FOREWORD

                        James M.  Quigley,  Commissioner
                 Federal Water Pollution Control  Administration
                        U.  S. Department of the Interior

      Lake Erie,  for the volume of water it contains,  is one of the most
polluted bodies of water in the Nation.  A priceless national heritage and
lifeblood of eleven million persons,  this lake suffers  from the continual
outpourings of industrial and domestic wastes and silt  pollution.  The
effect of this pollution on the water quality of Lake  Erie is devastating.
Pollution plagues the fisherman,  limits the recreational value of  the lake,
and poses a major impediment to commerce.

      Lake Erie's use as a fishing resource for commercial and sport
fishermen is declining. Once rich with such prize fish as sauger,  sturgeon,
pike, cisco, whitefish, and walleye,  the catch now usually contains yellow
perch, smelt, sheepshead, whitebass,  and carp.

      Water pollution has caused many lakeshore areas  to be posted against
bathing. Other areas are littered continuously with rotting masses of algae
and dead fish. In fact, where the recreational needs around the lake are
the greatest, the water quality is the poorest.

      Industrial and domestic wastes  and silt pollution block the harbors
and navigational channels. Each year  six million tons  of ugly sediment
must be removed from the harbors to maintain navigation. This foul material
is in turn carried to the lake and dumped.

      Although Lake Erie remains the  best source of water supply for its
citizens, occasional problems do occur from unpleasant tastes and odors
in drinking water. In addition to these problems, Lake Erie is aging
faster than natural processes would exhibit, hastened  by the spoils of
society.

      In spite of the fact that the states bordering Lake Erie have long
fought for pollution control in the watershed, the conditions in Lake Erie
have continued to worsen. Recognizing this, in 1961 Gov. John Swainson of
Mich'igan requested a federal enforcement conference on the Detroit River
and Michigan waters of Lake Erie. In 1965, Gov. James  A. Rhodes of Ohio
expanded the scope of enforcement powers by requesting a conference on
all of Lake Erie. I am pleased to report that accelerated action programs
have been instituted to finally stem the tide of pollution in Lake Erie.

      This is not all that has been done. In 1961, the Water Supply and
Pollution Control Division of the Public Health Service began an exhaustive
study of water quality in the Great Lakes. The study,  continued under the
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, early focused attention
on Lake Erie, since it contained the most obvious and most serious instances
of water pollution found in  the Great Lakes.

      The results of these studies are covered in this report, which con-
tains (1) a detailed analysis of the nature and extent of pollution in
Lake Erie, (2) its causes, (3) what must be done to abate it and prevent

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its recurrence, and (4) what it will cost to control it.  This report covers
the major drainage areas of Lake Erie.  These are:  Southeast Michigan area;
Maumee River and North Central Ohio basin;  Greater Cleveland-Akron area;
Northeast Ohio basin;  Pennsylvania and  New York area.

      The course of action recommended  in this report is  based largely upon
the decision of the people of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and
New York, who live in the basin—a decision manifested by the repeated
pronouncements of their public officials and many interested clean water
groups — that the waters of Lake Erie are to be fit habitats for desirable
species of fish, suitable sources for all forms of recreation, and ex-
cellent source of water supply. They must be esthetically pleasing in
appearance, and generally clean, refreshing, and sparkling.

      These are demanding goals in terms of water quality, but no lesser
goals have ever been publicly advanced. Secretary of the Interior, Stewart
Udall, has said that "the Great Lakes represent the finest fresh water re-
source that the Nation has. The lakes are in trouble and the one that is
in the most trouble is Lake Erie." Senator Robert Kennedy of New York re-
peated this concern when he said, "Lake Erie is polluted and now it's a
question of doing something about it."

      Much speculation exists in the minds of many on the ultimate outcome
of Lake Erie. Can we merely retard its aging process? Can we call a complete
halt to old age? Or most of all, can we make it young and fresh as it once
was many years ago? These provoking questions need not plague us into doing
little or nothing, but should make us unite in a giant effort to do all we
can with the hope that the best will come true. As more information unfolds,
more must be done but the tools are at hand now to begin and make better.

      This report sets forth a plan to do something about it and to make
the goals a reality. Whether this plan will achieve its purpose is also a
decision which rests largely with the citizens of the Lake Erie basin.
U.S. Environ-':? Ruction Agency
Rei      :     -
                                      Region 5,L: .
                                    ii

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                           Page
Foreword                                                    i
Table of Contents                •                           iii
Introduction                                                1
Summary -- A General View                                   5
Chapter 1 -- Implementation                                 1-1
Chapter 2 -- Description of the Lake Erie Basin             2-1
Chapter 3 -- Water Uses                                     3-1
Chapter 4 -- Waste Sources                                  4-1
Chapter 5 -- Water Quality Problems                         5-1
                                    iii

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                                INTRODUCTION
Authority

      The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C.  466 et seq.)
contains among its provisions a directive to the Secretary of the Interior
to develop comprehensive programs for controlling pollution of interstate
waters and their tributaries. The following document presents such a
program for Lake Erie. It is the result of a painstaking  study of the water
quality of Lake Erie and its surrounding watershed, the use of the lake
system, the factors that affect water quality, the probable nature of the
economic development of the basin and its impact on water quality, and
the nature of measures that must be taken both to abate pollution in the
watershed and to prevent recurrence of pollution.

      While the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration prepared
this report and bore the major responsibility for developing the study,
a number of federal,state, local and private agencies provided important
assistance in collecting and analyzing data. In particular, the water
pollution control agencies of the States of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana,
Pennsylvania, and New York accepted a large role in developing both infor-
mation and concepts.

      An enforcement action on the Michigan waters of the Detroit River
and Lake Erie, called at the request of former Governor Swainson of
Michigan in 1961 under the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, provided an early start toward achieving many of the de-
sired water quality improvement measures. A timely enforcement action on
all of Lake Erie, called at the request of Governor Rhodes of Ohio in
1965 under the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
added further impetus to the early achievement of many of the requirements
for pollution abatement.

Purpose

      This report presents an action program of water pollution control,
designed to provide high quality waters in Lake Erie through abatement of
existing pollution, and to provide continuing control of pollution through
preventive actions scheduled in anticipation of future problems. The report
and resulting program have been developed from both extensive and intensive
information on present water quality, water uses, and trends in water usage;
present and anticipated future waste loads from existing and projected
population and economic growth, and other relevant facts  gathered by the
Lake Erie Program Office (LEPO), Federal Water Pollution Control Admini-
stration, Department of the Interior, during its study of the Lake Erie
Basin.

Acknowledgments

      As required by the authorizing legislation, the Lake Erie Program
Office has worked closely with State, local, and other Federal agencies

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to develop a water pollution control  program. A  list of  the principal
agencies which have participated through  preparation of  special reports
or through their release of supporting  information  is as  follows:

      Michigan:

          Water Resources Commission
          Department of Public Health

      Indiana:

          Board of Health
          Stream Pollution Control Board

      Ohio:

          Water Pollution Control Board
          Department of Health
          Department of Natural Resources

      Pennsylvania:

          Department of Health
          Sanitary Water Board
          Department of Forests and Waters

      New York:

          Department of Health
          Division of Pure Water

      U. S. Department of the Army:
          Corps of Engineers

      U. S. Department of Commerce:
          Weather Bureau
          Office of Business Economics

      U. S. Department of the Interior:
          Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
          Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
          Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
          Geological Survey

      Canada:

          Ontario Water Resources Commission
          Department of National Health and Welfare
          Department of Lands and Forests
          Department of Mines and Technology

      International Joint Commission

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      A citizens'  group,  the Maumee River Basin Water Users Committee
has been especially  helpful in  defining water  uses  for various  stretches
of the principal  streams  within that  subbasin. The  following  are  the
chairmen of the various groups  of  that Committee:

      Municipality Co-Chairraen
          Sharon   D.  Bresler, Lima, Ohio
          Paul Fulkerson,  Fort  Wayne,  Indiana

      Industry Co-Chairmen
          Russell ¥.  Abbott, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co.,  Toledo,  Ohio
          Donald  E,  Bodiker, Sohio Chemical  Co.,  Lima, Ohio

      Agriculture Chairman
          Charles Young,  Hew Bavaria,  Ohio

      Recreation  Co-Chairmen
          Ralph W. Peters, Defiance,  Ohio
          Carl Mosley,  Ohio Department of  Natural Resources,  Columbus, Ohio

      ,The Lake Erie  Technical  Committee guided the Program Office in the
fulfillment of its mission. Membership in  this Committee consists of the
following:

Albert G. Ballert     -                    Karl M. Mason
Great Lakes Commission                    Pa.  Department of Health
Ann Arbor, Michigan                        Harrisburg,  Pa.

John J. Chester                            Loring F. Oeming
Chester &. Rose Attorneys                   Michigan Water Resources Comm.
Columbus, Ohio                             Lansing, Michigan

George H. Eagle                            Blucher A.  Poole
Ohio Department  of Health                 Indiana Board of Health
Columbus, Ohio                             Indianapolis,  Indiana

Mrs. Donald T. Francis                    Charles E.  Spahr
League of Women  Voters                    Standard Oil Co.
Cleveland Hts.,  Ohio                      Cleveland,  Ohio

Walter E. Gerdel                          Mededith H. Thompson, M.D.
Dept. of Public  Utilities                 New York Dept, of Health
Cleveland, Ohio                            Albany, New York

Richard J. Kotis                          Michael E.  Wargo
Fred Arbogast Co., Inc.                   Presque Isle State Park
Akron, Ohio                               Erie, Pa.

      The Lake Erie Enforcement Conference Technical Committee delved
into  the dynamics of pollution ecology in the lake, with special emphasis
on the complex relationships existing between phosphorus and accelerated
aging of the lake (eutrophication). Membership in the C-.ommittee  consists

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of the following:
                                          Perry E.  Miller
                                          Indiana Board  of  Health
                                          Indianapolis,  Indiana

                                          Earl Richards
                                          Ohio Department of Health
                                          Columbus, Ohio

                                          Donald B. Stevens
                                          New York  Dept. of Health
                                          Albany, N.Y.
Grover Cook, past Chairman
FWPCA
Chicago, Illinois

George Harlow, present Chairman
FWPCA
Cleveland, Ohio

Carlos Fetterolf
Michigan Water Resources Cotnm.
Lansing, Michigan

Walter A. Lyon
Pa. Sanitary Water Board
Harrisburg, Pa.

      Recognition is also made to municipalities, industries, universities,
civic groups, the press, and the various authors who, through their writings,
have added to the science of Lake Erie.

      Dr. LaVerne Curry of Central Michigan University entered into the
study through research into the biology of Lake Erie. Dr. Donald O'Connor
of Manhattan College consulted on the mathematics of stream deoxygenation
and reaeration.

      Without the combined effort of these participating agencies and
organizations, both public and private, this study would not have been
possible.

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                             SUMMARY--A GENERAL VIEW
                               WATER USES
      The waters of Lake Erie are used for many important purposes,
each critical in its own right. One major use, of course, is that of a
water supply—as a source of water for such things as drinking, washing,
and bathing; industrial processes and cooling; for hydroelectric power
generation; and irrigation and stock watering. Other important uses
include shipping, commercial fishing, a habitat for fish and waterfowl,
recreation and scenic beauty, and finally waste assimilation.

Water Supply

      Lake Erie holds 125 trillion gallons of water, enough water to
serve municipal and industrial water supply needs in the Erie basin for
34 years without replenishment, or to serve these needs nationwide for
approximately one year.

      To serve the 11 million citizens of the Lake Erie region, municipali-
ties use 1.3 billion gallons per day with 41 per cent being taken directly
from the lake,42 percent from the Detroit River, and 17 per cent from
inland sources. The Detroit area alone withdraws 0.55 billion gallons
per day.

      Industries use 10 billion gallons per day, withdrawing 48 per cent
of this from the lake and 32 percent from the Detroit River; . Of the
total withdrawal, 38 per cent is used for industrial cooling and processing,
the rest goes for hydroelectric power production. Detroit area industry
heads the  list by using 3.4 billion gallons per day.

      Lake Erie water is not directly withdrawn in significant quantities
for either irrigation or stock watering. However, several million gallons
per day are withdrawn from inland surface streams and groundwaters for
nurseries, truck crops, golf courses, lawns, and livestock.

Commercial Shipping

      Industries in the Lake Erie basin account for approximately  10 per
cent of the country's manufacturing output, a factor enhanced by the
rich natural resources of the area and the availability of  both interlake
and international waterborne commerce. In 1962, eleven major U. S. harbors
around the perimeter of the lake handled 125 million tons of cargo. Lake
Erie waters carried 13 billion ton-miles of shipping in  1963.

Commercial Fishing

      For  almos_t__50years, Lake Erie has led  the Great Lakes in fish
production.C^oweyierT/^n^ recent years ,
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 the lowest  since  1879,  and  the  1964 catch was even  lower with a dollar
 value of  only  1.2 million.  This  compares with the value of  the 1951
 catch of  $44 million. This  figure was  even higher in  earlier years when
 higher dollar  value  species of  fish were plentiful.

       In  earlier  decades  fisherman relied heavily on  such select  species
 as sturgeon, pike, cisco,  sauger, and  whitefish  to  sustain  the industry.
 Now these fish are gone or  are  rare, and perch,  smelt, sheepshead,
 whitebass,  and carp  make  up the bulk of  the  commercial catch today.

       Even  though the value is  declining, total  poundage of fish  caught
 has remained relatively steady,  averaging approximately 50  million pounds
 annually  through  1964.  In the past five  years,  the  Canadian catch has
 doubled that dfif the  U.S.

 Recreation

       Tourism  in  the Lake Erie  basin is  a major  industry and the  lake
 itself is the  main attraction.  The basin does not have an abundance  of
.scenic beauty  or  other  factors  to make it especially  attractive  to
 tourists. Therefore, tourism is confined to  activities in which  the  lake
 plays a part such as boating, water  skiing,  swimming, and sport  fishing.
 During 1963, 75 million visits  were made to  the  170 federal, state,  and  local
 parks in  the basin.  Five  parks,  Middle Rouge County and Belle  Isle in
 Detroit,  Rocky River in Cleveland, Presque  Isle  in  Pennsylvania,  and ^At?.,-,
 River Reservation in New  York,  accounted for almost 50 per  cent  of the
 visits.

       Summer water  temperature  makes Lake Erie well-suited  to  water
 contact sports. Available beaches  are  heavily used  because  of  dense
 population and the relative scarcity of  good beaches. The most notable
 beaches are Metropolitan  Beach,  Belle  Isle  Beach,  and Sterling State
 Park in Michigan;  Crane Creek,  East  Harbor,  and  Headlands State  Parks.
 Cedar Point, and  Mentor,  Geneva, Walnut, and Conneaut Townships  in
 Ohio; Presque  Isle  in Pennsylvania,  and  Evangola and Lake Erie State Park
 in New York.  In 1963 approximately  15  million visits  were made to these
 beaches.

       Inland lakes  in  the Lake  Erie  watershed basin also provide ex-
 cellent opportunities  for swimming,  boating, sport  fishing, and  water
 skiing. The great majority of these  lakes are  located in southeast
 Michigan. Six  million outdoor enthusiasts visited these  inland lakes in  1963.

       Sport fishing  is  a  major  recreational  attraction  in Lake Erie, and
 at times  the catch  in Ohio waters  exceeds  the commercial catch,especially
 in yellow perch fishing.  During winter the  fishermen venture  onto the
 ice in large numbers to continue their fishing.  The heaviest  sport
 fishing activity  occurs in the  western basin and particularly  in the
 island area.

       During a warm summer day, pleasure boats  navigate  Lake  Erie in
 large numbers. Over  200,000 pleasure boats  are  registered  in the Lake
 Erie basin.

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Waste Disposal

      About 10 million people in the U.S.  portion of the  Lake Erie basin
are served by sewers and sewage treatment  discharging wastes amounting
to 1.3 billion gallons per day. Fifty-five per cent of these are served
by primary treatment only. Another half million people live in areas
which are unsewered.

      Approximately 270 industrial waste producers utilize the streams
and lakes within the basin for disposal purposes. Their discharges
total 10 billion gallons per day. The hydroelectric generating plants
contribute 62 per cent of this amount. Known industrial wastes account
for another 2 million population equivalents.

      In addition to the above contributors, there are several hundred
combined storm and sanitary sewer outfalls. These outfalls discharge
an estimated 40 billion gallons per year and approximately 50 per cent
of this is untreated municipal wastes; i.e. sewage entering sewer
systems that were bypassed during a rainstorm. The estimated population
equivalent for these wastes is 1/2 million.
                         WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS
      The population of the Lake Erie basin is expected to more than
double by the year 2020 (see Fig. 1) and along with this there is ex-
pected to be a five-fold increase in industrial activity. This increase,
of course, will bring attendant waste discharges. Unless steps are taken
now to halt the growing tide of pollution and the more than'doubling
of the load by the year 2020, the pollution problems in Lake Erie will
increase accordingly.

Lake Enrichment

      The greatest pollution problem in the lake is also the one with
the most awesome potential--over-enrichment of the lake's waters with
nutrients. Over-enrichment fosters excessive plant productivity (algae
growth) and rapidly accelerates the natural aging process of the lake.

      Even without the presence of man, the lake would be in a more
advanced state of enrichment (eutrophication) than the other Great Lakes
because of its relative warmth, shallowness, and soil fertility. Add
the population factor, however, and the rate of enrichment accelerates
rapidly. Within the last two generations, man has dumped enough refuse
into Lake Erie not only to make the aging rate measurable, but to make
it glaringly obvious. Since 1900, this aging rate has shown a marked
increase, and, in fact, during the last 10 years, has exhibited an
even sharper upturn.

      Much evidence exists to show both directly and indirectly the
state of eutrophication of Lake Erie. Profuse algal growths occur in

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                                       EASTERN
                                      \ BASIN
                                     POPULATION  PROJECTIONS
                                                 IN
                                         LAKE  ERIE  BASIN
Figure 1  --  Population trends for the Lake Erie basin.

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the Western basin and along the southern shoreline  where nutrient  levels
are highest. For its size,  Lake Erie's  algae-producing  capacity  is among
the highest in the world and its rate of algae  production  is  presently
at its highest peak. The varieties of aLgae  are changing to  those  which
are more suitable to highly enriched environments.

      When these organisms  die and sink to the  bottom,  they  decompose,
thereby utilizing the water's life-giving oxygen. During summer  temperature
stratification periods in Lake Erie, the oxygen is  consumed  at a rate
faster than it is replenished;leading to the annual occurrence of low
dissolved oxygen (DO) in bottom waters. The  length  of time of existence
of low oxygen levels is also increasing.

      Low DO in turn has changed the aquatic food  chain by killing off
certain bottom dwelling organisms, such as the  mayfly,  which were an
important food for the desirable carnivorous fishes. Thus, these fishes
are suffering for lack of food, and scavenger type  fishes  are replacing
them. Low DO and undesirable habitat are also killing young  fish and
fish eggs. Stated simply, select fishes are  vanishing from the lake be-
cause of undesirable alteration of their environment by water pollution.

      Other evidences of over-enrichment are the increasing  problems of
surface algal scums, algal  littering of beaches (with a subsequent de-
crease in shoreline property values), algae-produced bad  taste and odor
in drinking water supplies, and the clogging of intakes by algae. In
spite of this, Lake Erie, even though it contains  the lowest quality
water of the five Great Lakes, remains  a highly satisfactory source of
raw water supply when compared with inland and  groundwater supplies.

      Phosphorus is the key element in the over-enrichment problem in
Lake Erie. Because it is an essential and most  vital nutrient, it
accelerates the process of over-enrichment,  when present in  excess.
The excess begins in Lake Erie when the daily phosphorus input exceeds
a total of 23, OOOlbs/day from municipal, industrial, and rural and
urban runoff sources. These sources are now adding 147,000 Ibs/day of
phosphorus. The phosphorus contribution from within the Lake Erie basin
is composed of 68 per cent  from municipal wastes,  16 per  cent from
rural runoff, *> per cent from industrial wastes and 7 'per  cent from
urbam, runoff. In municipal wastes, 66 per cent of the phosphates come
from detergents. This one source, detergents, accounts for 4^7per cent
of the total phosphorus load going to the lake from all major sources.
The Detroit and Maumee Rivers contribute 55 per cent of the  total load
to Lake Erie, Table 1.

      Assuming that the Lake Huron input and other runoff sources are
not easily controllable, the enrichment process can be retarded by
limiting the discharge of total phosphorus from municipal  and industrial
sources to no more than 9,000 Ibs/day within the entire basin. This
would include 1,000 Ibs/day from Canadian sources.  This requires 92
per cent removal of the present municipal and industrial phosphorus
load and 100 per cent removal by the year 2020.

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                               TABLE 1

  SOURCE AND AMOUNT OF PHOSPHORUS   DISCHARGES  TO  LAKE  ERIE,  Ibs/day

          (exclusive of Lake Huron input and  shore erosion)
Basin
Western Basin
Central Basin
Eastern Basin
Ontario
TOTAL
Municipal
Waste
56,900
27,400
3,000
11,900
98,200
Industrial
Waste
8,000
3,200
2,100
unknown
13,300
Urban
Runoff
4,800
3,410
650
450
9,310
Rural
Runoff
14,300
2,970
1,000
5,500
23,770
Total
84,000
35,980
6,750
17,850
144,580
Nearshore Bacterial and Blight Problems
      Many bathing beaches in Lake Erie are plagued by pollution problems.
A danger to health is caused in the nearshore water by bacterial loading
derived primarily from sewage discharges and combined sewer overflows.
The greatest bacterial problems are found nearest the metropolitan centers
where many beaches are unsafe for water contact recreation because of
these problems, Table 2. In fact, even though there is a high demand for
water contact recreation on Lake Erie from its 11,000,000 residents,
much of this goes unsatisfied because water pollution limits the use.

      The nearshore waters of Lake Erie are generally unattractive, being
polluted by debris, silt, and dead and decaying aquatic life and occasion-
ally oily wastes. Nearshore waters are ordinarily very turbid in all of
Lake Erie and in the western basin turbidity may extend from shore to
shore. Turbidity in Lake Erie is high compared to the other Great Lakes.
The turbidity is caused by silt washing in from the land, suspended
solids from municipal and industrial wastes, plant life suspended in
the waters, and lake shallowness which lets wave action stir up bottom
muds. Total silt load to the lake is estimated at 134 million Ibs/day.

      Harbors in Lake Erie are now characteristically and continuously
foul, unpleasant, and odorous because of waste discharges. Industrial
and municipal discharges at Detroit and Monroe, Michigan; Cleveland,
Ohio; Erie, Pennsylvania; Buffalo, New York, are particularly obnoxious
in this respect. So much waste is added to major harbors that annual
dredging is required to maintain them. Up to this time, dredged material
has been dumped into the lake, further adding to the polluted condition.

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                                 TABLE 2

      BATHING BEACHES ON LAKE ERIE THAT ARE UNSAFE FOR SWIMMING

      DUE PRIMARILY TO BACTERIAL POLLUTION FROM SEWAGE DISCHARGES


MICHIGAN                             OHIO

      Estr^l Beach                '       Little Cedar Point,  Toledo

      Maple & Milleville Beach           Lakeview Park, Lorain

      Sterling State Park                Century Park, Lorain

NEW YORK                                 Rocky River Park

      Hamburg                            All Cleveland Beaches

      Silver Creek                       Euclid Beach

      Westfield
      Removal of nearshore blights will require bacteria control in
waste discharges, control of silt and suspended solids from land runoff
and municipal and industrial wastes, control of nutrients to limit algae
growth, oil control from industries and passing ships, and control of
debris and trash dumped on the land and in the waters. Control of harbor
fouling requires treatment for siltation and suspended solids from munici-
palities and industries, and discontinuation of the practice of dumping
the dredged material in the lake.

Dissolved Solids

      The dissolved solids content of Lake Erie has increased rapidly in
the past 30 years. A major factor is the increase in chlorides which
have doubled during this time interval (see Figure 2). Presently 1$^"  J
million pounds of chlorides are discharged to Lake Erie daily from
sources within the basin. Of this amount, approximately ^ per cent
comes from de-icing  streets in winter, $&• per cent from industrial
wastes, and 10 per cent from municipal wastes. One chemical industry in
the Painesville, Ohio area contributes 21 per cent of the total chloride
load to Lake Erie.

      These inputs of chlorides to Lake Erie must be controlled in order
to maintain a high quality water supply. The chloride concentration in
Lake Erie should be maintained at a level not above that which presently
exists.

Biochemical Oxygen Demanding Substance

      The discharge of wastes to streams and tributaries within the
Lake Erie basin as measured by the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand test
                                  10

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          40





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        a.

          is

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          itoo
                          ItSO   1*40




                          YEAR
CHANGES  IN CHLORIDE  CONCENTRATIONS OF  LAKE ERIE
Figure 2 — Trends  in
                                solido loading to Lake Erie.

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is 2.3 million pounds per day.  Of this amount sources  within  the  U.S.
portion of the basin contribute 1.4 million pounds  and the Lake Huron
input is equivalent to 0.9 million pounds,  (see figure 3)

      The oxygen demand of these substances is critical in tributary
waters; many reaches have virtually continuous depressed dissolved oxygen
levels. The effect is not serious in Lake Erie proper  because most of
the demand is satisfied before the wastes reach Lake Erie and also because
the lake has tremendous oxidative capacity.

      The discharge of BOD5 substances should be reduced to a basin total
of 320,000 pounds per day from the present total of 1.4 million  pounds.
This requires at least a 90 per cent reduction of the  raw BOD load now
being discharged and at least 98 per cent by the year  2020.
                             RECOMMENDATIONS


      The five Lake Erie basin states have agreed to the recommendations
arising from the Detroit and Lake Erie Enforcement conferences and have
instituted programs designed to achieve the aims of the conferees. The
information contained herein amplifies the Enforcement recommendations
and projects water pollution control needs to the year 2020, For current
needs, it follows closely the program outlined by the conferees; it also
points out remedial measures that were beyond the scope of the conferees.

Present Needs

      1.  Each of the states of Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania
and New York should control municipal and industrial waste discharge to
the extent that when discharged to the waters of the Lake Erie basin,
they will not contain more than 320,000 Ibs/day of oxygen-consuming
substances as measured by the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand test. This
discharge,amounting to secondary treatment or 907o reduction, should be
allocated among the 5 states in the following manner:

              Michigan                    150,000 Ibs/day

              Indiana                      10,000 Ibs/day

              Ohio                        140,000 Ibs/day

              Pennsylvania                 16,000 Ibs/day

              New York                      4,000 Ibs/day

      No cities or industries in the Lake Erie watershed that discharge
oxygen consuming substances presently treat to this degree of removal
on a continuous basis. It is recognized, however, that the state water
pollution control agencies of Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania are committed
to complete such facilities in their respective states by 1971. Michigan
and New York, although endorsing secondary treatment, have adopted a lesser
                                   11

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l,«« 3,000
  0
                          .-„ THOUSANDS OC
                          300 LBS. ft* DAY
PRESENT  AND  PROJECTED
 BOD5 LOAD  DISCHARGED
         IN  THE
   LAKE  ERIE  BASIN

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degree of removal and .are also asking to have the remedial  facilities
completed by 1971. These two states should upgrade their  requirements  to
907o efficiency of treatment. In some inland areas, even higher removal
rates will be required to maintain desired water quality.

      2.  Each of the states of Michigan, Indiana, Ohio,  Pennsylvania
and New York should control its municipal and industrial  waste discharges
to the extent that when discharged to the waters of the Lake Erie basin,
they will not contain more than 8,000 Ibs/day of phosphorus. The discharges
from agricultural and urban runoff should be limited to 15,000 pounds  per
day. This discharge should be allocated among the five states in the
following manner:
              Michigan

              Indiana

              Ohio

              Pennsylvania

              New York
         11,600 Ibs/day

            850 Ibs/day

          9,600 Ibs/day

            700 Ibs/day

            250 Ibs/day
      No cities or industries that discharge phosphorus presently treat
to this level in the Lake Erie watershed although it is recognized that
the states are embarking on a program of treatment. Therefore, the
Lake Erie states should order their cities and industries to have such
facilities in operation by 1971 in accordance with the above allocation,
with each state being responsible for apportioning the amounts among
their respective producers of phosphorus waste.

      3.  In order to protect inland streams in portions of the Lake Erie
watershed, the following municipalities need advanced waste treatment to
effect a 98 per cent reduction of oxygen consuming substances as measured
by the BOD5 test:
      Indiana
      Ohio
              Auburn
              Decatur
              Fort Wayne
              Garrett
              Akron
              Amherst
              Archbold
              Attica
              Bellevue
              Berea
              Bloomdale
              Bloomville
              Bowling Green
Brookpark
Bryan
Bucyrus
Carey
Cleveland Southerly
Clyde
Columbus Grove
Crestline
Cuyahoga Falls
Delphos
Delta
Elyria
Findlay
Fostoria
Fremont
Genoa
Gibsonburg
Grafton
                                  12

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           Ohio continued
                 Greenwich              New London                Stow
                 Kent                   New Washington            Strongsville
                 LaGrange               North Baltimore           Tiffin
                 Lakewood               North Royalton            Toledo
                 Lima                   Norwalk                   Upper Sandusky
                 Lodi                   Oberlin                   Van Wert
                 McComb                 Olmsted Falls             Wapakoneta
                 Medina                 St. Marys                 Wauseon
                 Middleburg Hts.        Spencer                   Welland
                                                                  Wellington

            New York

                 Arcade                 Gowanda
                 Cattaraugus            Hamburg Village
                 East Aurora            Holland
                 Eden Twp.              North Collins

                 4.  Emergency measures must be instituted by  the states of Michigan
            and Ohio  to protect the health of bathers using the beaches in western
            Lake Erie and  the  Cleveland metropolitan area  (from Lorain, Ohio to
            Painesville, Ohio). Since  the major cause of the public health problem
            at  bathing beaches is  the  discharge of  fecal matter from combined  storm
            and sanitary sewers and inadequately treated sewage,  the emergency measures
            should  take the  form of disinfection at the outlets in the vicinity  of
            bathing areas  and  diversion of troublesome outlets  to remote areas away
            from beaches.  Existing public beaches should be opened for bathing as
            soon as adequate emergency control measures are taken; this should be
            no  later  than  the  1969 bathing season.  Crews should be assigned by the
            state water pollution  control agencies  to carefully patrol the sewer
            outlets that have  been designated as affecting bathing beach areas to
4            see  that  all  discharges  are  adequately  disinfected.  In  addition  the
          a  beaches themselves  should  be
 i     
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requirements for waste constituents in order to best protect and
enhance water quality. Furthermore, no outfall discharging to public
waters should exceed these levels at any time, nor should it be con-
strued that the industry should be permitted to redesign sewer systems
in order to meet these levels without reducing the overall flow of waste
materials.

      Suspended solids       35 mg/1

      Oil                    5 mg/1 or to the extent that no visible oil
                             film appears on the surface of the receiving
                             stream.

      Iron                   17 mg/1

      Cyanides               0.025 mg/1

      Phenol                 0.050 mg/1

      pH                     between 5.5 and 10.6
                                                         r\
      The industries to which these requirements ar€ applteetrte are,;
      Ford Motor Co. Rouge Plant            Detroit, Michigan
      Great Lakes Steel Corp.               Detroit, Michigan
      McLouth Steel Corp.                   Detroit, Michigan
      Interlake Iron Corp.                  Toledo, Ohio
      U. S. Steel Corp.                     Lorain, Ohio
      Republic Steel                        Elyria, Ohio
      U.S. Steel Corp.                      Cleveland, Ohio
      Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp.          Cleveland, Ohio
      Republic Steel Corp.                  Cleveland, Ohio
      Bethlehem Steel Corp.                 Lackawanna, N.Y.
      Republic Steel                        Buffalo, N.Y.
      Donner Hanna Coke                     Buffalo, N.Y.

      7.  The petroleum industry should install and operate or other-
wise increase waste reduction facilities to effectively reduce phenolic
discharges to the extent that taste and odors are eliminated; oil
wastes should be reduced to the extent that no oil  films are visible
in the receiving stream.
The following effluent limitations are recommended as the maximum:

      Phenols                0.050 mg/1

      Oils                   5 mg/1

The industries to which the requirements aee- applicable are; -as— fortows:

      Mobil Oil              Detroit, Michigan
      Gulf Oil               Toledo, Ohio
      Sun Oil                Toledo, Ohio
      Pure Oil               Toledo, Ohio

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       Standard Oil          Toledo, Ohio
       Ashland Oil           Findlay, Ohio
       Standard Oil          Lima, Ohio
       Mobil Oil             Buffalo, N.Y.

       8. The heavy chemical industry should install and operate waste
reduction measures or otherwise control its discharge of chlorides  to
Lake Erie so that the combined flow  from all such plants does not contain
more than 9 million Ibs/day. The industries and their respective allocations
to which this recommendation refers  are as follows.

                                                            Lbs/day

Allied Chemical Corp. Solvay Div., Detroit, Michigan        2,800,000
Pennsalt Chemical Corp., Detroit, Michigan         '           508,800
Wyandotte Chemical Corp., Detroit, Michigan                 1,850,000
Diamond Alkali Corp., Painesville, Ohio                     3,900,000
Midland Ross Corp., Painesville, Ohio  .                         40,000
Reactive Metals, Inc., Ashtabula, Ohio                        308,000
Olin Mathieson Corp., Ashtabula, Ohio                           15,000
Cabot Titanium Corp., Ashtabula, Ohio                           21,000

       9. The paper industry should  install and operate waste reduction
measures or otherwise control  the discharge of BOD and suspended  solids
to Lake Erie so that the flow  from such plants meets  the state  require-
ments for the total allocated  BOD load to  the lake. ^ke,  '•'fiTiAo  •/. u//;^  f;  ,ir
             d J
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           farm sources.

f—\               5. The states of the Lake Erie basin should encourage and provide
V .         assistance in development of institutional arrangements that bring
           appropriate communities, industries, and metropolitan areas together for
           the purpose of planning and financing pollution control measures within
           the framework provided by drainage areas.                       _. --,£' cru'
                  6. Municipal and  industrial plant inspection, data^ gathering, and
           monitoring activities of the Lake Erie states and theCFWPCAT should be
           coordinated and expanded to maintain intimate knowledge of waste loadings,
           bypasses, treatment plant efficiencies and illegal discharges in order that
           such information may be used in day-to-day water quality management.

                  7. By 2020 all cities in the Lake Erie watershed should have
           complete separate sewer systems. The storm water outlets should then be
           disinfected and directed away from recreational areas.
                             ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL NEEDS
                 Over the next 50 years, it will be necessary to spend approximately
           $8 billion on construction of sewers and treatment systems in the Lake
           Erie Basin. The area to be serviced by this construction will encompass
           most of the 23,000 square miles of land in the drainage basin.

                 The estimated costs to implement the recommendations in this report
           are itemized as follows:

                 Current Needs

                 Municipal1             $850,000,000
                 Industrial             $255,000,000

            Expansion to secondary treatment with phosphate control and improve-
           ments to existing secondary plants, plus tertiary treatment in some cases.

                 Long Term Needs

                 Municipal2             $2,200,000,000
                 Industrial              1,000,000,000
                 Sewer Separation        3,000,000,000
                 Rural Runoff              400,000,000
           2
            Includes expansion to tertiary treatment by 2020, improvements, new sewer
           construction, and operation and maintenance of existing plants.

                 The most complex water pollution control problem facing the citizens
           of the Lake Erie basin is the potential political difficulty of integrating
           and managing the engineering requirements. Inadequate machinery presently
           exists for doing this with any amount of organization or efficiency beyond
           the state water pollution control agencies and the federal enforcement
           procedures.
                                             16

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      The engineering solutions,  complex in themselves,  are relatively
well known and are also relatively easy to apply,  but large sums  of
money are required to see them through. Solutions  to the engineering pro-
blems must, by their nature, be solved along the lines of the natural drain-
age basins.

      At certain stages in the process toward development of the  lake-
wide engineering solutions, entire new sewer systems will have to be
built. In some instances, existing treatment facilities will have to be
abandoned and new plants will have to be built, either at existing          ;
sites or on completely new locations. Existing treatment plants will    J ^J
also have to consolidate into large centrally managed plants.        -i-x^

      The enforcement conferences and other programs of the FWPCA such
as enforcement of interstate standards, grants to municipalities  for the
construction of sewage treatment plants, state and interstate programs
and planning grants, demonstration grants, and research, provide  assistance
for carrying out the recommendations of this report.

      Since Lake Erie is an international body of water, the International \
Joint Commission, by treaty, has responsibility for pollution control.     \
Since some of the wastes, roughly 10%, entering Lake Erie come from        !
Ontario sources, a basin wide control program must necessarily consider    \
Canadian waste disposal, and cannot be limited to only states in the       I
U.S. Cleanup on either side of the border, without a corresponding         '
effort from the adjacent nation, would not result in total pollution
control for the Lake Erie basin. Therefore, IJC must play a ma j or^o ' ^-     ;
i-f—aerCtfie ~leatT tale, in implementing  the pollution control program for
Lake Erie.
                                                                 • -i -   v ; '
      To guide and plan  lake-wide pollution control above the state
level, the Great Lakes River Basin Commission, recently*organized and     Xl
constituted, should set up as its first priority feffie-^implementarhieH. $f
this Lake Erie comprehensive report. Thte^commission was called  for
under the Water Resource Planning Act  of 1965 and agreed upon by the
governments of the'Lake %&e states and the Secretary of the Interior.
It will serve to integrate all governmental organizations and activities
to see that the best purposes are being served in achieving high quality
water in Lake Erie and its  tributaries.

      Below the state level, drainage  basin organizations should
develop and integrate plans for pollution control. The closest approach
to the ideal is that recommended by the National Sanitation Foundation
for southeast Michigan. Another approach, called the Northwest Ohio
Water Redevelopment Council, is being  used in northwest Ohio. This
council is in its infancy and if it would give the attention to water
pollution  that it is giving to water supply, it could develop into  an
effective  tool for pollution control in northwest Ohio. Such a scheme, if
proven effective, should also be developed in northeast Ohio. In the
Pennsylvania and western New York portions of Lake Erie, where population
densities are light, existing local governments will be able to manage
pollution problems effectively for a long period of  time.

      In New York State, the Erie-Niagara basin is being actively  studied


                                   17

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by the Erie-Niagara Water Resources Regional Planning and Development
Board. This board was set up under article 5 of the New York State
Conservation Law. Its purpose is to facilitate water resources planning
on a basin basis. Also, county-wide comprehensive sewerage studies are
under way in the New York counties of Erie and Niagara. These studies
are being conducted under Section 1263-a of the New York State Public
Health Law and are supported by 1007, state grants.

      In spite of the above considerations, local units of government
are ultimately the best suited and equipped for the financial, engineering
and operational aspects of water pollution control. However, they must
be answerable to the basin organizations.

      When local units of government become concentrated and contiguous,
problems arise from overlap, "spillover," duplication and disorganization.
It is then necessary for a metropolitan authority for water supply and
pollution control to step in. Such a need presently exists in the metro-
politan areas of Detroit, Michigan; Toledo, Cleveland, and Akron, Ohio;
and Buffalo, New York. The need is pressing also in Ft. Wayne, Indiana;
Lima, Lorain, Elyria, and Painesville, Ohio, and Erie, Pa. The local
units of government in these metropolitan areas should band together to
form a workable metropolitan authority for water supply and pollution
control. (IJ^ is recognized that the Detroit area is currently working
on arrangements for metropolitan control.) Other cities in the Lake
Erie basin do not need such an arrangement at this time.
                                   18

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The first phase of the comprehensive programmer the Lake
Erie basin is contained in the recommendations and conclusions
agreed to by the Lake Erie Federal Enforcement Conference .
The significant point in those recommendations and conclusions
is an agreement, or commitment, by the conferees to initiate
an action program to effect certain improvements on a scheduled
basis.  This program calls for improvements in (1) the col-
lection, treatment and disposal of various wastes, (2) the
sampling and. reporting of waste outputs and (3) in sur-
veillance programs in receiving waters.

The key point here is that the Lake Erie Enforcement
Conference, which now has come into being as a continuing
entity for an indefinite period, in effect constitutes the
organization to implement the initial phase of a comprehensive
program for Lake Erie and its tributaries.  It does this by
attaching a degree of formality to the agreements and
commitments of the conferees.  Adding to its effectiveness
as an organizational approach are various other features,
including the chairman's authority to .reconvene the conferees;
their authority to review progress, to alter schedules, and
to establish further agreements; and the ultimate possibility,
should this prove necessary, of applying the sanctions of a
Federal court to compel needed remedial measures.

However, the subsequent phases of a comprehensive program
for Lake Erie require organization and authority which the
enforcement conference approach is unable to provide.  In
this regard there is a need for a control authority with -----
jurisdiction over an entire drainage basin, and with the
capacity 'to administer programs now in the developmental
stage.  New arrangements could be initiated to finance water
pollution control on a basin-wide basis, rather than the
present local community by community approach." Thus it is .
recommended that the Lake Erie Basin Commission be officially
constituted.

Some conclusions related there to are presented in the
following discussion and depicted in figure _ QL, .

1.  The basic organizational components- of the outlined
    approach are two:'  a central Lake Erie Basin Commission
    for the entire basin, including the Detroit river, and
    a series of local control authorities for individual
    tributary streams and areas. .("Area" is used to denote
    the possible selection in special cases of a  metropolitan .
    area,  contiguous counties, etc., as an authority's
    geographical area of juri.;1 iction, )

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                          -2-

 The nature of each local authority would depend on a
 variety of factors.'  These include the nature of any
 additional water quality management plan developed by
 the comprehensive study, the extent of its acceptance
 locally, other water resource problems and programs
 in the basin or area,.whether the basin or area is
 intrastate or interstate, pertinent local and State
 statutes, local attitudes, etc.

 Thus in Michigan'-s waters of the basin, as an example,
 the local authority for the Detroit river and metro-
 politan area, might be the Detroit Board of Water
 Commissioners, perhaps modified as proposed by the
 National Sanitation Foundation.  On rivers such as "the
 Huron and Raisin in Michigan, in contrast, the river
 management district concept, which already has been
 proposed for the Huron under a new Michigan statute,
 might be used to create the control authority.        f:
 Inclusion of the Huron river basin -- and perhaps other
 basins &s=$eeil, as Southeastern Michigan becomes even
 more urbanized — in the Detroit system, a proposal
 now also under consideration, is still another
 alternative.

 In the case of Ohio, the conservancy district approach
 has a long history, and its organic l*w specifically
 includes the collection and disposal of sewage and
 other wastes among its authorized functions.  Thus the
 existing Maumee Watershed Conservancy District, modified
 to deal with the interstate situation, might serve as
. the control authority in that basin.  Again there are
 alternatives, among these an interstate compact being a
 distinct possibility.  The Northwest Ohio Water Develop-
 ment Council could be the local control authority for
 Northwest Ohio but it should be expanded to include the
 Indiana and Michigan portions of the Maumee,

 Functionally too,  of course, there could be significant
 differences among the local authorities.  Some of the
 tributary basins and areas might confine the authority's
 role to water quality management, while others might
 include water supply, flood control, etc.  Other important
 differences could pertain to independent financing
 powers, and the authority to abate pollution, construct
 and operate waste  collection and treatment facilities,
 etc.

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                                n.
                             -3-

4.  Key structural and functional details of the proposed
    central authority for the entire basin, are shown in
    figure ~Qs .

    Functionally, the proposed Lake Erie Basin Commission
    closely resembles the river basin planning commissions
    authorized in the Federal Water Resources Planning Act.
    However, it is recognized that the role proposed for the
    commission goes somewhat beyond that of a planning
    agency.  Hence the suggestion that it 'be est'abllsEed by
    a Federal-State compact or by other special Federal
    legislation.   In that event, however, it is suggested that
    the .entity so created also be given the powers of a river
    basin planning commission.

5.  This proposes minimum disturbance of the complex of
    powers and operating responsibilities under present
    Federal and State laws.. This is consistent with a
    basic principle of the Federal system.

    Three related points need emphasis.  The first is that
    the proposed  system would leave intact enforcement autho-
    rity under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.
    This is an important essential.  The second point:
    Formal Federal-State cooperation under a Federal-State
    compact or other comparable stututory authoriztion is
    proposed only at the level of the Lake Erie Basin
    Commission, but it is not suggested at the level of the
    local control authorities.

    The third point provides a necessary balance to the
    previous one.  In lieu of the Federal-State compact or
    comparable approach as the basis for Federal-State or
    Federal-local cooperation, an administrative agreement--
    in particular agreements between the various Federal
    agencies or the Lake Erie Basin Commission, on the one
    hand, and State agencies or local control authorities,
    on the other  could be used.

    Less formal than the intergovernmental compact and less
    rigid in its  requirements for specific legislative
    (Federal and  State) authorization and/or approval, the
    administrative agreement would seein to Have an especially
    useful potential in implementing the comprehensive
    programs.

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     Although it must have a statutory basis,  the  administra-
     tive agreement normally can be formulated and adopted by
     water pollution control authorities  at  various levels
     of government and others without any action by any
     legislative body on the specific agreement reached.
     It thus avoids the time-consuming legislative ratification
     frequently encountered by compacts in the Congress and
     in the State legislatures.  Carefully prepared,  it can
     become not only a statement of long-rangs objectives
     and procedures but also a working guide setting forth
     the Federal, State, or other participant's obligations
     in achieving' those objectives, a time-table for that
     purpose, etc.  Because of its non-legislative character,
     the administrative agreement also offers  flexibility;
     as conditions change and new needs suggest new obligations
     on the part of any participant, the  agreement can easily
     be revised.  (An excellent example,  of  course,  are the
     agreements and commitments resulting from an  enforcement
     conference.)

• 6.  On the matter"of timing, establishment  of new local
     control authorities in most instances is  not  the
     immediate need.  It would, however,  not be premature
     even now to initiate appropriate studies  and  discussions
     .with the States and others, looking  toward developing
     agreements and tentative conclusions on organizational
     needs, objectives, and procedures.

     As to the timing on the creation of  a Lake Erie  Basin-
     Commission, if there is agreement on its  desirability,
     a number of reasons support early action.  One is the
     momentum going on Lake Erie as a result of the Enforce-
     ment Conference.  A second is the recent  enactment of
     the Water Resources Planning Act.  Another.jreason is  ,—-_
     the issuance of this comprehensive^lan^o_r_th^jievelpp-j
     ni§n.t_o^.J±i^JwJaJtLeiL....an.d.." .r:g.la,ted_ land re sources... .of.... the. Lake j
     TCrie_b a s in~]and for jjnrjiyjjig_jjifexr^£en^y_ao^rdInatlo n

     ~r^a^T7nr~Ts^the~~promulgating of interstate  water quality
     standards in the Lake Erie water 'shed.

 7.  Referring to" the upward-pointing arrows in the organiza-
     tional sketch,  several explanatory comments are  in order.
     First, there will be~a need to relate the  Lake Erie
     comprehensive program and the .Lake Erie Basin Commission
     to the Great Lakes Basin Commission.  An  important role
     of the Lake Erie Basin Corliss ion, therefore,  would  be
     to to effect the necessary liaison v.'ith cornoaracle
     authorities on the other Great Lakes  and  the  Great Lakes
     Ba s in C onrni s s i on i

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                             -5-

    Second, there will remain the need to coordinate United
    States and Canadian programs in the Lake Erie Basin.
    Other organizations on the Great Lakes -- the Inter-
    national Joint Co^isjsiqn, the Great Lakes Fishery
    Commission, and^t^ie'^con^truction and operation of the
    St. Lawrence Seaway -- have utilized some form of dual
    or parallel authority.  The necessary coordination in
    any new water resource programs of the two countries
    could be achieved under a similar arrangement, and
    probably'to continue under the supervision of the IJC.
    In the Lake Erie Basin Commission, the United States
    section of the IJC would gain a new and valuable source
    of advice and aid.

    The other arrow denotes a somewhat similar relationship
    between the Lake Erie Basin Commission and the Federal
    Water Resources Council.

8.  Nothing has been said thus far about the possible role
    of the Great Lakes Commission.  Its special contribution
    in the past has been to provide a "forum for focusing
    attention on Great Lakes water resource problems and
    needs and for obtaining discussion, and hopefully agree-
    ment, among the States on these problems and needs.
    .Among its limitations in the immediate context are its
    present orientation toward problems' of the Great Lakes
    system as a whole rather than those of each lake basin,
 '  its lack of regulatory and management authority, and the
    exclusion of the Federal Government.       -          	

    In the present situation its special usefulness would
    seem to lie in two areas.  One is to serve as a forum
    in which proposals such as this and others can be
    discussed, and the viewpoints of all of the Great Lakes.
    States elicited.  The Commission also can render
    important service in educating and informing the public.
    A specific role which might be strengthened is its part
    in stimulating the organization of viable and effective
    citizen groups with interest in water resource programs.

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'O      .   V
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                           Y'A .
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     OVA
                          a,;,,.,
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(>  I       vi  (^  •   .  I
i\ c.i.s>u.vc. 
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                             CHAPTER I

                           IMPLEMENTATION
     This chapter summarizes the measures necessary to restore and
preserve water quality in the Lake Erie watershed.  It states specifically
what should be done, and by whom; it includes an estimate of the financial
needs to sustain the recommended programs; finally, it discusses the bene-
fits to be derived.

     Controlling pollution and restoring satisfactory water quality in
the Lake Erie basin will require international cooperation, the concerted
efforts of the five Lake Erie states, many Federal agencies and local govern-
ments.  The broad principles underlying such a program have been presented
as recommendations.

     Specific water pollution control measures should include;  secondary
treatment in 85 communities; plant improvements in 46 communities; tertiary
treatment in 45 locales; emergency disinfection measures to abate pollution
from combined storm and sanitary sewer overflows in 7 cities; vast improve-
ments in industrial waste abatement, especially from such industries as
iron and steel, chemical, petroleum, and pulp and paper; and area-wide
master water pollution control plans in four areas.  Waste abatement mea-
sures must also include removing phosphorus and preventing it from reaching
Lake Erie.  The requirements listed above are needed now and will cost ap-
proximately $1.1 billion to achieve.

     Needed by 1990, at a cost of $2.7 billion, will be tertiary treatment
almost without exception throughout the basin; control of pollution (includ-
ing phosphorus from barnyards and cultivated farmlands; control of sediment
lo,ss from bank erosion, highway construction, urban redevelopment and farm-
ing; final solution to the storm water overflow problem; area-wide master
planning in 5 more metropolitan areas; and continuing industrial waste treat-
ment.
                 INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES AND PROGRAMS

     Article IV of the Boundary Waters Treaty of January 11, 1909, states
that boundary waters and waters flowing across the boundary shall not be
polluted on either side to the injury of health and property on the other
side.  The Governments of Canada and the United States have agreed that
all such boundary pollution problems should be referred to the International
Joint Commission (IJC) for control.

     On October 7, 1964 the Secretary of State for External Affairs for the
Government of Canada and the Secretary of State for the Government of the
United States requested the IJC to investigate and report upon the extent,
causes, locations, and effects of pollution in the waters of Lake Erie and
to recommend the most practicable remedial measures.  The Commission was re-
quested to inquire into and to report upon the following questions:
                                   1-1

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     1.  Are the waters of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the international
section of the St. Lawrence River being polluted on either side of the
boundary to an extent that is causing or is likely to cause injury to
health or property on the other side of the boundary?

     If the foregoing question is answered in the affirmative, to what
extent, by what causes, and in what localities is such pollution taking
place?

     3.  If the Commission should find that pollution of the character
just referred to is taking place, what remedial measures, in its judg-
ment, would be most practicable from economic, sanitary, and other points
of view and what would be the probable cost thereof?

     The Commission is conducting its technical investigations through
boards composed of federal, provincial and state officials.  Because of
the magnitude and complexity of the problems involved, it will be some
time before these investigations can be completed.  The Commission has now
been apprised by its boards of relevant and important information deriving
from various studies (notably those of the FWPCA) which have already been
made.  This information reveals that the situation in Lake Erie is serious
and the water quality is deteriorating.  For this reason, the Commission
has concluded that the facts should be brought to the attention of the two
governments.

     The report of the IJC to the two governments on boundary water pol-
lution problems of Lake Erie is scheduled for completion in 1969.  The com-
prehensive water pollution control program described in this report will
form a major share of the U. S. input to the IJC report.

     The IJC report when accepted by the two governments, will establish
the means for control of Lake Erie pollution on an international scale.

     FWPCA recommends that IJC accept this report in its entirety and
that the Commission assume fefce responsibility for seeing that the recom-
mendations of FWPCA are carried out in full.  Further, it is suggested the
IJC Advisory Board meet every six months to receive a progress report from
each state and provincial government stating what is being done to comply
with the report.  If control is not forthcoming in accordance with the re-
port, the Advisory Board should refer the problem to the IJC for necessary
action.

     It is hoped that in the future IJC will exercise more authority in
controlling pollution.  This agency will be strengthened, and abatement
action steps taken, only if the Advisory Boards consistently bring to the
attention of the Commission recommendations for control whenever a polluter
is lagging.

     Because the states and provincial agencies are heavily represented on
the board, they exert a major voice in making certain that appropriate
action is taken through the IJC.  The problem of pollution of Lake Erie
cannot be minimized, and it is up to the state and provincial agencies to
                                  1-2

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use the powers of the IJC immediately to achieve pollution control.  With
this strong backing, the IJC would be in a position to act as a regulatory
agency or "Compact" for controlling pollution in Lake Erie.
                    FEDERAL AGENCIES AND PROGRAMS
     Federal agencies which have responsibilities in water pollution con-
trol are the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration of the Depart-
ment of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers, the Department of Agriculture,
the Bureau of Public Roads, and the Department of Housing and Urban Develop-
ment.
FWPCA

     The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration obtains, analyzes,
and disseminates information regarding water quality; advises all Federal
agencies on water quality control; administers grants for basin planning,
training, research, demonstration projects, and construction of sewage
plants, and for state and interstate water pollution control programs;
provides modifications to the comprehensive plan for pollution control so
that the plan will maintain its utility in the face of changing conditions;
conducts research; and enforces water pollution control in interstate
streams and lakes.  All activities of the FWPCA should be geared to im-
plementing the comprehensive program on Lake Erie.

     Because of the need to obtain more knowledge of the dynamics of
water quality in Lake Erie, the FWPCA should continue its surveillance program
of the lake and expand the program to include interstate tributaries.  This
program will serve the following purposes:

     1)  Reflect water quality responses upon completion of remedial works.

     2)  Unfold new problem areas which may require comprehensive program
         adjustments.

     3)  Provide emergency service in case of serious and sudden spills.

     4)  Assess compliance with water quality standards established pursuant
         to the Water Quality Act of 1965.

     5)  Judge whether the intent and purpose of the comprehensive program
         is being carried out.

     The FWPCA along with other Federal agencies and the soap and detergent
industry must step up research to find a suitable substitute for phosphorus
in detergents.  Approximately one-half of all phosphorus entering Lake Erie
originates from detergents and it will be difficult if not impossible  to
sufficiently reduce the level of phosphorus discharge to the lake without
finding a replacement for phosphorus in detergents.  This is an urgent need
                                   1-3

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and should be an immediate goal.

     In its program to find new and improved methods to control pollution
from combined sanitary and storm sewers, the FWPCA must concentrate its
efforts on Lake Erie.  Means of abating this pollution are being explored
and some should find application in the Lake.  Some of the engineering
proposals and solutions to the problem of combined sewers are discussed
later in this chapter in the section on "Alternatives."

     Finally, the FWPCA should enforce compliance with the comprehensive
program where it has jurisdiction, and all grants administered by the
FWPCA should be in accordance with the recommended program.  This authority
will necessarily be tied in with enforcing compliance with interstate stream
standards.
Bureau of Public Roads and Department of Housing and Urban Development

     The FWPCA has the responsibility, through Executive Order 11288, to
control pollution from Federal installations and in projects where Federal
monies are expended.  Two areas where this applies are the Bureau of Public
Roads (BPR) in highway construction, and the Department of Housing and Urban
Development in urban renewal.

     Sediment load entering the watercourses from highway construction and
urban development causes unnecessary pollution in the watershed.  Highway
contractors currently do not reseed the graded areas until a particular
job is completed.  It would be of great benefit to pollution control if the
areas were immediately reseeded after grading, and basins were provided
during construction to catch the sediment that washed away in the interim.
The same applies to area development.  Often entire areas are left bare
for long periods of time before construction begins.

     The FWPCA should establish policies and guidelines in respect to
these problems, and see that recommended control procedures are strictly
adhered to.  In connection with the highway projects that are financed by
the Bureau of Public Roads, the FWPCA should set policy directing the BPR
to install separate sewers during highway construction.

     The Department of Housing and Urban Development should utilize its
means of reducing water pollution.  It administers a grant program for
construction of sewers; these grants should be given to implement the
comprehensive program of this report.  Furthermore in the urban renewal
program, the Department should establish a policy of prohibiting the
installation of combined sewers, another means deemed advisable to control
pollution.
Corps of Engineers

     The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers fcas a variety of responsibilities
                                   1-4

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related to pollution control.  The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 (admin-
istered by the Corps) specified that it is unlawful to deposit refuse into
waterways that interferes with navigation.  Refuse has been interpreted to  l^.H^lO"
include oil and suspended solids from municipal and industrial wastes.  Oil \p'  V,
pollution is a problem, at a number of locations in Lake Erie especially in  ry
the harbor areas of Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, and Buffalo.  The Corps of    •{
Engineers should enforce the law to the fullest extent and prosecute violators
who allow oil to be deposited in navigable waterways.                        \\
^
;\vi
     Much of the sediment deposited in the streams of the Lake Erie watershed
finds its way to the harbors and blocks navigational channels.  The Corps of
Engineers dredges these harbors annually and deposits the polluted spoils
into the lake.  Each year, six million cubic yards of sediment are removed
from the lake's harbors.

     The Corps of Engineers currently charges certain industries that add
sediment to the navigational channels in the Rouge and Raisin Rivers in
Michigan a portion of the cost required to remove the sediment.  This system
of charges by the Corps should be extended to all ports in Lake Erie where
dredging is required.

     Furthermore, where it is determined that spoils contain contaminants
that will pollute the lake, places of disposal other than in the lake should
be found.  Toward this end, the Corps of Engineers is presently conducting
a study in cooperation with FWPCA to seek alternate methods of disposal.

     In certain harbors on the seacoast the Corps of Engineers is authorized
to operate scavenger vessels to remove floating debris and oil from naviga-  I/•/.-.  /..
tion channels.  A proposal is now being considered for a scavenger crew     /
and boat in Lake Erie only for the purpose of removing floating debris, not,
oil.  This proposal should be extended to include oil removal.

     The Corps of Engineers, as the principal construction agency of the
Federal Government, constructs multipurpose reservoirs, in accordance with
Congressional approval, in areas where they are needed.  Three such reser-
voirs are in various stages of development in the Lake Erie watershed:  One
on Mill Creek in the Huron River, (Michigan) one in the Sandusky River, and
one on Cattaraugus Creek in New York.  For the first two reservoirs, the
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration has made studies to determine
the amount of storage necessary to provide flow augmentation for water quality
control.  Reports of these studies have been given to the Corps of Engineers.
The study on Cattaraugus Creek Reservoir has just begun and it will be some
time before an analysis is completed.
Department of Agriculture;

     The Department of Agriculture administers a sewer grant program  to
rural communities.  These grants should be awarded in accordance with the
plan outlined in this report.
                                    1-5

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     The Agriculture Department -- specifically the Soil Conservation
Service-- should accelerate the construction of small watershed improvement
projects to implement recommendations for reducing the solids load to Lake
Erie.  In the Maumee River Basin the Department of Agriculture has under
consideration the construction of 27 of these projects.  To date, however,
only one of these watershed improvement projects has been funded by Congress
even though the Maumee River contributes a heavy nutrient and silt load to
Lake Erie.

     Another area in which the Department of Agriculture should assume
greater responsibility is in control of pollution from barnyards and animal
feed lots.  Animals excrete approximately 10 times more pollutants than
humans, based on a nation-wide average.  It is not known how much of the
animals' wastes reach the streams in the Lake Erie basin (much is absorbed
by the soil), but it is undoubtedly a significant amount.  To reduce this
pollution, the Department of Agriculture should initiate a program to control
contamination from animal .wastes.  In ,.cponeration with FWPCA, ways for ac-
    1 • 1 •    1 •    J   • --'VtCltlf blV-^tf^J * TAt't'ltilf-  1     • ,_             1_
complishing this reduction might incrude technical assistance, research,
grants, and enforcement.  This is an area that has been relatively untouched
and should receive immediate attention.
State Programs

     FWPCA recommends that state water pollution control agencies  integrate
the program set forth in this report with their ongoing programs.  State
groups should become the agencies for implementation of this report in the
areas where they have principal authority.  In most cases,  the state agencies
already have sufficient laws to carry out the recommendations, but they lack
authority or compulsion in the areas of sediment pollution, pollution from
agricultural lands and animal feed lots, and areas where extreme financial
burdens would become overwhelming (such as sewer separation) and in master
planning.  The states should enact laws or direct activities to adequately
cope with these problems.

     In Ohio and Michigan, the state water pollution control programs are
vested in more than one agency.  A more efficient program would result if
all functions in water pollution control were delegated to  one agency.

     All the states excepting Pennsylvania have authority to impose sewer
construction bans where pollution is occurring and abatement not forthcoming.
This authority should be used in many more instances than it is in the Lake
Erie watershed.  It should be extended to include methods whereby  area-wide
master sewerage schemes can be ordered.  It is recommended  that this authority
be extended to Pennsylvania.

     State agencies, especially in Ohio, lack sufficient manpower  to carry
out all their responsibilities.  Because of these manpower  shortages, the
states have been delinquent in municipal and industrial plant inspections,
planning for long-term needs, and pollution surveillance.

     Thorough municipal and industrial waste treatment plant inspections

-------
should be conducted at least annually and plants causing any significant
problems in water quality of the receiving streams should be inspected as
frequently as the situation requires.  Status of sewage plant operators
should be upgraded and the states should continue and expand annual train-
ing programs and certify all operators.

     All tributaries to Lake Erie should be patrolled and surveyed by means
of visual and analytical measurements to locate new sources of wastes and
spills, to determine additional needs, and to provide data for enforcement.

     Provisions should be made by the states for onshore disposal of vessel
wastes at major ports.  Provision for control of waste disposal from all
classes of vessels.including pleasure craft should be instituted.

     The state water pollution control agencies should prepare and enact
enforceable water quality standards for all water courses of the state.
Furthermore, each state should enact programs of financial aid to cities
to gain the maximum benefit from Federal aid programs.
                                                                         , i»
     In northeast Ohio and the New York portions of the Lake Erie basin* j-^J
the states should develop basin-wide, long-range plans for water supply  1 "^
and waste disposal.  Such plans have been prepared for southeast Michigan) (-y
and northwest Ohio and these two plans should be used as guides.  There  \
is a matching Federal grant of 50 percent available to state agencies  to !
assist in the preparation of Master plans.

     A major obstacle facing pollution control by state agencies is lack
of power to enforce the necessary requirements until after a water quality
problem has occurred.  Once a pollution problem has occurred it is almost
too late, because of the difficulty of tracing the source of pollution.
Many sources could have been at fault and water bodies, being what they
are, are subject to a wide variety of influences.  Because of this fact,
states are often reluctant to press charges, even for the most flagrant
violations.

     To correct such occurrences the states often rely on the power of
persuasion, using  the threat of court action as a final measure to be
taken.  The irony of this approach is that polluters know the problems
involved in reaching a decision in court and therefore often evade responsi-
bility for gross abuse of water.

     There is a need to strengthen the states' position in these matters
and to extend their programs by law, if necessary, to include limits on
waste discharge levels in their system of permits.  In this way, enforce-
ment authority could be initiated more effectively and as soon as waste
discharge levels are exceeded regardless of whether the stream has yet
been harmed.  Thus, pollution would be prevented before it occurred.

     Michigan has adopted this approach in the Detroit River area.  Other
states have been less anxious to go this way; New York and Ohio have been


*  It would be advantageous to the whole program to include all the Niagara
   Frontier as well
                                  1-7

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the most vague in the adoption of waste abatement orders.

     States also need strong, enforceable legislation in the area of trash
and garbage dumps along watercourses.  Traditionally, these have been the
areas where dumps are located and little or no control has been exercised
over the material entering the waterway.  Strict enforcement of the law
would be necessary to apprehend violators.  Garbage and trash dumps are
particularly prevalent in Ohio.
Local Governments
   .  The local governmental agencies take many forms.  Some are county
operated, some are run by city control boards, and some are a city staff
function.  These local government agencies have the responsibility in most
cases for design, financing, and operation of waste treatment works and
sewer systems.  Local governments should continue to exercise this responsi-
bility subject to state approval and FWPCA approval when Federal grant
monies are allocated.  The approval should be based on the recommended plan.

     Each city tends to operate independently and as a result there is little
coordination, and a large number of small, poorly operated plants and sewer
systems abound.  This is especially true in the large metropolitan areas of
Detroit, Toledo, Akron, Cleveland, and Buffalo.

     The barriers of city limits and jurisdictional responsibility must be
broken down in the Lake Erie basin if effective and efficient control on an
area-wide or basin approach is to be achieved.  This type of approach will
be cheaper in the long run and result in better water quality.

     Where metropolitan control of sewage treatment is needed (Detroit,
Cleveland, Toledo, Akron, and Buffalo) the functions of water supply, sewage
treatment and sewer construction should be vested in one central local agency
responsible to a local board or commission with representation on the board
(on an equitable basis) of the various cities and communities involved.  The
Detroit Water Board and its system of operation is one example of this.  The
system of financing the agency and the board through revenue on water and
sewers should be subject to approval by the state.

     All local governments should have strictly enforced sewer codes.  Many
have adopted codes in the past, but have paid no attention to them.  Any
establishment discharging waste to the system should be required to conform
to the code.  In almost all cities the sewer codes need revising and strengthen-
ing.

     Many local governments have provided substandard operation and maintenance
of sewers and treatment plants.  Personnel have been poorly paid, some plants
are not even operated, and many have been bypassed without the knowledge of
local officials.  Sewer breaks have been a major problem especially in the
older metropolitan areas such as Cleveland and Detroit.  Often damage to the
sewer systems has resulted in extended bypass periods while the system was
under repair.
                                   1-8

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     Many sewage plants bypass daily because of overload^ poor design or
poor operation.  A glaring example of this is the Toledo plant.  Treatment
plants have also been designed without built-in safety factors, and minimum
criteria have been applied in the design.

     Cities should strive to overcome these problems by strengthening the
local water pollution control agency.  Sewers should be inspected continually
and replaced (without the necessity of bypassing) where obsolescence occurs.
Each agency should have a staff on industrial wastes to see that industries
tied to the sewer system are providing proper pretreatment and proper payment
for use of the sewer system.  Status of the sewage plant operator should be
substantially upgraded.  Sewage plants should be designed with built-in
safety features and bilateral design criteria and finally, cities should
verify that the plants are operated with high degree of removal efficiency
and without need for bypassing.

     One of the major problems that plague metropolitan areas  (especially
Cleveland) is the tremendous amount of litter, junk, logs, and debris that
find their way into Lake Erie.  This problem is especially acute in the late
spring after the ice melts.  The cities of Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Erie
and Buffalo should continue and strengthen programs to clean up this mess.
Programs should be extended upstream to remove material at its source.  Fur-
thermore, the cities should pursue aggressive programs to apprehend and pros-
ecute anyone found deliberately littering the lake and its tributaries.
Private Interests
     Many private organizations are involved in water pollution control
activities in the Lake Erie watershed.  They include Kiwanis, Isaac Walton
League, League of Women Voters, Rotary, Citizens for Land Water Use, United
Auto Workers, Clean Water, Inc., Lake Erie Cleanup Committee, Knights of
Columbus, the newspapers and others.  These service, conservation, and
other organizations, although without legal responsibility for pollution
control, have shown an active interest by promoting public awareness of
water pollution problems and by supporting pollution control measures taken
at all levels of government.  The services provided by these organizations
are vital and indispensable in the implementation of this or any water pol-
lution control program.  Several private individuals have also been extremely
prominent in the water pollution field and have devoted much time to focus-
ing public attention on the problem.

     It is hoped that these groups will continue to support Lake Erie cleanup
programs, and nationwide programs too, doing their part through meetings,
forums, publicity, and lobbying to see that the recommendations of this report
are carried out.
                   MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

     The population of the Lake Erie basin is expected to more than double by
                                   1-9

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the year 2020, with most of the growth occurring in the metropolitan areas.
To cope with this growth, many new, enlarged and consolidated treatment schemes
will have to be devised.

     At the present time, the area should be served by treatment resulting
in at least 907» removal of BOD and suspended solids and 927. removal of
phosphorus.  By the year 1990 in many cases treatment should be increased to
at least 98 percent removal of BOD and suspended solids, and 97 percent removal
of phosphorus, and by the year 2020, 100 percent of phosphorus.

     The balance of this section will be devoted to a discussion of the
municipal waste treatment needs for various areas around the Lake Erie Basin.
Southeast Michigan

      Maintenance of water quality in southeast Michigan is largely dependent
on the development and implementation of a comprehensive program for the entire
basin.   The complex nature of the metroplitan area, which crosses natural
watershed boundaries, together with the relatively flat, natural terrain has
led to development of interceptor drainage systems for both stormwater and
sanitary wastes that are regional in extent.  The relatively small size of the
tributary streams in comparison to the heavy waste loads resulting from urbani-
zation has caused a serious deficiency in the water quality even with secondary
treatment by the communities throughout the basins.

     Several studies have been made for regional water systems and regional
sewage interceptor systems.  These systems would have the effect of removing
the waste products from the major communities and industries throughout the
southeast Michigan area and transporting them to the downstream ends of the
small streams where discharge of the highly treated effluent into the Detroit
or St. Glair Rivers would have a minimal effect on those large streams.  The
Clinton River is a prime example of the action necessary to restore and enhance
the water quality.  Waste assimilation studies by the Michigan Water Resources
Commission and the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) have
shown that during summer low flow periods, the stream is unable to cope with
the secondary effluents presently discharged to it.

     A plan is now being implemented to carry the waste from the large com-
munities in the basin, as well as Selfridge Air Force Base, through an inter-
ceptor system to the City of Detroit for treatment.  This action resulted
from a sewer construction ban imposed by the Michigan Department of Public
Health, in which they declared that further development of the area would not
be approved ^ntil a satisfactory waste treatment system was established.
Major cities and townships having treatment facilities in Macomb County have
agreed to connect to the Detroit Water Board regional interceptors.  Two
remaining cities, Warren and Mt. Clemens, should also connect to this system,
but as of this date have not agreed to do so because of the many millions of
dollars they have presently invested in treatment facilities for which bond-
ing commitments have not as yet been satisfied.

     The Rouge Riyer urbanizing area has for the most part been served by
                                  1-10

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interceptors which transport the waste material to the downstream area.
The Raisin and Huron River areas are faced with similar problems, but as yet
have not taken definite steps to implement an area-wide interceptor system.
To maintain water quality in these areas the existing treatment plants must
be operated to provide maximum removal of nutrients and organic loadings
until regional interceptors are available.

     Programs for development of low flow augmentation systems through
storage reservoirs might have the .effect of delaying the need for regional
interceptors, but long-range projections indicate that eventually interceptors
will provide the best solution to the water quality problems in the basin.

     The individual septic tank systems in the basin, especially those located
near lakes, reservoirs, and tributary streams, must be considered as temporary
measures and provision made for collection and discharge to the central system
as it becomes available.  The nearness to the watercourse, the poor soil
characteristics, and the unauthorized connections to water courses or drains
permit the accumulation of pollutants, especially nutrients, in these small
lakes and streams.

     In providing connections to the regional interceptor, particular attention
must be given to the problem of combined sewers which exist in the basin,
especially in sections of long-established communities.  Although present
policy of the Michigan regulatory agencies is not to approve future construction
of combined systems, a careful evaluation of older systems must be made in
order to benefit from the regional system of interceptors.  Where only part
of the system is combined and where the area is scheduled for eventual re-
development, separation of sewers should be considered as an immediate need.
Where combined systems are extensive in sections of a municipal area, these
sections should be isolated from the remainder of the system and enter the
interceptor as an entity with provision for separate handling of overflows.
Treatment of overflows would then be limited to combined overflows, and
the ever-increasing  quantity of separate sanitary sewage could be handled
by the treatment plant.

     In order to maintain acceptable water quality in the southeastern
Michigan basin, even with removal of the major waste sources, low flow
augmentation must be available to remedy the effects of "natural" pollution
and storm runoff both from urban and agricultural sources.  The construction
of additional recreational areas in the upper reaches of the main stem and
tributaries should include the provision for water storage for low flow
augmentation.  Site selection must be made with this multi-purpose use in
mind as recreational use requirements include minimum change in water levels
and minimum depths to be suitable for boating.  The provision of access ramps
at different levels, bank modification and stabilization, and control of
shoreline vegetation would make a small reservoir suitable for these multiple
purposes.  These areas will be needed to supply the recreational needs of
the expanding basin population.

     To implement the overall program necessary to achieve water quality and
objectives for the basin, a watershed management system must exist.  The
function of this group must include total resource planning.  For many
                                   1-11

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functions extra basin authorities will also exist.  These functions include
water supply and wastewater disposal which would efficiently be administrated
by the regional authority or Detroit Water Services.  For large-scale park
and recreation site development, both the state and the Huron-Clinton Metro-
politan Authority already have a vested interest.  The watershed management system
would coordinate the planning and zoning activities of the various regional
local and county units affecting the water resources of the basin.  Such acti-
vities as flood plain zoning, bankside development, and the creation of river
parkways are proper functions of this group.  A prime function would be that
of education of the citizens of the basin in matters which affect the water
resources of the basin.

     The Detroit River-Lake Erie Project, an enforcement action by the Public
Health Service under Section 8 of Public Law 660, recommended improvements
throughout the Detroit River and Michigan portion of Lake Erie. The Michigan
Water Resources Commission has obtained agreements with all industrial and
municipal units in this area to provide the recommended levels of treatment
by 1970.  The State of Michigan, in compliance with the Water Quality Act of
1965 has established water quality standards for the waters of Lake Erie,
Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, and St. Clair River.

     As each industry and municipality expands, its treatment facilities
must keep pace so as not to violate the interstate standards established
for these waters.

     The stormwater overflows throughout the Detroit system are presently
being studied and control measures are being developed by the City of Detroit
in an attempt to reduce the number of overflows to controls of levels within
the interceptor system.

     In Southeast Michigan, especially in the Detroit metropolitan area, the
primary need is for expanding the interceptor sewer system and integrating
and consolidating sewage treatment plants.  Such a pla'n has been recommended
by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) and is depicted in Figure 1-1.
This master plan, endorsed by FWPCA, calls for:

     1.  Intercepting the wastes originating primarily along the St. Clair
River and in the Counties of St. Clair, Sanilac, and Lapeer, with waste treat-
ment being  provided near the City of Algonac on the St. Clair River.

     This area is presently served by 5 primary and 6 secondary sewage treat-
ment plants which have a connected population estimated at 63,000.  This portion
of the plan should be constructed by 1990 with treatment level providing 907»
removal, or waste discharge not to exceed 7000 Ibs/day BOD.  The cost of this
portion of the plan is estimated at $40 million.

     2.  Expansion of the present service area of Detroit to intercept the
wastes originating in Macomb and Oakland Counties and draining to the Clinton
River and Lake St. Clair, with treatment at the site of the now-existing Detroit
sewage treatment plant.

     Nineteen secondary and nine primary sewage treatment plants with an
                                  1-12

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                           SIX-COUNTY
                      PROPOSED INTERCEPTORS
                      SOUTHEASTERN  MICHIGAN
                   SEWERAGE AND  DRAINAGE  STUDY
                       NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION
                     BOARD OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS
                         ABEL WOLMAN, CHAIRMAN
                      LOUIS  HOWSON   OEOR6E HUBBELL
,*'
\
\
\


\
I
1
1


1
1
1
1


1
1
1
1

LAKE    ERIE
                       PLANNED  INTERCEPTORS
                        «       3  EXISTING
                        •••••••»  FIRST STAGE
                        • ••»•  SECOND STAGE
                         TREATMENT  PLANTS
                             Q  EXISTING
                                 PROPOSED
                                      FIGURE -6-2--

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estimated connected population of 3,000,000 presently serve this area. This
portion of the plan should be constructed in the next ten years with treat-
ment level providing 90% removal or waste discharge not to exceed 100,000
Ibs/day BOD.  The cost of this portion of the plan is estimated at $380 mil-
lion.

      3. Interception of waste drainage of the Huron River and much of the
Raisin River and Monroe County drainage, including the western shoreline of
Lake Erie down to the Ohio border and the city of Monroe, with centralized
treatment on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Huron River.

      This area is now served by 15 secondary plants and 7 primary plants
with a connected population estimated at 180,000. The first stage of the
Huron River system should be constructed in the next ten years with treat-
ment providing 90% removal or waste discharge not to exceed 43,000 Ibs/day
BOD. The cost of this portion of the plan is estimated at $165 million. The
second stage, which should be constructed by 1990, will increase the treat
ment requirements at this plant to 957<> removal of BOD. The cost of this por-
tion of the plan would be an additional $140 million.

      The proposal of the NSF with modifications by FWPCA represents the
long-range master plan for pollution control in southeast Michigan. For im-
mediate pollution control, the needs are summarized in Table 1-1. The esti-
mated cost of the immediate needs is $433 million. Figure l-^^-graphically
illustrates the short and long term pollution control requirements. Some
communities in the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project Enforcement area are
bound by stipulations set forth by the Michigan Water Resources Commission
in  1966  The communities involved and their immediate treatment needs are
listed in Table 1-2.

Maumee River Basin and Northcentral Ohio Area

      The major need for this portion of the Lake Erie watershed is expan-
sion of waste treatment facilities to secondary treatment, and installation
of  tertiary treatment at 47 locations.

      With the exception of a few population centers, the area is predom-
inantly rural. The present population stands at approximately 1.7 million.
By  1990 it is expected to grow to 2.6 million and by 2020 to 4.0 million.

      Immediate treatment needs are listed in Table 1-3. The cost of these
needs is estimated at $85 million. For long range requirements it is felt  that
by  the year 2000, tertiary treatment will be needed at almost all locations
at a cost of $300 million.

      The Northwest Ohio Water Development Plan of .the State of Ohio covers
Ohio's portion of this drainage basin. The plan contains excellent pollution
control requirements which in many ways are commensurate with those recom-
mended in this report. The Northwest Ohio Water Development Plan and this
report should be used as the guide for implementing all water resource de-
velopments in the area.
                3
      Figure 1-) shows the short and long range treatment needs for this
area.
                                   1-13

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                            TABLE 1-1

IMMEDIATE MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS for SOUTHEAST MICHIGAN
Location
Needs
ST. GLAIR RIVER BASIN
  St. Glair River

      Port Huron
      Marysville
      St. Glair
      Marine City
      Cottrelville T.
      Kimball T.
      St. Clair T.
      Clay T.
      Algonac
      East China T.

Black River

      Deckerville
      Yale
      Fort Gratiot T.
      Peck

Pine River

      Emmett

Belle River

      Imlay City

Clinton River

      Clinton T.
      Mt. Clemens
      Sterling T.
      Utica
      Warren
      Pontiac
      Rochester
      Oxford Village
      Harrison T.
      Eraser
      Shelby T. (Part)
      Leonard
      Washington
Expand to secondary
Expand to secondary
Expand to secondary
Expand to secondary
Collection system &
Collection system &
Expand to secondary
Collection system &
Collection system &
Expand to secondary
                    secondary
                    secondary

                    secondary
                    secondary
Collection system & lagoon
Lagoon modifications'
Collection system 
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                       TABLE  1-1  (cont.)
Location
Needs
LAKE ERIE BASIN

  Lake Erie (Minor tributaries)

      Maybee
      Bedford T.
      Erie T.

  Huron River

      Ann Arbor T.
      Ypsilanti T.
      Pittsfield T.
      Superior T.
      Dexter
      Pinckey
      South Lyon
      South Rockwood
      Stockbridge
      Wixom
      Flat Rock
      Rockwood

      Ann Arbor Metro

  Raisin River

      Blissfield
      Britton
      Brooklyn
      Cement City
      Clayton
      Clinton
      Deerfield
      Dundee
      Madison T.
      Ash T.
      Onstead
      Palmyra T.
      Petersburg
      Tecumseh

      Monroe Metro
Collection system &. lagoon
Collection system &. lagoon
Collection system & lagoon
Connect to Ann Arbor Metro
Connect to Ann Arbor Metro
Connect to Ann Arbor Metro
Connect to Ann Arbor Metro
Expand to Secondary
Collection system & lagoon
Collection system & secondary
Collection system & lagoon
Collection system & lagoon
Collection system & secondary
Improve collection system; secondary
Improve collection system; secondary

Collection system & expand secondary
Expand to secondary
Collection system &. lagoon
Collection system & lagoon
Collection system & lagoon
Collection system & lagoon
Expand to secondary
Collection system &. lagoon
Expand to secondary
Collection system & secondary
Connect to Monroe Metro
Collection system & lagoon
Collection system & secondary
Collection system & lagoon
Expand collection system & treatment
                         collection
Expand to secondary &. increase.r
                              1-15

-------
                   LEGEND
                MUNICIPAL NEEDS
          M - METROPOLITAN PLANT
          S - SECONDARY TREATMENT
          T - TERTIARY TREATMENT
          R - COLLECTION SYSTEM
          C - CONNECT  TO METROPOLITAN PLANT
          E - EXPANSION
          I  - IMPROVEMENTS
          Q 1970 NEED

          O "90 NEED

             2O20 NEED
   NOTE: ALL MUNICIPAL PLANTS SHOULD HAVE 92% PHOSPHORUS
       TREATMENT BY I9TO. ALL EFFLUENTS SHOULD BE
       WSWFECTED TO LEVELS NOT  TO EXCEED OOO
       COLFORM BACTERIA/lOOml.
        INDUSTRIES NEEDING IMPROVEMENTS
               CHEMICAL   PAPER
                METAL FINISHING
                    a
                 FABRICATING
                                     LAKE

                                    HURON
                                                                              ERIE
rrr-M
                                   »rn.it
MAJOR MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL
     WASTE TREATMENT  NEEDS
    SOUTHEAST  MICHIGAN AREA

-------
                                 TABLE 1-2

                    WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR SOUTHEAST

                           MICHIGAN COMMUNITIES
    Location
                     Needs
Detroit Metro


Grosse lie

Riverview

Wayne County System*
      Wyandotte
      Trenton

Trenton

Estral Beach

Berlin T.

Luna Pier

Frenchtown T.

Monroe T.
Expand collections!  secondary (to serve 18 ad-
ditional communities by 1970)

Improve collection;  secondary

Expand to secondary


Expand to secondary
Expand to secondary

Expand to secondary

Collection system and secondary

Collection system and secondary

Collection system and secondary

Connect to Monroe Metro

Connect to Monroe Metro
*Wayne County System also serves Rockwood and Flat Rock
                                   1-16

-------
                      TABLE 1-3
IMMEDIATE POLLUTION ABATEMENT NEEDS FOR MUNICIPALITIES
   IN MAUMEE RIVER BASIN AND NORTH-CENTRAL OHIO AREA
Communi ty
Michigan
Reading
Hudson
Indiana
Auburn
Butler
Garrett
Waterloo
Berne
Decatur
Diversified
Utilities, Inc.
Ft. Wayne
Ohio
Edgerton
Montpelier
New Bremen
Rockford
St. Marys
Ada
Bluffton
Columbus Grove
Continental
Cridersville
Delphos
Dunkirk
Elida
Findlay
Forest
Lima
Paulding
Payne
Spencerville
Van Wert
Wapakoneta
Archbald
Bryon
Fayette
Stryker
West Unity
Antwerp
Defiance
Hicksville
Delta
Subbasin
Location

St. Joseph R.
Tiffin River

St. Joseph
St. Joseph
St. Joseph
St. Joseph
St. Marys
St. Marys

Maumee
Maumee

St. Joseph
'St. Joseph
St. Marys
St. Marys
St. Marys
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Auglaize
Tiffin
Tiffin
Tiffin
Tiffin
Tiffin
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Present
Treatment

Minor
Sec.

Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Lagoon
Sec.

Sec.
Sec.

Minor
Prim.
Sec.
Prim.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Minor
Minor
Sec.
Minor
Sec.
Lagoon
Minor
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Lagoon
Lagoon
Minor
Minor
Intermediate
Sec.
Sec.
Needs

Secondary & disinfection
Expansion

Advanced Waste Treatment
Disinfection
Advanced Waste Treatment
Disinfection
Disinfection
Advanced Waste Treatment

Expansion
Advanced Waste Treatment

Secondary & disinfection
Secondary & disinfection
Expansion & disinfection
Secondary & disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Expansion & disinfection
Disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Disinfection
Disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary 6. disinfection
Secondary &. disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary & disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Disinfection
Secondary 6. disinfection
Disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Disinf ed tion ;- c
Disinfection
Secondary & disinfection
Secondary & disinfection
Expansion
Expansion
Advanced waste treatment
                      1-17
                                                     JUN 28  1967

-------
Immediate Pollution Abatement Needs (cont.)
Community
Ohio (cont.)
Deshler
Holgate
Leipsic
Perr^ysburg
Swan ton
Toledo
Waterville
Wauseon
V7eston
Whitehorse
Sylvania
Trilby
Bloomdale

Bowling Green
Elmore
Fostoria
Genoa
Gibsonburg

Lakeside
McComb
N. Baltimore
Oak Harbor
Oregon
Pemberville
Port Clinton
Woodville
Attica
Bloomville
Bucyrus
Carey
Clyde
Crestline
Fremont
Green Springs
Nevada
New Washington
Sandusky
Tiffin
Upper Sandusky
Bellevue
Huron
Milan
Monroeville
Norwalk
Willard
Greenwich
New London
Vermilion
Amherst

Subbasin
Location

Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
Maumee
10-mile Creek
Silver Creek
Portage

Portage
Portage
Portage
Portage
Portage

Portage
Portage
Portage
Portage
Portage
Portage
Portage
Portage
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Huron
Huron
Huron
Huron
Huron
Huron
Vermilion
Vermilion
Vermilion
Black

Present
Treatment

Lagoon
Minor
Sec.
Intermediate
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
Minor
Minor

Sec.
Minor
Sec.
Lagoon
Minor

Primary
Primary
Sec.
Primary
Minor
Minor
Intermediate
Minor
Minor
Minor
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Primary
Minor
Minor
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Minor
Intermediate
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
Lagoon
Secondary
Primary
Secondary

Needs

Disinfection
Secondary & disinfection
Disinfection
Secondary
Disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Expansion & disinfection
Advanced waste treatment
Disinfection
Expansion
Expansion
Secondary & disinfection
Secondary & advanced waste
treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary and advanced
waste treatment
Secondary
Secondary &. AWT
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary
Connect to Toledo Metro
Secondary
Secondary d. diffuse outfall
Secondary
Secondary &. AWT
Secondary & AWT
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary &. AWT
Secondary & diffuse outfall
Secondary & AWT
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary & AWT
Secondary d diffuse outfall
Secondary
Secondary
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Advanced waste treatment
Secondary &. diffuse outfall
Advanced waste treatment
JUM2.8 1967
                  1-18

-------
                  Immediate  Pollution Abatement Needs (cont.)
Community
Subbasin
Location
 Present
Treatment
Needs
Ohio (cont.)

  South Amherst
  Avon
  Avon Lake
  Sheffield Lake
  Elyria
  Grafton
  La Grange
  Lodi
  Lorain
  Oberlin
  Spencer
  Wellington
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
               Combine with Amherst
Secondary      Combine into one
Primary        secondary plant and
Minor          diffuse outfall
Secondary      Advanced waste treatment
Secondary      Advanced waste treatment
Secondary      Advanced waste treatment
Secondary      Advanced waste treatment
Primary        Secondary & diffuse outfall
Secondary      Advanced waste treatment
Minor          Secondary & AWT
Secondary      Advanced waste treatment
                                1-19
                                                                  JUN28 1967

-------
,MICH.
  IND.
     AJ
                                                          KXJSTRCS NEEDWS
          y
._/
                                                                               1THL
                                                                                                                              LOR Atf
                                                                                                                          " M>0 "CtO
                                   K)TI: ALL IUKML PUMTS SXOULO HAVt tl% PHOVMOU
                                      TICATHCHT kv 1970. ALL CrFUJCMTS SHOULD 1C
                                      DOMFICTCO TO U«tL* MT TO (ICU9 BOO
                                      COLrcM ucTimA /no»
                            MAJOR MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL
                                 WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
                                 MAUMEE RIVER BASIN AND
                                 NORTHCENTRAL  OHIO AREA

-------
Greater Cleveland-Akron Area

      In this area of Ohio, three streams drain to the lake: Cuyahoga, Rocky,
and Chagrin Rivers. Each river travels through heavily populated areas and
becomes progressively polluted as it nears the lake.

      The Rocky River and, to a degree the Chagrin River, form the core of
the Cleveland Metropolitan Park system even though these streams are pol-
luted to the extent that recreational and water supply uses are impaired.

      In both the Cleveland and Akron areas, metropolitan master planning
for water pollution control is needed. Both cities should form metropoli-
tan sanitary districts and by the year 1990, when the areas will grow to-
gether, an amalgamation of the two sanitary districts will be necessary.

      The metropolitan plan calls for halting the practice of proliferous
construction of small sewage plants. With this in mind, all sewage plants
in the Rocky and Chagrin Rivers should be phased out and the communities
should be ordered to connect to the metropolitan system.

      As an alternate but less desirable approach, the cities on the Rocky
and Chagrin Rivers could expand to tertiary treatment (98% BOD removal).

      Table 1-4 shows the individual immediate needs in the Cleveland-Akron
area. The cost of an immediate program to meet these needs is estimated at
$260 million, with a following annual expenditure of $12 million to keep
pace with population growth. The short and long term treatment needs  for  the
Greater Cleveland-Akron area as well as the Northeast Ohio area, are graph-
ically shown in Figure l-£.
                         A
Northeast Ohio Area

      Major pollution in Northeast Ohio occurs at the mouths of the tribu-
taries where industry and municipalities are located. There are also  small
isolated problems upstream.

      In the Painesville, Ohio area, the cities of Fairport, Painesville,
Painesville East, Orwell, and Grand River should integrate and consolidate
their sewer systems and treatment plants into one collection system with
secondary treatment on the lake. In the Conneaut area the cities of Con-
neaut and Lakeville should do likewise. Additional treatment needs primarily
include expanding to secondary treatment, providing collection systems, and
disinfecting municipal plant effluents.

      By 1990 the recommended treatment works will have to be expanded to
meet an expected doubling of the population. In the Grand River Basin, ter-
tiary treatment will be necessary by 1990.

      The cost of municipal waste treatment is estimated to be $28 million
for the immediate needs. An annual expenditure thereafter of $1 million will
be needed to keep pace with population growth and to provide expanded and
advanced treatment where needed.

      The immediate pollution control needs are given in Table 1-5.


                                   1-20

-------
                                 TABLE 1-4.

                     MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

                      GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
Municipality
 Present
Treatment
Plant Needs
Rocky River Basin
  Berea                 Secondary
  Broadview Heights     Minor
  Brook Park            Secondary
  Lakewood              Secondary
  Medina                Secondary
  North Olmsted         Secondary*
  North Royalton        Secondary
  North Royalton        Minor*
  Olmsted Falls         Minor

  Strongsville          Minor*
  Westlake              Minor

  Westview              Minor

  County Districts
    Breezewood          Secondary
    Brunswick SD 100    Secondary
    Beverly Hills SD 8  Secondary
    Medina Co. SD 5     Secondary
    Middleburg Hts.     Secondary*

Cuyahoga River Basin
  Akron                 Secondary*
  Bedford               Secondary
  Bedford Hts.          Secondary

  Cleveland Southerly   Secondary
  Cuyahoga Falls        Secondary

  Independence          Minor
  Kent                  Secondary*
  Mantua                Secondary*
  Maple Hts.            Secondary*
  Middlefield           Primary
  Munroe Falls          Minor*
  Northfield            Secondary
  Oakwood               Primary*
  Oakwood               Minor*
  Ravenna               Secondary
  Sagamore Hills        Minor
                  Connect to metro system
                  Sewers & connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Discharge outfall to Lake Erie
                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Sewers & connect to metro system
                  Sewers package plant & connect to
                    metro system
                  Sewers & connect to metro system
                  Sewers package plant & connect to
                    metro system
                  Sewers package plant & connect to
                    metro system

                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Advanced waste treatment
                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system

                  Advanced waste treatment
                  Connect to metro system

                  Sewers & connect to metro system
                  Expansion
                  Expansion
                  Connect to metro system
                  Expansion
                  Sewers & connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Connect to metro system
                  Sewers & connect to metro system
                  Advanced waste treatment
                  Sewers package plant d. connect to
                    metro system
*Works under construction, but may not meet criteria proposed
                                    1-21                             JUN 2 8 1967

-------
                           TABLE 1-4 (concluded)

                      MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

                       GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
Municipality
 Present
Treatment
         Plant Needs
Cuyahoga River Basin
  Sawyerwood             Minor
  Solon                  Secondary
  Tallmadge              Secondary
  Twinsburg              Secondary
  Valley View            Minor
  County Districts
    Brecksville SD 13    Secondary

    Northeast SD 1       Secondary
    Northeast SD 6       Secondary
    Northeast SD 15      Secondary
    Seven Hills SD 2     Secondary
                 Sewers & connect to metro system
                 Connect to metro system
                 Connect to metro system
                 Connect to metro system
                 Sewers & connect to metro system

                 Connect to metro system
                 Connect
                 Connect
                 Connect
                 Connect
        to metro system
        to metro system
        to metro system
        to metro system
    Stow Twp SD 4
    Walton Hills SD 20

Chagrin River Basin
  Aurora
  Chagrin Falls
  Pepper Pike
  County Districts
    Chester Twp. SD 1 &

    Richmond Heights

Direct to Lake Erie
  Cleveland Easterly
  Cleveland Westerly
  Euclid

  Willoughby-Eastlake
  County Districts
    Rocky River SD 6
Primary*
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary

Secondary
Secondary
Primary
Intermediate

Intermediate

Intermediate
Sewers & connect to metro system
Connect to metro system
Connect to metro system
Connect to metro system
Connect to metro system
Connect to metro system
Connect to metro system
Expansion & extend outfall
Secondary & disinfection
Secondary & disinfection

Secondary & disinfection

Secondary & disinfection
*Works under construction, but may not meet criteria proposed

                                  1-22                                JUN  28  1967

-------
                   MUNICIPAL NEEDS
               H - MXTMOPOLrTAN PLANT
               t - KCONOMT TK1TIKNT
                 WPttOVEUCNTS
                 i*ro Ntto
                 I»K> NCCD
                 IOM WED
            WJMCTU. PLANTS SHOULD x*tl »% fwvious T«»r«t«r ir
            . M.U EFrutKNTS SHOULD K DBMFECTEO TO LEVELS NOT TO
          EXCEED IOOO COLIFORU tACTEMIA/OOml.
MAJOR MUNICIPAL  AND INDUSTRIAL
     WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
 GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON  AND
    NORTHEASTERN OHIO AREAS

-------
                               TABLE 1-5

          MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR NORTHEASTERN OHIO
Sewerage
Service Area
 Present
Treatment
   1960
Population
  Served
                    Plant  Needs
Grand River
  Fairport


  Painesville


  Chardon

  Jefferson

  Painesville -
    Northeast
Primary


Secondary

Secondary

Septic Tanks
  Grand River     Septic Tanks


  Orwell          Septic Tanks

Conneaut Creek
  Conneaut
  Lakeville
Primary
Septic Tanks
  Albion          Secondary

  Springboro      Septic Tanks

  Conneautville   Septic Tanks

Small Tributaries
Intermediate     4,267   Secondary (Metropolitan system
16,116


 3,154

 2,116

 1,265
 10,557


  A,180


  1,630

    583

 " 1,200
                                         ^/
          Secondary (Metropolitan system/*'
            1)

          Expansion and Disinfection

          Expansion and Disinfection

          Collection system and Secondary
                   477   Collection system and Secondary
                           (Metropolitan system/v 1)
                             1/0"- ^ I1 i
                             I    «
                   819   Collection system and Secondary
         Secondary (Metropolitan system-'-
           2)

         Collection system and Secondary
           (Metropolitan system ,/V 2)
                         Expansion

                         Collection system and Secondary

                         Collection system and Secondary
  Madison
Secondary
   1,347   Expansion and-Disinfection*
  North           Septic Tanks
    Kingsville
Direct-to-Lake
  Ashtabula
 Intermediate
  Lake County     Primary
    SD #1 Madison

  Lake County SD  Intermediate
    Willoughby-
    Mentor
   1,854   Collection  system and Secondary



  28,738   Secondary

   6,000   Secondary


          Secondary
 * - New plant to be in operation summer 1967,
                               1^-23
                                                  JUN2M967'

-------
Pennsylvania and New York Areas

      The area of coverage for this Lake Erie comprehensive report includes
the Buffalo River.

      In New York State, the Erie-Niagara Basin is being actively studied
by the Erie-Niagara Water Resources Regional Planning and Development Board.
This board was set up under article 5 of the New York State Conservation
Law. Its purpose is to facilitate water resources planning on a basin basis.
Also, county-wide comprehensive sewerage studies are under way in the New
York counties of Erie and Niagara. These studies are being conducted under
Section 1263-a of the New York State Public Health Law and are supported by
1007o state grants.

      At Erie, Pa. the greatest need is for large scale expansion of the
existing secondary treatment facilities to accept the pretreated waste from
the Hammermill Paper Company and achieve an overall BOD and phosphorus re-
moval of 90%.

      A metropolitan system should be established for the Dunkirk-Fredonia
area. This will require a secondary treatment plant in Dunkirk with dis-
charge to Lake Erie.

      At Gowanda, N. Y. there is need for a tertiary treatment plant of
sufficient capacity to accept the pretreated waste discharged by the Moench
Tannery and the Peter Cooper Glue Works.

      The greatest need in the Buffalo area is for a long-range, area-wide
master sewer and treatment plan. This plan would cover the entire Niagara
Frontier area as well as the drainage to the Buffalo River and other tribu-
taries to Lake Erie.

      Many small treatment plants dot the area, especially in the suburbs
surrounding the large cities. Any long range plan should call for phasing
out these small plants and connecting to a large municipal system. Also,
the plan should consider intercepting of most of the municipal waste drain-
age in the Buffalo River watershed, including the area as far down the lake
as the city of Blasdell. Centralized treatment should be provided at an ex-
panded secondary treatment plant at Buffalo. The plan should also consider
intercepting the municipal waste drainage of Eighteenmile Creek with cen-
tralized treatment at the mouth of the creek on the lake. An entirely new
secondary treatment plant would have to be built here.

      There are approximately 14 major municipal sewerage facilities that
discharge to the Lake Erie watershed from the Greater Buffalo area. Of
these, six provide some form of secondary waste treatment. Fifteen major
municipal sewage plants discharge partially treated effluents to the water-
shed in the rest of the basin. Four of these plants provide some form of
secondary treatment.

      The immediate goal in the treatment of municipal wastes is the pro-
vision for at least secondary treatment. Such treatment provides 90 percent
BOD5 removal and is considered adequate in the lakefront communities. To
regain the desired water quality, tertiary or advanced treatment must be


                                   1-24

-------
                             TABLE 1-6
MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA AREAS
Municipality
 Present
Treatment
Plant Needs
Blasdell (V)
Cheektowage SD3 (T)
Depew (V)
Eden (T)
Hamburg (V)
Hamburg (Woodlawn)
Hamburg (Mt. Vernon)
Hamburg (Wanakah)
Hamburg (Master)
Holland (T)
Lackawanna (C)
Lancaster (V)
West Seneca SD 6 (T)
Erie County SD 2
East Aurora
Arcade
Gowanda
Gowanda State Hosp.
Dunkirk
Fredonia
Springville
Angola
North Collins
Westfield
Brocton
Ripley
Derby
Cattaraugus
Erie, Pa.

Girard, Pa.
Lake City, Pa.
 Secondary
 Secondary
 Primary
 Septic Tanks
 Secondary
 Secondary
 Primary
 Primary
 Primary
 Septic Tanks
 Primary
 Secondary
 Primary
 Secondary
 Secondary
 Secondary
 Primary
 Primary
 Primary   \
 Secondary J
 Primary
 Septic Tanks
 Secondary
 Secondary
 Septic Tanks
 Primary
 Septic Tanks
 Septic Tanks
 Secondary

 Intermediate
 Secondary
Connect to Buffalo metro
Connect to Buffalo metro
Connect to Buffalo metro
Sewers and Advanced Waste Treatment
Advanced Waste Treatment
Ex pansion
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Sewers & Advanced Waste Treatment
Connect to Buffalo metro
Connect to Buffalo metro
Connect to Buffalo metro
Expansion
Advanced Waste Treatment
Advanced Waste Treatment
Advanced Waste Treatment
Secondary
Integrate into one
  secondary plant
Secondary
Sewers and Advanced Waste Treatment
Advanced Waste Treatment*
Advanced Waste Treatment*
Sewers and Advanced Waste Treatment*
Advanced Waste Treatment*
Sewers and Advanced Waste Treatment*
Sewers and Advanced Waste Treatment*
Expansion and Collection for Un-
  sewered Areas
Secondary
Secondary Improvements
* Secondary if discharged to the lake
                                   1-25

-------
constructed in most inland areas. Adequate effluent disinfection is con-
sidered to be a necessity in the study area--particularly where recreational
use of the receiving waters is prevalent or desired. There is also a major
present need for increased phosphorus removal. Municipal waste treatment con-
struction needs for the major communities of the area are given in Table 1-6,
and illustrated in Figure 1-fr. The construction cost of the recommended im-
mediate municipal needs for Pennsylvania and New York is $45 million, with an
annual expenditure after 1971 of $3.5 million needed to maintain high quality
water in the face of population growth.


                     INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

      Industries in the Lake Erie basin insist that, for the most part, fierce
competition with similar industries elsewhere in the nation prevent them from
voluntarily installing additional waste abatement facilities. In general,
only through regulatory agency action have industries installed present treat-
ment facilities. In many cases industry is unwilling to provide facilities
because it is entirely unprofitable, and since there is no outside source of
finance to offset this loss, they continue to pollute. There is a pressing
need for nationwide regulation to make pollution requirements uniform through-
out the United States, so that industry cannot use  less rigid requirements
in some other location as an excuse to move. Establishing water quality stan-
dards for interstate streams will improve this situation.

      Industry is also often reluctant to install abatement equipment be-
cause of the lack of assurance that the planned program will solve the prob-
lem. If the operations do not work satisfactorily (as is often the case be-
cause of their frequently experimental nature) the  industry has lost a great
deal of money. Demonstration grants for control of  industrial wastes will
partially help to solve this problem.

      Wherever feasible, industries are encouraged  to connect to municipal
plants after they have provided suitable pretreatment of waste. In this way,
overall waste treatment can be improved and financial gains will result be-
cause the city could qualify for an increased federal construction grant.

      Perhaps the best way to control industrial discharges is by in-plant
process changes to prevent or lessen the original waste products. Industrial
incentives are needed to encourage this type of abatement.

      The industries that discharge significant waste products into the Lake
Erie basin are the heavy chemical, steel, paper, and oil -induetries.

      All industries should abide by the following  general effluent require-
ments for waste constituents to protect and enhance Lake Erie water quality.
Furthermore, no outfall discharging to public waters should exceed these
levels at any time, nor should it be construed that industry will be per-
mitted to redesign sewer systems in order to meet these levels without re-
ducing its overall flow of waste constituents.

           Suspended Solids                  35 mg/1

           Biochemical Oxygen Demand         30 mg/1


                                   E-Z6

-------
C
73
                                                                                                    ^(BUFFALO
                                                          FNOTE: ALL MUMCWL PLANTS SHOU.O H*I 92% PHOSPHORUS
                                                               TREATMENT BY 1970, ALL IFFUJENTS SHOULD BE
                                                               MSffECTEO TO LEVELS NOT TO EXCEED WOO
                                                               COLFORM BACTERIA /KX)ml.
                                                                                                            D
                                                                                                            O
                                                                                                            O
               MUNICIPAL NEEDS
           METROPOLITAN PLANT
           SECONDARY TREATMENT
           TERTIARY TREATMENT
           COLLECTION SYSTEM
           CONNECT TO METROPOLITAN PLANT
           EXPANSION
           •^MOVEMENTS

           l»70 NEED

           M90 NEED

           2020 NEED
                                                        INDUSTRIES NEEDING  IMPROVEMENTS

                                                       cO    d)    6     a    o
                                                       ON.
                                                             QCMCAL SLUE WORKS PAPER   STEEL
                                                                   a TANNERY
MAJOR  MUNICIPAL  AND  INDUSTRIAL
     WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
 PENNSYLVANIA 8 NEW YORK AREAS

-------
           Oil                               5 mg/1

           Iron                              17 mg/1

           Phenol                            0.050 mg/1

           Heavy metals and CN (toxic)       0.03 mg/1 each

           Coliform bacteria                 1000 MPN/100 ml

           pH                                Between 5.5 and 10.6

      Industries which are already below these levels should not be permitted
to increase their waste discharges to the maximum values, but should be re-
quired to maintain their concentrations at existing levels, or, if possible,
to decrease their discharges.

      Dissolved solids are not covered in the preceding recommendations be-
cause information is scarce on practical methods to control them. Their con-
centrations are increasing in Lake Erie, however, and unless something is
done to halt their increase, the levels will continue to rise as cities and
industries expand. With this in mind, industries should be required to main-
tain the flow of dissolved solids from their factories at the present level
of discharge, or to decrease this discharge. Industry itself is in the best
position to arrive at a solution whereby this may be achieved.

      In regard to oil, it is recognized that often the allowable effluent
level of 5 mg/1 will not prevent an oil film from appearing on the surface
of the water. Where a film is noticeable, the oil discharged should be re-
duced below the level of 5 mg/1 to the extent that the oil film does not
appear.

      Specific industrial waste treatment needs will be discussed separately
for each basin draining to the lake.

Southeast Michigan Area

      More than 90 individual industries in this area discharge in excess of
one billion gallons of wastewater each day. Some effluents contain no signifi-
cant concentrations of contaminants, while some are grossly polluted with
waste material.

      The following is a summary of the adequacy of these treatment facili-
ties rated by the Michigan Water Resources Commission:

           Adequate treatment - 42
           Inadequate treatment - 22
           Unreliable treatment - 9
           Adequacy not established - 18
           Need not established - 1

      Most of the industries with inadequate treatment in the Detroit fed-
eral-state enforcement conference area are currently under stipulations for


                                   1-27

-------
improvements in treatment.  These industries and the pollution requirements
are shown in Table 1-7.  This table also includes the municipal waste require-
ments covered in the stipulations.

     Table 1-8 is a summary of the industrial waste treatment needs for
Southeast Michigan.  The cost of construction of these facilities is estimated
at $85 million.


Maumee River Basin and North-Central Ohio Areas

     Ninety-five industries have been placed under the permit system in the
Maumee River Basin and North-Central Ohio areas.  According to the State of
Ohio, 58 have adequate treatment facilities and the remaining 37 are causing
pollution problems.  Also, an industry in Indiana is listed as causing problems.

     As with domestic wastes, industrial wastes require a very high degree
of treatment in this region in order to provide suitable stream conditions.
Most industries in the basin are aware of the acute problems caused by their
wastes and have programs which, when put into effect, will all but eliminate
their waste problems.  (For example, Sohio at Lima is spending more than a
million dollars a year for operating costs of its treatment facilities.)

     Besides BOD, the main industrial problems are caused by oils, phenols,
ammonia, and solids.  The waste discharge loadings from severaLofthe industries
listed are small, but due to the extremely low flows in many areas of the basin,
these loadings are quite  important.  The cost of industrial waste abatement is
estimated at $30 million.  Table 1-9 lists the immediate industrial waste
treatment needs for the Northwest Ohio area.
Greater Cleveland-Akron Area

     Table 1-10 lists the immediate industrial waste treatment needs for this
area.  The cost of construction of these facilities is estimated to be $90
million.  The waste discharge from several of the industries listed are small,
but are important due to the extremely low flows in several parts of the area,
The major industrial pollution materials which enter the area's waters are:
solids, toxic materials, complex organic compounds, iron, acid, oil, heat, and
color.

     More efficient in-plant controls for reducing the volume of wastes to
be treated should be instituted,  yaste storage facilities and standby treat-
ment units should be installed to permit normal maintenance work on treatment
facilities; to prevent by-passing; and to prevent accidental spills and leakages
from entering the area's waterways.  Industrial wastes should be discharged  to
municipal sewage systems whenever adequate treatment can be provided by the
sewage .plant.


Northeast Ohio Area
                                   1-28

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I
N>
\O
                                                           o
                                                   TABLE  1  ,
                      SUMMARY OF MICHIGAN RESOURCES  COMMISSION STIPULATION FOR INDUSTRIAL POLLUTERS
Municipalities
and Industries
Allied Chem.Corp.
Semet-Solvay Div.
Solvay Process
E. I. duPont de «>
Nemours & Co.
Time Container Corp.
Monroe Paper Prod.
Scott Paper Co.
Consolidated Pack-
aging Coi. No. Plant
So. Plant
Ford Motor Co.
Monroe Plant
Union- Bag- Camp Co.
Susp. Solids
mg/1 Ib/day
-

30
•_ -

35 650

30
35 2,200

35 2,100

-
35 1,350
Tot.
Coli.
Sol. Phos. Phenols Oil BOD MPN
(as PO^)
Ib/day g/1 Ib/day mg/1 mg/1 Ib/day
(1)

2 _ ..
_ _ - - _ . -

300 1000

31,000
2,400 1000

1,500 1000

200 15 - 1000
2,500 1000
Constr.
Cotnple.
Date
4/1/67

4/1/68
4/1/67

1/1/69

11/1/68
1/1/69

1/1/69

1/1/68
1/1/69
    (1)  The  effluent should not contain oil in amounts  sufficient to create a visible film on  the surface waters
         of  the State.

            M    •_«•« * •* jt j-J
           & r -?   f, $r*    "** ••                                                         -

-------
Municipalities
and Industries
Susp.
mg/1
Solids
Ib/day
    TABLE 1-7 
-------
                                                   TABLE  1-7  contd.
                                                                                                                o
u>
Municipalities
and Industries
City of Riverview
City of Trenton
Grosse Isle Twp.
(formerly Wayne
Co.)
City of Monroe
Great Lakes Steel
Blast FurnaceDiv.
Strip Mill
Ecorse Plant
Susp.
mg/1
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
Solids
Ib/day
470
935
500
1200
-
Sol.Phos.
(as P04>
Ib/day
35
138
20
128
-
Phenols
8/1 Ib/day
0.2
5
1
-
180
Oil
mg/1
15
15
15
-
15
15
15
BOD
mg/1 Ib/day
920
1840
980
350
-
Tot.
Coli.
MPN
1000
1000
1000
1000
-
Constr.
Comple.
Date
11/1/70
11/1/70
11/1/70
5/1/69
4/1/68
4/1/68
4/1/68
       Ford Motor  Co.(Rouge)  50
70
15
4/1/69

-------
                                     TABLE 1-8

            INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
Location
     Needs
ST. GLAIR RIVER BASIN
  Black River
  Michigan Milk Producers Assn.  Peck

  Port Huron Paper Co.           Port Huron

  Belle River

  Michigan Milk Producers Assn.  Inlay City
  Vlasic Food Products Co.


LAKE ST.CLAIR BASIN

  Clinton River

  Briggs Manufacturing Co.
  Chrysler Corp.
    Midhigan Missile Plant
  Ford Motor Co.
    Chassis Parts
 Inlay City
 Sterling T,
 Sterling T.
 Sterling T.
  TRW, Inc.                      ,
    Thompson Products,Mich.Div.  Sterling T.
LAKE ERIE BASIN

  Huron River
  General Motors Corp.
    Fisher Body Div.
Huron Valley Steel Corp,

Longworth Plating Co.

Peninsular Paper Co.

River Raisin
Buckeye Products Corp.
Dundee Cement Co.
Simplex Paper Corp.
 Willow Run
  Belleville


  Chelsea
  Ypsilanti


  Adrian

  Dundee
  Palmyra
       1-32
                 Establish treatment needs

                 Establish adequacy of treatment
Establish adequacy of
  treatment (Irrigation)  '.

Establish adequacy of
  treatment (holding ponds)
Establish adequacy of
  treatment (lagoon)
Establish adequacy of
  treatment (lagoons)
Establish adequacy of
  treatment for oil and
  sanitary wastes
                 Improve reliability of
                    treatment of oil wastes
                 Establish adequacy of
                    treatment of sanitary wastes
Establish adequacy of
  treatment  (coagulation
  & lagoon)

Improve treatment (solids
  in wastewater)^

Establish adequacy of treatment
Improve treatment


Establish adequacy of treatment

Improve treatment reliability
Establish adequacy of treatment

-------
                                   TABLE 1-9

                INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR THE MAUMEE

                   RIVER BASIN AND NORTH-CENTRAL OHIO AREAS
     Industry
Location
   Control Measures
        Needed
Toledo Edison

Gulf Oil Company
Sun Oil Company
Pure Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
Libbey-Owens-Ford
Interlake Iron
Johns-Manvilie Company
Campbell Soup Company
Central Foundry (Div..GM)
S.K. Wayne Tool Co.
    Weatherhead Corporation
    International Harvester
    Franke Plating Works ,
    General Plating
    Parrot Packing Co. y
    Hayes Industry -
      Decorative Division
    Ohio Decorative Products
Buckeye Sugar
National Refinery
   (Ashland Oil)
Rusco Inc.
Excello Corporation
Ford Motor Company
Republic Creosote
Standard Oil Company
  Refinery
  Chemical
  Petrochemical
  Lower Maumee

Toledo, Ohio

Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Waterville, Ohio
Napoleon, Ohio
Defiance, Ohio
Defiance, Ohio

  Upper Maumee
Antwerp, Ohio
Ft. Wayne, Indiana
Ft. Wayne, Indiana
Ft. Wayne, Indiana
Ft. Wayne, Indiana

  Auglaize

Spencerville, Ohio

Spencerville, Ohio

  Blanchard
Ottawa, Ohio
Findlay, Ohio

Pandora, Ohio
                                  Ottawa
 Lima, Ohio
 Lima, Ohio
 Lima, Ohio

 Lima, Ohio
 Lima, Ohio
 Lima, Ohio
General Control Measures
&. Improvements
COD, Oil
Solids
Oil, COD, and Phenols
Phenols, Oil, COD
Oil, Solids, Color
Phenols, Solids
Solids, BOD, Phenol
BOD
Solids, BOD
General Control Measures
Oils and Solids
Oils, solids, heavy metals
Cyanides, heavy metals
Chrome and acid treatment
BOD
Solids

Solids, Housekeeping


BOD
Oil, General Housekeeping

Oil, Solids, Secondary
Treatment of sewage
General Housekeeping
Oil
Phenol

Evaluate  completed  improvements
Ammonia
Evaluate  completed  improvement!
                                     1-33

-------
                                TABLE 1-9 (cont)
      Industry
Location
Control Measures
     Needed
Edgerton Metal Products

Kitchen Quip, Inc.

Borg-Warner,  Inc.
  St. Joseph
Edgerton, Ohio

Waterloo, Indiana

Auburn, Indiana
Chrome treatment, acid
neutralization
Chrome treatment, acid
neutralization
Chrome treatment, acid
neutralization
Weston Paper
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
Beatrice Foods Co.
Essex Wire Company
Dana Corporation
Foster Duck Farm
Agrico Chemical Co.
Hirzel Canning Co.
G. E. Lamp Plant #242
Central Soya
Bechtel-McLaughlin, Inc.
Lake Erie Cannery Co.
Muskalonge View Dairy
Northern Ohio Sugar Co.
Seneca Wire & Mfg. Co.
Swift & Co.
Pioneer Rubber Co.
Pa. R.R.
NASA Plum Brook
U. S. Gypsum Co.
  St. Marys

St. Marys, Ohio
St. Marys, Ohio
St. Marys, Ohio
Fort Wayne, Ind.

  Tenmile Creek

Toledo, Ohio

  Portage River
Allen Township
Pemberville, Ohio

  Sandusky River

Bellevue, Ohio
Bellevue, Ohio
Sandusky, Ohio
Sandusky, Ohio
Fremont, Ohio
Fremont, Ohio
Fostoria, Ohio
Fostoria, Ohio
Attica, Ohio
Crestline, Ohio
Sandusky, Ohio
Gypsum, Ohio

  Huron River
BOD
General Housekeeping
General Housekeeping
Phenol
Oil



BOD

BOD
BOD
Oil
Acids, chrome, solids
BOD
BOD
BOD
Metals, solids
BOD, oil", color
BOD, rubber
Oil
BOD
BOD
Clevite Corp.
B & 0 R.R.
Milan, Ohio
Willard, Ohio
Acids, metals, solids
Oil
U. S. Steel Corp. '
CEI
Republic Steel
Ternstedt Div. GM Corp.
Buckeye Pipeline
  Black River

Lorain, Ohio
Avon Lake, Ohio
Elyria, Ohio
Elyria, Ohio

    1-34
Solids, Oil, phenols, Fe
Solids
Solids, Oil, phenols, Fe
CN, chrome
Oil

-------
                              TABLE 1-10

        INDUSTRIAL WASTE NEEDS FOR GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
Industry
Location
Control Measure Needed
Cuyahoga River
  Republic Steel
  U. S. Steel
  E. I. DuPont
  Jones &. Laughlin
  Harshaw Chemical
  Ford Motor Co.
  E. W. Ferry Screw
  Cuyahoga Meat
  Bailey Wall Paper
  Burdett Oxygen
  Master Anodizers
  Owens-Illinois Glass
    Co., Mill Div.
  Cornwell Tools
  S. K. Wellman, Division
    American Brake Shoe Co.
  Ferro Chemical, Division
    Ferro Corp.
  Zirconium Corp. of America
  Diamond Crystal Salt Co.
  Firestone Tire & Rubber
  General Tire & Rubber
  B. F. Goodrich Co.
  Goodyear Tire & Rubber

  Sunoco
  Lamson & Sessions Co.
  Smallwood Packing Co.
Cleveland
Cleveland
Cleveland
Cleveland
Cleveland
Brook Park
Brook Park
Cleveland
Cleveland
Cleveland
Bedford
Northfield

Mogadore
Bedford

Bedford

Solon
Akron
Akron
Akron
Akron
Akron

Munroe Falls
Kent
Middlefield
Rocky River
  Astoria Plating Corp.      Cleveland
  Allison Division General   Hinckley
    Motors Corp., Testing Area
Chagrin River
  Chase Bag Co.
Solids, Iron, Oil, Ammonia, Acids
Solids, Iron, Oil, Acids
Solids, Zinc
Solids, Iron, Oil, Acids
Solids, Fluorides, Heavy Metals, Acids
Oil
Heavy Metals, Oil, Others*
BOD, Others*
Color, BOD, Others*
Others*
Heavy Metals, Cyanide
Others*

Heavy Metals, Cyanide
Heavy Metals, Cyanide

Heavy Metals

Solids, Chlorides
Solids, Chlorides
Solids, Others*, Oil
Solids, Others*, Oil
Solids, Others*, Oil
Heavy Metals, Solids, Cyanides,
Others*, Oil
BOD
Solids, Oil
BOD, Oil, Others*


Heavy Metals, Color, Cyanide
Solids
Chagrin Falls   Color, Solids, BOD
Lakefront
  Cleveland Municipal
   Light Plant
  Cleveland Electric
    Illuminating Co.
     Eastlake Plant
     Lakeshore Plant
Cleveland       Bottom & Fly Ash, Heat
Eastlake        Bottom & Fly Ash, Heat
Cleveland       Bottom & Fly Ash, Heat
* Presently do not report materials in waste outfall.
                                    1-35

-------
     The principal industrial waste problem of Northeast Ohio is related
to the disposition of soluble chemicals.  These chemicals are not removed
by the usual biological waste treatment methods.   The most logical possible
solutions for their removal include evaporation,  recovery and utilization
in the form of some marketable product, deep-well disposal, and in-plant
control through process change, conservation of materials, good housekeeping,
and source control.  Other industrial waste problems involve settleable
materials and organic waste loads, and are amenable to treatment by established
methods using equipment and procedures that are readily available.

     Expenditures necessary to abate industrial pollution in this area will
depend upon control measures 'adopted by the industries involved.  An esti-
mated cost of $15 million is based on the experiences of other industries
which have utilized deep-well injection into sub-surface strata containing
highly mineralized waters, unsuitable for water supplies and unlikely to be
used for any purpose except the extraction of useful minerals.

     Industrial waste treatment needs for Northeast Ohio are given in Table
1-11.
Pennsylvania-New York Area

     The principal industrial waste treatment needs for this area are
control of steel, chemical and oil wastes in the Buffalo River, control of
wastes from a glue works and tannery at Gowanda, New York, and treatment
or control of pulp and paper wastes at Erie, Pennsylvania.

     In this area, even though the industries are few in number, their
waste volumes are large.  Bethlehem Steel at Lackawanna, New York discharges
the-largest volume of waste products of any industry in the Lake Erie water-
shed and Hammermill Paper Company at Erie, Pennsylvania is the largest waste
producer of the paper companies in the Lake Erie basin.  The answer to Ham-
mermill 's problem is to discharge pretreated wastes to the Erie, Pennsylvania
sewage treatment plant.

     At the Bethlehem plant, a special problem results from the disposal of
refuse slag in Lake Erie.  As a long-range solution, it is recommended that
Bethlehem Steel use the slag to build a dike along the entire waterfront
area of the plant, enclosing the area around Smokes Creek and South Ditch
for a large final treatment lagoon.  This lagoon should not replace treatment
facilities planned or under construction within the plant, but should serve
as an effluent polishing device and as emergency treatment in case of spills
or equipment breakdown.  The outer wall of the dike should be reinforced with
riprap to prevent erosion.

     The most obvious pollution problem in this area and perhaps one of the
most well-known and appalling in the nation occurs in the Buffalo River. It
is partly caused by industrial wastes.  The river, already heavily polluted
and stagnant from upstream sewage discharges, receives massive outfalls of
                                   1-36

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                                 TABLE 1-11

             INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR NORTHEAST OHIO
Industry by Subbasin
 Location
Control Measures Needed
GRAND RIVER BASIN
Calhio Chemical, Inc.
Diamond Alkali Co.

U. S. Rubber Co. - Uniroyal
A. E. Staley Manufacturing Co,

ASHTABULA RIVER BASIN
Cabot Titania Corp.
  Titanium Dioxide Plant

Cabot Titania Corp.
  Titanium Tetrachloride Pit.

Detrex Chemical Industries,
  Inc. Chlorinated Solvents

Diamond Alkali Co.
  Semi-Works

General Tire & Rubber Co.
  Chemical Division

Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp.
  TDI Facility

Reactive Metals, Inc.
  Metals Reduction Plant

Reactive Metals, Inc.
  Sodium & Chlorine Plant

CONNEAUT CREEK BASIN

Albro Packing Co.

SMALL TRIBUTARIES
True Temper

DIRECT TO LAKE
Midland Ross Corp.
  IRC Fibers Division

Cleveland Electric
  Illuminating Co.

Detrex Chemical Ind. Inc.
  Chlorine-Alkali Plant
 Perry
 Painesville

 Painesville
.Grand  River
 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula
 Springboro


 Geneva


 Painesville


 Ashtabula


 Ashtabula
Solids, chlorides
Solids, chlorides, ammonia,
phenol, color
Solids
BOD, oils, solids, & connect
 'to city sewers

Solids, chlorides, color,pH
Solids, chlorides, pH
COD, solids, chlorides, pH
COD, solids, chlorides
Solids
Solids
Solids, chlorides, pH
Solids, pH
BOD, solids, and connect
  to city sewers

Oils, solids
Color, oils, solids,
chlorides, zinc, BOD

Fly and bottom ash
Solids, chlorides
                                  1-37
                                        ?•§

-------
                                TABLE 1-11  (cont.)

            INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR NORTHEAST OHIO
Industry by Subbasin
Location
Control Measures Needed
Union Carbide Corp.
  Linde Division

Union Carbide Corp.
  Metals Division
Ashtabu la


Ashtabula
Solids
Solids
                                  1-38
                                                                  JUK

-------
industrial waste from Republic Steel, Donner Hanna Coke, Mobil Oil, and
Allied Chemical just before emptying into Lake Erie.

     Expenditures necessary to abate industrial pollution in this area
are estimated at $35 million.  Industrial waste treatment needs for
Pennsylvania and New York are given in Table 1-12.
                             ALTERNATIVES
     The pollution abatement program presented in this report represents
the best solutions to the water quality problems of the Lake Erie Basin
based on present known technology.  It is not, however, either a final
Xor a maximum solution.  Other pollution control possibilities exist and
more will become evident as technology and knowledge of the lake advance.

     The most obvious alternative is simply to allow quality to deteriorate,
with only enough waste treatment provided to avert a public nuisance.  The
next most obvious solution is to maintain the status quo---let water quality
get no worse and no better.

     More acceptable alternatives that deserve mention, although they do
not fit into the desired plan of this report, include:

     1.  Instream reaeration in reaches suffering from lack of DO.

     2.  Mid-lake reaeration within the period of summer  thermocline formation
         to break up the thermocline and allow the lake waters to mix.

     3.  Provisions for flow augmentation at many locations.

     4.  Diversion of water from the Hudson Bay drainage  system into the
         Great Lakes.

     5.  Dredging of the entire bottom of Lake tErie.

     6.  Building a pipeline around Lake Erie and treating municipal and
         industrial wastes at the outlet of the lake.

     Each of the possibilities will be discussed separately in this section.
In addition, methods for abating pollution from combined  sewer overflow which
have been proposed, or are being studied, will be discussed here.

     Instream reaeration is obvious where dissolved oxygen concentrations
in the stream are less than those demanded by uses.  By reaerating the watery-
it is possible to maintain a higher DO level under circumstances where the
process of waste assimilation is continuing and would otherwise result in
oxygen depletion.  Unlike flow augmentation and waste treatment, reaeration
is specific in its operation.  Its benefits extend only to dissolved oxygen,
whereas waste treatment and flow augmentation provide multiple benefits.
                                    1-39

-------
c
                          TABLE 1-12

INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS FOR PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW YORK
          Industry
                        Location
Control Measures Needed
          Allied Chemical, Buffalo Dye

          Bethlehem Steel

          Donner Hanna Coke
          General Mills

          Mobil Oil
          Lehigh Cement
          Pennsylvania Railroad
          Pillsbury

          Republic Steel
          Silver Creek Preserving Co.

          Moench Tannery Co.

          Peter Cooper Glue Works

          Gunnison Brothers

          Hammermill Paper Company
          Welch Grape Juice
          Seneca Westfield Maid
          Growers Coop Grape Juice
          Welch Grape Juice
          Pro-Canners Coop
          Gro-Packers Coop
          Allegheny-Ludlum Steel
          Niagara Mohawk
          Hanna Furnace
          Symington Wayne
                        Buffalo

                        Lackawanna

                        Buffalo
                        Buffalo

                        Buffalo
                        Buffalo
                        West Seneca
                        Buffalo

                        Buffalo
                        Cattaraugus Indian
                        Reservation
                        Gowanda

                        Gowanda

                        Girard Township,Pa.

                        Erie, Pa.
                        Westfield,  N.Y.
                        Westfield,  N.Y.
                        Westfield,  N.Y.
                        Brocton,  N.Y.
                        North Collins
                        North Collims
                        Dunkirk,  N.Y.
                        Dunkirk,  N.Y.
                        Buffalo,  N.Y.
                        Depew,  N.Y.
Color, solids, BOD, acid,
phenol
Oil, CN, phenol, solids
color, ammonia, acid, iron
Oil, phenol, BOD
Sewage & connect to Buffalo
metro
Oil, phenol
Solids
Oil
Sewage & connect to Buffalo
metro
Oil, solids, color, acid, iron
Solids, color, oil

BOD, solids, connect to
Gowanda STP
BOD, solids, connect to
Gowanda STP
Tertiary treatment for removal
of BOD and solids
Secondary treatment for re-
moval of BOD, color, foam,
and taste and odor, connect
to Erie, Pa. STP
Connect to city sewers
Connect to city sewers
Connect to city sewers
Connect to city sewers
Connect to city sewers
Connect to city sewers
Solids, oil, acids
Solids
Solids
Oil, BOD & Color
                                              1-40

-------
     Except for a few local areas, serious DO depletions occur most frequently
at the mouths of major tributaries where navigational channels have been built.
Reaeration could be accomplished at these locations by installation of mechanical
devices to induce turbulence and force oxygen into solution with the water.  The
stream reaches requiring this extend for several miles.  Because of the sluggish-
ness of these reaches, it would be necessary to reaerate practically the entire
stretch of stream.  Attempts to employ this method of stream pollution control
have met with only limited success in other parts of the country.  At best,
instream reaeration should follow high-level waste treatment as an emergency
measure or last step and should never be used to take the place of treatment
at the source.

     The only location in the watershed where a possibility exists for using
this alternative with success is the Ottawa River below Lima, Ohio.  After
was,te treatment facilities have been installed by the city and the Standard
Oil Company, reaeration should be employed if the DO in the river still falls
below desired levels

     Because of the limited success and disappointing results of instream
reaeration elsewhere, its narrow benefits, and its questionable application
to the Lake Erie watershed, it is not considered generally in the overall
recommendations of this report.

     Mid-Lake reaeration is being used experimentally in a few locations
in this country not so much to increase the DO of the hypolimnion but as a
means of breaking up the thermocline.  In the summer months, mid-Lake Erie
suffers from lack of DO in the hypolimnion; this leads to many of the lake's
problems.  If the lake waters could be mixed in such a way to prevent formation
of the thermocline, overall water quality conditions would improve.  This idea
is strictly experimental, but is worthy of an attempt in Lake Erie.  Even this
method, if it works, should in no way take the place of the best waste treat-
ment tributaries.

     Flow augmentation through construction of multipurpose reservoirs appears
beneficial to water quality control at three locations in the Lake Erie water-
shed; namely, the Huron River in Michigan,Sandusky River in Ohio, and Cat-
taraugus Creek in New York.  Primarily because of the geologic nature of the
basin, other areas are not suitable for this alternative.  The watersheds of
the western end of the lake are extremely flat, and the watersheds at the eastern
end are small,  Low flow augmentation would prove beneficial only to tributary
waters; it would not benefit the lake.

     The areas of worst pollution are at the mouths of tributaries.  Sustained
flows during dry periods would not be sufficient to benefit the water quality
in these areas.  One possibility does exist, however, for using  low flow aug-
mentation to improve water quality at the tributary mouths.  Once all treatment
has been provided by industries and municipalities, it would be  possible to
pump lake water to the uppermost end of the navigational channel, or further,
if economics and the pollution nature of the stream warrant such extensions.
Thi's would provide a means to keep the sluggish waters moving during dry weather
to prevent a buildup of pollutants.
                                      1-41

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     Areas where this approach appears feasible are the lower reaches of
the Rouge, Raisin, Cuyahoga, and Buffalo Rivers.  It is already being
practiced in the Buffalo River with recirculation of 100 cfs of lake water
through the river.  But improvement will not be noticed in the Buffalo River
until waste treatment^ecommended in this report^ is installed.  This method,
like others included here as alternates, should be considered only as an
additional step after adequate waste treatment has been installed.

     The Cuyahoga River basin is a special case, where additional flow
provisions should be considered.  The Cuyahoga is used extensively from
headwaters to mouth and, beginning a few miles above Akron, becomes so de-
graded in quality that it is fit only for waste disposal.  In fact, during
low flow periods, the city of Akron uses the entire flow of the river for
its water supply.  The only practical means for augmenting flow above Akron
(because of the limited size of the watershed) is to pump water out of Lake
Erie and recirculate it rhough the entire Cuyahoga River.  This would require
elevating the water 480 feet and pumping it a distance of 20 miles from Lake
Erie to the headwaters of the Cuyahoga River.  It is not an urgent need at
present because impounded waters above Akron will be sufficient for water
supply for approximately 30 years.  After that, this alternate approach
should be strongly considered both for water supply and quality control
benefits.

     Diversion of water into the Great Lakes from the J»mes Bay Drainage has
been proposed by T. W. Kierans, Consulting Engineer from Sudbury, Ontario.
He calls it the "Grand Canal Concept."  He claims that a system delivering
25,000 cfs could be built for $2 billion to deliver water to  the Great Lakes
at less than 1.5c per 1,000 gallons.  He also states that the diverted water
would help to regulate lake levels and reap sizable benefits  to water quality.
The starting point of this proposal would be a low-level barrier across James
Bay which would keep the water of several rivers that flow into the bay from
mingling with salt waters.  The fresh water would be pumped over the divide
at its lowest elevation--about 969 feet--through a canal and  into the Ottawa
River, Ontario.  From there, it would be pumped through another canal into
the Great Lakes at Georgian Bay (see Fig. l-£).

     The FWPCA has evaluated the benefits to water quality in Lake Erie from
such an approach and considers the improvement to be minor and not worth the
expense for pollution control purposes alone.  Therefore it is not a satisfactory
alternate .to the water pollution abatement program recommended, nor is it deemed
advisable even as an adjunct to the recommended program.

     Dredging Lake Erie to remove the polluted sediments has  been proposed.
One theory states that long after necessary pollution abatement projects are
completed, the lake bottom will continue to exude pollutants  into the waters,
and the continued recycling of contaminants will cause the lake to remain
polluted for many years.

     To remove the top 3 feet of sediments would require $14  billion and many
years to accomplish.  Also to be considered is the question of where to dump
the material after removal from the lake.

     Because of the complete absence of knowledge about actual benefits of such
                                    1-42

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                             PUMPING POWER AVAILABLE
      LOW DAM	
   iS COLLECTS RIVER
      WATER
                                     BMOOBACKJt
                                   SERIES OF DAMS AND PUMPING
                                   STATIONS REVERSES FLOW OVER 960
                                   FT. DIVIDE INTO OTTAWA RIVER.
SAUUT STE.              NORTH BA
           SUDBURY.
                        DIVERSION CANAL
                        TO FRENCH RIVER
                                    PENNSYLVANIA
            GRAND,CANAL   CONCEPT
                                                           FIGURE

-------
an undertaking and the questionable nature and great expense, this proposal
is considered impractical.  The FWPCA does not believe that it will be neces-
sary to remove bottom sediments~Tni orHer"to restore take Erie water quality.

     Building a pipeline around Lake Erie and treating the municipal and
industrial wastes at the mouth of the lake has been proposed.  This would
require a pipeline approximately 400 miles long, ending in a giant 5,000 mgd
secondary treatment plant in the Niagara Falls area.  The proposed pipeline
would rest on the lake bottom just offshore.  Estimating the cost of the pipe-
line and connections at $2 million per mile and cost of the treatment plant at
$500 million, an expenditure of $1.3 billion would be required.  This fantastic
idea is considered impractical.  It is more costly than the recommended plan,
extremely difficult to implement and ignores the ability of waters to absorb
a certain amount of chemicals without causing problems.  Furthermore, overcoming
the problems in Lake Erie with this approach might create similar problems  in
Lake Ontario.
Combined Sewer Overflow
     Combined sewer overflows are responsible for a large pollutional load to
Lake Erie.  In the Detroit area, for example, as much as 10 per  cent of the
sanitary and industrial waste generated and discharged to city sewers periodically
escapes directly to the river without ever reaching the treatment plant.  These
wastes enter the river during overflows and are considered to be simply bypassed
raw sewage.  Studies made in the Detroit area ha^e shown that, in a general way,
the pollution effect from separate storm sewers on a watercourse is approximately
10 percent that of combined sewers, as shown in Table 1-13.  Several proposals
have been made for solving this overflow problem which exists nationwide--not
just in Lake Erie.

     The solutions listed for the combined sewer problem are those which present
technology has made available.  Undoubtedly, the future will present many new
approaches to the problem.  But, regardless of the methods used, the cities in
the Lake Erie Basin should begin today to consider an effective course of action
to eliminate combined sewer discharges.  The citizens of the basin must realize
and accept the fact that, in the changeover of individual household or building
connections, considerable expense will be involved.  Clean water costs money.

     Sewer Separation would require that the sanitary and industrial wastes
would receive treatment at all times.  During periods of rain, however, the
urban runoff would .go directly to the lake, and since runoff does carry a slight
waste load, some pollution would still occur.

     Separating sewers in the Lake Erie Basin would cost approximately $3 billion.
If this figure were extended over a 50-year period to the year 2020, it would
cost $5/capita/year.

     In new construction and in redevelopment areas, separate storm and sanitary
sewers should be laid.  In the course of redeveloping cities, it costs relatively
little to lay separate sewers when the streets are repaved, buildings are rebuilt,
                                       1-43

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c
                                        TABLE 1-13

           COMPARISON OF DISCHARGE FROM COMBINED AND SEPARATED SEWER SYSTEMS

                                          DETROIT                  ANN ARBOR
         Analysis                  Combined Sewer Overflow   Separate Sewer System
                                      Pounds per acre          Pounds per acre
Phenols
BOD
NH3-N
Organic Nitrogen
Soluble phosphorus
Total phosphorus
N03-N
Total Coli*
Fecal Coli*
0.042
90
6.2
1.6
1.9
3.7
0.15
17,000,000
3,100,000
0.002
31
0.7
0.4
0.3
0.9
0.8
1,700
78






,000
,000
          *  Densities  per  100 ml  and  data  from  studies conducted  in  1964.  Results
            are  median densities  of monthly geometric means.
          or  sewer  and water  lines wear  out.  Over a  period of  50  to  100 years,  a  city
          is  mostly redeveloped  anyway,  so   that  sewerrseparation,  if  considered in  this
          light, would be  practical.

              The  $3 billion figure  cited above  for  sewer separation  does not  include
          connections to individual buildings,  separation of house  laterals,  roofdrains,
          etc.--this cost  might  be an additional  $3 billion.

              Underground Storage has been  proposed  by  the City of Chicago  to  serve  a
          21  square mile area in the  southern suburbs at a cost of  approximately $85
          million.   Excess storm and  sanitary runoff  collected  during  and shortly  after
          a rain would be  stored in underground caverns  and then bleed through  the sewage
          plant for treatment during  dry weather. This idea might be applicable  to some
          communities on Lake Erie.

              Sedimentation  Basins have been used on a  small scale in a few places  and
          have been sonsidered by such cities as  Toledo  and Cleveland  on a grand scale.
          The process involves treating  the  combined  sanitary and  storm runoff  by  settling
          in  gigantic catch basins built either of concrete or  made by diking in large
          portions  of lake waterfront.   It would  be necessary to have  sludge draw-off
          facilities in these basins.  The supernatant overflow could  be treated by
          chlorination or  piped  to the centralized treatment plant  of  the city.

              The  City of Toledo has calculated  that this plan would  cost approximately
          $29 million to store a 1-inch  rain.
                                               1-44

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     Express Sanitary Sewers are presently being utilized by Cleveland to
bring the sanitary wastes from the suburbs, .where separated sewers exist,
directly to the city's three large treatment plants.  This plan is fine for
the suburbs and does help the sewer system of the inner city by relieving
the combined sewers of the load from the suburbs.  It does not, however,
totally solve the sewer problem of the inner city, and long-range plans
should consider alternate solutions for the combined sewer area.

     The cost of installing three major trunk sewers to carry sanitary
wastes from the suburbs to the Cleveland treatment plants has been estimated
at $20 million.

     Storage in Existing Sewer System has been used in a number of large
cities—for example, Detroit, Michigan and Washington, D.C.  It involves
building the combined sewers much larger than would be necessary to handle
dry weather flow.  When rain occurs, the excess runoff can be stored in the
sewer system and drawn off to the treatment plant during dry weather.  This
plan ha_s been of limited effectiveness in Detroit because the sewers were
no t fprTginalTy ^buil t <
     This alternative is not considered  to be applicable  to cities in the
Lake Erie Basin.  To make the sewers big enough  to achieve the desired result
of eliminating overflows would require a giant sewer construction program
which would cost almost as much as separating the sewers.

     Detroit and a few other large cities in the country  are attempting  to
make more effective use of their existing system by automation,  through  use
of a series of centrally controlled gates, pumps, and rain gages.  Instead
of merely storing the excess runoff in the portion of the system where a rain-
storm occurs, they will be able to store an isolated rain in the entire  city
sewer system.  This plan, however, should only be considered temporary,  since
it will reduce the number and duration of overflows but will not eliminate
them.

     Sanitary Force Mains Inside Existing Combined Sewers is an  idea being
put to test by a few cities which involves constructing -a pipeline for carrying
the sanitary sewage inside the existing  combined sewer.  Actually, this  is a
form of sewer separation, but does not involve the major  street  and sewer
rehabilitation construction that separate sewers require.  Cost  for such a sys-
tem is not known at this time, but the idea, as  proposed, seems  feasible and
practical.
                        SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL NEEDS
     The costs over the next five years  to meet present needs  for  the Lake  Erie
'watershed are estimated at $850 million  for municipal  treatment and  $225 million
for industrial waste treatment.  Afterwards,  the annual cost needed  to maintain
and operate facilities and meet the future demands  is  estimated at $44.5 million
for municipal wastes.  An additional $3  billion will be needed for complete sewer
                                     1-45

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separation by the year 2020, $1.0 billion for industrial  waste  treatment
and $400 million to control rural runoff of soil,  phosphorus, and  farm
animal wastes. These figures are summarized in Table 1-14 and Figure 1-
shows this by subdrainage basins.
                             TABLE 1-14

        PRESENT AND FUTURE FINANCIAL NEEDS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

                         IN THE LAKE ERIE WATERSHED
State
    PRESENT NEEDS1
(millions of dollars)
                2
       Municipal
Industrial"
LONG RANGE NEEDS

(billions of dollars)
Michigan
Indiana
Ohio
Pennsylvania
New York4
TOTAL
432
8
365
10
35
850
85
3
132
5
30
255
Municipal
Industrial
Sewer Separation
Rural Runoff


2.2
1.0
3.0
0.4

6.6
 Present financial needs are those that exist now and for the next 5 years
during which proposed construction of remedial works will be completed.

 Municipal costs are divided almost evenly between treatment plant and
sewer construction. Municipal costs assume secondary treatment for all
cities; tertiary treatment in 45 cases (most of these are in the flat,
primarily rural area of northwest Ohio where tertiary lagoons would be
adequate, and this is the type of treatment for which the cost figures
were calculated) and development of master sewage collection and treat-
ment systems in Cleveland, Detroit, Akron, Toledo, and Buffalo.
 Industrial costs are those for industries that drain to the watershed.
4
 The cost figures for the New York area includes the Buffalo River water-
shed, and only that portion of the western New York watershed that drains
into Lake Erie.

 Long range municipal cost estimates include expansion of all treatment to
tertiary by the year 2020, plant operation and maintenance, improvements
and new sewer construction.

      There is no direct financial aid to industries for construction of
waste control facilities. Indirect aid in the form of tax relief is
available from both state and Federal Governments.Afc industry can deduct
                                   1-46

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NOTE:  ANNUAL  COST  INCLUDES  SEWER
AND TREATMENT  PLANT  MAINTAINANCE
AND OPERATION - NEW SEWER  AND
TREATMENT  PLANT.  CONSTRUCTION AND
WATER   QUALITY  STUDIES.

NOTE:  COSTS  oo  NOT  INCLUDE
SEWER   SEPARATION.
    T -fl	!?LC!L_ -
                                  NORTH  CENTRAL  OHIO AREA
                                                                                              COSTS ARE  IN  MILLIONS

                                                                                                  OF  DOLLARS
  \
                                                                                  MUNICIPAL   AND   INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                 WASTE   TREATMENT   COSTS

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 from its Federal  income  tax liability  up  to  seven  per  cent  of  the  con-
 struction cost of waste  treatment facilities.

       Industries  are also financially  aided  indirectly to  the  extent  that
 some industrial wastes are treated by  municipal  waste  treatment  plants
 which receive construction grants from non-local sources.  It is  therefore
 in industry's best interest to discharge  its waste to  a municipal  sewerage
 system if the local plant provides adequate  treatment.

       Financial arrangements among municipal,  state, and Federal
 apportionments depend on  the state's water pollution control program.
 The following financial aids are  currently available.

       1. If a municipality's plans have been approved  by the appropriate
 state water pollution control  agency and  the Secretary of  the  Interior,
 the Federal Government will contribute up to 3070 of the cost if  the
 municipality agrees to pay the remaining  707o.

       2. If the state has a matching grant program, that is one  in which
 they will match the municipal  expenditures,  the  Federal Government will
 contribute 407. of the cost, leaving 307o each for the state  and munici-
 polity.  The Federal Government grant program is  operating  for  a  period
 through  June,  1971.

       The states  in the Lake Erie basin are  considering legislation  for
 a matching grant-bond program. The State  of  New  York already has a match-
 ing grant program and along with  Pennsylvania, financial assistance  for
 plant operation.

       3. If the state has a matching grant program, and in addition,
 has established enforceable water quality standards for the waters into
 which the proposed plant  will  discharge,  the Federal Government  will
 contribute up to  50% of  the cost, with the state and municipality  each
 contributing 257..

       An additional 107. of the amount  of  Federal grant can be  contributed
 if  the grant is to be applied  to  a metropolitan  area which conforms  to
 comprehensive plans that  have  been developed or  are being  developed  for
 that area.

      Through  1971, approximately  $160 million in Federal monies will
be available for Lake Erie  if  the  full Federal share is granted.
                                   1-47

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              BENEFITS FROM WATER QUALITY CONTROL IN THE

                          LAKE ERIE WATERSHED
      The water quality control programs recommended for the subbasins
 of  the Lake Erie watershed will, in many instances, contribute to a
 greatly  improved living environment in future years; in others, it
 will  assure the continuance of existing high quality water resources.
 The improvement or maintenance of water quality for municipal and in-
 dustrial use,  the enhancement of recreational opportunities including
 the overall betterment of the esthetic aspects of  lake shores and
 tributaries, will result not only in dollar savings but also in greater
 personal enjoyment for millions of people. The projected population
 and industrial growth stated previously indicates not only the magnitude
 of  future benefits, but also emphasizes the need for adequate water
 quality  and quantity if such growth is to take place.

      The benefits from water quality control measures are not always
 apparent to the public because such measures frequently constitute
 insurance for  future usefulness of a vital resource or result in
 benefits which are indirect or intangible. Some benefits, however,
 such  as  improved fishing or swimming, or the reduction of health
 hazards  are somewhat more apparent. Also, for many industrial uses,
 the quality of water supply as determined by its physical, chemical,
jai.  biologicarcharacteristics is of great importance. Suitable water
 quality  is frequently either an enhancing factor or a necessity to new
 industry or expanding existing industry. Substantial benefits may accrue
 to  communities when the costs of extensive treatment of water supply
 can be avoided.

      Accomplishment of the program objectives will result in benefits
 to  the people  of the area in particular, and to the people who reside
 along the shores of Lake Ontario, our Canadian neighbors to the north,
 and to the Nation as a whole. As the waters of Lake Erie serve many
 states and are of national importance, all will share in the benefits
 resulting from the enhancement and protection of thesewaters for both
 present  and future needs. Let it be emphasized again that all
 recommendations must be carried out to the fullest extent if Lake Erie
 is  to be saved. Any one omitted due to indifference of the people may
 seal  the fate  of Lake Erie and doom it for posterity.

      The 13 million people who will reside in the area by 1980 will
 benefit  from  the assurance of a safer, more palatable water supplied
 to  their homes, business establishments, industries, schools, and public
 buildings. Owners of property adjacent to and near bodies of water will
 derive increased esthetic enjoyment and enhanced property values from
                                    1-48

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the elimination of ugliness and unsightly conditions  resulting  from
water pollution, including nuisance algal blooms  stimulated by  over-
fertilization.

      Residents and visitors from outside the basin who  use the lake
for swimming, water skiing, boating and other water-oriented  sports
will be protected against infectious diseases which can  be spread  as
a result of water pollution.

      The need for water-oriented recreational activity  in the  Lake
Erie basin underscores the importance of its water resources. At
present, there are nearly 250 million activity days of demand within
its boundaries. Of these, over 100 million are water-depe.ndent; the
remainder consist mainly of water-enhanced activities such as camping,
picnicking, sightseeing and hiking. Estimates of the  value of one  day
of recreation activity vary somewhat, but one dollar  per person per
activity "day is considered reasonable--perhaps conservative.  At one
dollar per person, the annual value of such recreation presently would
be a minimum of 100 million dollars. By the year 2020, it is  likely  to
be at least 4 times this amount. These benefits are direct benefits
to participants and do not include the millions of dollars of income
accruing to motels, restaurants, and suppliers of boats, fishing
tackle and other water-oriented equipment.

      Although not all of the future dollar benefits  would result  from
water quality control programs, some approximations of such benefits
to participants are possible. The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, in its
report "Water Oriented Outdoor Recreation--Lake Erie Basin,"  projects
that the number of occasions of participation in water-dependent
activities during summer activity days will approximate 315 million
in the year 2020, with present quantity and quality of facilities  and
almost 370 million with improvements in quantity and quality  of such
facilities. Even an average difference of 20 million activity days
per year between the present and 2020 would result in a loss  of direct
benefits of at  least a billion dollars--and many more millions  due
to loss in sales of water-oriented services and equipment. The  value
of protecting the benefits from current participation rates and expenditures
must also be considered.

      The chances are more than good that the once-prevalent sport
fish, such as whitefish, cisco, sugar and blue pike may once again
return to Lake Erie to challenge the skill of the sport fisherman.
This will not come about without considerable effort and careful
planning because even after all remedial measures have been employed,
water quality needed to support these highly prized fish will not
arrive overnight. Furthermore, the agency responsible for restocking
the lake will have to apply utmost care and use the most advanced
techniques of fishery management to restore the sport fish and maintain
its delicate ecological balance.

      During 1964, the average price received for the commercial catch
sold was 9.4 cents per pound. This average price includes the price
received for the total pounds caught and sold of all species, e.g. the
                                    1-49

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51 cents per pound received for lake whitefish and the 1.7  cents  per
pound for sheepshead.

      Total amount of fish caught and sold by the U.S. fishing industry
on Lake Erie was approximately 13.4 million pounds with a resultant
value of about $1,250,000. The total demand for fishery products  from the
Great Lakes is likely to increase four-fold by the year 2020--the portion
of the total demand which could be met from Lake Erie is more likely  to
increase six-fold due to Lake Erie's inherent productivity. If the
average of pounds caught and sold by U.S. industry were to approximate
50 million pounds per year at 10 cents per pound, the value of fish
caught and sold during a fifty year period, such as 1970 to 2020  would
total about a quarter of a billion dollars. Substantial values or benefits
would also result from the increased purchases of boats and equipment and
from increased employment of fishermen.

      To achieve such widespread benefits would necessitate not only  the
attainment and preservation of suitable water quality but also development
of an effective management program including regulatory, biological,  and
marketing aspects. Considerable research effort would be necessary and
justified to achieve these benefits.

      In addition to these immediate and direct benefits resulting from
the control of pollution, the preservation and protection of the quality
of the waters of Lake Erie are essential to the Nation's growth and
prosperity. This immense fresh water resource, among the greatest in
the world, is showing the effects of man's carelessness and abuse.
Lake Erie is a clear demonstration that size is no protection against
pollution and that man has the capability of destroying the usefulness
of even a major water resource. As this lake is serving as an example
of what will happen  to the other Great Lakes if pollution remains
unchecked, it may also serve as an example of what man can do to restore
the quality of his environment and provide more useful benefits to the
total population.

      Of all the Great Lakes, Lake Erie shows the greatest deterioration
of water quality, in spite of the fact that 80% of the input to the lake
is high quality water from Lake Huron. Of all the Great Lakes, Lake Erie
is most amenable to  a significant degree of restoration of water quality,
because the principal sources of pollution are essentially within its
own drainage basin and because Lake Erie has a large  flowthrough in
relation to volume.

      The benefits derived from improved Lake Erie water quality will
not accrue overnight. It will take years and much of  it will depend on
the long-term effect of residual pollution remaining  in the lake after
all objectionable wastes have been removed. The flowthrough time in
Lake Erie is 2-1/2 years and this is another factor which prevents the
water quality from improving rapidly.

      Seeing what the future offers, it  is believed  that the people of
this Great Lake will rise  to the occasion, fulfilling  their obligations
of stewardship for the benefit of mankind and for those generations
yet unborn.


                                  1-50

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                                CHAPTER 2

                   DESCRIPTION OF THE LAKE ERIE BASIN

                        PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
General

     The area of the Lake Erie basin is about 32,500 square miles—
about Ho,000 square miles if the Lake St.  Clair drainage area is included.
Nearly one third (9,9^0 square miles) of the Lake Erie Basin is covered
by the lake itself, a ratio vhich is approximated in each of the other
Great Lakes basins.  However, Lake Erie receives the drainage of the
(£5up lake basins above it, so that the total watershed supplying Lake
Erie is in reality 260,000 square miles.

     In terms of surface area, Lake Erie ranks fourth of the five  Great
Lakes.  Only twelve fresh-water lakes, in the world are larger. The
depth of Lake Erie, however, is remarkably shallow, averaging only 60
feet and reaching a maximum of 216 feet.  Its total storage is 125
trillion gallons, the smallest of the Great Lakes (see Fig. 2-1 and
Table 2-1).

     The water of Lake Erie lies entirely above the surface level  of
Lake Ontario, into which it drains.  Lake Erie owes its existence  both
to the Niagara bedrock sill, which acts as a dam, and to glacial scouring
during the Ice Age.  The form of Lake Erie reflects the bedrock structure
of the area, Fig. 2-2.

     The landscape of the Lake Erie basin is characterized by thousands
of square miles of flat terrain, broken only by occasional ancient beach
ridges and relatively steep valley walls in many of the major tributaries.
Even these features are subdued in the western part of the lake.   The
terrain is less monotonous from Cleveland eastward, along the south shore,
where the basin reaches into the northwestern perimeter of the Appalachian
uplands with their rolling hills.  However the basin there is relatively
narrow between the lake and the drainage divide.

     Soils in the extensive flatlands of the Lake Erie basin are char-
acteristically dominated by poorly drained and relatively impervious
clays, derived from old lake and glacial sediments, Fig. 2-3.  These
soils are fertile and,because of this, have been artificially drained to
a great extent.  The uplands along the southeast edge of the basin are
well-drained, rock-derived, and less fertile.  Old beach ridges through-
out the basin are extensively used for highways and farming.

     Streams entering Lake Erie are generally low-gradient and winding
but with steep-walled valleys.  They carry large silt loads where they
traverse easily eroded clay flatlands and smaller loads in the rocky
hilly areas. Excluding the Detroit River input, only two streams,  the
Maumee River in Ohio and the Grand River in Ontario, supply significant
quantities of water to the lake.


                                  2-1

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o
 o
                                                             THE  GREAT  LAKES
                                                                    / NEW  YORK
                          ILLINOIS
INDIANA
       SI
OHIO

 ^
                                                          ./I   PENNSYLVANIA

                                                             \
                                              l_-
                  ELEV. 600.4
                                   ELEV.  371. •
                                                       ELEV. S70.4
                                               GREAT   LAKES
                                                   PROFILE
                                    LAKES .
                                 MICHIGAN $
                                   HURON
                                                                    LAKE
                                                                   ONTARIO
               30-
                    Y7//
               zo-
               10-
                   SUPERIOR
                                MICHIGAN
                                              HURON
                                                            ERIE
                                                                        ONTARIO
                                   GREAT   LAKES   STORAGE
                                                2-2

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                               TABLE 2-1




                 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF GREAT LAKES SYSTEM
Lake
Superior
Michigan
Huron
St. Glair
Erie
Ontario
Length
(miles)
350
307
206
26
21+1
193
Breadth
(miles)
160
118
183
21*
57
53
Water Area
(sq. miles)
U.S. Canada
20,700
22,1*00
9,110
200
1*,990
3,600
11,200
-
13,900
290
l*,9l*0
3,920
Mean
Depth
Total (feet)
31,820
22,1*00
23,010
1*90
9,930
7,520
1*87
276
195
10
60
283
Drainage
area
(sq. miles)
80,000
67,860
72,620
7,1*30
32,1*90
3l*. 800
Totals
61,000   31*,170  95,170
295,200
                                  2-3

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            14
                    GEOLOGY OF THE  GREAT  LAKES
I  I  1
i I  I I
                                             KEY

                   PENNSYLVANIA* AND MISSISSIPPI*" ROCKS, UNOtFFEftENTIATEO.

                   UPPER DEVONIAN ROCKS, MAINLY SHALES: ANTRIM SHALE IN MICHIGAN.

                   LOWER DEVONIAN  ROCKS, IN UNITED  STATES: DEVONIAN  UNOIFFERENTIATEO IN CANADA.

                   UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS, IN ONTARIO AND NEW YORK. (MAINLY DOLOMITE.)

                   SILURIAN  SALINA GROUP ROCKS IN NORTHERN MICHIGAN  AND ONTARIO. (INCLUDES SALT BE03.)

                   MIDDLE SILURIAN NIAGARAN SERIES  ROCKS IN NORTHERN MICHIGAN, ONTARIO. AND NEW YORK t  SILURIAN
                   HOCKS UNDIFFERENTIATED IN WISCONSIN, IOWA,  ILLINOIS, INDIANA, AND OHIO.

                   LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS IN NORTHERN MICHIGAN, ONTARIO, AND NEW YORK.

                   OROOVICIAN ROCKS, UNOIF FERENTIATEO.

                   CAMBRIAN ROCKS,  UNOIFFEHENTIATEO,

                   PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS, UNOIFFERENTIATED.  (MAINLY METAMORPHIC AND IGNEOUS ROCKS.)
            Fig. 8. Geologic map of the Great Lakes region.

            were formed more than a  half-billion years  ago. Some of them
            were laid down in extensive seas of either salty or fresh water, but
            they have been  metamorphosed  into slates, quartzites, phyllites,
            gneisses,  or  other  types,  depending  on  their composition  and
            degree of metamorphism. Large areas of the shield contain granite
            and other igneous rocks, cooled from the molten state. Earth forces
have folded the
have been worn!
  The details o
the history of th
distribution of tl
form  a framewn
                  i
Superior.
   Lapping ontc
proximately  18;
which were  de;i
the sea flooded |
a tendency for <:
was most  mark':
the Lower Penii
;j,cosyncline,  wb
 Pennsylvania,  a
 Paleozoic rocks
 the region the
 out on the flan
 in this part of t
 and sandstones.
 arc not strongh
    As  with  the
 history are of s
 The sea  water
 Paleozoic era, ;
 lion  of the  rep
  present Great 1
  I'alcozoic seas.'
  tilted slightly, ;
  processes in a •
  which later de;
    A brief exai
  there is a defin
  lions'of the la
  exerted  by  the
  Chap. 4, for a 1
  shore  of Lake
Fig.  2-2 — Geologic  map of the  Great Lakes  region.
                                              2-1*

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 I
vn
                                                                                                                 LEGEND

                                                                                                            OLD LAKE  DEPOSIT , PRIMARILY
                                                                                                            SILT  AND  CLAY.

                                                                                                            GLACIAL  DRIFT, CLAY WITH
                                                                                                            INCLUDED  GRAVEL.
                                                                                                       ;•;•: I WATER-LAID  GLACIAL  MORANE-,
                                                                                                       •'••• -I MAINLY  SAND AND  GRAVEL.

                                                                                                       O- I LEW-LAID  GLACIAL  MORANE;
                                                                                                       -O I CLAY,  SAND  AND  GRAVEL.

                                                                                                       ??§J OUTWASH   SAND  AND  GRAVEL.
                                                                                                          SURFACE    GEOLOGY
                                                                                                          LAKE    ERIE    BASIN

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     Lake Erie proper is unique among the Great Lakes  in  several of
its natural characteristics,  each of which  has a  direct bearing on its
condition with respect to pollution.  Lake  Erie is by  far the shallowest
of the Great Lakes and the only one with its  entire water mass above
sea level.  It has the smallest volume,  113 cubic miles,  and its flow-
through time of 988 days is  the shortest.   It is  the most biologically
productive and the most turbid.  It has  the flattest bottom; it is
subject to the widest fluctuations in water level (13  feet maximum);
and its seasonal average surface levels  are the most unpredictable.   It
is the only one of the Great  Lakes with  its long  axis  paralleling the
prevailing wind direction and is subject to violent storms.  Lake Erie
is also the southernmost, warmest, (averaging  51°  F) and the oldest
(12,000 years) of the Great  Lakes.  Although  it has been  studied the
most, its phenomena are probably the least  understood.

Geology and Topography

     Lake Erie's shores are  characterized by  easily eroded banks of
glacial till and not much sand.  Bluffs  of  limestone or shale bedrock
exist in the islands area, between Vermilion  and  Cleveland, Ohio, and
around the eastern end of the lake.  Good sand beaches are few in number,
but where developed, are built to the extreme.  Examples  are Long Point,
Pointe aux Pins, and Point Pelee, Ontario;  Cedar  Point, Ohio; and Presque
Isle, Pennsylvania.  The till and lake clay bluffs recede by erosion
at rates up to 5 or more feet per year,  contributing an average of  16
million tons of sediment annually to the lake.

     Topographically, Lake Erie is separated  into three basins, Figure  2-U,
The relatively small shallow western basin  is separated from the large,
somewhat deeper, flat-bottomed central basin  by the rocky island chain.
The deep, bowl-shaped eastern basin is separated  from  the central basin
by a low, wide sand and gravel ridge near Erie, Pennsylvania.  The
western basin averages 2k feet deep with a  maximum of  63  feet  in South
Passage; the central basin averages 60 feet with  a maximum of  80 feet;
the eastern basin averages 80 feet with a maximum of 216  feet.  The  areas
of the western, central, and eastern basins are  approximately  1,200,
6,300, and 2,UOO square miles, respectively.

     The bottom sediments of Lake Erie show patterns closely  related  to
topography and relief, Fig.  2-5.  In general  the  broad, remarkably  flat
areas of the western and central basins and the  deeper, smoother part
of the eastern basin have mud bottoms and are the recipients  of nearly
all of the sedimentation in Lake Erie.  Ridges and shoreward-rising
slopes are generally comprised of sand and  gravel and  are characterized
by either erosion or the deposition of coarse sediments.   Rock  is ex-
posed in the western basin and in strips along shores  in  the  central  and
eastern basins.

Climate

     The climate of the Lake Erie basin is  temperate,  humid-continental
                                  2-6

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                                                                                          N.Y.
                                                                                         PENN.
                                                                            NOTE:
WESTERN  BASIN
                                    CENTRAL  BASIN
                                                                                      LAKE  ERIE
                                                                                 BOTTOM  TOPOGRAPHY
   CONTOUR  INTERVAL 20 FEET.
   CONTOURS IN  FEET ABOVE
   INTERNATIONAL GREAT LAKES
   DATUM FOR  LAKE ERIE (568.6)
   -1935.
EASTERN  BASIN
                            LAKE  ERIE
                           LONGITUDINAL
                          CROSS  SECTION

-------

-------
with the chief characteristic of rapidly changing weather.

     The annual average temperatures for land stations in the Erie
basin range between 1+7°F and 50°F.  Temperatures generally decrease
northeastward from the southwestern end of the basin.  The highest
average temperature at recording stations is at Put-in-Bay on South
Bass Island with an annual average of 51.2°F.

     The highest average monthly temperatures occur in July, ranging
from TO°F to lh0V at land stations.  These also generally decrease
northeastward across the basin, Fig. 2-6.  Put-in-Bay again is highest
at T5-1°F.  The lowest average monthly temperatures occur in January
at the west end of the basin and February at the east end, and range
from 2l+°F to 28°F.  The extremes of temperature in the Lake Erie basin
are about -20°F and 100°F.

     Average annual precipitation at land stations in the basin is well-
distributed throughout the year, Fig. 2-7, and ranges from about 30.5
inches to more than ho inches with an overall basin average of about
3^ inches.  Yearly precipitation has varied between the extremes of
2U and U3 inches.  Precipitation shows a striking correlation to land
elevation and topography, Fig. 2-8.  Low-lying flat areas of the basin
have the lowest precipitation.  Highest precipitation occurs in the
southeastern part of the basin.

     Most of the precipitation in the Lake Erie basin is derived from the
flow northeastward of warm, moisture-laden air of low pressure systems
from the Gulf of Mexico.  Precipitation results when this clashes with
colder, northern air of high pressure systems, moving in from the west
and northwest.  This kind of weather is characteristic of spring, summer,
and early fall, and usually occurs in cycles of a few days.  Humidity is
high along with high temperatures, and south to southwest winds persist
for long periods.

     In winter, however, the colder Canadian air masses push south-
eastward and dominate the weather, resulting in less precipitation and
less humidity.  However, heavier precipitation  (usually snow) is  ex-
perienced in the southeastern part of the basin, explaining the shift
in the annual precipitation pattern in that area.  This phenomenon is
largely local, caused by air moving across Lake Erie, picking up
moisture enroute, and precipitating it when the air rises along the
front of the hills on the southeastern shore.  Snowfall is greater in
the eastern part of the basin with Buffalo having an annual average snow-
fall of 72 inches, as compared to less than 36 inches for Toledo.

     Southwesterly winds prevail in the Erie basin in all months of the
year, a characteristic common to the northern hemisphere temperate region.
However, in fall and winter, northwesterly winds occur frequently,
reaching high velocities (UO-50 mph) in storms.  In spring the same is
true of northeasterly winds except that velocities (30-^0 mph) are usually
lower.
                                   2-9

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                         __L_
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-------
c
             o
             z
                                       TOLEDO
                    JAN.  FEB.  MAR.   APR.  MAY   JUN.   JUL.  AUG.   SEP.  OCT.  NOV.  DEC.
C
               .5-
             z
             o
             X
             o
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                                      P UT-I N-B AY
                    JAN.  FEB.  MAR.  APR.  MAY   JUN. .  JUL.  AUG.  SEP.  OCT.  NOV.  DEC.












JAN. FEB.













MAR.










CLE


V EL



AND"
APR. MAY JUN. JUL.





" BU


F FA


LO '




AUG.
•


-



SEP.








OCT.







NOV.











DEC.






                    JAN.  FEB.  MAR.  APR.  MAY   JUN.   JUL.  AUG.  SEP.  OCT.  NOV.   DEC.
 C
           AVERAGE   MONTHLY   PRECIPITATION   AT   LAND

                                  LAKE   ERIE   BASIN
STATIONS
                                              2-11

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I
H
ro
                                                            Tf   V
                                                                                         NOTE - ISOHYET  INTERVAL


                                                                                                 ONE INCH
                                                                                           PRECIPITATION

                                                                                                   IN

                                                                                         LAKE   ERIE   BASIN
SCALE  IN  MILES

       0  60  7
       csa.   E-sii  'Frsa
10  0   10  ZO 30  40 30  60  7O  60  SO  IOO
  mn   ir"-»i

-------
     The percent of possible sunshine is  greatest  in  midsummer  and
least in winter, Fig. 2-9, although precipitation  might  indicate
otherwise.  Less sunshine in winter is due to  the  cloud-producing
effects of the lake.  December and January ordinarily have  less than
kO percent of possible sunshine,  while June and July  average more
than TO percent at most stations.  The percentage  over the  lake proper
in summer is even greater.

     Lake Erie has a marked moderating effect  on the  climate of the
basin, especially for a few miles inland  from  the  shore. This  is
demonstrated by the length of the frost-free season—near shore it is
greater than 200 days, while only a few miles  inland  it  is  as much as
30 days less.  This longer frost-free season is due to a warming effect
from the lake water.  During the  late fall and early  winter the lake
water is still relatively warm and delays the  first killing frost.

Land Use

     General land use for the Lake Erie basin  is shown in Fig.  2-10
as compiled by the U. S. Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.  The uses shown
thereon are predominant, but a wide variety of uses can, of course, be
found within each section.

     Urban Development:  In the Lake Erie basin urban development  is
concentrated largely along the U. S. lake shore, primarily  in  the
metropolitan areas of Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland,  and Buffalo.  These
areas are growing rapidly as are  many smaller  intervening cities.  The
Canadian shore, in contrast, is characterized  by widely  spaced small
fishing ports, except in the Windsor area adjacent to Detroit  and  in
the Niagara Falls area near Buffalo.

     The urbanized area of the Lake Erie  basin is  estimated at  about
10 percent of the total land area, and about 90 percent  of this is  on
the American side of the lake.

     Rural Development:  At least 90 percent of the Lake Erie  watershed
land area is rural in character.   Very little  of it is truly  forested,
although there are significant areas (about five percent of the total
"basin) of cut-over scrub land, especially in the hills of the  southeastern
part, "between Cleveland and Buffalo.

     Rural land in the Lake Erie basin is fertile and much of it  is
cultivated.  The rich lands of the Raisin, Maumee, Portage, and Sandusky
river "basins, and the western part of the Canadian portion of the  basin
support a large production of cash grain crops and associated livestock.
In the eastern half of the basin, much land is also devoted to farming,
with greater emphasis on dairying and the production of fruit.   In areas
near the lake, truck farming, fruit-growing, and nursery production are
prevalent.  Tobacco raising is important  on the Canadian side  in  the
eastern half of the basin.
                                      2-13

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                                 TOLEDO
«(J — 	 — 	 . . ...


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    80
           JAN. FEB.  MAR. APR.  MAY  JUN.  JUL.  AUG.  SEP. OCT.  NOV.  DEC.
                               CLEVELAND







n 	














































































           JAN.  FEB.  MAR. APR.  MAY  JUN.  JUL.  AUG. SEP.  OCI  NOV.  DEC.
                                BUFFALO
70 "•






n 	








































































            JAN.  FEB. MAR.  APR.  MAY   JUN.  JUL. AUG.  SEP.  OCT. NOV. DEC.
MONTHLY   PERCENT  OF  POSSIBLE  SUNSHINE   1965
                             2-lU

-------
N
 i
                 LEGEND

            I. URBAN - TRUCK CROPS
            2. DAIRY - CATTLE
            3. FRUIT - DAIRY
            4. FRUIT - TRUCK CROPS
            5. DIVERSIFIED - GENERAL FARMING
            6. SUGAR BEETS
            7. CORN - LIVESTOCK
                                                             IO  O   IO  CO  BO  4O  DO
GENERAL  LAND   USE  PATTERN
       LAKE  ERIE  BASIN

-------
     Land capable of agricultural production, but  standing  idle,  is
not in abundance, although many small areas  can be found between
Cleveland and Buffalo, especially within a mile or so of the  lake shore.
Some of this land is apparently held in speculation of urban  or suburban
development.
                   WATER RESOURCES AND HYDROLOGY

     Since the recommended water pollution control program allows
for the discharge of wastes to a stream system, the program design must
consider hydrologic characteristics of the system.  Surface flow features—
primarily volume, velocity, distribution, and temperature, and changes in
each—directly affect waste assimilation capacity and, therefore, program
requirements.  Hydrologically then, a pollution control program should
be designed according to some low flow or drought flow of the stream to
which wastes are discharged.  The lowest average seven-day flow which
can be expected to recur not more than once in ten years is herein con-
sidered adequate for design purposes.

     For descriptive purposes, Lake Erie tributaries can be conveniently
divided into three types:  (l) Lake Huron outflow, (2) major tributaries
with average flows greater than 1,000 cubic feet per second (cfs), and
(3) minor tributaries with average flows less than 1,000 cfs.  Flow data
are given in Table 2-2.  Average tributary flows at gaging stations are
shown in Figure 2-11.
Lake Huron Outflow

     Lake Erie receives 80 percent of its water supply from upper lake
drainage.  The large volume and high quality of this inflow has a great
dilutional effect on Lake Erie, and any significant decrease in either
the volume or quality could be disastrous.

     The Lake Huron outflow is the only source of water to Lake Erie
which is not controlled by precipitation over the Erie basin, being
controlled instead by precipitation in the basins of Lakes Superior,
Michigan, and Huron.  Diversion out of Lake Michigan at" Chicago, diversion
into Lake Superior, and flow regulation from Lake Superior affect to a
minor degree the Lake Huron discharge.

     According to U. S. Lake Survey measurements, the Lake Huron out-
flow has averaged 187,^50 cfs  between i860 and the present.  The monthly"
averages have ranged from a high of 2U2,000 cfs in June 1896 to a low of
99,000 cfs in February 19^2.  Lowest flows ordinarily occur in February
(average 159,000 cfs) and the highest in July or August (average 199,000
cfs), Fig. 2-12.  Other tributary runoff to Lake Erie is generally at a
minimum during periods of high Lake Huron outflow.

     Though the variation in flow volume from Lake Huron is great, it
is still the most uniform of the tributary drainages to Lake Erie,  This
                                  2-16

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                        TAobE 2-2




RUNOFF STATISTICS FOR TRIBUTARIES OF THE LAKE ERIE BASIN
7 -Day Low
Drainage Period of Average Average Flow, 10 yr. Runoff
Area Record Max. Flow Min. Flow Flow Yield Recurrence Precip.
Stream (mi. 2) (years) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs/mi.2) (cfs/mi. ) (cfs at mouth) (percent)
S.t. Glair River
(Lake Huron outflow)
Clinton River
Rouge River
Huron River (Mich.)
Raisin River
Maumee River
Portage River
Sandusky River
Huron River (Ohio)
Vermilion River
Black River
Rocky River
Cuyahoga River
Chagrin River
Grand River (Ohio)
Ashtabula River
Conneaut Creek
Cattaraugus Creek
Buffalo River
Grand River (Ontario)
Big Creek
Otter Creek
Kettle Creek
Thames River
ro
^


740
467
890
1,125
6,586
587
1,421
403
272
467
294
813
267
712
137
191
436
565
2,614
281
316
200
2,000


106

31
35
19
28
40
33
39
15
15
21
34
34
36
40
34
28
25
25
24
7
13
est. -
est. 7


187,450

21,200
13,000
5,840
12,900
94,000
11,500
28,000
25,800
20,500
24,000
21,400
24,800
28,000
21,100
11,600
17,000
35,900
' 35,000
47,800
3,060
4,140
2,400
38,500




1
4
2
20
0
4
2
0
0
0
14
3
0
0
0
6
2
65
54
10
est. 7
est. 58




.8
.0
.0
.0
.3
.4 :
.2 !
;o
.0 j
.2
.0
.0
.0
.0
.2
.0
.8
.0
.0
.8
est.




470
235 .
556
714
4,794 .
403
1,021
296
228
302
273
850 1
333 1
784 1
169 1
257 1
705 1
784 1
2,405
256
312
185est.
1,840



.635
.503
.625
.635
.728
.687
.719
.732
.840
.647
.929
.045
.247
.101
.234
.346
.617
.388
.920
.911
.987
.902
.902



.052
.033
.044
.027
.013
.001
.010
	
	
	
.004
	
.051
.003
.000
.006
.129









24
7
24
19
86
0
14
5
0
0
1
112
It
2
0
1
55










.8

.3

.6
.0
.1 est.
.6 est.
.5 est.
.0

.0
.2
.0
.2










28
22
27
28 -
29
28
28
28
33
29
35
39
46
40
45
49
58
55
36
35
37
34
36



-------
 LAKE
HURON
                                           LEGEND
                                    STATIONS  WITH LESS  THAN
                                         5  YEARS  DATA
                                    LONG-TERM  GAGING STATIONS
                                    WITH  AVERAGE FLOWS  IN CFS
                                  AVERAGE  DISCHARGE
                                AT  U.S.G.S. AND CANADA
                             W.R.B.  GAGING  STATIONS  ON
                               LAKE ERIE TRIBUTARIES

-------
ro
I
                                               LAKE

                                              HURON
                                                                                       NOTE
                                                                                  FLOW  SCALE IN THOUSANDS
                                                                                  OF CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
                                                                       MONTHLY TRIBUTARY FLOWS
                                                                             TO LAKE ERIE
                                                                     FROM  THE  ST. CLAIR,  MAUMEE,
                                                                        AND  CUYAHOGA  RIVERS
                                                                        OCT. 1963  TO SEPT. 1965

-------
is because of the regulating effect of the upper lakes  storage.

Major Tributaries

     Only four Lake Erie tributaries beside the Lake Huron  outflow,
exceed an average discharge of 1,000 cfs to Lake Erie.   These  are  the
Maumee and Sandusky Rivers in Ohio and the Grand and Thames Rivers in
Ontario, Table 2-2.  The Thames discharges to Lake St.  Clair.  These
rivers supply a total flow of approximately 10,000 cfs—the Maumee River
accounting for about one-half of this.

     All four major tributaries drain land which is largely agricultural
and rather intensively cultivated.  Precipitation on the Grand and Thames
basins is slightly higher than on the Maumee and Sandusky basins,
Fig. 2-7-  However, the percentage of precipitation appearing  as runoff
is considerably greater in the Canadian basins, 36 percent  compared to
28 percent, the difference being accounted for in topography and soil
characteristics.  The average water yield per square mile is just  over
0.7 cfs in the Maumee and Sandusky River basins, and over 0.9  cfs  for
the Grand and Thames River basins.

     Drought flow volumes are very low for the Maumee and Sandusky
Rivers.  Seven-day, 10-year recurrence low flows are estimated at  86
cfs and lU cfs, respectively, at the mouths of these streams.   Drought
flows of the Grand and Thames Rivers appear to be much  higher  per unit
area, indicating that ground water is significant in contributing to
those flows.  The low ground water contribution in the  Maumee  and Sandusky
basins can be attributed to the relatively flat topography and to the
dense and relatively impermeable clay soils.

     In many upstream locations there is virtually no flow during the
critical low flows, high temperature, high evaporation  months  of July
through October, thus compounding waste assimilation problems.  Low flow
is even more of a problem on tributaries to the main streams;  and flow
related to time of travel is a problem, especially in the lower reaches
of the major tributaries where pollution load is greatest.

     For example; in the lower several miles of the Maumee River the
flow volume is low, the cross-sectional area of the river is large, and
the gradient is virtually nil.  This results in a very  long time for
water to travel through the Toledo area—frequently a month or more.   A
similar situation, but less severe, exists in the lower several miles  of
the Sandusky River.

     At other localities in both basins, time of travel is  lengthened
by pooling effects of both natural and artificial features.  Long time
of travel is not only detrimental to stream quality in the presence of
wastes, but is detrimental to lake quality near the stream mouths,
primarily because of the cumulative storage of nutrients as the water
moves downstream.  The building of navigational channels and harbor en-
                                   2-20

-------
largement projects at the mouths  of tributaries have  compounded the
pollution problem by increasing the time-of-travel  of the  stream water.

Minor Tributaries
     All other tributaries to Lake Erie contribute  only minor water
flow to the lake.  Although their flows are  relatively low,  their  con-
tribution to the pollution of Lake Erie is relatively high.  The more
important of the minor tributaries, with pertinent  hydrologic data,
are listed in Table 2-2.  These streams have average  flows between 200
and 900 cfs.

     The Portage and Raisin Rivers are similar in most characteristics
to the Sandusky and Maumee Rivers except for much lower average and
drought flows.  The minor tributaries in Ontario are  also similar  to
the Grand and Thames Rivers.

     The Huron River in Ohio is similar to the Sandusky in flow char-
acteristics except that it has a higher base flow per unit area and  its
basin is partly in higher land, approaching  the hilly section of the
lake watershed.  Ground water appears to be  more important as a part of
this stream supply.

     From the Huron (Ohio) basin eastward along the Ohio  shore, pre-
cipitation generally increases (Fig. 2-8) and a greater share of the
precipitation reaches the lake as runoff (Table 2-2). Drought  flows
are, however, widely variable and again reflect the ability  of  ground
water to support stream flow.  In addition,  these streams have  higher
gradients and runoff is much faster.  The upstream  reaches of most of
these streams may be completely dry during much of  the summer-fall low
flow period.

     All of the streams along the south shore become  sluggish in the
lower few miles, a characteristic accentuated by the  harbor  enlargement
of stream cross-section.  This is a particularly important problem where
waste inputs are very high, such as in the navigation channels  of  the
Black, Cuyahoga, and Grand Rivers in Ohio,  and the  Buffalo River in  New
York.  The problem is most critical in the Cuyahoga and Buffalo Rivers
where the pollution load is the heaviest and the time-of-travel in the
dredged channels is often a week or more. The 7-day  low  flow volume for
the Cuyahoga River (Table 2-2) is relatively high,  due to impoundments
and large waste water discharges to the river, rather than ground  water
supply.

     The important minor tributaries in Michigan are  the  Clinton,  Rouge,
Huron, and Raisin Rivers.  The Clinton discharges into Lake  St. Clair,
the Rouge into the Detroit River, and the Huron and Raisin directly  into
Lake Erie.  All are highly polluted streams, passing  through the urbanized
and industrialized area of southeast Michigan.  They  all  drain  relatively
flat land, and not only is precipitation the lowest,  but  the proportion  of
                                  2-21

-------
runoff to precipitation is also the lowest  in  the  Lake Erie basin.
However, their drought flows are higher than average  per  unit  area,
indicating that perhaps there  is significant  release of  ground water
or surface storage.   The Clinton and Huron  are fed by several  small
natural lakes, but the Rouge and Raisin are not.   There are several
low-head dams near the mouth of the Raisin  River.

     The lower few miles of Michigan tributaries  are  dredged,  sluggish,
and lake-affected.  Time of travel is long  and especially long in summer
and fall.  The streams are similar to the south shore minor tributaries
mentioned above in having long time-of-travel  characterisitcs  in  the
zones of the heaviest pollution loads.  The Raisin and Rouge Rivers  rank
with the Cuyahoga and Buffalo in degree of  severity.

Ground Water

     Ground water in the soil and rocks surrounding Lake  Erie  varies
widely in both quantity and quality, Figs.  2-13 and 2-lH.  Quantity  alone
is not a good indicator of supply capacity  because of differences in re-
tention characteristics of the soil.  For example, glacial clays  may
contain much water, with the water table very  near the  surface, but
their low permeability makes them a poor source of water  supply.

     Although characteristics vary, the basin  as a whole  is  a  rather
poor producer of ground water.  Tills, lake clays, and shales  which  are
prevalent over much of the basin are not good  aquifers—producers of
water.  Where they do produce significant quantities, it  is  not  uncommon
for the water to have a high sulfur content.   Locally high quantities of
water may be available where deep sandy soils  occur as  the result of
beach-building or glacial outwash, or in old valleys filled with gravelly
soils.  Porous limestones are also locally good aquifers  as  are  sandstones,
but all of these sources, except for sandstones, may contain sulfur.

Lake Hydrology

     The first consideration in the hydrology  of Lake Erie proper is
•that of the water balance, or balancing the water inputs  to the  lake with
losses.  The factors can be formulated, for a  given period,  in the
equation;

          P + R + U+I-0±D-E=  AS

          where:

          P = precipitation directly on the lake's surface
          R = runoff from the lake's land drainage area
          U = ground water - considered plus in the aggregate
          I = inflow from lake above
          0 = outflow from lake
          D = diversion; plus if into lake, minus if out  of lake
                                  2-22

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i
ro
                                                                                 LEGEND



                                                                                10 GPM  OR LESS




                                                                                10 TO 100 GPM




                                                                                OVER 100 GPM
                                                                                    LAKE  ERIE  BASIN

                                                                                    GROUND   WATER

                                                                                     AVAILABILITY

-------


-------
          E = evaporation from the lake's  surface
        A S = change in amount of water stored  in the  lake;
              plus if supplies exceed removal,  minus if  removals
              exceed supplies

     Precipitation (P) on the lake's  surface  is difficult to measure
and must be interpolated from perimeter land  precipitation measurements.
It is generally considered that over-lake  precipitation  is less than
that over land and precipitation on the lake's  surface approximately
equals evaporation in the long run.  In the balance shown here, the
precipitation (29 inches annually) at Put-in-Bay has been used.

     Runoff (R) is measurable to a degree  by  stream gaging but is
highly variable due to areal differences in precipitation, topography,
soil type, and vegetation.  Runoff is estimated by  applying factors,
derived from stream gaging, to stream drainage  basin areas.

     The ground-water contribution (U) is  virtually unknown,  is not
directly measurable, and is usually considered  negligible  in  lake  water  i ^-7
budget computations.  It is regarded as positive in the  equation,  meaningJ
that it is actually a negative factor.                                   I

     Inflow (I) from the lake above and natural outflow  (0) are not
difficult to measure, and the U. S. Lake Survey has done this  for  more
than 100 years.  The measurements are considered reliable  and adequate
for balance calculations.

     Diversion (D) in Lake Erie is of two kinds, diversion out of  the
basin and consumptive, or transient,  use within the basin.  Water  is
diverted out of the basin as a supply for the Welland  Ship Canal.   In
the balance, the U. S. Lake Survey estimate of  7»000 cfs annually  has
been used.  Within the basin, water is diverted for man's  use out  of
and back into the lake.  A small portion is consumed and not  returned
in this process.  The total consumption is measurable, but in the  total
lake water balance it is considered negligible.  The diversion factor
in Lake Erie is always minus.  Diversion to the lake from  outside  the
basin is non-existent.

     Evaporation (E) is a net loss from the lake.   Its measurement with
unquestioned accuracy is not possible with present  methods.   It is
usually calculated by solving the water budget  equation  for E. This
calculation obviously depends upon the accuracy of  the other  factors.
In the balance presented here it has been calculated to  be 3^.3 inches
per year.

     Changes in storage (AS) are easily measured by recording water
levels over the period.  Changes in water levels at a particular  site
induced by factors other than those in the equation; i.  e., wind  set-up,
seiches, and tides, are not'considered as changes in storage.  The long
term change in storage is assumed to be nil for Lake Erie.
                                   2-25

-------
     A Lake Erie vater budget study by Derecki  (1961+)  has  been  used
to determine monthly percentages of precipitation and  runoff.   Annual
runoff was calculated from U. S. Geological Survey and Canadian Water
Resources Branch surface water gaging data.  Inflow and outflow were
calculated from U. S. Lake Survey reported measurements.   Changes
in storage were calculated from average monthly water  levels  as re-
ported by the U. S. Lake Survey.  Evaporation was obtained by solving
the equation for it.

     The annual supply sources for the Lake Erie water balance  are
detailed in Table 2-3.  The relative importance of each of the  tribu-
taries to the Lake Erie water supply is graphically shown  in  Fig.  2-15,

     In the water balance table, Table 2-h, cubic feet per second
(cfs) has been used for the unit of volume.  The values shown can  be
converted to inches of water in Lake Erie by dividing  by 735 •
     A study of the water balance indicates the following significant
factors:  (l) annual evaporation nearly equals runoff to the lake, (2)
evaporation exceeds precipitation, (3) change in storage over a long
period is significant, and (h) evaporation is greatest in late winter
and in autumn.

     Calculations show that 80 percent of the net basin supply is
derived from Lake Huron inflow via the Detroit River, 9 percent is pre-
cipitation upon the lake's surface, and only 11 percent is contributed
by basin runoff.  Loss of water from Lake Erie consists of 86 percent
outflow, 3 percent diversion, and 11 percent evaporation.

Lake Levels
     Lake levels vary over short periods of time due to such phenomena
as wind set-up, seiches, and lunar and solar tides.  But, lake levels
show changes in storage only when averaged over long periods of time.
Changes in storage for Lake Erie reflect precipitation fluctuations over
it and the upper Great Lakes.  From i860 (the beginning of U. S. Lake
Survey records) to the present, change between minimum and maximum
levels for Lake Erie has been 5.3 feet—almost nine percent of the
lake's average depth.

     Short-period fluctuations mentioned above are manifested, not by
changes in volume, but by changes in the shape of the vater mass.  Tidal
effects are negligible, but wind set-up and seiches may be quite pro-
nounced, especially at the ends of the lake.

     A wind set-up is the result of wind drag across the lake.  Water
is pushed toward the leeward shore in greater quantity than can be
                                  2-26

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                                  TABLE 2-3

                         WATER SUPPLY TO LAKE ERIE
       Source
Supply
(cfs)
Percent of
  Total
Lake Supply
Percent of
  Basin
 Supply
Western Basin

   St.Clair River (Lake Huron, outflow)  187,450      79.774         92.921
   Black, Pine, Belle Rivers                 688        .293           .338
   Clinton River                             470        .200           .231
   Rouge River                               235        .100           .115
   Thames River                            1,840        .783           .903
   Miscellaneous Runoff                    1,799        .766           .883
   Precipitation (Lake St.Clair)             919        .391           .451
     Subtotal (Detroit River)            193,401      82.307         94.943

   Huron River (Michigan)                    556        .237           .273
   Raisin River  -                            714        .304           .351
   Maumee River               '             4,794       2.040          2.353
   Portage River                             403        .172           .198
   Miscellaneous Runoff                    1,271        .541           .624
   Precipitation (Western Basin)           2,564       1.091          1.259
      Subtotal                            10,302       4.384          5.057

   Total Western Basin                   203,703      86.691        100.000
      Evaporation                         -3,042      -1.295         -1.493
Central Basin

   Western Basin
   Sandusky River
   Huron River (Ohio)
   Vermilion River
   Black River
   Rocky River
   Cuyahoga River
   Chagrin River
   Grand River (Ohio)
   Ashtabula River
   Conneaut Creek
   Otter Creek
   Kettle Creek
   Miscellaneous Runoff
   Precipitation (Central Basin)

   Total Central Basin
      Evaporation
200,661
  1,021
    296
    228
    302
    273
    850
    333
    784
    169
    257
    312
    185
  1,410
 13.508

220,589
-16,023
 85.396
   .435
   .126
   .097
   .129
   .116
   .362
   .142
   .334
   .072
   .109
   .133
   .079
   .600
  5.749

 93.877
 -6.819
  90.966
    .463
    .134
    .103
    .137
    .124
    .385
    .151
    .355
    .077
    .117
    .141
    .084
    .639
   6.124

 100.000
  -7.264
                                     2-27

-------
               WATER SUPPLY TO LAKE ERIE (continued)
Source Supply
(cfs)
Percent of
Total
Lake Supply
Percent of
Basin
Supply
Eastern Basin
     Central Basin                 204,566       87.058          94.746
     Cattaraugus Creek                 705         .300            .327
     Buffalo River                     784         .334            .363
     Grand River (Ontario)           2,405        1.024           1.114
     Big Creek                         256         .108            .119
     Miscellaneous Runoff            2,023         .861            .937
     Precipitation (Eastern Basin)   5,172        2.201           2.395

     Total Eastern Basin           215,911       91.886         100.000
        Evaporation                 -6,135       -2.611          -2.841

     Lake Outflow                  209,776       89.275
                                      2-28

-------

-------
       TABLE 2-4

WATER BALANCE IN LAKE ERIE
        (cfs)
p + R + r
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Annual
Average
18,000
18,200
22,500
27,200
26,900
24,000
24,000
24,000
21,600
18,800
21,600
18,800
22,000
32,000
44,300
56,400
54,000
32,000
21,300
8,100
8,100
8,300
8,100
12,700
20,600
25,000
168,700
159,600
172,500
185,600
191,900
196,400
199,600
199,800
198,400
196,500
193,900
186,500
187,000
0
193,400
187,300
192,100
201,400
213,300
216,200
212,800
209,900
204,800
200,800
200,800
200,100
203,000
D
--
--
--
5,250
10,500
10,500
10,500
10,500
10,500
10,500
10,500
5,250
7,000
E
27,400
39,400
38,600
-4,050
-4,000
2,200
10,500
30,100
45,100
45,200
44,700
28,850
25,000
AS
-2,100
-4,600
20,700
64,200
31,000
12,800
-2,100
-18,600
-32,100
-33,100
-27,800
8,300

             2-30

-------
simultaneously returned in subsurface flow.   The water rises  at  the  lee-
ward side and is depressed at the windward side.  Lake Erie  is par-
ticularly susceptible to high amplitude wind set-ups because  of  its
shallowness and the orientation of its long axis parallel to  predominant
southwest and northeast winds.  Amplitudes in excess of 13 feet  have
been recorded simultaneously between the ends of the lake during storms.

     In general the highest amplitude wind set-ups occur in spring
and fall with northeasterly e.nd westerly winds, respectively. Flooding
and erosion are severe when high amplitude wind set-ups occur during
periods of high lake levels (times of increased storage).

     A wind set-up, which generally lasts less than 2k hours, forms  a
standing wave which will persist when the wind subsides.  The standing
wave, called a seiche, will persist and gradually diminish until another
wind set-up.  A typical example of wind set-ups and following seiches
is shown in Figure 2-16 for simultaneous lake level readings at  five
different stations.  Influencing winds and barometric pressure are also
shown.

     The primary seiche period of Lake Erie is lH.2 hours, that  of
the uninodal oscillation between the ends of the lake.  This seiche
period is nearly always apparent on water level records from west of
Cleveland and east of Ashtabula, Ohio.  Any number of seiches can exist
together and each can have several nodes, giving rise to seemingly
unintelligible water level records.  Even the harbors, where most re-
corders are located, can have short-period seiches called surges or
harbor resonance.

     The shortest period oscillations of water level are simple surface
waves caused by wind.  In Lake Erie these waves ordinarily have periods
of less than six seconds.  Wave heights are limited by lake depths and
fetch or length of water surface over which the wind blows.  In general,
maximum possible wave heights increase from west to east in Lake Erie.
Waves over six feet in height are rare in the western basin, while
similar conditions may produce wave heights of 15 or 20 feet in the
eastern basin.  Violence of waves in Lake Erie is caused by short wave
lengths and the resulting wave steepness.

     Waves are destructive to shore property in Lake Erie.  The
shoreline of Ohio is particularly susceptible because beaches are
narrow and most banks are clay.  Waves, of course, are more destructive
during high lake stages and in areas of simultaneous wind set-up.  In
the western basin, wave action is believed to be the principal agent in
maintaining the relatively high turbidity of the shallow water by
stirring up bottom sediments.

Lake Water Temperatures

     Lake Erie is the warmest of the Great Lakes.  Mid-lake surface
                                   2-31

-------
570
568  MONROE, MICH
570
568   MARBLEHEAD, 0
570
568   CLEVELAND, 0.
570
568   BARCELONA, N.Y,
570
• 568  BUFFALO, N.Y.
             SIMULTANEOUS  LAKE  'ERIE  LEVELS
                 WIND AT BUFFALO AIRPORT
•30.00 IN.
•29.50 IN.
29.00 IN.
           BAROMETRIC  PRESSURE  AT  BUFFALO
9/19/64! 9/20 I 9/21  I 9/22 I 9/23 I  9/24 \  9/25 I 9/26 I 9/27-19/28 I g/29 ' 9/30 '


            LAKE  LEVELS AND  WINDS
                     SEPTEMBER,  1964
                                                    FIGURE  4-6
                           2-32

-------
water reaches an average maximum of about 75°F usually  in the  first
half of August (Figure 2-17).   Occasionally the summer  temperature in
mid-lake surface water rises above 80°F.   Nearshore water normally
reaches a maximum along the south shore of 80°F or more.

     The most important characteristic of lake temperatures  in summer
is temperature stratification.  Upper warm water (epilimnion)  becomes
separated from bottom cold water .(nypolimnion), Figure  2-18.   The
transition zone between these layers is called the thennocline.

     Surface water temperatures throughout much of the  ice-free seasons
reflect water depth with temperature decreasing toward  deep  water.   This
inverse relationship changes to a direct relationship in the fall and
early winter.

     Water temperature is, of course, changed by variations  in air
temperature, and the relationship is direct.  Slight modifications
to the relationship are caused by the amount of sunshine,  strength and
duration of winds, and by humidity.

     Temperature phenomena in Lake Erie vary between the basins quite
significantly, and these phenomena are important in the lake's processes.
Under average conditions the western basin freezes over completely in
winter.  The freeze usually occurs in January and the ice breaks up
in early March.  The remainder of the lake freezes over only under the
most severe conditions.  Normally it freezes only along the  shores with
a varying cover of floe ice in mid-lake.  Ice normally disappears in
Lake Erie by May 1.

     Warming of the lake water usually begins immediately after the ice
break-up.  The rate of warming is remarkably uniform until about the
first of July when the maximum temperature is being approached and the
rate flattens out.

     A comparison of surface water temperature curves and air temperature
curves (Figure 2-17) shows that during the ice-free season there is a
definite and expected parallelism.  The water temperature curve lags
the air temperature by 9 to 12 days in spring and by 12 to 15 days in
fall.  The greatest departure is in midsummer when the air temperature
decline begins about three weeks before the water temperature decline.

     Temperature of the surface water of Lake Erie is of less sig-
nificance than the three-dimensional temperature structure.   This
structure influences circulation of the water and its dissolved and sus-
pended substances, and also has a marked influence on the chemical and
biochemical activity at the bottom sediment-water interface.

     Western Basin;  Figures 2-19a, b, and c diagrammatically show the
development of seasonal temperature structure in each of Lake Erie's
three basins.  Figure 2-19a for the western basin shows the simplest
                                 2-33

-------
   YEARLY  WATER  TEMPERATURE  CURVE, PUT-IN-BAY, OHIO
         AND AIR  TEMPERATURE  AT  TOLEDO, OHIO

JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN  JUL | AUG | SEP  | OCT { NOV |  DEC
                          /
                           X80-^'      X
                          Av. Water Temp.
   Water Temp. Range,
       1918-1965
                           -30-
  55 r


  54


  53


  52


  51


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  49
       1920
1930
1940
1950
I960
        ANNUAL  AVERAGE  WATER  TEMPERATURES  AT
   PUT-IN-BAY,  OHIO  AND  ERIE,  PENNSYLVANIA  1918-1965
    (FROM OHIO DIV. OF WILDLIFE AND U.S. BUR. CONIM. FISH. DATA)
                                               FIGURE  4-19

-------
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-------
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                                     2-36

-------
thermal structure.   In spring the temperature  of the  entire water  column
rises gradually.  In summer the water is usually nearly isothermal verti-
cally.  A transient secondary thermocline of little importance  can be
formed near the surface during hot calm periods.  During periods of
normal winds and above average air temperatures, a thermocline  can be
formed near the bottom, simultaneously with the  development of  a secondary
thermocline in the central basin.  This thermocline is  accompanied by
rapid de-oxygenation of the bottom water due to  oxygen  consuming material
and the inability of oxygen to penetrate the thermocline.

     Storms equalize temperatures in the western basin  top to bottom.
In August when cooling begins, the western basin water  is vertically
isothermal and remains so as it cools in fall  and winter.

     Central Basin:  The central basin water,  Figure  2-19b, has a  simple
fall, winter, and spring thermal structure.  In  summer  the structure is
more complex than in the western basin.  The temperature at the beginning
of the first summer weather cycle in early June  is approximately the
temperature of the following hypolimnion.

     The stable thermocline and hypolimnion are  formed  relatively
suddenly during the first storm ending this weather cycle. The intensity
of this storm determines the depth of the thermocline,  and the  thermo-
cline remains at approximately its initial elevation  until the  lake
begins to cool in August.  During this time the  hypolimnion  loses  oxygen
and may lose it all because it does not mix with the  water above,  and it
contains oxidizing organic matter.

     Summer storms cause upwelling, downwelling, and amplify  internal
waves in the central basin, especially during northwesters.   The hypo-
limnion slides around in the basin.  This water  movement probably  brings
bottom sediments into suspension and this may increase  oxygen consumption,
bringing about relatively sudden oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion.

     Summer weather cycles cause the epilimnion  to alternate  in structure
between one layer and three layers.  Storms equalize the temperature of
the epilimnion.  Figure 2-20 shows the summer cyclic  development at a
station in the central basin for the month of June.  In August  the
epilimnion begins to cool uniformly.  The density gradient at the  thermo-
cline decreases and the thermocline deepens, disappearing entirely by
October.

     Eastern Basin;  The temperature structure of the eastern basin is
probably like that of the deeper Great Lakes,  Figure 2-19c.   In winter
it is nearly isothermal and may have reverse stratification.   In spring
it mixes top to bottom and is vertically isothermal.   The upper waters
warm gradually and a shallow thick thermocline forms  early,  thinning and
deepening as summer progresses.  The epilimnion is mixed more often or
more constantly than in the central basin.  Figure 2-21 shows a typical
summer thermal development at a station in the eastern basin.
                                  2-3T

-------
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                           U    N   E         196
           345  6789  flO I II I 12 I 13 114 I 15 I 16 I 17 I (8 I 19 |20|2l |22|23|24 25 26 27J28


                           WATER TEMPERATURES-STA^-^j

                   r
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                       IOM
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-------
     Mixing in the epilimnion of the eastern basin may be  aided,  greatly
or perpetuated by relatively high amplitude thermoclinal waves.   Sig-
nificant internal wave motion is virtually constant throughout the
summer with an inertial IT to 18-hour period dominant.  The  thermocline
thins and deepens rapidly after the epilimnion begins  to cool.   Just
before the thermocline disappears, usually in November, it has reached
a depth of 100 feet or more.  With its disappearance the hypolimnion
zone warms somewhat, due to mixing, and then begins to cool  to winter
temperatures.

     Effects of Temperature Phenomena;  Temperature plays  a  most im-
portant role in the pollution of Lake Erie, as does the temperature-
related density stratification.  Some of the more important  effects are:

     1.  Actual temperature controls plant and animal  productivity
         of the lake to some degree; in general the higher the
         temperature, the greater the productivity.

     2.  Intermittent thermal stratification near the  bottom of  the
         western basin leads to rapid de-oxygenation of the  water in
         the hypolimnion, when and where it occurs.  The warmer  the
         hypolimnion the more rapid the de-oxygenation will  be.

     3.  Stable summer thermal stratification in the central basin
         leads to the annual de-oxygenation of hypolimnetic  water.

     U.  Thermal stratification in the eastern basin does  not have
         serious consequences because of the much greater  thickness
         and less rapid circulation of the hypolimnion.

     5.  Temperature is important in controlling water movements in
         nearshore areas.  Density barriers may confine warmer waters
         and pollution substances to the nearshore zones,  especially
         along the south shore, in spring and summer.

     6.  Temperature rises in general limit top to bottom mixing;
         temperature declines favor it.

Lake Currents
     Water movements in Lake Erie appear to be complex, and at any one
time the circulation pattern may differ markedly from that of another
time.

     Horizontal currents generally have more energy than vertical
currents, but all currents tend to relocate and disperse suspended or
dissolved constituents.  Water movement is quite different "between off-
shore and nearshore waters because of the effects of "bottom topography,
temperature differences, and other density variations.
                                  2-UO

-------
     It is very difficult to describe  Lake  Erie's predominant flows
three-dimensionally as such directions vary with both  depth  and location
in each basin.  Therefore, the discussion of  Lake Erie's  currents will
deal mainly with surface and bottom currents.

     Western Basin Circulation - A pattern  of most  probable  dominant
surface currents has been compiled, Figure  2-22, using the data from  all
of these studies.

     The surface currents in the western half of the basin are dominated
by the Detroit River inflow.  In the eastern  half of the  basin the  surface
flow is greatly influenced by the prevailing  southwesterly winds, and
this effect produces a clockwise flow around  the islands. Eddy current
effects along the sides of the Detroit River  inflow lead  to  sluggish  move-
ment of surface water west of Colchester, Ontario and  between Stony Point,
Michigan and Toledo.  These eddies tend to  retain waters  contained  within
them, leading to higher concentrations of pollutants commonly found in
these areas.

     The surface flow of the western basin  water  is often altered by
changes in wind direction and intensity. The effect of strong winds
on surface circulation is essentially to skim the  surface water and move
it in the direction of the wind.  A sufficiently  strong wind will move
most of the surface water in the same direction.

     Surface flow tells nothing about bottom circulation.  It has been
found that^ in summer, bottom currents in the western  part  of the basin
are similar to surface currents, being dominated by the Detroit River in-
flow (Figure 2-23).  However, in the island area,  the  bottom currents are
apparently the reverse of the surface currents with a  counter-clockwise
flow around the islands.

     Like the surface movement, bottom currents can also  be  changed
by the wind, although it probably takes a stronger wind to create a
major change of pattern.  With very strong  winds,  which cause major
changes of water level, the bottom currents are essentially  the  reverse
of surface currents.  This means, for example, that a  strong westerly
wind will cause bottom currents toward the  west and a  strong easterly
wind will cause bottom currents to shift toward the east.

     Seiches and changing winds complicate  the patterns which  occur at
any particular, time.  An ice cover will enable the existence of a more
or less stable pattern which should be similar to the  dominant  pattern
of summer surface flow.

     The most significant effects of current patterns  in the western
basin are:

     1.  Concentrations of contaminants from the  Detroit, Raisin,
         and Maumee Rivers may build up along the west shore under
         the conditions of dominant flows,  both surface and bottom.
                                 2-1*1

-------
DOMINANT SUMMER SURFACE
   •  FLOW  PATTERN
       LAKE  ERIE
     (DIRECTION ONLY)

-------
   83° 50'
                • 3"
                           SO'
                                       62°
 HILtl
                                                                                         DOMINANT  SUMMER BOTTOM
                                                                                               FLOW  PATTERN
                                                                                                       IN
                                                                                                  LAKE  ERIE
                                                                                               (DIRECTION ONLY)
                                                                                                           RGURE

-------
     2.  Concentrations of contaminants  may similarly build up to
         even higher values under ice cover since wind  then has
         less effect.

     3.  Winds cause mixing and redistribution of contaminants
         over the entire basin in ice-free periods.

     U.  A portion of central Lake Erie  water may recirculate  in
         and around the island area of the western basin.

     Central Basin Circulation - The wind exerts a  dominating  effect  on
the water circulation of the central basin of Lake Erie.   The  orientation
of the basin, with its long axis essentially parallel to the prevailing
southwesterly winds, makes this effect especially important.

     The predominant surface water movement in central  Lake Erie is  also
illustrated in Figure 2-22.  The pattern is for summer  but should be
similar for winter months except for a decided shift in movement toward
the southeast and south as a result of the more frequent occurrence  of
northwesterly winds.

     Surface currents do not exactly parallel the wind  direction but
move to the right of it because of the Coriolis effect. The predominant
pattern is essentially that of resultant movement over  an  extended
period, at any one time, surface movement may be greatly  different or
even reversed.

     Because surface currents are generally moving  water  in much greater
quantity than can be removed from the basin, the balancing movement  must
be subsurface and essentially a return flow over most of the basin.   The
predominant bottom flow pattern for summer is shown in  Figure  2-23-   In
this case, bottom flow means -the motion  at the lake bottom in  unstratified
water, but where the lake is thermally stratified it means the predominant
movement at the bottom of the epilimnion.  It is generally westward and
more or less opposite to the surface flow.

     High velocity currents (up to 2 ft/sec.) have  been measured in
the hypolimnion during storms.  These are brought about during upwelling
and downwelling when the hypolimnion water is forced to slide  around in
the basin.  This phenomenon results in higher velocity currents at the
bottom in late summer and early fall when the hypolimnion  is  thin and
sharply divided from the epilimnion.

     Bottom currents near shore are pronounced in summer  and are quite
different from bottom currents off shore, indicating a separate system
of water movement.  There is a distinct  eastward movement  of nearshore
water, top to bottom.  Water temperature structure  supports this con-
clusion with a spring and summer band of warmer water near the south
shore.

-------
     Transport of sediments near the water line  along the  south  shore
of the central basin is not necessarily indicative  of prevalent  flow
of water.  For example, from Avon Point westward, beach sediment
accretion patterns indicate a general drift toward  the west.   This
results from wave action in the nearshore zone which is stronger from
the northeast.  Sediments are moved toward the west during the inter-
mittent periods of northeasters.  The slower but more prevalent  water
circulation toward the east is unable to transport  the sediments.   From
Avon Point eastward, the nearshore sediment drifts  toward  the east, the
same as prevailing water flow, because increased westerly  fetch  makes
waves from that direction more effective.

     A different type of situation exists along  the north  shore  of
the central basin.  In summer, the zone of separate nearshore flow, if
it exists at all, is limited.  Temperature measurements indicate that
the near-shore water is cooler throughout the summer than  along  the
south shore.  This implies removal of warm upper water and replenishment
by lower cooler water.

     The Canadian shore of the central basin is  more irregular than
the south shore, and the irregularity has a pronounced effect on wave
action and beach drift along the shore.  On the  east side  of Pelee
Point the drift is toward the south-southwest, moving sediment to the
tip of Pelee Point.  Between Wheatley and Erieau,  Ontario, the drift
reverses and at Erieau it is toward the east. Along the eastern side
of Pointe-aux-Pins, the drift is toward the south.   Eastward, the drift
reverses again and at Port Stanley and eastward  the drift  is strongly
toward the east.  All of these drift phenomena are functions of  wind,
fetch, and resulting wave force in the nearshore zone, and do not
necessarily reflect prevailing nearshore water movement.

     The most significant change in circulation  in the central basin
water, in fall and winter, is the disruption of  the confining influence
of temperature differences.  Usually in September  the surface waters  of
Lake Erie become nearly uniform in temperature ,  and by the first of
October, the thermocline has disappeared from the  central basin. The
higher temperatures which previously existed along the south shore  dis-
appear, and there is no longer a density restriction to water movement.
In effect then, the nearshore flow is more free  to move water lakeward,
and cooler tributary water can flow under the lake water.   The bottom
flow return circulation in mid-lake reaches to the lake bottom where
the thermal barrier (thermocline) previously blocked it from the lake
bottom.

     In spring when the shore water warms to several degrees above  the
temperature of mid-lake water, the south shore nearshore flow zone  is
re-established.  Warmer tributary discharges may be even more confined
to the nearshore zone.

-------
     Conclusions which can be made regarding the  pollutional  effects
of currents in central Lake Erie ore as  follows:

     1.  In spring and summer, tributary and lake outfall  discharges
         along the south shore tend to stay near  shore  and move  east-
         ward primarily as a result of the prevailing southwesterly
         winds.

     2.  In fall and early winter, the same kinds of discharges  can
         flow under the lake water and can be distributed  over the
         basin.

     3.  Contaminants reaching more than three miles off shore are
         likely to be distributed over the entire basin.

     k.  A vertical circulation in mid-lake exists year-round with
         easterly moving surface flow and westerly moving  bottom
         flow.

     5.  The hypolimnion of mid-summer may not have a net  circulation
         flow but does have occasional high-velocity flow  with up
         and downwelling.  This flow is capable of resuspending  un-
         compacted bottom sediments.

     6.  Surface waters in summer move toward the south shore and
         away from the north shore.

     7.  Velocities at any level can be up to 2 feet per second
         during storms.

     8.  Vertical turbulent mixing is very effective in storms in
         the epilimnion in summer and throughout in unstratified
         water.

     9.  Dispersion of suspended materials is slow and  limited.

     Eastern Basin Circulation - Water circulation in" the  eastern basin
is primarily wind-controlled.  Flow-through currents become important
near the headwaters of the Niagara River but are otherwise insignificant,

     The surface water movement in the eastern basin appears to  be
similar to that of the central basin in that the dominant  flow is east-
ward and toward the south shore (Figure 2-23).  The predominant  surface
flow over most of the eastern basin is probably similar throughout the
year, but with a shift more toward the south in fall and winter.

     The surface flow in the nearshore zone along the south shore is
predominantly to the east, but an essentially independent  summer zone
is much narrower than in the central basin and is probably most  im-
portant in spring and early summer.
                                2-1+6

-------
     Net subsurface flow in summer is  somewhat confused in  the  lower
layers of the epilimnion.  The resulting areal pattern is as  shown  in
Figure 2-23 for the lake bottom in unstratified water and the lower
layers of the epilimnion in stratified water.   Short  term patterns
often seem disrupted and confused by commonly  occurring internal
thermoclinal waves, leading to difficulties in determining  net  flows.
Just below the thermocline the predominant motion is  apparently similar
to that Just above the thermocline.  It appears that  a vertical cir-
culation may be important in the hypolimnion.   The horizontal lake
bottom currents are nearly the reverse of currents just below the
thermocline.  Velocities at the bottom are ordinarily very  slow
however, increasing upward.  When upwelling occurs, high velocity
currents are not associated as in the central  basin.

     The thermocline disappears in the eastern basin  ordinarily in
November.  The circulation changes to one system, with a predominant
southeastward moving surface flow and a westward moving current at
the lake bottom.  Velocities decrease with depth and  are probably
insignificant at the bottom except within a few miles of shore  in
shallower waters.

     In summary the eastern basin circulation  is similar to the
central basin and in general is as follows:

     1.  A vertical circulation exists above the thermocline in
         summer.  The dominant flow is eastward at the surface  and
         westward in the lower part of the epilimnion.

     2.  A vertical circulation, similar to above, exists,  top  and
         bottom in early winter, and perhaps all winter, with a
         slower but greater volume of movement at the bottom in
         deeper water.

     3.  Internal waves on the thermocline lead to turbulent mixing
         in the epilimnion.

     U.  Discharges from tributaries are carried to deep water quickly
         at nearly all times of the year.  A somewhat broader near-
         shore current, which restricts dispersion, is limited to
         spring and early summer.

     5.  Discharges not caught in the Niagara outflow can be distributed
         over the entire basin.

     6.  Surface water moves toward the south shore and away from the
         north shore and vice versa at depth.

     7.  Discharges into upper waters of either the central or eastern
         basins may at one time or another be  found nearly anywhere
         in either of these basins.                                     (
                               2-1+7

-------
     8.  Water below the level reached by the  summer  thermocline may
         be trapped there due to incomplete  overturns for  long
         periods, on the order of a year or  more.

     General Observations - During periods of  quiet weather in  summer,
rotational currents, due to internal waves with an inertial period, are
created in the central and eastern basins with no  net transport in-
volved.

     It appears that, at least in summer, the  bulk of the  drainage from
Lake Erie is from surface water, much of which has been moved to,  and
is moving along the south shore of the central and eastern basins.
This tends to create two retention systems,  one of which is much
shorter than the theoretical retention time, and one  which is much
longer.

Present Management of Water Resources

     Water resources in the Lake Erie basin  are for the most part  not
managed for flow regulation and flood control.  Supply storage  reservoirs
have been constructed, i. e., at several places on the Maumee River,  on
the Cuyahoga River by the city of Akron, and on the Rocky River by the
city of Berea.  There are several upground reservoirs in the Maumee
River basin.  Some of these reservoirs (i. e.  at Lima) impound  almost
the total flow of the stream.  Other than those just  mentioned, dams  are
few in number and of little consequence to the purposes of this report.

     The stream basins in the Lake Erie watershed  are not generally
adaptable to large storage reservoirs because  of flat land and  narrow
valleys.  An exception is the Grand River valley in Ohio where  a large
reservoir is being contemplated as part of a proposed Lake Erie-Ohio
River canal system.

     At this time flow regulation for waste  assimilation is being con-
sidered in a number of river sections, particularly in the lower reaches,
such as the Buffalo, Cuyahoga, Maumee, and Raisin  Rivers.

     Flow of the upper Niagara River is controlled by diversionary works
for power production.  These works are capable of  greatly affecting the
flow of the river above the Falls, and minimum seasonal and daily flows
have been established by international agreement.   The control  works
do not appreciably affect Lake Erie proper and the discharge rate from
it.  They are not of concern to pollution within the  Lake Erie  basin  as
considered in this report.
                POPULATION AND ECONOMIC PROJECTIONS

     A water quality program must be based not only upon present but
also upon future needs, which of course, are dependent upon the economic
                                  2-1+8

-------
and population growth of the area.   This section describes  the  factors
in general terms for the Lake Erie  basin and for economic subregions  of
the basin.  The basin has been divided into thirteen subregions on the
basis of similar economic characteristics.

Population

     In I960 more than 10 million persons lived in the United States
portion of the Erie basin and 1.2 million lived in the Canadian portion.
This is almost a three-fold increase over the 1910 population,
Figure 2-2l*.  About 80 percent of the basin population is shared evenly
by Michigan and Ohio..  Figure 2-25  shows the I960 population and projections
for 1990 and 2020 for various economic subregions.  It is anticipated that
the population will double in the next 50 years, and the population in
the U. S. part of the basin may exceed 23 million by 2020.   Although the
rate of future overall growth is comparable to the national growth rate
(Figure 2-210, past and estimated future growth rates show great differences
within the watershed.

     Counties which have shown the most rapid growth rates in terms of
percent during the 1950-1960 decade are Macomib and Oakland counties
(northern Detroit area) in Michigan and Lake and Geauga counties (eastern
Cleveland area) in Ohio.  In terms  of numbers, however, the largest in-
creases were in Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne counties (Detroit area) in
Michigan; Allen County (Fort Wayne area) in Indiana; Erie County (Buffalo
area) in New York; and Cuyahoga County (Cleveland area), Summit County
(Akron area), Lorain County (Lorain and Elyria areas), and Lucas County
(Toledo area) in Ohio.  These nine counties out of a total of 1*5 in the
basin, accounted for 50 percent of the 1950-1960 population increase.
Present indications are that these large metropolitan counties will
account for an even greater share of the total population growth in the
future.  Already the population in the Erie basin is more than 85 percent
urban.

Economy

     The Lake Erie basin population enjoys a thriving economy.  It is
diversified although heavily weighted in favor of manufacturing.

     Manufacturing:  Industrial growth in the Lake Erie basin appears to
be paralleling the growth of the states.  About 25 percent of the total
production of the five Lake Erie states is within the basin.

     Industrial activity as measured by value added by manufacture, is
for the most part concentrated in a few highly populated metropolitan
areas, and most manufacturing is near the lakeshore  because it relies
on a plentiful water supply as well as waterborne commerce.  The leading
counties in 1963,listed in descending order, were:  Wayne, Michigan;
Cuyahoga, Ohio; Erie, New York; Summit, Ohio; Lucas, Ohio; and Oakland
and Macomb, Michigan.  These seven counties accounted for 75 percent of
                                  2-1*9

-------
I9ZO
           1940
                     I960
                                1980
                                           2000
                                                     2020
             POPULATION   PROJECTIONS
                  2-5O

-------
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            HILLSDALE I LENAWEE  | MONROE
                 I MICH.    I
                                 to  e  to 10  jo 40  so
                                                                       POPULATION PROJECTIONS
                                                                                   •FOR
                                                                        ECONOMIC SUBREGIONS
                                                                                   IN
                                                                           LAKE  ERIE  BASIN

-------
the total Value Added by Manufacture in the  entire watershed (Figure 2-26).

     Figure 2-27 lists the chief types  of manufacturing  for each of the
economic subregions of the U.  S. part of the basin.   Chemical  industry
activity is projected to quadruple in the Lake  Erie  basin by the year
2020, primarily in the subregions in which it is  now significant.  All
other industrial activity is expected to approximately double.  However
industrial water use, although expected to increase  somewhat,  will not
increase by the same proportions, because the demand will be less per
unit of activity due to increased inplant efficiency.

     Agriculture;  Agricultural activity decreases with  expanding
urbanization but remains a vital part of the Lake Erie basin economy.
Its importance is due to the high fertility and tilth of the old lake
bed and beach soils, the large area and flatness  of  the  region, and the
moderating influence of the Great Lakes upon the  climate of the area.
Because of the predominance of some factors over  others, specialized
farming predominates in some areas, i.  e. truck crops, nursery products,
fruits, etc.

     Figure 2-28 illustrates for the economic subregions, the  value of
agricultural sales in the U. S. portion of the Erie  basin for  the year
1959-  As this figure indicates, the most intensively cultivated land
is in and around the Maumee and Sandusky River basins.

     In general the kind of agricultural crop activity changes from
west to east in the basin, from general farming to  truck crops to
nursery products to fruit crops at the east end,  Figure  2-10,  Land  Use.
Also, in general, agricultural activity increases inland from  the lake
shore.

     Agricultural production in the Erie basin is expected to  double by
the year 2020, paralleling the population growth, even though  areas
under cultivation will probably decrease.

     Commerce:  The Lake Erie basin is near the commercial  center of one
of the most industrially productive areas in the world.   The  five states
of the basin contribute more than 36 percent of the  nation's manufacturing
output.  In addition, these states contain or are near the nation's largest
coal reserves and the richest agricultural lands.  These factors, combined
with the availability of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence  Seaway for
waterborne commerce and the restrictive effect of Lake Erie  on the  con-
vergence of land routes, have made the basin a major distribution area
for both raw materials and finished products.

     The basin is traversed by an excellent network of state,  federal,
and interstate highways and railroads.   It has eleven major  U. S. ports:
Detroit, Toledo, Sandusky, Huron, Lorain, Cleveland, Fairport, Ashtabula,
Conneaut, Erie, and Buffalo.  Table 2-5 lists the major Lake Erie ports
and their total export and import tonnages.  Also listed is  the  largest
                                 2-52

-------
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      MICH
      IND.
                                                                           VALUE  ADDED
                                                                      BY MANUFACTURE -1963
                                                                                IN
                                                                       ECONOMIC  SUBREGIONS
                                                                                OF
                                                                         LAKE ERIE  BASIN

-------
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             LEGEND
    PETROLEUM  PRODUCTS



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         IND.
                                                                                                 MAJOR   MANUFACTURING

                                                                                                               IN

                                                                                                 ECONOMIC   SUBREGIONS

                                                                                                               OF

                                                                                                     LAKE   ERIE  BASIN

-------
             GEND
    25 — MILLIONS OF DOLLARS
    25 — MILLIONS  OF  DOLLARS

        LIVESTOCK SALES
AGRICULTURAL  SALES-1959
              IN
     LAKE   ERIE   BASIN

-------
        TABLE 2-5

TRADE AT LAKE ERIE PORTS
  (thousands of tons)
Port
Detroit
Toledo
Sandusky
Huron
Lorain
Cleveland
Fairport
Ashtabula
Conneaut
Erie
Buffalo
Total tonnage
in 1962
27,023
36,536
4,154
1,546
5,800
16,900
3,051
9,051
3,063
2,550
15,587
Largest Commodity
Coal and iron ore import
Coal export
Coal export
Iron ore import
Iron ore import
Iron ore import
Limestone import
Iron ore import
Iron ore import
Iron ore import
Iron ore import
             2-56

-------
commodity handled at each port.

     In 1963 Lake Erie accounted for 13 billion ton-miles  of shipping
out of a total of 95 billion on  the Great Lakes.  The Detroit River
must accommodate all water-borne traffic between Lake Erie and the
upper lakes.  In 1962 this amounted to more than 100 million tons of
cargo.

     Mining and Lumbering;  Mining is not an important part of the
overall economy of the Lake Erie basin, although in certain areas it
is significant.  Wherever mining occurs, it is confined to non-metallics,
and is not expected to increase  significantly except for salt production.

     Sand and gravel are stripped from open pits at many places in the
basin, usually in old beach ridges and glacial end moraines.  Sand and
gravel are also removed from the lake bed in Maumee Bay, Pelee Passage,
between Vermilion and Pelee Point, off Fairport, and northwest of Erie,
Pennsylvania.  This yield amounts to about one million tons annually,
valued at about three million dollars.

     Salt is mined at Detroit, Cleveland, and at Fairport, Ohio.  The
latter two mines are beneath Lake Erie.  All are deep and mined by shaft
and room-and-pillar method.  In 1961* some eight million tons were mined
with a value of nearly 50 million dollars.

     Gypsum is mined both by the drift room-and-pillar method and by
the open-pit method at Port Clinton, Ohio.  Total production is on the
order of one-half million tons annually.

     Limestone and dolomite are quarried in the western part of the
basin, the main activity concentrated near Sandusky, Ohio.  Some lime-
stone quarrying is also done in the east end of the basin.  Total pro-
duction is estimated at 30 million tons annually with a value of 1+5
million dollars.

     Sandstone quarrying is an important operation at Amherst, near
Lorain, Ohio.  It is not significant elsewhere.

     Oil and gas production, formerly significant in the economy of the
U. S. portion of the basin, especially at Lima and near Cleveland, is no
longer of consequence.  However, the states of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and
New York are now considering leasing portions of the lake bottom for
drilling.  The bottom of Lake Erie is now producing significant quantities
of gas in Canadian waters northeast of Point Pelee and in the vicinity of
Long Point Bay.  There are some producing wells on Pelee Island and
along the Canadian shore.  Drilling for oil in the lake can add to
pollution problems and could have a serious bearing on water quality
unless careful controls are maintained.

     A minor amount of fire clay is produced near Cleveland, and marl
                                  2-57

-------
has "been quarried near Sandusky.

     Lumbering is not important in the Lake Erie basin although it
has been to some extent in the past.

     Tourism:  In the Lake Erie basin tourism is a major industry,
adding hundreds of millions of dollars annually to the basin's economy.
The lake itself is the main attraction.  In general the basin does  not
have an abundance of scenic beauty or other factors to make it especially
attractive.  Therefore tourism is largely confined to activities in
which the lake plays a part, such as boating, swimming, and fishing.

     The largest and fastest growing tourist enterprises are the Presque
Isle State Park at Erie, Pennsylvania, and Cedar Point beach and amusement
park at Sandusky, Ohio.  The remainder of the tourism industry can be
classified as group endeavors, or many clusters of small enterprises
such as in the island area, along the shore from Huron to Cleveland,
and inshore suburbs of larger towns.  The economy of the larger islands
and some towns, such as Geneva-on-the-Lake, Ohio, are largely dependent
upon summer residents, vacationers, and visitors.

     State and provincial parks such as East Harbor and Headlands in
Ohio, Presque Isle in Pennsylvania, and Long Point in Ontario are re-
sponsible for attracting large numbers of visitors, and they are becoming
increasingly important for bolstering the tourism industry.

     In winter, providing accommodations for ice fishermen has also
become important.  In previous years this was mainly  confined to the
islands, but it is now increasing at many places along the shores.

     Excursion trips, once of importance on Lake Erie, are no longer
significant.

     Tourism can be expected to increase in parallel with the development
of recreational facilities on which it largely depends.  The development
of facilities is not rapidly expanding except in a few local areas where
state governments or large private enterprises are developing facilities.
The total tourism industry should double its present activity by the year
2020.  However, certain facets of the industry, especially those centered
around small boating activities, are now expanding rapidly and should
increase at a significantly greater rate than population growth.

     Commercial Fishing:  In the past, fishing in Lake Erie was an
important segment of the economy, and particularly at many of the smaller
port cities along the lake, especially in the western half of the basin.
For example, only a few years ago Sandusky, Ohio laid claim to being
one of the largest freshwater fishing ports in the world.

     Within the last 20 years the fishing industry on the United States
side of Lake Erie has suffered an almost disastrous decline because of
                                 2-58

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the disappearance of prized species, such as walleye, blue pike,  and
whitefish, upon which the industry depended so heavily.   Reluctance
of the industry to adapt to less desirable types of fish also con-
tributed to this decline.  There is still about 20 million dollars of
capital investment in the Ohio commercial fishing industry, but this is
only about one-third of the investment in sport fishing.

     The Canadian fishing industry has offset the decline, in volume,
of the U. S. fisheries.  It has maintained the industry through im-
proved efficiency and flexibility in adapting its efforts to the less
desirable species, primarily smelt and yellow perch.  It has made
large capital investments since 1950, with governmental assistance.

     Total catch in Lake Erie, in pounds, appears to be tenuously
holding its own; but dollar value is decreasing.  For example, in the
1950-59 decade, an average annual catch of 53 million pounds of fish
brought 7-5 million dollars, while between 1960 and 1961*, a catch of
52 million pounds brought only 3-9 million dollars, Table 2-6.

     Projecting the economic future of commercial fishing is virtually
impossible.  The market demand for desirable fish will probably parallel
population growth, but this will have little effect on production if
the proper kinds and quantity of fish are not available.  Attempts at
fish management have had little effect up to now on production.  It is
not known with complete assurance whether pollution control alone can
re-establish the Lake Erie fishery, and the effects of attempts to
utilize less desirable species are also unknown.  The economic future of
commercial fishing does not appear bright.  Other reasons for the
probable future decline are changes in church attitude toward meat
fasting, reluctance toward eating other than the traditional species, and
public concern for possible pollution effects on fish quality.
                                 2-59

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                                                      TABLE 2-6

                            AVERAGE ANNUAL LAKE ERIE COMMERCIAL FISHING PRODUCTION AND VALUE
                                               BY STATES AND PROVINCE

                                      (Thousands of Pounds; Thousands of Dollars)
ro
Ohio
Period
1934-1939
1940-1949
1950-1959

1960-1964
Ibs.
24,882
21,233
21,793

14,900
Value
1,430
2,825
3,719
i
1,266
Michigan
Ibs.
1,083
1,211
1,473

1,624
Value
50
109
122

123
Pennsylvania
Ibs.
3,183
2,715
1,827

1,336
Value
259
416
409

121
New York
Ibs.
1,213
1,182
726

355
Value
105
168
147

56
Ontario
Ibs.
13,552
14,272
24,415

33,799
Value
771
2,220
3,677

2,365
Total
Ibs.
43,913
40,613
53,234

52,014
Value
2,615
5,738
7,534

3,931
        U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries data,  1966.

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                          CHAPTER 3

                          WATER USES
     Since water quality requirements vary with the uses  demanded,  the
goals of an adequate water pollution control program are  determined by
the uses of the water supply.  Upon improvement of the water quality,
the variety of practical uses should be expanded whenever possible.
Otherwise, the pollution control program would offer no greater benefits
than maintaining current conditions of use.

     Two basic kinds of water uses must be satisfied:  (l) consumptive
transient uses and (2) non-consumptive water environment  uses.   Consump-
tive uses include drinking and household supply, industrial supply,
power supply, irrigation, and stock watering.  Non-consumptive  uses
include commercial shipping, recreation, fish and wildlife propagation,
and waste water assimilation.  The effect of pollution on these uses
is discussed in Chapter 5»

Municipal Water Use

     Lake Erie is presently a good raw water source in both quantity
and quality for domestic supply, although tastes and odors in drinking
water occasionally  occur and bacterial problems have been observed at
water intakes.  Municipal supplies often provide some water for industrial
uses.  Major water intakes are shown in Figure 3-1.

     Lake Erie now supplies about kQ percent or 638 MGD (million gallons
per day) of the municipal water needs of the basin.  Another Ul percent
or 551 MGD is supplied by the Detroit River.  Other surface and under-
ground sources supply the remainder of 158 MGD or 11 percent.  This
ratio will undoubtedly change because inland sources in many cases have
almost reached their productive capacity while the demand continues to
increase.  Thus it is projected that Lake Erie will be supplying over
57 percent of the 2020 demand of nearly it ,100 MGD, the Detroit  River
and Lake Huron another 3^ percent, and the remaining 19 percent will
be supplied by inland surface and ground water.  In the future, Detroit
intends to take its municipal water supply from Lake Huron.  This supply
will be used to provide the water needs of all of Southeast Michigan.
The locations of present surface municipal water sources  in the Lake
Erie basin are shown in Figure 3-2.

     It is expected that municipal water use will increase at a rate
greater than the population increase, meaning that the per capita con-
sumption will increase.  The per capita consumption is projected to be
25 percent greater in 1990 and 33 percent greater in 2020 than it is
today.

     Municipal water use, present and projected, for the United States
portion of the basin, "by subbasin, is shown in Figure 3-3.  The total
present and projected use is shown graphically in Figure 3-1*.
                              3-1

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x^

-------
                                                          FIGURE 3-2
u>
u>

-------
     In general, the quality of municipal water supplies  taken from
Lake Erie is good.  In the lower Detroit River quality is affected
by upstream sewage discharge and taste and odor producing substances.
In the upper Detroit River (the main source of water for  Detroit)  the
quality is excellent, being primarily uncontaminated water from Lake
Huron.  Groundwater contamination caused by underground sewage disposal
occurs in the Bellevue, Ohio area.  Tastes and odors, not particularly
harmful, are occasional nuisances and the most difficult  to overcome.
These problems are increasing in the central and eastern  basins and
they have occurred for many years in the western basin supplies.  The
Lake Erie water supply generally improves from west to east in the basin.
Inland sources of supply are greatly inferior to lake supplies, many
lacking quantity and most suffering from quality problems.

Industrial Water Use

     Industries in the Lake Erie basin use tremendous quantities of
water from both the lake proper and its tributaries for product
processing (1 percent), power generation (62 percent), and cooling
(37 percent).  Industrial water use, for purposes of this report,
is considered to be that which is self-supplied.  Some is obtained
from municipal systems.  Several of the largest self-supplied lake
intakes are shown in Figure 3-5.  Figure 3-6 shows present industrial
process surface water sources in the Lake Erie basin.

     Present and projected industrial water use quantities are shown
in Figure 3-3 and total basin-wide projections in Figure  3-^.  The
total basin-wide projected industrial water use for the year 2020
is more than 21,000 MGD.  As with municipal supply, Lake  Erie will
become the prime source of water as inland supplies become inadequate.
At that time the industrial usage will be equivalent to nearly IT per-
cent of the total input to Lake Erie.

     Industrial water supply is contaminated by both municipal and
industrial wastes and industry is often the victim of its own waste
discharges.  Particularly obnoxious streams used for industrial water
are the Rouge River, Raisin River, Cuyahoga River, and "the Buffalo River.

Rural Use

     Rural water use includes household supply, irrigation, and live-
stock watering.  Included in irrigation is general crop,  nursery, and
golf course watering.  Surface water sources for irrigation and stock
watering are shown in Figure 3-7.

     Total rural water use in the United States portion of the Lake
Erie basin is estimated at 12U MGD.  This will probably rise to about
250 MGD by the year 2020.  Much of the water for rural use is lost, by
evaporation and transpiration.  An ever-increasing amount of rural
water will come from Lake Erie as inland supplies become  inadequate.
Quality has not been a serious problem except for taste in many ground-
water supplies.
                                   3-1*

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D                                                                                   INLAND  SOURCE
                                                                                   . MUNICIPAL OR
                                                                                    INDUSTRIAL
                                                                      PRESENT   AND   PROJECTED
                                                                            WATER    USE   IN
                                                                          LAKE   ERIE   BASIN
Fig. 3-3
Present and projected water use in the subbasins of the Lake Erie watershed

-------
c
                                FIGURE 3-
                     PROJECTED MUNICIPAL WATER  USE
                                       LAKE  ERIE   SOURCE
        I960
       30'
      o
      x
        I960
                                               eooo
                                                         zoio
                    PROJECTED  INDUSTRIAL  WATER  USE
                  1970
                                                                   2020
                                      LAKE  ERIE  SOURCE
                                                                   2020
                                 3-6
                                                                    3-4

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3-7

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MD
00
O

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                                                                                                               -v   *CJ     vi  /—
                                                                                                               3   "2-     ^  "3.
                                                                                                               "*   £    et
                                                                                                            Q
                                                                                                             ^
                                                                                                             O
en
'O
 M
                                                               3-9

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Commercial Shipping

     Shipping is a use not so much dependent upon quality as upon
quantity in the Lake Erie "basin.  Lake levels and corresponding water
depths have an economic impact upon bulk carriers by reducing or in-
creasing load limits as much as a thousand tons per foot of vessel draft.
The loss or gain may be significant over the length of a shipping season.

     Tributaries, except for the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, are used
for shipping only in their lake-affected portions at and near their
mouths.  Navigation routes are controlled by the water depths in the
western basin of the lake (Figure 3-8).  Because of the natural shallowness
of the lake, most harbors have long dredged channels which extend far
into the lake, especially in the western basin.  Large amplitude, short-
period changes in lake level are occasionally limiting.

     Commercial cargo carriers use lake water transiently for engine
cooling, ballast, and potable water supply.  The last of these obviously
requires high quality water since sometimes it receives no treatment.
The potable water use is equivalent to that of 1,200 persons for eight
months of the year.  This use may be expected to more than double by
the year 2020.

Fish and Wildlife Propagation

     Fish populations depend upon the adequacy of water and its quality
in regard to their specific needs.  Quantity is not ordinarily a problem
in the Lake Erie basin but deteriorating quality caused by inadequately
treated municipal and industrial wastes has upset the fishery, so much
so that fish can no longer exist in parts of most major tributaries.
Also great changes for the worst have taken place in the lake because
of its declining water quality.  Water areas presently supporting a
variety of fish are shown in Figure 3-9.

     Lake Erie proper is capable of supporting and does support a
tremendous fish population although the type of fish found has changed
to less desirable fish.  Pollution of the lake is the main reason for
this change.  The fish are extensively exploited by both commercial and
sports fishermen (Figures 3-10).  It appears now that commercial fishing
will continue to decline but that sports fishing will increase in pro-
portion to the population increase.  Fish populations, in total, will
probably remain essentially constant.  Detailed information on the fish
problem is contained in Chapter 5.

     Wildlife, especially waterfowl, is water dependent.  The marshes
along the shore of western Lake Erie are important parts of flyways.
Most of the marshes are somewhat dependent upon the water level of
Lake Erie.  Although the water quality has not /been a serious problem
in the marshes, it has been in some of the tributaries where pollution
has been known to be deadly to waterfowl.
                                   3-10

-------
FIGURE 3-8
                                 MAJOR  COMMERCIAL
                               CARGO  VESSEL  ROUTES
                                         IN
                                     LAKE  ERIE

-------
FIGURE 3-9

-------
     Waterfowl and other wildlife are not expected to increase sig-
nificantly in the Lake Erie basin except locally as a result of
management.  Pollution control will not materially increase populations1.
However, unabated pollution will decrease the populations of waterfowl
still further.

Recreation

     While water-dependent and water-enhanced outdoor recreation is
not critical to man's survival, it is the use commanding the most atten-
tion.  In the Lake Erie basin the lake itself is the prime attraction,
although many inland areas are also popular.  Figure 3-11 shows water
areas of the basin with present or anticipated use for whole- and partial-
body contact recreation.  Figure 3-12, showing public park areas
and attendance at major beaches, illustrates the importance of
recreation, as does Table 3-1 showing present and projected summer
activity days for water-oriented activities in the basin.

     Summer water temperature and climatic conditions make Lake Erie
well suited to swimming, the single most popular form of water-oriented
recreation, and to water skiing.  These two forms are whole-body
contact and water quality is most critical to them.                    •

     Most of the lake shore is in private ownership and much of it is
naturally unsuitable for heavy recreational use because of steepness
and lack of sand.  Available beaches, because of their relative scarcity
and dense population are heavily used, even though some are frequently
contaminated and unsafe.  The more notable of public beach areas are
Sterling State Park in Michigan; Crane Creek, East Harbor, and Headlands
State Parks, Cedar Point, Mentor Township, Geneva Township, Walnut
(Ashtabula), and Conneaut Township Parks in Ohio; Presque Isle State
Park in Pennsylvania; and Evangola Beaver Island and Lake Erie State
Parks in New York.  Ontario also has several excellent beaches including
those at Pelee Point, Rondeau, Long Point, Crystal Beach, and at several
small ports.  All of these beaches together attract millions of persons
annually although several are affected by fecal contamination and most
by decomposing algae.  Several other beaches, which are less suitable
because of physical or pollution problems, also attract large numbers
of persona.

     Sport fishing is a major recreational attraction in Lake Erie, so •
much so that in Ohio waters, for example the sport fishing catch fre-
quently exceeds the commercial catch, especially in yellow perch fishing.
It is not uncommon on summer weekends to find forty thousand or more
sport fishermen fishing from boats in Ohio waters alone and similar
numbers from structures which offer access to lake waters.  The heaviest
sport fishing activity occurs in the western basin and particularly in
the island area (Figure 3-10).
                              3-13

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FIGURE 3-10
                                         MAJOR
                                  SPORT  S COMMERCIAL
                                      FISHING   AREAS
                                      IN  LAKE ERIE

-------
"FIGURE 3-11
                                                                          vn/\T&'G.

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                                                     FIGURE
         N
  UJ
                                                                                                             d"
                                                                                                    FEDERAL AREA
                                                                                                    STATE  AREA
                                                                                                    LOCAL  AREA
                                                                                            ••w.. -^~  BASIN  BOUNDARY
                                                                                             1400  ATTENDANCE IN THOUSANDS
                                                                                                AT SELECTED  AREAS-1983

                                                                                           RECREATION   AREAS
                                                                                                      IN
                                                                                            LAKE  ERIE   BASIN
. V '

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                                 TABLE  3-1

       EXPECTED SUMMER (JUNE,  JULY,  AUGUST)  PARTICIPATION  IN  SELECTED
        WATER-ORIENTED ACTIVITIES IN 2000 AND  2020,  LAKE ERIE BASIN
Activity
Water-Dependent
Swimming
Fishing
Boating
Water Skiing
Canoeing
Sailing
Subtotal
Wa t er - Enhanc ed
Camping
Picknicking
Sightseeing
Nature Walks
Hiking
Subtotal
TOTAL (Water-
Oriented)
Winter Sports
1960
1 '. TI "V
Summer
Activity
Days
(thousands)
41,718
18,379
13,370
1,862
592
423
76,344
3,639
21,071
24,455
5,416
1,862
56,443

132,787
13,623 -
2000 Summer Activity
Days (thousands)
Without
Opportu-
nityl
143,093
36,758
46,795
9,012
2,072
1,480
239,210
14,301
52,678
70,186
14,569
6,871
158,605

397,815
47,303
With
Opportu-
nity2
166,872
36,758
55,753
10,725
2,469
1,764
274,341
23,472
65,109
115,917
14,569
11,377
230,444

504,785
47,303
2020 Summer Activity
Days (thousands)
Without
Opportu-
nity1-
193,781
40,800
63,508
12,587
2,812
2,009
315,497
19,632
68,482
93,052
19,146
9,376
209,688

525,185
64,143
With
Opportu-
nity2
229,449
40,800
76,944
15,157
3,408
2,435
368,193
33,389
87,128
161,648
19,146
16,135
317,466

685,639
64,143
1. Without opportunity - based on 1960 per capita quality and
   quantity of facilities.

2. With opportunity - assumes improvement in 1960 per capita
   quality and quantity.
                                 3-17

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     Sport fishing in winter (ice fishing)  has  become  an increasingly
popular form of recreation.  Catches during ice fishing season  are
frequently phenomenal.  In fact, fishermen  refer to catches  in  summer
as numbers of fish, while in winter they commonly refer to catches  in
pounds of fish.

     Boating activity has increased greatly in  the past few years as a
result of affluence.  Boats, of course, furnish a "base of operations"
for swimming and fishing, in addition to providing enjoyment in their
own right.

     Table 3-2 lists the number of pleasure boats using Lake Erie
as estimated from the number of boat licenses issued in the bordering
states.  Large numbers of boats are trailered to Lake  Erie on summer
weekends, many from 100 or more miles away.  According to the Ohio
Division of Wildlife, twenty thousand boats have been  counted in the    '
Ohio waters of Lake Erie on a warm summer weekend in 1963.  This number
nay be equaled or exceeded in Lake St. Clair and the Detroit River.
Major small boating areas are shown in Figure 3-13.

Waste Water Assimilation

     Lake Erie is the eventual recipient of nearly all waste water  in
the Erie basin.  The lake, being such a large body of water, has
generally been thought capable of assimilating the tremendous quantities
of wastes that flow into it.  This has not been the case, however,  as  the
lake is suffering from the throes of pollution caused by man's unwise
control of his waste products.

     Waste assimilation is an unfortunate use for Lake Erie's water.
However, it is one which must be accepted, and it is a use which will
undoubtedly continue*  The problem is to change the wastes to forms
which are not seriously detrimental to water quality.

     The quantity of wastes which Lake Erie and its tributaries must    >
accommodate is roughly equivalent to the quantity of municipal and
industrial water used since this water is essentially returned to the
system.  The present input is approximately 11,000 MOD and will increase
to 19,000 MGD by 1990 and 28,000 MGD by 2020.  Approximately 3h percent
of the total wastewater is now discharged directly to  the Detroit River
and Ho percent directly to Lake Erie.  The remainder (26 percent) is
discharged above lake-affected protions of tributaries.

     Areas of major waste water sources are the Detroit-Maumee region,
the Cleveland-Akron region, and the Buffalo region.  A detailed break-
down of the important waste input constituents is given in the chapter
on "Waste Sources."
                            3-18

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                     TABLE 3-2

     PLEASURE BOATS REGISTERED IN-LAKE ERIE
 State                                 Number



Ohio                                   73,000
Michigan                              101,000*
Pennsylvania                            6,000
New York                               34.000

   Total                              214,000

*Includes Lake St. Glair
                     3-19

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FIGURE 3-13
                                      MAJOR
                             SMALL  BOATING  AREAS
                                        IN
                                   LAKE ERIE
                                  •- (U.S.  PORTION )

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Water Quality Objectives

     The goal of the water pollution control program in the Erie
basin is clean water.  Because clean water is not necessarily pure
water, the program must have definable use-directed objectives for
various constituents.  Those objectives should not be determined by
present uses—instead, they should be determined by potential uses.

     Uaes vary from place to place within the basin, but few, if
any, places can now be found where water quality is consistently
adequate for all uses.  However, many places can be found where
water quality is not adequate for any legitimate use.

     Objectives must be high and relentlessly pursued.  Prohibitive
cost, as an excuse for inaction, is no longer valid.  Technological
ignorance in treatment methods is also no reason for delay.

     Objectives will not be presented here for all uses.  Because
water supply, recreation, and aquatic life have the most rigorous
requirements, a pollution control program serving these needs will.
more than meet the requirements of other important uses.  Objectives
are therefore given for these three uses in Table 3-3 for both
triburaty and lake waters.  In some cases, the lake objectives have
been listed as those values which now exist, i.e., dissolved solids
and chlorides, because these values are now fully adequate for all
major uses.  If the objectives, in these cases, were relaxed, it
would in effect be permitting lake water quality to deteriorate and
this, by law, is not permissible.
                                 3-21

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                                                    TABLE 3-3

                                   SUMMARY OF WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES BY USAGE
PARAMETER
Dissolved Oxygen
BOD
pH
LO Temperature*
ro
M Turbidity**
Dissolved Solids
Chlorides
Toxic Metals
Phenols
Total Phosphorus
Total Coliform Bacteria
WATER SUPPLY
Tributary Lake
•^75? satura-
tion
<3 mg/1 at all
times-av.<1.5
mg/1
> 6 . 5 and^9
<85°F
<5 JCU
<500 mg/1
<250 mg/1
None
<.005 mg/1
<.10 mg/1
<5000 MPN/
100 ml
>90$ and
•£110$ satura-
tion
^1 mg/1
>7.5 and48.5 i
<.70°F
£.5 JCU
<185 mg/1
•425 mg/1
None
<.001 mg/1
<.025 mg/1
<1000 MPN/-
100 ml
RECREATION
Tributary Lake
>85# satura-
tion
^2 mg/1
76.5 and^8.5
85$ satura-
tion
4L1 mg/1
>7.5 and^.5
^.25 JCU
<200 mg/1
^UO mg/1
None
^..005 mg/1
<.025 mg/1
90$ satura-
tion
£-3 mg/1
76.5 and<9
^.100 JCU
 90/5 satura-
tion
<1 mg/1
•5,7.5 and<8.5
<25 JCU

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  CHAPTER U




WASTE SOURCES

-------
                            CHAPTER k

                          WASTE SOURCES
     The principal pollution materials discharged into Lake Erie and
its tributaries are municipal and industrial vastes.  It is difficult
to state vhich source is the greater contributor to pollution problems.
These major vastes consist not only of continuous, direct discharges,
but also of combined sever overflovs and those of treatment plants
which are seldom adequate.

     Other significant sources of pollution are wastes from agricultural
runoff, wastes from commercial and pleasure craft, and those from harbor
dredging operations.  Urban runoff and shore erosion are also important
contributors.  All of these combined are now potentially disastrous to
Lake Erie water quality.

     Three geographical areas are primarily responsible for the present
condition of Lake Erie (Table U-l).  These areas in order of decreasing
effect on the overall quality of Lake Erie water are (l) Detroit, Mich.
and its surrounding municipalities (2) the Cleveland-Cuyahoga River,basin,
and (3) the Maumee River basin.  The Buffalo area has high waste inputs
b'ut these wastes affect the Niagara River more than Lake Erie.  Many
other areas have problems which are primarily local, but cumulatively,
they also have a profound effect on the general water quality.

     The remarkably degrading effect which the Detroit and Maumee areas
have on Lake Erie can be shown by subtracting their discharges of almost
any constituent from the total input of that constituent to the lake.
If all the wastes from these two areas were somehow to be removed from
Lake Erie, the lake water quality would be better overall than that of
Lake Michigan and not much behind Lake Huron.  If only wastes from the
Detroit area were removed, Lake Erie would still rival Lake Michigan in
most respects.

                              TABLE k-1

       PERCENT IN-BASIN WASTE CONTRIBUTION OF MAJOR SOURCE AREAS IN
                           LAKE ERIE BASIN
                    Detroit and       Toledo-        Cleveland-
	Southeast Michigan   Maumee River   Akron-Cuyahoga

Phosphorus               38.0            16.6            18.5
BOD5                     60.3            15-5            11.0
Chloride                 51.0             1*.7  -          10.6

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                         Municipal Wastes

     Municipal waste or sevage is defined as the water-carried waste
from residential, public, commercial, and industrial sources dis-
charged into a collection system for transport to a central treatment
and/or discharge point.  Approximately 10 million people inhabit com-
munities throughout the U.S. portion of the Lake Erie basin, discharg-
ing their wastes directly into Lake Erie or into its tributaries.  The
total volume of municipal waste water is and will continue to be approx-
imately equal to the amount of municipal water used (refer to Figure
3-10.

     In the southeast Michigan area almost the entire population is in
and around Detroit.  The Detroit primary sewage treatment plant serves
about 3.1 million people.  While 91* percent of the southeastern
Michigan population discharges wastes to sewers, the wastes from only
11 percent of the total population receive secondary treatment.

     About 79 percent of the total municipal waste in the Ohio portion
of the Lake Erie basin receives secondary treatment.  About 3.5 percent
of the population is not served by sewer systems.

     The wastes from almost 100 percent of the sewered population in
Pennsylvania receive secondary treatment.  The city of Erie is the
largest city in Pennsylvania whose discharge reaches Lake Erie.

     In New York the wastes from 78 percent of the total population
receive primary treatment.  The cities of Buffalo, Niagara Falls, and
part of Tonawanda have sewage treatment plants that give only primary
treatment but these wastes are discharged to the Niagara River and
flow into Lake Ontario.  These three cities include over a million of
the 1.2 million people served by primary treatment.

     Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the main municipal degradant to
tributary waters.  It is not especially harmful to the lake proper.
The most harmful municipal contribution to the lake is in the form of
nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus although locally bacteria
are causing serious problems.

                         Industrial Wastes

     Industrial wastes are those spent process waters associated with
industrial operations which are discharged separately and not in com-
bination with municipal wastes.  Lake Erie and its tributaries receive
industrial wastes from 2?±- known sources.  A summary of these, by states,
is given in Table k-2t along with their treatment adequacy, according to
classification by state control agencies.  About 23 percent of the in-
dustries are classified as having inadequate treatment facilities and
10 percent are listed as adequacy unknown.

-------
     Industries are responsible for 86 percent of total waste flow
discharged to Lake Erie and its tributaries.   If power production
is not included in waste flows, the total drops to 75 percent.  In
general, waste flows are essentially equal to water use, Figure 3-3.

     About hk percent of the total industrial waste discharges in the
basin flows directly to the lake or to lake-affected portions of the
tributaries; another Uo percent is discharged to the I)etroit_Ri_ver_._.f0
Twenty-two of the industries with direct discharges f~were~reported,  n*£
by the state agencies in 1965, to have inadequate treatment facilities.

     Industries discharge millions of tons daily of dissolved solids
to Lake Erie; for example, they discharge 11 million tons of chlorides
daily and a similar quantity of sulfates.  The chloride input is ex-
pected to double by 1990 and quadruple by 2020 unless restrictions
are placed upon inputs.  Industries have a major pollutional effect,
especially in tributaries, by adding a variety of substances such as
phenols, iron, cyanides, toxic heavy metals, acids, and alkalis.  They
also add heat.

                           Agricultural Runoff

     Agricultural land is a major source of nutrient and silt pollu-
tion in Lake Erie resulting largely from surface erosion of intensively
cultivated, fine-grained soils with sparse crop cover.  While silt
covers the bottom of the lake and may be influential in the fisheries
problem, the nutrient input is of greater immediate concern.  Large
quantities of nitrogen compounds and phosphates are used in fertilizers
and these substances find their way to the lake during runoff.

                                TABLE l*-2

                        INDUSTRIAL WASTE SOURCES

                       STATE CLASSIFICATION (1965)
                                                             £ne
                                                                 °'

State
Ohio
Indiana
Michigan
Pennsylvania
New York

Adequate
116
9
1*2
5
3
TREATMENT
Inadequate
36
2
31
2
1*

Unknown
9
-
19
2
7
Total
                      175
75
37
                   fc-3

-------
     In the Ohio portion of the basin alone,  during the last  half of
1966, more than 21,000,000 pounds of phosphorus  were sold in  commer-
cial fertilizers, most of it in the Maumee basin - and the use  rate
is increasing.  The percentage of commercial  fertilizer nutrients
reaching Lake Erie is unknown.  It is known that much of the  phosphorus
used in fertilizers becomes tightly bound in  the soil, and reaching the
waterways mainly in this form and not as leached compounds.

     Nutrients are also contributed by runoff from animal wastes.
Some studies indicate that animal wastes, when used as fertilizer, may
be a significant source of nutrients to a drainage system.

     If an estimated rate of 365 pounds of total phosphorus per square
mile per year (in the Maumee basin the rate is higher, other  areas
lower) is used to calculate the agricultural  contribution, more than
eight million pounds is supplied to Lake Erie per year from this source.
The nitrogen input from runoff is at least ten times this amount.

     An estimated eight million tons of silt  are discharged to  Lake
Erie from agricultural runoff each year.  Nearly half of this is dis-
charged to the western basin.

     The Maumee River is the greatest contributor to rural runoff pol-
lution, in both nutrients and silt, in the Erie basin.  About two
million tons per year of silt enter the lake  from this drainage basin.

     It is not likely that the rate of silt input from rural  runoff will
increase by any significant amount in the future because of improved
soil conservation practices.  In fact it appears that the present rate
is considerably less than it has been in the  past and will continue to
decrease.

     The inputs of nutrients from rural runoff are likely to  increase
by a small amount because of efficiency of utilization, soil  conserva-
tion practices, and decreasing agricultural area.

                              Urban Runoff

     Urban runoff, like rural runoff, is variable and difficult to
study.  It is known however, that it contributes significant  quantities
of suspended solids, chlorides, BOD, debris,  nutrients, and bacteria.
This is because of the general untidiness of  cities, the use  of salt  in
street deicing, and the use of fertilizers in lawn and garden care.   Here
again nutrients are the most significant factors.  It is estimated that
an average of 530 pounds of phosphorus per square mile per year is de-
rived from urban runoff.  This is about 50 percent greater per  unit  area
than that from rural runoff.  The rate of nitrogen runoff is  again about
10 times that of phosphorus.  The present phosphorus contribution is  now
in the vicinity of one million pounds annually.  It is expected to rise,
by 2020, to more than three million pounds annually.

-------
                       Combined Sewer Overflows

     Many large cities in the Lake Erie basin have combined sewer
systems which carry both sewage and surface drainage water.  During
dry weather the sewer systems supposedly direct all flow to a sewage
treatment plant.  During periods of precipitation the excess flow by-
passes the treatment plant and goes directly to the drainage system.
Many of the systems are in such poor condition that sewage is contin-
uously by-passed.

     Combined sewer systems are recognized as very significant sources
of pollutants both to tributaries and to Lake Erie.  The more impor-
tant materials contributed, as far as Lake Erie is concerned, are BOD,
bacteria, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus.  Beaches are
closed in many places because of the bacterial loadings.

     At present the largest contributors to Lake Erie pollution from
combined sewers are the cities of Detroit and Cleveland.  These have
an immediate detrimental effect, particularly at bathing beaches in
the vicinity.

     Approximately hO billion gallons per year flow from combined
sewers directly to the basin's waterways.  About half of this flow is
untreated municipal waste; i.e. sewage by-passed to the overflow during
rainstorms.

     Construction of combined sewers is no longer permitted in Ohio,
but is still continued in Michigan.  The load due to existing combined
systems will increase somewhat with the increase in population in areas
served by them.  The present flow of ^0 billion gallons per year may
increase to 50 billion gallons per year by 2020 with 60 percent of this
flow being due to municipal wastes if combined sewer systems continue
to exist.

                              Vessel Waste

     The contribution of vessels to the pollution of Lake Erie is not a
significant factor in the overall water quality of the lake, but it can
be locally damaging especially in the harbor areas.  Possible sources
of pollution from vessels include cargo spillage, dunnage, ballast and
bilge waters, fuel spills, garbage, and sanitary wastes.  Uncontrolled
discharge of these wastes can result in serious pollution problems for
beaches, shore property, recreational waters, fish and aquatic life,  and
municipal and industrial water supplies.

     It is estimated that the bacterial and nutrient pollution load from
commercial vessels on Lake Erie is equivalent to the raw sewage of 1,200
persons for eight months of the year, or a permanent population of 800.
By the year 2020 this waste source may increase by 50 percent.

-------
     The pollution contribution from pleasure craft is much greater,
and is estimated to be equivalent to the raw sewage of a permanent
population of 5,500.  This pollution load is locally damaging in har-
bors and marinas.  By 1990 this load will double, and by 2020, will
triple.

     The U.S. Public Health Service has established regulations govern-
ing vessel waste discharges in the Great Lakes based upon its legal
responsibility for the interstate control of communicable diseases.
Restricted areas have been established in which the discharge of
sewage, ballast, or bilge water from vessels is prohibited.  Restricted
areas include the water within a three-mile radius of domestic water
intakes.

     Vessel wastes are sources of pollution in all harbors and marinas.
Areas of particular concern are around Detroit, Toledo, Sandusky,
Vermilion, Rocky River, Cleveland, Erie, and Buffalo.

                       Stream Bank and Shore Erosion

     Erosion of the lakeshore contributes an est imated 16 million tons
of silt to Lake Erie per year.  The rate is much higher during higher
lake stages.  Shore erosion is responsible for most of the near shore
turbidity during storms.  Silting and nutrient contribution are the
major pollution factors.  Phosphorus is the major nutrient, being con-
tributed to the lake at a rate of approximately 11 million pounds
annually.  More than 80 percent of the annual loss of shore materials
occurs in the central basin.

     Stream bank erosion has the same effect as shore erosion during
times of high precipitation.  Its nutrient content has been considered
a part of rural runoff.  Both stream and shore bank erosion cause debris
such as trees, stumps, and dumped materials to be carried into the lake.
Various kinds of trash are used as bank protection in many places and
this also contributes debris to Lake Erie,  Debris without control may
increase, but nutrients and silting should remain essentially constant
'in the future.

                              Dredging Dumps

     All harbors along the United States shore are dredged periodically
to maintain navigation channel depths.  In most harbors the removed
material is a combination of silt and municipal and industrial wastes,
amounting to some six million tons (Table U-3) annually in the Erie basin,
almost one-fourth of the total silt load  to Lake Erie.  In many cases
the wastes harm water quality by the addition of BOD and nutrients.  It
has been the policy to dump the dredged materials in the lake within a
few  ,iles of the dredging sites, which may be .transferring highly pol-
luted substances to relatively unpolluted areas.

-------
                              TABLE lt-3
          1967 ESTIMATED HARBOR DREDGING SPOIL TO BE DUMPED
                            IN LAKE ERIE
Volume
Harbor cu. yds.
Principal
sludge source
Monroe (Raisin River)            250,000
Bolles Harbor                    186,000
Toledo (Maumee River)          1,000,000
Sandusky                         600,000
Huron                            180,000
Lorain (Black River)             500,000
Rocky River                       60,000
Cleveland (Cuyahoga River)     1,300,000
Fairport (Grand River)           360,000
Ashtabula                        350,000
Conneaut                         UOO.OOO
Erie                             200,000
Dunkirk                           26,000
Buffalo                          620,000
                                         industrial
                                         rural
                                         rural
                                         rural
                                         rural
                                         industrial
                                         municipal
                                         industrial, municipal
                                         industrial, rural
                                         industrial, rural
                                         rural
                                         municipal
                                         industrial
                                         industrial
TOTAL
                               6,032,000

-------
     It is difficult to show a lasting effect of these wastes  upon
the general quality of Lake Erie, but the immediate effect is  apparent
in turbidity.  A study is now underway by FWPCA and the Corps  of
Engineers to determine precise effects.  One of the effects is ordin-
arily for dredged materials to cover the natural sediments over a wide
area.  The dredged materials are often of low density and can  be moved
easily over large areas.   For example a large area around the  Cleveland
offshore dumping grounds  is covered with oily mud.  In this area the
phosphate content is up to three times the concentration of other mid-
lake bottom muds.

     If harbor dredging continues, it is not likely that the total
annual volume dredged will increase significantly.

            Construction Runoff - Highway and Urban Development

     Pollution from construction sites is mainly silt and is similar
to agricultural runoff.  The quantity per unit area is much greater,
however.  For a given area, sheet wash may have 100 times the  load  of
agricultural runoff.  The problem is becoming increasingly serious
because of the recent intensification of highway and housing programs
in the Erie basin covering large areas of land.  There is apparently
no adequate program of reseeding, catch-basins, etc., and the  land  is
left barren for long periods, especially over winter.

                    Potential Sources of Pollution

     Drilling for oil and gas is now being contemplated by several  com-
panies under land to be leased from the states of Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and New York.  This is a potential source of pollution, mainly from oil
spillage and drilling muds.  However, drilling in Ontario waters has
shown an excellent record in regard to control of harmful wastes for
many years.

     Reactor plants for power sources seem to be inevitable.  These
represent remotely potential sources of radioactive pollution substances.
Their main contribution to the degradation of Lake Erie is and will be
thermal pollution because of the necessarily great amount of cooling
water used.

     Very important potential sources of pollution are the ultimate
disposal sites of the residue from waste treatment plants.  This is
especially important with regard to nutrients.  Nutrients removed at a
treatment plant can have little effect on improving Lake Erie water
quality if the nutrients still get back into the drainage system.

                          Constituents in Waste

     The waste substances that are discharged to the lake from municipal
and industrial outfalls, tributaries, and land drainage are many, and
                               4-8

-------
their effects on water uses are varied.   Many substances  such as  acid,
oil, cyanide, iron, coliform bacteria,  phenol, and oxygen-consuming
materials have severe effects on water  uses in the localities of  the
discharge.

     Those substances that have damaging effects on the total waters
of the lake are suspended solids (sediment), carbonaceous oxygen-
consuming materials, nitrogen compounds, and phosphorus.   A discussion
of chlorides and dissolved solids is included, not because they have
reached damaging concentrations, but because their dramatic increases
are indicative of the rate at which water quality has been degraded.
Table U-U presents summaries of the major known sources and loads to
Lake Erie of suspended solids, chlorides, biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD)  substances, and phosphorus.

     Suspended Solids - Damages to Lake Erie resulting from suspended
matter entering from waste discharges and tributaries are dependent
on the nature of the material.  Suspended matter from municipal dis-
charges is primarily organic and its deposition results in enriched
bottom muds or sludge banks whose effects are largely local and can be
corrected by proper treatment for removal of these wastes.  Suspended
matter from certain industries and the  material from tributaries  orig-
inating as land runoff are largely inorganic and serve to fill harbors,
erabayments, ship channels and the lake.

     The principal sources of suspended solids discharged to Lake Erie
are the Detroit, Maumee, Cuyahoga, and Grand Rivers which represent a
total of 12,700,000 pounds per day of known discharges.  The Detroit
River, because of its large volume, constitutes the major source  or
68 percent of this total, the Maumee 19 percent, the Grand 9 percent,
and the Cuyahoga k percent.

     About 1.5 million pounds of the suspended solids of the Detroit
River discharges are from industrial and municipal sources.  The  Maumee
discharges are largely silt from land runoff.  The greatest quantities
are released during periods of heavy rain and high runoff; therefore,
control must be instituted through improvements in land use practices
on the watershed.  The Cuyahoga discharges are believed to be largely
of industrial origin with some contribution from municipal wastes and
land runoff.  This load on the Cleveland harbor and channels results  in
severe discoloration and the need for frequent dredging.   The Grand
River (Ohio) sources are believed to be similar to the Cuyahoga.

     Carbonaceous Oxygen-Consuming Materials - Carbonaceous oxygen-
consuming materials, usually measured by the 5-day biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD,.), are generally considered direct pollutants to streams
in that they depress dissolved oxygen levels.  This immediate effect  is
not evident in lakes such as Lake Erie because of its tremendous  oxida-
tive capacity and satisfaction of the BOD before the lake is reached.
                               4-9

-------
                 TABLE 1*-1*

WASTE LOADS TO LAKE  ERIE BASIN WATERS - 1966
               Pounds/Day

Western Basin
Industrial
Municipal
Rural Runoff
Urban Runoff
Lake Huron outflow
U. S. (undifferentiated)
Canada (undifferentiated)
Subtotal
Central Basin
Industrial
Municipal
Rural Runoff
Urban Runoff
U. S. (undifferentiated)
Canada (undifferentiated)
Subtotal
Eastern Basin
Industrial
Municipal
Rural Runoff
Urban Runoff
U. S. (undifferentiated)
Canada (undifferentiated)
Subtotal
GRAND TOTAL
BOD 5

261,000
632,000


950,000


1,8^3,000

110,700
11*9,300




260,000

160,000
72,1000



232,100
2,335,100
Chlorides

6,200,000
1,060,000
"I 1,600,000

6,500,000

1,1*00,000
16,760,000

1*, 500, 000
61*6,000
) 1,220,000
J

1,000,000
7,366,000

280,000
128,000
~V 29!*, 000

500,000
1,202,000
25,328,000
Total
Phosphorus

7,000
55,000
13,000
1*,000
20,000

5,000
102,000

1*,000
27,000
1*,000
1*,000

6,000
1*5,000

2,200
~i*,i*oo
1,220
760

5,000
11,580
161* 550
Suspended
Solids





3,800,000
27,000,000
1,100,000
31,900,000





1*5,000,000
50,000,000
95,000,000




1,000,000
6,000,000
7,000,000
133,900,000
                    U-10

-------
However, BOD,- is a measure of wastes that are used by bacteria in cell
growth and reproduction, thereby creating sludge which settles to the
lake bottom.  Thus BOD  is a measure of wastes which produce the same
end effect as nutrients.  Carbonaceous BOD,, of wastes is most effec-
tively removed by secondary treatment.

     The present and projected daily BOD  loading for the entire basin
is shown in Figure U-l along with the loading after various degrees of
reduction.  Figure U-2 shows projected loadings for each of the sub-
basins; as this figure indicates.  The Detroit area contributes more
BOD,- to Lake Erie than all other known sources combined.

     Chlorides - The concentration of chloride in the headwaters of the
Detroit River averages 7 mg/1, 18 mg/1 at the Detroit River mouth, and
2k mg/1 at Buffalo.  The increase within the length of the Detroit
River overshadows the increase within Lake Erie.  Major known sources
of chloride input are municipal and industrial contributors at Detroit,
about 10 million pounds per day; the Grand River, industrial contribu-
tion, 3.9 million pounds per day; and the Maumee and Cuyahoga Rivers,
1.2 million pounds per day.  Here again the tremendous influence of
Detroit is shown.  Figure U-3 shows the projected chloride loadings by
subbasin, and Figure k-h shows projected total lake loading and the
effects of various degrees of reduction.

     A large input of chloride, from street and highway salting for ice
control during winter, drains to the lake through municipal sewers and
tributaries.  Salt used for this purpose in the basin in 196U was at
least 800,000 tons.  This could represent an increase of at least
2.k mg/1 to the chloride level of Lake Erie.  Chlorides contributed
from street and highway salting represent approximately 10 percent of
the total chloride in Lake Erie.  Industrial sources contribute about
kh percent and the Lake Huron input UO percent.

     Historical data indicate that the concentration of chloride in Lake
Erie was 7 mg/1 at the beginning of this century.  At that time, a notice-
able increase began.  In about 60 years the concentration has tripled.

     Dissolved Solids - Dissolved solids concentrations at the head of
the St. Clair River average 110 mg/1, at the head of the Detroit River
126 mg/1, and at Buffalo 180 mg/1.  These levels represent daily inputs
of 116 million pounds per day from the watershed above Detroit and a
discharge of almost 200 million pounds per day to the Niagara River from
Lake Erie.  Most of the increase within Lake Erie actually is derived
from the Detroit area.

     The concentration of dissolved solids in Lake Huron has remained
fairly constant at 110 to 115 mg/1 since 1900, whereas the increase in
Lake Erie at Buffalo in the same period was from 115 to 180 mg/1
(Figure it-5).  If unchecked, the dissolved solids level will reach
230 mg/1 by 2020.

-------
                       LAKE ERIE  BASIN
                        (U.S.  PORTION)
TOTAL  PROJECTED DAILY BOD, LOAD AND EFFECT OF REDUCTION
                     INDUSTRIAL SOURCES
  2,000,000
   IflOOJOOO 	^.
a
o
CD
o
OL
   soo.ooo
    100,000
    40,000
                   1970
                                          2000
                                                  tow
                                                          2020
                       LAKE ERIE  BASIN
                         (U.S. PORTION)
TOTAL  PROJECTED DAILY BOD5 LOAD AND EFFECT OF REDUCTION
                     MUNICIPAL  SOURCES
   5,000,000
   1,000,000
Q
O
CD

CO
O
•z.

O  300,000
OL
    100,000
    SOflOO
             CANADIAN LOADING CAN BE EXPECTED TO AVERAGE 20% OF U.S. LOADING..
           I960
                   1970
                                   1990

                                  YEAR
                                          2000
                                                  20K>
                                                          (020

-------
          o
          o .
INO.
0
o
1
M
O
O
*
«



k.
>-

^

1
X
      I    L
                                                                            L8S/DAY
                                                                             «. 1000
                                                            PRESENT  AND  PROJECTED
                                                            BOD5  LOAD  DISCHARGED
                                                                    IN  THE
                                                               LAKE  ERIE  BASIN

-------
PRESENT  AND  PROJECTED
CHLORIDE  DISCHARGES   IN
 THE  LAKE  ERIE  BASIN

-------
     Nitrogen Compounds - The largest input of this constituent  is
from the Detroit River which consists of the nitrogen residual from
the upper Great Lakes and the major contributions from the Detroit
metropolitan area.  Other important sources are the Maumee and Cuyahoga
Rivers discharging at Toledo and Cleveland, respectively.

     The origin of these materials in waste discharges is  largely from
organic wastes, with sizable contributions from agricultural runoff
and from specific manufacturers of ammonia and nitrogen salts.  Except
for local effects of discharges of these materials, the principal effect
on Lake Erie is that of overenrichment.

     Phosphorus - Phosphorus, in its inorganic form of orthophosphate
(PO, ) is essential to life.  Because of this it is used extensively as
an agricultural fertilizer.  A multitude of phosphorus compounds are
used in the manufacture of many products with an overwhelming amount
used in household and industrial detergents.  Even though  phosphorus has
s,o many beneficial properties, it is easily implicated as  the most dam-
aging pollution substance being discharged into Lake Erie.  As discussed
in other sections of this report, phosphorus stimulates productivity of
algae and other aquatic plant life with a multitude of serious ramif-
ications.

     The principal sources of phosphorus are municipal wastes, agri-
cultural runoff, urban runoff, and industrial wastes (Table U-5).  In
municipal wastes about one pound per capita per year is contributed by
human excreta and 2.5 pounds per capita per year by detergents.   Phosphorus
from agricultural runoff amounts to about 250 pounds per square mile per
year except in the Maumee basin where the rate is about 580 pounds per
square mile per year.  Urban runoff contributes phosphorus at the rate
of about 530 pounds per square mile per year.  There is no useful constant
in calculating industrial contribution since this depends  upon the type
of industry.

     Figure k-6 shows the contributions of phosphorus for  each of the sub-
basins and the projected contributions for the years 1990  and 2020.  Phos-
phorus loading to Lake Erie will increase nearly 2.5 times by 2020 if the
present rates continue unchecked.  Figure k-J shows total  projected phos-
phorus inputs from various sources over a 60-year period for no removal
and for various degrees of removal of municipal and industrial waste
phosphorus.

     The Detroit area contributes by far the largest amount of phosphorus
to Lake Erie, more than.vbwice as much as the Cleveland area, the second
largest source.
                                4-17

-------
                             TABLE 4-5
PRESENT AND PROJECTED  PHOSPHORUS DISCHARGES TO LAKE ERIE,  Ibs/day
       (exclusive  of Lake Huron input and shore erosion)
Subbasins
Present Loading
Southeast Michigan
Maumee River Basin
North-Central Ohio
Greater- Cleveland-
Akron area
Northeast Ohio
Pennsylvania
Western New York
Ontario

Projected 1990 Loading
Southest Michigan
Maumee River Basin
North-central Ohio
Greater Cleveland-
Akron area
Northeast Ohio
Pennsylvania
Western New York
Ontario

Projected 2020 Loading
Southeast Michigan
Maumee River Basin
North-central Ohio
Greater Cleveland-
Akron area
Northeast Ohio
Pennsylvania
Western New York
Ontario

Municipal
Waste

46,000
9,000
3,800
22,000

1,100
1,400
3,000
11,900
98,200

85,000
12,000
8,000
40,000

3,700
3,190
6,100
21,400
179,300

111,000
19,000
17,000
58,000

5,400
4,700
8,600
40,500
264,200
Industrial
Waste

3,000
4,000
2,000
2,000

100
100
2,100
unknown
13,300

4,500
6,000
3,000
3,000

200
180
3,100
	
19,980

6,000
8,000
4,000
4,000

400
270
4,200
	
26,870
Urban
Runoff

3,000
1,000
1,600
2,000

500
110
650
450
9,310

4,500
2,000
2,400
3,000

700
160
1,000
810
14,570

6,000
3,000 -
3,400
4,000

1,000
220
1,300
1,200
20,120
Rural
Runoff

3,000
10,000
2,600
700

750
220
1,000
5,500
23,770

3,000
10,000
2,600
700

700
210
1,000
' 6»5QQ
24,710

3,000
10,000
2,600
700

700
200
1,000
8,000
26,200
Total

55,000
24,000
10,000
26,700

2,450
1,830
6,750
17,850
144,580

97,000
30,000
16,000
46,700

5,300
3,650
11,200
28,710
238,560

126,000
40,000
27,000
66,700

7,500
5,390
15,100
49,700
337,390
                               4-18
                                                                 JUL  10 1367

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                                                                                                                     .53
\Q.££i-  	'—	'.	W3O:_!	I

-------
S'

-------
                                                o
300,000 —
200,000 -
«OO,OOO —
                I960
                           1970
                                       1380
                                                 I99O
                                                             2000
                                                                        2010
                                                                                   202O
                 PROJECTED  PHOSPHORUS  LOAD  TO  LAKE   ERIE  BY  SOURCE - CUMULATIVE


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                   EVALUATION OF WASTE SOURCES BY SUBAREAS

                            SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN
     The subareas of the Southeastern Michigan Basin are discussed in
this section of the report.  It covers municipal and industrial waste
sources, waste effects on receiving streams, water quality of the rivers
and lakes, and the loadings from the tributaries to the Great Lakes
system.

Municipal Waste

     Within the basin, see Figure U-8, there are 51* municipal waste
treatment plants operating of which 19 provide primary treatment and
serve 3.1 million people, 30 provide secondary treatment and serve
^20,000 persons, and 5 are sewage lagoons.  Another 630,000 persons are
served by septic tanks.  The municipal waste treatment plants discharge
650 mgd (million gallons per day), with the Detroit plant alone dis-
charging 550 mgd to the Detroit River.  Table h-6 lists, for each major
river, the municipal waste treatment jplant, type of treatment, flow, __,
and BOD loadings.  Figures l*-9, h-10j\U-l2, and h-13 show the sources , h€.-;
of municipal and industrial wastes for each of the river basins in   ^ £•
Southeast Michigan.                                                      '',
                                                                       ^i,/
                        ,                                              ^f-Vj
     As of January 1, 1967, the Michigan Department of Public Health has*
ordered all municipal treatment plants to disinfect effluent discharge
all year-round.  Twenty-five communities or areas not currently pro-
viding adequate collection and treatment are under orders to discharge
their wastes to adequate treatment facilities.  Many of the communities
in the basin currently provide treatment for their wastes at plants not
in the community.  Both the Detroit system and the Wayne County system
serve numerous areas.  Industrial wastes for many industries are presently
treated with the municipal waste.

Combined Sewers - Stormwater Overflow

     The majority of the people in the basin live in communities that
have all or part of their sewage collection system as combined storm-
sanitary sewers.  Approximately 80 percent of the people are served by
combined systems.  This is especially true of the older, more urban
sections of these communities.  Stormwater overflows are estimated to
discharge directly to the Detroit River 2 percent to 5 percent of the
yearly total raw sewage contributed to the Detroit sewage treatment plant.
This overflow, although a small proportion of the total flow, constitutes
a much higher proportion of suspended organic material, and an extremely
high proportion of the total bacterial load discharged to the river.

     In suburban areas with separate sewer systems, the illegal practice
of connecting roof, patio, or driveway drains to the sanitary sewer,
                               4-21

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SOUTHEASTERN  MICHIGAN
        AREA

-------
                            TABLE l»-6

                    MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES
                  SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA

 Municipality or   Receiving Stream   Type Sewage
   Institution	  .          	  System
Flow   BOD (Ibs/day)
(mgd)   Raw   Final
St. Clair River^1^
San dusky
Brown City
Crosell
Yale
Port Huron
Mary svi lie
St. Clair
East China Twp.
Inlay City
Capac
Memphis
Marine City
Lake St. Clair (l)
New Baltimore
Ri chmond
New Haven
Dwight Creek
Black River
Elk Crsek
Elk River
Black River
Mill Cr.
Black River
St. Clair River
St. Clair River
St. Clair River
St. Clair River
Belle River
Belle River
Belle River
St. Clair River
Lake St. Clair
Lake St. Clair
Lake St. Clair
Secondary
Lagoons
Secondary
Lagoons
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Lagoon
Lagoon
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
0.37
0.20
0.3^
0.2k
11.70
1.1U
0.1*8
0.07
O.lU
0.01
0.03
0.65
0.20
0.35
O.lU
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 x = Sufficient data not available for evaluation.
(l) See Figure U-ll for location.

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                           TABLE V6( continued)
 Municipality or
   Institution
      MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES
    SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA

Receiving Stream   Type Sewage  Flow   BOD (ibs/day)
                     System	(mgd)   Raw   Final
Clinton River(l)
Pontiac #1
Pontiac #2
Rochester
Utica
Sterling Twp.#l
Warren
Clinton Twp.#2
Almont
Romeo
Armanda
Clinton Twp.#l
Mt . Clemens
Selfridge AFB
Self ridge
Nike Sites
Detroit River^
Detroit
Wyandotte
Riverview
Grosse lie Twp.
Clinton River
Clinton River
Clinton River
Clinton River
Clinton River
Red Run
Clinton River
N.Br. Clinton R.
East. Pond Creek
E.Br.Coon Creek
Clinton River
Clinton River
Clinton River
Clinton River
Detroit River
Trenton Channel
Detroit River
Mongaugon Creek
Detroit River
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
9.8 x x
ll.lt x x
0.97 x x
0 . 39 x x
2.20 x x
23.70 x x
2.03 x x
O.llt x x
0.37 x x
0.12 x x
2.3^ x x
3.72 x x
XX X
XX X
516 603,600 501,000
21.1 31* ,000 22,100
1.0 x x
0.15 150 100
 x = Sufficient data not available  for evaluation.
(1) See Figure U-12 for location.
(2 ) See Figure ^-13 for location.

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                          TABLE)lu6 (continued)


                        MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES
                      SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Municipality or
Institution
Receiving Stream
Type Sewage Flov
System (mgd)
BOD (Ibs/day)
Raw Final
Detroit River (cont'd)
Trenton (nev)
Wayne Co. STP
(Trenton)
Huron River(l)
Milford
South Lyon
Brighton
Stockbridge
Chelsea
Dexter
Ann Arbor
Ypsilanti
Ypsilanti Twp.
Flat Rock
Rockwood
River Raisin(2)
Manchester
Clinton
Tec urns eh
Adrian
Eliz. Park Canal
Eliz. Park Canal
Huron River
Novi-Lyon Drain
Ore Creek
Portage Creek
Letts Creek
Mill Creek
Huron River
Huron River
Huron River
Huron River
Huron River
River Raisin
River Raisin
River Raisin
S.Br. River Raisin
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Lagoons
Secondary
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
2.25
2.U2
0.53
0.18
O.U9
0.13
0.27
0.12
10.31
2.28
3.65
0.3U
0.32
0.53
0.08
0.71
2.83
X
2,660
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1,780
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x = Sufficient data not available for evaluation.
(l) See Figure k-1^ for location.
(2) See Figure U-15 for location.
                                 4-25

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                          TABLE ;)t£ (concluded)

                        MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES
                      SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA

Municipality or   Receiving Stream   Type Sewage   Flow   BOD (ibs/day)
  Institution	System	(mgd)   Raw   Final
River Raisin (cont'd)
Blissfield .
Dundee
Saline
Milan
Monroe
River Raisin
River Raisin
Saline River
Saline River
River Raisin
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
Primary
O.U9
0.20
0.32
0.80
2.93
X
X
X
X
3,365
X
X
X
X
1,380
    Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                                   L EGEND
                                         O MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT OUTFALLS
                                         Q INDUSTRIAL OUTFALLS
© 8ANDUSKY        [7]
© BROWN CITY      [T]
© CROSWCLL        [7)
© YALE           H
© PORT HURON      [T)
© MARYtVILLC      (T]
© »T. CLAIR        [f]
© EA«T CHINA TWP.   [g]
© INLAY CITY      [5]
© CAPAC          [15]
(jj) MEMPHIi   •     [n]
© MARINE  CITY     [7]
@ NEW BALTIMORE
© RICHMOND
© NEW HAVIN
                                        LAKE
                                       HURON
                                                           MICH. MILK mOD. A8*N.
                                                           CROSWELL PICKLI  CO.
                                                           MICH. SUaAM CO.
                                                           ITOKCLY VAN CAMP
                                                           PORT HURON PAPCR CO,
                                                           DUNN PAPER CO.
                                                           CHRYSLER PART* DEPOT
                                                           MANYSVILLC PLATINO CO.
                                                           MORTON SALT
                                                           DIAMOND CRVITAL SALT
                                                           MICN. MILK PROD. AIIN.
                                                           VLAIIIC FOOD MOO. CO.
                                                  CANADA
SCALE IN MILCI
    MUNICIPAL  a INDUSTRIAL
         WASTE  OUTFALLS
     ST.  CLAIR  RIVER  BASIN

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LOCATION  MAP
                                                                                                                                                      _J> U a T H t At O U T F A L L *
                                                                                                                                                        NallM  PridMitl C«.
                                                                                                                                                      t  T*V  C«r». Hick. Oi*.
                                                                                                                                                     MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL WASTE  OUTFALLS

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AREA  LOCATION MAP   \ :MUHOH
                                       MICHIGAN
                                                                                                     ONTARIO
                                                                                                     DOMESTIC  WATER  INTAKES
                                                                                                     SEWAGE   PLANT  OUTFALLS
                                                                                                   COMBINED  SEWER  OVERFLOWS
                                                                                                        U.S. WATERS-DETROIT RIVER

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.p-
 I

o

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•\t
ui

 H

-------
results in an overload and subsequent noneffective treatment  during
storm periods, vith an effect similar to stormvater overflov  on the
receiving stream.

Federal Installations

     The Selfridge Air Force Base operates a secondary wastevater
treatment plant vhich discharges-a chlorinated effluent into  the
Clinton River.  There are some base facilities served by septic tanks
that occasionally overflov to the river vithout disinfection.  Plans
are underway to connect the base's system to the Detroit Metro System.

     The U. S. Coast Guard operates a manned lighthouse at the mouth
of the Detroit River.  Untreated sanitary wastes are directly dis-
charged into the water.  This unit will become an unmanned lighthouse.

     The Naval Air Station at Grosse lie is responsible for significant
quantities of oil in Frenchmen's Creek attributable to aircraft washings
and dumps of engine oil.  This can affect problems with wildlife and
boating recreation.  The Navy plans to move its air facility  to
Selfridge AFB in 1968.

Industrial Waste

     More than 90 individual industries exclusive of the hydroelectric
generating plants discharge approximately l.U billion gallons of waste-
water each day.  About a billion of this goes to the Detroit  River.
These effluents contain suspended solids, dissolved solids, oils, grease,
cyanide, toxic metals, acids, alkalis, bacteria, phenols, oxygen-
demanding wastes, nutrients, and heat.  Industrial wastes are those
spent process waters associated with industrial operations which are
discharged separately and not in combination with municipal wastes.
Some effluents contain no significant concentration of contaminants,
while some are grossly polluted with waste material.  Figure  k-lk shows
the geographical location of industrial waste outfalls in the Detroit
River.  For other river basins the location of the sources of industrial
wastes were shown in the figures in the municipal waste section.

     The following is a summary of the adequacy of the industries'
treatment facilities rated by the Michigan Water Resources Commission:

                          Adequate treatment        ^  U2
                          Inadequate treatment      -  22
                          Unreliable treatment     - -   9
                          Adequacy not established  -  18
                          Need not established      -   1

     A number of industries include more than one type of discharge with
different ratings for the separate discharges.  The majority of the indus-
tries with inadequate treatment in the Detroit River-Lake Erie conference
                              4-31

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MICHIGAN
                                                                  INDUSTRIAL  WASTE  OUTFALLS
                                                                                  U.S. WATERS
                                                                                 DETROIT RIVER
                                                                                IOOO 0 1000 3000 9000 7000

                                                                                       MILES
            AMHERSTBURG

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area are currently under stipulations for improvements  in treatment.
Table ^-T lists industries, locations, treatment,  vastes, flow,  re-
ceiving waters and ratings by the Michigan Water Resources Commission.

Maintenance Dredging Operations, Corps of Engineers

Rouge River

     The dredging of the channels of the Main Rouge,  Old Rouge.and
Short Cut Canal commencing at the Ford Motor Company  turning basin and
extending to the Detroit River is classified as maintenance work.
Dredging operations are annual and commence about  the middle of Septem-
ber and continue until Just before Christmas.  In  1962  approximately
17^,000 cubic yards of silt, industrial waste and  clay  were removed
and hauled by the U. S. Hopper Dredge Mains to Grassy Island and
pumped within the diked area.  In 1963, 255,000 cubic yards were re-
moved,                                                                           j
                                                                                 i
                                                                                 I
     The costs of maintenance dredging by the Corps of  Engineers in the
Rouge were $206,288 in 1962 and $258,52*4 in 1963.   To help defray the
cost of dredging various industries were charged an amount (see Table            |
14-8) commensurate with the cost of removing that portion of the dredged
material deposited by industrial waste discharges.

Detroit River                                                                    j
                                                                                 I
     The Corps of Engineers removes some 100,000 cubic  yards annually            \
from the Livingstone Channel and 200,000 cubic yards  annually from the            [
East Outer Channel.  The upper Livingstone Channel annual maintenance
dredging is primarily carried out to remove diked material (rocks and
boulders) which wave action has caused to topple into the channel.
The lower Livingstone Channel and the East Outer Channel operation
consists of removal of solids originating upstream and  deposited in
areas where the velocity decreases as the river approaches and enters
Lake Erie.

Raisin River

     Monroe Harbor dredging is classified as maintenance work and in
1962 and 1963 consisted of dredging from the Monroe Harbor terminal
turning basin to a point about 8,000 feet into Lake Erie.  This is an
annual operation and usually takes place during the month of October.
Two hundred and seventy one thousand cubic yards of excavated material
consisting principally of silt, paper pulp and clay were hauled by the
U. S. Hopper Dredge Hoffman, to a disposal area in Lake  Erie in 1962.
Similar operations were repeated in 1963 with 390,000 cubic yards of
material being removed by the U. S. Hopper Dredge  Lyman.

     The costs of maintenance dredging by the Corps of  Engineers in the
Raisin River were $58,771* in 1962 and $128,536 in 1963.  To help defray
                              4-34-

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                                                       TABLE lj_7

                                               MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                              SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
 i

Ul
        Industry
St. Clair River

1-Michigan Milk
   Products Assn.

2-Croswell Pickle

3-Michigan Sugar

^-Stokely-Van Camp

5-Port Huron Paper


6-Dunn Paper

7-Midwest Machine
   Co. of Indiana
                                 Receiving
                      Location    Stream
                                Type
                  Flow        WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
                  (mgd)   Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
                              Peck
           Elk Creek
Croswell   Black River

Croswell   Black River

Croswell   Black River

Port Huron Black River


Port Huron St. Clair R.

Port Huron Bunce Creek
        8-Chrysler Parts
           Depot
                      Marysville St. Clair R.


9-Marysville Plating  Marysville St. Clair R.
Milk products
0.01
Pickled products  0.20

Sugar processing  l.kh

Food products       x

Paper mill        7.10


Paper mill          x

Machine products  0.0009
                          Motor vehicle
                           parts
                  0.01
                                                        Metal  plating     0.006
BOD x


BOD x

BOD x

BOD x

BOD x; Fiber x;
Color x

Fiber x

Oil x


Px; Cr+6 x


Ni x; Cr+° x
         *  Except  temperature in °F and pH.
        **  Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,  S=Total  Suspended,  and  D=Total  Dissolved
         x  Sufficient  data not available for  evaluation.

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                                                   TABLE't-T (continued)

                                                  MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                -.SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
 I
en
         Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
                      Type
Flow       WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
         St.  Glair River (cont'd)

         10-Morton Salt        Marysville  St.  Clair R.   Salt processing   8.00                 x      CaSO^ x;
                                                                                                       NaCl  x,
         11-Diamond Crystal    St. Clair   St.  Clair R.   Salt processing   7.20
             Salt
         12-Michigan Milk
             Products Assn

         13-V"lasic Food
             Products

         Clinton River
Imlay City  Belle River   Milk products


Imlay City  Belle River   Food products
                                0.10
                                0.10
         1-Rochester Paper     Rochester   Clinton R.     Paper mill
                                            0.29
         2-National Twist
            Drill

         3-Higbee Mfg.  Co.
            Avon Tube
Rochester   Clinton R.     Machine products  0.36
            Paint Cr.
Rochester   Clinton R.
            Paint Cr.
         ^-National Machine    Utica
            Products
                                0.1*0


Clinton R.    Machine products  0.10
                            CaCl2 x

                            CaSO,  x;
                            NaCl x;
                            CaCl  x

                            BOD x
                            BOD x
                                                            Dye x; Fiber x
                                                            Oil x
                                                                 x; CN x;
          •Except temperature in °F and pH.
         **  Solids:   T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,  S=Total Suspended,  and D=Total Dissolved
          x  Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                          TABLE lj-7 (continued)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
         Type
Flov       WASTE CONSTITUEMTS-rbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**  Chlorides	Other
Clinton River  (cont'd)

5-TRW Corp. Michigan  Utica      Red Run
   Div.                          Beaver Cr.

6-Chrysler-Michigan   Sterling
   Missile             Twp.      Plumb Br.
7-Ford Motor
Detroit River
1-U. S. Rubber
Sterling   Clinton R.
 Twp.      Plumb Br.
2-Parke, Davis & Co.  Detroit    Detroit R.
3-Anaconda-American   Detroit    Detroit R.
   Brass
Motor vehicle
  parts
Detroit    Detroit R.     Rubber goods
                                            0.10
                                            0.55
                                            0.2(san)
1.5
                  1*2.0
                         Pharmaceutical     8.1
                           products


                         Copper products    5•3
xS
                               65S
                              135S
                   2,500


                      1*5
                                               Soluble oil x
Fe x; Zn x;
Oil x; Cu x;
CW x; Cd x;
Cr+6 x;

Oil x
               NH- 10; Zn 650;
               P 22.5

               BOD IT; Oil 256;
               Phenol 1; CW 0.13;
               NH3 X

               BOD 376; Fe 1.1;
               Cu 60; Zn 32;
               Pb 0.25;
               Chromium 10; NH,  x
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                                   TABLE l(-7 (continued)

                                                  MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                 SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
CP
         Industry
                      Location
Receiving
 Stream
          Flow
Type	(mgd)
    WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Solids**  Chlorides  Other
         Detroit River  (cont'd)

         U-Revere Copper       Detroit
            & Brass
                                 Detroit R.
5-Great Lakes Steel-  Detroit
   Blast Furnace Div.
                                          Detroit R.
         6-Great Lakes Steel-  River
            Hot Stip Mill      Rouge
                                 Detroit R.
              Brass and copper   2.9
                products
              Pig iron and coke 90.0
              Sheet steel
         72.0
                    2,l66S
                  100,0003   17,959
 29,0003    1,000
BOD 570;
Oil 2,628,
Fe 3.5; NH  x;
CN x; Cu 100;
Hi O.U; Zn 66;
Pb 0.9;
Chromium 29

BOD 3,700;
Oil 2,1482;
Phenol 370;
Fe 5,1^6;
NH-. 2,900;
CN 10; Cu 108;
Zn 750; Pb 123
P x

Phenol 1.65;
Fe 1,500;
Oil 2,738;
NH- 86; Zn U2;
BOD 350; Pb 280;
    x
          * Except temperature in °F and pH.
         ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
          x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                          TABLE U_7 (continued)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
Location
Receiving
 Stream
                  Flow        WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
        Type	(mgd)   Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
Detroit River (cont'd)

7-Dana Corp           Ecorse
           Detroit R.
               Auto, truck and    O.U
                railroad frames
8-Fuel Oil Corp.
River
Rouge
Detroit R.
9-Great Lakes Steel   Ecorse     Detroit R.
   Ecorse Mill
Ship washing
                          Steel
                                 72.0
                                               BOD 588;
                                               Oil 60;
                                               Phenol 0.26;
                                               Fe 20; NH  x;
                                               CN x; Acia x;
                                               Cu 1.2; Zn 11;
                                               Pb 0.5;
                                               Chromium 1.3; P x
70S***
20*** BOD 221***;
      Oil I2lt**«
                           8,UOOS     1,800
                 BOD x; Oil 7,88U;
                 Phenol 1.67;
                 Fe U9,000;
                 NH  x; CN x;
                 Acid 158,000;
                 Cu 137; Ni 1»;
                 Zn 12; Pb 31*;
                 Chromium 8
  * Except temperature in °F and pH.
 ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved
*** Pounds per ship,
  x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                                    TABLEU_Y(continued)

                                                   MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                  SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
 I
-^.
o
          Industry
                      Location
Receiving
 Stream
          Flow         WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Type	(mgd)    Solids**  Chlorides  Other
          Detroit River (cont'd)

          10-E.I.DuPont de
               Neaours
                      Ecorse     Detroit R.   Chemical products    1.1*
11-Wyandotte Chem-    Wyandotte  Detroit R.   Chemical products    57-0
     icals, North
     Side Works
          12-Wyandotte Chem-
               icals , South
               Side Works
                      Wyandotte  Trenton
                                 Channel
          13-Pennsalt Chemical  Wyandotte  Trenton
               East Plant                  Channel
             Chemical products   5**-7
                                              Chemical products   97-0
                                1,500   Fe 23, NH., x;
                                        Acid x; Cu 0.3;
                                        Zn 6; Pb O.U;
                                        P x

                   300,0003  1,300,000  BOD 2,200;
                                        Oil x; Phenol
                                        3**.13; Fe x;
                                        NH  x; CN x;
                                       . Cu 59; Zn 7;
                                        P lit

                    69,71*53    550,000  BOD 3,000'
                                        Oil x; Fe x;
                                        NH., x; CN x;
                                        Cu 35; Ni 1;
                                        Zn 10; Pb 7;
                                        Chromium 6; P x

                    93,370     500,000  BOD x; Oil x;
                                        NH-o x; CN x; P x
           *  Except temperature in °F and pH.
          **  Solids:   T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, D=Total Dissolved.
           x  Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                         TABLE l*-7 (continued)

                                        MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                       SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
         _Type
Flow        WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)   Solids**  Chlorides  Other
Detroit River  (cont'd)

l^t-Koppers Co.
15-Firestone Tire
    and Rubber
16-McLouth Steel
Wyahdotte  Trenton
           Channel
Riverview  Trenton
           Channel
Trenton    Trenton
           Channel
Chemical products    0.8
            25S
Wheel rims
 1.0
296S
Stainless steel
  products
65.7    15,5885
   158  BOD 112;
        Oil 17.5;
        Phenol 0.6;
        Fe 13; NH  x;
        Cu 2.7; Zrf 2.8;
        Pb 1.2; P x

    16  BOD 70;
        Phenol 0.19;
        Fe 5,1+07; NH,, x;
        CN x; Acid 2,700;
        Cu 13, Zn 9; P x

2lt,267  BOD 5,000; Oil
        270; Phenol 9.Q1+;
        Fe 1,990;
        NH3 250; CN 119;
        Cu 63; Ni 9;
        Zn 300, Pb 325;
        Chromium 3; P x
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved; S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                          TABLE U-7 (continued)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
            Type
Flow         WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)    Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
Detroit River (cont'd)
17-Mobile Oil
l8-Chrysler Corp.
    Engine Plant
Woodhaven  Trenton
           Channel
Fuels and Solvents
Trenton    Eliz. Park  Motor vehicle
           Channel       machines
  1.1     1,588S   12,989
                        1.1
                      268
 BOD  1,000;
 Oil  719;
 Phenol  117;
 Fe 2; NH  x;
 CN x; Cu  0.7;
-Zn 0.5; Pb 3;
 Chromium  0.8;
 P x

 BOD  85; Phenol
 0.78; Fe  2;
 NH,  x;  Cu O.U;
 Ni 0.1; Zn 0.7;
 Pb 2; P x
19-Monsanto Chemical Trenton




20-Shawinigan Resins Trenton




Trenton Phosphates & deter- 18.0 6,500S
Channel gents



Trenton Chemical products O.U 1,313S
Channel



BOD x; Oil x;
Fe 6; NH x;
Cn x; Acid x;
Cu 3.5; Ni 0.8;
Zn O.U; P 10,000
BOD 6,970;
Oil x;~
NH x; CN x;
Acfd 7,190; P x
Phenol 0.01
 * Except temperature in °F and pH
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total suspended,  and D=Total  Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                          TABLE 1^-7 (continued)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
                    Type
                     Flow        WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
                     (mgd)   Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
Detroit River  (cont'd)

21-Chrysler-Chemical  Trenton
    Div.
22-Chrysler-Amplex
    Div.

23-McLouth Steel
Trenton
Trenton
Channel

Trenton
Channel
Gibraltar  Trenton
           Channel
                        Chemical products      0.3
Gears                  0.3
             Steel                  1.6
168s
NH  x; CN x;
P X

NH  x; CN x;
P x
                                   xS    25,600   Oil 2Ul; Fe 210;
                                                  NH- x; CN x;
                                                  Acid 15,^00; Cu x;
                                                  Cd x; Ni x; Zn x;
                                                  Pb x; Chromium x;
                                                  P x
Rouge River

1-Ford Motor-Rouge    Dearborn   Rouge R.     Automobiles and auto 1*00.0    62,0003
                                                parts
                                                                 32,000   BOD 2,930j
                                                                          Oil 6,570;
                                                                          Phenol 750;
                                                                          Fe 19,000' NH3
                                                                          5,000; CN 900;
                                                                          Acid 50,000;
                                                                          Cu 1,500; Ni  36;
                                                                          Zn 275; Pb 50;
                                                                          Chromium 260;  P
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, D=Total Dissolved
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                          TABLEH-7 (continued)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
Location
Receiving
 Stream
                                Plow        WASTE COMSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
                                (mgd)   Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
Rouge River  (cont'd)

2-Darling &  Co.       Melvindale  Rouge R.
3-American Agric.
   Chemicals
^-Allied Chemical
   General Chem.Div.
Detroit
 Rouge R.
            Fertilizers and
              chemicals
River
Rouge
  o.
Route R.
             Industrial chem-
               icals
1.1        168S        lU   BOD 7,100;
                            Oil 158;
                            Phenol 0.2^;
                            Fe x; NH? 135;
                            CN x; Pb 1.0;
                            P 5.5

1.2         19S             Phenols 0.03;
                            Fe x; NH3 x;
                            Cu 6.5;
                            Zn 2.0; Pb 0.9;
                            Chromium x; P x

9.1      1,1358       ^56   BOD x; Oil x;
                            Phenol 0.1;
                            Fe x; NH  x;
                            CN x; Cu35;
                            Cd U.I; Zn 11;
                            Pb 1; P x
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                                  TABLE !*-7 (continued)

                                                 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
 I
-£>
cn
         Industry
                                 Receiving
                      Location    Stream
                               Type
                    Flow       WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
                    (mgd)  Solids**  Chlorides  Other
         Rouge River  (cont'd)

         5-Solvay Process
            Div.
6-Plastics Div.
         7-Semet
            Solvay Div.
         8-Scott Paper
                      Detroit    Rouge R.
Detroit    Rouge R.
                      Detroit    Rouge R.
                      Detroit    Rouge R.
         9-American Cement     Detroit    Rouge R.
            Peerless Cement
            Div.
                         Industrial chem-
                           icals
Industrial chem-
  icals
                         Industrial chem-
                           icals
                         Paper mill
                                               Cement
                     15.2
0.5
                      5-9
10,0003  2,800,000  Phenol 17-6;
                    Fe x; NH  x;
                    Cu 3.6; 3
                    Zn 2.8; Pb 1.5;
                    Chromium 0.U;
                    P x

                 12 BOD 60; Oil 9.5;
                    Phenol 9; NH?
                    lUO; CN 0.6;
                    P x
         100S
                            31,3003
                                               8.1    3,0003
                150 BOD 50; Oil x;
                    Phenol 7.3;
                    NH  x; CN 0.35;
                    CuJ2; P x

            33,600  BOD 135,000;
                    Oil x; Phenol 26;
                    Fe x; NH  x;
                    Cu llU; In 230;
                    P x

               367  BOD 25; Oil 70.3;
                    Phenol 0.27,
                    Fe 6; P x
          * Except temperature in °F and pH.
         ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,
                                             S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.

-------
                                           TABLE 1^-7 (continued)

                                          MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                         SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
                                  Receiving
                       Location    Stream
Type
Flow       WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
Huron River  (eont'd)

 9-Ford Motor
                       Ypsilanti   Huron R.      Motor vehicle
                                                   parts
10-General Motors      Willow Run  Willow Run Cr. Motor vehicle
                                                   parts
11-Huron Valley
     Steel
                       Belleville  Huron R.      Steel products


12-Belleville Plating  Belleville  Huron R.      Metal plating
13-DT & I RR Yards

River Raisin
                       Flat Rock   Silver Cr.    Railroad yards
                                                                     0.7
               1.1
                                                                     0.1
               0.01
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.
                                          Temp . x
                                          Paint sludge x;
                                          BOD x; CrOj  x
                            Acids x;
                            alkali x, toxic
                            metals x

                            Oil x
1-Tecumseh Products
2-Gray
3-Buckeye Products
Tecumseh
Tecumseh
Adrian
River Raisin
River Raisin
S.Br. River
Raisin
l.UU
0.01
0.20
Temp . x
Toxic Metals x
Acid x; alkali x;
toxic metals x

-------
                                            TABLE l4_j(continued)

                                           MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                          SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
River Raisin (cont'd)
U-Avis Industries

5-Simplex Paper
-f*
1
£ 6-Stauffer Chemical
CP
T-Revco

8-Wolverine Co.

9-Dundee Cement

10-Hoover Ball &
Bearing

11-Hoover Ball &
Bearing
Location

Adrian

Palmura


Weston

Deerfield

Dundee

Dundee

Saline


Pittsfield
Twp.
Receiving
Stream Type

S.Br. River
Raisin
River Raisin Paper products


Black Creek Chemicals

River Raisin

River Raisin Paper products

Macon Creek Cement

Saline R. Bearing parts


Wood Gutter Bearing parts
Drain
Flow
(mgd)

0.28

0.25


0.23

0.03

0.03

i.Uo

0.57


0.03

WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Solids** Chlorides Other

Chrome x

Fiber x;
BOD X

Acid x;
alkali x
Washer water
bonderite x
Paper x;
fiber x
x H?S x; caustic
materials x
Acids x; alkali x;
CN x; toxic
metals x
Temp . x

 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
 I
-f^
_D
                                                  TABLE It -7  (cont inue d)

                                                 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry Location
River Raisin (cont'd)
12-Monroe Paper Monroe
13-Consolidated Paper Monroe
North Side Div.
it-Consolidated Paper Monroe
South Side Div.
Receiving Flow WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Stream Type (mgd) Solids** Chlorides Other
River Raisin Liner board 2.21 1.U75S 120 BOD 1,900;
oil 36.5;
phenol 0.6;
Fe 15; NH3 3;
Acid x; Cu 3;
Zn 93
River Raisin Liner board and 7.50 7,8233 BOD 17,20U;
cardboard Oil 898;
phenol 11.0
acid x; P x
River Raisin Automotive black- 7.0 10,6003 BOD 7,000;
board, boxboard oil 263;
phenol 0.5;
       15-Monroe Steel Cast-  Monroe
           ing
River Raisin   Steel casting
       l6-Monroe Auto Equip-  Monroe     River Raisin   Shock absorbers     0.02
           ment
                                                                                                       NH_ -;2; acid x;
                                                                                                       ZnJ15; P 9
        * Except temperature in °F and pH.
       ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved
        x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                                  TABLE U-7 (concluded)

                                                 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
 I
01
O
       Industry
                       Location
           Receiving
            Stream
                    Type
                   Flow       WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
                   (mgd)  Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
       River Raisin (cont'd)

       17-Union Bag-Camp
           Paper
                       Monroe
           Mason Run
               Liner board
18-Ford Motor Co.
Monroe
River Raisin
Automotive acces-
 sories
^.57    3,5873             BOD 11,770;
                           Oil 672;
                           phenol 5.9;
                           Fe  20;
                           NH   12;
                           acrd x

 130        83    16,000   BOD U8;
                           oil 6,351;
                           phenol 3.8;
                           NH   160;
                           CN31,075; acid x;
                           Cu  700; Ni 120;
                           Zn  125;
                           Chromium 136;
                           P 1,OU6
        * Except temperature in °F and pH.
       ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
        x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
the cost of dredging in the Raisin River,  the  Consolidated Paper Co.
is charged a fixed annual fee of $5,000.

                               TABLE U-8

                          PARTICIPATING COSTS
                   ROUGE RIVER MAINTENANCE DREDGING
      Industry                  Year                   Amount
Ford Motor Company              1962                 17,051.11
                                1963                 35,671,83
Scott Paper Company             1962                  1,836.5!*
                                1963                  8,701.66
Allied Chemical Corporation-
  Solvay Process Division       1962                  1*,1*69.^9
                                1963                  5,379-53
American Cement Corporation-
  Peerless Cement Division   Fixed Annual Charge      3,500.00
Population and Waste Load Projections

     Demographic studies conducted by the Great Lakes-Illinois River
Basins Project, Chicago, for the Southeastern Michigan portion of
the Lake Erie Basin have developed population trends on a national,
regional, and county basis.  These studies, plus the projected pop-
ulations in the National Sanitation Report, Sewerage and Drainage
Problems, Six-county Metropolitan Area, Southeastern Michigan, were
used to project populations for the year 1990 and 2020.

     The population centers of the area are Detroit and the surrounding
communities of Pontiac, Ann Arbor, Port Huron, Monroe, and Adrian.
Each area (including several not mentioned above) was analyzed, assuming
that by 2020 the areas will be urbanized and served by water and sewer
systems.  The results from each individual area were added to yield  the
total population served.

     The waste loading of communities in the Clinton River Basin served
by the City of Detroit have been included in the Detroit area.  In pro-
jecting the populations, the possibility that some of the communities
may in the future transport their wastes out of their individual basins
was not taken into account.

     Since the principal degradant from municipal waste sources is
oxygen demanding material (BOD), the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand
                           4-51

-------
test (BOD )  is used as an indicator.  Results are based upon popula-
tions and^upon present-day inventory  information obtained from the
Michigan Water Resources Commission,  the Michigan Department of
Public Health, and the Federal  Water  Pollution Control Administration.
The resulting untreated and treated BOD loading projections are shown
in Table l*-9-  They are summarized in Table  1*-10.  Table l*-8 also shows
the present  and projected BOD load from storm and sanitary sewers.

                               TABLE  l*-9

                  BOD  PROJECTIONS .BY RIVER  BASINS
                     -'SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN  AREA
St. Clair River-Lake St. Clair

Untreated BOD_
Municipal
Residential
Industrial
Subtotal
Industrial
(Direct to river)
Total Untreated BOD
Treated BOD,-
Municipal
With present 37$
removal
With 90$ removal
With 95$ removal
With 99$ removal
Industrial (direct to river)
With present 77$
removal
With 90$ removal
With 95$ removal
With 99$ removal
'•'-...• Total BOD
With present removal
With 90$ removal
With 95$ removal
With 99$ removal
1965



12,000
2,1*00
lit, 1*00

32,000
1*^00



6,200
1,1*1*0
720
lUU


7,300
3,200
1,600
320

13,500
1*,61*0
2,320
1*61*
1990



27,000
It, 300
31,300

57,500
887800"



13,500
3,130
1,570
313,


13,200
5,750
2,880
575

26,700
8,880
It, 1*1*0
888
2020



50,000
5,800
55,800

77.000
132,800



2l*,000
5,580
2,790
558


17,700
7,700
3,850
770

1*1,700
13,280
6,61*0
1,328
                          4-52

-------
                       TABLE 1+-9 (continued)

                 BOD  PROJECTIONS BY RIVER BASINS
                    5SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Clinton River                    .   1965         1990         2020


   Untreated BOD

      Municipal

        Residential                53,975      198,000      325,1+00
        Industrial                 12,350       20,375       29,61+1+
                    Subtotal       66,325      218,375      355,01+1+

      Industrial
        (direct to river)             ll+3          235          3^1
              Total Untreated BOD  66,1+68      218,610      355,385

   Treated BOD

      Total BOD
        With present Qh% removal   11,179       35,1+1+7       57,231+
        With 90$ removal            6,61+8       21,86l       35,518
        With 95$ removal            3,32l+       10,930       17,759
        With 99$ removal              665        2,186        3,552
                         4-53

-------
C
    TABL£,lt-9 (continued)

 DETROIT METROPOLITAN AREA

BOD5 PROJECTIONS (#/day)
           DETROIT METRO
                    1962
      1990
    2020
                Untteated BODr
                     Municipal
                         Residential
                         Industrial

                                   Subtotal

                     Industrial*
                       (direct to river)


                     Total Untreated BODC
                533,000
                134,000


                667,000

                226,000



                893,000
  910,000
  240,000


1,150,000

  405,000



1,555,000
1,100,000
  320,000


1,420,000

  538,000



1,958,000
                Treated BODC
                     Municipal
                         With present
                           20% removal          533,000
                         With 90% removal        66,700
                         With 957« removal        33,000
                         With 997, removal         6,670

                     Industrial
                         (direct to river)
                         With present
                           257o removal*         170,000
                         With 907o removal        22,600
                         With 957, removal        11,300
                         With 997o removal         2,260

                     Total BOD- to Detroit River
                         With present removal   703,000
                         With 907» removal
                         With 957» removal
                         With 997o removal
                 89,300
                 44,650
                  8,930
                                   920,000
                                   115,000
                                    57,500
                                    11,500
                                   304,000
                                    40,500
                                    20,250
                                     4,050
1,224,000
  155,500
   77,750
   15,550
               1,140,000
                 142,000
                  71,000
                  14,200
                 404,000
                  53,800
                  26,900
                   5,380
1,544,000
  195,800
   97,900
   19,580
           *Estimated
                                     4-5.4-
                                                   10 1367

-------
O
                         TABLE h-9 (continued)

HURON RIVER

     Untreated BOD                1965       1990         2020

          Municipal

              Residential       25,000     65,000      102,000
              Industrial        10,000     17,000       24,000
o
                             Subtotal      35,000     82,000      126,000
                     Industrial             4,000      6,800       9,600
                       (direct to river)   	     	     	
                     Total Untreated BOD   39,000     88,800     135,600


           Treated BOD to Huron River        1965       1990        2020

                Municipal
                  With present 907. removal  3,500      8,200      12,600
                  With 95% removal          1,750      4,100       6,300
                  With 99% removal            350        820       1,260

                Industrial (direct to river)
                  With present 50% removal  2,000      3,400       4,800
                  With 90% removal            400        680         960
                  With 95% removal            200        340         480
                  With 99% removal      •       40         68          96

                Total BOD to Huron River
                  With present removal      5,500     11,600      17,400
                  With 90% removal          3,900      8,880      13,560
                  With 95% removal          1,950      4,440       6,780
                  With 99% removal            390        888       1,356
                                     4.55                               JIK  10 1i67

-------
            RIVER RAISJS
                       TABLE l*-9 (continued)

                                        1965
                 Untreated  BODC
                                  Subtotal        13,560

                      Industrial  (direct  to
                                     river)       86,200
1990
                                                        42,300
                                                       190,000
2020
Municipal
Residential
Industrial

11,500
2,060

37,800
4,500

118,000
10,800
          128,800
          450,000
                      Total  Untreated;  BOD5       99
                                                       232,300
          578,800
o
Treated BOD5, to Raisin-^ River

          Municipal
               With present 687,
                 removal
               With 907o removal
               Withu957o removal
               With 997. removal

          Industrial (direct to river)
               With present 437o
                 removal
               With 907» removal
               With 957» removal
               With 997, removal

          Total BOD, to River Raisin
               With present removal
               With 907, removal
               With 957. removal
               With 997o removal
4,290
1,356
678
136
)
48,900
8,620
4,300
860
53,190
9,980
4,990
970
13,500
4,230
2,100
420

108,000
19,000
9,500
1,900
121,500
23,230
11,600
2,320
41,200
1,290
640
130

256,000
45,000
22,500
4,500
297,000
57,900
29,000
5,800
                                     4-5 fc
                                                                JIK 10 1367

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                                          TABLEit-7 (continued)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
                    Type
                   Flow        WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
                   (mgd)   Solids**  Chlorides  Other
Huron River
1-Ford Motor
2-Michigan Seamless
   Tube

3-Hoover Ball and
   Bearing
Wixom
Norton Cr.
Motor vehicle
  parts
So. Lyon   Novi-Lyon Dr.
Whitmore   O1Conner Dr.   Bearing parts
 Lake
1.2
                                   0.9
                                   0.1
Paint sludge x;
chromate x.

Pickle liquor
x; Temp, x

Temp. x•
U-Eongworth Plating   Chelsea    Letts Cr.      Metal plating
                                              0.1
5-Federal Screw
   Products
Chelsea    Letts Cr.
6-Rockwell-Standard   Chelsea    Letts Cr.

7-King-Seely Thermos  Scio       Huron R.



8-Peninsular Paper    Ypsilanti  Huron R.
               Screws, bolts, etc.  0.1


                                   0.1

                                   0.3
                          Paper mill
                                   1.6
                                                Acids x;
                                                alkali x; toxic
                                                metals x; oil x

                                                Temp, x
                                                Temp, x

                                                Acids x;
                                                alkalis x; toxic
                                                metals x

                                                Fiber x; dye x
 * Except temperature in  F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=T6tal Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                         TABLE U-10
                 SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN AREA
            SUMMARY OF BOD  PROJECTIONS (lbs//day)
                                1962-1965     1990         2020
 Untreated BOD,.
              !/

    Municipal

      Residential                635,1+75    1,237,800    1,695,1+00
      Industrial                 160,810      286,175      390,21+1*
                  Subtotal       796,285    1,523,975    2,085,61+1+

    Industrial

      (Direct to river)          3^8,3^3      659.535    1,07*+,
    Total Untreated BOD        l,lM,628    2,183,510    3,160,585

Treated BOD_
           ^

   Total BOD

      With present 36$ removal   786,368    1,1*19,21*7    1,957,331+
      With 90$ removal           111* ,1+63      218,351      316,059
      With 95$ removal            57,230      109,175      158,030
      With 99$ removal            11,1*1+6       21,835       31,606

BOD load from Storm Water Overflow

      Estimated present load = 1*3,000 Ibs/day from combined sewers
                                1*,000 Ibs/day from separate sewers.

      Assuming straight line projection with population growth
          1990 combined sewer load without treatment  = 70,000 Ibs/day
          2020 combined sewer load without treatment -= 90,000 Ibs/day
      of all combined sewers are replaced by separate sewers and no
      new combined sewers are built, the projected BOD load from
      storm water Overflow would be:

                           1990 - 29,000 Ibs/day
                           2020 - 38,000 Ibs/day
                     '    4-51

-------
     The total untreated BOD for the Southeastern Michigan area of
the Lake Erie Basin is  expected to nearly double "by 1990 and almost
triple by 2020.   Removal of the projected BOD loadings at present
efficiencies would allow over 60% of total untreated BOD to reach the
rivers and lakes of the area.

     Projections have been made for phosphorus and chlorides from waste
sources in Southeastern Michigan.  These projections are shown in
Table 1+-11 and 1+-12.
                          4-58

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                            TABLE 1*-11

                PROJECTIONS OF PHOSPHORUS INPUTS
                         SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN
1960
Ibs/day
3,000
3,000
3,000
1*6,000
1990
Ibs/day
3,000
1*,500
It, 500
85,000
2020
Ibs/day
3,000
6,000
6,000
111,000
Phosphorus

  Present discharge (Raw)
    Rural runoff^
    Urban runoff
    Ind. wastep
    Mun. waste

   Based on 1*,300 mi.  of rural area and constant of 250 Ibs/yr/iai
   phosphorus for rural runoff.
  o
   Using 2.5 Ibs/acre/yr phosphorus contribution for urban areas.

  •^Direct discharge industries.

  ^Includes industries connected to city sewers.
  ProJ ect ed discharges
         Year

         1990
         1990
         1990
         2020
         2020
         2020

   All sources
   Treatment'
       0
      95$
       0
      95*
  Phosphorus
    Ibs/day

    97,000
     9,750
     1*,880
   126,000
     6,300
     2,500
                             TABLE 1*-12

                      CHLORIDE PROJECTIONS
                      SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN
Chlorides
Municipal wastes
Industrial wastes
Streets
    TOTAL

-'•Using 0.23 Ibs/cap/day
To maintain discharge at 8.1 x 10  Ibs/day  (present load) will  require the
following treatment:
                            Municipal*      Industrial*      Street _s*
196!*
Ibs/day'
800,000
6,000,000
1,300,000
8,100,000
1990
Ibs/day
1,500,000
9,000,000
1,950,000
12,1*50,000
2020
Ibs/day
1,950,000
12,000,000
2,600,000
16,550,000
         1990
         2020
U6.5
60
33
50
33
50

-------
                         Maumee  River Basin

      The principal waste sources  in the Maumee River Basin are
 municipal,  industrial,  and agricultural.  Presently, strong headway
 is being made in the  control  of the municipal and particularly the
 industrial  wastes, but  agricultural wastes appear to remain as the
 major long-term pollution problem yet to be controlled.  Due to the
 low flow in the basin's waterways, some form of tertiary or advanced
 waste treatment of all  wastes is  presently, or will be, required.
 All wastes  should be  treated  to the point that no effluent BOD  con-
 centrations exceed 6-10 mg/1, depending on stream slope.

 Municipal Wastes

      Approximately 705,000 people are served by sewage plants in the
 Maumee Basin.   The location of  these plants is given in Figure I|-l6.
 Over 1*00,000 people are served  by individual septic tank systems.
 These people have a raw BOD  of approximately 183,000 Ibs. per day.
 If these wastes received either secondary or tertiary treatment, the
 discharges  would total  18,000 and 5,500 Ibs. per day respectively, as
 compared to present estimated discharge of 27,000 Ibs. per day.  This
 is a net removal of 85  percent, neglecting bypassing of untreated
 sewage.   Of the total 1|5  municipal treatment plants 36 provide second-
 ary treatment,  5 provide  oxidation lagoons, 2 provide intermediate
 treatment,  2 provide  primary  treatment, and 11 provide minor treat-
 ment.   Table U-13 lists the major Maumee River Basin municipal wastes
 for the  present,  and  the  years  1990 and 2020 with complete secondary
 or tertiary treatment provided.  The individual subbasins are summarized
 in Figure U-17.

      The present  total  phosphorus discharged by municipalities is
 estimated to be 9,000 Ibs.  per  day.  This is expected to rise to 12,000
 and 19,000  Ibs.  per day by 1990 and 2020 respectively.

 Industrial  Wastes

     Industrial wastes  have a great effect on receiving waters in the
basin.   Table k-lk, listing the major industrial waste producers of
the Maumee  Basin,  is based mainly on information obtained from State
water pollution  control agencies.   The location of these industries is
shown in  Figure ^-l6.

     The major materials in industrial wastes  which have caused the
most persistent water quality problems in the  area's waters  are:   BOD,
phenol, oil, nitrogen compounds, and toxic materials.   Some  industries,
such as Excello in Lima, have relatively small waste discharges,  but at
the place their outfall reaches  the stream,  the stream flow  is  quite
small or nonexistent for most of the year.   Other industries,  such as
Standard Oil of Ohio in Lima, have in the  past affected the  quality of
not only the immediate receiving stream, but also at the Maumee  River
from its point of junction down  to its  mouth.
                            4-60

-------
Figure 1+-16 - Municipal and Industrial Waste  Discharges  in the Maumee
River Basin..

-------
o
City
St. Joseph River
Montpelier, 0.
Butler, Ind.
A .uDurn, Ind.
Garrett, Ind.
St. Marys River
St. Marys, 0.
. }s Berne, Ind.
j Decatur, Ind.
, Upper Maumee River
•^ Fort Wayne, Ind.
New Haven, Ind.
Hicksville, 0.
Defiance, 0.
Tiffin River
Hudson, Mich.
Morenci, Mich.
Archbold, 0.
Bryan, 0.
^Secondary treatment
Tertiary treatment
Includes population
cr:
O O
TABLE 4 -13
MAUMEE RIVER BASIN - MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES
(BOD,, in pounds per day)
1960 1960 1960 2
Population Raw Sec. Eff.

4,131 1
2,176
6,350 1
4,364 , .

7,737 1
2,644
8,327 1

168,376 46
3,396
3,116
14,553 2

2,550
2,055
2,348 5
7,361 1
(90% removal)
(97% removal)
of Waynedale


,050
370
,080
740

,330
450
,420

,100
580
530
,470

430
350
,090
,930





105
37
108
74

133
45
142

4,610
58
53
247

43
35
509
193




1960
Tert. Eff.

31
11
32
22

40
13
43

1,380
17
16
74

13
10
150
58




1980
Sec. Eff.

160
50
140
100

230
70
210

8,200
100
80
390

80
60
810
290




1980
Tert. Eff.

48
15
42
30

70
21
63

2,460
30
24
118

24
18
243
78




2020
Sec. Eff.

300
80
230
160

533
150
460

21,890
220
200
920

240
200
1,900
560




2020 .
Tert. Eff.

90
24
69
48

160
45
138

6,570
66
60
276

72
60
570
168





-------

o



o




TABLE 4-1.3 (continued)
-











4^
I
(5^
.







cr:
r-
c:
o-
c
City
Auglaize River
Wapakoneta, 0.
Spencerville, 0.
Delphos, 0.
Ada, 0.
Lima, 0.
Columbus Grove, 0.
Findlay, 0.
Bluffton, 0.
Ottawa, 0.
Van Wert, 0.
Paulding, 0.

Lower Maumee River
Napoleon, 0.
Wauseon, 0.
De 1 ta , 0 .
Perrysburg, 0.
Swan ton , 0 .
Toledo, 0.

^,c j' f




1960
Population

6,756
2,061
6,961
3,918
53,537
2,104
30,344
2,591
3,245
11,323
2,936


6,739
4,311
2,376
5,519
2,306
318,003
/!>- „
/




I960
Raw

2,580
280
1,320
670
11,200
1,470
7,700
340
550
3,400
500


1,150
730
560
790
440
85,060






1960
Sec. Eff.

258
28
132
67
1,120
147
770
34
55
340
50


115
73
56
79
44
8,510

^Ci




1960
Tert. Eff.

77
8
40
20
340
44
230
10
16
100
15


34
22
17
24
.13
2,550






1980
Sec. Eff.

407
50
230
90
2,000
220
1,270
60
79
490
70


170
110
90
140
70
14,600






1980
Tert. Eff.

122
15
69
27
600
66
380
18
24
147
21


51
33
27
42
21
4,380






2020 2
Sec. Eff.

970
130
630
90
5,200
420
3,000
160
155
830
120


330
270
210
380
160
30,300






2020
Tert. Eff.

290
39
189
27
1,560
126
900
48
46
249
36


99
81
63
114
48
9,090







-------
Figure H-17.  Future Municipal Waste Loadings in the Maumee River
Basin.

-------
                                                       TABLE h-lh

                                                MAJOR  INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                 MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
 j

-------
                                            TABLE 1* -3li '^continued)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                           MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
Industry
Location
Receiving
 Stream
                    Type
Flow       WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**  Other	
Lower Maumee River
1-Interlake Steel Corp.  Toledo
2-Toledo Edison          Toledo
3-Li"bby-Owens-Ford       Defiance
   (East Toledo)

U-Allied Chemical        Toledo
5-Johns-Manville         Defiance
6-Camp"bell Soups***      Napoleon
7-Central Foundry
   CMC
Defiance
Lower Maumee  Blast furnaces  kk.Q
  River

Lower Maumee  Power Plant       x
  River

Lower Maumee  Flat; glass       0.25
  River         products

Lower Maumee
  River

Lower Maumee  Fiberglas        0.3
  River         products

Lower Maumee  Canned soups     3.2
  River

Lower Maumee  Gray iron        U.O
  River         foundry
                                                          pH x, BOD x, COD x,
                                                          phenol x; oil x, temp.x

                                                          Temp. x
                                                     x    Oil 76^Cdlbr..x
                                                          COD 60
                                                  6.900S  BOD 380, Oil x
                                                          BOD 5,900, Oil x, Temp, x
                                               BOD 960, COD 8,700,
                                               Phenol h, Oil x, Temp, x
  * Except temperature in °F and pH.
 ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved
*** Discharged in winter months only
  x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                             TABLE In 1*( continued)
                                          MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                            MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
 Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
       Type
Flov       WASTE COHSTITUENTS-rbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**  Other	
 Lover Maumee River (cont'd)

 8-Johns-Manville***   Defiance   Lower Mauraee  Fiberglas
                                    River         products

 9-S. K. Wayne Tools   Maria      Lower Maumee  Tools
                        Stein       River

10-Weatherhead Corp.   Antwerp    Upper Maumee  Screw machine
                                    River         products
11-B. F. Goodrich


12-Parrot Packing


13-International
    Harvester

lU-Magnavox Co.

15-Phelps Dodge
Ft. Wayne  Maumee R.      Rubber products
Ft. Wayne  Maumee R.
Ft. Wayne  Maumee R.


Ft. Wayne  Maumee R.

Ft. Wayne.  Maumee R.
Motor vehicles
                    0.28


                    0.25


                    0.09
                    0.16
                                                             Oil x
                 BOD 33, COD 31, Phenol x
                 CN 2.6

                 BOD 27, COD x, Oil 1,
                 Temp.  x

                 BOD 88U, COD 730, Oil 136,
                 Temp.  x

                 Oil x, CN x
                 Phenol x

                 BOD 17-3, Phenol x, COD x
  *Except temperature in °F and pH.
 ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
*** Unknown amount discharged to Defiance sewage treatment plant.
  x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                                    TABLE Mt (cent inued)

                                                 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                    MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
 I

-------
                                                     TABLE ii'-i'! (continued)

                                                  MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                    MAUMEE RIVER  BASIN
(T
Industry
Ottawa River
1-Ford Motor Co.
2-Sohio Nitrogen
3-Sohio Acrylonitrile
It-Standard Oil Co.
Location
Lima
Lima
Lima
Lima
Receiving
Stream
Ottawa R.
Ottawa R.
Ottawa R.
Ottawa R.
Type
Motor vehicle
engines
Chemicals
Chemicals
Petroleum refining
Flow
(mgd)
0.1*5
1.93
0.85
3.15
WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Solids** Other
BQD 51, Oil 67,
COD 259
33,600T BOD lltO, NH~ 5,61*0,
COD 2,960, Cu 21
IS^OOT BOD x, NH- 500,
COD 1,9707 CN 75
LOT BOD 1,900, NHq x, Phei
       5-Ex-Cell-O-Corp.      Lima       Ottawa R.

       6-Republic Creosote   Lima       Ottawa R.


       Tiffin River

       1-Defiance Fertil-    Defiance   Tiffin R.
          izer Co.
Aircraft engines

Wood preserving




Fertilizer
0.12

0.01
Oil 881, COD x

BOD l6,vCN x, COD 3U.2

BOD 26, Phenol 7-7, Oil 19,
QN; x, COD 12.7
                 NH3 x, COD 0.2, PO^ x
        *  Except  temperature in °F and pH.
       **  Solids:   T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,  S=Total  Suspended,  and D=Total  Dissolved
        x  Sufficient  data not available for  evaluation.

-------
                                                    TABLE lt-J&. (VontUnued)

                                                 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                   MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
o
       Industry
                                Receiving
                     Location    Stream
                                 Type
                 Flow        WASTE CONSTITLJENTS-lbs/day*
                 (mgd)  Solids**  Other      	
       St. Marys  River

       1-Dana  Corp.
          Sal  Axle Works
2-Essex Wire

3-Central Soya


U-Weston Paper

5-Goodyear Tire
   & Rubber
Ft. Wayne  St.  Marys R.


Ft. Wayne  St.  Marys R.

Decatur    St.  Marys R.


St. Marys  St.  Marys R.

St. Marys  St.  Marys R.
       6-Beatrice Foods     New Breman St. Marys R.

       St. Joseph River

       1-Warner Automotive  Auburn     St. Joseph R.
       2-Kitchen Quip
                     Waterloo   St.  Joseph R.
Motor vehicle     1.05
  parts

Wire               .09

Soybean products   .05


Paperboard          x

Rubber products   1.10
                                                 Fluid milk
                                              0.08
                                                                   0.39
BOD U2, Oil 3.5, CX x,
COD x

BOD 2.1, Phenol x

BOD IK 3, Phenol x,
CM. x, COD x

Oil x, COD x, BOD x

BOD 3hh, CN x, COD UU8


BOD 15, Oil x, COD 59
                                                              BOD IK 7, Phenol x,
                                                              Oil x,  CH x, COD x

                                                              BOD 12.1, Phenol x, Oil x,
                                                              CS 0.01, Zn 1.5, Cu 0.9
                                                              Ni 7.2
         * Except temperature in °F and pH.
        ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
         x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                            TABLE U-llj (concluded)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                           MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
                                                                 Flow
                                                     Type
(mgd)   Solids**  Other
                                                                             WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
St. Joseph River (cont'd)

3-Crane-Edmund       Butler     St. Joseph R.


U-Universal Tool***  Butler     St. Joseph R.
                                                                 0.06
                                                                 0.03
5-Edgerton Metal     Edgerton   St. Joseph R.   Metal finishing  O.lU
   Products
6-Bundy Foods
                     Blakeslee  St.  Joseph R.    Canned Foods     0.11
                 BOD 3.9, Phenol x, Oil 17.1,
                 CN 1.30, COD 1+9.5, Zn 3-9

                 BOD U.U, Phenol x, Oil 19.2,
                 CN 3.3, COD 7-9, Zn ^.0

                 BOD 1U.5, CN 2.0, COD U2.2,
                 Cr 0.1

                 BOD 5.5, Oil x, COD 15.8
  * Except temperature in °F and pH.
 ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
*** Unknown amount discharged to Butler sewage treatment plant.

-------
     It is estimated that industries in this  area presently  provide
an average removal of BOD  of 86 percent,  neglecting bypassing.  As
with domestic wastes, a much higher degree of industrial  waste treat-
ment is required in the future to produce  acceptable conditions.
Table U-15 gives the industrial BOD  for 3 degrees of removal and
1990 and 2020 projections.

Combined Sewers and Storm Water Overflow

     Most of the sewer systems within the  Maumee Basin are either
partially or totally of the combined type.  These systems contribute
appreciable quantities of oxygen demanding wastes and bacterial  pol-
lution to the waterways.  Storm water overflow from separate systems
which have become overloaded from infiltration or illegal drain
connections, also contribute measurable quantities of pollutants to
the waters.  The extimated oxygen demand exerted by these wastes was
11,000 Ibs. per day in I960.  If all combined sewers are  separated
by 1990, the discharge from storm water overflows alone will be  6,000
Ibs. per day.  This will increase to 9,000 Ibs. per day by 2020.

Agriculture and Land Runoff

     Probably the major long-term pollutional problem in  the Maumee
Basin is from agricultural sources.  Even  if all domestic and indus-
trial wastes were given 100 percent treatment, there would still be
significant water pollution problems from agricultural sources.  The
primary pollutants are nutrients, sediment and dissolved  solids, with
secondary materials of herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, and
algicides.

     An example of nutrient pollution from agriculture is Burr  Lake
on the Little Auglaize River where secci disc (transparency) readings
of 3 inches were commonly obtained.  Another example is Van  Buren  Lake
in which, when the temperature is above 55 percent, the secci disc
readings average around 6 inches due to the colloidal material  present.

     Trautman has described how particular agricultural practices  have
                               4--T1

-------
                             TABLE U-15

                 FUTURE INDUSTRIAL BODr DISCHARGES
                          pounds per day
Year          Rav               86%             90%
1960
1990
2020
220,000
300,000
380,000
31,000
te.ooo
53,000
22,000
30,000
38,000
6,600
9,000
ll.UOO
                            4--7 3

-------
degraded the water quality in the Maumee Basin.   The  only  soil  con-
servation practices instituted in the basin seem to be  drainage vorks -
water is moved off the land as quickly as possible, regardless  of  other
considerations.

     The Maumee River has the highest sediment  concentration  of any
river in the Lake Erie Basin even with its extremely  flat  stream and
ground slopes.  It discharges an average suspended  sediment load of
two million tons per year to Lake Erie.   Biologists believe that these
heavy silt loads from the Maumee River have smothered the  spawning beds
of the white fish in Western Lake Erie and hastened the decline of the
Lake Erie fishery.

     The difficulty with much of the sediment from  this area  is its
extremely small particle size, in many cases approaching a colloidal
diameter.  During low flows, over 80 percent of the sediment  has a
particle diameter less than 2 microns and over  90 percent  has a diameter
less than U microns.  (A micron is about 1/25,000th of  an  inch.)   Thus,
besides having the greatest total amount of sediment  load, the  Maumee
River also contains the finest grained sediment.

     To make a preliminary estimate of the chemical constituents in
the rural runoff in the Maumee River watershed, results of data ob-
tained in the Lake Michigan small rural watershed sampling program
were used. This information with knowledge obtained from field obser-
vations in the Maumee Basin was utilized to make the  final determination.
Table h-l6 is a listing of the preliminary estimates  of the chemical
constituents for the runoff expressed in 100 tons per year for the
various subbasins of the Maumee Basin.

     To solve the problem of rural runoff, land should  be  drained
through subsurface tile drains in combination with  contour farming.
The crops of some parts of the basin should be changed  since  beans and
corn leave the land denuded in the wintertime.   Strips  of hay and  grasses
are needed to help prevent erosion.  Strip or contour farming is needed
in some almost flat areas to help prevent sheet erosion.

     After oxygen deficits and sediment, algae are  probably the next
major problem in the basin's waterways.  In many areas  of the basin,
the expression "too thick to drink, too thin to plow" is quite applic-
able in relation to algae.  Algae of the green or blue-green  types are
present the year around throughout almost all of the basin.   Besides
,the taste and odor problems they cause in domestic  drinking waters and
commercial canning, they interfere with the recreation  and esthetic
uses of the waters.

Solid Wastes
     In several areas, the basin's waterways are used for the disposal
of solid wastes.  An example is Willshire, Ohio which has a large dump
                            4-14

-------
c
                   TABLE 4-16

ESTIMATED CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF RURAL RUNOFF*
             (in 100 tons per year)

Ammonia
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate
Total Nitrogen
Sodium
Silicate
Potassium
Sulfate
Chloride
Magnesium
Calcium
Auglaize
.9
1.6
1.5
3.6
18
34
7
65
20
70
145
Upper
Maumee
.1
.4
.3
.6
3.8
9
.8
4.4
2.1
9
27
Lower
Maumee
. .4
.6
.7
1.5
6
10
3.4
37
11
35
55
St. Joseph
1.2
1.2
1.7
5
41
37
8
200
65
90
300
St. Marys
.3
.3
.5
1.1
3.9
4.9
2.8
32
9
29
39
Tiffin
.5
.9
1.0
2.1
15
20
29
55
18
34
105
         * Runoff Quality by Soil Groups and General Land Use--A preliminary estimate--
           made by extrapolation of data from the Lake Michigan Watershed (GLIRBP Rural
           Runoff Studies) and field observations made of the Maumee River Basin. Values
           for solids are omitted since no correlation has been established.
C
c
                                                                           JULIO 1367

-------
along the St. Marys River just above the Indiana line.   Disposal  of
garbage, trash, and other deleterious refuse  in the  Maumee  River  and
its tributaries should be prohibited and existing dumps  along the
river banks should be removed.

Federal Installations

     There are h3 Federal installations in the basin.  Of these  37
discharge their wastes to municipalities providing secondary treat-
ment and U discharge to municipalities providing primary treatment.
The other two Federally-owned or Federally-leased installations
listed below discharge waterborne wastes in the Maumee River Basin
area.  Installations that discharge to municipally-operated sewerage
systems have not been listed since the Federal Government does not
control the treatment provided.

     1.  The New Haven Defense Materials Supply Depot  discharg 2,000
gpd to the ground.  The waste treatment facilities operate  satis-
factorily and appear adequate at this installation.

     2.  The U. S. Coast Guard's Toledo Harbor Light Station presently
discharge some 350 gpd of sewage to the harbor.  The station will be
completely automated, thus ending the discharge of raw sewage.

Dredging

     Legislation passed in 1962 provided for the present maintained
depth of 25 feet in Toledo Harbor to accommodate deep  draft vessels
using the St. Lawrence Seaway.

     All maintenance dredging of the harbor is done b  y  the Corps of
Engineers with th eir own boats.  In 1965 they dredged almost one
million cubic yards of materials from the Maumee River channel.   This
material, as a whole, was composed of about 80 percent silt and  20
percent sand, with a higher content of silt in the river and sand
off-shore.  Only a small percentage of the materials appears to  be
from industrial sources.  The majority of the sediment is from river
bank and land sheet erosion and off-shore transport.

     All materials dredged in the river and out to channel  buoy  30
(about four miles into the bay from the mouth) are discharged either
to a large diked area just north of the mouth, or to two temporary
private areas at Riverside Park.  The materials dredged  from buoy 30
out are discharged to an area off the Erie Ordnance Depot and Proving
Grounds.

                        North Central Ohio Area

     The major water pollution problems in the North Central Ohio Area
are caused by municipal, agricultural, and industrial  pollutants. As
                             4--U

-------
in the Maumee River Basin, the major long-term problem, particularly
in the western part of this basin,  is from agricultural sources.

Municipal

     Approximately 75 percent of the North Central  Ohio population
of 600,000 live in organized communities.   This population of  UU2,000
is served by U3 municipalities that discharge  treated waste  to the
waters of the basin.  Approximately 85 percent of the population of
the organized communities (368,000) people) have central  sewage treat-
ment facilities.  Fifty-five percent of the total sewered population
is served by secondary treatment.

     Most of the primary treatment  plants  are  located on  Lake  Erie;
or, as at Lorain, at the mouth of the Black River.   Inland from Lake
Erie, 185,000 are served by secondary sewage treatment.   The population
and type of municipal waste treatment in each  of the subbasins of the
North Central Ohio area is summarized in Table h-IJ. The locations
of the major municipal waste sources are shown in Figure  U-18.

     These major communities and numerous smaller ones  (population
under 1,000) discharge a waste load of 29,000  pounds of BOD  per day
to the basin.  The population equivalent (PE)  of this waste^load,
based on 0.167 pounds of BOD  per capita per day is 171,000  people.
In addition to the wastes from municipal treatment  systems,  organized
communities with a total population of 7^,000  discharge domestic sewage
from individual home treatment units (septic tanks) with  a waste load
of 12,000 pounds of BOD  per day.  Sometimes,  however, this  waste is
discharged directly underground or  to a receiving stream  without the
treatment provided by a leach field.  The community of Bellevue, pop-
ulation 8,285, discharges raw untreated sewage from a municipal col-
lection system to an underground limestone cavern,  which  affects ground
water supplies in the area.

     Despite the widespread inland  use of secondary sewage treatment,
the waste load often exceeds the assimilative  capacity of the  basin's
streams.  This is especially true in the headwater  reaches and below
the larger municipalities.  The average BOD reduction by secondary
treatment is approximately 80 percent, but £he remaining  load  of 7,000
pounds of BOD  per day is still equivalent to  the raw sewage of U2,000
people.  Including primary treatment, the total BOD  load to inland
waters is 17,000 pounds per day. There is a present need for  almost
all inland municipalities to provide tertiary  treatment to remove this
excessive loading.  Another 11,600  pounds is discharged directly into
the lake (See Table U-18.)

     The 11 major municipalities discharging treated wastes  to Lake
Erie (including Lorain) serve Uo percent of the basin's population and
contribute almost two-thirds of the total municipal waste discharge.
The reason for this is that the average reduction of BODj. from the
                           4-77

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 c
                                   TABLE 4-17

                  Populations and Municipal Sewage Treatment
                in the Subbasins of the North Central Ohio  Area

River Basin            Secondary              Primary         Septic  tanks  or
                   Plants   Population   Plants   Population  no treatment

Portage              3        32,000       2         4,000         15,000
Sandusky             5        44,000       2        23,000         15,000
Huron                3        23,000       2         3,000          3,000
Vermilion            2         5,000       0             0          3,000
Black                7        64,000       1        76,000          9,000
Minor Tributaries    5        17,000       1         2,000         13,000
Lake Erie            2        16,000       8        59,000          8,000

        Totals      27       201-,000      16       167,000         74,000
O
C
                                      4-78                             JUL101S37

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                                  ERIE
                             NORTH  CENTRAL  OHIO
                          MUNICIPAL  WASTE DISCHARGES
SCALE  IN  MILES
5   0  5  K>  15 20  25  30

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e
                                      TABLE 4 - '&
                          MUNICIPAL WASTE LOAD IN TERMS  OF
          POPULATION  EQUIVALENTS AND BOD5 for NORTH CENTRAL OHIO
         River Basin
      Population
      Equivalents*
            Pounds  per day
                 BODc
                                    From Sewage Treatment  Plants

Portage
Sandusky
Huron
•
Vermilion i
Black
Minor Tributaries :
Lake Erie (
Raw
60,650
87,690
32,555
4,710
150,125
12,655
115,865
Discharged Raw
9,205 10,100
36,795 14,600
6,500 5,440
1,815 787
47,060 25,100
2,845 2,110
66,965J 19,300
Discharged
1,540
6,140
1,090
303
7,860
475
11,200








              Totals
i 464,250
171,185J  77,500
28,600*
o
         * PE = 0.167* BOD5/day
         # Based on 63% reduction
                                   4-8O
                                             JUL  10 1967

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primary treatment plants on Lake Erie is only 55 percent.  This
efficiency, however, is good for primary treatment and indicates
well-operated plants.  Basin-wide, the efficiency of primary treat-
ment plants for BOD,- removal is k3 percent, but includes very poor
results from Tiffin  (20 percent removal.)  These municipalities
are presently being  required to provide a minimum of secondary
treatment.

     As the population of this area increased, even higher degrees
of treatment will be required.  Table k-19 lists the future loadings
of BOD,- to the area's waters.

Industrial

     Industrial wastes from 1*1 industries are discharged to the waters
of the North Central Ohio basin.  The greatest waste loads in the
basin are discharged to the Black River by an automotive and two steel
industries.  The largest volumes of waste water are discharged to Lake
Erie by two power-generating stations in Lorain County.  Aside from
the large industries concentrated along the Black River, the remainder
of the industrial waste discharges are scattered through the basin.

     Food processors and metal finishing operations are the most num-
erous industries.  The food processors are located in the agricultural
western subbasins.  Many are small seasonal operations which employ
spray irrigation or holding lagoons for waste treatment.  The metal
finishing industries discharge a small volume of waste containing
heavy metals and toxic compounds.  These industries quite often dis-
charge to small streams.

     The other industrial waste sources include another steel industry,
paper mills, chemical and rubber plants, railroad yards, and oil pro-
ducers.  The locations of the industrial waste discharges are shown
in Figure h-20 and data on the industrial waste discharges are listed
in Table k-20.

Federal Installations

     Of the U9 Federal installations in this area, all but 8 of these
discharge to municipal systems which provide the following treatment:
Secondary-26, primary-ll*, and none-1.

     The Federally-owned or Federally-leased installations listed
below discharge waterborne wastes to the area's waters.  Installations
that discharge to municipally operated systems are not included in this
listing since the Federal Government has no control over the treatment
provided.

     1.  Ottawa Job Corps Center (formerly Erie Army Depot), Port Clinton,
has a secondary treatment (activated sludge) and chlorination unit
which provides adequate treatment for 100 persons.
                             4--81

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o
                        TABLE 4 -  /

PROJECTED FUTURE MUNICIPAL WASTE LOADS for NORTH  CENTRAL OHIO
          Year    Population    Flow of Sewered      Pounds  per day of BOD,
                               Population (mgd)	  Raw      907.	977.
1960
1990
2020
620,000
1,000,000
1,800,000
53
120
260
80,000
170,000
350,000
8,000
17,000
35,000
2,400
5,100
10,500
O
                                        4—8:2.                            JULIO 1967

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Figure ^-19.  Future Municipal Waste Loadings in the North Central
Ohio Area.

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         O
O
    I
   CD
! }
     O
     c
     30
     rn

     I
                                                /.  A   K  E
                        E  R  IE
                    NORTH  CENTRAL OHIO
                 INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISCHARGES
                                               K)  15  20 25  3O


                                                       5/25/66

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 I
CD
in
        o
                                                 o
                                                                V-2O Corf/ wed

                                                   LEGEND FOR NORTH CENTRAL OHIO
                                                     INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISCHARGES
          Code
          Industry
Portage River
P-l       Brush Beryllium Co.
P-2       Gibsonburg Canning Co.
P-3       Hirtzel Canning Co., Pemberville
P-4       Foster Duck Farm, Inc.
P-5       Wood County Canning Co.
P-6       A & P Tea Co.
P-7       Seneca Wire Co.
P-8       Swift & Co.

Sandusky River
S-l       Hewitt Robins, Inc.
S-2       H. J. Heinz Co.
S-3       Northern Ohio Sugar Co.
S-4       Pioneer Rubber Co.
S-5       Corfman Gravel Co.
S-6       Pennsylvania RR

Black River
          U. S. Steel, Tubular Operation, Lorain
B- 1
B-2
B-3
B-4
Chatham
  Twp.
                    CMC,  Ternstedt Div.
                    Republic Steel,  Steel & Tubes  Div.
                    United Dairy
                    Baldwin Producing Corp.
                    Berea Oil Corp.
                    Chatham Operating Co.
                    Dymo  Oil Corp.
                    Carter M. Hanna  Co.
                    The Preston Oil  Co.
Code
                                                                Industry
Huron River
H-1       E. I. duPont deNemours & Co.
H-2       Johns-Manville Products Co.
H-3       B & 0 RR

Minor Tributaries
M-l       Stokely-Van Camp, Inc.
M-2       Silver Fleece Canning Co.
M-3       Whirlpool Corp.
M-4       CMC, New Departure Div.
M-5       Ford, Sandusky Hardware Plant
M-6       G.E., Bellevue Lamp Plant #242
M-7       Bechtel-McLaughlin Co.
M-8       Lake Erie Canning Co.
M-9       NASA, Plum Brook Facilities
M-10      Ford, Lorain Assembly Plant

Direct to Lake Erie
E-l       U. S. Gypsum Co.
E-2       Aluminum & Magnesium Co.
E-3       Ohio Edison Co. - Edgewater
E-4       Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. - Avon Lake
 to

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Table U-20.  Major Industrial Wastes, North Central Ohio Area.

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     2.  Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial National
Monument, South Bass Island has the following treatment:   Sewage
from the public comfort station located below the monument is  treated
by a septic tank and drain field.   The superintendent's home and the
National Park Service Office at the Monument are each  served by two
septic tanks, and the effluent is  discharged to the Put-In-Bay, sewer
system which discharges to Lake Erie without further treatment.

     3.  The Put-In-Bay Light Station facility consists of a houseboat
which is unmanned at this time.  The houseboat is served by a retention
tank with chlorination.

     U.  The Marblehead Lifeboat Station facility has a complement of
15 and is served by two septic tanks and a subsurface disposal field.
This system is operating satisfactorily.  One house trailer at the
installation is served by a cesspool consisting of a 50 gallon punched
oil drum.

     5.  The Sandusky Bay Lifeboat Station has a complement of 25 and
is served by three septic tanks and a subsurface disposal field.  The
sewerage system appears to be operating adequately.

     6.  The Bellevue Post Office has 27 employees.  Sewage (250 gpd)
and some storm water flow to a concrete-block-lined cesspool on the
installation's property.  The system appears hydraulically adequate to
handle the flow.  The City of Bellevue is under orders from the State
of Ohio to construct a municipal sewerage system.

     T.  The Lewis Research Center (NASA) Plum Brook Facility, located
near Sandusky has a complement of approximately TOO.  A primary treat-
ment plant with chlorination treats wastes from UOO employees; two
smaller secondary package treatment plants serve the rest.  Septic tanks
with disposal fields serve isolated buildings on the property.  Small
amounts of chemical and acid wastes are collected in underground hold-
ing tanks for disposal by a contract firm.  A contract was let June
30, 1967 for construction by May 1968 of a trickling filter and final
coagulation unit which will provide tertiary treatment for all Plum
Brook wastes.

     8.  The Lorain Lifeboat Station has a complement of 12 and is
served by a septic rank which discharges directly to the Black River.
This facility is located less than UOO yards from the Lorain Sewage
Treatment Plant.  The outer harbor light station has a complement of
two to three persons and discharges raw sewage into Lake Erie.  1'.i,:
         The facilities at Camp Perry are presently owned and operated
by the Ohio Militia and are no longer considered a Federal installation.
Part of the land has been converted into the Erie Industrial Park and
is operated by the Ottawa Improvement Corp. (U.S.Rubber Co. is leasee.)
                              4-87

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Land Runoff

     Rural land runoff is the source of a significant portion of the
vaste load to North Central Ohio streams.  The runoff carries silt,
nutrients, organic matter, and microorganisms into the streams.  Silt
and nutrients are the greatest pollutants.  The sediment transport
amounts to over 100,000 tons per month during the spring runoffs in
the Sandusky River alone.  Table h-2 lists the yearly estimates of
sediment loading from the rivers in the North Central Ohio basin.

     Estimated nutrient loads of nitrogen and phosphate in rural land
runoff are tabulated below:

    Nutrient     NH       Organic N     NO     Total N     PO
                   33                  H
Tons per yr.     250        360         520     1,090      160

     The extent of urban land runoff has not been fully defined in
North Central Ohio.  Most of the communities in the basin have combined
or partially combined sewer systems.  This permits the discharge of
untreated raw sewage to the lake or nearest water course.  The overflow
from combined sewers and runoff from developed septic tank areas con-
tain organic matter, nutrients, and microorganisms.  Microbiological
pollution is the most serious result of these discharges.  It jeopard-
izes the use of bathing beaches and other recreational areas.  Organic
discharges cause septic conditions which result in severe local nuisance
conditions.

                    Greater Cleveland-Akron ARea

     Municipal and industrial wastes which are discharged to the area's
waterways are the major cause of pollution in this basin.  Sediment from
highway and subdivision construction also are important sources of
pollution.

Municipal Wastes

     Approximately 2.2 million people are served by sewage plants in
this area.  This population has a raw BOD,- of over 500,000 pounds per
day.  If these wastes received either complete secondary (90 percent
removal) or tertiary (97 percent removal) treatment, the discharges
would total HO,000 and 11,000 pounds per day, respectively.

     Of the 57 municipal sewage facilities in this area, 50 provide some
form of secondary treatment, k provide intermediate treatment, and 3
provide primary treatment.  There are twelve municipalities which do not
have central collection systems and provide no treatment.

     Over kO percent of the'treatment facilities are deemed inadequate
by the Ohio Water Pollution Control Board and have been ordered to

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                                         TABLE 4  -  Z-/
                           SEDIMENT LOADINGS  TO  LAKE  ERIE  for  the
                                NORTH CENTRAL OHIO  BASIN
          River                                   Tons  per  year
          Black                                   180,000
          Huron                                   150,000
          Portage                                 200,000
          Sandusky                                410,000
          Vermilion                               130,000
o
o
                                                                           JUt 10  i3B7

-------
improve their systems to provide adequate treatment.   Table h-22
lists the principal municipal waste treatment plants  located £n the
Greater Cleveland-Akron area.  Raw load of BOD  is projected to int
crease  to 1.0 million pounds per day by 1990 and 1.5 million by 2020.
Tertiary treatment is presently being required of most inland cities
with secondary treatment required for lakefront areas.

Industrial Wastes
     Industrial wastes have a great effect on receiving waters in the
Greater Cleveland-Akron area.  Table U-23 lists the major industries
which discharge wastes to the area's waters.  This table is "based
mainly on information obtained from Ohio water pollution control
agencies, and has been reviewed by these agencies.

     Some of the industries listed in the table have relatively small
waste discharges, but where their outfall reaches the stream, the flow
is quite small or nonexistent for most of the year.  A number of indus-
tries discharge their wastes to municipal storm sewers without adequate
treatment.  Presently these industries are neither under permit to the
State, nor are they being properly controlled by the cities involved.
There are over 20 of these industries in the City of Euclid alone.

     It should be recognized that many of the area's industries have
spent vast sums of money in removing the pollutional materials dis-
charged to the streams, and that they expect to continue this program
by removing as high or higher percentages of their wastes in the future.

Federal Installations
     There are l8l Federal installations in the Greater Cleveland-Akron
area.  Of those discharging to municipal systems, lUU discharge to
systems providing secondary treatment, and 22 discharge to systems pro-
viding intermediate or primary treatment.  In the Berea, Olmsted Falls,
and Westlake areas 8 army-leased housing units discharge to septic tanks
since municipal systems are not available.  The Federally-owned or
Federally-leased installations listed below discharge waterborne wastes
to the area's waters.  Installations that discharge to municipally-
operated sewerage systems have not been listed since the Federal Govern-
ment does not control the treatment provided.

     1.  The Cleveland Lifeboat Station has installed an aerobic
digester treatment unit with chlorination.  This unit became operational
in the fall of 1966 and is considered adequate.

Combined Sewers
     Of the 32 major community sewer systems in the area, 7 are of the
combined or combined-separated type, and 2 are not sewered.  Among those
cities with a combined-separated system are the two largest cities in
the area, Cleveland and Akron.

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Figure 1*-21.  Municipal Waste Discharges in the Greater  Cleveland-
Akron Area.

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         o
o
                                                          TABLE 4 -22

                                    PRINCIPAL MUNICIPAL WASTES  -  GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
 •f*
  i
 _O
 JO
Municipality
Rocky River Basin
Berea
Broadview Heights
Brookpark
Lake wood
Medina
North Olmsted
North Royal ton
Olmsted Falls
Strongsville
West lake
Westview
IJCounty Districts
I] Brunswick
Middleburg Hts.
Cuyahoga River Basin
Akron
Bedford
Bedford Heights
Cleveland Southerly
Cuyahoga Falls
Hudson
Independence
Sewer
System

Separate
Separate
Separate
Sep-Comb.
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate

Separate
Separate

Sep. -Comb.
Sep. -Comb.
Sept\-Comb.
Sept'. -Comb.
Separate
Separate
Separate
Type of
Treatment

Secondary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Secondary

Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Data
Year

1966
1966

1966
1966
1966
1967
1966
1967
1966
1966

1966
1966/67

1966/67
1966
1965
1966
1966
1966
1966
Discharge
in mgd*

2.08
--

14.14
1.11
1.84
**
--
*Vc
--


.80
.49

63 .75
2.29
.85

.04
.42
""
Effluent
mg/l-v

10
--

33
42
13
**
--
**
--


8
75/**

/**
30
56

.11
40
"
BOD
Ibs/day*

173
--

220
388
199
**
'
**
--


53
306/**

/**
572
397

4
140
"
             Data  are  yearly averages  based  on  material  supplied by the Ohio Department of Health.
           * Does  not  include by-passing.
          ** New plant presently  completed and  no  data available,  or plant to be completed by June  1,  1967.
o

CO

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        o
o
o
                                                          TABLE 4 -22

                                    PRINCIPAL MUNICIPAL WASTES - GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
 i
-Q
Municipality
Cuyahoga River Basin
Kent
Mantua
Maple Heights
Middlefield
Munroe Falls
Northfield
Oakwood
Ravenna
Sagamore Hills
Sawyerwood
Solon
Tallmadge
Twinsburg
Valley View
County Districts
Brecksville SD 13
Northeast SD 1
Northeast SD 6
Northeast SD 15
Shalersville SD 1
Shalersville SD 2
Stow Twp. SD 4
Sewer System
(cont'd)
Separate
Separate
Separate
Combined
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate

Sep-Comb.
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Walton Hills SD 20 Separate
Type of
Treatment

Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Primary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Primary
Secondary
Data
Year

1967
1967
1966/67
1966
1966
1966
1967
1966
1966
1966
1966
1965
1965
1966

1966



1965
1965
1966/67
1966
Discharge
in mgd*

**
**
.70/**
.30

.32
**
.80
--
--
.56
.13
11.81
--

.83



.06
.11
1.10/**
.21
Effluent
mg/1*

•irk
*#
149/**
72
33
41
**
24
--
--
15
13
15
--

14



6
7
16 4/**
23
BOD
Ibs/day*

**
**
869/**
180

109
**
160
--
--
70
14
1480
--

97



3
6
1500/*>v
40
             Data are  yearly  averages  baaed  on material  supplied by the Ohio Department of Health.
           * Does not  include by-'passing
          ** New plant presently  completed and no  data available,  or plant to be completed by June  1,  1967
 en

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Figure U-22.  Future Municipal Waste Loadings in the Greater Cleveland-
Akron Area.

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Figure H-23.  Industrial Waste Discharges in the Greater Cleveland-
Akron Area.
                              4-95

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                                                 TABLE V-2J

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                      GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
                                                                 Flow
      Type
                             WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)   Solids**   Other
Cuyahoga River Basin

1-Republic Steel      Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.
2-Sherwin Williams    Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.

3-Standard Oil***

lt-U. S. Steel         Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.
5-E. I. DuPont
Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.
                         Steel
                   290
                         Organic chemicals
                         Steel
Inorganic chem-
  icals
6-Jones & Laughlin    Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.   Steel
                   23.5
  l.U
                                            130
             xT   SO,  120,000,  Cl 32,000,
       180,0005   Phenol 280, CH ItOO,
                  NH  It ,100, Mg 1,100,
                  FeJ12,000, Temp.  10°F,
                  pH x, COD x,  Oil  x

             xT   Temp. x
81t,OOOT   Oil 510, Temp, x,
30,OOOS   SO,  50,000, Cl 1,000
          Fe 15,000

l6,900T   pH U.9-6.2, Temp, x
15,^000   SO  It,600, NH  175,  .
          Zn^970, Cl 3,900

     xT   pH x, COD x, Oil 1,200,
10,ltOOS   Temp, x, SO,  12,200,
          Fe 6,600, Cl It,900
  * Except temperature in °F and pH.
 ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
*** Plant operation discontinued except for asphalt plant which now discharges to Cleveland's sewage system.
  x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                              TABLED-? (continued)

                                           MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
 Industry
           Receiving
Location    Stream
                                                                   Flow
                              WASTE CONSTITUENTS-UPS/day*
      Type
(mgd)  Solids**   Other
 Cuyahoga River Basin  (cont'd)

 7-Elco Lute           Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.
 9-Ford Motor
    Engine Plant

10-E.W.Ferry Screw
11-Cuyahoga Meat

12-Bailey Wallpaper

13-Burdett Oxygen

lU-Allied Chemical
Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.
Brook Park

Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.
Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.

Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.

Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.

Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.
                         Lubricating oils
                           and greases
 8-Harshaw Chemical    Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.   Chemicals
                    Oil
                                             l.U
Motor vehicle parts 0.9


Fabricated metal     x
  products

Meat products        x

Wallpaper            x

Industrial gases     x

                     .02
                  pH x, Oil 1,  Temp,  x
                 'pH 1.0-8.7,  COD x,  Temp,  x,
                  550 F  Ni'lfcO,  Co 20,
                  ***(Pb 1(5,  SO^  x,
                     Cu 75,  Cl 3,100,Mn  30)

              xT  pH 6.5-10.5, Oil 62,
             62S  Temp.  x

              xT  COD x, Oil  x, Temp, x
              xT  BOD x,  Temp,  x

              xT  BOD x,  Temp,  x

              xT  COD x,  Temp,  x

              xT  pH U.6-7.0,  SO,  9,  Cl  21
             65S
  * Except temperature in °F and pH.
 ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
*** Plant operation discontinued except for asphalt plant which now discharges to Cleveland's sewage system.
  x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                              TABLE 4-.23( continued)

                                           MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                        GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
                                  Receiving                         Flow        WASTE COHSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Industry _ Location    Stream _ Type _ (mgd)  Solids**   Other _

Cuyahoga River Basin  (cont'd)

15-Republic Steel      Cleveland  Cuyahoga R.   Research               x              COD x, Temp, x
    Research Center

16-Master Anodizers    Bedford    Cuyahoga R.   Metal Anodizing      .09         xT   Temp, x, SO, 150, Cr 0.3,
                                                                                      GH x, Cu x *

17-Chrysler            Twinsburg  Cuyahoga R.   Metal stamping         x         xT   pH x, Temp, x

l8-Cornvell Tools      Mogadore   Cuyahoga R.   Tools                .01         xT   Temp, x, Cr x, CK" x,
                                                                                      Cu x, SO,  x, Cd x, Zn x

19-Ohio Edison                    Cuyahoga R.   Power Plant          95               Temp, x

20-S.K.Wellman, Div.   Bedford    Cuyahoga R.   Motor vehicle parts  .17         xT   Temp, x, Cu l6, CN. 1.6,
    American Brake                -                                                    SO^ 190
    Shoe

21-Ferro Chemical      Bedford    Cuyahoga R.   Chemicals            .23         xT   pH h.l-9.h, COD x, Temp,  x,
                                                                                      Cd 0.5, Co 1, Ba 0.2

22-Zirconium Corp.     Solon      Cuyahoga R.   Inorganic chem-      .Oh     1<,700T   pH S.1*-1*^, Oil 2,600,
    of America                                    icals                      i*,OOOD   ZrO  1*3, Cl 2,600,
                                                                                           1*10, SO  x
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

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                                                   TABLE y-23( continued)

                                                MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                             GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
      Industry
                       Location
Receiving
 Stream
     Type
Flow        WASTE COHSTITUENTS-rbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**   Other	
JO
Cuyahoga River Basin  (cont'd)

23-Diamond Crystal     Akron
    Salt

2U-Firestone Tire      Akron
    & Rubber

25-General Tire        Akron

26-B.F.Goodrich        Akron

27-Goodyear Tire       Akron
    & Rubber


28-Sonoco Products     Munroe
                        Falls
29-Lamson & Sessions   Kent

30-Smallwood Packing   Middle-
                        field
Cuyahoga R.


Cuyahoga R.


Cuyahoga R.

Cuyahoga R.

Cuyahoga R.
Salt


Rubber products


Rubber products

Rubber products

Rubber products
                                        Cuyahoga R.    Paperboard

                                        Cuyahoga R.    Hardware

                                        Cuyahoga R.    Meat  packing
   x         xT   pH x, Temp,  x, Cl x


   x         xT   pH x, COD x, Temp,  x


   x         xT   pH x, COD x, Temp,  x

   x         xT   pH x, COD x, Temp,  x

   x         xT   pH x, COD x, Oil x, Temp,  x
                  CN x, Cr x,  Cu x, Zn x,
                  SO,  x, Cd x

  .57      300S   BOD 782, Temp. 6h°F

  .03  8.5 ft3/day Oil x, SO^  x

    x        xT   pH x, BOD x, Oil x,
                  Temp. x
        * Except temperature in °F and pH.
       ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,  S=Total  Suspended,  and D=Total  Dissolved.
        x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                                   TABLE4-23 (concluded)

                                                 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                              GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
     Industry
                                    Receiving
                         Location    Stream
                  Type
Flow       WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**   Other	
O
Rocky River Basin

1-Astoria Plating



2-Allison Division
   General Motors

Chagrin River Basin

1-Chase Bag


2-General Biochemicals


3-Moss Farm Dairy
                               Cleveland   Rocky R.    Plating
                              Brook Park  Rocky R.    Testing track
                              Chagrin
                               Falls

                              Chagrin
                               Falls

                              Chester-
                               land
Chagrin R.  Paper mill
Chagrin R.  Chemicals
Chagrin R.  Dairy products
.003
                                             xT   pH x, COD x,  Temp,  x,
                                                  CN x, Cu x, Cr x,
                                                  Color x

                                             xT   pH x, Oil x,  Temp,  x
  xT   pH 5-9-7.6, BOD x,  COD x,
TTOS   Temp,  x,  Color x

       pH 7.1-10.6, Temp.  60°F
                  pH x, BOD x, Temp,  x
      * Except temperature in °F and pH.
     ** Solids:  T=Total  Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
      x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
     A substantial portion of the cities of Cleveland and Akron are
served by a combined sewer system.   This system collects  both sanitary
and storm waters, and was originally designed before the  development
of treatment plants to discharge overflows to the nearest water course.
With the development of treatment plants , combined sewers were tied
together with interceptor sewers to intercept the dry weather sewage
flow.  Some allowance was made for increases due to storm waters.
Overflow structures were provided at most junctures between the com-
bined sewers and the interceptor sewer so that heavy storm water flow
would continue to pass directly to the nearest water course.

     The city of Cleveland has approximately 380 combined sewer over-
flow structures.  During periods of storm runoff they discharge raw
sewage and industrial wastes, mixed with storm water, to  the streams
passing through Cleveland and to Lake Erie.  There are 21 storm water
outfalls that discharge directly to the lake, and UO outfalls that
discharge to 6 small streams flowing through eastern Cleveland to Lake
Erie.  The outfalls constitute a major intermittent source of pollution,
but plugged and defective overflow structures which discharge contin-
uously are also responsible for a large portion of the area's pollution.
The city of Akron also has numerous overflow structures which discharge
into almost all water courses in the Akron area.

Solid Wastes

     There are some locations where the area's waterways  are being
used for the disposal of solid wastes.  Whenever the rivers meander
close to an access, illegal dumps, as shown in Figure k-   , are often
found.  Dumps range from the small one-family size to large municipally
operated areas.  Municipal dumps presently exist along the river banks
and flood plains at such places as Willoughby, Independence, Jaite,
Boston Mills, and Bay Village.  Besides being an esthetic eyesore,
these dumps contribute oils, oxygen demand, trash, and other wastes.
There are also industrial dumps at such places as Eastlake and Cleveland.

     Another problem along the area's waterways, particularly on the
Cuyahoga River between Akron and Cleveland, are the fallen trees which
choke the rivers and streams.  The Cuyahoga River is cluttered in
several areas with fallen trees, tree stumps, trash, and  floating
debris.  Many sawed-off tree stumps with their expansive  root systems
block the river's flow and collect floating material (Figure k-  ).
Much of this debris find its way down the river to the harbor area and
along the lakefront where it interferes with both commercial navigation
and pleasure boating.

Agricultural and Land Runoff

     Soil erosion causes the addition of silt, nutrients, and other  dele-
terious substances to the area's waterways.  The principal sources of
these materials are from unstable river banks; from highway and sub-
division construction and from agricultural lands.
                           4-10!

-------
                      Northeastern Ohio Area

Municipal Wastes

     Approximately 110,000 people are served by eleven sewage treatment
plants in the Northeastern Ohio area.  Figure h-2h shows the  location
of these treatment plants, and Table U-2U describes them.   Five  of these
plants provide secondary treatment, four provide intermediate treatment,
and two provide primary treatment.  The five secondary treatment plants
receive a population equivalent (PE) of approximately 19,000, while the
six plants that provide only primary or intermediate treatment receive
a PE of approximately 9^,000.  The total BOD discharged to the area's
waters is 9,300 pounds per day or a PE or 56,000.   This indicates an
overall removal of only 50 percent.  Projected BOD loads for  each river
basin are shown in Figure U-25.

     Sewage treatment plants for Ashtabula and Conneaut provide  inter-
mediate treatment, while Painesville1s plant provides primary treatment.
These three plants serve approximately 65 percent of the total popula-
tion served in Northeastern Ohio.  These three plants receive approximately
12,000 pounds of BOD per day and discharge 7,100 pounds per day, which
indicates a total average removal of only hQ percent.  If ashtabula,
Painesville, and Conneaut provide secondary treatment (90$ BOD removal)
the combined load discharged would be only 1,200 pounds of BOD per day.

     The total phosphorus load discharged by municipalities in the North-
eastern Ohio area is approximately 1,100 pounds per day.  The present  and
projected phosphorus loads from municipal treatment plants are shown in
Figure U-25.

     In addition to the treated wastes from the eleven treatment plants,
the streams receive wastes with little or no treatment from seven muni-
cipalities and many small communities (less than 1,000 population).  The
seven municipalities that provide no treatment other than septic tanks
are:  Lake vi lie, Ohio (i960 population of U,190)>,   North Kingsville, Ohio
(i960 population of 1,85^), .Painesville Northeast, Ohio (population of
1,265), Orwell, Ohio (i960 population of 819), Grand River, Ohio (i960
population of ^77) , Conneautville, Pennsylvania (i960 population of 1,200)
and Springboro, Pennsylvania (1960 population of 583).

Industrial Waste

     Figure k-26 shows the location of the industries that discharge their
wastes to Northeastern Ohio waters.  The majority of industries are
located near Lake Erie and discharge their wastes directly to the lake,
to the lower reach of the Grand River, or to a small tributary which
flows into the Ashtabula River.

     A large industrial complex consisting of eleven industries is located
just outside the City of Ashtabula.  Eight of these industries discharge
wastes to Fields Brook either directly or to a storm sewer which empties
into it.  Fields Brook is a small tributary which flows into the lake-
affected portion of the Ashtabula River.
                           '  4-ioz.

-------
ORB • DISCHARGE TO GRAND RIVER  BASIN  (SEE TABLE 6-1)

CCB ' DISCHARGE TO CONNEAUT CREEK BASIN (SEE TABLE 6-1)

ST « DISCHARGE  TO SMALL  TRIBUTARY  (SEE TABLE 6-1)

LE • DISCHARGE  DIRECT  TO  LAKE ERIE (SEE TABLE 6-1)
         SCALE IN MILES
   NORTHEASTERN  OHIO  AREA
MUNICIPAL  WASTE  DISCHARGES
                            4~!G3>
                                                           FIGURE

-------
                             TABLE  ^-2^

                      MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES

                      NORTHEASTERN OHIO AREA

Municipality or      Receiving        Type Sewerage  Flow   BOD (ibs/day)
  Institution    	Stream	System*     (mgd)   Raw  Final

Grand River Basin

 Fairport          Grand River        Intermediate-rS          517     357

 Painesville       Grand River        Primary-S             J+,230   2,000

 Chardon           Big Creek          Secondary-S             1+08      98

 Jefferson         Mill Creek         Secondary-S             505      6l

Ashtabula River Basin

Conneaut Creek Basin

 Conneaut          Conneaut Creek     Intermediate-S        2,370   1,630

 Albion            E.Br.Conneaut Cr.  Secondary-S             370      55

Small Tributaries

 Madison           Arcola Creek       Secondary-S             265      58

 Geneva            Cowles Creek       Secondary-S           l,6lO     232

Direct to Lake Erie

 Lake County SD #  Lake Erie          Intermediate-S        2,520     810
  Willoughby-
  Mentor

 Lake County SD#1  Lake Erie          Primary-S               5l+0     5^0
  Madison

 Ashtabula         Lake Erie          Intermediate-S        5,^85   3,^35
*S = Separate Sewer System, C = Combined Sewer System, S-C = Separate and
 Combined Sewer Systems
                              4-104-

-------
                   PHOSPHORUS a  BOD  LOADINGS

                             MUNICIPAL  S.TP

                      NORTHEASTERN   OHIO  AREA
   3000|-
                                        40,000 -
                                        30,000
                                        20,000
                                        10,000
   3000$-
LiJ     U
LU     P
a:  2000 jt-

0     3
LU      :
2  1000:
z
o
o
                                       40,000
                                        30,000
                                        20,000
                                     10,000
                                      ©
                                                                    ©
o
H
O
LU
o:
   3000 -
   2000
1000
                                        40,000 -
                                        30,000 -
                                        20,000 -
                                        10,000 •
               PHOSPHORUS

                  (Ibs./doy)
                                                      BOD

                                                     (Ibs./day)
(T)  =  RAW

©  =  LOAD9PRESENT REMOVAL RATE

©  =  LOAD'JDaOVo REMOVAL RATE

©  =  ALLOWABLE LOAD
                                 4-105

-------
GRB  = DISCHARGE  TO GRAND RIVER  BASIN  (SEE TABLE 6-2)

ARB  = DISCHARGE  TO ASHTABULA  RIVER  BASIN (SEE  TABLE 6-2)

CCB  = DISCHARGE TO CONNEAUT CREEK BASIN (SEE TABLE 6-2)

ST  5 DISCHARGE TO SMALL  TRIBUTARY (SEE TABLE 6-2)

LE  = DISCHARGE  DIRECT  TO LAKE ERIE (SEE TABLE 6-2)
             SCALE
   NORTHEASTERN  OHIO   AREA
INDUSTRIAL   WASTE   DISCHARGES
                         IS MILES
                                4-loro
                                                                    FIGURE

-------
     Another area of large  industrial  activity is  the lower reaches of
the Grand River near Painesville  and Fairport.  Here five industries
discharge to Lake Erie or the  Grand River.

     Table h-25 summarizes  the waste loads  for each of the major in-
dustries in Northeastern Ohio.  This table  is based on data obtained
from the Ohio Department of Health  and has  been reviewed by them.  The
main problem stemming from  industrial  wastes in this area is that of
solids.  Most of these solids  are dissolved in the water and are
predominantly chlorides.  The  Grand River receives an average of over
6.6 million pounds of total solids  daily from the  Diamond Alkali
Company, 3.9 million pounds of which are chlorides.  This represents
the highest chloride discharge from one industry anywhere within the
Lake Erie Basin.

     If the present control measures are not improved, the solids load
will be phenomenal. Figure  ^-27 graphically shows  the waste loads ex-
pected if control measures  are not  improved.
             15,000,000-1
             10,000,000-
          CO
          UJ
          Q
         I
         o
             5,000,000-
                                                30,000,000
                                             O
                                             •o
                   C/)
                   Q
                   _l
                   O
                   C/)
                      20,000,000
                                                10,000,000-
                    o
                    to
                    en
O
0>
o>
o

-------
                                                          TABLE  Jt-25

                                                  MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                  NORTHEASTERN OHIO AREA
        Industry
             Receiving
Location      Stream
                                                                        Flow
                        WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Type
(mgd)    Solids**  Chlorides   Other
O
CP
        Grand River Basin  (GR)

      1-Calhio  Chemical     Perry
             Red Cr.      Organic chemicals  0.2     36.000T     11,000
                                                         xD
      2-A.E.Staley
 J     3-Diamond Alkali
Grand River  Grand R.     Soybean oil
                         xT
                         xD
                             pH  x, BOD x
Painesville  Grand R.     Inorganic chem-    5.3  6,500,OOOD  3,900,000    Anmonia  17,000
                           icals                   160,0005           '    Phenol 21
       t-U.S. Rubber -
         Uniroyal
Painesville  Grand R.     Plastics,  syn-     0.3
                           thetic resins
        Ashtabula River Basin (AR)

   / 1-Cabot Titania       Ashtabula    Fields Br.  Inorganic chem-     3
         Titania Dioxide                               icals
         Plant

   j 2-Cabot Titania       Ashtabula    Fields Br.  Inorganic chem-     3
         Titania Tetra-                                icals
         chloride Plant
                     1.880T
                       518S
                                                         xT
                                                     1,930S
                                 5,880    Tio0  x
                                                         xT     15,000     pH  2.5-11.9
                                                    11,0003
         * Except temperature in °F and pH.
        ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
         x = Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                                   TABLE it-25 (cont'd)

                                                 MAJOR  INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                 NORTHEASTERN OHIO AREA
I
O
Industry Location
Ashtabula River Basin (cont'd)
3-Detrex Chemical Ashtabula
Ind. -Chlorinated
Solvents Div.
It-General Tire & Ashtabula
Rubber-Chemical
Division
5-<01in Mathieson Ashtabula
Chemical-TDI
Facilities
6-Diamond Alkali Ashtabula
Semi-Works
7-Re active Metals Ashtabula
Metals Reduction
Plant
8-Re active Metals Ashtabula
Sodium & Chlor-
ine Plant
Receiving
Stream Type
Fields Br. Inorganic chem-
icals
Fields Br. Plastics, syn-
thetic resins
Fields Br. Inorganic chem-
icals
Fields Br. Inorganic chem-
icals
Fields Br. Non-ferrous metals
Fields Br. Inorganic chem-
icals
Flow WASTE
(mgd) Solids**
0.1 1,800T
1,TOOD

0.1*
0.6 xT
xD
1.3 1*30, OOOT
2 ,3003
0.0't 8,800T
326S
CONSTITUENTS-lbs /day *
Chlorides Other
2,1*00 pH 0.1*-8.3,
Fe fcl

15,000 pH 1.2-11.1*
COD 1*25
pH 1.6-9.6
270,000 pH 1.0-2.3
pH x
        * Except temperature  in  °F and pH.
       ** Solids:  T=Total  Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
        x = Sufficient  data not  available for evaluation.

-------
                                                    TABLE U-25  fcont'd)

                                                  MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                  NORTHEASTERN OHIO AREA
I
o
        Industry
                     Location
Receiving
 Stream
                                                                        Flow
                                                                             WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Type
(mgd)   Solids**  Chlorides  Other
                                                   Pickles & Sauerkraut   x
  Conneaut Creek Basin (CC)

1-Albro Packing      Springboro


  Small Tributaries (ST)

1-True Temper        Geneva


  Direct to Lake Erie (LE)
      1-Diamond Alkali     Painesville  Lake Erie  Inorganic chem-
                                                     icals
                                        Cowles Cr.  Sporting Goods
                                 0.7
                                            xT
                                            xS
                       380S
                                                                   10    37.000D
                                                                          6,2003
      2-Midland Ross       Painesville  Lake Erie  Tire cord & fabric    29   27U.OOOT
         IRC Fibers Div.                                                      25U,OOOD

      3-Cleveland Elec-    Ash/tabula    Lake Erie  Power plant            x         x
         Trie 111. Co.

      It-Detrex Chemical    Ashtabula    Lake Erie  Industrial inorganic  U.6        xD
         Ind.-Chlorine &                             chemicals                    651S
         Alkali Plant
                                         pH x, BOD x
                            Oil  x,  Fe  66,
                            Chrome  10
                                                   26,000   Ammonia 1,000
                                                            Phenol  17

                                                   U0,000   pH  2.8-3.8,  BOD  8,700,
                                                            Oil U,300, Zn  6,700
                                                                                     10,000
                                                                                              Temp.  x
       * Except temperature in °F and pH.
      ** Solids:   T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,  S=Total Suspended,  and D=Total Dissolved.
       x = Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                           TABLE  U-25  (concluded)

                                           MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                           NORTHEASTERN OHIO AREA
  Industry
Location
           Receiving
            Stream
Flow       WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
(mgd)  Solids**  Chlorides  Other	
  Direct to Lake Erie (cont'd)

5-Union Carbide, Linde  Ashtabula  Lake Erie  Industrial gases
   Div. Welding
   Materials Plant
6-Union Carbide
   Metals Div.
Ashtabula  Lake Erie  Electrometallur-
                        gical products
                                          1.3   16.000T
                                          5.6   36.000T
                                                                    pH  9.0-11.0
                                                                    Copper  2
                            pH 8.2-12.6
   * Except temperature in °F and pH.
  ** Solids:   T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,  S=Total Suspended,  and D=Total Dissolved.

-------
Agricultural and Land Runoff

     The upper portion of the northeastern Ohio area is rural and runoff
from this area carries nutrients and sediment into the streams.   Organic
and bacterial pollution of streams is also caused by agricultural runoff
from pastures.  Other pollutants from agricultural lands include pesti-
cides, herbicides, fungicides, and algicides.  Due to the limited agri-
cultural uses of land in Northeastern Ohio, the nutrient runoff  to streams
is not as great as in areas in the western basin.  Sediment  loading to
the streams is caused by land runoff and bank erosion.  Approximately
500 tons of suspended solids are carried daily by the Grand  River to
Lake Erie.  During the spring thaw and intense rain storms,  this sediment
load is increased tremendously.  Sediment pollution, which occurs in all
streams, is a minimal problem in Northeastern Ohio.  There is a  silt
problem in the Grand River, but this is not a major problem  and  does not
affect any water uses.

     The rural areas in Northeastern Ohio will decrease with increase
in urban areas.  Because of the relatively unproductive soils within
this area, agricultural uses will not increase significantly. However,
with increased uses of fertilizers and other nutriments, the pollution
loads to Lake Erie from these rural lands are expected to stay relatively
constant.

Solid Wastes
     Northeastern Ohio waterways, in some areas are being used for the
disposal of solid wastes.  Dumping of garbage, trash, and other deleteri-
ous refuse into streams should be prohibited and existing dumps along
river banks should be removed.

     A dump is located in Conneaut within the flood plain of Conneaut
Creek.  Although there is apparently no refuse entering the creek during
low flow, refuse and drainage from this dumping area may adversely
affect water quality of Conneaut Creek during  the high flow season.

Dredging

     Dredging in the Northeastern Ohio area is done by the Corps of
Engineers at Conneaut, Fairport, and Ashtabula Harbors.  The amounts
dredged in 196? are shown in Table U-26.

     Dumping areas for the dredged material for each harbor are located           |
in Lake Erie approximately three miles from the mouths of the rivers.
The dump area for Fairport Harbor is for all material; whereas there
are two dump areas each for Conneaut and Ashtabula Harbors:  one for          .    i
earth and the other for rock.  The minimum depth requirement at all these         |
areas is 35 feet.

     Studies are presently being carried out by the Corps of Engineers            j
and the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration to determine the           j
effects of the dumped dredged materials on the lake.
                           4-llZ

-------
c
                                           TABLE 4-26
                            ESTIMATED DREDGED MATERIAL FROM HARBORS
                                    in NORTHEAST OHIO--1967
              Harbor           Maintained Depth            Volume dredge
                                     (ft)
              Conneaut                 25 .                   400,000
              Fairport              24-18                    360,000
              Ashtabula             27-16                    350,000
o
c
                                        4-M*.

-------
Federal Installations

     Two Federal installations discharge waterborne wastes to the North-
eastern Ohio area.  These are:

     1.  U. S. Coast Guard, Fairport Harbor Light Station.
         A new tile field was completed in May, 1966.   The
         septic tank system is now adequate.

     2.  U. S. Coast Guard, Ashtabula Light Station.
         The sewage from two persons was discharged directly
         to Lake Erie without treatment.  A gas-fired incinera-
         tor unit was installed in August, 1966.
                        Pennslyvania Area

Municipal Wastes

     Approximately 150,000 people are served by four sewage treatment
plants in the Pennsylvania area.  They are shown in Figure U-28 and
described in Table U-27.  Three of the plants provide secondary treat-
ment and one plant provides intermediate treatment.  The intermediate            j
treatment plant at Girard removes an average of 6k percent of the BOD
load it receives and is presently under orders by the Pennsylvania
Health Department to improve treatment.  The secondary treatment plants
at Erie and North East remove an average of approximately 85 percent of
their influent BOD.  The plant at Lake City has facilities for secondary
treatment; however, they are not removing equivalent loads.  Samples
taken by the Pennsylvania Health Department indicate that the Lake City
plant is removing only 75 percent of the raw BOD.

     The Erie sewage treatment plant, by far the largest in the Penn-
sylvania area, serves approximately 9^ percent of the population connected
to treatment plants in this area.  Some 1^0,000 residents of Erie and
suburban communities are connected to the plant which discharges 6,700
pounds of BOD5 daily to Lake Erie.

     The total phosphorus discharge from the four sewage treatment plants
is approximately 1^00 pounds daily.  The projected phosphorus and BOD
loads from these plants are shown graphically below in Figure H-29.

     The plants at Erie, Lake City and North East all presently provide
continuous chlorination to the effluent all year around. Girard does
not provide any chlorination; but improvements required by the Pennsylvania
Health Department include disinfection facilities operated on a continuous,
year around basis.

-------
 t = DISCHARGE TO SMALL TRIBUTARY (SEE TABLE )
LE = DISCHARGE TO LAKE ERIE (SEE TABLE )
    PENNSYLVANIA AREA
MUNICIPAL WASTE DISCHARGES

-------
                               TABLE  i!_27

                        MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES

                          PENNSYLVANIA AREA

Municipality or        Receiving          Type Sewerage  Flow   BOD (ibs/day)
  Institution	Streams	System*	(mgd)   Raw  Final

Small Tributaries

 Lake City             Elk Creek          Secondary-S     O.U     868   227

 Girard                Elk Creek          Intermediate-S  0.2     230    8U

 North East            Sixteenmile Creek  Secondary-S     0.5   1,135   138

Direct to Lake Erie,

 Erie**                Lake Erie          Secondary-S-C    UO  57,^50 6,680
 *S = Separate Sewer System, C = Combined Sewer System, S-C = Separate and
  Combined Sewer Systems
** Also serves portions of Lawrence Park, Wesleyville, Harbor Creek Township
  and Mill Creek Township

-------
CO
O
3C
CL
     5,000
     4,000
     5,000'
i Si 2,000-
     1,000-
                                 RAW
                                                200,000-
CQ uj
  £ 100,000
                              90% REMOVAL
                              95% REMOVAL
                                                                           RAW
            o
            (O
                                                                          PRESENT
                                                                          REMOVAL
                                                                          90% REMOVAL
                                                                          95% REMOVAL
             Some of the suburbs of Erie and many of the motels  and houses
        along the lakefront near and in Erie are not sewered  and should  be
        connected to the Erie Metropolitan sewerage system.   Two projects are
        in the planning stage for the collection of wastes from  the lakefront
        residents.  The Kelso Beach Area Project and the Bayshore Sanitary
       ' Sewer Improvement Project will collect wastes from the area and  pump
        these to the sewage treatment plant.

        Industrial Wastes

             Figure U-30 shows the locations of the major industries  in  Penn-
        sylvania discharging their wastes to Lake Erie  or its tributaries.
        These industrial waste sources are summarized in Table U-28.

             The Hammermill Paper Company is the largest polluter of  Lake Erie
        waters within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  The  Hammermill  Paper
        Company discharge has a BODt- population equivalent of 370,000.   The
        quantity of suspended solids, coliform, color,  and foam  are also very
        high.  The effects of this waste on Lake Erie are discussed in the
        Pennsylvania Area section of Chapter 5.  Hammermill Paper Company has

-------
    PENNSYLVANIA  AREA
INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISCHARGES
ST = DISCHARGE TO SMALL TRIBUTARY (SEE TABLE  )
LE = DISCHARGE TO LAKE ERIE (SEE TABLE  )

-------
                                              TABLE  h-28

                                      MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                         PENNSYLVANIA AREA
Industry Location
Small Tributaries (ST)
1-Gunnison Bros. Girard
2-Parker White Fairview
Metals Twp.
, 3-Welch Grape North East
~ Juice
-0
Direct to Lake Erie (LE)
1-Pennsylvania Erie
Electric
2-Erie Reduction Erie
3-Interlake Iron Erie
It-Hammermill Erie
5-General Electric Lawrence
Park Twp.
Receiving
Stream
Trib. of Elk Cr.
Trout Run
Sixteenmile Cr.
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Flow WASTE CONSTITUENTS-J-bs/day*
Type (mgd) Solids** BOD Other
Tannery 0.002 100T 6
20S
Metal pro- 0.02 x x COD 22, Oil 90
duct ion
Food process-
ing
Power plant 0.1 3^3 Temp.
Rendering 0.02 x 10
Steel a a a a
Pulp & Paper 20 530,OOOT 62,000 Color, SO. 51,000
81+.OOOS
Machine man- 0.3 x pH 1+.8, Iron 200
uf acturing
a = Presently not in operation.
* = Except temperature in °F and pH. '
** = Solids: T=Total Suscended and Dissolved. S=Total SusDended. and D=Total Dissolved.
x - Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
done much work in improving its waste discharge.  Approximately 78 per-
cent of this total spent pulping liquor (population equivalent of 1*87,000)
is injected to deep underground wells; however, total BOD removal from
all effluents is only 60 percent.  Other methods of further reducing the
waste discharge are presently being studied.  One such study, discussed
in this report, is the feasibility of connecting to the Erie sewage
treatment plant.

     Figure h-3I shows the present and projected loadings from industries
discharging to Lake Erie.  If Hammermill connects to the Erie sewage
treatment plant, almost the entire industrial BOD load will become part
of the municipal loadings.  This additional loading will more than
                   300,000-1
                                               RAW
                n  200,000'
                it  < i1'.'1 ' '
               o
               o
               03
                   100,000-
                                               PRESENT REMOVAL
                                               90% REMOVAL
                            o
                            ID
o
o>
01
                                             o
                                             CM
Combined Sewers

     Of the four sewer systems listed in Table U-27, one is partially a
combined system.  During storms, the sewage treatment plant cannot
handle the additional loads and much of the untreated sewage is, there-
fore, discharged through overflow structures into the nearest watercourse,
                                4-1 2.0

-------
          r:rr^^
                       I960
                                                  1990
                                                                                      2020
RADIUS = l" AREA: 100,000  Ibs./day  (RAW BOD)
RADIUS = 2"  AREA = 400,000 Ibs./day

Dp = DISCHARGED/PPRESENT REMOVAL  RATE
Dao- DISCHARGED/cD90% REMOVAL  RATE
D95 = DISCHARGED/^)95% REMOVAL  RATE

INNER  CIRCLE  REPRESENTS RAW MUNICIPAL  LOAD
OUTER  CIRCLE  REPRESENTS  RAW MUNICIPAL  LOAD IF
HAMMERMILL  CONNECTS TO ERIE S.T. P.
       B.O.D.  LOADS
HAMMERMILL a  ERIE STP
       £S3g^^
                                    ^^

-------
     The City of Erie has approximately h3 storm water outfalls which
discharge to Mill Creek, Garrison Run, Cascade Creek, and Lake Erie.   As
discussed in the water quality problems chapter, the streams have "become
heavily polluted from the wastes discharged from these overflows.  The
main area served "by combined sewers is the older portion of Erie consist-
ing of the downtown area and the adjacent residential areas.  Approxi-
mately 50 percent of Erie's population is served with these sewers.  The
estimated BOD discharged from the overflows is approximately 2,000 pounds
per day.  Erie has a program where they are separating storm and sanitary
sewers in redevelopment areas.  Assuming conversion of combined sewers,
the BOD load from storm water overflow will increase slightly to 2,100
pounds daily in 1990 and to 2,900 pounds per day by 2020.

Agricultural and Land Runoff

     Agricultural and rural land runoff is not a major problem in the
Pennsylvania area.  Approximately 80 tons of sediment per day are discharged
into Lake Erie and'Presque Isle Bay from Pennsylvania waters.

     One major problem from soil erosion is that of Presque Isle peninsula.
This sand and gravel spit extends into Lake Erie from a rocky bluff.
Littoral currents pick up sand from the base of the peninsula and deposit
it at the eastern end.  This process moves the peninsula in an eastward
direction.  If allowed to continue, the thin base would soon erode away,
forming an island.  The island would eventually reconnect to the mainland,
filling in what is now Erie Harbor.  To prevent this, sand is pumped
from the bay side of the peninsula to the lake side, replacing the eroding
sand.  A series of groins has been constructed to help retain the sand
and slow its eastward drift.

Dredging

     Legislation passed in 1962 provided for the present maintained
depth of 29 feet in Erie Harbor to accommodate deep draft vessels using
the St. Lawrence Seaway.

     All maintenance dredging of the harbors is done by the U. S. Corps
of Engineers with their own boats.  In 19&7 a*1 estimated 200,000 cubic
yards of material will be dredged from Erie Harobr, which ranks ninth
of fourteen harbors  in estimated volume to be dredged.

     The dumping area for the dredged material from Erie Harbor is
located in Lake Erie approximately one and a half miles north of Presque
Isle.  The dumping area has a minimum depth requirement of 35 feet.

Federal Installations
     There is only one Federal installation not connected to a municipal
sewerage system.  It is the Erie Coast Guard Station and has subsurface
disposal through septic tanks.  The population using the facilities varies
from six to eight.
                              4--

-------
                           New York Area

     Industries and municipalities are the principal sources of waste
discharges in the New York area.  Other sources of waste also contributing
pollution to the streams in this area are accidental spills from vessels
or industries, combined sewer overflows, land runoff, material from dredg-
ing operations, and wastes from lake vessels and pleasure craft.  In
Chapter 5 the consequences of these waste discharges are further described.

Municipal Wastes

     Approximately 220,000 people are served by 21 sewage treatment
plants in the New York area.  Ten of these plants provide secondary
treatment and eleven provide only primary treatment.  In addition, seven
municipalities with a total population of approximately 12,200 have no
treatment facilities other than spetic tanks.  Figure i(-33 shows the
location of the municipal sewage treatment plants- and Table U-29 summarizes
their waste discharges.

     The total phosphorus load discharged by the sewage treatment plants
is approximately 3,000 pounds per day and the total BOD load discharged
is 29,000 pounds per day.  This represents an overall BOD removal rate of
only 60 percent.  The projected phosphorus and BOD loads from the muni-
cipal treatment plants in the New York area through 2020 are shown in
Figure h-31*. These projections assume all municipalities presently
providing only septic tanks will have treatment facilities by 1971 and
all populations in municipalities having treatment plants will be con-
nected to them.

Industrial V/astes
     Table U-30 lists the major industries which discharge wastes to
the area's waters.  The location of the industrial waste discharges is
shown in Figure U-35.  The information presented in the table has been
obtained from several sources such as studies conducted by official
pollution control agencies, data provided by industries through the
New York State Health Department, and other available information of
New York pollution control agencies.  It has been reviewed by these
agencies.

     A few of the industries listed in the table have relatively small
discharges, but significantly degrade the water quality because the flow
in the receiving stream is also very small.  Some very large industrial
waste discharges enter streams with very small flows during much of the
year.  This has been the situation in the Buffalo River where the river
water consists essentially of a concentrated mixture of industrial and
other wastes during extended periods of time.

     The pollutant materials discharged by industry are diverse; they
include oil, solids, phenols, acid, color, BOD, odor, alkali, cyanide,
ammonia, COD and heavy metals and other toxic constituents.  The Bethle-
hem Steel Company discharges the largest volume of waste in the entire
Lake Erie basin.  Other major contributors of pollution to the New York
                            4-

-------
i
Ki
                                                                   NEW YORK  AREA
                                                             MUNICIPAL WASTE DISCHARGES

-------
                              TABLE h-29

                     MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES

                          NEW YORK AREA
Municipality or
Institution
Receiving
Stream
Type Sewerage Flow
System* (mgd)
BOD (Ibs/day)
Raw Final
Buffalo River Basin (BR)
1-West Seneca SD 6
2-Cheektowaga SD 3
3-Depew
U-Lancaster SD 1
5-East Aurora (V)
6-Lackawanna
Eighteenmile Creek
1-Hamburg (V)
2-Gowanda State
Hospital
3-Gowanda
U-Springville
5 -Arcade
Buffalo River
Buffalo River
Cayuga Creek
Cayuga Creek
E. Br. Cazenovia
Creek
Smoke Creek
Primary-S x
Secondary-S 2.1
Primary-S 1.1
Secondary-S 0.9
Secondary-S • 0.8
Primary-S 3 • 1
x x
U,100 1,300
1,760 500
x x
1,600 560
4,500 x
(EC) and Cattaraugus Creek (CC) Basins
Eighteenmile
Creek
Cattaraugus
Creek
Cattaraugus
Creek
Cattaraugus
Creek
Cattaraugus
Creek
Secondary-S x
Primary-S x
Primary-S 0.8
Primary-S 0 . k
Secondary-S x
X X
X X
X X
x 380
X X
*S = Separate Sewer System, C = Combined Sewer System, S-C = Separate and
 Combined Sewer Systems.
x = Not available.

-------
                        TABLE H-29 (concluded)

                       MAJOR MUNICIPAL WASTES

                           NEW YORK AREA

Municipality or    Receiving       Type Sewerage  Flow    BOD (ibs/day)
Institution
Small Tributaries
1-Blasdell
2-Hamburg SD 1
(Woodlawn)
3-North Collins

U-Silver Creek
5-Fredonia
6-West field
Stream
(ST)
Rush Creek
Rush Creek
Big Sister
Creek
Silver Creek
Canadaway Cr.
Chautauqua Cr.
System*
Secondary-S
Secondary-S
Secondary-S

Secondary-S**
Secondary-S-C
Secondary-S
(mgd) Raw Final
0.8 1,900 260
XX X
XXX

XXX
1.7 x 1,100
0.9 x 300
Direct to Lake Erie (LE)
1-Hamburg SD 2
(Mt. Vernon)
2-Hamburg
(Wanakah)
3-Hamburg
(Master)
^-Dunkirk
5-Ripley
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Primary-S
Prinnry-S
Primary-S
Primary-S-C
Primary-S
XXX
XXX
1.1 820 x
U.I - x U,300
'0.1 x 850
 *S = Separate Sewer  System,  C  =  Combined Sewer  System,  S-C  =  Separate  and
  Combined Sewer Systems.
 x = Not  available.
 ** = These facilities  are approximately  85  percent  completed.

-------
!U
ti w
  o
    6,0001-
    4.000
        i
i! O
              o
              u>
                      PHOSPHORUS  a BOD  LOADINGS
                               MUNICIPAL   S.T.P
                              NEW YORK  AREA
                       o
                       01
                       Ol
(D
                                          300,000
                                          200,000
                                          100,000
                                          300,000 -
                                          200,000
                                          100,000
                                          300,000
                                          200,000
                                          100,000
              PHOSPHORUS
                  (Ibs./day)

(?)  =  RAW
(D  =  LOAD (^PRESENT REMOVAL RATE
(5)  =  LOAO'^>90% REMOVAL RATE
©  =  LOAD(O95% REMOVAL RATE
©  •  ALLOWABLE  LOAD
                                                            BOD
                                                           (Ibs./day)

-------
h-i
OD
                 SCALE
                                                                     NEW  YORK  AREA
                                                              INDUSTRIAL   WASTE  DISCHARGES
          505    10    15 MILES

-------
                                                 TABLE U-30

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                              NEW YORK AREA
Industry
                       Location
Receiving
 Stream
                   Flow       WASTE COHSTITUEIITS-rbs/day*
                   (mgd)   Solids**   BOD    Other
Buffalo River Basin  (BR)

                       Buffalo
1-Allied Chemical
   Buffalo Chemical
   Division

2-Allied Chemical
   Buffalo Dye
3-Republic Steel
5-Mobil Oil
Buffalo R.
Inorganic chem-
  ical
                       Buffalo    Buffalo R.    Organic chemicals   lU.8
                       Buffalo    Buffalo R.
it-Dinner Hanna Coke    Buffalo    Buffalo R.
                       Buffalo    Buffalo R.
              Steel
                                                Coke
                                                Refinery
                                   6.0


                                  22.5
                                                                                             pH 5-7-7.0
                                           UO.OOOS 1*5,000  pH 2.5-1+.0
                                                           COD 80,000
                                                           Cl 26,000
                                                           Cyanide 12
                                                           Iron 7,1*00
                                                           Phenol ll*5
                                                           Color
                    26.5     15,800x
                                                                                             pH 3.7-9-5
                                                                                             COD x, Oil x,
                                                                                             Color, Iron 16,300

                                                                                             COD x, Oil <775;
                                                                                             Phenols 115
                             25,OOOT  3,700  pH 7.^-8.0;
                              2,600S         COD 1*,700,
                                             Oil 1,500,
                                             Cl 2,500,
                                             Phenol 379
(a) Plant is discontinuing operations in 1968.
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                                   TABLE l<-30( continued)

                                                  MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                                       NEW YORK AREA
 I
Z*
0
Industry
Location
Buffalo River Basin (cont'd)
6-Symington Wayne
7-Pennsylvani a
Railroad Shops
Cattaraugus Creek
1-Peter Cooper
Eastern Tanners
and Glue
2-Moench Tannery
Small Tributaries
1-Welch Grape
Juice
2-Growers Coop
Grape
3-Welch Grape
Juice
Depev
Gardenville
Basin (CC)
Govanda
Gowanda
(ST)
Brocton
West field
Westfield
Receiving Flow WASTE CONSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
Stream Type (mgd) Solids** BOD Other
Cayuga Cr. Machining x x pH x, Oil x,
Color
Buffalo Cr. Repair Yards x Oils x
Cattaraugus 3.6 131.000T
Creek 9,600S 26,000
Cattaraugus 1.7 90.000T
Creek 7,600S 8,700
Slippery Rock Food processing x xS x Color
, Creek
Chautauqua Food processing x xS x Color
Creek
Chautauqua Food processing x xS x Color
Cr. &
Lake Erie
         * Except temperature in °F and pH.
        ** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved,  S=Total Suspended,  and D=Total Dissolved.
         x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
                                       TABLE lj-30  (concluded)

                                         MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES
                                              NEW YORK AREA
Industry
            Receiving
 Location    Stream
                  Flow       WASTE COHSTITUENTS-lbs/day*
                  (mgd)  Solids** 	BOD    Other	
Direct to Lake Erie (LE)

1-Lehigh Portland     Buffalo     Lake Erie
   Cement
2-Hanna Furnace

3-Bethlehem Steel
It-Penn Dixie
   Cement ^b'

5-Alle gheny-Ludlum
   Steel

6-Seneca Westfield
   Maid
Buffalo     Lake Erie

Lackawanna  Lake Erie
Buffalo     Lake Erie
Dunkirk     Lake Erie
Westfield   Lake Erie
Cement


Foundry

Steel
Cement
Steel
Food processing
 x          xS


 x          xS

350   350,0003
            xS
            xS
            xS
Oil x

pH U.0-7.0
COD x, Oil 31,000,
phenols 680,
cyanide 950
Color, pH x, Oil x,
Temp, x, Iron x

Color
(b) Plant is currently not in operation.
 * Except temperature in °F and pH.
** Solids:  T=Total Suspended and Dissolved, S=Total Suspended, and D=Total Dissolved.
 x Sufficient data not available for evaluation.

-------
portion of Lake Erie waters are Allied Chemical-Buffalo Dye,  Donner
Hanna Coke, Hanna Furnace, Mobil Oil,  Moench Tannery,  Peter Cooper-
Eastern Tanners Glue Division, and Republic Steel.

     Waste production from industries  is  expected to double throughout
the Lake Erie basin.  The industries in the New York area are expected
to follow this pattern; however, some  of  these industries will connect
to municipal sewage treatment plants.   Figure 14-3&  shows the  expected
raw and discharged BOD from industries which will not  connect to  city
sewerage systems.
Combined Sewers

     Of the 21 sewered communities only two are served with a combined
system.  The municipalities of Dunkirk and Fredonia are both sewered
with a combination of separate and combined sewers.  Less than 10 per-
cent of the sewered population is served by combined sewers.  The City
of Buffalo (not included in this report) is served with a combined-
separate system.  Approximately 100,000 residents of Buffalo are served
by combined sewers with overflows discharging to the Buffalo River.
There are over 30 overflows on the Buffalo River from the City of Buffalo.
During periods of storm runoff these plants with combined sever systems
discharge raw sewage and industrial wastes, nixed with storm water, to
the streams.  These outfalls constitute a major intermittent source of
pollution.  The estimated BOD load from the storm water overflow in the
New York area is 12,000 pounds per day. With the conversion of all combined
                          4--I32.

-------
300,00 OS-
                                          QPRESENT REMOVAL RATE
                                              ALLOWABLE LOAD
                                        2>90% REMOVAL RATE
                                          95% REMOVAL RATE
                                                 /-">./

-------
severs to separate sewers the BOD load in 1990 will be 8,000  pounds  daily
and will be back to 12,000 pounds per day in 2020.

Solid Wastes
     There are some locations near the area's waterways which are  being
used for the disposal of solid wastes.  There are dumps in the area
ranging from the small one-family size to the large, municipally-operated
areas.  Presently dumps exist along stream banks in the communities of
Cheektowaga, Depew, Gowanda, Lancaster, etc.   Dumps never add to the
esthetic value of a stream and they may contribute oils, oxygen demand,
trash, debris and other wastes.

     Disposal of garbage, trash, and other deleterious refuse in the
New York area along the streams should be prohibited and existing
dumps along the river banks or in the flood plains should be removed.

Agriculture and Land Runoff

     Soil erosion causes the addition of silt, nutrients, and other
deleterious substances to the area's waterways.  The principal sources
of these materials are from unstable river banks, highway and subdivision
construction and agricultural lands.

     In the New York area, sediment loads during high flow are very
high due to the steepness of the streams.  The sediment loads for  the
major streams, as computed by the U. S. Geological Survey, are listed
belov in Table 1*-31.
                            TABLE H-31

                   SEDIMENT LOADS - TONS/YEAR

           Buffalo River
              Cayuga Creek                     110,000
              Cazenovia Creek                  200,000
              Buffalo Creek                    150,000

           Cattaraugus Creek                   610,000

Dredging

     There are two harbors in the New York area that are dredged
by the Corps of Engineers:  Dunkirk Harbor and Buffalo Harbor-Buffalo
River and Ship Canal.

     Over 600,000 cubic yards of material is dredged yearly from the
Buffalo Harbor area.  The harbor is maintained at a depth of 23 to 28
feet while the river and ship canal is maintained to a depth of 22 feet.

-------
Presently all dredged.materials are deposited in  a dumping  area adjacent
to Bethlehem Steel Company north of Smoke  Creek.   A new  diked  dumping
area is being constructed for materials  dredged from the Buffalo River
by the Corps of Engineers.  The dike will  be  extended west  from.the  small
boat harbor adjacent to the Niagara Frontier  Prot Authority.

     The materials from Hanna Furnace's  Union Canal and  particularly
from Bethlehem Steel's Lackawanna. Canal, which are dredged  by  private
contract, should also be discharged behind diked areas.  The material
from the Union Canal contains high concentrations of iron and  the
material from the Lackawanna Canal and/or  Buffalo River  contain high
concentrations of oil and tars, phenols, organics, etc.

     Dunkirk Harbor is dredged primarily for  small boat  traffic and  is
maintained at a 16 foot depth.  Additional dredging will be done by
the Corps of Engineers in order to widen the  harbor area for a boat
marina.  The estimated volume of material  dredged by the Corps of
Engineers from Dunkirk Harbor is 26,000  cubic yards.   The  dredged mate-
rial is dumped into Lake Erie in an area approximately one  mile north
of the harbor.
                          4-135

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                             CHAPTER 5




                       WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS




     Sewage, industrial vaste, and silt pour into the Lake Erie water-




shed in incessant amounts.  This chapter presents the effects of these




vastes on vater quality and also on vater use in the Lake Erie basin.




     Every type of vaste discharged in the basin takes its toll in




some form or other.  The most obvious signs of pollution occur in the




tributaries and around the lake shoreline where recreational and water




supply uses are greatest.  An enigma as menacing as a cancerous growth




is also taking its toll in the entire lake, and that is the seemingly




inexorable onslaught of premature aging.




     The process of lake aging, its ramifications, and limits on the




recreational use of the lake are discussed first, followed by a discussion




of pollutional effects and use limitations in each of the tributaries.




It will be shown that the major pollution problems in the tributaries




occur below the large municipal and industrial complexes and that the




water quality becomes the poorest as these streams enter the lake.

-------
Lake Erie

     Lake Erie is the recipient of most of the  wastes  dumped into

its tributaries; but, because of tremendous dilution and the lake's

natural purification capacity, the wastes cause problems of lesser

degrees.  The lake has two problems which are now critical, not

because of incurability, but because of inattention to them.  These

problems are (l) over-fertilization of the entire lake which is  most
                                   Orwji, aienz s-itu*
serious throughout the western basin.and (2) bacterial contamination

near shore which is most serious in the vicinity of metropolitan

centers where the need for clean water is the greatest.

     Lake Erie is naturally the most productive of the Great Lakes,

meaning that, without the presence of man, it would be in a more

advanced state of fertilization or enrichment  (eutrophication).   Proof

of this lies in the quantity and variety of fishes which inhabited
the lake at the turn of the century.  They were the result of the
                                   A
high productive capacity of the waters.  At that time Lake Erie had

probably reached the ideal in its ability to support a prolific, varied,

and balanced aquatic life, while at the same time providing for all

the uses which man might make of it.  Unfortunately the ideal level in

natural lake aging spans a relatively short time in the total aging

process.  It is near the stage when a lake can become rapidly less

satisfactory, when explosive production of a few species of relatively

undesirable life forms crowds out many other species which are charac-

teristic of clean water.

     Still the ideal level in 'a lake the size of Lake Erie should hold

-------
sufficiently that a change would be practically immeasurable in a



r.an's lifetime.  Such is not the case in Lake Erie.  Within tvo


generations man has dumped enough fertilising refuse into the lake to


not only make the change measurable but to make it glaringly obvious.



The refuse contains excessive quantities of every nutrient known to


be necessary to biological production, but the crucial ones are    ^

                      C/?,7 d-Tii if'/Juii ;?i.V-f »»'i.fr/I—f^a-^'^j—^^-v* s/t-j-^^y-JtJ—*«hm*>« )

nitrogen and phosphorus..  These two nutrients are the prime catalysts


for a biological and  chemical chain reaction which, if unchecked, can


lead to the greatly premature destruction of Lake Erie as a water re-



source.  The inputs of these nutrients are not now_being^effectively

                                ^  i '   ^      *  j        "        "    f •
controlled and are increasing at  an alarming rate.  Co;.vrol can and
                                                A

must be instituted at .the earliest possible time  for Lake Erie to return



to its normal rate of aging.


     Bacterial contamination of nearshore waters  ranks in severity



along with over-fertilization.  Mid-lake waters,  beyond a mile or so


from shore, are  generally very acceptable in this  respect.  However,


upon approaching the  shore in many locations, the waters are_unfit a


great deal of the time for body-contact uses.' In general, the most


severe contamination  fronts metropolitan areas, and the larger the



metropolitan area, the more severe the condition  (Figure  S-7  ).


     Sources of  bacterial contamination are treated or untreated  sewage


discharges, industrial wastes, combined sewer  overflows, storm sewer



discharges, and  general land runoff.   Usually, however, the most


severe contamination  is associated with storm sewer overflow  and

-------
sewage discharges, />u_V'.
-------
basins; it facilitates high productivity in the vestern basin and




nearshore everywhere; and it can be controlled.  Therefore it offers




the possibility of limiting productivity at all places in Lake Erie.




     High primary productivity in vestern Lake Erie and along the




entire lake shore can be directly correlated to phosphorus levels




in these areas.  These levels average above 0.0/0 mg/1 soluble in-



organic phosphorus and 0.030 as total phosphorus (organic plus in-




organic), which are considered as limiting levels  (Figure S-/  ).'




These levels approximate the average levels of the mid-lake central




and eastern "basins'where excessive productivity is not now a normal




problem.



     Excessive primary productivity, resulting from over-enrichment,




leads  quickly to a change  in the primary  (algae) balance  from a  wide




variety of forms with relatively few numbers  of each  to a narrow




variety with superabundance of  each.  This has been demonstrated in




Lake Erie  (Figure  £j-2-   )•  Unfortunately,  a-Loe accompanying this




change is also  a change  from  clean-water  forms to  undesirable pollution-




tolerant  forms, and  this characteristic extends farther up the  food




chain.



     Large numbers of algae of  course produce large numbers  of  dead




organisms.  While  living,  algae reproduce in the  trophic  (sunlit)  zone




near the  surface,  often releasing oxygen in quantities sufficient  to




raise  the dissolved  oxygen concentration to 130 percent of saturation




or more  in their  zone of existence.  However upon dying they sink  to




the bottom.   This  leads directly to  the next change  in the food chain.

-------

-------
_J
s
  1000
  »00«
     20

     A.
•k
1
          so
             \
    YEARS
                   SO    60
     Average phytoplankton cells per
     milliliter for all years with
     complete records, 1920 to 1963.
        FMA M J JASO  NO
                           WFMAMWJ  ASONO
                                     I9S7
                                  TOOO-
V
in
  4000-
  £000
         M'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'O
                                       F M A  M  J  JAS 0 N  0
                                                1962
          PHYTOPLANKTON   ABUNDANCE
            LAKE  ERIE (CLEVELAND  WATER  INTAKE  RECORDS)
                                                    FIGURE

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I                   Dead organisms,  while  sinking through the water, consume oxygen


;              in decomposition.   Some  numbers  of these organisms reach the bottom
i
i
j              and the waters just above the bottom.   If the water  is. thermally
i
i
              stratified, the hypolimnion is not mixed with the water above and it


I              contains a definitive amount of  dissolved oxygen with ho source of
i
              replenishment.  If a large  'amount of dead organic matter is present,

j              oxygen is consumed very  rapidly  and  may entirely disappear from the
i .
j              hypolimnion water   Movement of the hypolimnion, caused by wind


•              (Refer to Chapter  2 - Lake  Temperature Section), can re-suspend bottom •

j              materials, increasing the rate of depletion.

I                   Hypolimnion oxygen  depletion now commonly  occurs in summer in
I
i              the western basin  intermittently and in the  central  basin  for a con-


l    fi-*\       tinuous period of  a month or more (Figure  £-3  )•  J-l lb q,ulten5Ss'sT51e

!    "' }
i              &&& the depletion in the central basin results in part  from the
i

{              transport of algae, dead or alive,  from the  western  basin  and from

!              nearshore areas in the central basin.
r

\                   Oxygen depletion should,  in 
-------
                                                                                                   o
                                      CANADA
MICHIGAN
                                                                 AREA OF THERMAL STRATIFICATION


                                                                2-4mg/l
                                                                                    N E W   YORK
                                                               PENNSYLVANIA
                                                                                         LAKE  ERIE
                                                                                     DISSOLVED  OXYGEN
                                                                                      BOTTOM  WATERS
                                                                                     AUGUST  14-31,1964

-------
         LAKE  ERIE
BENTHIC  FAUNA  DISTRIBUTION
       1963 and 1964

-------
                                                                                       0
                                                              ^--J*P—-F   i *r-4H" I—Fl'—t?"
                                                              L--..£*|    *     *T p ^1	y «^^
                                                                       r-'-pn n=r1  r^lqi—J
                                                                      •OiJ,,, D>LJ_
       r—i
'»   »i»»-L—J
                                                                                coimecTco ra STATIONS
                                                                             TOTAL OftOAKISHS PCK SOUAKI
                                                                           HIT IK .
                                                                           LAKE ERIE
                                                                     BENTHIC  POPULATIONS
                                                                       SPRING, SUMMER.  AND FALL
                                                                         1963 AND 64 COMBINED

-------
         low oxygen.levels.  Tubificidae  (sludgeworms) and Tendipedidae




         (bloodworms)  are  such  organisms.  Pollution-sensitive organisms may




         disappear.  This  has happened to Hexagenia in Lake Erie which formerly




         was the most  abundant  benthic organism in the western basin.  It




         virtually disappeared  in the mid-1950's.




                The pollution-sensitive benthic organisms are apparently pre-




         ferred by the more desirable carnivorous fishes as food.  Thus a




         change to pollution-tolerant forms,  characteristic of oxygen-deficient




         zones has interfered with their food  supply  and has had  some  effect




         in reducing  the numbers of the more  desirable species and increasing




         the relative abundance of scrub  fish whose  food  supply  has not been




         interrupted but perhaps increased by the  same phenomena.




^~              Fish are not only affected by a change in their  food  supply but




         they are directly affected by their inability to even  survive in




         low oxygen waters.  Thus even though the  benthic food  supply might be




         sufficient, it is essentially not available at  many places  during




         times of oxygen deficiency in bottom waters.




                A further complication of low oxygen levels in bottom waters is




         that they lead to the re-cycling of nutrients from the bottom sediments




         back into the water, thus tending toward a self-perpetuating nutrient




         system.  A plentiful  supply of phosphorus exists in the bottom sediments




         of the lake  (Figure $-^  ).  ghe-ph&ffpkegus- content,.




                                                     of

-------
           V   )
o
                                                                                                                                             iFFAtd
. I
'tT~
                                                                                                                          CONTOUR INTERVAL
                                                                                                                         O.Smg./g. DRY WEIGHT
                                                                                                                     TOTAL PHOSPHATE  (P0«)
                                                                                                                                IN
                                                                                                                        BOTTOM  SEDIMENTS
                                                                                                                                OF
                                                                                                                            LAKE ERIE
                                                                                                                            7/28- 8/7/64

-------
       The Phosphorus Problem - The phosphorus  problem is  not  all

so simple in Lake Erie.  As stated previously phosphorus is  nov

the limiting nutrient in the mid-lake waters of the central  and •

eastern "basins.  It is so plentiful in the western "basin  and along

the shore that it is probably not limiting.

       A phosphorus balance for Lake Erie shows that at least  two-

thirds of the phosphorus discharged to the lake is retained  in the

lake, being stored mainly in bottom sediments.   The phosphorus con-

tent of the bottom sediments is two or three times the content of

older lake sediments on shore.  The mechanisms  of the phosphorus

retention and phosphorus cycle are not well understood in any lake,

being problems of both "biochemistry and geochemistry.  It is known

that sediments will normally accumulate phosphorus much faster

than they will release it.

       Soluble inorganic phosphorus is available for algal nutrition.

The remainder of the phosphorus content in the water is tied up

chemically in inorganic sediments  and organic matter, mainly in the

latter.  Measurements made  in tributary discharges and in Lake Erie

indicate the following average ratios of  soluble to total phosphorus:

                         Tributaries         1:1.7
                         Western Lake Erie   1:2
                         Central Lake Erie   1:3
                         Eastern Lake Erie   '1:1+

       A study of the phosphorus distribution in Lake Erie indicates

that  (l) a rapid reduction  of phosphorus  concentration occurs within
                                                                 (•^ilLi-ii. 5 -l)
the western basin water before this water reaches the central basin;,

 (2) phosphorus levels average  fairly constant in the  central basin

-------
          water, and (3) total phosphorus levels increase slightly in  the



          eastern "basin water.



                 The natural reduction of phosphorus levels in the western



          basin of Lake Erie apparently results from chemical and mechanical



          precipitation and from the productivity uriftake and subsequent organic



          deposition.  Almost two-thirds of the phosphorus contribution to



          Lake Erie, nearly 100,000 pounds daily, is discharged into the



          western basin, yet only some 30,000 pounds daily can be accounted



          for in the discharge from the western basin.  About the same amount



          or a little more is transferred daily from the central to the eastern



          basin and about ^0,000 pounds daily is discharged via the Niagara




          River.



x--v               The fairly constant  average level  of phosphorus  concentration



          in the central and  eastern  basin water indicates that some  sort of



          balance  system is in operation in these basins,  and the balance system



          must  involve  sediment-water phosphorus exchange.  It is likely that



          the average phosphorus level in the water of these two basins will



          maintain itself as  long as  there is phosphorus  available  in the bottom



          sediments in  adequate  amounts.  However this will not cause serious



          problems because serious problems do  not  currently  exist  in mid-lake



          surface  waters of these two basins.



                 The immediately desirable objective  in  phosphorus  control  should




          be to bring the concentrations  in the lake  into areal uniformity.  The



          high  levels of the  western  basin and nearshore waters should be reduced



          to the average level of the mid-lake  waters of the  central  and  eastern





O

-------
          basins.  This should reduce productivity accordingly.   Because  of




          lake nutrient re-cycling the reduction vould likely be gradual  instead




          of sudden and immediate.



                 It is very likely that in the vestern basin that a reduction of




          lake input from the present in-basin loading of 80,000 pounds per  day




          of phosphorus to 22 ,'000 pounds would solve the immediate problem of




          over-enrichment.  This vould require a 92 percent reduction of




          phosphorus from municipal and industrial wastes in the area. Main-




          tenance of this level of input would require 96 percent removal in 1990




          and 100 percent in 2020 from municipal and industrial wastes.  These




          recommendations assume that at least 20 percent of the remaining dis-




          charge of phosphorus, primarily from urban and rural runoff, will be




/"\        chemically or mechanically bound in bottom sediments and will not be




          available as a nutrient except in the balance exchange process.




                 Essentially the  same degree of treatment of municipal and in-




          dustrial wastes will be required in the remainder of the basin to pre-




          vent excessive productivity in nearshore waters.  Because a 100 percent




          degree of treatment  in  2020 will be difficult to attain, other sources




          of phosphorus, such  as  runoff, must be limited.




                                       Fishing




                 The above description indicates the water quality problems which




          may be most  detrimental to  fishing in Lake Erie, both  sport and commercial.




          Other pollution factors, such as silting of  spawning beds which may

-------
          smother fish eggs, suffocation of hatching fish by lack of oxygen



          due to organic deposition, toxicity and flesh tainting  of tributary
                                                                                          i
                                                                                          i

          vaters from rav vastes , turbidity, and release of intolerable sub-              j



          stances from bottom sediments such as sulfides, all contribute to



          the decline of various fishes.  In addition, over-exploitation of



          certain prized species while leaving rough fish to prolif erate? has



          assuredly contributed to the shift in species abundance.  And still u^, a
           further, man has caused the introduction of undesirable species to
                                                                         A


           compete for food.  The relative effects of each of these factors



           have  not yet been  ascertained, much less the effects of natural



           evolution.  Clearly  and unfortunately all factors related to man's



           activities have been detrimental.



/7^             Commercial fish catch statistics, gathered by the U. S. Bureau



           of Commercial  Fisheries,  have provided a long  record of the relative



           abundance  of desirable fish species in Lake Erie  (Tables  r'-/   and



              •5"-2-)«   In  recent years, continuing surveys have been introduced



           by federal and state agencies on the reproduction phase of the life



           cycles of  fishes  and limited predictions of near-future populations



           are nov possible.



                The sturgeon almost  disappeared from  catch  statistics at  about



           the turn of the  century.   The  cisco, once  the  dominant species of the



           commercial catch, experienced  a sudden decline in 1926, shoved a



           slight recovery,  and declined  to insignificance  in  1957.  Whitefish  de-



           clined drastically in the commercial catch in  1955'  The walleye began



           a drastic  decline in 1957 and is still  in  great  distress.  The blue




n

-------
pike, vhich formerly produced several million pounds  per  year became


nearly extinct in 1958.


     The yellow perch has managed to hold its own, but it.also  shows


signs of weakening in the commercial catch.  It is the only plentiful


fish remaining of the former many prized varieties.  The  smelt  is now


commercially exploitable and it, along with yellow perch, is sustaining


the fishing industry in Lake Erie.


     The capacity of Lake Erie to support fish, considered as a


total population of all species, has apparently been maintained and


may be increasing.  This means that the habitat is changing in favor


of such fish as carp, alewife, shad, sheepshead, etc.  These are


generally considered as indicators of general water quality degradation.


     Massive adult and near-adult fish kills occur in Lake Erie and


have occurred on various occasions for many years.  These kills are

   U
-------
     Commercial fishing is suffering economically because of the




decline of desirable fishes.  It does have another problem vhich is




minor by comparison and this is the fouling of nets and lines by




algae, primarily Cladophora.  This again is caused by the excessive




stimulation of nutrients.                     ,; '    "

-------
                      Recreation and Tourism




     Water quality problems of recreation and tourism receive  the




most attention because most of them are so obvious to so many




people when they come into direct contact with the lake water.




     Figure 5-7 depicts the relative pollution impairment to recreational




activities in the Lake Erie basin as compiled by the Bureau of Outdoor




Recreation and revised by the Federal Water Pollution Control  Administration.




This figure in general  is  not intended to be precise, but it serves to




show the differences from one area to another.  Degrees of impairment




have been divided into light, moderate, and gross with the following




definitions by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation:




     Waters lightly impaired were considered to be those on and in




which recreational activities involving body contact with the  water could




be freely engaged in.  Such waters, however, are not aesthetically pleasing




at least part of the recreational season due to man's activities in the




area.  These activities would include mining, gravel washing,  canning,




sewage treatment and similar activities.




     Waters moderately impaired were considered to be those on which




recreational activities not involving body contact with the water could




be freely engaged in.  Some persons may engage in water activities in-




volving body contact, but most people shy away from such activity.




     Waters grossly impaired were considered to be those on and in which




most people would not engage in activities requiring body contact with




the water, and many would not engage in activities on the water.  Much of




the time such waters would be aesthetically displeasing due to such con-




ditions as algae growth, dead fish, oil slicks, floating debris, and raw sewage.

-------
   :&
 LEGEND


RIVER


GROSSLY IMPAIRED

MODERATELY  IMPAIRED


LIGHTLY  IMPAIRED
JMICH
 IND"
                                                                                AREAS   OF
                                                                           WATER  RECREATION
                                                                                IMPAIRMENT
                                                                            LAKE   ERIE   ASiN

-------
     Among the factors taken into consideration were  the  past  records  and




reports of such agencies  as the Michigan Water Resources Commission,  the




New York State Department of Health, and the Ohio Department of Natural




Resources.  When available, records of coliform counts  were used.




     Nearshore waters support the greatest recreational use concen-




tration in Lake Erie in such activities- as swimming,  water skiing,  small




boating, and sport fishing.  At many, if not most, places along the




shore these activities are interfered with in some degree by one or




more of the following factors:  bacterial contamination,  dead and dying




algae masses, dead fish, turbidity, and general refuse  or solid wastes.




     Beaches open to the public receive the largest numbers of visitors,




especially on warm summer weekends.  Many of the beaches' waters are




either continuously or intermittently contaminated with large numbers




of bacteria as measured by total coliforms (Figure 5-8), fecal coliforms,




fecal streptococci, and total bacterial plate counts.  In general




the worst conditions are near metropolitan centers.  The Cleveland




lakefront, for example, is the most grossly contaminated area along




the Lake Erie shore as a result of sewage and storm water discharges.




Yet the demand is so intense that many areas are heavily used regardless




of contamination.




     Bacterial and/or chemical contamination is generally very great in




all major harbors and most smaller ones.  These waters in most cases are




so heavily contaminated that they are completely unfit for any kind of

-------
                                                                    o
NO.  NAME
                    MAX. COLI/IOO ML
 I.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.
 6.
 7.
 8.
 9.
10.
II.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
DEWEY BEACH
STERLING STATE PARK
TOLEDO BEACH
CRANE CREEK ST. PARK
EAST HARBOR ST. PARK
CEDAR POINT
LAKEVIEW PARK
HUNTINGTON PARK
EDGEWATER PARK
WHITE CITY PARK
MENTOR TWP. PARK
HEADLANDS ST. PARK
GENEVA TWR PARK
WALNUT PARK
CONNEAUT TWP. PARK
PRESQUE ISLE ST. PARK
LAKE ERIE ST. PARK
EVANGOLA ST. PARK
BUFFALO MUNIC. BEACH
  42,000
1,040,000
   2,000
 724,000
  24.000
   N.A.
   3,800
   4,600
 I90.00O
 250,000
   7,000
   4,600
  10,000
    560
   N.A.
  28,000
   N.A.
   7,500
  4,500
                                                                                                                  MEDIAN COLIFORMS PER 100 ML

                                                                                                                   LESS THAN  1.000


                                                                                                                   1000-2500

                                                                                                                   2500-5000


                                                                                                                   MORE  THAN  5,000
                                                                                                                  LAKE   ERIE
                                                                                                            BACTERIAL    QUALITY
                                                                                                                         AT
                                                                                                              MAJOR   BEACHES
                                                                                                                  (U.S.  PORTION)

-------
  j       body contact use including fishing.   Swimmers  usually  recognize

          the danger but many harbor areas are used extensively  for vater

          skiing and fishing.  The most severely contaminated harbor  areas  are

          at Detroit, Monroe, Toledo, Lorain,  Rocky River,  Cleveland, Ashtabula,

          and Buffalo.  Coliform counts in the hundreds  of  thousands  per 100 ml

          are common.  However'the'y persist for only a short distance into  the

          lake, generally less than one mile.  Background lake concentrations

          average less than 100 organisms per 100 ml.

               In nearly all areas where total coliform counts are high, fecal

          coliform and fecal streptococci counts are also high,  indicating  con-

          tamination from sewage.  Enteroviruses, such as Salmonella, have  been

          found in harbor waters but not at lake beaches.

y~s            Less dangerous but far more widespread is the problem of

          littering of beaches and nearshore waters by growing,  dead, dying, and .

          decaying algae, primarily Cladophora.   Masses of algae can be found

          at nearly all places along the shore in summer causing unpleasant

          sights and odors.  These algae problems decrease shore property values,
                  i
          decrease tourism, and present clean-up problems.   Esthetic values are

          greatly reduced.

               Activities with which algae physically interfere are swimming,

          boating, and fishing.  Swimming or wading through masses of algae,

          although perhaps not particularly harmful, is an unpleasant experience

          to say the least.  Algae foul engine propellers and engine cooling

          systems of small boats and also foul fishing lines.

               Dead fish present problems similar to algae on beaches and during

t
'  J

-------
massive fish kills they may become highly offensive at any place along



the shore.



     Turbidity is mainly an esthetic problem in nearshore waters



throughout the lake and interferes with underwater visibility.  It
                                                 /   „/-',/


is not generally a nuisance otherwise>^:^~?TTr~r'"rr~'T''^'i':~;''i"t>;fr:r"~:r':';"'-u^—'-i~c-



     Solid wastes (trash) are dumped in the tributaries and along



shore.  These cause esthetic problems..and^,swimming and boating  safety-



problems.,. The safety problems  from this  cause, resulting from  such



things as broken glass, logs, and  scrap metal, are serious at all times



but especially dangerous at night.  Again these problems are most



serious near centers of large population.



                       Municipal Water Supply



     Lake Erie is an outstanding source of  municipal water  supply  in



both quantity and quality.  It  has no  especially  deleterious chemical



constituents as indicated  in Table L>  ;  , listing intake water  quality



at various intakes  and in  Table 5-4   , summarizing the  FWPCA lake-wide



surveys of 19^3 and 196"^.



     Municipal water supply from Lake  Erie  does have problems of



filter clogging, tastes and odors, and in some places suspended solids.



All of these problems frequently are caused by algae, and large algae



populations are the main  causative factor in lake supply problems, u*^ <



     'Some blue-green algae produce offensive tastes  and odors in their



biochemical structure.  Over-abundance of these  leads to shorter filter



runs and  the need for carbon  filtration,  thus increasing costs.



     Some algae  also  concentrate coloring substances, such as manganese,

-------
v>
Total Solids
mg/1
Min. Max.
Monroe
Toledo 16? 282
Sandusky 193 265
Lorain 178 286
Cleveland 170 220
(Crown)
Ashtabula 192 21?
Erie
Buffalo 156 254
O
RAW WATER QUALITY AT SELECTED WATER INTAKES
Alkalinity pH Chlorides Turbidity NO? Hardness
mg/1 CaC03 mg/1 units mg/1 mg/1 CaCO^
Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max.
75 122 7.9 8.9 12 81 5 1,350 -- — 116 240
72 140 7.6 8.9 15 36 5 148 0.5 1.0 103 234
91 113 7.7 8.5 11 21 5 1,560 0.0 1.5 138 166
80 99 7.8 8.7 16 2? 1 140 0.1 2.5 116 138
83 104 7.4 8.6 19 28 2 190 0.0 0.5 118 133
87 110 7.7 8.2 21 30 5 260 0.0 1.0 130 148

80 92 7.9 8.6 18 23 4 40 — — 120 142
^

-------
                TABLE  ;•;--'.-'•

LAKE ERIE WATER CHEMISTRY  SUMMARY - 196U
       (mg/1 unless otherwise  noted)
Western Basin
Parameter
COD
Conductivity 25°C (|unhos/cm)
Dissolved Solids
Total Solids
Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Calcium
Magnesium
Potassium
Sodium
Silica
ABS
Soluble Phosphate
Total Phosphate
Ammonia Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Max.
29
36U
220
250
11U
3l»
' -35
1*3
11
1*
19
5
0
0
_ —
0
1

.0








.5
.0
.0
.11*
.333

.77
.50

Min.
1.1
196
110
lUo
81
10
9
28
7
1.0
5.5
0.3
0.01
0.003
_ —
0.01
0.02

Avg.
10. U
272
162
181
9»i
21.3
17-7
33.9
8.7
1.5
9-9
1.20
0.06T
0.032
0.065
0.159
0.121*
0.36
Central Basin
Max.
16.0
353
239
218
103
1*6
1*3
1*9
lit
1.6
17.0
9.6
0.20
o.oi*o
	 •
0.39
0.81*

Min.
3.1
251*
137
159
81
19
15
32
7
1.1
8.3
0.2
0.02
0.000
	
0.01
0.00

Avg.
7-1
300
178
185
95
21*. 5
22. 1( .
39.5
10.0
1.3
11.0
0.68
0.065
0.010
0.030
0.086
0.090
0,25
Eastern Basin
Max.
27.0
328
233
2^0
112
31
29
1*9
ll*
1.9
15.0
3.5
0.15
0.037
	
0.32
0.85

Min.
1*.
281*
150
167
83
21
17
36
7
1.
8.
0.
0.
0.
—
0.
0.

7








1
6
2
03
000
-
00
01

Avg.
T.»»
301
179
188
97
2l*.5
23. li
1*0.5
10.0
1.3
10.9
0.1»7
0.065
0.010
o.oi*o
0,086
0.090
0.2l*

-------
in their cellular structure.  These  may cause  coloring  of tap water

and staining of fixtures.  They are  sometimes  difficult to  control.

     Excessive turbidity or suspended solids occur in the western

basin at times, thus again raising the cost of treatment.

     Until now water treatment plants have been discharging their

treatment sludge back into Lake Erie.  Thus they are creating  or
                                r-f,
prolonging a pollution problem onf"their own.

                      Industrial Water Supply

     Industries which independently withdraw water from Lake Erie

generally obtain water of lower overall quality, than that of municipal

supply because their intakes are closer to shore.  Industry in general

does not require water of such high quality although some uses require

elaborate pre-treatment.

     Industrial intakes  are clogged occasionally by algae and by dead

fish and debris.  Turbidity and dissolved solids cause scale to form,

especially in cooling and heating uses.

     Industries, especially along tributaries, cause severe problems

to themselves and others by 'using water to flush wastes back to the

tributaries.  Depending  upon the industry a variety of obnoxious

substances, some of which may be toxic, are released.  .Fortunately

many industrial uses can withstand economically their  own quality

degradation.

-------
                 General Lake Erie Water Quality

     Many substances, although not of immediate concern, show signs

of increasing to the point  of impairing many water uses.  In         .

addition, they indicate the progressively increasing rate of waste

input.  Figure  s'"^   , as compiled "by the U.  S. Bureau of Commercial

Fisheries , shows several constituents in Lake Erie and how they have    '

increased since 1900.  Dissolved solids show an alarming increase

to the present level of 180 mg/1.  If this rate continues the con-   •    •
                                   j h ,v V- 3 ^o      vy^l'O W
centration in the lake will "be  greater—than -22-5 mg/1.  Most of the

increases in constituents  have  "been derived from sources within the

"basin.  The average concentration of in-basin tributary inputs of

dissolved solids is 775 mg/1,  considerably above recommended levels

for many uses.  The Lake Huron  input dilutes this concentration to

180 mg/1, however it  is clear that in-basin sources must be  controlled
                                            f .
to maintain a high quality water supply.   •'•''. ;'•'•- r--- 5-\O X-^^v JJ-z, Cf-Lcc-,-!^
 f-.] £.t,i.'f-t*. (. / «.•;;///•/ (' . ft-,, .i>i '//, •   •  ./.-.  •t~i/'^-, -S^tdL  /-I", ^^.'^^J.--/' ,'/ •r'.'ZtA; ^'•.•'!
 'J   Siltation of Lake Erie is  locally a problem, especially in "the  .& ^
                                                                      4- ^
western basin where it tends to at least occasionally cover  coarser  *•'•'>'< •-•<•' .
sediments  and  rock which are the spawning areas for many  fishes.     ^c^.

Quantity-wise, sedimentation is about 2^ million tons  annually,  two-

thirds of  which comes from shore erosion.  Lake Erie can  accommodate

this rate  for  many centuries without measurable effect in shallowing

the lake.

-------
                                                                                                                    * • :  . j '• •
          '••  •-"!••'-  ''.• •'. ".:  '•'.-• :'  '•;''- -  '.'   ;  •' ':"-'• '.'•••• - "."••' '•'.'•••"-" • •'  -.'.-••  •'; •"...--•-":"-  : '''•'.-..''•••'•f'.i": > v;'-.. •.•/r'"-."-. •'••".,/'.
           :-:  ; . —-.  v-"r.   .".••.••.•.••'••-•/•"•''"••; :.. ;T. '•- -v":- '',.-'• •  •;' :''••'•'.•••••'•  ''"."•-"•'';'V:.''/;..  r '• VV "'i>'.',-i>- .*-.•-•..•':> ^.'--. .•;•'.•
<>

;i
11

                                                                         V£?^. .;^.. /:-.'/XWv"-'':^:;t••;'.-." ,-V'-..-

                      1900
                                                                                                          I960
                      CHANGES   IN  CHEMICAL   CHARACTERISTICS  OF  LAKE   ERIE
                                                 (ADAPTED  FROM  BEETON,  1965)             ... .:.-.  •- ;

-------
       200 —
       180 —
       160 —
     4>
r i
       20-
        0 —
                                      1.4-
                                      1.2-
                                      1.0-
                                      0.8 —
                                    v>
                                    I 0.6-
                                     0.4 -
                                      0.2-
                                     0.0-
                                           W C  E
                                          POTASSIUM
                               W  C E
                               NITROGEN
                                                                                    I
                                                      UPPER LAKES INPUT
                                                  W-WESTERN BASIN
                                                  C-CENTRAL BASIN
                                                  E-EASTERN BASIN
                                                                                         NUTRIENTS
                              W C E
                              SOL. P04
                                                                                   MAJOR CONSTITUENTS
                        W C  E
                        CALCIUM
 W C  E
MAGNESIUM
W C  E
SODIUM
W  C  E
CHLORIDE
W  C  E
SULFATE
             CHEMISTRY  OF  LAKE  ERIE  WATER  IN  WESTERN, CENTRAL   AND   EASTERN  BASINS

-------
                 One of the most displeasing problems in Lake Erie is the use  of

          the lake as a refuse dump.  Like most other water quality characteristics,

          concentrations of debris are also related to the amount of human activity

          in the vicinity.  The water and beaches along the Michigan shore, in

                                                                         o
          Maumee Bay, in and around Cleveland Harbor, and several other p-aYts, are

          often so cluttered w'ith debris that a very real danger to small boating

          is created.  Floating lumber, trees, bottles, cans, tires, boat cushions,

          life preservers, fish net floats, balls, boats, piling, power poles,
                                        $>!  k«.tS
          barrels, boxes, shoes, gloves, balls of grease, raw sewage, and many
                                        /i
          other types of debris, even including television picture tubes, have

          been observed in quantity in these  areas.  Often many of these things

          have been observed in mid-lake.  On a quiet day, from any location in

f\        Lake Erie, an observer can see some kind of debris attributable directly

          to man.  For example, in early spring, it  is common to find Christmas

          trees  scattered throughout the lake.

                  Excessive suspended solids and colored wastes, while they may or

          nay not be harmful,  create objectionable conditions at one time or

          another, at all places along the Lake Erie shore.  Here  again  some areas

          are worse than others.  All tributaries  carry occasional large loads

          of silt from runoff, the Maumee  and Portage Rivers carrying great amounts.

          Maumee  Bay, Sandusky Bay, and  Cleveland  Harbor  are clouded with  silt

          and/or  industrial wash virtually constantly.  Silt from  shore  erosion

          causes  turbid nearshore water  throughout the lake  and  is worst during

          storms.

                  Odors and colors are associated with wastes, mainly industrial


0

-------
particularly in Maumee Bay,  Cleveland Harbor, and Erie Harbor.

-------
                 SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN BASIN

Water Quality

     Water quality is both a measure of the usefulness of a stream

and a consequence of the nature and degree of existing use.  Man's

activities modify -aw water quality..  The municipal and industrial

waste discharges have the most significant effect on ttte water quality

throughout the southeastern Michigan basin.
               CA^U^V^^--
     The wastes fro "tre most concerns^ taiKtii. are those from the municipal-

ities, industries, Federal installations, stormwater overflow, and in

some areas navigation and dredging.  These wastes include organic

material, suspended solids, nutrients and "bacteria.  All these cause

water quality deterioration "by depressing oxygen, solids settling and

causing sludge beds, bacterial contamination, and nutrient stimulated

slime and algal growths.  <£ '^~V3 7 - ^ ff

                    Water Quality Problems

St. Glair River Basin

     The St. Clair River receive^ the outwash from Lake Huron at an

average flow of 186,000 cfs.  Water quality leaving Lake Huron is

exceptionally high and remains satisfactory in the pasaage down the

St. Clair River.  The following table of average data for the St. Clair

River shows this high quality.

     Feet-from West Shore                100'         800'      1500'

       Coliform bacteria MF/100 ml        20         <10        <10
       Chlorides mg/1                      666
       Phenols ^/l                        233
     Total N mg/1—^                     O.U  .       O.H        O.U
       Total p ng/1                      <0.008      <0.008     <£>.008
       Dissolved Solids mg/1              110         110        110

-------
     The obly indication of degradation occurs from occassional

excessive coliforra and phenol values.  The cause of the high phenols

is the petroleum complex in Canada at Sarnia, Ontario*awd the high

coliforms are caused by polluted water entering the St. Clair River

from the tributaries.  The values however are not at levels that cause

much concern-

     The American tributaries to the St. Clair River, Black, Pine,

and Belle Rivers (see Figure     <) are not as well off.  The following

data/at the mouth of each of these small rivers shows laffar water quality

degradation.

                                          Black       Pine       Belle

       DO mg/1                            1^.2                    2.9

       Coliform Bact. MF/100 ml           1,^00       1,800      29,000

     Sewage odors V£*»~Jaet*d on the Black, Pine, and Belle Rivers.  A

navigation channel is maintained on the Black River through Port
                                  —_               	
Huron, Michigan and this channelf throughout its-J.ejngth,(J.s pollutes?.

The cause of pollution in these tributaries is inadequately treated

wastes from paper mills, food processing plants, and municipalities.

Controls should be initiated to remove organic wastes and provide

disinfection.

     To achieve high quality water and maintain it where it now exists,

within the St. Clair River system, the industrial and municipal recom-

mendations are shown in the following table;'

                      MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATI4ENT NEEDS
                                 (by basin)

Location                                        Needs

ST. CLAIR RIVER BASIN
     St. Clair River

       Port Huron                               Expand to secondary
       Maryaville                               Expand to secondary
       St. Clair                                Expand to secondary

-------
                         MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS  (Cont'd)
       Marine City
       Cottrelville Twp.
       Kimball Twp.
       St.  £lair Twp.
       Clay Twp.
       Algonac
       East China T.

     Black River

       Deckerville
       Yale
       Fort Gratiot T.
       Peck

     Pine River

       Emmett

     Belle River

       Inlay City
               Expand to secondary
               Collection system add secondary
               Collection system and secondary
               Expand to secondary
               Collection system and secondary
               Collection system & secondary
               Expand to secondary
               Collection system & lagoon
               Lagoon modifications
               Collection system & secondary
               Collection system & lagoon
               Collection system & lagoon
               Improve collection system
                     INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
                                (by basin)
SZ. CLAIR RIVER BASIN

Industry

     Black River

     Michigan Milk Producers
       Assn.
     Port Huron Paper Co.

     Belle River

     Michigan Milk Producers
       Assn.
Location       Needs
Peck           Establish treatment needs
Port Huron     Establish adequacy of treatment
Imlay City     Establish adequacy of treatment
                (irrigation
Vlasic Food Products Co. —-^     Imlay City     Establish adequacy of treatment
                                                (holding ponds)

-------
Lake St. Clair




     Water quality of Lake St.  Clair is  good (see  Table	)  although




isolated problems occur around the shoreline.




               LAKE ST. CLAIR - SUMMARY  OF 196U  SURVEY

Average
Maximum
Minimum
DO
9.1
10.2
6.1
BODs
2
7
1
I'IH3
.22
.69
.07
N0?
.007
.019
.002
NO-,
0.31*
1.80
0.08
Tot. Sol.
151
20^
120
Phenols
UK/1
2
12
0
C61i forma
org/100ml
62
250,000
1
All results in mjtf/1 unless otherwise noted.




                The MilK River which carries stormwater overflow discharge^




a coliform load of 250,000 orgamisms/100 ml into Lake St.  Clair at St.  Clair




Chores, Michigan.  Stormwater overflow occurs all along the heavily populated




Michigan shoreline endangering swimmers in the area.  Overflows from these




sewers should be disinfected to a level not to exceed 1,000 coliform organisms/100




ml to protect users of the water.




     Metropolitan Beach, a recreational area ff^-°^wiBmiHg-is located on the




west shore of Lake St. Clair near Mt. Clemens, Michigan.  Recorded coliform




densities as high as 8600 organisms/100 ml present/ occasional health




problem to users of the beach.  The beach is affected by the pollution




output of the Clinton River.  To protect Lake St. Clair amd maintain its




high quality water,removal of all municipal wastes from the Clinton River




is recommended.  Also, stormwater overflow should be disinfected.




Clinton River




     The Clinton River (see Figure    ) is one of the major sources of




pollution in Lake St. Clair.  The downstream reach of the river, extending




approximately IT miles from Red Run to the mouth of the Clinton River,




reflects the quality of the water entering the lake.  The results of




recent surveys on this section of the Clinton River are shown in the




table below:

-------
                  CLINTON RIVER (Red Run to Mouth)
                      Summer Survey (mg/l)


Avg.
Max.
Min
Temp.
°C
2U
26
22


2
6
0

DO
.7
.1
.6

BOD5
9
m
3

Cl
81
103
67

H1U-II NO
It. 58 2
6.00 U
3.20 1

3-H
.6
.9
.3
Totl '
Totl
P Solids
3.1
U.8
2.2
5U>'
670
500
Susp.
Solids
35
169
5
      All the sewage treatment plants on the Clinton River are secondary,

but some are inadequately operated or overloaded and a few small areas

have no treatment.  Most of the major industries on the river have treatment

rated as adequate by the Michigan Water Resources Commission.  The long-

term average flow at Mt. Clemens is U68 cfs.  In 196U, the minimum flow

was 83 cfs.  The total municipal and industrial waste effluent discharged

into the river is estimated at more than 71 cfs.

      Surveys of the Clinton River in the summer of 196^ and 1966 found

two sections of the Clinton River which had severe oxygen deficiencies.  A

definite oxygen sag existed downstream from the City of Pontiac, a result

of the organic and,.nitrogenous loading from the two sewage treatment

plants serving Pontiac.  The dissolved oxygen concentration in the Clinton
                         JA^YVV
River recovered upstream & the Rochester sewage treatment plant.  Below the

Rochester sewage treatment plant, the dissolved oxygen concentration in

the lower Clinton River averaged 2.7 mg/l with a range of 0.6 to 6.1 mg/l

for the 1966 survey.  During the 196U survey, the dissolved oxygen level

in the reach of the river between heavily polluted Red Run and Clinton

Township sewage treatment plant #1 averaged U.O mg/l with a range of

1.6 to 6.1 mg/l.

      Dissolved oxygen concentrations in Paint Creek and Stony Creek,

tributaries of the Clinton River, were approximately 9.0 mg/l.  Red Run

had an average concentration of 10.2 mg/l during  the 1966 survey, well above

-------
the U.3 mg/1 average for the I96h survey.   This  is  due  to  photosynthetic
                                                                           /

action by algae causing supersaturation of Red Run.   The Middle  Branch


of the Clinton River had an average concentration of 5.0 mg/1  during the


1966 survey, much lower than the 9.5 mg/1  average during the 196U  summer


survey.


      The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand  (BOD)  in  the  Clinton River in


the reach above the Pontiac sewage treatment plants had an average of


k mg/1.  This increased steadily to- an average 9 mg/1 at the lower section


of the Clinton River during the 1966 survey.  The BOD results  were


similar for the 1961+ survey.  The tributaries of Paint  Creek,  Stony


Creek, and Middle Branch had low average BOD of  2 mg/1, 3  rcg/1, and H


mg/1 respectively.


      Ammonia, as nitrogen, in the reach below the  two Pontiac sewage


treatment plants, averagec/9.33 mg/1, with a range of 3.12  to 18.12 mg/1


during the 1966 summer survey.  This reach had an average  ammonia concentra-


tion 25 times greater than the section above Pontiac.  The river from


the confluence of Red Run to Lake St. Clair had  an  average concentration


of ^.58 mg/1 of ammonia.


      Nitrate, as nitrggen during the 1966 summer survey averaged O.h mg/1


above Pontiac, l.H mg/1 below Pontiac, 5.2 mg/1  from Rochester to a point


above the confluence of Red Run, and 2.6 mg/1 in the lower Clinton River.


Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in all of the tributaries  had average


concentrations less than 0.8 mg/1.


      Total phosphorus above Pontiac's sewage treatment plant  outfalls


averaged 0.3 mg/1 during the 1966 summer survey.  Below the Pontiac


outfalls,the average concentration increased to 2.3 mg/1.   The reach


below Rochester had an average of 1.5 mg/1 and the reach below the confluence



of Red Run had an average total phosphorus concentration of 3.1 mg/1.

-------
 The total  soluble phosphorus averaged about &2% of the total phosphorus




 in the  Clinton River.  The total phosphorus concentrations in the tributaries




 averaged less than 0,2 mg/1 with the exception of Red Run.  Red Run had




 an average concentration of 16.3 ifg/1 during the 1966 survey, or tvice




 that  of the averabe  concentration  in the lower Clinton River.  Red Run




 transverses a heavily populated area of suburban Detroit and receive^ large




 quantities of raw sewage through discharges from overloaded sever systems.




 Phosphorus found in  the Clinton River is almost all .from municipal wastes.




      Total coliform densities in  the Clinton River above Pontiac




 sewage  treatment plant #1 at 2 stations were 690,000 and 39,000 organsisms/




 100 ml  respectively  during a survey conducted in 19&6.




      Total coliform densities varied from 1600 to 22,000 organisms/100 ml




 in the  reach of the  river from below Pontiac sewage treatment plant #2




 oc Rochester, Michigan during the  same survey.




      The  1966 survey in the lower Clinton River (below Red Run to the




 mouth of the Clinton River) had total coliform densities which ranged




 from  1100  to Ui+00 organisms/100 ml.  The coliform density in the June 30




 survey  ranged from 5200 to H50.000 organisms/100 ml.




      The  heavy pollutional load of the Clinton River has created serious




 problems with water  use.  The Clinton River functions almost exclusively




 as an.open sewer with little other uses possible because of the heavy




 pollution.  All municipal waste treatment plants on the Clinton have




 secondary  treatment. Industrial plants are treating wastes, but not all




 eight industries are rated adequate by the Michigan Water Resources Com-




 mission.   To abate municipal pollution in the Clinton River, plans are




b eing implemented that will connect ^ all municipal waste discharges to




 an interceptor system and carry them away to a central treatment and discharge




 point of the Detroit system.  The  following table shows the municipal




 and industrial treatment needs for the Clinton River.

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                     MUNICIAPL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
Location

LAKE ST. CLAIR BASIN

  Clinton River

    Clinton TVp.
    Mt.  Clemens
    Sterling T.
    Utica
    Warren
    Pontiac
    Rochester
    Oxford Village
    Harrison T.
    Fraser
    Shelby T. (part)
    Leonard
    Washington
    Avon T.
    Bingham Farms
    Franklin
    Independence T.
    Lake Angelus
    Lake Orion
    Novi
    Orchard Lake
    Orion T.
    Quakertovn
    Waterford
    Wood Creek Farms
         Needs
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Collection
         Connect to
         Connect to
        'Connect to
         Collection
         Collection
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
         Connect to
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      system and secondary
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      system & lagoon
      system & secondary
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
      Detroit  Metro
                    INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

    LAKE ST. CLAIR BASIN

    Industry                      Location      Hedds

    Clinton River
    Briggs Manufacturing Co,
    Chrysler Corp.
      Michigan MOssile Plant

    Ford Motor Co.
      Chassis Parts

    TRW, Inc. •'-• -  '  .
     Thompson Products, Mich.
     Division
Sterling T.


Sterling T.


Sterling T.


Sterling T.
Establish adequacy of treatment
(lagoon)

Establish adequacy of treatment
(lagoons)

Establish adequacy of treatment
for oil and sanitary vastes

Improve reliability of treatment
of oil vastes
Establish adequacy of treatment
of sanitary vastes

-------
Detroit River (See Fig. 	)




     In December of 19&1 the  Honorable John B.  Swa.inson, Governor of




Michigan, requested the Department of Health, Education,and Welfare to




call a conference on water pollution problems in the Michigan waters of




the Detroit River and Lake Erie.




     At the first session of the conference in March, 1962 at Detroit,




Michigan, it was unanimously agreed that a study should be made of pollution




problems in the area.




     The Detroit River-Lake Erie Project, under the direction of the U. S.




Public Health Service and in cooperation vith State agencies, conducted a




two-year study of the condition of the waters and sources of waste.  In




June 1965, the findings and recommendations of the study were presented to




the second session of the conference.  Conferees agreed that the Michigan




Water Resources Commission would implement the recommendations under State




lav.




     The water quality of the Detroit River has been discussed in detail




in the "Report on Pollution of the Detroit River, Michigan Water of Lake




Er-e, and Their Tributaries," by the Federal Water Pollution Control Admini-




stration.  Action has been taken by the Michigan Water Resources Commission




against the major polluters in accordance with the Federal Water Pollution




Control Administration's recommendation.  This has been discussed in




Section V of the Detroit River-Lake Erie report.  Water quality remains




relatively unchanged since the report was published.




     The following is a summary of the water quality problems of the Detroit




River from that report.




     Every day more than 1.6  billion gallons of waste water flow into the




Detroit River—1.1 billion gallons from industry and 5liO million gallons




from municipal sewage.   Huge  quantities of waste products contained in

-------
this discharge change the Detroit River from a basically clean body of




vater at its head to a polluted, one in its lover reaches.   These waters




are polluted bacteriologically, chemically, physically, and biologically,




and contain excessive coliforn densities as well as excessive quantities




of phenols, iron, oil, ammonia, suspended solids, settleable solids,




chlorides, nitrogen compounds, and phosphorus.  Pollution of the Detroit




River will become progressively worse unless effective action is taken




immediately.




     The City of Detroit's main sewage treatment plant, serving more




than 90 percent of the people in the Detroit area contributes 95 percent




of the municipal waste to the Detroit River and is also the major source




of suspended solids, phenols, oil, inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and




biochemical oxygen demand in the river.  In facflT, the Detroit primary




sewage plant is the largest single source of pollution in ajjl of—theJfrvw




Lake Erie watershed.  Overflow from combined sewers in Detroit and its




suburbs, carrying both stormwater and raw sewage contributes greatly to




the degradation of the river.




     In the upper Detroit River, the Great Lakes Steel Company and the




Allied Chemical Corporation are the major sources of industrial wastes.  The




Ford Motor Company is the principal contributor of inorganic wastes to




the Rouge River, and the Scott Paper Company is the/principal contributor




of organic wastes.  Downriver industries contributing significant quantities




of wastes are the Great Lakes Steel Corporation, the McLouth Steel




Corporation, Pennsalt Chemical Corpration, and Wyandotte Chemical Corporation.




     Other significant sources of pollution in the area are overflows from




combined sewers, municipal and industrial waste spills, and wastes .from




shorefront homes.

-------
     Pollution of the Detroit River causes interference with municipal

water supply, recreation, fish and wildlife propagation, and navigation.

Two municipal water intakes, particularly that of Wyandotte, are endangered

by the high bacterial counts of the river, and the rising chloride levels

indicate potential future problems for industrial water usage.  In addition,

high concentrations of phenols and ammonia at the Wyandotte water intake

have interfered with municipal water treatment by causing taste and odor

problems and reducing the effectiveness of chlorination.  Excessive quantities

of chlorine, are needed to reduce bacteria to a safe level.
   '-  All forms of water contact sporfs^in the lower Detroit
         .  Declining levels of dissolved oxygen^in the lower Detroit River

as it enters Lake Erie,tare approaching the danger poirrtTh indicating trouble
in the future unless appropriate remedial action is taken.  Together with
                                                     'Jo
bottom sludge deposits, oils, and. toxic materials, 1»Jiey threaten^fish,

migratory birds, and other wildlife.  In order to maintain navigation,

ex-ensive annual dredging is required in the Rouge River and at the mouth

of the Detroit River to remove deposits of suspended solids in large

part originating in municipal and industrial waste discharges.

     The following table shows the quantities of various materials at the

beginning of the Detroit River and those that empty into Lake Frie from the

Detroit River.

                                           Lbs/day

                                   Mouth            Headwaters

Total phosphorus                   06,000           Ul,000
Chlorides                      18,560,000        7,000,000
Phenols                             3,800
Total II                           590,000          h'45,000
Suspended Solids (est)         ih,000,000        6,000,000

     The following table shows summary statistics for bacterial water quality

   headwaters and mouth of the Detroit River.  The data are divided into

conditions during and immediately after a rain and those essentially yer*
Affected by rain.
J-—

-------
                         TAB^E
                                              SUMMARY STATISTICS
                          WET AND DRY CONDITIONS
{ DRY)

Headwaters
100'
300'
500'
1,000'
2,500'
3,000'*
3,350'*
3.H80'*
^
Maximum
Value
710
700
300
200
130
100
1,100
86,000
Geo.
Mean
110
68
1*2
2U
15
15
HO
1,300
WET
Geo.
Mean
130
87
37 .
22
19
67
58
1,200
*Canadian stations

-------
                               TABLE	

             TOTAL COLIFORM DENSITIES      SUMMARY STATISTICS
                          WET AIJD DRY COIIDITIONS
Mouth
2,500'
3,500'
n,5oo-
5,500'
6,500'
7,500'
9,500'
11,500'*
13,500'*
15,000'*
16,500'*
17,500'*
19,000'*
19,300'*
, DRY/"
Maximum
Value
9H.OOO
UlO.OOO
330,000 .
200,000
320,000
300,000
110,000
80,000
1*7,000
73,000
58,000
Ii2,000
51,000
39,000
\( /
Geo.
Mean
U.100
3,600
5,900
5,900
3,000
3,000
2,000
1,200
920
1,100
2,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
UET
Geo.
Mean
13,000
18,000
20,000
16,000
8,900
9,500
2,700
3,300
3,600
2,300 .
3,700
12,000
15,000
12,000
   distances are  feet  from American  shore
  ^Canadian waters
        Since the study of the Detroit River, the Michigan Water Resources

   Commission has obtained stipulations or agreements with 23 individual polluters,

~•"- municipal and industrial, to facilitate control of their effluents to

   recommend levels by 1970.  The following table contains a summary of

   the state stipulations.

-------
    Kunlcip; UlJr r
        Indus I ri  s
    /11J/ * Chem.Corp.
    . Fc:  -t-Solvay DIv.

     Solv2.y Process

    E. 'I.duPont vdc
      Nemourc £t Coe
5urp
50
              OF MICHIGAN \7ATER RESOURCES COHKI^SION .SjC

              F?l. Ihor.
                (;   J"'f-V,)     i^r-nolr      /Oil       BCO
Tot.   Coantr.
Coll.  Corbie.
       4/1/67

       4/1/60


       4/1/G7
                                                                                        Cl
(1
    Scott Paper ,Co.
50
                                                         31,000
       ll/l/GC
    (i)   For "Remarks" see page                          '  -         .  ' •    -                         •

         The effluent should not contain oil  in amounts  sufficient to create a visible film on. the surface watere
           of the State.                                                   .          ..-..:....
K>
o

-------
                                 SI):
 Darling & Co.

 Wyandotte Cuem.Corp.

 PeHE.ss.lt Chcin.Corp.

 KcLoutt Steel Corp.
Severe Copper &
  BrasB, Inc.

Firestone Tire &
  Rubber Co.

Mobil Oil Co.

Monoanto Chenl.Corp.
 'inorganic Cliem.Div.
  Trenton Resins Pit.

City  of Detroit;
  (present area)
 American Cenant Coi:p.   50
50

SO


50


50
50
Wayne  County
  0-/yandotte & Trenton)  50
                               All/5ir;X
                                         Sol. Fans,
                                          (r.r: PO/,)
50   324,000


      19,000
                 2000



               21,000


                3,000
(1)  For "Remarks"  see page  23.
93


10
JU/l^; .f> (•• >'A::'> ' '• '. '(i.1. , • ' },'(.>; .' J '.'.-',(• v'f'V'l;cJ
• ' . • • / - •- " - ' • .
^ Tot. Conct'r.
Col ]'C'J Coll. CoKplcc
' - - '• COO 1000 .15/5/C7
15. » ' ' '•'-:'•- - 4/5./C3
•- -.*- .' •-*' " • • *•
'.' V; ;•- -" vi/w.;
: ;»". ,-'••• \ ;;• ' .' : ,^
15 r - ."•'•"" -' 11/1/67
- ••"• - \ . '.; .'-..• - 11/1/67
13 ;"..''- - ^ ' - ' ' 11/1/67
3/1/68
2800 4/1/68
} 15 - 206,000 1000 11/1/70
) 15 - 28,900 1000 11/1/70


CI
ei
Fc

Fe





-------
Kunieipalitxcn
^£tCL,^1i5H5JLr V? r:
City of Rivcirvievr

OJ.f.y of Trenton
                                     .j'K'Vny 0:' IIICIU.C'MI DAT)':}; rrr.OUKC'T CO'T^T^ION STJTU'AXIOMS (co;;i:«>
                                           Sol. Ihoc.
                          Susp. SoHc?c      (n. J'.v)


                           50      470         35
                           50
C-To::r;G  lie Tvrp.
(Ico jnerly Wayne  Co.)    50
                                    500
J.30
 20
                                                                5
                                                                        OJ.7.
                                                                         J 5
                                                                       .15
                                                                         13
                Tot.    Coristr.
 10".            Coll..   Coioplc.
i.    y\: I {*.::'.     j:[:''l     .Jfe! •
-------
r"::oa was  faired to bj a r.-jor constituent in the  effluent
of industries end th3 li:...iu o2 17 Eg/1 was recoinnsxided
by both tha  Public health Service s.:id tha 1-Iichigan Water
Resources Coz'isisaioL..  r^.e following loading  linitatioas
xjer^ also included in the 1-Iichigaa Water Resources
Ccn^ission
     Ford  Motor Cc^?c-ay              -   2500  Ibs/day.
     S'irestoaa Tire c.ad Rubber Co.  • -    330  Ibs/day
     Gra^t Lakes Steal Corp. -
                  ^ccrss ?lcr,£        -   40CO  Ibs/day
     »'*C *_O W ^. li, wi k- Ci V_ — ^^>M.O« *"
                  'Trx-r.to^ ,I?lc^t       -   2500  ibs/day
 "Jl-.a  reccz-zinded 1 !•.__> or. uhe pH range for  Great Lakes
 Steal (Zcorsa ?l^.t/ affl^aat was set at 5.5-10.6 by
 both the Public I-I.2s.lth Service and  the  Kichigan Water
 Resources Cor^iiasio^.  Public Health Service recommended
 •chat E.  I. duPont do Necujur- a*^d Company comply with the
 State order that the effluent of this industry have pH
 in the range of 5.8-10.3.

 _Ch 1 or id e s. we r e foui.d to be a significant waste constituent
 is the effluent of the several industries  and limits of
 chlorides loading ware set by the Michigan Water Resources
 Cossission as follows:
      Allied Chemical Corporation -
        Solvay Process            -   2,800,000 ib/day
      "Wyandotte Cheiaical Corporation -
        North Plant               -•   1,300,000 Ib/day
        South Plant               -      64,000. Ib/day
      Pcimsalt Chemicala Corp.
        East Plant                   •    550,000 Ib/day
     \   West Plaut                        8,800 Ib/day
                       23

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Huron River

     The Huron River (see Figure 	) in Michigan empties into Lake

Erie south of Detroit.  It rises in a series of recreational lakes in

southeast Michigan and because of this and ground vater storage^flovs

during drought periods are sustained.  The average discharge of record

approximates 1*1*5 cfs.  The once in 10 year, 7 day low flow is 30 cfs'.

     The Cities of Ann Arbor and Flat Rock use the Huron River for water supply.

l^s 132,000 people in the watershed are served by eight secondary sewage

plants and 3 primary plants.  The primary plants are located at Dexter,

Flat Rock and Rockwood.  Most of the area has separate sewer systems.  The

total population of the watershed is 2^7,000.
                                        , _ .._.-. _• f ^>- ;' /, /-,V~"
     Water qualify in the Huron River dc^r..s£raam ta Dexter is reasonably
      M>;; . r
good.  -All the recreational lakes which support numerous bathers in the

summer and ice fishermen in the winter are above this point.  Below the

primary sewage plant of Dexter the river begins to show signs of degradation

ana remair.s c-.^-aji unsatisfactory eomii-iioa-all the rest of the way to Lake -

Erie.  Below Dexter even though the 'river falls quite rapidly, DO dips to

values around 5.0 mg/1.  Below the secondary sewage treatment plant of Ann

Arbor the DO falls below 5.0 mg/1 and the concentration of phosphorus in

the river increases 5 times.  The effects of this are noticed in a series

of man-made impoundments farther downstream where the lakes are continually

choked with algae being fed by the nutrients from the Ann Arboi>sewage
traatment plants/and other^.  At Ypsilanti three  secondary  sewage  treatment

plants, Ypsilanti, Ypsilanti Township and WilloJyRun discharge  treated

wastes to the Huron Pdver  further depressing the DO levels  and  adding to  the

phosphorus load in the stream.

-------
     Bacteriological problems exist in most of the Huron River from Ann

Arbor to the mouth during periods of heavy storm runoff and non-chlorination

of sewage effluents.  The areas of,greatest severity are below Ann Arobr,

the Ypsilanti area and Flat Rock-Rockwood area.

     The following table shows the qualify of various waste materials

discharged to Lake Erie from the Huron River.  Values are in Ibs/day.
   10,000              75,000               TOO                  3,000

't^'
     To relieve the polluted conditions of the Huron River there is need

for upgrading sewage plants to secondary and in some locations integrating

and centralizing sewerage systems.

     Four industries in the watershed are rated as having unsatisfactory

treatment and the effect of their wastes can be observed in the river.

Longworth Plating Company at Chelsea discharges toxic compounds.  The

General .-lotors Corporation, Fisher Body Division discharges a variety of

waste materials (oils, toxic compounds, and sewage) to Willow Run, a

small tributary of the Huron River.  Peninsula Paper Company in Ypsilanti

Discharges large quantities of oxygen consuming wastes and Huron Valley

Steel Corporation at Belleville has unsatisfactory control of suspended

solids.

     The following table shows the municipal and industrial waste treatment

needs for the Huron River.

-------
                 MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
Location

Ann Arbor T.
Ypsilanti T.
Pittsfield T.
Superior T.
Dexter
Pinckney
South Lyon
South Rockvocd
Stockbridge
Wixom
Flat Hock
Rcckwood
Ann Arbor Metro
                                 uonnec-
                                 Connect
                                 Connect
                                 Connec^
                                 Expand
                                 Collec^
                                 Collect
                                 Collect
                                 Collect
                                 Collect
                                 Improve
                                 Improve
                                 Collect
 to Ann Arbor Metro
 to AnnArbor Metro
 to Ann Arbor Metro
 to Ann Arbor Metro
to secondary
ion system & lagoon
ion system & secondary
ion system & lagoon
ion system & lagoon
ion system & secondary
 collection system; secondary
 collection system; secondary
ion system & expand secondary
^r.custry
                   INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

                                           Needs
                        Location
General r-.o^ors Corp.    Willow Run
r'isher Body I)iv.
                        Belleville


Longworth Plating Co.   Chelsea

Peninsular Paper Co.    Ypsilanti
                                           Establish adequacy  of treatment
                                           (coagulation  & lagoon)

                                           Improve treatment  (solids  in
                                           wastewater)

                                           Establish adequacy  of treatment

                                           Improve treatment

-------
River Raisin

     The River Raisin watershed  (see  Fig _ )  had a I960 population of

131,000.  Primary sevage treatment  plant served 29,^79,  secondary sewage

treatment plant served  32,563, and  68,958  persons vere without public

sewerage systems.  Four of the sewage plants are primary and five are

secondary.

     The River Raisin discharges  an average  of 71^ cfs to Lake Erie.  It

rises in a series of small recreational lakes  which partly sustain its flow

in drought periods.  The one  in  10  year 7  day low flow is 27 cfs.

     The water quality  in the river upstream from Manchester is generally
     .•> .-.-. /-'_„                      'j ''^
good "wi-t-h the recreational lakes/ safe for  bathing.  Below Manchester varying
                                                       £A/i.Mu,jt~
degrees of water quality occur and  the most  severe are -ae^i-tjed directly

down st re am "o-:? the sewered communities.. '--However "ihe river above Monroe,

Michigan'vis able to absorb most  of  the washes dumped into it without creating

serious impairment with existing water uses.  Concentrations of phosphorus

in exces- of levels sufficient to cause alga$ blooms are noticed throughout

the river below Manchester.

     In the Monroe area the  river becomes  grossly polluted.  This area was

included in the Detroit&iver-Lake Erie enforcement conferences because of

•.-ne severe effect the lower  few  miles of  the River Raisin has on recreational
                                                                      yvec ei v/
uses of the Lake Erie shoreline.   In  the  last three miles -e-f the River the
primary sewage  plant  of Monroe serving 22,000 persons, the effluents from
                                                             l$& *-*:/ e~f*.< ^1'
five paper mills  with a population equivalent of 225,000 and cyanides  /
; ••!.'*-  'i .• -   ,'^'>v  l-\t*l$.\f- CT>
.dx-seha-^gc t j-'th'g  river .

     Waste constituents  discharged to the river are high in coliform, suspended

solids, cyanide concentrations, and BOD.   The lower Raisin River is frequently

completely devoid of  dissolved oxygen, resulting in a continuous state of
                                                       .' '- 'J- C. V
putrefaction  during the  summer months.  All uses of theHiasin River except

-------
waste disposal and navigation have been  eliminated  by  pollution,  and deposits

                                           £\i£\^
of settleable solids at the mouth interfere/ with these uses  to the extent


that annual dredging is requires to  remove bottom material and keep the


channels open for ship movement.  Bacterial counts  in  the lower river


are excessively high and represent- prohibition  of any  possible recreational


use of the water.  The effect of the  Raisin River upon Lake Erie  is


seen in the enrichment of the waters  of  the western basin and in'high


coliform levels at bathing beaches near  ii^r* mouth (including Sterling


State Park).                                                         ',,i--i  /;

                                                                   W&''""^    L
     The Br^st Bay beach area,  a series  of  unsewered communities^/population o\


J^OOO just north of the River Raisin  mouth, discharged septic tank wastes


to 3r£st Bay and the effect of  those  wastes is  intensified when heavy
     The combined effect  of the  city of Monroe municipal wastes, paper


mill wastes  (containing coliform bacteria in the 100,000 level) and the


Br_-st Bay  oeach  area  have resulted in the unsafe bathing conditions at


Sterling State Park on Lake Erie.


     Pollution-stimulated algae  growths have forced Monroe to move its


'.vc.^ar intake point to avoid unpleasant tastes and odors in the water, and


.-.;._ ;a.£ blooms near the new intake again threaten to degrade Monroe's


chinking water.  Discharges,- of nutrients and organic wastes into the Michigan

                             6v 4.¥ ^          &
part of Lake Erie have  S£t&e
-------
lake currents are northerly (UO to h^% of the time) polluted Raisin River

water is carried directly to the beaches.  When currents are southerly,

polluted drainage from septic tanks reaches the park.  To improve water

quality at Sterling State Park, these sources of pollution must be controlled.

     The following table shows the loadings of various substances to Lake

Erie from the River Raisin.  Values are in Ibs/day.

Chlorides           Suspended Solids           Phos-phorus       Nitrogen

 1*5,000                  50,000                    300            6,000

     The .following table shows the municipal and industrial waste treatment

needs for the Raisin River area.

                 MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

Locatio.'.                         Needs

Bllssficlc                       Expand to secondary
Britton                          Collection system & lagoon
Brooklyn                         Collection system & lagoon
Cement City                      Collection system & lagoon
Clay tor.                          Collection system & lagoon
Clinton                          Expand to secondary
Deerfield                        Collection system & lagoon
Bur.dee                            Ixpand ^o secondary
M_dison :2.                       Collection system 2s secondary
.-.sh T.                           Connect to Monroe Metro
Ur.sted                           Collection system & lagoon
Palmyra T.                       Collection system & secondary
Petersburg                       Collection system & lagoon
Tecumseh                         Expand collection system  & treatment
Monroe Metro                     Expand to secondary & increase  collection
Bstral Beach                     Collection system & secondary
Berlin T.                        Collection system & secondary
Luna Pier                        Collection system & secondary
r'renchtown T.                    Connect to Monroe Metro
Monroe T.                        Connect to Monroe Metro
-•laybee                           Collection system & lagoon
Bedford T.                       Collection system & lagoon
2rie T.                          Collection system & lagoon

-------
Industry
 INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS

          Location             Needs
Buckeye Products Corp.   Adrian
Dundee Cement Co.        Dundee
Simplex Paper Corp.      Palmyra
                               Establish adequacy of treatment
                               Improve treatment reliability
                               Establish adequacy of treatment
     The 'jFord plating factory and the paper mills in the Monrog area are

under orders from the Michigan WJjter Resources Commission^as a result of
                                             .^^-.	              ^
the Detroit-Lake Erie enforcement conferences^to clean up their wastes./
The following requirements are in force for these industries:
Industries
               Sol. Phos
Susp. Solids    (as PO^)   /Oil
mg/1  Ib/day    Ib/day
                                                BOD
                                 Tot.   Constr.
                                 Coli   Comple.
Time Container 35
Corp
Monroe Paper.
Prod.

Consolidated
Packaging Co.
North Plant    35
       650
                     mg/1 Ib/day  MPN   Date

                           500   1000   1/1/69
South Plant
35
2200

2100
Ford Motor Co. -
Monroe Plant
                  200
Union-Bag-
Camp Co.
35
1350
-  2>+00   1000   1/1/69

-  1500   1000   1/1/69

15  -     1000   1/1/68


-  2500   1000   1/1/69
                           Remarks
                                                    CN
CN:  Cyanide concentration of  .025 mg/1 was recommended as the limit by
both the Public Health Service and the Michigan Water Resources  Commission.
In addition, the state agency  stipulationset a maximum loading of 25 Ib/day
for Ford Motor Company (Monroe).

-------
                                     Maumee River Basin




                   The waters of the Maumee River Bssin are seriously degraded



               in quality.  The effects of pollution are particularly evident in the




               Ottawa River, the Upper Maumee River, and the Lower Maumee River at




               Toledo.  All water uses, actual and potential, are influenced "by this




               pollution.




                   From waters that were once useful and generally free of harmful




               materials, this River Basin has "been degraded in quality to the




               point where, in several stretches, few legitimate uses may "be made



               of the waters.  Not only are activities  such as swimming, "boating, and




               fishing no longer available in a number  of these locations, but in




               several areas the water is not even of sufficient quality to be used




               for waste assimilation.  The excellent sport fishery which formerly




               existed throughout the Maumee Basin is now virtually non-existent.




                   Biological, chemical, microbiological, and physical parameters




               analyzed by the Lake Erie Program-Office confirm the pollution found




               in the Basin.  Further evidence of pollution cited in this report in-




               clude the abandonment of the beaches along the Toledo area, the



               numerous cities and industries which experience tastes and odors in




               their water supplies, the presence of objectionable algal blooms, and




               the esthetically disagreeable appearance of many of the waters in the




               area.




                   Industry, cities, and agriculture are all major sources of wastes




               which pollute many of the area's streams.  The effluents from the




               cities' sewage treatment plants seriously depress the receiving waters




               of oxygen and contribute to the algal growth in many areas.  Industrial
\
M-20

-------
i  ^ :•*•; ' >-.*vv::

1  ^i.«y- -'-•.* *•''•• ' _ '  «*• ,'fj
                               z:;
      '/.,-,'•*"•  ' ''•• '   f  "  '
                            ^
                                             \
                                  ?<;•'?•
                                  1
                                    . .<




                                  / '-i/
                                          * ;
                                                    «t.^,
                                                   .  (t.
                                                   ^/•T
                                   -i•'    •.   fv<'^
                                   !*'•'••.!•,  x *  V'-JH
                                   ,v%  ^-^pV^
                                   • Jvf.  '•^-, ^ r-^fl .v.lv,
                                       '#)) g


                                       f^f           ^

                                       •WU      /i^   /
                                       •^•/>1    "p-'A.^
V.;.K,WW

•'"'^V^v
            ,<'.'..:•!
"^H^jl,JI¥-
 .*- t   *'.-*." 'V'. f-j'f . • • '.'
 _ li. (   2-''yf •-«'.•* j
-------
 vaste discharges also depress the  Basin's  rivers  of  oxygen,  cause




 taste and odor problems in domestic  water  supplies,  and  interfere




 with the esthetic enjoyment of the Basin's water  in  a  number of




 areas.  The runoff from agricultural areas causes turbidity  in waters




 of the area,  requires extensive dredging of the shipping channel,.




 and helps to produce the abundant  algal growths.




      A population growth projection  made by Project  economists in-




 dicates that the Maumee Basin's population will increase from 1,1^0,000




 to 1,600,000 in 1980 and 2,700,000 by 2020.   Industrial  activity is




 slso projected to increase by a substantial quantity in  the  Basin




 over the same period.  Taking into account these  and other related




 factors, it is apparent that the existing  degraded conditions will




 become much worse unless extensive control measures  are  taken now and



 continued into the future.









Water, Quality Evolution



     Prior to 1800, historical references regarding conditions of




streams in the Maumee River Basin indicate  that the waters were nor-




mally clear; soil erosion was slight; and stream bottoms  were composed




of sand, gravel, boulders, bedrock, and organic silt. .Aquatic vegeta-




tion flourished in unshaded areas of the waters, but  where trees  or




foliage covered a stream, little aquatic vegetation prevailed.






                                 27

-------
References regarding enormous fish populations,  both larger food fishes

as well as the smaller fine fishes, indicate that the waters and

sediments of these streams were conducive^to excellent clean water

aquatic life.

     Since 1800, the increasing population, with its industry, farming,

dams, mills, slaughter houses, breweries, and cities, was the major

factor which influenced the accelerated degradation of the water qual-

ity in the Maumee River Basin.  Ditching, dredging, and tilling of the

marshlands surrounding this area allowed accelerated erosion of the

soils.  Soil, dams, and pollutants adversely affected the aquatic

vegetation.  Troutman (1957) observed a decrease in the amount or

elimination of rooted aquatic vegetation between 1901-1930. (12)  Con-
                                                ,J&i&***
sequently, desirable fish disappeared and ^ more^tolerant species

became prevalent.  Continuing sedimentation from the Maumee and other

southwestern tributaries has affecred the western end of Lake Erie

drastically.  The gravel and bedrock reefs of western Lake Erie that

were spawning grounds for Whitefish and Disco are now silted over.  It

is quite likely that sedimentation from eroding soils was the most

detrimental and the most universal of all pollutants.

Present Water Quality

     Figures 7-2 through 7-9 graphically depict a number of the sig-

nificant chemical and microbiological parameters.  These figures indi-

cate many of the water quality problem areas and should be referred

to while reading this chapter.  The fold out map at the back of this

section should be used to locate a specific city or area in reference

to these figures.


                                 28

-------
                 CN./X /
MINIMUM DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN mg/l
                                WAUMEE   RIVER  BASIN
                                  MINIMUM  DISSOLVED
                               OXYGEN  CONCENTRATION
                                                 FIGURE 7-2

-------
                                                             L A K £

                                                             ERIE
                                 ...$
                         :
PERCENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN TESTS LESS THAN 4 mg/l

                  o -10
                                       MAUMEE   RIVER   BASIN
                                       DISSOLVED  OXYGEN  TESTS
                                         LESS  THAN  4  rog/'
                                                          FIGURE 7-3

-------
                                                ~"~~
MAXIMUM PHENOL CONCENTRATION IN Mfl/l


     vXKv/XvXv:-   0-10  ,


             10.1-100
                                         MAUMEE   RIVER  BASIN
                                    MAXIMUM  PHENOL  CONCENTRATION
GPO 827—431—7
                                                           FIGURE 7-4

-------
N
            ^*V<—i  I  '
                «*fc^L.T_
                vc
               %;r  /
                                S
      LEGEND
 AVERAGE PHENOL CONCENTRATION IN

      m-X-mXK  0-3
 6.1-20


20.1 +
                                      SCALE IN MILES
                                         "0  II  JO  Jl
                               MAUMEE   RIVER   BASIN
                          AVERAGE  PHENOL CONCENTRATION
                                              FIGURE 7-5

-------
                                       f
                                                      SCALE IN MILES
            LEGEND
AVERAGE SOLUBLE PHOSPHATE LOAD IN POUNDS PER DAY

         XvAv/KvXwX     0-400

         ni!!!!lil!!!!!l    4 00-1,000

         ti~~:-3   1.000 -10,000

                  10,000 •+•
       MAUMEE   RIVER   BASIN
AVERAGE  SOLUBLE  PHOSPHATE LOAD
                                                                  FIGURE 7-6

-------
                                                    pw£*r      •
              LEGEND
' MEDIAN TOTAL COCfORM CONCENTRATION N OSGAMSMS PCM 100 ml.

                      0-1,000

           !ll!!!i!Ui!!!!li!!Ii!   1,000-2,400

                   2,400 - K>,OOO
 MAUMEE   RIVER   BASIN
       MEDIAN  TOTAL
COLIFORM  CONCENTRATION
                                                                  FIGURE 7- 7

-------
     N


     i!
              i
                  iK^
            J
X      
-------
                                                S   I -tfv*
                                           ••^222r\     i
                                          ff-y   i /     /
                                          :•-'  V^    I /    I
                             \sr~*
                                       /*
                                                     SCALE IN MILES
            LEGEND
MEDIAN f ECAL STREP COMCENTAATION M ORGANISMS PER 100 ml.


         ":;;;•••:::;/••.     0 - 500


                   500-1,000


                  1,000-5,000


                  5,000 +
                                                             15  20   »
MAUMEE   RIVER   BASIN
     MEDIAN  FECAL
STREP  CONCENTRATION
                                                                 FIGURE 7-9

-------
 St.  Joseph  River




      The  overall  water  quality  of the St. Joseph River above




 Montpelier, Ohio  is  good.   The  Montpelier sewage treatment plant




 discharges  an effluent  with an  oxygen demand of 800 pounds per day.




 Below this  point, the concentration of  dissolved oxygen  (DO)  falls




 to an average of  U mg/1 during  low flov.  A minimum DO concentration




 of 2 mg/1 was recorded  several  times during late summer.  Biological




 conditions  typical of gross pollution existed  during  these low flows,




 and an oily sludge was  observed.




 St.  Marys River




      The  overall  water  quality  of the St. Marys River is  fair.  Abun-




 dant growth of algae occur throughout the entire year.  The main




 sources of  pollution in this subbasin are agricultural and domestic.




      A dissolved  oxygen sag occurs on the St.  Marys River below the




 City of St. Marys.  This sag is caused  by the  discharges  of the St.




. Marys sewage treatment  plant, Goodyear  Tire and Rubber Company,




 Beatrice  Foods Company, and Weston Paper Manufacturing Company.   The




 DO at this  point  was below 1 mg/1 over  fifty percent  of  the time




 sampled.




      During the period  October-December, 196U,.the median coliform




 densities in this area  were 5^0,000 organisms  per 100 ml  with a




 range of  10,000-2,900,000.   The maximum fecal  streptococci density




 recorded  was 155>000 organisms  per 100  ml.




      Biological sampling in the early spring discloses a sparse




 population  of pollution-tolerant midge  larvae  and sludgeworms.  The
                                 29

-------
stream bottom is sand, rubble, and rock,  and no sludge deposits  are




found.  By July, a black septic sludge accumulates over the stream




bottom and emits a strong septic odor.  Because of severe environ-




mental conditions, no bottom-dwelling organisms are found during the




summer or fall.




     An example of interstate pollution by solid wastes occurs at




Willshire, Ohio where the city has a large dump along the St.  Marys




River Just above the Indiana line.  This dump, as can be seen in




Figure 2-2D, spills garbage, trash, and other deleterious refuse




into the St. Marys River.




     Another dissolved oxygen sag occurs downstream from Decatur,




Indiana.  For several miles below Decatur the dissolved oxygen was




below h mg/1 for 20 percent of the samples.  The majority of the




oxygen demand load in this area is from Decatur"s secondary treatment




plant.  Although the BOD loading from the plant is relatively low,




the river cannot accommodate these loads during the low flow months.




The principal industry, Central Soya, may well serve as a model for




many industries and cities in the Maumee Basin, in that at this time




they provide the equivalent of tertiary treatment through the use of




oxidation ponds.  The only additional treatment that might be required




of Central Soya would be some form of phosphate removal.




Upper Maumee River




     The Upper Maumee River varies in water quality from extensively




polluted in the upper reaches below Fort Wayne to nutriently enriched




above the Defiance area.  In the upper reaches the biological conditions
                                 30

-------
are seriously degraded.  The stream "bottom has heavy deposits of oily




organic sludge and supports only a sparse population of pollution-




tolerant sludgeworms and midge larva.




     High concentrations of phenols occur below Fort Wayne, with a




maximum concentration of 137 micrograms per liter (mg/l) recorded at




a station 12.6 miles below the Fort Wayne sewage treatment plant.




The average phenol concentration at this station was 2k mg/l for the




year sampled.  In warm weather the phenols in the Upper Maumee are




readily broken down by the self-purification processes in the re-




ceiving stream.  But in winter months, when the water temperature is




reduced to near freezing, phenols may persist for many miles downstream.




Under these conditions the phenols discharged in the Fort Wayne area




may help cause the extensive taste and odor problems in the City of




Defiance's water supply.  Phenol concentrations in excess of 50 mg/l




have been recorded in the winter time above Defiance.  There are no




known sources except the Fort Wayne area to account for these high




readings before its junction with the Auglaize River.




     In an area below Fort Wayne the geometric mean values of total




coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci were 210,000, 12,000,




and 8,000 respectively.  These high values result from a combination of




Fort Wayne's treatment plant effluent and the discharge from the




numerous suburban septic tanks in and above the Fort Wayne area.




     A dissolved oxygen (DO) sag occurs in this area below Fort Wayne.




At mile point 129.1 (7.0 miles below the confluence of the St. Marys




and St. Joseph Rivers) the DO was below U mg/l over 60 percent of the







                                  31

-------
 times sampled.   Seven miles  farther  downstream the  DO was  still below




 k mg/1 over 50  percent of the  times  sampled  throughout the year.  From




 mile point 113.6 downstream  the  stream had recovered and the DO was




 below k rag/1 less than 10 percent  of the time.




      In the nutrient-rich waters of  the Upper  Maumee extensive phyto-




 plankton populations  occur,  with counts in excess of 30,000 per ml.




 In this area algal photosynthesis  is the most  important factor affect-




 ing the DO.   At Antwerp,  diurnal DO  studies  showed  ranges  of 3.8 to




 8.2 mg/1 and 10.3 to  20.0 mg/1 on  two 2^-hour  studies in July (Figure




 7-10).   Palmer  (1963)  indicates that there are certain genera of




 planktons that  persist in polluted streams.  According to  his table of




 genera, 95 percent of the genera found in the Maumee River are of the




 pollution tolerant type (63).  Increasing numbers of blue-green and




 green planktons which  are associated with taste and odor problems,




 have been recorded in  the Basin.   These or--related planktons also exist




 in the  wintertime  even under an ice  cover.  The average soluble phos-




 phate content in the river dropped from over 3.6 mg/1 near Fort Wayne




 to just over  0.5 mg/1  above  Defiance  indicating that it had been incor-




 porated in the  organic chain.  The presence of relatively  intolerant




 bottom-dwelling animals in the Antwerp  area indicates that prolonged




 periods  of low  DO  do not  occur in this vicinity.




 Tiffin  River




     The overall water quality in the Tiffin River is generally quite




 good throughout  its entire length except in several of the lower parts




where it is mildly polluted.   The highSst  coliform densities recorded
                                  32

-------
                                         •s
                                          1 O
                                           o
                                           O
                                          ji
                                          f o
                                          w O

                                              LJ
                                              2
                                              t-
                                          j §
                                          il o
O
CM
    CO
                         GO
                                      CM
              N39AXO  GSAIOSSIQ
                                         FIGURE 7-10

-------
rarely exceeded 5,000.per 100 ml, and these occurred in the Stryker




and Defiance areas.  Excluding the last four miles of the Tiffin




River, the DO never went below 3-5 during the time the river was




sampled.




Auglaize River Basin




     The water quality in the Auglaize River Basin, and particularly




in its tributary, the Ottawa River, is the lowest in the Maumee




River Basin.  Above the cities and industries the water is relatively




good quality, but below many of them, the water is presently unfit




for many uses.




Ottawa River




     The Ottawa River is grossly polluted.  The stream degenerates




rapidly at Lima, Ohio, and during low flow never recovers.  Thirty-




-shree miles below Lima the water is still highly colored, ranging




at times from red-orange to black.  Oil is normally in evidence




along the banks.




     As the Ottawa River nears Lima its water quality is degraded by




the effluent from septic tanks and agricultural runoff.  The DO was




below h mg/1 16 percent of the time and the minimum DO was zero.




What flow there is in this stretch of the river during low flow months




is utilized "by Lima to augment its water supply.  The small amount of




water that flows through Lima is further impaired by the discharge of




phenols from Republic Creosote.




     Below Lima, the flow in the Ottawa River is composed entirely of




the effluent from Lima's secondary sewage treatment plant and the
                                 33

-------
ffi3^;ito^ME^^S{P^^ >>',
M' I'." i' x  ''. ',-  r'\   •;  •  ';V-V"  •.-\1-" •,'••. •>'• •- '•!:•..--..''/yi <<>i C\J,'-\   : ••.•.••• ..'••'   •>•'-Wi''''-'••, '•'''' '; %1 v.v.-«, •'v •.''i'V'-V^
r>> »'; i'  .'^,' :         .    .••.'.. --'-^\ :>1  •',.•• '•: ' \ •-'  •,'• '••'"• '-• : i'iN •'.'     V- ',  -  •     ''/•"•, •  ' .v ' . . ,   • •.'•;•"• •". J
\' •,».'!. ii . v       : -.  .    ."• '  '•'•.''I •'..•'•.' i",',' •...-: V :•;.',•- ": •; It.•-•.'•••''. •  '•'••.        \<"" -•..-••.    '::•'''>'• \\> ''.'•.!•*;
          •


                                                           ,j:?|^i ^  ,^,'r,-;'-'lv^v     ]

                                                                            * .' ' • •
                                                                            '*?>-v.
                                                                       ' -^:;^'
                                                                     -.n-.—'*'•'. '.••'.-"•'
                                                                ,- .•  -^*T>"".•*' *''.

                                                                \*&'& '. '-'. '-   '•'

                                                                              A
                                                                                                -.-"74
     FIGURE 2-1.   A.  Lake  Gaint Marys near Saint  Marys, Ohio.   ?.   Outfall  of

     the  Standard  Oil Co. of Ohio on  the  Ottawa River  below Lina, Ohio  (note oil


     in waste  and  on rocks  and hank).

-------
effluent from Sohio's chemical and petrochemical plants and refinery.




     In the past the heavy chemical pollution from this area affected




water supplies not only on the Ottawa, Blanchard, and Auglaize Rivers,




but at times all the way along the Lover Maumee River.  Phenolic con-




centrations directly below Lima ranged from kO yg/1 to 19,000 yg/1 and




at the mouth from 13 Mg/1 to 1,1*00 ug/1.  Chemical oxygen demand (COD)




values ranged from 30 mg/1 to 5^0 rag/1 below Lima and from 35 mg/1 to




515 rag/1 at the mouth.  Concentrations of ammonia ranged from 22 mg/1




to 127 mg/1 below Lima with a median value of 63 mg/1.  One mile above




the mouth of the Ottawa River, ammonia concentrations ranging from




12 mg/1 to 136 mg/1 were detected with a median value of 60 mg/1.




Below Lima the DO was less than It mg/1 80 percent of the time with




many zero values recorded.




     Severe bacterial pollution exists at all points sampled along the




Ottawa River.  Four miles below Lima the median concentration per 100




ml of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and Fecal Streptococci was




350,000; 165,000; and 5,500 respectively.




     Below Lima, rooted aquatic plants, attached algae, and bottom-




dwelling animals were completely absent in all seasons.  The stream




bottom is rock and shale which in the spring is scoured clean of any




silt or sludge.  During low flow in the summer and fall, a black, oily




sludge with a strong petrochemical odor accumulates over the stream's




bottom.  Between Lima and the confluence with the Auglaize River, the




Ottawa River showed no signs of biological recovery.  The only




aquatic life observed in this reach was a very sparse population of

-------
sludgeworms and midge larvae near the mouth.   The complete  absence  of




attached algae and bottom-dwelling animals indicated not  only severe




oxygen deficits, but the presence of highly toxic chemicals.




     Sohio is presently incinerating the wastes from their  acrylo-nitrile




plant at a cost of one million dollars a year, and has recently com-




pleted construction of aerated ponds to provide additional  treatment




for their refinery wastes.  This installation should markedly improve




the water quality in the river, but until the City of Lima  provides




tertiary treatment, full recovery will not be achieved.




Blanchard River




     The water quality in the Blanchard River varies from good to




excessively polluted.  Samples collected from the Blanchard River re-




veal two critical areas.  The first is immediately below the City of




Findlay's sewage treatment plant.  Dissolved oxygen values  below U mg/1




occurred about 35 percent of the time.  The water quality is severely




degraded as indicated by the presence of only the pollution-tolerant




sludgeworms, midge larvae, and air breathing snails.  The stream




bottom is silt and gravel with sludge banks along the edge.  Sewage




solids have been observed floating in the water.




     The other critical area occurs below Ottawa, Ohio.  In addition




to the municipal effluent from the city, the Buckeye Sugar Co. Inc.




has in the past discharged a waste containing a BOD of 2,l60 pounds




per day.  The high oxygen demand of these wastes caused the dissolved




oxygen in the Blanchard River to fall to zero for a stretch of some




20 miles downstream to the point of confluence with the Auglaize River.
                                 35

-------
This occurred in the fall of 1964.




     On the Blanchard River below Ottawa, the average dissolved oxygen




was 4.8 mg/1 during June-September, and zero in October and November.




These conditions were the same at every sampling station to the con-




fluence with the Auglaize River.   The median total coliform densities




increased from 290,000 organisms  per 100 ml during the June-September




period to 3,400,000 during the October-December period.  The highest




value recorded during this period was 114,000,000 coliform organisms




per 100 ml.  Biological surveys confirmed these findings of gross




pollu tion.  In October, conditions typical of a grossly polluted stream




were observed.  A strong odor of hydrogen sulfide permeated the area.




The water was black, and the rocks in the stream were covered with




black scum.  Only the most tolerant forms of biological life were




found throughout the length of the river to its mouth.




Auglaize River




     The main stem of the Auglaize River above the confluence with




the Ottawa River is of good quality except in a stretch below Wapakoneta.




In the lower areas, the Auglaize is severely degraded by wastes enter-




ing from the Ottawa and Blanchard Rivers.  At Wapakoneta the Auglaize




receives the effluent from the sewage treatment plant, two packing




companies, a Pepsi-Cola bottling plant, and the Monarch Battery Company.




No records on the effluents from these industries have been made avail-




able.  The dissolved oxygen below Wapakoneta falls to zero during low




flow periods.  The dissolved oxygen downstream was below 1; mg/1 approx-




imately 31 percent of the time.  During the period October-December 1964,




the median coliform density was l4Q,QOQ organisms per 100 ml, with a
                                36

-------
range of 1,200 to 11,000,000.




     Below the town, the water quality is severely degraded.   Although




bottom fauna of pollution-sensitive mayflies,  caddis flies,  and dragon




flies were found to be fairly numerous in the  spring, by July all




pollution-sensitive organisms are eliminated, and only sludgeworms and




midge larvae remain.  The stream bottom which  had been scoured clean




of silt and organic deposits during the spring is covered with black,




septic, malodorous sludge by July.  Below this point, the Auglaize




River quickly recovers and for over 50 miles,  dissolved oxygen, bio-




chemical oxygen demand, microbiological and biological data gave




little evidence of organic pollution.




     Below the confluences with the Ottawa and Blanchard Rivers,




another dissolved oxygen sag occurred.  This is the most critical




area of water quality on the Auglaize River.  During the summer,




dissolved oxygen concentrations averaged 2 to 3 mg/1; during low flow




in the fall season, it frequently dropped to below 1 mg/1.  At mile




point 25.6, located directly below the confluence of the Blanchard




River, the biochemical oxygen demand ranged from h to hO mg/1 while




phenol concentrations averaged about 28 yg/1 (micrograms per liter).




The maximum value of phenol was about ikO yg/1.




     During the summer, extensive algal growths were observed on the




Auglaize River.  Stream sampling indicated that, during the warm




months, such compounds as phenols and organics were rapidly assimil-




ated.  During the winter months, the colder stream temperatures allow




greater concentrations of these organic compounds to reach the Maumee
                                 37

-------
River.  Ammonia concentrations which averaged less than 2 mg/1

during July and August 196^ in this area rose to a median concentra-

tion of h2 mg/1, and as high as 8^ rag/1 during October to December.

These results reveal that the Auglaize is severely affected by the

Ottava and Blanchard Rivers during periods of low flow and low stream

temperatures.

     Substantial winter fish mortalities of shad and other rough fish

have been observed in the lower reaches of the Auglaize during the past

four years.  Since lov dissolved oxygen was not a problem at that time

of year the kills most likely resulted from the large ammonia concen-

trations mentioned previously.  (Table 7-1)

                           TABLE 7-1

              FISH KILLS - MAUMEE RIVER BASIN (OHIO)*

                           196U-1965
River
Blanchard
Blanchard
Blanchard
Blanchard Trib.
Blanchard
Riley Creek
Auglaize
Jennings Creek
Little Auglaize
Auglaize
West Branch Deer Cr.
Jackson Ditch
Maumee
Tenmile Creek
County
Hancock
Hancock
Hancock
Putnam
Putnam
Putnam
Auglaize
Van Wert
Van Wert
Defiance
Fulton
Wood
Lucas
Lucas
Fish Killed
6,839
720
1,21*5,37!*
1,627
1^91^1199
11,163
1*3,836
76
1^,533
769,606
2,00k
62,607
36l,l*l8
M55
Pollutant
Sewage , Municipal
Sewage, Municipal
Sewage, Municipal
Silo Drainage
Sugar Beet Waste
Unknown
Sewage & Industrial
Industrial
Pipeline Break
Unknown
Manure
Oil & Liquid Fertilizer
Sewage, Municipal
Unknown
* From Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife
  Pollution Investigation, 196^-1965.
                                 38

-------
     The Little Auglaize River, Flatrock Creek, and Sugar Creek exert




little, if any, effect on the main stem of the Auglaize from sources




other than agricultural pollution.




     Town Creek is a tributary to the Little Auglaize River.  Samples




from this stream collected at a point below Van Wert, Ohio, revealed




gross pollution during low flow.  The dissolved oxygen dropped to zero




in the summer.  Samples collected were septic and foul smelling.




Coliform densities exceeding 50,000,000 organisms per 100 ml were




found.




Lower Maumee River




     The water quality of the Lower Maumee River (confluence of the




Tiffin River to mile point 15) is fair to severely polluted.  Cities




situated on or near the Maumee River draw their raw water supply from




the highly polluted waters of this stream.  Taste and odor problems




are prevalent throughout most of the year in the water supplier at




Defiance, Napoleon, Bowling Green, and other cities.  At Defiance,




during periods of low temperatures and ice cover, problems are encount-




ered with phenolic compounds.  The finished water imparts a medicinal




taste and odor enhanced by chlorination.  During the period of Spring




runoff, the water has an intense earthly or musty taste.  During late




Spring in 1963, 196k and 1965, there were periods of exceptionally




severe taste and odor problems.  The water during these periods was




described variously as musty, moldy, earthy, fishy, and "rotten".




     The taste and odor problems at Napoleon are similar to those in




Defiance with the exception of additional interference from ammonia
                                 39

-------
compounds from the Auglaize River.   Campbell Soup Company has reported




excessive taste and odor problems at times in their rav vater supply,




but they are able to remove it in their extensive treatment plant.




Large concentrations of ammonia at the plant have created peak chlorine




demands as high as 150 mg/1.  The company reports that the quality  of




its raw vater supply has continued to deteriorate in recent years.




     The main sources of ammonia, nitrates and phenols to the vaters




in this area are: surface runoff from agricultural sources, and the




discharges of: the Fort Wayne area, Sohio industrial plants and Johns-




Manville Fiberglass Company through the Defiance Sewage Treatment Plant.




     Above the City of Defiance, Ohio a dissolved oxygen deficit occurs.




This point is above the confluence with the highly polluted Auglaize




River and the Defiance Sewage Treatment Plant.  This deficit is attrib-




uted to the large number of unsewered or faulty sewered residences in




this area discharging raw sewage into the Maumee River.  Also, the




sewage collection system is faulty in that the sewage treatment plant




is closed 30 to 60 days each year.  As the river stage rises 5 feet




above normal, water is backed up in the main lift station closing the




main interceptor and sewage is bypassed directly to the river 2 miles




above the plant.




     The sewage treatment plant at Defiance provides only primary




treatment facilities.  An industrial and municipal waste survey by




the State of Ohio indicated 1,770 Ibs/day BOD and 6,750 Ibs/day total




solids in the final effluent.  Phenol concentrations in the range of




1^,000 - 22,000 yg/1 were recorded, which averaged about 100 Ibs. of

-------
o I
c
•3)
m
            X
            o


            o
            o
            to
            to
            o
                 20i
                  18
                 16
                  12 i
10
                                                   MAUMEE  RIVER

                                              DIURNAL  D 0 STUDIES

                                                 MILE  POINT  20.6
                                       JL^^^JL
      0600
                1000
                           1100
                                     leoo
                                                    TIME
                                                =1,

                                               2200
.L-====x^?«==»==»L

0200       0600

-------
phenol discharged per day.  Most of the industry in Defiance is sewered.

However, primary treatment cannot assimilate the heavy loading of

phenolic compounds from the Johns-Manville Fiberglass Company.

     Municipal wastes are also discharged to the Lower Maumee by the

communities of Perrysburg and Waterville.  The sewage treatment plant

at Perrysburg has only primary treatment while Waterville has a

secondary plant.

     The extensive growth of blue-green and green algae throughout

•ohis entire stretch also helps produce taste and odor problems.

Phytoplankton counts in excess of 100,000 per ml were found in the

summer of 1961*.  Table 7-2 is a tabulation of the plankton counts at

mile point 65 from October 1961* to June 1965.

                                TABLE 7-2

          PLANKTON COUNTS AT MILE POINT 65.0 ON THE MAUMEE RIVER

                             AT DEFIANCE, OHIO
                              (Numbers per ml)
Date
Diatoms
Green
flag-
Centric pennate coccoid ellate
10-29-61*
12-23-61*
12-28-61*
1-12-65
1-23-65
3-8-65
l*-l*-65
l*-2l-65
l*-23-65
5-U-65
5-18-65
5-27-65
35,952
5,670
1*,888
900
1*5
Too turbid
360
360
270
1,688
1,710
12,960
17,136
1,755
585
It, 185
607
to count
505
90
1*05
1,123
1,81*5
3,115
61,1*88
1,755
630
5l*0
67

315
135
90
71*!
1,395
9,9^5
1*1*8
1,305

315
22

135
1*5
180
88
315
675
Blue-green
fila-
coccoid mentous
11,200


270
22

1*50
1*5
U5
112
1*50
3,375

900
1*5
180
22

270
1*5
135
7l;2
315
1,080
Total

126,221*
11,385
5,91*8
6,363
785-

2,035
720
1,125
1*,1*98
6,030
30,096
                                  1*1

-------
     During the some period (October 196*i-June 19&5) diurnal DO




studies shoved considerable vertical and diurnal variations.  Values




as high as 10 mg/1 were often found at the surface while the "bottom




waters contained only 0.5 mg/1.  Diurnal variations gave early morning




concentrations of 8.0 mg/1 at the surface and 25 mg/1 in the afternoon.




The low DO values at the "bottom confirmed the absences of any intol-




erant animals on the stream bottom.  Figure 7-11 shows the diurnal




curve for mile point 20.6 on two dates in 196*1.




Toledo Channel, Harbor, and Lakefront




     Lake level fluctuations have been found to affect the Maumee




River as far as 15 miles upstream; therefore, pollution which enters




the Maumee at one point in this lake affected area may degrade the




water quality several miles upstream.




     Sediment is a problem in the navigation channel, which extends




approximately seven miles upstream from the mouth of the river and




must be continuously dredged.  The suspended sediment is extremely




fine and stays in suspension for long periods of time.  The Maumee




discharges about 2 million tons of sediment a year to Lake Erie.




     The waters in the navigation channel and lake front areas are




severely polluted.  Very high bacterial densities were found in these




waters, with median densities of total coliform, fecal coliform, and




fecal strep in excess of 100,000; 11,000; and 1,100 organisms per




100 ml respectively.  As can be noted in Figure 7-12, fecal coliform




was the prime coliform present in the lower eight miles of the Maumee




River.  The existence of human enteric pathogenic microorganisms were




also revealed.  Salmonella was detected ^0 percent of the times sampled,

-------
confirming the health hazard to persons exposed to these waters.  A

partial listing of Salmon ell a serotypes isolated is given in Table
7-3.
                                TABLE 7-3

                 ISOLATIONS OF SALMONELLAE-LOWER MAUMEE
                       January 15 - April 1,
Sampling Site
Date of
Collection
Tenmile Creek
    OOlt.7
Tenmile Creek
    010.2


Maumee River
    001.6

Maumee River
       .9
                                     Salmonella Serotypes  (isolates)
1-21-61;
1-28-61;
2-18-61*
3-31-61*

1-28-6U
2-18-61*
3-10-6U

2-18-61;
3-10-61*

1-21-61*
2-5-6H
3-10-61*
                                     Salmonella cubana  (l)

                                     Salmonella infantis  (l), Chester  (l)
                                     Salmonella tennessee  (1*), thompson(2)
                                     Salmonella vorthington  (l)
                                     Salmonella infantis  (l)
                                     Salmonella tennessee(2), oranienburg(l)
                                 1*3

-------
                iUvJi.ituj],.   J
i MI WM tmwmm
                                                                         O C£
                                                                         h- h-
                                                                             Z
                                                                         < LiJ
                                                                         bJ O
                                                                         CC Z
                                                                         
-------
                               IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
                             MAUMEE RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPAL
Sewerage Service Area
 Present
Treatment
   I960
Population
Plant Needs
  Reading
  Hudson
  Morenci
          MICHIGAN

       St. Joseph River
 Septic Tanks        1,130

        Tiffin River
 Secondary           2,550
 Stabilization       2,055
   Lagoons
              Secondary & Disinfection
              Expansion
              None
  Auburn
  Butler
  Garrett
  Waterloo
  Berne

  Decatur
           INDIANA

       St. Joseph River
 Secondary
 Secondary           2,170
 Secondary           k, 364
 Secondary           1,432

        St. Marys River
 Stabilization       2,644
   Lagoons
 Secondary           8,32?
                                Upper Maumee River
  Diversified Utilities, Secondary4,200
    Inc.
  *Fort Wayne            Secondary         171,780
  New Haven              Secondary           3,396
              Tertiary
              Disinfection
              Tertiary
              Disinfection
              Disinfection

              Tertiary


              Expansion

              Tertiary
              Disinfection
  Edgerton
  *Montpelier
             OHIO

       St. Joseph, River
 Septic Tanks        1,566
 Primary
              Secondary & Disinfection
              Secondary & Disinfection
 * Indicates sewage treatment plants receiving significant industrial loads.

-------
MUNICIPAL (Cont'd)
Sewerage Service Area

New Bremen
' Rockford
*St. Marys

Ada
Bluffton
*Columbus Grove
Continental
Cridersville
*Delphos
Dunkirk
Elida
*FindIay
Forest
*Lima
Ottawa
Paulding

Payne
Spencerville
*Van Wert
*Wapakoneta

*Ar crib old
* Bryan
Fayette

Stryker

West Unity
Pre sent
Treatment
St. Marys
Secondary
Primary
Secondary
Auglaize
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Stabilization
Lagoons
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Tiffin
Secondary
Secondary
Stabilization
Lagoons
Stabilization
Lagoons
Septic Tanks
I960
Population
River
1,972
1,155
7,737
River
3,918
2,591
2 10^J-
1 l^J-T
l',053
6,96l
1,006
1,215
30, 3^k
1,31^
51,037
3,2^5
2,936

1,287
2,061
11,323
6,756
River
2,3^8
7,36l
1,090

1,205

1,192
Plant Needs

Tertiary
Secondary & Disinfection
Tertiary

Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Secondary & Disinfection
None
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
None
Disinfection

Secondary & Disinfection
Expansion & Disinfection
Tertiary
Tertiary

Tertiary
Tertiary
Disinfection

Disinfection

Tertiary
Upper Maumee River
Antwerp
Defiance
Hicksville
Septic Tanks
Intermediate
Secondary
1,^65
1^,553
3,116
Secondary & Disinfection
Expansion
Expansion
Lower Maumee River
*Delta
*Deshler

Secondary
Stabilization
Lagoons
2,376
1,82k

Tertiary
Tertiary

 * Indicates sewage treatment plant receiving significant industrial loads.

-------
MUNICIPAL (Cont'd)
'Sewerage Service Area
 Present
Treatment
   I960
Population
Plant Needs
                       Lower Maumee River (continued)
  Holgate
  Leipsic
  Napoleon
  Perrysburg
  Svanton
 *Toledo
  Waterville
  Wauseon
  Weston
 *Whitehouse
  Oregon
  Walbridge
  Sylvania
  Trilby
Septic Tanks •
Secondary
Secondary
Intermediate
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Primary
1,37^
1,802
6,739
5,519
2,306
318,000
1,856
^,311
1,075
1,135
l£'530
2.550
Minor Tributaries
Tenmile Creek (Ottava River)
 Secondary5,187
                                Silver Creek
 Septic Tanks
  5,000
                                  Tertiary
                                  Tertiary
                                  None
                                  Secondary
                                  Tertiary
                                  Tertiary
                                  Expansion & Disinfection
                                  Tertiary
                                  Tertiary
                                  Expansion
                                   Sonnect to Toledo
                                   onnect, to Toledo
              Connect to Toledo
Secondary & Disinfection
 [INDUSTRIAL
        Industry
       Location
            Control Measures
  Toledo Edison

  Gulf Oil Company
  Sun Oil Company
  Pure Oil
  Standard Oil Company
  Libbey-Owens-Ford
  Interlake Iron
  Johns-Manville Company
  Campbell Soup Company
  Central Foundry(Div.GM)
  S. K. Wayne Tool Co.
     Lower Maumee River
   Toledo, Ohio

   Toledo, Ohio
   Toledo, Ohio
   Toledo, Ohio
   Toledo, Ohio
   Toledo, Ohio
   Toledo, Ohio
   Waterville, Ohio
   Napoleon, Ohio
   Defiance, Ohio
   Defiance, Ohio
         General Control Measures &
           Improvement s
         COD, Oil
         Solids
         Oil, COD, and Phenols
         Phenols, Oil, COD
         Oil, Solids, Color
         Phenols, Solids
         Solids, BOD, Phenol
         BOD
         Solids, BOD
         General Control Measures
  Indicates sewage treatment plants receiving  significant  industrial loads.

-------
INDUSTRIAL  (Cont'd)
       Industry
   Location
   Control Measures
  Weatherhead Corporation
  Hayes Industry -
    Decorative  Division
  Ohio Decorative Products
  Buckeye Sugars
  National Refinery
   (Ashland Oil)
  Rusco Inc.
  Excello Corporation
  Ford Motor Company
  Republic Creosote
  Standard Oil Company
    Refinery
    Chemical
    Petrochemical
 Edgerton Metal Products
 Veston Paper
 Goodyear Tire & Rubber
   Company
 Beatrice Foods Company
 Essex Wire Company
 Dana  Corporation
 Upper Maumee River
Antwerp, Ohio

   Auglaize River
Spencerville, Ohio

Spencerville, Ohio

  Blanchard River
Ottawa, Ohio
Findlay, Ohio

Pandora, Ohio
    Ottawa River
Lima, Ohio
Lima, Ohio
Lima, Ohio

Lima, Ohio
Lima, Ohio
Lima, Ohio

  St. Joseph River
Edgerton, Ohio
   St. Marys River
St. Marys, Ohio
St. Marys, Ohio

St. Marys, Ohio
Fort Wayne, Ind.

   Tenmile Creek
Toledo, Ohio
Oils and Solids


Solids

Solids, Housekeeping


BOD
Oil, General Housekeeping

Oil, Solids, Secondary
  Treatment of Sewage
General Housekeeping
Oil
Phenol

Phenol, Oil, COD
Amonia
Evaluate Completed Improvements
Chrome Treatment, Acid
  Neutralization
BOD
General Housekeeping

General Housekeeping
Phenol
Oil

-------
                                        v—^  HUDSON

                                         ^~^i^
                                                               LAKE

                                                               ERIE
                                HILLSDALE  CO
                                                                                                      TOLEDO
                                                           FULTON   (CO
     DE KAUB   CO.
                                                               EN R Y   CO.
     FORT
     WAYNE
          DECATUR


      ADAMS  CO.
                                                                                          GREAT   LAKES  a   ILLINOIS
                                                                                            RIVER   BASIN  PROJECT

                                                                                         LAKE   ERIE   PROGRAM  OFFICE
. MARYS   WAPAKONETA
SCALE  IN MILES
                                                                                         MAUMEE  RIVER  BASIN
                                                                                      U.  S.  OCPARTMCNT  OP  INTERIOR
                                                                                    Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration
                                                                                  REGION   V                       CLEVELAND, OHIO
                                                                                                              FIGURE  1-3

-------
                     NORTH CENTRAL OHIO AREA








     The major Ohio tributaries to Lake Erie in North Central Ohio



are the Portage, Sandusky, Huron, Vermilion, and Black Rivers




(Fig. 5-1).  They drain an area of ^,109 square miles, with a pop-




ulation of 600,000. -The principal cities are Lorain, Elyria, and



Sandusky.





Present Water Quality.




     The majority of streams in this area suffer from either direct




pollution or enrichment.  Dissolved oxygen deficites occur in numerous




locations, as do excessive algal growths.  Windrows of decomposing




algae are commonly found along the lakefront during summer months.




     The upstream reaches of these rivers flow through predominantly




farm lands, where water quality is slowly degraded by silt and aquatic




growths.  However, as the streams flow toward the Lake through urban '




areas and industrial complexes, the rivers rapidly "become more

-------
degraded and in places grossly polluted.   Their color ch anges to




unnatural hues, and repulsive sights and noxious odors develop by the




time they reach the Lake.  This is not true for all streams in North




Central Ohio, and some recover from their pollution before flowing




into Lake Erie.




     The Portage River is often septic and black below Bowling Green,




and turbid-white and rust-colored within Fostoria.   The Black River




is'multicolored from industrial wastes in Elyria and the city's




Cascade Park.  In Lorain, the navigation channel of the Black River




is sometimes covered by oil slicks.  Upstream the rivers are green-




colored by algae and often covered with the scum of aquatic growths.




River bank trash dumps are found on all rivers, and the streams are




clogged in places with logs and debris.




     During periods of low flow the dissolved oxygen (DO) drops to




less than h.O mg/1 below Upper Sandusky, Tiffin, and Fremont on the




Sandusky River.  Forty percent of the samples collected at the critical




point below Upper Sandusky showed oxygen concentrations of less than




U.O mg/1.  On three occasions there was no measurable oxygen, and



accompanying BOD's reached 39.0 mg/1.  Intensive sampling programs




below Tiffin and Fremont revealed that during the low flow period




under normal loadings from the treatment plants, the dissolved oxygen




concentrations were near 1.0 mg/1.  Below Upper Sandusky the oxygen




sag extends approximately four miles below the treatment plant.




     There are similar problems on the West Branch of the Black River




and Plum Creek from Oberlin to the lake-affected area in Lorain.  The

-------
July 196U average of dissolved oxygen for this reach was 2 mg/1.




The highest average seasonal BOD  in North Central Ohio was 20 rag/1




below Elyria.  Even at mile point 0.6 in the mouth of the river




where lake dilution is high, the dissolved oxygen averaged only 3.^




mg/1 during the fall of 196U.




     The most serious problems from low dissolved oxygen on the




Portage River occur below Bowling Green and Fostoria.  Septic condi-




tions have been reported in the stream at both locations.




Microbiology




     Domestic pollution, as indicated by total coliform densities,




is prevalent throughout most of the basin.  Because the waters of




the basin are used for recreation and water supply, the microbial




pollution presents a potential health hazard.  On the Portage River




at mile point O.U, median densities during the summer and fall of




196U were 130,000 organisms per 100 ml.  During the summer, the




median fecal coliform density was 21,000 organisms per 100 ml.




     The Sandusky River had median total coliform densities of




190,000 organisms per 100 ml below Fremont at mile point 13.6 during




the fall, 196U.  In Sandusky Bay at the mouth of the river, the




median total coliform density was less than 1,000 organisms per 100 ml




with a maximum of 1,300 organisms per 100 ml.




     The median total coliform density in the Black River at mile




point 10.2 below the Elyria treatment plant was 300,000 organisms per




100 ml during the first three months of 196H.  The maximum density




reached 15,300,000 per 100 ml.  During April and May 196H the median

-------
                             TABLE 7-1

                FISH KILLS - NORTH CENTRAL OHIO AREA*

                             196^-1965
River
Kiser Run
Sandusky
Camel Creek
Bear Run
Sandusky
Black
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky
Crone Creek
Sandusky
Pipe Creek
Kelly Marsh
Pettie Ditch
County
Wyandot
Seneca
Medina
Richland
Wyandot
Lorain
Seneca
Wyandot
Seneca
Wyandot
Ottawa
Sandusky
Erie
Erie
Seneca
Fish Killed
15
20,320
2.U37
103
2,05^
65
M33
3,529
U.883
65
278,968
105,552
39^
19
2,9ltO
Pollutant
Livestock sewage
Tiffin, sewage
Oil-gas well
Silo drainage
Unknown
Grafton, sewage
Tiffin, sewage
Upper Sandusky, sewage
Tiffin, sewage
Upper Sandusky, sewage
Tomato processing waste
Fremont, sewage
Canning waste
Industrial waste
Unknown
 *  From Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife
   Pollution Investigation, 196^-1965.
of metals and cyanide in the river at mile point 10.2.  Maximum

concentrations in mg/1 during 19^ were:  copper, 0.31;. cadmium,

0.08; nickel, 0.1*2; sine, 0.28; chromium, 1.32; and lead, O.Oh.

     In the navigation channel of the Black River phenol concentra-

tions averaged 15-1 micrograms per liter during the first three

months of 196^.  At this location, mile point 0.6, a maximum phenol

concentration of 65.9 micrograms per liter was found.  The steel

industry is a significant source of phenol wastes, and with the

reactivations of coke operations, these waste discharges could

increase greatly.  These industrial wastes are significant because

-------
density was 1^0,000 organisms per 100 ml.   At this same station,




the median fecal coliform density was 57,000 organisms per 100 ml




during April and May.



Biology




     Biological conditions in the Portage, Huron, and Vermilion




Rivers are generally good except for the areas near the Lake which




are degraded by siltation and local waste sources.  The effect upon




the Lake by these rivers could be detected more than 1,000 feet




into the Lake.  The Sandusky River below Upper Sandusky, Tiffin,  and




Fremont shows evidences of biological degradation.  All pollution




sensitive bottom-dwelling animals are absent below each area, and




full recovery does not occur until the next water source.  Between




Tiffin and Fremont, the nutrient-rich waters support a dense growth




of attached algae which completely cover the bottom in summer.




Between Oberlin and the mouth of the Black River, biological condi-




tions typical of a polluted stream are found.  Numerous fish kills




have occurred in this area.  Those occurring in 196^-1965 are sum-




marized below.



Chemistry




     Oil slicks from floating oil are found on the Sandusky, Huron,




and Black Rivers.  Emulsified oil has turned the Portage River




turbid at Fostoria.  The major problems from industrial wastes occur




in the industrialized Black River.  The steel, automotive (metal-




plating), and chemical industries in Elyria, some of whose wastes




are treated by the municipal sewage treatment plant, are the sources

-------
two major municipal water intakes are located near the  mouth  of




the Black River.

-------
                        IMMEDIATE NEEDS
              MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                      PORTAGE RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPALITIES
Sewerage
Service Area
Bloomdale
Bowling Green
Elmore
Fostoria
Gibsoriburg
McComb
North Baltimore
Oak Harbor
Pemberville
Present
Treatment
Septic Tanks
Secondary
None
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Primary
Secondary
Primary
None
1965
Population
TOO
lU, 100
1,360
16,100
2,700
1,270
3,200
3,130
1,280
Plant Needs

Tertiary
Secondary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Secondary
Secondary
Woodville
None
1,880
Secondary
INDUSTRIES
Industry
Brush Beryllium
Foster Duck Farm
Gibsonburg Canning Co.
Hirzel Canning Co.
Seneca Wire & Manufacturing
Swift & Co.
Wood Co. Canning Co.
Location
Elmore
Gibsoriburg
Pemberville
Fostoria
Fostoria
North Baltimore
Control
Measures
None
BOD
None
BOD
Metals, Solids
Oil, Color, BOD
None

-------
                           IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                 MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                         SANDUSKY RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPALITIES
Severage
Service Area
Attica
Ballville
Bloomville
Bucyrus
Carey
Clinton Township
Crestline
Fremont
Nevada
New Washington
Sandusky Co.S.D. #1
Sycamore
Tiffin
Upper Sandusky
INDUSTRIES

Industry
H. J. Heinz
Northern Ohio Sugar
Pennsylvania R.R.
Pioneer Rubber
Present
Treatment
None
Septic Tanks
None
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks
Primary
Secondary


Location
Fremont
Fremont
Crestline
Willard
1965
Population
1,020
1, VfO
870
13,200
1^,100

6,100
20,060
1,010
1,300

1,090
22,kQQ
5,290



Plant Needs
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Secondary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary


Control Measures
None
BOD
Oil
BOD,



Rubber

-------
                           IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                          HURON RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPALITIES
 Sewerage
Service Area
 Present
Treatment
   1965
Population
Plant Needs
Huron

Milan
Monroeville
Norwalk
Plymouth
Willard
Secondary,
  Intermediate
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
   1,570
   1,420
  14,200
   1,960
   5,900
Tertiary

Secondary
Secondary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
INDUSTRIES
Industry
          Location
     Control Measures
Baltimore & Ohio RR
Clevite Corp.
          Willard
          Milan
     Oil
     Acid, Metals, Solids

-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                        VERMILION RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPALITIES
 Beverage                  Present                1965
Service Area              Treatment            Population    Plant Needs

Greenvich                 Secondary               1,500      Tertiary
New London                Secondary               2,620      Tertiary
Vermilion                 Primary                 7,730      Tertiary

-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                MUNICIPALITIES AMD INDUSTRIES IN THE
                         BLACK RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPALITIES
 Sewerage
Service Area
                      Present
                     Treatment
                        1965
                      Population
            Plant Needs
Elyria
Grafton
LaGrange
Lodi
Oberlin
North Ridgeville
Vincent
Wellington
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Vf,000      Tertiary
 1,8UO      Tertiary
 1,110      Tertiary
 2,1)-30      Tertiary
 8,900      Tertiary
 8,600      Tertiary
 U,000      Connect to Lorain
 3,860      Tertiary
INDUSTRIES
Industry
             Location
     Control Measures
Buckeye Pipeline
CMC, Turnstedt Div.               Elyria
Locke Manufacturing               Lodi
Republic Steel, Steel & Tube Div. Elyria
U.S. Steel, Tubular Operations    Lorain
United Dairy
             Lodi
     Oil
     Cyanide, Chrome
     None
     Acid
     Solids
     None

-------
                            IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                 MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                       NORTH CENTRAL OHIO AREA
                           SMALL TRIBUTARIES
MUNICIPALITIES
Sewerage
Service Area
Amherst
Bellevue
Brownhelm Township
Cast alia
Clyde
Genoa
Green Springs
Perkins -Margaretta S.D.
Sandusky Soldiers &
Sailors Home
South Amherst
Trilby
Present
Treatment
Secondary
None
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Primary
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks
1965
Population
8,620
8,900
1,890
1,01*0
5,300
2,100
1,010


1,500
1,790
5,500
Plant Needs
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Connect to Sandusky

Tertiary
Connect to Amherst
Tertiary
INDUSTRIES
Industry
Location
Control Measures
Bechtel-McLaughlin
Central Soya
Ford, Assembly Plant
Ford, Hardware Plant
G. E. Lamp Plant #2^2
GMC, New Departure Div.
Hirzel Canning
Lake Erie Canning
NASA, Plumb Brook Facilities
Norfolk & Western RR
Silver Fleece Canning
Stokely-Van Camp
Whirlpool Corp.
Sandusky
Bellevue
Lorain
Sandusky
Bellevue
Sandusky

Sandusky
Sandusky

Port Clinton
Norwalk
Clyde
Acid, Chrome, Solids
Oil
None
None
BOD
None
BOD, Solids
BOD
BOD
Oil
None
None
None

-------
                            IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                 MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                        NORTH CENTRAL OHIO AREA
                            DIRECT TO LAKE
MUNICIPALITIES
Sewerage
Service Area
Avon
Avon Lake
Bay View
Camp Perry
E Erie Sewer & Water Diet.
Lakeside
Lorain
Marblehead
Port Clinton
Put -In-Bay
Sandusky
Sheffield
Sheffield Lake
Vermilion-On-The -Lake
West lake
INDUSTRIES

Industry
Aluminum & Magnesium
Present
Treatment
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Intermediate

Primary

Intermediate

Primary
Septic Tanks





Location
Sandusky
Cleveland Electric Illuminating Avon Lake
Ohio Edison
U. S, Gypsum Co.
Lorain
Gypsum
1965
Population Plant Needs
7,660 Connect to County Plant
12, 100 Secondary
1,020 Secondary
15,000 None
1,300 Secondary
U,000 Connect to County Plant
76,920 Secondary
950 Connect to County Plant
7,350 Secondary
UOO Secondary
33 |850 Secondary
1,800 Connect to County Plant
7,580 Connect to County Plant
1,^50 Connect to Vermilion .
15,000 Connect to County Plant


Control Measures
None
Solids
None
BOD

-------
                   GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA









     The Greater Cleveland-Akron Area consists of the Rocky,




Cuyahoga, and Chagrin Rivers and several minor streams with an




area of 1,^90 square miles.  The population of Cleveland and Akron




is 876,000 and 290,OQO respectively, and the total population in




the area is presently 2,270,000.  It is projected to increase




to h,200,000 by 1990 and to 6,000,000 by 2020.  Cleveland is one




of the great steel producing and fabricating areas in the country




and Akron is the country's main supplier of rubber.  The water




quality of the area's streams vary from excellent to extensively




degraded or polluted.




     Figures 7-1 through 7-3 depict the present water quality of




the Rocky, Cuyahoga, and Chagrin Rivers.  These figures indicate




the location of water quality problem areas.  The fold out map at




the back of this section should be used to locate a specific city




or area.

-------

                                                                         •^W.v>v.'Vv V
                                                                         "^^tzfrT*-^*"
                          mM^  r£&&B •$g^mw&*&®'*
                                     -A  I"        "..--. '.-.-:'V" - . •.    -       o  "
                                     '?  F--  •      '••:••'.' ^^^-OCAsi^v,^- 'o-v^^-	«-
                                     55  i        -.••.-•--'•-;'VX v^^'-'"--  v*^-'  v^^v. *-^,^"-"--iSxv"-

                                     .^  (_r,--%:^^^^4^^ ^^^^
                                      -  1-v  -^1--"^  '- ""'"'••--..-i.v  ^"M :':.-V  ^^-^ ^^r>-:.
                                     -;-•  I   " '—•'•-«—%.iTl -*»'•:.'•»—   •:••> •••1Vi-T".1  1          .- -'
                                      •  |	--^—c^ ——--•_   7  U /  •,:.-.-    •»• t
             Water Uses in the Greater Cleveland-Akron Area - Camping, Riding, Boating,

Picnicking and Esthetics

-------
              -- ,,v,-..r.... .•.,,
r '
t.
rpp^:,.—-^, v^^	"•  I


N=s?'--..^^"^-  N^   9--;
•&&-.U-.-,;::.,:;;_.;':;	,. ,;^     IS
M ' V-"'v'v'.-'r'''N'-''^'/ '

; . >;,;:P.; '> ;.v(. ^.^V r

-------
-Tjr ..,—.- -  ( - ,-.---


     ••  , .... r-\. ...






                                                                       •a^r,?
                                                                       .	* V-
1 f^.

                                                                                                           ^rr:^? ---rri
                                                                                                           -•••"-•-H


                                                                                            TO BE TURNED IN
                                                                                            FINAL REPORT SO
                                                                                            THAT FACES CORRECTLY
                                   ^'-•-•'  	 '>^^____i».r   -i.»~»~-i.i.», j     f   .t_           ---	
            .Qlitmproveent Measures'- A:  Cleveland Easterly  Treatment Plant.  B:  Seeding
 of embankments by Ohio Department of Highways.   C:  Akron Water  Pollution Control Station.
 D:  Complete waste removal at Chrysler Corporation's Twinsburg Stamping Plant.   (Photo t cour
 City of Akron, and photo D courtesy Chrysler  Corp.)

-------
PERCENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN TESTS LESS THAN 4mg/l

       JUNE I - DECEMBER I. 1964
       SCALE IN MILES
                                  GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA   3
                                  PERCENT DISSOLVED OXYGEN TESTS  I
                                          LESS THAN 4 rag/I           |
9 O
S
10
1
i!
                                                         FIGURE 7-1

-------
MINIMUM DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN mg/l

  JANUARY I - DECEMBER I, 1964
       - 3.1 a OVER

       - 2.1-3.0

       -  0-2.0
    SCALE  IN  MILES
                               GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA   !
                                     M!N!MUM  DISSOLVED
                                  OXYGEN CONCENTRATION
                                                      FIGURE  7-2

-------
GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
        MEDIAN  TOTAL
   COLIFORM CONCENTRATION
                       FIGURE 7-3

-------
Rocky River




     The present water quality in most parts of the Rocky River




system is degraded.  The reason there are not more major problem




areas in this basin is because of the steep slope and therefore




high reaeration rate.  The major sources of pollution to Rocky




River are from the many small municipalities vhich dot its course.




The river contains high BOD and total coliform concentrations below




most outfalls, and is extensively enriched throughout its course.




Excessive algal growths occur wherever the waters are pooled and




high turbidity and sediment problems exist in many locations.




West Branch




     The West Branch of Rocky River receives the discharge from the




five significant treatment plants and from a number of small package




plants.  There are several dumps along the stream banks and £lood




plains in the Columbia Station area and numerous septic tanks and




misused storm drains which pollute the waters in Olmsted Falls.




The City of Olmsted Falls has been under orders from the Ohio Water




Pollution Control Board for several years to remove their wastes,




but has recently moved to remedy this situation.  The surrounding




township should also provide adequate treatment for its wastes.




East Branch




     The City of Berea depends upon Baldwin Reservoir on the East




Branch for its municipal water supply.  The reservoir and nearby




Wallace Lake are also used for swimming, boating, and fishing.




The East Branch flows through Cleveland's Metropolitan Park from

-------
near the Cuyahoga County line to its confluence with the  West  Branch.




Extensive recreational use is made of this scenic  area.




     Six municipal waste treatment plants discharge treated sewage




to the river within this reach.   These discharges  contribute micro-




organisms and nutrients to the river.  Coliform counts show that a




potential health hazard exists for visitors to the park.   Extensive




algae blooms in the past have been reported to cause taste and odor




problems in Berea's water supply.  Such algae growths are also




offensive to the recreational use made of the river.




     Hinckley Lake is also extensively used for swimming, boating,




and fishing, but it is polluted to a degree from nutrients and sedi-




ments.  The Cleveland Metropolitan Park Board has  had to  perform




extensive dredging on this lake to maintain depth.  The source of




this sediment is mainly from highway construction and subdivision




development, and in the past from the testing grounds of the




Cleveland Tank Plant.  The Ohio Department of Highways now includes




provisions in new contracts being let which require the prevention,




control, and active abatement of pollution during construction.




Measures to be instituted in future construction include the con-




struction of check dams and early seeding of individual slopes as they




are completed.  They presently have an adequate maintenance erosion




control program.




     This past summer, the discharge from the Berea sewage treatment




plant reduced the oxygen content of the receiving waters  to zero.




These anaerobic conditions produced foul odors which made this part




of the park unusable.  This problem has also occurred below




Middleburg Heights.

-------
Main Stem




     The main stem of the Rocky River flovs through Cleveland's




Metropolitan Park for its entire length.  Extensive recreational




use is made of the park.  Three municipalities and one industry




discharge to this area of the stream.  Near the mouth of Rocky




River, several small boat harbors, yacht clubs, marinas, and boat




launching facilities exist.  The vater quality in this area is at




times seriously degraded as far as low dissolved oxygen concentra-




tions and high coliform concentrations.  The measured maximum and




median total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal strep concentra-




tions at mile point 0.2 were:  560,000 and 31,000; 180,000 and




3,000; and' ^9,000 and 900 organisms per 100 ml respectively.




Table 7-1 is a listing of Salmonella isolations from this same




station.  These are all direct disease causing organisms and are




pathogenic to man.




     To restore the Rocky River Basin to its desired state so that




full use may be made of its waters, all wastes, domestic, industrial,




or from farming or construction should be removed from its waters or




tertiary treatment which provides at least 97 percent BODS should be




provided.  To actuate this program, an area-wide disposal system




should be constructed which would discharge fully treated effluents




directly to the lake.  Plants such as at Lakewood should construct




an outfall system which extends one-quarter to one-half mile off




shore from nearby bathing beach areas.   Also, all storm water outfalls

-------
in the vicinity of beach areas which cannot be eliminated should "be

extended to one-half mile off shore and the treated vaters dis-

charged through a diffusion system.

     Due to the shortage of water to maintain low flows, the use of

Rocky River as a water source by Berea and Medina should be dis-

continued.  Both of.these cities can very easily be served by the

Cleveland system.

                            TABLE 7-1

   ISOLATIONS OF SALMONELLA - LOWER ROCKY RIVER MILE POINT 0.2

                    January 16 - August 31, 19&U



Date of Collection              Salmonella Serotypes (isolates)


January l6, I$6h              .  Salmonella newport (l)
   "    22,   "                 Salmonella hartford (l)
   "    30,   "                 Salmonella worthington (l)
February 20, 196^               Salmonella thompson (l)
                                Salmonella infantis (l)
March 17, 19&H                  Salmonella terinessee (6)
                                Salmonella infantis (l)
                                Salmonella thompson (l)
May 5, 196H                     Salmonella anatum (3)
 " 1?   "
   -Le-»
 ii pp   ii
 " 28!  "
June 2, 196H

 I!  15j  "
    19,  "                      Salmonella anatum (l)
                                Salmonella enteritidis (10)
 "  22,  "                      Salmonella derby (2)
July 1, 196H
 "  15,  "
 "  29   "                      Salmonella thompson (l)
                                Salmonella typhimurium (l)
August 31,

-------
                           IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                 MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                          ROCKY RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPALITIES
Sewerage
Service Area
Berea
Broadview Heights

Brook Park
Lakewood

Medina
North Olmsted
North Royalton
Olmsted Falls

Strongsville
Vest lake

West view

County Districts
Breezewood
Brunswick SD 100
Beverly Hills SD 8
Medina Co. SD 5
Middleburg Hts.
Present
Treatment
Secondary
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Secondary

Secondary
Secondary*
Secondary
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Septic Tanks

Septic Tanks


Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary*
1965
Population
19,650
8,590

1^,200
TO, 210

9,100
IT, 800
11, 110
2,290

11, 5io
15,000

1,500



6,500
1,000
1,000
11, 920
Plant Needs
Connect to metro system**
Sewers & connect to metro
system**
Connect to metro system**
Discharge outfall to Lake
Erie
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Sewers & connect to metro
system**
Connect to metro system**
Sewers & connect to metro
system**
Sewers & connect to metro
system**

Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
 * Works under construction, "but may not meet criteria proposed
** Where "Connect to metropolitan system" is listed, tertiary treatment
   may "be substituted.
INDUSTRIES
Industry
Location
Control Measures
Astoria Plating Corp.
Allison Division, CMC,
  Testing Area
Cleveland

Hinckley
Heavy Metals, Color, Cyanide

Solids

-------
 Cuyahoga River




      The vaters  of the  Cuyahoga River Basin are seriously degraded




 in quality  in  many sections.  The effects of pollution are partic-




 ularly  evident "below Kent, Stow, and Akron, and in Cleveland.  All




 water uses, actual and  potential, are influenced "by this pollution.




      Changes in  water, quality occur in the Cuyahoga and its tribu-




 taries  as man  and nature add wastes to it.  The dissolved oxygen




 content  fluctuates as BOD and oxygen inputs vary.  Phenols, total




 solids,  and specific conductance increase as waste loads are added.




 Above Lake Rockwell




     Two towns,  Mantua  and Burton, with a total population of 2,300




 are the only known significant sources of wastes above Lake Rockwell.




 The 207  square mile watershed above Lake Rockwell provides the water




 supply for the City of Akron.  Three reservoirs in this area give a




 maximum storage  capacity of over 10 billion gallons.  Coliform counts




 average less than 200 per 100/mis.  The water is considered to be of




 excellent quality.




 Lake Rockwell to Akron




     Three creeks, seven towns, and two industries contribute wastes




to this section.   Municipal wastes contribute approximately ^,000 Ibs.




BOD per day into the streams between Lake Rockwell and Akron while




industrial contribution is insignificant.




     Starting at  Lake Rockwell Dam,  mile point 60.1, and proceeding




downstream,  one can visibly detect the changes in water quality.




Immediately below Rockwell Dam three seasonal biological observations

-------
were made and 25 genera of benthic organisms were found.  Attached


algae were sparse, and the water quality of this reach was excellent.


     The first major source of pollution entering the Cuyahoga River


is from Breakneck Creek (Congress Lake Outlet).  This creek is


degraded "by the discharge or "by-passing of Ravenna's sewage treatment


plant and the numerous "businesses, motels, and homes in this area.


Below Breakneck Creek, during low flow, the river was gray-"brown in


color with a great abundance of aquatic plants along the shoreline


and much floating algae on the surface.  These are indicative of the


nutrients added "by Ravenna's discharge and the inadequately treated


wastes from the other sources.


     Above the Kent treatment plant, the discharge from Lamson &


Sessions Electrical Co. enters the river.  This discharge was reddish             j
                                                                                 !

and appeared to have a high oil content at the 'time of the field


survey.  A bridge abutment at this point was stained red from the
                                                                                 i
                                                                                 >

wastes and the stream bank was oily.  Just below this point the


effluent from the Kent sewage treatment plant enters the Cuyahoga.


The aquatic plant life which was so abundant above these outfalls                j

                                                                                 I
does not exist for up to 2 miles downstream.  The river is grayish               |


and produces an oily odor.  Below Kent, the river has deteriorated               |
                                                                                 i

to such an extent that only pollution tolerant sludgeworms, midge                j

                                                                                 I
larvae, leeches, and pulmonate snails could be found.  Even though               j
                                                                                 I

the river bottom was cobble, sand, and silt, only moderate growths               j
                                                                                 I
                                                                                 !
of pollution tolerant blue-green algae were found on the rocks, and              j
                                                                                 i

a strong septic odor was noted.  Between Kent and the mouth of the               I


Cuyahoga, a biota typical of gross pollution existed at all seasons              |
                                                                                 !

of the year.                                                                     j

-------
 Akron




     Firestone  Tire  and Rubber Co., General Tire Co., B. F. Goodrich




 Co., Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Tire Division, Goodyear Tire and




 Rubber  Co., Aerospace Division, and Diamond Salt Co. all discharge




 wastes  to the Little Cuyahoga River which interfere with its water




 quality.  Two 6'f these firms, Firestone and Goodyear, have recently




 made data as to their waste effluents available to the State of Ohio.




 The other two industries, General and Goodrich, have not made data




 as to the quality or quantity of their waste discharges known to the




 State of Ohio or to  the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.




 Biological surveys of the streams which receive the wastes from these




 industries indicate  that gross pollution exists.  During low flow,




 as far  downstream on the Cuyahoga as at Peninsula, the odor imparted




 to-the  receiving waters can be detected.  The wastes from the four




 rubber  plants contain temperature, oxygen demanding materials, color,




 odor, oils, solids,  and complex organics.  The discharge from the




 Aerospace Division of Goodyear contains heavy metals, cyanides, and




 other toxic materials.  Diamond Salt Co. discharges wastes containing




 chlorides to the Ohio Canal.  They also discharge large concentrations




of chlorides to the Akron waste treatment plant which is not able to




treat them.




Akron to Cleveland




     The wastes mentioned in the previous section enter the Cuyahoga




at mile M.O.   The effect of those wastes can be seen in Figures 7-1




through 7-3.   At mile 39.0 the effluent from Akron's Water Pollution

-------
 Control Station enters the river.   At low flow,  this  effluent com-

 prises over 60 percent of the river's flow.   Figure 7-    depicts the
en
£
I
X
Q
LjJ
O
(ft
                   CUYAHOGA  RIVER   MILE  POINTS

 effect that this waste has on depressing the oxygen  content in the

 river and shows the river's gradual recovery.   When  the  flow is  above

 170 cfs, the minimum median dissolved oxygen is raised,  and con-

 versely when the flow is less than  this amount.  The reason that the

 dissolved oxygen is not depressed below that indicated is  due to the

 extremely high natural reaeration rate.  The river may be  considered

 to be acting as a trickling filter  in a sewage treatment plant.  As

 the wastes flow over the rock and cobble bottom the  bacteria (such as

 Sphaerotilius) and fungi which grow on the rocks'  surface  feed on the

 wastes and reduce them.  Extensive  growths of pollution  tolerant blue-

 green alga such as Oscillatoria and Phormidium, and  the  green fila-

 mentous alga Cladophora.  At many locations, particularly  below  the

 sewage treatment plant, the filamentous bacterium Sphaerotilius  sp.,

 which is an indicator of recent organic pollution, was abundant.  A

-------
strong volatile odor from the outfall persists  several miles  down-




stream.




     Below this area, as in many areas above  Akron,  the  river is




often blocked with trees, brush, and junk.  There  are dumps  along




the river at Independence, Boston Mills,  Jaite, Akron, etc.




     The waste materials discharged from the  Akron area  are  noticeable




even in the lower sections of the Cuyahoga above the navigation canal.




Numerous anaerobic sludgebanks exist along the  river banks throughout




this reach.  Whenever any appreciable fall occurs  in the river,deter-




gent foam is produced which gives the river the appearance of "white




water".




Cleveland




     The first major waste entering the Cuyahoga in the  Cleveland area




is from Tinkers Creek.  This stream contains  the wastes  of the Cities




of Streetsboro, Twinsburg, Solon, Bedford Heights, Bedford,  and Walton




Hills.  Master Anodizer, Weathertite, etc. also discharge to this




creek.  Tinkers Creek is degraded throughout  most of its course by




these wastes.




     Big Creek discharges wastes with the following concentrations:




phenol k6 tig/1; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  of 120 mg/1; Biochemical




Oxygen Demand  (BOD)  of  UO mg/1; and total solids of 600 mg/1.  The




pli varied between 3.2 and 8.7.  The median concentrations of total




coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal strep were 1,100,000; U^O.OOO;




and  5,800 organisms  per 100 ml  respectively.   These wastes were dis-




charged by the Bailey Wallpaper Co.,  Cuyahoga Meat Co., E. W. Ferry




Screen Co.,  and Ford Motor Co.

-------
      The  oil  content  of the bottom muds increases vithin the Cleveland




 industrial  complex.   The extremely high concentrations in the muds




 near  the  mouth of Big Creek indicate it as a major source of oil




 pollution.




      The  major source of microbial pollution to the Lower Cuyahoga




 is the  Cleveland Southerly Sewage Treatment Plant.  This plant dis-




 charges an  average of 80 mgd per day of wastes to this reach.




 Besides the microbial materials, this plant discharges wastes with




 a population  equivalent oxygen demand of 1+8,000.  Five times in the




 last  five years there lias been a break in the main interceptor sever




 to this plant.  This  break has resulted in the discharge of billions




 of gallons of raw sewage to the Cuyahoga.




      At mile  point 6.6 the first station in the Cleveland industrial




 complex, the  water quality is very poor and remains so until the




 river disperses into  the lake.  Sixteen industries, an undetermined




 number of storm water overflows, and three creeks discharge into




 this  section  of the river.




      Oil scum and lack of turbulence compound the effects of BOD in




the navigation channel.   Within this reach the DO often drops to zero




 and the phenol concentration reaches a maximum of 175 yg/1.  The




major wastes  discharged in this section are solids, acid, phenol, oil,




 iron, sulfates, and heavy metals.   The only life found in the lower




navigation channel were bacteria.   No higher forms of life were found,




not even such pollution tolerant forms such as sludge or bloodworms.




Enteric pathogen studies conducted in this reach revealed Ik different



species of Salmonella organisms (see table below).

-------
      ISOLATIONS  OP SALMONELLA!  -  LOWER CUYAHOGA MILE POINT 1.0

                   January 22 - August 31, 1961*.
Date  of Collection
Salmonella Serotypes (isolates)
January 22, 1964
        30,   "
February 20,
March 17, 1964
May 12,
  «  17,
  11  22,
  "  28,
June 2, 1964
  "  11,   "
  "  15,   "
  "  19,   "
  ii  op    "
July 1* 1964
  "  14.   "
 "  29,  "
August 31, 1964
Salmonella anatum (4)
Salmonella 6,7*y monophasic (4)
Salmonella tennessee (3)
Salmonella "bareilly (l)
Salmonella anatum (2)
  " typhimurium var. Copenhagen  (l)
Salmonella tennessee (2)
Salmonella tennessee (l)
Salmonella Java (l)
Salmonella panama (l)
Salmonella worthington (l)
Salmonella heidelTaerg (l)
Salmonella enteritidis (3)
Salmonella Java (l)
Salmonella montevldeo (l)
Salmonella 6,7jy monophasic (3)
Salmonella
Salmonella
Salmonella
Salmonella
Salmonella
Salmonella
Salmonella
           Tsareilly (l)
           Tsareilly f2)
           thompson (l)
           oranienburg (l)
           typhimurium (l)
           enteritidis (l)
           typhimurium (l)

-------
     The major industries discharge the above listed vastes to this




river stretch are Republic Steel, U. S. Steel, E. I. Dupont, Jones




& Laughlin Steel, and Harshaw Chemical.  Besides these industrial




wastes, there are numerous storm vater and sewage overflow structures




which contribute significant wastes to this area.  Since the con-




struction by Cleveland of the low level sewer, a large source of




organic pollution has been removed.  Prior to this, industries in




this area discharge their sanitary sewage to the river without adequate



treatment.




     The immediate pollution control needs of the industries  and




municipalities discharging to the Cuyahoga River system are listed




in the following table:

-------
                            IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                  MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                          CUYAHOGA RIVER BASIN
 MUNICIPALITIES
Sewerage
Service Area
Akron
Bedford
Bedford Hts.
Bttl"fcQft--_________--~™--.—~ — ~
Cleveland Southerly
Cuyahoga Falls
TT Tjfj j-i A*«
Independence

Kent
Mantua
Maple Hts.
Middlefield
Monroe Falls

Northfield
Oakwood
Oakwood

Ravenna
Sagamore Hills

Sawyerwood

Solon
Tallmadge
Twinsburg
Valley View

County Districts
Brecksville SD 13
BylmJlPld SD'~3r— - — —
j-J^~ -mu. .L\^^.VI »— 'j-' .1. 	
Northeast SD 1
Northeast SD 6
Northeast SD 15
Present
Treatment
Secondary*
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Q ^k j-t ^n A n Y*T r
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Secondary*
Secondary*
Primary
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Primary*
Septic Tanks

Secondary
Septic Tanks

Septic Tanks

Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Septic Tanks


Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
1965
Population
298,000
16,700
5,800
__.,j_, ... 200
525,000
5^,000
2u &Qr\
7,770

23,290
1,2^0
3^,620
1,570
2,850

3,160
2,290
2,500

12,000
M30

5,9^0

8,oUo
11,200
1^,500
1,3^0


3,300



Plant Needs
Advanced waste treatment
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
— None
Tertiary
Connect to metro system**
TVToTlo
" — •••- •A.t\J-M."fi&-'
Sewers & connect to metro
system**
Expansion
Expansion
Connect to metro system**
Secondary & disinfection
Sewers & connect to metro
• system
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system
Sewers & connect to metro
system
Connect to metro system**
Sewers & connect to metro
system**
Sewers & connect to metro
system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Sewers & connect to metro
system**

Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
 * Works under construction, but may not meet criteria proposed
** Where "Connect to metropolitan system" is listed, tertiary treatment may
   be substituted.

-------
'MUNICIPALITIES (cont'd)
 Sewerage
Service Area
 Present         1965
Treatment      Population   Plant Needs
County Districts (ContJd)
  Seven Hills SD 2    Secondary
         idrlie-SB—1	Secondary-
         *ille~SD~2	S4e«a4e*y~
  Shai
  Stow Twp SD k       Primary*

  Walton Hills SD 20  Secondary
                            Connect to metro system**
                            None
                 	-  ---.	-None-
                 13,^-00     Sewers & connect to metro
                              system**
                            Connect to metro system**
 * Works under construction, but may not meet criteria proposed.
** Where "Connect to metropolitan system" is listed, tertiary treatment may
   be substituted.
INDUSTRIES
Industry
     Location
                                         Control Measures
Cuyahoga River
  Republic Steel           Cleveland
  U. S. Steel              Cleveland
  E. I. DuPont             Cleveland
  Jones & Laughlin         Cleveland
  Harshaw Chemical         Cleveland
  Ford Motor Co.           Brook Park
  E. W. Ferry Screw        Brook Park
  Cuyahoga Meat            Cleveland
  Bailey Well Paper        Cleveland
  Burdett Oxygen           Cleveland
  Master Anodizers         Bedford
  Owens-Illinois Glass     Northfield
    Co., Mill Div.
  Cornwell Tools           Mogadore
  S. K. Wellman, Division  Bedford
    American Brake Shoe Co.
  Ferro Chemical, Division Bedford
    Ferro Corp.
  Zirconium Corp. of       Solon
    America
                   Solids, Iron, Oil, Ammonia, -Acids
                   Solids, Iron, Oil, Acids
                   Solids, Zinc
                   Solids, Iron, Oil, Acids
                   Solids, Fluorides, Heavy Metals, Acids
                   Oil
                   Heavy Metals, Oil, Others*
                   BOD, Others*
                   Color, BOD, Others*
                   Others*
                   Heavy Metals, Cyanide
                   Others*
                   Heavy Metals, Cyanide
                   Heavy Metals, Cyanide

                   Heavy Metals

                   Solids, Chlorides
   Presently do not report materials in waste outfall.

-------
INDUSTRIES (Cont'd)
Industry
Location
Control Measures
Cuyahoga River (Cont'd)
  Diamond Crystal Salt Co.
  Firestone Tire & Rubber
  General Tire & Rubber
  B. F. Goodrich Co.
  Goodyear Tire & Rubber

  Sonoco Products
  Lamson & Sessions Co.
  Smallwood Packing Co.
Akron
Akron
Akron
Akron
Akron

Munroe Falls
Kent
Middlefield
Solids, Chlorides
Solids, Others*, Oil
Solids, Others*, Oil
Solids, Others*, Oil
Heavy Metals, Solids, Cyanides,
Others*, Oil
BOD
Solids, Oil
BOD, Oil, Others*
*  Presently do not report materials in waste outfall.

-------
Chagrin River




     Except for reaches in the cities of Chagrin Falls,  Willoughby,




and Eastlake, the water quality of the Chagrin River is  presently




good to excellent.  A well balanced biological population is normally




present even during periods of low flow.  Good fish populations  exist




except in areas which are overfished or affected by pollution.   The




stream bottoms are generally rocky except in several pooled areas.




A very high natural reaeration rate occurs due to the turbulent  conditions




and steep slope (l6-35 foot fall per mile).   Thus,  pollution which




enters the streams is quickly degraded and lov dissolved oxygen  levels




seldom occur throughout this basin.




     There are six major sewage treatment plants in the  Chagrin  River




Basin which discharge wastes containing a population equivalent  of




30,000.




     Below the waste discharges from the sewage treatment plants in




Chester townships and from the Cities of Aurora and Pepper Pike, an




enriched biological condition exists.  Moderate growths  of the fila-




mentous alga, Cladophora sp. occur, and a population of  pollution




sensitive bottom species such as snails, mayflies,  caddis flies,



and other immature aquatic insects are found.




     During periods of low flow, the Chagrin River above Chagrin Falls




is completely degraded by waste materials discharged by the Chase




Bag Co.  The waters below Chase's effluent is highly colored and




contain an oxygen deficit.  Sediment and sludge banks are also preva-




lent.  The pooled water behind the low head dam above the falls

-------
presently acts as a treatment lagoon for these wastes.   This pooled



area has a severely degraded 'biological community with  no fish



present, and produces excessive odors in the late summer.



     In the fall of 1966 when the effect upon the river of the City



of Chagrin Falls' treatment plant effluent was most recently studied,



the effluent was found to degrade the receiving waters.  After



thorough mixing occurred, only pollution tolerant pulmonate snails,



sludgevorms, and "bloodworms were found.  This condition was prevalent



for 1-2 miles downstream.  The main reason complete anaerobic condi-



tions were not found was attributed to the high reaeration of the



river through riffled areas.  The city dump along the river at Chagrin



Falls does not seem to appreciably affect the water quality of the



river.  From 2 miles "below Chagrin Falls until the river enters the



Willoughby area, the river's water quality is generally excellent.



     The City of Willoughby's dump along the east and west "banks of



the Chagrin River has in the past "been extended out into the river



itself.  Recently, Willoughby has removed the material immediately



adjacent to the river to higher ground.  But, the dump is still



located within the flood plain of the river.  (Figure 7-x)



     In the past, the Chagrin River from Willoughby to the lake has



been extensively polluted by domestic and industrial wastes.  When a



biological survey was conducted in the summer of 19&3 by the Lake



Erie Program Office, only pollution tolerant bottom organisms and



blue-green algae were found.  Some dead rough fish, shad and gar,

-------
vere observed.  At the mouth of the river a transition zone occurs

between the lake and river vater in which the level of degradation

was reduced.  The major "bottom organisms were "bloodworms, leeches, and scuds.

     Over the past 5 years, the Cities of Eastlake, Willoughby, Lakeline,

and Timberlake have instituted a program for installing sewers in what

were largely unsewered areas.  When this program is completed within

this next year, the remaining loadings of oxygen demanding and "bacter-

ial wastes will "be removed from the lower Chagrin River.  In the past

much raw or poorly treated sewage was discharged in this area.  A pro-

gram has also been instituted "by Willoughby to check each household

and industry to insure that no downspouts are connected to the sewer

system, and that no household sewage enters the storm water system.

     In a study "by the Lake Erie Program Office in the early part of

1964, three types of salmonella were isolated in the lower reach of the

river.  These isolates are tabulated "below:

                         TABLE 7-

          ISOLATIONS OF SALMONELLA - LOWER CHAGRIN RIVER
   *

                   February 19 - March 24, 1964


Sampling Site    Date of Collection    Salmonella Sterotypes (isolates)


Chagrin River
   000.8         February 19, 1964
                 March 10,     "
                   "   24,     "       Salmonella oranienburg(l)

Chagrin River
   003.1         February 19, 1964
                 March 3,      "       Salmonella tennessee (8)
                                       Salmonella worthington (l)

-------
     An area vide plan for the development of sewerage systems




throughout the Chagrin River Basin is an immediate goal.  All




domestic and industrial wastes discharged within the "basin should




receive tertiary treatment with a minimum BOD^ removal of 97 per-




cent within 2-3 years.  The waste loadings from the Chase Bag Co.




and Chagrin Falls should "be reduced immediately through modifica-




tion in plant operation.  As this area "builds up in the expansion of




the Cleveland metropolitan area, the use of the river as a water




supply should "be discontinued.

-------
                           IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                 MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                         CHAGRIN RIVER BASIN
MUNICIPALITIES
Sewerage
Service Area
Aurora
Chagrin Falls
Pepper Pike
Present
Treatment
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
1965
Population
1^,730
1^,100
3,900
Plant Needs
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
Connect to metro system**
County Districts
  Chester Twp. SD 1 & 2
  Richmond Heights
Secondary                  Connect to metro system**
                6,000      Connect to metro system**
**  Where "Connect to metropolitan system" is listed, tertiary treatment may
    "be substituted.
INDUSTRIES
Industry
    Location
Control Measures
Chase Bag Co.
    Chagrin Falls
Color, Solids, BOD

-------
Lakefront




     The major type of pollutant in the Greater Cleveland Area




Lakefront with an immediate effect on the area's water quality is




microbiological.  Other significant pollutants are debris, oxygen




consuming materials, color, settleable and suspended solids, oil,




nutrients, and odor.-  Unlike many cities which are able to rid




themselves of their wastes by discharging them to a nearby river




which carries them out of the area, Cleveland's wastes are dis-




charged at its own front door.  In their order of importance, the




sources of pollution to the lakefront are:  1.  municipal sewage




treatment plants, 2.  storm water overflows, 3.  industries, H.




erosion, and 5. dredging.




Microbiological Water Quality




     Microbiological contamination is the number one water quality




problem on the lakefront.  Figure 7-  is a contour map of the median




total coliform concentration along the area's shoreline.  Table 7-




is a summary of the median total and fecal coliform and fecal strep-




tococcus concentrations for the various tributaries to the lakefront




and bathing areas along the lakefront.




     As can be seen from the table and figure, (and from Tables 7-  ,




7-  , and 7- > which show enteric pathogens isolated in the tributary




waters) the waters immediately along the lakefront are heavily pol-




luted.  In the summers of 196H through 1966 only Huntington Park at




the extreme western limits of the study area, was generally within




the accepted limits for full body contact recreation.  Even though all

-------
O
c:
'JO
m
-j
                    CROWN INTAKE
                                                   DIVISION INTAKE


                                                   BALDWIN INTAKE
                                                                         NOTTINGHAM  IN
    ROCKY RIVER
    DISPOSAL PLANT
                                                                                             EUCLID DISPOSAL
                                                                                             PLANT
                                                                  CLEVELAND
                                                                  EASTERLY
                                                                  DISPOSAL
                                                                  PLANT
                       CLEVELAND WESTERLY
                       DISPOSAL PLANT
   KOTE:
     BASED ON 1964 DATA-MEDIAN

     TOTAL COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS
     IN ORGANISMS PER  100ml.
                                                                      CLEVELAND  SHORELINE
                                                                TOTAL   COLIFORM  CONTOUR  MAP
SCALE IN  MILES

-------
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 LAKEWOOD PARK
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10.000-



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  • 0
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                                       i  i   i
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100.000-
10.000-
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                                                                                                                       LEGEND
                                                                                                                 |
                                                                                                                 I
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                                                                                                                         ~"! MAXIMUM
                                                                                                                                  MEDIAN
                                                                                                                                  - MAXIMUM
                                                                                                                                   SAFE LEVEL
                                                                                                                                  NO. OF SAMPLES


                                                                                                                                  BATHING SEASON
                                                                                                   GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
                                                                                                         BATHING  BEACH  STUDIES

-------
                               TABLE  7-

        GREATER CLEVELAND LAKEFRONT 196H MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA
Station
  Fecal
Coliform
(median*)
  Fecal
  Strep
(median*)
                                                   Total  Coliform
                                             (median*)
                                                          % Greater
                                                          than  1000
Huntington Park (l)      —
Rocky River Park (2)
Rocky R 0.2 mi         5,200
Rocky R 2.9 mi       •    750
Perkins                  350
Edgewater             .   850
Cuyahoga R 0.3 mi      2,700
Cuyahoga R 1.0 mi      3,100
Cuyahoga R 3.1* mi      3,000
Doan Brook (3)
Dugway Brook (3)
White City               900
Euclid Cr
Wildwood                 100
E. 199 St              1,000
E. 215 St              1,300
E. 222 St              1,200
E. 225 St              1,000
E. 252 St              1,000
Lloyd Rd               1,000
Chagrin R 0.8 mi       1,700
Chagrin R 3-1 mi       5,^00
                                  3,
                                  1,
                960
                900
                570
                560
                500
                HOO
                                  1,000
                                  '  H80

                                    160
                                    220
                                    290
                                    200
                                  '  200
                                    200
                                    590
                                    610
                                  1,600
                   100
                10,000
                33,000
                13,000
                 3,000
                 7,200
                29,000
                37,000
                17,000
               200,000
               900,000
                 8,700
               800,000
                   7HO
                 8,600
                 9,200
                12,000
                12,000
                 6,100
                 U,700
                 7,300
                19,000
 *  Organisms per 100 ml
(l) Data from 196U by the Cleveland Metropolitan Park Board
(2) Data from 1961* by the City of Rocky River
(3) Data from 1962 report by the Ohio Department of Health
                                                              25
                                                             100
                                                             100
                                                              87
                                                              69
 98
100
100
 50
100
 91
100
 Ul
 90
 90
 88
 86
 81*
 8l
 95
 96
bathing beaches within the Cleveland city limits are microbiologically

polluted far in excess of the recommended limits for full body contact

recreation, the Cities of Cleveland and Rocky River still do not pro-

hibit swimming in these areas, and have only in recent years started

to institute a serious program to remove these wastes.

     The effluent from the following sewage treatment plants contribute

significant amounts of microbial pollution to the shoreline region:

-------
Rocky River, Lakewood, Cleveland Westerly,  Cleveland Southerly,




Cleveland Easterly, Euclid, and Willoughby-Eastlake.  Besides  their




microbiological content, the wastes from these 7 plants  contain  a




BOD loading with a population equivalent of over 500,000.   Even




with secondary treatment (advanced waste treatment  for Cleveland




Southerly) and disinfection, to maintain a  safe water quality  in




bathing areas, all outfall lines should need to be  extended one-half




to one mile offshore and discharged through a diffusion  system.




     The second major source of pollution is the numerous  storm  water




overflows along the lakefront and tributaries which during period of




rainfall discharge raw sewage to the area.   But, even during periods




in which no rainfall has occurred for several weeks, raw sewage  is




observed along the shoreline between the Cuyahoga and Chagrin  Rivers.




These dry weather discharges are caused mainly by the overloading




of sewers in the central area by increased  flows from the  expanding




suburbs.  There is a need to construct trunk sewers to intercept




the flows from these outlying areas.  Storm water outfalls from




built-up areas which are in the vicinity of beach area should  be




eliminated.  Where this is not possible they should be extended  to




one-half mile offshore and the treated waters discharged through a




diffusion system.




     The total water quality problems are more severe to the east of




the Cuyahoga then to the west.  If the cities involved so  desired,




the bacteriological quality of all western  beaches  could be improved

-------
significaatly for a nominal cost and these areas could then be




available for safe public use.  Much higher, but not prohibitive




costs will be involved in resurrecting the eastern beaches and




allowing them to be once again useful.




Esthetic Nuisances and Navigation Hazards




     Debris, color, settleable and suspended solids, oil, odor, and




nutrients cause problems along the lakefront.  The discolored water




and floating debris which hang along the shoreline, and particularly




behind the Federal Breakwater, have reduced the esthetic value that




is normally associated with shoreline property.  The visual esthetic




nuisances to property owners, boaters, and visitors consist of dis-




carded lumber, tree limbs, sewage, metal cans, paper products, condoms,




dead fish, old car bodies, oil slicks, grease, and scum.  The lumber




and tree limbs are also a navigation hazard to boaters who ply the




area's waters.  These materials tend to collect in the small boat




harbors as well as behind the Federal Breakwater.  The source of




these materials is from dumps, industries, municipal treatment plants,




storm water overflows, stream bank erosion, and dredging.




     A program to remove debris from the area's waterways before they




reach the navigable sections and lakefront is an immediate need in




the Cleveland-Akron area.  It would be a never ending job to attempt




to remove debris from the navigable waters without establishing a




meaningful general and:-remo-val program in the upstream areas.




Aquatic and Benthic Life




     All bottom stations examined inside the Federal Breakwater

-------
 exhibited a very limited variety of pollution  tolerant  organisms.




 Only sludgeworms, fingernail  clams,  nematods,  and bloodworms were




 found in this  area.   Outside  the breakwater a  slightly  more diverse




 fauna was found which included the  less tolerant leeches, pulmonate




 and gill-breathing snails,  and aquatic sowbugs in addition to the




 forms found inside the breakwater.




      Inspection of the benthic data showed a wide variation in total




 numbers.   Conditions  in  the Cuyahoga River were so severe that no




 bottom-dwelling animals  could survive in the navigable  portion




 upstream from  mile point 0.2.  In the river mouth which is consider-




 ably diluted by lake  water over  1+00,000 organisms per m2 (all sludge-




 worms) were  found.  Stations  in  the  harbor and harbor mouth, except




 in  areas  with  hard clay  or rock  bottom, yielded between 1^,000 and




 60,000 organisms  per  m2.  Farther from shore numbers dropped to 200 -




 3,000 organisms per m2.   No correlation between distance from shore




 and  total number  can  be  demonstrated beyond the two mile contour.




     The predominant  attached  algae  in the Cuyahoga River was




 Oscillatoria sp.  and  Phormidium  sp.  These are both genera which are




 known to be common in  organically enriched areas (   ).  Growing on




 the breakwall, on buoys  in the harbor, and th e water intake crib




 were luxurious growths of the  filamentous green alga Cladophora sp.




 This is the most common  attached alga in Lake Erie and is known to




 increase in abundance  as concentration of nutrients increase.   However,




this form cannot tolerate the severe pollutional conditions found in




the river and is only  found where sufficiently diluted with lake water.




     Extensive dissolved oxygen data collected during the sampling

-------
period showed no severe oxygen depletion in the  study area except  at




the Cuyahoga River mouth.  Although variety is somewhat  greater




outside the harbor and greater still beyond the  two mile contour,




some of the pollution intolerant mayfly nymphs,•caddis fly larvae,




scuds and unionid clams were found at any of the stations sampled.




Since the bottom type, depth, and temperature here are suitable for




all of these intolerant groups, and they occur under similar con-




ditions in other parts of Lake Erie, it must be  assumed  that some




other factor is responsible for th eir absence.   The probable explana-




tion lies with composition of bottom sediments and resulting bio-




logical and chemical activity at the mud water interface.  In




sediments containing high concentrations of organic matter bacterial




activity can produce a microzonal deficit in oxygen at the mud water




interface.  This zone may be only a few centimeters thick, and the




dissolved oxygen sampling procedures used in this study  could not




detect such a condition.  As a result of this microzonal oxygen




deficit a. decrease in redox potential would be  expected  which could




allow formation of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia  in sufficient con-




centrations to be toxic to many less tolerant species.  In areas




which are used as dumping areas by the U. S. Corps of Engineers,




the toxicity of the sediments would prevent the  existence of higher




level benthic fauna.

-------
                           IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                 MUNICIPALITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN THE
                     GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
                            DIRECT TO LAKE
MUNICIPALITIES
Sewerage
Service Area
Cleveland Easterly
Cleveland Westerly
Euclid
Willoughby-Eastlake
Present
Treatment
Secondary
Primary
Intermediate
Intermediate
1965
Population
660,000
240,000
11^,000
62,050
Plant Needs
Expansion & extend outfall
Secondary, Disinfection &
extend outfall
Secondary, Disinfection &
extend outfall
Secondary, Disinfection &
extend outfall
County Districts
  Rocky River SD 6
Intermediate
50,000    Secondary,  Disinfection &
            "extend outfall
INDUSTRIES
Industry
   Location
     Control Measures
Lakefront
  Cleveland Municipal       Cleveland
    Light Plant
  Cleveland Electric
    Illuminating Co.
      Eastlake.Plant        Eastlake
      Lakeshore Plant       Cleveland
                      Bottom & Fly Ash, Heat
                      Bottom & Fly Ash,  Heat
                      Bottom & Fly Ash,  Heat

-------
Loading to Lake Erie

     Besides the Rocky, Cuyahoga, and Chagrin Rivers, there are 5

municipal sewage treatment plants, 5 industries, and a number of

small streams which discharge waste materials to Lake Erie from the

Greater Cleveland-Akron Area.  Over 2,300 tons per day. of solids,

both dissolved and suspended, are discharged every day to the lake.

Included in this load are phosphates, nitrates, and trace minerals

which help produce the prolific growths of algae in the lake and

along the shoreline.  Also included are materials which exert a bio-

chemical or chemical oxygen demand on the lake and materials which

interfere with the natural biological processes within the lake

waters and on the lake bottom.  Table 7-  is a summary of materials

discharged to Lake Erie in 1961* for the rivers, and in 1966 for th e

municipal sewage treatment plants and industries.


                             TABLE 7-
     LOADING TO LAKE ERIE FROM TIIE GREATER CLEVELAND-AKRON AREA
                         (in pounds per day)
                    Rocky    Cuyahoga  Chagrin  Municipal  Industrial
	River	River	River    Wastes	Wastes

Total Solids       880,000  2,800,000  680,000  190,000    210,000
Suspended Solids   160,000    1*90,000  190,000   69,000    200,000
Dissolved Solids   720,000  2,300,000  1*90,000  120,000     10,000
Chlorides          120,000    ^30,000   27,000               2,000
BOD                  7,500     1*9,000    2,900   80,000      1*,000
COD        .         52,000    250,000   1*2,000  100,000      6,000
Soluble Phosphate    3,1*00      2,1*00      300                 100
Nitrates             3,100     30,000      700
Flow (mgd)             191*        ^      197      177        977

-------
                    Northeastern^ Ohio
     The Northeastern Ohio area drains 1,0^0 square miles in Ohio

and 170 square miles in Pennsylvania.   It extends 53 miles along

the Lake Erie shoreline and includes the Grand River, Ashtabula

River, and Conneaut Creek Basins.
                                             ^
     The Grand River drains 712 square miles, ICth miles long, and

has an average fall of 11.3 ft /mile.  The Ashtabula River drains

approximately 10 square miles in Pennsylvania and 127 square miles

in Ohio.  It is approximately HO miles long with an average fall

of 11.6 ft /mile.  Conneaut Creek drains 153 square miles in Penn-

sylvania and 38 square miles in Ohio.   The average slope is 11.3 ft/

mile.

     The streams flow through rural areas except near Lake Erie

where the larger urban areas are located such as Ashtabula (i960 pop.

of 25,^9), Painesville (i960 pop. of 16,116) and Conneaut (i960 pop.

of 10,557)-  The population along Lake Erie represents approximately

seventy percent of the total population of the Northeastern Ohio

subarea.  The population density near the shore increases westward

which is influenced by nearby Cleveland.  The lower part of the Grand

River basin now has the largest population density and is expected to

be the major growth area in Northeastern Ohio.  Present and projected

populations for each of the basins are shown in the following table.

-------
                      NORTHEASTERN OHIO

               PRESENT & PROJECTED POPULATIONS

River Basin                       Population
	I960	1990	2020	

Grand                    118,000    262,000    372,000
Ashtabula                 1*9,100     8H.OOO    127,000
Conneaut                  2 if, OOP     M,000     60,HOO
                         191,000    390,000    559,000

     Northeastern Ohio is also a major industrial area.  Two large

industrial centers are Painesville-Fairport and Ashtabula.  Two of

Ohio's seven salt plants are located in the subarea accounting for

half of the state's salt production.  The large salt deposit also

has attracted many chemical industries which are now predominant in

Northeastern Ohio.

     The economy of the area has shown its effects on the water

quality of Northeastern Ohio streams.  The municipal and industrial

complexes near the lake have degraded the water quality in the lower

reaches of the three major streams.

Grand River

     The water quality of the Grand River varies from good in the upper

reaches to grossly polluted in the lower reaches.  Although the Grand

River above Painesville generally has good water quality, there is a

silt problem which adversely affects some water uses such as esthetics

and possibly fish and their spawning grounds.  The turbidity in the

river was clearly evident while investigating the river in October

1966.  A biological investigation of this area did reveal a balanced

variety of pollution intolerant benthic fauna at all locations examined

-------
above the City of Painesville.




     The Grand River in the lover stretch is one of the most  chem-




ically polluted rivers in the Lake Erie Basin due to the extremely




high solids load discharged by the Diamond Alkali Co.  Occasionally




the river is brightly colored with hues ranging from bright green




and yellow to black.  The green and yellow colors are the result of




the chemical discharges while the black color is attributed to fly




ash discharges.




     Biological investigation of these three miles revealed the upper




mile to be devoid of benthic fauna, indicating that even the  most




pollution tolerant organisms could not survive in waters receiving




such high pollution loads.  The attached algae were pollution tol-




erant Ulothrix, Stigeodonium and Oscillatoria.




     Maximum total solids recorded were 10,UOO mg/1 occurring 2.3




miles upstream from the mouth just below the location where Diamond




Alkali discharges the majority of their wastes.  The average  concen-




tration of total solids at this location for the period January to




November 196^ was ^,^70 mg/1, while just upstream of Diamond Alkali




at mile point 5-5 the average concentration of total solids for the




same period was only 300 mg/1.   The majority of total solids  were in




the form of dissolved solids, mainly chlorides.  The average  con-




centrations of dissolved solids and chlorides at mile point 2.3 were




10,300 mg/1 and 2,500 mg/1, respectively.  The average concentration




at mile point 5-5 for dissolved solids was 272 mg/1 and for chlorides,




33 mg/1.

-------
     The Diamond Alkali Co., which has several outfalls to the Grand

River, discharges approximately 6.5 million pounds of dissolved

solids per day.  The Chloride load discharged is approximately 3.9

million pounds per day.  This extremely large dissolved solids load

and corresponding chloride load are, for all practical purposes, being

discharged entirely from the overflow of Diamond Alkali's waste set-

tling basin located just above the sampling station at mile point 2.3.

     Using mile point 2.3 as a tributary load station, the Grand River

discharges an average of h million pounds of chlorides per day, or 15

percent of the total average daily chloride input into Lake Erie.

However, excluding the Detroit River, the Grand River contributes 60

percent of all remaining chlorides discharged to Lake Erie while con-

tributing less than four percent of runoff to the lake.

     Assu;.u.ng the chemical industries in Northeastern Ohio will double

in waste production by 1990 and quadruple by 2020, and assuming no

additional steps are taken to control chloride discharges, then the

following chloride loads can be expected:

                              Loads
                            (Ibs/day)
              1965             1990             2020

           M x 106        Q^ x 106        16 <& x 106

     By 2020 there will be over 8,000 tons of chlorides discharged to

Northeastern Ohio waters every day.  The chlorides discharged during

2020 would be large enough in quantity to salt the roads throughout

the entire Lake Erie Basin for the next four winters.  This tremendously

high load cannot continue without some eventual effect on municipal and

-------
industrial water uses.  The chemical industries,  especially Diamond     \




Alkali Co., must employ some method for removal of chlorides.   Evap-




oration, recovery, and utilization in some form of marketable  product




or deep well disposal are possible solutions.




     In addition to the large chemical waste discharges,  the lower




reach of the Grand River receives the inadequately treated effluent




of two sewage treatment plants. 'The Painesville  sewage treatment




plant discharges approximately 2,000 pounds of BOD per day, and the




Fairport sewage treatment plant adds another 360  pounds of BOD to




the sewer daily.  These plants receive a BOD load of ^,200 pounds




per day and 520 pounds per day respectively.  This indicates the low




percentage of organic material that is removed by the sewage treat-




ment plants.  Both municipalities of Fairport and Painesville  have




been ordered by the Ohio Water Pollution Control  Board to provide at




least secondary treatment.




     The Grand River also receives vaste discharges from two more




sewage treatment plants.  These plants located at Chardon and  Jefferson




both provide secondary treatment and both discharge to tributaries of




the Grand River.  Presently there are no effects  on the river  from




these two plants; however, the additional population growth will




necessitate additional treatment.  The graph below shows the present




and projected raw BOD loads received by the four  treatment plants in




the Grand River Basin.  The present and projected BOD loads discharged




to the Grand River system are also shown.

-------
As can "be seen from the graph, additional treatment is an immediate




need.  If the present BOD load is established as the maximum




allowable load to the Grand River, it is apparent that at least




secondary treatment, that removes 90% of the BOD must be immediately




provided.  By 1990, secondary treatment will no longer "be satis-




factory and some form of advanced treatment must be provided.   As




indicated by the graph, an even higher percentage of removal will




"be required sometime around 2010.




     In addition thei;Grand River also receives effluents from septic




tanks.  Two communities have been ordered by the Ohio Water Pol-




lution Control Board to provide sewerage systems.  These communities




are Orwell and Grand River.  Orwell is located in the southern part




of the basin, while Grand River is located in the Painesville-




Fairport area.




     Since this area around Painesville and Fairport will be one of




the fastest growing population centers in Ohio, and since the present




treatment plants are inadequate and require major additions, it is




recommended that one large treatment plant providing 90 percent BOD

-------
 removal be  constructed to  serve Painesville, Fairport, Grand River,




 and  the surrounding  areas.  It is also recommended that with the




 proximity of this  area to  Lake Erie, a regional treatment plant




 could easily discharge its effluent directly to Lake Erie and thereby




 remove all  major municipal waste sources from the lower reach of the




 Grand River.  One  large regional treatment plant instead of several




 smaller ones would increase the operating efficiency, would decrease




 the  demand  for qualified sewage treatment plant operators, and would




 be less expensive  on a per capita basis to maintain and operate.




     The A. E. Staley Manufacturing Co. located in the municipality




 of Grand River had been discharging soybean processing wastes directly




 to the Grand River.  In 1965, they were reported to be negotiating to




 discharge their waste to a municipal sewer system.  However, Lake




 County officials have attributed some of the present water quality




 problems in the Grand River to a discharge from the A. E. Staley




 Manufacturing Co.  A discharge from such a manufacturer could include




 a large BOD load.  Concentrations and flow of this discharge should be




 reported by the industry to the Ohio Department of Health on a




 monthly basis.




     Microbiological problems are also prevalent in the lower reaches




 of the Grand River.  Total coliform counts below Fairport and Paines-




 ville 's sewage treatment plants had a median value of 15,000 organisms/




 100 ml with a maximum count of 3^0,000 organisms/100 ml occurred during




 a ''moderate^'rainfall.   The corresponding fecal coliform concentration




was 60,000 org/100 ml.   This indicates that the source of pollution

-------
vas animal wastes.  Since this area is served by separate systems,




it is concluded that this load must have been discharged from the




storm sewers.  During rainfall much organic matter is carried into




the storm sewers by the rainwater.  This waste is discharged to the




streams without any treatment, creating health hazards.   In order to




eliminate this condition, all storm water from built-up  municipal




areas should be treated and disinfected before discharge.




     It is apparent from the high median total coliform concentrations




and high fecal coliform concentrations (median fecal coliform con-




centrations at mile point 2.3 was 6,000 organisms/100 ml) that bac-




terial pollution is also in the stream during dry weather.  This can




be attributed to the unsewered areas of Grand River and Painesville.




Northeast as well as inadequate disinfection procedures  at the




Painesville and Fairport sewage treatment plants.  All municipal




sewage treatment plants in the Northeastern Ohio Area should provide




continuous year around chlorination.  An enteric pathogen study at




mile point 2.3 found 3^ isolates of two Salmonella serotypes.  Since




this stretch of the river could be used for recreational purposes,




the bacterial pollution presents a definite health hazard.




     Near the mouth of the Grand River the biological conditions im-




prove due to dilution by lake water.  However, even in this trans-




itional zone of dilution, pollution tolerant sludgeworms and blood-




worms are predominant.




     Being in a lake-affected area, a cross-section of the Grand River




at mile point 0.1 would contain lake water as well as river water.

-------
Dispersion studies in Fairport Harbor reveal a stratification be-

tween the river and lake water.  Conductivity readings, which

measure the ion (dissolved solids) concentration in the water,

averages 300 umhos in the central and eastern portions of Lake Erie.

These data near the mouth of the river range from 500 umhos near
                                                               x
the surface to approximately U,000 umhos near the "bottom.

     Approximately a mile and a half from the river mouth, conductiv-

ities are considerably less with only minor indications of stratif-

ication.  Two miles from the mouth the stratification is nonexistent.

-------
                            IMMEDIATE WEEDS

                       MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
                                   in
                           GRAND RIVER BASIN
Municipalities

    Severage
    Service Area
    Fairport
    Painesville
    Chardon
    Jefferson
    Painesville-
      Northeast
    Grand River
  Present
 Treatment
                                   I960
                                Population.
                                  Served
                  Plant Needs
    Orwell
Intermediate



Primary



Secondary


Secondary


Septic Tanks




Septic Tanks




Septic Tanks
 ^,267
l6,ll6
                                            Secondary  (Metropolitan
                                            system)  and year-around
                                            disinfection

                                            Secondary  (Metropolitan
                                            system)  and year-around
                                            disinfection

                                            Expansion  and year-around
                                            disinfection
                                    2,ll6   Expansion and year-around
                                            disinfection

                                    1,265   Collection system and
                                            Secondary (Metropolitan
                                            system) and year-around
                                            disinfection

                                      1^77   Collection system and
                                            Secondary (Metropolitan
                                            system) and year-around
                                            disinfection

                                      819   Collection system and
                                            Secondary vith year-
                                            around disinfection
Industries
Name

GRAND RIVER BASIN
  Calhio Chemical, Inc.
  Diamond Alkali Co.

  U. S. Rubber Co.-Uniroyal
                                      Location
                                Control Measures Needed
                                      Perry      Solids, Chlorides
                                      Painesvile Solids, Chlorides, Ammonia.
                                                 Phenols and Color
                                           "      Solids
       A.  E.  Staley Manufacturing  Co  Grand Ri\er BOD, Oils, Solids

-------
Ashtabula River




      The Ashtabula vater quality varies from polluted in the lower




 reaches to very good in the upper reaches.   The water quality in the




 harbor area and navigational portion of the river is degraded by




 pollution from vessels and corresponding dock activities.   A portion




 of the Ashtabula River is adversely affected by Fields Brook, a small




 tributary which is heavily polluted with industrial wastes.




      The water quality of the upper reaches of the Ashtabula River is




 generally very good.   Many types of pollution intolerant organisms




 can be found at all locations above the City of Ashtabula.




      The lower reach of the river is in a lake-affected area.  Even




 with dilution from the lake water, biological investigations reveal




 polluted conditions.   Clean-water bottom organisms are absent at all




 locations in this section of the river.   Sludgeworms are the only




 bottom organism found at some locations in  the lower reach while at




 the mouth conditions  are somewhat improved,  but only to the  extent that




 pollution tolerant bloodworms and fingernail clams are found in addi-



 tion to the  sludgeworms.




      In the  harbor the predominant bottom fauna are still sludgeworms




 and bloodworms.   The  attached algae Cladophora are abundant  on  both




 sides  of the  river and the  aquatic  weeds  arrowhead and water lilies




 are found in  a  few locations.




      Coliform concentrations  at  mile point 0.7  are as  high as 51*0,000




 organisms/100 ml  with  a median value of 89,000  organisms/100 ml.

-------
Median  fecal  coliform  concentrations  are 11,000  organisms/100  ml,

while median  fecal  streptococci  are 1,700  organisms/100  ml.  The

bacterial pollution is  caused by vessel wastes and  from  personnel

employed at the various docking  activities.   None of these  activities

on either side of the Ashtabula  River or any  part of the lakeshore

are connected to the collection  system of  the City  of Ashtabula and

there are no  modern facilities.  This area is served with nothing but

pit privies which discharge to the river or lake.   This  situation is a

definite health hazard  to the people  of Ashtabula and should be

remedied as soon as possible.  A collection system  should be provided

for oils, garbage,  refuse, and other  deleterious materials  and a

system  should be installed to pump the sanitary  sewage to the  Ashtabula

sewage  treatment plant.

     At mile  point  3.3  median coliform counts are 2,100  organisms/100

ml with median fecal streptococci values of 390  organisms/100  ml and

fecal coliform of 520 organisms/100 ml.  This indicates  organic pol-

lution  from septic  tanks or from storm water  sewers  with illegal house-
                         CSu/f// &•£  ''^"-- C-.~r\~^i U'
-------
the lake-affected portion of the Ashtabula River.   The  industries  in




the complex are primarily chemical industries vhose effluents  contain




both organic and inorganic wastes.  The effect of  Fields  Brook on  the




Ashtabula River is reduced because lake vaters dilute the constituents




which are discharged into the river.  However, biological conditions




indicate this lower reach of river to be polluted.  Concentrations of




several chemical constituents show large increases between the magni-




tudes above and below Fields Brook.  Average dissolved  solids  concen-




trations increased from 295 mg/1 to 507 mg/1.  Phenol concentrations




tripled in value jumping from an average of 1.8 ug/1 upstream  to 5.9




ug/1 downstream.  Other increases include suspended solids, chlorides




	I ammonia.  The degradation of the Ashtabula River can  be attributed




to the industrial waste discharges to Fields Brook and  the municipal




wastes previously discussed.  The effects of the industrial waste  dis-




charge can be more readily seen by inspection of Fields Brook.




     The waters of Fields Brook are normally milky white.  The color,




according to the Ohio Department of Health, is caused by small amounts




of titanium dioxide.  One use of titanium dioxide  is as a white color




base for paint and paper.  The Cabot Titania Corp. , Titanium Dioxide




Plant as its name implies, manufactures titanium dioxide  which is  used




as a base material by the Cabot Titania Corp.-Titanium  Tetrachloride




Plant.  The suspended solids load from this plant  includes 10,900  pounds




per day from the Titanium Tetrachloride Plant and 1,900 pounds per day




from the Titanium Dioxide Plant.  Another contributor of high  suspended




solids loads is the Reactive Metals, Inc. - Metals Reduction Plant

-------
 which discharges 2,300 pounds daily.   A storm sewer,  which  discharges




 the wastes of several industries  into  Fields  Brook, receives  3,800




 pounds of suspended solids  daily  from  Detrex  Chemical Industries, Inc.




 - Chlorinated Solvents Plants,  and another  2,900 pounds of  suspended




 solids per day from Reactive  Metals, Inc. - Sodium and Chlorine Plant.




      The  dissolved solids being discharged  to Fields  Brook  are also




 extremely high.   The Reactive Metals,  Inc.  -  Metals Reduction Plant




 discharges ^30,000 pounds of  dissolved solids daily.   Detrex Chemical




 Industries,  Inc.  - Chlorinated  Solvents  Plant discharges 1,700 pounds




 of dissolved solids per day to  Fields  Brook,  and 18,000 pounds per




 day to the storm sewer.  Reactive  Metals, Inc. - Sodium and Chlorine




 Plant discharges  an additional  52,000  pounds  of dissolved solids daily




 to the storm sewer.   Other  industries  that  do not report dissolved




 solids are Cabot  Titania -  Titanium Dioxide Plant; Cabot Titania -




 Titanium  Tetrachloride;  Olin  Mathieson Chemical Corp.  - TDI Plant and




 the  Diamond  Alkali  Company  -  Semi-Works.




      Analyses of  samples from Fields Brook indicate that sediment is




 present in Fields Brook  from  below the industrial complex to the




 Ashtabula  River.  The  sediment  is very light weight and stays in sus-




 pension as long as the waters move rapidly.   Fields Brook has sufficient




 velocity to keep this  sediment  in suspension until it  flows to the




 quiescent waters of the lake-affected portion of the Ashtabula River;




here the sediment settles out.  During an investigation of Fields Brook,




the waters were found to be very acidic with pH ranging between 2 and




3.  As these waters flow into the relatively neutral waters of the

-------
Ashtabula River (pH between 6 and 7)   precipitation probably takes




place, producing more settleable solids.




     Pollution entering a lake-affected portion of a river can ad-




versely affect the water quality upstream from the source.  This is




evident by the sediment problem in the Ashtabula River just upstream




from Fields Brook.  An inspection of the area in October of 1966




very markedly shoved that sediment in this area of the Ashtabula




River is coming from Fields Brook.  The sediment not only covers the




bottom and adversely affects bottom fauna, but it also adversely




affects recreational uses in this section of the river.  Fields Brook




is also esthetically unpleasing.  In addition to the white, turbid




appearance of the waters, there is a strong chemical or medicinal




odor that is almost continuously present.




     It is apparent by the degraded conditions of the Ashtabula River




and Fields Brook that the waste discharges of the industries in this




area must be improved.  The solution is one of immediate action.




Table 	 shows the control measures needed by the various indus-




tries.  The waste loads produced by these industries will "be increas-




ing with increased production.  New industries will be moving into the




complex.  Sherwin-Williams Co. was constructing facilities when the




area was last investigated.  Volumes of discharge are expected to




increase two to four times, and. the pollutional load will increase at




nearly the same rate if these control measures are not instituted.

-------
                           IMMEDIATE NEEDS

                      MUNICIPALITIES &  INDUSTRIES
                                  in
                        ASHTABULA RIVER BASIN
Municipalities

    Severage
    Service Area
 Present
Treatment
   I960
Population
  Served
Plant Needs
    Ashtabula
      Lakeshore and
      harbor area
Un sewered
              Collection system and
              connect to Ashtabula
              STP
Industries
    Name

    Cabot Titania Corp.
      Titanium Dioxide Plant

    Cabot Titania Corp.
      Titanium Tetrachloride Plant
                Location       Control Measures Needed

               Ashtabula       Solids, Chlorides,
                               Color, pH

               Ashtabula       Solids, Chlorides,  pH
    Detrex Chemical Industries       Ashtabula
      Inc. Chlorinated Solvents

    Diamond Alkali Co.               Ashtabula
      Semi-Works

   General Tire & Rubber Co.          Ashtabula
      Chemical Division

    Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp.     Ashtabula
      TDI Facility

    Reactive Metals, Inc.             Ashtabula
      Metals Reduction Plant

    Reactive Metals, Inc.             Ashtabula
      Sodium & Chlorine Plant
                               COD, Solids, Chlorides,
                               PH

                               COD, Solids, Chlorides
                               Solids
                               Solids, Chlorides,
                               COD, pH

                               Solids, Chlorides,  pH
                               Solids, pH

-------
Conneaut Creek




      The quality of water in Conneaut Creek varies from polluted to




 very good.




      The water quality of the upper reaches of Conneaut Creek above




 Springboro, Pennsylvania is good.  A variety of pollution intolerant




 bottom fauna are found at all locations between Springboro and




 Conneautville, Pennsylvania.  Conneautville, a municipality of 1,200




 (i960  population) is contributing nutrients as well as bacterial pol-




 lution to Conneaut Creek.  Although this municipality has several




 storm  sewers it does not have a sewage treatment plant.  The Corps




 of Engineers in a recent study reported the discharge of raw sewage




 into Conneaut Creek from three sewer pipes in Conneautville. (10).




 This adversely affects water quality and presents a serious health




 hazard to both local inhabitants and downstream neighbors.  These raw




 sewage discharges should be removed immediately and the three sewer




 pipes  should be connected to a sewerage system.  Most of the sewage




 from Conneautville receives minimal treatment in septic tanks.  The




 septic tanks should be abandoned and the wastes sources should be




 connected to the sewerage system.  The treatment plant should provide




 at least secondary treatment.  Conneautville is located in the upper




 reaches of Conneaut Creek; during the dry weather season this creek




 has very little flow for dilution of waste discharges.  Because of this




 low dependable yield, small waste loads may have a degrading effect on




 the stream in this location.  Although the population is not expected

-------
to grow appreciably in the Conneautville area, the sewage treatment




plant will have to convert to tertiary treatment "by 2020 and possibly




"before if there is a significant industrial "build-up in the area.




     Presently the Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board does not have




the authority to place under orders municipalities that do not have




collection systems.  Since Conneautville and several other locations




within the Lake Erie Basin do not have collection systems it is




recommended that legislation "be adopted giving the Pennsylvania Sani-




tary Water Board the authority to order a municipality to construct




and properly operate and maintain a collection system and a sewage




treatment plant.




     At Springboro, the water quality of Conneaut Creek is seriously




degraded.  An unnamed tributary which flows into Conneaut Creek re-




ceives wastes from the Albro Packing Company and from the effluents




of many septic tanks.  At the confluence, Conneaut Creek "becomes very




turbid.  Sludge deposits are found on the bank and beds of Conneaut




Creek and throughout the entire length of the unnamed tributary.  A




biological investigation of Conneaut Creek downstream from the con-




fluence revealed an absence of all bottom organisms.




     This is another instance where the Pennsylvania Sanitary Water




Board cannot order the municipality to provide adequate treatment.  A




sewerage system should be constructed to provide secondary treatment




of all sanitary sewage.  The Albro Packing Co. should connect to this




municipal sewerage system.  Sealtest Foods, Inc. and other industries




whose waste discharge will not upset the biological process of the




sewage treatment plant should eventually connect on to the municipal

-------
system.




     Below Springboro, Conneaut Creek recovers rapidly and within a




half mile the biological conditions are typical of those found in a




recovery zone.




     The water quality of Conneaut Creek is very good as it flows




across the Pennsylvania-Ohio line.   (See Interstate Waters).  A well




balanced variety of pollution intolerant bottom fauna are found.




     Above the City of Conneaut the water quality is still very good.




Pollution intolerant mayflies, caddis flies, and scuds were common




at all locations investigated.  However, sparse growths of attached




algae were again apparent at all locations.  The nutrients are most




likely from agricultural runoff and septic tank effluents from a fairly




large population.  Septic tanks are the only means of treatment for




sewage in Lakeville, a municipality with a I960 population of ^,100




and North Kingsville, a municipality with a I960 population of 1,800. .




Septic tanks in municipalities with populations as large as these




cannot be accepted as adequate, especially in this area where soils




generally have poor drainage characteristics.




     Both these municipalities should construct sewer systems and




provide treatment facilities.  Lakeville should connect to the Conneaut




sewerage system.




     Conneaut Creek becomes turbid as it flows through the City of




Conneaut, a condition apparently caused by dredging operations just




upstream from the navigation channel.  Dredged materials have been de-




posited along the east bank of Conneaut Creek for about 100 feet.

-------
Behind these deposits is a dumping area.   An 'inspection of this area




in September 1966 indicated that refuse from the dump did not appear




to be falling into the creek, at least under low or normal flow condi-




tions;  some of the refuse, however, was  in the Conneaut flood plain.




Refuse and drainage from this dumping area may adversely affect water




quality in Conneaut Creek during the high flow season.




     Across the creek from the dump and dredging deposits is a large




storage area for the Pittsburgh-Conneaut  Docking Co.  It has been re-




ported that large slugs of coal from this storage area have spilled




into Conneaut Creek on at least one occasion.  According to the Ohio




Division of Wildlife, there could be an adverse effect on fish if this




spill-over occurs with any frequency.  Drainage through the stored




coal may also have a degrading effect on the water quality of Conneaut




Creek.




     Near the mouth of Conneaut Creek in the lake affected portion of




the stream, the Conneaut sewage treatment plant discharges its inad-




equately treated wastes which contain a BOD load of 2,^00 pounds per




day.  The present plant removes only 30 percent of the BOD,, load it




receives.  Conneaut Creek in this stretch is overenriched as evidenced




by the abundant growths of algae.  A biological investigation indicated




that the lower stretch of Conneaut Creek is substantially polluted.




Only pollution tolerant sludgeworms, bloodworms, leeches and finger-




nail clams could be found in this area.  Attached algae in the creek




were predominantly pollution tolerant Oscillatoria, Ulothrix, and




Cladophora, while in the harbor, Cladophora was dominant and abundant.

-------
     The Conneaut sewage treatment plant should be immediately ex-




panded to provide secondary treatment.   Due to the proximity of the




plant to the lake, the effluent should not be discharged to Conneaut




Creek but should be discharged through a diffusion system extended




a half mile into Lake Erie.  Secondary treatment will be adequate for




the Conneaut area through 2020.  If secondary treatment is employed,




the 300 loading from the plant in 2020 will be less th an the present




loading to Conneaut Creek.  This 2020 loading includes the addition




of Lakeville to the system as well as the increase in population




from the Conneaut-Lakeville Area.

-------
                           IMMEDIATE NEEDS

                      MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
                                  in
                            CONNEAUT CREEK
Municipalities

    Sewerage
    Service Area
    Conneaut
    Lakeville
    Albion

    Springboro
 Present
Treatment
  I960
Population
  Served
Plant Needs
Primary
Septic Tanks
Secondary

Septic Tanks
    Conneautville    Septic Tanks
  10,557     Secondary (Metropolitan
             system) and year around
             disinfection

   H,l80     Collection system and
             Secondary (Metropolitan
             system) with year around
             disinfection

   1,630     Expansion

     583     Collection system and
             Secondary with year around
             disinfection

   1,200     Collection system and
             Secondary with year around
             disinfection
 Industries

    Name

    Albro Packing Co.
           Location      Control Measures Needed

           Springboro    BOD, Solids

-------
 Interstate Waters

       Three streams in the Northeastern Ohio area are classified as

  interstate streams.  Conneaut Creek, Ashtabula Creek, and Turkey

  Creek all originate in Pennsylvania and flow into Ohio.

       Conneaut Creek, the largest of the interstate streams, drains

  153 square miles in 3^ miles in Pennsylvania and 38 square miles in

  23 miles in Ohio.  The creek crosses the interstate boundary approx-

  imately five miles south of Lake Erie.  As discussed earlier, vaste

  loads which degrade the water quality are discharged to Conneaut Creek

  in Pennsylvania, hut the creek rapidly recovers and there is no Evi-

  dence of pollution as it flows into Ohio.  Biological investigation

  at the Pennsylvania-Ohio line revealed a well-balanced variety of

  pollution intolerant bottom fauna.  Chemical analyses also indicate

  the water to be of very good quality.  Table 7-2 summarizes the

  chemical and microbiological data obtained from the samples taken at

  the interstate boundary.
                                  WATER QUALITY OF

                                  INTERSTATE WATERS
Mile Point               Conneaut^ Creek    Ashtabula Creek.    Turkey Creek

                                                 '                  lt6
Drainage Area  fa. miles)        x        •  •     x     •
Flow dcfs]                       x                          '        x
30D (rag/1)                     !.3               *                  *
1)0 (ns/1)                     11*.0            it o                ^ n
Nitrogen (mg/l)          .      1.1             08              '   ?'?
Soluble Phosphate  (mg/l)       0.08            n'o5                n o-
Total Solids (mg/l)          200             191               017
Dissolved Solids  (mg/l)      19)1             1QO    •           «!
Chlorides (mg/l)              3U              28                 70
Conductivity (umhos/cm)    .  285             235
Total Coliform(qr@/ioo ml)
Fecal ColifornIorg/100 ml)
                     ml)

-------
     Ashtabula  Creek,  a tributary of the Ashtabula River, flows for




 only three miles  in Pennsylvania draining eight square miles.  It




 flows  into Ohio approximately  six miles south of Lake Erie.  There




 are no wastes discharged into  Ashtabula Creek and, as can "be seen in




 the above table,  does  not have any water quality problems as it




 crosses the Pennsylvania-Ohio  border.




     Turkey Creek is a small tributary flowing to Lake Erie midway




 between the Pennsylvania-Ohio  line and Conneaut, Ohio.  The creek




 is only seven miles long, six  of which are in Pennsylvania, and drain




 ten square miles, nine of which are in Pennsylvania.  Turkey Creek,




 like Ashtabula  Creek,  receives no significant waste loads and has




 very good water quality as it  flows into Ohio.




     Interstate stream water quality standards are being proposed by




 all states in accordance with the Clean Waters Restoration Act of




 1966.  The Act  requires that the standards be submitted by June




 30, 1967.




     The Ohio Water Pollution Control Board and the Pennsylvania




 Sanitary Water Board have both submitted standards for the three above-




mentioned streams.  These proposed standards should help to maintain




the existing water quality of these streams and should keep any additional




sources of wastes  from entering these waters.

-------
 i      Bathing Beaches


 j           The quality of water of the  bathing beaches in Northeastern Ohio


 |      is fair.  Data on coliform concentrations  from bathing beach  studies

 i
.1      performed by county or municipal  health departments are  shown in


 >      Figure 7-2.   Although some data are available  for bathing beaches  in
 «

 j      Ashtabula County, the sampling was infrequent  and no  definite conclu-

 I                                         .  .                                '   :"
 1      sions can be made.  The data obtained from the Lake County  Department


 j      of Health indicate that beaches within Lake County have  geometric  mean


 {      coliform concentrations between 100 and 1,000  organisms/100 ml.  This
 J                    '
 i
 i      indicates that there is some organic pollution from sources which  should


J      be investigated.  The abatement of this organic pollution will greatly


;       improve the quality of water of these bathing beaches.
'                                                   •

            The State of Ohio recommends that for bathing beach waters, the


       monthly arithmetical mean coliform concentration should not exceed      •
                                                         \

       1,000 organisms/100 ml; nor should this number be exceeded in more than


       20 percent of. samples examined duringhthe month; nor should any one  •


       sample-exceed 2,1*00 organisms/100 ml.  It should be pointed out that


       arithmetical  averages are considerably higher than geometrical averages,


       especially with  large variances  in coliform concentrations.


            Although the  geometric  average  coliform  concentrations  are under


       1,000 organisms/100 ml,  the  individual samples frequently exceed  this


       value.  Below is a tabulation of the percentage of samples that were
                          '                                     '
       over 1,000 organisms/100 ml  at the various  beaches in Lake County:
                                          7-17

-------
LEGEND
i
i
^ w.ooo
i i^xxi
1 "
8 i




j
X
KAXMVM
CCO-tTRC AVtRAOC •
•

  NUM8CH Of SAMPVtf
•

•  VCAK (BATHttG JCAJOM)
10,000
IjOOO
MO
e


1


1
-





• n H
fARPORT BEACH
»JXX>
ifOO
100
. »
1


1


•

1
-

1

-
I
                HCAJXANOS STATE PARK
                      V 'W
                      i i
                      STATE
. IO.OOO
1,000
wo
10
1
PERRY
10,000
1,000
100
1




r-
I



till
TOWNSHIP PA1
—

\
&
2 i
PAINESVILLE TOW
. »






i
NSH

s.


I

tf>


CjBOO-
y»o
too-
_ 1
IK GEN£V
^^N.



PARK
W.OOO
1,000
100
10
1






• 4
10,000-
• ra W0*

1
n M
A-ON-THE-LAI<

r-
I

j


\
©

-.
7
I
i
E SAYBROC
1

i


t i
MADISON TOWNSHIP PARK
t

\
\
\
W.OOO
I.OOO
IOO
10
1
10 000


%
i
m t
K TO\VNSHIP B
LOOO^
100-
&
1
:ACH V;A
•>w


^

Q


t i * i
GENEVA TOWNSHIP PARK




i

• •TV

LWT BEACA


»,ooo
1,000
100
I • I / / "°
\ / / /

0

44 ^ M
^_^: t<*-«
                    KENTOR LAGOON BEACH
^- l«« eO^Tt, ASHTA!** CO^TT. OT»
f COKT? «• «»
                                                                 BATHING  BEACH  STUDIES -
                                                                    NORTHEASTERN  OHIO

-------
;         •••                      TABLE  7-|                                  '  .      '
j                          Percentages of Samples
1         '     with Coliform Concentrations  over 1,000/100 ml                 ,  -,
                                                                              ' " .       i  I
                                        % of samples which had  coliform
         .                            ,   concentrations  greater  than
                                        1,000 org./lOO  ml                    '• .   "

             Mentor Township Park                   30       t          '.'.."
             Headlands State Park                 .20       '            •        :
             Fairport Beach                         20           '             '••"..  '
             Madison Township Park                  35                       •
             Painesvilie Township Park       .       39                         •
             Mentor Lagoons              '•        '28
             Perry Township Park               ,25

           Coliform concentrations for the four years represented ranged

      from  a minimum of 10 org./lOO ml recorded at Perry'Township Park in
                                                                            *
      1965  to  a maximum of 5^,200 organisms/100 ml at Madison Township Park

      in 1965.  The range in 1966 was from  200 to 1,UOO organisms/100 ml.

      This  range was equaled or nearly equaled at all beaches in Lake County

      in 1966.                                            *'                .

           No  data are available 'on the  causes of the high coliform concentra-

      tions, but studies in other bathing beaches have  indicated a definite  .

    •  correlation  between high coliform concentrations  and meteorological

      conditions as well as storm runoffs and overflows.  Intensive studies

      should be made to determine the effects on bathing beaches of surface

      runoff and all municipal and industrial wastes that are discharged

      directly to  Lake Erie.   The effects of the streams  on the beaches  should              *

      also  be  studied.  Correlation  of  high coliform concentrations with meteoro-

      logical  conditions  should  be ascertained in  order to determine  the feas-
                                                                             t
      ibility  of temporarily closing the beaches during and  immediately after

      unfavorable  weather conditions.   Routine sampling programs should be set

    •  up for all bathing beaches*  Samples  should be taken at least every other

      day,  and possibly every day during the bathing season.   '


                    •          ;   •     •  7-ia     '     •':•'  :'-'-            :  •

-------
Loadings to Lake Erie




      In addition to the loadings from the Grand and Ashtabula Rivers,




 and Conneaut Creek, three municipal treatment plants,  six industries,




 and several small tributaries discharge wastes to Lake Erie.   Table




 7-3 summarizes the loads to Lake Erie.  Individual discharges of mun-




 icipal treatment plants and industries are shown in Table 6-1 and 6-3.




      The three sewage treatment plants discharging directly to Lake




 Erie are the Ashtabula plant and the two Lake County sewer districts-,




 one at Willoughby-Mentor and the other at Madison.




      The Ashtabula plant is the largest plant in the Northeastern




 Ohio Area and provides intermediate treatment.  The plant removes




 only 37 percent of the BOD,- and discharges 3,^00 pounds per day to




 Lake Erie.  Total coliform concentrations in 196H within the breakwall




 near the sewage treatment plant were as high as 6U,000 organisms/100




 ml with a median of 1,950 organisms/100 ml.




      The Willoughby-Mentor plant also provides intermediate treatment




 and removes 68 percent of the BOD  it receives.  It discharges approx-




 imately 810 pounds of BOD  daily to Lake Erie.




      The Lake County plant at Madison is nothing more than an Imhoff




 tank and removes essentially nothing but large solids.  It removes no




 BOD  and discharges approximately 5^0 pounds of BOD  daily.




      The projected BOD loads from the three sewage treatment plants




 are shown in Table 7-3.




      These plants should provide secondary waste treatment and should




 chlorinate their wastes all year around.

-------
     Of the six industries discharging directly to Lake Erie,  two are




located in Painesville.  They are Midland Ross Corp.  - IRC Fibers




Division, and Diamond Alkali Co.  The Midland Ross Corp. - IRC Fibers




Division discharges some 27^,000 pounds per day of solids, 250,000




pounds per day of which are dissolved.  The dissolved solids include




^0,000 pounds of chlorides and 6,700 pounds of zinc.   The waste also




includes ^,300 pounds per day of grease and 8,700 pounds per day of




BOD.  The Diamond Alkali Company, in addition to its  outfalls to the




Grand River has an outfall discharging directly to Lake Erie.   This




discharge includes 1*3,000 pounds per day of solids, -,37,000 pounds




per day of which are dissolved.  The dissolved solids are primarily




chlorides which account for 26,000 pounds daily.  Diamond Alkali also




discharges 1,000 pounds of ammonia daily.




     The remaining industries that discharge directly to Lake Erie




are all located in the Ashtabula industrial complex.   Russell Road




Ditch is a small tributary of Lake Erie with a flow comprised almost




entirely from waste discharges from Detrex Chemical Industries Inc. -




Chlorine and Alkali Plant, and Union Carbide Corp. - Linde Division




and Metals Division.  The total solids load to Russell Ditch from Union




Carbide Corp. - Metals Division is 18,000 pounds per day and 16,000




pounds per day from the Linde Division.




     In addition to Russell Ditch, Union Carbide Corp. - Metals Division




discharges 18,000 pounds of total solids daily to the Union Carbide




sewer which discharges directly to Lake Erie.




     As discussed earlier the industrial waste production is expected

-------
to double by 1990 and quadruple by 2020.   Table  7-3  shows the loads




that will be discharged to the lake if the present level of treatment




is not improved.

-------
      DIRECT  DISCHARGE

     " rROM  INDUSTRY

     -CONNEAUT  CREEK

    — ASHTABULA  RIVER
    — GRAND   RIVER
DISTRIBUTION  OF
LOADINGS  TO
LAKE   ERIE
(NOTE: DIRECT DISCHARGES
FROM   MUNICIPALITIES
ARE  INSIGNIFICANT.)
SCALE  IN  MILLIONS
     LBS.  PER  DAY
                2.4^10;
                   TOTAL
                                   IO?
                                     s °
                                     s\ o>
                                                                  16.6^10?
                                                                               I   3.1 "« 10°
 DISSOLVED
                         LOADINGS    TO    LAKE

                                        ( SOLIDS )
ERIE

-------
     DIRECT   DISCHARGE
     'FROM  INDUSTRY
     •CONNEAUT   CREEK



     •ASHTABULA   RIVER
    — GRAND   RIVER
DISTRIBUTION  OF
LOADINGS   TO
LAKE   ERIE
(NOTE:  DIRECT  DISCHARGES
FROM   MUNICIPALITIES
ARE  INSIGNIFICANT.)
SCALE  IN  MILLIONS  OF

      LBS.  PER   DAY



- 3


-2


- I


- 0
                                                                   6.7 .10'
                                            8.2
                                         08 » 10,
                                                               1.7
                                                            0.6-v
                       LOADINGS     TO     LAKE     ERIE

                                    (CHLORIDES)

-------
     .DIRECT   DISCHARGE

      FROM   INDUSTRY


     _DIRECT   DISCHARGE

      FROM   MUNICIPAL   8.T.P.


    —CONNEAUT  CREEK
    — ASHTABULA   RIVER
     -GRAND  RIVER
DISTRIBUTION   OF
LOADINGS   TO
LAKE  ERIE
(NOTE:  LOADS  TO  LAKE ERIE  FROM
ASHTABULA   RIVER  AND  CONNEAUT
CREEK   WILL  BE  INSIGNIFICANT  WHEN
PRESENT WASTE LOADS  ARE REMOVED.)
SCALE  IN  THOUSANDS  OF
        L8S.   PER  DAY
r 12
57.9 »
L. 0
                    27.9
                                            8.5 «
                                                                  -i  14.2 > 10
                         LOADINGS      TO      LAKE     ERIE

                                            (  BOD)

-------
                                                                     6Z.6«
     _OIRECT  DISCHAROE

     FROM   INDUSTRY

     DIRECT  DISCHARGE
     FROM   MUNICIPAL   8.T.P.


    —CONNEAUT   CREEK
    — ASHTABULA   RIVER
DISTRIBUTION   OF
LOADINGS   TO
LAKE  ERIE
(NOTE:  LOADS   TO  LAKE ERIE  FROM
ASHTABULA  RIVER  AND  CONNEAUT
CREEK  WILL BE  INSIGNIFICANT  WHEN
PRESENT   WASTE  LOADS  ARE  REMOVED.)
SCALE  IN   HUNDREDS   OF
       L8S.  PER   DAY
r- 8
u 4
•- 0
                   19.2 « 10*
                                           3.4«IO
                                                                   5.i no
                                                                   io:
                        LOADINGS     TO     LAKE     ERIE

                                     (SOLUBLE    PCU)

-------
      TABLE 7-3

LOADINGS TO LAKE ERIE
     (Ibs/day)


Grand
River
Ashtabula
River
Conneaut
Creek
Munic-
ipal*
Imdustria!

Present Loadings
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Chlorides
BOD
Soluble PO.
1*

Total Solids
A
B
Dissolved Solids
A
B
Chlorides
A
B
BOD
A
B
Soluble PO^
A
B

Total Solids
A
B
C
Dissolved Solids
A
B
C
8,500,000
7,300,000
3,900,000
7,200
720


16,000,000
2,000,000

15,000,000
1,500,000

7,800,000
780,000

.." 23,000
1*,000
^3<^>
oi^nnn.
idC ^ % XJ W
220


29,000,000
3,900,000
900,000

27,000,000
2,700,000
800,000
1*60,000
370,000
130,000
1,700
200
1990

800,000
72,000

720,000
61,000

260,000
26 ,000

2,000
##

21*0
#*
2020

1,500,000
11*0,000
1*3,000

1,1*00,000
150,000
70,000
190,000
110,000
17,000
1*,1*00
310
Loadings

193,000
—

110,000
—

17,000
—

6,800
***

1*80
#*#
Loadings

193,000
—
—

100,000
—
—
16,000
10,000
2,800
5,000
590


28,000
9,500

18,000
6,200

5,000
5,000

9,100
2,800

1,000
100


1*8,000
11,000
8,900

30,000
7,000
1,800
1*00,000
360,000
76,000
9,000
100


790,000
79,000

710,000
71,000

150,000
15,000

17,000
1,700

200
20


1,600,000
160,000
1*8,000

1,1*00,000
11*0,000
1*0,000

-------
                         TABLE 7-3 (Cont'd)

                       LOADINGS TO LAKE ERIE
                            (Ibs/day)
  Chlorides
          A
          B
          C
  BOD
          A
          B
          C
  Soluble PO,
          A *
          B
          C
                      Grand
                      River
16,000,000
 1,600,000
   1*80,000

    32,000
     6,000
     2,000

     3,200
       300
        90
            Ashtabula
              River
          Conneaut
           Creek
         Munic-
          ipal*
        Industrial
                                        2020 Loadings
500,000
 50,000
 15,000

  2,200
   *•*
    260
   **
   **
17,000
 8,600
  *#*
  #*#
   600
  #*#
  *##
 8,400
 8.UOO
 8,1*00

15,000
 3,600
 1,000

 1,800
   170
    50
150,000
 15,000
 36 ,000
  3,600
  1,000

    UOO
     1*0
     10
  A = Loadings @ present level of treatment
  B = Loadings % 90% removal (secondary treatment)
  C = Loadings @ 91% removal (tertiary treatment)
 ••* Does not include storm water
 ** Loading from unsevered area.  If connected to Ashtabula STP the load
    would be discharged to Lake Erie.
*** If Conneaut STP discharged to Lake Erie and unsewered areas of Lake-
    ville connected to it, the loadings would be discharged directly to
    Lake Erie.

-------
                          Pennsylvania Area






     The streams of Pennsylvania that  flow  to  Lake Erie  are very small




and, except for those in Greater Erie, pass through  relatively unpopu-




lated areas.




     Elk Creek, the largest of the Lake Erie Tributaries draining  100




square miles, receives discharges from two  sewage treatment plants,




Lake City and Girard.  Elk Creek is classified by the Pennsylvania




Health Department as a "complete treatment  stream,"  which means that all




municipal and industrial waste discharges to the stream must  have




adequate secondary treatment.  The Girard sewage treatment plant does




not meet this requirement and has been placed  under  orders by the




Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board.  This plant presently removes only




65 percent of the BOD load it receives.  Girard should immediately




provide secondary treatment.  Removing 90 percent  of the raw  BOD will




lower the effluent BOD concentration to under  15 mg/1.  In a  small




stream such as Elk Creek the BOD concentration must  be kept low because




of the lack of sufficient quantity of water for dilution.  In order to




maintain a low concentration of BOD in Elk  Creek the sewage treatment




plants in Girard and Lake City should provide  tertiary treatment by




2020.  Although the population growth in this  area will not be  great,  it




will be large enough by 2020 to cause degrading conditions in Elk  Creek




if only secondary treatment is provided.




     Another water quality problem in Elk Creek is  caused by  the  dis-




charges from the Gunnison Bros. Tannery located in Girard Township and

-------
discharging to Brandy Run,  a tributary of Elk Creek.  A  recent  grab

sample taken by the Pennsylvania Health Department  indicated high

concentrations of BOD and solids.   The BOD concentration was 320 mg/1

and concentrations were *t,850 mg/1 for total solids and  900 mg/1 for

suspended solids.  The volume of waste discharged is  only  2,500

gallons per day.  Although this discharge is quite  small,  it should

be noted that the flow in the receiving stream is also small,  es-

pecially in the late summer months.  The water quality of  Elk  Creek

and Brandy Run is at times degraded from the waste  discharged  from

Gunnison Bros.
                                                               A
     The concentrations of BOD and solids produced by '• tanner  are

extremely large./,5-econdary treatment         --presently employed  at

Gunnison Bros, cannot remove large enough concentrations of these

constituents                        'for discharge to a  small  stream

such as Brandy Run.  Tertiary treatment or at least 98 percent removal

of BOD and suspended solids should be an immediate objective of

Gunnison Bros.

     The largest pollution problem in the Pennsylvania streams is  in

Cascade Creek, Garrison Run, and Mill Creek.  These streams flow through

Erie and receive the combined sewers overflow from the  Erie collection

system.  Mill Creek, flows under the City of Erie through a large  tube.

In the past, this creek was used as a sewer for industrial waste dis-

charges.  Erie Brewing Co. was the principal industry that discharged

to Mill Creek.   This industry has since connected to the municipal

sewer system and their wastes are now treated by the Erie Sewage Treatment

-------
Plant.




     Large BOD loads are discharged from the  combined  sewer overflovs.




A combined system carries storm vater and sewage  in  one  sewer.  With




small or moderate rainfall the volume of waste  to the  sewage treatment




plant becomes too large for the plant to handle.   Combined systems




are designed to bypass through the overflow structures all wastes




that cannot be handled by the sewage treatment  plant.  During  storms




approximately half the discharge from the overflows  is raw municipal




sewage.  The larger the storm, the larger the discharge  of raw




sewage to the streams.  These overflow discharges not  only aid in




degradation of water quality of the streams but create a definite




health hazard.  Coliform concentration in the three  streams were over




1,000,000 organisms/100 ml.  Cascade Creek, Garrison Run, and  Mill




Creek all discharge in Presque Isle Bay, and all three of these streams




have a degrading effect on the waters of the bay.




     Enteric pathogen studies in Mill Creek and Erie Harbor revealed




that several Salmonella isolations were present.   These  are all




direct disease causing organisms and are pathogenic  to man.  Table  7-




is a tabulation of the findings.




     Since combined sewers present a health hazard,  they should be  re-




moved wherever possible.  Erie is presently converting portions of  its




combined sewer to separate sewers.  In separate systems  storm  water is




separated from municipal and industrial waste and therefore, will not




overload the sewage treatment plant.  The storm water  is discharged




without treatment to the nearest open water course.  However,  storm water

-------
     ing Site
      sev;er
  (Wallace and
   Front manhole)
13.11 Creek
  (VIest of STP)

Coast Guard
  (Boathouso )

Trunk Sev:sr
  (Wallace and
   Front manhole

Mill Creek
  (West of STP)
   (Wallace  and
   Frcn^ r^nhols
 Coast Guard
   (Boathouse)

 Trunk Sev/er
   (Wallace and
    Front rranhole)

 Mill Creek
   (West of ST?)

 Mill Creek
   (Walla co and
    Front manhole)

 Coast Guard
   (Boathcuse)
ERIH,
March - July,
Date of
Collection
3-8-65
3-8-65
3-8-65
4-12-65
4-12-65
4-12-65

4-12-65
5-3-65
5-3-65
' 5-3-65
-..,---
PA.
1965
Salmonella
3. san diego '
S. cubana
S. muenchen
S. enteritidis
S. schwarzengrund
S. san diego
3. derby
3. nev.'port
S. alachua
3. alachua
S. newport
S. derby
3. nev.-port
3. cvba~a
S. alachua
negative
S. cubana
S. cubana
S» cubana^.


Serot^es
(isolates)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(1)
a)
a)
(2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
' (12)
(1)

(2)
(3)
(7)
5-3-65
S. cubana
(4)

-------
                   TABLE 7-   (concluded)

                 ISOLATIONS 0? SALMONELLAE

ERIE, PA
March - July
Sampling Site Date of
Collection
Trunk Sewer
(Wallace and
Front manhole)
Mill Creek
(West of STP)
Coast Guard
(1,000 feet east)
Presque Isle State
Park (E. Gull Point)
Presque Isle State
Park, Beach 11
N. bathing area
Mill Creek
(West of STP)
Trunk Sewer '
(Wallace and
Front Manhole)
Beach Comber Hotel
Presque Isle State <••
Park, Beach 11
(South Ski area)
Coast Guard (1,000 ft
6-2-65
6-2-65
6-2-65
6-2-65
6-2-65
7-12-65
7-12-65
7-12-65
...-7-12-65
E.) 7-21-65
Coast Guard (Boat house) 7-12-65
Presque Isle State
Park, Beach 11
(N. bathing area)
Presque Isle State
Park, Beach 1
Presque Isle State
7-12-65
7-12-65
7-12-65
, 1965
Salmonella
S. heidelberg
S. bredeney
S. bare illy.
S. heidelberg
negative
negative
negative
S . newport
S. enteritidis
S . cubana
S. heidelberg
S. enteritidis
negative
negative ••-•
negative
S. panama
negative
negative
negative

Serotypes
(isolates)
(8)
(1)
(1)
(1)



(D
(1)
(1)
(5)



(2)
•


Park, Beach 11
(E. Gull Point)

-------
  picks up large quantities  of organic  material  from  street and land




  washing.  This organic material  should be  removed before discharge to




  open waters.   All storm water from built-up municipal areas with com-




  bined sewers  or separate sewers  should be  treated and disinfected




  before discharge.  Plans for treatment are an  immediate need and the




  operation should be going full scale  by  1971.




  Direct to Lake Erie




       The largest industrial and municipal  waste  discharges  in the




  Pennsylvania area are located in Erie.   The Hammermill Paper Company




  and the Erie Sewage Treatment Plant both discharge  their wastes directly




  to Lake Erie east of Erie Harbor.




       The effects of the wastes from Hammermill Paper Company on the




  waters of Lake Erie can be seen for miles. Wastes  from the bleaching




  process imparts foam and color to the waters which, with westerly winds,




  have been detected along the shoreline for 20  to 30 miles.  With winds




  from the east, some of the waste discharged by Hammermill  gets  into




  the Erie water supply.  Taste problems have occurred in  Erie's  drinking




  water when such winds prevail.  The taste  is  attributed  to the  lignins




  and/or tannins which are a waste product of the  pulping  process  from




  the Hammermill Plant.  The lignins and tannins were supposed to  be




  removed from the discharge to Lake Erie by  deep well injection  of the




  spent liquors wastes; however, there  are still some present.   This




.,  taste of odor-producing constituents  should be immediately removed




  along with the color and foam.




       The wastes from Hammermill's effluent is  also tremendously high




  in oxygen consuming material.  Previous  discharges from the paper

-------
company had. a BODS of approximately 1!A,000  Ibs/day  or  a population




equivalent of 860,000.   Much of this BOD   load has been removed by




Hammermill Paper Company by injecting  its  spent liquor wastes into




deep veils.  Hovever, the discharge to Lake  Erie still  contains




approximately 62,000 pounds of BOD  per day  (PE of 370,000).   Even with




the removal of the spent liquor wastes, the  percent  removal of BOD- is




only 60 percent.




     A survey conducted by the Pennsylvania  Health Department  in




September 1966 indicated that the BOD,- concentrations in  Lake  Erie




in the vicinity of Hammermill's discharge ranged from 8 to 32  ppm as




compared to 0.5 to 2.8 ppm found at other locations  in  the lake.




     In order to remove the BOD  load to  Lake Erie,  the Hammermill




Paper Company is applying to the Federal  Government  for a. research




grant to determine the feasibility of having  its  wastes  treated by




the Erie sewage treatment plant.




     The Pennsylvania Health Department has  Hammermill  under  orders




to improve their treatment and are requiring greater removal  of BOD^




and suspended solids and to alleviate the foaming  and color problem.




     The color and foaming creates esthetically undesirable conditions




especially for  swimmers, boaters, fishermen.  The water  is a brownish-




black color in the bay and along the shore as far  east  as the Penn-




sylvania-New York line.  The foam can also be seen for many miles.




There is no definite division between the black waters  of the inshore




area with the clear offshore waters.  The color seems to  blend into




the clear water with no distinct division between  the two; however,

-------
there is a definite contrast between the waste affected water and

the clear unaffected waters about one-quarter mile offshore.

     Just west of Hairanermill Paper Company's outfalls is the  Erie

Sewage Treatment Plant outfall.  The treatment plant discharges 6,700

pounds of BOD,- per day to the lake.  The Erie plant provides  secondary

treatment and removes on an average approximately 85 percent  of the

BOD,- load to the plant.  The plant is operating near capacity, however,
                                      i;.:.'J,-,t':r.  nc'^r'
and frequently by-passes raw sewage to^Erie Bay.  Expansion of the

Erie Sewage treatment plant will be necessary in the near future in

order to provide adequate treatment for the increase in waste loads

that will accompany this population growth of Erie and the connection

of presently unsewered areas.

     One such unsewered area is along the lake and "bay front.  Kouses,

cabins, motels, restaurants, etc. are located at the foot of the "bluff

atop of which the City of Erie and the sewage treatment plant are

located.  Presently the sanitary wastes from this area have been dis-

charged directly to Lake Erie or Presque Isle Bay.  At times during

the summer when the resorts are in full operation, the pollution affects

the water quality of the nearby beaches of Presque Isle State Park.

Although these beaches are presently well within the safe range for

swimming, it is apparent that with the increase in population and the

increase of tourist attraction to the park, this potential health

hazard should be immediately removed.  Not only will the waste loads

increase but the number of swimmers using these waters will increase.

Two projects have been proposed by the City of Erie to collect the

-------
waste from this area and pump it up to the Erie sewage treatment




plant .  The plans for the Kelso Beach Area Project and the Bay Front




Project have been drawn and are awaiting a method of finance.   These




projects should not be delayed and construction should start immediately.




     Large fish kills occur yearly in Presque Isle Bay due to temper-




ature changes from the discharge of the Pennsylvania Electric Co.  in




Erie.  Gizzard shad which enter Presque Isle Bay from the open lake




waters are highly sensitive to temperature changes and are killed




from this increase in water temperature.  This fish is considered




not to be a sport fish and these kills are not reported by the




Pennsylvania Fish Commission.




     Biological investigation in the Presque Isle Bay area indicated




an abundance of filamentous green alga Cladophora in most areas where




depth was less than six feet.  Serious nuisance conditions have developed




affecting home owners and boating.




     Bottom deposits in the harbor were a brownish-black combination




of mud, silt, -and detritus with numerous clam and snail relics.  Sewage




chemical odors were present from some bottom deposits inside and outside




the harbor.




     A wide variety of bottom fauna was found in Erie Harbor.  Snails




were abundant and comprised the largest part of the biomass.  The most




common were Amnicola sp. Valvata sincere, V_. tricarinata, Bithinia




tentaculata, and Pomacea sp. all of which are sensitive to low dissolved




oxygen and excessive organic pollution.  Other pollution sensitive




bottom dwellers were Gammarus fasciatus and Hyalella azteca (scuds)

-------
and Psychomvia sp. (caddis larvae).   The moderately tolerant Asellus




militaris (sowbug) and several low dissolved oxygen sensitive  species




of leeches were found.




     The results indicate that Erie Harbor is in fairly good biological




condition.  Comparison of Erie Harbor with other Lake Erie harbors




shows it to have a far greater variety of bottom organisms than any




of the others.  However, coliform concentrations around Mill Creek  and




Cascade Creek ranged from 6,000 to 500,000 organisms per 100 ml. This




as discussed earlier is probably due to pollution entering the bay




from Mill Creek, Garrison Run, and Cascade Creek.

-------
                                                TABLE
                                             FISH KILLS*
Date
7/11/6U


7/2U/614


8A/61*



7/19/65


6/11/65

8/9/66
Location
Presque Isle Bay


Lake Erie - South pier


Lake Erie - south pier
                                                 Number  - Type
                                            Pennsylvania
                                                 336,000-northern pike,
                                                 bluegills, "bass

                                                 2,000 - perch, bass, wall-
                                                 eye, catfish, sheepshead

                                                 U-5 ton - perch, catfish,
                                                 walleye, sheepshead
                 Presque Isle Bay -• public       2,000 fingerlings -
                   dock                          various species
Lake Erie & Presque Isle Bay


Lake Erie


Elk Creek
                                                 number not determined
                                                 perch and catfish

                                                 20 walleye
                                                 10,000 - trout, bass,
                                                 suckers , bullheads
                                                           Cause - Source
                                                           Cyanide - metal plating
                                                           Oxygen depletion -
                                                           paper mill waste

                                                           Oxygen depletion -
                                                           paper mill waste

                                                           Oxygen depletion - rainfall-
                                                           scoured storm sewer  - silt
                                                           & BOD shock load

                                                           Oxygen depletion -
                                                           paper mill waste

                                                           Oxygen depletion - source
                                                           not determined

                                                           Dieldrin - sewage treat-
                                                           ment plant
* Data obt.'.Vi\f-:-' tVoin Pe'oisyl •/•••<\l n Depart at Tit of Health

-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                    MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
                               IN THE
                         PENNSYLVANIA AREA
Municipalities
Sewerage
Service Area
Lake City
Girard
Present
Treatment
Secondary
Secondary
1966
Population
Served
1,720
2,500
Plant Needs
None
Additions and
   Erie
   North East
                            Improvement s

Secondary      140,000      Expansion and collection
                            system for unsewered
                            areas.

Secondary        5,000      None
Industries
       Name
     Location
Control Measures Needed
   Gunnison Bros.

   Hammermi.1.1


   Welch Grape Juice

   Parker White Metal

   Pennsylvania
     Electric

   Interlake Steel

   Erie Reduction

   General Electric
  Girard Township

  Erie


  North East

  Fairview

  Erie


  Erie

  Erie

  Lawrence Park
Tertiary

Secondary and color, foam,
taste and odor producers.

Color, BOD

Evaluate improvements

None


Phenols & Solids*

Evaluate improvements

Evaluate improvements
      Presently closed, requirement "before start of operations

-------
                         Bathing Beaches




     Although there are several small "beaches along the Lake Erie




shoreline in Pennsylvania, the only major area is Presque Isle State




Park, located on the peninsula separating Lake Erie from Presque Isle




Bay.  There are eleven main beaches on Presque Isle all located on




the Lake Erie side of the peninsula.  The water quality of these




beaches is generally good except for beach 11.  Data on coliform




concentrations at each beach area obtained from the park administration




is shown in Figure        .  As indicated, "beach 11 has very high




maximum concentrations and quite high median concentrations.  This is




caused by pollution from several sources.  With correct wind direction,




the effluent from the Erie sewage treatment plant effects the water




quality at the "beach.  Previously the plant only disinfected its effluent




during the summer months; however, for the past four years, the Erie




plant has been chlorinating its discharge continuously all year around.




     Another pollution source is the combined sewers overflow from the




Erie area which discharges in the bay by way of several streams passing




through the Greater Erie Area.  During rains these overflows discharge




raw sewage which can eventually effect the water quality at "beach 11.




Ooher  raw sewage discharges from residences and tourists in motels




and cabins along the bay front and lakeshore also aid in degrading the




water quality.  Still another source of pollution to beach 11 is the




bird sanctuary located to the north.  A large total coliform concentration




can be contributed from this area in the form of animal wastes.  All




these sources have adversely effected the water quality which has re-

-------
                                           DATA OBTAINED '"DM SPECIAL ITUOV

                                             or CNVMOMMCNTAL HCM.TM.
0 NUMBER 0' SAMPLES

g YEAH (BATHINO SEASON)



 MILE SCALE
  BATHING  BEACH   STUDIES
PRESQUE  ISLE  STATE  PARK

-------
quired that beach 11 be closed, approximately      percent last summer.




     The other beaches of Presque Isle, although they  occasionally




have high maximum concentrations, are generally of good vater quality.




Beach 1 occasionally is effected by the raw sewage from homes and




motels west of the peninsula.  The problem of raw sewage discharges




to Lake Erie and Presque Isle Bay will be alleviated with the con-




struction of two bay front and lakefront sewer project s which have




been planned by the City of Erie.

-------
                           Nev York Area




     The Nev York Area comprises the eastern end of the  Lake  Erie




Drainage Basin.   The area drains approximately 2,900 square miles




and extends  6?    miles along Lake Erie from the Pennsylvania-




New York line to and including the Buffalo River.




     The major streams are the Buffalo River, Eighteenmile Creek,




and Cattaraugus Creek.  The Buffalo River is formed by three  trib-




utaries namely Buffalo Creek, Cayuga Creek, and Cazenovia Creek.




The Buffalo River drains ^36 square miles as it flows to Lake Erie




through the City of Buffalo.  This river is an extreme example of




the degradation of once clean waters to a virtual cesspool.   During




low flow, the river is composed of concentrated industrial and




municipal wastes and is probably the most grossly polluted river




in the Lake Erie Basin.  Cattaraugus Creek is another example of




gross pollution; however, it flows through a much less populated area.




     Except for the Greater Buffalo Metropolitan Area, the New York




Area is predominately rural.  The present and projected populations




are shown below.  The majority of the population is from the rapidly




developing southern and eastern suburbs of Buffalo.  The City of




Buffalo itself is not included in this report since the Buffalo sewage




treatment plant discharges to the Niagara River rather than Lake Erie.




However, it should be noted that the City of Buffalo does contribute




a large share of the pollution loads to the Buffalo River through storm




water and combined sewer overflows.

-------
    PRESENT & PROJECTED POPULATIONS




              NEW YORK AREA






   I960         1980         2020




50^,000      790,000    1,100,000

-------
Buffalo River




     The Buffalo River system of Buffalo River, Cazenovia Creek,




Cayuga Creek, and Buffalo Creek varies from very good quality waters




at the headwaters to extremely poor.  At its mouth the navigation




channel waters are essentially concentrated municipal and other




wastes in which no biological organisms exist.




Cazenovia Creek




     Waste materials discharged by the Village of East Aurora, septic




tank effluents, and misused storm drains seriously affect the water




quality of Cazenovia Creek.  The West Branch of the creek and the




East Branch above East Aurora generally maintain good water quality




with only several areas of limited enrichment from septic tank




effluents.




     The waste discharge from the secondary treatment plant at East




Aurora contained over 80 mg/1 of BOD,- during 1966.  This concentration




is much higher than can be adequately assimilated by the stream, and




thus the waters are severely degraded.  Only pollution tolerant




sludgeworms, bloodworms, and air-breathing snails are found for sev-




eral miles downstream.




     This stream is excessively productive even after it is diluted




by the West Branch.  Dense growths of Cladophora and Hydrodictyon




cover the stream bottom.  Four miles below the Junction of these




streams excessive enrichment is still found and Cladophora form a




solid mat over much of the stream.  Throughout this area, diurnal




dissolved oxygen variations are quite pronounced.  These variations

-------
produce short periods of low concentrations of dissolved oxygen with




minimum values being observed just before dawn.  In the next eight




miles the stream recovers almost completely from the upstream waste




source.  The excessive nutrient concentrations have "been removed "by




the dense Cladophora growths.  In this sector only sparse growths




occur and a wide variety of organisms are found.  However, effects




of the upstream pollution can still be found in pooled areas where




algae and other organic matter collects and decomposes after being




washed down from upstream.  During the summer and fall this decomposing




material may act to produce serious oxygen depletions in the stream.




     The effluent from septic tanks and misused storm drains in the




West Seneca area contribute to the pollution of the lower 2.5 miles




of Cazenovia Creek.  The lower 0.7 miles are affected by backwater




pollution from the Buffalo River industries during low flow.  All




sources of pollution in this area should be connected to a metro-




politan sewerage system.




Cayuga Creek




     The Villages of Depew and Lancaster, and the Symington Wayne




Corporation are the major polluters of Cayuga Creek.  Of the three




major tributaries to the Buffalo River, Cayuga Creek has by far the




lowest minimum flow.  This plays a large part in its inability to




handle even moderate wastes, not to mention the relatively large




loadings it presently receives.




     Above Lancaster only a relatively low level of nutrients are




found along with a population of pollution sensitive bottom organisms

-------
in both Cayuga Creek and its tributary Little Buffalo Creek.  This




sector contains water of excellent quality, and only the relatively




low flows prevent the development of a balanced fishery.




     In the lower nine miles of its length, Cayuga Creek receives




the poorly treated plant effluents from Depew and Lancaster, septic




tank effluents, storm water overflows, untreated industrial wastes




from the Symington Wayne Corporation, garbage and drainings from




the village of Depew1s dump, and garbage and debris from various other




sources.  Conditions typical of severe pollution exist throughout this




lower nine miles.  The water varies from grey to brown to black and




normally is turbid and has a strong sewer odor during low flow periods.




The two predominant bottom fauna are the pollution tolerant sludge-




worms and bloodworms.  In many slow moving areas the stream bottom




is covered with a black, oily, septic sludge; and fecal matter has




been observed floating in the water.




     This area is typical of many locations where a lack of planning




and foresight have resulted in what is for all practical purposes a




running sewer during low flow periods.  An area-wide development plan




should be set up and put into action which would combine these two




plants and other nearby expanding areas into one effective plant




operation.




Buffalo Creek




     Except for the lower two miles, Buffalo Creek is of excellent




water quality with only a minimal amount of nutrients from wastes




present.  In the early spring trout are taken from the upper reaches

-------
of Buffalo Creek and its first tributaries.   Slight nutrients are




added by small hamlets such as Strykerville, Porterville,  and Java




Village, but these in the past have had little effect on the stream.




Pollution sensitive species of aquatic insect larva are found




throughout this reach.




     It is only when Buffalo Creek enters the Gardenville  area at




mile 2.2 that the first noticeable signs of organic pollution are




in evidence.  The effluent from septic tanks in this area  has upset




the normal biota of the stream, and slight septic odors are detect-




ible.  The water becomes moderately turbid and the bottom  fauna




consist predominately of leeches and air-breathing snails.  Below




this point, additional waste inputs continue to degrade the water




quality of Buffalo Creek.  Oil wastes from the Pennsylvania Railroad




shops enter Buffalo Creek at the New York Central Railroad bridge




(mile point 1.7)«  These wastes accumulate in a swamp during dry




periods.  Fires have occurred in the swamp.   The large quantities of




accumulated oils discharge rapidly to Buffalo Creek during heavy




rainfalls which are contributed to the oil films present on Niagara




River during high flow in the Buffalo River.  A program should be




instituted by the Pennsylvania Railroad to completely remove all oils




which may get into the stream and to prevent all future discharges of




oils to the area's waters.




Buffalo River




     The portion of this drainage system extending downstream from




the confluence of Buffalo and Cayuga Creeks is designated as the

-------
Buffalo River.




     The flow in the Buffalo River is negligible during dry periods.




The sum of the minimum 7 day 10-year return flow in the tributaries




is 9-2 second feet.  It takes more than 70 days of this flow to equal




the volume of water in the dredged portion of the river.  At low flow




both the rate and direction of movement of water in the dredged




channel is primarily influenced by the rise and fall of Lake Erie




levels at the river mouth.




     The effect of Lake Erie levels on the level and flow in the river




extends upstream to mile point 6.6.  Cazenovia Creek is similarly




affected up to the dam at Stevenson Street or 0.7 miles above its




mouth.  During periods of low flow, wastes discharged to this pseudo




tidal sector of the river may travel both upstream and downstream




from the point of discharge.




     The waters entering the Buffalo River at the confluence of




Buffalo and Cayuga Creeks is poor in quality.  One tenth mile down-




stream of the junction the effluent from the Cheektowaga sewage




treatment plant No. 3 causes additional degradation.




     The West Seneca treatment plant discharges its effluent at mile




point 7.7-  Tests performed by the New York Health Department in




December of 1966 indicated that at that time the effluent from this




primary plant contained over 80 mg/1 of BOD^, and showed a net plant




efficiency of only 30 percent BOD  removal.  The river continues to




deteriorate from this point to its confluence with Lake Erie.




     Several storm water overflows of the combined sewer system

-------
discharge to the river.  About one mile above the mouth, raw




sanitary sewage from the area between the Buffalo River and West




Canal discharges to the river.  Industrial wastes from chemical,




coke, steel, refinery and grain malting plants discharge to the




river.




     Prior to March 196? five major industries on the Buffalo River




pumped 100 mgd (   155 second ft) from the river for process and




cooling water.  During low flow periods they were literally recir-




culating their waste waters and increasing the concentration of many




polluting constituents.




     Extremely heavy films of heavy oil accumulate and are present




on the Buffalo River at all times except during flood flows.  Although




the refinery has reduced the concentration of oil in its effluent




below 10 mg/1 they discharge about 1,500 Ibs per day.  Oil discharges




from the Republic Steel Plant, Donner Hanna Coke Plant, the Penn-




sylvania Railroad shops entering upstream to Buffalo Creek, sanitary




wastes and combined sewer overflows also are significant contributions.




The heavy oil films on the river and the oil coated shores effectively




prevent boating or any recreational activity on the river.




     Because of the prevailing winds these oils tend to move upstream




rather than downstream during periods of low flow.  A large increase




in river flow moves most of these oils out into the Niagara River




during a period of two to four days.  This results in noticeable oil




films along the United States shore of the Niagara River down to the




Falls and at times are obviously apparent from Lewiston to the mouth

-------
of the Niagara.




     The industrial plants have reduced the total quantity of




industrial waste ph enol entering the river "by more than 70 percent




ih the last twenty-five years.  In spite of this reduction, maximum




concentrations over 1,000 yg/1 are usually present some time each




year in the section extending from mile point 3 to mile point 5.




Average concentration present in the sector usually less than 500




Ug/1.  Fortunately, the reduction that has "been accomplished has




reduced the effect on the Niagara River such that the formerly




frequent reported occurrences of phenolic tastes and odors in the




finished water of the downstream municipal water plants have almost




if not completely "been eliminated.  However, the present concentra-




tions are high enough to "be a potential hazard to the municipal




supplies and need to "be further reduced.




     Biological, microbiological, and other chemical data further




demonstrate the degraded condition of the river water.  There are




no bottom dwelling biological organisms except for a very short




distance above the mouth where the cooler Lake Erie water intrudes




up along the bottom.  The annual maximum coliform MPN in most of the




river is usually about 230,000.  The median count has ranged from




10,000 to 90,000 at various locations in the river.




     During warm water and low flow periods BOD  values as high as




6l mg/1 have been found in the middle sector of the river with the




average less than 15 in all sectors.  During above normal flow and




lower water temperatures the river water contains up to 10 or more

-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS

                    MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
                                IN
                       BUFFALO RIVER BASIN
Municipalities
Sewerage
Service Area
Present
Treatment
I960
Population
Served
Plant Needs
    East Aurora
Secondary
25,000
Tertiary
    Holland
    Lackawanna
Septic Tanks
Primary
    West Seneca SD 6  Primary
    Cheektowaga SD 3  Secondary
    Depew
Primary
    Lancaster SD 1    Secondary
   950     Collection system &
           tertiary

26,100     Secondary (outfall
           to Lake Erie

 6,320     Tertiary (connect to
           metro system

15,200     Tertiary (connect to
           metro system)

13,700     Tertiary (connect to
           metro system)

 3,160     Tertiary (connect to
           metro system)
Industries
        Name
     Buffalo Chemical Div.
           Location
       Control Measures Needed
General Mills
Pillsbury
Republic Steel
Donner Hanna Coke
Allied Chemical-
Buffalo
Buffalo
Buffalo
Buffalo
Buffalo
Connect to city sewers
Connect to city sewers
Oils, solids, color, acid,
iron
Oil, phenol, BOD
None

-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS

                    MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
                                IN
                       BUFFALO RIVER BASIN
                           (continued)
Industries
         Name
 Location
Control Measures Needed
    Allied Chemical-
     Buffalo Dye

    Mobile Oil

    Pennsylvania Railroad   West Seneca

    Symington Wayne           Depev

              Malting
Buffalo      Color, solids, BOD,
             acid, phenol

Buffalo      Oils, phenols

             Oil

             Oil, BOD, color

Buffalo      Connect to city sewers

-------
Eighteenmile Creek




     Sighteenmile Creek generally maintains fair to good water




quality except below the Village of Hamburg.   The South Branch and




the upper main stem above Boston are normally of excellent (Duality.




Moderate to heavy enrichment is apparent throughout the remainder




of the main stem.




     Above Hamburg moderate enrichment was evidenced by the abun-




dance of attached algae, moderately sensitive species of bottom




organisms, and scavengers which indicate a large supply of organic




material.  The source of this enrichment is most probably from land




runoff, the several small treatment plants and the numerous septic




tanks in the towns of Boston, Evans, and Hamburg.




     Below the point where the Village of Hamburg's treatment plant




effluent enters Eighteenmile Creek, the stream is degraded and




becomes anaerobic at times during low flow.  This plant discharges




significant loadings of organic matter and nutrients.  Due to the




high natural reaeration of the stream as it flows to Lake Erie,




it recovers from this loading in about three to four miles, although




enrichment is still present at this point.  As it enters the lake




affected area, the stream appears well recovered from the effects




of Hamburg's pollution.




     As this area is growing with the expansion of Buffalo, there




is a present need for an area-wide plan for the orderly development




of treatment facilities.  Because of the low flow in these streams,




all areas should be combined to treatment works discharging to Lake




Erie by 1980.

-------
Cattaraugus Creek




     Cattaraugus Creek varies in water quality from excellent to




grossly polluted.  Figure      shows the relative degree of pol-




lution of the various sections along the creek.




     As indicated "by Figure      , the first sources of pollution are




near the headwaters.  Several industries and the municipal sewage




treatment plant, all located in the village of Arcade, discharge




their wastes to Cattaraugus Creek.  The principal problem is from




the Arcade sewage treatment plant which receives domestic wastes




from approximately 1,900 people and sewage and industrial wastes




from industries, employing approximately 1,000 people.  The plant




provides secondary treatment; however, the process is affected "by




the industrial wastes containing cyanides, zinc, copper, and




cadmium ions.




     Floating solids are present in Cattaraugus Creek in the immed-




iate vicinity of the sewage treatment plant's outfall. Cyanides,




cadmium, and copper are present in the creek just "below the outfall




according to the New York State Health Department.  These constituents




are toxic to fish and other aquatic life and should "be removed "by




industries "before discharging to the municipal sewer system.  The




Arcade sewage treatment plant is under orders "by the New York Health




Department to improve their treatment.  Being near the headwaters




of Cattaraugus Creek creates an additional problem.  During the low




flow season, there is very little flow in the creek above the sewage




treatment plant outfall to dilute the waste discharged.  Small loads

-------
can, therefore, degrade the water quality of the  stream.   Due  to

this condition the Arcade sewage treatment plant  should provide                 j

advanced waste treatment (tertiary treatment)  which  should remove

98 percent of the BOD  load.                                                   i
                     ^                                                         I

     Cattaraugus Creek in its upper reach has an  extremely high                 ;

reaeration rate due to the steep slope and swift  flow.  This aids               ;
                                                                               i
in the natural self-purification of the waters.   The waters recover            i
                                                                               i
to a natural condition as it flows through the Zoar  Valley.                    ;

     Upstream from Gowanda, Cattaraugus Creek is  in  excellent                   \
                                                                               |
biological condition.  The water is clear with the stream bottom                :

consisting of boulder, cobble, gravel, and sand,  except in pooled               j
                                                                               i
areas where a little fine silt was deposited.  Through the Zoar                 j
                                                                               t
                                                                               i
Valley the stream supported a wide variety of pollution sensitive               |

bottom-dwelling animals.  Pollution sensitive species of  mayfly                 >
                                                                               I
nymphs and caddis fly larvae were predominant.  Very sparse growths            i
                                                                               i
                                                                               I
of Cladophora were found on rocks, and equally sparse growths  of                I

Elodea, an aquatic plant, were found in a few locations where  a                 ;

little silt had collected.  This portion of the stream is typical               '

of a nutrient-poor, relatively unpolluted stream with a minimum  of             .
                                                                               I

dissolved and suspended organic material.

     As Cattaraugus Creek flows through Gowanda,  the water quality

changes from the relatively clean natural waters  with scenic  beauty

to a grossly polluted open sewer.  Oils, toxic wastes, organic load-

ings, suspended and dissolved solids, and inadequately treated dom-

estic wastes are poured into the creek in the vicinity of Gowanda.

-------
The Peter Cooper Corporation, and Moench Tanning Co.  are the




principal sources of these vastes.  The Eastern Tanners Division of




the Peter Cooper Corporation, manufacturers of glue,  discharge a




BODc load equivalent to the untreated sewage from 150,000 people.




In addition some 65 tons of total solids are discharged daily to




Cattaraugus Creek.  The Moench Tannery Company discharges a BOD,-




load equivalent to the untreated sevage from 50,000 people.  Wastes




from both Peter Cooper Corp. and Moench Tannery Co. contain ammonia,




grease, and chromium constituents.  These tvo industries provide no




more than primary treatment to their vastes.  The Moench Tannery Co.




does not have sludge removal facilities and periodically dumps the




sludge into Cattaraugus Creek.  This load is probably equivalent to




the untreated wastes of another 30,000 people.  These plants should




immediately provide advanced treatment to all their wastes and should




remove at least 98 percent of the BOD and solids loads.  There should




be additional facilities for removing the chrome from the discharge




to Cattaraugus Creek.




     In addition, the sewage treatment plants, the Gowanda State




Hospital, and the Village of Gowanda discharge inadequately treated




sewage to Cattaraugus Creek.  Both plants provide only primary treat-




ment for the 7>200 people served.  The plant at the state hospital




also receives cannery wastes which increase the organic solids load




during the canning season.




     Secondary treatment should be an immediate objective of both




plants.  The estimated population growth for Gowanda is not great, so




adequately operated secondary treatment for these two sewage treatment




plants should be sufficient through 2020.

-------
     Biological investigation of Cattaraugus Creek below all waste




discharges from Gowanda indicated that aquatic life was limited to




only pollution-tolerant sludgeworms and bloodworms with luxuriant




growths of Sphaerotilis (sewage fungus) and the blue-green alga




Oscillitoria.  The water was cloudy and had a dirty gray color.  The




odor was septic.  Black anaerobic sludge deposits were found and all




of the rocks were blackened from the effects of hydrogen sulfide.




These septic conditions are caused by the extremely high oxygen demand




wastes from the above-mentioned sources.




     To add still further to the unsightly conditions, a dumping area




is located along the banks of the creek in the village of Gowanda.




As can be seen in Figure         , everything from garbage to refriger-




ators are dumped in this area.  The dump not only is an eyesore but




adds organic and bacterial pollution to the waters as garbage is thrown




into the creek.  Dumps along stream banks are prohibited by the recom-




mendations set forth by the conferees of the Lake Erie Enforcement




Conference,and this dump should be removed immediately.




     In the six miles from Gowanda to Versailles, the creek shows only




a slight improvement.  At Versailles, the biological conditions were




typical of an early recovery zone with sludgeworms, bloodworms, and




blackfly larvae leeches, the predominant bottom fauna.  Sphaerotilis




and sludge deposits were still present, although not as abundant as




they were downstream from Gowanda.




     As Cattaraugus Creek flows through the Cattaraugus Indian Reser-

-------
vation and the community of Irving, the water quality becomes  once




again degraded.




     The slope of the stream in this area is much reduced and  the




velocity is lower.  Due to the reduction in velocity, the algae that




are carried downstream settle out and start to decompose.




     The stream bottom near Irving was sand and gravel where stream




flow was moderate; however, in pooled areas extensive sludge deposits




were found.  Figure       shows typical conditions found in this area.




The sludge was about two feet deep and anaerobic conditions existed




beneath the surface.  Methane bubbles were constantly breaking the




surface of the overlying water.  Stirring the sludge bank released  a




strong hydrogen sulfide odor.




     The Silver Creek Preserving Corp., located in the Cattaraugus




Indian Reservation, discharge wastes from its canning process  to




Cattaraugus Creek.  The waste contains string bean particles,  some




oil slicks, and some discoloration during beet canning season.  All




this adds further to the obnoxious conditions of Cattaraugus Creek




and should be eliminated immediately.




Other Tributaries




     Several smaller streams have also been affected by municipal




and industrial waste discharges.  Due to lower flows, smaller  streams




are more susceptible to pollutional loads than larger bodies of




water.  For this reason, no wastes should be discharged to small




tributaries, or for that matter to any stream that cannot adequately




handle this waste input.

-------
                      "''   -'•>     ..~        '•'-
                      '"•  •'_ ..'   '.<"•-•
                       .  ->   L
                         •'   I

                      '" ''r>-.'(
"^ v^."* -^ -^  •- •-/•"- .-<••:•.••.'.»#''v^""^          •'^•ir^v,L>v"-T. ''v-iA-t;- '".. *"^. "i/i'^'Tr.i';'--'--;,
•  i,' --.ic'-1-, •-.   -  .-. - - .»• -:;•••,. v'«( ^x1           •*"••••:•• '- „<,.:. , • -..~s -. ^^. ,   ...;. ^.-<- -2.
:'£j'••&'"'' '**     '"•-'L^'  -•  -'--C   •  -'^'         ..' ;^:\.->—•  i-'i.  -- .  -e-'.^r- •  ^. -;.vt. <5

-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS

                    MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
                                 in
           EIGHTEENMILE CREEK & CATTARAUGUS CREEK BASINS
Municipalities

    Sewerage
    Service Area
               I960
 Present     Population
Treatment      Served
              Plant Needs
    Hamburg (V)
    Eden
    Gowanda State
      Hospital
Secondary


Septic Tanks


Primary
6,280   Tertiary or connect to
        metro system

2,370   Collection system &
        tertiary

3,900   Secondary
Gowanda
Cattaraugus
Springville
Arcade
Industries
Name
Primary 3,352
Septic Tanks 1,000
Primary 3,200
Secondary 1,900
Location
Secondary
Collection system,
secondary treatment
Secondary & cyanides,
cadmium, copper, zinc
Tertiary -;s o...
Control Measures Needed
    Silver Creek Pre-
      serving

    Moench Tannery
 Cattaraugus Indian
 Reservation

 Gowanda
    Peter Cooper-      Gowanda
      Eastern Tanners
      Div.
      Solids, colors, oils
      Tertiary & ammonia, grease,
      chrome

      Tertiary & ammonia, grease,
      chrome

-------
Blasdeil and Smoke Creeks




     Blasdell Creek, also known as South Ditch, is a small stream




which would normally "be dry most of the year.  Bethlehem Steel




plant wastes entering at various points of the section, extending




about one mile upstream of its mouth, maintains a considerable flow




in this sector.  At its mouth it is essentially a Bethlehem Steel




waste outfall entering Lake Erie.  In addition to other materials




it continually discharges much oil to the lake.  During winter periods




the ice holds much of the oil near the mouth.  The oil is suddenly




released when the ice moves out and is most probably one of the




major causes of the slug discharges of oil down the Niagara River




which occurs each spring.




     Smoke Creek extends through an urban type area throughout most




of its length.  Visual and oiher evidence show that the water in the




south branch at its junction with the north branch is markedly de-




graded by organic wastes entering upstream.  It contains considerable




fatty matter of the type normally present in sanitary wastes, indi-




cating the probability that septic tank effluent or other sanitary




wastes are entering upstream of the junction.  The north branch appears




to be somewhat polluted.  The one mile length of the stream from the




junction of the "branches to the mouth on Lake Erie receives industrial




waste discharges.  The South Buffalo Railway shops may contribute




some oil, but this has not been definitely established.  The Buffalo




Brake Beam Company discharges a very small quantity of oil and san-




itary wastes to the stream.  They have been requested to connect

-------
their discharge to the sanitary sewers.




     The principal flow at the mouth of Smoke Creek is  Bethlehem




Steel's wastes.  It also contains approximately 1.1 mgd of




Lackawanna sewage treatment plant effluent.   In addition to other




materials the Bethlehem Steel plant contributes considerable quan-




tities of heavy oil to these waters.




     The combined effect of the Blasdell and Smoke Creek discharges




create an oil film and red discoloration of approximately two square




miles of Lake Erie.  The continuing oil discharge from Bethlehem




is believed to be one of the principal -t-f not the major source of




oils causing damage to certain water uses of the Niagara River.




The 350 mgd of Bethlehem Steel wastes entering these waters contain




380,000 pounds of suspended solids, 280,000 pounds of iron, 31,000




pounds of oil, 680 pounds of phenol, and 950 pounds of cyanide.




Quantities of this magnitude would be expected to create the con-




ditions described above.




     The Bethleh em Steel Company is presently under orders from




the I\rew York State Health Department to remove an appreciable amount




of their waste products.  The most significant constituant in their




outfalls is the large qu antity of oil and a major effort should be




exerted to removing this material so that no problem remains.  A




continuing program will need to be extended into the future by




Bethlehem to alleviate the problems caused by their waste discharges.

-------
Rush Creek




     Coliforia counts exceeding 150,000 per 100 milliliters are




present in the water approximately one mile upstream from the mouth




and above the Basdell sewage treatment plant show the effect of




septic tank or other sanitary waste discharges above that point.




These wastes do not normally depress the dissolved oxygen content




below 5.0 mg/1 at this point.  A storm water by-pass of a Hamburg




sewage pumping station discharges to an upstream point of the stream.




It is reported that unnecessary by-passing in the past has crested




serious pollution of the creek, but more carefully controlled




operation now limits by-passing to periods of very heavy rainfall and




resultant higher creek flow.




     In additon to the Blasdell sewage treatment plant one mile above




the mouth the Woodlawn treatment plant effluent enters the stream




about one fourth mile above the mouth.  Some relatively old data




(1952) showed no dissolved oxygen present near the mouth.  Although




more recent data are not available it is probable that dissolved




oxygen may be completely absent at times.  Although this is a very




small stream it is reported that water for irrigation is being taken




from upstream sectors of the creek.  This significantly depletes




the already limited flow in the stream.




     Present treatment on this stream should be expanded so that all




wastes receive 90-95 percent BOD  removal.  By 1980 all wastes should




be connected to treatment works discharging directly to the lake.

-------
Canadaway Creek




     Another example of overload of a small stream is Canadaway




Creek which receives the effluent of the Fredonia sewage treat-




ment plant which provides treatment for approximately 8,500 people.




A cannery is also connected to the sewage treatment plant.   During




the low flow season, the flow in the creek near Fredonia is com-




prised almost entirely of the effluent from the Fredonia plant.




Secondary treatment is provided but it is not sufficient during the




canning season to maintain desirable water quality in Canadaway




Creek.  Biological investigation in August 1966 indicated the •:.




effluent from the Fredonia plant is grossly polluting the creek




which never completely recovers as it flows to Lake Erie




     Luxuriant growths of Sphaerotilis, sewage fungus, was observed




for one mile downstream from the outfall and Oscillatoria, a pol-




lution tolerant algae appeared as a blue-green mat covering the




stream bottom (see Figure        ).  No benthic fauna could be found




in the creek at the outfall and approximately a half-mile downstream




the only bottom organisms present were pollution tolerant sludge-




woras and Physa (air-breathing snails).  Phytoplankton counts in-




creased tremendously in this area and the type definitely indicated




an increase in nutrients.  The average count above the STP was about




1,000 organisms per ml while the counts below were approximately




10,000 per ml.




     In order to maintain a desirable water quality in Canadaway




Creek the Fredonia sewage treatment plant should either provide

-------
tertiary treatment  (98 percent BOD^ removal) or preferably remove

their waste discharge from Canadaway Creek and discharge directly

to Lake Erie through a combined metropolitan plant serving both

Fredonia and Dunkirk.

Direct Discharge to Lake Erie

     The Dunkirk sevage treatment plant discharges approximately

        pounds of BODj- daily directly into the lake.  Dunkirk

provides only primary treatment which removes only     percent of

the BOD  load it receives.

     Dunkirk has had great difficulty with algae in the past.

Storms break algae loose and they are washed onto the beaches of

the area vhere they decompose, producing a foul odor.  Since the

harbor is shallow and turbidity is quite low, rooted aquatic weeds

and algae grow abundantly in the littoral zone.  Even in depths of

fifteen feet or more outside the breakwater Cladophora grows quite

veil.  In the shallow areas rooted aquatic weeds reach the surface

in two to four feet of water and make boating almost impossible.

     Another problem encountered in Dunkirk is that of flyash from
                         ;/,  2>// /a«jJ-   ^^
the Niagara-Mohawk plant,  'the flyash -irs spread as a landfill

behind the plant and is washed into the harbor during winds and

rains.  In sections of the harbor, flyash deposits were found to be

at least two feet deep.  This is an inorganic sediment and exerts

little BOD.  The main objection is that the flyash fills the harbor

and reduces its depth for navigation.  This problem has "been reported

to be alleviated.

-------
     As mentioned earlier, grape orchards are a large land use in the




the Western New York area.  Associated with the grape orchards are




grape processing industries located in Westfield and Brocton.   The




discharges of these wastes have caused water quality problems  in




Chautauqua Creek as it flows through Westfield and Slippery Rock Creek,




as it flows through Brocton.




     Welch Grape Juice Co. Inc., discharges pressing and process wastes




and storage tank wash waters at Brocton and Westfield.  Seneca Westfield




Maid, Inc. and Growers Cooperative Grape Juice Co. discharge similar




wastes in Westfield.  These wastes contain high oxygen demanding solids




which cause turbidity and sludge deposits in their receiving waters.




     A survey of the New York State Health Department in 19.	. revealed'




a large increase in coliform concentration in Chautauqua Creek as it




flows through Westfield.  Their samples show that the most probable




number (MPN) is parts per million (ppm) increased from TOO at the South




Gale Street Bridge (approximately three stream miles from Lake Erie)




to 100,000 at the Hawley Street Bridge (approximately one stream mile




from Lake Erie).  They stated this high coliform concentration was due




possibly to the waste discharged from Welch Grape Juice Co. and Growers

-------
Cooperative Grape Juice Co. Inc.  In Westfield.




     Welch Grape Juice Co. also creates esthetic problems  in Slippery




Rock Creek.  The creek is turned a purple to black color and produces




odors.  The effects of this discharge can be seen for more than a mile.




     Walnut Creek and Silver Creek are polluted by raw sewage dis-




charged from Forestville and Silver Creek and by wastes discharged by




the Silver Creek Preserving Company.  This pollution renders the area




unsuitable for any water contact sports.  As conditions stand, this




area is a virtual septic tank.




     The village of Silver Creek is presently building a secondary




treatment plant which should be in operation by the summer of 1967-




                        Interstate Waters




     There is only one stream, Twentyraile Creek, that is classified




as an interstate stream.  The stream originates in Chautauqua County,




'New York and flows for approximately 8 miles draining 35 square miles




in New York.  It crosses into Pennsylvania approximately 3 miles south




of Lake Erie and drains another two square miles in Pennsylvania as it




flows to Lake Erie.




     Twentymile Creek doesn't receive any major pollution loads in




New York or Pennsylvania and creates no  interstate water quality




problems.  Chemical data show the stream to be of excellent water




quality as it crosses the Pennsylvania-New York line  (BODc«
-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                                 FOR
                     MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
              DIRECT TO LAKE ERIE & SMALL TRIBUTARIES
Municipalities
Sewerage
Service Area
Ripley
Westfield
Brocton
Dunkirk
Fredonia
Silver Creek
Angola
North Collins
Derby
Hamburg SD 1
(Woodlawn)
Hamburg SD 2
(Mt. Vernon)
Hamburg
(Wanakah)
Hamburg
(Master)
Bias dell
Present
Treatment
Primary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Primary
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Septic Tanks
Secondary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Secondary
I960
Population
Served
1,250
3,800
1,U20
18,800
8,500
3,000
1,000
2,000
2,500
1,900
1,750
1,1*00
2,500
23,000
Plant Needs
Tertiary*
Tertiary*
Collection system &
Tertiary*
Secondary ( connect to
metropolitan system)
Tertiary or connect to
metro system
Collection system &
Secondary**
Collection system &
Tertiary
Tertiary
Collection system &
Tertiary*
Tertiary or connect to
metropolitan system
Secondary (connect to
metropolitan system)
Secondary (connect to
metropolitan system)
Secondary (connect to
metropolitan system)
Tertiary or connect to
                                                metropolitan system

-------
                          IMMEDIATE NEEDS
                                 FOR
                     MUNICIPALITIES & INDUSTRIES
              DIRECT TO LAKE ERIE & SMALL TRIBUTARIES
                            (Continued)
Industries
         Name
                          Location
Control Measures Needed
Welch Grape Juice
                             Westfield
     Seneca Westfield Maid   Westfield
     Growers Coop.  Grape     Westfield
       Juice
Welch Grape Juice


Allegheny Ludlum
  Steel

Niagara-Mohawk Power

Pro-Canner's Coop.


Gro-Packer's Coop.


Bethlehem Steel



Hanna Furnace
Brocton


Dunkirk


Dunkirk

North Collins


North Collins


Lackawanna



Buffalo
Connect to city sewer
system

Connect to city sewer
system

Connect to city sewer
system

Connect to city sewer
system

Solids, oils, acids
                                              Solids

                                              Connect to city sewer
                                              system

                                              Connect to city sewer
                                              system

                                              Oil, phenol, solids,  color,
                                              cyanides,  ammonia,  acid,
                                              iron

                                              Solids
 * = or secondary treatment with discharge to Lake Erie
** = secondary treatment plant construction near completion,  should be
     placed into operation summer

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    in.-- Beaches




     The beaches along the Lake Erie shoreline in New York are  of  good




water quality during dry weather.   Figure       is a summary of coliform




concentrations found in tests run  by the Erie County Health Department.




Individual data showed that generally the concentrations  were under




500 organisms/100 ml; however, concentrations over 1,000  organisms/100 ml




were quite frequent.  These high concentrations were found to be associated




with the meteorological conditions.




     During and immediately after summer storms these beaches become  un-




safe for swimming due to the health hazard indicated by the increase  of




coliform concentrations.  Rains and winds bring high pollution  loads




to the beaches from nearby streams and storm water overflows.




     Is  the findings of its beach survey, the Erie County Health  Depart-




ment has attributed wind as the probable major meteorological factor  in




pollution of Miller's Beach, Evangola State Park, and Evans Town Park.




The winds help keep the pollution from Cattaraugus Creek  near the  shore.




Evans Town Park also receives pollution from the large unsewered pop-




ulation in the immediate area.




     The beach with the most serious problem is that of Hamburg Town




Park.  Several storm sewer overflows are located near this beach with




one overflow immediately adjacent to it.  This beach has  been closed




by the Erie County Health Department.




     Other beaches in Chautauq.ua County also have serious problems




but a lack of data prohibits any comparison of the problems. A study

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conducted, by the Federal governnent in 196U indicated polluted con-




ditions on the two beaches in Dunkirk.  Pollution entered these




beaches from raw sewage discharges from some small rural towns, inade-




quately treated .sewage discharged to Canadaway Creek from the Predonia




sewage treatment plant, inadequately treated sewage from the Dunkirk




sewage treatment plant, and combined sewer overflows from both Dunkirk




and Fredonia, both of which are partially served by combined sewers.

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Loadings to Lake Erig_

     Most waste discharges in the Ivev York Area are to tributaries

rather than direct to Lake Erie.  Table       shows the total

present and projected loads discharged by municipalities and

industries in the New York Area.
Total Solids
      A
      B
      C

Dissolved Solids
      A
      B
      C

Chlorides
      A
      B
      C

BOD
      A
      B
      C

Soluble  Phosphate
      A
      B
      C
                           TABLE

                     LOADINGS TO LAKE ERIE
                          (ibs/day)
                          1965
1,500,000
               1990
2,300,000
  31*0,000
  100,000
  62^,000
  127,000
    6,100
  900,000
   90,000
   27,000
  21*0,000
   1*0,000
   12,000
   10,000
    1,100
       600
               2020
3,000,000
  1*50,000
  1^0,000
1,000,000   1,600,000   2,100,000
              200,000     270,000
               60,000      90,000
1,300,000
  130,000
   39,000
  320,000
   60,000
   18,000
   ll*»OQO
    1,500
      800
A =  Loadings  §  present level of treatment
B =  Loadings  §  90$ removal (secondary treatment)
C =  Loadings  §  97$ removal (tertiary treatment)

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mg/1 of dissolved oxygen, but it is completely devoid of oxygen during




low flow and warm water temperatures.   Except during flood flow it




contains relatively little suspended solids as most of the consid-




erable amount of these solids from land erosion and municipal and




industrial wastes settle rather rapidly to the bottom of the dredged




section.  The following data collected by an automatic monitor at the




Ohio Street Bridge location are fairly typical of much of the chemical




analytical data that have been collected on the stream.  During a low




flow period from October U to November 1, 1965, the dissolved oxygen




concentration ranged from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 2,9 mg/1, pH




from 5.3 to 7.6, conductivity from 1,900 to 2,1+00, chlorides from 150




to 3^5 and temperature from 15.0 to 19.8 degrees centigrade.  During




a period of higher flow from March 10 to April 27, 1966, the dissolved




oxygen ranged from 9-1* to 12.U mg/1, pH from 5-5 to 7.6, conductivity




from 2^0 to 650, chlorides from 7 to 76 and temperature from 2.6 to




16 degrees centigrade.




     The Buffalo River also markedly harms the residential area on




each side of that sector of Cazenovia Creek extending 0.7 miles




upstream of its mouth which is affected by Buffalo River backwater.




Residents of this area complain vociferously each summer about the




disagreeable odors emanating from the stream and the heavy oil films




present.




     It is apparent from the information presented above that during




the six month or more period of lower flows each year the Buffalo




River water is concentrated industrial and other wastes.  It is not

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surprising that the quality is extremely poor even though all the

major industries have and are spending considerable monies to

provide vaste treatment or otherwise reduce the polluting constit-

uents in their discharges.  They have generally made a conscientious

effort to comply with the requirements of the Pollution Control

agencies.  An example, at one time it was believed that reduction

of the oil concentration in the industrial effluents to 15 mg/1

would be adequate.  The Mobil Refinery has reduced theirs to below

10, but these oils as they accumulate create a major problem.

Restoring the river to a reasonably satisfactory condition will
                                                                                I
require extreme measures.
                                                                                f
     One forward step has just recently been accomplished.  The five            (

major industries on the Buffalo River have recently placed in oper-             |

ation a water supply system which has cost over $9,000,000.  This               |
                                                                                I
                                                                                i
system pumps Lake Erie water to the industries for their use and

eventual discharge to the Buffalo River which will provide greater

flow in the lower sector.  The industries have committed themselves

to discharge a minimum of 100,000,000 gallons of water per day to

the stream during low natural flow whether or not they require the

total quantity for their operations.

     Many other corrective measures are needed.  The oil films will

be eliminated only if essentially no oil, fats or grease are permitted

to reach the stream.  This will require practically complete removal

of these constituents from any industrial, sanitary, storm water

overflows permitted to enter the river or its tributaries.  This

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includes such small discharges as septic  tank effluents.   Probably




the most easily accomplished would be the removal from municipal




wastes as effective secondary treatment may adequately reduce  the




oils and fats in the effluent.  Storm water overflows  will need to




be eliminated or otherwise effectively treated.   The maximum reduction,




almost to the point of elimination, of other polluting constituents




in wastes in any water entering the river are needed.




     The need for these extreme measures  are obvious wh en one




recognizes that much of the time the wastes constitute more than  90




percent of the water in the river and its quality is no better than




the quality of the mixed wastes.  A goal  of water quality suitable




for boating and fishing in the dredged section and swimming in the




upstream portions may be difficult to attain, but our  sights should




be set this high.

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