Excellence in EE —
Guidelines for Learning
CK-12J
                  flflEE
                 .NORTH AMERICAN.
                 ASSOCIATION fOR
                 ENVIRONMENTAL
                 E O U C A T 1 O.tt
North
American .
Association for
Environmental
Education

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mm
NORTH AMERICAN
ASSOCIATION FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL
E D U CAT I O N
The North American Association for Environmental Education
(NAAEE) is a network of professionals and students working
in the field of environmental education throughout North
America and in over 50 countries around the world. For more
than 25 years, the Association has promoted environmental :
education and supported the work of environmental educators.

There are many environmental interest groups and many
organizations dedicated to the improvement of education.
NAAEE integrates these perspectives and takes a positive,
cooperative, non-confrontational approach to promoting
education about environmental issues.

The Association is made up of people who have thought
seriously—HOver lifetimes—about how people become literate
concerning  environmental issues. NAAEE members believe
education must go beyond consciousness-raising. It must
prepare people to think together about the difficult decisions
mey have to make regarding environmental stewardship, and to
work together to improve and solve environmental problems.
NAAEE recognizes the need for a coherent body of
information about environmental issues. Its members also
recognize that information and analysis are only part of an
effective education program. To be truly effective, this body of
knowledge  must be integrated into all aspects of the curriculum
and into all types of educating institutions for the widest array
of audiences.       -
In order to translate theory into reality andjprovide tangible
support for environmental education and environmental
educators, NAAEE engages in a variety Of programs and
activities: an  annual conference at varying North American
sites; an active publications program; the Environmental
Education Training Institute; the VINE (Volunteer-led
Investigations of Neighborhood Ecology) Network; the
Environmentallssues Forums (EIF)program; NAAEE Skills
Bank; and the Environmental Education and Training
Partnership (EETAP).                     ,
   For more information contact:

        NAAEE Publications and Membership Office
   ;                 410 Tarvin Road
               Rock Spring, GA 30739 USA   /
        (706) 764-2926 (phone) • (706) 764-2094 (fax)    .
    E-mail: beager410@aol.com • Web site: www.naaee.prg

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   Excellence in EE —
Guidelines for Learning
          CK-12J
      North American Association
            for
      Environmental Education

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THE NATIONAL PROJECT FOR EXCELLENCE
IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
                       Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for Learning
                       (K-12) is the sixth in a series of documents published by the North
                       American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) as
                       part of the National Project for Excellence in Environmental
                       Education. The Project is committed to synthesizing the best
                       thinking about environmental education through an extensive
                       process of review and discussion. Thus far, thousands of individu-
                       als and organizations representing all aspects of education and
                       environmental education have reviewed working outlines and
                       drafts. Reviewers include teachers, educational administrators,
                       environmental scientists, curriculum developers, and natural
                       resource agency and education department staff.
                       Publications
                       The National Project for Excellence in Environmental Education
                       publications include:
                          1.  The NAAEE Standards Project: Papers on the Development
                             of Environmental Education Standards (1995), working
                             documents that provided background research for the
                             project.
                          2.  Environmental Education Materials: Guidelines for
                             Excellence (1996), a set of recommendations for developing
                             and selecting environmental education materials.
                          3.  The Environmental Education Collection—A Review of
                             Resources for Educators, Volume 1 (1997), a resource guide
                             to help educators find curricula, multimedia resources, and
                             other educational materials that can enhance teaching
                             environmental education in a variety of settings.
                          4.  The Environmental Education Collection—A Review of
                             Resources for Educators, Volume 2 (1998).
                          5.  The Environmental Education Collection—A Review of
                             Resources for Educators, Volume 3 (1998).
                          6.  Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for
                             Learning (K-12), guidance for fostering and gauging
                             environmental literacy in kindergarten through twelfth
                             grade (1999).

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   7. Environmental Education Guidelines for Excellence: Initial
      Preparation of Educators, a set of recommendations for the
      preparation of teachers and other environmental education
      practitioners (1999 publication anticipated).


Members of the Guidelines Writing Team

Deborah Simmons, Chair	Department of Curriculum
                                   and Instruction
                               Northern Illinois University

Michele Archie, Writer	The Harbinger Institute

Lori Mann, Copy Editor. 	Environmental Education
   Design and Lay out.....	     Consultant

Mary Vymetal-Taylor, Project	Northern Illinois University
   Assistant and Cover Design

Alan Berkowitz	Ecological Society of America

Terry Bedell	The Clorox Company

Judy Braus	World Wildlife Fund - U.S.

Glenda Holmes	Washington, D.C. School
                                   District

MaryPaden	World Resources Institute

Robert Raze	Office of Environmental
                                   Education
                               Florida Gulf Coast University

Talbert Spence	National Audubon Society

BrendaWeiser	National Envirothon
     Acknowledgments
     Special thanks to the thousands of teachers, curriculum
     developers, educational administrators, environmental
     education specialists, and environmental scientists who
     have reviewed drafts of this document.

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                       Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for Learning
                       (K-12) was funded by the United States Environmental Protection
                       Agency through the Environmental Education and Training
                       Partnership (EETAP) under agreement number EPA-NT902897-
                       01-1 with the North American Association for Environmental
                       Education.

                       Additional funding and support for this project have been
                       received from Northern Illinois University and the National
                       Environmental Education and Training Foundation.

                       The contents of this document do not necessarily reflect the
                       views and policies of the United States Environmental Protection
                       Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products
                       constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

                       Additional copies of this book can be obtained by contacting:

                       NAAEE Publications and Membership Office
                       410TarvinRoad
                       Rock Spring, GA 30739 USA
                       (706) 764-2926 (phone)
                       (706) 764-2094 (fax)
                       E-mail: beager410@aol.com
                       Web site: www.naaee.org

                       ISBN #1-884008-75-5

                       Copyright © 1999 by the North American Association for
                       Environmental Education (NAAEE). Commercial reproductions
                       of any material in this publication is strictly prohibited without
                       written permission from the publisher, NAAEE. Educators may
                       photocopy up to 100 copies of these materials for non-commercial
                       educational purposes.
                           Printed on recycled paper
                                                       EETAR
III

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
                    Introduction
                     Environmental Education: A Vision for the Future — 1
                     Essential Underpinnings of Environmental Education. 2
                     Teaching from the Guidelines
                     How the Guidelines are Organized
                     The Guidelines at a Glance..—...........	............... 6

                    Guidelines for Fourth Grade	10

                    Guidelines for Eighth Grade	29

                    Guidelines for Twelfth Grade		si

                    Appendix:	.	75
                    Background for the Development
                    of the Learner Guidelines Framework
                     The Learner Guidelines in Context	........ 75
                     Building from a Rich History	.....	76

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INTRODUCTION
                    Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for Learning
                    (K-12) provides students, parents, educators, home schoolers,
                    administrators, policy makers, and the public a set of common,
                    voluntary guidelines for environmental education. The guide-
                    lines support state and local environmental education efforts by:
                        • Setting expectations for performance and achievement
                          in fourth, eighth, and twelfth grades;
                        • Suggesting a framework for effective and comprehensive
                          environmental education programs and curricula;
                        • Demonstrating how environmental education can be
                          used to meet standards set by the traditional disciplines
                          and to give students opportunities to synthesize
                          knowledge and experience across disciplines; and
                        • Defining the aims of environmental education.
                        These guidelines set a standard for high-quality
                    environmental education in schools and other learning settings
                    across the country, based on what an environmentally literate
                    person should know and be able to do. They draw on the best
                    thinking in the field to outline the core ingredients for
                    environmental education.
                     Environmental Education:

                     A Vision for the Future
                     Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for Learning is
                     grounded in a widely shared understanding of effective
                     environmental education. For many educators, that
                     understanding begins with two founding documents of the
                     field: the Belgrade Charter (UNESCO-UNEP, 1976) and the
                     Tbilisi Declaration (UNESCO, 1978).
                       The Belgrade Charter was adopted by a United Nations
                     conference and provides a widely accepted goal statement for
                     environmental education:
                           The goal of environmental education is to develop
                           a world population that is aware of, and con-
                           cerned about, the environment and its associated
                           problems, and which has the knowledge, skills,
                           attitudes, motivations, and commitment to work
                           individually and collectively toward solutions of
                           current problems and the prevention of new ones.

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   A few years later, the world's first intergovernmental
conference on environmental education adopted the Tbilisi
Declaration. This declaration built on the Belgrade Charter
and established three broad objectives for environmental
education. These objectives provide the foundation for
much of what has been done in the field since 1978:
   •  To foster clear awareness of, and concern about,
      economic, social, political and ecological
      interdependence in urban and rural areas;
   •  To provide every person with opportunities to acquire
      the knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment and
      skills needed to protect and improve the
      environment;
   •  To create new patterns of behavior of individuals,
      groups and society as a whole towards the
      environment.
   As the field has evolved, these principles have been
researched, critiqued, revisited, and expanded. They still
stand as a strong foundation for a shared view of the core
concepts and skills that environmentally literate citizens
need. Since 1978, bodies such as the Brundtland
Commission (Brundtland, 1987), the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development in Rio
(UNCED,  1992), and the Thessaloniki Declaration
(UNESCO, 1997) have influenced the work of many
educators, highlighting the importance of viewing the
environment within the context of human influences. This
perspective has expanded the emphasis of environmental
education, focusing more attention on social equity,
economics, culture, and political structure.
   Environmental education is rooted in the belief that
humans can live compatibly with nature and act equitably
toward each other. Another fundamental belief is that
people can make informed decisions that consider future
generations. Environmental education aims for a democratic
society in which effective, environmentally literate citizens
participate with creativity and responsibility.
Essential Underpinnings
of Environmental Education
Environmental education builds from a core of key
principles that inform its approach to education. Some of
these important underpinnings are:

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   Systems—Systems help make sense of a large and
complex world. A system is made up of parts that can be
understood separately. The whole, however, is understood
only by understanding the relationships among the parts.
The human body can be understood as a system; so can
galaxies. Organizations, individual cells, communities of
animals and plants, and families can all be understood as
systems. And systems can be nested within other systems.
   Interdependence—Human well being is inextricably
bound with environmental quality. Humans are a part of the
natural order. We and the systems we create—our societies,
political systems, economies, religions, cultures, technolo-
gies—impact the total environment. Since we are a part of
nature rather than outside it, we are challenged to recognize
the ramifications of our interdependence.
   The importance of where one lives—Beginning close to
home, learners forge connections with, explore, and
understand their immediate surroundings. The sensitivity,
knowledge, and skills needed for this local connection
provide a base for moving out into larger systems, broader
issues, and an expanding understanding of causes,
connections, and consequences.
   Integration and infusion—Disciplines from the natural
sciences to the social sciences to the humanities are
connected through the medium of the environment and
environmental issues. Environmental education offers
opportunities for integration and works best when infused
across the curriculum, rather than being treated as a
separate discipline or subject area.
   Roots in the real world—Learners develop knowledge
and skills through direct experience with the environment,
environmental issues, and society. Investigation, analysis, and
problem solving are essential activities and are most effective
when relevant to the real world.
   Lifelong learning—Critical and creative thinking,
decision making, and communication, as well as
collaborative learning, are emphasized. These skills are
essential for active and meaningful learning, both in school
and over a lifetime.
Teaching from the Guidelines
Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for Learning
(K-12) is primarily focused on student achievement. The
instructional strategies necessary for implementing

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environmental education are taken up in more detail in two
other documents in this series, Environmental Education
Materials: Guidelines for Excellence (1996) and Guidelines for
Excellence: The Initial Preparation of Environmental Educators
(forthcoming).
   Learning and instruction are closely linked, however, so
these environmental education guidelines for learning
include examples that offer specific ideas for implemen-
tation in instructional settings. These examples are based on
several general principles that help guide environmental
education instruction:
   The learner is an active participant. If learning is to
become a natural, valued part of life beyond school,
instruction should be guided by the student's interests and
treated as a process of building knowledge and skills. Using
the guidelines and knowledge of individual learners and
different classes, instructors can make environmental
education relevant to specific learners at particular
developmental levels.
   Instruction provides opportunities for learners to
enhance their capacity for independent thinking and
effective, responsible action. Engaging in individual and
group work helps learners develop these capacities
independently and in collaborative situations that anticipate
the ways in which problem-solving happens in the
community, on the job, and in the family. A strong emphasis
on developing communication skills means that learners will
be able to both demonstrate and apply their knowledge.
   Because environmental issues can prompt deep  feelings
and strong opinions, educators must take a balanced
approach to instruction. Educators incorporate differing
perspectives and points of view even-handedly and
respectfully, and present information fairly and accurately.
   Environmental literacy depends on a personal
commitment to apply skills  and knowledge to help ensure
environmental quality and quality of life. For most learners,
personal commitment begins with an awareness of what
immediately surrounds them. Instructors foster learners'
innate curiosity and enthusiasm, providing them with early
and continuing opportunities to explore their environment.
"Taking the show on the road"—or at least out of the
classroom—is an important instructional strategy for
engaging students in direct discovery of the world around
them.

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How the Guidelines are Organized
Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for Learning
(K-12) offers a vision of environmental education that makes
sense within the formal education system and promotes
progress toward sustaining a healthy environment and quality of
life. Guidelines are suggested for each of three grade levels—
fourth, eighth, and twelfth. Each guideline focuses on one
element of environmental literacy, describing a level of skill or
knowledge appropriate to the grade level under which it
appears. Sample performance measures illustrate how mastery
of each guideline might be demonstrated.
   The guidelines are organized into four strands, each of
which represents a broad aspect of environmental education
and its goal of environmental literacy. The strands are:

Strand  1: Questioning and Analysis Skills
Environmental literacy depends on learners' ability to ask
questions, speculate, and hypothesize about the world around
them, seek information, and develop answers to their questions.
Learners must be familiar with inquiry, master fundamental
skills for gathering and organizing information, and interpret
and synthesize information to .develop and communicate
explanations.

Strand 2: Knowledge of Environmental Processes
and Systems
An important component of environmental literacy is
understanding the processes and systems that comprise the
environment, including human systems and influences. That
understanding is based on knowledge synthesized from across
traditional disciplines. The guidelines in this section are
grouped in four sub-categories:
   •  2.1—The Earth as a physical system;
   •  2.2—The living environment;
   •  2.3—Humans and their societies; and
   •  2.4—Environment and society.

Strand 3: Skills for Understanding
and Addressing Environmental  Issues
Skills  and knowledge are refined and applied in the context of
environmental issues. These environmental  issues are real-life
dramas where differing viewpoints about environmental
problems and their potential solutions are played out.
Environmental literacy includes the abilities to define, learn
about, evaluate, and act on environmental issues. In this section,
the guidelines are grouped in two sub-categories:

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   •  3.1—Skills for analyzing and investigating
      environmental issues; and
   •  3.2—Decision-making and citizenship skills.

Strand 4: Personal and Civic Responsibility
Environmentally literate citizens are willing and able to act
on their own conclusions about what should be done to
ensure environmental quality.  As learners develop and apply
concept-based learning and skills for inquiry, analysis, and
action, they also understand that what they do individually
and in groups can make a difference.
   Taken together, these strands create a vision of
environmental literacy. The sequence of the strands—and
the individual guidelines themselves—may suggest that some
skills or knowledge serve as a foundation for others. But the
process of becoming environmentally literate is not linear,
and the sequence of the guidelines is more a function of
bringing an order and logic to this document than a
reflection of a hierarchy of skills and knowledge.
The Guidelines** a Glance
Excellence in Environmental Education—Guidelines for Learning
(K-12) sets appropriate expectations for learner performance
and achievement at the end of fourth and eighth grades and
by high school graduation. The diagram on page 7 will help
the user understand how this guidelines document is
constructed, and what kinds of information it offers.
    Sample classroom techniques for meeting the guidelines
are included throughout the publication. These summaries
also indicate correlations to specific guidelines and suggest
additional performance measures.
    Also included in this Guidelines document are:
    •  Introductory materials that place the guidelines  in
      context, outlining a comprehensive vision of
      environmental education.
    •  Background for the Development of the Learner Guidelines
      Framework, an appendix that relates key developments
      in the field of environmental education to the
      framework around which the guidelines are
      structured.

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Sample Page:
Strand 1
Questioning and Analysis Skills
Organizing Strands—Divide
the guidelines into four
broad, thematic areas.
Guidelines:
A) Questioning—Learners are able to develop questions that
help them learn about the environment and do simple investi-
gations.
   • Generate ideas and questions aboutVbjects, organisms,
     events, places, and relationships in theWivironment.

   • Identify questions they are likely to be aBle to answer
     by combining their own observations and investigations
     of the environment with existing informatio

   • Pose questions based on experiences in their oiwn com-
     munity and local environment as well as from other
     sources, such as journalistic reports about the en^ron-
     ment.

B) Designing investigations—Learners are able toVesign sin
pie investigations.                        ^v

   • Speculate about possible answers to their questis
     developing and discussing simple alternative hypo\
     ses.

   • Design ways of answering questions based on systematic^
     observations. For example, devise a way to learn about
     the life cycle of a caterpillar or the means of transporta-
     tion that children take to and from their school.

   • Design simple experiments to answer questions and
     test ideas they have about the environment.
           Sample Indicators—
           Illustrate some ways in
           which learner achievement
           might be demonstrated.
      English Language Arts
        38-39
      Geography 42-43, 46
      History 20-22
      Mathematics 23-25
      Science 121-123
      Mathematics 23-25
      Science 122
Connections with Other
Disciplinary Standards—
Refer to particular pages in
national standards set by pro-
fessional organizations of sev-
eral academic disciplines.
Contain standards, perform-
ance objectives, and exam-
ples related to the environ-
mental education guideline.
The documents referenced
are listed on page 8.
         Guidelines—Suggest gen-
         eral goals for learner
         achievement.
   Communication and expression are skills that are obviously critical to environ-
   mental literacy. Examples of how learners might communicate their understand-
   ing and express ideas and conclusions are scattered throughout this document.
   These are only a representation of the modes of artistic and linguistic expression
   that are both fundamental to, and fostered by, environmental education. The
   richness of the relationship between environmental education and the language
   and fine arts is not fully reflected by the few references made to their disciplinary
   standards.  Learners should use many forms of communication in their pursuit of
   environmental literacy, ranging from oral and written communication to thea-
   ter, and from dance and music to the visual arts.

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                          These are the national standards documents referenced and
                          the short titles used to represent them:
                          Short Title             Standards Document
                                                  Referenced
                          Arts                    National Standards for Arts Education:
                                                  What Every Young American Should Know
                                                  and Be Able to Do in the Arts. Reston, VA:
                                                  Music Educators National Conference,
                                                  1994.
                          Science Benchmarks
                           Civics and Government
                           Economics
                       Project 2061, American Association for
                       the Advancement of Science.
                       Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York,
                       NY: Oxford University Press, 1993.
                       National Standards for Civics and
                       Government. Calabasas, CA: Center for
                       Civic Education, 1994.
                       Voluntary National Content Standards in
                       Economics. New York: National Council
                       on Economics Education, 1997.
English Language Arts   Standards for the English Language Arts.
                       Urbana, IL: National Council of
                       Teachers of English, 1996.
Geography     -        Geography for Life: National Geography
                       Standards 1994. Washington, DC:
                       National Geographic Research and
                       Exploration, 1994
                           History
                           Mathematics
                           Science
                           Social Studies
                        National Standards for History. Los
                        Angeles, CA: National Center for
                        History in the Schools, 1996.
                        Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for
                        School Mathematics. Reston, VA: National
                        Council of Teachers of Mathematics,
                        1989.
                        National Science Education Standards.
                        Washington, DC: National Academy
                        Press, 1996.
                        Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum
                        Standards for Social Studies. Washington,
                        DC: National Council for the Social
                        Studies, 1994.
8

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References
Brundtland, G. H. (1989) Our Common Future: The World
Commission on Environment and Development. New York.:
Oxford University Press.
NAAEE (1996) Environmental Education Materials: Guidelines
for Excellence. Washington, DC: North American Association
for Environmental Education.
NAAEE (forthcoming) Guidelines for Excellence: The Initial
Preparation of Environmental Educators. Washington, DC: North
American Association for Environmental Education.
UNCED (1992) Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable
Development. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.
New York: United Nations.
UNESCO-UNEP (1976) "The Belgrade Charter." Connect:
UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education Newsletter, Vol. 1 (1)
pp. 1-2.
UNESCO (1978)  Final Report Intergovernmental Conference on
Environmental Education. Organized by UNESCO in
Cooperation with UNEP, Tbilisi, USSR, 14-26 October 1977.
Paris: UNESCO ED/MD/49. .
UNESCO (1997)  Educating for a Sustainable Future: A
Transdisciplinary Vision for Concerted Action. (Report from the
International Conference on Environment and Society:
Education and Public Awareness for Sustainability,
Thessaloniki, December 8-12, 1997.)

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GUIDELINES FOR FOURTH GRADE
                          Learners should be able to meet the guidelines included
                          in this section by the end of fourth grade.
                             The kindergarten through fourth grade years are a
                          time of tremendous cognitive development. By third and
                          fourth grades, learners have developed some basic skills
                          that help them construct knowledge. Instructors in
                          earlier grade levels should use these fourth grade
                          guidelines as a target, extrapolating from this end goal
                          appropriate activities and lessons for younger learners.
                             In these early years of formal education, learners tend
                          to be concrete thinkers with a natural curiosity about the
                          world around them. Environmental education can build
                          on these characteristics by focusing on observation and
                          exploration of the environment—beginning close to
                          home.
                          Examining Environmental Issues
                          in Fourth Grade
                             Many educators believe that exploring issues helps
                          fourth-grade learners make, important links between
                          conceptual understanding, what is happening in their
                          community, and their own responsibility for
                          environmental quality. Others caution that fourth
                          graders are only beginning to synthesize their knowledge
                          into the kind of complex understanding that is essential
                          to examining environmental issues. When deciding how
                          to handle environmental issues in the fourth grade
                          classroom, educators must rely on their own judgment
                          about what each class—and each student—is ready to
                          handle.
                             Basic guidelines for examining environmental issues
                          with fourth graders are:
                             •  Keep it simple.
                             •  Keep it local.
                             •  Make close links with what they're observing and
                                learning about the local environment.
                             Local solid waste and water issues easily fit these basic
                          guidelines. They are especially appropriate for these
                          young learners.
 10    Grades K-4

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Understanding the Local Environment
Experiencing and observing the local environment is an essential part of environmental
education. Understanding their surroundings helps learners build a strong foundation of
skills and knowledge for reaching out further into the world and deeper into the
conceptual understandings that environmental literacy demands. Direct experience in
the environment also helps foster the awareness and appreciation that motivate learners
to further questioning, better understanding, and appropriate concern  and action.
    The following chart suggests ways in which learners at different grade levels might
explore and understand the local environment. It is printed in each grade level section of
diese guidelines to help show progression as learners mature. Other ideas are included in
the guidelines.
 Grades K-4
 Identify basic types of
 > habitats (e.g., forests,
 I wetlands, or lakes). Create a
 | short list of plants and
 > animals found in each.
 >
 I Trace die source of their
 | drinking water and where it
 > goes after it is used.
 ', Recognize resident animal
 | species, migrants, and diose
 diat pass through on
 ', migratory routes.
 Collect or produce images
 , of the area at the beginning
 [ of European settlement.
 > Describe aspects of the
 I environment that change on
 | a daily, weekly, monthly, and
 > yearly basis.
 \                          •
 I Identify sources of electricity]
 • used in die community
 (e.g., hydroelectric, fossil
 | fuels, solar, nuclear).
 . Record weather observations
 ', such as precipitation,
 temperature, or cloud cover.
 ', Identify food crops that are
 ' grown or processed locally.
Grades 5-8
Classify local ecosystems
(e.g., oak-hickory forest or
sedge meadow). Create food
webs to show—or describe
their function in terms of—
die interaction of specific
plant and animal species.
Describe how drinking water
and wastewater are treated.
Map migratory routes of
birds, butterflies, and other
animals that pass through
the area. Identify their local
habitat needs.
Monitor changes in water or
air quality, or other aspects
of the local environment.
Identify species that are
locally threatened,
endangered, or declining in
population. Describe their
habitat needs.
Describe the area's climate
and identify factors  that
contribute to it.
Create a map for the local
area'that shows where food
that is consumed locally
comes from.
Grades 9-12
Identify several plants and
animals common to local
ecosystems. Describe
concepts such as succession,
competition, predator/prey
relationships, and
parasitism.
Evaluate sources of non-
point source pollution of
local bodies of water, includ-
ing sources that are not
local.
Investigate short- and long-
term environmental changes
in a local watershed, and
aquifer, or in air quality. Or
document changes in land
use and their environmental
effects.
Research population trends
for a locally threatened
species. Describe changes,
activities, and other factors
that seem to affect the
population  trends.
Calculate the potential for
generating wind or solar
power on a  particular site.
Trace human population
trends for their region and
make projections, based on
research findings, for the
future.
                                                           Grades K-4      11

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                            Strand  1—
                            Questioning and Analysis Skids
References fo Standards:
English Language Arts 38-39
Geography 42-43, 46
History 20-22
Mathematics 23-25
Science 121-123
Mathematics 23-25
Science 122
Arts 31
English Language Arts 27-29,
   38-39
Geography 46, 106-107
History 22
Mathematics 51-53
Science 122
Social Studies 35
Guidelines:
A) Questioning—Learners are able to develop questions
that help them learn about the environment and do
simple investigations.
   •   Generate ideas and questions about objects,
       organisms, events, places, and relationships in the
       environment.
   •   Identify questions they are likely to be able to
       answer by combining their own observations and
       investigations of the environment with existing
       information.
   •   Pose questions based on experiences in their own
       community and local environment as well as from
       other sources, such as journalistic reports about
       the environment.
B) Designing investigations—Learners are able to design
simple investigations.
   •   Speculate about possible answers to their own
       questions, developing and discussing simple  alter-
       native hypotheses.
   •   Design ways of answering questions based on
       systematic observations. For example, devise  a way
       to learn about the life cycle of a caterpillar or the
       means of transportation that children take to and
       from their school.
   •   Design simple experiments to answer questions
       and test ideas they have about the environment.
C) Collecting information—Learners are able to locate
and collect information about the environment and envi-
ronmental topics.
    •   Observe and record characteristics, differences,
       and change in objects, organisms, events, places,
       and relationships in the environment.
    •   Find, assess, select, and use resources such as
       atlases,  data bases, charts, tables, graphs, and
       maps.
    •   Use basic field skills, such as interviewing and
       measuring, to collect information.
 12     Grades K4

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   Oil SPI([ Clean-Up Contest
   From: Environmental Education Association of New
       Mexico
   Grade Level:  4fh
            Correlating Guidelines:
            Strand 1A, B, C, E, F, G
            Strand 2.4 A
            Strand 3.1 A
   While on an after-school community
   clean-up walk, fourth graders from a
   school in New Mexico traced a puddle of
   dirty oil to the dumpster behind an auto
   lubrication service. The students talked to
   die owner, who assured them this was not
   normal procedure, and showed them how
   they collect motor oil for recycling.
       A follow-up class discussion generated
   a lot of questions about oil pollution.
   Many students were particularly con-
   cerned about a recent oil spill, which
   prompted an Oil Spill Clean Up Contest.
       Allowed to work independently or in
   groups, die students were challenged to
   clean a tablespoon of gear lube oil from a
   beaker of water. They were given diree
   days to conduct research and plan dieir
   approach and each team was allowed to
   bring from home one shoebox-worth of
equipment. To ensure safety, plans had to
be approved by die teacher.
   Then came the contest! Students
tested their techniques, recording the time
required to complete their process. The
students dien rated die cleanliness of each
beaker and entered their findings into a
database later used to examine the advan-
tages and disadvantages of each method.
   Using dieir research results, students
also mapped die size and location of die
world's largest spills and explored actual
mediods of cleaning oil spills.
   Finally, students devised dieir own as-
sessments to show what they had learned,
and still wanted to learn, about oil spills.
Assessments included books created for
third graders, a computerized presenta-
tion, a comic book, and illustrated essays.
   •   Use tools such as rulers, thermometers, watches,
       scales, magnifiers, and microscopes to make obser-
       vations and measurements.
   •   Use computers and calculators to conduct investi-
       gations and manipulate information.
D) Evaluating accuracy and reliability—Students
understand the need to use reliable information to
answer their questions. They are familiar with some
basic factors to consider in judging the merits of
information.
   •   Provide specific examples of information they
       believe to be factual, fictitious, or of questionable
       merit and explain their reasoning.
   •   Identify some factors that might influence the
       credibility of a specific source of information, for
       example, who created it, how old it is, and what
       kind of arguments or evidence are used.
               History 20-21
               Science 121-123
                                                          Grades K-4     13

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Arts 34
English Language Arts 35-36
Geography 47,107-111
Mathematics 54-56, 60-62
E) Organizing information—Learners are able to
describe data and organize information to search for
relationships and patterns concerning the environment
and environmental topics.
    •   Summarize observations and describe data.
    •   Construct, read, and interpret maps, graphs,
       tables, diagrams, and other displays of data.
    •   Identify regularities in events, designs, organisms,
       and sets of numbers.
    •   Describe mathematical relationships and use
       those relationships as a way of organizing data.
    Finding Urban Nature
    From:  Changing What We Do, North American
       Association for Environmental Education,
       Rock Spring, Georgia
    Grade Level: 3rd
                          Correlating Guidelines:
                          Strand 1A, B, C, F, G
                          Strand 2.2 A, C
    What's better than having fun volunteers
    leading outdoor activities with your stu-
    dents? Having FUN volunteers!
       Finding Urban Nature (FUN) is one of
    the VINE (Volunteer-led Investigations in
    Neighborhood Ecology) programs found
    in cities across the country. On designated
    days, specially trained volunteers go to
    schools to facilitate student investigations
    on school grounds. Teams of FUN educa-
    tors have developed pre and post class-
    room studies to enhance FUN visits.
       One Seattle teacher tied his planned
    FUN visit to a year-long unit on habitats.
    The unit began when the teacher placed a
    cracked aquarium in front of his third
    grade students and asked what they
    wanted to do with it. Before long, the
    aquarium became a four-star worm hotel!
       The teacher asked what the worms
    would need to live in their habitat. The
    discussion triggered as many questions as
    answers: What do worms eat? Why do they
    come out when it rains? Are they really
    more active at night? The questions were
              recorded in a concept map that laid the
              foundation for many future investigations.
                 Prepared by schoolyard observations
              and research, the students built their
              worm hotel. Anxiously, they designed ex-
              periments to find answers to all their ques-
              tions. Carefully, they poured water into
              one corner to study how worms react to
              rain. The students blocked light from one
              side of the aquarium to see if they could
              learn why worms come out at night. Hand
              lenses, microscopes and soil guides be-
              came routine tools as the third graders en-
              thusiastically explored every change.
                 Volunteer seedlings sprouted, launch-
              ing more investigations on plants and
              roots. Students discovered that worms and
              plants Were interconnected, an essential
              part of understanding habitats.
                 The FUN volunteers were delighted to
              extend these classroom investigations out-
              doors. Out there, students measured envi-
              ronmental factors that affect worms and
              discovered different numbers of worms
              living in different schoolyard habitats.
 14     Grades K-4

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      For example, chart the relationship between plant
      growth and different amounts of water or
      sunlight.
F) Working with models and simulations—Learners
understand that relationships, patterns, and processes
can be represented by models.
   •  Interpret information and situations by noting
      associations and similarities, and recognizing
      patterns, trends, relationships, and sequences.
   •  Give examples of models or simulations and how
      they can be used to learn about what they repre-
      sent. Identify ways in which a model differs from
      what it represents.
   •  Use a number of types of models such as geomet-
      ric figures, graphs, and maps to summarize obser-
      vations of the environment.
G) Developing explanations—Learners can develop
simple explanations that address their questions about
the environment.
   •  Summarize information, compare findings, and
      use basic mathematics to analyze data.
   •  Identify information that is not relevant to a
      proposed explanation and explain their
      reasoning.
   •  Use models and examples to explain their
      thinking.
   •  List strengths and weaknesses of the explanations
      they propose.
Geography 47-48, 106-107
Mathematics 29-31, 48-49, 60-
   62
Science Benchmarks 267-268
English Language Arts 38-39
Geography 48-49
History 22
Mathematics 29-31
Strand 2—
Knowledge of Environmental Processes
and Systems
Strand 2.1—The Earth as a Physical System
Guidelines:
A) Processes that shape the Earth—Learners are able to
identify changes and differences in the physical
environment.
References to Standards:
Geography 118-199
Science Benchmarks 72
                                                       Grades K-4     15

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Science 127
Science Benchmarks 76-77
Science 127
Science Benchmarks 83-84
   •  Identify some of the forces that cause erosion
      within their own region, pointing out factors such
      as freezing and thawing, wind, waves, soil-building
      processes, and gravity.
   •  Identify some distinctive landforms within their
      region and, using maps and images, in other areas
      of the world.
   •  Differentiate among climates, considering factors
      such as precipitation,  temperature, and resident
      plants and animals.
   •  Observe and record seasonal differences. For
      example, draw a series of pictures or compile
      photographs that illustrate differences such as day
      length, position of the sun, migration  of specific
      bird species, and when specific tree species lose
      their leaves.
B) Changes in matter—Learners are able to identify basic
characteristics of and changes in matter.
   •  Describe objects in terms of the materials they are
      made of and their observable properties. For
      example, describe buildings constructed with
      different materials and discuss why these materials
      may have been selected based on such properties
      as rigidity, ability to reflect or gather heat, and
      transparency.
   •  Identify the effects of factors such as heating,
      cooling, and moisture on the properties of
      materials and how quickly change happens.
      For example, describe the change of water from
      solid to liquid to gas in the environment or
      describe the effects of temperature and moisture
      on how quickly dead plants or animals
      decompose.
   •  Describe the basic elements of the hydrologic
      cycle and geologic processes (including erosion,
      transportation,'and deposition). Locate examples
      of these in the local environment.
C) Energy—While they may have little understanding of
formal concepts associated with energy, learners are
familiar with the basic behavior of some different forms
of energy.
16     Grades K-4

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      Identify different forms of energy including light,
      heat, electricity, and magnetic energy. Identify
      examples of these different forms in their homes,
      school, community, and natural environment.
      Explain some of the ways in which heat, light, or
      electricity are produced, travel, stored and used.
      Use examples such as the sun, power generation,
      batteries, and so forth.
Strand 2.2—The Living Environment
Guidelines:
A) Organisms, populations, and communities—Learners
understand basic similarities and differences among a
wide variety of living organisms. They understand the
concept of habitat.
   •  Identify similarities and differences among living
      organisms ranging from single-celled organisms
      they can observe under microscopes to plants and
      animals they encounter through direct
      observation, videos, books, or other media.
   •  Classify or group organisms using categories such
      as how animals bear their young, anatomical
      features, or habitats.
   •  Describe the basic needs of all organisms and
      explain how organisms meet their needs in
      different types of environments such as deserts,
      lakes, or forests.
B) Heredity and evolution—Learners understand that
plants and animals have different characteristics and that
many of the characteristics are inherited.
   •  Identify some similarities among offspring and
      parents as being inherited and others as resulting
      from the organism's interactions with its
      environment.
   •  Identify some basic traits of plants and animals.
      Give examples of how those traits may vary among
      individuals of the same species.
   •  Compare fossil life forms and living organisms to
      identify similarities and differences between
      organisms that lived long ago and those alive
      today.
References to Standards:
Science Benchmarks 102-103
Science 127-129
Geography 120
Science 127-129
Science Benchmarks 107, 123
                                                        Grades K-4     17

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Geography 132
Science 129
Science Benchmarks 116
Science 129
Science Benchmarks 119
C) Systems and connections—Learners understand basic
ways in which organisms are related to their
environments and to other organisms.
   •  Describe ways in which an organism's behavior
      patterns are related to its environment. Identify
      examples of environmental change and discuss
      how these changes may be helpful or harmful to
      particular organisms.
   •  Identify ways  in which organisms (including
      humans) cause changes in their own
      environments. Create a skit that shows how these
      changes may  help or harm both the organisms
      that caused the change and other organisms.
   •  Identify ways  in which organisms interact with
      each other. For example, some animals eat plants,
      some fish depend on other fish to keep them free
      of parasites, earthworms keep soil loose and
      fertile, which makes it easy for plants to grow.
D) Flow of matter and energy—Learners know that living
things need some source of energy to live and grow
   •  Explain how most living organisms depend on the
      sun as the source of their life energy. Give
      examples that illustrate the understanding that
      animals ultimately depend on plants for this
      energy and that plants depend on the sun. Use
      this idea to trace the energy in the food they eat
      for lunch back to the sun.
   •  Describe how matter can be recycled, sometimes
      in a changed form from the original material. Use
      examples from their own experience, such as
      fleece jackets made from recycled soda bottles or
      envelopes made from recycled telephone books.
      Or make their own recycled paper and explain
      how the use of matter differs between making
      recycled paper and new (or "virgin") paper.
   •  Explain the process of life, growth, death, and
      decay of living organisms as a form of recycling.
      For example, use a compost pile as an example of
      recycling of organic materials.
 18     Grades K-4

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Strand 2.3—Humans and Their Societies
Guidelines:
A) Individuals and groups—Learners understand that
people act as individuals and as group members and that
groups can influence individual actions.
   •  Give examples of influences on individual
      behavior, particularly behavior that affects the
      environment. For example, discuss why a person
      might choose to dispose of household garbage,
      candy wrappers, or toxic products in certain ways.
      Consider influences such as financial costs,
      convenience, laws, and the opinions of friends
      and family members.
   •  Identify some of the many groups that a person
      can belong to at the same time. Describe some
      tensions that a person might feel as a result of
      belonging to different groups.
   •  Discuss why students might belong to school or
      after-school clubs (such as environmental clubs or
      scouting troops). Consider personal benefits
      (such as fun and learning) as well as good things
      the clubs do for the whole school or community.
B) Culture—Learners understand that experiences and
places may be interpreted differently by people with
different cultural backgrounds, at different times, or with
other frames of reference.
   •  Describe a favorite place or their own community
      from a variety of perspectives, including their own.
   •  Role-play die reactions of different people to a
      place or historical event—especially one with local
      significance.
   •  Compare how people live in different regions and
      how different cultures meet basic human needs.
      For example, prepare a visual display diat
      compares how people support themselves in
      different regions and discuss how those
      livelihoods can both affect the environment and
      depend on the environment.
C) Political and economic systems—Learners understand
that government and economic systems exist because
people living together in groups need ways to do things
such as provide for needs and wants, maintain order, and
manage conflict.
References to Standards:
Science Benchmarks 140, 154,
   158
Social Studies 57-62
Arts 30
Civics & Government 15-21
English Language Arts 27-29,
   38-39
Geography 117, 124-125
History 27
Science Benchmarks 154
Social Studies 49-50
Economics 5-6, 30-31
Geography 126-127
Science Benchmarks 168-169
Social Studies 63-66

Grades K4     19

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 Civics & Government 33-34
 Economics 11,13
 Geography 126-127
 Science Benchmarks 176
 Social Studies 70-72
   •  Discuss what might happen if there were no laws
      to protect the environment in their area.
      Consider possible positive and negative effects
      on plants and animals, specific natural areas,
      landowners, specific businesses, water users, and
      others.
   •  List jobs in their community that are linked to
      processing natural resources. Identify clusters of
      related businesses and interview employees or
      owners to determine why those economic
      activities are located in their community.
   •  Identify elements of infrastructure in their
      community. For example, create a map or a skit
      showing how information, people, and goods
      move from place to place. Include information
      about who is responsible for, or who pays for,
      this infrastructure (e.g., the government, private
      business, individuals).
D) Global connections—Learners understand how
people are connected at many levels—including the
global level—by actions and common responsibilities
that concern the environment.
   •  Identify ways in which individual needs and
      wants are related to environmental concerns
      such as energy use and environmental
      protection.
   •  Describe how trade connects people around the
      world and enables them to have things they
      might not be able or willing to produce
      themselves. For example, create a map that
      shows where a learner's food, clothing and
      household items are produced, where the raw
      materials come from, products that are traded
      into and out from their region, and so forth.
   •  Identify possible environmental concerns that
      might come up in other regions or countries as a
      result of producing or shipping products that
      learners use regularly.
   •  Discuss how television, computers, and other
      forms of communication connect people around
      the world.
20     Grades  K4

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E) Change and conflict—Learners recognize that change
is a normal part of individual and societal life. They
understand that conflict is rooted in different points of
view.
   •  Identify aspects of family and community life that
      have remained constant over generations, as well
      as aspects that have changed. For example,
      interview family or community members and
      develop a visual display abouit their findings.
   •  Give examples of rules related to the environment
      at home, in school, or elsewhere that have
      changed and others that have stayed the same.
   •  Identify some basic ways in which individuals,
      groups, and institutions such as schools resolve
      conflict concerning the environment. For
      example, develop and perform short skits about
      different ways of solving a school problem such as
      littering on the playground or in hallways.
English Language Arts 38-39,
   45-46
Science Benchmarks 162,
   165, 172
Social Studies 51-53
Strand 2.4—Environment and Society

Guidelines:
A) Human/environment interactions—Learners
understand that people depend on, change, and are
affected by the environment.
    •   Identify ways in which people depend on die
       environment. For example, create an artistic
       representation of how the environment provides
       food, water, air, recreation, minerals, and other
       resources.
    •   Identify ways in which human actions change the
       environment. For example, list changes that
       activities such as building houses or stores with
       parking lots, farming, or damming rivers have
       caused within dieir community or region.
    •   Describe how the environment affects human
       activities in dieir community or region. For
       example, describe the effects of weather or
       climate, the likelihood of earthquakes or flooding,
       soil and mineral types, or the presence of water on
       where people live, how they make a living, how
       they recreate, and so forth.
References to Standards:
Geography 132-135
Science 140
                                                        Grades K-4     21

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Arts 34
Geography 113-117
History 29-31
Social Studies 54-56
  Economics 1-2
  Geography 136-137
  History 22
  Science 140
 History 37-38
 Science 140
 Science Benchmarks 54-55, 184-
    185, 188-189,193,197-198,
    201-202, 205
B) Places—Learners understand that places differ in
their physical and human characteristics.
   •  Identify and describe places in their region that
      they or others think are important. For example,
      draw pictures, create a video, or take photographs
      that illustrate what people find unique or
      important about regional landmarks, downtown
      areas, parks, farms, wilderness areas, and so forth.
   •  Discuss how humans create places that reflect
      their ideas, needs, and wants, as well as the
      physical environment. Illustrate with examples of
      places within their experience such as
      playgrounds, parks, classrooms, and homes.
   •  Compare their neighborhood or town with
      another nearby place, or compare their favorite
      park with another park they know. List
      characteristics that make one place different from
      another.
C) Resources—Learners understand the basic concepts
of resource and resource distribution.
   •  Explain what a natural resource is and give
      examples.
   •  Distinguish among resources that are renewable
      and nonrenewable, and resources (like running
      water or wind) that are available only in certain
      places at certain times.
   •  Identify ways they use resources in their daily lives.
   •  Locate sources of various resources on a map. For
      example, trace the origins of the local water
      supply or map the region's natural resources.
   •  Link patterns of human settlement and other
      activity with the presence of specific resources
      such as mineral deposits, rivers, or fertile farming
      areas. Research the origins of their own
      community and explain the role of resource
      availability in how the community developed.
D) Technology—Learners understand that technology is
an integral part of human existence and culture.
    •  Describe technologies as tools and ways of doing
       things that humans have invented. Give examples
       of technologies that affect their lives in areas such
 22     Grades K-4

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      as transportation, communications, and
      entertainment.
   •  Interview family members or community members
      to trace technological changes that have taken
      place over the last three generations.
   •  Identify drawbacks and benefits of specific
      technologies. Consider the fact that  technologies
      can benefit some humans and other organisms
      while harming others.
   •  Identify important technological systems such as
      agriculture, transportation, and manufacturing.
E) Environmental issues—Learners are familiar with
some local environmental issues and understand that
people in other places experience environmental issues
as well.
   •  Discuss some local environmental issues by
      identifying some changes or proposals that people
      disagree about. Describe or role-play how
      different people  feel about these changes and
      proposals.
   •  Discuss how people in other places with similar
      conditions might react or perceive the situation in
      similar ways.
Geography 140-141
Strand 3—
Skills for Understanding and Addressing
Environmental Issues

Strand 3.1—Skids for Analyzing and Investigating
Environmental Issues
Guidelines:
A) Identifying and investigating issues—Learners are
able to identify and investigate issues in their local
environments and communities.
   •  Identify and describe a current or historical
      environmental issue in their community.
   •  Use primary and secondary sources of information
      to explore the dilemma confronting people in a
References to Standards:
Arts 31
English Language Arts 38-39
History 6, 23
Social Studies 49-53, 57-62,
                                                       Grades  K-4     23

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   People Can Choose to Care About
   and Protect Living Things
          A Child's Place in the Environment,
      Lessons 16-18, California Department of
      Education, Sacramento, California
   Grade Level:  1st
                         Correlating Guidelines:
                         Strand 1 B, C
                         Strand 2.2 A, C
                         Strand 2.4 A
                         Strand 3.2 A, C, D
   This series of lessons focuses on people's
   attitudes and actions toward other living
   things. It is part of a lengdiy integrated
   first grade unit on respecting living diings.
      The lessons begin by introducing the
   students to role models that care for living
   things. Professionals whose work involves
   protecting wildlife and habitats are invited
   to speak to die class. The teacher also
   reads stories such as Miss Rumphius (by
   Barbara Cooney) and Make Way for
   Ducklings (by Robert McCloskey), which
   give more examples of people helping
   living diings.
      Students dien draw themselves and
   what diey might be doing to care for living
   things. The illustrations are posted and,
   over several days, each student is given die
   opportunity to describe dieir drawing.
                 Lesson 17 concentrates on actions
             students can take to show diey care about
             plants and animals, including pets. The
             teacher reads Byrd Baylor's Amiga to
             emphasize diat wild animals are better left
             in their own habitats. Students design a
             class book, mural or paper quilt to illus-
             trates kind actions toward living things.
                 In lesson 18, class members brain-
             storm ideas for a community project. They
             gather ideas from family, friends, and
             community representatives such as
             veterinarians or people working in wildlife
             rehabilitation. Students then select and
             complete a class project.
                 Finally, students write poems or
             stories, or create dioramas, collages or
             demonstrations dial can be presented in a
             special open house.
Geography 132-133
Social Studies 54-56
24     Grades K-4
      current or historical situation that involves the
      environment.
   •  Apply ideas of past, present, and future to local
      environmental issues. For example, describe what
      has changed, is changing, and could change or
      discuss how long the issue has existed.
   •  Identify people and groups that are involved.

   •  Identify some of die decisions and actions related
      to the issue.
B) Sorting out the consequences of issues—As students
come to understand that environmental and social
phenomena are linked, they are able to explore the
consequences of issues.

-------
   •  Observe and speculate about social, economic,
      and environmental effects of environmental
      changes and conditions, and proposed solutions
      to issues. For example, describe short-term and
      long-term effects of existing uses of land or
      another resource in the home, community, and
      region.
   •  Discuss how an environmental issue affects
      different individuals and groups.
C) Identifying and evaluating alternative solutions and
courses of action—Students understand there are many
approaches to resolving issues.
   •  Identify proposed solutions to an issue and discuss
      arguments for and against them.
   •  Explain why various strategies may be effective in
      different situations, and that each proposed
      strategy is likely to have a different effect on
      society and the environment. Illustrate with
      examples from a specific issue.
   •  Describe some of the different levels at which
      action can be taken-for example by individuals,
      families, school classes, different levels of
      government, or businesses. Identify ways that
      these groups might take action on a specific issue.
   •  Propose alternative approaches to problems.
D) Working with flexibility, creativity, and openness—
Learners understand the importance of sharing ideas
and hearing other points of view.
   •  Engage in critique and discussion as part of die
      process of inquiry. Explain why these processes
      are important.
   •  Hear and respect different perspectives and
      communicate with people whose lives, cultures,
      and viewpoints are different from their own.
   •  Identify ideas and interpretations that differ from
      theirs. Ask questions about different perspectives
      and discuss their strong points and drawbacks.
Geography 48
History 23
Social Studies 73-75
English Language Arts 31-34,
   41, 44
Geography 140
Mathematics 29
Social Studies 57-59
                                                         Grades K-4     25

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References to Standards:
Arts 31, 34
Geography 140-141
History 23
Social Studies 57-59
Civics 38-39
Social Studies 73-75
Civics and Government 6
Social Studies 73-75
Strand 3.2—Decision-Making and Citizenship Skills


Guidelines:
A) Forming and evaluating personal views—Learners are
able to examine and express their own views on
environmental issues.
   •  Identify and express their own ideas about
      environmental issues and alternative ways to
      address them.
   •  Test their views against what they know and
      believe, remaining open to new information and
      ideas.
   •  Identify unanswered questions.
   •  Identify, clarify, and express their own beliefs and
      values regarding the environment.
B) Evaluating the need for citizen action—Learners are
able to think critically about whether they believe action
is needed in particular situations and whether they
believe they should be involved.
   •  Discuss whether citizens should take action on a
      particular environmental issue. Consider findings
      from their issue investigations such as causes of
      the problem and promising strategies for
      addressing it.
   •  Identify types of citizen action appropriate for a
      specific issue.
   •  Discuss whether and how they think they would
      like to be involved. Identify reasons for and
      against taking specific kinds of action.
C) Planning and taking action—By participating in issues
of their choosing-mostly close to home-students learn
the basics of individual and collective action.
   •  Develop action plans they can carry out
      individually, in small groups, or as a class. Include
      clear reasons and goals for action. Consider the
      results of their environmental issue investigation
      and their assessment of the need for action.
   •  Set realistic goals for action and measures of
      success consistent with learners' abilities.
26     Grades K-4

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   •  Decide whether their plan should be
      implemented immediately or at another time,
      changed, or abandoned; and carry through with
      action when appropriate.
D) Evaluating the results of actions—Learners
understand that civic actions have consequences.
   •  Describe the apparent effects of their own actions
      and actions taken by other individuals and groups.

   •  Discuss some of the reasons why identifying the
      effects of actions may be difficult. Consider, for
      example, the time required to see effects, the
      influences of others' actions, and other changes in
      the situation.
History 23-24
Social Studies 73-75
Strand 4—Personal and Civic
Responsibility
Guidelines:
A) Understanding societal values and principles—
Learners can identify fundamental principles of U.S.
society and explain their importance in die context of
environmental issues.
   •  Identify examples of beliefs that many U.S.
      citizens hold in common, such as the importance
      of individual property rights,  the right to pursue
      happiness, the public or common good, and the
      well-being of future generations. Create a skit that
      explores why people might decide to act on
      environmental issues, considering possible
      connections with these basic beliefs.
   •  Discuss how dieir own beliefs about the
      environment,  environmental issues, and society
      compare to these general, societal beliefs.
   •  Recognize tensions that occur when basic values
      and beliefs differ. Illustrate with examples from
      local environmental issues.
B) Recognizing citizens' rights and responsibilities—
Learners understand die basic rights and responsibilities
of citizenship.
   •  Identify examples of die personal, political, and
      economic rights of U.S. citizens.
References to Standards:
Arts 31
Civics and Government 22-27
English Language Arts 44
Social Studies 60-64, 73-75
Civics and Government 35-37
Social Studies 73-75
                                                         Grades K-4     27

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Civics and Government 38-39
Social Studies 60-64
Civics and Government 38-39
Social Studies 73-75
   •  Identify examples of the responsibilities of
      citizenship.
   •  Discuss rights and responsibilities in the context of
      local environmental issues.
C) Recognizing efficacy—Learners possess a realistic self-
confidence in their effectiveness as citizens.
   •  Describe ways in which individuals and groups act
      within their community to protect the environ-
      ment. Identify cases where citizen action has had
      an effect on an environmental decision or action.
   •  Identify ways in which they have made a difference
      through their own actions. Give examples from
      situations over which learners have some control
      (for example, in the classroom, at home, or in the
      community) and that are appropriate to their level
      of understanding.
D) Accepting personal responsibility—Learners
understand that they have responsibility for the effects of
their actions.
   •  Identify and describe some of the effects that they
      and-the groups they belong to (e.g., family or
      school class) have on the environment and on
      humans and other living things.
   •  Discuss the notion of responsibility and identify
      some of their personal responsibilities.
    Recycling Snowballs
    From: Getting Started, National Consortium for
       Environmental Education and Training, Ann
       Arbor, Michigan
    Grade Level: Lower Elementary
                          Correlating Guidelines:
                          Strand 1A
                          Strand 2.2 D
                          Strand 2.3 A, C, E
                          Strand 2.4 A, C
                          Strand 4 C, D
   Third graders at Greenwood Elementary
   School in LeGrande, Oregon set up a class
   recycling center that snowballed into an
   exploration of a town problem. With their
   success at school, the students decided to
   encourage recycling at home. But when
   families took materials to the town recy-
   cling center, they found the bins unat-
   tended and spilling over.
                 The students were also learning about
              local government, so they invited the
              mayor to speak to their class about recy-
              cling problems. The mayor listened care-
              fully, then explained budget issues at the
              heart of the drop-off station's problems.
                 The snowball kept rolling; next, the
              students started to investigate ways to re-
              duce and reuse classroom materials.
 28     Grades  K-4

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GUIDELINES  FOR EIGHTH  GRADE
                     Learners should be able to meet the guidelines included in this
                     section by the end of eighth grade.
                        In the fifth through eighth grades, learners develop greater
                     skills in abstract and creative thinking—and along with these,
                     the ability to understand the interplay of environmental and
                     human systems in greater depth. Environmental education can
                     foster this development by focusing on investigation of local
                     environmental systems, problems, and issues. As learners
                     become actively engaged in deciding for themselves what is
                     right and wrong, educators can use environmental problems to
                     help learners explore their own responsibilities and ethics.
                     Strand 1—
                     Questioning and Analysis Skills
References:
Geography 49
Mathematics 75-77
Science 145
Mathematics 75-77
Science 145, 148
Guidelines:
A) Questioning—Learners are able to develop, focus, and
explain' questions that help them learn about the environment
and do environmental investigations.
   •  Identify environmental questions based on personal
      experiences both in and outside school, newspaper and
      magazine articles, television or radio news, or videos.
   •  Summarize an environmental problem or situation to
      provide context for, or explain the origin of, a particular
      question. Create visual presentations (such as maps,
      graphs, or video tapes) and written and oral statements
      that describe their thinking about the problem.
   •  Pose clear questions and ideas to test (hypotheses),
      reformulating them when necessary.
   •  Clarify their own beliefs about the environment and
      discuss how those beliefs are reflected in the questions
      they ask.
B) Designing investigations—Learners are able to design
environmental investigations to answer particular questions—
often their own questions.
   •  Select types of inquiry appropriate to their questions.
   •  Define the scope of their inquiry, identifying the main
      variables and phenomena to be studied.

                                Grades  5-8    29

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 Understanding the Local Environment
 Experiencing and observing the local environment is an essential part of environmental
 education. Understanding their surroundings helps learners build a strong foundation of
 skills and knowledge for reaching out further into the world and deeper into the
 conceptual understandings that environmental literacy demands. Direct experience m
 the environment also helps foster the awareness and appreciation that motivate learners
 to further questioning, better understanding, and appropriate concern and action.
     The following chart suggests ways in which learners at different grade levels might
 explore and understand the local environment. It is printed in each grade level section of
 these guidelines to help show progression as learners mature. Other ideas are included in
 the guidelines.                                      	_^_^_^_^__^_^^_
   Grades K-4
   Identify basic types of
   habitats (e.g., forests,
   wetlands, or lakes). Create
   a short list of plants and
   animals found in each.
   Trace die source of their
   drinking water and where it
   goes after it is used.
   Recognize resident animal
   species, migrants, and
   those that pass through on
   migratory routes.
   Collect or produce images
   of the area at the
   beginning of European
   settlement.
   Describe aspects of die
   environment that change
   on a daily, weekly, monthly,
   and yearly basis.
   Identify sources of
   electricity used in the
   community (e.g.,
   hydroelectric, fossil fuels,
   solar, nuclear).
   Record weadier
   observations such as
   precipitation, temperature,
   or cloud cover.
   Identify food crops that are
   grown or processed locally.
Grades 5-8
Classify local ecosystems
(e.g., oak-hickory forest or
sedge meadow). Create
food webs to show—or
describe their function in
terms of—the interaction
of specific plant and animal
species.
Describe how drinking
water and wastewater are
treated.
Map migratory routes of
birds, butterflies, and odier
animals diat pass through
die area. Identify their local
habitat needs.
Monitor changes in water
or air quality, or other
aspects of the local
environment.
Identify species  that are
locally threatened,
endangered, or declining
in population. Describe
their habitat needs.
Describe the area's climate
and identify factors diat
contribute to it.
', Create a map for the local
area that shows  where food
' diat is consumed locally
', comes from.
  Grades 9-12
  Identify several plants and
  animals common to local
  ecosystems. Describe
  concepts such as
  succession, competition,
!  predator/prey
  relationships, and
 '. parasitism.
  Evaluate sources of non-
  point source pollution of
  local bodies of water,
  including sources that are
  -not local.
  Investigate short- and long-
  term environmental
  changes in a local
  watershed, and aquifer, or
  in air quality. Or document
  changes in land use and
  their environmental effects.
  Research population trends
  for a locally threatened
  species. Describe changes,
  activities, and other factors
  that seem to affect die
  population trends.
  Calculate the potential for
  generating wind or solar
  power on a particular site.
  Trace human population
  trends for their region and
  make projections, based on
  research findings, for the
  future.
30     Grades 5-8

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   •  Select appropriate systems of measurement and
      observation.
   •  Select tools that are appropriate for their
      environmental investigations based on the
      question asked and the type of information
      sought.
C) Collecting information—Learners are able to locate
and collect reliable information about the environment
or environmental topics using a variety of methods and
sources.
   •  Observe systematically, measure accurately, and
      keep thorough and accurate records, which may
      include written notes and data tables, sketches,
      and photographs.
   •  Understand and use various systems of
      measurement and derived measurements such as
      rates.
   •  Assess, choose, and synthesize materials from
      resources such as aerial photographs, topographic
      maps, and satellite images; library and museum
      collections, historical documents, and eyewitness
      accounts; computerized databases and
      spreadsheets; die internet; and government
      records.
   •  Collect firsthand information about their own
      community using field study skills.
D) Evaluating accuracy and reliability—Students are able
to judge the weaknesses and strengths of the information
they are using.
   •  Identify and evaluate vague claims they hear on
      television or through other media. For example,
      examine the credibility of results of public
      opinion polling about environmental topics,
      considering such factors as sampling methods,
      logical conclusions, and appropriate analogies.
   •  Identify factors that affect the credibility of
      information, including assumptions and
      procedures used to create it; the social, political,
      and economic context in which the information
      was created; and potential bias due to omission,
      suppression, or invention of factual information.
Arts 47
English Language Arts 27-28,
   38-40
Geography 49-50, 144-145
History 67-68
Mathematics 116-119
Science 145
Social Studies 85-87
History 67-68
Mathematics 75-80
Science 143, 148
                                                         Grades  5-8     31

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   Butterflies After the Hurricane
   From: Judi Kohler, Village Pines School
   Grade Level: 5th-6th
                           Correlating Guidelines:
                           Strand IB, C, E, F
                           Strand 2.2 A, C
   In 1992, Hurricane Andrew left this Florida
   school with litde remaining landscaping.
   By creating a butterfly garden, one middle
   school class turned the difficult experience
   into a rewarding interdisciplinary unit on
   habitat restoration.
      Students used their math skills to
   measure the garden plot and figure out
   how many plants could fit into the area. In
   language arts, they wrote letters seeking
   help selecting plants, and spelling lessons
   focused on related vocabulary words. The
   butterflies inspired haiku and acrostic
              poems, while illustrating the poems drew
              upon the students' artistic skills.
                 In social studies, students researched
              the places butterflies live, and studied the
              different cultures found along their
              migratory routes.
                 A field trip to a local nature center
              provided an opportunity to learn from a
              local expert about the needs of butterflies,
              and scientific observations unveiled the
              mysteries of metamorphosis and the life
              cycle of a butterfly.
Arts 50
English Language Arts 35-36
Geography 50-51, 144-145
Mathematics 98-101, 105-108
Science 145
   •  Examine evidence, identify faulty reasoning, and
      apply other basic logic and reasoning skills in
      evaluating information sources.
   •  Identify gaps in information that indicate a need
      for further discovery or inquiry.
   •  Evaluate data and evidence for accuracy, relevance,
      significance, appropriateness, and clarity.
E) Organizing information—Learners are able to classify
and order data, and to organize and display information
in ways that help analysis and interpretation.
   •  Present environmental data in a variety of formats
      including charts, tables, plots, graphs, maps, and
      flow charts. For example, chart stream flows, create
      a map of local businesses that require air quality
      permits, or organize survey results into a table.
   •  Explain why they chose specific ways of ordering
      and displaying information. Consider factors such
      as the question being answered, the type of
      information, and the purpose of the display.
   •  Present environmental data in ways that
      demonstrate possible relationships between sets of
      information such as population census counts of a
      certain bird species and die prevalence of certain
      tree species or habitat types.
 32     Grades 5-8

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F) Working with models and simulations—Learners
understand many of the uses and limitations of models.
   •  Describe how models are used to think about
      long-term processes such as population growth or
      processes that are difficult to see such as bird
      migration or the movement of the planets in
      relationship to the sun.
   •  Use models to represent and investigate aspects of
      the physical world such as we'ather and specific
      phenomena such as hurricanes.
   •  Manipulate mathematical and physical models
      using a computer.
   •  Evaluate models based on the question being
      investigated.  Account for variables such as the
      complexity of the model, its scale, its ability to
      represent important features of the process being
      modeled, and its reliability and accuracy.
   •  Recognize limitations of models and simulations.
      For example, describe a situation in which a
      model of an environmental  phenomenon is not
      useful.
G) Developing proposed explanations—Learners are
able to synthesize their observations and findings into
coherent explanations.
   •  Distinguish between description and explanation
      and give examples of each based on their own
      environmental investigations.
   •  Consider the possible relationships among two or
      more variables.
   •  Propose explanations based on what they
      observed or learned through research, selecting
      which evidence  to use and accounting for
      discrepancies. Synthesize and interpret
      information from a range of sources.
   •  List strengths and weaknesses of proposed
      explanations. Discuss how the proposed
      explanation could be rejected or its reliability
      improved.
   •  Use their proposed explanations to form new
      questions and suggest new avenues of inquiry.
Geography 144-145
Mathematics 98-101, 109-111,
   112-115
Science 145
Science Benchmarks 286-287
English Language Arts 39-40
Geography 51-52
History 68-70
Mathematics 81-83
Science 145, 148
                                                         Grades 5-8     33

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References to Standards:
Geography 156-157
Science 158-160
Science Benchmarks 73
Science Benchmarks 77-79
Science 154
Strand 2—
Knowledge of Environmental Processes

and Systems


Strand 2.1—The Earth as a Physical System


Guidelines:
A) Processes that shape the Earth—Learners have a basic
understanding of most of the physical processes that
shape the Earth. They are able to explore the origin of
differences in physical patterns.
   •  Analyze physical patterns such as climate, areas of
      geothermal activity, soil types, and arid regions,
      suggesting reasons for these patterns. Explain
      these patterns in terms of abrupt forces (such as
      earthquakes or major storms) and long-term
      processes (such as erosion and rock formation), as
      well as those that are human-caused (such as
      suburban development or agricultural practices).
   •  Predict the consequences of specific physical
      phenomena such as a hurricane in a coastal area
      or heavy grazing in an arid region.
   •  Relate physical processes and patterns (such as
      climate, weather phenomena, and seasonal
      change) to the Earth/sun relationship. For
      example, create a model that shows how seasonal
      change is affected by the Earth/sun relationship.
B) Changes in matter—Learners understand the
properties of the substances that make up objects or
materials found in the environment.
   •  Describe a variety of chemical reactions and offer
      examples from daily life and the local
      environment.
   •  Explain properties of materials in terms such as
      atomic and molecular structure or reactivity. For
      example, describe why particular building
      materials have properties such as rigidity,
      impermeability, or the ability to reflect or gather
      heat.
   •  Explain an object's characteristics based on its
      composition and how it was formed. For example,
 34     Grades 5-8

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      describe the characteristics of different types of
      rock and account for these characteristics based
      on their constituent parts and the processes by
      which they were formed.
C) Energy—Students begin to grasp formal concepts
related to energy by focusing on energy transfer and
transformations. They are able to make connections
among phenomena such as light, heat, magnetism,
electricity, and the motion of objects.
   •  Trace the flow of energy in examples that
      encompass several different transfers and
      transformations of energy. For example, trace the
      path of energy in the creation and consumption
      of fossil fuels.
   •  Explain how solar energy contributes to the
      movement of global air masses, the hydrological
      cycle and ocean currents.
   •  Explain how the process of life is based on the
      conversion, utilization, storage and transfer of
      energy. For example, create a visual display that
      shows how plants or animals use energy, where
      that energy comes from, and where it goes.
Science 155
Science Benchmarks 84-85
Strand 2.2—The Living Environment
Guidelines:
A) Organisms, populations, and communities—Learners
understand that biotic communities are made up of
plants and animals that are adapted to live in particular
environments.
   •  Define and give examples to illustrate the
      concepts of species, population, community, and
      ecosystem. Trace and give examples of
      connections among organisms at those levels of
      organization.
   •  Link features of internal and external anatomy
      with the ability of organisms to make or find food
      and reproduce in particular environments.
   •  Understand that some animals and plants have
      adapted to extreme environmental conditions.
      Give examples of adaptations that are behavioral
      (for example, the migration of Canada geese and
References to Standards:
Geography 158-159
Science 156-157
Science Benchmarks 104
                                                        Grades 5-8     35

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Science 157-158
Science Benchmarks 108,124
Geography 158
Science 157-158
Science Benchmarks 117
      other birds) and physical (such as the physical
      structures that enable desert animals and plants to
      exist on minimal amounts of water).
   •  Describe how organisms differ in how they use
      energy. For example, identify organisms that use
      energy quickly for growth and metabolism, and
      therefore must replace it quickly (e.g., a
      hummingbird) and others that use energy more
      slowly and therefore need to replace it less
      frequently (e.g., a python). Predict the habitat
      needs of these different types of organisms.
B) Heredity and evolution—Learners have a basic
understanding of the importance of genetic heritage.
   •  Describe some ways in which variation among
      individuals of the same species can sometimes give
      certain individuals an advantage within a specific
      environment.
   •  Describe in general terms the theory of natural
      selection for particular traits and how that process
      can result in descendants that are quite different
      from their ancestors.
   •  Define extinction, cite evidence of extinction, and
      identify some of its causes.
   •  Discuss the possible implications of permanent
      loss of a species and its social, behavioral, and
      genetic heritage.
C) Systems and connections. Learners understand major
kinds of interactions among organisms or populations of
organisms.
   •  Describe and give examples of producer/
      consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host
      relationships.
   •  Identify organisms that are scavengers or
      decomposers. Describe the roles they play within
      particular systems focusing on their relationship
      to other organisms and physical elements of the
      system. Illustrate with photos  or give examples
      from the local environment.
   •  Describe relationships  among organisms that are
      characterized by competition for limited resources
      or by mutual benefit to the organisms.
 36     Grades  5-8

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   •  Summarize how abiotic and biotic components in
      combination influence the structure of an
      ecosystem. For example, create a regional map
      that shows average temperature and rainfall
      correlated with forest, grassland or desert
      ecosystems. Or discuss the process of soil
      formation in terms of the interaction of climate,
      geology, and living organisms.
D) Flow of matter and energy—Learners understand how
energy and matter flow among die abiotic and biotic
components of the environment.
   •  Trace the flow of energy through food webs that
      identify relationships among organisms in natural
      systems.
   •  Explain how matter is transferred among
      organisms and between organisms and their
      environment in these food webs.
                Science 158
                Science Benchmarks 120
   PRISM—Providing Resolution with
   Integrity for a Sustainable MoSokai
   From: Vicki Newberry, Kaunakakai, Hawaii
   Grade Level: Upper Elementary
             Correlating Guidelines:
             Strand 1A, B, C, D, E,
                F,G
             Strand 2.3 C
             Strand 2.4 A, B
             Strand 3.1 A, B
   This Molokai, Hawaii upper elementary
   school class begins studying local issues
   early in the school year. To start, they learn
   about local ecology and begin developing
   their skills in issue analysis—identifying the
   problem, issue, parties, positions, beliefs,
   values, and solutions (according to
   Investigating Environmental Issues and Actions
   by Hungerford, Litherland, Peyton,
   Ramsey, and Volk).
      The students then select specific
   problems and issues to work on throughout
   the year. They are limited to island issues
   to make it easier to obtain background
   information and involve the community.
   Visit to field sites, and an in-class speakers
   forum help students begin to  understand
the complexity of their issues and the
players involved. Further investigations
during the second quarter deepen their
understanding and help them develop
findings.
   In the spring, students sponsor a
community-wide symposium called PRISM.
The students invite an adult keynote
speaker, but the rest of the day is theirs.
They write speeches and present their
findings in panels, workshops and action-
planning sessions. In 1998, 12 different
issues were explored, and 100 adults and
125 students attended the symposium.
                                                         Grades 5-8     37

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                                  Describe how energy, which enters ecosystems as
                                  sunlight, changes form and is transferred in the
                                  exchanges (production, consumption, and
                                  decomposition) that comprise food webs.
                            Strand 2.3—Humans and Their Societies
References to Standards:
Arts 46
Science Benchmarks 141-142,
   155, 159
Social Studies 88-90
Arts 48, 51
English Language Arts 27-29,
   38-39
Geography 154-155,162-163
Science Benchmarks 155
Social Studies 79-81
Guidelines:
A) Individuals and groups—Learners understand that
how individuals perceive the environment is influenced
in part by individual traits and group membership or
affiliation.
   •  Describe individual development and identity in
      terms such as learning, perception, innate
      abilities, culture, social influences, and
      experience. Interpret their own beliefs about the
      environment using similar concepts.
   •  Explain how group membership—and shared
      values, beliefs, and assumptions—can influence
      individuals, impel different reactions to physical
      and_social environments and changes, and cause
      social change. For example, describe how family,
      religion, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status,
      and other factors may influence individuals' values
      and perceptions about the environment and their
      communities.
   •  Identify and critique instances of stereotyping
      based on group affiliation. For example, discuss
      how people who are all identified as
      "environmentalists" may have very different
      perspectives from one another.
B) Culture—As they become familiar with a wider range
of cultures and subcultures, learners gain an
understanding of cultural perspectives on the
environment and how the environment may, in turn,
influence culture.
   •  Explain how the environment is perceived
      differently by various cultures, and how these per-
      spectives may influence individuals' perceptions of
      the environment. For example, based on stories
      from other cultures, script and perform scenes
       about what is considered beautiful, valuable, or
      frightening in the environment.
 38     Grades 5-8

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   •  Explain how new technologies can change
      cultural perceptions and social behavior. For
      example, discuss how snowmobiles have changed
      subsistence lifestyles in Alaska, or the impact of air
      conditioning on settlement in southern Florida.
   •  Identify ways in which transportation and
      communications technology helps, or has helped,
      spread cultural values and behavior patterns.
C) Political and economic systems—-Learners become
more familiar with political and economic systems and
how these systems take the environment into
consideration.
   •  Differentiate among public and private goods and
      services, using environment-related goods and
      services to illustrate. For example, examine the
      values and functions of wetlands. Distinguish
      among public goods, such as groundwater
      recharge, flood control, and wildlife habitat; and
      private goods, such as their value for agricultural
      production or water storage, or the value of
      draining the land for other uses. Discuss
      difficulties encountered in drawing these
      distinctions.
   •  Identify economic and political features of the
      local community and state, and describe how
      environmental decisions can be influenced by
      these economic and political systems and actors.
   •  Identify ways in which governments and economic
      systems work to protect the environment and
      distribute natural resources. Give examples of
      laws, incentives, and penalties that affect people's
      behavior toward the environment and each other.
D) Global connections—Learners become familiar with
ways in which the world's environmental, social,
economic, cultural, and political systems are linked.
   •  Explain international trade in terms of uneven
      distribution of resources.
   •  Describe ways in which the global environment is
      affected by individual and group actions, as well as
      by government policies and actions having to do
      with energy use and other forms of consumption,
      waste disposal, resource management, industry,
      and population.
Science Benchmarks 169
Civics and Government 47-52,
   61-70
Economics 5-7,19-20, 30-31
Geography 164-166
Social Studies 94-98
Civics and Government 71-73
Geography 164-166, 171-172
Science Benchmarks 177
Social Studies 102-104
                                                         Grades 5-8     39

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Science Benchmarks 163, 166,
   173
Social Studies 82-84, 91-93
   •  Explain how an environmental change in one part
      of the world can have consequences for other
      places. For example, develop a map or another
      visual presentation that shows the effects of air
      pollution or nuclear fallout in places distant from
      the source of the pollution.
   •  Identify a variety of global links, including
      transportation and communication systems,
      treaties, multi-national corporations, and
      international organizations.
E) Change and conflict—Learners understand that
human systems change over time and that conflicts
sometimes arise over differing and changing viewpoints
about the  environment.
   •  Describe patterns of change within and across
      cultures, communities, and other groups.
      Consider the rapidity of change, mechanisms that
      helped spread change, and what motivated
      change. For example, discuss how and why
      'wastewater treatment became a common practice
      in the United States.
   •  Explain how change affects individuals and groups
      differently and give examples of the trade-offs
      involved in decisions and actions ranging from the
      individual to the societal levels. For example,
      discuss how a decision about where to site a
      landfill, build a chemical plant, or locate a new
      highway might affect different neighborhoods,
      businesses, workers, people of varying socio-
      economic status, and others. Role  play their
      reactions.
   •  Describe and analyze examples of tensions
      between individual rights and benefits and the
      societal good. Illustrate with examples from the
      local community, possibly including
      disagreements over zoning, controversial
      proposals to raise taxes to pay for the purchase of
      open space or sewer system upgrades, or tradeoffs
      between commuting to work individually in a car
      or taking public transportation.
   •  Identify some of the formal and informal ways that
      groups (including governments) attempt to
      anticipate, avoid, or resolve conflicts related to the
      environment.
40     Grades 5-8

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   Live Oaks Communities
   From: Teaching Naturally, Office of Environmental
      Education, Tallahassee, Florida
   Grade Level: Middle School (Grades 5-8)
             Correlating Guidelines:
             Strand IE
             Strand 2.3 A
             Strand 2.4 A, B, C
             Strand 3.1 A, B, C, D
   Near the school, there's a wooded section
   of public land, called a green way, with a
   live oak hammock ecosystem. Taking
   advantage of the green way's proximity,
   four instructors developed a coordinated
   unit that used die site and met learning
   objectives for each discipline.
       In science, students learned about
   interrelationships by studying an oak tree
   and the diverse organisms that it supports.
   The class walked to die green way and, in
   small groups, conducted inventories of
   selected trees. The groups used field guides
   to identify and record die plants, animals,
   and animal signs diey discovered.
       The math instructor helped students
   compile and graph their data and interpret
   their findings. The students learned to
   calculate percentages by figuring die
   relationship of each animal or plant group
   to die total biodiversity of die tree.
       Students read Longfellow's Evangeline
   and odier stories involving oaks, which
   prompted diem to write folk tales about
trees. The art teacher also got into die act
widi lessons on foreground and
background perspectives that helped
students draw pencil sketches of dieir study
trees to illustrate their stories.
    In social studies, students estimated die
age of their group of trees and developed
time lines of historical events that took
place during die trees' life spans.
    As questions arose about preserving
and removing trees, students researched
city planning, tree ordinances, and odier
related civic issues.
    To culminate die interdisciplinary unit,
student groups used county maps to
identify several large oaks trees, then
develop a rationale  for locating a new
county road diat accounted for site and
materials. The recommendations were
presented in a mock county planning
meeting.
Strand 2.4—Environment and Society
Guidelines:
A) Human/environment interactions—Learners
understand that human-caused changes have
consequences for the immediate environment as well as
for other places and future times.
    •   Describe intended and unintended environmental
       and social consequences associated with the
       changing use of technologies. Consider
       consequences that may be positive as well as
                 References to Standards:
                 Geography 173-175
                 Science 168-169
                                                           Grades 5-8     41

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Arts 50
Geography 150-155
Social Studies 85-87, 99-101
Economics 1-3
Geography 176-178
History 67-68
Science 168
      negative. For example, discuss development of the
      highway system, different ways of generating
      electrical power, or the use of synthetic pesticides.
   •  Explain how human-caused environmental
      changes cause changes in other places. For
      example, discuss the effects of building a dam on
      downstream plant and animal communities as well
      as on human communities.
   •  Describe the environmental effects of a local
      environmental restoration effort, such as wetlands
      creation. Speculate about long-term consequences
      of such efforts, or a particular restoration project.
B) Places—Learners begin to explore the meaning of
places both close to home and around the world.
   •  Analyze physical and human characteristics of
      places and make inferences about how and why
      these characteristics have developed and changed
      over time. For example, use maps  and satellite
      photographs to examine how cities change in
      response to natural disasters such  as floods,
      hurricanes, or earthquakes.
   •  Identify ways in which personal perceptions,
      culture, and technology influence people's
      perceptions of places. Discuss the  importance of
      some places (such as Yellowstone National Park or
      the Mississippi River) as cultural symbols.
   •  Identify regions based on different criteria such as
      watershed boundaries, sales and service areas for
      different businesses, or the  area from which sports
      teams draw fans or symphony orchestras attract
      audiences.
C) Resources—Learners understand that uneven
distribution of resources influences their use and
perceived value.
   •  Map and discuss distribution and consumption
      patterns for specific resources, such as metals,
      fresh water, or certain types of forests. Note
      resources that are being rapidly depleted.
   •  Explain why certain resources  (such as oil, coal, or
      natural gas) are key to the development of human
      societies, and identify resources that were critical
      to development at different times in history.
 42     Grades 5-8

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   •  Explain conflicts between individuals, states,
      regions, or nations noting factors such as differing
      attitudes about the use of specific resources and
      scarcity of natural resources. Illustrate with local
      or regional examples such as conflicts over urban
      development and use of habitat for local
      endangered species.
D) Technology—Learners understand the human ability
to shape and control the environment as a function of
the capacities for creating knowledge and developing
new technologies.
   •  Discuss technologies in the context'of larger
      systems that have shaped the course of human
      history as well as human relationships with the
      environment. Use illustrations from the great
      revolutions (agricultural, industrial,
      transportation, and so on) that have dramatically
      changed how people live and use resources.
   •  Analyze how the ability to develop  and use
      technology gives humans great influence over the
      environment and other- living things. Use
      examples from their region, such as the ability to
      construct levees to protect areas from flooding or
      create wildlife refuges, build machines that
      produce or reduce air or water pollution, or
      domesticate plants or animals for food
      production.
   •  Identify some of the important environmental and
      social issues related to particular technological
      developments in fields such as agriculture,
      manufacturing, and energy.
E) Environmental issues—Learners are familiar with a
range of environmental issues at scales that range from
local to national to global. They understand that people
in other places around the world share many of the
issues they are concerned about locally.
   •  Identify other places, either contemporary or
      historical, experiencing issues similar to those in
      the learner's community or region.
   •  Explain how issues arise because of conflicting
      points of view about a specific proposal, event, or
      condition in  the environment. For example,
      discuss conflicting perspectives about past and
      present proposals to build large-scale dams such as
Science 169
Science Benchmarks 55-56,
   185-186,189-190, 194, 198,
   202-203, 206
Social Studies 99-101
Geography 181-182
                                                         Grades 5-8     43

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                                 the Three Gorges project in China, the Hetch-
                                 Hetchy dam in the U.S., or a similar project in the
                                 learner's region.
                                 Discuss how the disagreements at the heart of
                                 environmental issues makes them difficult to
                                 resolve. Consider the role of understanding,
                                 creativity, or compromise in finding solutions.
References fo Standards:
Geography 164rl66, 169-170,
   179-182
Histoiy 68-70
Social Studies 79-93, 105-107
Strand 3—
Skids for Understanding and Addressing

Environmental Issues


Strand 3.1—Skills for Analyzing and Investigating
Environmental Issues


Guidelines:
A) Identifying and investigating issues—Learners are
able to use primary and secondary sources of
information, and apply growing research and analytical
skills, to investigate environmental issues, beginning in
their own community.
   •   Clearly articulate and define environmental issues.
       For example, describe the history and origins of
       the issue, actions that have been taken to address
       the issue, the apparent effects of these actions,
       and the current situation.
   •   Identify key individuals and groups involved, their
       viewpoints, and the types of action they support.
       Describe areas of conflict and agreement.
   •   Investigate the issue using secondary sources and
       original research where needed.
   •   Examine how others have analyzed and
       understood the issue, identifying their approaches
       and the assumptions behind them.
    •  Compare the issue with similar issues from other
       places and times.
 44     Grades 5-8

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B) Sorting out the consequences of issues—Learners are
able to apply their knowledge of ecological and human
processes and systems to identify the consequences of
specific environmental issues.
   •  Describe the effects of human actions on specific
      elements, systems, and processes of the
      environment.
   •  Analyze issues by looking at trade-offs that have
      been made. For example, consider where various
      human activities (such as hazardous waste
      incinerators, landfills, highways, or chemical
      factories) are located and their effects on different
      places and different segments of the population.
   •  Speculate about the effects of a proposed state or
      local environmental regulation. For example,
      consider effects on different sectors of the
      economy, neighborhoods, public health,
      particular plant and animal species and
      communities, and overall environmental quality.
   •  Project the consequences of inaction or failure to
      resolve particular issues.
C) Identifying and evaluating alternative solutions and
courses of action—Learners are able to identify and
develop action strategies for addressing particular issues.
   •  Identify different proposals for resolving an envi-
      ronmental issue. Recognize and explain the per-
      spectives on the issue embedded in those views.
   •  Explain why various strategies may be effective in
      different situations. Consider their likely effects
      on society and the environment.
   •  Independently and in groups, develop original
      strategies to address issues.
   •  Discern similarities  and differences in situations
      which might affect their ability to apply strategies
      that were successful in other places and times.
D) Working with flexibility, creativity, and openness—
Students are able to consider the assumptions and
interpretations that influence the conclusions they and
others draw about environmental issues.
Geography 171-172
Social Studies 85-87
English Language Arts 41
History 70
Social Studies 105-107
Arts 51
English Language Arts 31-33,
   41-42, 44-45
Geography 181
Mathematics 81-82
Science 148
Science Benchmarks 286-287
Social Studies 88-90
                                                          Grades 5-8     45

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  The Many Sides of Cotton                 f^ff rGuAdeJlnres:
                                                     Strand 1 A, C, D, E, G
  From: Windows on the Wild—Biodiversity Basics, World  Strand 2.4 A, C, D, E
     Wildlife Fund, Washington, B.C.                 Stnmd % l ^ B\ c' D
  Grade Level: Middle School (grades 6-9)
  This activity is part of a broader unit on
  biodiversity, and incorporates social
  studies, science, and language arts.
      Students begin by exploring a
  hypothetical controversy, such as supposing
  that the school has to cut the budget and
  must choose between the music program
  or after-school sports. Through this
  exercise, students are introduced to issue
  analysis: identifying the problem, the issue,
  the parties involved and their positions, the
  beliefs that shape those positions, and the
  values that underlie them, and examine
  possible solutions.
      Once familiar with the approach,
  students apply the issue analysis process to"
                                         examine the pros and cons of growing
                                         organic and conventional cotton. Using
                                         readings written by people with diverse
                                         perspectives on the issue, students work
                                         individually or in groups to analyze the
                                         articles for points of agreement and
                                         disagreement, facts, opinions, and bias.
                                         Individually or in groups, they complete a
                                         chart on sorting out the issues.
                                            Finally, students write a personal
                                         position statement on conventional versus
                                         organic cotton, making sure to back up
                                         their statements with specific reasons, and
                                         describing whether and how their positions
                                         will affect their actions as a consumer and a
                                         citizen.
                                •  Explain how the interplay of ideas and
                                   perspectives strengthens the process of inquiry
                                   and the societal ability to address issues.
                                •  Receive questions and alternative explanations
                                   that others offer in discussions as well as in
                                   readings.
                                •  Explain why it is not always possible to select one
                                   correct explanation or a single best approach to
                                   addressing an issue.


                             Strand 3.2—Decision-Making and Citizenship Skills
References to Standards:
Arts 40
Geography 179-182
History 70
Social Studies 88-90
                             Guidelines:
                             A) Forming and evaluating personal views—Students are
                             able to identify, justify, and clarify their views on
                             environmental issues and alternative ways to address
                             them.
46     Grades  5-8

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   •  Discuss personal perspectives with classmates,
      remaining open to new ideas and information.
   •  Justify their views based on information from a
      variety of sources, and clear reasoning.
   •  Discuss their own beliefs and values regarding the
      environment and relate their personal view of
      environmental issues to these.
   •  Identify ways in which others' views correspond or
      differ with their own views.
B) Evaluating the need for citizen action—Learners are
able to evaluate whether they believe action is needed in
particular situations,  and decide whether they should be
involved.
   •  Discuss whether action is warranted. Account for
      factors such as the scale of the problem; legal,
      social, economic, and ecological consequences;
      and alternatives to citizen action.
   •  Identify different forms of action that citizens can
      take in the economic, political, and legal spheres,
      as well as actions aimed' at directly improving or
      maintaining some part of the environment or
      persuading others to take action.
   •  Speculate about the likely effects of specific
      actions on society and the environment, and the
      likelihood these actions will resolve a specific
      environmental issue.
   •  Point out advantages and disadvantages of their
      personal involvement, considering factors such as
      their own skills, resources, knowledge, and
      commitment.
C) Planning and taking action—As students begin to see
themselves as citizens taking active roles in their
communities, they are able to plan for and engage in
citizen action at levels appropriate to their maturity and
preparation.
   •  Develop action plans they can carry out
      individually, in small groups, or with a class, club,
      or larger organization. Include clear reasons and
      goals for action. Base these plans on knowledge of
      a range of citizen action strategies and the results
      of their environmental issue investigations.
Civics and Government 68-70
Social Studies 105-107
Civics and Government 80-83
Social Studies 105-107
                                                         Grades 5-8     47

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History 70
Social Studies 105-107
   •  Set realistic goals for action and include measures
      of success consistent with learners' abilities and an
      understanding of the complexity of the issue.
   •  Decide whether their plan should be
      implemented immediately or at another time,
      changed, or abandoned; and carry through with
      action when appropriate.
D) Evaluating the results of actions—Learners are able to
analyze the effects of their own actions and actions taken
by other individuals and groups.
   •  Analyze the effects of decisions, policies, and
      actions taken by individuals and groups on a
      particular issue.
   •  Analyze their own actions, explaining apparent
      effects and discussing them in light of students'
      goals and reasons for acting.
   •  Describe some of the reasons why analyzing the
      results of actions may be difficult, including the
      scale of the issue, the time required to see effects,
      and the influence of other actions and factors.
                             Strand
                             Personal and Civic Responsibility
  Reference to Standards:
  Civics and Government 58-60
  English Language Arts 44
  Social Studies 91-95,105-107
Guidelines:
A) Understanding societal values and principles—
Learners understand that societal values can be both a
unifying and a divisive force.
   •  Identify some of the shared political values and
      principles that unite American society, and
      explain their importance.
   •  Discuss conflicting views about the meaning and
      application of shared values in specific issues. For
      example, explore conflicting views about the idea
      that one person's rights end where they infringe
      on another's. Use a specific context such as
      proposed sports stadium  or whether to permit an
      industrial facility or housing development.
 48     Grades 5-8

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   •  From speeches and writings on specific
      environmental issues, identify ways in which
      advocates appeal to values such as individual
      freedoms, property rights, the public good,
      economic well-being, and patriotism.
   •  Evaluate the principle of stewardship as a shared
      societal value. For example, compare conceptions
      of stewardship contained in writings of John Muir,
      Gifford Pinchot, and Aldo Leopold with their own
      understanding.
B) Recognizing citizens' rights and responsibilities—
Learners understand the rights and responsibilities of
citizenship and their importance in promoting the
resolution of environmental issues.
   •  Identify rights and responsibilities associated with
      citizenship, including personal and civic
      responsibilities.
   •  Describe ways in which commonly accepted rights
      and responsibilities of citizenship motivate people
      to help resolve environmental issues. Consider
      rights and responsibilities such as acquiring, using
      and selling property; the right to vote; freedom of
      speech and assembly; accepting responsibility for
      the consequences of one's actions; obeying the
      law; and respecting the rights and interests of
      others.
C) Recognizing efficacy—Learners possess a realistic self-
confidence in their effectiveness as citizens.
   •  Explain the ways in which citizen action and
      public opinion influence environmental policy
      decisions.
   •  Describe how individuals and groups act within
      society to create change, meet individual needs
      and promote the common good. Illustrate with
      examples from environmental issues.
   •  Describe ways in which their actions have made a
      difference. Use examples that begin in the
      classroom and the home, and extend beyond to
      encompass the broader communities in which
      students begin to see possibilities for action.
Civics and Government 74-78
Social Studies 105-107
Civics and Government 80-83
Social Studies 91-93, 105-107
                                                        Grades 5-8     49

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Civics and Government 79-80
D) Accepting personal responsibility—Learners under-
stand that their actions can have broad consequences
and that they are responsible for those consequences.
   •  Analyze some of the effects that their actions (and
      the actions of their families, social groups, and
      communities) have on the environment, other
      humans, and other living things.
   •  Describe actions in terms of their effects that
      reach into the future.
   •  Describe their personal responsibilities,
      comparing their view of their responsibilities with
      commonly accepted societal views.
   •  Identify ways in which they feel responsible for
      helping resolve environmental issues within their
      community.
 50     Grades 5-8

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GUIDELINES  FOR TWELFTH GRADE
                    Learners should be able to meet the guidelines included in this
                    section by the time they graduate from high school.
                       By the end of twelfth grade, learners are well on their way to
                    environmental literacy. They should possess the basic skills and
                    dispositions they need to understand and act on environmental
                    problems and issues as responsible citizens—and to continue
                    the learning process throughout their lives. In the ninth
                    through twelfth grades, environmental education can promote
                    active and responsible citizenship by challenging learners to
                    hone and apply problem-solving, analysis, persuasive
                    communication, and other higher level skills—often in real-
                    world contexts.
                     Strand 1—
                     Questioning and Analysis Skids
References:
Geography 53
History 68-70
Mathematics 137-139
Science 175
Geography 53
History 67-68
Mathematics 137-139,
   167-170
Science 175
Guidelines:
A) Questioning—Learners are able to develop, modify, clarify,
and explain questions that guide environmental investigations
of various types. They understand factors that influence the
questions they pose.
   •  Articulate environmental phenomena or topics to be
      studied at scales ranging from local to global.
   •  Pose a research question or hypothesis, identifying and
      defining key variables, based on primary and secondary
      sources of information. For example, develop hypotheses
      about land use in a region by drawing on maps,
      newspaper articles, databases, and personal observations.
   •  Identify historical and current ideas and beliefs—for
      example, about the environment, human perceptions of
      the environment, or the nature of knowledge—that
      inform their questions.
B) Designing investigations—Learners know how to design
investigations to answer particular questions about the
environment. They are able to develop approaches for
investigating unfamiliar types of problems and phenomena.
   •  Select appropriate means of inquiry, including scientific
      investigations, historical inquiry, and social science
      observation and research.

                                Grades 9-12    51

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  Understanding the Local Environment
  Experiencing and observing the local environment is an essential part of environmental
  education. Understanding their surroundings helps learners build a strong foundation of
  skills and knowledge for reaching out further into die world and deeper into the
  conceptual understandings that environmental literacy demands. Direct experience in
  die environment also helps foster the awareness and appreciation that motivate learners
  to further questioning, better understanding, and appropriate concern and action.
     The following chart suggests ways in which learners at different grade levels might
  explore and understand the local environment. It is printed in each grade level section of
  these guidelines to help show progression as learners mature. Other ideas are included in
  the guidelines.                                 __^_^^^_^^^^_^_^____^«_
   Grades K-4
   Identify basic types of
   habitats (e.g., forests,
   wetlands, or lakes). Create
   a short list of plants and
   animals found in each.
   Trace the source of their
   drinking water and where it
   goes after it is used.
   Recognize resident animal
   species, migrants, and
   those that pass through on
   migratory routes.
   Collect or produce images
   of the area at the
   beginning of European
   settlement.
   Describe aspects of the
   environment that change
   on a daily, weekly, monthly,
   and yearly basis.
   Identify sources of
   electricity used in the
   community (e.g.,
   hydroelectric, fossil fuels,
   solar, nuclear).
   Record weather
   observations such as
   precipitation, temperature,
   or cloud cover.
   Identify food crops that are
   grown or processed locally.
Grades 5-8
Classify local ecosystems
(e.g., oak-hickory forest or
sedge meadow). Create
food webs to show—or
describe their function in
terms of—the interaction
of specific plant and animal
species.
Describe how drinking
water and wastewater are
treated.
Map migratory routes of
birds, butterflies, and other
animals that pass through
die area. Identify their local
habitat needs.
Monitor changes in water
or air quality, or other
aspects of the local
environment.
Identify species  diat are
locally threatened,
endangered, or declining
in population. Describe
their habitat needs.
Describe the area's climate
and identify factors that
contribute to it.
Create a map for the local
area that shows  where food
that is consumed locally
comes from.
  Identify several plants and
  animals common to local
< | ecosystems. Describe
| > concepts such as
  succession, competition,
  predator/prey
  relationships, and
  parasitism.
  Evaluate sources of non-
  point source pollution of
  local bodies of water,
  including sources that are
  •not local.
  Investigate short- and long-
  term environmental
  changes in a local
  watershed and aquifer, or
 ', in air quality. Or document
  changes in land use and
i ' their environmental effects. '
  Research population trends
  for a locally threatened
 • species. Describe changes,
  activities, and other factors
  that seem to affect the
  population trends.
< | Calculate the potential for
  generating wind or solar
  power on a particular site.
  Trace human population
  trends  for their region and
  make projections, based on
  research findings, for the
  future.
52   Grades 9-12

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   •  Select and develop appropriate formulas and
      procedures for conducting environmental
      investigations.
   •  Incorporate a wide range of tools and
      technologies as appropriate, including complex
      maps, measurement instruments and processes,
      and computer-based analysis.
C) Collecting information—Learners are able to locate
and collect reliable information for-environmental
investigations of many types. They know how to use
sophisticated technology to collect information,
including computer programs that access, gather, store,
and display data.
   •  Use basic sampling techniques such as spatial
      sampling and random sampling. Evaluate when
      these techniques are appropriate.
   •  Apply observation and measurement skills in field
      situations, such as interviewing- community
      members about environmental concerns or
      sampling water in a local stream.
   •  Gather information from a variety of sources
      including historical sites, censuses, tax records,
      statistical compilations, economic indicators,
      interviews or surveys, geographical information
      systems, and other data banks.
   •  Adjust information collection strategies  to
      compensate for potential bias in information
      sources.
   •  Perform basic statistical analyses to describe data
      using quantitative measures such as mean, median
      and mode.
D) Evaluating accuracy and reliability-—Learners can
apply basic logic and reasoning skills to evaluate
completeness and reliability in a variety of information
sources.
   •  Identify logical errors and spurious statements in
      everyday situations such as political speeches
      about the environment or commercial advertising.
   •  Look for and explain flaws such as faulty or
      misleading use of statistics, misrepresentation of
      data that is presented graphically, or biased
      selection of data to support a claim. For example,
English Language Arts 27-28,
   38-40
Geography 53,184-185
History 67-68
Mathematics 167-175
Science Benchmarks 230
Social Studies 118-120
English Language Arts 38-39
Geography 55
History 67-68
Mathematics 143-145, 167-170
Science 175-176
Science Benchmarks 230, 234,
   300
                                                         Grades 9-12   53

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English Language Arts 35-36
Geography 53-54, 184-185
Mathematics 154-156, 167-170
Science Benchmarks 230, 270
English Language Arts 37
Geography 54-55,184-185
Mathematics 154-156,157-160
Science 175
Science Benchmarks 230, 270
      analyze the public debate over an environmental
      issue. Examine speeches, advertisements, news
      releases, and pamphlets put out by groups on
      various sides of the issue.
   •  Explain why some research results are judged to
      be more credible than are others. Consider factors
      such as possible sources of bias in interpretation,
      funding sources, and research procedures.
E) Organizing information—Learners are able to
organize and display information in ways appropriate to
different types of environmental investigations and
purposes.
   •  Attend to details such as the type and accuracy of
      data, scale, accuracy of representation, and ease of
      interpretation.
   •  Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the
      particular means of presentation for different
      purposes.
   •  Work with technology designed to relate and
      display data, such as database and mapping
      software.
   •  Integrate and summarize information using a
      variety of media ranging from written texts to
      graphic representations, and from audiovisual
      materials to maps and computer-generated
      images.
F) Working with models and simulations—Learners are
able to create, use, and evaluate models to understand
environmental phenomena.
   •  Use algebraic and geometric models to represent
      processes or objects such as movement along
      earthquake fault lines, traffic flows, or population
      growth.
   •  Use computersvto create models and simulations.
      For example, project the effects of habitat
      fragmentation on species diversity, the air-quality
      effects of a new factory, the economic impacts of
      proposed water quality rules, or the visual changes
      a new housing development will make on the
      landscape.
   •  Compare the applicability of models for particular
      situations, considering the models' assumptions as
54   Grades  9-12

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   The Wood Duck Project
   From: Karen Cifranick, Joppatowne High School,
      Joppatowne, Maryland
   Grade Level: High School
             Correlating Guidelines:
             Strand 1 C, D, G
             Strand 2.2 A
             Strand 2.3 A
   Joppatowne High School's science
   curriculum is taught through investigations
   and hands-on study. One such study
   concerned die decline of wood ducks in a
   freshwater marsh near die school.
      With start-up funds from die
   Chesapeake Bay Trust, students in
   Joppatowne's environmental science class
   built fifty wood duck nesting boxes They
   worked widi staff from Chesapeake Wildlife
   Heritage and die Chesapeake Bay
   Foundation to identify appropriate
   locations and installed the boxes in
   Maryland's Gunpowder River Marsh.
   Next, die students collected baseline
data for monitoring die use of die boxes by
wood ducks in die next nesting season.
Students compared their data to odier
nesting projects in die county and state.
   When spring came, die students
anxiously collected field data to gauge
nesting success. Their findings showed 25
percent of the boxes were occupied.
   Each year, new students continue to
monitor nesting and repair boxes as
necessary. The latest data shows 68 percent
of die boxes in use.
       one factor. Explain how a single model may apply
       to more dian one situation and how many models
       may represent a single.
   •   Evaluate and report the limitations of models used.
G) Developing proposed explanations—Learners are able
to use evidence and logic in developing proposed
explanations that address their initial questions and
hypotheses.
   •   Use basic statistical analysis and measures of
       probability to make predictions and develop
       interpretations based on data.
   •   Differentiate between causes and effects and
       identify when causality is uncertain.
   •   Speak in general terms about their confidence in
       proposed explanations as well as possible sources of
       uncertainty and error. Distinguish between error
       and unanticipated results in formulating
       explanations. Consider the assumptions of models
       and measuring techniques or devices as possible
       sources of error.
                English Language Arts 36-37
                Geography 55-56
                History 68
                Mathematics 143-145, 167-175
                Science 173-176
                Science Benchmarks 230, 300
                                                          Grades 9-12    55

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                                 Identify what would be needed to reject the
                                 proposed explanation.
                                 Based on experience, develop new questions to
                                 ground further inquiry. For example, draw on the
                                 results of a stream-monitoring project to develop
                                 questions that guide an investigation into water
                                 quality issues in the community or the watershed.
                           Strand 2—
                           Knowledge of Environmental Processes
                           and Systems
                           Strand 2.1—The Earth as a Physical System
References to Standards:
Geography 197-198
Science 187-189
Science Benchmarks 74
Science 177-179
Science Benchmarks 79-80
Guidelines:
A) Processes that shape the Earth—Learners understand
the major physical processes that shape the Earth. They
can relate these processes, especially those that are large-
scale and long-term, to characteristics of the Earth.
   •  Relate different types of climate to processes such
      as the transfer of heat energy, wind and ocean
      currents, and the cycling of water.
   •  Use examples such as the El Nino effect or the
      Santa Ana winds to illustrate how changes in wind
      patterns or ocean temperatures can affect weather
      in different parts of the world.
   •  Explain distinctive landforms in terms of the
      physical processes (particularly those related to
      changes in the Earth's crust or long-term
      processes such as erosion) that shaped them.
   •  Describe possible relationships between surface
      water and ground water. For example, create a
      model or a cross-sectional drawing that shows
      surface- and groundwater flows in a local
      drainage. Explain why surface and ground water
      are related in these ways.
B) Changes in matter—Learners apply their
understanding of chemical reactions to round out their
explanations of environmental characteristics and
everyday phenomena.
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   •  Explain everyday chemical reactions such as
      burning fossil fuels, photosynthesis, or the
      creation of smog in terms such as the release or
      consumption of energy, the products of these
      reactions, and how these products may be
      involved in further chemical reactions and/or
      affect biogeochemical cycles.
   •  Explain the chemical components of biological
      processes such as photosynthesis, respiration,
      nitrogen fixation, or decomposition, and how
      biological and physical processes fit in the overall
      process of biogeochemical cycling.
   •  Explain why elements cycle through the biosphere
      at different rates, describing influences on
      reaction rates. (Oxygen and nitrogen cycle
      quickly, for example, while phosphorus tends to
      be released from its immobile form more slowly,
      depending upon factors such as soil acidity.)
C) Energy—Learners apply their knowledge of energy
and matter to understand phenomena in the world
around them.
   •  Compare different means of generating electricity
       (such as coal-burning plants, nuclear fusion
      reactors, wind, geothermal, and hydropower) in
      terms of the transformation of energy among
      forms, the relationship of matter and energy, and
      efficiency/production of heat energy.
   •  Explain differences in conductivity among
      materials and relate these ideas to real-world
      phenomena, discussing, for example, the
      efficiency of various types of motors or heating
      systems.
   •  Use the laws of thermodynamics to explain why
      natural systems need  a certain amount of energy
      input to maintain their organization.


Strand 2.2—The Living Environment
Science 180-181
Science Benchmarks 85-86
Guidelines:
A) Organisms, populations, and communities—Learners
understand basic population dynamics and the
importance of diversity in living systems.
References to Standards:
Science 186
Science Benchmarks 105
                                                        Grades 9-12    57

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Science 185
Science Benchmarks 108-109,
   124-125
Geography 158-159
Science 186
Science Benchmarks 117
   •  Discuss the relationship of habitat changes to
      plant and animal populations. Consider such
      factors as variations in habitat size,
      fragmentation, and fluctuation in conditions
      such as pH, oxygen, available light, or water
      level. For example, describe the effects of a
      lake's eutrophication on plant, insect, bacteria,
      and fish populations.
   •  Discuss some of the ways in which populations
      can change over time, using ideas such as cyclic
      fluctuations, equilibrium, and coupled
      oscillations. Evaluate influences on population
      growth rate, including reproductive strategies
      and resource limitations.
   •  Explain how diversity of characteristics among
      organisms of a species increases the likelihood of
      the species surviving changing environmental
      conditions.
   •  Explain how variation among species in a system
      increases the likelihood that at least some species
      will survive changes in environmental conditions.
B) Heredity and evolution—Learners understand the
basic ideas and genetic mechanisms behind biological
evolution.
   •  Describe the mechanisms of natural selection,
      incorporating factors such as genetic variation,
      the effect of heritable characteristics on
      individual survival and reproduction within a
      given environment, and the effects of
      environmental change.
   •  Use the theory of natural selection and concepts
      such as mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift to
      account for the adaptation of species to specific
      environments.
   •  Explain the idea that the more biological
      diversity there" is today, the more there may be in
      the future. Offer examples of exceptions to this
      general rule, and use it to help explain past mass
      extinctions.
C) Systems and connections—Learners  understand the
living environment to be comprised of interrelated,
dynamic systems.
58   Grades  9-12

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   •  Apply the concepts of ecosystem and ecoregion to
      organize the multitude of relationships among
      organisms and environments encountered in
      earlier studies.
   •  Discuss the interactions among organisms and
      their environments. Explain ecosystem change
      with respect to variables such as climate change,
      the introduction of new species, and human
      impacts; and explain processes such as
      desertification and soil formation as mechanisms
      for such change.
   •  Describe succession in ecosystems and their
      constituent plant and animal communities.
      Illustrate this idea with examples such as the slow
      transformation of a volcanic island from barren
      rock to rain forest as initial plant colonizers create
      conditions favorable to other species, or the more
      rapid changes that occur after beavers dam a
      stream.
   •  Describe how adding a species to, or removing
      one from, an ecosystem may affect other
      organisms and the entire system.
D) The flow of matter and energy—Learners are able to
account for environmental characteristics based on their
knowledge of how matter and energy interact in living
systems.
   •  Illustrate how energy for life is provided primarily
      by continual inputs from the sun, captured by
      plants through photosynthesis and converted into
      carbon-based molecules. Describe exceptions such
      as geothermal and natural nuclear energy.
   •  Trace the flow of matter and energy through
      living systems, and between living systems and the
      physical environment. For example, show how
      oxygen is released to the atmosphere by the
      interaction of plants, animals, and non-living
      matter in the carbon cycle. Or use the carbon
      cycle to explain the existence of fossil energy
      sources.
   •  Explain how the abundance and distribution of
      living organisms are limited by the available
      energy and certain forms of matter such as water,
      oxygen, and minerals.
Science 186
Science Benchmarks 121
                                                        Grades 9-12   59

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References to Standards:
Economics 1-3,19-20
Science Benchmarks 142, 156,
   160
Social Studies 121-126
Strand 2.3—Humans and Their Societies


Guidelines:
A) Individuals and groups—Learners understand the
influence of individual and group actions on the
environment, and how groups can work to promote and
balance interests.
    •   Predict how the environmental effects of their
       personal actions might change over time.
       Consider variables such as technological advances,
       lifestyle changes, or taking on such roles as
       business owners, employees in various careers, or
       parents.
   Getting Involved in a Local Landfill
   From: Environmental Education Association of New
       Mexico
   Grade Level: High School
                          Correlating Guidelines:
                          Strand 1 A, B, C, E, G
                          Strand 2.1 A
                          Strand 2.2 A, C
                          Strand 2.3 A, B, C, E
                          Strand 2.4 A, B, C, D, E
                          Strand 3.1 A, B, D
                          Strand 3.2 A
   When a controversial landfill opened near
   their southern New Mexico community,
   local high school students expressed
   concerns to teacher, Mr. Licona. Knowing
   his students needed to be informed about
   landfills, Licona provided several avenues
   of investigation. Students teamed up for a
   year-long research project that ultimately
   earned university scholarships for two
   students, and employment at the landfill
   for a third.
       Grants, fundraising activities, and
   personal funds ensured that the students'
   vantage point was not restricted. With these
   funds, the students were able to visit
   research areas including the proposed
   location for burial of low-level nuclear
   waste near Carlsbad and a Texas site where
   sewage sludge is applied to the arid desert
   land.
                 Guest speakers from New Mexico State
             University's Waste Management Education
             Research Consortium and Westex Labs
             spoke with the class, and students discussed
             liner safety issues and future reclamation
             plans with the landfill director. Class
             members attended city council meetings,
             and met with a community group
             concerned with the landfill's placement.
             Each student was also responsible for
             providing at least two related internet
             sources, two magazine articles, and two
             library sources to the class.
                 The students synthesized their learning
             through reflective papers. Using computer
             technology, concept maps, and other visual
             aids, they shared their findings and
             recommendations in presentations to their
             classmates, community agencies, and the
             landfill director.
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    •   Analyze how the actions of societal organizations
       such as businesses or community groups may have
       environmental consequences and other impacts
       that go beyond the intended aims of the group.
    •   Describe how particular groups meet or balance
       individual needs, group goals, and the common
       societal good. Use examples such as conservation
       organizations, organizations of professionals in
       environmental or resource management fields,
       community associations, or business groups.
B) Culture—Learners understand cultural perspectives
and dynamics and apply their understanding in context.
    •   Analyze how cultural change and altered views of
       the environment are related. For example, discuss
       how the shift away from a largely rural society to a
       predominantly urban one may influence changing
       perceptions of the environment.
    •   Recognize diverse cultural views about humans
       and the environment. Anticipate ways in which
       people from different cultural perspectives and
       frames of reference might interpret data, events,
       or policy proposals.
    •   Describe and compare historical and
       contemporary societal strategies for adapting to
       environmental or social change while preserving
       and transmitting culture. For example, describe
       ways resource-dependent communities (those
       whose economies traditionally relied on activities
       such as mining or timber harvest) work to
       maintain their identities in the face of mine
       closures or declining timber harvests.
C) Political and economic systems—Learners understand
how different political and economic systems account
for, manage, and affect natural resources and
environmental quality.
   •   Explain the development of economic systems
       using the economic idea of scarcity and the
       geographic idea of uneven distribution of
       resources.
   •   Compare the U.S. political and economic systems
      with other types of systems, focusing on how the
      systems govern the use of natural  resources,
      control production and consumption, and protect
      environmental quality.
Civics and Government 103-105
Geography 195-196
Social Studies 111-112
Civics and Government 96-98,
   110-120
Economics 5-7, 19-20, 30-33
Geography 206-207, 210- 211
Science Benchmarks 170
Social Studies 127-131
                                                        Grades 9-12    61

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Civics and Government 121-126
Economics 11-12
Geography 206-207, 210- 211
Science Benchmarks 178
Social Studies 136-138
   •  Evaluate the environmental and societal costs and
      benefits of allocating goods and services in
      different ways (e.g. through public or private
      sectors). For example, explain problems such as
      over-fishing, over-grazing, and deforestation
      considering what can happen to resources that are
      commonly owned and openly accessible. Or
      examine successful common property
      management systems that promote sustainable use
      of resources.
   •  Explain current and historical environmental
      issues in terms of political and economic ideas.
      For example, analyze the role of private property
      rights and the concept of general welfare in
      shaping decisions about the use and protection of
      wetlands in the United States.
   •  Evaluate the structure and functions of the United
      Nations and it agencies in addressing global
      environmental issues.
D) Global connections—Learners are able to analyze
global social, cultural, political, economic, and
environmental linkages.
   •  Explain regional and national economic
      specialization and international trade in terms of
      uneven distribution of resources and differing
      costs of producing similar goods (due to factors
      such as climate, labor costs, and energy costs).
   •  Describe global connections in systems such as the
      economy, transportation, and communication.
      Evaluate the effects of changes in these systems on
      communities and the environment on  a global
      scale. Consider instances in which global linkages
      are strong, and in which they are relatively weak.
    •  Evaluate the connections among interests,
      decisions, and actions taken at the individual,
      community, regional, national, and global levels.
      Consider their effect on global issues such as
      human rights, economic development, health,
      resource allocation, and environmental quality.
      For example, examine the influence of factors
      such as consumer preferences, U.S. foreign policy,
      international treaties and governing bodies,
      international nongovernmental organizations,
      and corporate operations on agricultural practices
      in developing nations.
 62    Grades  9-12


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E) Change and conflict—Learners understand the
functioning of public processes for promoting and
managing change and conflict, and can analyze their
effects on the environment.
   •   Explain how public decision-making about the
       environment takes into account (or fails to
       account for) uneven distribution of, or different
       types of, costs and benefits; future or distant
       consequences; and difficulties assessing the value
       of certain costs or benefits such as ecosystem
       services or clean air.
   •   Evaluate the role of social, political, and economic
       institutions in the United States in managing
       change and conflict regarding environmental
       issues. Account for the influence of institutions
       such as the  legal system and property rights as well
       as organizations such as banks, nonprofit groups,
       corporations, and special interest groups.
   •   Evaluate the conditions and motivations that lead
       to conflict, cooperation, and change among
       individuals, groups, and nations. Look particularly
       at the effects of these forces on the control of
       natural resources. For example, examine the
       origins and effects of international treaties and
       accords on whaling or commercial fishing.
   •   Evaluate various governmental and non-
       governmental strategies for promoting social
       change. For example, trace the strategies used by
       different groups to reduce energy use in die U.S.
Economics 19-20
Geography 210-211
Science Benchmarks 163, 166,
   173
Social Studies 124-129
Strand 2.4—Environment and Society

Guidelines:
A) Human/environment interactions—Learners
understand that humans are able to alter the physical
environment to meet dieir needs and that diere are
limits to die ability of the environment to absorb impacts
or meet human needs.
   •   Evaluate ways in which technology has changed
       humans' ability to alter the environment and its
       capacity to support humans and odier living
       organisms. Consider technologies that have had
       impacts learners see as positive, as well as negative.
References to Standards:

Geography 212-215
Science 198-199
Science Benchmarks 56-57
                                                         Grades 9-12    63

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Geography 190-196
Social Studies 118-120
Geography 216-218
Science 198
   •  Analyze specific examples of environmental
      change in terms of qualitative and quantitative
      costs and benefits for different groups of people
      and specific species or ecosystems.
   •  Describe factors that limit the physical
      environment's capacity to support particular types
      of human activity such as suburban development,
      flood control, or particular agricultural practices.
   •  Evaluate the cumulative effects of human actions
      on a specific species or environmental system,
      such as a stream or a watershed.
   •  Use the concepts of carrying capacity and
      ecological footprint to analyze the sustainability of
      current trends in world population growth and
      natural resource consumption.
B) Places—Learners understand "place" as humans
endowing a particular part of the Earth with meaning
through their interactions with that environment.
   •  Analyze how places change over time as the
      physical environment changes and as human use
      and perceptions change. For example, examine
      the effects of automobiles and the interstate
      highway system on different places.
   •  Explain the importance of places to human
      identity. For example, discuss changes in land use
      and personal and community identity that occur
      in a rapidly growing town or city, or one in which
      the economy has stagnated.
   •  Describe how regions change over time,
      examining factors such as human migration and
      population change, technological change,
      environmental degradation, and seismic activity.
      For example, trace the causes of the desiccation of
      the Aral Sea and the changes it has prompted in
      that region of Russia.
 C) Resources—Learners understand that the importance
 and use of resources  change over time and vary under
 different economic and technological systems.
    •  Explain differences in the consumption of
      resources among nations using factors such as
      population size, cultural practices, and varied
       geographic or economic distribution of resources.
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   •  Describe how changes in technology alter the use
      of resources. Illustrate with examples such as the
      ability to harvest timber on steep slopes using
      helicopters or building technologies that
      incorporate nontraditional or recycled materials.
   •  Evaluate public policies related to resource use.
      Consider variables such as their impacts on the
      resource and short- and long-term economic
      effects. For example, anticipate the relationship
      between water use and the growth of a city like Las
      Vegas, Nevada, which is in a desert area that
      receives only four inches of rainfall per year.
   •  Identify ways in which various resources can be
      recycled and reused. Evaluate the viability of
      recycling based on economic and technological
      factors, spatial variables such as distance from
      recycling facility to markets, and possible future
      developments. For example, discuss factors that
      influenced the development of the steel or plastics
      recycling industry in the United States.
D) Technology—Learners are-able to examine the social
and environmental impacts of various technologies and
technological systems.
   •  Explain how social and economic forces influence
      the direction of technological development, and
      how technologies shape societal values and beliefs.
      For example, consider the ability to build large
      dams for water storage or hydropower, or the
      social impact of the first photos of the Earth from
      space.
   •  Using examples of particular technologies (such
      as genetic manipulation or cyanide heap leach
      gold mining) or technological systems (such as
      modern agriculture or energy production and
      use), discuss the social and environmental costs,
      benefits, risks, and possibilities associated with
      technologies through which humans shape and
      control their environment.
   •  Discuss ways in which technological advances have
      lessened the adverse environmental impacts of
      human activities.
Social Studies 132-135
Science 199
Science Benchmarks 56-57,
   186, 190-191, 195, 198-199,
   203, 207
                                                         Grades  9-12   65

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Economics 30-34
Geography 221-222
E) Environmental issues—Learners are familiar with a
range of environmental issues at scales that range from
local to national to global. They understand that these
scales and issues are often linked.
   •  Evaluate a range of costs and benefits of particular
      policies that affect the environment. For example,
      consider the effects of free trade agreements on
      the ability of signatory nations to protect the
      environment, or examine the effects of programs
      for trading "pollution credits" among companies.
   •  Place local issues in the context of broader or
      larger-scale issues, drawing parallels, and noting
      important similarities and differences. Use the
      broader issue to point to important local dynamics
      or perspectives of which to be aware. For example,
      consider local air pollution problems in the
       context of larger issues such as global climate
       change or acid precipitation in other parts of the
       country.
   •   Identify links among issues, for example the
       relationships between traffic congestion, poor air
       quality, and suburban sprawl. Explain key
       relationships between technological, social,
       ecological, economic, and other aspects of issues.


Strand 3—
Skills for Understanding and Addressing

Environmental Issues


Strand 3.1—Skids for Analyzing and Investigating
Environmental Issues
 References to Standards:
 Geography 203-205, 210-211,
    219-220
 History 68-70
 Social Studies 118-120, 139-141
 66    Grades 9-12

 Guidelines:
 A) Identifying and investigating issues—Learners apply
 their research and analytical skills to investigate
 environmental issues ranging from local issues to those
 that are regional or global in scope.
    •  Define and clearly articulate issues to be
       investigated. Characterize the issue considering
       factors such as connections with other issues, the
       pervasiveness of its effects, whether it is a long-

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      term issue or one that is motivated by a sudden
      change or crisis, and whether it is unique to a
      particular area.
   •  Identify key individuals and groups involved.
      Identify different perspectives on the issue and
      approaches to resolving it. Discuss assumptions
      and goals that underlie each position.
   •  Examine contextual elements that shape the issue
      and alternative courses of action. Use these to
      identify relevant historical antecedents or
      contemporary parallels to the selected issue. For
      example, in studying questions surrounding the
      preservation of natural areas in Central America,
      students may look for similar issues in other
      developing nations, regions where people
      maintain traditional or subsistence uses of the
      land, or areas with similar governmental regimes.
   •  Investigate the issue as well as similar issues and
      proposals using secondary sources of information.
   •  Where needed, conduct original research,
      applying research methods from the natural and
      social sciences. For example, survey a community
      about an environmental issue using a random
      sample or test soils for the presence of
      contaminants.
B) Sorting out the consequences of issues—Learners are
able to evaluate the consequences of specific
environmental changes, conditions, and issues for
human and ecological systems.
   •  Evaluate the consequences of an environmental
      issue. For example, bring to bear historical
      perspectives, an understanding of the impacts of
      different technological developments, and
      knowledge of similar issues.
   •  Discuss the social, political, economic, and ethical
      implications of environmental issues. For
      example, trace the root causes of a community's
      solid waste problem and the effects of the
      problem and likely consequences of siting a
      landfill in different areas for different groups of
      people.
Geography 212-222
History 68-70
Social Studies 118-120
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   Reducing Risk in Your School
   or Community
   From: Exploring Environmental Issues: Focus on Risk,
      Project Learning Tree, Washington, D.C.
   Grade Level: High School
                         Correlating Guidelines:
                         Strand 1 A, B, C, D, E,
                            F,G
                         Strand 2.3 A, B, C, D, E
                         Strand 2.4 A, B, C, D, E
                         Strand 3.1 A, B, C, D
                         Strand 3.2 A, B, C, D
                         Strand 4 A, B, C, D
      This activity is the last in a module
   designed to help students learn the
   rationale for and the mechanics of risk
   assessment, risk management, and risk
   communication. Through additional
   activities carried out during the semester,
   students study statistical models, principles
   of uncertainty, toxicity testing, and
   variability to form a basis for their
   understanding of risk. They use these tools
   to measure risk in their own lives, such as
   exposure to radon or the chance of losing
   a term paper to a lightning strike. They
   also study examples of environmental risk
   assessment and cost benefit analysis.
      In this culminating activity, students
   apply the knowledge and skills acquired
   from earlier activities as they identify a risk
   in their school or community, develop a
   plan to assess the risk, decide the best way
   to reduce the risk, educate others, and, if
   feasible, implement their plan.
                Students list known risks present in
             their school or community—these may vary
             from a loose step to poor air circulation to
             habitat destruction. They choose one risk
             to explore in depth and develop a plan to
             reduce exposure to the risk. This includes:
             characterizing the risks (identifying the
             source, the exposed population, the extent
             of exposure, and expected adverse
             consequences of exposure); identifying
             specific goals and the amount of reduction
             to be achieved; measuring the uncertainty
             involved; and balancing different
             viewpoints and opinions. Additionally, class
             members estimate the cost of their plan;
             identify individuals who would be involved;
             estimate a realistic time frame; and develop
             methods for informing the public  of the
             risk and of the benefits of their solution.
                If feasible, students implement their
             plan and determine how and when to
             evaluate its effectiveness.
English Language Arts 41
History 70
Science Benchmarks 230
Social Studies 139-141
   •  Project the likely consequences for specific human
      and environmental systems of failure to resolve
      the issue.
   •  Use the idea o£ cumulative effects to explain why
      one set of environmental changes or human
      actions cannot be considered in isolation from
      others.
C) Identifying and evaluating alternative solutions and
courses of action—Learners are able to identify and
propose action strategies that are likely to be effective in
particular situations and for particular purposes.
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   •  Synthesize different perspectives, types of data,
      and means of analysis to propose solutions to
      environmental issues.
   •  Apply knowledge of functional relationships,
      modeling, and statistical analysis to evaluating
      issues and different approaches to resolving them.
      For example, do basic traffic flow analyses to
      project the likely affects of commercial
      developments at the outskirts of town and evaluate
      alternative solutions such as widening roads,
      providing bus service, or changing the location of
      the development. Predict other likely
      consequences of different approaches to resolving
      projected traffic problems associated with the new
      stores.
   •  Evaluate proposed solutions using gauges such as
      likely impacts on society or the environment and
      likely effectiveness in resolving the issue. Use
      methods such as cost/benefit analysis, cumulative
      effects analysis, environmental impact analysis,
      ethical analysis, and risk analysis. Describe the
      strengths and weaknesses of each method,
      considering the main ideas behind each approach
      including which effects are important to look at
      and which values or societal goals it tries to
      protect.
   •  Define and provide examples of citizen action
      appropriate to proposed solutions.
D) Working with flexibility, creativity, and openness—
While environmental issues investigations can bring to
the surface deeply held views, learners are able to engage
each other in peer review conducted in the spirit of open
inquiry.
   •  Question, offer alternative explanations, and
      defend interpretations in group discussions.
   •  Understand and explain the importance of such
      characteristics as honesty, openness, skepticism,
      and suspending judgment in the process of
      building knowledge.
   •  Discuss when and how characteristics such as
      openness and decisiveness are valuable in
      addressing environmental issues.
English Language Arts 31-33,
   40-42, 44-45
Mathematics 143-145
Science 173-176
Science Benchmarks 287
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References to Standards:
Geography 219-222
History 70
Social Studies 121-123
Geography 55
Strand 3.2—Decision-Making and Citizenship Skills


Guidelines:
A) Forming and evaluating personal views—Students
are able to communicate, evaluate, and justify their own
views on environmental issues and alternative ways to
address them.
    •  Articulate a position on an environmental issue.
      Justify the position based on an analysis of
      information from a variety of sources, personal
      beliefs and values, and clear reasoning.
    •  Evaluate personal beliefs and values using
      criteria such as personal wellbeing; social and
      environmental welfare; economic vitality; and
      concern for other living beings.
    •  Articulate elements of their own environmental
      ethic and discuss whether personal positions on
      issues are consistent with this ethic.
    •  Consider viewpoints that differ from their own,
      and information that challenges their position.
      Evaluate whether and how such information
      might affect their views.
B) Evaluating the need for citizen action—Learners are
able to decide whether action is needed in particular
situations and whether they should be involved.
    •  Evaluate whether action is warranted in specific
      situations, accounting for factors such as
      available evidence about the issue and proposed
      solutions; the scale of the issue; legal, social,
      economic, and ecological consequences; and
      alternatives to citizen action.
    •  Evaluate whether personal involvement in
      particular actions is warranted, considering
      factors such as their own values, skills, resources,
      and commitment.
    •  Communicate decisions clearly, articulating well-
      reasoned arguments supporting their views and
      decisions.
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C) Planning and taking action—Learners know how to
plan for action based on their research and analysis of an
environmental issue. If appropriate, they take actions
that are within the scope of their rights and consistent
with their abilities and responsibilities as citizens.
   •  Develop plans for individual and collective action
      involving groups such as a small group of
      classmates, a school club, a community
      organization, or a church. Include clear reasons
      and goals for action. In planning, refer to their
      knowledge of a range of citizen action strategies
      and the results of their environmental issue
      investigations.
   •  Develop action plans based on an understanding
      of the complexity of the issue. Set realistic goals
      and include measures of success consistent with
      their abilities and the capacities of the groups
      involved.
   •  Decide whether their plan should be
      implemented immediately or at another time,
      modified, or abandoned; and carry through with
      action when appropriate.
D) Evaluating the results of actions—Learners are able to
evaluate the effects of their own actions  and actions
taken by other individuals and groups.
   •  Discuss the intended and unintended effects of
      citizen actions on specific environmental issues.
      Consider the apparent effects of citizen action on
      the environment, the political situation, and the
      individuals involved. Illustrate with examples such
      as a demonstration at a nuclear test facility, a local
      watershed festival, or a citizen lobbying effort
      against proposed environmental regulations.
   •  Analyze their own actions, evaluating apparent
      effects in terms of learners' goals, ethics, and
      broader societal goals. Develop a "lessons learned"
      document or presentation.
   •  Account for some of the difficulties they
      encounter in evaluating the results of their
      actions.
Civics and Government 128-132
Social Studies 139-141
History 70
Social Studies 139-141
                                                        Grades  9-12   71

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                             Strand
                             Personal and Civic Responsibility
References to Standards:
Civics and Government 105-109
Economics 19-20
English Language Arts 44
Social Studies 124-129, 139-141
Civics and Government 128-137
Social Studies 139-141
Guidelines:
A) Understanding societal values and principles—
Learners know how to analyze the influence of shared
and conflicting societal values.
    •  Identify shared political values and principles that
      unite U.S. citizens and analyze conflicting views
      about their meaning and application. For
      example, examine conflicting views about how to
      protect general welfare and private property rights
      in a specific land-use decision where a lawsuit has
      been filed alleging a "taking" of private property
      rights by the government.
    •  Analyze how societal institutions, such as banks,
      corporations, nonprofit organizations, lobbying
      groups, government agencies, and the courts,
      embody and perpetuate certain societal values and
      principles.
    •  Describe and suggest ways that individuals can
      work to change how societal institutions function
      and, consequently, to change their environmental
      impacts.
B) Recognizing citizens' rights and responsibilities—
Learners understand the importance of exercising the
rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
    •  Evaluate conflicts between individual rights and
      other societal interests such as a healthy
      environment. Discuss when individuals' civic
      obligations require them to subordinate their
      personal interests or desires to the public good.
    •  Explain the importance and evaluate the
      usefulness of civic dispositions such as trust,
      patience, self-discipline, respect, and open-
      mindedness to individuals and to society.
    •  Explain the influence of citizen action and public
      opinion on particular policy decisions that affect
      the environment.
 72    Grades 9-12

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   •   Reflect on the impact of citizen participation—
       particularly learners' own—on public concerns
       related to the environment and on the
       community.
C) Recognizing efficacy—Learners possess a realistic self-
confidence in their effectiveness as citizens.
   •   Evaluate the extent to which individual and group
       action creates change, meets individual needs,
       and promotes the common good.
   •   Identify ways in which learners, individually and
       collectively, are able to help maintain
       environmental quality and resolve problems and
       issues. Provide examples from the range of
                 Social Studies 124-126
   The Environmental News
   From: Teaching Naturally, Office of Environmental
      Education, Tallahassee, Florida
   Grade Level: High School
             Correlating Guidelines:
             Strand 1 A, B, C, D, E, G
             Strand 2.2 A, C
             Strand 2.3 A, B, C, E
             Strand 2.4 A, B, C, E
             Strand 3.1 A, B, D
             Strand 4 A, B, C
   A High school journalism class at published
   a series of articles about the environment
   for their own and other student
   newspapers throughout Florida. The
   students researched and wrote articles
   about local, state, and national
   environmental issues. In composing their
   articles, students practiced elements of the
   writing process, such as prewriting,
   drafting, and editing documents. Students
   gathered information from a variety of
   print and electronic media. In addition to
   developing skills in language arts and small
   group work, the science and social studies
   teachers worked on related learning
   objectives in their respective disciplines.
      In one instance, students researched
   and wrote articles describing laws affecting
   water quality and their effects on local
   industry. Using investigative reporting
   techniques such as interviewing and library
research, students learned about the cycles
of seasonal rainfall and nutrients that affect
Florida Bay's water composition, the laws
guiding government agency decisions
concerning freshwater flow to the Bay, and
how the Bay's water quality in turn affects
the businesses associated with the tourist
industry. In addition to writing and
researching, students used the school's
computers to design headlines and
sidebars, and insert photos and captions.
   A student-produced news broadcast for
the school's closed circuit television
channel allowed the journalism students to
record and air public service
announcements about their articles.
   The project was partially funded by a
grant from the Florida Advisory Council on
Environmental Education.
                                                           Grades 9-12   73

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Civics and Government 131-132
      communities (e.g., family, club or group, school,
      town, state, nation, world) in which learners see
      themselves as members.
D) Accepting personal responsibility—Learners
understand that their actions can have broad
consequences and accept responsibility for recognizing
those effects and changing their actions when necessary.
   •  Evaluate the effects of their actions (and the
      actions of the larger social groups of which they
      are part) on the environment, other humans, and
      other living things.
   •  Explain ways in which the decisions of one
      generation create opportunities and impose
      constraints for future generations. Illustrate this
      idea with examples from the past, and incorporate
      it into their analyses of issues.
   •  Evaluate the importance of fulfilling personal
      responsibilities for themselves, society, and the
      environment.
   •  Demonstrate a willingness to work individually
      and collectively toward the resolution of
      environmental issues and to participate
      thoughtfully and effectively in environmental
      decision-making.
 74    Grades 9-12

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Appendix:

Background for the Development of the

Learner Guidelines  Framework


              The Learner Guidelines in Context
              The National Project for Excellence in Environmental Education,
              sponsored by the North American Association for Environmental
              Education (NAAEE), was initiated in 1993. In facilitating the
              development of a model set of guidelines for environmental education,
              it joins standards projects for such disciplines as Mathematics, English
              Language Arts, Geography, Science, Civics, and History developed in
              response to the national "Goals 2000" process. The first purpose of
              Guidelines for Learning is to serve the field of environmental education
              by articulating knowledge and skills essential for environmental
              literacy. These guidelines also demonstrate the essential link between
              environmental education and the traditional disciplines and to
              broader efforts for education reform.
              Education Reform and

              the Standards Development Movement
              The current push toward education reform in the U.S. was heralded by
              the 1983 publication of A Nation at Risk. This report pointed to
              declining test scores, poorly prepared high school graduates, declining
              enrollment in science and mathematics, low academic achievement in
              comparison to many European and Japanese students, and low levels
              of literacy—and raised significant questions concerning the quality of
              the American education system. Following the publication of A Nation
              at Risk, it became common to call into question the very structure of
              American education.

                A decade-long move toward national education reform received its
              highest level of governmental recognition at the 1989 national
              education summit in Charlottesville. At the summit, a bipartisan group
              of the nation's governors and the Bush White House agreed to
              national goals for  education. These broadly formulated goals set out an
              agenda for education for the year 2000. With the 1994 passage of the
              "Goals 2000: Educate America Act," the eight goals became official
              national policy, guiding numerous activities within and outside the
              federal government.

                Of particular importance for developing environmental education
              guidelines are:
                                                                    75

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      Goal 3—Student Achievement and Citizenship,
      which states that "by the year 2000 American
      students will leave grades four, eight, and twelve
      having demonstrated competency in challenging
      subject matter, including English, mathematics,
      science, history, and geography; and every school
      in America will ensure that all students learn to
      use their minds well, so they may be prepared for
      responsible citizenship, further learning, and
      productive employment in our modern economy."

      Goal 4—Science and Mathematics, which states
      that "by the year 2000, U.S. students will be first in
      the world in science and mathematics
      achievement."
   Both Goal 3 and Goal 4 set the stage for developing a range
of voluntary national standards for  the core disciplines. (See
page 8 for a sampling of these standards documents.) These
voluntary standards have been designed to provide state and
local education leaders guidance in generating locally
appropriate academic benchmarks.
Building from a Rich History
Guidelines for Learninghas been developed over the last four
years with the input of literally thousands of teachers, school
administrators, environmental educators, scientists, and parents,
as well as from a variety of professional organizations and
government agencies. From the inception of the project, the
guidelines have used existing environmental education
frameworks, definitions, and models as a foundation. The field
as a whole owes a great  deal to those who have worked to create
these documents. Each  document is based on a different set of
assumptions and priorities, yet the commonalities are
considerable. These commonalities, in essence, define the
practice of environmental education and provide the basis for
the structure of Guidelines for Learning.


I. Developing a Framework for the Guidelines
Much of the work in environmental education has been guided
by the Belgrade Charter (UNESCO-UNEP, 1976) and the Tbilisi
Declaration (UNESCO, 1978). These two documents furnish an
internationally accepted blueprint for environmental education.
The Tbilisi Declaration outlined five categories of objectives for
environmental education:

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    •  Awareness—to help social groups and individuals acquire
       an awareness and sensitivity to the total environment and
       its allied problems.
    •  Knowledge—to help social groups and individuals gain a
       variety of experience in, and acquire a basic
       understanding of, the environment and its associated
       problems.
    •  Attitudes—to help social groups and individuals acquire
       a set of values and feelings of concern for the
       environment and the motivation for actively participating
       in environmental improvement and protection.
    •  Skills—to help social groups and individuals acquire the
       skills for identifying and solving environmental
       problems.
    •  Participation—to provide social groups and individuals
       with an opportunity to be activity involved at all levels in
       working toward resolution  of environmental problems.
    With the evolution of the field, these guiding principles (as
well as the more general ones presented in the introduction to
this document) have been researched, critiqued, revisited, and
expanded. Guidelines for Learning draws upon these respected
founding writings about environmental education and the
field's best thinking to date. This Appendix describes
environmental education frameworks developed since Tbilisi as
a means of revealing the base on which these Guidelines are
built. In the following examination, a number of environmental
education frameworks are divided into those:
    • based on research or a synthesis of the research
      literature;
    • created as conceptual frameworks for curricula; and

    • developed as part of previous  standards or criteria
      development projects.
    To re-create some of the historical logic of the field, the
models will be presented in chronological order within each
category. Each outline is a direct excerpt from the original
document. The terminology used reflects common usage of the
time and the authors' preferences.
II. Frameworks/Models Based on E£ Literature
The following environmental education frameworks are
excerpted directly from key documents in the environmental
education literature. They provide insight into the evolution of
                                                                            11

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                     the field and its core ideas. It becomes clear that, while the field
                     has continued to mature since the Tbilisi Declaration was
                     formulated in 1977, the declaration's original intent is still
                     central to environmental education.
                       Although the environmental education model proposed by
                     Stapp and Cox (1974) predates Tbilisi, it is important to include
                     here because of the central role it played in the development of
                     the Tbilisi Declaration. The work by Hungerford, et. al.  (1980)
                     proposes goal levels for EE curriculum development. The four
                     goal levels were submitted to a content validity expert panel to
                     judge their congruence with the five Tbilisi objectives.
                        In recent years, much scholarly work in EE has focused on
                     describing the precursors of responsible environmental
                     citizenship and environmental literacy—the types of knowledge,
                     skills and dispositions that describe the environmentally literate
                     citizen. The proposed frameworks offered by lozzi, et. al.
                     (1990), Marcinkowski (1991), Wisconsin Center for
                     Environmental Education (1992), Roth (1992), and the EE
                     Literacy Consortium (1994) are all based in a synthesis of this
                     research and the EE foundations  literature.
                        Finally, the important influence of issues surrounding
                     sustainable development on EE thinking is considered with the
                     inclusion of a framework for sustainable development education
                     published in Canada (1994).
                     StaPP, W.B. and Cox, DA f 1974J
                     Environmental Education Model

                     Philosophy and Concepts:
                     An environmental education program should assist the learner
                     in understanding the basic spaceship earth philosophy which
                     would serve as an 'umbrella' of thought and ethic for the entire
                     program. The spaceship earth philosophy has been divided into
                     five basic concepts: ecosystems, population, economics and
                     technology, environmental decisions, and environmental ethic.
                     These concepts encompass the awareness, knowledge, and
                     understanding of the living and non-living world and their
                     complex interactions; the social, economic, political and
                     aesthetic influences of the populations of people; the need for,
                     and processes of decision making; and development of an
                     environmental ethic that would motivate the learner to adopt a
                     life style compatible with environmental quality.
78

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The Processes:
   A.  The Skills of Problem Solving
       Since the environmental education model is based on
       student involvement, problem solving skills are essential
       to developing and carrying out action plans. ... The eight
       problem solving skills are:
       1.  Recognizing environmental problems
       2.  Defining environmental problems
       3.  Listening with comprehension
       4.  Collecting information
       5.  Organizing information
       6.  Analyzing information
       7.  Generating alternative solutions
       8.  Developing a plan of action
   B.  Clarifying Values
       The values clarification approach helps students become
       aware of personal beliefs, attitudes, values and behavior
       which they prize and are committed to both in and out
       of the classroom. This process assists students in
       considering alternative solutions and the implications of
       each alternative. ... Values clarification is of major
       importance in making rational environmental decisions
       every day of a person's life, and must be a basic part of
       every environmental education program.
   C.  Community Problem Solving
       Students need to be able to apply learned skills in both
       valuing and problem solving in an issue that is
       meaningful to them—a problem that directly affects
       them either at home, or at school, or in the local
       community.
The Teaching-Learning Models:
There is no single teaching model that all students will respond
favorably toward under all circumstances. ... It is important for a
teacher to asses his/her personal skills and the situation and
then blend teaching models in an effort to achieve the best
learning environment. ... The role of the teacher would be to
create a learning environment, assist students in acquiring
information, provide guidance to the student, and to participate
with the student in the learning process.
                                                                            79

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                    Emphasis of Program at Different Age Levels:
                    Environmental education activities at each grade level should
                    focus on the feeling (affective), knowing (cognitive) and skill-
                    behavior domains. Emphasis in the early years, however, should
                    be on awareness and feelings and in later years on knowledge
                    and skill-behavior. The learner should also be provided with
                    opportunities to explore his immediate environment with all of
                    his senses—sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste. The learner
                    should be exposed to a variety of physical and social
                    environments in order to have experiences to judge the quality
                    of his immediate environment.
                     Hungerford, H.R., Peyton, R.B.,

                     andWiike.R. CI98QJ

                     Goals for Curriculum Development in

                     Environmental Education


                     GOAL LEUEL I—The Ecological Foundations Level:
                     Upon completion of instruction in environmental education,
                     the learner should be expected to be able to...
                           1.  ... communicate and apply the major ecological
                              concepts including those focusing on individuals,
                              species, populations, communities, ecosystems,
                              biogeochemical cycles, energy production and
                              transfer, interdependence, niche, adaption,
                              succession, homeostasis, and man as a ecological
                              variable.
                           2.  ... apply a knowledge of ecological concepts to the
                              analysis of environmental issues and identify
                              important ecological principles involved.
                           3.  ... apply a knowledge of ecological concepts in
                              predicting the ecological consequences of alternative
                              solutions to environmental problems.
                           4.  ...understand the principles of ecology in order to
                              identify, select and utilize appropriate sources of
                              scientific information in a continuing effort to
                              investigate, evaluate and find solutions for
                              environmental issues.
80

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GOAL LEVEL [[—The Conceptual Awareness Level:
      5.  ...understand and communicate how man's cultural
          activities (e.g., religious, economic, political, social
          and others) influence the environment from an
          ecological perspective.
      6.  ...understand and communicate how an individual's
          behaviors impact on the environment from an
          ecological perspective.
      7.  ...identify a wide variety of local, regional, national
          and international environmental issues and the
          ecological and cultural implications of these issues.
      8.  ... identify and communicate the viable alternative
          solutions available for remediating crucial
          environmental issues as well as the ecological and
          cultural implications of these various solutions.
      9.  ... understand the need for environmental issue
          investigation and evaluation as prerequisite to sound
          decision making.
      10— understand the roles  played by differing human
          beliefs and values in environmental issues and the
          need for personal values clarification as an important
          part of environmental decision making.
      11.... understand the need for responsible citizenship
          action in the solution of environmental issues.
GOAL LEVEL III—
The Investigation and Evaluation Level:
      12.... apply the knowledge and skills needed to identify
          and investigate issues (using both primary and
          secondary sources of information) and synthesize the
          data gathered).
      13.... demonstrate the ability to analyze environmental
          issues and the associated value perspectives with
          respect to their ecological and cultural implications.
      14— demonstrate the ability to identify alternative
          solutions for important issues and the value
          perspectives associated with these solutions.
      15.... demonstrate the ability to evaluate alternative
          solutions and associated value perspectives for
          important issues with respect to their ecological and
          cultural implications.
                                                                             81

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                          16. ...demonstrate the ability to identify and clarify
                             personal value positions related to important
                             environmental issues and their associated solutions.
                          17.... demonstrate the ability to evaluate, clarify, and
                             change value positions in light of new information.


                    GOAL LEUEL (0—The Issue Resolution Skill Level:
                          18.... demonstrate a competence with a variety of
                             citizenship action skills from the following categories
                             of skills: persuasion, consumerism, political action,
                             legal action, and ecomanagment.
                          19.... evaluate selected actions in light of their ecological
                             and cultural implications.
                          20.... demonstrate the ability to apply one or more
                             citizenship action skills for the purpose of resolving
                             or helping to resolve one or more environmental
                             issues.
                     lozzi, L, Laveault D., Marcinkowski, T.
                     H990J
                     Assessment of Learning Outcomes in
                     Environmental Education

                     Organization of Learning Outcomes
                     According to Taxonomies of Educational Objectives
                     Cognitive Domain:
                           Knowledge: of ecology, environmental problems and
                           issues, and environmental action strategies
                           Skills for dealing with action strategies: including
                           identification, investigation, and analysis of issues
                           Skills for dealing with action strategies: including
                           selecting appropriate action strategies, creating an action
                           plan, evaluating an action plan, and implementing an
                           action plan
82

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 Affective Domain:
       Environmental sensitivity or appreciation: including 'the
       characteristics that result in an individual viewing the
       environment from an empathetic perspective' (Peterson,
       1982)
       Attitudes: towards pollution, technology, economics,
       conservation, and environmental action
       Values: a preference for selected means and ends; values
       such as a healthy environment and a peaceful world
       Moral reasoning: making decisions and judgments about
       environmental issues according to one's own sense of
       morality

       Ethics: involving the evaluation of a personal world view
       which reflects a balance between the quality of life and
       the quality of the environment


 Responsible Environmental Behavior:
       Active participation aimed at solving problems and
       resolving issues: environmentally sound consumer
       purchasing, methods for conserving resources, assisting
       with the enforcement of environmental regulations,
       using personal and interpersonal means to encourage
       environmentally sound practices, and encouraging
       environmentally sound policies and legislative initiatives.


Locus of Control:
       Individual's sense that he or she can manifest some
       influence upon or control over the outcomes of a specific
       activity


Assumption of Personal Responsibility:
       Recognition that one's negative behavior has a negative
       effect on the environment and, likewise, one's positive
       behavior can have potentially positive effects on the
       environment
       Acceptance of personal responsibility for negative
       environmental effects or impacts, and for one's own role
       in helping to resolve environmental impacts and issues
      Willingness to help correct negative environmental
      impacts, and a concomitant willingness to help resolve
      environmental impacts and issues.
                                                                            83

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MarcinkowskuT. H991J

The Relationship Between Environmental

Literacy and Responsible Environmental

Behavior in Environmental Education.


Environmental Literacy Involves:
      a.  An awareness and sensitivity toward the
         environment.
      b.  An attitude of respect for the natural environment,
         and of concern for the nature and magnitude of
         human impacts on it.
      c.  A knowledge and understanding of how natural
         systems work, as well as of how social systems
         interface with natural systems.
      d.  An understanding of the various environmentally-
         related problems and issues (local, regional,
         national, international, and global).
      e.  The skills required to analyze, synthesize, and
         evaluate information about environmental
         problems/issues using primary and secondary
         sources, and to evaluate a select problem/issue on
         the basis of evidence and personal values.
      f.   A sense of personal investment in, responsibility for,
         motivation to work individually and  collectively
         toward the resolution of environmental problems/
         issues.
      g
   A knowledge of strategies available for use in
   remediating environmental problems/issues.

h. The skills required to develop, implement and
   evaluate single strategies and composite plans for
   remediating environmental problems/issues.

   Active involvement at all levels in working toward
   the resolution of environmental problems/issues.
       i.

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Wisconsin Center for Environmental

Education C1992J

University of Wisconsin, Steven's Point


Cognitive Outcomes:
   Knowledge of Ecological Principles
      Individuals, Populations, and Communities—habitats,
      niches, and adaptations; food chains, food webs;
      population dynamics; population and community
      interactions
      Change and Limiting Factors—-change as a natural
      process; biotic and abiotic limits to growth, size, and
      distribution of populations
      Energy Flow—sun as primary source, other sources and
      forms of energy; transfer and energy through living
      systems; first and second laws of energy—conservation of
      energy, entropy; need for a consistent source of energy
      by systems and individuals; photosynthesis and
      respiration
      Biogeochemical Cycling—conservation of matter,
      nutrient and materials cycling; hydrologic cycle
      Ecosystems and Biodiversity—importance of biodiversity;
      interdependence of organisms; ecosystems
   Knowledge of Environmental Problems and Issues
      Air Quality—ozone depletion; global warming; acid
      deposition; sir pollution
      Water Quality and Quantity—water pollution; use and
      management
      Soil Quality and Quantity—soil depletion and pollution;
      use and management
      Wildlife and Habitat—habitat and biodiversity loss; use
      and management
      Energy—sustainable and non-renewable; consumption
      Human Population and Health-—overpopulation;
      environmental health hazards
      Waste—solid waste; hazardous wastes
   Knowledge of Environmental Issue Investigation and Action
   Strategies
                                                                         85

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                       Knowledge of Strategies Used to Investigate Environmental
                       Problems and Issues

                       Knowledge of Appropriate Action Strategies for the
                       Prevention or Resolution of Environmental Problems and
                       Issues
                    Affective Outcomes:
                          Environmental Sensitivity/Awareness
                          Positive Attitudes and Values for the Prevention and
                          Remediation of Environmental Problems and Issues
                          Regarding: air quality; water quality and quantity; soil
                          quality and quantity; wildlife and habitat; energy; human
                          population and health; waste


                    Determinants of Environmentally Responsible Behavior
                          Locus of Control
                          Assumption of Personal Responsibility


                    Environmentally Responsible Behaviors
                          Ecomanagement; Economic Action; Persuasion; Political
                          Action; Legal Action
                     Roth, Cfl 992 J
                     Environmental Literacy: Its Roots, Evolution
                     and Directions in the 1990's

                     Nominal Environmental Literacy:
                        Knowledge Strand—Nominally environmentally literate
                        individuals are familiar with:
                           The nature of the basic components of elemental systems
                           (e.g., living and non-living things, requirements for life).
                           Types and examples of interactions between humans and
                           nature.
                           Basic components of societal systems.
                        Affective Strand—have affective sensitivities about:
                           Appreciation of both nature and society.
                           Elementary sensitivity and empathy for both nature and
                           society.
86

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      Elemental perceptions of points of conflict between
      nature and society.
   Skill Strand—have skills of:
      Identifying and defining problems.
      Recognizing issues surrounding identified problems or
      proposed solutions (e.g. latent and visible conflicts).
   Behavior Strand—demonstrate:
      Familial, school and organization activities and habits
      aimed at maintenance of environmental quality.
      Responding and coping behaviors.
Functional Environmental Literacy
   Knowledge Strand—The functional environmentally literate
   citizen, in addition to the knowledge of the nominally
   literate, has knowledge of and understanding of a number of
   ecological, economic, geographic, religious, educational and
   political processes and understanding of the effects/impacts
   of humans on natural systems, including (abbreviated
   listing):
      Population dynamics
      Interactions
      Interdependence
      Thinking in terms of time frames or scales
   Skill Strand—The functionally environmentally literate
   demonstrate basic skills in analyzing problems and issues
   and conducting investigations of problems and issues using
   primary and secondary resource/strategies such as
   (abbreviated listing):
      Identifying environmental issues.
      Seeking historical background of issues.
      Investigating environmental issues.
      Evaluating sources of information.
      Analyzing environmental issues from various
      perspectives.
      Applying ecological concepts to predicting probable
      ecological consequences.
      Identifying alternative solutions and value perspectives
      Evaluating alternative solutions.
                                                                           87

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                            Conducting basic risk analysis.
                            Identifying and clarifying his/her value positions.
                            Examining issues from local, national, regional, and
                            international points of view.
                            Thinking in terms of systems.
                            Demonstrating ability to forecast, to think ahead, plan.
                        Affect Strand—the functionally environmentally literate
                        demonstrate such basic affects, attitudes and values as:
                            Identification with, and feelings of concern for, both
                            society and the environment.
                            Willingness to recognize and choose among differing
                            value perspectives associated with problems and issues.
                            Internal locus of control.
                            Treating public and private property with equal respect.

                            Sense of stewardship.
                        Behavior Strand—the functionally environmentally literate
                        moves to action through selected lifestyle activities/
                        behaviors and community/organizational behaviors
                        demonstrated-by:
                            Taking action positions and actions based on best
                            available knowledge.
                            Taking individual and/or group action through:
                            persuasion, consumerism, political action, legal action,
                            ecomanagement


                      Operational  Environmental Literacy
                        Skill Strand—Skills involved with evaluating problems and
                        issues on the basis of available evidence (facts) and personal
                        values and skills used in planning, implementing, and
                        evaluating solutions, including using the process skills of
                        scientific inquiry:
                            using ability to forecast, to think ahead, plan
                            using ability to separate number, quantity, quality, and
                            value
                            imagining
                            connecting
                            valuing and value analysis
88

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   using primary and secondary sources of information
   using ability to separate fact from opinion
   determining the roles played by differing human beliefs
   and values in environmental issues
Affect Strand—Affects, attitudes and values, that indicate a
valuation of both nature and society, a sense of investment
in and responsibility for the resolution of problems and
issues along with a respect for both nature and society and a
willingness to participate in, and show a sense of efficacy
toward the resolution of problems and issues including
(abbreviated listing):

   Awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and
   its allied programs

   Motivation to actively participate in environmental
   improvement and protection
   Taking into account historical perspectives while
   focusing on current and potential environmental
   situations
   Strong internal locus of control
   Personal responsibility: recognition of impacts of
   personal behavior; acceptance of personal responsibility
   for the impacts; willingness to help correct or avoid
   negative impacts
Behavior Strand—Actions that demonstrate leadership in
working toward the resolution of problems and issues
including:

   Evaluating actions with respect to their impact on quality
   of life and environment
   Providing verbal commitments
   Working to maintain biological and social diversity
   Continually examining and reexamining the values of
   the culture
   Making decisions based on beneficence, justice,
   stewardship, prudence, cooperation, and compassion
                                                                          89

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                    Environmental Education Literacy

                    Consortium f Hunserford H.: Volk, T.: Wilke,

                    R.; Champeau, R.: Marcinkowski, T.: May, T.;

                    Bluhm, B.^ and McKeown-lce, RJ fI994J

                    Environmental Literacy Framework


                    Cognitive Dimensions f Knowledge and Skills)
                       A. Knowledge of ecological and socio-political foundations
                       B. Knowledge of and ability to identify, analyze, investigate
                         and evaluate environmental problems and issues.
                       C. Knowledge of and ability to apply environmental action
                         strategies seeking to influence outcomes of
                         environmental problems and issues
                       D. Ability to develop and evaluate an appropriate action
                         plan for the resolution of environmental problems or
                         issues
                    Affective Dimensions
                      A. Recognition of the importance of environmental quality
                         and the existence of environmental problems and issues

                      B. Empathic, appreciative and caring attitudes toward the
                         environment

                      C. Willingness to work toward the prevention and/or
                         remediation of environmental problems and issues
                    Additional Determinants
                    of Environmentally Responsible Behavior
                       A.  Belief in their ability, both individually and collectively,
                          to influence outcomes of environmental problems and
                          issues

                       B.  Assumption of responsibility for personal actions that
                          influence the environment
                    Personal and/or Group Involvement
                    in Environmentally Responsible Behaviors
                       A. Ecomanagement—e.g. actions such as using a more
                          energy efficient form of transportation, reducing
90

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      consumption of energy or water, improving wildlife
      habitat, recycling, etc.
   B. Economic/consumer action—e.g., purchasing products
      in returnable/reusable containers, avoiding purchase of
      excess packaging, avoiding items with toxic by-products,
      providing financial support to an environmental
      organization, boycotting products considered to be
      damaging to the environment, etc.
   C. Persuasion—e.g., using informal discussion to encourage
      another to support a positive environmental position or
      action, distributing "pro-environment" literature, signing
      a petition, encouraging another individual or group to
      stop some kind of destructive behavior, writing a letter to
      a person/group/company to stop and action that has
      negative environmental consequences, giving a speech,
      etc.
   D. Political action—e.g., writing letters or speaking directly
      to elected officials on behalf of an environmental issue,
      supporting by time or finances a candidate or lobbying
      group based upon an environmental issue, running for
      or serving in an official .capacity with the intent of
      supporting pro-environmental positions or actions, etc.
   E. Legal action—e.g. reporting violations in pollution/
      littering, fishing, trapping or hunting laws or plant or
      animal collecting to the authorities, working with
      authorities to patrol areas for enforcing environmental
      laws, providing information or testimony at a legal
      hearing or participating in a lawsuit against a person/
      group who has violated a law aimed at protecting the
      environment, etc.
Learning for a Sustainable Future* Developing
a Cooperative Framework for Sustainable
Development Education (T994J

Education for a Sustainable Future:
The Knowledge, Skids and Values Needed
Knowledge Needed:
      1.  The planet earth as a finite system and the elements
         that constitute the planetary environment.
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                           2. The resources of the earth, particularly soil, water,
                              minerals, etc., their distribution and their role in
                              supporting living organisms.
                           3. The nature of ecosystems and biomes, their health
                              and their interdependence within the biosphere.
                           4. The dependence of humans on the environmental
                              resources for life and sustenance.
                           5. The sustainable relationship of native societies to the
                              environment.
                           6. The implications of resource distribution in
                              determining the nature of societies and the rate and
                              character of economic development.
                           7. Characteristics of the development of human
                              societies including nomadic, hunter-gatherer,
                              agricultural, industrial and post-industrial, and the
                              impact of each on the natural environment.

                           8. The role of science and technology in the
                               development of societies and the impact of these
                               technologies on the environment.
                           9.  Philosophies and patterns of economic activity and
                               their different impacts on the environment, societies
                               and cultures.
                            10. The process of urbanization and the implications of
                               de-ruralization.
                            11. The interconnectedness of present world political,
                               economic, environmental and social issues.
                            12. Aspects of differing perspectives and philosophies
                               concerning the ecological and human environments.
                            13. Cooperative international and national efforts to find
                               solutions to common global issues, and to implement
                               strategies for a more sustainable future.
                            14. The implications for the global community of the
                               political, economic and socio-cultural changes
                               needed for a more sustainable future.
                            15. Processes of planning, policy-making and action for
                               sustainability by governments, businesses, non-
                               governmental organizations and the general public.
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Skills Needed:
      1.  Frame appropriate questions to guide relevant study
         and research.
      2.  Define such fundamental concepts as environment,
         community, development and technology, and apply
         definitions to local, national and global experience.
      3.  Use of range of resources and technologies in
         addressing questions.
      4.  Assess the nature of bias and evaluate different points
         of view.
      5.  Develop hypotheses based on balanced information,
         crucial analysis and careful synthesis, and test them
         against new information and personal experience and
         beliefs.
      6.  Communicate information and viewpoints effectively.
      7.  Work towards negotiated consensus and cooperative
         resolution of conflicts.
      8.  Develop cooperative strategies for appropriate action
         to change present relationships between ecological
         preservation and economic development.
Values Needed:
      1. An appreciation of the resilience, fragility and beauty
         of nature and the interdependence and equal
         importance of all life forms.
      2. An appreciation of the dependence of human life on
         the resources of a finite planet.
      3. An appreciation of the role of human ingenuity and
         individual creativity in ensuring survival and the
         search for appropriate and sustainable progress.
      4. An appreciation of the power of human beings to
         modify the environment.
      5. A sense of self-worth and rootedness in one's own
         culture and community.
      6. A respect for other cultures and a recognition of the
         interdependence of the human community.
      7. A global perspective and loyalty to the world
         community.
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      8.  A concern for disparities and injustices, a
         commitment to human rights, and to the peaceful
         resolution of conflict.
      9.
resolution <_u CUIJUUILL.
An appreciation of the challenges faced by the
human community in defining the processes needed
for sustainability and in implementing the changes
needed.
      10. A sense of balance in deciding among conflicting
         priorities.
      11. Personal acceptance of a sustainable lifestyle and a
         commitment to participation in change.
      12. A realistic appreciation of the urgency of challenges
         facing the global community and the complexities
         that demand long-term planning for building a
         sustainable future.
      13. A sense of hope and a positive personal and social
         perspective on the future.
      14. An appreciation of the importance and worth of
         individual responsibility and action.


III. Conceptual Frameworks for Curriculum Materials
The form environmental education takes in practice is based
heavily upon the curriculum materials available to those "in the
field"—for example, teachers, naturalists, volunteer instructors
or museum curators. The conceptual or curriculum frameworks
direct the writing of individual lessons as well as the overall
organization of the materials. Consequently, looking at how EE
has been put into practice is essential to developing a model or
framework for EE guidelines. Of the abundance of curricula
available, a small number of nationally recognized examples
were selected as examples.
Project WILD fl 986 J

Conceptual Framework:
    I. Awareness and Appreciation of Wildlife
      A. Humans and wildlife have similar basic needs
      B. Humans and wildlife share environments.
      C. Humans and wildlife are subject to many of the same
         environmental conditions.

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     D. Humans have far greater ability to alter or adjust to
        environments than does wildlife; thus, humans have a
        responsibility to consider effects of their activities on
        other life forms.
 II.  Human Values and Wildlife
     A. Wildlife has aesthetic and spiritual values.
     B. Wildlife has ecological and scientific values.
     C. Wildlife has social and political values.
     D. Wildlife has commercial and economic values.
     E. Wildlife has consumptive and non-consumptive
        recreational values.
III.  Wildlife and Ecological Systems
     A. Each environment has characteristic life forms.
     B. All living elements of an ecological system are
        interdependent.
     C. Variation and change occur in all ecological systems.
     D. Adaptation is continuous within all ecological
        systems.
     E.  Living things tend to reproduce in numbers greater
        than their habitat can support.
     F.  Each area of land or water, and ultimately the planet,
        has a carrying capacity of plants and animals.
IV. WUdlife Conservation
    A.  Management of resources and environments is the
        application of scientific knowledge and technical
        skills to protect, preserve, conserve, limit, enhance, or
        extend the value of a natural resource, as well as to
        improve environmental quality.
    B.  Wildlife is one of our basic natural resources, along
        with water, air, minerals, soil, and plant life.
    C.  Good habitat is the key to wildlife survival.
    D.  Wildlife resources can be managed and conserved.
    E.  Wildlife conservation practices depend on a
        knowledge of natural laws and the application of
        knowledge from many disciplines.
    F.  In the U.S., wildlife is considered to be a public
        resource. Ownership of land or water alone does not
        secure ownership of wildlife on that land or in that
       water as it does in some other countries.
                                                                            95

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                        V. Cultural and Social Interaction with Wildlife
                           A. Human cultures and societies, past and present, affect
                              and are affected by wildlife and its habitat.
                           B. Societies develop programs and policies relating to
                              wildlife and its habitat through a variety of social
                              mechanisms.
                       VI. Wildlife Issues and Trends: Alternatives and
                           Consequences
                           A. Human impacts on wildlife and its habitat are
                              increasing worldwide.
                           B. Issues involving wildlife and its habitat are a product
                              of social and cultural trends.
                           C. Current wildlife issues and trends are  complex and
                              involve alternatives and consequences.
                           D. Many problems, issues, and trends involving wildlife
                              in other parts of the world are similar to those in this
                              country.
                       VII. Wildlife, Ecological Systems, and Responsible Human
                           Actions
                           A. Each person as an individual and as a member of
                              society affects the environment.
                           B. Responsible environmental actions are the obligation
                              of all levels of society, starting with the individual.

                      Essential Learnings in Environmental
                      Education C1990J

                         Natural Systems:
                            General: Environment, Earth, Biosphere
                           Abiotic Components: Energy, Atmosphere, Land & Soil,
                           Water
                            Biotic Components: Plant, Animal
                            Processes: Weather & Climate, Biogeochemical Cycles,
                            Evolution and Extinction
                            Biological Systems: Ecosystems, Food Chains & Webs,
                            Community, Population, Habitat & Niche
96

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   Resources:
      Natural Resources: Distribution & Consumption,
      Management & Conservation, Sustainable Development
      Abiotic Resources: Energy & Minerals, Water, Land &
      Soil
      Biotic Resources: Forests, Wildlife & Fisheries,
      Biodiversity
      Degradation of Resource Base: Limits to Systems,
      Pollution
   Human Systems:
      Humans and Environment: Humans as part of
      environment, human adaptation to environment,
      Human influence upon environment, population factors
      Technological Systems: Agriculture, Settlements,
      Manufacturing and Technology
      Social Systems: Economic systems, Sociopolitical Systems,
      Culture and Religion
      Environmental Awareness and Protection: Values and
      Ethics, Education and Communication, Participation/
      Voluntary Action, Legislation & Enforcement
Project Learning Tree Environmental
Education Activity Guide fl 993)

   Diversity
      Diversity in Environments
      Diversity of Resources and Technologies
      Diversity among and within Societies and Cultures
      Interrelationships
      Environmental Interrelationships
      Resources and Technological Interrelationships
      Societal and Cultural Interrelationships
   Systems
      Environmental Systems
      Resource Management and Technological Systems
      Systems in Society and Culture
                                                                          97

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                       Structure and Scale
                          Structures and Scale in Environments
                          Structure and Scale in Resources and Technology
                          Structure and Scale in Societies and Culture
                       Patterns of Change
                          Patterns of Change in the Environment
                          Patterns of Change in Resources and Technologies
                          Patterns of Change in Society and Culture

                    Project WET Curriculum & Activity Guide
                    H995J

                        Conceptual Framework:
                          Water has unique physical and chemical characteristics.
                          Water is essential for all life to exist.
                          Water connects all Earth systems.
                          Water is a natural resource.
                          Water resources are managed.
                          Water resources exist within social constructs.
                          Water resources exist within cultural contexts.
                        Affective Framework:
                           People's awareness of and sensitivity toward water and
                           water-related concepts and issues.
                           People's attitudes (opinions, likes, dislikes) toward water
                           and water-related concepts and issues.
                           People's values (consideration of worth, need to cherish,
                           importance) toward water and water-related concepts
                           and issues.
                           People's  behavior toward and expression of water and
                           water-related concepts and issues, influenced by
                           awareness and sensitivity, attitudes, and values.
                        Skills Framework:
                           Gathering information.
                           Organizing information.
                           Analyzing information.
98

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      Interpreting information.

      Applying learned information.

      Evaluating application of learned information.

      Presenting evidence of learning from application and
      evaluation.
Biodiversity Basics, World Wildlife Fund

H999J

Part (: The Conceptual Framework
   What Is Biodiversity?
      The concepts in this theme provide students with a
      fundamental knowledge and appreciation of biodiversity.
      These concepts also help students understand the
      characteristics of living systems and the fact that the
      environment is made up of systems nested within larger
      systems.
      •  Definition of Biodiversity

      •  Basic Ecological Principles

      •  Key Ecological Definitions that Help to Understand
         Biodiversity
   Why Is Biodiversity Important?
      Concepts in this section can help students investigate
      how biodiversity affects their lives and supports life on
      Earth. Recognizing the importance of biodiversity
      increases students' awareness of why and how people's
      actions affect biodiversity and why it's important to
      maintain and restore biodiversity.
      •  Quality of the Environment
      •  Quality of Life (Economics, Health and Safety, Socio/
         Political, Culture)

   What Is the Status of Biodiversity?
      Concepts in this theme help students understand the
      status of biodiversity and why biodiversity is declining
      around the world. By learning about the causes and
      consequences of biodiversity loss, students will be able to
      participate in maintaining biodiversity in the future.
                                                                            99

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                           •  Factors Affecting Biodiversity (Population Growth,
                              Loss, Degradation, and Fragmentation of Habitat,
                              Introduced Species, Over-Consumption of Natural
                              Resources, Pollution)
                        How Can We Protect Biodiversity?
                           Concepts in this section help students identify ways to
                           ensure that adequate biodiversity will be maintained for
                           future generations. For students to willingly and
                           effectively take action to protect biodiversity, they must
                           have a thorough understanding and appreciation of what
                           biodiversity is, why it's important, why we're losing it, and
                           what people can do to help maintain and conserve it.
                           Students should also begin to understand that ecological
                           integrity, social equity, and economic prosperity are
                           connected and are important components of a
                           sustainable society.
                           •  Studying Biodiversity
                           •  Conserving Biodiversity (Role of Values, Role of Civil
                              Society, Government, and Industry, Future Outlooks
                              for Maintaining and Restoring Biodiversity)


                     Part II: The Skills  Framework
                           •  Gathering Information
                           •  Organizing Information

                           •  Analyzing Information
                           •  Interpreting Information
                           •  Applying Information
                           •  Evaluating Information
                           •  Presenting Information
                           •  Developing Citizenship Skills
                      IV. Previous Standards or Criteria Development Projects
                      The quest to define what constitutes quality environmental
                      education is not new. The following outlines represent efforts by
                      the National Science Teachers Association and the American
                      Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop guiding
                      principles for environmental education. Also included is
                      material prepared by the American Forum for Global Education
                      suggesting conceptual guidelines for national standards for
                      international studies education.
100

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National Science Teachers Association.
Criteria for Excellence in Environmental
Education, Revised Edition

Effective environmental education depends on multidisciplinary
instruction but has a strong science component. It involves
minds-on direct contact with environments as well as vicarious
experiences. The learner grows from awareness and
understanding to concern and action.
Goat:
To develop and practice creativity and critical thinking along
with values analyses. Teachers and learners will search for
alternative solutions to environmental issues and evaluate the
ethical, social, ecological, and economic costs and benefits of
alternatives.
Curriculum
      1. Provides activities and information in which people
         interact with the environment.
      2. Develops in the students the intellectual tools to
         effectively explore the world around them.
      3. Directly involves students in investigating the world
         around them and their relationship to it.


Instruction
      1. Fosters open minds and the generation and
         examination of alternatives;
      2. Stimulates and fosters creativity and critical thinking;
      3. Respects the social, intellectual, and developmental
         maturity of learners;
      4. Links science with other areas of intellectual and
         emotional activity;
      5. Provides opportunities for students to be involved in
         environmental activity at an appropriate level of
         challenge; hence, fosters a growing sense of
         confidence that groups and individuals can positively
         affect the environment;
                                                                        101

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                          6.  Relates the components of the ecosystem to our
                             health, well-being, and potential for development.
                    Evaluation
                    Effective programs and materials provide:
                          1.  Evaluation design based on stated goals, objectives,
                             and outcomes;
                          2.  Field testing of programs and materials in terms of
                             stated goals and objectives;
                          3.  Continuous modification and feedback.


                    Teachers
                          1.  Distribute EE guidelines to colleagues;
                          2.  Encourage colleagues to increase their environmental
                             literacy;
                          3.  Hold clearly stated goals and objectives for learner
                             behavior;
                          4.  Treat controversial issues fairly and honestly;
                          5.  Teach people how to think, not what to think.


                    ASTM, EE Curriculum Draft Standards,

                    Curriculum Task Group f 1991J


                    These guidelines recommend that formal educational
                    institutions and agencies develop, promote, and facilitate
                    environmental education curricula that enhance environmental
                    awareness and knowledge; as such the guidelines will:
                          Impart overall environmental awareness and knowledge.
                          Recognize and emphasize ecology as a critical
                          cornerstone of all environmental education programs.
                          Communicate and apply major ecological concepts to an
                          improved awareness and understanding of the
                          environment (e.g., humans as ecological variables,  and
                          extensive discussions and illustrations of different scales
                          of time and space as they relate to function and
                           development of any ecosystem).
102

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      Communicate and apply major social science concepts to
      an improved awareness and understanding of the
      environment.
      Demonstrate the usefulness of ecological and social
      science concepts in understanding human dependence
      upon stable and productive ecological and social systems
      for survival.
   These guidelines recommend that formal educational
institutions and agencies develop, promote, and facilitate
environmental curricula that demonstrate issue investigation,
analysis, and action skills; as such, the guidelines will:
      Identify a wide variety of environmental issues and
      problems and demonstrate the application of ecological
      and social science concepts in recognizing and
      interpreting these issues and problems.
      Describe how human behavior, beliefs, values and
      cultural activities (e.g. religious, economic, political,
      social, and others) impact on the environment and relate
      to environmental issues and problems.
      Recommend various issues investigation strategies using .
      both primary and secondary sources of information (e.g.
      generating research questions; developing a survey;
      planning data-collection; organizing data into charts/
      tables/graphs; generating data-based conclusions;
      developing inferences and recommendations; and
      communicating research findings).
      Identify various alternative solutions to environmental
      problems and predict the possible or probable
      ecological, social, political, legal, and economic
      consequences of alternative solutions to these problems.
      Demonstrate a strategy for the identification, evaluation,
      and modification of personal  and group value positions
      and action strategies, relative  to the environment.
      Demonstrate strategies for the correction of
      environmental problems (e.g. persuasion, consumer
      action, political action, legal action, and
      ecomanagement).
      Identify sources of scientific and social science
      information appropriate to the investigation and
      evaluation of environmental issues, problems, and
      solutions.
                                                                           103

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                        These guidelines recommend that formal educational
                     institutions and agencies develop, promote, and facilitate
                     environmental education curricula that demonstrate the
                     following instructional methodologies:
                        Goal Orientation
                            A knowledge of education philosophy will be used to
                            select, develop, and implement curricular programs and
                            strategies to achieve both general educational and
                            environmental education goals.
                        Coordination with Established Levels of Environmental
                        Literacy
                            Graded environmental education curricula will be
                            developed to coordinate with the various levels of
                            environmental literacy as detailed in Literacy Standards for
                            Environmental Education (refer to documents produced by
                            the Environmental Literacy Subcommittee: e.g., curricula
                            for the nominally, functionally, and operationally
                            literate.)
                        Coordination with Conventional Levels of Instruction
                            Environmental education curricula will be developed
                            which are targeted toward several primary levels of
                            instruction: teacher education, lower/upper elementary
                            education, and secondary education. The curricula will
                            be designed so that its facilitation and mode of
                            presentation will be appropriate to the learning level
                            toward which it is targeted.
                        Curriculum Infusion
                            Environmental education curricula will be designed with
                            open-ended components to allow for (a) ease of infusion
                            into existing curricula, (b) opportunities for educators to
                            create their own unique topic approaches and
                            presentation formats, and (c)  on-going modifications to
                            reflect the dynamic, ever changing nature of
                            environmental instruction.
                        Compatibility with Accepted Theories of Teaching and
                        Learning
                            Environmental education curricula will be developed
                            that utilize and reflect a wide diversity of instructional
                            applications, as detailed in Teacher Education Standards
                            for Environmental Education (e.g. contemporary
                            theories and practices relating to education philosophy,
                            learning behavior, teaching methodologies, evaluation,
                            and development of curriculum materials).
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   Selection of Appropriate Methodologies/Sites
      Environmental education curriculum will select and
      implement instructional methodologies and sites which
      are appropriate for desired cognitive, affective, and
      behavioral outcomes and for a variety of learner
      characteristics (e.g. outdoor education methods, affective
      education methods, simulation games and role playing,
      case study methods, community resource use, etc.)
   Evaluation
      Environmental education curricula should be designed
      for ease of evaluation. The evaluation criteria should
      reflect elements typical of any conventional curriculum
      as well as evaluation components that may be unique to
      the scope of environmental education.
Smith, A. fl994J
Concept Paper on Developing National
Standards for International Studies Education

   Global Issues and Topics
      A. Global environment, including biodiversity and
         species protection
      B. Global resources, the need for conservation,
         development of alternative energy sources, and
         sustainability
      C. Global trends in population and related issues such as
         urbanization, migration, growth and control, and
         population distribution
      D. Major economic realities and significant issues  of
         international trade, development, aid and investment
      E. World peace  and security
      F. International human rights and human values
      G. Hunger, food supply and distribution around the
         world
      H. Ethnic conflict, diversity and human commonality
      I.  Significant differences in systems of government
      J.  The United Nations and other international and
         regional organizations
                                                                       105

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                            K World cultures
                            L. Global developments in science and technology
                         Culture Studies and Area Studies—America and the World
                            A. America's contemporary and historical connections
                               with global issues and areas
                            B. Understanding individuals' relationships and
                               connections with global issues and other cultures
                            C. Citizenship responsibilities
                      References
                      Ballard, M. and Pandya, M. Essential Learnings in Environmental
                      Education. Troy, OH: NAAEE, 1990.
                      Braus, J., ed. Biodiversity Basics—Exploring the Web of Life.
                      Washington, B.C.: World Wildlife Fund, 1999.
                      Curriculum Task Group. Environmental Education Curriculum
                      Standards, draft working paper. Philadelphia, PA: ASTM, 1991.
                      Developing a Cooperative Framework for Sustainable Development
                      Education. Ontario, Canada: Learning for a Sustainable Future,
                      1993.
                      Environmental Literacy Framework. Unpublished paper by the
                      Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education, University of
                      Wisconsin-Steven's Point, 1992.
                      Hungerford, H.R.,  R.B. Peyton, and R.J. Wilke. "Goals for
                      Curriculum Development in Environmental Education."
                      Journal of Environmental Education, 11, no. 3 (1980): 42-47.
                      Hungerford, H.R.,  T. Volk, R. Wilke, R. Champeau, T.
                      Marcinkowski, T. May, W. Bluhm, and R. McKeown-Ice.
                      Environmental Literacy Framework. Unpubished paper by the
                      Environmental Education Literacy Consortium, Southern
                      Illinois University,Carbondale, IL, 1994.
                      lozzi, L., D. Laveault, and T. Marcinkowski. Assessment of
                      Learning Outcomes in Environmental Education. Paris: UNESCO,
                      1990.
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Marcinkowski, T. "The Relationship between Environmental
Literacy and Responsible Environmental Behavior in
Environmental Education." In Methods and Techniques for
Evaluating Environmental Education, edited by M. Maldague.
Paris: UNESCO, 1991.
Project Learning Tree. Washington, B.C.: American Forest
Foundation, 1993.
Project WET. Houston, TX: Council for Environmental
Education, 1995.
Project WILD. Bethesda, MD: Council for Environmental
Education, 1992.
Roth, C. Environmental Literacy: Its Roots, Evolution and Directions
in the 1990s. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science,
Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1992.
Smith, A. "Developing National Standards for International
Studies Education," a concept paper. New York: American
Forum for Global Education, 1994.
Stapp, W.'B. and D. A. Cox. "Environmental Education Model,"
in Environmental Education Activities Manual. Ann Arbor, MI,
1974.
UNESCO/UNEP. "The Belgrade Charter." Connect I, no. 1,
(1976): 1-2.
UNESCO/UNEP. "The Tbilisi Declaration." Connect?,, no. 1,
(1978): 1-8.
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 What does it mean to be environmentally literate? The
-KatipnalPrpj_ect'for.E:sceiiencevin;Eaviroiiinental-
- .-Education, initiated by, the North American Association ••'
 for EnvironmentarEducation(HAAEE) in 1993, is
 attempting to answer that question. Environmental   !-
 education is a process that aims to develop an:
 environmentally literate citizenry that can compete in • '•'•-...
 our global economy, has the skills, knowledge, and
 inclinations to make well-informed choices, and exercises
„ the rights and responsibilities of members of a community.

 Through the National Project for Excellence in
 Environmental' Education, NAAEE is taking the lead in    ;
 establishing guidelines for the development of balanced,
 scientifically accurate, and comprehensive environmental
 education programs. Quality environmental education
 programs facilitate the teaching of science, civics, social
 studies, mathematics, geography, language arts, etc.
 These guidelines will help educators develop meaningful
 environmental education programs that integrate across and
 build upon the high standards set by the core disciplines.   ,

 The National Project for Excellence in Environmental
 Education is a multi-year program designed to identify and
 provide examples of high quality environmental education
 practice. The project is focusing on four interrelated efforts:
 (1) publication of Enyirbnmental Education Materials:
 Guidelines for Excellence', (2) creation of aseries of
 educators'resource guides to quality environmental
 education materials (The Environmental Education
 Collection—A Review of Resources for Educators, Volumes
 1-3); (3) development of environmental education learner
 guidelines; and (4) development of a set of recommendations
 for the preparation arid continuing education of teachers and
 other environmental educators,                         :

 The National Project for Excellence m Environmental  ,   "',
 Education is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency through  the Environmental Education and Training
 Partnership (EETAP)—plus the National Environmental
"Education and Training Foundation, the National Fish and
 Wildlife Foundation, Northern Illinois University, .and World
 Wildlife Fund. For more information, please contact Bora
 Simmons, Northern Illinois University, Department of
 The National
  Project for
 Excellence  in
Environmental
   Education


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