 1993 Arizona State Almanac;
  •The 1995 California estimates are from the California State Government (Finance) population estimates from California Cities
  and Counties Report 96E-1, May 1996, projections for January 1,1996.
  • 1995 Arizona estimates are from Arizona Department of Economic Security and 1994 Rand McNally Commercial Atlas;
  •1995 figures for cities in New Mexico are estimated from the USDOC, Bureau of Census, October 1995 estimates for July 1,
  1994. Texas figures are from the Texas State Data Center Estimates and Population Program prepared by Department of Rural
  Sociology, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A & M University System, January 1,1996 population estimate.
  •1995 estimates for Texas and New Mexico include estimates of people living in colonias;
  • Arizona figures include the population of the Tohono O'Odham Nation, from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

 The border region is characterized by a great wealth of natural resources, stretching from the Pacific
 Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. The region's highly diverse topography and climate create an incredible
 variety of habitats, from subtropical areas to deserts and mangrove wetlands to  cloud forests.  We
 are now beginning to appreciate the vast biological diversity that occurs in the border ecosystems of
 our two countries.

 Over  the last  30 years, this region  has experienced a dramatic  surge in population  and
 industrialization. Unfortunately, this growth has exceeded the existing infrastructure capabilities of
 the region, leading to inadequate sewage treatment and hazardous and solid waste infrastructure,
 insufficient drinking water  supplies, and dramatic impacts on habitats and the biodiversity they
 support. In addition to these pressures, increased urbanization has resulted in a significant increase
 in the demand for electricity.  Lack of paved roads along the border has also impacted air quality.
 Issues related to chemical substances, such as the storage and  handling of pesticides, air and water
 contamination resulting from pesticide use, and associated environmental health implications also
 pose serious environmental concerns in the border region.  For an overview of social and economic
 factors impacting the region, please see Appendix 8.

 In approaching complex border environmental issues, it is important to recognize the border area as
 a unique geographic, cultural, economic, and political interface of two  sovereign nations.  The
 cultures of both countries are inextricably bound by hundreds of years of history, migration,  and
trade.  The explosion of both U.S. and Mexican artistic and literary expression which deals with the
border region serves as a testimony to the unique culture which characterizes the area.

 Over time, the  free trade zone that has developed in the border region will provide a distinctive
 context for examining the effects of industrial growth on the environment, as  well as on  health,
 demographics,  society, and culture. Given this situation, the U.S. and Mexico are challenged to
 demonstrate that economic and industrial development can coexist with a healthy environment.

In identifying borderwide concerns and objectives, this chapter presents a broader context which
 serves as the underpinning  for the geographic chapters which follow with more specific regional
objectives.  The chapter is organized under nine specific topic areas that correspond to the Border
XXI workgroups. Under each of these topic areas, the borderwide situation is outlined in terms of
issues and problems, past and ongoing projects, and objectives for the next five years.  Realization
 of many of these borderwide objectives will also lead to beneficial results in specific geographic areas.
m.2
                                                                                     October 1996

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                                                                 Borderwide Issues and Objectives

Past and ongoing project tables, which appear throughout this document, are not intended to be
comprehensive inventories of all activities carried out in the border region. Rather, they represent
a sample  of projects that serve as a foundation upon which the Workgroups will design and
implement future projects. Through the development of the Border XXIFramework Document, the
Workgroups have become aware of a vast array of important and relevant projects conducted by
states, border communities, and academic institutions which they will consider in their future
planning.

III.l Natural Resources

Issues and Problems

The border region includes a vast wealth of resources and diverse ecosystems that occur in both
countries.  Freshwater, marine and wetland ecosystems, deserts, rangelands, and several forest types
exist along the 1,952 miles (3,141 km) of international border.

Various federal and state entities, tribal nations, and other institutions share responsibility for the
management of these ecosystems.  In Mexico, flora and wildlife management authority, and the
supervision of the use of forests, fisheries, and aquaculture rest with the federal government, while
the conservation of other natural resources is shared with state and municipal authorities.  Li the
United States, management of natural resources is shared between state and federal governments.
Tribal governments within the United States have management authority for resources within the
confines of their nations.

Our mutual objective is to manage and protect these resources through a coordinated binational effort
to ensure  their availability and enjoyment for succeeding generations.  Meeting this objective will
require recognition of legal mandates and authorities  by the diverse entities participating in the
Program.

As human populations increase on each  side  of the border, more demands are  placed on
transboundary natural resources.  Examples of the threats to these resources include degradation of
air, soil, amd water,  introduction of exotic species, habitat loss, poaching, illegal trade in protected
species, increased wildfires, illegal exploitation of forest and marine resources, overgrazing, trespass
livestock,  and  road  construction.  Addressing these problems  requires an in-depth knowledge of
biodiversity, species, and habitats which can only be obtained through scientific study, inventory, and
monitoring.

Another relevant challenge we face is to communicate to border citizens the importance and necessity
of wise management to ensure the sustainability of natural resources. We also need to encourage
public community participation together with appropriate management authorities.

DOI and SEMARNAP have identified areas of common interest related to the border specific to
selected natural resources issues in which both countries desire to continue and/or enhance working
relationships. As our two countries gain experience in working together, there will be additional and
increased  opportunities  for further cooperation in the management of other natural and cultural
resources  (such as historic sites).
October 1996
                                                                                      m.3

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Borderwide Issues and Objectives

As a result of public meetings in the U.S. and Mexico, three topic areas of interest were identified:
biodiversity and protected areas, forest and soil conservation, and marine and aquatic resources.
Issues and problems associated with these topics are discussed in the following sections.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

Significant natural areas, hydrologic basins, and biological resources are common to the U.S. and
Mexico.  Each country is concerned about the status and distribution of biodiversity, protected
natural areas,  and other factors necessary to  conserve biological resources along the border.
Approximately 85 threatened or endangered species of plants and animals are found in the border
area.  These ecosystems also support  more than 450 rare or endemic species.  More than 700
neotropical migratory species (birds, mammals, and insects) use the borderland habitats during their
annual migrations. Extirpated species  from one country have often found refuge within another
country. Efforts to reestablish species to their historical ranges have been possible because of this
refuge and binational cooperation.  Since plants and animals do not recognize political boundaries,
a means to assure the continuous exchange of information and cooperative interaction is needed to
help ensure their survival.

Other concerns are the possible effects of air and  water pollution on flora and fauna especially in
riparian habitats, and the effects of current and future land use planning for the protection of natural
resources and conservation of sensitive  species.

Management of protected areas in the border region is of mutual interest and concern among multiple
agencies in both countries. In the  U.S., these areas include national forests, national parks and
monuments, national wildlife refuges, public lands, and Indian Trust lands and areas within those
lands designated as cultural, historic, recreational, research, and wilderness; wild and scenic rivers;
estuarine resource reserves; state parks and wildlife areas;  and tribal cultural and religious areas. In
the Mexican border area, these areas include biosphere reserves, flora and fauna protected areas,
national parks, and national forest reserves. Protection of these areas tends to ensure the continuation
of natural ecological processes, and the conservation of important cultural and historical sites in both
countries, while at the same time providing a renewable and sustainable economic base for border
residents.

Other problems that confront protected areas in Mexico include resource impacts from the growing
number of visitors and uncontrolled human activities; the need for better coordination between federal
and state agencies to further  sustainable development  at the local level  by Unking resource
conservation with resource use; limited financial resources for conservation initiatives; and, up to
now, the limited participation by local institutions and residents in the protection of these areas.

Forest and Soil Conservation

Long-term viability of both forest and soil resources is necessary to sustain both wildlife and border
communities. In some cases, the rural  economies  are shifting from extractive uses to recreational
uses.  Both extractive and nonexhaustive uses will be necessary for future viability.  Specifically, land
use planning at the landscape level is needed to address issues relative to forest and agricultural
insects and diseases, reforestation, genetics and silviculture practices.  The health of intermingled
agricultural and forest lands associated with the border is also an issue.  The sustainable use of soil
in. 4
                                                                                  October 1996

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                                                                Borderwide Issues and Objectives

and water resources is also critical for the prevention of desertification. The control and management
of fires as well as use of fire as a management tool are particularly important to all associated
resources.  Sustainable use of these resources is hindered due to a lack of research, monitoring of
research trends, and transfer of this research into management practices.

Forest and woodlands are important components of the border ecosystem, which contribute greatly
to sustainability of the area. The USFS, SEMARNAP, and SAGAR-INIFAP are working together
to plan for the sustainable harvest of this renewable resource, while providing for research and
protection of the region's unique biological resources,

Soil and water conservation are closely related to forest and rangeland management. The NRCS,
USFS,  SEMARNAP, and SAGAR-INEFAP share  expertise and technology  in the cooperative
research and management of these resources.  Management issues include exotic versus native
vegetation management.

Marine and Aquatic Resources

A variety of aquatic environments extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific. From east to west
the area is characterized by a coastal delta and associated wetlands and lagoons; cienegas and streams
course through the interior's basin and range; marine waters combine with a delta rich in biodiversity;
and marine embayments can be found along the Pacific coast.

Freshwater aquatic resources vary in abundance and biodiversity along the border. When viewed
within border ecosystems, these areas are rich in unique ecological assemblages. Many of the species
have evolved in isolated and seemingly harsh environments.  The ulterior mountains contain cold-
water species, whereas the same streams passing through arid lowland desert biomes harbor a
completely different fauna adapted to warm water and often intermittent streams. It is critical that
these aquatic resources have water in the quantity and of the quality necessary to maintain their
ecosystem.                                            ,

The Gulf of Mexico supports a productive fishery.  This productivity is largely dependent on the
estuaries, embayments, wetlands and freshwater flows to the Gulf.  The Gulf and its associated
habitats are particularly important as breeding grounds and juvenile rearing areas for shellfish and
commercial finfish.

The Alto Golfo de California has unique characteristics and a high level of biodiversity; many marine
species, however, are endangered and need protection. Although the estuaries of Southern California
may be small with respect to the Pacific coastal system, they are important for a variety of species.
The estuaries  of Southern California have a close affinity with those of northern Baja California,
Mexico.

In general, many specific issues such as contamination, habitat destruction, coastal development,
introduction of exotic species, and illegal harvest directly affect the marine and aquatic flora and fauna
of the border region. Continued and increased support for binational efforts to provide information
to characterize and manage marine and aquatic resources is necessary.
 October 1996
                                                                                     ra.5

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Borderwide Issues and Objectives

The Cooperative Fisheries Program (CFP), led by NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS) and SEMARNAP, provides an excellent mechanism for information sharing and joint
activities relative to protection and conservation of marine species. The CFP can avoid duplication
of efforts in matters specifically related to marine fisheries. Border XXI, however, could be the
appropriate forum for other projects related to inland and freshwater fisheries and those projects with
a small fisheries component. Information on current CFP projects is available from both NMFS and
SEMARNAP.

In this regard, the MEXUS-Gulf and MEXUS-Pacific Memoranda of Understanding provide a
collaborative forum for both countries to work together on their research efforts.
                                       TABLE 3.2
                                  NATURAL RESOURCES
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
:'*. ' s V^ % X "^ "i ..(•i.
:-.:^ A^ciii^if^ "" ^
':. '"^. ^L^.'"'" "--, VA...^ f*
Conference of the
U.S.-Mexico border
states on parks,
recreation, and
wildlife


Protected areas
management training



Workshop on general
management planning
for natural protected
areas







Key identification
aids for tadpoles

•" •• 'Tfii**'"'' '"
,^/t'IME %
-- FHAME ™
1988-1995






1988-1995




1989-1995










1995-1997


^ ; '
% - PAKHSUftS "''"
- - V ^•.^, - „ ^
NPS,FWS,TPWD,
INE,UACH,
UAAAN,NMSU,
ProFauna A.C.,
McAllen City Parks


NPS,INE,FWS
UAAAN, ProFauna
A.C.


NPS,INE,FWS,
ProFauna A.C.









BRD,UNAM,
CONABIO,
Smithsonian
: 	 \;,m,jm;,j,,,;mA:K,^xy^^^^,? '",\--
r^'''^^^0^&^M^&^^"ii!,''^
' - ";"""-" <,,,,-,.,?]™ v?'s%v^^
Six international conferences have
been held alternating between the
United States and Mexico (i.e.,
Laredo, Texas; Saltillo, Coahuila;
McAllen, Texas; Chihuahua,
Chihuahua; Las Cruces, New Mexico;
Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas).
Eight training courses on
Introduction to Protected Areas
Management have been completed
for U.S.-Mexico natural resources
managers.
Four specialized training courses on
General Management Planning for
U.S.-Mexico natural resources
managers have been completed.
Draft general management plans were
developed as by-products of the
training courses for field study sites
(i.e., Cuatrocienegas, Coahuila;
Ruinas Arqeologicas de la Quemada,
Zacatecas; Maderas del Carmen,
Coahuila; Bavicora, Chihuahua, etc.).
A draft manuscript is in preparation.


m.6
                                                                             October 1996

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                                                              Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                      TABLE 3.2
                                  NATURAL RESOURCES
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
. " AOTSTOT '* \
i" \
Ecology and
conservation of
herpetofauna
Exchange of
biological data and
information networks
with CONABIO
Fire suppression
binational response
and training
Transboundary
Resource Inventory
Project
Risk assessment of
introduced forest
pests and diseases
Volunteer Exchange
Program
Training for
instructors in
environmental
education in the
northeast zone of
Mexico and
production of
educational materials
*mm \
JRKAMK i
1996
1995
1988
1995
1995
1994
1995
^ PAiomM,,
BRD, IMADES
BRD, CONABIO
USFS, SEMARNAP
USFS,FWS,USGS,
universities, NGOs,
state agencies along
the border
USFS, APHIS,
SEMARNAP,
INIFAP, PROFEPA,
FORESTRY
CANADA
USFS, SEMARNAP,
INIFAP
U.S.-Mexico Joint
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
Association for the
Protection of Fauna,
A.C., FWS, INE
1 AccQMHJsapmrs
Study of herpetofauna in the state of
Sonora, Mexico
Developing cooperative mechanisms
for sharing biological data and
information.
Development of binational fire crew
from Sonora and Cordnado National
Forest to respond to border fires in
those areas. Training in fire
suppression techniques, including
controlled burns and basic training in
prevention and control of fires.
Joint measurement, mapping, and
sharing of GIS information in order to
create a digital base map.
Develop risk assessment rating and
improve identification and inspection
practices along the border.
Provide training in various forestry
areas including insect and disease
training, helitack training, wildlife
management, GIS/GPS systems, and
fire management.
Train instructors in environmental
education so that they can raise
awareness in communities regarding
the understanding and conservation of
natural resources.
October 1996
                                                                                  ra.7

-------
 Bordenvide Issues and Objectives
                                       TABLE 3.2
                                   NATURAL RESOURCES
                         PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
ฃt& s% "• ' ^ ^ ^> *"X. fa? - v
fc^iciwifv s --
1 "•.* s *L 4^,,s5ฃ x ?
Environmental
education and
community outreach
in Mexico's northern
border states
Second national
CITES training
course in Mexico
Mammals of the
northern Mexican
border
Biodiversity in
southwestern
ecosystems
U.S.-Mexico
initiative for the
conservation of
migratory bats
A training course for
the management of
cultural and natural
resources
Conservation and
management of
wetlands in Mexico;
production of a
training manual

- lIME
;%%iS&M$s
1995
1995
1995
1996
1995
1994
1995-1996

,ปAB3raซEBS ' '
"• j.\ ::
U.S.-Mexico Joint
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
Universidad
Pedagogica Naciohal
Unidad Mexicali
(National Educational
University of
Mexicali), FWS, INE
U.S.-Mexico Joint
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation
SEMARNAP, FWS,
INE
INE, DIAAPROY,
S.A. DE C.V.
BRD, UNAM,
CONACYT, FWS
U.S.-Mexico Joint
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
Bat Conservation
International, FWS,
INE
SEDESOL, INAH,
NPS
U.S.-Mexico Joint
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
Wetlands
International, AGFD,
INE
' •• " ' , f" * >'
! ^ACjCOMPtiSltjaOE^TS'' , <\
• - -\-'- --"' ',> -[-;">. ": <"-<&
Through these programs the
institutions will try to involve the
communities of the northeastern
Mexico border states in
environmental education activities
related to natural resources.
Train personnel in the identification
of CITES species, and inspection and
enforcement to prevent species
trafficking.
A mammal list was compiled for the
Mexican border area, based on the
collection of scientific data from the
ENCB of the National Polytechnical
Institute and previous work in the
area.
Developing working relationships to
survey and monitor biodiversity in
order to provide status and trends of
transboundary natural resources.
Understand and protect these bat
species that inhabit both sides of the
U.S.-Mexico border.
Train personnel in the management of
natural and cultural resources in
protected natural areas.
A manual is being developed for the
conservation and management of
wetlands.
m.8
                                                                            October 1996

-------
                                                             Bordenvide Issues and Objectives
                                      TABLE 3.2
                                 NATURAL RESOURCES
                       PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
TT AOTra^rr^,^
•.w f '"•' " '' S%
Conservation and
management of
wetlands in Mexico;
1996 training course
Training in special
technical
investigations for
Mexican wildlife
authorities
Resource inventories
of critical wetlands in
Mexico
Study of aquatic bird
gathering
Formation of
committees of diverse
members for the
inspection,
protection, and
verification of natural
resources at the state
level
First training course
regarding CITES
inspection and
enforcement
Training course for
inspectors in
identifying CITES
species skins
Population studies
and habitat
management guides
for threatened and
endangered species
,, '"f^lWi"}^'-
'" ^j -. FJMMJ&-
1996
1995
Ongoing
1994
1995-1996
1995
1996
1990-1996
Vta$tfesv!w.W.HSSง% \ """" ^ f'y,vfr \
*3^mnmฃ** ••
,x,c, ^-*s s \-^-
t \ : •• *y <
AGFD, INE,
Wetlands
International, U.S.-
Mexico Joint
Committee
U.S.-Mexico Joint
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
FWS,INE
DU, DUMAC, INE,
AGFD
U.S.-Mexico Joint
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
DUMAC, FWS, INE
PROFEPA
PROFEPA, FWS,
Environment Canada
PROFEPA, CWS
Canada
USFS,FWS,CDFG
% ^ jff *\ ' •• ' ft V, 'fttjfjpftf.
^ <, ^ ACCOjVpLlsM|OTf LiV <
ff ftf %%hJWk\SSSS^ซ. ff.ff.'V. •,•,•,•.•, *" ^ •,*
The first of three annual training ;
courses on wetland management and
conservation strategies will be
implemented in Merida, Yucatan, late
1996. . . '.
Technical studies were distributed
focusing on Mexican wildlife for the
authorities in the area
Develop wetland inventories for three
regions in Mexico; integrate data into
a user-friendly system and load
images, maps and databases into the
system.
Train technical personnel to identify
aquatic birds existing in priority
regions and to capture them for study.
The committees are instruments that
incorporate social participation,
commercial associations, and the state
government organizations in the
protection of natural resources in each
of the 6 Mexican border states.
Train technical personnel in the
identification and inspection of
CITES species.
Train personnel on the identification
of skins, products, and derivatives of
species included in CITES.
Habitat management guides.
October 1996
                                                                                  m.9

-------
 Bordenvide Issues and Objectives
                                          TABLE 3.2
                                     NATURAL RESOURCES
                          PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
  Technical courses
  and training
  regarding the many
  aspects of
  verification,
  inspection, and
  protection of natural
  resources
  1995-
Ongoing
PROFEPA
Technical and legal training courses
will be held for state and municipal
personnel concerning inspection and
vigilance of natural resources.
  Observation and
  verification program
  of hunting activities
  relating to the
  Cimarron sheep,
  bura, berrendo,
  white-tail deer, and
  wild turkey
Ongoing
PROFEPA
Carry out this program in the northern
border states to ensure compliance
with hunting schedules and prevent
poaching.
  Formation of
  committees of diverse
  members for the
  inspection and
  protection of natural
  resources at the
  municipal level in the
  northern border
Ongoing
PROFEPA
The formation of these committees
will be carried out in municipalities in
priority regions.
Objectives for the Next 5 Years

The governments of the U.S. and Mexico have committed to maintaining biodiversity; conserving,
managing, and restoring the natural resources  along the  border, in a sustainable manner; and
strengthening regulatory compliance in the use, conservation and protection of natural resources.
These objectives will be met through the coordination of the involved agencies of both countries, and
the participation of the public for the benefit of the same. Specific objectives for the next five years
are provided below.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

>•     Improve and expand the protection of species and habitats in the border zone.
       •      Identify biological corridors that permit the free movement of species and complement
              conservation actions and policies for both countries.

       •      Identify habitats in need of protection.
mio
                                                                                  October 1996

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                                                                 Borderwide Issues and Objectives

      •      Promote the protection, conservation, and utilization of a biodiversity program in the
             border region through reintroduction of populations  into their former range of
             distribution using wild brood stocks and the establishment of controlled production
             units as strategies for restoring threatened and endangered flora and fauna.

      •      Strengthen law enforcement capabilities necessary to carry out laws and agreements,
             the Convention on International Trade for Endangered  Species (CITES), as well as
             illegal trafficking of wildlife and wildlife products in the border region.

      •      Educate communities on both sides of the border regarding the negative impacts of
             illegal trafficking and smuggling of wildlife and plants species across the border.

      Establish mechanisms for increasing the base of scientific knowledge to support improved
      protection and management of natural resources.
      •      Cooperate in the development of mutually accessible information systems,  identifying
             status, trends, and research priorities for shared biological resources.

      •      Promote research and investigations of habitats and species of flora and fauna, to
             initiate management and protection programs that concentrate on biodiversity and the
             sustainable use of resources.

      Promote sustainable management of natural resources in the entire border zone through
      productive projects to improve the quality of life for local communities.
      •      Support the adoption of ecosystem management principles that further  sustainable
             development in local communities.

      Manage natural protected areas to guarantee the conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity.
      •      Develop and implement management plans for all federal protected areas in the border
             zone and exchange relevant experiences.

      •      Establish and implement conservation plans for species of special interest.

      •      Facilitate participation from state and municipal authorities,  Indian  Nations,
             nongovernmental organizations, universities and local communities in all aspects of
             conservation activities.

      •      Establish an organizational structure and joint inspection committees for protected
             areas.

      •      Develop funding strategies to strengthen conservation activities.

      Design and conduct training courses and workshops regarding protected area management,
      protected area planning,  exchange of relevant experiences among personnel from both
       countries, environmental education, wildlife management, legislation, and new conservation
       methods along the border.
October 1996
                                                                                     ffl.ll

-------
               Bordenvide Issues and Objectives

               X     Improve binational law enforcement capabilities through cooperation and training, including
                      implementation of international agreements on endangered, threatened, protected and rare
                      species, and programs to combat illegal trafficking of fauna and flora.

               X     Ensure that proposed projects  and activities that may adversely impact the use and
                      conservation of natural resources are  in  compliance  with environmental  regulatory
                      requirements.

               Forest and Soil Conservation

               X     By using native species, encourage the conservation and sustainable use of forest, rangeland,
                      soil,  and wildlife resources as a fundamental part of ecosystem management through
                      collaboration with local communities and public participation.
                      •      Implement programs to restore and enhance soil and forest resources through projects
                            to  improve nursery management, silvicultural practices, and soil protection with
                            emphasis on native species.

                      •      Refine mechanisms for  preparing, preventing, and  responding to wildfires through
                            expansion of regional collaboration and improved fire management activities.

                      •  -    Promote voluntary soil conservation programs and practices.

                      •      Promote reforestation in urban areas with low water consumptive plants as a method
                            for improving air quality.

               X     Strengthen monitoring and enforcement with respect to forestry and wildlife uses, and land
                      use modifications that would be in accord with the principles of sustainability.  Promote
                      verification of phytosanitary conditions of forestal species, products and byproducts during
                      transportation, storage, and trade, with a focus on ports and border crossings.

               X     Continue to build and  expand links between research and management of forests, rangeland
                      and soils.  Fundamental to this is promoting a consistent and compatible classification and
                      inventory system for soils and ecosystems to better coordinate binational research activities
                      and  resource management planning with particular consideration given to land use-soil
                      changes that lead to desertification.  This can be accomplished through education, training,
                      and by involving various disciplines in the design and implementation of these activities.

               X    Promote educational opportunities to local landowner and indigenous communities about non-
                     wood products, the recreational values of forests, and the beneficial role of prescribed burning
                     in order to maintain ecosystems in a natural balance.

               X    Undertake efforts to stop desertification and increase green areas by discouraging the use and
                     consumption of certain flora, providing tax incentives to real estate owners, and restricting
                     road construction and urban sprawl into forested or erosion-susceptible areas.
_
              ra.12
                                                                                              October 1996

-------
                                                                  Border-wide Issues and Objectives

>•     Ensure  that proposed projects  and activities that may adversely impact the use  and
       conservation of  natural resources are  in  compliance with environmental regulatory
       requirements.

Marine and Aquatic Resources

>•     Protect, conserve, and restore marine and freshwater ecosystems and species in the border
       area with special consideration to endangered and threatened species and their habitats.
       •      Promote mitigation of adverse impacts to coastal and freshwater ecosystems resulting
              from natural resource exploitation, tourism, and other human influences.

       •      Prevent and reduce disease and environmental disturbances due to the introduction of
              exotic aquatic species, through technology transfer and cooperative research efforts.

       •      Promote and encourage legal compliance relative to agrochemical usage to prevent
              water and soil degradation and reduce impacts to aquatic resources.

       •      Monitor aquacultural enterprises to enforce permit  compliance,  prevent  water
              degradation and increased  soil salinity, and diminish environmental impacts on aquatic
              habitats.

       •      Regulate and enforce marine and freshwater sport fishing activities.

>•     Promote sustainable aquaculture development while preventing habitat degradation and
       declines in resident species.
       •      Promote compliance with domestic regulations for the protection of interior, coastal,
              and ocean fisheries.

       •      Cooperate to control illegal trafficking of species and illegal use of aquatic resources.

>•     Initiate training, educational programs, and outreach activities that support marine and aquatic
       resources through cooperative investigations, exchange of technology and improved  user
       access to data.

>     Strengthen  compliance with existing legislation and regulations  regarding fisheries and
       aquaculture with the end goal of protecting aquatic biodiversity.

III.2 Water

Issues and Problems

Surface water resources in the border area include two major river drainages, the Colorado River and
the Rio Grande. Other important river systems include the Tijuana River, New River, Alamo River,
Gila River, Santa Cruz River, San Pedro River, Rio Yaqui, Rio Casa Grande, Rio Conchos, Pecos
River, El  Diablo River, Rio Salado, and the Rio San Juan.   These  surface water resources are
 October 1996
                                                                                      m.13

-------
  Borderwide Issues and Objectives

  complemented by numerous groundwater basins, which feed
  biodiversity and the region's natural systems.
important wetland areas that support
  Water pollution is one of the principal environmental and public health problems facing the border
  area.  Deficiencies in the treatment of wastewater,  the disposal of untreated effluent,  and the
  inadequate operation and maintenance  of treatment  plants result in health  risks to  border
  communities. Additionally, the lack of adequate treatment and distribution systems for drinking water
  constitutes a potential exposure risk for, among other things, gastrointestinal infections.  In some
  cases raw or insufficiently treated wastewater is discharged or flows to  surface and groundwater
  drinking water sources in urban and rural areas. In the Rio Grande, for example, raw wastewater is
  often discharged upstream from drinking water intake works. Nitrate contamination also poses a
  threat to rural water supply.

  Along the Mexican side of the border, there are 23 cities with a total population on the order of five
  million inhabitants.  Li these cities, 88 percent of the population has access to drinking water, and 69
  percent has access to sewage collection systems.  The capacity of the treatment plants within these
  cities is 34 percent of total need.  It is worth noting that the sewer systems in the majority of the cities
  are very old and have exceeded their useful life, thereby requiring rehabilitation.  The greatest need
  is for water and wastewater infrastructure in the urban areas; however, a need also exists in small
  communities.

  The waters in streams that form the international boundary are allocated to the two countries by
 treaties administered by the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The waters in
  streams that cross the boundary or in underground basins that straddle the international boundary,
 while not allocated at this time, are the subject of consultations between the United States and
 Mexico under consultative mechanisms, also administered by the IBWC. Finally,  United States and
 Mexico under those treaties have assumed rights and obligations for the international waters,
 administered by the IBWC governing flood control, joint use, water quality, new and modified uses
 of waters, and preservation of the boundary rivers through floodplain regulation.

 The distribution in each country of allocated or unallocated waters is administered by applicable laws
 of each country.  In the United States, the Congress has authorized compacts  for the allocation
 among the states of surface waters of the Rio Grande and the Colorado River. In such cases, the U.S.
 Bureau of Reclamation is responsible  for the control and  storage of allocated waters through
 federally-constructed storage and regulation dams.   The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers manages
 flood control dams in these river systems.  Further, each state has legislation assigning ownership  of
 water rights for specific uses, and governing the use of surface and ground waters. Finally, each state
 has its own legislation that enables municipalities and quasi-public entities to develop, finance and
 operate the infrastructure necessary for the use of these waters for municipal and industrial purposes
 and in agriculture.

 In Mexico, the use and regulation of waters is administered by the Comision Nacional del Agua
 (CNA),.  Under recent law, CNA also is leading efforts to develop basin-wide planning councils
governing the quality and use of surface and ground waters.

 Strong budget restrictions limit the investments in water infrastructure in Mexico. In addition, the
operating entities on the Mexican side of the border require significant subsidies for the provision of
HL14
                                                                                October 1996

-------
                                                                  Borderwide Issues and Objectives

services due to the fact that user fees are insufficient to cover the cost of operation and maintenance,
and a lack of public awareness regarding water conservation issues results in inefficient water usage.

In the U.S. border area, all the sister cities are serviced by public drinking water authorities that are
required to meet the drinking water standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act. In addition, the vast
majority of U.S. municipalities have EPA-permitted publicly owned treatment works, and  new
housing developments cannot be approved unless they are connected to a locally approved septic
system or an EPA-permitted treatment system.  The major exceptions to this situation are existing
'colonias1 or unincorporated communities lacking basic public services. In the U.S. border area, there
is a great need for water and wastewater infrastructure in the colonias and small communities.  It is
estimated that over 390,000 people live in Texas colonias and over 42,000 live in New Mexico
colonias. Texas and New Mexico have both passed laws which now prohibit the development of such
communities without basic sanitary and municipal infrastructure.

The United States and Mexico under the  1944 Water Treaty monitor both the quantity and quality
of the international streams and have developed programs for additional monitoring, including toxic
substances, pesticides, salinity and sediment transport.  Further, the United States and Mexico will
enhance the process for consultations when  an action or project of one country has  a potential
environmental impact on shared natural resources.

An amazing abundance and diversity of wildlife, both migratory and resident species, are found in the
border  region and are dependent upon a limited supply of water. This same water is necessary to
sustain the growing human population. The development of a  comprehensive understanding of the
quantity and quality of water resources that are present in the region is critical to the selection of
conservation and management alternatives. Any future water  supply studies should include multi-
purpose use including fish and wildlife needs.

The systematic and  consistent collection and analysis  of water resources data can generate the
hydrologic information and knowledge needed by water managers along the  border. In turn, these
data can be used to conduct water resource appraisals in which the occurrence and availability of
surface and ground waters and their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics can be described
on a binational basis.  The collection, synthesis, and analysis of hydrogeologic data are important in
establishing and evaluating water resource protection strategies and policies and supporting related
environmental baseline studies. Due to the transboundary nature of water issues, it is important that
efforts to characterize water resources be international in scope.  In order to alleviate water-resource
problems and provide a greater  understanding of hydrologic systems sufficient to predict their
response to natural or human-caused stress, basic applied  hydrologic research is necessary.

Binational agreements  exist for monitoring the quality of principal water bodies. Within these
agreements, the detailed study of salinity, flows, and transport of sediments  in the lower Colorado
River Watershed is of vital importance.

In the context of wastewater treatment, the U.S. and Mexico have established bilateral agreements
which determine that wastewater treatment in each country will be guided by the respective national
standards.   Mexico  is  adapting its regulations and standards regarding wastewater discharges,
considering the water uses of the receiving bodies, instead of regulating the discharges from sources.
October 1996
                                                                                      ffl.15

-------
 Border-wide Issues and Objectives

 In, this sense, the new official Mexican standards will contemplate incremental compliance of the
 quality of water that is discharged to receiving bodies.

 Along the border,  there are a large number of entities with potentially overlapping functions.
 Therefore, increased communication, cooperation, and coordination among responsible parties, which
 acknowledges the different statutory authorities of each country, is needed.

 The Water Workgroup recognizes the need to interact on a continuing basis with other Border XXI
 workgroups, particularly the Natural Resource Workgroup, to maintain an awareness of each other's
 needs and to work collaboratively when appropriate.

 Past and  Ongoing Projects

 From 1989 through  1995, through the efforts of CNA, Mexico completed many planning studies and
 project designs in  the areas of drinking water, sewer systems, sanitation, and the institutional
 strengthening of operating entities. This information is outlined in Table 3.3.

                                         TABLE 3.3
                    NUMBER OF COMPLETED PLANNING AND DESIGN STUDIES
                                Watef Design
                                              Sewer
  Baja California
10
13
  Sonora
  Chihuahua
  Coahuila
  Tamaulipas
13
10
     Total
35
32
34
16
6
To date, borderwide activities pertaining to water programs have basically involved wastewater
infrastructure funding, training courses for utilities operators, and water quality studies.  Specific
infrastructure and water quality monitoring projects are discussed in more detail in the appropriate
geographic chapters.  Table 3.4 identifies past and ongoing borderwide projects related to water
issues.
                                         TABLE 3.4
                                          WATER
                          PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
! ••*•, \Sx '? "*' ', ,
;Ot$cirmfrฅ
;> : **' ';- ! ,•,-"<"
Pretreatment
inspector training
TIME; |
;lFilAMte |
1992
f ~- > -,
PAtrrmERS
EPA, SEDUE
"* ff$ C-1-.
' ACC0MJปLtSi[MEisrr$ ,,f:'
SEDUE staff accompanied EPA staff
during pretreatment inspections in
Southern California.
ra.16
                                                         October 1996

-------
                                                                 Borderwide Issues and! Objectives
                                         TABLE3.4
                                          WATER
                          PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
"-.. . - * '>-
5~4crivl(rX

Wastewater treatment
inventory
Drinking water
inventory
Translate
pretreatment manuals
Industrial Wastewater
Pretreatment Program
training
Identification of
water data needs for
border
characterization
Surface water data
collection and
analysis network
ฃ tbi*;;i
%tซAปB^'i

1993
1994-1996
1995-1996
1994-1995 .
1995-1997
1979-1997
^
x *J*AKxfaป8[< "?
SSSS". f *•
EPA, IBWC
EPA, IBWC, CNA
EPA,WEF
EPA, IBWC, CNA
EPA, DOI, IBWC,
CNA,INEGI
USGS, other federal
agencies; state and
local agencies
^ A€COM^osHMBปnrs s-st
•ซ...
s>s f s ff % •. % •.
Binational inventory of wastewater
systems in the border area.
Binational inventory of public drinking
water systems in the border area.
Draft manuals due summer 1996: Local
Limits Guidance, Industrial User
Inspection & Monitoring and Industrial
User Permitting Guidance.
Course provided to wastewater
technicians in Ciudad Juarez and
Mexicali. ,
Inventory of information gaps and
development of strategy for addressing
them.
Long-term database on stream flow,
sediment and water quality data.
In support of environmental infrastructure development, the U.S. and Mexico created the NADBank
to finance infrastructure for water, wastewater, and solid waste. To date, both governments have
capitalized the NADBank for a total of U.S. $1,275 million in callable capital and U.S. $225 million
in direct capitalization;

The Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) was created to collaborate with state and
municipal authorities, national and international institutions, and with private investors to help
prepare, develop, implement, and oversee environmental infrastructure projects located in the border
region. The BECC analyzes the technical, environmental, social, financial and economic feasibility
of projects as well as community participation and project sustainability prior to the certifications of
projects.  Projects certified will be presented to the NADBank or other financial institutions.  The
Water Workgroup will support the BECC by providing guidance regarding environmental conditions
and water resources at risk.

Through September 1996, the following eight projects have been certified by the BECC, whose total
costs are approximately U.S. $91 million as reflected in Table 3.5.
October 199ซi
mi?

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                        TABLE 3.5
                 PROJECTS CERTIFIED BY THE BECC THROUGH SEPTEMBER 1996
: -\ - ^ -A "-"^- % •""-" Lpฃ$tI0A
' "* ss "* •&•'• **5 '•'• s ฃ. v. •. "~
Ensenada, Baja California
Nogales, Sonora
FINSA, Matamoros, Tamaulipas
Brawley, California
Douglas, Arizona
El Paso, Texas
El Paso, Texas, EPISO
Naco, Sonora
^TyptfpfPnj^t-., v „ ;
wastewater treatment plant
drinking water supply
wastewater treatment plant
drinking water supply
sewer networks
water reuse
wastewater treatment to colonias
drinking water supply and wastewater collection and
treatment
Under the Northern Border Environmental Program (NBEP), Mexico has an agreement with the
World Bank for a credit of U.S. $368 million to support environmental development of the cities in
the northern border area, of which U.S. $80 million is for drinking water and sanitation projects.

Objectives for the Next 5 Years

The two countries, pending available resources, will focus the Water Workgroup's efforts on the
following objectives during the next five years:

V    Develop  and,  when  necessary,  rehabilitate drinking water, wastewater collection, and
      wastewater treatment infrastructure.
      •       Streamline EPA-SEMARNAP-IBWC-DOI cooperation,  where  appropriate,  to
              develop integrated plans that will include analyses of water infrastructure projects and
              technical, economic, financial, and social feasibility studies. The effort will assist the
              operating entities  in  complying with the BECC certification criteria to secure
              financing.

      •       Increase institutional  coordination to make decision-making more efficient and
              optimize available resources.

>•    Pollution Prevention
      •       Establish binational guidelines for developing pretreatment programs, and implement
              pretreatment programs in accordance with each country's standards for industrial
              wastewaters discharged into the municipal collection system and the treatment plants
              whose effluent is discharged to common watersheds.

      •       Work with the Pollution Prevention Workgroup to  assist industries  in reducing
              discharges of pollutants to municipal wastewater collection systems.
mis
                                                                              October 1996

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                                                                 Border-wide Issues and Objectives

>•     Watershed Planning and Management
       •      Pending available resources, establish binational priorities and develop a long-term
              joint program, through DOI, EPA, IBWC, SEMARNAP, in cooperation with state
              and local authorities, to systematically map and characterize key transboundary
              surface and groundwater basins.

>-     Water Quality Monitoring
       •      Continue, and, if necessary, expand the programs for monitoring the quality of isurface
              and ground waters, including salinity and sediment transport, where appropriate to
              characterize and determine the status of and changes in water resources.

       •      Water data along the border will be collected and stored using recognized collection
              and analyses protocols approved by USGS and/or EPA and/or CNA.

>•     Training and Development
       •      Develop personnel training and development programs related to water management
              issues.

>•     Efficient Water Use
       •      Develop consciousness about water and promote its efficient  and rational use.

       •      Promote water reuse and conservation.

V     Public Participation
       •      Promote public participation in decision-making related to water infrastructure as well
              as acceptance of public responsibility with regard to these projects.

       •      Encourage cross-border communication at the federal, state  and  local government
              levels.

Resource Requirements

In Mexico's northern border region, investment needs totaling approximately U.S. $442.3 million for
improvement of the level of water services over the next five years have been identified. These funds
will be invested according to relative priorities, the availability of resources at federal and state levels,
and ability to pay on the part of the water users. These investment needs are distributed as  shown
in Table 3.6.
October 1996
                                                                                     m.19

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                        TABLE 3.6
              RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ESTIMATES FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE*
.. O.s •• •• -.V, \^ v s* s "• "•
^ Vx •• --V ss\-. ^ ••••••
i^ ^J^tf** \\j~n: ™" ' ' * + •• ^ ••
4 , Project Component
*-"- --' -*,~ ,"*• -, "--....
7 ,,? ^ ฃ-:-**
Drinking water
Sewer systems
Treatment
Consolidation
Increased efficiency
Studies and projects
Total
i ,v^v_;,;^ , lavement piBipnSm), ,*V" %; \ \
Urgent
19964997
38.0
32.0
51.0
15.0
15.0
3.3
154.3
Short term
1998-1999
46.0
41.0
34.0
11.0
12.0
1.6
145.6
Medium term
2000
48.0
48.0
28.0
4.0
14.0
0.4
142.4
Total
132.0
121.0
113.0
30.0
41.0
5.3
442.3
 *      These estimates are based on studies and evaluations conducted by the Government of Mexico to meet domestic
        standards.

To  support the  operating entities of the Mexican border localities, CNA contemplates making
investments in these local authorities to improve plant operations as well as increase technical
capacity and financial efficiency. CNA has identified the facility planning and design requirements
for the next three years at a total cost of U.S. $5.5 million.

In 1995, EPA received nearly $150 million for border environmental infrastructure projects: $50
million for colonias, $52.5 million for construction of the South Bay Ocean Outfall (part of the
Tijuana International Wastewater Treatment Facility), $37.3 million for wastewater infrastructure
planning and construction in Imperial Valley-Mexicali and Nogales-Nogales,  $200,000 for water
quality monitoring, and $10 million for wastewater infrastructure planning for projects along the Rio
Grande-Rio Bravo.

In fiscal  year 1996 EPA received $150 million for border environmental infrastructure and U.S.
colonias.  EPA plans to use these funds for several purposes: a) constructing current EPA-assisted
projects; b) providing technical assistance to BECC; c) constructing BECC-certified  projects in
combination with other funding sources; d) providing assistance to indigenous communities; and e)
providing assistance to small communities.  Refer to Appendix 4 for detailed information on funding
distribution.

III.3 Environmental Health

Issues and Problems

Human health and the environment are inextricably linked. The border area is characterized by
heightened public health concerns as a result of a variety of demographic, economic, and
environmental factors.
ra.20
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                                Borderwide Issues and Objectives

Conditions which present challenges to the environmental health of border communities include the
following:  rapid urbanization without commensurate development of health and environmental
infrastructure; increased industrial/manufacturing development and the attendant occupational risks;
changing age demographics as a result of migration producing increases in the number of 3roung,
working adults and children; the poverty under which a high percentage of residents live; lack of
sufficient drinking water supplies of adequate quality; inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic
and industrial wastewater, domestic solid and hazardous waste, and industrial wastes; and improper
handling and storage of pesticides.

The border region is confronted with several serious public health problems that are or may be
associated with toxic environmental exposures.   Contamination of air, water, and soil by heavy
metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) hazardous materials and waste, pesticides, nitrates, raw
sewage, untreated wastewater, parasites, and/or bacteria are suspected to be key factors contributing
to the presence of certain diseases in the populations residing along the border.  These could include
respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and tuberculosis; elevated blood lead levels in children;
multiple myeloma,  a  form of bone-marrow  cancer; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),  an
autoimmune  disorder; hepatitis  A; infectious gastrointestinal  diseases such as shigellosis  and
amebiosis; and pesticide poisonings.

Efforts to address these issues are complicated by the absence of adequate environmental monitoring
and health surveillance mechanisms to document the extent of these problems, lack of available health
services in the community, and insufficient environmental training and education within the health and
medical professions, as well as the general community, to anticipate, recognize, understand,  and
address these conditions.

In 1993, HHS and EPA established the Interagency Coordinating Committee for U.S.-Mexico Border
Environmental Health (ICC) to address these concerns.  The ICC was sanctioned formally through
the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between EPA and HHS in the spring of 1995. The
ICC is composed of federal and state environment and health officials and Pan American Health
Organization representatives. Building upon efforts previously undertaken by HHS, EPA, and border
state agencies, the ICC will continue to work to better identify and address, in a coordinated fashion,
the priority environmental health needs of the area.  The ICC defines environmental health as human
health influenced by  exposure to  chemical, physical,  and biological agents in the  community,
workplace, or home. A program strategy which defines a blueprint to guide long-term planning and
priority-setting has recently undergone  ICC  review and has been provided to Mexico's health
ministry, SS A, for comment.

In Mexico, a similar process is being implemented. SEMARNAP and SSA have signed a detailed
national agreement on joint efforts related to the generation of information, investigations, auditing
and control of environmental and health risks.  SSA has designed programs and defined action steps
for the decentralization of environmental health in the border states. The implementation of these
programs will be a major emphasis in the immediate future.

Currently, the ICC is increasing coordination with SSA and SEMARNAP.  The two countries have
agreed to  promote activity on environmental health issues  by encouraging members from each
country's health and  environment  authorities to work closely together and with their respective
communities to create and implement solutions and improve the quality of their services. It is  also
 October 1996
                                                                                     ra.2i

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives

important to promote environmental health through various communication media and disseminate
information on environmental health activities to other Border XXI Workgroups and border
communities.  Both governments view the ICC and  SSA as the principal mechanisms  for
implementing environmental health solutions on the border. Close coordination between health and
environmental agencies will assist in identifying priorities, evaluating mutual progress, and enhancing
collaboration in related  activities.  In this context,  environmental health  efforts also will be
coordinated with the other Border XXI Workgroups as well as key international entities such as
PAHO, BECC, and CEC.

                                        TABLE 3.7
                                 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
•• <• \ s-. '•&>>. v A., f •••-••
^ V^-x" ^K-XX^- * t-X *s* \%
^ %OOTf? ,";
-"•is;, ^xV^ •.';"-"&'"'••,,....
U.S.-Mexico border
health data
infrastructure
FDA Market Basket
Survey
Evaluation of
hispanicNHANES
database
Neural Tube Defects
Program
Birth Defects
Registry
Cancer Registry
I ttoos '
FRAME
Ongoing
Completed
1995-1996
Ongoing
1994-1997
1992-1997
: *• vฐ
i $msm$s *-
>>,ซ,'
HRSA, CHDS, EPA,
health departments in
border states,
USMBHA
FDA, EPA, TDK,
CDHS,ADHS
EPA, CDC
PAHO, EPA, CDC,
health departments in
border states
Border states, SSA,
PAHO
Mexican border states,
SSA
ACCOMFLISHMlWfS^
Pilot project to improve health data
infrastructure for disease surveillance
and monitoring risk factors.
Provide database on levels of
nutrients, pesticides, and metals in
diet including sampling of
community-specific items in 3 border
cities.
Resurrect and validate this database
as a reference dataset (e.g., levels of
metals and pesticides in biological
fluids) for current/planned studies.
Establish process/program to share
binational surveillance data onNTDs
as results of epidemiological
investigations.
Establish process/program to share
binational surveillance data on NTD
as a result of epidemiological
investigations.
Morbidity-mortality specific
database.
IIL22
                                                                              October 1996

-------
                                                                Border-wide Issues and Objectives
                                        TABLE 3.7
                                 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
                         PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
"Acrr?iw^>-
•* v
ซ.
Communications/
training/education
projects





Analysis of toxic
metals in retail food
i T^MS.
FlAMir-
Ongoing
1994-1995
1993-1995
1984-Present
Ongoing
1996-1997
1995-1997
- ซPAKH*E$S,
Multiple
ATSDR,PAHO
ATSDR, state and
local health
departments
ATSDR, ADHS,
CDHS, TDH
MH,NIEHS, Rural
Coalition, CONACYT
SCERP, ASU, Red
Fronteriza, El Colegio
de Sonora, EPA
SCERP, UTEP,
Universidad
Autonoma de Ciudad
Juarez, EPA
ACCOMPOSBIMff •- *
Support U.S.-Mexico Border Health
Association and similar meetings;.
Provide bilingual information and
training opportunities to enhance
community awareness and self-
directed actions.
Sister city public environmental
health training courses.
Environmental emergency
preparedness.
Guidance on treatment/transport of
persons with acute exposures.
Preparation of public health response
to community petitions and identified
border hazardous waste sites.
Binational workshop on farmer
families and environmental justice.
Model for training community
environmental health advisors.
Determination of health risks in
commonly used foods and cookware.
Objectives for the Next 5 Years

The parties involved in the Border XXI Environmental Health Workgroup seek to increase binational
collaboration between environmental and public health entities to improve the health of border
communities.  These collaborative efforts will improve the ability to identify and address those
environmental conditions that pose the highest health risks.  The goal is to address environmental
health concerns so as to reduce exposures and other factors associated with disease rates along the
border.  To this end, the following objectives have been defined:

>•    Improve the capacity of state, tribal, and local health and environmental agencies to assess the
      relationship between human health and environmental exposures by conducting surveillance,
      monitoring, and research.
October 1996
                                                                                    ED. 23

-------
Bordenvide Issues and Objectives

>•     Improve the capacity of state, tribal, and local health and environmental agencies to deliver
       environmental health intervention, prevention, and educational services.

>•     Increase the opportunities for stakeholders on the border (e.g., individuals, communities,
       institutions/organizations and occupational groups) to participate in environmental health
       initiatives.

>•     Improve training opportunities for environmental and health personnel.

>•     Improve public awareness and understanding of environmental exposure conditions and health
       problems by providing information and educational opportunities.

III.4 Air

Issues and Problems

Many border residents are currently exposed to health-threatening levels of air pollution. Ozone,
particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide are among some of the air pollutants of
concern in the border region.

EPA and Mexico's Institute National  de Ecologia (INE) have developed national strategies to
improve air quality that are centered around basic sets of national ambient air quality standards. Both
countries have established  similar ambient air  quality  standards for carbon monoxide (CO),
sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (03), particulate matter of 10 microns or less
in diameter (PM-10), and lead (Pb). Appendix 9 includes a summary of the health effects of these
contaminants. Table 3.8 compares the Mexican and U.S. health-based ambient air quality standards.
                                        TABLE 3.8
                      COMPARISON OF U.S. AND MEXICAN HEALTH-BASED
                             AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
^ %* virlT %
: XPOLI^AN^ >
, V ....18? ... V ,tv
03
SO2
N02
CO
i " "" ifetCO
Units
0. 1 1 ppm
0.13 ppm
0.03 ppm
0.21 ppm
11 ppm
Average
1 hour
24 hours
annual arithmetic
mean
1 hour
Shows
UJ, s ' " ;;
Units
0.1 2 ppm
0.14 ppm
0.03 ppm
0.25 ppm
0.053 ppm
9 ppm
35 ppm
Average
1 hour
24 hours
annual arithmetic
mean
1 hour
annual arithmetic
mean
8 hours 1 hour
m.24
October 1996

-------
                                                                       Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                            TABLE 3.8
                        COMPARISON OF U.S. AND MEXICAN HEALTH-BASED
                                AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
••••v. ff
r7>PtฃwAKT
TSP
PM-10
Pb
\" ,,,;, - si&&fca -",rr;
Units
260 ,ug/m3
75 yWg/mS
150 Aig/m3
50 //g/m3
1.5 jUg/m3
Average
24 hours
annual geometric
mean
24 hours
annual arithmetic
mean
3 month
arithmetic mean
% "" % % U.4O+ V'W' % X v % .j
Units
Not Applicable
150 /^g/m3
50 yug/m3
1.5 jwg/m3
Average
Not Applicable
24 hours
annual arithmetic
mean
3 months;
Table 3.9 lists border cities that exceed ambient air quality standards. Currently in Mexico there is
no guidance by which to determine "nonattainment" with Mexican air quality standards. Additionally,
there is insufficient air quality monitoring data to determine if Mexican cities meet the Mexican air
quality standards.  Aside from these limitations, Table 3.9 indicates various Mexican cities that
potentially do not meet the Mexican air quality standards based on knowledge of sources and their
potential emissions.

                                            TABLE 3.9
                 BORDER CITIES THAT EXCEED AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
* ~~BORBBRlWrrAI?TOF AREAS* „,, \
El Paso, Texas
Dona Ana County, New Mexico
Imperial County, California
San Diego, California
Douglas, Arizona
Nogales, Arizona
Yuma, Arizona
Tijuana, Baja California
Mexicali, Baja California
San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora
Nogales, Sonora
Agua Prieta, Sonora
Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua
P]k-i0_ $Q/ " €0 """ Q3
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

~2
X
X


X
X


X
X
X
X
~3
X



X
X



X
  1 Mexico is currently in the process of defining procedures and criteria for determining official attainment or nonattainment status.
  2 Currently designated as "unclassifiable/attainment," although last year there were 11 violations. Based on 1994-95 data, design
   value would be 12.9 ppm ("high" moderate).
  3 Currently designated as "transitional" nonattainment for ozone. Based on 1993-1995 data, the county's design value would
   likely be .16 or above (serious).
October 1996
                                                                                            BDL25

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives

Border air quality problems are due to emissions from mobile, point and area sources driven by
economic growth in the region.  The size of the vehicle fleet in Mexico is increasing and many cars
are obtained from abroad.  This impacts air quality as a large portion of these cars do not comply with
auto emission standards because they have been poorly maintained and contain after-market, used,
or inappropriate replacement parts.  In addition, authorities have been unable to perform adequate
planning and design of roadways to allow free flow and movement of traffic, which likewise
contributes to the deterioration of air quality.

Another problem of importance is the large amount of pollution produced by mobile sources (cars,
trucks, buses) at the border crossings, since large vehicle lines form during peak crossing-hours. The
problem is compounded by the poor condition of the vehicles and the extended idling times required
to cross into U.S. cities. This produces noticeable air pollution.

With respect to point sources, industrialization has accelerated with the increased  location of
industrial operations in the border zone. In combination, the maquiladora sector and national industry
emit significant quantities of a variety of pollutants from the combustion of fuel and fugitive emissions
from their industrial processes.  The area is experiencing additional air pollution from service and
commercial activity that accompanies industrial growth.

Finally, the rapid urbanization and resulting lack of infrastructure to support growth results in the
creation of large stretches of unpaved roads that contribute  significantly to particulate matter in the
air, further reducing air quality.  There  are numerous other area emissions sources including
residential fuel combustion, waste disposal (refuse burning), fires (wild fires, prescribed burning,
structural fires), agricultural production, brick manufacturing, wire reclamation, and manure burning.

Annex V to the La Paz  Agreement directs the U.S. and Mexico to assess the causes of and develop
solutions to air quality problems in border sister cities. Given the increase in population, vehicular
traffic, and industrial activity in the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez-Sunland Park, San Diego-Tijuana, Imperial
Valley-Mexicali, ambos Nogales and Douglas-Agua Prieta air basins, there is an immediate need to
evaluate levels of targeted air pollutants. Other areas may likely be added to this list as needs arise.

In particular, the Air  Workgroup will build on the existing efforts of its geographically specific
subgroups to promote regionally based air quality monitoring networks, emissions inventories, and
regional air quality modeling and improvement strategies. These air quality improvement strategies
will serve as useful tools for local decision-makers as they grapple with the interrelationships among
air quality, land use, transportation and economic development. The Workgroup will work in close
partnership with U.S.  and Mexican state and local governments, indigenous communities, private
sector, academia, and NGOs in managing the air quality in the region.  For example, bilateral
agreement was reached to establish a Joint Advisory Committee for the Improvement of Air Quality
which would recommend strategies for the prevention and control of air pollution in the Paso del
Norte air basin.
 m.26
                                                                                October 1996

-------
                                                                        Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                            TABLE 3.10
                                           AIR QUALITY
                            PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
                         :  FRAME
  Air quality programs
  in priority sister
  cities.  The
  workgroup is
  focusing on three
  priority areas over the
  long term: San
  Diego-Tijuana,
  Imperial Valley-
  Mexicali, and El
  Paso-Ciudad Juarez-
  Sunland Park. In
  addition, short-term
  studies are underway
  in other areas (e.g.,
  ambos Nogales,
  Douglas-Agua Prieta)
Ongoing
EPA, INE, border
state and local
governments
 Through the Air Workgroup, the two
 governments are working together-to
 address air quality through emission
 inventory development, monitoring
 and air pollution abatement strategies.
 These efforts include components for
 training, technical assistance and
 public participation.
  Training needs
  assessment and
  referral

  Build the technical
  capacity and
  expertise in Mexico
  to deliver needed air
  quality management
  training in an
  efficient and
  coordinated manner.
Ongoing
EPA,INE,UAM,
UTA, border state and
local governments
Finalized assessment of air quality
training needs for five cities along the
border.

Regional training centers have been
opened in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez
and a third center is planned for
Matamoros.

In process of developing repositories
for training materials and resources
within the training centers.

Provide access to satellite courses
through EPA-sponsored Distance
Learning Network.

Developed procedures for course
development and delivery.

Established train-the-trainer
programs.

Developed and delivered in Mexico
City and Tijuana a training course on
control of particulate pollution.
October 1996
                                                                  ra.27

-------
Bordcrwide Issues and Objectives
                                       TABLE 3.10
                                      AIR QUALITY
                         PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
";^: A':;;;;?; -;;7:;
•y^, ACtWITIf ••
•&••% > •* •• "" -w"" %
Air Emissions
Inventory
Methodology Project

Provide foundation
for development of
consistent industrial,
area, and mobile
source inventories for
large urban centers of
Mexico









U.S.-Mexico
Information Center
on Air Pollution
(CICA)

Developed and
operating an
information center for
the border area to
provide access to
pertinent information
related to assessment
of air pollutant
emissions, ambient
monitoring, air
quality modeling, and
control technologies
and pollution
prevention programs
that will aid in the
achievement of
emissions reductions.
r 	 TIME 	
, F&AM&

Ongoing



















Ongoing






















PA&18NE8&

INE, EPA, WGA,
local governments


















INE, EPA





















* f •.
ACCOMlPLISBMEl^tS^^ ^
, s, . , 	 .'!*.... 	 f .ฃ. .
Developed proposed methodology for
emissions inventory.

Prepared training course materials
and emissions inventory development
manuals. Delivered course in Ciudad
Juarez and plans are underway to
deliver course in Tijuana. Two
manuals have been finalized (basic
emissions inventory techniques, point
sources). Preparing mobile and area
source manuals.
Identified technical studies including
special studies and refinement of
emissions inventory methods testing,
validation of emissions estimates,
emissions factor applicability to
Mexico, and uncertainty analysis.
Pilot testing methodology in
Mexicali.
Continue to provide technical
assistance to Mexican government
and private sector. Current projects
include 1) Spanish translation of air
quality dispersion models; 2)
development of ambient monitoring
plan for Ciudad Acuna; 3)
development of emissions estimation
techniques for unique source
categories in Mexicali; and 4)
emissions and prevention/control
techniques for auto body shops in
Ciudad Juarez.

In addition, the clearinghouse will
make available a wide variety of
information (e.g., air monitoring data)
through a bilingual hot-line (919-
541-1800) and an Internet home
page:
http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/cica.ht
ml.
IIL28
                                                                              October 1996

-------
                                                                 Borderwide Issues and Objectives
Objectives for the Next 5 Years
Over the course of the next five to ten years, both nations hope to be in a position where we have
developed and are implementing air quality improvement strategies along the U.S.-Mexico border,
with the ultimate goal of meeting the health-based ambient air quality standards of each nation. In
order to meet this goal, EPA and SEMARNAP have agreed to focus the efforts of the Workgroup
on the following objectives during the next five years.

>•     Develop air quality assessments and improvement programs:
       •      Evaluate levels of targeted air  pollutants  through regionally-based air  quality
             monitoring networks.

       •      Determine  the source  of the  pollutants through the development of emissions
             inventories.

       •      Load information into computer  models which calculate pollutant concentrations
             throughout the area.

       •      Compare the model's theoretical computations with the actual measured values
             obtained from the monitoring networks and adjust the model.

       •      If necessary, perform additional  modeling computations, based on the emission
             inventory, source emission profiles, and statistical "fingerprinting" methods ("source
             attribution"), which can be used as important aids in determining the most efficient
             and cost-effective control strategies.

       •      Conduct air quality modeling with future year emissions, considering population
             growth and potential impacts of control strategies to predict future ambient air quality
             concentrations and associated health risks. Analyze air quality impacts of alternative
             control strategies.

       •      Based upon analyses, recommend air quality improvement strategies to attain health-
             based air quality standards.

>•     Continue to build institutional infrastructure and expertise in the border region:
       •      Provide technical assistance in the  development and implementation of control
             strategies.

       •      Continue to build the necessary institutional infrastructure and expertise in the border
             region to deliver air quality management training in an efficient and coordinated
             manner. Training courses will be developed in Mexico City as well as the border
             states and municipalities and delivered at training centers located in Tijuana, Ciudad
             Juarez, and Matamoros  (additional training centers may be added as needs arise).

       •      Continue to provide and improve as necessary the technical assistance and information
             dissemination efforts of the U.S.-Mexico Air Pollution Clearinghouse.
October 1996
IEL29

-------
 Bordcnvide Issues and Objectives

 X    Encourage ongoing involvement of local communities. The Air subgroups will meet with
       interested parties on a geographically specific basis to discuss projects and solicit suggestions
       on ways to better facilitate information dissemination and community involvement in air
       quality improvement strategies.

 >•    Review and recommend implementation of air pollution abatement strategies that do not
       require extensive technical evaluations (e.g., promote turnover of gross polluting vehicles,
       reduced automotive vehicle emissions related to idling at border crossings, reductions in
       emissions from high emitting auto paint  and body shops, curtailed open trash burning,
       lessened emissions from high emitting residential heaters, and lowered emissions from brick
       kilns).

 >•    Study the potential for economic incentive programs for reducing air pollution more quickly
       and at less cost than conventional "command and control" methods that require specific
       technologies and/or emissions reductions. These evaluations will present the economic and
       environmental advantages/disadvantages in both the U.S. and Mexico in terms of applying
       such programs in a transboundary context.

 >-    With the anticipated increased industrialization of the border area, it is desirable that the U.S.
       and Mexico have a mechanism by which each country is informed early regarding plans for
       construction of a significant new or modified air polluting source  within the international
       border zone.  The Binational Air Workgroup will explore  development  of a notification
       protocol to address this issue.

 >•    The Binational Air Workgroup will pursue the development of an exploratory subgroup on
       fuel use strategies to review ongoing efforts and to make  recommendations on ways to
       promote energy efficiency and the increased use of renewable energy  sources. The subgroup
       will need to involve the participation from a wide variety of governmental (e.g., EPA, DOE,
       INE, PEMEX, CFE, state, local) and nongovernmental  entities (e.g., private sector, NGOs,
       academia).

 >•    The Binational Air Workgroup will pursue the development of an exploratory subgroup on
       congestion and air pollution at border crossings to review ongoing efforts and to make
       recommendations on ways to alleviate regional air pollution problems caused by vehicular
       congestion at ports of entry. The subgroup will need to involve the participation from a wide
       variety of governmental (e.g., EPA, INE, Customs, DOT, state, local) and nongovernmental
       entities (e.g., private sector, NGOs, academia).

III.5 Hazardous and Solid Waste

Issues and Problems

In the border, rapid industrialization and the associated increase of population have created a need
for improved hazardous and solid waste management infrastructure. Some of the specific waste
issues that have been identified by federal and state agencies, as well as the general public,  include
the illegal transboundary shipment of hazardous waste; improper disposal  of hazardous and solid
ra.30
                                                                              October 1996

-------
                                                                Borderwide Issues and Objectives

waste; health and environmental risks posed by inactive and abandoned sites; the need for proper
development of new sites; and the proper operation and closure of existing sites.

The Hazardous and Solid Waste Workgroup undertakes projects and activities that promote sound
waste management practices. An overarching goal of the Workgroup is to build improved capability
along both sides of the border to develop and implement waste management programs.  Other
primary goals of the Workgroup are to improve the monitoring  of transborder  movements of
hazardous wastes and toxic substances, and to promote pollution prevention and waste reduction
practices. The Workgroup seeks to involve key local, state, and federal officials from both countries
in its activities.

The Workgroup recently changed its name from the Hazardous Waste Workgroup to the Hazardous
and Solid Waste Workgroup. This change was made with the acknowledgment that hazardous and
solid waste management and disposal issues  often present similar  concerns and challenges to
environmental and regulatory officials along the border. In addition, the U.S. and Mexico have
differing definitions of hazardous and solid waste, thereby increasing the need to develop common
approaches to both hazardous and solid waste management.

Bilateral agreements ensure that the two countries coordinate and share information on hazardous
and solid waste facilities  along the border.  Under the U.S.-Mexico Consultative Mechanism for the
Establishment of New Sites and for Existing Sites, agreed to in June, 1992 by the U.S.  and Mexico,
both countries will continue to notify each other of proposed facilities "which store, treat, or dispose
of hazardous, toxic, radioactive, or solid waste and which are required to be permitted, licensed, or
approved by federal, state, or local authorities."

In March 1996, the Interministerial Group on Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites for the U.S.-Mexico
border was formed in Mexico with the  purpose of issuing joint statements on new hazardous waste
facilities and to develop programs for compliance and monitoring of existing sites. This group is
composed of INE,  PROFEPA,  CNA,  the  Coordinating Office of  International Affairs  of
SEMARNAP, the Secretariat of Energy, the National Commission for Nuclear Security and
Safeguards (CONASENUSA) and SRE.
                                       TABLE 3.11
                              HAZARDOUS AND SOLID WASTE
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
          (Please see Appendix 10 for additional U.S., state, and local solid and hazardous waste projects)
*•*• *" fSSS /ฐ ffff& '.
I^Acimfr^
> ' :
Outreach and training
to maquiladoras on
regulatory
requirements for
transborder
shipments of
hazardous waste
^"TlME "<
f S SS fff M
_T&AM& *j
1988-1993
- PARTNERS
EPA, SEDESOL,
TNRCC,NMED,US
and Mexican
Customs, DOT,
National Maquiladora
Association, SCT,
Cal-EPA, ADEQ
" ,11 ACCOMPLIS-HMIKTS ^_
Six borderwide conferences were held
to increase understanding by
maquiladoras and U.S. parent
companies of import/export
regulations. Developed bilingual
manual for the maquiladora industry.
October 1996
                                                                                   m.3i

-------
Bordenvide Issues and Objectives
                                          TABLE 3.11
                                 HAZARDOUS AND SOLID WASTE
                           PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
            (Please see Appendix 10 for additional U.S., state, and local solid and hazardous waste projects)
                           Tsm

  Further develop and
  expand binational
  computerized
  tracking system for
  transborder
  movement of
  hazardous wastes and
  substances
  (HAZTRAKS)
   1992-
 Ongoing
EPA, SEMARNAP,
States
Improved binational monitoring of
hazardous waste movements.

Improved binational enforcement of
import/export regulations.
  Binational
  development of
  information on
  detection of illegally
  imported/exported
  hazardous waste
   1992-
 Ongoing
EPA, SEMARNAP
Establishment and enforcement of
guidelines for the repatriation of
hazardous waste illegally exported or
imported.
  Exchange
  information on siting
  of new and existing
  hazardous,
  radioactive, or solid
  waste facilities along
  the border
  1992-
 Ongoing
EPA, SEMARNAP,
States
Adopted consultative mechanism to
ensure information exchange on a
quarterly basis.
  Produce preliminary
  plan and
  environmental
  evaluation for solid
  wastes in Tijuana and
  Ensenada, B.C.,
  Juarez, Chih., San
  Luis Rio Colorado,
  Son., Matamoros and
  Reynosa, Tarn.
   1993
B.M., SEDESOL
Identify the needs for solid waste
infrastructure for protection of the
                                   environment.
  Integrated diagnosis
  and study of
  environmental
  impacts of a sanitary
  landfill in Mexicali,
  San Luis Rio
  Colorado and Piedras
  Negras
1993,1994
SEDESOL, municipal
governments
Determine implementation plan for
pilot projects and equipment for the
solid waste sector.
m.32
                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                      Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                           TABLE 3.11
                                 HAZARDOUS AND SOLID WASTE
                           PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
            (Please see Appendix 10 for additional U.S., state, and local solid and hazardous waste projects)
  Publication of
  technical and
  administrative
  manuals for
  appropriate
  management and
  final sanitary disposal
  of municipal solid
  wastes
  1995
SEDESOL
Improve the administration and
management of municipal solid
wastes in cities.
  Improve hazardous
  waste field sampling
  and lab analysis
  capability (including
  creation of mobile lab
  units)
 1995-
Ongoing
EPA, SEMARNAP,
State
Improved ability to detect violations
of hazardous waste management and
import/export regulations.
  Provide solid waste
  reduction assistance
  to maquiladora
  industry in San
  Diego-Tijuana region
  (Border Waste Wi$e)
  1996
EPA, San Diego,
Tijuana, Cal-EPA
Solid waste reduction trainings held
and waste assessments conducted at
maquiladoras. Waste reduction
manuals developed for maquiladoras.
  Establish binational
  recycling market
  development zones
  (RMDZ) in San
  Diego and Tijuana.
  1996
EPA, San Diego,
Tijuana
Data on recycling sources, markets,
and relevant customs regulations in
San Diego-Tijuana region. Creation
of RMDZ in Tijuana to parallel San
Diego RMDZ.
  Utilize regional
  geographic
  subgroups to
  implement Hazardous
  and Solid Waste and
  Cooperative
  Enforcement and
  Compliance
  Workgroup
  objectives
 1996-
Ongoing
EPA, SEMARNAP,
states, and local
authorities
Develop and implement region-
specific projects with the binational
subgroups.
October 1996
                                                                ra.33

-------
Bordenvide Issues and Objectives
                                      TABLE 3.11
                              HAZARDOUS AND SOLID WASTE
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS-BoRDERWiDE
          (Please see Appendix 10 for additional U.S., state, and local solid and hazardous waste projects)
>. \ "^s '•'•'•••. f ft'-'- \ 5 "* :
; H-VW "-S* ,-.** sAmwrv, -• s ;
• ,, (",-, --\*3*-V<- *•,* Vs* A ^i s s - v
; •ฃ, j|ฃ _;f- -k^ , j
Inventory of
hazardous waste
generation and
inventory of
management
infrastructure
Workshops on
California and
Mexico requirements
for importers and
exporters of
hazardous waste
Inventory of solid
waste landfills
Assessment of illegal
dumps
: F&AM8 1
1996-
Ongoing
1996
Ongoing
Ongoing
FARTNS3RS ,
EPA, SEMARNAP,
states
Cal-DTSC,EPA,U.S.
and Mexico Customs,
DOT, San Diego and
Imperial Counties,
SECOFI, SDSU, INE,
PROFEPA, SCT,
Secretariat of Health
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
; AcCOMPLBHMEKfS^^" *
,; *,j •>**{ ป. -"
Identify facilities and determine
amounts of wastes generated.
Two workshops were held in San
Diego and Imperial to increase
understanding of California and Baja
California industries on requirements
involved with importing and
exporting hazardous wastes.
Pursuant to EPA grants, an inventory
of active solid waste landfills along
the border was conducted. Training
on landfill design, operation and
closure was provided to Mexican
officials and landfill owner/operators.
TNRCC is evaluating the scope of
illegal dump problems and assessing
collection/disposal needs.
Objectives for the Next 5 Years

EPA, SEMARNAP, and SEDESOL have agreed to focus the efforts of the Hazardous and Solid
Waste Workgroup on the following objectives over the next five years.

>•    Develop a vulnerability atlas for the U.S.-Mexico border to target geographic priorities for
      solid and hazardous waste management activities.

>•    Improve monitoring of the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and substances in
      the border region:
      •      Maintain and improve the HAZTRAKS system.

      •      Attempt to correlate the definitions of "hazardous waste" between the two countries.

      •      Provide training to, and work cooperatively with, U.S. and Mexican Customs officials.

      •      Coordinate development of HAZTRAKS with other international tracking systems.
in. 34
                                                                             October 1996

-------
                                                                 Borderwide issues and Objectives

       •      Maintain inventory of hazardous waste generation and management infrastructure.

       •      Use the information contained in HAZTRAKS to improve regulatory compliance and
             identify needs for hazardous waste management infrastructure.

       •      Assess application of the TransHaz Electronic Data Interchange system for electronic
             transfer of documents related to the movement of hazardous waste.

       Continue enforcement activities related to illegal hazardous waste practices:
       •      Deliver training to enhance capabilities in regulating hazardous waste.

       •      Continue to repatriate illegally exported/imported hazardous wastes.

       •      Review and improve the repatriation guidelines.

       •      Improve monitoring of the movement and generation of hazardous waste.

       •      Continue to conduct inspections at the U.S.-Mexico  border crossings for illegal
             shipments of hazardous waste.

       Improve waste management practices and promote solid and hazardous waste minimization
       and recycling:
       ซ      Develop partnerships with industry to encourage waste minimization and safe material
             management.

       •      Provide site-specific compliance and technical assistance on an as-needed basis.

       •      Train government officials, community leaders, and industry on waste reduction and
             pollution prevention.

       •      Create laboratory capability in the border region to address equipment needs, sampling
             methods and training of personnel, including development of mobile laboratories.

       •      Continue to promote, through  SEDESOL, integrated solutions for the management
             and disposal of solid wastes in sanitary landfills and the closure of open dumps. To
             that end, publish and disseminate technical and administrative manuals and promote
             the closure and/or upgrading of open dumps.

       Build institutional expertise and capability:
       •      Exchange technical information regarding the criteria for the design, construction,
             operation and monitoring of waste facilities in the border area, including  minimum
             requirements for siting  of waste facilities by both countries in the border zone.

       •      Continue to exchange information on waste facilities in the border area in accordance
             with the U.S.-Mexico Consultative Mechanism for the Establishment of New Sites
             and for Existing Sites.
October 1996
                                                                                    m.35

-------
 Border-wide Issues and Objectives

       •      Identify and address training needs and implement training courses for environmental
              regulatory officials, industry, customs and transport officials from both countries.

       •      Develop closer coordination with the BECC and the CEC to help target projects and
              priorities.

       •      Utilize regional geographic subgroups to implement the Hazardous and Solid Waste
              Workgroup objectives.

       •      Conduct training courses at all levels of government involved with the management
              and operations of municipal solid waste sites.

 III.6 Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

 Issues and Problems

 The fundamental purpose of the Contingency Planning and Emergency Response Workgroup is to
 increase municipal and local capacity to prepare for and respond to hazardous material emergencies
 and optimize the use of U.S. andMexican resources in environmental emergencies.  A key element
 of contingency planning and emergency response is the involvement of the public and local officials
 in the development of strategies to implement safeguards for preventing or controlling hazardous
 situations.  The Workgroup has met with communities on a geographic sister city basis to discuss
 strategies and solicit  suggestions on ways  to better facilitate information dissemination and
 community involvement.

 The Workgroup coordinates binational activities through the Joint Response Team (JRT), established
 under Annex n to the La Paz Agreement.  One of the most significant steps the Workgroup has taken
 in the past several years is the expansion of the JRT to include all federal, state, and local entities
 responsible for contingency planning and emergency response activities on both sides of the border.
 Previously, the JRT had included only representatives from EPA and SEMARNAP.  In addition, the
 JRT is near completion of the Revised U.S.-Mexico Joint Inland Contingency Plan (JCP) which is a
 federal plan to protect human health and the environment by providing for coordinated responses to
 chemical accidents affecting the border region. The JCP is to include U.S.-Mexico Sister City Plans
 as they are completed.  The main focus of the work by the JRT was, and continues to be, to assist
 state and local officials and the public in the development of joint  sister city plans to be better
 prepared to mitigate  the effects of chemical accidents along the border.  This  work is being
 accomplished by providing support to the local cities (i.e. sister cities) to  identify the hazardous
 chemical risks present in their community and reduce those risks.

 One area of concern raised in the Border XXI public outreach meetings is that the planning has
focused on sister city areas.  This leaves out large areas which are not major population centers, but
where there still may be a risk of a hazardous incident because of increasing cross-border traffic (i.e.,
trucks carrying loads of hazardous materials through Indian reservations or isolated roads that are
short cuts that traverse small communities).
ra.36
                                                                             October 1996

-------
                                                               Borderwide Issues and Objectives

Another area of concern surrounds issues of cross-border mobilization of personnel and equipment
to ensure that appropriate resources are available during a hazardous materials emergency. A U. S. -
Mexico subworkgroup under the Joint Response Team has been created to address and quickly
resolve these issues. The overarching focus of the Contingency Planning and Emergency Response
Workgroup for the next five years will be to identify the hazardous chemical risks in the border area
and implement a program including necessary resources to address those risks.

                                       TABLE 3.12
                    CONTINGENCY PLANNING AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
":iAai^Tฅ{;r !
<^ vV' ;
Formation of the
Expanded Joint
Response Team
(JRT)
Revisions to the Joint
Contingency Plan
(JCP)
Development of
protocols and
notification
procedures
Promote
CLAM/LEPC
cooperation in the
development of
hazardous; materials
inventories and in
participating in
contingency planning
Workshops and
training courses in
Calexico-Mexicali,
McAllen-Reynosa,
and Eagle Pass-
Piedras Negras.
•" TJHAfcil? ' *i
JRHM&PnX* :
1994
1996-1997
1996-1997
Ongoing
1996
, \ PARTNERS *~
w.% : v, ::v. "" ~~ :
PROFEPA,EPA,and
all appropriate federal,
state, and local
agencies
JRT Members
PROFEPA,EPA
PROFEPA,EPA
ICMA,EPA
s Aocxn&umvKwฎ - -
\
Federal, state, and local entities
responsible for contingency planning
and emergency response activities on
both sides of the border accepted the
expansion of the JRT in 1994.
At the last JRT meeting in March
1996, changes were made to the
original JCP and will be presented to
the remaining federal, state, and local
officials for their review and
approval.
Will address adequate procedures to
coordinate with National Response
Center in the U.S. and National
Communication Center in Mexico.
These groups have information on the
key hazardous materials present at the
border and the JRT will work to
support and provide assistance to
these groups on a continuous basis.
Technical assistance workshops for
sister cities, for emergency
prevention, preparedness, and
response.
October 1996
m.37

-------
 Borderwide Issues and Objectives

 Objectives for the Next 5 Years

 The Workgroup will work to complete revision to the binational Joint Contingency Plan.  In addition,
 it will work with the sister cities to develop binational plans for each of the 14 sister cities in the
 region. It will explore ways to solve the issues raised by states and locals including ways to reduce
 the barriers to the free movement of equipment and personnel across the border (in both, directions)
 in times of response to chemical emergencies. Specific objectives over the next five years include the
 following:

 >•    Implement and complete the following pending activities: joint contingency plan, notification
       system, procedures for quick mobilization of transboundary emergency response personnel
       and equipment,  and  a pilot project with CAMEO  (Computer-aided Management of
       Emergency Operations), a computer system jointly developed by NOAA and EPA.

 >•    Create an Emergency Response Center in each neighboring city, with adequate computer
       equipment and chemical substances databases.

 >•    Acquire mobile units equipped with protective suits for chemical substances, and devices for
       measuring explosivity, toxic gases, etc.

 >•    As a pilot project, establish a Communication Center in one sister city for fast and effective
       response to notification  of an incident that requires the help of the other country and thus
       notify organizations that they should respond to the emergency.

 >•    Promote the creation of and coordination between Local Emergency Planning Committees
       (LEPCs) in the U.S. and Local Committees for Mutual Assistance (CLAMs) in Mexico in
       developing the information on hazardous materials inventories in computer databases.

 >•    Integrate a specialized team of emergency response personnel and prepare training  and
       simulations for the Response Center, the Communications Center, and for the management
       of the mobile units.

 >-     Create a fund for maintenance of the Response Center, the mobile units, the Communication
       Center, and for the training of specialized and other involved personnel.

 >•     Initiate communication to the public about chemical risk in the area in an effort to create
       public awareness and to increase public participation in contingency planning.

 >•     Train personnel currently involved in actual emergencies and subsequently train additional
       personnel in the Response and Communication Centers.

 >•     Exercise and test annually the  established procedures for cross-border notification  and
       response systems for all emergencies that activate the international system.

X     Government officials in both countries will work to remove impediments - legal, political  and
       liability issues - related to emergency response, including  compensation from responsible
       parties.
m.38
October 1996

-------
                                                                 Borderwide Issues and! Objectives

 >    The issue/incident-specific Joint Response Team (JRT) will be responsible  for effective
       implementation of the Inland Plan on a regional level in the U.S. and on a state and local level
       in Mexico in accordance with the policies of the JRT and the JCP.

 X    Encourage industrial  facilities to make use and storage of chemicals information and
       inventories available to local  response officials, and provide response  equipment and
       assistance in the event of a chemical emergency.

 III.7 Environmental Information Resources

 Issues and Problems

 The explosion of data and information on the border environment represents the increased attention
 placed  on border  environmental issues  by government agencies,  academic  institutions,
 nongovernmental organizations,  the private sector, and border residents.   It also reflects the
 challenges posed by the information age.  The two governments have established the Environmental
 Information Resources Workgroup to respond to this situation.

 A recurring theme raised by the public on both sides of the border during the Border XXI public
 meetings was the need for increased public access to a wide variety of environmental information
 presented  in a form that is comprehensible and serves the needs of the  different users.  Public
 information requests range from the results of technical studies to curriculum for elementary schools.
 In order to successfully respond to the public's strong desire for increased access to information, the
 two governments must first determine the types of environmental information that are  currently
 available.

 While a tremendous amount of information about the border environment has been collected and
 generated by a variety of interests, currently there is no comprehensive inventory of existing border
 environmental data and information. It is critical that the U.S. and Mexico systematically identify and
 inventory past and ongoing federal and state government efforts and programs to collect information
 on the border environment.  Given the lack of such an inventory, information gaps and duplicative
 efforts are inevitable. A comprehensive inventory will enable the governments to identify and address
 the most urgent information needs, and effectively foster cooperative rather than redundant efforts
 in the future.

 Cooperative efforts are contingent upon the development of effective mechanisms  to  facilitate
 communication and information sharing within and among the Border XXI Workgroups. The
Environmental Information Resources Workgroup is committed to developing an organized approach
to information management, to encourage horizontal linkages, and to working with the other Border
XXI Workgroups to institutionalize effective communication and information sharing: To  this end,
each Border XXI Workgroup will be designating a liaison to the Environmental Information Resource
Workgroup.  These liaisons will aid in the facilitation of communication among the Border XXI
Workgroups, and will address the dissemination of information issues relevant to the implementation
of the U.S.-Mexico border programs. Such horizontal representation will  ensure that workgroup
communication is automatically cross-fertilized, and will help maintain frequent and fluid information
exchange.
October 1996
                                                                                   m.39

-------
Bordenvide Issues and Objectives

The two governments recognize that certain types of information serve as foundational elements on
which other efforts can build. To this end, the two governments are working toward the development
of compatible geospatial data standards for use in applications such as GIS. The two governments
will also look at environmental indicators which will serve as fundamental tools for measuring
whether environmental policy is addressing the most urgent border environmental problems.  The
Environmental Information Resources Workgroup, in collaboration with the Strategic Planning and
Evaluation Team, will ensure that the other workgroups are aware of these initiatives and have input
into their development and access to their products.

The Geospatial Data/Geographic Information Systems (GIS) subgroup will address and resolve
binational geospatial data and GIS issues  relevant to the U.S.-Mexico environmental border
programs. A steering committee composed of federal, state, and local representatives will begin to
address these geospatial data concerns. This committee will be responsible for the oversight and
coordination of numerous geospatial data and GIS themes and will support issue identification and
resolution with the Border XXI Workgroups.

One of the major concerns expressed by border communities,  as  well  as by the Border XXL
Workgroups, is the need for mechanisms to evaluate the effectiveness of border environmental policy.
To this end, the development of environmental indicators which allow for effective assessment of both
achievements and obstacles to progress that result from the application of such policies is essential.
Environmental indicators will serve as a basis for analysis of implementation efforts, and as an
important tool for dissemination, to the public, of information on progress.
                                        TABLE 3.13
                         ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION RESOURCES
                         PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BoRDERWiDE1
^\ * \ •.!••-.,•, ซ•. % •.ป* "
^&€ft$tfy ^
' \ •••$•. ••>•••• fX- " •.
ป*? •**%. vf s , ,S s
Common information
system architecture
Public access
Lotus Notes
development
GIS database
development
GIS database
conversion
GIS database
development
r ' TIWE
p FRA-ME
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing ,
1995
1995
1994
1993
j PARTNERS
EPA, SEMARNAP
EPA
EPA, SEMARNAP
EPA (R6 & R9)
EPA (R6 & RTP)
EPAR9
ACCQMmSHME^TS^ - ,
Established local area network in the
EPA attache's office in U.S. Embassy
in Mexico City.
Compendium of EPA Binational and
Domestic U.S.-Mexico activities
available on EPA home page.
Lotus Notes installation to key
personnel in EPA and SEMARNAP.
Common TIGER92 based Arc/Info
Library for the border region.
Conversion of DMA/DCW database
to Arc/Mb format.
Acquired SPOT imagery for
California border region.
IIL40
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                             Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                      TABLE 3.13
                        ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION RESOURCES
                       PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BoRDERWiDE1
I&CtlXm^
% ff Sf f f
Directory of Spatial
Datasets to support
environmental
research along the
U.S.-Mexico border
Integrated cross-
border GIS for the
Imperial Valley-
Mexicali Valley
interface
Ah integrated cross-
border GIS for the
San Diego-Tijuana
interface
GIS for
environmental health
Arizona-iSonora
Biosphere Reserve -
GIS
El Paso del Norte -
GIS
Laguna Madre - GIS
Tijuana EJver
Watershed - GIS
: - TIME
; F&AM&
1995
1996-1997
1992-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
! T""i*Amt$iifcT ^
SDSU, EPA, SCERP
SDSU, El Colegio de
la Frontera Norte,
EPA, SCERP
SDSU, COLEF, EPA
ADHS,ADEQ,
CDHS,
NMBHO, TDK,
UTEP, TRIP
Arizona-Sonora
Desert Museum,
CES, TRIP
UTEP, El Paso City
Planning, Ciudad
Juarez, IBWC, New
Mexico Bureau of
Mines, JMAS, CNA,
TRIP
ITESM, TGLO, UT,
DUMAC,UAT,TRIP
SDSU, COLEF,
NOAA, USGS, EPA,
SCERP, USFS
s ""•;'•;'
,', , ;A<^
-------
 Bordenvide Issues and Objectives
                                      TABLE 3.13
                         ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION RESOURCES
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BoRDERWiDE1
', ''';f /•':., , •• \ v •• &•
- ''^c$iviฅy^V^
s ;r- -* :* , , -
,..^..<..>..>!' 	 .* 	 ?.*: 	 xA....
Texas-Mexico
Borderlands Data and
Information Center
Water-related GISs
along the U.S.-
Mexico border
GPS location of
state-EPA regulated
facilities
GIS/GPS workshop
for UT-E1 Paso
Wellhead Protection
Program
Border state-EPA
data sharing
partnerships
Border XXI
presentations to state
GIS coordinators
U.S.-Mexico aerial
photography
initiative
Update and revise all
USGS standard map
products in the border
region
i, ; ;TJMm '
1 FfounfK l
1994-
Ongoing
1993
1994-1996
1996
TIGER 90:
1994-1995
TIGER 92:
1996
1996
1995-1996
1995-
Ongoing
'"/•', ', , -
*PAadttKi& *
TWDB/TNRIS
EPA/OW
UTA-BEG, EPA R6
EPA/R6, TNRCC,
UTEP, UNT
EPA/R6, TNRCC,
TWDB, TNRIS,
NMED, others
EPA/R6, TX-GISPC,
NM-GIC, TRIP
SEMARNAP/INEGI,
DOI/USGS, EPA,
IBWC, CEC, Texas,
CEQ,DOS
USGS,DOIINEGI,
CEQ, DOS, IBWC,
Texas
- ACQQMVUyBM^ -'"
' '^ '''•.* ""
Established a center at TNRIS, the
state data clearinghouse agency, to
deal specifically with border data,
expand data holdings and inventory
border datasets. Secured services of
Mexican national GIS professional
through UTA.
Compiled and published information
on 26 GISs along the border.
During year 1 over 700 sites were
accurately located using real-time
GPS. Year 2 priorities: complete El
Paso, Hidalgo County, TX and Dona
Ana, NM. TRI, PCS and CERCLIS.
Develop and present 3 -day workshop
to UT-E1 Paso Wellhead Protection
project staff (students). Topics are
GIS basics, GPS and hands-on GIS
analysis.
Provide base TIGER GIS datasets
and technical training on dataset use
to primary state environmental
agencies and state data clearinghouse
agencies.
Present overview of Border XXI
Environmental Information Resources
Workgroup to state GIS planning and
coordination groups. Participate in
efforts to identify and fill border data
gaps.
Provide color infrared aerial
photography for entire U.S. portion of
border region. Color infrared and
B/W photography for the Mexico
portion of the border region.
DOQs, DRGs, OEMs, and DLGs;
258 1 quads within the border region
to be produced or updated within the
next 5-7 years.
ra.42
October 1996

-------
                                                                     Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                           TABLE 3.13
                           ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION RESOURCES
                          PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE1
  Improve availability
  and monitoring of
  biological resources
  and coordinate
  methodologies
  1995-
 Ongoing
BRD,CONABIO,
Smithsonian
Agreement signed and held workshop
onNBII. Initiated information
exchange of existing collections
information, inventories, and
monitoring.
  Baseline
  Indicator!; Workshop
Sept 1995
USEPA,
SEMARNAP
Initial phase of the development of
key environmental indicators and a
comprehensive inventory of programs
that involve the collection,
management, and dissemination of
border environmental data.
  El Paso-Ciudad
  Juarez Pilot Project
1995-1997
INEGI,USGS
Demonstrate the ability to share and
translate digital geospatial data
between the U.S. and Mexico.
  GIS development
1996-1997
U. of Utah, SCERP,
EPA, SDSU
Application of GIS database for
identification and modeling of
agricultural contamination affecting
regional groundwater in Mexicali-
Imperial valleys.
  Education and
  training
 Ongoing
NM State U,U of
NM,NM Institute of
Mining &
Technology, and other
partners
Under sponsorship of DOE, DOD,
EPA and others, a program of college
level education at all degree levels has
been established. A program called
the Environmental Fellows Program
has been established to provide
graduate level education to emerging
leaders from Mexico. Ten fellows
from Mexico have already graduated
from this program. A design contest
is conducted annually that provides
practical hands-on education to
universities from all of America,
including Mexico. Courses are
available on a regular basis by
interactive TV. (A training program
has also been established that
addresses all hazardous waste issues,
including regulations and
transportation.)
October 1996
                                                                                          m.43

-------
 Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                         TABLE 3.13
                          ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION RESOURCES
                          PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BoRDERwiDE1
' >>•.ป !"^>" •* ^ y- '
/sซ&*agrch?y;, %
&.W..^ ,, ,'\,i/ '~ -
Rio Grande
Watershed
Information Needs
Survey Workshop
Development of
information capacity
for state and local
Tamaulipas
government
! TJMC& ~.
/FfcAJHK
1996
1996
! ' PA&M&S
: *\ f f sf*
TRIP, FGDC,
TGLO,UT, Pan-
American Tamaulipas
University
Secretaria de
Desarollo Social de
Tamps, INE, World
Bank, EPA, TNRCC
-*% ^ccW^oilimiP^t^^
"' " ' "'\'^ ' -' ,>\^'"<;^ *&',„- -
Identification and review of needs
relating to information standards
between public, private, and academic
institutions.
Under its state decentralization plan
for equipping and building capacity to
operate information management
programs.
           Some of these projects were initiated prior to the formation of this workgroup.

 Objectives for the Next 5 Years

 Through the efforts of the Environmental Information Resources Workgroup, both governments hope
 to develop a systematic approach to the collection and dissemination of border environmental data
 and information. The Workgroup has agreed to the following objectives:

 V    Establish an inventory of environmental information for the border region:
       •      Along with the border communities, the Workgroup will create an inventory of all
              existing border environmental information with the aim of defining information gaps,
              eliminating duplication, encouraging the exchange of capabilities between electronic
              systems, and  facilitating the general information produced by nongovernmental
              organizations.

       •      Establish an environmental information directory which includes relevant institutions,
              experts, projects, investments, and sources of information on both sides of the border.

       •      Identify common border environmental information sources and  methodologies and
              establish mechanisms to efficiently house this information by employing existing meta-
              data type methodology to further categorize the  information for easier access.

       •      Work with the Border XXI Workgroups to clearly document information collection,
              analysis methods and specific datasets (main applications).

>•    Create effective mechanisms for sharing information with government agencies and among
       Border XXI Workgroups:
       •      Establish compatibility of information channels, and assure some connectivity between
              the environmental information systems of the two countries. Develop compatible data
              standards for collection and dissemination of information.
m.44
                                                                              October 1996

-------
                                                                 Borderwide Issues and Objectives

       •      Exchange technology methodologies to ensure the execution of common system
              infrastructure.

       •      Facilitate general  communication  and  information  exchange by  establishing
              communication infrastructure through the development of a consistent and centralized
              collaborative platform. This platform will accomplish the following:

              -*•     establish electronic connectivity among government agencies and the Border
                     XXI Workgroups and enhance and incorporate connectivity with binational
                     organizations;

              -*•     serve as a medium for the Border XXI Workgroups to provide progress
                     reports and updated activities; and

              •*•     house information on border projects and activities.

       Improve and increase public access to information:
       •      Establish regional environmental information databases to focus on the  most
              important border environmental needs of specific border communities and disseminate
              this information to the respective communities.

       •      Draw on the collaborative platform to publish selective information on border projects
              and  activities via the Internet for public access.  Not all  information from the
           ,   collaborative platform will be made publicly available as each government must follow
              its own confidentiality procedures before information is released for public access.

       •      Devise a variety of nonelectronic mechanisms for the dissemination of environmental
              information including hard-copy production of public information available from the
              collaborative platform for inclusion in border information centers and repositories.

       •      Establish public Environmental Information and Training Centers in the Mexican
              border states this year.   Centers  will include  hard-copy publications  and public
              workstations that will be connected to the Internet and both SEMARNAP and EPA
              on-line environmental services.

       •      Maintain and expand the U.S. Border  XXI repositories, and establish public
              workstations connected to the Internet and both EPA and SEMARNAP on-line
              services in the EPA U.S.-Mexico Border Liaison Offices (located in San Diego,
              California, and El  Paso, Texas). BECC also has a repository for Border XXI hard-
              copy publications, as well as public workstations connected to the Internet.

       •      Compile, distribute and maintain an electronic binational environmental information
              directory which includes  existing  resources such as EPA's Project Compendium,
              EPA's  environmental indicators resource list, information on subject experts,
              information on project funding, and general information generated by the Border XXI
              Workgroups. The Workgroup will produce periodic updates of the Border XXI
              Program for general distribution.
October 1996
m.45

-------
Bordenvide Issues and Objectives

       •      Initiate use of the us-mexborder listserver as a focal point for discussion of the Border
              XXI Program.

>•     Establish a unified GIS system for the U.S.-Mexico border area:
       •      Establish a joint, common GIS database for the U.S.-Mexico border. GIS acquisition,
              analysis and reporting is a key component of this initiative. DOI's USGS in the U.S.,
              and  SEMAKNAP/INEGI on the  Mexican  side will coordinate in  an aerial
              photographic survey of the border zone to support this, effort (please see Appendix
              12).  The Workgroup will keep the other Border XXI Workgroups informed of the
              progress on this project.

       •      DOI/USGS, DOS, SEMARNAP, and INEGI, with the support of EPA, IBWC, CEC,
              state governments, and nongovernmental partners will continue  to pursue the
              multiscale baseline mapping to address the needs of Border XXI Workgroups. This
              will be based on appropriate aerial photography and satellite imagery.

       •      The Workgroup's Geospatial Data/GIS subgroup will address compatibility standards
              for Border XXI geospatial data themes.

>•     Promote environmental education opportunities in border communities:
       •      Work with the Border XXI Workgroups and with local communities to identify each
              border community's most important environmental education, training and capacity
              needs, and establish regional bases of information that respond to those needs.

       •      Organize a series of conferences on formal environmental education in the border
              region to inventory existing curriculum and environmental education resources, and
              identify additional needs.

>•     Assist the Strategic Planning and Evaluation Team in the development of environmental
       indicators for the border region to systematically measure the extent to which environmental
       policy addresses the most urgent environmental issues.

IIL8 Pollution Prevention

Issues and Problems

Li recent years, the border area has undergone rapid urban and industrial growth which, in turn, has
negatively affected the environment.  Investing resources to reduce or prevent pollution from being
generated in the first place is often a much more cost-effective means of improving the environment
and avoiding environmental health problems than  spending resources on regulation, treatment,
storage, and disposal.

The mission of the Pollution Prevention Workgroup is to  demonstrate and promote the benefits of
pollution prevention to protect the environment and promote sustainable development in border
communities. To achieve its mission, one of the Workgroup's principal objectives is to coordinate
efforts to define and implement pollution prevention projects in the border area. To this end, public
ra.46
October 1996

-------
                                                                  Borderwide Issues and Objectives

 input is crucial as a means of learning where to focus pollution prevention efforts and obtain new
 ideas on how to effectively communicate the benefits of pollution prevention practices.  These
 practices must be viewed in accordance with the regulatory, socio-economic, and cultural aspects that
 are unique to each country.

 Because pollution prevention is a tool to be implemented in all the Border XXL Workgroups, close
 coordination and cooperation is needed between the workgroups to ensure that they complement one
 another's agenda.  In addition, the Pollution Prevention Workgroup will support the efforts of the
 other workgroups to direct attention to useful pollution prevention practices.

                                         TABLE 3.14
                                   POLLUTION PREVENTION
                         PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
ACwilT* ';
"? ™ '',
Bilingual pollution
prevention manuals
for selected industrial
sectors:
- Woodfimshing
Industry
- Metal Finishing
Industry
- Electronics
Industry
- Textile, and
Apparel Industry
Bilingual pollution
prevention technical
conferences:
- Woodfimshing
- Metal Finishing
Industry
- Electronics
Industry
- Textile and
Apparel Industry
™ItME '
Jffifc&Bk"




1994
completed
1995
completed
expected
1996
expected
1997



1995
1993-1994

1996

1997

'"" Vmwtnm
v •.-.•,
EPA, TNRCC,
ADEQ, CDTSC,
NMED, INE









EPA, TNRCC,
ADEQ, CDTSC,
NMED, INE







-Acm^smmiw
^ \
Completion of bilingual pollution
prevention manuals for the wood
finishing and metal finishing
industries. Bilingual manuals for the
electronics industry and textile and
apparel industry are forthcoming.






Previously held conferences on
pollution prevention in the wood!
finishing industry and metal finishing
industry. Conferences also to be held
on electronics industry and textile and
apparel industry upon completion of
bilingual manuals.



October 1996
                                                                                     ra.47

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                       TABLE 3.14
                                 POLLUTION PREVENTION
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
1 ^ฃฃ *$:/<*'
hxฃ $ปx; T]T" *
Bilingual video on
pollution prevention
as a tool for
enforcement
(Cooperative
Enforcement
Workgroup)
Pollution prevention
curriculum
conference for
students and
graduates in
engineering





Develop sector
manuals to assist
Mexican Pollutant
Release and Transfer
Register (PRTR)
covering the
following issues:
Enforcement and
Compliance
Assurance, Release
Estimation
Techniques, and
Pollution Prevention
Technology transfer
and capacity building
on pollution
prevention with INE



TIMB -I
-FRAME I
Summer
1996





1995-
Ongoing









1996-
Ongoing











1996-
Ongoing





-- :''"-'••.
AHXTfKK^ f
EPA, PROFEPA,
ITESM





EPA, TNRCC,
ITESM, University of
Texas-Pan American,
Monterrey Institute of
Technology,
University of Nuevo
Leon -•..--




EPA,INE,NJDEP












EPA, INE, TNRCC






' ' ' 'A*''' * ' ";" •
^q&XUSBmwe .^ ,;
Video to assist
maquiladoras 'compliance through
voluntary auditing. The video is
currently being reviewed and translated
into the final draft by PROFEPA.


Conference was held November 1995
on development of a pollution
prevention curriculum for students and
graduates in engineering. Guideline
chapters are under development and
should be completed by October 1996.
Another conference is being organized
to further the curriculum on pollution
prevention, disseminate available
information materials, and exchange
creative problem-solving approaches.
Planning stages of developing more
standardized TRI (Toxics Release
Inventory) manuals to aid in
enforcement compliance issues, release
estimation, techniques, and pollution
prevention. Scope of the services are
still being developed.






Working together to train personnel in
voluntary auditing compliance through
technology transfer and capacity
building. Conferences and meetings
have been held in order to share
information with INE, PROFEPA, and
the Maquiladora Association.
ra.48
                                                                             October 1996

-------
                                                                  Borderwide Issues and Objectives
Objectives for the Next 5 Years
Both countries will continue with their pollution prevention activities directed at industry, state and
local governments, and private citizens to promote pollution prevention as a cost-effective means of
reducing levels of contamination, improving the quality of life for border residents, and promoting
economically and environmentally sustainable development. In order to implement this strategy, both
governments have agreed to focus on the following pollution prevention objectives over the next five
years:

>•     Increase technical exchange at all levels of government to enhance assistance and outreach
       to industry:
       •      Develop additional bilingual pollution prevention manuals for priority industrial
              sectors.

       •      Expand pollution prevention technical assistance to small business operations.

       •      Expand pollution prevention assistance to maquiladoras.

>•     Increase technical assistance and outreach to federal, state, and municipal authorities, and the
       general public:
       •      Develop an initiative on recycling and solid waste handling activities.

       •      Deliver workshops on recycling and municipal waste treatment.

       •      Create, in association with the Cooperative Enforcement Workgroup, a pollution
              prevention component in the audit program that can be used in both countries.

       •      SEMARNAP's National Institute of Ecology will develop a pollution prevention
              office.

       •      Initiate a Pollution Release and Transfer Registry (PRTR) in Mexico and develop
              common information dissemination procedures and compatibility between the Mexican
              PRTR and the EPA Toxics Release Inventory (TRI).

       ซ      Provide technical support to Mexican state governmental agencies in recycling and
              pollution prevention.

       •      Assist the Agency for International Development (AID) in the provision of technical
              information to aid facility personnel to identify and implement pollution prevention
              and energy efficiency improvement opportunities within their respective plants, and,
              in turn, to disseminate this information to other facilities and industries within Mexico.

X     Increase cooperation and coordination with other Border XXI Workgroups and other entities
       involved in promoting pollution prevention.
October 1996
ra.49

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives

III.9 Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

Issues and Problems

Effective enforcement of and compliance with environmental laws in the U.S.-Mexico border area
are essential to ensure realization of each country's environmental goals, as well as to prevent
transboundary environmental problems.

EPA and Mexico's Attorney General for Environmental Protection (PROFEPA) have worked
together to enhance both countries' capacity to enforce and promote compliance with their respective
environmental laws and to resolve mutual environmental problems caused by noncompliance. Border
activities pertaining to enforcement and compliance have centered on cooperation in detecting
violations and targeting enforcement;  cooperation in specific  case investigations  and sharing
enforcement information; capacity building through  training and technical consultations; and
promoting voluntary environmental compliance through environmental auditing and pollution
prevention.

Because enforcement and compliance are cross-cutting themes which are important for protecting
all environmental media, and all terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna, close coordination and
cooperation  is needed  between the Border XXI  Cooperative Enforcement  and  Compliance
Workgroup and the other Border XXI Workgroups to ensure that they complement one another and
to enhance cross-cutting attention to enforcement and compliance.

A diverse range of local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies are essential partners of EPA
and PROFEPA in assuring environmental compliance and in building enforcement capacity.  The
Workgroup  has strived to develop a borderwide network of enforcement  and compliance
cooperation, among all relevant agencies at all levels of government on both sides of the border.  This
borderwide network forms a significant regional component of a North America-wide enforcement
and compliance cooperation network.  Many activities initiated bilaterally are now forming the basis
for North America-wide cooperative work under a permanent working group on Enforcement and
Compliance of the CEC (See Appendix 1). In implementing the Border XXI Program, the Border
XXI Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance Workgroup will continue to coordinate its activities
with broader North America-wide enforcement efforts and to identify bilateral initiatives which could
benefit from trilateral cooperation.
ra.50
                                                                            October 1996

                                                             Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                      TABLE 3.15
                       COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
% v.% w,sv,> •. \ ,, •. ^
_._._. "•"•"• s "• "•
Building networks of
interagency
cooperation










Cooperative targeting
and detection of
violations



Case-specific
cooperation













Enforcement results
information sharing

- *T3ME ""„
''"'w$m%
Ongoing












Ongoing





Ongoing, as
cases occur













Ongoing


^ , ,
: pAimw::/
PROFEPA, EPA,
DOJ, TNRCC,
NMED,ADEQ,Cal-
DTSC, local and
county authorities,
DOT, SCT, U.S. and
Mexican Customs,
CNA,
CICOPLAFEST,
regional
environmental
enforcement network
associations
EPA, PROFEPA,
state environmental
agencies, DOJ



EPA, PROFEPA,
state environmental
agencies, DOJ,
United States
Attorneys










EPA, PROFEPA,
state environmental
agencies, DOJ
ffff f f
v. •,::: : v.:; -. v.-. -, •. f f
*'*' **y^ •rfh'iffc^f^^i^HJ"lf" t"C* ฅy j^jf '^'M'^y ^ **
Regional Enforcement Subgroups
established for Texas-Chihuahua and
California-Baja California in March
1996, to enhance local interagency
cooperation EPA provides to the state
environmental agencies support for
national and binational cooperation
along the entire border.





HAZTRAKS is being successfully
used as a tool to detect violations.
EPA is refining a model using
industry data to predict maquiladora
waste generation rates for
enforcement targeting.
Cooperation in case investigations
has supported several enforcement
actions; e.g., U.S. prosecution of
illegal hazardous waste exports
(A&W Smelter/Mina La Union;
Sbicca); California state enforcement
action leveraging funds to clean up a
contaminated site in Mexico (Alco-
Pacifico). EPA and Cal-DTSC
supported PROFEPA in the
investigation of a soil amendment
(Sea Soil) which PROFEPA
concluded resulted in contamination
when used at several ranches in Baja
California.
Annual exchanges of enforcement
statistics have been taking place.

October 1996
m.5i

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                      TABLE 3.15
                      COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
                        PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE

f * v&! v* "*"• ^"* s "^ v i ? •^•"V"''' _,_, f \
'T^CtlTvjT'V^ x :" !
' ^ % -"% VcvV $.$ฃ \'\
Transboundary
hazardous waste
compliance training
for Customs and
environmental
inspectors










Training to detect
CFC smuggling





Multimedia inspector
training




Principles of
Environmental
Enforcement
Workshop


*J'J|LJFJ^ fff \
X \ %s ' ' V" ' :
*x%*|~**7^^;
Systematic
repetition of
courses at
major border
crossings
since
November
1994








Ongoing






Periodic
since 1992




May 1995




	 s. 	 'f 	 ', '•
ff'tf'tff ^
„'_ PAkfU^n^. , ;
* ; -"' , - • - \
EPA, PROFEPA,
U.S. and Mexican
Customs, DOT, SCT,
Cal-DTSC, San
Diego County Health
Dept.,ADEQ,
NMED, TNRCC,
regional
environmental
enforcement network
associations,
Cooperative
Enforcement and
Compliance and
Hazardous and Solid
Waste Workgroups
EPA, PROFEPA,
CICOPLAFEST,
U.S. and Mexican
Customs, state
environmental
agencies, DOT, SCT,
DOJ
EPA, PROFEPA,
CNA and municipal
water discharge
inspection authorities


EPA, PROFEPA,
INE, CNA, local
environmental
authorities (D.F.)


"• f\ *• *"• sS- f * f •. f f f f Jf ^ : f
.."''-, ACCO^^Ij^BMfeKITiS' ' ",/
""""'-' ''x"w *? •.';".. "^..^.'..^...''. 	
Over 230 U.S. and Mexican customs
and environmental inspectors trained
at 13 border crossings, resulting in
improved field cooperation and
detection of illegal hazardous waste
shipments.










Training first piloted at El Paso
Customs, May 1996. As of August,
1996, there have been 20 training
sessions at major customs facilities
for 240 U.S. and Mexican officals.


Over 600 Mexican inspectors trained
(450 in border states). Course
enhanced to include pollution
prevention and water discharge
information. Train-the-trainer efforts
ongoing.
First workshop held in Mexico City,
May 1995. EPA and PROFEPA are
exploring possible workshops in the
northern Mexican border and in
Central and South America.
m.52
                                                                          October 1996

-------
                                                             Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                     TABLE 3.15
                      COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
                       PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS ^ BORDERWIDE
, A<^^ :)
% ':
Field investigations,
sampling, and
laboratory analysis
training












Consultation on
environmental laws
and enforcement
policies
San Diego, California


Consultation on
enforcement and
compliance data
systems

Consultation on
calculation of
economic sanctions
for infractions of the
law





; \ TI&*ฃ * I
,. .f^^? l
Under
Development














July, 1996






Completed
June, 1995



Under
Development








JU i D^P&f'I^1 ]}"&
_,_, -IT JtUA. Jt l^t HrjfT\A;y'
J."'Kฃ~~.
EPA, PROFEPA,
INE, Cal-DTSC, San
Diego County Health
Department, TNRCC,
ADEQ,NMED,
regional
environmental
enforcement network
associations, DOJ,
U.S. Attorneys.
Cooperative project
of Cooperative
Enforcement and
Compliance and
Hazardous and Solid
Waste Workgroups
EPA, PROFEPA,
Environmental Law
Institute, state
environmental
agencies, Attorney
General, DOJ, and
U.S. Customs
EPA, PROFEPA,




EPA, PROFEPA









^^^CCWBttsSttlfW'^
f V. w, V
PROFEPA provides training and
support for inspectors in taking
samples and laboratory analysis in the
northern Mexican border area.
PROFEPA attended a course in this
area provided by the Southern .
Environmental Enforcement Network
in Little Rock, Arkansas in February
1995. EPA, PROFEPA, and U.S.
States are working on developing
cooperative training in this area.





Consultation involved case studies
exploring legal, environmental, and
technical practicalities of enforcement
in U.S. and Mexico.



EPA developed report on enforcement
data systems and provided to
PROFEPA in June 1995 for their
analysis and use in improving their
own system.
EPA and PROFEPA exchanged
information used to determine the
amount of sanctions for infractions of
the law. EPA and PROFEPA will
initiate consultations regarding
methodologies of both countries in
calculating economic sanctions in
enforcement cases, taking into
account the benefit, to the violator, of
noncompliance.
October 1996
m.53

-------
Borderwide Issues and Objectives
                                         TABLE 3.15
                        COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
                          PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
  Consultation and
  training in criminal
  environmental
  enforcement
  Ongoing
EPA, PROFEPA,
DOJ, TNRCC,
Southern
Environmental
Enforcement Network
EPA and PROFEPA have conducted
technical consultations to assist
PROFEPA in developing a program
to support prosecution of
environmental crimes. PROFEPA
attended Advanced Environmental
Crimes Training Program at the
Federal Law Enforcement Training
Center, November 1995. At
TNRCC's invitation PROFEPA
participated in an environmental
crimes training course in Austin, May
1996.
  Protocol for
  cooperation in
  environmental
  enforcement
  investigations
   Under
Development
EPA, DOJ, DOS,
state environmental
agencies, PROFEPA
EPA and PROFEPA have begun to
identity issues to be addressed and a
process for negotiating.
  Promotion of
  voluntary compliance
  through
  environmental
  auditing
  Ongoing
EPA, PROFEPA,
Environment Canada,
North American
Commission for
Envkonmental
Cooperation, Cal-
DTSC, TNRCC
EPA sent letters to 31 U.S. parent
corporations of maquiladoras
encouraging participation in
PROFEPA's voluntary environmental
audit program in May 1995, and sent
a second round of letters to 200
additional U.S. parent corporations in
July 1996. At PROFEPA's request,
EPA also sent letters to 70 parent
corporations of maquiladoras located
in Chihuahua in March 1996,
encouraging voluntary compliance
with Mexico's regulations governing
transboundary shipments of
hazardous waste.  PROFEPA, EPA,
Environment Canada, and the North
American Commission on
Environmental Cooperation hosted
conferences in Ciudad Juarez (9/95)
and Tijuana (12/95) for over 300
industry participants on voluntary
compliance and environmental
auditing in North America.
ra.54
                                                                                  October 1996

-------
                                                                   Border-wide Issues and Objectives
                                         TABLE 3.15
                         COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
                          PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - BORDERWIDE
 Governmental
 consultations on
 voluntary compliance
 and environmental
 auditing
Video:
Environmental
Auditing and
Pollution
Prevention:
Strategies for
Voluntary
Compliance in the
Maquiladora
Industry
                          Ongoing
                          Ongoing
EPA, PROFEPA,
Environment Canada,
North American
Commission on
Environmental
Cooperation, state
environmental
agencies
EPA, PROFEPA,
Cal-DTSC, TNRCC
Intergovernmental consultations
initiated in 1995 regarding the
governments' respective programs
and policies to promote voluntary
compliance through environmental
auditing.
Initial version produced 9/95. Final
revisions and distribution of video in
1997 subject to allocation of adequate
resources.
 Objectives for the Next 5 Years

 The following are the broad objectives for enforcement and compliance cooperation over the next
 five years, taking into account the resources that may be available to the parties.

 >•     Continue efforts to achieve compliance with environmental requirements in the border area
       through:
       •      Planning inspections on both  sides of the border, with institutionalized national
              training programs,  quality inspections, and prioritizing inspections for maximum
              effectiveness.

       •      Taking legal actions when violations are detected, and conducting follow-up to ensure
              future compliance.

       •      Effective deterrence through sanctions which take into account the economic benefit
              of noncompliance and discourage contempt of the laws; and through effective public
              communication of enforcement activities and results in accordance with the  legal
              framework of each party.

>•     Establish and enhance networks of cooperation among the various state, local, and federal
       agencies on both sides of the  border involved in environmental enforcement and compliance:
October 1996
                                                                                     m.55

-------
Bordenvide Issues and Objectives

       •      Promote the establishment of subgroups for each geographic region, to enhance
             multiagency binational cooperation and identify priorities for regional enforcement
             cooperation.

       •      Promote the participation of the representatives of the different competent agencies,
             through the coordinators of the border subgroups, to explore solutions to specific
             environmental problems.

       •      In  a manner which  respects the sovereignty  of each party,  the Cooperative
             Enforcement Workgroup will analyze and, as appropriate, approve for implementation
             the proposals of the subgroups.

>•     Encourage voluntary compliance by  industry, through strategies  such  as environmental
       auditing and the use of clean technologies and less-contaminating raw materials, as a
       complement to a strong program of law enforcement.

>•     Develop similar systems of reporting regarding compliance and enforcement, in accordance
       with the legal framework of each party.

>•     Promote the evolution of mechanisms to enhance the  evaluation  of compliance with
       environmental law.

>•     Promote pollution prevention as a mechanism for solving compliance problems.

>•     Continue to promote public participation within the legal framework of each party.
ra.56
                                                                              October 1996

-------

-------
California-Baja California
                  California-Baja  California  Region
                                          CALIFORNIA
                                         Cleveland
                                         National
                                         ฃMWMH
                                  100
                                                           •  City

                                                           +  Sister City

                                                          /\/ State Boundary

                                                          ฃ>J U.S./Moxico Balder

                                                          Jy 100km Buffer

                                                          I	1 Water Body

                                                          UK Protected Area
                                                         0 Miles
      Map created by CDS]
      Stpttrr&ir 25, 1998
 IV

A
               Sources: Digital Chart of the World, TNRIS. National Porks Service
EPA Region 6
 GIS Team
Dallas, Texas
 IV.b
                                                                                          October 1996

-------
          HAPTERIV
 CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
  I
   n order to promote a regional approach to environmental problem solving, this chapter
focuses on environmental issues and problems, past and ongoing projects, and objectives
that are specific to the California-Baja California area of the border region.  The
borderwiide objectives and ongoing activities described in Chapter HI also pertain to the
California-Baja California border region.
Brief Overview

The California-Baja California region stretches approximately 138  miles (222  km) along the
international boundary from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River and includes four areas of
concentrated population.  The primary sister city pairs along this western stretch of the border are
San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. Ensenada, south of Tijuana, and Tecate, between Tijuana
and Mexicali, are also located in this part of the border region.  This area is an important center of
agricultural production, particularly in Imperial County and the Mexicali Valley.

                                       TABLE 4.1
                                      POPULATION
^ Fo|>-:iซ1atwti''€iei}ter , ' i
San Diego (County),
California
Tijuana, Baja California
Ensenada, Baja California
Tecate, Baja California
Calexico, California
Mexicali, Baja California
Total
UWftgpferitai
1,862,000
428,000
175,000
31,000
14,400
511,000
3,021,400
! ~4$98Popซfotf0ii !
2,498,000
747,000
261,000
52,000
19,000
602,000
4479,000
m$ฅv$Mm ••-
2,721,000
989,000
314,000
62,000
25,000
696,000
4,807,000
       •  1980 and 1990 California figures are from the U.S. Census.
       •  1995 California figures are estimates from the California Department of Finance population estimates from California Cities
         and Counties Report 96E-1, May 1996, projections for January 1,1996.
       •  1980 and 1990 Baja California figures are from the X and XI1NEGI census.
       •  The data for 1995 in Baja California comes from the 1995 INEGI Count of Population and Housing.


In addition to industrial and commercial population centers, this region includes many protected areas
that are rich in biodiversity and natural beauty: the Tijuana Estuary (which includes the Tijuana
October 1996
                                                                                   IV.l

-------
California-Baja California

Slough Wildlife Refuge and Estuarine Resource Reserve), the Salton Sea, Rio Hardy Wetlands, the
Cleveland National Forest, Otay Mountain/Kuchama Cooperative Management Area (ELM), the
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park and  Tijuana River  Valley  Regional  Park in the U.S.; the
Constitution de 1857 National Park, Sierra de Hansen, Mesa del Final, and Sierra de San Pedro
Martir National Forest Reserve, and the Alto Golfo de California-Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere
Reserve in Mexico.

The area is characterized by coastal scrub and chaparral ecosystems that occupy the coastal and
southern inland ranges of California and continue into Baja California. At higher elevations and near
the ocean, chaparral is interspersed with coniferous forests and riparian vegetation along valleys and
intermittent streams. Flora and fauna are quite diverse, and many of these interspersed areas provide
an extraordinarily valuable habitat for neotropical birds as nesting and migration stopovers. These
ecosystems support numerous U.S. and Mexican officially listed endangered species. The coastal
waters of the Pacific Ocean support marine life and habitat for several species along the West Coast.

An important natural feature of the region is the Colorado River system. Significant aquatic and
wetland resources in the region include the Salton Sea, Alamo River, Rio Hardy, and Laguna Salada.
The delta of the Colorado River in Mexico was once a great desert estuary supporting riparian,
freshwater,  brackish and intertidal  wetlands  in this  most arid portion of the Sonoran Desert.
Development and water usage in the Colorado River Basin have impacted ecological resources. The
Alto Golfo  de California-Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve is an important area for the
protection of rare and endangered marine species, such as the Totoaba fish and Vaquita dolphin,  some
of which are dependent upon the Colorado River Estuary.  It is also an important breeding ground
for commercial species such as shrimp.

Environmental Issues and Problems

Natural Resources

Habitat alterations are the principal concern affecting biodiversity in this region. In Baja California,
chemical contamination also poses biodiversity concerns. The illegal extraction of wild flora species,
such as cacti, and the introduction of exotic species that  alter natural habitat are ongoing problems
in both countries. Illegal hunting and trafficking of wildlife species are also of concern.

The ecosystems in northern Baja California are very similar to those in Southern California.  Highly
fire dependent ecosystems in Southern California and Baja California can no longer be allowed to
burn naturally because they are too close to urban areas  and because of the potential for extremely
dangerous wildfires. Additionally, because of the increased population along the border, the demand
for wood and wood products continues to increase while the land availability for wood production
is decreasing.

Increased risk of forest pests and disease introduced along the border adversely affects native forest
species and results in high mortality of nursery and forest seedlings.

Because so much industry is concentrated along the border area, there is also  a concern regarding the
effects of acid rain deposition on nearby ecosystems and its potentially significant negative impacts.
rv.2
                                                                               October 1996

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                                                                       California-Baja California

 Increased sedimentation in the Tijuana River resulting from urbanization and unregulated road
 development  has affected aquatic and land resources in the Tijuana Estuary.

 Residual flows from the Colorado River into Mexico, along with irrigation return flows arid brine
 waters, have greatly affected the ecology of the Upper Gulf of California and the Cienega de Santa
 Clara.
 Water

 Members of the California-Baja California community and both governments view resolution of water
 pollution problems and their effects on  human and  natural populations as a high priority.
 Consistently, beaches in the San Diego area must be closed because of high levels of fecal coliform
 due to insufficiently treated sewage discharged into the ocean.  Local authorities and the public are
 also concerned with the lack of  control of industrial waste in sewage discharges. Impacts from
 sewage flows, excessive dry-weather freshwater inflows, and additional contaminant runoff from
 agriculture and urban development also threaten the ecological integrity  of the Tijuana River
 watershed and estuary.  Erosion and slope instability in urban areas of Tijuana and U.S. lands in the
 Spooner's Mesa area have aggravated flooding, both in the  main river channel and its tributaries, and
 poses a growing hazard during periods of moderate to heavy rainfall.  In addition, the tidal area in
 the Tijuana Estuary has been reduced by 80 percent and the wetlands by about 60 percent. Because
 adequate tidal flushing is considered key to the health of the entire system,  erosion control, sediment
 management and  excavations directed at enhancing the Tijuana Estuary's tidal prism (flushing
 capacity) are a high priority.  Although interim measures by the U.S. and Mexican governments have
 minimized negative impacts of raw and partially treated sewage on the ocean, beaches, and estuary
 on a short-term basis, the problem requires a long-term, basin-wide solution.

 Due to the arid climate and the burgeoning population of San Diego, Tijuana, Tecate and Ensenada,
 there is a critical need for a local, integrated water management plan.  Some studies predict that by
 the year 2000 there will be serious drinking water shortages in the area.

 The Colorado River begins in the U.S. and flows for over 1200 miles (1920 km) to the international
 boundary where it enters Mexico east of Mexicali and continues for nearly 100 miles (160 km) before
 ending in the Gulf of California.  Colorado  River water is used as a source of drinking water and
 irrigation for communities on both sides of the border in the California-Baja California region.  Thus,
 the quantity and  the quality  of the Colorado River water  are very  important to the border
 communities in this region.  In particular, agricultural activities in the lower part of the Mexicali
 Valley basin have been seriously affected by salinity and sediment generated in the upper part of the
 basin.

 In accordance with  the agreements between the two countries, the IBWC is charged with overseeing
 activities including water quantity and quality in the Colorado River.

 The New River, often cited as one of the most polluted rivers in the U.S., flows through the Mexicali
Valley into California's Imperial Valley and discharges into the Salton Sea.  Water quality of the river
is very poor due to large amounts of raw and partially treated municipal and industrial wastewater
from Mexicali and agricultural drainage from the U.S. and Mexico.  Mexicali is grappling with an
inadequate wastewater collection and treatment  system.  The existing treatment plants are operating
October 1996
                                                                                      IV.3

-------
California-Baja California

at a capacity far greater than that for which they were designed. Consequently, discharges to the
New River are not sufficiently treated.  Additional volumes of uncollected and untreated municipal
and industrial wastewater flow directly into the New River or its tributaries.  The high concentrations
of bacteria and viruses in the New River pose serious public health risks to the people who live along
the river.

The Alamo River, like the New River, originates in Mexico and flows to the Salton Sea in the U.S.
The Alamo River is contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers from agricultural irrigation and
drainage from the U.S.

Through analysis of the region's water infrastructure needs, CNA found that for the four most
populous cities in the Baja California region (Tijuana, Mexicali, Ensenada and Tecate), 92 percent
of the population receives quality drinking water,  65 percent of the residences are connected to a
sewer system, and 44 percent of the total wastewater is treated (although in many cases the operation
and maintenance of treatment systems are deficient).  Improvement and expansion of the sewer
systems in these cities are of critical importance in the short-term.  In the medium- and long-term,
responsible authorities should  focus attention on drinking water supply options.  At this time, CNA
has estimated resource requirements needed to meet the region's present infrastructure deficiencies
as shown in Table 4.2.
                                         TABLE 4.2
               RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ESTIMATES FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE*
: JEV^ w s %
"•ซ -V \ t . j
i'*ฃ V*, ,s" ^ - ---
f?, $&$($ CoropooeHt
;|^. Ji% , ^, ^ Y\* ;•*.
Drinking water
Sewer systems
Treatment
Consolidation
Increased efficiency
Studies and projects
Total
i " lBฅ^meปt{Miniw$W) s -"^ \. :
Urgent
1996-1997
10.0
9.0
9.0
1.0
3.0
1.8
33.8
Short term
19984999
8.0
13.0
15.0
4.0
4.0
0.1
44.1
Medium term
2000
2.0
17.0
16.0
1.0
4.0
0.2
40.2
Total
20.0
39.0
40.0
6.0
11.0
2.1
118.1
  *      These estimates are based on studies and evaluations conducted by the Government of Mexico to meet domestic
        standards.

Environmental Health

Along the California-Baja California border, there is a need for improved binational capacity for
environmental health and exposure  surveillance, intervention, prevention, evaluation, research,
training, and outreach by the state and local agencies.  These efforts should involve key stakeholders
such as community residents, healthrcare providers, academic institutions, trade groups, unions and
other nongovernmental groups.
IV.4
                                                                                October 1996

-------
                                                                      California-Baja California

Growers in the U.S. and Mexico use significant quantities of pesticides in the production of their
crops, particularly for fruits and vegetables.  Training and outreach on the proper handling of
pesticides aire crucial, given the potential for health and  environmental problems due to worker
exposure and air and water contamination.

Ak

Air quality is of particular concern in the region's urban areas.  Increased transboundary traffic has
resulted in a dramatic increase in air pollution from mobile sources, particularly due to unpaved roads
and congestion at border crossings.

In terms of regional air quality, the San Diego area is designated a nonattainment area for U.S.
ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone  (O3).  Imperial County is
designated a nonattainment area for U.S.  ambient air quality standards for PM-10, O3, and CO.

Currently in Mexico, there is  no  guidance by which to determine "nonattainment" with Mexican air
quality standards. There is insufficient air quality monitoring data to determine if Mexican cities meet
the Mexican air quality standards. Aside from these limitations, Tijuana and Mexicali potentially do
not meet Mexican air quality standards for particulate, carbon monoxide, and ozone.  This is based
on existing monitoring results  as well as a knowledge of emissions sources and their  potential
emissions.
Hazardous and Solid Waste

Residents of California-Baja California border communities expressed significant concern about the
types, quantities and destinations of hazardous materials and wastes. Community and government
concerns stem from the high number of crossings of the California-Baja California border and
projections that commercial transportation across the international boundary will likely increase with
the phase-in of NAFTA.

Citizens want information about the presence of hazardous materials and wastes in their community.
In addition, this information has important implications for  emergency response planning and
contingency preparedness, as well as for authorities and regulators trying to ensure compliance with
state and federal requirements governing the transport, handling, treatment, storage, recycling, and
disposal of hazardous wastes in the region. To date, binational efforts aimed at gathering this
information have focused on tracking the transboundary movement of hazardous waste. However,
many citizens and local authorities in the region expressed that while ongoing tracking of hazardous
waste crossing the border remains very important, knowing the types and quantities of raw materials
crossing the border is also critical, especially for purposes of emergency response planning.

Insufficient waste management infrastructure  has the potential for encouraging improper and
potentially unsafe disposal of waste as well as illegal dumping; practices that have a negative impact
on the urban and natural environment and pose threats to public health.  While industries in Baja
California generate hazardous wastes, currently no hazardous waste management facilities exist in
the state.  SEMARNAP has identified the following waste management infrastructure concerns in
Baja California: a lack of sanitary landfills for solid waste; a lack of treatment, neutralization, or
incineration systems for hazardous and toxic wastes; a lack of motivation and training to promote
October 1996
                                                                                      IV.5

-------
California-Baja California

hazardous waste minimization; and lack of an official laboratory equipped to analyze hazardous
wastes.

Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

Li all the regions' major urban areas on both sides of the border, emergency response capabilities are
inadequate, particularly with regard to training and equipment.  The volume of materials, goods, and
waste moving through California-Baja California communities underscores the need for adequate
emergency response capabilities, including properly trained and equipped personnel, to respond to
accidents which may pose a threat to public health and the environment.

Environmental Information Resources

Through the Border XXI public outreach meetings, citizens in the California-Baja California sister
cities expressed a need for increased education and awareness regarding general, regional, and local
environmental issues including air, water, waste, natural resources, health impacts from environmental
degradation, and the relationship between the environment and quality of life. Many members of the
California-Baja California border community consider the lack of information and general absence
of environmental awareness on local and  regional  problems the main impediments to raising
environmental quality and increasing public involvement in solving and preventing environmental
problems. Similarly, throughout the region there was a call for pollution prevention information
which is tailored and delivered to appropriate domestic, agricultural and industrial audiences.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

Because of the growing concentration of population  and  industrial activity, compliance with
environmental requirements is essential for health and welfare in the area. Local, state and federal
agencies involved in enforcing environmental laws and  promoting compliance can improve their
effectiveness through cooperation.

                                       TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
''>? •••><.;••••. ป ^ ••••;••;
' - X^i --*, "--^ , '•
- ^^Acrivrre ^j
- ^\- ,t<, - ฃ-.." ', * ;
.• f s '•'•'•. •• '•'• fjy-v v. * "s f ' :
Mar* i
JtfRAME 1
ftuKTWBKS '-
f
ACCOMFOSHMINTS „",
% -. fff
\
NATURAL RESOURCES
Rehabilitation of
sand dunes habitat in
the Tijuana Slough
NWR, California
Habitat protection of
endangered species in
the Tijuana Slough
NWR, California
Groundwater Study
Ongoing
Ongoing
FWS
FWS
Habitat restoration of the sand dunes
located at Tijuana Slough NWR is an
annual project.
Various maintenance management
projects that support habitat
protection of endangered species.
IV.6
                                                                             October 1996

-------
                                                                      California-Baja California
                                         TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
"" •" •>. -. %V.
^Aemto """-
<•" < -. "" ^
San Diego Formation
Groundwater Study
Survey of nesting
ospreys
Management
program for the Alto
Golfo de California
and Delta del Rio
Colorado Biosphere
Reserve
Status of the beaver
in the Mexicali
Valley
Terrestrial mammals
of Baja California
Sierra Hansen
National Forest
Reserve, Mesa de
Final, and San Pedro
Martir
Sierra de Hansen,
Mesa de Final, and
Sierra de San Pedro
Martir National
Forest Reserve
Constitution 1857
National Park
Evaluation of the
impacts of air
pollution on the
forests of the west
and east of the U.S.
and the central part of
Mexico
TIME '-
^kAM!'/
1995-1997
1996
1994
1995
Ongoing
1994
Ongoing
1993
Ongoing
"~ "•: "•
•. •,•.•••.•. \
USGS, Tijuana Valley
Water District
BRD, SEMARNAP
INE, CICTUS, CES,
CIDESON, CEDO,
COLEF, UABC, IMP,
CICESE,
PRONATURA,A.C.
INE, CICESE
IB-UNAM, INE
SFFS-SARH,
Promotora
Agropec.
Univ. S.A.
USFS-RMRS,NM
State Forestry, and
NFS.
SFFS-SARH,
Advisory Group for
Ecology and
Environment
INIFAP,USFS-PSU
Station,
,,, , , ACCQl^OSHfpSNTS
Drilling multidepth wells to collect
geohydraulic data.
Survey nesting ospreys along
California-Baja California.
The management program which
guides actitivites in the Reserve was
finalized. The program was agreed to
by local communities, local
authorities, and NGOs.
The study provided understanding of
sites with beaver activity in the
Mexicali Valley and the Colorado
River Delta.
To gather information on the state of
knowledge of mammals in B.C. and
identify the areas of high species
concentration.
Flora and fauna study of the National
Forest Reserve.
Management plan and methodology
for implementation that encourages
local community involvement.
Study of the natural resources in the
National Park.
Improved the genetic quality of the
species located in Southern California
as a result of monitoring the damage
of ozone to native tree species and
climatic variations in forests.
October 1996
IV.7

-------
California-Baja California
                                        TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
r^ V* r^^;v !
! ฃiAc$3tvmr ,>,,;•• i
- $*& >; " ** v <^~ i
Multiple species
habitat planning in
southwest San Diego
County
Draft Cooperation
Agreement for flat-
tailed horned lizard
Volunteer exchange
program
* ;TlME !
$ฃ&&!ฃ !
Ongoing
Ongoing
1993-
Ongoing
PAk^NIKS
FWS, local
government
FWS, BLM, DOD,
BOR,CA Fish and
Game, AGFD, CA
Parks
USFS-Cleveland, San
Bernardino & Sequoia
NF, INIFAP N.-
Region,
SEMARNAP-
Chihuahua and Sonora
AceQMM-mHMEkrs "" "
f f .. % •• t.\x *•
Natural resource mapping,
assessment, and preliminary draft
plans for species and habitat
conservation.
Preliminary assessment of habitats
and identification of lizard
management approaches.
Natural resource information
disseminated through exchange of
personnel.
WATER
Tijuana wastewater
Mexicali wastewater
1990-1996
1995-1999
EPA, IBWC, USAGE,
SWRCB, RWQCB 9,
San Diego, IBWC,
CNA
EPA, IBWC,
SWRCB, RWQCB 7,
IID, Imperial County,
CNA, IBWC,
SAHOPE, CESPM,
COSAE, Mexicali
Construction of land outfall has been
completed. Construction of advanced
primary IWTP and ocean outfall has
been initiated. Design of canyon
collectors and secondary treatment
facilities (activated sludge) has been
completed.
The government of Baja California
and CNA will contribute to the
construction of the binational plant
with an investment equal to the cost
of constructing the treatment plant in
Tijuana, Baja, California ($16.8M
US).
USIBWC has procured a contractor
to develop a binational facility plan.
A binational technical team
(subgroup) has been formed.
Mexico has initiated construction on
several projects to rehabilitate the
existing collection and conveyance
system. Several discharges of raw
sewage to the New River have been
eliminated or reduced.
rv.8
                                                                                October 1996

-------
                                                                      California-Baja California
                                        TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
_ Aerivra ' "1
New River toxics
model
Lower Colorado
River-New River data
synthesis
Lower Colorado
River-New River
toxics survey
Tecate Wastewater
Treatment Plant
Drinking water and
sewer system in
Tecate
Ensenada Wastewater
Treatment Plant
Colorado River-
Tijuana Aqueduct
Colorado River-New
River water quality
Colorado River
NASQAN
TIME
^JMOE"'- 1
1995-1996
Ongoing
1994-1996
1993-1994
1996-1997
1996-1998
1996-1997
1995-1997
Ongoing
1^ A U-T-ftftPti-C
r&K,lP(%$fe^^
EPA, UCD
EPA, UCD
EPA,USGS,IBWC,
UCD,DFG, Arizona,
CNA, IBWC
CNA, SAHOPE,
COSAE, CESPT
CNA, SAHOPE,
COSAE, CESPT
CNA, SAHOPE,
COSAE, CESPM
CNA, SAHOPE
USGS, EPA, IBWC,
CNA
USGS
- J^XyCMSK^BMS^^^
% s
UCD has collected samples along the
length of the New River and is
developing a model to predict
behavior of toxic organic pollutants
in river sediments and water.
EPA has issued a grant to UCD to
prepare bilingual reports
summarizing and synthesizing
existing water quality data for the
Lower Colorado and New Rivers.
Two rounds of water, sediment and
fish tissue samples have been
collected on the Lower Colorado and
New Rivers.
Construction was completed and the
plant is in operation with a capacity
of 200 Ips.
Rehabilitation and expansion of the
drinking water system and sewer
system.
BECC has certified the wastewater
treatment plant project. The state
authorities are reviewing the project
which may be modified and
resubmitted to the BECC.
Additional pumps will be installed
between Pumping Plants 4 and 5, and
a new internal coating will be applied
to the water transport line.
One year of samples collected using
new field protocols. Training
provided. Analysis still in progress.
Long-term datasets: water quality,
sediments and discharge.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
New River, Imperial
County
1995-1996
CDHS, ATSDR
Ongoing development: environmental
health education for community and
health-care providers.
October 1996
IV.9

-------
 California-Baja California
                                           TABLE 4.3
                   PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
   -V   .,ซ „ %' ~',  f  ^

   •••••^m-i
  Training on
  occupational
  medicine
   1996
CDHS-, Local
Association of
Maquila Doctors,
Baja California Health
Ministry
Began development of teaching
modules and establishing
collaboration with key labor,
management, and medical groups.
  Environmental health
  GIS survey of
  environmental and
  health outcome
  information
1995-2000
CDHS,NIEHS
Evaluating existing databases and
collaborating with border states that
are developing concurrent GIS survey
projects.
                                             AIR
  Tijuana-San Diego
  air programs
 Ongoing
EPA, INE, Baja
California, CARB,
San Diego, Tijuana
Operate 4-station ambient monitoring
network in Tijuana measuring for
CO, NOx, S02, PM-10, Lead, O3,
and meteorological parameters. Two
additional sites are measuring PM-10
and air toxics.  Twelve monitoring
sites are currently operating in San
Diego.

Emissions inventory completed in
San Diego and being developed in
Tijuana. A Mexican inventory of 173
industrial sources now exists.
  Imperial County-
  Mexicali air
  programs
 Ongoing
EPA, INE, Baja
California, CARB,
Imperial County,
Mexicali, Calexico
Completed and released a PM-10
source apportionment study.

Complete development of 4-station
ambient monitoring network in
Mexicali measuring for CO, NOX,
SO2, PM-10, lead, O3, and
meteorological parameters. Two
additional sites will measure PM-10
and one site will measure air toxics.
Eight monitoring sites are currently
operating in Imperial County.

Develop emissions inventory.	
IV.10
                                                                                    October 1996

-------
                                                                      Californi'a-Baja California
                                        TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
•• ••'"•.•.]
;"'_ A
-------
California-Baja California
                                         TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
1 ,. „ :
i,! ^crrrraV 1
;v* ,- "™ "" ",\
Conduct San Diego-
Tijuana solid waste
stream analysis and
develop a binational
recycling market
development zone (in
cooperation with
Pollution Prevention
Workgroup)
Facilitate adoption
and implementation
of a remediation plan
for the Alco Pacifico
site
Train Customs
inspectors in
detection of illegal
transboundary
hazardous waste
shipments
Participate with
Enforcement
Workgroup in
environmental
auditing workshop
Binational training on
design, operation and
closure of municipal
solid waste landfills
Train import/export
industry
representatives on
regulations and
requirements
pertinent to
shipments of
hazardous waste to
and from California
TIME j
> FHAMl j
' /•
1996-1997
Ongoing
1995-1996
1995
1994-1995
1996
FA&TNEKS ^
EPA, San Diego,
Tijuana, Cal-
EPA/IWMB, SD State
University, UABC
SEMAKNAP, EPA,
Los Angeles County
EPA, SEMARNAP,
San Diego County
U.S. and Mexican
Customs, Cal-DTSC
EPA, SEMARNAP,
CEC, Cal-DTSC
EPA, SEMARNAP
Cal-DTSC, EPA,
SEMARNAP
ACCOMFtBH^ENTS
'" s.A.
Increase recycling and waste
prevention within the commercial and
industrial sector along the border;
create a binational recycling market
development zone.
Adoption of a plan for stabilization or
remediation of the Alco Pacifico site.
Increased capability by U.S. and
Mexican Customs to detect and
handle illegal hazardous waste
shipments.
Contribute information on Mexican
environmental auditing program;
begin a trinational dialogue on ISO
14000.
Increased capability for management
of solid waste landfills.
Increase industry awareness of and
compliance with pertinent hazardous
waste and export/import
requirements.
IV.12
                                                                                October 1996

-------
                                                                         California-Baja California
                                          TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
    -AcriviSh?
 U.S.-Mexico border
 projects
 Ongoing
Cal-DTSC, EPA
Tracking of hazardous waste
shipments across the border.

Training on California requirements
of hazardous waste shipment and
management.

Coordination with San Diego and
Imperial Counties.

Technical assistance to Mexico.

Support federal prosecutors and local
District Attorneys' investigations and
enforcement.
  Investigations of
  import/export of
  hazardous waste
  shipments
 Ongoing
San Diego County
HMMD,U.S.
Customs, California
Highway Patrol,
California DTSC
Staff of HMMD conduct
investigations of import/exports of
hazardous waste shipment between
California and Mexico for
conformance with applicable laws
and regulations, focused on all
California-Mexico border crossings.
                           POLLUTION PREVENTION
  TRADEX
  (Transboirder
  Assistance for
  Developing
  Environmental
  Excellence)
1994-1995
San Diego Co. Dept.
of Environmental
Health (DEH), EPA,
UCSD
Conducted pollution preventioia
audits of Tijuana's manufacturing
industry; coordinated a conference in
Tijuana on the benefits of pollution
prevention and environmental
management systems; worked with
the University in Tijuana to include
pollution prevention in their
publications; developed a pollution
prevention session at the National
Maquiladora Assn.'s annual
conference.
  Conference on
  Environmental
  Management
  Systems: Compliance
  and Pollution
  Prevention
   1995
EPA, San Diego
County Dept. of
Environmental Health,
Industrial
Environmental Assn.
of San Diego
One-day  conference to assist border
industries   in   implementing   or
improving environmental management
systems.
October 1996
                                                                                         IV.13

-------
California-Baja California
                                        TABLE 4.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - CALIFORNIA-BAJA CALIFORNIA
^f>-Jpi^rฃiy ]
Exposition on
Aqueous Cleaners
and Other
Alternatives
Technical assistance
to Mexican
environmental
agencies
Industry workshop on
pollution prevention
techniques
- TIME !
;, FRAME j
1995
1996-1997
1996-
Ongoing
PA&TNEKS'
Cal-DTSC, BECA,
Southwestern College,
San Diego County,
EPA
Cal-EPA, EPA
Cal-DTSC, EPA,
PROFEPA
' A€€QMpmHMip)ง r,\
Showcased alternatives to chlorinated
and chlorofluorocarbon solvents for
cleaning applications targeting
businesses using solvents on both
sides of the border.
Provide training on pollution
prevention to state and federal
agencies in Baja California.
Provide workshops to California -
Baja California border industries on
pollution prevention techniques.
Objectives for the Next Five Years

Natural Resources

>•     Promote training, assessment, and research on habitats and species of flora and fauna. Initiate
       habitat protection programs that emphasize biodiversity and sustained use in the Califomia-
       Baja California region. Prioritize habitat management planning and implementation.

>     SEMAJRNAP will implement management plans for the Constitution del 1857 National Park
       and the Alto Golfo de California-Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve, and establish
       organizational structures and oversight and inspection units.  These plans will include design
       strategies for the long-term  financial maintenance of these protected areas and promote
       projects and activities that offer an alternative for economic sustainable development for
       inhabitants who live close to these areas.

>-     Pursue opportunities for collaboration in developing windbreaks around agricultural lands as
       well as the development of commercial plantations for wood products and nonwood products
       (e.g. jojoba, Christmas trees, etc.). Increase training and outreach in nursery management and
       reforestation practices.  Mexico is particularly interested  in U.S. technical assistance in
       establishing plantations in the Tijuana, Mexicali, Guadalupe, and Tecate areas.

>•     Implement an assessment procedure for evaluating desertification processes for those existing
       reforestation activities to ensure effective results related to the prevention and control of
       desertification phenomenon.

>•     Establish an aquaculture program for rural areas that includes a training component for the
       inhabitants of the region.
IV.14
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                                      Californ/a-Bajsi California

       Design and establish a pollution monitoring program in the California-Baja California coastal
       zone to determine the actual state, trends, and the concentration of critical contaminants that
       may be impacting the natural resources shared by both countries.

       Establish standards for the import, export,  and quality control of aquatic and marine species
       utilized for aquaculture and fishing.

       Conduct specialized research on aquaculture to define management plans and sustainable
       utilization of resources of mutual interest to both countries.

       Incorporate aquaculture activities that are productive with minimum environmental impacts,
       that benefit local populations, and that promote the conservation of endemic, rare, and/or
       endangered aquatic species.
Water
       The International Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP), now under construction, is part of
       a regional solution that will play a large part in restoring the environmental quality of the
       Tijuana River Valley, protecting the water quality of the ocean and the area's beaches, and
       safeguarding the health of the area's residents.
       •      The advanced primary treatment facilities should be completed by March 1997, and
              the ocean outfall should be completed by June 1998.

       •      Responsible authorities will develop and implement an industrial wastewater source
              control program to minimize the release of toxic pollutants into the sewer system or
              water bodies and ensure proper operation and maintenance of the IWTP so as to
              protect the health of local residents, habitats and natural resources.

       •      Tijuana will implement a City Sanitation Plan which  contemplates wastewater
              collection, treatment, and reuse for industry or agricultural irrigation.

       To  address the wastewater needs in Ensenada, a new wastewater treatment plant will be
       constructed in the near future.

       The wastewater situation in the New River area calls for an action plan that includes short-
       term actions to make immediate improvements to the existing Mexicali system and examines
       options for long-term solutions to wastewater infrastructure deficiencies.
       •      Short-term projects to improve the existing system will be identified and constructed
              or implemented, if they lead to an immediate improvement in the amount or quality
              of treated effluent or a reduction of raw sewage in the New River.

       •      A facilities plan will be prepared that presents the technical, financial, social, and
              environmental aspects of the available project options through the year 2000.

       •      CNA, Baja California's  Secretariat of Human Settlements and Public Works, EPA,
              IBWC,  the California State Water Resources  Control Board, the Colorado River
              Basin Regional Water Quality  Control Board, Imperial County,  and the Imperial
October 1996
IV.1S

-------
California-Baja California

              Irrigation District must work together with the BECC and NADBank to assist the
              affected community in devising solutions to the wastewater infrastructure problem
              which take into account the entire watershed and the relationship between water
              supply and wastewater.

       •       In conjunction with developing solutions to the wastewater infrastructure situation,
              responsible authorities must develop and implement an industrial wastewater source
              control  program to  minimize the release  of toxic pollutants to surface and
              groundwaters.

>     The municipalities of Mexicali, Tijuana, Tecate and Ensenada receive their drinking water
       supply from the Colorado River. To address water quality concerns in the Colorado River
       and New River systems, both governments, in conjunction with regional, state, and local
       authorities, are conducting a study to determine the level of toxic pollutants in the lower
       Colorado River and in the New River and will continue to monitor conventional water quality.

>•     The IBWC will continue to implement agreements that exist between the U.S. and Mexico
       to find  a solution relating to the salinity problems  of the Colorado River and thereby
       contribute to the improvement of the ecosystem along the river, and of the ecosystem in the
       delta where it discharges.

Environmental Health

X     In depth  discussion of binational,  geographic-specific  five-year  objectives have  only
       commenced in earnest with the issuance of the Border XXIFramework Document. The intent
       is to  translate  the overall environmental health objectives  outlined in Chapter HI into
       objectives, priorities, and projects specific for this region benefiting from further binational
       discussions and the input obtained from community outreach meetings. The following is an
       example of an activity that will be developed for this region.

>•     Building on the successful and cooperative relationship between the California Department
       of Pesticide Regulation and Baja California authorities, EPA, Mexico's Secretariat of Health,
       and SEMARNAP through CICOPLAFEST plan to support these agencies in developing and
       implementing programs to minimize risk to human health and the environment from the use
       of pesticides. Development and implementation of the following programs could help meet
       this objective:
       •       an emergency response strategy for pesticide-related incidents along the border;

       •       a notification and information exchange strategy for pesticide residue detection on
              both sides of the border;

       •       a food safety information exchange strategy;

       •       general pesticides regulation and information exchange;

       •       a strategy and system to track pesticides obtained in California and used in Mexico,
              and vice versa; and
IV.16
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                                      Califoraia-Bajtt California

       •      development of a training program on pesticides management that includes applicators
              and field workers.

Air

>•     Given the recent increases in population, vehicular traffic, and industrial activity in the San
       Diego-Tijuana air basin, there is an ongoing need to evaluate levels of PM-10, CO, and ozone
       air pollutants targeted as problems in the area. In order to meet the goal of attaining health-
       based ambient air standards, the Califbrnia-Baja California Air Subgroup will build on existing
       efforts to promote regionally based:
       •      air quality monitoring networks;

       •      development of emissions inventories;

       •      use of models and strategies as tools to improve air quality;

       •      air  quality improvement strategies intended to serve as useful tools  for local
              decisionmakers as they grapple with the interrelationships among air quality, laind use,
              transportation planning and economic development; and

       •      ongoing involvement of local communities (e.g.,  government,  private sector,
              academia,  NGOs), the people directly impacted by  air pollution.

Hazardous and Solid Waste

>•     SEMARNAP  will facilitate projects  that  result  in the construction and  operation  of
       environmentally responsible controlled landfills for hazardous and industrial waste to build
       waste management capacity.

>•     Proper management, treatment and disposal of hazardous and solid waste and compliance
       with regulations for transboundary shipments of hazardous waste will remain a priority for the
       San Diego-Tijuana and Mexicali-Imperial Valley regions. Continued cooperation among the
       state and local offices will focus on:
       •      ongoing information and technology transfer;

       •      cooperative training;

       •      building laboratory sampling and analysis capabilities;

       •      developing recyclables markets; and

       •      using and improving HAZTRAKS as a tracking and compliance tool.

>•     One of the principal actions will be to improve waste management practices in the California-
       Baja California region and promote solid and hazardous waste minimization and recycling.
       This will be accomplished by:
October 1996
                                                                                     1V.17

-------
California-Baja California

       •      developing partnerships with industry to encourage waste minimization and safe
             material management;

       •      providing site-specific compliance and technical assistance on an as-needed basis;

       •      training government officials, community leaders, and industry on waste reduction
             and pollution prevention.

Contingency Planning  and Emergency Response

>•     Both governments will develop state and local capacity for contingency planning, as well as
       emergency response in the areas of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. This will be
       accomplished through the Joint Response Team which  involves  federal, state and local
       agencies  with  responsibilities for  dealing with  environmental emergencies through
       implementation of the Joint Contingency Plan in these sister cities, the creation and promotion
       of CLAMs, the creation and equipment of  communication and emergency response centers,
       training of staff involved in emergency response, and communication with the public, among
       other activities.

Environmental Information Resources

>     Building  on the existing San Diego-Tijuana GIS projects, promote greater integration
       between academic groups, and governmental and nongovernmental organizations on both
       sides of the border. Future efforts will focus on demographic data such as the number of
       residents with access to sewer systems.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

>•     The  California-Baja  California  Cooperative Enforcement Subgroup,  with  the  close
       collaboration of EPA and PROFEPA, will promote interagency and binational cooperation
       among all relevant local, state and federal authorities involved in environmental enforcement.
       Such cooperation will  seek to enhance effective enforcement and promote compliance with
       environmental laws,  consistent  with  the  objectives  of the  Cooperative Enforcement
       Workgroup outlined in Chapter III. The subgroup will develop  annual action plans for
       implementing cooperative projects. The independent enforcement and compliance activities
       of the various authorities will be coordinated with these efforts.

>     The PROFEPA inspection program expects to carry out 3,700 inspections between 1996 and
       2000 to monitor regulatory environmental compliance.

>•     The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal-EPA), with the support of EPA, has
       organized a multimedia enforcement task force to coordinate efforts  of all state, local, and
       federal enforcement agencies with jurisdiction in the California border area.  The state of
       California and  Imperial County  will cooperatively execute enforcement activities and
       investigations in Imperial County.
IV.18
                                                                             October 1996

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-------
Arizona-Sonora
                             Arizona-Sonora  Region
        Rio Colorado ^"ssJSabeza Prieta
                     ^NJN. W. R.
                                                             • City
                                                             + Staler City
                                                            /^/ State Boundary
                                                            A/ U.S./Mexfco Border
                                                            y^ 100km Buffer
                                                            |	1 Water Body
                                                            JHIg Protected Area
                                   100
                                       0  Miles
       Map created by CDSI
       September 25, 1596
A
                                  Sources: Digital Chart of the World. TNR1S, National Parks Service
EPA Region 6
 GIS Team
Dallas, Texas
V.b
                                                                                            October 1996

-------
         HAPTERV
ARIZONA-SONORA
 I
  n order to promote a regional approach to environmental problem solving, this chapter
focuses on environmental issues and problems, past and ongoing projects, and objectives
that are specific to the Arizona-Sonora area of the border region. The borderwide
objectives and ongoing activities described in Chapter HI also pertain  to the Arizona-
Sonora border region.
             ?,NHHHH8SWซ^
Brief Overview

The Arizoria-Sonora border region includes five areas of concentrated population, which are also the
locations of the five principal border crossings, and a sovereign Indian nation.  The urban areas are
Yuma-San Luis Rio Colorado; Lukeville-Sonoita; Nogales-Nogales; Naco-Naco; and Douglas-Agua
Prieta. The Tohono O'Odham Nation is located between Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument and
ambos Nogales.

                                     TABLE 5.1
                                    POPULATION
-1*opuJa|!fป>s Csjrfor
Yuma, Arizona
San Luis Rio Colorado,
Sonora
Nogales, Arizona
Nogales, Sonora
Douglas, Arizona
Agua Prieta, Sonora
Naco, Arizona
Naco, Somora
Tohono O'Odham Nation
Total
l^ftSM&rftar
42,000
93,000
15,700
68,000
12,800
34,400
Not Available
4,400
Not Available
270,300
l$9d$0{m)ซ*t0R
55,000
112,000
19,500
107,000
13,000
39,000
700
4,600
17,300
368,100
1ฃ9S ftefpefotiMt
60,000
133,000
20,700
133,500
14,800
56,000
870
4,900
19,000
442,770
            1980 and 1990 population figures for Arizona come from 1993 Arizona State Almanac.
October 1996
                                                                              V.I

-------
Arizona-Sonora

       Notes for Table 5.1 Population
       •      1980 and 1990 population figures for Mexican cities come from INEGIX & XI Census of General Population and
              Housing. For 1995, the data was obtained from the 1995 DSTEGI Count of Population and Housing.
       •      1995 estimate for population in Arizona cities comes from Arizona Department of Economic Security (except Naco
              which comes from the 1994 Rand McNally Commercial Atlas).
       •      1995 estimate for Tohonp O'Odham Nation comes from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The Sonoran Desert and the Mexican highlands-Sierra Madre Occidental are part of this region. The
Sonoran Desert includes southcentral and southwestern Arizona and southeastern California,
extending into Sonora. The Mexican highlands-Sierra Madre Occidental cover central and eastern
Sonora and portions of Arizona and New Mexico, and include grassy plains with semi-desert pastures
and both arid and forested mountains.

The Sonoran Desert is rich in diversity of flora and fauna.  The rugged topography, variety of
substrates, and scarcity of water bodies, deciduous and perennial forests, small trees with cactus, and
elements of subtropical fauna and flora of the Sierra Madre Occidental maintain a diversity of species
offish and wildlife as well as plant communities.  These include threatened and endangered, rare and
unique species. More than 560 vascular plant species have been identified in the Sonoran Desert.

The upper region of the Gulf of California maintains diverse marine  species that are in danger of
extinction. It is also the breeding grounds for commercial species that  depend on the estuary of the
Colorado River.

Surface water resources in this area include the Lower Colorado River which drains to the Gulf of
California and supports the Cienega de Santa Clara, Sonoita Creek, Santa Cruz, Magdalena, San
Pedro, and Yaqui Rivers. Groundwater resources are principally aquifers associated with the river
systems or as independent hydrologic systems in the Mexican highlands basins.

The biodiversity of the borderland region is well represented in the following special management
areas: Cabeza Prieta, Buenos Aires  and San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuges, Organ Pipe Cactus
National Monument, Coronado National Monument, Coronado National Forest, San Pedro Riparian
National Conservation Area, Tohono O'Odham Indian Nation in Arizona, Alto Golfo de California-
Delta del Rio Colorado and El Pinacate-Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserves, and Sierra de
los Ajos, Buenos Aires and La Purica National Forest Reserve in Sonora.  With the exception of the
Tohono O'Odham Nation, all of these areas are operated and managed  by federal agencies in
collaboration with state agencies and surrounding communities to achieve cooperative conservation
and sustainable resource management. In addition, there are other protected areas in the region
managed by federal and state agencies.

Environmental Issues and Problems

Natural Resources

Three primary habitat  types are critical to the biodiversity of the Arizona-Sonora border region:
riparian and aquatic areas, grasslands, and mountain "Sky Island."  These areas are threatened by
human-related activities which ultimately affect the biodiversity of this geographic region.  The illegal
extraction of wild flora and fauna species, and the introduction of exotic species that alter natural
habitat are ongoing problems in both countries.

V. 2                                                                              October 1996

-------
 Arizona-Sonera

 The Pinacate-Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve is confronted by illegal extraction of species,
 especially cacti, introduction of exotic species like Buffelgrass, and poaching. In addition, cattle
 grazing alters the indigenous vegetation, and the unregulated extraction of volcanic ash known as
 morusa, which is utilized in the construction industry, has adverse impacts on the topography and
 vegetation.  The increased tourism to this area has the potential to adversely impact natural resources
 and needs to be properly managed.

 The Colorado River, which originates in the United States,  is a major source of water supply for
 multiple uses by both countries in the Arizona-Sonora area. There is a need to protect the quality and
 quantity of this important water supply resource.

 The delta of the Colorado River in Mexico is one of the world's great desert estuaries and supports
 vast freshwater, brackish, and intertidal wetlands in this most arid portion of the Sonoran Desert.
 These wetlands contain the only populations of substantial size of endangered species, such as Desert
 Pupfish and Yuma Clapper Rail, and represent important wintering habitat for migratory waterfowl.
 Some of the brackish wetlands are not natural marshes but are the incidental creations of water
 management decisions in the U.S. and Mexico. The marine zone of Alto Golfo de California-Delta
 del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve is an important area for the protection of rare and threatened
 marine species that constitute a rich source of biological diversity, some of which have been affected
 by overexploitation.  There is a need to continue management efforts for the protection of these
 resources.

 The Natural Protected Area designation in Mexico allows for regulated moderate use of renewable
 resources, much like the USDA Forest Service multiple use philosophy.  Natural resource managers
 in Sierra de Los Ajos are faced with the challenge of maintaining a balance between the need to
 harvest forest commodities and the protection of the unique environment.

 General concerns with respect to forestry and soil conservation in this region include the need to
 control soil erosion, loss of forest land due to slash and burn agriculture, grazing management,
 conflicts with threatened and endangered species (i.e. introduction of Buffelgrass), and the need to
 protect some  species and/or areas from overutilization (e.g.  ironwood is valued for carvings, and
 mesquite is used to make charcoal for domestic use and for export to the United States).  In Mexico,
 there is a need to develop valuable products other than sawlogs (such as mesquite, willow for baskets,
 etc.) for local sale or  export.   There is also a need to address the conflicts of traditional uses of
 threatened and endangered species among the indigenous people.

 Water

 The lack of basic inventory and monitoring information pertaining to border water resources and
water-dependent environments prevents a comprehensive understanding of watershed and regional
natural  resource issues. Lack of quantitative information concerning the natural recharge and the
possible limitations of many of the groundwater supplies lead to uncertainties as to the future of these
water resources.  State, federal, and international divisions of the affected jurisdictions make water
management a complicated task, especially in the absence of sound hydrologic data and assessments.
Increased groundwater pumping and agricultural development have affected draw-down of natural
desert springs and impacted the propagation and management of endangered fish species.
October 1996
                                                                                       V.3

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Arizona-Sonora

In the western area of the region, the local community expressed concern that the Colorado River
Delta lacks a comprehensive environmental management plan which could, among other things,
address the impacts of water quantity and quality from the Colorado River on the northern Gulf of
California, on communities dependent upon the northern Gulf of California, the local fishing industry,
and threatened or endangered species in the area.

Residual flows from the Colorado River into Mexico,  along with irrigation return flows and brine
waters have greatly affected the ecology of the Upper Gulf of California and the Cienega de Santa
Clara. Preserving the remaining wetlands will require a binational water management plan for flood
and irrigation-return fresh water inflow into the delta. Seawater spills into this basin only during the
highest tides or during storm surges. Tidal effects alone may not push the saltwater northward for
sufficient quantities to reach this unique wetland area.

Since the area around Yuma-San Luis Rio Colorado is primarily rural and is composed of many small
communities, the people living in the area have  special needs.  U.S. communities  in the  area
highlighted the fact that EPA must redirect some of its attention from large urban communities to
address the specific needs of small communities. The needs identified include technical and financial
assistance, awareness and attention to local conditions, and assistance in the design and construction
of water lines and sewage treatment systems.

In San Luis Rio Colorado, construction of a wastewater treatment plant is needed as growth has
surpassed infrastructure capacity.  Discharges to the Colorado River which present potential risks to
public health, the river environment, the northern Gulf of California and nearby estuaries, will
continue until completion of a collection  and treatment system for waste and agricultural waters.

Located nine  miles north of the  international boundary, the Nogales International Wastewater
Treatment Plant (NIWTP) is an aerated lagoon system1 that treats sewage from Nogales, Arizona and
Nogales, Sonora. The IBWC operates the NIWTP.  The effluent from the treatment plant enters
the Santa Cruz River which flows north and supports a riparian corridor.  Nogales, Sonora is  utilizing
its full capacity allotment at the treatment plant and requires additional capacity. Deficiencies in the
current Sonora collection system result in raw sewage flows and nonpoint runoff into the Nogales
Wash and into an adjacent wash, which  flows through downtown Nogales, Sonora and Nogales,
Arizona.

The public has expressed significant concern about direct public exposure to contaminated  water in
the wash. Monitoring studies have found high fecal coliform bacterial levels, ammonia,  heavy metals,
and the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium.  The potential for groundwater contamination by
percolation of contaminated surface water into the shallow alluvial aquifer along the Nogales Wash
raises additional public concern. Preserving drinking water quality is a high priority for the ambos
Nogales community. ADEQ's records show that city-owned wells in Nogales, Arizona,  provide
quality water  since the Nogales, Arizona, municipal wells tap into a deeper aquifer and are not
directly threatened by the potential pathway for groundwater contamination associated with the
Nogales Wash. However, a portion of Nogales, Sonera's municipal drinking water comes from the
shallow aquifer,  and several shallow private wells in the U.S. are located near the Nogales Wash.
These latter wells include the privately owned public water system known as the Valle Verde Water
       rThe system has a capacity of 753 LPs (17.2 mgd).
V.4
                                                                               October 1996

-------
 Arizona-Sonora

 Company, which serves a substantial portion of the 13 percent of Nogales, Arizona's population that
 does not receive its drinking water from the city of Nogales' system. The Valle Verde system is
 important to the entire community however, as it has been identified as one potential future drinking
 water supply that could be purchased to augment the city of Nogales' system.

 Water quality concerns in this area are not limited to the Nogales Wash.  Because most residents of
 Nogales, Arizona, get their drinking water from two sets of wells, one located along Potrero Creek
 and the other located along the Santa Cruz River near Highway 82 bridge crossing, water quality in
 these basins is of concern. Potrero Creek is a tributary of Nogales Wash, which, in turn, is tributary
 to the Santa Cruz River, with a confluence downstream of the city's Santa Cruz wells.  Although the
 Potrero Creek and Santa Cruz River watershed are not nearly as developed as the Nogales Wash
 watershed, the Nogales-Santa Cruz Wellhead Protection Program has identified a number of potential
 sources of contamination  in these areas. In addition, many in the community recognize that if the
 significant development which is expected to occur as a result of NAFTA takes place in a manner
 that is not sensitive to drinking water quality protection, then these wells may face serious water
 threats in the future.

 Changes in land use and infrastructure development along the Santa Cruz River will alter the aquatic
 fauna and flora along the riparian greenbelt.  The problems associated with insufficient data are well
 illustrated in the uncertainty surrounding the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River systems, where the
 understanding of the origin of surface flows, the groundwater/surface water relations, and the
 importance of the riparian systems, is very poor.

 The San Pedro River originates in Mexico in a ranching, agriculture, and mining area, and flows into
 the U.S. adjacent to a rapidly expanding urban/military complex. Most land uses along this river have
 put major demands on water within the river basin, while impacting the water quality and biodiversity
 of the basin. The riparian corridor along the river may be in danger from lack of in-stream flows.

 The water  requirements  of the mining industry, the Riparian  National Conservation  Area,
 municipalities, industry, military, and agriculture are all dependent on the same interrelated water
 source. The withdrawal of groundwater, the principal source of water supply for municipalities,
 industries, mining,  and agriculture, is greater than the natural basin recharge.

 Douglas and Bisbee residents have indicated  a need for rehabilitation  of the drinking water
 distribution system in both cities.  Questions have been raised regarding treated sewage discharges
 from Douglas into the Whitewater - Arroyo Agua Prieta. Sewer system and wastewater treatment
 rehabilitation is also needed in Naco, Arizona.  Citizens of these communities raised concerns that
 EPA must redirect some of its attention from large urban communities to address the specific needs
 of small communities, as  small communities do not have the population or tax base to support their
 infrastructure needs. With regard to groundwater, there is some community concern that abandoned
 and active mines in the Douglas-Agua Prieta and Naco-Naco area may be a source of contamination,
 though current data does not indicate a health hazard. Additional water-related concerns in the
 region center around the need for protection of the area's drinking water supply. Surface water
 quantity and quality are important issues in the area.

 Through analysis of the region's water infrastructure needs, CNA found that for the five most
populous Mexican cities in the region (Nogales, Agua Prieta, Naco, Sonoita and San Luis Rio
October 1996
                                                                                     V.5

-------
Arizona-Sonora

Colorado) 86 percent of the population receives quality drinking water, 62 percent of the residences
are connected to a sewer system, and 41 percent of the total wastewater is treated (although in many
cases the operation and maintenance of treatment systems is deficient).  At this time, CNA has
estimated resource requirements to meet the region's present infrastructure deficiencies as shown in
Table 5.2.
                                        TABLE 5.2
              RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ESTIMATES FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE*
"^'";<>'aV :'' , ",-
'^^N^C^p^ent^;
j.- s v^ , \;
Drinking water
Sewer systems
Treatment
Consolidation
Increased efficiency
Studies and projects
Total
" " \
Urgent
1 OOฃ 100*7
lyyo-iyyv
5.0
2.0
1.0
6.0
2.0
0.6
. 16.6

Short Term
1QQR 1QQQ
iyyo"iyyy
19.0
4.0
7.0
1.0
3.0
0.5
34.5,
rttHttm $lf,S.)
Medium Term
innn

18.0
10.0
5.0

3.0
0.2
36.2
- ; f -,,. -:
Total

42.0
16.0
13.0
7.0
8.0
1.3
873
  *      These estimates are based on studies and evaluations conducted by the Government of Mexico to meet domestic
        standards.                                . -

Environmental Health

The Arizona-Sonora border region, like the entire U.S.-Mexico border region, is grappling with
several serious public health problems that are or may be associated with toxic environmental
exposures.  Contamination of air, water, and soil by heavy metals, volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), hazardous waste, pesticides, nitrates, and bacteria are believed to be key factors contributing
to the presence of environmentally related diseases in populations residing in Arizona-Sonora
communities.  Although community-specific problems do exist, most communities in the Arizona-
Sonora border region face similar environmental health problems.

Chief among these problems are the following: respiratory infections, particularly asthma; elevated
blood lead levels in children; multiple myeloma, a form of bone-marrow cancer; systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE); hepatitis A; diarrheal diseases and other enteric infections, such as Giardiasis
and Amoebiasis; and pesticide poisonings.

Community-specific health concerns, however, clearly exist.  These include pesticide-related illnesses
in the Yuma-San Luis Rio Colorado area, where agricultural production is the principal economic
activity and aerial spraying occurs year round. In ambos Nogales, inadequate sewerage and breaks
in the existing system, particularly during periods of heavy rainfall and ensuing flooding, result in raw
sewage flows in the Nogales Wash. The wash flows directly through downtown ambos Nogales,
creating a breeding ground for infectious disease.  In the Douglas-Agua Prieta area, past  mining
V.6
                                                                                October 1996

-------
 Arizona-Sonora
 activities, specifically toxic emissions from a smelter in the Dougals-Pirtleville area, are believed to
 be associated with previously high blood lead levels in children and lung cancer in smelter workers.

 At present, relatively little scientific data exists in the Arizona-Sonora border region to establish a
 definitive link between pervasive chronic diseases and environmental exposures. Nevertheless, a
 perception prevails among many residents of Arizona-Sonora border communities that environmental
 contamination and concomitant exposure are responsible for many of the health problems that people
 are experiencing.  In an effort to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of suspected environmentally
 related diseases as well as causal factors, the Arizona Department of Health Services, in collaboration
 with other entities, such as the University of Arizona College of Medicine, Sonoran Ministry of
 Health, and local health departments in Arizona  and Sonora border communities, are currently
 undertaking binational epidemiological studies on the issues of air quality and asthma, lupus, and
 multiple myeloma. (See Table 5.3 on Ongoing Projects.)

 A document containing information on community-specific environmental health concerns in the
 Arizona-Sonora border region is available from Lee Bland, Chief, Office of Environmental Health,
 Arizona Department of Health Services, 3815 N. Black Canyon Highway, Phoenix, AZ 85015.

 Ak

 Since air quality monitoring began in 1985, both the 24-hour and annual PM-10 National Ambient
 Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) have been violated in the Yuma, Nogales, and Douglas areas.  In
 accordance with the Clean Air Act, ADEQ has prepared a State Implementation Plan for the area
 identifying specific control measures and mechanisms for implementation to bring the Yuma area into
 attainment of PM-10 NAAQS and maintain the NAAQS through the year 2000.  The NAAQS Plans
 for Nogales and  Douglas have yet to be prepared.

 Currently in Mexico, there  is no guidance by which to determine "nonattainment" with Mexican air
 quality standards. Additionally,  there is  insufficient  air quality  monitoring data to determine if
 Mexican cities meet the Mexican air quality standards. Aside from these limitations, Nogales, Agua
 Prietaand Sam Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora potentially do not meet Mexican air quality standards for
 particulates and Agua Prieta, Sonora potentially does not meet the standard for SO2. This is based
 on knowledge of sources and their potential emissions.

 The primary concern in the  Arizona-Sonora area is an increase in air pollution from mobile sources,
 particularly  due  to the increased transborder traffic congestion  at border crossings.  Additional
 concerns relate to emissions from manure burns and the burning  of wire casings for the recycling
 market. There are numerous other emissions sources including industrial  sources, residential fuel
 combustion, waste disposal  (refuse burning), fires (wildfires, prescribed burning, structural fires),  and
 agricultural production.

Hazardous and Solid Waste

Through the Border XXI Program public outreach meetings, it became evident that there is much
concern in the Arizona and  Sonora border communities about the types, quantities and destinations
of hazardous materials and wastes.  Community and government concerns stem from the high number
October 1996
                                                                                     V.7

-------
Arizona-Sonora

of crossings of the Arizona-Sonora border and projections that commercial transportation across the
international boundary will likely increase with the phase-in of NAFTA.

There have also been historical concerns in the region about toxic emissions from uncontrolled
burning at a former solid waste disposal site in Nogales, Sonora.  Located just a few miles south of
the border and the neighboring community of Nogales, Arizona, the site had been the source of
emergency health  warnings by  Santa Cruz County during certain intervals of burning.   The
government of Mexico has now constructed a new sanitary  landfill more than 15 miles (25
kilometers) from the border for Nogales,  Sonora,  making it possible to close the old landfill.
However, the burning of manure in the stockyards located along the border in Nogales, Sonora, has
concerned officials in the U.S. and Mexico.

Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

Currently, the need for emergency response capabilities, particularly with regard to expertise and
equipment, is greater in the Sonoran cities than in the Arizona cities. The emergency response training
and equipment needs are highlighted by the fact that the sister cities in this region are spread out
along the border and are relatively distant from other large cities in the interior of both countries.
Thus, the sister cities require their own emergency response capabilities; they cannot depend upon
other cities inside or outside the region.

In contrast to other sister cities, Yuma and San Luis Rio Colorado are located approximately 20 miles
(32 kilometers) apart, with San Luis Rio Colorado on the international boundary and Yuma to the
north. Because there is a single road to and from the border crossing, delays are common, and
hazardous materials and waste are transported through residential neighborhoods, raising concerns
about emergency response capabilities.

Yuma and San Luis Rio Colorado have coordinated emergency response efforts. The city of San Luis
Rio Colorado has trained and exercised with the Yuma Fire Department. The Yuma Fire Department
responders have crossed the border to support San Luis Rio Colorado and vice versa.  The Yuma Fire
Department has been able to provide preowned but reusable  resources to the San Luis Rio Colorado
Fire Department over the last several years and has received excellent fellowship in return. The Yuma
County LEPC has also supported a number of hazardous materials response and contingency planning
efforts along the border of Arizona-Sonora and Yuma-San Luis Rio Colorado sister cities.  The
Arizona Emergency Response Commission, through the U.S. Department of Transportation, has
provided training  in Arizona and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora has received  first responder
operations procedures interfaced with mutual aid and standard operations procedures.

There are currently three fully equipped hazardous material emergency response teams in the Yuma
area. The Yuma County fire departments have been awarded a total of $26,983.00 in grant funds
from Arizona Emergency Response Commission to purchase equipment.

Environmental Information

Through the Border XXI public outreach meetings,  citizens in the Arizona-Sonora sister cities
expressed a need  for increased education and awareness regarding general,  regional, and local
environmental issues including air, water, waste, natural resources,  health impacts from environmental

                                                                              October 1996

-------
 Arizona-Sonera
 degradation, and the relationship between the environment and quality of life. Many members of the
 Arizona-Sonora border community consider lack of information and general environmental awareness
 on local and regional problems and solutions an impediment to raising environmental quality and
 increasing public involvement in preventing and solving environmental problems.  Similarly,
 throughout the region there was a call for pollution prevention information which is tailored and
 delivered to appropriate domestic and industrial audiences.

 Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

 Because of the growing concentration of population  and industrial activity,  compliance  with
 environmental requirements is essential for health and welfare in the area. Local, state and federal
 agencies involved in enforcing environmental laws and promoting compliance can improve  their
 effectiveness through cooperation.

                                       TABLE 5.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA
?4w ,iป'% ""•
x ฃ&$Nm , *
X% fj.
*• J-
""*~Tim&
^WMm%^
'-" ,
| ^*Aimfปป8r, „
l- , y^t&QmiwiMm'm - "~,
'" , >,',
NATURAL RESOURCES
Surveys to document
life history and
habitat needs of the
Sonoran pronghorn
and to complete a
management plan for
the subspecies in
Sonora
Sonoran pronghorn
antelope conservation
Masked quail
conservation
Biodiversity
conservation and
protection, southern
Arizona
Restoration of
riparian habitat along
the Santa Cruz River
Conservation and
management: of
native fishes in
southern Arizona
1995-1996
1995-1996
1995-1996
1995-1996
Ongoing
Ongoing
FWS,INE,UofA,
AGFD; NFS
FWS,INE,NPS,
AGFD
FWS
FWS
FWS
FWS, AGFD, INE
A management plan for the
protection of the pronghorn antelope.
More specific information obtained
on the life history of the Sonoran
pronghorn.
Continue conservation efforts with
various partners for the Sonoran
pronghorn.
Continue conservation efforts for the
masked quail habitats.
Continue to protect and manage flora
and fauna in southern Arizona.
Initiated riparian restoration projects
with partners along the Santa Cruz
River.
Continue to survey Sonoran Desert
streams. Determine population trends
for native fishes.
October 1996
                                                                                   V.9

-------
Arizona-Sonora
                                   TABLE 5.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA

Restoration of
wetlands habitat
along the lower
Colorado River
Environmental
education and public
outreach program
CoronadoNF /State
of Sonora Sister
Forest Partnership
Management of
Sierra de Los Ajos
Forest Reserve
Reintroduction of
Gould's turkey
Forest health
monitoring

1995
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
s "wKw -Vs* &f* Vf f f 4* ^
^Vsmrnitf**"*
Jfty ffj ff't'% 'Sff fjf ff f fff tj ff < t f
FWS
NFS, INE, Sonora
state government,
IMADES,UAS,
Sonoran Institute
USFS- CoronadoNF,
SEMARNAP -
Sonora
USFS-CoronadoNF,
SEMARNAP,
IMADES
USFS-CoronadoNF
AGFD, FWS,
SEMARNAP-Sonora
USFS-CoronadoNF
SEMARNAP-Sonora
and Chihuahua
I *i ' *'•*& " W* " v> s'ซ~ •• -•• •ป * \ -^ % *
r " - &QCMmxmsiM& T:;;
: *,w*>v * Vf s %% s%% s % %-.%%••••••''••
*• >>S".% '%••%<•'• *. *% %
Improve habitat through revegetation
along the lower Colorado River.
Design and development of special
environmental education programs
for neighboring U.S.-Mexico
communities adjacent to the Organ
Pipe Cactus-El Pinacate Reserve
regarding function and management
of protected areas.
Held public town hall meeting in the
vicinity of Organ Pipe Cactus
National Monument to discuss joint
U.S.-Mexico conservation efforts
and issues.
Forest health detection and treatment
of insects. Provide GIS training and
use this and GPS technology to
improve mapping information in
Sonora. Fire prevention, prescribed
burning, and reforestation training.
Complete a statewide forest
inventory and range management
plan.
Develop ecosystem management
plan for Sierra de Los Ajos with
emphasis on fire management.
Reintroduce Gould's turkey, an
extirpated species in U.S., into the
Coronado NF, Sonora. Train
Mexican biologists from Chihuahua,
Sonora, and Durango.
unproved identification and
management to reduce effects of pine
bark beetles, cronartium rust, and
dwarf mistletoe.
V. 10
                                                                      October 1996

-------
 Arizonn-Sonora
                                   TABLE 5.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA
\^ฃ$&vm* "~
, ''""'^ V-, ,
Fire ecology
Biodiversity of
Madreem
Archipelago
Sensitive species
inventory
Management
program for the Alto
Golfo de California,
Delta del Rio
Colorado Biosphere
Reserve
Management
.program for El
Pinacate - Gran
Desierto del Altar
Biosphere Reserve
Sierra de los Ajos,
Buenos Aires, and La
Purica (Bavispe)
National Forest
Reserve
Inventory of the
coastal- marine flora
and fauna of the
northeastern Gulf of
California , ,
,S%?!w?™:'T"^
Ongoing
1995 -
Ongoing
1994-1995
1994-1995
1993
1995
ss f AW% ,",W.VAVrtW WV 5^**5 -A
, ' ItaKRURRS s
!ss- >~-v
USFS-CoronadoNF,
PrescottNF,RMRS
UofA,UAS
SEMARNAP-Sonora.
USFS-CoronadoNF,
RMRS, USGS,
INIFAP,
SEMARNAP and
various U.S. &
Mexican universities,
USFS-CoronadoNF,
USFS - RMRS,
NRCS, AGFD,
NMDFGMalapai
Borderlands Inc.
INE, CICTUS, CES,
CIDESON, CEDO,
COLEF,UABC,INP,
CICESE,
PRONATURA, A.C.
INE, CES, CEDO,
UABC, UNISON,
INAH, Tohono
O'Odham Nation
SFFS SARH,
Wildlife Society of
Mexico
INE, ITESM
• % "v "• ^ซ ' ''' '•. ^""'^ '
"** &^&^Ki$i$mm& W'
' fff SfW&Sffts \ % """X" v, s .,
Host symposium of fire effects in
Madreem Archipelago in 1996.
Demonstration areas and
management practices to highlight
important role of fire in maintenance
of this ecosystem.
International symposium on
management of the biological
resources of the Sky Islands.
Inventory sensitive plant and animal
species and evaluate the effects of
fire management activities on these
species within the Arizona and New
Mexico borderland area.
This program guides the actions in
the Reserve and that was agreed to
by local communities, local
authorities, and NGOs.
This program guides the actions in
the Reserve and that was agreed to
by local communities, local
authorities, NGOs, and indigenous
groups.
A flora and wildlife study was
conducted as well as an analysis of
natural resources and topography.
A species list was generated of
vascular plants present in the coastal
zone of the Alto Golfo in the state of
Sonora, saltwater fish,
macroinvertebrates, mammals, and
marine and coastal birds and reptiles.
A species distribution map was also
generated.
October 1996
                                                                          V. 11

-------
Arizona-Sonora
                                   TABLE 5.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA

Analysis of the status
of the flora in
riparian habitats in
the northern border
zone - Sonora
Status and
distribution of the
spotted owl -Sonora
Status of the desert
tortoise - Sonora
Evaluation of the big
horn sheep
population and
determination of the
harvest rates in
Sonora
te>S&jปV'
'•• '..—ป '&*sfvvtof , s s > "V ^ f ' V-%
-------
 Arizona-Sonera
                                          TABLE 5.3
                      PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA
  Nogales groundwater
  monitoring
1993-1996
ADEQ, IBWC, EPA,
CNA, Sonora
 Wells on U.S. side have been drilled.

 Mexican partners will continue
 working with U.S. partners to install
 the monitoring wells in Nogales,
 Sonora, as part of regional
 hydrogeological studies.
  Central Arizona
  basins NAWQA
 Ongoing
USGS
Provide consistent description of
water quality conditions, define
trends, and sound scientific
understanding of factors affecting
water quality.
  Drinking water
  treatment and
  recharge for Nogales,
  Sonora
1996-1998
CNA, COAPAES
(Nogales)
BECC has conditionally certified the
first stage of the project which will
improve drinking water services.
CNA will produce a document that
complies with all the conditions of
the BECC and NADBank.
  Integrated drinking
  water, sewer system,
  and wastewater
  treatment plant
  project for Naco,
  Sonora
1996-1997
COAPES (Naco)
BECC has certified the project.
  Nogales wastewater
1995-1996
EPA, IBWC, ADEQ,
ADWR, Santa Cruz
County, Nogales,
Arizona, CNA, SIUE,
Nogales, Sonora
U.S. Section of the IBWCTias
procured a contractor to develop
binational facility plan. Binational
policy committee and technical team
(subgroups) have been formed.

Study of infiltration and inflow into
Nogales, AZ collection system has
been initiated.

U.S. Section of the IBWC has
procured a contractor to prepare
analysis of toxic pollutants entering
IWTP headworks.
October 1996
                                                                                         V. 13

-------
Arizona-Sonora
                                   TABLE 5.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA
, ^i ""xiJ%\ ป, ..
" ' , M^lf^ <
" t^" "-V ,' "v. ""
Central Arizona
NAWQA
San Pedro basin
characterization
Hay Hollow Erosion
Project
Regional H2O quality
monitoring

Health consultations
Arizona-Sonora
Border
Environmental Health
GIS
Arizona-Sonora
Border Data
Infrastructure Project
Ambos Nogales
Asthma Study
Binational
Cancer/Lupus Study
-TjSlIE- ;
wsr* ™*^ ** " ••
' FRAME '

1996-1999
1996-1999
Ongoing
1996-1997
ENVIR
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1996
1996
1995-
Ongoing
.^' -"- ''
• ;PAKHffl58l. "
s
USGS
USGS, state and local
agencies
NRCS, Malpai
Borderlands, Inc., San
Bernardino NWR,
Arizona State Land
Department, private
ranchers, Mexican
farmers
EPA,AID,ICMA
ONMENTAL HI
ADHS
ADHS,ADEQ
Local Health
Departments, SSA
CDHS, ADHS, SSA,
local health
departments
ADHS,ADEQ,Uof
A Nogales Unified
School District
ADHS, CDC, local
health departments,
SSA
, , A<^0M^tSlPKNT^rr^'>

National Water Quality Assessment
Program - Arizona, current water
quality condition and trends in
basins.
Defining physically based framework
for the San Pedro Valley.
Develop watershed restoration
project for Hay Hollow Wash which
is an area that includes lands of
three private ranchers, State Land
Department, San Bernardino
National Wildlife Refuge and
adjacent land in Sonora.
Through technical assistance and
training to municipalities of
Cananea, Naco, and Aqua Prieta,
conduct preliminary water quality
and quantity baseline testing of the
San Pedro and Sonora Rivers.
ZALTH
Consultation in Nogales in process,
other sites to be determined.
Draft inventory of existing health
environmental and demographic
databases for Arizona border region;
work is beginning on developing the
inventory for Sonora.
Project in development stage to
improve health data infrastructure.
Study is in development stages; it
will have research and education
components.
Study in development stage.
V. 14
                                                                      October 1996

-------
 ArVzona-Sonora
                                   TABLE 5.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA
**•" 1 , ''^ " •• 'J *"""
~^f$WJf1f ฃ/>
. "r.'r./.'w/. "^
Douglas/Pirtleville
Blood Lead Level
Study
Binational Childhood
Lead Screening
Project
Environmental Health
Education Project
Binational Pesticides
Project
Binational
Community
Environmental Health
Workshops
Training community
advisors in
environmental health

Ambos Nogales PM-
10/Air Toxics Study
,,, /Tjป^'
i :^ซB
1995-1996
1995-
Ongoing
1993-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1996-1997

1994-1996
i \ *•ซ• "*
1 - , *&A&m&& !~
wf ^, ....^wAv.. m "*m> t
ADHS, local health
department, U of A,
SSA
ADHS, local health
departments, NOSs,
School Districts
ADHS, ADEQ,
ATSDR, local health
departments, NOSs,
School Districts
ADHS, ADEQ,
Arizona Dept of
Agriculture, Sec de
Agriculture, local
health department,
U of A, SSA
ADHS, ADEQ, SSA,
SIUE
SCERP,ASU,Red
Fronteriza, El Colegio
de Sonora, EPA
AIR
EPA, INE, ADEQ,
Sonora, Douglas,
Agua Prieta, ambos
Nogales
f •. V •••••• .... '. *• ^^vs.^
^ 	 v, s •• s X 'SV '**V'V' < >^' " ซ*'* •"•'
>T:^ AOe0MFW$IW?p^|; VT?
^^ % "" *"• \
-------
Arizona-Sonora
                                       TABLE 5.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA

  Douglas-Agua Prieta
  PM-10 Air Toxics
  Study
1996-1997
EPA, INE, ADEQ,
State of Sonora,
ambos Nogales,
Douglas, Agua Prieta
Initiating particulate and air toxics
ambient sampling study in Agua
Prieta-Douglas with sampling to
occur at four sites.

Emissions inventory will be
developed.

A draft study report should be
available for public comment by
summer 1998 and will include
exposure risk assessment, source
attribution, and recommended
control strategies.
                      HAZARDOUS and SOLID WASTE
         COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT and COMPLIANCE
         (Please see Appendix 10 for additional solid and hazardous waste projects of state and local agencies)
  Construction of
  sanitary landfill;
  closure of open
  dump; construction
  and equipping of
  transfer station;
  acquisition of
  cleaning equipment
  and tractor trailers for
  transport of
  municipal solid
  wastes to the sanitary
  landfill; construction
  of mechanics
  workshop (Nogales)
1993-1995
SEDESOL, state and
municipal
governments
Completion of projects.
V. 16
                                                                              October 1996

-------
Arizona-Sonora
                                   TABLE 5.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA
~- ,&
-------
Arizona-Sonora
                                     TABLE 5.3
                   PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - ARIZONA-SONORA
; ^f^fetv^
s ;JX tMIiffe'^
Implement a
pollution prevention
program for ambos
Nogales (in
cooperation with
Pollution Prevention
Workgroup)
Train Customs
inspectors on
detection of illegal
transboundary
hazardous waste
shipments
Conduct surveys of
small quantity
hazardous waste
generators

Technology transfer
and capacity building
on pollution
prevention with
PROFEPA
^;\*r$fe;
J^FJUป:
1996-1997
1995-1996
Ongoing
POLL I
1996-
Ongoing
i •, f f '' •.•.•.
\ -^^P^^^v
EPA, SEMARNAP,
ADEQ, ambos
Nogales
EPA, SEMARNAP,
ADEQ, U.S. and
Mexican Customs
ADEQ, EPA
7TIONPREVEJ\
EPA, ADEQ,
PROFEPA-Sonora
*'*:* ^ „:, s '"'-" '-^;VC: .
""'j. ,, ^^^f Wf^vf ;;;^
Direct assistance to industry to
implement in-house pollution
prevention measures; pollution
prevention award program; co-
sponsored seminars attended by
public and private sector
environmental professionals from
both countries.
Increased capability by U.S. and
Mexican Customs to detect and
handle illegal hazardous waste
shipments.
ADEQ, through funding support
from EPA, to conduct surveys of
small quantity hazardous waste
generators along the border to
develop a multimedia industrial
source inventory.
ITION
Maquiladora site assistance visits are
envisioned.
Objectives for the Next Five Years

Natural Resources

>•    Enhance protection of natural resources and long-term sustainability of flora and fauna in the
      Upper San Pedro River Basin. Complete a basic inventory of the flora and fauna and monitor
      water quality.

>•    Protect, restore, and manage the flora and fauna of the Arizona-Sonora geographic region to
      emphasize biodiversity, threatened, endangered, and native species of importance to state and
      tribal agencies.
V.18
                                                                          October 1996

-------
Arizona-Sonora
       Implement management programs,  educational opportunities  and conservation in the
       following protected areas: Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Cabeza Prieta National
       Wildlife Refuge, El Pinacate - Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve, and the Alto Golfo
       de California, Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve.

       Establish the organizational structure and joint inspection committees for the Pinacate-Gran
       Desierto de Altar and Alto Golfo de California-Delta del,Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserves.
       Design strategies for the long-term financial maintenance of these protected areas. Promote
       projects  and  activities that offer an economic alternative for sustainable development to
       inhabitants who live close to these areas.

       Pursue reforestation activities on the periphery of the most important urban areas especially
       in those areas that have been altered such as the municipality of Cananea. This should be
       done with the participation of public and private educational institutions with the end goal of
       fostering environmental education.

       Finalize an agreement between the Coronado National Forest, Arizona, and Sonora to pursue
       the coordination of firefighting brigades, and increase number of fire crews that participate
       in a current binational fire program between the Coronado National Forest and Sonora,
       particularly in Agua Prieta, Sierra de los Ajos, and Mazatan.

       Establish an aquacultural program for rural areas that includes a training component for the
       inhabitants of the region.

       Conduct specialized  aquaculture studies to define management  plans  and sustainable
       utilization of resources of mutual interest.                                    .

       Establish policy and guidelines for the protection of aquatic species that inhabit the Alto Golfo
       de California-Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve.

       Design and establish a contaminant monitoring program in the border area and the coastal
       zone to determine the concentration of critical contaminants that may be impacting natural
       resources.

       Establish standards for import, export, and quality control of aquatic and marine species
       utilized for aquaculture and commercial fishing.

       Restore and protect aquatic riparian corridors along the Santa Cruz River.

       Complete a basic inventory of aquatic biota and monitor the quality of water in the San Pedro
       River.

       Monitor and inventory native fish and aquatic organisms in the Sonora Desert ecosystem.
October 1996
V.19

-------
Arizona-Sonora

Water

>•     Pending available resources, establish binational priorities and develop a long-term joint
       program, through DOT, EPA, IBWC, SEMAKNAP, in cooperation with state and local
       authorities, to systematically map and characterize the Colorado, Santa Cruz, and San Pedro
       surface and groundwater basins.

>•     Provide technical assistance, as needed, for meeting water and wastewater infrastructure
       needs in Yuma, San Luis Rio Colorado, and small communities in the area.

>•     EPA and CNA, with coordination by IBWC, and state agencies, will continue to monitor
       surface waters to:

       •     assess water quality and the need for additional wastewater infrastructure;

       •     assess groundwater contamination issues; and

       •     take appropriate actions to monitor and prevent contamination.

>•     EPA and CNA, in close coordination with local authorities and the BECC, will support the
       efforts  in  planning and obtaining  financial resources to design  and construct  needed
       wastewater  treatment infrastructure in  ambos Nogales to protect public health and the
       environment from raw sewage flows. These efforts will take the entire watershed and the
       relationship between water supply and wastewater into account. In future years, additional
       funding for this project may come from  EPA or the NADBank with certification from the
       BECC.

>•     In conjunction with the development of wastewater infrastructure for ambos Nogales, further
       development and implementation of an industrial wastewater source control program is
       crucial to minimize the release of toxic pollutants to surface and groundwaters and to protect
       the existing and planned treatment works and its operators.

Environmental Health

>•     In-depth  discussion  of binational, geographic-specific  five-year objectives  has only
       commenced in earnest with the issuance of the Framework Document. The intent is to
       translate the overall environmental health objectives outlined in Chapter III into objectives,
       priorities, and projects specific for this region benefiting from further binational discussions
       and the input obtained from community outreach meetings. Some examples of the types of
       objectives that will be developed for this region include:

       •     EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) will work
             closely with the Environmental Health Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC) in
             their ongoing efforts to address the serious health concerns of the Nogales, Arizona,
             community and its potential relationship to environmental factors. The agencies will
             continue to work closely with the state of Arizona and the University of Arizona to
             study possible risk factors and conduct a community health survey.
V.20
                                                                              October 1996

-------
 Arizona-Sonora
An
              Because of the complexity of establishing a causal relationship, more elaborate studies
              will likely be needed to further explore links between the environment and disease in
              Nogales.  EPA and ADEQ will transfer environmental data to the ICC and ATSDR
              as it is developed, and will attempt to accelerate collection of this information as much
              as possible. In addition, Arizona health authorities and SSA are mounting a significant
              effort to provide environmental and health information to their respective communities
              and provide consistent medical support.

              Develop and deliver training and outreach on the proper handling of pesticides. Tailor
              pesticide programs developed by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation
              and Baja California authorities to suit the needs of the Arizona-Sonora community.
              Programs to consider include:

              •*•     an emergency response strategy for pesticide-related incidents along the
                     border;

              •*•     a notification and information exchange strategy for pesticide residue detection
                     on both sides of the border;

              -*•     a food safety information exchange strategy;

              •*-     general pesticides regulation and information exchange; and

              •*•     a strategy and system to track pesticides bought in Arizona and used in
                     Mexico and vice versa.

              The Sonoran Office of Agronomy, the Arizona Department of Agriculture, Enlace
              Ecologico, the northeast Sonora-Cochise  County  Health Council and  others, in
              cooperation with school districts in northeast Sonora and southern Cochise County,
              Arizona, will attempt to develop Integrated Pest Management Programs in border
              region schools and public buildings in order to reduce the risk of exposure of school
              children, faculty, staff, and the general public. The projects are being conducted by
              the Arizona Toxics Information under contract to the Arizona Structural Pest Control
              Commission.
       Given the physical, demographic, vehicular traffic, and industrial characteristics of the ambos
       Nogales and Douglas-Agua Prieta air basins, there is an immediate need to evaluate levels of
       PM-10, an air pollutant targeted as a problem in these areas. The Arizona-Sonora subgroup
       will build on existing efforts to recommend and implement air quality improvement strategies,
       with the ultimate goal of meeting health-based ambient air quality standards.   Paniculate
       monitoring at base sites in ambos Nogales and Douglas-Agua Prieta will continue over the
       long-term.
October 1996
                                                                                     V.21

-------
Arizona-Sonora

>•     In the Yuma air basin, EPA and ADEQ will continue to implement reasonable available
       control measures as evaluated in the State Implementation Plan to attain PM-10 NAAQS and
       maintain the NAAQS through the year 2000.

>•     In light of the expansion of Nacozari smelter and imminent shutdown of the Cananea smelter,
       the Air Workgroup will assess the need to revise Annex IV of the La Paz Agreement.

Hazardous and Solid Waste

X     SEMARNAP will facilitate projects that result in the construction and operation  of
       environmentally responsible controlled landfills for hazardous and industrial waste to build
       waste management capacity.

>•     Proper management, treatment and disposal of hazardous and  solid waste and compliance
       with regulations for transboundary shipments of hazardous waste will remain a priority for the
       Arizona-Sonora region. Continued cooperation among the state and local offices will focus
       on:
       •      ongoing information and technology transfer;

       •      cooperative training;

       •      building laboratory sampling and analysis capabilities;

       •      developing recyclables markets; and

       •      using and improving HAZTRAKS as a tracking and compliance tool.

>•     One of the principal actions will be to improve waste management practices in the Arizona-
       Sonora region and promote solid and hazardous waste minimization and recycling.  This will
       be accomplished by:
       •      developing partnerships with industry to encourage waste minimization and safe
             material management

       •      providing site-specific compliance and technical assistance on an as-needed basis; and

       •      training government officials, community leaders, and industry on waste reduction and
             pollution prevention

Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

>•     Both governments will develop state and local capacity for contingency planning, as well as
       emergency response in the areas of Yuma-San Luis Rio Colorado, Nogales-Nogales, Naco-
       Naco, and Douglas-AguaPrieta. This will be accomplished through the Joint Response Team
       which involves federal,  state and local agencies with  responsibilities for dealing with
       environmental emergencies through implementation of the Joint Contingency Plan in these
       sister cities, the creation  and  promotion of CLAMs,  the creation and  equipment  of
V.22
                                                                             October 1996

-------
Arizona-Sonera

       communication and emergency response centers, training of staff involved in emergency
       response, and communication with the public, among other activities.

Environmental Information

>•     Responsible authorities plan a concerted effort to characterize environmental conditions and
       trends and their potential links to health issues.  Long-term air and water monitoring efforts
       are intended to be  developed or improved. Coupling these efforts with soil sampling at
       regional areas of concern will foster the compilation of necessary data for multimedia analysis.
       This information will facilitate risk-based decision-making.

>•     Such environmental  data gathering efforts will  develop a  comprehensive  base of
       environmental information which will augment pollution prevention and control programs on
       both sides of the border and support environmental health assessments.

Pollution Prevention

>•     EPA will work with the cities of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, to implement a
       pollution prevention program that will provide technical assistance to industry, institute a
       pollution prevention award program, and provide outreach and education to the public.

>•     This bilingual environmental education curriculum, being prepared for ambos Nogales school
       districts as part of the Ambos Nogales Wellhead Protection Program, will be shared, with all
       of the school districts in the Arizona-Sonora region as the beginning of a larger effort to
       develop  local environmental education resources.  Public education efforts will continue to
       improve local and regional awareness about environmental issues and needs. The intention
       of pollution prevention and partnering in pollution prevention efforts throughout the Arizona-
       Sonora border region is to enhance small business technical assistance and technology
       transfer.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

>•     The Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance Workgroup will promote the establishment
       of a subgroup for the Arizona-Sonora region, which will have the responsibility of meeting
       the objectives referred to in Chapter III.

>•     The PROFEPA inspection program estimates that it will carry out 2,600 inspections between
       1996 and 2000 to monitor regulatory environmental compliance.
October 1996
                                                                                   V.23

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
              New  Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua  Region
      Map croilod by COS)
      S4ptimbef 25, 1993
 1.1
A
                               100
                                     • City
                                     + Sbtor Civ
                                    /\/ State Boundary
                                    ^ U.S./MoxIco Border
                                    y^ 100km Buffer
                                    I—| Wator Body
                                    )ga Protected Area

                                    0 Miles
                            Sources: Digital Chart ol the World. TNRI3, National Parks Service, TXP&W
EPA Region e
 GIS Team
Dallas, Texas
VLb
                                                                                  October 1996

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c
HAPTER VI
NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
 An order to promote a regional approach to environmental problem solving, this chapter
 focuses on environmental issues and problems, past and ongoing projects, and objectives
 that are specific to the New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua area of the border region. The
 borderwide objectives and ongoing activities described in Chapter HI also pertain to the
 New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua border region.
Brief Overview

The New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua region stretches approximately 500 miles (800 km) along the
international boundary from the Coronado National Forest to Big Bend National Park and includes
the following major sister cities: Columbus-Palomas, Sunland Park-El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, and
Presidio-Ojinaga.

The states of New Mexico, Texas, and Chihuahua come together in the area of Sunland Park, New
Mexico, El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. This area is commonly known as Paso del
Norte.  Almost 2 million residents live in the urban and semiurban area, and it is projected that by the
year 2010, there will be 3.5 million people living in Paso del Norte alone. This population forms an
important part of the growing binational economy of the region.

In Ciudad Juarez, of the working population, nearly 50 percent work in the industrial manufacturing
sector; 15 percent work in the service sector; and 5 percent work in agriculture, livestock, and
fisheries.

                                     TABLE 6.1
                                    POPULATION
" population Center
Columbus, New Mexico
Palomas, Chihuahua
Sunland Park, New Mexico
El Paso, Texas
Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua
Presidio, Texas
Ojinaga., Chihuahua
Total
BsaSN^lstlcm v;
410
12,000
4,300
425,300
567,000
1,600
26,000
i$$$,6W
imny*te$m
640
16,500
8,200
515,300
850,000
3,000
24,000
JU417,ฃ40
imjfopvtetitm^
770
20,000
9,100
583,000
1,010,000
3,500
23,600
1,64W)
 October 199iS
                                                                              VL1

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New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua

          Notes for Table 6.1 Population
          •       U.S. population figures for 1980 and 1990 come from the U.S. Census. The 1995 figures for cities in
                 New Mexico are estimated from the USDOC, Bureau of Census, October 1995 estimates for July 1,1994.
                 El Paso, Texas estimate is from Texas State Data Center Estimates and Population Program prepared by
                 Department of Rural Sociology, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University System,
                 January 1,1996 population estimate.
          •       Mexican population figures for 1980 and 1990 come from the X and XIINEGI National Census of
                 Population and Housing. The 1995 data comes from the 1995 INEGI Count of Population and Housing.

This region is a part of the Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem that is primarily comprised of arid to semi-
arid biotic communities. Characteristic vegetation is primarily shrubs which  sometimes form low
closed thickets. Short grass species grow in association with shrubs, such as creosote bush, yucca,
gray thorn, along with various forbes, and cacti. Some isolated mountains in the Chihuahua Desert
(Chisos and Guadalupe Mountains in the U.S. and Sierra Rica in Mexico) are high enough to sustain
oak, juniper, and pine woodlands in the higher altitudes with unique ecological characteristics.

The Rio Grande, Pecos River, and Rio  Conchos are the only perennial streams. These water bodies
form an important riparian corridor for neotropical wildlife.  As many  as  80 species of native
Chihuahuan Desert fishes are known to inhabit this unique, yet geographically vast, ecosystem. These
aquatic habitats are subject to a wide variety of natural and artificial water stresses.

In both the U.S.  and Mexico, numerous parks and reserves have been established to protect the
Chihuahuan desert habitat. These include Big Bend National Park and the Big Bend Ranch Natural
Area in the state of Texas, and the Canon de Santa Elena Reserve recently established in Chihuahua
for the protection of this ecosystem, as well as the Maderas del Carmen protected area in the state
of Coahuila.

Environmental Issues and Problems

Natural Resources

Habitat alterations are the principal concern affecting biodiversity in the region. The illegal extraction
of wild flora species such as cacti and the introduction of exotic species that alter natural habitats are
ongoing problems in both countries. Illegal hunting, wildlife trafficking, overgrazing, and, in general,
the overexploitation of resources are also important problems.

Increased human population along the border has increased the demand for wood and wood products
while land availability for growing trees is decreasing.  Forestry and soil conservation concerns
include soil erosion control, loss of forest lands, threatened and endangered species protection and
habitat management, including traditional uses among indigenous people.  For this reason, erosion
control and restoration and revegetation of areas is necessary, especially in those areas with high
saline soil. Some native species previously used only for fuel wood are being extensively harvested
for other consumptive uses including saw logs.  Other wood products are valued and need to be
developed more fblly in Mexico for local sale or export. These consumptive uses threaten forest
stand sustainability, but a balance must be reached between commercial use and conservation of the
wood.
VL2
October 1996

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                                                                   New Mexico-Tcias-Chihuahua

 Genetic quality of species (i.e. Chihuahua pine and Douglas fir) have been reduced due to overcutting
 and selective removal of higher quality individual trees. Efforts aimed at improving the quality of the
 seed source, as well as the process for selecting seedlings for planting, are needed.

 Water

 The potential for overuse and pollution of groundwater and surface water are serious concerns and
 affect human health and natural resources along the Rio Grande including protected areas such as Big
 Bend National Park, Canon de Santa Elena, and the Big Bend Ranch State Natural Area. The lack
 of sufficient in-stream flows in the Rio Grande to support riparian habitat and aquatic habitat may be
 a problem.

 The public has identified drinking water quality and groundwater contamination as major concerns
 in this geographic area.  Residents of New Mexico believe a large number of colonias in Dona Ana
 County  have contaminated water  supplies.  Residents of Texas are worried about potential
 contamination of groundwater sources by the pipeline at Lakeside and by the proposed low level
 radioactive nuclear waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas.

 A pressing environmental issue in the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region is the critical lack of water
 resources.  Complicating the problem is the border setting, with two major urban centers, three states,
 and two nations sharing limited water resources in an arid region.  The cities depend on the bolson
 deposits of both the Mesilla and Hueco aquifers  as the major source of water for municipal and
 industrial use. The Hueco aquifer is a source of agricultural irrigation water. Due to the low rate of
 groundwater recharge, levels of fresh water in these formations have been declining.  As pumping
 increases with population growth, the water resource will become saltier and its depletion will be
 accelerated. The solutions to this  problem involve developing  a better understanding of the
 groundwater system and implementing water conservation measures, wastewater reclamation and
 reuse.

 In Ciudad Juarez, the current water supply is sufficient to meet the present population demand.
 However,  given current  supplies  are  being  exhausted  and problems posed by magnesium
 contamination, the bolson aquifer must be used as an additional source of water. To resolve this
 problem, construction of the Conejose-Medanos Aqueduct and employment of the waters of the Rio
 Grande as a drinking water source are contemplated. In Ojinaga, the current water supply is
 sufficient to meet present and future population demands.

 Current sewage collection systems in both cities (Ciudad Juarez and Ojinaga) are sufficient to handle
the projected wastewater volume until the year 2015.  However, the effluent is not pretreated prior
to discharge, causing groundwater pollution and soil saturation due to  insufficient drainage.  In
 Ciudad Juarez, the construction of treatment plants has been put out for bid; however, construction
has not been initiated due to lack of resources. Nonetheless, the municipal board is carrying out a
wastewater pretreatment and control program for industrial discharges  to the municipal, sewage
 system. Ojinaga has a stabilization pond which is not operational due to a blockage problem.

Through analysis of the region's water infrastructure needs,  CNA found that 90 percent of the
population receives quality drinking  water, 75 percent of the residences are connected to a sewer
October 1996
VL3

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New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
system, and there is no treatment for wastewater. At this time, CNA has estimated resource
requirements to meet the region's present infrastructure deficiencies as shown in Table 6.2.

                                        TABLE 6.2
              RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ESTIMATES FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE*
	 rg-j: 	 —>•••ป 	
; PrpJ^fct Cwip&nent '
vxif ' •• ^ - X ^
Drinking water
Sewer systems
Treatment
Institutional strengthening
Increased efficiency
Studies and projects
Total
I -• '
Urgent
1996-1997
8.0
7.0
19.0
3.0
4.0
0.3
41.3
^Miw^stsdieattfi
Short term
1998-1999
12.0
2.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
0.2
1S.2
dt8fon$t3C&$ "
Medium term
2000
22.0
5.0

1.0
3.0

31.0
•*' ' •
Total

42.0
14.0
20.0
6.0
8.0
0.5
90.5
 *      These estimates are based on studies and evaluations conducted by the Government of Mexico to meet domestic
        standards.

Domestic water supply in the New Mexico and Texas colonias is a serious community concern. The
lack of adequate wastewater treatment and improper hazardous and solid waste management are
considered major contributors to the insufficient environmental conditions and the high risk to human
health.  These polluted conditions are most evident in agricultural drains within the boundaries of
those colonias. The public expressed a need for a consolidated plan to introduce basic water supply
and sewage services in the colonias. In New Mexico, the public is aware of the funds available for
colonia improvements, but believes lack of coordination among the numerous agencies involved in
the process interferes with the resolution of problems in their communities.

Many colonia developments are located on former agricultural lands within the service area of Bureau
of Reclamation (BOR) projects, particularly in the Lower Valley  of El Paso.  Many colonia residents
were sold land without the proper infrastructure, i.e., sanitary and potable water.  Most residents of
the colonias built their own dwellings and either haul their drinking water to their lots or drill shallow
wells. Wastewater is typically handled onsite with cesspools or septic tanks and leach fields.  Over
time, the  absence of adequate  infrastructure may have  resulted  in  the contamination of the
groundwater from which the water supply is sometimes drawn.

Environmental Health

A diagnosis of environmental health should be carried out to prevent and eliminate diseases related
to the environment,  such as the high incidence of hepatitis  A and tuberculosis  in  this region.
Residents of colonias lacking safe drinking water or adequate  sewage systems are predisposed to
gastrointestinal diseases such as hepatitis A, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and amebiasis transmitted
through contaminated food and water. The tuberculosis rate for Texas border counties, for example,
remains more than twice the statewide rate emphasizing the importance of binational collaboration
VT4
                                                                                October 1996

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                                                                   New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua

to identify and treat patients along the border in order to reduce transmission. In addition, there is
a potential for upper respiratory infections and other related lung diseases due to noncompliance with
air quality standards.

Ak

A serious consequence of accelerated growth  in the region is sustained deterioration of the
environment, particularly with regard to air quality. These air quality problems are due to excessive
emissions from mobile sources (for example, automobiles and trucks), point sources (factories and
diverse industrial operations) and area sources (internal combustion garden equipment, paint and
other coatings). These pollution sources grow as population and economic activity increase.

Two areas in the border region of New Mexico and Texas do not meet all of the U.S. standards for
air quality.  Portions of El Paso County,  Texas, do not meet the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS) for paniculate matter (PM-10), carbon monoxide (CO), or ozone (O3). In New
Mexico,  air quality in the city of Sunland Park  in Dona Ana County does not meet the federal
standard for ozone. Also in Dona Ana County, the city of Anthony contains a small area that does
not meet the federal standard for PM-10.

Currently in Mexico, there is no guidance by which to determine "nonattainment". with Mexican air
quality standards.  Additionally, there is insufficient air quality monitoring data to  determine if
Mexican cities meet the Mexican air quality standards. Aside from these limitations, Ciudad Juarez
potentially does not meet Mexican air quality standards for paniculate, carbon monoxide, and ozone.
This is based on existing monitoring results as well as a knowledge  of emissions sources and their
potential emissions.

To develop a cost-effective strategy to reduce air pollution, federal, state, and local authorities must
have  an accurate assessment of the current problems.  With this in mind, communities in the El
Paso-Ciudad Juarez-Sunland Park area indicated  a critical need for more air monitoring within the
binational air basins. This is seen as an essential  first step in identifying air problems and working
towards improvement of air quality in the region. Border residents are concerned that air quality
problems in the region have important implications to their health.

Sustained industrial growth in the El Paso and Ciudad Juarez area has also  given rise to concern
about the air quality problems that can result from increased truck traffic.  In the case of El Paso,
Sunland Park, and Ciudad Juarez, the composition of cross-border traffic is  compounded by long
idling times at border crossing points. This is a visible indication of the threat to air quality in the
downtown areas. The area will continue to have high volumes of cross border commercial traffic.
Further, the growing concentration of maquiladora plants is an increasing air quality concern.

One "area source" that is of particular concern  is solid waste burning, such as landfills or trash
burning for a variety of reasons.  This was identified as a concern by area residents as a potential
source of hazardous air pollution or a contributor to general air quality problems. With regard to
mobile sources, residents also called for more automobile emissions testing on both sides of the
border to address the high volume of vehicle crossings. Enforcement of heavy vehicle transportation
routes was put forth as a partial solution to congestion and pollution problems.
October 1996
                                                                                      VL5

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New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua

In addition to potential human health effects, there is concern that poor air quality in the El
Paso-Ciudad Juarez-Sunland Park area may adversely affect the ecology of the San Andres National
Wildlife Reserve.  Air pollution appears to be one of the primary management issues facing this
unique refuge. Air quality problems also continue to be a serious concern to the ecological integrity
of other federal and state operated land. The ad-hoc binational workgroup formed to deal with air
quality problems in the Big Bend National Park area formed a subgroup to devote some attention to
air quality problems in the El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua areas.  However, the
workgroup as a whole is now primarily focused on air quality in the Big Bend region.1

A key component of the effort to improve air quality in this area has been locally based initiatives to
advocate low-cost, locally implementable programs to reduce air pollution. As the process evolved,
local residents urged the U.S. and Mexican federal governments to develop a formal method for local
residents to guide and collaborate with government programs in the area. In response,  the two
governments negotiated an agreement which created a Joint Advisory Committee for Air Quality
Improvement and  defined the El  Paso-Ciudad Juarez-Sunland Park area as an Air Quality
Management Basin. The Committee will develop locally based binational initiatives for incorporation
into the overall activities of the Workgroup.

Hazardous and Solid Waste

Residents of the region expressed significant concern about the types, quantities, and destinations of
hazardous materials and wastes. Community and government concerns stem from the high number
of crossings of the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez border and projections that commercial transportation
across the international boundary will likely increase with the phase-in of NAFTA.

Sunland Park colonia residents feel their concerns  over the types of materials deposited in the local
landfill site are not receiving enough attention. They also expressed concern about the proximity of
the landfill to their residential area.  Community residents, as well as both governments, realize that
landfill sites in the area require special attention  because of the potential for runoff into the Rio
Grande. A hazardous waste site, known as Sierra Blanca, has been proposed in Hudspeth County,
Texas.  The state of Texas is proceeding with public hearings on this project.

In March 1996, the Ihterministerial Group on Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites for the Mexico-U.S.
Border was formed in Mexico with the purpose  of issuing joint statements on hazardous waste
facilities and developing programs for  compliance and monitoring of existing  sites.   This group is
composed of INE, PROFEPA, the Coordinating Office of International Affairs of SEMARNAP, the
Secretariat of  Energy, the  National Commission for Nuclear  Security  and Safeguards
(CONASENUSA) and SRE.

Contingency Planning and  Emergency  Response

As a result of industrialization and the high concentration of industries which use hazardous materials
and generate wastes in their processes, large amounts of hazardous materials and wastes frequently
pass through cities which are located near the international border crossings. These border cities lack
       ^or more information on this workgroup, see the Air section in Chapter VII.
VL6
                                                                               October 1996

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                                                                New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua

the resources to buy and equip the emergency response units required to respond to chemical
accidents.  In addition, legal and insurance issues associated with the transboundary movement of
equipment and personnel must be resolved.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

Because of the  growing concentration of population and industrial activity, compliance with
environmental requirements is essential for health and welfare in the area. Local, state and federal
agencies Involved in enforcing environmental laws and prompting compliance can improve their
effectiveness through cooperation.
                                       TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
,,f AO|Vปf,J
wSs j f fff ff
. -, . y ' *". A 	 ..*!...
TiOtfl
$$AMK' -
%% f
PAmnmj$ --
^ f
T ' ' ;^ AeeoMpฃj$MM EN-IB
':;" s ss f " "• """^

NATURAL RESOURCES
Santa Elena Canyon
Project
Environmental
Education Program
Program for the
Management of the
Santa Elena Flora and
Fauna Protected Area
Biological diversity
of the northern
Mexican prairies
Conservation
education and
community outreach
in Canon de Santa
Elena Wildlife
Refiige
Distribution of the
wild turkey habitats
and genetics
1990-1995
Ongoing
1995
Ongoing
1995
1994
NPS, INE,
Chihuahua, UACH,
INAH
NPS, PROFAUNA
A.C. UACH, UTEP,
Chihuahua
INE, UACH
INE, CES, UNAM
FWS,NPS,INE
INE, FWS, UACH,
CES
UACH/INE baseline inventory of
natural and cultural resources
completed. Declared a reserve for
protection of flora and fauna in 1995.
Design and presentation of special
environmental education programs
for school children on the US.-
Mexico border.
Preliminary version of management
program is developed, and will be
presented for consideration and
agreement with local citizens and
authorities for the final version.
Conduct a biological inventory of the
vertebrates and flora of the northeast
prairies of Chihuahua, based on
information from relevant literature,
scientific collections, and field work.
Develop conservation education
opportunities to communities in the
Canon de Santa Elena Reserve.
Conduct an ecological and genetic
study of the wild turkey for its
management and conservation in the
northern border area of Mexico.
October 1996
                                                                                  VL7

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New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                      TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
- K 'j^O '* '-v; i
-;- Aprfwnrirr i
r^^^r^r „,- j
Conservation of the
masked quail
Evaluation of the
gray crane in
Chihuahua
Yaqui catfish and
Yaqui sucker
collection: Rio
Bavispe in
Chihuahua and
Sonora
Biodiversity
conservation in the
Rio Grande, New
Mexico and Texas
Aplomado falcon
habitat characteristics
Advance study
seminar on Mexico
values
Improvement of
forest genetics of
threatened and
endangered tree
species
Improvement of
threatened and
endangered tree
species by genetics
Sustainable use of
forest practices
t TKHE !
- 'f IMW,; !
1994
1993
Ongoing
1995-1996
1996
1993-1995
Ongoing
1993-
Ongoing
1993-
Ongoing
J?AjfcTNl)R$ "
INE,FWS,UACH
SEDESOL,FWS,
UACH
FWS,INE,AGFD
FWS
Autonomous
University of
Chapingo, BRD,
FWS
NFS
USFS-Northeast
Station, INIFAP,
SEMARNAP-
Chihuahua, Canada
USFS,
SERMARNAP -
Chihuahua, INIFAP-
N. Region, Canadian
Forestry
USFS, SEMARNAP,
INIFAP-N. Region,
Ejido Basaseachic
- ' A020MFtmp*ENTS % * '
-% "'- - ' •.-.>,--
Organize a conservation program for
the masked quail in Chihuahua.
Understand the population structure
of the gray crane in the state of
Chihuahua to establish conservation
programs.
Baseline surveys and population
studies of Yaqui sucker and Yaqui
catfish in the Rio Bavispe, Mexico.
Resource protection involving habitat
conservation planning, coordination
of federal projects and recovery of
endangered species.
Gain understanding of the ecological
characteristics of the Aplomado
falcon in order to establish
conservation programs.
Yearly educational seminars.
Improve seed quality of pine species,
such as Chihuahua pine and
Chihuahua fir.
Through research and training, seed
quality, selection process, and
silviculture practices related to tree
selection have improved.
Best Management Practices (BMP)
guidebook has been developed, BMP
demonstration site established.
 VL8
                                                                            October 1996

-------
                                                               New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                       TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
*~ .sAcn^irr"^
El Largo-Madera
Ecosystem
Management Practice
-VElME
: "Jtouyaji
1993-
Ongoing
JPAIซlflEa& s "
Ejido Largo-Madero,
INIFAPN.-Region,
USFS-RMRS,
SEMARNAP
% - ^ODOMiPXOTWtKRWI '
Developed ecosystem management
plan for production of various wood
and non-wood products with
community participation.
WATER
Constructed
Wetlands Wastewater
Treatment Model
Project
Circuit rider for
technical assistance
for public water
systems along U.S.-
Mexico border
Colonias Wastewater
Treatment Assistance
Program (CWTAP)
Rio Grande Toxics
Baseline Study
Technical assistance
for small community
drinking water
systems in the New
Mexico-Mexico
border area
1993-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongbing
1993-
Ongoing
1992-1993
1994-
Ongoing
EPA,NMED,
Mesquite, N.M.
••>
EPA, TNRCC
EPA.TWDB
EPA, IBWC, DOI,
TNRCC, TDK,
TPWD
EPA,UNM
Construction of a model constructed
wetlands to address wastewater
treatment is currently underway in the
colonia of Mesquite, New Mexico.
The objective of this program is to
help utilities along the border to
comply with state and federal
regulations in a cost-effective manner.
It also helps to ensure that water and
wastewater utility services are
maintained and expanded, where
possible, by identifying financial
resources and helping utilities access
these resources.
Grants are provided to local
governments and nonprofit water
supply corporations for design and
construction of wastewater collection
and treatment facilities. The program
is administered by TWDB.
Binational report completed in
September 1994. While the study did
not indicate that toxic contamination
was widespread, several areas with
elevated levels of toxic contamination
were found, primarily below sister
cities and in tributaries.
Provides technical assistance on
organizational structure and finance
of small water supply systems along
the border.
October 1996
                                                                                VL9

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                      TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
v &c#m;it v !
-5 ,,<" :ซ"ง" ^?v-"X,i
El Paso City/County
wellhead protection
demonstration
Las Graces wellhead
protection
demonstration
Study of barriers to
colonias
infrastructure
Colonia Plumbing
Loan Program
(CPLP) in Texas
Economically
Distressed Areas
Program (EDAP)
Colonias Wastewater
Construction Grants
Program (CWCGP)
Colonias Assistance
and Management
Support Program
(CAMSP)
\Tw& "
Vf&AME |
1993
1993
1993-1994
1991-
Ongoing
1989-
Ongoing
1993-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
% •.''''' ' -.
% ,-. •. '' # f '' f.
EPA, EPCCHED,
TNRCC
EPA, Las Cruces

-------
                                                                 New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                        TABLE 6.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA

%•.•••• v f f
Characterize
transboundary
aquifers - El Paso-
Ciudad Juarez





Municipal Onsite
Wastewater
Assistance Program


Binational
wastewater operator
training

Binational water
1 supply operator
training

Rio Grande Toxics
Study- follow-up

Rio Graade-Rio
Bravo Alliance















*tMJ&r
1994-1996








1994-
Ongoing



1995-
Ongoing


1995-
Ongping


1995-
Ongoing

1995-
Ongoing














- v, "--
"t& j4 UTET^J ti*'I> 'C •*
>, % ,Jfm, -[f^y^ f-, ^.it yyjHj.'j.y
EPA, mwc,
TWDB, NMSU







EPA, TWDB



EPA, Water
Environment Fed.
(WEF)

EPA, American
Waterworks
Association

EPA, IBWC,
TNRCC

Stakeholders
thoughout the Rio
Grande Basin,
including EPA,
TNRCC, Mexico,
New Mexico and
Colorado state and
federal
environmental
entities, tribal
representation,
nongovernmental
organizations, and
other local
stakeholder
participation
- vv ,' 	 ;~ 	 ',
^^^A&0mmm$mi^ ^
This study included reviewing
existing literature and water quality
information to identify gaps where
additional information is needed to
characterize the area's shared
groundwater resources, focusing on
the chemical and physical
characteristics of the aquifers. The
final report is due June 1996.
Small communities have been helped
with an onsite technical assistance
program for small community
wastewater treatment plant operators
developed by the TWDB.
The first training session for
wastewater treatment plant operators
along the border has been conducted
in a binational forum.
The first training session on the
requirements of the Safe Drinking
Water Act has been conducted in a
binational forum.
Field work completed. Report will
help identify areas where additional
water pollution control is needed.
The Rio Grande Alliance had its first
coordinating meeting on July 15-16,
1996 in El Paso, Texas. This meeting
included participants from throughout
the Rio Grande Basin, including
Mexico, New Mexico, Colorado, and
tribal representation.









October 1996
                                                                                 VT11

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                      TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
>" ^..v. •. ;
s ''Acirmw ii
/-'^ v.*"^ ,,<""!
Rio Grande cities
facilities planning
Hueco Bolson
Groundwater Model
Rio Grande-Rio
Bravo NASQAN
Upper Rio Grande
Basin NASQAN
Sewer system in
Ojinaga
Dona Ana County
waste.water
improvements
AmeriCorps
groundwater
protection
New Mexico colonias
enforcement action
Texas Colonias
Enforcement Strike
Force
FRAME ]
1995-
Ongoing
1995-1999
Ongoing
1991-1997
Ongoing
1990-1994
1995-
Ongoing
1994-1996
1995-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
'#&RimR$ ,
f ;
EPA, IBWC
USGS, El Paso
Water Utilities
USGS
USGS
JMAS
EPA, NMED, Dona
Ana County
EPA,UTEP,
TNRCC, Corp. for
Nat. & Comm.
Service
EPA, New Mexico
Attorney General
EPA, Texas Attorney
General
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
U.S.ffiWC has procured A/E firms to
develop planning of wastewater
facilities to control wastewater
discharges from Mexico into the Rio
Grande.
Developing necessary GIS of
available data and landforms. Project
ongoing.
Long-term databases of water quality,
sediment and discharge.
Provide consistent description of
water quality conditions, define trends
and sound scientific understanding of
factors affecting water quality.
The sewer system was rehabilitated
and expanded.
Funds have been provided for
planning, design and construction of
wastewater improvements in Dona
Ana County, New Mexico. Project is
currently in the planning stage.
The objective of this project is to
inventory and provide
recommendations of controls for
existing and potential sources of
groundwater contamination located
around the public water supply wells
for the city and county of El Paso.
The inventory of contaminant sources
has been completed; the focus is
turning to groundwater protection in
colonias in the area.
This program supports the New
Mexico Attorney General in the
enforcement of state laws relating to
colonia development.
This program supports the Texas
Attorney General in the enforcement
of state laws relating to colonia
developments.
 VI12
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                       TABLE 6.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
_ , Aqriwrฃ ; "
--^- "^
Aquifer storage and
recovery study -
Hueco Bolson
Mesilla Basin (TX-
NM) grouiidwater
monitoring
Rio Grande-Rio
Bravo Basin
international water
resources assessment
Ciudad Juarez-El
Paso Wellhead
Protection/
Groundwater Pilot
Project
Investigation of
nonpoint source
impacts to the
agricultural drains in
the colonias in El
Paso County

ATSDR Health
Consultation
Environmental Health
Assessment
Water quality
monitoring of private
drinking water wells
Environmental Health
GIS
; $*m ••„
F&y$K
1995
Ongoing
1996-1999
1994-
Ongoing

ENVIRC
1994-1996
1995-1996
1995-1996
1995-1996
*" lV s
~^PAปTH1ป& ,
BOR
USGS
BOR
EPA, TNRCC
TNRCC
WMENTAL HI
TDK, NMDOH,
NMED, ATSDR
UT Houston School
of Public Health,
NMDOH
NMDOH
NMED, NMDOH
, A^COMFOtMlliTS ' rT',
f

Data collection in process.

Onsite assistance is provided leading
to development and implementation
of wellhead protection programs. The
following communities now have
wellhead protection programs: Fort
Davis, Fort Hancock, Marathon,
Marfa, Van.

IALTH
Health consultation to determine
health impacts of ASARCO andNu-
Mex landfill on Sunland Park, N.M.
residents.
Environmental health assessment for
Sunland Park, New Mexico.
Monitoring of private drinking water
wells for viruses, heavy metals,
VOCs, and pesticides.
Develop GIS coverage
-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                      TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
^^ ^ s ^ ^ s s :
>. . •*&: w* •* •* .5.. ->s % :
'Asanvrnr--*!
. X^'L\?^J
Hepatitis A
surveillance
El Paso Multiple
Sclerosis Cluster
Survey of health and
environmental
conditions in selected
colonias in El Paso
County, Texas
Proyecto Juntos
(Texas-Chihuahua)
Proyecto Juntos (El
Paso-Ciudad Juarez)
Tte "1
*$&AซQB , i
1995-1996
Ongoing
1994
1995-Present
1990-Present
E&RTNฃR$^
TDH,BHO;
Epidemiology Div.
TDK
TDH, University of
Texas, Houston
School of Public
Health at El Paso
TDH, EPCCHD,
PAHO, SSA
TDH, EPCCHD,
PAHO/USMBHA,
SSA
ACCOMHJSHMENTS ^ ,
Surveillance and study of hepatitis A
in Chaparral, New Mexico.
Preliminary confirmation of possible
cluster. Preliminary review of
available environmental data. In the
process of writing grant proposal for
funding. Working to find members of
cohort.
Preliminary border environmental
health survey of 269 households in
four El Paso county colonias which
lacked piped drinking water.
Results show risk of waterborne
disease transmission persists;
adequate wastewater disposal is
lacking; children experienced
relatively high levels of diarrhea;
hygienic behaviors need to be
improved; solid waste disposal also
needs to be addressed.
Open lines of communication at the
state level.
Provisions for confidentiality and
joint presentation of data.
First binational TB project.
Improve communications and
bidirectional referral.
Increase lab capacity and supervised
therapy for TB in Ciudad Juarez.
VI14
                                                                            October 1996

-------
                                                                         New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                             TABLE 6.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
    Presidio Community
    and Environmental
    Health Assessment
   Birth Defects
   Registry
   Texas Small Towns
   Environment
   Program (STEP)

     1995
Pilot began
1994 in TDK
Regions 6 &
11. Expand
to'Regions 2,
3, & 5, South
8-10 in 1997.
1994-Present
 TDK, University of
 Texas - Houston,
 School of Public
 Health at El Paso
TDK, March of
Dimes, CDC
TDK, TNRCC,
Texas Dept of
Housing &
Community Affairs,
TGLO, TWDB
 A comprehensive survey of 316
 households in the city of Presidio,
 including demographic information,
 health assessments related to chronic
 diseases, immunizations, health
 education on AIDS, TB and hepatitis
 A, nutrition, diabetes, water and food
 sanitation.

 Other aspects included  access to
 health care, environmental block
 survey, waste and water sanitation,
 rabies control, and exposure to other
 environmental risk factors.

 Data analysis will be completed by
 July 1996.
 Pilot Birth Defects Registry (BDR),
 expansion, FBDR, statewide cluster
 investigation, referral information
 services (departmental case
 management), folic acid
 prevention/assessment, establishment
 and coordination of scientific
 advisory committee on birth defects
 in Texas.
Interagency project to assist small
communities to meet their water and
wastewater needs through self-
help/sweat-equity.

Interagency workgroup.

Initial thrust is in colonias along the
Texas-Mexico border.

Four current border projects: one in
construction, three in various stages
of design/planning/assessment.

Newsletter.
October 1996
                                                                                           VT1S

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                      TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
S N't-, S-.--" •• ^ f ,. I'' ';
: ^AqxivpV; "
NTD Field
Surveillance
Interventions, and
Case-Control Study
Border Cancer
Registry
Border
Environmental Health
Survey
Binational Manager
and Tracking and
Referral System
Mercury poisoning
prevention
*$8AME J
1995-1996
Ongoing
1996-1997
1995-Present
1995-Present
; PARTNERS ,
TDK, CDC, EPA
TDK, CDC
TDH, EPA, CDC
TDK, EPCCHD
Migrant Clinicians'
Network
TDH, Amistad
Binational Council,
USMBHA
^'ACCOMFIBHMINTS
*••• s
Three years of surveillance data are
complete.
More than 60 percent of high risk
women are taking folic acid.
Case-control study for risk factors for
NTD occurrence has been
implemented.
Completed cancer incidence data
collection and analyses for 18 border
counties for 1990-1992.
Continuing to collect incidence data
for 1993 and forward. Report is being
published.
About 2,100 household surveys will
be conducted along the Texas-Mexico
border to collect data on household
structure,,general sanitation, health
conditions, and potential sources of
exposure to environmental
contaminants.
Under development.
Toll-free access to TB information.
from anywhere in Mexico or the U.S.
Completed investigation.
Presentation made to Mexican
physicians.
VL16
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                        New Afexico-Texas-CMhuabua
                                            TABLE 6.3
                  PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
                                             AIR
    Ciudad Juarez-El
    Paso-Sunland Park
    Programs
   Ciudad Juarez, El
   Paso, Sunland Park
   Air Quality
   Management Basin
   (AQMB) and Joint
   Advisory Committee
   (JAC) for Air Quality
   Improvement
 Ongoing
 Ongoing
 SEMARNAP, EPA,
 TNRCC, State of
 Chihuahua, NMED,
 Ciudad Juarez, INE,
 El Paso, EDI
EPA, INE, Texas,
New Mexico, El
Paso, Sunland Park,
Chihuahua, Ciudad
Juarez, EOF, DOS
 - Operation of ambient air monitoring
 network for CO, NOX, SO2, PM-10,
 lead, ozone (18 sites in El Paso
 County, 5 manual and 3 automatic in
 Ciudad Juarez).
 - Hot spot monitoring.
 -LIDAR field study
 - determine highest PM-10
 concentrations to help establish
 permanent sites and field study sites.
 - Emission inventory complete in El
 Paso. Mexico has developed an
 inventory of 135 industrial sources
 for Ciudad Juarez.
 - Collection of upper air wind speed
 and direction data for air modeling -
 purposes.
 - Assessment of vehicle "smog
 check" programs.
 - Collection of ozone precursor and
 air toxics data.
 - Identification of innovative
 emissions controls.
 - Completion of negotiations with
 Mexico to create the Air Quality
 Improvement Committee for the El
 Paso/Juarez/Sunland Park Air Quality
 Basin.
 - The first course on emmissions
 inventories was completed in Ciudad
 Juarez.
Through the binational negotiations,
the two governments have agreed on a
mechanism to incorporate direct local
input to improve air quality through
the development of air pollution
abatement strategies.
  El Paso County Hot-
  Spot Monitoring
Complete
EPA, TNRCC
October 1996
                                                                                         VI17

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                      TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
, I4|%: !
Assessment of
vehicle smog-check
programs
Intensive Summer
Ozone Study
Emissions Inventory
Project

Development of
consistent industrial,
area, and mobile
source inventories for
large urban centers of
Mexico


Intensive Summer
Ozone Study

Collection of ozone,
ozone precursor,
meteorological, and
air toxics data for air
modeling purposes.
Intensive Summer
Ozone Study
LIDAR devices to
detect upper air wind
dynamics
LIDAR Field Study

Determine highest
concentrations of
PM-lOtohelp
determine adequate
monitoring sites and
field study
monitoring sites
'vSSLj
Ongoing


Ongoing












Summer
1996, in
progress





Ongoing,
Summer
1996


Under
Negotiation







r '*ซ*; ;
EPA,INE,UAM,
UTA, border state
and local
INE, PROFEPA,
PEA, WGA, Border
States










INE, EPA, IMP,
LANL, Chihuahua,
Texas, New Mexico,
El Paso, Ciudad
Juarez, SCERP



LANL, INE




LANL, INE, Ciudad
Juarez







. jWuHiKHI. '



Developed implementation plan for
emissions inventory methodology.

Prepared training course materials
and emissions inventory development
manuals.

Identified technical studies including
special studies and refinement of
emissions inventory methods testing,
validation of emissions estimates,
emissions factor applicability to
Mexico, and uncertainty analysis.
Results expected in mid- 1997.







Results expected in summer of 1997.













VI18
                                                                            October 1996

-------
                                                                  New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahiia
                                        TABLE 6.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
'^AiTOJHnr \
^w wwv m W",
1*, 1EIME -:
I , y&AMi;
per J*AEim%ir'
'l "" f "'-.-.
^™""C;-,',,,,,,\
. , % - -ACCOMPtBHMKNTS '' "^
""•-- ' "\ „ -" ' ' -
HAZARDOUS and SOLID WASTE
COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT and COMPLIANCE
(Please see Appendix 10 for additional solid and hazardous waste projects of U.S., state and lnrปI ng^i^)
Outreach arid training
to maquiladoras on
regulatory
requirements for
transborder
shipments of
hazardous waste
Collection equipment
for municipal solid
wastes; construction
of two transfer
stations; construction
of two new cells in
the sanitary landfill;
improve access to the
landfill; identify other
needs (Juarez)
Enforcement
Subgroup
Education and
training
1988-1993
1993-1995
Ongoing
Ongoing
EPA, SEDESOL,
TNRCC, NMED, US
and Mexican
Customs, DOT,
National
Maquiladora
Association, SCT,
Cal-EPA, ADEQ
B.M., SEDESOL,
state and city
governments
EPA, PROFEPA,
U.S. and Mexican
Customs, U.S. DOT,
SCT, TDPS,
TNRCC, NMED
EPA, TNRCC
Six border wide conferences were
held to increase understanding by
maquiladoras and U.S. parent
companies of import/export
regulations. Developed bilingual
manual for the maquiladora industry.
Improve collection of solid wastes;
continue appropriate solid waste
disposal and improve control of
contaminants, such as leaching and
biogas; identification of infrastructure
needs.
Multiagency involvement in
environmental enforcement addresses
enforcement issues which affect the
geographic area (El Paso and Ciudad
Juarez).
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
provides training to address
transboundary hazardous waste
issues. TNRCC also established an
information program and hot line for
the public.
October 1996
                                                                                 VL19

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                      TABLE 6.3
               PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
.. v ! ' ^ j
" /ACTIVITY/
*•. , •.-.-. ^
Enforcement of
hazardous waste
regulations using
manifests and
associated shipment
data from
HAZTRAKS, a
binational
computerized
tracking system, to
identify potential
violators
Inspection and
investigations of
hazardous waste
transporters at key
border crossings
(e.g., weigh stations,
transporter yards,
waste warehouses) to
find illegal shipments
Hazardous waste
enforcement
International bridge
exercises
U.S. Customs
training courses
Transboundary
enforcement
"FBAMI
Ongoing
1993-Present
1995
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
$*Aiซmป$
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, PROFEPA,
TNRCC, NMED,
U.S. and Mexican
Customs, U.S. DOT,
TOPS, TDK
TNRCC
EPA, PROFEPA,
TNRCC, U.S. DOT,
U.S. and Mexican
Customs
EPA, TNRCC, U.S.
and Mexican
Customs
EPA, TNRCC
ACCOMFtlSHMKNTf *' ,
-• * v ""? ..
A number of enforcement actions
have been filed (administrative and
judicial).
Pursuant to an EPA grant, monitor
the import/export of hazardous
wastes through a cooperative
multiagency initiative to determine if
shipments conform to applicable laws
and regulations.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, conducted
115 inspections of facilities, primarily
in El Paso, which handle hazardous
wastes imported from Mexico.
Two joint international bridge
exercises were conducted in El Paso
to examine binational procedures and
requirements for transboundary
movement of hazardous wastes.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
conducted 12 Customs training
courses on regulations pertaining to
transboundary movement of
hazardous wastes.
EPA funded two TNRCC positions in
El Paso to enforce regulatory
requirements pertaining to
transboundary movement of
hazardous wastes.
 VL20
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                       TABLE 6.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
^ &ciiwnr/7,>
International bridge
inspections
EPA-PROFEPA
cooperation
CFC training
Transporter training
course
U.S. Customs
inspections
Inventory of solid
waste landfills
Assessment of illegal
dumps
,TปofVป t
"FfcAME" *
Ongoing
March 1996
March 1996
Ongoing
1995
Ongoing
Ongoing
s , #Apro ;^
TNRCC
EPA, PROFEPA
EPA, U.S. Customs
PROFEPA, SCT,
TNRCC
EPA, U.S. and
Mexican Customs,
TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
% * A^COMFฃllHMlNfi;-""
~ ftmtr F" ' ™ ^ ' •.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, conducted
18 international bridge inspections on
transboundary movement of
hazardous wastes.
Pursuant to PROFEPA request, EPA
sent letters to U.S. parent
corporations of maquiladoras
encouraging compliance with
Mexican laws.
EPA presented a course to U.S.
Customs on CFC import/export
requirements.
SCT conducted hazardous waste
training courses at Mexican facilities.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
conducted two inspections of
hazardous waste shipments on
international bridges.
Pursuant to EPA grants, an inventory
of active solid waste landfills along
the border was conducted. Training
on landfill design, operation and
closure was provided to Mexican
officials and landfill owner/operators.
TNRCC is evaluating the scope of
illegal dump problems and assessing
collection/disposal needs.
POLLUTION PREVENTION
Video conference on
permanent pollution
prevention program
(P4) broadcast
through Monterrey
Institute of
Technology
1995-
Ongoing
TNRCC, ITESM
A four-hour video broadcast was
downlinked at eight Mexican cities
through the Monterrey Institute of
Technology. Plans are developing for
an extension of this P4 to downlink to
26 satellite campuses throughout
Mexico to reach the maquiladora
industries.
October 1996
                                                                                VI21

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua
                                    TABLE 6.3
              PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - NEW MEXICO-TEXAS-CHIHUAHUA
ft A •>, >* ••''', ^ :
* '*'**•> jv jK>f r j\^jj
-------
                                                                     New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua

        Implement management plans, educational opportunities and conservation projects in the
        following protected areas: Santa Elena Canyon Flora and Fauna Protected Area, Big Bend
        National Park, and the Big Bend Ranch National Area.

        Conduct biological inventories, coordinated by INE and CC-NABIO,  in the Santa Elena
        Caniyon Flora and Fauna Protected Area.

        Establish the organizational structure and joint inspection committees in the Santa Elena
        Canyon Flora and Fauna Protection Area. Design strategies for the long-term financial self-
        sufficiency of this protected area. Promote projects and activities that offer an economically
        viable alternative which supports  sustainable development for the residents that live in or
        around this area.


        Jointly develop a "best  management practices" plan in the area of forestry.   Carry out
        environmental impact assessments to determine the effects of human activities on the soils and
        vegetation.  Strengthen collaboration in the sustainable management  of forests  through
        training and exchange of personnel.  Also, continue collaboration between the two countries
        for the prevention of forest fires.


        Increase reforestation efforts, including nursery management,  to improve the quality  and
        quantity of seedling survival in plantations as well as natural forests. Expand genetic  and
        silvicultural activities to recover and manage threatened and endangered plant species.

        Pursue opportunities for collaboration in developing windbreaks around agricultural lands,
        as a soil conservation method, as well as the development of commercial plantations for wood
        products and nonwood products (i.e., jojoba, Christmas trees^ etc.).

       Establish a  rural aquaculture program to train local residents in how to manage aquaculture
        activities with available resources.  Incorporate aquaculture as a productive activity, with a
       low environmental impact, that represents benefits to the local populations and contributes
       to the conservation of endemic aquatic species or species in danger of extinction.
Water
       In the U.S., water and wastewater infrastructure in the colonias and small communities are
       the highest priority. In Mexico, water infrastructure in the municipal areas is the highest
       priority; however, a need also exists in the small communities.  Specifically for this area,
       new/renovated wastewater treatment facilities are needed in Ciudad Juarez. In conjunction
       with any wastewater treatment systems that  are constructed, an industrial  wastewater
       pretieatment program to control industrial discharges to sewer systems and water bodies will
       be needed.  The U.S. and Mexico will continue to work with the appropriate organizations
       to assist these communities in developing facility plans and obtaining funds to address these
       needs.
October 1996
                                                                                      VI 23

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua

>•     Pending available resources, establish binational priorities and develop a long-term joint
       program, through DOI, EPA, ffiWC, and SEMARNAP, in cooperation with state and local
       authorities, to systematically map and characterize Mimbres Basin at Columbus-Palomasand
       the Rio Grande-Rio Bravo in the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez area for surface and groundwater.

>     The TNRCC and EPA will continue to share information with CNA and other appropriate
       Mexican authorities regarding the creation of the Rio Grande Alliance. The U.S. and Mexico
       will continue to work with different state and federal agencies to manage then- ecosystem and
       watershed activities. Comprehensive planning for the Rio Grande watershed will help both
       governments develop solutions to identified water quality problems.  Similar collaborative
       efforts will be encouraged along of the rest of the border.

>     A continuing effort in surveillance, monitoring, and data acquisition will be undertaken to
       determine the status of surface and groundwater resources in the Rio Grande Watershed. The
       United States-Mexico technical subgroup will continue the process of data exchange and the
       development of regional hydrogeologic studies for El Paso-Ciudad Juarez groundwater.


>     The U.S. and Mexico will continue to work together to complete the ongoing Rio Grande
       water quality studies, begin analysis of the data, and evaluate the need for additional
       monitoring.

>•     Inherent in the efforts to protect surface and groundwater resources is the need to improve
       urban infrastructure associated with the supply of drinking water and the  disposal of
       wastewater.  Recognizing  the importance  of the Rio  Grande in terms  of sustainable
       development, the U.S. and Mexico  will work together on a watershed-based analysis of
       drinking water and wastewater infrastructure needs for the cities, towns, and communities
       near the river. EPA and CNA will continue to work with the JJBWC and BECC to facilitate
       the development of the Rio Grande Cities Facilities Planning projects.


Environmental Health

>•     In-depth  discussion of binational,  geographic-specific  five-year  objectives  has  only
       commenced in earnest with the issuance of the Framework Document. The intent is to
       translate the overall environmental health objectives outlined in Chapter III into objectives,
       priorities,  and projects specific for this region benefiting from further binational discussions
       and the input obtained from community outreach meetings.
 >    EPA and SEMARNAP will continue close collaboration to develop the technical information
       upon which to base a comprehensive air quality control program that will bring the region into
       compliance with appropriate domestic federal standards.  This means each country will be
 VL 24
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                                  New Mexico-Texas-Ghiimahua

       developing detailed emission inventories of affected areas to first determine the amount and
       composition of air pollution.


 >    Concurrently, each country plans to increase the volume and quality of air quality data
       through the integration of the air monitoring network.  Based on  data gathered during
       intensive study, and analyzing data obtained during routine monitoring, the countries will turn
       to developing a pollution control program, measuring the long-term improvement in air
       quality, and continuing the exchange of technical information.

 >•    Under the auspices of Annex V of the La Paz Agreement, additional intensive field study may
       be undertaken to provide the information necessary to develop a  binational air quality
       improvement plan.


 >•„    As  stated in  the "Environmental Issues and Problems" section of this chapter, bilateral
       agreement was reached to establish a Joint Advisory Committee for the Improvement of Air
       Quality which will recommend strategies for the prevention and control of air pollution in the
       Paso del Norte Air Basin.  The twenty-member Committee (ten from each country) will
       include governmental representatives and will draw at least half of its members from local
       nongovernmental sectors. These local participants will include representatives from El Paso,
       Texas, Dofia Ana County, New Mexico, and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, and representatives
       from  business, academia, and environmental organizations. The Committee will provide a
       unique mechanism for facilitating a "bottom-up" cooperative approach to addressing local air
       quality issues.


Hazardous and Solid Waste


>•     Proper management, treatment,  and disposal of hazardous and solid wastes, as well as
       compliance with regulations for transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes, will remain
       a priority for the New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua region.  Continued cooperation among the
       state and local offices will focus on:
       •       ongoing information and technology transfer;

       •       cooperative training;

       •       building laboratory sampling and analysis capabilities;

       •       developing recyclables markets; and

       •       using and improving HAZTRAKS as a tracking and compliance tool.
October 1996
                                                                                   VI 25

-------
New Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua

>•     One of the principal actions will be to improve waste management practices in the New
       Mexico-Texas-Chihuahua region and promote solid and hazardous waste minimization and
       recycling.  This will be accomplished by:
       •      Developing partnerships with industry to encourage waste minimization and safe
             material management;

       •      Providing site-specific compliance and technical assistance on an as-needed basis; and

       •      Training government officials, community leaders, and industry on waste reduction
             and pollution prevention.


Contingency Planning and Emergency Response


>•     Both governments will develop state and local capacity for contingency planning, as well as
       emergency response in the areas of Columbus-Palomas, El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, and Presidio-
       Ojinaga. This will be accomplished through the Joint Response Team which involves federal,
       state and local agencies with responsibilities for dealing with environmental emergencies
       through implementation of the Joint Contingency Plan in these sister cities, the creation and
       promotion of CLAMs, the creation and equipment of communication and emergency response
       centers, training of staff involved in emergency response, and communication with the public,
       among other activities.


Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance


>•     The Texas-Chihuahua Cooperative Enforcement Subgroup, with the close collaboration of
       EPA and PROFEPA, will promote interagency and binational cooperation among all relevant
       local, state and federal authorities involved in environmental enforcement.  Such cooperation
       will seek to enhance effective enforcement and promote compliance with environmental laws,
       consistent with the objectives of the Cooperative Enforcement Workgroup outlined in
       Chapter HI. The subgroup will  develop annual action plans for implementing cooperative
       projects.  The independent enforcement and compliance activities of the various authorities
       will be coordinated with these efforts.

>     The PROFEPA inspection program expects to carry out 2,600 inspections between 1996 and
       2000 to monitor regulatory environmental compliance in the state of Chihuahua.
VI26
                                                                             October 1996

-------

-------
Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
               Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo  Leon  Region
      Map Ofoatซd by CD31
      SfpttmbCf 25. 1999
 11
A
                                 100
                            city

                            Sbter City

                         /\J State Boundaiy

                            U.S./Mexico Border

                         y  100km Buffer

                         I—I Water Bod/

                         ^g Protected Area



                       0 Miles
Soured*: Digital Chart ol the World. TNRIS. National Parks Service, TXP&W
                                                  EPA Region a
                                                   QIS Team
                                                  Dallas, Texas
Vttb
                                                                                  October 1996

-------
  c
         HAPTER VII
 TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
  I
   n order to promote a regional approach to environmental problem solving, this chapter
focuses on environmental issues and problems, past and ongoing projects, and objectives
that are specific to the Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon area of the border region.  The
borderwide objectives and ongoing activities described in Chapter m also pertain to the
Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon border region.
                           '^WKKKHHW****;*^^
                                                        fS^g^^^
 Brief Overview

 Eagle Pass and Del Rio in Texas, and Piedras Negras and Ciudad Acufia in Coahuila are in the central
 portion of the border between Texas and Mexico. Table 7.1 contains some general population figures
 for these cities.

                                       TABLE 7.1
                                      POPULATION
Population -"';
Del Rio, Texas
Ciudad Acuna, Coahuila
Eagle Pass, Texas
Piedras Negras, Coahuila
Anahuac, Nuevo Leon
Total
I9M imputation ,
30,000
42,000
21,400
80,300
Not Available
173,700
1998 Population
30,700
56,800
20,650
98,200
17,300
223,650
1995Pejklatfoar"'
34,400
81,600
24,800
116,000
18,300
275,100
         U.S. population figures for 1980 and 1990 come from the U.S. Census; 1995 estimates are from the Texas State Data
         Center Estimates and Population Program prepared by Department of Rural Sociology, Texas Agricultural Experiment
         Station, Texas A&M University System, January 1,1996 population estimate.
         Mexican population figures for 1980 and 1990 come from the X and XI1NEGI Census. For 1995, the data was
         obtained from the 1995INEGI Count of Population and Housing.

In this area, the Chihuahuan Desert consists primarily of arid to semiarid biotic communities. Short
grass species grow together with shrubs, such as creosote bush and yucca, as well as various forbes
and cacti, which usually grow in open stands but sometimes form low closed thickets.

The Rio Grande is the largest perennial river in the area. It forms an important riparian corridor for
neotropical, wildlife and is an important source of water for urban, agricultural, and light industrial
needs of the region.  As many as 80 native Chihuahuan Desert fish are known to inhabit this unique
October 1996
                                                                                  vn.i

-------
Tcxas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon

and vast aquatic ecosystem. The Falcon and Amistad Reservoirs are important for water storage,
conveyance, recreation, and the conservation of wildlife.

In both the U.S. and Mexico, numerous parks and reserves have been established to protect the
Chihuahuan desert habitat. These include Big Bend National Park and the Big Bend Ranch Natural
Area in the state of Texas, and the Canon de Santa Elena Reserve recently established in Chihuahua
for the protection of this ecosystem, as well as the Maderas del Carmen protected area in the state
ofCoahuila.

The Maderas del Carmen region in the  northeast of Chihuahua is a relatively isolated zone.  It
contains ecosystems representative of the Chihuahuan Desert, all of which have a large diversity of
flora and wildlife species, with vegetation such as desert shrubs, grasslands, oak forests, pine-fir
forests, and riparian vegetation.

The area's composition, altitude, and continuity make it an important biological corridor because of
its dispersion of plants and animals, as well as a migratory corridor for neotropical birds, raptors, and
insects. The area is also a habitat for animals in danger of extinction or with special status, such as
the black bear, golden eagle, peregrine falcon, white-tail deer, kit fox, rock squirrels, and others.

The proximity of the Maderas del Carmen, Coahuila Protected Area and Big Bend National Park has
prompted cooperative projects and studies among the U.S. National Park Service, Mexico's INE, and
local organizations.

Environmental Issues  and Problems

Natural Resources

Wildlife populations in the region are threatened by activities such as human population growth,
industrialization, proposed bridge crossings, and illegal species trafficking. Poaching and dry-season
forest  fires are of particular concern. Also, the recreational activities of tourists in the protected
natural areas represent a threat to the conservation of the natural resources.

Sporadic mining in the Maderas del Carmen, Coahuila Protected Area should be regulated to prevent
major  impacts.  The long-term viability of this  region depends on the management partnership
between the U.S. and Mexico at the federal, state and local levels to minimize environmental threats
to the area.

As part of the effort to encourage efficient land use practices and sustainable production along the
border, the joint support of regular exchanges and workshops between indigenous communities along
the Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon border should be implemented. Technical assistance is needed in
order to develop agroforestry activities. Demonstration agroforestry and soil capacity sites will be
established.

Technology transfer is needed for natural resources conservation, development of urban forests, and
soil conservation.  There is also a need for geographical information systems (GIS) and global
vn.2
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                                      Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon

positioning systems (GPS) to enhance basic data about forestry and soils, wildlife, and other natural
resources.

Water

The most significant environmental challenges in this region are related to water quality and quantity
and their effects on human population and natural habitats. Water quality in the Rio Grande is of
great concern to residents in the area, who identified illegal transport and dumping of waste products
and lack of sewage systems in colonias as major problems.

The state of Coahuila has identified the following as significant water infrastructure issues: drinking
water distribution; improvements to the Ciudad Acuna water treatment plant; insufficient sewage
collection capacity; and the need for upgrades to  inefficient  sewage treatment plants.  Due to
insufficient capacity, new wastewater treatment plants are required in Piedras Negras and Ciudad
Acuna.

Through analysis of the region's water infrastructure needs, CNA found that 90 percent of the
population receives quality drinking water, 60 percent of the residences are connected to a sewer
system, and approximately 43 percent of the current wastewater is treated, although the operation
and capacity of the treatment plants is inadequate.  In addition, the growth of the maquiladora
industry has generated a greater demand on drinking water.

CNA has estimated resource requirements to meet the region's present  infrastructure deficiencies as
shown in Table 7.2.

                                         TABLE 7.2
               RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ESTIMATES FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE*
, Project Cempottent ' '
TV.,.. ;, - ' ^-- - "•* ,
Drinking water
Sewer systems
Treatment
Institutional strengthening
Increased efficiency
Studies and projects
Total
i m~* ""J$foe$tM&*t%MMm$Uฃ.)'', / ~- ' "\
Urgent
1996-1997
1.0
4.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.4
8.4
Short term
19984999

8.0
4.0

1.0
0.2
13,2
Medium term
2000
1.0
3.0


1.0

5.0 ,
- Total
2.0
15.0
5.0
1.0
3.0
0.6
26,6
        These estimates are based on studies and evaluations conducted by the Government of Mexico to meet domestic
        standards.
October 1996
                                                                                      vn.3

-------
Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon

There are a wide variety of natural and artificial water stresses to aquatic habitats in this area of the
border.  Quantity and quality of water in the Rio Grande impact the biodiversity of aquatic resources,
tourism, and local business.

The Rio Conchos joins the Rio Grande and normally provides significant flows. Flows from the Rio
Conchos are important determinants of water quality and quantity in the region and thus have an
important impact on the diversity and integrity of flora and fauna of the area.

Sewage and industrial discharge from the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez area, as well as upstream water use
and reservoir release practices, affect the living resources that depend on water as a critical habitat.

Environmental Health

A diagnosis of environmental health should be carried out. Border residents in this region, like other
residents of the U.S.-Mexico border, are vulnerable to various communicable diseases due to lack of
an  adequate environmental infrastructure.  Texas border counties report  the highest number of
tuberculosis cases  in the state, particularly single, dual, and multidrug-resistant  cases.  Other
gastrointestinal illnesses such as hepatitis A, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and amebiasis are significant
health threats in this region.  Microorganisms found in untreated water also present a health risk.
Naegleriafowleri has been detected in waters containing untreated sewage.

Air

An issue in this region is the deterioration of visibility in Big Bend National Park, a Class I protected
area. Another area in the region that is experiencing visibility impairment is the Black Gap (Texas)
State Refuge Area. Visibility is the ability to see the color, shape, contrast, and texture of a landscape
or  city  skyline.  While natural events such  as wildfire can impair visibility, often  man-made air
pollution is the major cause of decreased visibility.

In 1993, concerns were raised over the possible degradation of the air quality in Big Bend National
Park. To address these concerns within the framework of the La Paz Agreement, an adhoc binational
workgroup exchanged views and information with the purpose of determining the possible effects on
the air quality of the Park and the probable causes of any effects.  This workgroup met regularly from
1993-1996.  In May 1996, the two countries reached agreement on a multiyear  field  study to
explicitly determine source-type contribution.

Hazardous and Solid Waste

Residents expressed significant concern about the types, quantities, and destinations of hazardous
materials and wastes transported through their neighborhoods and city centers.  Community and
government concerns stem from increased crossings of the Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras border and
projections that commercial transportation across the international boundary will likely increase with
the phase-in of NAFTA.
vn.4
                                                                                 October 1996

-------
                                                                   Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

On both sides of the border, in  some urban areas the capacity to respond to environmental
emergencies is inadequate,  particularly with regard to training and equipment.  The volume of
materials and wastes that are transported through communities in Texas, Coahuila and Nuevo Leon,
highlights the need for adequate response capabilities in the event of emergencies, including properly
trained staff and equipment to respond to accidents that may present a threat to public health and the
environment.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

Because of the growing concentration of population and  industrial  activity, compliance with
environmental requirements is essential for health and welfare in the area. Local, state and federal
agencies involved in enforcing environmental laws and promoting compliance can improve their
effectiveness through cooperation.

A monitoring program is addressing the problem of pollution generated by the maquiladora industry,
dictating preventive or corrective  measures so that the companies comply with the parameters
outlined by the Official Mexican Standards. PROFEPA has visited 100 percent of the maquiladora
industry and the national companies with the highest pollution potential, requiring the installation of
emissions control equipment, adequate facilities for hazardous waste control, and for companies with
high risk, an accident prevention program.

                                       TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
-- Acirjjrnr ^
S Sf
! JtBOB ,,
, IKA11E™
^- " l*Aป1Hi8Ss,r
f •> % v. -:-,v
,,ซAcc0Mi&H9ซ(m'' ;'
NATURAL RESOURCES
Maderas del Carmen
Protected Area-
Coahuila:
Conservation,
education and
community outreach
Management program
for the Maderas del
Carmen Flora and
Fauna Protected Area
1995-1996
1995- 1996
NPS, FWS, INE
INE,PROFAUNA
Specialized environmental education,
ecotourism workshops, and
conservation training courses
designed for communities adjacent to
the protected reserve.
The first draft of the management
plan has been generated and will be
proposed and discussed with local
citizens and authorities to create a
final version.
October 199(5
VTLS

-------
Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                      TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
' '** > \:^,^
•• - Aczmw- - u
: <: --s^v ^ ^
Ecology of the black
bear in Coahuila and
two studies in
Maderas del Carmen
Protected Area
Assessment of the
dwarf parrot
endangered species in
the Sierra Madre
Oriental, Mexico
Biological inventories
in the Maderas del
Carmen Flora and
Fauna Protected Area,
Coahuila
Study of the eastern
mountain parrot
endangered species of
the northern portion
of the Sierra Madre
Oriental, Mexico
Impacts of
environmental
contaminants on the
Aplomado falcon and
ocelot of the Lower
Rio Grande Valley
Maderas del Carmen
Protected Area in
Coahuila, community
education regarding
conservation
I ^JKAME *
1993-1996
1994
Ongoing
1993
Ongoing
1995
1 ; PABTMIS
Caesar Kleberg
Wildlife Research
Institute, UANL; Joint
U.S.-Mexican
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
FWS,INE
Joint U.S.-Mexican
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
UAAAN,FWS,INE
INE, CONABIO,
BRD
Joint U.S.-Mexican
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
UAAAN,FWS,INE
BRD, FWS, TPWD
Joint U.S.-Mexican
Committee for
Wildlife Conservation,
INE,NPS,
PROFAUNA
f -. f ^ f f f •. •' ^
ACCOMmiSMO!^^"---- ,
Carry out a population study of the
black bear in northern Coahuila and
Sierra del Carmen.
Know and protect the populations of
the dwarf parrot in the northern
Sierra Madre Oriental.
Begin the flora and fauna inventories
in the protected area.
Carry out a population study of the
eastern mountain parrot in the
northern region of the Sierra Madre
Oriental.
Blood samples have been collected
and analyzed. Report in progress.
Organize environmental education
programs for communities in order
to teach the importance of resource
conservation in the protected area.
vn.6
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                  Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                       TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-GOAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
s% .. -AW. v.vf, f *„ vff
x '\Aciiwry , *
•- % s ** •&•*•> s w..v.v

Colonias Wastewater
Treatment Assistance
Program (CWTAP)
Economically
Distressed Areas
Program (EDAP)
Colonia Plumbing
Loan Program
(CPLP) in Texas
Texas Colonias
Enforcement Strike
Force
Study of barriers to
colonias infrastructure
Colonias Assistance
and Management
Support Program
(CAMSP)
i;% 'iSMป'%*
L&fcii*i;?

1993-
Ongoing
1989-
Ongoing
1991-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
1993-1994
1994-
Ongoing
i X?^ปJi< *.Vf ป ''''„"''•• ',
Cฐ% *" •. \ %% Nx.sv.SSv:'. •. ••
WATER
EPA,TWDB
TWDB
EPA, TWDB
EPA, Texas Attorney
General
EPA, International
City/County
Management
Association
EPA, TWDB
.&ฃ;-*-< ^^L,,\-^''^^^'"'
:;^^CCOMrPSBปซm ;:n*
: ฃ?, '"> ', ; ..'"""-".. ป- -'H; "' 'ซ '"

Grants are provided to local
governments and nonprofit water
supply corporations for design and
construction of wastewater collection
and treatment facilities. The
program is administered by TWDB.

Loans are made available to low
income colonia residents in
designated border counties for
residential plumbing improvements.
Funds are administered at the local
level.
This program supports the Texas
Attorney General in the enforcement
of state laws relating to colonia
developments.
A report on identifying barriers to
achieving local government interest
in colonias sanitation problems has
been published.
This program provides overall
management and coordination to
eligible colonias in order to submit
an application for financial
assistance to implement needed
drinking water and wastewater
facilities improvements.
October 1996
                                                                                vn.7

-------
Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                      TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
-x-l^^X^
: A^IWITYX;^
•.'., -. Vs S^ •••<• ^ X* s s^ "•
X s^X^/Vf E5* ? ,
Circuit rider for
technical assistance
for public water
systems along U.S.-
Mexico border
Municipal On-site
Wastewater
Assistance Program
Binational waste-water
operator training
Binational water
supply operator
training
Rio Grande Water
Quality Middle Basin
Monitoring Plan
(Amistad to Falcon
Reservoir)
Groundwater
assessment
Rio Grande Toxics
Baseline Study
Rio Grande Toxics
Study Follow-up
' r**Sl
%t$MME^
1994-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1996 - 1999

1992-1993
1995-
Ongoing
- ,-* PAETOS^; "' :
--->,^ '" :
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TWDB
EPA.WEF
EPA, American Water
Works Association
TNRCC, USGS
TNRCC, USGS,
TWDB
EPA,IBWC,DOI,
TNRCC, TDK,
TPWD
EPA, IBWC, TNRCC
^'s x Aticxmnmimxw& ' ' -<>
-~^ *- * . „„ -< t.t ฃ,
The objective of this program is to
help utilities along the border to
comply with state and federal
regulations in a cost-effective
manner. It also helps to ensure that
water and wastewater utility services
are maintained and expanded, where
possible, by identifying financial
resources and helping utilities access
these resources.
Small communities have been
assisted with an onsite technical
assistance program for small
community wastewater treatment
plant operators developed by the
TWDB.
The first training session for
wastewater treatment plant operators
along the border has been conducted
in a binational forum.
The first training session on the
requirements of the Safe Drinking
Water Act has been conducted in a
binational forum.
Developing monitoring plan;
sampling will start in 1997.

Binational report completed in
September 1994. While the study did
not indicate that toxic contamination
was widespread, several areas with
elevated levels of toxic
contamination were found, primarily
below sister cities and in tributaries.
Field work completed. Report will
help identify areas where additional
water pollution control is needed.
vn.8
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                  Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                       TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
: Aciwmr
f S ^f f
Rio Grande/Rio
Bravo Alliance
Rio Grande cities
facilities planning
Drinking water
treatment plant in
Piedras Negras
Sewer system in
Piedras Negras
Sewer system in
Ciudad Acufia
Rio Grande Basin
Study from the
International Amistad
Dam to the Gulf of
Mexico
Texas border
infrastructure needs
assessment
: fJfff-*^*JL "" ' v
^ 3<&kME.;
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1992-
Ongoing
1994-1996
1994-1996
1992-1995

"".'.ป ' "
'• "" DATJTiHWO-C
; — " JrAJ**JSJ6K(ป
; ^ f f ff
Stakeholders
throughout the Rio
Grande Basin,
including EPA,
TNRCC, Mexico,
New Mexico,
Colorado state and
federal environmental
entities, Tribal
representation, and
nongovernmental
organizations. Other
local stakeholder
participation.
EPA, IBWC
CNA
CEAS
CEAS
BOR
TNRCC, TWDB
, """ ACCOMPOSHMIIirKS - ,,
"* "• "" %%•,-.
The Rio Grande Alliance had its first
coordinating meeting on July 15-16,
1996 in El Paso, Texas. This
meeting included participants from
throughout the Rio Grande Basin,
including Mexico, New Mexico,
Colorado, and Tribal representation.
U.S. Section of the IBWC has
procured A/E firms to develop
planning of wastewater facilities to
control wastewater discharges from
Mexico into the Rio Grande.
One module for 250 Ips was
completed and a second treatment
module with the same capacity is
near completion.
Some of the sewers and collectors
have been rehabilitated and/or
replaced leaving the major part of
the project still to be completed.
Some of the sewers and collectors
have been rehabilitated and/or
replaced leaving the major part of
the project still to be completed.
Completed and published a report in
December 1995.

October 1996
vn.9

-------
 Teias-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                       TABLE 7.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
*icitanbr'''
'; r ^ s^ x"
ป_tte
'f '"" fc^tfr jk •j'wn?
: s s-S^ nn i^.t* r nr
\ \FA^mBS'^
-. •. ^
*- AccoMrasBMTOT ''*'
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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
Birth Defects Registry








Border Cancer
Registry




Border Environmental
Health Survey





Binational Manager
and Tracking and
Referral System
Texas Small Towns
Environment Program
(STEP)








Pilot began
1994 in TDK
Regions 11
&6
Expansion in
1997 to
Regions 2, 3,
5, and South
8, 9, 10
Ongoing





1996-1997






1995-
Ongoing

1994-Present










TDK, March of
Dimes, CDC







TDK, CDC





TDH,EPA,CDC






TDK, EPCCHD
Migrant Clinicians'
Network
TDK, TNRCC, Texas
Deptof Housing &
Community Affairs,
TGLO, TWDB







Pilot Birth Defects Registry.
Expansion of Birth Defects Registry.
Statewide cluster investigation.
Referral information services.
Folic Acid Prevention Assessment.
Establishment and coordination of
Scientific Advisory Committee on
Birth Defects in Texas.

Completed cancer incidence data
collection and analyses for 18 border
counties for 1990-1992.
Continuing to collect incidence data
for 1993 and forward. Report being
published.
About 2,100 household surveys will
be conducted along the Texas-
Mexico border to collect data on
household structure, general
sanitation, health conditions, and
potential sources of exposure to
environmental contaminants.
Under development.
Toll-free access to TB information
from anywhere in Mexico or the U.S.
Interagency project to assist small
communities to meet their water and
wastewater needs through self-
help/sweat-equity.
Interagency work group.
Initial thrust is in colonias along the
Texas-Mexico border.
Four current border projects: one in
construction, three in various stages
of design/planning /assessment.
Newsletter.
VELIO
October 1996

-------
                                                                   Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                       TABLE 7.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
.• S fffff %^ f
* ^Acimrv rf;
s V, ^ffJfSfff f
NTD Field
Surveillance
Interventions and
Case-Control Study
! *""$$* il
l^jS^m^.
1995-1996
i "i *-;r— ^
r "" "'''i^Hpoea^^ v
•*&•./ ,?•&, ••::•> s ..
TDK, CDC, EPA
7Il&coM^jistaซ';:j7
'•• " % 'f v-> \ * f •• ' '** •• 5V Is."' - ' 
-------
Texas-CoahuUa-Nuevo Leon
                                      TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
S&dlmfry **
V j*,* ^ - ,-,
, ซ"s •,?•" \i%<ปSf^^ ,
|03*iM
^&RAMB ,
••<••.
\ -PAEOTSRS '
: •••:•• •
v - > -
\ACC0MP:OSBMB^S '"; ,
•. •* •.
•.
HAZARDOUS and SOLID WASTE
COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT and COMPLIANCE
(Please see Appendix 10 for additional hazardous and solid waste projects U.S. state and local agencies)
Outreach and training
to maquiladoras on
regulatory
requirements for
transborder shipments
of hazardous waste
Study the
environmental impact
of sanitary landfills;
integrated study of the
existing status for
solid wastes (Piedras
Negras)
Determine feasibility
for integrated
management of solid
wastes in Acuna,
Coahuila
Enforcement Task
Force
Education and
training
1988-1993
1994
1993-1994
Ongoing
f
Ongoing
EPA, SEDESOL,
TNRCC,NMED,US
and Mexican
Customs, DOT,
National Maquiladora
Association, SCT,
Cal-EPA,ADEQ
B.M., SEDESOL
SEDESOL, Municipal
government
TNRCC, EPA,
PROFEPA,U.S.and
Mexican Customs,
U.S. DOT, TOPS
EPA, TNRCC
Six borderwide conferences were
held to increase understanding by
maquiladoras and U.S. parent
companies of import/export
regulations. Developed bilingual
manual for the maquiladora industry.
Implementation plan for work and
equipment needs for solid waste
pilot projects.
Feasibility study for granting a
service concession for public
sanitation.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
established a multiagency task force
in Del Rio to explore enforcement
issues of the area.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
provides training to address
transboundary hazardous wastes
issues. TNRCC also established an
information program and hot line for
the public.
vn.12
                                                                            October 1996

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                                                                  Texas-Coahujla-Nuevo Leon
                                       TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
.ซ., %3krrei5ri? ;vrd
1 " ' ' % •. •. -*ป i ^••=•••5
Enforcement of
hazardous waste
regulations using
manifests and
associated shipment
data from
HAZTRAKS, a
binational
computerized tracking
system, to identify
potential violators
Inspections,
investigations of
hazardous waste
transporters at key
border crossings (e.g.,
weigh stations,
transporter yards,
hazardous; waste
warehouses) to find
illegal shipments
Transbouitidary
enforcement
International bridge
inspections
U.S. Customs training
course
Establish an
information program
and a direct telephone
line
zjjljfe
Ongoing
1993-Present
Ongoing
Ongoing
1995
1996
>.w f\ sssffsf"- ., ^ ^ •••."''""''•"•
**"• V.V. ฃ -. ^ .. "• •* W&* .V-W SffSfSffS
]\^$MEax&te^ : ,
: '-y-'-y^ •? * -. .^ <• sC1 't
EPA, TNRCC
EPA,PROFEPA,
TNRCC, U.S. and
Mexican Customs,
U.S. DOT, TOPS,
TDK
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, U.S. and
Mexican Customs,
TNRCC
EPA, PROFEPA
1 t:Accpj^Mง|iiTOs ,;
s % _, ฐv\\ .."• ..'"" ••• X^1 f ff f s ff^f
A number of enforcement actions
have been filed (administrative and
judicial).
Monitor the import/export of
hazardous wastes through a
cooperative multiagency initiative to
determine if shipments conform to
applicable laws and regulations.
EPA funded one TNRCC position to
enforce regulatory requirements on
transboundary movement of
hazardous wastes.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
conducted two international bridge
inspections on hazardous wastes
shipments crossing the border.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
conducted one Customs training
course on regulations pertaining to
transboundary movement of
hazardous wastes.
A forum for border communities to
approach issues that may affect them
like the transborder movement of
hazardous waste.
October 1996
VH.13

-------
Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                      TABLE 7.3
                PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
S'SS \ "^ -
: Aen$mฃ~ "
, \. 3?-w
Outreach to
maquiladoras on the
regulatory
requirements for
transboundary
shipments of
hazardous wastes
Inventory of solid
waste landfills
Assessment of illegal
dumps

Video conference on
Permanent Pollution
Prevention Program
(P4) broadcast
through ITESM
Technology transfer
and capacity building
on pollution
prevention with
PROFEPA
Pollution prevention
assistance to small
business operations
^- ;1SM&--"'
"* ife&m ",

Ongoing
Ongoing
POLLl
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1996
! ปซซป
EPA, SEMARNAP,
TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
JTIONPREVEN
TNRCC, ITESM
EPA, TNRCC,
PROFEPA offices in
Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Tamaulipas, and
Nuevo Leon
EPA, TNRCC,
PROFEPA offices in
Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Tamaulipas, and
Nuevo Leon, EDF
ACCOMPLISHMENT*^ * ,
Increased understanding by
maquiladoras of regulations and the
import/export community of
shipment requirements, pollution
prevention opportunities and waste
management.
Pursuant to EPA grants, an inventory
of active solid waste landfills along
the border was conducted. Training
on landfill design, operation and
closure was provided to Mexican
officials and landfill
owner/operators.
TNRCC is evaluating the scope of
illegal dump problems and assessing
collection/disposal needs.
TION
A four-hour video broadcast was
downlinked at 8 Mexican cities
through ITESM. Ongoing plans are
developing for an extension of this
P4 to downlink to 26 satellite
campuses throughout Mexico to
reach the maquiladora industries.
Joint partners site assessments and
follow-up site visits are focused on
determining opportunities to
implement pollution prevention and
clean technology for Mexican
industrial facilities. These have
resulted in reductions in wastes and
air emissions and have also
cumulatively saved facilities over a
million dollars through pollution
prevention.
Demonstration of a model spray
booth for training of operators in the
auto and paint shop industry.
vn.14
                                                                            October 1996

-------
                                                                    Teias-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon
                                        TABLE 7.3
                 PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS-COAHUILA-NUEVO LEON
V •• ' &>ป
„ Acra&crir „
•* "iff S ttyfff
Technical assistance
to Mexican state
environmental
agencies
Solid waste recycling
initiatives
!Ni:pปi& v":
- Jtejm-i
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
j. „ .• .w.v *vl^S , •• T^^^^'
l~Jte,Tim|~r'' '
,••. .-
• v.x.-. ^ f s f f *'f '' ^VM
EPA, TNRCC,
PROFEPA offices in
Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Tamaulipas, Nuevo
Leon
EPA
% ^ ,-f-,'^-f^,,,'.. ^^ ^">:.; -YAV^\"'
: ^ AccoMmslMsmrs y '-- *
^ v-v-v.--^ f •••",'<" ' f ' ,'
Continue capacity building with
Mexican state and federal
environmental agencies by providing
training and technical assistance in
the four Mexican states bordering
Texas.
Solid Waste and Recycling
Conferences were held in April and
October 1995; and February 1996.
On May 22-23, 1996 a conference
was held in Nuevo Leon.
Objectives for the Next Five Years

Natural Resources

V     Promote studies to research habitats and wildlife species to begin management and protection
       programs (e.g., rehabilitation of Chihuahuan Desert habitats). This research should focus on
       biodiversity and the sustainable use of resources specifically in the Maderas del Carmen
       Protected Area, Coahuila.

>•     Promote protection and conservation programs and establish controlled production units as
       a strategy for the restoration of threatened and endangered wildlife species, such as the black
       bear, white-tailed deer, puma, bats, cactus, conifers, and others.

>•     Begin a program for the management of the Maderas del Carmen Protected Area in Coahuila.
       Establish an organizational structure and inspection and monitoring committees for protected
       areas.  Promote  projects and activities that offer sustainable development alternatives for
       nearby residents.  Design strategies for the long-term financial self-sufficiency  of this
       protected area.

>•     Cany out biological inventories in the Maderas del Carmen Protected Area, coordinated with
       CONABIO and INE, and in Big Bend National Park and its environs, coordinated with the
       U.S. National Biological Service.

>-     Carry out training, workshops, and exchanges of experiences between people  from both
       countries in conservation and management of protected natural areas and sustainable use of
       natural resources.
October 1996
                                                                                  vn.15

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Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon

V     Assess existing agroforestry activities, compliance with regulations, and technology in the
       Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon area.  Following the assessment, demonstration sites of
       preferred agroforestry systems will be implemented and will be used as an educational site for
       local landowners.

>•     Provide training in nursery management and planting techniques in order to improve the
       quantity and quality of nursery stock as well as to improve the survival rate of seedlings
       planted in the field.

X     Pursue opportunities for collaboration in developing windbreaks around agricultural lands as
       well as the development of commercial plantations for wood products and non-wood
       products (e.g. Christmas trees).

>•     Establish an aquaculture program for rural areas, including a training component for local
       residents.

>•     Develop a fish-stocking program in the La Amistad Reservoir, under the Convention for the
       Use of Surface Waters.

Water

>•     Inherent in the efforts to protect surface and groundwater resources is the need to improve
       urban infrastructure  associated  with the supply of drinking water and the disposal of
       wastewater. Both governments see the importance that the Rio Grande has to sustainable
       development, therefore, they will jointly work on the analysis of the basin, especially in
       reference to the infrastructure needs of drinking water and wastewater in the  cities and
       communities along the river.  EPA and CNA will continue to work with BECC and IBWC
       to support planning projects in the cities along the Rio Grande.

>     The second phase of the Rio Grande Survey began in 1995.  In 1996, the U.S. will continue
       to work with Mexico to complete the studies and begin analyzing the  data and preparing the
       reports.

>•     In the U.S.,  the greatest need is for water and wastewater infrastructure in colonias and small
       communities.  In Mexico, the greatest need is for water infrastructure in municipal areas;
       however, this need also exists in smaller communities. Comprehensive planning for the Rio
       Grande watershed will help both governments identify water quality problems.

Environmental Health

>•     In-depth discussion  of binational, geographic-specific five-year objectives  has  only
       commenced in earnest with the issuance of the Framework Document.  The intent is to
       translate the overall environmental health objectives outlined in Chapter HI into objectives,
       priorities, and projects specific for this region benefiting from further binational discussions
       and the input obtained from community outreach meetings.
VTL16
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                                     Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon

 Air

 >     Air monitors are needed in the Eagle Pass and Del Rio areas to assess baseline air quality.

 >•     If baseline air quality measurements indicate violations of health standards, the following data
        objectives should be established: expansion of the emissions inventories and the monitoring
        network, increased equipment, operation and maintenance  of the Automatic Air Quality
        Monitoring Network, and sample analysis and quality assurance of the data.  This information
        will be compiled to assist in the application of models for designing control activities.

 >     The public's concern regarding air quality in Big Bend National Park is reflected in the overall
        goal of preventing further deterioration of the environment.  The U.S.  and Mexico aim to
        arrive at a mutual understanding and to reach consensus  on the dynamics of visibility
        deterioration in the region.  The two governments  have agreed to perform an extensive
        regional field study aimed at assessing the issues of visibility and air quality at Big Bend. NPS
        and PROFEPA are leading the effort in the summer of 1996 to determine the scope of
        subsequent longer studies projected for summer and winter in 1997-1998. Both countries will
        evaluate the results of the field study and will determine the next steps to be undertaken.

 Hazardoms and Solid Waste

 >•     Proper management, treatment, and disposal of hazardous and solid wastes  as  well as
        compliance with regulations for transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes will remain a
        priority for the Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon region.  Continued cooperation among the state
        and local offices will focus on:
        •      ongoing information and technology transfer;

        •      cooperative training;

        •      building laboratory sampling and analysis capabilities;

        •      developing recyclables markets; and

       •      using and improving HAZTRAKS as a tracking and compliance tool.

>•     One of the principal actions will be to improve waste management practices in the Texas-
       Coahuila-Nuevo Leon region and promote  solid and hazardous waste minimization and
       recycling. This will be accomplished by:
       •      Developing partnerships with industry to encourage waste minimization and  safe
              material management.

       •      Providing site-specific compliance and technical assistance on an as-needed basis.

       •      Training government officials, community leaders, and industry on waste reduction
              and pollution prevention.
October 1996
                                                                                    vn.17

-------
Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon

Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

>•     Both governments will develop state and local capacity for contingency planning, as well as
       emergency response in the areas of Del Rio-Ciudad Acufia and Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras.
       This will be accomplished through the Joint Response Team which involves federal, state and
       local agencies with responsibilities for dealing with environmental emergencies through
       implementation of the Joint Contingency Plan in these sister cities, the creation and promotion
       of CLAMs, the creation and equipment of communication and emergency response centers,
       training of staff involved in emergency response, and communication with the public, among
       other activities.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

>•     The Cooperative Enforcement Work Group will promote the establishment of a subgroup for
       the Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon region, which will have the responsibility of meeting the
       objectives outlined in Chapter HI.

>•     A group, formed by the agreement between PROEEPA and the government of the state of
       Coahuila, will provide technical and legal support, and laboratory analysis, for the General
       Ecology Directorate of the state to share with municipalities requiring such services. This will
       permit local authorities, in coordination with PROFEPA, to address ecological  problems
       within their own capacity, using federal infrastructure and expertise.

>•     The PROFEPA inspection program expects to carry out 3,700 inspections in Coahuila and
       2,600 inspections  in Nuevo Leon,  between  1996 and 2000, to  monitor regulatory
       environmental compliance.
VU18
                                                                             October 1996

-------

-------
Texas-Tamatdipas
                        Texas-Tamaulipas  Region
      Map created by CDSI
      SeptซI*ซr 25. 1996
A
                            100
                                                           City
                                                           Sister City
                                                        /\/ State Boundary
                                                           U.SJMoxIco Border
                                                           100km Buffer
                                                        I—I Water Body
                                                           Protected Area

                                                            0 Miles
Sources: Digital Chart o! th* World, TNRI3, National Parks Service. TXP&W
                                                                                  EPA Region 6
                                                                                   GIS Team
                                                                                  Dallas, Texas
 vmb
                                                                                       October 1996

-------
  c
        HAPTER VIII
 TEXAS-TAMAULIPAS
  I
  .n order to promote a regional approach to environmental problem solving, this chapter
focuses on environmental issues and problems, past and ongoing projects, and objectives
that are specific to the Texas-Tamaulipas area of the border region. The borderwide
objectives and ongoing activities described in Chapter m also pertain to the Texas-
Tamaulipas border region.
 Brief Overview

 The Texas-Tamaulipas region stretches approximately 335 miles (540 km) along the international
 boundary from just north of the Laredo area to the Gulf of Mexico. The major sister cities include
 Laredo-Nuevo Laredo, McAllen-Reynosa, and Brownsville-Matamoros.

                                       TABLE 8.1
                                      POPULATION
, - Population Center -.-
Laredo, Texas
Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas
McAllen, Texas
Reynosa, Tamaulipas
Brownsville,Texas
Matamoros, Tamaulipas
Total
, IM&PVpulatlOB,,
99,000
203,000
66,000
213,000
85,000
239,000
905,000
J9J&P0pซ!atioa "
133,000
220,000
84,000
283,000
99,000
303,000
1,122,000
JS9S f*#p^lafi<&n~*">
162,000
275,000
101,000
337,000
131,500
363,000
1,369,500
         U.S. population figures for 1980 and 1990 come from the U.S. Census for the metropolitan areas; 1995 estimates are
         from the Texas State Data Center Estimates and Population Program prepared by Department of Rural Sociology,
         Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M Universify System, January 1,1996 population estimate.
         Mexican population figures for 1980 and 1990 come from the X and XIINEGI Census. Data for 1995 comes from the
         1995INEGI Count of Population and Housing.


This population forms an important part of the growing binational economy of the region.  Of the
working-age population in the Tamaulipas border zone, nearly 30 percent work in the industrial
manufacturing sector;  15  percent work in the service sector; and 5 percent work in agriculture,
livestock, and fisheries.
October 1996
                                                                                 vmi

-------
Texas-Tsunaulipas

The Tamaulipan ecosystem, which is semi-arid and hot, extends throughout Texas and northeastern
Mexico.  Tamaulipan brushland is composed of several distinct biotic communities.  Most are
characterized by dense, woody, and usually thorny vegetation and a very high degree of biological
diversity.  Vegetation is more lush and taller in the riparian areas than in the dry uplands. Uplands
are sometimes  veined with thin riparian areas known as 'ramaderos,' which not only provide
important nesting and feeding habitat, but also serve as corridors for animal movement. Tamaulipan
brushland is home to more than 600 vertebrate species and more than 1,100 species of plants. Of
these species, approximately 70 are considered endangered or threatened by the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Many animals and plants of
this area are not found anywhere else in the United States or Mexico.  Some, including the jaguarundi
and the ocelot, are endangered throughout their range.  This ecosystem is also important as nesting,
wintering, and stopover areas to thousands of migratory birds.

The Rio Grande is  a major watershed within this ecosystem, and is therefore essential to the
continued survival of resident and migratory fauna as well as flora. Besides providing habitat for
endangered species and nesting for wintering birds, the narrow greenbelt surrounding the Rio Grande
supports those unique species of neotropical affinities, which reach their northernmost limits here.
The Rio Grande provides essential freshwater inflow creating estuarine and nutrient-rich conditions
vital as nursery grounds for finfish and shellfish.  The Rio Grande also provides important sediments
that play a basic role in tidal flat, lagoon, and barrier island development.

The coastal prairie essentially encompasses the Gulf Coast region of the Laguna Madre. Coastal
marshes, dominated by Spartina grass, are continuous along the Gulf Coast. As one of only two large
hypersaline lagoons in the world, the Laguna Madre is rich in biodiversity.  Its fragile estuaries are
extremely productive, providing a base for a significant commercial and recreational fishing industry.
Many coastal species, such as the redhead duck, overwinter in the Laguna Madre. Among the most
important habitats in the Laguna Madre area are islands established as 'rookeries' by nesting birds
such as the rare reddish egret, herons, spoonbills,  sea gulls, and the white pelican.

The Lower Rio Grande Natural Wildlife Refuge was established to help protect, preserve, and restore
the less than 5 percent remaining natural habitat in the Lower Rio Grande area. The Lower Rio
Grande, Laguna Atascosa and Santa Ana Natural Wildlife Refuges, Padre Island National Seashore,
as well as state and privately-owned habitat management areas support hundreds of species of migrant
birds on their stopovers  en route to Mexico,  and Central and South America.  In addition, these
managed areas within the Texas-Tamaulipas zone will likely be core areas for fish and wildlife
resources if development of privately-owned land continues.

Environmental Issues and Problems

Natural Resources

Along the Texas-Tamaulipas border, human activities associated with increased industrialization,
urbanization, infrastructure  development,  and agricultural development have negatively affected
habitat and important national historic sites. This zone is impacted not only by chemicals  and
fertilizers from crop production, but also a wide range of municipal and industrial pollutants, which
are having an effect on the fish  and wildlife fauna.  Specifically, water of sufficient quality and
 vm.2
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                                                             Texas-Taimaulipas

 quantity must be maintained in the Lower Rio Grande to ensure the biodiversity of aquatic fauna and
 flora.

 Construction of additional infrastructure, including storage dams, additional diversions, international
 bridges and bridge expansion, intracoastal canals, and ports could have significant impacts in the
 future. The cumulative effects of these projects are considered likely to significantly affect fish and
 wildlife resources as well as recovery efforts of the endangered ocelot and jaguarundi, marine turtles,
 migratory birds and other listed endangered and threatened species. Impacts to the shared resources
 need to be given maximum consideration.

 The direct discharge of wastewater and dredge spoil material to the Laguna Madre in Texas is
 causing extensive loss  of sea grass and marine algae habitat.   This vegetation is critical to the
 productivity of the Laguna Madre in the Texas-Tamaulipas region as it provides nursery areas for
 commercially important fish and invertebrates, as well as feeding areas for migratory waterfowl and
 the federally protected marine turtle.

 Mariculture is a new and expanding  agroindustry in the region, and is an additional source of
 contaminants  and  nutrients to the  Arroyo Colorado and the Laguna Madre.  The threat of
 introduction of nonnative species and their diseases by mariculture operations is currently a high-
 visibility environmental concern.

 The Gulf of Mexico Program was initiated in 1988, and has partners from 18 federal agencies, nearly
 70 state agencies, and many NGOs, environmental organizations, and industries.  The program
 addresses eight major topic areas of concern: coastal and shoreline erosion, freshwater inflow, habitat
 degradation, living aquatic resources, marine debris, nutrient enrichment, public health, and toxic
 substances and pesticides.                                                            '

 Effective management of migratory species will continue to require the coordination of federal, state
 and international regulatory actions.  Accurate determination of the status of western Gulf of Mexico
 resources will require increased information exchange. The state of Texas has been involved  in a
 working relationship with EPA on the coastal area. Texas has submitted its plans for coastal zone
 management to NQAA/OCRM.  This will have a significant impact on the eligibility of this area for
 federal funds, alter the way permits are issued for development near beaches, bays, and estuaries,  and
 create a coordinating mechanism for various state, federal, and local agencies involved with the
 coastal environment.  Texas General Land Office has expressed interest in working with authorities
 of SEMARNAP and Tamaulipas on a coordinated coastal management plan. This would include
 planning associated with all of the Laguna Madre system and associated barrier islands.

 The populations of some fish and shellfish incidentally caught by shrimpers, are currently at low stock
 levels. Regulations which require the use of screening devices on shrimp boats are now reversing this
 trend.  Marine debris from shrimpers and commercial shipping is a major problem on Padre Island
 beaches.

 As part of the effort to encourage improved land use practices along the border, the joint support of
 regular  exchanges and workshops between indigenous communities along the Texas-Tamaulipas
border needs to be expanded.  Technical assistance is needed in order to develop agroforestry.
October 1996
                                                                                    VHL3

-------
Texas-Tamaulipas

Demonstration sites can be established to provide a working  model of agroforestry and the
capabilities of the soils.

Water

Water supplies in the Lower Rio Grande are limited, and increasing demands are a growing problem.
Shared water of the Rio Grande and its tributaries from below international Amistad Dam to the Gulf
of Mexico is currently the primary source for meeting all uses on both sides of the border.  But as
population and water demands increase, the use of groundwater may also increase as competing
water needs include municipal and industrial use.  It is necessary to protect water quality in the Rio
Grande, adjacent streams, oxbows (resacas), bays, estuaries, and aquifers.  Controlling point and
nonpoint biological and chemical pollution demands effective enforcement.

Other water-related issues raised by local residents include illegal dumping of waste in water bodies
that flow into the Rio Grande; the need for domestic water supply and the lack of coordination of
infrastructure services in the cplonias; the need for a binational watershed plan; the negative impact
ocean dumping has on the fishing industry and on beaches; and the need for cleanup of the small lakes
and oxbows along the Rio Grande. The Gulf of Mexico beaches near Brownsville were cited as areas
of concern for surface water quality.

ValleHermoso andMatamoros are constructing aqueducts as part of the decommissioning of intakes
from the irrigation district. Nuevo Laredo has  constructed a new treatment plant and another
treatment plant is planned in Matamoros,

Through analysis of the region's water infrastructure needs, Mexico's CNA found that 80 percent of
the population receives quality drinking water, 66 percent of the residences are connected to a sewer
system, and 35 percent of the total wastewater discharge is treated. The principal  problem with the
sewer systems is the need for infrastructure  expansion, while sewage treatment plants are required
in Rio Grande, Matamoros, and Nuevo Ciudad, Guerrero.  All existing plants require maintenance
and some require improvements.  Though unable to identify long-term resource commitments at this
time, CNA has  estimated the following resource requirements to meet the region's infrastructure
deficiencies as shown below in Table 8.2.
                                        TABLE 8.2
               RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ESTIMATES FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE*
,^vxr- , * ,
;f^|o|^;co^p(ซietit sV;
~ * ., ," \ฅ^. ,- ,-. \V 0;%
- ••> '•'"•' '^
-------
                                                                             Texas-Tamaulipas
                                         TABLE 8.2
               RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ESTIMATES FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE*
: ""'•. •. •.ซ< V '' ' „
Institutional strengthening
Increased efficiency
Studies and projects
Total
'• fjf
\ f- < ffffff. f *•
Urgent
1996-1997
4.0
5.0
0.2
54,2
•^^m^m^^^l^m^^^, _ 4 ^:
Short term
19SS-1999
4.0
3.0
0.6
35.^
Medium term
2000
2.0
3.0

30,0
Total
10.0
11.0
0.8
119,8
  *      These estimates are based on studies and evaluations conducted by the Government of Mexico to meet domestic
         standards.

 Environmental Health

 A diagnosis of environmental health  should be carried out.  The high incidence of communicable
 diseases is a major concern along the Texas-Mexico border. Examples of various public health
 concerns common to this area  are tuberculosis  and gastronintestinal diseases in  the border
 communities of Texas-Tamaulipas, and the spread of cholera into Mexico. The U.S. portion of the
 Texas-Mexico border region is considered a high risk area for neural tube defects.

 Air

 Air pollution is seen as a significant problem by residents of Laredo-Nuevo Laredo, Brownsville-
 Matamoros, and McAllen-Reynosa  particularly  with regard to the air  quality impacts of high
 commercial vehicle traffic.  Residents called for more air quality monitoring in order to  fully
 understand the extent of air problems and to characterize the contribution of industry to air pollution
 within the blnational air basins.  Given public concerns regarding the potential connection between
 air pollution and the incidence of neurological defects, community residents requested a study to
 evaluate the nature of these potential  associations.

 Hazardous and Solid Waste

 The public is aware of inadequate solid waste disposal practices and perceives a lack of landfills and
 other resources required for the proper operation of community garbage disposal programs.  Area
 residents called for the reduction of hazardous and solid waste by industry and commercial facilities
 such as paint shops. Curbside recycling is seen as incomplete in Brownsville.  Residents called for
 recycling efforts by small businesses such as automobile repair and paint shops. Brownsville residents
 are concerned about the possible impact of the burning of municipal waste in Mexican solid waste
 facilities on the binational airshed.

Residents of the region expressed significant concern about the types, quantities and destinations of
hazardous  materials and  wastes transported through  their neighborhoods and city centers.
October 1996
                                                                                    vra.5

-------
Texas-Tamaulipas

Community and government concerns stem from the high number of crossings and the projections
that commercial transportation across the international boundary will likely increase with the phase-in
ofNAFTA.

Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

In some urban areas, on both sides of the border, there is inadequate capacity and resources,
especially in terms of training and equipment to respond to environmental emergencies. The volume
of hazardous materials and hazardous waste that is transported in Texas-Tamaulipas communities
demonstrates the need to develop and implement an adequate emergency response program. This
includes adequately trained staff and equipment necessary to respond to emergencies. The lack of an
adequate emergency response program could represent a risk to public health and the environment.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

Because of the growing concentration of population  and industrial activity, compliance with
environmental requirements is essential for health and welfare in the area. Local, state and federal
agencies involved in enforcing environmental laws and promoting compliance can improve their
effectiveness through cooperation.

                                       TABLE 8.3
                     PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
                            NATURAL RESOURCES
  Baseline study to
  determine the area for
  a natural protected
  area in the Laguna
  Madre, Tamaulipas
Ongoing
DSfE,DUMAC
This study would propose an area of
interest, with a description and
dimensions of the area to justify
establishing of a protected area.
  Flora and fauna
  inventory of the
  Laguna Madre,
  Tamaulipas
Ongoing
INE, Institute de
Ciencias del Mar y
Limnologia, UNAM
An inventory will be obtained of the
flora and fauna species of the
northern region of the estuary system
of die Laguna Madre through field
work, the review of collections and
herbariums, and through a review of
relevant literature.
  Restoration of the
  native habitat on
  Beaver Island in the
  lower Rio Grande
  corridor
  1995
INE, FWS, Los
Caminos del Rio, A.C.
Initiate a reintroduction and
restoration program of the endemic
flora species on Beaver Island in the
lower Rio Grande corridor.
vra.6
                                                                              October 1996

-------
                                                                        Tesas-Tiunaulipas
                                       TABLE 8.3
                     PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
- ' 'f •. ^ •.•. S-v.,,..^
> Acisrvrnr , -**
-^ - ,-_t> *
White-winged dove
conservation
Ecology of the
redhead duck, Laguna
Madre, Tamaulipas
Study of aquatic bird
resting colonies in the
Laguna Madre,
Tamaulipas
Conservation
program for the
Kemp's Ridley sea
turtle in Rancho
Nuevo, Tamaulipas
and the Texas coast
Biodiversity
conservation in the
lower Rio Grande
Valley, Texas
Revegetation of
Tamaulipan
brushland in the
lower Rio Grande
Valley, Texas
Linking contaminant
impacts to the status
of biological
resources of the lower
Rio Grande
Lower Rio Grande
Ecosystem Initiative
Point and nonpoint
source contamination
offish and wildlife of
the lower Rio
Grande, Texas
% ซi ,, Wl
1993-1994
1993
1993
1991-
Ongoing
1995-1996
1995-1996
1995-
Ongoing
1996
1995
: vx m •. """^fti
' '"'%ฃ'" ' ' '\ ""/%
\ ~ฅm$mm r
^*ttป x"$
SEDESOL, FWS,
DUMAC,UAT
SEDESOL, FWS,
UAT
SEDESOL, FWS,
NAS
FWS,
SEMARNAP/INP,
BRD
FWS, TPWD,
TNRCC, ffiWC
FWS
BRD
ป
NPS,FWS,USGS,
CONABIO, BRD
FWS, BRD, TPWD,
IBWC
: * * * i* f * * \\
^ J^ Ac^iti^p^TO^^
Completed a conservation program
along the northern Mexican border.
Determined the distribution and
population structure of the redhead
duck.
Determined the distribution and
number of resting colonies of aquatic
birds.
Concentrated efforts to recover the
Kemp's Ridley sea turtle which nests
in the state of Tamaulipas and Texas.
Carry out reproduction, movements,
migration, and population dynamics.
Maximize resources protection,
habitat conservation planning,
Section 7 consultations and recovery
efforts in the lower Rio Grande
Valley.
Revegetation of characteristic plant
communities in order to increase
available wildlife habitats and link
habitat for neotropical wildlife such
as the ocelot.
1995 sampling completed - report in
progress. 1996 sampling underway.
Information currently being
developed; biodiversity research
underway.
Identify point and nonpoint source
pollution to fish and wildlife
resources from Falcon Reservoir to
the mouth of the Rio Grande.
October 1996
                                                                               vm.7

-------
Texas-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
^ ^ "•! -..s- 'fSi.S? •. s
,*y4^sA..>'--:::&S.v.-.~ ,^
K>' A&Kmr*,^
/^V X > ~NO^*<*V
Natural resource
conservation through
education and
outreach
Falcon Reservoir
Sediment Core Study
Improvement of
forest genetics of
threatened and
endangered tree
species
Classification system
for wetlands
Practices for the
sustainable ongoing
use of forests
Aplomado falcon
habitat characteristics
Advance study
seminar on natural
resources of Mexico

1995-1996
1996-1998
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
1996
1993-1995
-\ ,;^-> ^ v. . 7 -- vfr-™'* "? -.-
**^Aปปaซttis ;^
f S ^\ -X-S* •*& ""
FWS
USGS,TNRCC
USFS,NE Station,
ESUFAP (Canada),
SEMARNAP
DUMAC, DU, Inc.,
NAWCC,AGFD
USFS, SEMARNAP-
Chihuahua, ejidos
Colegio de
Postgraduados de
Mexico, BRD, FWS
NPS
*; > % Ac6oBซBuiSBMi^s ;- s ^
s :,. S'tz.*:'*™^ *" ,„„ >,<"
Emphasize public outreach and
environmental education of
conservation initiative along the U. S.
- Mexico border.
Data collection has been initiated.
Improved seed quality of pine species
such as Chihuahua pine.
Proposal for wetlands and
classification in process.
Develop BMP manual and training
seminars in both U.S. and Mexico.
Understand the ecological
characteristics of the Aplomado
falcon's habitat in order to establish
conservation programs.
Completed three workshops on
understanding cultural and natural
resources of Mexico.
WATER
Colonias Wastewater
Treatment Assistance
Program (CWTAP)
Economically
Distressed Areas
Program (EDAP)
Colonia Plumbing
Loan Program
(CPLP)
1993-
Ongoing
1989-
Ongoing
1991-
Ongoing
EPA, TWDB
TWDB
EPA, TWDB
Grants are provided to local
governments and nonprofit water
supply corporations for design and
construction of wastewater collection
and treatment facilities. Administered
by TWDB.

Loans are made available to low
income colonia residents in
designated border counties for
residential plumbing improvements.
Funds are administered at the local
level.
vra.8
                                                                          October 1996

-------
                                                                        Texas-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                     PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
I " ปsAqriฅW % x.
i; *, -*-<•*_ v * .,.-
Texas Colonias
Enforcement Strike
Force
Study of barriers to
colonias
infrastructure
Wellhead protection
programs
Colonias Assistance
and Management
Support Program
(CAMSP)
Circuit rider for
technical assistance
for public water
systems along U.S.-
Mexico border
Municipal onsite
wastewater assistance
program
Binational
wastewater operator
training
Binational water
supply operator
training
" V.^Sffe" *" "C
- ^J^ffi^d^
^!8jwjMซ^;
1994-
Ongoing
1993-1994
1994-1997
1994-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
1994-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
-... ' v""" ~s ; +
•• J^A'OfSTiC-ib-C^"'
••v>ซ.%%5 JE,J***.*..?UB**BS- ... ,.,,•.,
.'!<*?ซ X"*-- ^x,Wv. 	 ,
EPA, Texas Attorney
General
EPA, International
City/County
Management
Association
EPA, TWDB
EPA, TWDB
t
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TWDB
EPA, WEF
EPA, American Water
Works Association
: $S$$ "••>$%•. s ss
I ^^^^Acpoi^LisHMEmr^rci^t^
LJ ซ,4* ^* ' ' , „ซ ***%ปปป
This program supports the Texas
Attorney General in the enforcement
of state laws relating to colonia
developments.
A report on identifying barriers to
achieving local government interest in
colonias sanitation problems has been
published.
Programs in McAllen and
Brownsville.
This program provides overaU
management and coordination to
eligible colonias in order to submit an
application for financial assistance to
implement needed drinking water and
wastewater facilities improvements.
The objective of this program is to
help utilities along the border to
comply with state and federal
regulations in a cost-effective manner.
It also helps to ensure that water and
wastewater utility services are
maintained and expanded, where
possible, by identifying financial
resources and helping utilities access
these resources.
Small communities received onsite
technical assistance via a program for
small community wastewater
treatment plant operators that TWDB
developed.
The first training session for
wastewater treatment plant operators
along the border has been conducted
in a binational forum.
The first training session on the
requirements of the Safe Drinking
Water Act has been conducted in a
binational forum.
October 1996
VIEL9

-------
Texas-Tamaulipas
                                       TABLE 8.3
                     PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULBPAS
\ *-'* 4 ป?*^|^%$h &J
i v *;&$$&!!&?'*" \:
H ซywvx<^%,;,ssifs •* ;sX
, v* ซs>" \~& ?\T^ "
Rio Grande Toxics
Baseline Study


Rio Grande Toxics
Study Follow-up
Rio Grande-Rio
Bravo Basin
International Water
Resources
Assessment
Lower Rio Grande
Basin Study Amistad
International Dam to
Gulf of Mexico
Rio Grande-Rio
Bravo Alliance






Rio Grande cities
facilities planning

d^^iS*^'""**
fef™^
1992-1993


1995-
Ongoing
1996-1999

1992-1995

1995-
Ongoing






1995-
Ongoing

y&(S$iAtfi'fSvs}^s'fs^, ^ ^ J\'
^w^AI^Kil^ '^
^ป"*'/'v •#*',;
EPA,IBWC,DOI,
TNRCC, TDH,
TPWD


EPA, IBWC, TNRCC
BOR

BOR

Stakeholders
throughout the Rio
Grande Basin
including EPA,
TNRCC, Mexico,
New Mexico and
Colorado state and
federal environmental
entities, Tribal
representation,
nongovernmental
organizations and
other local
stakeholders
participants.
EPA, IBWC


Binational report completed in
September 1994. While the study did
not indicate that toxic contamination
was widespread, several areas with
elevated levels of toxic contamination
were found, primarily below sister
cities and in tributaries.
Field work completed. Report will
help identify areas where additional
water pollution control is needed.
Study outlined and now in the process
of accessing transboundary data
availability.

A report was completed and released
in December 1995.

The Rio Grande Alliance had its first
coordinating meeting July 15-16,
1996 in El Paso, Texas. This meeting
included participants from throughout
the Rio Grande Basin.






U.S. Section of the IBWC has
procured an A/E firm to develop
planning of wastewater facilities to
control wastewater discharges from
Mexico into the Rio Grande/Rio
Bravo.
VTJL10
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                        Texas-Tamaulipas
                                       TABLE 8.3
                     PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
;^\^ *f'* s '^%,-vj, ,*.
WsSP***1* ?%^CCฃ
Nuevo Laredo
Treatment Plant
Laredo, Texas water
and wastewater
improvements
Gulf of Mexico
Program
Rio Grande water
quality monitoring:
Middle Basin
(Amistad Falcon
Reservoir)
Evolution of bed-
sediment chemistry in
the Rio Grande River
Nonpoint Source
Toxic Substances
Project for Manadas
Creek Watershed,
Laredo
Drinking water
supply for the city of
Matamoros
Drinking water
supply for the city of
Valle Hermosa (first
stage)
? ^naST^
1994-1996
1995- 1999
1988-Present
1996-1999
1996-1997
1996-1999
1995-1996
1995-1996
<&Lt,&s* """i""*^"':"
• %? *•ป l^JkWPSSIB'19-fe O ** ' "
-•&•'.,- *&*C*l$l|*fc?
V^AV^">SSS\ S ?? i
.^v •••...•>. \'isl&Kv.; *ป'*&' 'A ••
CNA, COMAPA,
Tamaulipas state
government, IBWC
EPA, TWDB, Laredo
EPA,USDA,NOAA,
USFWS, USAGE,
FDA, MMS, Florida,
Mississippi, Alabama,
Louisiana, Texas,
EPOMEX
USGS, TNRCC
USGS
TNRCC, Laredo,
USGS
CNA
CNA
••*.•.•> s., AV. s s % ?'/'4Kt S'tfy *?•• % -.% %v, f
;^H$ปt v.,** ' ft, M,""" --^." •. ••
Construction of the treatment plant
with a capacity of 1360 LPs was
completed. Also the sewer system
was expanded, and the collectors and
pumping plant were rehabilitated and
expanded.
Planning complete. Design at 95
percent. FONSI in process.
Working to improve the flow of
environmental information between
U.S. and Mexico and responding to
environmental problems in the Gulf
of Mexico.
Developing monitoring plan.
Sampling will start in 1997.
Retrospective analysis prior to data
collection.
Developing QA/QC framework
documents outlining data collection,
analytical methods and data
management protocols.
Construction will soon be completed
to change the drinking water source of
the city.
Construction will soon be completed
to change the drinking water source
for the city.
October 1996
                                                                               Vffl.ll

-------
 Texas-Tamaulipas
                                     TABLE 8.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS

4- - "^f^&^yf^^
v v^^g^ft^i
Laredo, Texas,
Jefferson and Chacon
water and wastewater
improvements


Anzalduas-Reynosa
aqueduct

Aquifer Storage and
Recovery Study -
Hueco Bolson

-." o juSill^''
?*jtoAปm\'
1995-
Ongoing




1993-1996


1995-1997


* ., f ^ f# ~s f fff
*• ^^^"t^Il^J '*'' '" '
' % "n^^T.^T. ff, s^-jKi WWS^
^ .f f ff" f ff s
EPA, TWDB, Laredo





CNA


BOR



* M, j* * * ?sfs? f ffjf$^jfฃiฃf$jtrf$ f *^ f ™* ซ* J&jMw f.
jฃซ f^f*ป^$k]ฃtPฅ t^uff?V*f fi^yfi^FC'-. ' ^ '"*
ffjfS fff/y f f '•'*'*•* & \ •.•,•&••$. \%%^,->M>^% _,
Funds have been provided for
planning, design and construction of
water and wastewater improvements
in Laredo, Texas. Planning has been
completed. The design phase is 95
percent complete.
Construction of the Anzalduas-
Reynosa aqueduct has been
completed for the city's water supply.
Awarded contract to investigate
opportunities for groundwater
recharge of Rio Grande excess flows.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
Birth Defects
Registry












Dengue fever
surveillance and
interventions







Pilot began in
1994 in TDH
Regions 6,
11

Expansion in
1997 to
Regions
2,3,5, South
8,9,10




1995-1996









TDH, March of
Dimes, CDC












TDH, CDE,
University of Texas
Medical Branch, UT
School of Public
Health, Cameron,
Hidalgo and Webb
counties local health
departments


Pilot Birth Defects Registry.

Expansion of Birth Defects Registry.

Statewide cluster investigation.

Referral information services
(Department case management -
medical, social, financial).

Folic Acid Prevention Asessment.
Establishment and coordination of
Scientific Advisory Committee on
Birth Defects in Texas.
Human disease surveillance identified
7 indigenous cases.

Mosquito surveillance found vectors
in all counties of concern, but none
resistant to pesticides.

Survey of public found more than 80
percent with appropriate knowledge
of Dengue.
vm.12
October 1996

-------
                                                                               Texas-Tamaulipas
                                          TABLE 8.3
                      PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
                                                      •\
                                                                                       .>*<
 Brownsville
 Leukemia Cluster
   1993-
  Ongoing
TDK
Examined Leukemia and non-
Hodgkins lymphoma incidence data
for Brownsville and Cameron County
residents for 1990-1991. No
statistical excesses found.

Updated leukemia incidence through
1992 for Cameron County. No
statistical excess found.
  South Texas Rabies
  Initiative
1994-Present
TDH,USDA,CDC,
Canadian Government
Largest oral rabies vaccine
distribution ever for two successive
years.

Establishment of South Texas Rabies
Response Center in Laredo to
increase public awareness of rabies
and its prevention.

Developmental work on safety and
efficacy of the vaccine in the field.

Apparent success in stopping the
northward spread of canine rabies in
Texas.
  Binational TB
  Campaign
1995-Present
TDH,SSA,HHS,
PAHO/USMBHA,
health departments of
all 10 border states,
private sector
partners/medical
associations
State-to-state TB Agreements signed
between Texas-Tamaulipas and
Texas-Chihuahua.

Circulated draft of TB White Paper.

Held Binational TB Symposium,
February, 1996.

Beginning initiatives for Internet
communication and provider
education.
October 1996
                                                                                       vm.13

-------
Teias-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
-.-••4J$*w"i
\ <"v v -f
NTD Field
Surveillance and
Case-Control Study
Border Cancer
Registry
Border
Environmental Health
Survey
Grupo Sin Fronteras
Binational Manager
and Tracking and
Referral System
* * s "* .•* jtS*;!** SV$ ^
"• ^ jPit A. JMfl?"'
* f *
1995-1996
Ongoing
1996-1997
1995-Present
1995-Present
2ฃin5ปฃeฃ;

TDH, CDC, EPA
TDH, CDC
TDH, EPA, CDC
TDH, SSA, ISSSTE,
IMSS, PEMEX
TDH, EPCCHS
Migrant Clinicians'
Network

"JV^< S ' * "• >.. ^^M^^^^T^^:^. . fffjT^$'.
Three years of surveillance data are
complete.
More than 60% of high risk women
are taking folic acid.
Case-control study for risk factors for
NTD occurrence has been
implemented.
Completed cancer incidence data
collection and analysis for 18 border
counties for 1990-1992.
Continuing to collect incidence data
for 1993 and forward. Report being
published.
About 2,100 household surveys will
be conducted along the Texas-Mexico
border to collect data on household
structure, general sanitation, health
conditions, and potential sources of
exposure to environmental
contaminants.
Increase availability to TB lab
services.
Increase supervised therapy.
Increase referrals for contact
investigation.
Under development.
Toll-free access to TB information
from anywhere in the U.S. or Mexico.
vmi4
                                                                          October 1996

-------
                                                                       Texas-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
. , s ซซ~t~w ป
' ^ *• f •""^ V. v' I- .V •"* %
^ ^ " AC^jTViyif
' ' %*v !•.
Texas Small Towns
Environment
Program (STEP)




Mercury poisoning
prevention



f"
PM-10 and
children's respiratory
health
~" s **C%^ ^ ''''
"rnuw**"*
1994-Present




1995-Present




1995-1996
i "-'"-" - -•**** z~.f;,
*^jP^3mwaaป
" x % •. \ ^ i*^ N
TDH, TNRCC, Texas
Dept. of Housing &
Community Affairs,
TGLO, TWDB




TDH, PAHO/
USMBHA,CDC,
ADHS, CDHS,
NMDOH




SCERP,UTEP,
ITESM, EPA, Arizona
State University
• \\ ••'••••
: ' Y ,~/'v '
r '--- ,Aq.coMrusBM^ncซ , - -,
: •= ttikft* "". sy^vss x^* "• s s
| X- V.-, %
Interagency project to assist small
communities to meet their water and
wastewater needs through self-
help/sweat-equity.
Interagency workgroup.
Initial thrust is in colonias along the
Texas-Mexico border.
Four current border projects; one in
construction, three in various stages
of design/planning /assessment.
Newsletter.
Identified the source of exposure.
Initiated a binational border wide
effort to increase public awareness
about the health hazards of the
source.
Conducting active surveillance of
cases.
Developing strategies for treatment of
exposed individuals.
Determination of health effects on
children of PM-10 and associated
chemical components.
AIR
Air monitoring in
Laredo Texas and
Nuevo Laredo,
Tamaulipais

Ongoing

EPA, INE, TNRCC

In Laredo, monitoring for PM-10 and
PAH is underway. Monitoring for .
ozone, CO, VOC, lead, arsenic, and
meteorological data will be initiated
in August of 1996.
INE provided two PM-10 samplers
for Nuevo Laredo.
October 1996
vm.15

-------
Texas-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                     PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
^^V&A^-r^y"'
ป*-Aq$fTOtfv
,-S" ' ^ป " ซV< ,
,v ,"!'•/ - *s s , -#/"
Air monitoring in
Brownsville, Texas
and Matamoros,
Tamaulipas
Transboundary Air
Monitoring Project,
Cameron County,
Texas
Air toxics monitoring
in Hidalgo County,
Texas
Air monitoring in
Reynosa, Tamaulipas
^'%iปv^
..^ •. e •* ffy •*•*•*
^8|!MNqfc.^
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
s*.11* 'WiM*** ^ ป* •AvJ^**'*'**^
' '>*'*y$$ฃmi&&'"'''''^
v^\ ^v^ s& :• \ v.%v> ftxป. •xs1*. J^VA •!
EPA, INE, TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
INE
.-. ^M;%ftงftft. X^-Nlv. ^ <%X ^ s % x *"• v^v" *• A *-\ *• sv. v. X %V •ซ J1 > '•'•'•'•
h ;"* ;AcC0^imsffiป|;iซnrCs:v ,
! % '*,-\.Xv.<- \^ซ\^ - -#-^ >**ปป% ss^^wyMrf* ,
p^v,, s s >, ,
A site monitors 03, CO, SO2, PM-10,
Pb, arsenic, VOCs, PAH, and
meteorological conditions.
INE has provided four PM-10
monitors to Matamoros.
Conducted a pilot project in
Brownsville to identify and evaluate
the manner and extent to which valley
residents are exposed to
environmental pollutants.
Examine extent of transboundary air
pollution through monitoring or
mobile, industrial, and agricultural
activities and collection of
meteorological data.
Adding air toxics monitoring
equipment at two existing O3
monitoring sites in Hidalgo County
and scheduling mobile laboratory
sampling in the border areas.
INE has provided five PM 10, one
SO2 monitors and two meteorological
sites monitors.
HAZARDOUS and SOLID WASTE
COOPERATIVE ENFORCEMENT and COMPLIANCE
(Please see Appendix 10 for additional solid and hazardous waste projects of U.S. state and local agencies)
Outreach and training
to maquiladoras on
regulatory
requirements for
transborder
shipments of
hazardous waste
1988-1993
EPA, SEDESOL,
TNRCC, NMED, US
and Mexican
Customs, DOT,
National Maquiladora
Association, SCT,
Cal-EPA,ADEQ
Six borderwide conferences were held
to increase understanding by
maquiladoras and U.S. parent
companies of import/export
regulations. Developed bilingual
manual for the maquiladora industry.
vra.16
                                                                           October 1996

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                                                                                Texas-Tsanaulipas
                                          TABLE 8.3
                       PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
  v-
                      AWปXV
                       * O v*
                                         v
  Cleanup of the
  Alazana Canyon;
  clean closure of old
  open dumps; grant
  sanitary concession to
  SETASA; determine
  permanent solution
  for sanitary landfill
  vis IP. (Nuevo
  Laredo)
1993-1994
SEDESOL, cities,
SETASA
Drainage and improved hydrologic
systems for the canyon; increased
efficiency and general drainage for
municipal sanitation; develop
integrated solution for management
and final disposition of sanitary
landfills with I.P.
  Preliminary
  environmental
  evaluation with
  regard to solid wastes
  (Matamoros and
  Reynosa)
   1993
B.M., SEDESOL
Identificaiton of needs for solid waste
infrastructure to preserve the
environment.
  Enforcement Task
  Force
 Ongoing
TNRCC, EPA,
PROFEPA,
U.S. and Mexican
Customs, U.S. DOT,
TOPS
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
established a multiagency task force
in Laredo and Brownsville to explore
enforcement issues of the area.
  Education and
  training
 Ongoing
EPA, TNRCC
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
provides training to address the
transboundary hazardous waste
issues. TNRCC also established an
information program and hot line for
the public.
  Enforcement of
  hazardous waste
  regulations using
  manifests -and
  associated shipment
  data from
  HAZTRAKS, a
  binational
  computerized
  tracking system, to
  identify potential
  violators.
 Ongoing
EPA, TNRCC
A number of enforcement cases have
been filed (administrative and
judicial).
October 1996
                                                               vra.17

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Texas-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
; ss^, •. \',\A',VV\S w.yปvw. s I>V\^'$\
: ,.ซป ^,%SjK s^V ^•ip ' ^ *
: ^ , ^ •> ^ s-^X^X^ ^ sv-
Inspections/investigat
ions of hazardous
waste transporters at
key border crossings
(e.g., weigh stations,
transporter yards,
hazardous waste
warehouses) to find
illegal shipments.
Enforcement of
Texas Community
Right-to-Know Acts
(TCRAs)
Hazardous waste
enforcement
International bridge
inspections
U.S. Customs
training course
Multimedia Inspector
Training
CONTINGE*
Organize workshop
on innovative
technology
'^'f^Sm-^'
1993-Present
Ongoing
1995
Ongoing
Ongoing
1995-Present
fCYPLAN

4,ฃ> 	 * •.,•.•*•. - *"*t^*s
1^; Itoo^p-r^
S* 'i? Xซ."* *• •"•*• -tX- ^"^ *• ^*-X-vS*- *wN"-
%
EPA, PROFEPA,
TNRCC,U.S. and
Mexican Customs,
U.S. DOT, TOPS,
TDH
TDK
TNRCC
TNRCC
TNRCC, U.S. and
Mexican Customs,
EPA
EPA, PROFEPA,
CNA
NINGANDEMi
EPA, ICMA
;"^> 'Vs* x J," .!"", J^^*^^^****'''^^.^/^
^^ic^^^^i;;^
Monitor the import/export of
hazardous wastes through a
cooperative multiagency initiative to
determine if shipments conform to
applicable laws and regulations.
Conducting compliance inspections in
Laredo, Texas of facilities subject to
any of the three TCRAs. This is a
special project based on the problems
faced by Laredo as the principal port
of entry from Mexico under NAFTA.
Public Health Regions 8,9,10 and 1 1
also conduct these inspections along
the rest of the border.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, conducted
1 15 inspections of facilities which
handle hazardous wastes imported
from Mexico.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, conducted
55 international bridge inspections on
hazardous waste shipments crossing
the border.
Pursuant to an EPA grant, TNRCC
conducted 13 Customs training
courses on regulations pertaining to
the transboundary movement of
hazardous wastes.
EPA provided multimedia training to
47 Mexican inspectors from
PROFEPA and CNA.
ERGENCY RESPONSE
Grant to state of Texas, for $23,950
to organize a workshop similar to the
ICMA workshop in Laredo-Nuevo
Laredo.
vra.18
                                                                          October 1996

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                                                                               Texas-Tamaulipas
                                          TABLE 8.3
                      PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
  Cross-training
  workshops
   1996
TNRCC, DOT, TDK
Provided cross-training to inspectors
from U.S. Customs, U.S. Border
Patrol, TX DPS, TNRCC, various
offices in several border cities, and
Mexican agencies on the
requirements of federal and state
community right-to-know Jaws and on
how to use information on material
safety data sheets and container labels
for personal protection. This
program was run by TNRCC.
  Grant to state of
  Texas to address
  environmentally
  sensitive areas
              EPA, State of Texas
                      Grant to state of Texas, for $100,000
                      to assist in preparing a sister city plan
                      and create a binational environmental
                      plan to address environmentally
                      sensitive areas in Laredo and Nuevo
                      Laredo.
  SARA Title IH
  Workshop in Laredo,
  Texas
   1996
EPA, TNRCC, TDK,
Laredo Fke
Department
Provided instruction on the
requirements for and the completion
of Tier Two chemical inventory
reports to representatives from
industry, ranches, various city
departments, warehouses, and other
members of the regulated community.
The reports are required under both
federal and state community right-to-
know laws. The program was
sponsored by EPA.
  Subcommittee on
  Compliance Issues
  for Transporters and
  Storage Facilities
1996-Present
TX Office of the
Attorney General,
TDK, TX DOT,
TNRCC, TOPS, TX
Dept. Of Insurance,
USDOT, OSHA,
Laredo and local
groups.
Provided review of the new ordinance
for the city of Laredo on storage of
hazardous materials in warehouses.
October 1996
                                                                                       vmi9

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Texas-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
"*$" vi

Subcommittee No. 3
Resources for
Hazardous Materials
Education, Public
Awareness, and
Prevention

1996-Present

TDH, TNRCC,
TXDPS, TXRRC,
OSHA,EPA,
USDOT, Laredo and
local groups
i * "" A jr\f^ฃ)fjklt tfy ฅ•ฃ?'!ฃ 'tyf^Kf^lTCE ' ^"
/F*%vt-v*w9w*.ir JwJWrf**'*'•*
j, ,ซซ5 •> '^ '^ ^\ ป*. ซ, o\ป %* v - -V"5^
Have prepared outreach documents in
English and Spanish for the public
and regulated community on
hazardous materials subjects. Work
is ongoing on setting up five
workshops along the border
(Brownsville, McAllen, Laredo, Del
Rio and El Paso) to educate the public
and regulated community on
hazardous materials issues. Work is
also ongoing on a public outreach
trade show on hazardous materials.
POLLUTION PREVENTION
Video conference on
Permanent Pollution
Prevention Program
(P4) broadcast
through Monterrey
Institute of
Technology
Technology transfer
and capacity building
on pollution
prevention with
PROFEPA
Pollution prevention
assistance to small
business operations
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1996
TNRCC, ITESM
EPA, TNRCC,
PROFEPA offices in
Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Tamaulipas, Nuevo
Leon
EPA, TNRCC,
PROFEPA offices in
Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Tamaulipas, Nuevo
Leon, and EOF
A four-hour video broadcast was
downlinked at 8 Mexican cities
through the Monterrey Institute of
Technology. Plans are developing for
an extension of this P4 to downlink to
26 satellite campuses throughout
Mexico to reach the maquiladora
industries.
Joint partners site assessments and
follow-up site visits are focused on
determining opportunities to
implement pollution prevention and
clean technology for Mexican
industrial facilities. These have
resulted in reductions in wastes and
air emissions and have also
cumulatively saved facilities over a
million dollars through pollution
prevention.
Demonstration of a model spray
booth for training of operators in the
auto and paint shop industry. El Paso
and Ciudad Juarez receiving training
on spray paint with low VOCs and
recovery of solvents and recycling.
vm.20
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                       Tcxas-Tamaulipas
                                      TABLE 8.3
                    PAST AND ONGOING PROJECTS - TEXAS -TAMAULIPAS
• •. ^ * s ,."<
s f •JX-&X*'' :
' , itaKgrrir^i
• ff. ^ f tjttft v X 4Cx><-
' - •• '•\ /' •• '
Technical assistance
to Mexican state
environmental
agencies
Solid waste recycling
initiatives
Pollution prevention
curriculum
conference for
students and
graduates in
engineering
Development of the
EPS Program in
Mexico under the
Agency for
International
Development
Inventory of solid
waste landfills
Assessment of illegal
dumps

1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1995-
Ongoing
1996-
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
vv?Vซ^. •. ',////*" V^V^-A."
'*'^ฃAmaHป' ^
" x "T^Sr^ "*AJC
EPA, TNRCC,
PROFEPA offices in
Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Tamaulipas, Nuevo
Leon
EPA
EPA, TNRCC,
ITESM, UT-Pan
American, Monterrey
Institute of
Technology,
University of Nuevo
Leon
EPA,ADD,INE
EPA, TNRCC
EPA, TNRCC
;r";Vx:Ac9OiiซViwiSBM^irjrs - *'<
-. ' f ••'•••%%%
Continue capacity building with
Mexican state and federal
environmental agencies by providing
training and technical assistance in
the four Mexican states bordering
Texas.
Solid waste and recycling
conferences. The latest conference
was held May 22-23, 1996 in Nuevo
Laredo. Others in April and October
1995 and February and May 1996.
Conference was held November 1995
on development of a pollution
prevention curriculum for students
and graduates in engineering.
Guideline chapters are under
development and should be completed
by October 1996. Another
conference is being organized to
further the curriculum on pollution
prevention, to disseminate available
information materials and exchange
creative problem-solving approaches.

Pursuant to EPA grants, an inventory
of active solid waste landfills along
the border was conducted. Training
on landfill design, operation and
closure was provided to Mexican
officials and landfill owner/operators.
TNRCC is evaluating the scope of
illegal dump problems and assessing
collection/disposal needs.
October 1996
                                                                              vra.2i

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 Texas-Tamaulipas

 Objectives for the Next Five Years

 Natural Resources

 >•     Continue ongoing  investigations of flora,  wildlife, and  aquatic  habitats to improve
        management and protection programs for important fish and wildlife resources.  Study
        feasible alternatives that promote the sustainable use of natural resources in the Laguna
        Madre and the entire border region.

 >•     Protect, recover, and manage species in danger of extinction in the Texas-Tamaulipas border
        region including the jaguarundi and the ocelot.

 X     Promote biodiversity protection, conservation, and use programs in the Mexican border
        region and establish the necessary controlled production units as a strategy for restoring
        threatened and endangered species with the participation of the Rescue and Rehabilitation
        Center for Wild Species, in Tolchic, Tamaulipas.

 >•     Identify joint  areas of  priority  and link the BRD National Biological Information
        Infrastructure (MBIT) with the development of the CONABIO biodiversity information system
        focusing on the Texas-Tamaulipas-Nuevo Leon-Coahuila-Chihuahua area as a pilot area.

 >•     Establish a protected national area in the region of the Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, for the
        conservation of aquatic migratory birds and residents of this habitat.  Develop the activities
        necessary for their  protection and a management program  that considers the sustainable
        development of resources for the people that inhabit the surrounding area. Design strategies
        for the long-term financial self-sufficiency of these protected areas.

 >•     Promote and  conduct  training courses, education,  and projects on the conservation of
        protected natural areas and habitats of interest like  the ecological corridor along  the Rio
        Grande, Laguna Madre in Tamaulipas, the Padre Island Wildlife Reserve, and the Atascosa
        Laguna in Texas.

 >•     The USDA Forest  Service will provide a series of forest nursery workshops and  training
       which focus on improvement of quality and quantity of seedling production, as  well as
       reforestation efforts in places such as Tamaulipas border communities.

 >    Increase the number of forest nurseries and improve planting practices.

 >•    Establish reforestation  programs for the cities of Camargo, Ciudad Mier, Guerrero Viejo,
       Matamoros, Miguel Aleman, Nuevo Guerrero, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, Rio Bravo, San
       Fernando, and Valle Hermoso, and also their industrial parks and the riparian corridor of the
       Rio Grande.

 >    Characterize the levels of wastes dangerous for fish and wildlife resources in the Laguna
       Madre.
VHL22
October 1996

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                                                                            Texas-Tamaufipas

>•     Continue to monitor sources of marine debris on Padre Island, and water quality in Laguna
       Madre, Texas.

>     Protect and manage the Kemp Ridley sea turtle by restoring its habitat.

>•     Characterize the plankton in the Laguna Madre, Texas.

>•     Conduct a baseline inventory of sea grasses in the Laguna Madre system.

>•     Establish a rural aquaculture program, training the residents in the area of aquatic uses with
       the available resources.

>•     Design and establish a contamination monitoring program in the coastal zone of Mexico for
       the determination of the current status and the general concentration of critical contaminants,
       that could result in regulations for the use of natural resources shared by both countries.

>•     Establish regulations for the import, export, and quality control of the aquatic organisms to
       be used in aquaculture, as well as fishery products.

>-     Carry  out specialized studies in the area of aquaculture in order to define the resource
       management and utilization plans that would be implemented along the border.

'>•     Develop a fish stocking program in the La Amistad Reservoir, under the Convention for the
       Use of Surface Waters.
Water
       Inherent in the efforts to protect surface and groundwater resources is the need to improve
       urban infrastructure associated with the supply of drinking water and the disposal of
       wastewater.  In particular new treatment plants or the rehabilitation of existing facilities for
       the treatment of wastewater are needed in Reynosa and Matamoros.  Recognizing the
       importance of the Rio Grande to sustainable development, the U.S. and Mexico will work
       together on a watershed-based analysis of drinking water and wastewater infrastructure needs
       for the cities, towns, and communities near the river. EPA and CNA will continue to work
       with the IBWC and BECC to facilitate the development of the Rio Grande Cities Facilities
       Planning projects.

       The TNRCC and EPA will continue to share information with CNA and other appropriate
       Mexican  authorities regarding the creation of the  Rio Grande  Alliance, taking into
       consideration the concept of basin management in Mexico.  U.S. and Mexican state and
       federal agencies will continue discussions regarding managing their ecosystem and watershed
       activities. Comprehensive planning for the Rio Grande watershed will help both governments
       develop solutions to identified water quality problems. Similar collaboration of efforts will
       be encouraged along of the rest of the border.
October 1996
                                                                                   JVHL23

-------
Texas-Tamaulipas

>-     The U.S. and Mexico will continue to work together to complete the ongoing Rio Grande
       water quality studies, begin analysis of the data, and evaluate the  need for additional
       monitoring.

Environmental Health

>•     In-depth discussion of binational,  geographic-specific five-year  objectives  have only
       commenced in earnest with the issuance of the Framework Document.  The intent is to
       translate the overall environmental health objectives outlined in Chapter HI into objectives,
       priorities, and projects specific for this region benefiting from further binational discussions
       and the input obtained from community outreach meetings.

Air

>•     The U.S. and Mexico will continue baseline air  quality monitoring.   As more  data are
       developed, both countries will be able to assess current air quality, and develop a strategy to
       prevent these areas from deteriorating into nonattainment.  As in other areas in the border
       region, the development of technical capacity with an increase in the quantity and quality of
       source inventories will allow for development of a strategy to improve air quality in the
       region. EPA will support continued short-term air toxics investigations by TNRCC in the
       border area, using the TNRCC mobile sampling lab.

Hazardous and Solid Waste

>•     Proper management, treatment, and  disposal of hazardous and solid wastes, as well as
       compliance with regulations for transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes, will remain
       a priority for the Texas-Tamaulipas region. Continued cooperation among the state and local
       offices will focus on:
       •      ongoing information and technology transfer;

       •      cooperative training;

       •      building laboratory sampling and analysis capabilities;

       •      developing recyclables markets; and

       •      using and improving HAZTRAKS as a tracking and compliance tool.

>•     One of the principal actions will be to improve waste management practices in the Texas-
       Tamaulipas region and promote solid and hazardous waste minimization and recycling. This
       will be accomplished by:
       •      developing partnerships with industry to encourage waste minimization and safe
              material management;

       •      providing site-specific compliance and technical assistance on an as-needed basis;
VTDL24
October 1996

-------
                                                                         Texas-Tamaulipas

       •     training government officials, community leaders, and industry on waste reduction and
             pollution prevention.

Contingency Planning and Emergency Response

>•     Both governments will develop state and local abilities to be prepared for and to respond to
       chemical  emergencies  in  the areas of Nuevo Laredo-Laredo, Reynosa-McAHen, and
       Matamoros-Brownsville. This will be accomplished through the Joint Response Team which
       involves federal, state and local agencies with responsibilities for dealing with environmental
       emergencies. Responsibilities of the Joint Response Team include implementation of the Joint
       Contingency Plan in the mentioned sister cities for the creation and promotion of CLAMs,
       the creation of a communication center which responds to  emergencies and is properly
       equipped, training of personnel involved hi chemical emergency  response, communication
       to the public, and other activities.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance

>* , The Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance Workgroup will promote the establishment of
    a subgroup for the Texas-Tamaulipas region, which will have the responsibility of meeting the
    objectives referred to in Chapter HI.

>•  The PROFEPA inspection program expects to carry out 3,700 inspections between 1996 and
    2000 to monitor regulatory environmental compliance in the state of Tamaulipas.
October 1996
                                                                                VH12S

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B
ibliography
* A Demographic Guide to Arizona [Annual Reports]. Published by the State of Arizona,
   Department of Economic Security, Population Statistics Unit. Phoenix, Arizona. (1994).

* Eleventh National Census of Population and Housing [Mexico]. Institute Nacional de
   Estadistica, Geografia y Informacion [INEGI]. (1990).

* "Canada-Mexico-United States: North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation."
   Volume 32, Number 6, International Legal Materials. Published by American Society of
   International Law, Washington, D.C. (November 1993).

ป Census of Population and Housing, 1990 [United States]: "Population and Housing
   Characteristics for Census Tracts and Block Numbering Areas." United States Department
   of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census. Published by
   the Superintendent of Documents, United States General Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
   (1993).

* Census of Population and Housing, 1990 [United States]: "Social and Economic Characteristics.
   United States Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of
   the Census."  Published by the Superintendent of Documents, United States General Printing
   Office, Washington, D.C. (1993).

* "Mexico-United States: Agreement Concerning the Establishment of a Border Environment
   Cooperation Commission and a North American Development Bank." Volume 32, Number 6,
   International Legal Materials. Published by American Society of International Law,
   Washington, D.C. (November 1993).

ป "Mexico-United States: Agreement to Cooperate in the Solution of Environmental Problems
   in the Border Area" (Done at La Paz, Baja California ["La Paz Agreement"], August 14, 1983).
   Volume 22, Number 5, International Legal Materials. Published by American Society of
   International Law, Washington, D.C. (September 1983).

ป Our Common Future. The World  Commission on Environment and Development
   ["The Brundtland Commission"]. Oxford University Press; (1987).

* Population and Housing Count  [Mexico]. Institute Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia y
   Informacion [INEGI]. (1995).

ป RandMcNally Commercial Atlas & Marketing Guide [Annual Series]. Volume 125, Rand
   McNally and Company, Chicago. (1994).
October 1996

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                          A
PPENDIX 1
  A Brief Description of U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental

             Agreements and International Institutions

International Boundary and Water Commission - IBWC

The United States and Mexico signed a treaty in 1889 creating the International Boundary
Commission (IBC).  The mandate of the IBC was to resolve problems of boundary demarcation
between the United States and Mexico caused by changes in the courses of the Colorado and Rio
Grande rivers. In 1944, the two nations signed the Treaty on Utilization of Waters of the Colorado
and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande (the Water Treaty) transforming the International Boundary
Commission into the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The Water Treaty
extended the Commission's purview to include maintaining the land boundary and apportioning the
waters in the aforementioned rivers.  It also enhanced the Commission's authority to address issues
regarding water quality, conservation, and use along the boundary. In addition to these duties, the
IBWC was given authority to deal with border water sanitation issues through projects mutually
agreed upon by the United States and Mexico.  These agreements are "Minutes" of the IBWC.
Some of the most significant Minutes on border sanitation problems include the following:

•     IBWC Minute No. 294 (1995) - Facilities planning program for the solution of border
      sanitation problems
•     IBWC Minute No. 289 (1992) - Observation of the quality of the waters along the
      U.S.-Mexico border
•     IBWC Minute No. 288 (1992) - Conceptual plan for the long-term international
      solution  to the border sanitation problem of the New River in Mexicali, Baja
      California - Calexico, California
•     IBWC Minute No. 283 (1990) - Conceptual plan for the international solution to the
      border sanitation problem in Tijuana, Baja California - San Diego, California
•     IBWC Minute No. 279 (1989) - Agreement on joint projects to improve the water
      quality of the Rio Grande in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas - Laredo, Texas.

1983 United States-Mexico Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and
Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area - La Paz Agreement

In 1983, in La Paz,  Baja California, the United States and Mexico signed the Agreement on
Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area, otherwise
known as the "La Paz Agreement" or the "1983 Border Environmental Agreement." This document
established a framework for cooperation between the two countries to prevent, reduce, and eliminate
sources of airj water, and land pollution in the zone extending 100 kilometers along each side of the
international boundary. The La Paz Agreement creates a procedure for establishing annexes which
facilitate cooperation on specific environmental issues. Currently, there are five such annexes.
October 1996
                                                                         Appendix 1.1

-------
A Brief Description of U.S.-Meiico Border

Annex I provides for the construction and operation of the Tijuana-San Diego wastewater treatment
facilities. Activities related to this project are carried out in coordination with the IBWC. This annex
was signed by the United States and Mexico on July 18, 1985.

Annex II authorizes the establishment of the Inland Joint Response Team (JRT) to respond to
accidental spills of hazardous substances in the border area. It was signed on July 18, 1985, and is
complemented by the 1988 Joint U.S.-Mexico Contingency Plan for Accidental Releases of
Hazardous Substances Along the Border.

Annex in establishes procedures governing the transboundary shipment of hazardous wastes and
hazardous substances between the U.S. and Mexico. Annex HI was signed on November 12, 1986.

Annex IV requires certain copper smelters in the border area to comply with specific limits on
emissions, contains reporting requirements, and provides for the exchange,  between the U.S. and
Mexico, of emissions and compliance monitoring data on copper smelters in their respective border
states. This annex was signed in January 1987.

Annex V calls for an assessment of the causes of, and solutions to,  binational urban air quality
problems in the border area.  Annex V was signed on October 3, 1989.  The annex was amended in
May 1996 to  include the formation of the Joint Advisory Committee for Air Quality Improvement
for the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez-Dona Ana County air basin.

Originally, four binational Workgroups of technical experts were established pursuant to the La Paz
Agreement to implement the Agreement  and its  annexes.  In 1991, two new Workgroups were
created.   The six Workgroups are Water,  Hazardous Waste, Air,  Contingency  Planning  and
Emergency Response, Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance, and Pollution Prevention.  The
Water Workgroup works  closely with the IBWC and the  Border Environmental Cooperation
Commission (BECC) to establish binational funding priorities for wastewater treatment plants and
drinking water facilities in the  border area.  As a result of the development  of the Border XXI
Program, three new Workgroups have been formed: Information Resources, Natural Resources, and
Environmental Health.

Work carried out under the La Paz Agreement is coordinated by two National Coordinators: the
International Affairs Coordinator in SEMARNAP and the Assistant Administrator for International
Activities of EPA. The National Coordinators meet at least once a year to review the progress on
implementation of the Agreement and environmental cooperation activities between the two
countries.

Integrated Environmental Plan for the TJ.S.-Mexican Border Area -IBEP

The Integrated Environmental Plan for the Mexican-U.S. Border Area Environmental Plan, First
Stage 1992-94, commonly referred to as the Integrated Border Environmental Plan (IBEP) grew out
of a meeting between the President of Mexico and the President of the United States  on November
27, 1990, in Monterrey, Mexico, on the potential economic benefits and environmental effects of
trade liberalization between the two countries. The IBEP reflected the idea that long-term economic
growth is not possible without environmental protection and long-term environmental protection is
not possible without economic growth.  The goal of the Plan was to protect human health and natural
Appendix 1.2
                                                                             October 1996

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                                                         A Brief Description of U.S.-Mexico Border

ecosystems along the border.  The Plan had four specific objectives: (1) to strengthen the enforcement
of environmental laws; (2) to reduce pollution through new initiatives; (3) to increase cooperative
planning, training and education; and (4) to improve the understanding of border environmental
problems.

The North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA

The North American Free Trade Agreement contains a number of environmental provisions and an
additional trilateral environmental agreement was negotiated to supplement it.  Subsequently, a
bilateral agreement was signed to address the deficiencies in water and waste infrastructure in the
border area.

       The North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation - NAAEC

       The North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) was signed by the
       United States, Canada, and Mexico on September 13, 1993 and entered into force with the
       NAFTA trade agreement on January 1, 1994, to promote sustainable development through
       mutually  supportive  environmental  and economic  policies.    The  Commission  for
       Environmental Cooperation (CEC) located in Montreal was created under the NAAEC to
       protect, conserve, and improve the environment through increased cooperation among the
       Parties and increased public participation.

       The CEC is comprised of three groups ~ the Council, the Secretariat and the Joint Public
       Advisory Committee.  The Council is the governing body and is composed of a cabinet level
       environment official from each of the three countries.  The Secretariat in Montreal has a staff
       of approximately thirty professionals drawn from the three countries, who provide technical
       and administrative support to the Council.  Finally, the Joint Public Advisory Committee
       (JPAC) reflects the Commission's commitment to public participation.  The fifteen JPAC
       members, five from each country, are citizens who advise the Council on any matter within
       the scope of the NAAEC.

       In the first two years of operation, the CEC has begun work on an impressive list of 38
       environmental projects under its cooperative work program, the Annual Program and Budget.
       The NAFTA parties are seeking solutions to a number of issues of trilateral significance for
       the first time, focusing initially on four major themes: environmental conservation, protecting
       human health and environment, enforcement cooperation and law, and information and public
       outreach.

       The CEC reports annually to the public on the implementation of the Annual Program and
       Budget, as well as the success of the Parties in meeting their obligations under the agreement.
       The Parties decided to highlight environmental enforcement activities in a thirty-page annex
       of the 1995 Annual Report. Enhanced levels of cooperation on enforcement issues  are
       occurring through a CEC permanent working group, which has agreed to participate in a
       range of activities from technical assistance and cataloguing training courses and enforcement
       officials to exploring alternative approaches to compliance.
October 1996
                                                                             Appendix 1.3

-------
 A Brief Description of U.S.-Mexico Border

       The Secretariat also periodically reports on the state of the environment of the three countries
       and has the authority to prepare a factual record on any matter within the scope of the Annual
       Program and Budget, unless the matter is related to a country's failure to enforce its domestic
       environmental laws, or unless the Council objects to a factual record within thirty days of
       being notified. Finally, the Secretariat may also prepare a factual record in response to a
       public submission alleging that  a NAFTA party  is failing to effectively enforce  its
       environmental law, as long as the submission meets  certain criteria and two thirds of the
       Council agree that the factual record may be prepared.

       The CEC is designed to support and augment NAFTA and its institutions, such as the
       NAFTA Free Trade Commission. The CEC is a primary point of public inquiry and point for
       receipt of public comments regarding NAFTA's environmental objectives.  It may also assist
       the Free Trade Commission in dispute resolution,  dispute avoidance, and other environment-
       related matters.

       U.S.-Mexico Agreement on the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the
       North American Development Bank

       The second environmental agreement negotiated to augment the NAFTA is the U.S.-Mexico
       Agreement Concerning the Establishment of a Border Environment Cooperation Commission
       and the North American Development Bank ("BECC-NADBank Agreement").  Like the
       trinational NAAEC, it entered into force together with NAFTA on January 1, 1994. The
       BECC-NADBank Agreement targets certain environmental problems in the border region in
       order to remedy transboundary environmental or health problems.  It establishes two
       institutions to address such environmental issues.

              The Border Environment Cooperation  Commission - BECC

              The Border Environment  Cooperation  Commission (BECC), located in  Ciudad
              Juarez, Mexico, helps formulate effective solutions to environmental problems in or
              near the border region by working with state agencies, local communities, and other
              project sponsors to develop  and implement environmental infrastructure projects. The
              Agreement defines BECC's project priorities as water, wastewater, municipal solid
              waste, and related matters.  The BECC determines whether a project that meets
              certain technical, financial and environmental criteria should be certified as eligible for
              North American Development Bank financing.  Although the BECC does not develop
              or manage projects itself,  it may provide technical,  environmental, and financial
              expertise to all phases of a project.

              The BECC has a staff of professionals from both the United States and Mexico, who
              work with the engineering staff of the IBWC and private contractors to provide a full
              range of project services including engineering, design, project siting, environmental
              analysis, and oversight of construction and operation.  The principal professional staff
              members  are a General Manager and a Deputy General Manager, who must be of
              different nationalities.
Appendix 1.4
October 1996

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                                                         A Brief Description of U.S.-Mexico Border

              The BECC is governed by a Board of Directors.  The Board of Directors is comprised
              of two ex qfficio members and three appointees from both Mexico and the United
              States, for a total often members.  The two nations alternatively select a chairperson
              who serves a one-year term and may be reappointed. For the United States, the two
              ex qfficio members are the Administrator of the EPA and the U.S. Commissioner of
              the  IBWC.   For Mexico,  the  two ex  officio  members are the Secretary  of
              SEMARNAP and the Mexican  Commissioner of the IBWC.   The three other
              members from  each country must  have expertise in environmental planning,
              economics, engineering, finance, "or other related matters."  One member from each
              country must be a representative of a border state and one, a representative of a
              locality in the border region.  The third  position from each country  is filled by
              someone who is a resident of the border region.

              The Board of Directors consults with an Advisory Council. The Advisory Council
              plays a consultative role regarding general guidelines, criteria applied to projects, and
              other aspects of the certification process and of the work of the BECC. It must meet
              at least quarterly.

              The Advisory Council consists of nine members from the United States and nine from
              Mexico, totaling 18 members serving two-year terms.  Each  nation chooses, from
              among its members, one cochair to lead the Council.  The Agreement requires that
              six of the nine members from the US. be residents of U.S. border states, with at least
              four states represented. These six members must represent states, localities, or local
              community groups. The three remaining members of the Advisory Council from the
              United States are selected  from the public.  One  must represent a scientific,
              professional, business, nonprofit or public interest  organization or association.

              The Agreement requires that six of Mexico's nine Advisory Council members be
              residents of Mexican border states, one from each state.  These six people must
              represent states, localities, or local community groups.  The three remaining members
              are drawn from the general  public. One must represent a scientific, professional,
              business, nonprofit or public  interest organization or association.

              In September 1995, the BECC  adopted its Project  Submission Guidelines and
              Certification Criteria, and has used them to certify eight water-related infrastructure
              projects  in Texas, California, Arizona, Tamaulipas, Sonora, and Baja California,  as
              of September 1996. The BECC has also adopted rules of procedure and certification
              criteria,  instituted an extensive outreach program, and initiated development of a
              technical assistance program.

              The North American Development Bank - NADBank

              The second institution created by the Border Environment Cooperation  Agreement
              is the North American Development  Bank (NADBank), located in San Antonio,
              Texas.  The NADBank's purpose is to arrange for public and private investment in
              environmental infrastructure projects certified by the BECC.  The NADBank is
              capitalized and governed equally by Mexico and the United States.  It uses 90 percent
October 1996
Appendix 1.5

-------
A Brief Description of U.S.-Mexico Border

              of its capital to leverage approximately $2 billion or more of private funds in capital
              markets in order to finance construction of border environmental projects through
              bond and other financial instruments.

              Its binational Board of Directors consists of three ex officio members from both
              Mexico and the United States, for a total of six members. The members from the
              United States are the Secretary of State,  the Secretary of the Treasury, and the
              Administrator of the EPA. The three Mexican ex officio members are the Secretary
              of Finance, Secretary of SEMARNAP, and the Secretary of Trade and Industry
              (SECOFI).

              The nationality of the chairperson, who is chosen from among the six ex officio
              members, alternates between the two countries.  The chairperson serves a one-year
              term.  The Board of Directors must meet at least annually, and at least one meeting
              a year must be open to the public.

              The NADBank's principal professional staff members are a Manager and Deputy
              Manager, who are of different nationalities.

              TheNADBank adopted its financing criteria in December 1995, and will use them to
              consider BECC-certified projects for financing.

Agreements Governing Natural Resources

Cooperation between the U.S. and Mexico in the areas of species and ecosystems conservation has
its foundation in the following agreements:

•      Convention between the United States of America and the United Mexican States for the
       Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, signed 1936, amended 1972.

•      Mexico-U.S. Gulf of Mexico-U.S. Pacific, Cooperative Fisheries Program, 1983.

•      Agreement between the Secretary of Agriculture and Hydraulic Resources (SARH) and the
       U.S. Department of Agriculture to facilitate information exchange and sustainable forestry
       development, 1984.

•      U.S./Mexico/Canada Tripartite Agreement on the Conservation of Wetlands and Their
       Migratory Birds, signed 1988; modified in 1994 to include the North American Waterfowl
       Management Plan.

•      Letter of Intent on Scientific Investigation between SARH's Subsecretariat for Forestry and
       Wildlife in Mexico, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's U.S. Forest Service, 1992.

•      Supplemental Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation on Forest Matters between
       SARH's Subsecretariat for Forestry and Wildlife, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's
       U.S. Forest Service, 1993.
Appendix 1.6
                                                                             October 1996

-------
                                                          A Brief Description of U.S.-Mcxico Border

 •      Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. National Park Service and the National
       Institute of Ecology, 1994.

 •      Memorandum of Understanding to Realize Cooperative Scientific and Technical Actions
       between the National Commission  for  the  Understanding and  Use of Biodiversity
       (CONABIO) and the U.S. Biological Service, 1995.

 •      Memorandum of Understanding to Establish the Canada/Mexico/United States Trilateral
       Committee for Wildlife,  Plants, and Ecosystem Conservation  and Management, 1996
       (replaces the Joint Committee of 1995 and the Tripatriate Committee of 1988).

 •      Memorandum of Understanding between USGS and INEGI on border map, digital spatial
       information database in the El Paso-Juarez area, 1992.

 •      Memorandum of Understanding between USGS and the National Autonomous University
       (UNAM) in Mexico on cooperative geoscience research, hydrology, geology and mapping
       sciences, 1994.

 •      Memorandum of Understanding between U.S. National Park Service and  SEDESOL on
       cooperation in management and protection of national parks and other protected natural and
       cultural sites, 1988.

 •      U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and SEDESOL Memorandum  of Understanding  on
       cooperation establishing the Joint Commission on Wildlife Conservation, 1984.

 •      Agreement to prevent and fight forest fires between the border states of Sonora and Arizona,
       signed by SARH and USDA,  1988.

 Multilateral Agreements

 •      Convention on International Trade in Endangered  Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES),
       signed by the U.S. in 1973 and by Mexico in 1991. CITES establishes a worldwide system
       of import and export regulations to prevent the overexploitation of plants and animals listed
       in the three appendices to the Convention.
                                                     •>

 •      Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere.
       Under this 1940 treaty, the governments of Mexico, United States, and 16 other American
       republics expressed their wish to "protect and preserve in their natural habitat representatives
       of all species and genera of their native flora and fauna, including migratory birds" and to
       protect regions and natural objects of scientific value.

 •      Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially Waterfowl Habitats, 1973.
       This Convention maintains a list of wetlands of international importance  and works to
       encourage the wise use of all wetlands in order to preserve the ecological characteristics from
       which wetland values derive.
October 1996
                                                                             Appendix 1.7

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                             A
                         PPENDIX 2
                              Directory of Contacts
                                   National Coordinators
                      U.S.

    William A Nitze
    Assistant Administrator
    Office of International Activities
    U.S.EPA
    401 M Street, SW
    Washingtpn, DC 20460
    phone:      (202) 260-4870
    fax:        (202) 260-4470
  Contact:
    PamTeel
    phone:
    fax:
    e-mail:
(202) 260- 4896
(202)401-0140
teel.pam@epamail.epa.gov
                                                    Mexico

                                   Jose Luis Samaniego Leyva
                                   Coordinador de Asuntos Internacionales
                                   SEMARNAP
                                   Periferico Sur 4209, Fracc. Jardines en la Montana
                                   14210, Tlalpan,DF
                                   phone:     (525) 628-0650
                                   fax:        (525) 628-0653
Contacts:
  Abraham Nehmad or Javier Warman
  phone:      (525) 628-0652
  fax:        (525) 628-0653
      U.S. EPA Environmental Attache Office - U.S. Embassy, Paseo de laReforma 305,06500 Mexico, D.F.
       Contact;  Lorry Frigerio or Karen Danart - phone: (525) 211-0042, ext. 3595, fax: (525) 208-6541
               Border XXI Workgroup Cochairs and Contacts

              	Natural Resources Workgroup	
                      U.S.
 Cochair:
    Nick Palacios
    Department of the Interior
    Bureau of Reclamation
    300 E. 8th Street, Room 801
    Austin, TX 78701
    phone:     (512)916-5641
 Contact:
    Susan Lieberman
    Department of the Interior
    MIB4429
    1849 C Street NW
    Washington, DC 20240
    phone:      (202)208-5160
                                                    Mexico
                                 Cochair:
                                   Javier de la Masa
                                   Coordinador de Areas Naturales Protegidas
                                   INE-SEMARNAP
                                   Ave. Revoluci6nl425
                                   Col. Tlacapac-San Angel
                                   Delegacion Alvaro Obregon
                                   Mexico, DFCP 01040
                                   phone: .    (525) 624-3334

                                 Contacts:
                                   Celia Pigueron or Pia Gallina
                                   INE-SEMRNAP
                                   phone: (525)624-3338
                                   Ave. Revoluci6nl425
                                   Col. Tlacapac-San Angel
                                   Delegacion Alvaro Obregon
                                   Mexico, DFCP 01040
                                   phone:    . (525) 624-3336 or
                                             (525) 624-3338
October 1996
                                                                                 Appendix 2. 1

-------
Directory of Contacts
                                         Water Workgroup
  Cochair:
    William Hathaway
    Director, Water Quality Protection Division
    U.S.EPA Region 6 (6-WQ)
    First Interstate Bank Tower at Fountain Place
    1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200
    Dallas, TX 75202-2733
  Contacts:
    Oscar Cabra
    U.S.EPA Region 6 (6-WQ)
    First Interstate Bank Tower at Fountain Place
    1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200
    Dallas, TX 75202-2733
    phone:      (214)665-2718

    Doug Eberhardt (U.S. EPA Region 9)
    phone:      (415)744-1280
    e-mail:      eberhardt.doug@epamail.epa.gov
                     Mexico
Cochair:
  Ing. Pr6spero Ortega
  Subdirector General de Construcci6n
  CNA
  Insurgentes Sur No. 2140, ler piso
  Colonia Ermita, San Angel
  Mexico City, DF CP01070
  phone:      (525) 661 -6060 or 237-4074
  fax:        (525)237-4132

Contact:
 Ing. Jaime Tinoco Rubi
 Coordinador de Asuntos Fronterizos
 CNA
 Insurgentes Sur 1806
 Mezzanine
 Col.  Florida
 Mexico, DF CP01030
 phone:       (525) 229-8650, -8651, or -8652
 fax:          (525) 229-8353
Appendix 2. 2
                                      October 1996

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                                                                                    Directory of Contacts
                                Environmental Health Workgroup
                        U.S.
  Cochairs:
   Hal Zenick
   U.S. EPA (87)                  •    .  .   . .
   National Health and Environmental Effects
     Research Laboratory
   Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
   phone:       (919)541-2283
   fax:          (919)541-4201

    Richard Walling
    Director, Office of the Americas and the Middle
      East
    Office of International and Refugee' Health
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    Room 18-75, Parklawn Building
    Rockville, MD 20857
    phone:      (301)443-4010
    fax:         (301)443-6288
    e-mail:      rwalling@osophs.ssw.dhhs.gov

  Contact:
    Yolanda Banks Anderson, Ph.D.
    lexicologist, GS-0415-12/05
    National Health and Environmental Effects
      Research Laboratory
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (MD-87)
    Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    phone:    '  (919)541-0479
    fax:         (919)541-0317
    e-mail:      anderson@herl45.herl.epa.gov
                     Mexico
Cochairs:
   Dr. Gustavo Olaiz Fernandez
   Director General de Salud Ambiental
   Secretaria de Salud
   San Luis Potosi No. 192, Piso 4
   ColoniaRoma CP 06700
   phone:      (525) 584-6529 or 584-6745
   fax:        (525) 584-5260

   Adrian Fernandez Bremauntz
   Director General de Gesti6n e Information
    Ambiental
   INE-SEMARNAP
   Ave. Revolution 1425
   Col. Tlacapac-San Angel
   Delegation Alvaro Obreg6n
   Mexico, DFCP 01040
   phone:      (525) 624-3456
   fax:        (525)624-3584

Contact:
   Dra. Rosalba Rojas
   Secretaria de Salud
   San Luis Potosi No. 192, Piso 4
   Colonia Roma, Mexico, CP 06700
   phone:      (525) 584-6160
October 1996
                                                                                         Appendix 2.3

-------
Directory of Contacts
                                         Air Workgroup
                       U.S.
  Cochair:
    David Howekamp
    Division Director
    Air Division
    U.S. EPA Region 9 (A-l)
    75 Hawthorne Street
    San Francisco, CA 94105
  Contacts:
    Bill Jones
    U.S. EPA Region 9 (A-l)
    75 Hawthorne Street
    San Francisco, CA 94105
    phone:      (415)744-1283   .
    fax:         (415)744-1072
    e-mail:      jones.bill@epamail.epa.gov

    Mathew Witosky (EPA Region 6)
    phone:      (214)665-8015
    e-mail:      witosky.mathew@epmail.epa.gov
                    Mexico
Cochair:
  Adrian Fernandez Bremauntz
  Director General de Gesti6n e Informaci6n
    Ambiental
  INE-SEMARNAP
  Ave. Revoluci6n 1425       .
  Col. Tlacapac-San Angel
  Delegacion Alvaro Obreg6n
  Mexico, DFCP 01040
  phone:      (525) 624-3456
  fax:        (525) 624-3584

Contact:
  Dr. Victor Hugo Paramo
  INE-SEMARNAP
  Ave. Revolucion 1425
  Col. Tlacopac-San Angel
  Delegaci6n Alvaro Obregon
  Mexico,DFCP 01040
  phone:      (525) 624-3450 or 624-3451
  fax:        (525) 624-3584
                            Hazardous and Solid Waste Workgroup
                       U.S.
  Cochair:
    Jeff Scott
    Deputy Division Director
    Waste Management Division
    U.S. EPA Region 9 (H-2)
    75 Hawthorne Street
    San Francisco, C A 94105

  Contacts:
    Heidi Hall
    U.S. EPA Region 9 (H-2)
    75 Hawthorne Street
    San Francisco, CA 94105
    phone:      (415)744-1284
    fax:         (415)744-1072
    e-mail:      hall.heidi@epamail.epa.gov

    Bonnie Romo (EPA Region 6)
    phone:      (214)665-8323
    e-mail:      romo.bonnie@epamail.epa.gov
                    Mexico
Cochair:
  Jorge Sanchez G6mez
  Director General Materiales, Residues y
    Actividades Riesgosas
  INE
Contact:
  Ing. Luis Wolf
  INE
  Av. Revoluci6n 1425, Nivel 12
  Col. Campestre, San Angel
  Delegacion Alvaro Obregon
  Mexico, DFCP 01040
  phone:      (525)624-3423
  fax:         (525) 624-3586
  e-mail:      RTN@0488CRTN.NET.MX
Appendix 2.4
                                     October 1996

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                                                                                 Directory of Contacts
                Contingency Planning and Emergency Response Workgroup
                      U.S.
 Cochair:
   Mr. Jim Makris
   U.S. EPA (5101)
   401 M Street, SW
   Washington, DC 20460
   phone:      (202) 260-8600
   fax:         (202) 260-7906
   e-mail:      makris.jim@epamail.epa.gov
 Contacts:
   Ms. Kim Jennings
   U.S. EPA (5101)
   401M Street, SW
   Washington, D.C. 20460
   phone:      (202) 260-5046
   fax:         (202)260-7906
   e-mail:      jennings.kim@epamail.epa.gov

   Fendol Chiles (EPA Region 6)
   phone:      (214)665-2283

   Kathleen Shimmin (EPA Region 9)
   phone:      (415)744-2216
                    Mexico
Cochair:
  Eduardo Jimenez Lopez
  Director General de Planeaci6n y Coordinaci6n
  Procuraduria Federal de Protecci6n al Ambientฎ
  Periferico Sur 5000, Piso 4
  Col. Insurgentes Cuicuilco
  Mexico, DF  CP 04530
  phone:      (525) 528-5482,528-5483
  fax:        (525) 666-9452

Contact:
  Jaime E. Garcia Sepiilveda
  Director of Clasificacion de Zonas de Riesgo
     Ambiental
  Procuraduria Federal de Protecci6n al Ambiente
  Periferico Sur 5000, Piso 4
  Col. Insurgentes Cuccilco
  Mexico, DF  CP 04530
  phone:      (525) 666-9450
  fax:        (525)666-9452
                      Environmental Information Resources Workgroup
                       U.S.
 Cochair:
    Nora McGee
    U.S. EPA Region 9 (P-l)
    75 Hawthorne Street
    San Francisco, CA 94105
    e-mail:      McGee.Nora@epamail.epa.gov
 Contacts:
    Carmen Maso
    U.S. EPA Region 9(P-5-2)
    75 Hawthorne Street
    San Francisco, C A 94105
    phone:      (415)744-1750
    fax:        (415)744-1474
    e-mail:      maso.caiTnen@epamail.epa.gov

    David Parrish (EPA Region 6)
    phone:      (214)665-8352
    e-mail:      parrish.david@epamail.epa.gov
                    Mexico
Cochair
   Adrian Fernandez Bremauntz
   Director General de Gestion e Informacion
     Ambiental
   INE-SEMARNAP
   Ave. Revoluci6n 1425
   Col. Tlacapac-San Angel
   Delegacion Alvaro Obregon
   Mexico, DFCP 01040
   phone:      (525) 624-3456
   fax:        (525) 624-3584

Contact:
   Rolando Rios Aguilar
   Director de Informacion Ambiental
   INE-SEMARNAP
   Ave. Revolucion 1425
   Col. Tlacopac- San Angel
   Delegacion Alvaro Obreg6n
   Mexico, DFCP 01040
   phone:      (525)624-3454
October 1996
                                     Appendix 2. 5

-------
 Directory of Contacts
                                 Pollution Prevention Workgroup
                        U.S.
  Cochairs:
     Sam Coleman
     Director, Compliance Assurance
      and Enforcement Division
     U.S.EPA Region 6 (6-EN)
     First Interstate Bank Tower at Fountain Place
     1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200
     Dallas, TX 75202-2733
  Contacts:
    Joy Tibuni
    U.S.EPA Region 6 (6EN-XP)
    First Interstate Bank Tower at Fountain Place
    1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200
    Dallas, TX 75202-2733
    phone:      (214)665-8036

    Chris Reiner (EPA Region 9)
    phone:      (415)744-2096
    e-mail:      reiner.chris@epamail.epa.gov
                     Mexico
Cochair:
   Adrian Fernandez Bremauntz
   Director General, de Gestion e Informaci6n
     Ambiental
   INE-SEMARNAP
   Ave. Revolucion 1425
   Col. Tlacapac-San Angel
   Delegaci6n Alvaro Obreg6n
   Mexico, DFCP 01040
   phone:      (525) 624-3456
   fax:        (525) 624-3584

Contact:
   Luis Sanchez Catafto
   INE
   Ave. Revoluci6n 1425
   Col. Tlacapac-San Angel
   Delegacion Alvaro Obregon
   Mexico, DF CP01040
   phone:      (525) 624-3570
                     Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance Workgroup
                        U.S.
  Cochair:
    Michael Alushin
    Director of the EPA International Enforcement and
    Compliance Division
    U.S.EPA (MC-2254-A)
    401M Street SW
    Washington, DC 20460

  Contacts:
    Lawrence Sperling
    U.S.EPA (MC-2254-A)
    401M Street SW
    Washington, DC 20460
    phone:      (202)564-7141
    fax:         (202) 564-0073

    Efren Ordonez (EPA Region 6)
    phone:       (214)665-2181
    e-mail:      ordonez.efren@epamail.epa.gov

    John Rothman (EPA Region 9)
    phone:       (415)744-1353
    e-mail:      rothman.john@epamail.epa.gov
                    Mexico
Cochair:
   Carlos Silva Murillo
   Director General de Asistencia Te'cnica e Industrial
   Procuraduria Federal de Protecci6n al Ambiente
   Subprocuraduria de Verificacion Normativa
   Blvd Pipila No. 1, Tecamachalco
   Nacaulpan, Estado de Mexico, CP 53950

Contact:
   Victor Valle
   Procuraduria Federal de Proteccidn al Ambiente
   Subprocuraduria de Verificaci6n Normativa
   Blvd Pipila No. 1, Tecamachalco
   Nacaulpan, Estado de Mexico, CP 53950
   phone:      (525) 294-5720
   fax:         (525) 589-4398
Appendix 2.6
                                     October 1996

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                                                                          Directory of Contacts
                            International Institutions
Border Environment Cooperation Commission
(BECC)
Roger Frauenfelder, General Manager
Luis R. Dominguez, Deputy General Manager
Blvd. Tomas Fernandez No 7940
Apartado Postal 3114-J
Ciudad Juarez, Chihhuahua, Mexico, CP 32470
phone:    (52 16) 29-23-95
fax:      (5216)29-23-97
            i          .     '

U.S. Postal Address:
P.O. Box 221648
El Paso, TX 79913

Commision for Environmental Cooperation
(CEC) Seceretariat
393 Rue Saint Jacques  Quest
Bureau 200
Montreal, Quebec H2Y1N9
phone:    (514)350-4300
fax:      (514)350-4314
International Boundary and Water
Commission (IBWC)
Mexican Commissioner Arturo Herrera Solis
Avenida Universidad No. 2180, Zona Chamizal
Sucursal "D," Apartado Postal No. 1612
Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico
phone:    (5216)13-73-11
fax:      (52 16) 13-99-43

United States Commissioner John M. Bernal
4171 North Mesa Street, Suite C-310
El Paso, TX 79902
phone:    (915)534-6677
fax:      (915)534-6680

North American Development Bank
(NADBank)
Alfredo Phillips O., Managing Director
Victor Miramontes, Deputy Managing Director

Contact: Annie Alvarado
Community  and Governmental Officer
700 N. St. Mary's Suite 1950
San Antonio, TX 78205
phone:    (210)231-8000
fax:      (210)231-6232
October 1996
                                Appendix 2. 7

-------
Directory of Contacts
                     Regional Contacts for the United States

                    	EPA Regional Offices	
 Gina Weber
 U.S.-Mexico Border Coordinator
 U.S.EPA Region 6 (6-XA)
 First Interstate Bank Tower at Fountain Place
 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200
 Dallas, TX  75202-2733
 phone:    (214)665-2200
 fax:       (214)665-2118
 e-mail:    weber.gina@epamail.epa.gov
John Hamill
U.S.-Mexico Border Coordinator
U.S.EPA Region 9 (RA)
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
phone:     (415)744-1168
fax;       (415)744-1072
e-mail:     hamill.john@epamail.epa.gov
                                       EPA Border Offices
 Marvin Waters
 Director
 El Paso U.S-Mexico Border Liaison Office
 EPA Region 6
 4050 Rio Bravo, Suite 100
 El Paso, TX 79902
 phone:    (915) 533-7273 or (800) 334-0741
Dave Fege
San Diego U.S-Mexico Border Liaison Office
EPA Region 9
610 West Ash Street
San Diego, CA 92101
phone:     (619) 235-4765 or (800) 334-0741
fax:       (619)235-4771
e-mail:     fege.dave@epamail.epa.gov
                           Regional  Contacts for Mexico

                          SEMARNAP District Officers  (Delegados) and
                          Sub-officers for Environment (Sub-delegados)

                         	Baja California	
 Lie. Fernando Castro Trenti, Delegado .
 Av. Madero No. 537, entre Morelos y Mexico
 Zona Centre
 21110Mexicali,BC
 phone:    (52 65) 52 49 86
 fax:       (52 65) 52 49 98
Ing. Fernando Calzada Bejar, Subdelegado de Medio
Ambiente
Av. Madero No. 537, entre Morelos y Mexico
Zona Centra
21110Mexicali,BC
phone:     (52 65) 52 49 87
                                            Sonora
 Lie Ernesto Gandara Camou, Delegado
 Centro de Gobiemo
 Edificio Hermosillo 2ฐ Nivel
 83270 Hermosillo, Son.
 phone: (52 62} 13 52 73 or
           (5262)135261
 fax:       (5262)135259
Biol. Cesar Catalan Martinez
Subdelegado de Medio Ambiente
Centro de Gobiemo
Edificio Hermosillo 2ฐ Nivel
83270 Hermosillo, Son.
phone:     (5262)135229
Appendix 2. 8
                                    October 1996

-------
                                                                                  Directory of Contacts
                                            Chihuahua
Sr. Manuel Llaneza Fernandez, Delegado
Av. de las Americas No. 300-B.
Cuarta Ampliaci6n Colonia San Felipe
31240 Chihuahua, Chih.
phone:     (52 14) 13 95 27 or
           (5214)131547
fax:        (52 14) 13 48 55 or
           (52 14) 13 47 75
Ing. Luis R. C6rdova Chavez,
Subdelegado de Medio Ambiente
Av. de las Ameiicas No. 300-B.
Cuarta Ampliaci6n Colonia San Felipe
31240 Chihuahua, Chih.
phone:    (52 14) 13 99 19
fax:       (5214)134775
                                              Coahuila
Lie. R. Agustin Ramos Arizpe, Delegado
Blvd. Venustiano Carranza No. 2454-2ฐ Piso
Colonia Repiibliea Oriente
25280 Saltillo, Coah.
Ing. Ignacio Ruiz Castro, Subdelegado de Medio
Ambiente
Blvd. Delegadoenustiano Carranza No. 2454-2ฐ Piso
Colonia Republica Oriente
25280 Saltillo, Coah.
phone: (52 84) 16 74 33 or
           (52 84) 16 74 35
fax:        (5284)160838
                                            Nuevo Leon
 Lie. Carlos Tercero Romero Garcia, Delegado
 Av. Benito Juarez y Corregidora
 Palacio Federal ler Piso
 67100 Guadalupe, NL
 phone:     (528)3 5507 21 or
           (52 8) 3 55 02 41
 fax:       (528)3552051
Biol. Carlos Contreras Treviflo, Subdelegado de Medio
Ambiente
Av. Benito Juarez y Corregidora
Palacio Federal ler Piso
67100 Guadalupe, NL
phone:     (528)3 55 59 11 or
           (52 8) 3 54 97 68
                                             Tamaulipas
 Biol. Victeor Zamora Dominguez, Delegado
 Av. Avila Camacho No. 310, Esq. Lopez Rayon
 Colonia Vergel
 89150 Tampico, Tamps.
 phone:     (5212)133873,
           (52 12)  13 60 16, or
           (5212)136195
 fax:       (5212)135737
 Ing. Ignacio Ruiz Castro, Subdelegado de Medio
 Ambiente
 Av. Avila Camacho No. 310, Esq. Lopez Rayon
 Colonia Vergel
 89150 Tampico, Tamps.
 phone:     (52131)50346
October 1996
                                      Appendix 2. 9

-------
 Directory of Contacts
                            PROFEPA District Officers (Delegados)
 Ing. Fco. Antonio Octavio Sandoval Sdnchez
 Delegado del Estado de Baja California
 Lie. Alfonso Garcia Gonzalez No. 555
 Col. Profesores Federates
 21370 Mexicali, BC
 phone:    (5265)61 78 84 or
          (5265)617491
 fax:      (52 65) 61 79 30

 Biol. Martha Patricia Celis Salgado
 Delegada del Estado de Sonora
 Revolution No. Ill
 Col. Centra
 83290 Hermosillo, Son.
 phone:    (52 62) 17 46 98 or
          (52 62) 13 28 38
 fax:      (52 62) 13 28 78

 Biol. Ma. del Pilar Lopez Marco
 Delegada del Estado de Chihuahua
 Thomas Alva Edison No. ISlONorte,
 esquina con Malecon
 Col. Hidalgo
 32300 Ciudad. Juarez, Chih.
 phone:    (52 16) 11 01 66 or
          (52 16)110167
 fax:      (5216)110198
Ing. Rogelio Cepeda Sandoval
Delegado del Estado de Coahuila
Calle Victoria No. 326, pisos 4 y 5   ,
Zona Centre
25000 Saltillo, Coah.
phone:     (52 16) 11 01 66 or
          (52.16)110167
fax:       (5216)110198

Quim. Jose Luis Tamez Garza
Delegado del Estado de Nuevo Leon
Palacio Federal
Av. Benito Juarez y Corregidora, 2ฐ Piso
67100Guadalupe,NL
phone:     (52 8) 354 97 42 or
          (52 8) 354 03 91
fax:       (52 8) 355 10 94

Mvz. Abundio Gonzalez Gonzalez
Delegado del Estado de Tamaulipas
Hernan Cortes No. 101
esq. Republics de Argentina
Col. Pedro Sosa
87120 Ciudad Victoria, Tamps.
phone:     (52 131)28663 or
          (52131)29044
fax:       (52131)29554
Appendix 2.10
                                October 1996

-------
                                                                                Directory of Contacts
                                 CNA State and Regional Offices
Mexican State or Kegion
Northwest Region
(Baja California, Sonora, Sinaloa)
Northern Region
(Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Tamaulipas)
Baja California
Sonora
Sinaloa
Chihuahua
Coahuila
Tamaulipas
State or .Regional Manager ,
Dr. Francisco Oyarzabal Tamargo
Regional Manager
Gpe. Victoria y California,
Edificio SARH
Colonia Sochiloa
Ciudad Obregon, Sonora
Ing. Jose Luis Montalvo Espinosa
Regional Manager
Blvd. Revolution 2343 Oeste
Colonia Centre
Torreon, Coahuila
Ing. Ruben Roa Quinones
Ing. Luis A. Leon Estrada
Ing. Carlos M. Estrada Canedo
Ing. Hectoe Hugo Garcia Pena
Ing. Oscar Gutierrez Santana
Ing. Alfredo Mora Magana
;„ , TซIepfcone#ai
phone:
phone:
phone:
fax:
phone:
fax:
phone:
fax:
phone:
fax:
phone:
fax:
phone:
fax:
(52 641) 6 55 10,
(52 64 1)6 58 80, or
(52641)68778
(52 17) 17 42 28 or
(5217)175157
(52 65) 54 12 27 or
(52 65) 54 25 28
(52 65) 54 07 90
(52 63) 13 03 47 or
(52 63) 13 03 61
(52 63) 13 04 00
(52 67) 60 14 54 or
(5267)601447
(52 67) 60 14 34
(52 14) 13 98 40 or
(52 14) 14 04 60
(52 14) 14 13 38
(52 84) 30 03 79
(52 84) 30 03 18
(52 13 1)2 69 03 or
(52131)21507
(52131)20506
October 1996
Appendix 2.11

-------
 Directory of Contacts
                               Mexican State Environmental Offices
 M.C. Adolfo Gonzalez
 Direction General de Ecologia
 Gobierno de Baja California
 Dr.AtlNo. 17.
 Zona del Rio.
 Tijuana, BC
 phone:    (52 66) 21 82 49
 fax:      (52 66) 37 27 04

 Maria Elena Barajas Olvera
 Direction General de Normatividad Ecologica
 Gobiemo del Estado de Sonora
 Tehuantepec y Comonfort.
 Edificio Administrative, Piso 2
 Hermosillo, Son.
 phone:    (5262)131966
 fax:      (5262)131966

 Ing. Jose Trevino Fernandez
 Direction de Ecologia
 Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua
 AllendeNo. 1222
 Segundo Piso
 Colonia Centre.
 31000, Chihuahua, Chih.
 phone:    (52 14) 10 64 40
 fax:      (52 14) 15 49 37
Dr. Rodolfo Garza Gutierrez
Direction General de Ecologia
Gobierno del Estado de Coahuila
Victoria No. 406, Primer Piso
Zona Centra
25000, Saltillo, Coah.
phone:    (5284)125622
fax:       (5284)149213

Ing. Julian de la Garza Castro
Subsecretaria de Ecologia
Gobierno del Estado de Nuevo Leon
5 de Mayo No. 525 Ote.
Edificio Elizondo Paez, Piso 4
Monterrey, NL
phone:    (52 8) 3 44 11 79, 3 45 17 23
fax:       (528)3404261,3437139

Arq. Arturo Sepiilvada Lerma
Subsecretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia.
Gobierno del Estado de Tamaulipas
Torre de Gobiemo "Jose Lopez Portillo,"
Pisos7y8
Boulevard  Praxedis Balboa S/N
Colonia Centra, 87000, Ciudad Victoria, Tamps.
phone:    52(131)23242
fax:       52(131)23242
Appendix 2.12
                                 October 1996

-------
                                                                            Directory of Contacts
                                  Advisory Councils
U.S. Good Neighbor Environment Board Members

James Marston, Chair
Director, Texas Office
Environmental Defense Fund
44 East Avenue, Suite 304
Austin, TX 78701
phone:    (512)478-5161
fax:       (512)478-8140
e-mail:    jimm@edf.org

PatBenegas
General Manager
Water and Sanitation District
P.O. Box 1751
1470 N. 4th Street
Anthony, NM 88021
phone:    (505)882-3922
fax:       (505) 882-3925

Tibaldo Canez
Director, U.S.-Mexico Border Affairs
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
3033 North Central
Phoenix, AZ 85012
phone:    (602) 207-2203
fax:       (602) 207-2218

John K. Flynn
Supervisor, Ventura County
808 S. Victoria Avenue
Ventura, CA 95665
phone: (805) 654-2706
fax:    (805) 654-2226

Charles G. Groat, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Environmental
Resource Management
University of Texas at El Paso
El Paso, TX 79968
phone:    (915) 747-5494
fax:       (915)747-5145
e-mail:    cgroat@utep.edu
Alison Hughes
University of Arizona College of Medicine
250 IE. Elm Street
Tucson, AZ 85716
phone:    (520) 626-7946
fax:       (520) 326-6429
e-mail:    ahughes@ccit.arizona.edu

M. Lisa LaRocque
Director, Project Del Rio
1494A S. Solano
Las Cruces,NM 88001
phone:    (505)522-7511
fax:       (505) 522-0775
e-mail:    llarocque@igc.org

Wendy Laird
Executive Director
Tucson Audubon Society
300 East University Blvd., Suite 120
Tucson, AZ 85705
phone:    (520) 629-0757
fax:       (520) 622-5622
e-mail:    wlaird@azstarnet.com

David Merk
Vice President
Greenfield Environmental
15151 Innovation Drive
San Diego, CA 92128
phone:    (619)670-1621

Colleen Morton
Vice President
Institute of the Americas
10111 N. Torrey Pines Road
La Jolla,CA 92037
phone:    (619) 453-5560
fax:       (619) 453-2165
e-mail:    cmorton@weber.ucsd.edu
 October 1996
                               Appendix 2.13

-------
 Directory of Contacts
 ElsaR.Saxod
 Director, Border Progress Foundation
 1615 Murray Canyon Road, Suite 1000
 San Diego, CA 92108
 phone:    (619)291-1574
 fax:       (619) 291-3827
 e-mail:    borderprog@aol.com

 Christine M. Sierra, Ph. D.
 Department of Political Science
 2074 Social Science Bldg.,
 University of New Mexico
 Albuquerque, NM 87131-1121
 phone:    (505) 277-1098
 fax:       (505) 277-2821
 e-mail:    csierra@unm.edu

 David R. Smith, M.D.
 Commissioner, Department of Health
 1100 West 49th Street
 Austin, TX 78756-7111
 phone:    (512)458-7375
 fax:       (512)458-7477
 e-mail:    dsmith@pers.tdh.state.tx.us

 Bill Summers
 President
 Rio Grande Valley Chamber of Commerce
 P.O. Box 1499
 Weslaco,TX 78599-1499
 phone:    (210)968-3141
 fax:      (210)968-0210

 J. Jorge Verduzco
 Executive Vice President
 International Bank of Commerce
 P.O. Drawer 1359
 Laredo, TX 78042-1359
 phone:    (210) 726-2556
 fax:      (210) 722-2556
 e-mail:    jverduzco@iboc.com

 Kenneth Williams
 Legislative Council Member
 Tohono O'Odham Nation
 P.O. Box 827
 Sells, AZ 85634
 phone:    (520) 383-2221
 fax:      (520) 383-2479
 FEDERAL AGENCIES
 Dennis Burke
 Office of NAFTA
 U.S. Department of Commerce
 14th St. & Constitution Ave., N.W.
 Washington, D.C. 20230
 phone:    (202) 482-5779
 fax:      (202)482-5865
 e-mail:    burke@usita.gov

 Bernard Gaillard
 Director, Secretarys Office of
 International Transportation and Trade
 U.S. Department of Transportation
 400 Seventh Street S.W.
 Washington, DC 20590
 phone:    (202) 366-4368
 fax:      (202) 366-7417

 Cipriano Garza
 Office of Native American Programs
 HUD
 451 Seventh Street S.W.
 Washington, DC 20410
 phone:    (202) 755-0102
 fax:      (202)755-0182

 John Klein
 Assistant Regional Hydrologist
 U.S. Geological Survey
 2800 Cottage Way, Room W2233
 Sacramento, CA 95825
 phone:    (916) 979-2610
 fax:      (916) 979-2669

 Felicia Marcus
 Regional Administrator
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 75 Hawthorne Street
 San Francisco, CA 94105
 phone:    (415) 744-1001
 fax:      (415) 744-2499

Alan Stephens
 State Director, Rural Development
U.S. Department of Agriculture
3003 Central Avenue, Suite 900
Phoenix, AZ 85012
phone:    (602) 280-8754
fax:       (602) 280-8708
Appendix 2.14
                                October 1996

-------
                                                                            JDirectoiy of Contacts
M. Elizabeth Swope
Coordinator for U.S.-Mexico Border Affairs
Office of Mexican Affairs
U.S. Department of State
2201 C Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20520
phone:     (202)647-8529
fax:       (202) 647-5752

 Rosendo Trevino III
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
6200 Jefferson Street, Northeast
Albuquerque, NM 87109-3734
phone:     (505) 761-4400

Richard Walling
Director, Office of the Americas and the Middle
East
Office of International and Refugee Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Room 18-75, Parklawn Building
Rockville, MD 20857
phone:     (301)443-4010
fax:       (301)443-6288
e-mail:    rwalliiig@osophs.ssw.dhhs.gov
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
JohnBernal
U.S. Commissioner
International Boundary and Water Commission
4171N. Mesa, Suite C-310
El Paso, TX 79902
phone:    (915) 534-6677
fax:       (915)534-6680

DESIGNATED FEDERAL OFFICER
Robert L. Hardaker
Office of the Administrator
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
401 M Street S.W.
Washington, DC 20460
phone:    (202)260-2477
fax:       (202)-260-6882.
e-mail:    hardaker.robert@epamail.epa.gov
October 199$
                               Appendix 2.15

-------
 Directoiy of Contacts
                           REGIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR
                        SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  (REGION 1)
 Baia California
 M. en C. Adolfo Gonzalez Calvillo
 General Dkector
 Dkeccion General de Ecologia
  del Gobierno del Estado de Baja California
 Paseo de los Heroes y Dr. Atl Nฐ 17
 Zona de Rio, CP 22320, Tijuana BC
 phone:    91 (66) 84 05 26, 84 04 08 or
          34 63 77
 fax:      91(66)342704
 Government Sector Representative

 C. Jose Daniel Leon Cortez
 President
 Federation de Unidades de Production
  Pesquera Ejidales de Baja California
 Blvd. Zertuche y Azucenas Nฐ 299
 Fracc. Valle Dorado, CP 22890, Ensenada, BC
 phone:    91(61)767880.
 Social Sector Representative

 Lie. Norma Patricia Martinez Rios del Rio
 Vice President
 Grupo Pro Esteros, Lagunas y Marismas
  de las Californias SC
 Av. Ruiz Nฐ 1687
 Zona Centro, CP 22800, Ensenada, BC
 phone & fax:   91 (61) 78 60 50
 e-mail:        proester@cicese.mx
 Nongovernmental Organization Representative

 Arq. Oscar Romo Ruiz
 Dkector
 ECOPARQUE y el Colegio de la Frontera Norte
 A.C.
 Boulevard Abelardo L. Rodriguez # 2925
 Zona del Rio, CP 22320, Tijuana, BC
 phone:    91 (66) 84 22 26 or 24 05 31
 fax:      84 22 26, ext. 6029 or  84 87 95
 e-mail:    OROMO@dns.cincos.net
 Academic Sector Representative
 M. en C. Carlos Roberto De Alba Perez
 Administrative Coordinator of the Tuna-Dolphin
 Program
 Centro de Investigation Cientifica y
  Education Superior de Ensenada (CICESE)
 Km. 107 carretera Tijuana-Ensenada
 CP 22860, Ensenada, BC
 phone & fax:   91(617)45638 and 39
 e-mail:        alba@bahia.ens.uabc.nix
 Private Sector Representative

 Baja California Sur

 Ing. Alfonso Gonzalez Ojeda, Secretary
 Arq. Felipe Aviles Garcia, Assistant Secretary
 Secretaria de Planeacion Urbana e
  mfraestructura del Gobierno del Estado
 Palacio de Gobierno 2ฐ Nivel
 Isabel la Catolica entre Allende y Bravo
 Col.  Centro, CP 23000, La Paz, BCS
 phone:    91 (112) 2 94 77,2 94 27 or 2 91 34
 fax:       91(112)29001
 Government Sector Representative

 Ing. Armando Covarrubias Flores
 Presidents
 Productores en Alianza para el Campo y Pesca,
 S.A.  de C.V.
 Boulevard Agustin Olachea 51
 Col.  Centro, CP 23600, Cd. Constitution, BCS
 phone:    91(113)25344
 Social Sector Representative

 M. en C. Oscar Alfredo Arizpe Covarrubias
 Sociedad de Historia Natural Niparaja, A.C.
 ZaragozaNฐ30
 Col. Centro, CP 23000, La Paz, BCS
 phone:    61891(112)12801,11140
 fax:       (112)12477
 e-mail:    oarizpe@calafia.uabcs.mx
Nongovernmental Organization Representative
Appendix 2.16
                                October 1996

-------
                                                                             Directoiy of Contacts
M. en C. Jesus Druk Gonzalez
Rector
Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur
Km. 5.5 Carretera al Sur
CP 23089, La Paz,BCS
phone:    91 (112) 118 70, 1 07 77, or
          117 55 ext.  102 and 103
Academic Sector Representative

Lie. Victor Manuel Martinez de Escobar Cobela
President, House of Representatives
AlvaroObregonNฐ1670
Restaurante Bachos, between 16 de septiembre
and callejon la paz
Col. Centra, BCS
phone:    91(112)30200
fax:       91(112)34465
Private Sector Representative

Coahuila

Lie. Rogelio Ramos Oranday
Secretary
Secretaria de Desarrollo Social del Gobiemo del
Estado
Victoria Nฐ 406,3er. piso
Zona Centra, CP 25000, Saltillo, Coah.
phone:    91 (84) 12 87 23, 14 96 03 or
           12 39 03
fax:       91(84)124320
Government Sector Representative

C. Armando Verduzco Gonzalez
President
Federation Estatal de Propietarios Rurales de
Coah.
Boulevard Harold R. Pape, Nฐ 1111
Col. Los Pinos, CP 25720, Monclova, Coah.
phone:    91 (86) 34 13 40
fax:       91 (86) 35 28 88
Social Sector Representative
Lie. Cruz Porto Ramirez
Consultant
Perfiles A.C.
Calle Dr. Jesus Valdez Sanchez Nฐ 1365
Col. Universidad, CP 25260, Saltillo, Coah.
phone:    91 (84) 15 84 07
fax:       91(84)154211
Nongovernmental Organization Representative

Dr. Miguel Angel Capo Arteaga
General Academic Director
Universidad Autonoma Agraria "Antonio Narro"
Buenavista, C. P. 25315, Saltillo, Coah.
phone:    91(84)173184
fax:       91 (84) 17 36 64
Academic Sector Representative

Ing. Raul Mora Rodriguez
Environmental Protection Consultant
Camara Nacional de la Industria de
Transformation
Delegation  Saltillo y Zona Conurbada
Av. Universidad Nฐ 514
CP 25000, Saltillo, Coah.
phone:    91 (84) 16 36 37
fax:       91(84)155841
Private Sector Representative

Chihuahua

Ing. Horacio Gonzalez de las Casas
General Director
Direction General de Desarrollo Rural
  del Gobiemo del Estado
Venustiano  CarranzaN0 815, 6ฐ Piso
Edif. Heroes de la Revolution
Zona Centre, CP 31000, Chihuahua, Chih.
phone:    91(14)158098
fax:       91 (14) 29 33 00 ext. 260,2600 and
          2604
Government Sector Representative
October 1996
                                Appendix 2.17

-------
 Directory of Contacts
 Ing. Ricardo Villalobos Figueroa
 President
 Asociacion Civil de Usuarios del
  Distrito de Riego 083, Papigochi
 Km. 6+606, carretera principal de derecha
 Col. 10 de mayo, Guerrero, Chih.
 phone:    91(158)60391
 fax:       91(158)60246
 Social Sector Representative

 Dr. Arturo Limon Dominguez, President
 Sr. Eduardo Carrillo Rubio, Representative
 Movimiento Ecologista Mexicano
  del Estado de Chihuahua
 Cortes de Monroy Nฐ 3102
 Col. Parque de San Felipe, CP 31240, Chihuahua,
 Chih.
 phone:    91 (14) 20 62 82,20 62 62 ext. 130
 Nongovernmental Organization Representative

 Ing. Maria del Rosario Diaz Arellano
 Coordinator
 Centra de Estudios del Medio Ambiente
 Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez
 Av. del Charro Nฐ 610 Norte
 CP 32320, Ciudad Juarez, Chih.
 phone/fax:     91 (16) 17 57 58
 Academic Sector Representative

 Lie. Jose Alberto Leon Sanchez
 Manager
 Union de Productores Industriales
  Forestales de Chihuahua, A.C.
 Calle LibertadN0 3, piso 13
 Torre Bancomer, Sector Centra
 CP 31000, Chihuahua, Chih.
 phone:    91 (14) 16 22 02,  16 20 11
 fax:        16 20 88
 Private Sector RepresentativeDurango

 Durango

 Quim. Luis Alfredo Rangel Pescador
 Director
 Direccion de Ecologia del Gobierno del Estado
 Calle del parque y loza S/N
 Col.  Los Angeles, CP 34000, Durango, Dgo.
 phone:    91 (18) 12 12 23,12 06 70,12 43 10,
          133421,  111194
 fax:       12 84 14
 Government Sector Representative
 Ing. Jorge I. Ramos Astorga
 Director Tecnico
 Social Unidad de Conservation y Desarrollo
 ForestalNฐ3
 Francisco I. Madero Nฐ 401 A Sur, int. 101
 Col. Centre, CP 34000, Durango, Dgo.
 phone/fax: 91 (18) 13 08 41
 Social Sector Representative

 Ing. Raul Garcia Meraz
 Administrador Unico
 Ingenieria Ambiental Consultores, S.A. de C.V
 Calle 14 Nฐ 384
 Col. Filadelfia, CP 35010, Cd. Gomez Palacio,
 Dgo.
 phone/fax:      91(17)150531
 Nongovernmental Organization Representative

 Dra. M* Teresa Alarcon Herrera
 Professor and Livestigator
 Institute Tecnologico de Durango
 Boulevard Felipe Pescador Nฐ 1830 Oriente
 CP 34080, Durango, Dgo.
 phone:     91(18)18 47 52,.18 48 12,18 55 86,
           184871,185646
 fax:       91(18) 18 48 13
 Academic Sector Representative

 Ing. Gerardo Roberto Peyro Andrade
 Director
 Asociacion de Industriales Forestales
  de Durango, A.C.
 Independencia 135 Sur
 Zona Centre, CP 34000, Durango, Dgo
 phone:    91 (18) 12 97 12
 fax:      91 (18) 12 44 35
 Private Sector Representative

 Nuevo Leon

 Ing. Julian de la Garza Castro
 Representative and Subsecretary
 Subsecretaria de Ecologia del Estado de Nuevo
 Leon
 5 de mayo 525 Ote.
4ฐ piso Edif. Daniel Elizondo Paez
 Centre, Monterrey, NL, CP 64000, Monterrey NL
phone:    91 (8) 344 11 79,343 71 39
fax:      91 (8) 340 42 61
Government Sector Representative
Appendix 2.18
                                 October 1996

-------
Ing. Fernando Paez Moreno
Assistant and Coordinator
Comision Estatal de Ecologia
Gerente de Control Ambiental Corporative Grupo
CYDSA
Av. Ricardo Margain Zuzaya 325
Col. Valle del Campestre, CP 66220, Garza
Garcia, NL
phone:    335 17 56,335 58 41
fax:       335 90 90/935
Government Sector Representative

C.P. Gilberto Reyna Vargas, Assessor
Sra. Rosalba Martinez Hernandez, Assistant
Central Campesina Independiente
Matamoros 832 Oriente
Col. Centre, CP 64000, Monterrey, NL
phone:    91 (8) 342 80 54,343 01 82 or
          343 01 87
fax:       91(8)3427931
Social Sector Representative

Dr. Alejandro Ramirez Alcazar
Committee Chair
Comite Tecnico y de Investigation de la Sociedad
Mexicana de Aguas, A.C.
TaxcoNฐ265
Col. Regina, CP 64290, Monterrey, NL
phone:    91(8)3516822
fax:       91(8)3526354
Nongovernmental Organization Representative

Dr. Reyes S. Tamez Guerra
Rector of the University
Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon
 Av. Fidel Velazquez y Alfonso Reyes S/N
 Cd. Universitaria, CP 66450,  San Nicolas de los
Garzas, NL
phone:    91(8)3525581
fax:       91 (8) 3 76 77 57
Academic Sector Representative
                           Directory of Contacts

Ing. Benjamin Limon Rodriguez
Assistant and General Director
Facultad de Ingenieria Civil
Apartado 17,
Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de los Garza,
NL CP 66450
phone:    3 52 13 67
fax:       3 52 49 69, ext. 261
phone/fax: 3 76 69 40
e-mail:    blimon@intercable.net
Academic Sector Representative

Dr. Juan Antonio Cuellar Lopez
General Director
Institute para la Protection Ambiental
Camara de la Industria de la Transformation de
Nuevo Leon
Av. Parque FundidoraN0 501
CITERMEX ler. nivel, local 95-C
Col. Obrera, CP 64010, Monterrey, NL
phone:    91 (8) 3690250-55 ext. 1402
fax:       91(8)3690252,3696414
Private Sector Representative

Sinaloa

Lie. Adalberto Castro Castro
Secretary
Secretaria de Desarrollo Social
Medio Ambiente y Pesca del Gobierno del Estado
Palacio de Gobierno 3er. piso, Lazaro Cardenas e
Insurgentes S/N
Col. Centra, CP 80129, Culiacan, Sin.
phone:    91 (67) 14 43 03,14 15 24
fax:       144254
Government Sector Representative

Lie. Jesus Rafael Ruvalcaba Leon
Federal Delegate
Camara de Diputados
Av. Federico GamboaN0 2302
Col. Aeropuerto, CP 80135, Culiacan, Sin. AP.
523
phone:    91(67)600462
Social Sector Representative

M. en C. Luis Miguel Flores Campafia
Director
Consejo Ecologico de Mazatlan
Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa
Escuela de Ciencias del Mar
Paseo Clausen S/N
October 1996
                                Appendix 2.19

-------
Directory of Contacts
Zona Centre CP 82000, Mazatlan, Sin. AP. 610
phone:    91(69) 82 86 56
fax:       85 02 82
Nongovernmental Organization Representative

Dr. Fausto Burgueno Lomeli
General Director
Centre de Ciencias de Sinaloa
Ave. de las Americas Nฐ 2771 Norte
CP 80010, Culiacan, Sin.
phone:    91 (67) 12 29 49
fax:       91 (67) 16 93 83
e-mail:    fausto@computo.ccs. conacytrnx
Academic Sector Representative

Mtro. Javier Delgadillo Macias,
Representative, Secretario General del Centra de
Ciencias de Cinaloa
Ave. de las Americas Nฐ 2771 Norte
CP 80010, Culiacan, Sin.
phone:    91 (67) 12 3150,12 28 80/116,12 22
          92/116,  122928/116
Academic Sector Representative

C. Emilio Alvaro Gastelum Angulo
President, Federation de Acuacultores de Mexico,
A.C.
Juan EscutiaN0 440
Colonia Chapultepec, CP 80040, Culiacan, Sin.
phone/fax: 91 (67) 12 74 45
Private Sector Representative

Sonora

Ing. Vernon Perez Rubio, Secretary
Secretaria de Infraestructura Urbana y Ecologia
  del Gobiemo del Estado
Palacio Administrative ler piso
Tehuantepec esq. Comonfort
Col. Centra, CP 83270, Hermosillo, Son.
phone:    91 (62) 13 79 33
fax:        17  17 64,17 00 92,17 02 17
Government Sector Representative
C. Julio Cesar Rodriguez Perez
Diputado de la LIV Legislature
Liga de Comunidades Agrarias de Sonora, CNC
Pedro Moreno y Tehuantepec Congreso del
Estado
CP 83270, Hermosillo, Son.
phone:    91 (62) 13 50 35
fax:       12 33 95
Social Sector Representative

Arq. Octavio Duarte Rosas
General Director and Vice-president
Promotora Duarte
Colegio Sonorease de Arquitectos A.C.
Benito Quintana Nฐ 1 entre Blvd. Morelos y
Juarez
Col. Constitution, CP 83150, Hermosillo, Son.
phone:    91 (62) 14 61 05,15 94 20
fax:        15 83 95,10 48 69
Nongovernmental Organization Representative

Dr. Alejandro Emilio Castellanos Villegas
Department Chair, Universidad de Sonora
Centre de Investigaciones Cientificas y
Tecnologicas (CICTUS)
Resales y Nines Heroes S/Nฐ
Col. Centre, CP 83000, Hermosillo, Son. AP. 54
phone:    91 (62) 13 45 64,12 19 95,
fax:        123271
Academic Sector Representative

Ing. Francisco Javier Villedent Ibarra
President
Camara Nacional de la Industria Pesquera-
Delegation Sonora
Calle 22, Ave. Serdan Edificio Luebbert Planta
Alta, Despacho 2
Col. Centre, CP 85400, Guaymas, Son.
phone:     91 (62) 218 09
fax:       205 22 fax, 410 51
Private Sector Representative
 Appendix 2.20
                                                                                     October 1996

-------
Tamaulipas

Arq. Arturo Carlos Sepulveda Lerma
Sub-secretary
Subsecretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia
 de la Secretaria de Desarrollo Social del
Gobiemo del Estado
Torre Gubernamental, 8ฐ piso
CP 87000, Ciudad Victoria, Tamps.
phone:    91(131)25554
fax:       91 (131) 232 42,297 77 ext. 213
Government Sector Representative

Ing. Carlos Collins Rojas
Subdirector of Transportation
Promotion y Comercializacion
Gremio Unido de Alijadores, S.C. de R. L.
Isauro Alfaro Nฐ 210 Sur
Zona Centro, CP 89000, Tampico, Tamps.
phone:    91 (12) 12 43 87,12 55 55,12 93 58
fax:       12 43 87,12 58 35
Social Sector Representative
                           Directory of Contacts

Ing. Mario Alberto Vazquez Vazquez
Coordinador of the Dept. of Wildlife
Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas
Facultad de Agronomia
Centro Universitario Adolfo Lopez Mateos
CP 87149, Ciudad Victoria, Tamps.
phone:    91 (131) 217 38,2 70 00 ext 2102
          and 2104
Nongovernmental Organization Representative

Dr. Carlos Gutierrez Nunez
Director
Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas
Instituto de Ecologia y Alimentos
Boulevard Adolfo Lopez Mateos Nฐ 928
Col. San Jose, CP 87040, Ciudad Victoria,
Tamps.
phone:    91(131)62721
fax:       64289
Academic Sector Representative

C.P. Salvador Salazar Herrera
General Manager
Asociacion de Industriales del Sur de Tamaulips,
AC
Av. Hidalgo Nฐ 3610
Col. Flores, CP 89220, Tampico, Tamps.
phone:    91 (12) 17 09  80
fax:       91(12)138150
October 1996
                                                                                  Appendix 2.21

-------
 Directoiy of Contacts
                Information Repositories in the United States

                                         REGION 6
                                       BORDER XXI
                             INFORMATION REPOSITORY LISTINGS
                           TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO BORDER REGION

  EPA El Paso Border Office,
  TX
U.S. EPA Region 6
4050 Rio Bravo, Suite 100
El Paso, TX 79902
(915)533-7273
  EPA Region 6 Dallas, TX
EPA Library
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202
(214) 665-6444
  Washington, DC
U.S. EPA Public Information Center
401M Street, SW
 Washington, D.C. 20460
(202) 260-2080
  Edinburg, TX
University of Texas- Pan American
Library Government Documents
Division
1201 West University Drive
Edinburg, TX 78539-2999
(210)381-3304
  El Paso, TX
El Paso Public Library
Documents Genealogy Section
501 North Oregon Street
El Paso, TX 79901
(915)543-5433
  El Paso, TX
University of Texas at El Paso Library
Documents and Maps Department
El Paso, TX 79968-0582
(915) 747-5685
  Laredo, TX
Laredo Community College
Harold R. Yeary Library
Government Documents Section
West End Washington Street
Laredo, TX 78040-4395
(210)721-5270
  Las Graces, NM
New Mexico State University
Branson Library
Documents Dept 3475
P.O. Box 30006
Corner of Frenger & Williams Street
Las Graces, NM 88003-0006
(505) 646-3737
 Harlingen, TX
TNRCC- Region 15
Mate Building
513 E. Jackson
Harlingen, TX 78559
(210) 425-6010
Appendix 2.22
                                                 October 1996

-------
                                                                    Directoiy of Contacts
                                      REGION 6
                                    BORDER XXI
                          INFORMATION REPOSITORY LISTINGS
                        TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO BORDER REGION
^^:Cm&^x ^%J
San Antonio, TX
El Paso, TX
ป ,*-*"; luowfcsr" -' 7^™
TNRCC - Region 13
140 Heimer Rd. Suite 360
San Antonio, TX
78232-5042
TNRCC- Region 6
7500 Viscount, Suite 147
El Paso, Texas 79925
• % %xjftBWWปiftC^
(210) 490-3096
(915) 778-9634
October 1996
Appendix 2.23

-------
Directory of Contacts
                                      REGION 9
                                     BORDER XXI
                           INFORMATION REPOSITORY LISTINGS
                        CALIFORNIA AND ARIZONA BORDER REGION
*Gn$&tiง& >r
San Diego, CA
Chula Vista, CA
Imperial Beach, CA
SanYsidro,CA
Otay-Mesa, CA
Potrero, CA
Jacumba, CA
Alpine, CA
Campo, CA
Imperial, CA
Calexico, CA
* v,; 'teaww % * *
Central Library
820 E Street
San Diego, CA 92101
Chula Vista Library
365 F Street
Chula Vista, CA 91910
San Diego County - Imperial
Beach Branch
810 Imperial Beach Boulevard
Imperial Beach, CA 91932
San Ysidro Branch Library
101 W. San Ysidro Boulevard
San Ysidro, CA 92173
Otay-Mesa Branch
3003 Coronado Avenue
San Diego, CA 92154
Potrero Public Library
24955 Library Lane
Potrero, CA 91963
Jacumba County Library
445 11 Old Highway 80
Jacumba, CA 91934
Mail to: P.O. Box 186
Alpine County Library
2 130 Arnold Way
Alpine, CA 91901
Campo Marina County Library
P.O. Box 207
Campo, CA 91906
Imperial Public Library
200 West 9th Street
Imperial, CA 92251
Mail to: P.O. Box 3A
Camarena Memorial Library
850 Encinas Avenue
Calexico, CA 92231
- "QwmltfQK, :
(619) 236-5800
(619) 691-5069
(619)424-6981
(619) 424-0475
(619) 424-0474
(619)478-5978
(619) 766-4608
(619) 445-4221
(619) 478-5945
(619) 355-1332
(619) 768-2170
CosrA'p'-fiKsdk -
Frances Bookheim
EricRhee
L. Robinson
Jim Frazier
Christine Gonzalez
Candy Bonner
Sherry Davis
Pat Szelenyi
Sherry Davis
Gregorio M. Ponce
Sandra Tauler
Appendix 2.24
                                                                           October 1996

-------
                                                                      Directory of Contacts
                                      REGION 9
                                     BORDER XXI
                           INFORMATION REPOSITORY LISTINGS
                        CALIFORNIA AND ARIZONA BORDER REGION
;„, <ปMi^r\/
Yuma,AZ
Nogales, AZ
Bisbee, AZ
Douglas, AZ
; TIT -- - * fsxHMtar - - -""" - -
; •••.•.•• .• VvX-vTE-K-??^" "" "^ •• Xw.w.w
Yuma County Library
350 S. 3rd Avenue
Yuma,AZ 85364
Nogales-Santa Cruz County
Public Library
5 1 8 N. Grande Avenue
Nogales, AZ 86521
Copper Queen Library
6 Main Street
Bisbee, AZ 85603
Mail to: P.O. Box 1857
Douglas Public Library
625 10th Street
Douglas, AZ 85607
' , PBpNBffcX j
(520) 782-1871
(520) 287-2285
(520) 432-4232
(520)364-3851
jCOSSTTAOrflltSOK :
Maggie Menard
Suzanne Haddock
Lise Gilliland
JuleDeVoe
October 1996
Appendix 2. 25

-------

-------
                           App
ENDIX  3
      A Brief Description of Government Agencies Involved
                        in the Border XXI Program

 Mexico and the United States have a history of environmental cooperation extending over the past
 100 years. In addition to the environmental agencies and laws of each government on the federal
 level, state and local environmental laws and institutions also exist and are very important. The
 following is a brief description of governmental agencies at  the federal  level involved with the
 environment and natural resources of the border area.


 Agencies  within the Federal Government of the United States

 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA

 EPA is charged by Congress to protect the nation's land, air, and water systems. Under a mandate
 of federal environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions that lead to a
 compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture
 life.

 EPA works in partnership with  state, county, municipal, and tribal governments to carry out its
 mission. State  and local standards may exceed federal standards, but they cannot be less stringent.
 EPA works with states and municipalities so they can carry out federal standards consistently but
 flexibly.  The Agency also makes extensive efforts to involve the public in environmental protection.
 Some laws specifically invite public monitoring; others allow individuals to sue polluters or to notify
 environmental agencies of violations.

 Through research, development, and technical assistance, EPA generates and disseminates sound
 science and engineering to support its missions. These efforts provide the data that the Agency needs
 to set and address priorities in identifying, assessing, and managing serious risks to public health and
 the environment. EPA's research combines the in-house expertise of Agency scientists and engineers
 with complementary research by universities and  nonprofit organizations under a competitive,
 peer-review extramural program.

 EPA was formally established as an independent agency in the Executive Branch in December 1970.
 The Agency incorporated various departments and independent agencies responsible for air and water
 pollution control, solid-waste management, pesticide regulation, a program for monitoring radiation,
 and the drinking water program.

 Today, EPA administers eleven comprehensive environmental protection laws: the Clean Air Act; the
 Clean Water Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act; the Comprehensive  Environmental  Response,
 Compensation, and Liability Act ("Superfund"); the Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act; the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act; the Toxic Substances Control Act; the Uranium
October 1996
                                                                         Appendix 3.1

-------
Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act; the Lead Contamination Control Act; the Ocean Dumping Ban
Act; and the National Environmental Education Act.

The Agency is directed by an Administrator and a Deputy Administrator, both appointed by the
President with the advice and consent of the Senate. Nine Assistant Administrators, the Agency's
General Counsel, and its Inspector General also are named by the President and are subject to Senate
confirmation.

The nine Assistant Administrators manage specific programs, such as those protecting the air, water,
and land of Americans, or direct other Agency functions, such as enforcement of environmental laws
and international activities.

Three Associate Administrators are named by the Administrator to carry out  programs for public
affairs, congressional and legislative relations, and regional, state, and local relations.

Ten Regional Administrators work closely with state and local governments to carry out the Agency's
mission.

U.S. Department of Interior - DOI

As the nation's principal conservation agency, DOI has responsibility for most of our nationally-
owned public lands and natural and cultural resources. This responsibility includes fostering wise use
of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the environmental and
cultural values of our national parks and historical places, and providing for the enjoyment of life
through outdoor recreation. The Department assesses our energy and mineral resources and works
to assure that  their development is in the best interests of all our people.  The Department also has
a major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island
territories under U. S. administration.

The Department of the Interior has a headquarters and regional structures and each bureau has
headquarters,  regional,  and field structures. On August 11, 1994, an Environmental Charter was
executed in Washington, D.C. and signed by all seven of the DOI bureaus that have activities in the
border region. This charter formally established a DOI U.S.-Mexico Border Field Coordinating
Committee and recognizes that "the border region contains nationally significant natural and cultural
resource protection areas such as national parks, national wildlife refuges, national forests, national
conservation areas, wilderness areas, waterways, natural resources,  and special areas for protection
on the outer continental shelf."  The charter also recognizes that "a myriad of federal trust species,
including federally endangered or threatened species,  migratory birds,  and some marine mammals,
occur in the border area." The seven DOI bureaus agreed to form this cross-bureau committee with
a mandate to promote, facilitate, and enhance communication and coordination between and among
the signatories of the Environmental Charter on U.S.-Mexico border-related issues. The committee
acts as DOrs principal mechanism to increase coordination with our counterparts in Mexico and other
agencies to focus attention on environmental issues along the border.
Appendix 3.2
                                                                                October 1996

-------
                                             Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program
       DOI Bureau of Indian Affairs - BIA
       BIA's mission is to enhance the quality of life, promote economic opportunity, and carry out
       the responsibility to protect and improve the trust assets of American Indians, Indian tribes,
       and Alaska Natives.  BIA manages a complex, multifaceted organization that includes
       programs in education, social services, law enforcement, courts, housing improvement,
       financial services, irrigation,  road construction, natural resource management, and land
       tenure. BIA's priority is to support and enhance tribal governments by fostering cooperation
       and coordination |n consultation with Indian tribes, while supporting self-determination and
       tribal sovereignty.

       DOI Bureau of Land Management - ELM

       BLM is responsible for sustaining the health, diversity, and productivity of public lands for
       the use and enjoyment of present and future generations.  BLM administers 2.8  million
       hectares (6.9 million acres) of public land located in California, Arizona, and New Mexico,
       within 100 kilometers (62 miles) of the U.S.-Mexico border region. BLM administers these
       public lands within a framework of numerous laws. The most comprehensive of these is the
       Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA). FLPMA requires that public
       lands are managed under the principles of multiple use and sustained yield. All BLM policies,
       procedures, and management actions must be consistent with FLPMA and other laws that
       govern the use of public land,

       DOI Bureau of Reclamation -BOR

       BOR's mission involves management, protection, and enhancement of water and  related
       resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner for urban, agricultural, and
       wildlife uses, as well as flood control and recreation. While the economic basis for many
       BOR projects was irrigated agriculture, because of rapid population growth, including areas
       along the border, there is a shifting emphasis in water demand for municipal, industrial, and
       environmental uses. In response to  changing national priorities and values, BOR  is now
       engaged in integrating innovative technologies that focus on a  balanced approach to water
       resources management in order to meet these changing needs.

       DOI Fish and Wildlife Service - FWS

       FWS has a broad mandate to conserve, protect, and enhance fish and wildlife resources and
       their habitats for the continuing benefit of people. The FWS's major responsibilities  are for
       migratory birds,  endangered species,  certain  marine mammals, and  freshwater and
       anadromous fish. FWS accomplishes this by managing a system of national wildlife refuges,
       provides compliance with federal laws and regulations, and offers technical assistance and
       funds to other federal agencies, states, tribes, local governments, and private land owners.
       FWS has international mandates under such laws and treaties as the Migratory Bird  Treaty
       Act of 1918, the North American Wetlands Conservation Act, and international agreements
       under the Endangered Species Act and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
       Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
October 1996
                                                                              Appendix 3.3

-------
Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

       DOIr Minerals Management Service - MMS

       MMS is responsible for the management of the federal outer continental shelf- submerged
       lands off U.S. coasts, in which the U.S. has sovereignty over the natural resources, in a
       seabed that parallels the U.S. shoreline. These lands, seaward of state waters, have the
       potential to supply a significant portion of the U.S. energy and mineral needs.  Outer
       Continental Shelf (OCS) leases currently account for about one-fourth of U.S. domestic
       natural gas production and one-eighth of our U.S. domestic oil production.

       DOI National Park Service - NFS

       The principal responsibility of NPS is the protection of park resources in support of the 1916
       legislation that created NPS  and charged the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural
       and historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in
       such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future
       generations." The system now comprises more than 349 areas of great diversity including
       parks, monuments, historic sites, battlefields, seashores and lakeshores, and recreation areas.
       NPS also directs programs to assist states, other federal agencies, local governments, and
       individuals in the protection of historical, natural, and archeological resources.

       DOI U.S. Geological Survey - USGS

       USGS is the largest earth-science research and information agency in the U.S.  It was
       established to conduct systematic and scientific "classification of the public lands  and
       examination of the geologic structure, mineral resources, and products of the national
       domain." USGS provides geologic, topographic, and hydrologic information that contributes
       to the wise management of natural resources and promotes the health, safety, and well-being
       of the people. This information consists of maps, databases, and descriptions and analyses
       of water, energy, and mineral resources, land surface, underlying geologic structure, and
       dynamic processes of the earth.

       DOI USGS Biological Resources Division - BRD

       BRD is devoted to providing quality biological science.  The mission of BRD  is to work
       cooperatively with other entities to provide scientific understanding and technologies needed
       to support sound management and conservation of our national biological resources. The
       primary role of BRD is to meet biological research needs of other organizations within DOI,
       other federal agencies, states, local entities, tribes, and private and nonprofit users.

U.S. Department of State- DOS

DOS advises U.S. agencies on foreign policy and international issues, events, and matters relating to
international law and U.S. commitments and responsibilities under international agreements. DOS
facilitates formal communication  with the government of Mexico through the U.S. Embassy in
Mexico City on substantive environmental policy matters and on proposed travel of U.S. officials
between the U.S. and Mexico. The State Department also provides representation on interagency
Appendix 3.4
                                                                               October 1996

-------
                                               Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

 environmental task groups and negotiating sessions on bilateral agreements developed to improve
 U.S.-Mexican environmental cooperation.

 Council on Environmental Quality - CEQ

 The Council was established within the Executive Office of the President by the National
 Environmental Policy Act of 1969 to formulate and recommend national policies to promote the
 improvement of the quality of the environment. The Council consists of three members appointed
 by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and one of the members is designated as
 chairman by the President.

 The Council develops and recommends to the President national policies that further environmental
 quality; performs a continuing analysis of changes or trends in the national environment; reviews and
 appraises programs of the  federal government to determine  their  contributions  to sound
 environmental policy; conducts studies, research,  and analyses relating to ecological systems and
 environmental quality; assists the President in the  preparation of the annual environmental quality
 report  to the Congress; and oversees implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act.

 U.S. Department of Agriculture - USD A

 USDA Forest Sennce

 The Forest Service is the largest and most diverse agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
 It provides leadership in the management, protection, and use of the Nation's forests and grasslands,
 almost  two-thirds of the Nation's federally owned lands. The Forest Service also conducts forestry
 research and partners with forest  managers on State and Private lands to encourage forest health
 nationwide.  Currently,  there are 155 National Forests, 19 National  Grassland, and  16  Land
 Utilization Projects located in 44 states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Two National Forests,
 the Coronado National Forest  and the Cleveland National Forest, border Mexico for a total acreage
 of 2,268,751 acres.

 The Forest Service is dedicated to multiple-use management for the sustained yields of renewable
 resources such as water, forage,  wildlife,  wood and  recreation.  Multiple-use, means  managing
 resources in a way that ensure environmental quality while at the same time meeting the needs of the
 communities surrounding the forest as well  as the nation at large, both for present and future
 generations.

 Under  the Forest Service International Forestry Division, cooperation with Mexico has been very
 active.  Since the first signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on the Advancement of Scientific
 and Technological Cooperation between the U.S. and  Mexico in 1972, the program has grown to
include 14 bilateral working groups and 8 trilateral study groups (U.S., Mexico and Canada). These
groups jointly implement research and management projects in subject areas of mutual interest such
as:  fire management (including fire suppression, fire prevention, and fire ecology),  forest genetics,
atmospheric change,  natural forest and plantation management, forest insects and disease, forest
products and land management planning, to name a few.
October 1996
                                                                              Appendix 3.5

-------
Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service - NRCS

The mission of NRCS is to provide leadership and administer programs to help people conserve,
improve, and sustain our natural resources and environment.  In order to achieve our mission, NRCS
provides technical and financial assistance to private landowners as well as federal, state, and local
government.   Assistance is provided to plan and implement  soil  and water conservation and
improvement practices on private lands used for crop and timber production, livestock grazing and
other domestic uses. Assistance is provided through partnerships with soil and water conservation
districts on private, state, and federal lands.  Soil and water conservation districts are composed of
private citizen volunteers interested in the conservation of natural resources.

U.S.  Department of Health and Human Services - HHS

The Department of Health and Human Services is the United States government's principal agency
for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services, especially for those
who are least able to help themselves.

The Department includes some 250 programs, covering a wide spectrum of activities. HHS works
closely with state and local governments, and many HHS-funded services are provided at the local
level by state or county agencies or through private sector grantees.  The Department's programs are
administered by 11 principal HHS operating divisions:

       •       National Institutes of Health
       •       Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration
       •       Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
              Food and Drug Administration
              Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
              Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
              Indian Health Service
              Health Resources and Services Administration
              Health Care Financing Administration
              Administration for Children and Families
       •       Administration on Aging

U.S. Department of Commerce - DOC

The activities of the  Department,  which include promoting economic growth through civilian
technology, export growth, sustainable development,  economic  development,  and economic
information and analysis, have worked in strategic harmony to provide increased economic security
for all Americans.

The Department of Commerce is the only federal agency tying together economics, environment,
trade, technology and information, making the whole greater than the sum of its parts.

Protecting the natural environment and creating high-quality jobs are central goals of Commerce. The
Department works with the private sector to create opportunities  and incentives  so businesses,
communities and individuals can prosper through environmentally sound growth.  The late Secretary
Appendix 3.6
                                                                              October 1996

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                                              Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

Brown  served  on the President's  Council  on Sustainable Development  which is tasked with
developing practical approaches to implement sustainable development principles.

Commerce's National  Oceanic and  Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has established several
strategic sustainable development goals to  be accomplished  in the next century. These include
building  sustainable fisheries, recovering  protected species,  and  promoting healthy coastal
ecosystems.

Commerce led an  interagency group  that issued a Strategic  Framework  for Environmental
Technology Exports. Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) and its newly formed
Office of Environmental Technologies Exports established the Environmental Technology Trade
Advisory Committee.  The  committee will  provide direct industry input into developing and
managing programs to expand U.S. sales of environmental technologies.

In partnership with the private sector, the Department of Commerce supports one of our country's
fundamental goal: enhancing the competitiveness of the national  economy and the economic security
of the American people. The Department will continue to work towards partnering with the private
sector to  expand  exports,   develop  and deploy  civilian technology,  provide economic and
environmental  information,  assist  economically troubled communities,  and create  sustainable
development at home  and abroad.

       National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration - NOAA

       The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's mission is to describe and predict
       changes in the Earth's environment and conserve and manage wisely the nation's coastal and
       marine  resources  to  ensure  sustainable  economic  opportunities.   NOAA predicts
       environmental changes, protects life and property, provides, decision-makers with reliable
       scientific information,  and fosters global environmental stewardship.  NOAA's two primary
       missions, environmental assessments and prediction and environmental stewardship, are
       implemented in an integrated manner through its line organizations and programs including
       the National Weather Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Ocean Service,
       Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, and National Environmental Satellite, Data, and
       Information Service.

U.S. Department of Justice - DOJ

The Environment and Natural Resources Division of the Department of Justice (the "Division") is
the United  States'  environmental  lawyer.  The Division is responsible for representing federal
agencies in environmental and natural resources litigation before federal and state courts.  Together
with colleagues in the 94 U.S.  Attorneys' Offices, the Division works closely with our client agencies,
such as the Environmental Protection Agency  and the Department of Interior, to enforce and defend
the nation's environmental and natural resources laws.

A significant portion of the Division's work involves litigation under statutes governing pollution
control and environmental protection.  This work includes initiating  civil enforcement actions to
assess liability, prevent pollution, and ensure cleanup; prosecuting those who violate criminal laws
intended to prevent pollution; and defending actions that have been brought against federal agencies.
October 1996
Appendix 3.7

-------
Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

The Division, in conjunction with the U.S. Attorneys' Offices, also represents the United States in
all matters concerning the protection, use, and development of the nation's natural resources and
public lands, wildlife protection, Indian rights and claims, and the acquisition of federal properties.
Finally, the Division  also works  on policy, legislative,  and international matters relating  to
environmental and natural resource protection.
Agencies within  the Federal Government of Mexico

Secretrariat of Environment, Natural Resources, and Fisheries - SEMARNAP

Some of the principle missions of SEMARNAP are the promotion  of the transition towards
sustainable development, reduction of the processes of environmental deterioration, development of
rational use of natural resource potential, and improvement of environmental aspects of productive
processes that drive development.

SEMARNAP was  established by presidential  order and published in the Official Register of the
Federation on December 28, 1994.  Some of the other priority actions of this institution are
encouraging  consumption patterns which are more favorable for sustainable  development and
developing natural resource programs which help  reduce poverty.

To this end, SEMARNAP promotes public involvement and transparent environmental and natural
resource policies, and pursues a process of decentralization of functions to achieve more efficient
integrated regional coordination.  In this sense, the Secretariat organized and integrated four regional
consultative councils, as well as a national consultative council, which convened state governments,
social and  business organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and academic and scientific
research institutions to promote a partnership in the development and oversight of environmental
policy and the beneficial use of natural resources.

Within this context, SEMARNAP both strengthens the legal framework and enforcement of laws,
standards and programs, and promotes the modernization of institutional operations to achieve a
functional  and versatile management approach and transparent performance at all levels of the
Secretariat.

SEMARNAP is composed of three undersecretariats:  Planning, Natural Resources, and Fisheries,
and five decentralized management agencies: the National Water Commission (CNA), the National
Institute of Ecology (INE), the Federal Attorney General's Office of Environmental Protection
(PROFEPA), the National Fisheries Institute (INP), and the Mexican Institute of Water Technology
(IMTA).

The National Commission for the Understanding and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) is a centralized
division of SEMARNAP.

       Subsecretariat of Natural Resources
Appendix 3.8
                                                                             October 1996

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                             '                  Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

       This agency is responsible for formulating and managing policy for SEMARNAP in the areas
       of protection and sustainable use of forestry resources, restoration and conservation of soils,
       management of beaches, the federal maritime zone, and national waters.

       Its objective is to establish a structure that combines, organizes, and standardizes these issues
       in legal and administrative terms, so as to direct them in an integrated way which furthers
       sustainable development.

       To fulfill its mission, the Subsecretariat of Natural Resources is organized into three general
       divisions: Forestry, Federal Maritime Terrestrial Zones, and Restoration and Conservation
       of Soils.

       Subsecretariat of Fisheries

       Based on the concept of sustainable development, the Administration  has planned for the
       growth of the Mexican fishing industry. This entails the consistent application of policies
       oriented toward the rational use of resources, respect for biodiversity and ecosystems, and
       the  active participation of fishermen under the concept of responsible fishing.

       Within this framework, the federal government, through SEMARNAP, has proposed to
       reorganize its traditional fisheries and develop new options within the industry. Some of these
       options  include  revising  fishing  laws  based on  strategies developed by  the nation's
       cooperatives and commercial fishermen, conducting a study of fishing activity and of the most
       important fisheries, developing policies which foster effective management of living marine
       resources, developing and promoting aquaculture, infrastructure and renovation of the fishing
       fleet, the strengthening of investigative and  species protection programs,  financing and
       investment, and strengthening of international policy.

       The Fisheries Subsecretariat has four  general divisions to fulfill its mission: Promotion of
       Fishing, Fisheries Administration, Infrastructure and Fishing Fleet, and Aquaculture.

       Federal Attorney General for Environmental Protection - PROFEPA

       PROFEPA was created in mid-1992 under the direction  of the Secretariat  of Social
       Development, and is currently an autonomous agency of SEMARNAP.  PROFEPA's primary
       objective is to verify compliance with environmental regulations so as to further sustainable
       development.

       Initially, PROFEPA was conceived as the institution in charge of verifying industrial activities
       within federal jurisdiction through a combination of oversight actions  and  voluntary
       compliance under the General Law of Ecological Equilibrium.

       Since the creation of SEMARNAP, the federal government has a new organizational plan that
       integrates environmental and natural resources policies.  Under this structure, PROFEPA
       increased its functions and roles in very significant ways and is now charged with oversight
       in matters of forestry, fisheries, flora and fauna, as well as federal maritime terrestrial zones
       .and national waters.
October 1996
                                                                                Appendix 3.9

-------
Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

       In order to fulfill this mission, PROFEPA has three subdivisions:  Industrial Compliance
       Monitoring, Environmental Auditing, and Natural Resources.

       National Water Commission - CNA

       The CNA is an autonomous agency of SEMARNAP, whose primary objective is to manage
       the national waters to satisfy the needs of different sectors of society in terms of quantity,
       quality, time, and space.

       As the heir to an important hydraulic tradition, CNA is a service institution that promotes the
       sustainable development of a strategic and vital resource for the country, namely water.

       In order to fulfill its responsibilities, CNA has six general subdivisions:   Construction,
       Operation, Technical, Planning, and Administration, and Water Management.

       National Ecology Institute - INE

       INE is an autonomous agency of SEMARNAP which has under its authority the design of
       general environmental regulations and standards and the application of these regulations and
       standards through various mechanisms.

       Its responsibilities cover the following concerns:  development of regulations and standards;
       development of economic incentives; process for licensing  and  permits; evaluation of the
       environmental impacts of activities and projects; ecological classification; risk assessment and
       accident prevention; approval of programs and projects for the management of hazardous and
       solid wastes; control of transboundary movement of hazardous materials and hazardous
       wastes; municipal solid waste policy; promotion of environmental infrastructure; creation and
       management of natural  protected  areas (including national  parks);  conservation  and
       management of wild flora and fauna; sustainable management of wild flora and fauna;
       fulfillment of international agreements in Mexico; technologies  for production processes,
       services, and transport which promote the sustainable use of resources and environmental
       quality; promotion of scientific research and technology; and environmental information
       systems.

       In order to fulfill its responsibilities, INE  is organized into one division for Coordination of
       Natural Protected Areas, and sections for Wildlife, Environmental Regulation, Environmental
       Impact  and Ecological Management, Hazardous Materials, Waste, and Activities,  and
       Environmental Management  and Information.

       National Commission for the  Understanding and Use of Biodiversity - CONABIO

       CONABIO  was created by  presidential  decree  on March  16, 1992, with the purpose of
       coordinating and promoting the efforts that are being carried out by numerous institutions and
       groups  in Mexico with three principal missions:  1) knowledge of the nation's biodiversity
       specifically  through inventories, networks  and databases; 2) sustainable use;  and 3)
       dissemination of information on biodiversity to the public.
Appendix 3.10
                                                                               October 1996

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                                               Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Program

       Because CONABIO has a promotion and coordination role, the largest part of its resources
       are channeled to support studies and projects of existing institutions or groups.  Priorities are
       established through consultations with experts or interested organizations.  CONABIO has
       made possible various meetings of the directors of the most important research institutions
       and of some of the most important international and Mexican experts on issues related to their
       areas of expertise.

Secretariat of Health- SSA
General Division for Environmental Health

Assigned to the Undersecretariat of Sanitary Regulation and Promotion, the General Division for
Environmental Health of SSA has been  assigned the following responsibilities, among others:  to
determine the maximum concentration levels of dangerous and specific environmental contaminants
permissible for humans; to establish and coordinate the oversight system and the certification of water
quality; to issue standards and criteria and guidelines for environmental and occupational health and
basic sanitation; to  exercise sanitary  control and oversight of health standards in establishments
where toxic and hazardous  agents  represent a  health risk; to establish priorities concerning
environmental health impact studies; to exercise sanitary control and oversight in the processes of
import,  export, and  final disposition of pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic substances that pose health
risks; and prdmote the development of educational activities on environmental health.

Secretariat for Social Development - SEDESOL

SEDESOL,  through its Division of Infrastructure and Equipment (DGIE), as the central authority
for infrastructure, has the following responsibilities (from the Diario Oficial de la Federation,
December 28,  1995).

"Develop studies and projects as well as participate in the promotion of efforts, public works, and
    services related to infrastructure and equipment, to support regional and urban development and
    the general welfare of the  public."

"Provide technical assistance to state and municipal governments and organized civic groups in
    training and capacity building in the operation, administration, and functioning of programs for
    urban and regional investment in infrastructure, equipment, and the well-being of the public; also
    assist in the integration and development of the necessary studies and projects."

"Track actions, public works, and services involving the state and municipal governments arranged
    with the ^private sector and coordinated by  the federal  government in the area of urban
    infrastructure and equipment."

"Establish technical standards and guidelines related to urban infrastructure projects and equipment."

"Participate in the administration of credit designated for urban infrastructure, equipment, and the
    general  public welfare, as  well  as  establishing the necessary  mechanisms for control and
    evaluation."
October 1996
                                                                               Appendix 3.11

-------
Government Agencies Involved in the Border XXI Progratn


"Function as the technical agent for financial and credit funds designated for the implementation of
   public works and services in the area of infrastructure and equipment, to assist in regional and
   urban development and the general public well-being," and

"Formulate and apply, in coordination with the appropriate federal, state and municipal authorities,
   regulations for awarding contracts and granting concessions related to the provision of public
   services whose investments come from or complement federal funds or credit endorsed by the
   federal  government."

Secretariat of External Affairs - SRE

In accordance with the stipulations of the Organizational Law of the Public Federal Administration,
the Law of Treaties, and the internal regulations of SRE:

SRE has the responsibility of promoting, providing, and assuring the coordination of actions of the
agencies and entities of the Federal Administration, in accordance with their authorities, in all forums
in which there is an international impact, as well as being involved in all types of treaties, agreements,
and conventions of which Mexico is a party.

In the same manner, SRE is charged with participating in the negotiations of all types of international
agreements related to the territorial and maritime boundaries of the country and assuring the
application of and compliance with the agreements.  Additionally, the Chancellery of Border
Environmental Affairs is responsible for assisting in the coordination of cooperative border programs,
within its limits of authority and  in consultation with the appropriate authorities, to protect and
improve the environment and to make good use of transborder natural resources and international
rivers, as well as participating in the negotiations of the corresponding international agreements.

Through the Director  General for North  America and the Mexican section  of the IBWC, the
Chancellery is authorized to contribute, in coordination with the appropriate management authorities,
criteria for the development of cooperative border projects and assist in their implementation.

Additionally,  through the IBWC, the Chancellery monitors compliance of international treaties and
agreements regarding the issues of defining the territorial boundaries, accounting, distribution, and
use of the international rivers, attention to border sanitation problems and problems of water quality
in international surface and ground waters, and in the diplomatic negotiations of agreements in these
issues, in coordination with the appropriate federal, state, and municipal authorities.
Appendix 3.12
October 1996

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                         A
PPENDIX 4
            Meeting the Financial Needs of Border XXI

Annual Budgets

Federal funding  for  implementation of all elements of Border XXI  is based on  annual
appropriations by the U.S. Congress and Mexico's Ministry of Finance. Because of fundamental
operating procedures, it is important for both governments to coordinate, to the extent possible,
their resource requests to the U.S. Congress and the Mexican Ministry of Finance and report back
with clear  measures  of  success.  The success of Border XXI will require continued U.S.
Congressional and Mexican Ministry of Finance support.

The annual budget processes and cycles in the U.S. and Mexico differ in some important respects.
In the U.S., the annual budget cycle  is based on a fiscal year (FY) extending from October 1st
through September 30th.  In Mexico,  the fiscal year begins on January 1st and ends on December
31st.  Coordination of annual resource allocations for the Border XXI Program  is somewhat
complex since the fiscal years are not synchronized, and year-to-year resources are available to
the two countries at different points in time.

To provide  an overview of the EPA resources dedicated to the U.S.-Mexico border area in recent
years,  Table A4.1 identifies EPA funding allocations, by EPA program offices, for fiscal years
1995 (estimate), 1996 (estimate), and  1997 (Presidential Request).

                                    Table A4.1
                       EPA Budget for U.S.-Mexico Program
                              (U.S. $ Figures in thousands)
Program
Air1
Water2
Enforcement
Policy/Planning
Pesticides/
Toxic Substances
FYI995
(Estimate)
$5,268.4
$151,612.1
$3,863.5
$184.3
$239.2
FY 1996
(Estimate)
$5,147.6
$151,859.1
$4,202.3
$188.8
$410.9
FY1997
(Presidential Request)
$5,340.9
$151,957.4
$2,100.1
$0
$0
 October 1996
                                                                          Appendix 4.1

-------
  Meeting the Financial Needs
                                      Table A4.1 (continued)
                             EPA Budget for U.S.-Mexico Program
                                     (U.S. $ Figures in thousands)
Program
Research & Development
Solid Waste/
Emergency Response
Administrative
International Activities
Total
FY1995
(Estimate)
$2,777.3
$2,732.4
$679.0
$7,918.0
$175,274.2
FY 1996
(Estimate)
$2,827.8
$8,549.3
$679.0
$10,354.0
$184,218.8
FY 199?
(Presidential Request)
$2,882.3
$7,803.6
$345.7
$8,399.0
SI78329.&
  1 For each year, Air Program funds include $2 million for SCERP as directed by U.S. Congress.
    For each year, Water Program funds include $ 100 million for border environmental infrastructure and $50 million for Texas
  colonies.


 In the case of Mexico, these data are organized by Workgroup for the years 1995,  1996, and the
 estimates requested in the Annual Implementation Plan for 1997.
                                            Table A4.2
                            Mexican Budget Listed by Workgroup3
Workgroup
Environmental
Information
Pollution Prevention
Enforcement
Emergency Response
Solid and Hazardous
Waste
Health
Water
Natural Resources
Air
1995
(did not exist yet)
Not Applicable
$1.5 million
$350,649
$150,976
Not Applicable
$21,722,337
$89,579
Not Applicable
1996
(did not exist yet)
$38,961
$1.5 million
$947,025
$499,090
$289,155
$52,708,311
$845,532
Not Applicable
19974
$5,0005
Not Applicable
$1.5 million
$909,090
$114,545
$355,194
$175,953,246
$996,491
$452,597
   Calculated in USD assuming an exchange rate of 7.7 pesos/USD.
   The numbers for 1997 refer only to estimates of requested resources. However, these estimates have not been approved by the
 Mexican Ministry of Finance.
   This amount could be modified if the resources requested from the World Bank are received on time. This would provide
 $200,000 for the entire project period, which broken out, would provide $40,000 for 1997.
Appendix 4.2
                                                                                         October 1996

-------
                                                                  Meeting the Financial Needs
Funding Needs
In the past, many comprehensive studies have analyzed the resources necessary to address the
priority infrastructure problems of the U.S.-Mexico border.  Some of these studies include:
•    U.S. Army  Corp of Engineers,  Design and Cost Estimate Report Addressing IBWC
     Sanitation Issues, Prepared for the U.S. Section, IBWC, Sept 1992.
•    Melcer,  Carlos; Benjamin  Darche; and  others, Analysis of Environmental Infrastructure
     Requirements and Financing Gaps on the U.S.-Mexico Border,  prepared for the  U.S.
     Council of  the Mexico-U.S. Business  Committee, July  1993  (c.$6.5 billion for water,
     wastewater,  solid and hazardous waste infrastructure).
•    Institute for Manufacturing and Materials Management,  The Border  Trade Alliance
     Southwest Border Infrastructure Initiative, Final Report, Feb 1993.
•    Study by the State of Texas, Environmental Infrastructure Along the U.S.-Mexico Border
     in Texas and Mexico, May 1995.
•    Study by the State of California, The North American Free Trade Agreement, Implications
     for California, September 1995.

These estimates of border infrastructure needs have been generated by the private sector, NGOs
and state and federal governments of the U.S. and Mexico, and they vary widely in assumptions
and ranges, both  within each government and across the two governments.  Both governments
consider the  development of agreed upon estimates of the resources needed to implement the
Border XXI Program an essential element for long-term planning.

To meet this challenge, over the next year, the National Coordinators of both countries will lead
an effort to define, on a binational basis, the  resources needed to meet the water infrastructure
objectives identified in the Framework Document. This effort will require the active  participation
of the Water Workgroup Cochairs, the IBWC, the BECC,  and the NADBank.  As the Program
evolves, based on the experience gained from generating water infrastructure resource estimates,
the National  Coordinators will  lead other Workgroups through a similar process.  (For more
information on  strategic  planning,  please  see the Implementation Section  of  Chapter 1).
Determining overall resource needs for implementing Border XXI  does not imply that  such
funding will be provided by the federal government alone.  Many of the objectives of the Program,
especially in the area of infrastructure, will require the active involvement of the private sector.  A
goal of  the  National  Coordinators is to provide incentives for public and  private sector
participation in Border XXI.

The following  is a description  of two World Bank projects  that  support environmental
infrastructure financing in the Mexican border region.

World Bank

Northern Border Environmental Program

The Northern Border Environmental Program (NBEP), funded by a World Bank loan, is a project
to aid in the development of infrastructure, environmental protection, and the strengthening of
environmental management for the northern border area of Mexico.
October 1996
                                                                             Appendix 4.3

-------
 Meeting the Financial Needs

 On June 10, 1994, a contract was signed between the International Bank for Reconstruction and
 Development (BIRF), BANOBRAS (as the Mexican financial institution), and the Mexican
 federal government through the Ministry of Finance, to award a loan for the equivalent of $368
 million  in order to implement the Northern Border Environmental Program.   The Mexican
 national matching funds were $394 million which makes a grand total of $762 million available for
 the accomplishment of the different activities approved by the Program.  The Program began in
 1994 and extends until 2001.

 The parties involved in the contract include SEMARNAP (originally SEDESOL), as the executor,
 BANOBRAS, as the financial and loan agent, and the federal government as the guarantor of the
 loan.

 The objectives of the Program are as follows:

 •      To improve the  environmental  conditions  of the northern border  area through  the
       strengthening of the planning, management, and environmental oversight capacity of local
       governments; and

 •      To invest in an effective and efficient manner in priority action plans that preserve the
       environment,  reverse  the effects of past environmental  degradation,  and  reduce
       environmental health risks.

 The Program is being implemented by various agencies: SEDESOL, CNA, INE, PROFEPA,  and
 state and local governments.

 The Program has two components:

 Institutional Strengthening:
 This involves technical assistance and includes the following activities: 1) improve the institutional
 capacity at the federal,  state, and local  levels for effective environmental  management; 2)
 accelerate  progress in certain key areas (management of hazardous wastes, biodiversity and
 endangered species protection, and the planning and preparation of future projects).

 Improvement of Environmental Services:
 This component consists  of an available line of credit to finance urgent infrastructure projects in
 several eligible border cities.

 Of the total of $368 million of the World  Bank loan,  $97.7 million are managed by SEMARNAP,
 and the rest by SEDESOL and by BANOBRAS ($270.3 million, from which $25.5 was canceled).
                                                                             October 1996
Appendix 4.4

-------
                                                                   Meeting the Financial Needs
The investment categories agreed to in the loan are:
" ""v C, "; ~wS"~ *'
• rr - ' iKta** wm'^mtm .. I **~T?T
1) Consulting Services
2) Goods
3) Public Works
4) Not assigned
Total
v A^N^^!^
;, ^ซ^~" j(PSD|. 5^""" ~
$ 82,400,000
$ 97,100,000
$162,400,000
$ 26,100,000
$368,000,000
;^fcKfeC*]$J^ ' ^
— i T?ปs&t?&aBO .,_,- !
100%
90%
50%

	 -' 	
The allocation of resources for the implementation of the Program depends on the budgetary
authorization of the Ministry of Finance for the corresponding year. For this authorization, the
Ministry of Finance issues an investment authorization statement which is itself subject to the
same federal budgetary authorization restrictions.

It should be pointed out that the designated budgetary resources for 1995 did not match the
timeline expected for the implementation of the Program.  During 1995, the original budget
allocation of $55 million was later modified to $29.6 million, (53.8% of the original allocation) of
which $20.8 million was actually expended, (70.2% of the modified budget).

For 1996,  the Ministry of Finance allotted a budget of $59 million, which to date has not been
modified.

By July 1996, the total credit disbursed by the World Bank amounted to $12.3 million, of which
SEMARNAP received $1.8 million.  (It is estimated that by December 1996 SEMARNAP will
receive $4.4 million.)

Second Solid Waste Project

In 1994, approximately 80,746 tons of waste were generated daily in Mexico (5,294 tons in the
northern border zone, about 6.6% of the total).  Of this amount 70% was collected and only
 17.2%  was disposed in authorized sites. This indicates that approximately 66,887 tons remained
improperly disposed of in open dumps or discharged into bodies of water, which caused severe
contamination problems.

To address this issue,  SEDESOL, as the implementing agency, and BANOBRAS, as the financial
institution,  and the Mexican federal government as the guarantor,  underwrote the credit for the
 3752-ME project with the World Bank, to promote comprehensive solutions for the proper
 operation and closure of sanitary landfills and for the closure of open dumps.  This effort, which
 extends from 1995 to 1999, requires a complementary financial component from the private
 sector.           j
 October 1996
                                                                               Appendix 4.5

-------
Meeting the Financial Needs

As a precursor to the current loan, the World Bank> from 1986 to 1995, granted to the Mexican
federal  government a  credit for $25 million, requiring equal Mexican matching funds.  This
allowed Mexico to devote some resources for the management of solid wastes.

This contract was renewed in 1995, for a new line of credit of $60 million, with similar conditions
as before and with the equal participation of the federal, state, and local governments.  This
program will benefit eleven million residents throughout the country who live in cities larger than
80,000 or in priority areas.

The Second Project for Solid Waste has, among others, the following purposes: (a) improve the
quality of life and public health; (b) provide administrative and technical assistance to states and
municipalities to coordinate, supervise and evaluate solid waste projects, as well as strengthen the
technical capacity of  SEDESOL and  BANOBRAS;  (c) increase the  solid waste  technical,
administrative, and regulatory capacity of states and municipalities; (d) strengthen the solid waste
regulatory framework as a safeguard for the  environment; (e) encourage municipal financial and
administrative independence through cost recovery mechanisms; (f) promote the participation of
private  investors; (g) correct environmental problems and reduce public health concerns; (h)
eliminate through current technology and properly designed and constructed landfills, the leaching
of contamination into aquifers.

Approximately 20 cities will benefit from this effort (several of which could be from the border
zone such  as Ensenada,  Mexicali,  Piedras Negras, Agua Prieta,  San Luis  Rio  Colorado, and
Matamoros,  among others),  with improvements to  management and collection services;
construction and equipment  of controlled sanitary landfills;  collection and disposal of medical
waste; strengthening of municipal management of comprehensive waste disposal; the recovery of
costs through the installation of user  fees; and increased  training and technical support of
comprehensive management practices.

The financing for subprojects will allow a significant reduction in the need for other financial
assistance,  leaving the following financial structure: 35% of financial resources at no cost to
municipalities; 15% from municipal sources, and the remaining 50% as a loan at the lowest
interest rates available.

North American Development Bank

The North  American Development Bank (NADBank), located in San  Antonio, Texas, was
created by  the U.S.  and Mexican  governments as part  of the  North  American Free  Trade
Agreement  process  in order to  serve as  a  financial partner and  catalyst  in  developing
environmental infrastructure  along the border between the two countries.  Concurrent with the
establishment of the NADBank, the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) was
created to ensure community participation in determining environmental priorities and  to certify
projects seeking financial support from the NADBank. The BECC determines whether a project
that meets certain technical, financial and environmental criteria should be certified as eligible for
NADBank financing. Thus, project sponsors  seeking NADBank financing must first apply to the
BECC for certification. (See  Appendix 3 for more information on BECC.)
                                                                             October 1996
Appendix 4.6

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                                                                   Meeting the Financial Needs

The NADBank and the BECC provide assistance to authorities at all levels of government in the
UiS. and Mexico, as well as the private sector, concerning appropriate ways to formulate and
structure the financial aspects of environmental infrastructure projects in the border region. The
areas of priority for both institutions are freshwater supply, wastewater treatment, and solid waste
disposal.  The NADBank is focusing special attention on the small communities in the border
region,  which  may  have  greater difficulty in  securing the  resources necessary  for their
environmental infrastructure.  The NADBank, in concert with the federal  authorities of each
country, will also help administer a program for community adjustment and investment in support
of the purposes of the NAFTA.  This program will assist businesses that need help adjusting to a
post-NAFTA economy.

The NADBank's capital amounts to $3 billion, contributed in equal parts by  the governments of
the United States and Mexico over a four-year period which began in  1995. Fifteen percent of
this capital, $450 million, will be subscribed as paid-in capital, while  the remainder will be in
callable capital.  To  date, both governments have met their contribution commitments and the
NADBank currently has capital totaling $1.5 billion, of which $225 million is paid-in capital.

The U.S.  Department of Treasury estimates that NADBank operations may  generate up to nine
billion dollars in investments over the next ten years.  It is  anticipated that the NADBank
resources will be supplemented with  other sources of financing,  including financial markets,
commercial banks, institutional investors, direct private sector investment, existing governmental
funds, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (from August 1996, NADBank
brochure).

EPA Water Infrastructure Funding for  1996

In FY 1996, EPA received  $100 million for border environmental infrastructure and $50 million
for Texas colonias.  EPA plans to use the $100  million for several purposes:   A—constructing
current EPA-assisted projects; B~providing technical assistance to  BECC;  C—constructing
BECC-certified projects in  combination with other funding sources; D~providing assistance to
indigenous communities; and E~providing assistance to small communities.

For category A, EPA would continue funding for ongoing EPA-assisted projects (e.g., Imperial
Valley/Mexicali, Nogales/Nogales,  and Rio  Grande city pairs) through transition to BECC-
certified projects where possible.

For category B, EPA would assist additional communities in preparing the facility planning which
includes financial, technical and environmental feasibility analyses required for  BECC certification,
especially at the BECC Step 2 application level.  EPA is planning to provide approximately $10
million to the BECC for this purpose.  This technical assistance program  will be  particularly
helpful to small communities on both sides of the border  seeking to  develop  environmental
infrastructure projects.  EPA recognizes the special needs of small communities and may consider
additional measures to provide assistance to small communities to help them understand and
participate in the project development process.
October 1996
                                                                             Appendix 4.7

-------
 Meeting the Financial Needs

 For category C, EPA would use its funds in combination with funds from SEMARNAP, the
 World Bank,  and other sources to make NADBank loans for BECC-certified projects more
 affordable. BECC/NADBank would make an initial determination of whether EPA funds are
 needed to make a project affordable and, if so, request that EPA consider making funds available.
 Upon receipt of such a request, EPA would work with BECC/NADBank to determine if the
 project is eligible and if funding would be appropriate.  EPA would evaluate BECC/NADBank
 requests on a case-by-case basis, using criteria yet to be developed. EPA would work through the
 Water Workgroup to help establish priorities.

 For category D, EPA will provide funds for drinking water and wastewater infrastructure to
 indigenous communities in the U.S. within 100  kilometers of the border.  EPA will work with
 tribal governments and the Indian Health Service to administer the program.

 For category E, EPA is working with the NADBank and U.S. states along the border to develop a
 program that addresses financial needs of small communities for drinking water and wastewater
 infrastructure.
                                                                           October 1996
Appendix 4.8

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                          A
PPENDIX 5
   State and Municipal Decentralization and Strengthening

               in Mexico in the Context of Border XXI

Introduction

Strengthening of environmental management capabilities in the states and municipalities of Mexico's
northern border, as well as the decentralization of certain functions which are currently under federal
responsibility, are a high priority for SEMARNAP and one of the principal challenges for Border
XXI.  The strengthening of environmental management capabilities will require the creation of
conditions, at the local level, which ensure that the process of establishing a new distribution of
responsibility will not cause shortfalls in authority or services.

The process of decentralization described here is more far reaching than the simple transfer of
functions from one  area of government to another. In seeking that those responsible for planning,
implementation, and evaluation of environmental actions are always in the levels  of government
closest to where the  problems are generated, Border XXI attempts to move decision-making closer
to the communities. Decentralization is not an end in itself, but rather a means of achieving better
efficiency, equality,  and democracy in decision-making.

Through decentralization, the functions and decisions which were originally under federal authority
are passed to local authorities under schemes realistic for the states and border municipalities,  in order
to guarantee optimal functioning.

As  defined by the  National Development Plan  (PND), the New Federalism hopes to achieve a
profound redistribution of resources and opportunities: "This Plan recognizes that with all levels of
the government, the federal agencies should assume shared responsibility for actions and programs
to balance resources and opportunities with the idea of mitigating the disparities in the development
among states and municipalities."

Under these directives, SEMARNAP has designed  a  strategy to  further these objectives.  This
strategy follows the Secretariats's overall decentralization project and, in the case of the northern
border, the Subcomponent for the Strengthening of State and Municipal Environmental Management
under the Northern Border Environmental Program.
October 1996
                                        Appendix 5.1

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                                                              State and Municipal Decentralization

SEMARNAP'S Decentralization Strategy for Environmental Management

SEMARNAP has initiated an ambitious national program of decentralization of environmental
management which incorporates all areas in a Network that will integrate efforts and coordinate
actions accordingly.  SEMARNAP's decentralization process will  be subject to the particular
conditions of each federal entity, particularly the will and the actual capacity of authorities or civic
groups to assume the responsibilities associated with a transition to sustainable development.

In the context of the  Network,  decentralization is seen as a process of transferring policy
responsibilities,  administrative  functions, and  resources  from federal  to state governments,
municipalities, and, by extension, to the private and public sectors.

The decentralization project is based on certain major criteria. First,  it aims to increase efficiency
through an increase in government responsiveness and the location of environmental management
closer to the source of environmental problems resulting in more flexible, well-informed, and less
costly environmental management. Second, it seeks to support participation and assure justice in
order to realize more democratic and transparent processes, a  more equitable situation for the
different social sectors and greater compliance with environmental and natural resource standards.
Third, decentralization implies the promotion of intergovernmental relations, a model which assumes
that fundamental public activities  simultaneously involve the three  levels of government in an
interdependent relation.  This framework of interdependence is based on the principle that the local
and state levels of government will resolve issues to the greatest extent possible, without intervention
from higher levels of government. Finally, it is important to recognize the necessity of maintaining
federal participation in situations of high risk or vulnerability, such as hazardous waste management
infrastructure or the loss of biodiversity.

The completion of the aforementioned objectives assumes compliance with certain operating criteria:

A) Advance the decentralization program using the  Network in which all areas of SEMARNAP
participate. In this process, the regional offices study the ability of every state government and
municipality or social group to comply with the conditions for decentralization of a responsibility or
function.  In general, these necessary conditions are the availability of an adequate legal basis, a
specific responsible organization, qualified personnel,  budgetary information, necessary  equipment
and materials, and infrastructure.  As local components of the Network, a State Coordinating Group
for the Decentralization Project (GCD) will be established in every state and a State Environmental
Management Group (CGA) will be created.

B) Establish a Coordination Agreement between SEMARNAP and each of the states, accompanied
by appropriate conventions and agreements.  This agreement should determine the penalties, the
reversion clauses, and  the general safeguards that should be  applied in case the  established
arrangements for the decentralization process are not met.
Appendix 5.2
                                                                               October 1996

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State and Municipal Decentralization
C) Provide support to consolidate state management capacity.  In this regard, the Secretariat is
analyzing possible support which could include the transfer of infrastructure and equipment,
specialized  equipment and materials,  technical assessments, training, personnel  exchange,  the
exchange of budgeted resources, and support in obtaining a line of credit.

D) Provide follow-up and evaluate the decentralization process. The follow-up and  evaluation will
include a substantive analysis (results compared to the proposed objectives) as well as an operational
analysis (implementation against program and operating criteria).

To date, the participants in the Network have identified 46 federal  actions for decentralization. The
Subseceratary of Natural Resources has identified 7, Fisheries 5, the National Institute of Fisheries
1, the National Institute of Ecology 15, the Federal Attorney General for the Protection of the
Environment 7, and the National Water Commission 11. The following is a detailed account of these
actions for each of the Authorities.
AUTHORITY
1. REC.NAT.DGF
DGF
DGF
DGF
UNIRN
DGRCS
DGRCS
2. FISHERIES
3. INP
ACTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
Preventing, detecting, fighting, controlling and extinguishing forest
fires.
Health diagnostic and fighting and controlling forest pests and
diseases.
Transferring technology related to the management of forest
resources.
Actions to incorporate owners of forest resources into forestry
management and processes.
National Inventory of Forest Resources (Forest and soil).
Reforestation and revegetation.
Permits to change land use in forest territory.
Management of fresh water fish resources (to decentralize in the
medium term).
Granting commercial fishing permits and fresh water sporting-
recreational permits (in the medium term).
Rural aquaculture.
Aquacultural centers.
Aquacultural infrastructure.
Aquacultural investigation.
October 1996
Appendix 5.3

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                                                                   State and Municipal Decentralization
       AUTHORITY
                            ACTION
  4. INE DGGIA
  DGGIA
  DGGIA
  DGGIA
  DGRMR

  DGRMR
  DGRMR

  DGRMR
  DGCAE
  DGCAE
  DGCAE
  DGCAE
  DGIAOE

  DGIAOE

  DGRA
 1.   Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry (PRTR).
 2.   Operation of air quality monitoring equipment.
 3.   Integration of state inventories of sources of air pollution.
 4.   Environmental information.
 5.   Authorization for management of sludge from wastewater treatment.
 6.   Authorization of collection centers for used oil.
 7.   Authorization for the management of used microgenerator oil.
 8.   Authorization for the management of special wastes.
 9.   National park administration.
 10.  Administration of natural protected areas.
 11.  Administration of nonmigratory game species.
 12.  Distribution of stamps for hunting permits (I to IV).
 13.  Management and instrumentation for studies of regional ecological
     planning.
 14.  Evaluation of environmental impact statements of the automobile
     and soft drink industries.
 15.  Issuing of operating licenses for stationary sources within federal
     jurisdiction.
  5. PROFEPA
1.   The measurement and control of air emissions. The management of
     air monitoring equipment.
2.   Inspection and compliance monitoring in the area of pollution control
     in small and micro industries.
3.   Forestry inspection and compliance.
4.   Fishery inspection and compliance.
5.   Inspection and compliance in the traffic of species.
6.   Inspection of the Federal Maritime Land Zone.
7.   Follow-up and resolution of complaints and denunciations outside
     the domain of PROFEPA authority.
  6. CNA
1.   Efficient use of water in cities.
2.   Efficient use of water and energy for irrigation.
3.   Strengthening of operating entities.
4.   Modernization and rehabilitation of irrigation districts and sectors.
5.   Studies, designs, and construction of hydraulic and protection
    works.
6.   Clean water.
7.   Aquatic underbrush in bodies of water.
8.   Participation in state hydraulic planning.
9.   Delimitation and control of federal zones in urban and rural areas.
10. Introduction of market mechanisms and strengthening of the
    Watershed Advisory Councils.
11. Irrigation districts.	
Appendix 5.4
                                                       October 1996

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State and Municipal Decentralization

The Strengthening of State and Municipal Environmental Management of the
Northern Border Environmental Program

The Northern Border Environmental Program is an environmental program for the region based on
credit from the World Bank and resources from federal, state, and municipal entities that function as
credit  partners.   The  Subcomponent for Strengthening State and  Municipal Environmental
Management managed by INE is intended to strengthen the environmental authorities of all the border
states and  of the ten  largest border municipalities through personnel training, the provision of
equipment  for the control and prevention of environmental pollution, and specific studies which
permit the development of an environmental development strategy. This Subcomponent has a budget
of $24  million (USD) for the next five years.

The project will support efforts to strengthen the following:
a) state offices of ecology;
b) state and municipal environmental legislation;
c) analytical, diagnostic, and environmental quality monitoring capacity;
d) capacity for integrated planning for development; and
e) shared social responsibility in environmental management.

The environmental studies and  action plans for the states of Sonora,  Chihuahua, Coahuila,  and
Tamaulipas as well as the municipalities of Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua; Nogales, Sonora; Nuevo
Laredo, Tamaulipas; and Matamoros, Tamaulipas have already received the "No Objection" approval
from the World Bank in the last trimester of 1995. These states and municipalities have already,
during  1996, begun to use these resources. Also, the studies and action plans for the state of Baja
California and the municipalities of Tijuana and Mexicali, Baja California and San Luis Rio Colorado,
Sonora have recently obtained the "No Objection" approval.

Towards an Integrated Decentralization Strategy for Border XXI Program

Border XXI  draws upon  the  central  concepts  put forth in SEMARNAP's  "Strategy for  the
Decentralization of Environmental Management" and applies them to the border region. In particular,
Border XXI presents a model which attempts to identify communication channels and coordination
mechanisms that foster compatibility between federal government proposals, capabilities,  and
resources,  and the concerns and demands of local governments.  It seeks to  harmonize federal
proposals with local capabilities through specific agreements with border states and municipalities.

As  progress towards the signing of the Coordination Agreements with the border states is being
made, the Subcomponent for Strengthening of State and Municipal Environmental Management of
the Northern Border Environmental Program will be establishing the foundation of institutional
infrastructure to realize the goals of decentralization. The intention is to strengthen the technical  and
institutional capacity  of the states  and  municipalities, so as to  enable them to  exercise  the
October 1996
Appendix 5.5

-------
                                                                State and Municipal Decentralization
 responsibilities assigned to them by law, as well as the new functions which will be conferred on them
 from the federal level through the Coordination Agreements.

 The evolution of the Border XXI Program will be under the following four fundamental strategy
 directions:

 1.  Resolve critical structural issues and carry out organizational obligations identified under the
 current scope of environmental management in the states and municipalities in the northern border.
Critical Structural Issues/
Organizational Obligations
• Need to focus attention on international
affairs.
• Lack of commitment and participation by
other sectors and levels of government.
• Confusion in the community regarding the
area of competence of each level of
government.
• Lack of a human resources strategy and
existence of budget and personnel policies
with a high level of organizational
efficiency.
• Lack of a plan for decentralization of
management.
• Excessive attention to urgent issues, to the
detriment of established priorities.
• Minimal availability of basic and technical
equipment.
• Absence of efficient mechanisms to follow
up on the development of key processes.
Response
• Creation of regional subgroups in which
states and municipalities are involved as
participants in the binational groups.
• Revisions to legislation to give more legal
authority to the states and municipalities.
• Generalized delegation of implementation
to states and municipalities based on the
strengthening of environmental
management.
• Revaluation of human resources and
modernization of the structure of
environmental management in the states
and municipalities.
ซ Development of planning studies for state
and municipal environmental management.
• Change the tendency of excessive attention
to immediate emergencies through
planning activities and systematization of
processes.
• Equipment and training of the state and
municipal environmental management
authorities.
• Establishment of indexes and measures of
performance.
Appendix 5.6
October 1996

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State and Municipal Decentralization

          Critical Structural Issues/
         Organizational Obligations
              Response
    Limited progress in the automation of
    operating processes.
Development of environmental and
geographical information systems in the
states and municipalities.
    Fragmented vision and little systematic
    focus on the fundamental operating
    processes in state and municipal
    environmental management.	
Introduction of the work methodologies of
the ISO-14000 standards.
2.  Establish the foundations for the development of planned and participatory environmental
management.

•  All the agents and essential sectors should participate in the definition of the direction for state
   and municipal environmental management in the northern border.
•  The creation of a unit to integrate the action plans of the northern border states and municipalities
   will be necessary.
•  Implementation should be delegated to states and municipalities.
•  A specific mechanism to improve the involvement of industries and universities in environmental
   management should be created.
•  Intersectorial  coordination will be restored as a key element to achieve the incorporation of
   environmental issues into the policies of the Federal Public Administration.

3. Focus on objectives with a perspective which considers time and multiple coverage.
•  Work on environmental problems in short, medium, and long terms.
•  Local and regional coverage.
•  Formulation of actions specifically oriented towards the solution of strategic and priority problems
   through the application of systematic and exhaustive efforts.

4. Strengthen local environmental response capacity with regard to concerns that fall under local
authority and assemble the elements necessary to assume new responsibilities which are currently
under federal authority.
•  Strengthening of the state and municipal agencies responsible for environmental management.
•  Strengthening of municipal and ecological planning capacity.
•  Strengthening of capacity for  identification,  environmental  diagnosis,  and resolution  of
   environmental problems.
•  Strengthening of citizens' participation in environmental management.
October 1996
                               Appendix 5.7

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                                                               State and Municipal Decentralization
Decentralization in the Context of Border XXI
In terms  of water concerns, legal and regulatory barriers prevent local  authorities and water
administrators in border cities from addressing needs such as drinking water quantity and quality,
treatment plants for wastewater, and sewers.  In this regard, the laws of the border states are
significantly outdated and lead to inadequate rate policies, restrict the framework for supporting
investments or grants in sanitation works, cause an absence of graduated  cost strategies for
wastewater dischargers,  and place legal restrictions on local  water district administrators which
prevent them from, among other things, directly receiving external financing.

Under Border XXI, existing legislation will be revised to give more legal authority to state and
municipal administrators.  Specifically, a new legal framework will be established for each border
government entity to provide administrators with the authority necessary to meet their responsibilities,
permit them to receive direct external financing (particularly from NADBank), and facilitate private
sector investment in drinking water, sanitation,  and sewage systems.

The decentralization of air monitoring activities in the border states and municipalities represents a
major benefit for  these communities.  The federal government is committed to  this effort. The
participation of ever greater segments of society and local authorities in air monitoring responds to
the general demand for access to information by those directly affected by environmental concerns.
In the near term, it is feasible that the allocation of equipment as well as the development of the
capacity required  to carry out these efforts will  be initiated. Nevertheless,  support  for the
development of financial schemes which will allow for efficient, reliable, and sustainable operation
and maintenance of quality air monitoring programs by the municipalities involved must be provided.

In this context, the pilot subgroup of local participants representing nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs) and academics, as well as representatives of state and municipal governments, constitute the
Binational Committee for Air Quality in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Similar committees may be formed
later in other regions along the border.

Although the management and disposition of hazardous wastes is currently under federal jurisdiction,
within the Border XXI Program the involvement of states and municipalities in all activities that
pertain to the tracking and the control of such wastes, including consultation with local communities
on the identification of possible locations for the establishment of waste disposal and recycling centers
is contemplated.  SEMARNAP intends to differentiate hazardous wastes in terms of high or low risk
factors, a process which may eventually result in more direct participation by state governments in
the management of such wastes.

Environmental education, pollution prevention, and emergency response actions are activities for
which local authorities should have direct input to Border XXI.  Although it is possible to preserve
the current structure and the existing federal scope of the  workgroups  in order to carry out
negotiations and address issues of overall coordination with our U.S. counterparts, specific actions
Appendix 5.8
October 1996

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State and Municipal Decentralization

and operations should be in the hands of those most directly impacted.  To this end, as a general
strategy  it is contemplated that regional subgroups which will be integral parts of the binational
workgroups will be created to involve states and municipalities.

Within the Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance Workgroup two local subgroups were created,
one formed by California and Baja California and the other incorporating Texas, New Mexico and
Chihuahua.

The growing participation of state governments represents  an  opportunity  to think about
decentralizing conservation and development of natural resources, in particular the management of
wild flora and fauna in natural protected areas.  This will be one of the priorities of the Border XXI
Program.

The preceding ideas are only some of the possibilities for advancing along the path toward
decentralization of environmental management in the northern border region. Refinement of these
ideas and the momentum for their definition, depends in each case on the political will and the
technical  and institutional capacity of each local government, along with a clear decision by federal
environmental authorities to transfer responsibilities and the corresponding resources.
October 1996
Appendix 5.9

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-------
                                            NDIX 6
   Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy
 Project Name:
Cooperative Agreement with the Southwest Center for Environmental
Research and Policy (SCERP)
 L Purpose and Objectives: EPA's FY1996 appropriation included "$2,000,000 for the Southwest
 Center for Environmental Research and Policy." EPA's objective with this cooperative agreement
 is to provide for the improvement of the health and environment along the U.S.-Mexico border.
 Since no media focus (i.e. air, water, waste, etc.) was specified by the appropriation language,
 SCERP and the Office of Air and Radiation will pursue efforts in most, if not all, media.

 IL Amount of Money Invested and Recipient of Funds: $2,000,000 congressionally directed to
 SCERP. An additional $100,000 is provided by the recipient as a 5 percent matching contribution.
    Partners in the Project:
    SCERP Institutions:
       University of Utah
       San Diego State University
       University of Texas, El Paso
       New Mexico State University
       Arizona State University
    SCERP Partners:
       Institute Tecnologico y de Estudios
       Superiores de Monterrey
                              Universidad Autonoma de Baja
                               California
                              Institute Tecnologico de Ciudad Juarez
                              Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad
                               Juarez
                              Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA
                              Region 6, U.S. EPA
                              Region 9, U.S. EPA
IV. Description: Under a cooperative agreement with EPA, SCERP institutions are conducting 20
projects that address health and environmental problems of the border region.  The projects were
selected through a competitive process involving individuals form SCERP's management committee,
EPA Headquarters, and EPA Regions 6 and 9. Some of the projects focus on one media while others
may be multimedia in nature (e.g. both air and water).  The agreement covers a one-year period.

V. Current Status: The cooperative agreement is in place, and individual project proposals of the
grant have been approved and are underway through a pre-award agreement.

VL Schedule: The one-year project period of this agreement is expected to begin in late July, 1996
and continue for one year.

For additional information on SCERP and SCERP projects please, visit SCERP's World Wide Web
homepage at http://www.civil.utah.edu/scerp/. Also SCERP's 1995 programs are listed in EPA's
publication Compendium of EPA Binational and Domestic U.S./Mexico Activities.
October 1996
                                                                          Appendix 6.1

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                           A
    PPENDIX 7
                 Border XXI Community Grant Projects
                         U.S.-Mexico Border Region

Last fall, EPA awarded a total of 14 Border XXI Community Grants, each for up to $35,000 in
funding for communities in the U.S.-Mexico border region. EPA's Office of International Activities
initiated the grant program to strategically address environmental issues in the U.S.-Mexico border
region by strengthening local capacity at the community level.  As part of EPA's "place-based"
environmental decision-making initiative, these grants will assist border communities to respond to
environmental and related health needs particular to their situation and location in the border area.
The work that will be accomplished through these grants will provide valuable public input into the
development of Border XXI.

EPA has awarded these Border XXI Community Grants to empower the various sister-cities and
border communities of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas; and as a means of identifying
their specific needs and priorities and facilitating more effective coordination with local, state and
federal governments.  All of these grants have a one-year project period for completion and EPA's
Office of International Activities expects to meet with all of the grant recipients next year to review
the results of these projects and assess their input to the U.S.-Mexico border program.

The attached table provides the project names, locations, grant recipients, points of contact, and
project summaries for the Border XXI Community Grants which have been awarded by EPA. For
further information regarding the Border XXI Community Grants,, please contact one of the EPA
offices listed below.
EPA Contacts

Office of International Activities:

San Diego Border Liaison Office:

El Paso Border Liaison Office:
Lorry Frigerio (202) 260-6623
Pam Teel (202) 260-4896
Brent Maier (619) 235-4767
Colleen Smith (619) 235-4768
Marvin Waters (915) 533-7273
October 1996
                                                                           Appendix 7.1

-------
Border XXI Community Grant Projects U.S.-Mexico Border Region
              BORDER XXI COMMUNITY GRANT PROJECTS U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION
 Cochise County -
 Northeast Sonora
 Planning Project

 Cochise County, AZ
Arizona Toxics Information

Contact: Nicola Zeuner at
(520) 432-5374.
Project addresses hazard prevention and
reduction through binational training of
community planners.
 Ambos Nogales
 Environmental Action
 Plan

 Nogales, AZ;
 Nogales, Sonora
City of Nogales., AZ

Contact: Michael Hein or Lorena
Lopez at (520) 287-6571.
The Ambos Nogales Environmental
Committee will host six one-day conferences
or workshops, establish an environmental
information center in Nogales, AZ and
Nogales, Sonora, and develop a public
outreach program.
  Environmental
  Priorities, Needs, and
  Solutions in the San
  Diego/Tijuana Border
  Region
Environmental Committee of the
San Diego-Tijuana Region of the
United Nations Association; the
Border Progress Foundation;
Institute for Regional Studies of
the Californians, San Diego State
University; San Diego-Tijuana
Binational Environmental Task
Force

Contact: Paul Ganster at
(619) 594-5423,
Kaare Kjos at (619) 285-1725 or
Elsa Saxod at (619) 291-1574.
Establish a proactive environmental and
infrastructure planning process through public
outreach by creating a binational San Diego-
Tijuana Environmental Task Force, including
members of the business, government, and
environmental communities.
  Mariposa Community
  Health Center

  Nogales, AZ;
  Nogales, Sonora
Mariposa Community Health
Center

Contact: Maria Jesus Arevalo at
(520)281-1550.
Project focuses on reducing, reusing and
recycling household solid waste, including
hazardous waste, in Ambos Nogales; and the
design and implementation of a binational
household solid waste program in Ambos
Nogales.
  Sonoran Institute:
  Series of Border
  Community
  Workshops/Forums

  Western Sonoran
  Desert
Sonoran Institute

Contact: John Shepard or Juaquin
Murrieta at (520) 290-0828.
Community workshops and forums throughout
southwestern Arizona-northwestern Sonora
and Baja to develop regional consensus on
shared priorities and a Western Sonoran Desert
Border Plan.
Appendix 7.2
                                                                                    October 1996

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                                          Border XXI Community Grant Projects U.S.-Mexico Border Region
               BORDER XXI COMMUNITY GRANT PROJECTS U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION
  Tijuana River
  Watershed Toxics
  Data Project
Arizona Toxics Information

Contact: Michael Gregory at
(520) 432-5374.
Identify sources and develop criteria for toxics
data on both sides of the border required for
GIS mapping of the Tijuana River watershed.
Facilitate interface of GIS project personnel
with toxics decision makers in Mexico; and
develop outreach materials and activities to
facilitate transborder dialogue.
  Building a Kumeyaay
  Environmental
  Strategy:
  A U.S.-Mexico
  Border/Frontera 2000
  Community Planning
  Project
Campo Band of Mission Indians,
Campo, California

Contact: Michael Connolly or
Fidel Hyde at (619) 478-9369.
Development of a water quality control plan to
measure water quality trends as well as a cross-
border planning mechanism to enhance long-
range environmental protection of the natural
resources on Kumeyaay/Kumiai
community/Reservation lands.
  Environmental Plan
  of Los
  Dos Laredos

  Laredo, Texas; Nuevo
  Laredo
City of Laredo

Contact: Marina Sukup, Keith
Selman or Mary Mahoney at
(210) 791-7464 or
 (210) 791-7441.
Creation of a bi-national environmental plan
for Laredo, Texas, and Nuevo Laredo,
Tamaulipas. The environmental plan will
address environmentally sensitive issues
between the sister cities for the next 20 years.
  Ayuda's Selfhelp
  Community A.I.R.E.
  Project

  San Elizario, Texas
AYUDA: Adults and Youth
United Development Association

Contact: Rosario Saenz at
(915)851-0272.
Creation of a long range community action
environmental plan for this "colonia" area.
Incorporates public input through meetings,
local interest campaigns, environmental fairs,
and a special focus on youth activities. Project
will include a pilot process for individual septic
tank acquisitions.
  Environmental
  Improvement Plan,
  City of Donna, Texas
City of Donna, TX

Contact: Robert Diaz de Leon at
(210)464-3314.
Development of a long-term environmental
plan including public input and the
incorporation of pollution prevention.
  Environmental
  Improvement Plan,
  City of Progresso,
  Texas
City of Progresso, TX

Contact: Arturo Valdez at
(210) 565-0241.
Multi-media infrastructure approach to
environmental issues such as potable water,
surface damage and solid waste in a recently
incorporated "colonia" located in the lower Rio
Grande Valley area.
October 1996
                                                                                      Appendix 7.3

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 Border XXI Community Grant Projects U.S.-Mexico Border Region
               BORDER XXI COMMUNITY GRANT PROJECTS U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION
  An Ecological
  Baseline Model for
  the U.S.-Mexico
  Border Region

  Columbus, New
  Mexico; Palomas,
  Chihuahua
The Environmental Finance
Center, New Mexico Engineering
Research Institute, The University
of New Mexico

Contact: Heather Hummelburger
at (505) 272-7357.
Establish an ecological baseline in the area of
Columbus, New Mexico and Puerto Palomas,
Chihuahua, two communities located
approximately 70 miles west of El Paso-
Ciudad Juarez.
  Environmental
  Improvement Plan for
  Southwest Webb
  County, Texas
County of Webb, Texas

Contact: Juan Vargas at
(210) 718-8601.
Development of an overall environmental
improvement plan which will include 3 large
"colonias".
  Environmental
  Cooperation and
  Community Building
  along the Rio Grande
  at Big Bend National
  Park
National Parks and Conservation
Association

Contact: David Simon at
 (505) 247-1221.
Community outreach workshops, creation of a
regional council with representatives from the
communities, land management entities, and
major stakeholders to serve as a forum for
environment/development issues. Also
planned is an extension program to address
range management issues impacting Big Bend
National Park's environment.
Appendix 7.4
                                                           October 1996

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                            A
PPENDIX  8
   Social and Economic Overview of the U.S.-Mexico Border

 The U.S.-Mexico border area, defined as the area within 100 km on either side of the international
 boundary includes four U.S. border states and six Mexican border states. Along the international
 boundary, this includes 39 Mexican municipalities, 25 U.S. counties and 14 pairs of sister cities. This
 area stretches almost 3000 km from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. Many other U.S.
 counties and Mexican municipalities are located entirely or partially in the 200 kilometer zone but are
 not adjacent to the international boundary.

 The international boundary defines not only the political jurisdictions of the two countries but also
 distinguishes two nations with distinct social, cultural and political features. At the same time, the
 border area emerges as a space in which these differences converge and become less distinct.  Some
 of the defining characteristics shared by border communities are:

       a) the intense interrelationship between communities on both sides of the border;
       b) the rapidly growing population;
       c) the strong presence of new economic factors, such as niaquiladoras, with a high social,
          economic, and environmental impact; and
       d) the constant transboundary movement of people, goods, and resources.

 The Border XXI Program attempts to address and find solutions for specific infrastructure and
 environmental protection needs within the socioeconomic and cultural context particular to border
 communities.

 Population

 The border region is currently home to more than 10.5 million people with about 6.2 million in the
 U.S. (59 percent) and 4.3 million in Mexico (41 percent).

 Almost 90 percent of the border population lives in urban areas. For the most part, these urban areas
 are sister city communities composed of a U.S.  and Mexican city closely related by proximity,
 commerce, and shared resources.  The sister cities are the main points of commercial and human
 transboundary movement and are the industrial centers of the region.

 The sister cities of San Diego and Tijuana have a population of more than 3.5 million people and El
 Paso  and Ciudad Juarez have more than 1.5 million.  Six other sister city pairs have combined
 populations of over 150,000 each: Imperial Country-Mexicali, Laredo-Nuevo Laredo, McAllen-
 Reynosa, BrownsviUe-Matamoros, Nogales-Nogales and Yuma-San Luis Rio Colorado. The region
 of Califomia-Baja California, including the counties of San Diego and Imperial and the municipalities
 of Tijuana, Tecate, and Mexicali, alone makes up 44.5 percent of the total population in the border
 area,  while the area of El Paso-Ciudad Juarez makes up 15.4 percent of the border area's total
 population.  Most other parts of the border area are sparsely populated with several counties and
municipalities having fewer than ten persons per square mile (approximately 4 persons/km2).
October 1996
                                                                             Appendix 8.1

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Social and Economic Overview of the U.S.-Mexico Border

Population growth on both sides of the border has been noticeably rapid, growing far faster than that
of the population as a whole in either country. In the border area of Mexico, the growth rate is 3
percent (the fastest growing municipalities are Tijuana with 5%, Nogales 4.9%, and Ciudad Juarez
4.5%) and in the U.S. border area the growth rate is 2.7 percent.  Between 1950 and 1980, the
population of the Mexican border states tripled and that of the U.S. border states doubled. The birth
rate in 1990  for the Mexican border states (27.6 births/1000  people) was less than the national
average (32.2 births/1000 people); however, according to the 1990 U.S. census, the birth rate in the
U.S. border states (19.1  births/1000 people) is higher than the national average (16 births/1000
people).  The differences in the birth rates in both regions may  reflect cultural and economic
differences between the border region and their respective countries, but also may reflect a common
influence between the two communities.

Life expectancy in the Mexican border area is higher than the national average.  In 1992, life
expectancy in the Mexican border states was 70.3 years. In the U.S. border area, life expectancy in
1990 was 75.4 years, almost the same as the U.S. national average of 75.5 years (1992). Mortality
rates in the Mexican border states are slightly below the national  average;  similarly mortality rates in
U.S. border states are slightly lower than the national average.  However, it is worth noting that in
border municipalities with a large migratory influx there is a high rate of infant mortality.

Despite recent setbacks in the Mexican economy, expected long-term economic growth in the border
region is  likely to stimulate continued rapid population growth  in the  area.   Current population
projections forecast a doubling of the border population over the next 20 years.

The U.S. border area is more ethnically diverse than the rest of the country with about 57 percent of
the border population consisting of ethnic minorities, versus about 20 percent in the U.S. population
as a whole.  For example, in El Paso 69 percent of the population is Latino  (Hispanic), as is 90
percent in Brownsville. More than 97 percent of the  Starr County (Texas) population is Latino
(Hispanic). Ten of the 25 U.S. counties with the greatest number  of people born outside the U.S. are
in the border region.  Spanish is the dominant language of many U.S. border communities.

Income, Employment, and Quality of Life

The six Mexican border states have poverty rates considerably below the national average, with the
exception of Tamaulipas which has a rate closer to the national average ('poverty' as defined by
Mexico).  These Mexican border states also tend to have a more uniform income distribution than
for Mexico as a whole. At the municipal level, this equity in income distribution is even more evident.
However, these communities confront deficiencies in the provision of basic services and have more
unmet needs than the national average.

The U.S. border population, on the other hand, tends to be poorer than the rest of the country with
more than 20 percent living below the poverty level as  compared to 12 percent in the country as a
whole ('poverty' as defined by the U.S.). There are big differences in income along the U.S. border.
About 8 percent of San Diego,  California's population is  below the poverty line while in Stan-
County, Texas about 55 percent of the population lives in poverty. Three of the ten poorest counties
in the U.S. are located in the border area and 21 U.S. border communities have been designated as
economically distressed.
Appendix 8.2
                                                                               October 1996

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                                               Social and Economic Overview of the U.S.-Mexico Border

In terms of employment, in Mexico many of the manufacturing jobs and associated service jobs reflect
the effect of Mexico's maquiladora program which was created in the mid-1960s. The program grew
significantly during the 1980s as a result of Mexico's peso devaluation which lowered salaries and
made industrial development  on the Mexican side of the border attractive.   An increase  in
maquiladoras also occurred in 1995 because of the 1994 peso devaluation. From fewer than 100
maquiladoras nationwide in the 1960s, by December 1995, there were more than 2000 businesses
employing more than 600,000 workers, with 89 percent located in the northern border area of Mexico
(around 550,000 employees). These industries represent the second largest source of export earnings
in Mexico.  The largest concentrations of maquiladora plants are in Tijuana with 515  plants employing
95,500 employees and Ciudad Juarez with 263 plants employing more than 150,000 people.

The effect of border municipalities on Mexican national economic indicators is significant, especially
in the areas  of employment and goods purchased.  Also, these border municipalities have a
concentration of 11.6 percent of the national industrial manufacturing workers.

Manufacturing activity, the second economic sector, employs 28 percent of Mexico's economically
active population. For the border states this number is greater than the national average (except for
Sonora, in which manufacturing activity employs 25% of the economically active population).  In
Mexico, the  manufacturing activity of the border region is concentrated in the municipalities of
Ciudad Juarez,  Chihuahua; Tijuana and Mexicali, Baja California; Matamoros and Reynosa,
Tamaulipas; andNogales, Sonora. These municipalities contribute 83 percent of the jobs generated
in the border region, contribute 87 percent of the total production in the region, and 85  percent of
the value added in the region.

In both countries, the percentage of the population engaged in agriculture is generally lower than in
the rest of the country; although in a few border counties, primarily in the lower Rio Grande area and
Imperial County, California, agriculture is important.

Education

The Mexican border states have better access to education and their education levels are higher than
the national average.  For example, inNuevo Leon and Sonora about 90 percent of the population
ages 5 to 14  have access to education. Data on the percentage of the population considered to be
without schooling shows about 18 percent at the national level versus less than 10 percent in the
border area.

In the U.S., there are great variations in levels of education among border counties.  For example,
over 90 percent of the population in San Diego, California, have completed nine years of school while
only 52 percent of the population in Maverick, Texas has done so.  Similar data on the percentage
of the population who are high school graduates show about 82  percent of the population of San
Diego County as having earned high school diplomas while only 20  percent of the population in
Zapata, Texas has graduated from high school.

Colonias

Colonias are U.S. rural settlements with substandard housing and poor living conditions along the
U.S.-Mexico border. Colonias are found mostly in New Mexico and Texas; it is estimated that over

October 1996                                                                     Appendix 83

-------
 Social and Economic Overview of the U.S.-Meiico Border

 390,000 people in Texas and 42,000 people in New Mexico live in them. These communities often
 lack basic services of potable water, wastewater treatment, drainage, electricity, and paved roads.
 The federal government and the states of Texas and New Mexico have undertaken steps and are
 exploring new ways to address the problems of colonias.

 The information contained in this appendix was drawn from the following sources:

 1.     U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Government Printing Office, County
       and City Data Book 1994, Washington D.C., 1994.

 2.     The Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Social and Economic Structure of the Northern Border,
       Feb 1995.

 3.     Institute National de Estadistica,  Geografia e Informatica, Collection of Annual Statistics for
       the Northern Border States, 1994.

 4.     Institute National de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica, The XI General Census Volumes
       I and Us, Northern Border Basic Tabulated Information, 1990.

 5.     National Center for Health Statistics.

 6.     Ganster, Paul and Alan Sweedler, "The United States-Mexican Border Region: Security and
       Interdependence," in David Lorey, ed., United States-Mexico Border Statistics since 1900
       (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center, 1990)

 7.     Report of the Public Advisory Committee, State of the U.S.-Mexico Border Environment,
       September 1993.

 8.     U.S.EPA and Lockheed, The U.S. Mexico Border Environment Report—Surface Water
       Quality (Draft),.

 9.      Texas Water Development Board, Colonias Needs Survey (executive summary)!

 10.    Twin Plant News, June 1996.

 11.    Suarez y Toriello, Enrique and Chavez Alzaga Octavio, Perfil de la Frontera Mexico-Estados
       Unidos, FEMAP, 1996.
Appendix 8.4
October 1996

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                           A
PPENDIX  9
                   Summary of Health Impacts From

                    Air Pollution Criteria Pollutants
                      (O3, CO, SO2, PM-10, lead, and NOJ

Many border residents are currently exposed to health-threatening levels of air pollution.  Ozone,
carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, and lead are among air
pollutants of concern in the border region.

Ozone causes lung damage and reduced respiratory function in as short a time as one hour. Ozone
oxidizes  the soft passages of the nose, mouth, and throat causing coughing, choking and eye
irritation. In addition, ozone can make the lungs brittle which reduces people's ability to breathe.
This limited lung capacity can aggravate preexisting respiratory conditions, such as asthma, to
dangerous levels and even in healthy people reduces resistance to disease.

Particulate matter is a complex mixture of soot, ashes, dirt, dust, pollens, molds, and other carbon-
based particles and acid aerosols.  Sources include motor vehicles, mining, construction activity,
agricultural activity, unpaved roads, electric power generation, boilers, home heating systems, wood
burning and waste combustion. The small particles inhaled deeply into human lungs are especially
harmful to people with asthma and chronic pulmonary disease.  High levels of exposure to PM-10
(particles less than 10 microns in  diameter) are associated with increased emergency hospital visits
and hospital admissions as well as premature deaths. Tens of thousands of deaths every year in the
United States are associated with particulate air pollution.

Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas which displaces oxygen from the  blood and
thereby reduces brain and muscle activity.  Carbon monoxide is fatal at high doses. Sources of
exposure include motor vehicles, gas and wood stoves, faulty heaters, and passive tobacco smoking.

Sulfur dioxide is produced by the burning of sulfur-containing impurities in fossil fuels. Sources
include large utility and industrial boilers, smelters, numerous small coal and oil combustors and
emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (e.g., trucks, buses). Health effects include increased broncho-
constriction in asthmatics to an extent that may be perceived as a mild asthma attack and respiratory
symptoms (e.g., wheezing, chest tightness) in asthmatics.

Oxides of Nitrogen, including nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide, are products of combustion and
are potentially dangerous to  human health.  Nitrogen oxide is not an irritant at normal ambient
concentrations and is not considered detrimental to health. When it converts to nitrogen dioxide in
the environment,  it becomes more damaging,  causing nasal irritation, respiratory discomfort,
breathing pain, and fluid accumulation in the lungs. The sensory threshold in humans for this gas is
from 1 to 3 parts per million (ppm).  An ambient concentration above 100 ppm is lethal.

Lead is one of the heavy metals  that becomes widely diffused and is readily inhaled into the body
when it is used as a fuel additive  for gasoline, among other uses. Lead ingestion can lead to  acute
October 1996
                                        Appendix 9.1

-------
 Summary of Health Impacts

 toxicity or can be permanently accumulated in bones, teeth, and the circulatory system. Only 5 to 10
 percent of the lead ingested by humans is absorbed into the body, while between 30 and 40 percent
 of the lead taken in while breathing reaches the blood stream through the lungs.  A concentration of
 120 micrograms of lead per 100 milliliters of blood is considered hazardous.
Appendix 9.2
October 1996

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                          A
PPENDIX  10
                       Ongoing U.S. State and Local
                  Hazardous and Solid Waste Projects
    California
    The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Border coordinator, through
    an EPA grant, and other DTSC staff carry out a variety of U.S.-Mexico border projects
    including tracking movement of hazardous waste shipments across the state border, providing
    training on California requirements for hazardous waste  management and  shipping,
    coordinating efforts by San Diego and Imperial counties, providing technical assistance to
    Mexico upon request, and supporting federal prosecutors' and local District Attorneys'
    investigations and enforcement cases as needed.

    Staff of the San Diego County Hazardous Materials Management Division (HMMD) conduct
    investigations of import/export of hazardous waste shipments between California and Mexico
    for conformance with applicable laws and regulations.   Investigations focus on the Otay
    Mesa, San Ysidro, and Tecate border crossings, and involve close coordination with U.S.
    Customs and the California Highway Patrol. County staff also conduct training on the basics
    of hazardous waste labeling, recognition, documentation, handling and transportation.

    Cal-DTSC has provided an on-site inspector to assist the Imperial County Health Department
    in its hazardous waste enforcement and compliance efforts.   The Cal-DTSC inspector
    conducts unannounced truck stops at the border crossing in Calexico; conducts investigations
    of suspicious waste shipments  as  requested; responds to complaints  regarding waste
    management in the county; conducts enforcement actions resulting from truck stops and
    complaint investigations as necessary; provides technical support for criminal investigations
    in the county; provides training on hazardous waste regulations, inspections, and sampling
    techniques to Customs and other government officials in Imperial County; and participates
    in California border workgroups.

    Arizona

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), through funding support from
    EPA, is conducting surveys of small quantity and conditionally exempt  small quantity
    hazardous waste generators along the border as part  of a broader effort to develop a
    multimedia industrial source inventory. ADEQ is collecting data on raw materials, industrial
    processes,  control technologies, and waste handling practices of industries along the border.
    The data will be used to track and manage hazardous waste disposal in the region. ADEQ
    has also conducted preliminary site assessments in the border area. Sites were evaluated for
    evidence of possible hazardous substance releases and potential impacts.  Preliminary
    assessments and site inspections were conducted through a mutual agreement with the EPA
    under the Superfund program.
October 1996
                                    Appendix 10.1

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Ongoing U.S. State and Local Hazardous and Solid Waste Projects

   New Mexico

   New Mexico's Environment Department Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau
   (HRMB) will develop the Santa Teresa Border Crossing project, an enforcement plan to be
   in place when the new border port of entry opens in 1998.  The plan will draw from existing
   efforts and experience from PROFEPA, EPA, TNRCC and other border authorities.

   Texas

   The  state of Texas will continue to conduct workshops for industry and the community
   covering compliance with import/export requirements, and pollution prevention opportunities
   with sound  materials and waste  management.   They will also work with local border
   communities and local, state, federal and Mexican agencies on issues related to hazardous
   waste.  Five TNRCC staff along the border conduct inspections at bridges, warehouses, etc.,
   to ensure compliance withRCRA and Article HI of the La Paz Agreement along the Texas -
   Mexico border.  In addition, TNRCC's Border Solid Waste Program is currently funded by
   an EPA grant to facilitate compliance assurance in Texas' border region.  The primary focus
   of this program is identifying the  scope and magnitude of illegal dumping problems in this
   region, toward ultimately developing recommendations for feasible long-term, cost-effective
   solutions to illegal dumping problems.  This is a particularly critical issue since many illegal
   dumps in this region have developed due to lack of solid waste services in many of Texas'
   border colonias, a situation which can also lead to health problems and water quality issues.
   Program staff will be  working borderwide with colonia residents, regional  and local
   government officials, NGOs and other entities to ensure workable solutions.
   Appendix 10.2
October 1996

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                        A
                                  PPENDIX   11


                   Additional Sources of Information

Documents of Interest1

•  Compendium of EPA Binational And Domestic U. S.-Mcxico Activities. United States
       Environmental Protection Agency-Office of International Activities. EPA Publication No.
       160-B-95-001. (June 1995).

•  Environmental Protection Along the U.S.-Mexican Border. United States Environmental
       Protection Agency. EPA Publication No. 160-K-94-001. (October 1994).

•  First Annual Report of the Good Neighbor Environmental Board. Report to the President,
       Vice-President, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. (October 1995).

•  Integrated Environmental Plan for the U.S.-Mexican Border Area (First Stage, 1992-1994).
       Report prepared jointly by United States Environmental Protection Agency and Secretaria de
       Desarollo Urbano y Ecologia [Mexico]. United States Government Printing Office
       No.312-014/40061.  (1992).

•  State of the U.S.-Mexico Border Environment. Report of the United States Environmental
       Protection Agency, U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Plan Public Advisory Committee.
       (September 1993).

•  International Boundary and Water Commission Sanitation Issues: United States and Mexico.
       Design and Cost Estimate Report prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth
       District. (September 1992).

•  National Coordinators' Meeting (U.S.-Mexico Border), June 22-25, 1992, Santa Fe,
       New Mexico. Report prepared by U.S.-Mexico Border Team, U.S. Environmental Protection
       Agency, Region 9, San Francisco, California. (1992).

 •   SEMARNAP-EPA Joint Report of the U.S.-Mexico National Coordinators Meeting,
       Mexico City, June 20-23, 1995. Report prepared jointly by United States Environmental
       Protection Agency and Secretario de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca. (1995).
       ^ostof the documents listed here are available at the Environmental Protection Agency's Border Office information centers
in San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas. Some may also be available at larger public libraries, or university libraries.

October 1996                                                                  Appendix 11.1

-------
             Additional Sources of Information
             •  Bilingual pollution training manuals on the following industries: 1. Waste Minimization for the
                    Metal Finishing Industry (May 1993), 2. Pollution Prevention for the Wood Finishing Industry
                    (October 1994), 3. Pollution Prevention in the Electronics Industry (May 1996), and
                    4. Pollution Prevention in the Textile Industry (March 1997).  All were prepared jointly by
                    the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Mexico's Secretaria de Medio
                    Ambiente Recursos Naturales y Pesca.

             •  Water Related Geographical Information Systems (GIS's) Along the United States-Mexico
                    Border. United States Environmental Protection Agency-Office of Water. EPA
                    Publication No. 832-B-93-004. (July 1993).

             Electronic Sources of Information

                Agency or Organization  World Wide Web (WWW) Home Page Address
                    EPA
                    DOI
                    DOJ
                    HHS
                    IBWC
                    SEMARNAP
                    PROFEPA
                    CONABIO
                    INEGI
                    SSA
                    CEC
                    CffiSIN
                    BECC
                    NADBank
                    Borderlands
                    UTEP
                    SCERP
                    Colonias
                    TRIP
                    TNRCC
                    Udall Center
http ://www. epa. gov
http://www.usgs.gov/doi
http://www.doj.gov
http://www.us.dhhs.gov: 80
http ://www. ibwc. state.gov
http://semarnap.conabio.gob.mx
http://semarnap.conabio.bob.mx/profepa
http ://www. conabio. gob. mx
http://www.inegi.gob.mx
http://cenids.ssa.gob.mx
http://www.cec.org
http://www.ciesin.org
http://cocef.interjuarez.com
http ://www. quicklinlc. com/mexico/nadbank
http://www.twinfmet.com/mader/ecotravel/border
http://www.cerm.utep.edu
http ://www. civil.utah. edu/scerp
http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/mexico/colonias
http://www.glo.tx.us/infosys/gis/trip
http ://www.tnrcc. state.tx.us
http://upr. admin, arizona
_
             Appendix 11.2
                                                 October 1996

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                                                             Additional Sources of Information
LISTSERVERS
•  BECCnet
   - Send email to: listserv@arizona.edu
   - Your email should read: Subscribe beccnet {yourfirstname yourlastname}

•  US-Mexico Border List Server :
   - Send email to: listserver@unixmail.rtpnc.epa.gov
   - Your email should read: Subscribe us_mexborder {yourfirstname yourlastname}
October 1996
Appendix 11.3

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