The University of New Orleans
Under Contract to Region VI of the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


       from retail stores, office buildings, homes, and so forth,
       after they have passed through their end usage as a consumer
       item, including: Used corrugated boxes, old newspapers, old
       magazines, mixed waste paper, tabulating cards, and used
       cordage. All paper, paperboard and fibrous wastes that
       enter and are collected from municipal solid waste.  3.
       Manufacturing forest residues, and other wastes such as:
       Dry paper and paperboard waste generated after completion
       of the papermaking process (that is, those manufacturing
       operations up to and including the cutting and trimming of
       the paper machine reel into smaller rolls or rough sheets)
       including: Envelope cuttings, bindery trimmings, and other
       paper and paperboard waste, resulting from printing, cutting
       forming and other converting operations, bag, box and carbon
       manufacturing wastes, and butt  rolls, mill wrappers and
       rejected unused stock. Finished paper and paperboard from
       obsolete inventories of paper and paperboard manufacturers,
       merchants, wholesaler, dealers, printers, converters or
Waste Reduction  Reducing the amount or type of waste generated.
       Sometimes used synonymously with source reduction.
Waste Stream The total flow of solid waste from homes, businesses,
       institutions, and manufacturing plants that must be recycled,
       burned, or disposed.
Writing Paper A paper suitable for pen and ink, pencil, typewriter
       or printing.
Xerographic/Copy Paper  Any grade of paper suitable for copying
       by the xerographic process (a dry method of reproduction).

       the waste stream at the point of generation.
Source Reduction The design, manufacture, acquisition and reuse
       of materials so as to minimize the quantity and/or toxicity of
       waste produced. Source reduction prevents waste either by
       redesigning products or by otherwise changing societal patterns of
       consumption, use, and waste generation.
Special Waste  Items requiring special or separate handling, such as
       household hazardous wastes, bulky wastes, tires and used oil.
Spray-In-Place Insulation  Insulation material that is sprayed
       onto a surface or into cavities and includes cellulose fiber
       spray-on as well as plastic rigid foam products.
Stationery  Writing paper suitable for pen and  ink, pencil or typing.
       Matching envelopes are included in this definition.
Subtitle D.  The nonhazardous solid waste section of the Resource
       Conservation  and Recovery Act.
Subtitle F.  Section of the Resource Conservation Act (RCRA) requiring
       the federal government to participate in  programs fostering
       recovery and use of recycled materials and energy.
Tabulating Cards  Cards used in automatic tabulating machines.
Tabulating paper Paper used in tabulating forms for use on automatic
       data processing equipment.
Tipping Fee A fee for the unloading or dumping of waste at a
       landfill, transfer station or waste-to-energy facility, usually
       stated in dollars per ton.
Transfer Station  A place or facility where waste materials are
       taken from smaller collection vehicles  and placed in larger
       transportation units for movement to disposal areas.
Trash  Material considered worthless, unnecessary or offensive that
       is usually thrown away. Generally defined as dry waste, but
       is often a synonym used for garbage, rubbish, or refuse.
Unbleached Papers  Papers made of pulp that have not been
       treated with bleaching agents.
Volume Reduction  The processing of waste materials so as to
       decrease the amount of space the materials occupy. Reduction
       is accomplished by mechanical, thermal or biological processes.
Waste  Exchange A  computer and  catalog network that redirects
       waste back into manufacturing or reuse process by matching
       components generating specific wastes with companies
       that  use those wastes as manufacturing inputs.
Waste  Paper Any of the following "Recovered Materials": 1.  Any
       paper or paper product which has lost its value for its original
       purpose and has been discarded.  This includes any waste or
       scrap created in paper converting operations, such as printing
       plant waste and envelope cuttings, as  well as discarded
       products such as boxes or newspapers. 2. Postconsumer
       materials such as: Paper, paperboard and fibrous wastes

Recycling 1. All activity whereby a secondary material Is Introduced
       as a raw material Into a new product In such a manner
       that Its original Identity Is lost.  Recycling consists of four
       steps: collection, processing, marketing, and use of as a
       raw material.  2. Any process by which materials that would
       otherwise become solid waste are collected, separated or
       processed and returned to the economic mainstream in
       the form of raw materials or products.
Recycling System  A circle or loop process consisting of three
       parts: collection, remanufacture, consumer purchase.
Residential Waste  Waste materials generated in single- and
       multiple-family homes.
Resource Stream A new perspective on what we have commonly
       considered to be garbage, trash, or waste. Recognizes the
       inherent economic and environmental  value of resource
       materials that we have been landfilling or incinerating.
Resource Recovery A term describing the extraction and  utilization of
       materials and energy  form the waste stream. Materials are
       used in the manufacturing of new products, or converted
       into some form of fuel or energy source.
Retread Tire A worn automobile,  truck,  or other motor vehicle
       tire whose  tread has been replaced.
Reuse The use of a product more than once in its same form for
       the same purpose; e.g., a soft drink bottle is reused when
       it is  refilled at the bottling company.
Rock Wool Insulation Insulation  which  is composed principally
       from fibers manufactured from slag or  natural rock, with
       or without binders.
Sanitary Landfill Solid waste land disposal site where  waste is
       spread in thin layers,  compacted, and  covered with a
       fresh layer of soil each day to minimize pest, aesthetic,
       disease, air pollution, and water pollution problems.
Separate Collection A system in which specific portions of the
       waste stream are collected separately form the rest to  facilitate
       recycling or otherwise improve solid waste management.
Shredder A mechanical device used to break up waste materials
       into smaller pieces by tearing, shearing,  cutting,  and impact
Solid Waste Management The systematic administration of activities
       which provide for the collection, source separation, storage,
       transportation, transfer, processing, treatment and disposal
       of solid waste.
Solid Waste Garbage, refuse, sludge and other discarded solid
       materials, including those from industrial, commercial and
       agricultural operations, and from community activities.
Source Separation  The segregation of various materials from

Postconsumer Waste Paper Paper that has been used by a consumer
       (such as the reader of a newspaper) and is available for
       recycling or disposal. It should be noted that there Is significant
       discussion on the definition of postconsumer waste paper.
Postconsumer Material A finished material which would normally
       be disposed of as a solid waste, having completed Its intended
       final use as a consumer item.
Preconsumer Waste Paper Paper that has become a waste paper
       prior to being purchased or used by a consumer.
       Preconsumer waste paper  consists primarily of trim, cutting,
       punchlngs, and rejects from the conversion of paper or
       paperboard rolls or sheets Into finished products.
Preconsumer Material Waste produced in converting Industries
       that turn materials from original manufacturers into consumer
Printing Paper Paper designed for printing, other than newsprint,
       such as offset and  book paper.  Printing papers are those
       papers utilized by the printing industry for mass communications
       and other end uses where many copies are required. Products
       include magazines, books, pamphlets, greeting cards, etc.
Private Collection  The collecting of solid wastes for which citizens
       or firms, individually or in limited groups, pay collectors or
       private  operating agencies.
Pulp Substitutes High-quality  waste paper that can be used as
       a direct substitute for virgin wood pulp. Generally waste
       from paper mills, converters, and printers that has not been
       used by the ultimate consumer.
Pulp Fibrous material prepared from wood, cotton, etc. by chemical
       or mechanical processes for use in making paper or cellulose
       products. May Include virgin wood pulp or secondary fibers.
Re-Refined Oils  Used oils from which the physical and chemical
       contaminants acquire through previous use have been removed
       through a refining  process
Recyclable Paper Any paper separated as its point of discard or
       form the solid waste stream for utilization as a raw material
       in the manufacture of a new product.  It is often called
       "waste paper" or "paper stock".  Not all paper in the waste
       stream is recyclable, it may be heavily contaminated or
       otherwise  unusable.
Recyclables Materials that have useful physical or chemical
       properties after serving their original purpose and can be
       reused  or  manufactured  into  additional products.
Recycled Content The portion of a product made with recycled
       materials.  May consist of preconsumer or postconsumer or both.
Recycled Paper  Paper that is wholly or partially made from
       preconsumer and/or postconsumer waste paper.

Old Newspapers (ONP)  Trade name for recovered newspapers.
      There are five grades of old newspapers, depending on the
      quality of the product.
Opacity The property of a sheet that obstructs the passage of light
      and prevents seeing through to objects on the opposite side.
      This property is especially important for printing papers.
Original Resources Natural resources, often called "virgin" resources,
      such as minerals, trees, oil, water.
Paper A generic term for all grades of paper and paperboard. In the
      industry, paper refers to thin products such as printing paper,
      newspaper, tissue paper, and wrapping paper.
Paper Napkins Special tissues, white or colored, plain or printed,
      usually folded, and made in  a variety of sizes for use during
      meals or with beverages.
Paper Towels Paper toweling in folded sheets, or in raw form, for use
      in drying or cleaning, or where quick absorption is required.
Paperboard In the industry, refers to thicker products such as
      boxes and other packaging material.  Also called "board"
      in the paper industry.
Perliter Composite Board Insulation board composed of extended
      perlite and fibers formed into rigid, flat, rectangular units
      with a suitable si/ing material incorporated in the product.
      It may have on one or both surfaces a facing or coating to
      prevent excessive hot bitumen strike-in during roofing installation.
PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) A plastic resin used to make
      packaging, particularly soft drink bottles.
Phenolic Insulation  Insulation made with phenolic plastics which
      are plastics based on resins made by the condensation of
      phenols, such as phenol or cresol, with aldehydes.
Photo-Degradable Refers to plastics which will decompose if left
      exposed to light.
Plastic  Rigid Foam  Cellular polyurethane  insulation, cellular
      polyisocyanurate insulation, glass fiber reinforced
      polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam insulation,  cellular
      polystyrene insulation, phenolic foam insulation, spray-
      in-place foam and foam-in-place insulation.
Plastics Synthetic materials consisting  of large molecules called
      polymers that contain primarily carbon and hydrogen with
      lesser amounts of oxygen or nitrogen.
Polyethylene  A family of resins obtained  by polymerizing ethylene
      gas. They are grouped into two major categories, HOPE and PET.
Postconsumer Recycling The reuse of materials generated from
      residential and commercial waste, excluding recycling of
      material from industrial processes that has not reached the
      consumer, such as glass broken during the manufacturing

Materials Recovery Extraction of materials from the waste
      stream for reuse or recycling. Examples include source
      separation, front-end recovery, in-plant recycling, post
      combustion recovery, leaf composting, etc.
Mechanical Separation  Mechanical separation of waste into
      components using cyclones, trammels, or screens.
Medium The fluted inner section of corrugated board. More
      properly called corrugating medium.
Mill Broke Any paper waste generated in a paper mill prior to
      completion of the papermaking process. It is usually returned
      directly to the pulping process. Mill broke is excluded from
      the definition of "recovered materials".
Mill Buyer The person who buys waste paper for a paper mill.
Mimeo Paper A grade of writing paper used for making copies
      on stencil duplicating machines.
Mineral Fiber Insulation Insulation (rock wool or fiberglass)
      which is composed principally of fibers manufactured
      from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders.
Minimum Content Law A law which requires that a specific product
      or packaging category contain a minimum amount of recycled
      and/or postconsumer material in order to be legally sold within
      the jurisdiction of the law.
Mixed Papers A bulk grade of waste paper made up of papers
      from various sources. Generally a low grade.
Molded Pulp Products Contoured products such as egg packaging
      cartons, food trays, etc. made by depositing fibers from a
      pulp slurry into a perforated mold, then drying. Often
      made of waste paper, e.g., old  newspapers.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)  Includes nonhazardous waste
      generated in households, commercial and business estab-
      lishments and  institutions.
News Abbreviation for newsprint often used in the trade.
Newsprint Paper of the type generally used in the publication of
      newspapers or special publications like the Congressional
      Record. It is made primarily from mechanical wood pulps
      combined with some chemical wood pulp.
Office Paper Those papers that are usually discarded in a business
      office. Generally refers to forms, envelopes, copy paper,
      stationary, and other papers that are normally associated
      with desk work activity.
Offset Printing Paper An uncoated  or coated paper designed for
      offset lithography.
Old Corrugated Containers (OCC) A postconsumer waste paper
      grade consisting of corrugated or solid fiber boxes that
      have served their packaging purpose and are discarded
      for later collection and recovery for recycling.

       Is used for grocery bags and the outer layers of corrugated
       boxes, for example. The product is brown in color, but may
       be bleached, for example, to make milk cartons.
Landfill A site usually controlled by a municipal government
       where municipal  solid waste is disposed of. Landfills are
       highly regulated by state and Federal law. Because of
       more stringent standards, many municipal solid waste
       landfills are closing.
Ledger Paper A type of paper generally used in broad variety of
       record keeping type applications such as in accounting machines.
Ledger Trade term for a group of high-grade waste papers that
       usually come from offices or print shops. Includes copier
       paper, computer printout, envelopes, or other publication
       papers. The papers usually have printing on them, which
       can be removed by a deinking process.
Life-Cycle Analysis Analyzing the total environmental impacts
       (such as energy and resource use, air and water pollution)
       for a specific product or product category, including mining,
       manufacturing, transporting, use, and recycling.
Llnerboard  The flat outer surfaces of corrugated board.
Lubricating Oils Engine lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, and
       gear oils, excluding marine and aviation oils.
Mandatory Recycling Programs under statute that require consumers
       to separate their trash to make all recyclable materials available
       for recycling.
Manifold Business  Forms  A type of product manufactured by
       business forms manufacturers that is commonly produced
       as marginally punched continuous forms in small rolls or
       fan folded sets with or without carbon paper interleaving.  It
       has a wide variety of uses such as invoices, purchase orders,
       office memoranda, shipping orders and computer printout.
Manual Separation  Separation of recyclables from the waste
       stream by hand sorting.
Manufacturing Waste Material produced by a manufacturer, such
       as a paper mill, steel or aluminum mill, glass factory, or
       plastic resin  manufacturer. Most manufacturing waste is
       returned to the manufacturing process as a matter of course. It
       is usually not counted as part of the publicized recycled
       content. However, Environmental Protection Agency
       guidelines for federal purchase of recycled paper allow some
       manufacturing waste in paper mills to be counted as recycled
       content in paper.
Materials Market The combined commercial interests that buy
       recyclable materials and processed them for reuse. The
       demand for goods made  of recycled materials determine
       the economic feasibility of recycling.

       virgin wood pulp, recycled pulp, cotton fibers, or bagasse.
Garbage Spoiled or waste food that is thrown away, generally
       defined as wet food waste.
Gear Oils Petroleum based oils used for lubricating machinery gears.
Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyisocyanurate/Polyurethane Foam
       Cellular polyisocyanurate or cellular polyurethane insulation
       made with glass fibers within the foam core.
Grade A term applied to a paper or pulp which is ranked (or distinguished
       from other papers or pulps) on the basis of its use, appearance,
       quality, manufacturing history, raw materials, performance,
       or a combination of these factors.
Groundwood Pulp  Type of pulp produced as a result of a mechanical
       pulping process (grinding action that is chemical free).
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) A recyclable plastic, used
       for items such as milk containers, detergent containers,
       and base cups for plastic soft drink bottles.
High  Grade Paper Relatively valuable  paper such as computer
       printout, white ledger, and tab cards.
High  Grades Trade term for waste papers that have printing on
       them that can be removed by a deinking process. Includes
       ledger papers, computer printout, and other white office papers.
Hydraulic  Fluids  Petroleum-based fluids used in the operation
       of heavy machinery.
Incineration  An engineered process involving combustion to
       thermally degrade waste materials. Incinerators must
       meet clean  air standards.
Industrial Wipers  Paper towels especially made for industrial
       cleaning and wiping.
Inorganic Waste Waste composed of matter other than plant or
       animal (i.e., contains no carbon).
Integrated Paper Mill A paper or board mill that produces substantially all
       its own pulp. A partially integrated mill is one that produces
       some but not all of its pulp.
Integrated Solid Waste Management  The practice of disposing
       of solid waste that utilizes several complimentary compo-
       nents, such as  source reduction, recycling, composting,
       incineration (waste to energy), and  landfilling.
Intermediate Processing Center Usually refers to a facility  that
       processes residentially collected mixed recyclables into new
       products for market; also known as a materials recovery
       facility (MRF).
Intermediate Processor An intermediate  processor obtains recyclable
       materials and physically processes the  materials that will be
       sold, upgrading them in  order to get  the best price.
Kraft  A process for making virgin fiber by a chemical digestion
       process. Term is also used to refer  to the  product, which

Drop-Off Goiter A central point for collecting recyclable or compostable
      materials. The materials are taken by taken by Individuals
      to the collection site or center and deposited into designated
Dunnage  Packing material (usually shredded) used as protection
      for items being packed for shipping. Frequently made from
      waste paper.
Duplicator Paper Writing papers used for masters of copy sheets
      In the aniline ink or hectograph process or reproduction.
End User Market An end user market is usually a manufacturing
      company that buys large volumes of recyclable materials for
      direct use in its manufacturing process. Examples for waste
      paper include paper and paperboard mills and cellulose
      insulation producers.
Energy Recovery A form of resource recovery in which the organic
      fraction of waste is converted to some form of usable energy,
      such as burning processed or raw refuse to produce steam.
Engine Lubricating Oils  Petroleum-based oils used for reducing
      friction in engine parts.
Envelope Brown, manila, padded, or other mailing envelopes
      not included with "stationery".
Facial Tissue A class of soft absorbent papers in  the sanitary
      tissue group.
Fiber or Fiberboard Boxes  Boxes made from containerboard, with
      either solid fiber or corrugated paperboard, or boxes made
      from solid paperboard of the same material throughout.
Fiber The unit cell of vegetable growth derived from wood. Usually
      many times longer than its diameter. The basic physical unit
      of paper pulps.
Fiberglass Insulation  Insulation  which is composed principally
      of glass fibers, with or without binders.
Fly Ash The component of coal which results from the combustion
      of coal, and is the finely divided mineral residue which is
      typically collected from boiler stack gases by electrostatic
      precipitator or mechanical collection devices.
Foam-In-Place Insulation Foam is rigid cellular foam produced by
      catalyzed chemical reactions that hardens at  the site of the
      work. The term includes spray-applied and injected applications
      such as spray-in-place foam and pour-in-place.
Folding Boxboard A paperboard suitable for the manufacture of
      folding cartons.
Form Bond  A lightweight commodity paper designed primarily for
      business forms including computer printout and carbonless
      paper forms.
Furnish  Industry term for the fibers used to make paper. Includes

       used In the manufacture or shipping containers and related
Conversion or Converting Terms commonly used in the paper
       industry to refer to almost any process or operation applied
       to paper or paperboard after the normal papermaktng operation.
       Printing, box making, waxing, envelope making, and the
       like are all converting operations. A converter is an organization
       that manufactures paper products.
Converting Loss  The normal loss of material that occurs in the
       process  of making a product out of rolls or sheets of paper
       or paperboard. Consists primarily of trim, cutouts, rejects,
       punchings, etc. The scrap that occurs when paper or paperboard is
       made into finished products.
Corrugated Boxes  Boxes made of corrugated paperboard, which, in
       turn is made from a fluted corrugating medium pasted to two
       flat sheets of paperboard (Lineboard); multiple layers may be used.
Corrugated Paper Paper or cardboard made in a series of wrinkles
       or folds, or ridges  and  grooves.
Cotton Fiber Content Papers Paper that contains a minimum of
       25% and up to 100 percent cellulose fibers derived from lint
       cotton, cotton liners, cotton or linen cloth cuttings. It  is also
       known as rag content paper or rag paper. It is used  for
       stationary, currency, ledgers, wedding invitations, maps
       and other specialty paper.
Coarse Papers Papers used for industrial purposes, as distinguished
       from those used for cultural or sanitary purposes.
Cover Stock or Cover Paper A heavyweight paper commonly used
       for covers, books, brochures, pamphlets, and the like.
Curbslde Collection Collection of presorted recyclable materials from
       residential curbsides to be brought to various processing facilities.
Dealer An organization that either bales waste paper and/or buys
       bales of waste paper from packers, generators, or brokers.
       They sell to domestic or foreign paper mills, trading companies,
       and other brokers.
Deinking A process in which most of the ink, filler, and other
       extraneous material is removed from printed and/or unprinted
       waste paper. The result is a pulp which can be used, alone or
       with varying percentages of wood pulp, in the manufacture
       of new paper, including printing, writing, and office papers
       as well as tissue and toweling.
Demand The total requirement for a given grade or material or
       group of products  for a given period of time.
Diversion Rate  A measure of the waste being diverted for recycling
       compared with total waste previously thrown away.
Doilies  Paper place mats used on food service trays in hospitals
       and other institutions.

Cellulosic Insulation  Insulation for homes or other buildings
       made of treated old newspapers.
Chemical Pulp "type of pulp produced as a result of a sulphur-based
       chemical pulping process.
Chip and  Filler Board Recycled paperboard manufactured as a
       filler for solid fiber boxes and other container chipboard (all
       chipboard under 26 pounds per million square feet manufactured
       for use as facing corrugated, solid fiber and single faced
       products which are used for interior packing, e.g., pads,
       partitions, dividers, layers, and cushioning).
Closed Loop A product is continually recycled into the same
       product, for example  glass bottles into glass bottles.
Collection The act of picking up and moving solid waste from
       its  location of generation to a disposal area, such as a
       transfer station, resource recovery facility or landfill.
Collector (of waste paper) The person(s) or agency that receives
       or gathers various grades of waste paper for processing
       into bales for subsequent sale to a recycler or exporter of
       waste paper. Usually a waste paper dealer.
Color Fastness The property of a paper, dye or dyed paper to retain its
       color in normal storage or when exposed to light,  heat, or
       other influences.
Color Specification The quantitative  description of a color. The
       color of papers is often specified in terms of trichromatic
       coefficients, and sometimes in terms of matching standardized
       color chips, or colored papers designated as standards.
Combustible  Various materials in the waste stream which are
       burnable, such as paper, plastic, lawn clippings, leaves
       and other organic materials.
Commercial Waste Material which originates in wholesale, retail
       or service establishments such as office buildings, stores,
       markets, theaters, hotels and warehouses.
Commingled  Recyclables A mixture of several recyclable materials
       into one container.
Compactor  Power-driven device used to compress materials to
       a small volume.
Composting  The controlled biological decomposition of organic
       waste under aerobic conditions.
Computer Paper A type of paper used in manifold business forms
       produced in rolls and/or fan folded. It is used with computers
       and word processors to print out data, information, letters,
       advertising, etc.  It is commonly called computer printout.
Containerboard A general term designating: (1) the component
       materials used in the fabrication of corrugated paperboard
       and solid fiber paperboard- lineboard, corrugating medium,
       chipboard;  (2) solid fiber or corrugated combined paperboard

       and foodboard.  It may be made of woodpulp or waste paper
       or any combinations of these and may be plain, lined, or clay
Boxboard Cuttings A grade of waste paper consisting of the
       clippings of paperboard grades used in the manufacture
       of folding and setup boxes and similar boxboard products.
Brightness The reflectivity of pulp, paper, or paperboard for specified
       bluelight measured under standardized conditions.
Broker A broker buys and sells recyclables and arranges for
       transportation of the materials to domestic and overseas end users.
Brown Papers Papers usually made from unbleached kraft pulp
       and used for bags, sacks, wrapping paper and so forth.
Building Insulation A material, primarily designed to resist heat
       flow, which is installed between the conditioned volume of a
       building and adjacent unconditioned volumes or the outside.
       This term includes but is not limited to insulation products
       such as blanket, board, spray-in-place, and loose-fill that
       are used as ceiling, floor, foundation and wall insulation.
Bulk Grades Trade term for the three commonly-collected grades
       of waste paper — old corrugated containers, old newspapers,
       and mixed paper.
Bulky Waste  Large items of refuse including, but not limited to,
       appliances, furniture, large auto parts, trees, branches
       and stumps which cannot be handled by normal solid
       waste processing, collection, or  disposal methods.
Buy-Back Center A facility where individuals bring recyclables
       in exchange for payment.
Buy-Back Programs Programs for purchasing recyclable materials
       from the public.
Cardboard Common name for what the paper industry calls paperboard,
       boxboard, or "board."
Ceiling Insulation  A material, primarily designed to resist heat
       flow, which is installed between the conditioned area of a
       building and unconditioned attic as well as common ceiling
       floor assemblies between separately conditioned units In
       multi-unit structures. Where the conditioned area of a building
       extends to the roof, ceiling insulation includes such a material
       used between the underside and upperside of the roof.
Cellulose Fiber Loose-Fill A basic material of recycled wood-based
       cellulosic fiber made from selected paper, paperboard stock, or
       ground wood stock, excluding contaminated materials which
       may reasonably be expected to be retained in the finished product,
       with suitable chemicals introduced to provide properties such
       as flame resistance, processing and handling characteristics.
       The basic cellulosic material may be processed into a form
       suitable for installation by pneumatic or pouring methods.


Glossary of Terms
The definitions in this glossary are intended for general clarifica-
tion purposes and should not be considered as legal definitions.

Animal Bedding Product used for animals (usually to keep them
       warm and dry).  Traditionally straw or hay, but shredded paper
       has sometimes been used more recently.
Bag and Sack Paper Unbleached or bleached kraft paper, generally
       converted into bags or sacks, such as grocery bags or
       merchandise sacks.
Baling The operation of forming a bale of pulp, rags, waste paper,
       and other materials through compression in a baling press.
Baler A machine in which waste materials are compacted to reduce
Biodegradable Materials  Waste material which is capable of being
       broken down by bacteria or other biomass into basic elements.
       Most organic wastes, such as food remains and paper are
Blanket Insulation Relatively flat and flexible insulation in coherent
       sheet form, furnished in units of substantial area. Batt
       insulation is included in this term.
Bleached Paper Paper made of pulp that has been treated with bleaching.
Bleaching The process of chemically treating pulp to alter its color
       so that the pulp has a higher brightness. This is usually
       accompanied by partial removal of noncellulosic materials.
Board Insulation Semi-rigid insulation performed into rectangular
       units having a degree of suppleness, particularly related
       to their geometrical dimensions.
Board An abbreviation version of paperboard (see definition).
       Term often used in the paper industry.
Bond Paper A generic category of paper used in a variety of end
       use applications such as forms, offset printing, copy paper,
       stationary, etc. In the paper industry, the term was originally
       very specific but is now very general.
Book Paper  A generic category of papers produced in a variety of
       forms, weights, and finishes for use in books and other
       graphic arts applications, and related grades such as tablet,
       envelope, and converting papers.
Bottle Bill A law requiring deposits on beverage containers.
Box Plant A manufacturing plant where corrugated and/or solid
       fiber shipping containers  are made by combining linerboards
       and corrugating medium into structural blanks.
Boxboard A general  term designating the paperboard used for
       fabricating folding cartons,  setup  boxes, milk cartons.

Leaves, uncompacted
Leaves, compacted
Leaves, vacuumed
Wood chips
Grass clippings
Used motor oil
Tire, passenger car
Tire, truck
one cubic yard
one cubic yard
one cubic yard
one cubic yard
one cubic yard
one gallon
Food waste, solid and liquid fats  55 gallon drum     412

Conversion of Volume to Weight for Recyclable Materials

Material                        Volume            Weight (Ibs)
Newsprint, loose
Newsprint, compacted

Corrugated cardboard, loose
Corrugated cardboard, baled

Glass, whole bottles
Glass, semi crushed
Glass, crushed mechanically
Glass, whole bottles
Glass, uncrushed to manually broken

PET soda bottles, whole, loose
PET soda bottles, whole, loose
PET soda bottles, baled
PET soda bottles, granulated
PET soda bottles, granulated

Film,  baled
Film,  baled

HOPE (dairy only), whole, loose
HDPE (dairy only), baled
HOPE (mixed), baled
HDPE (mixed), granulated
HDPE (mixed), granulated
                                one cubic yard
                                one cubic yard
                                12' stack

                                one cubic yard
                                one cubic yard

                                one cubic yard
                                one cubic yard
                                one cubic yard
                                one full grocery bag
                                55 gallon drum

                                one cubic yard


                                one cubic yard
Mixed PET & Dairy, whole, loose      one cubic yard
Mixed PET & Dairy and other rigid, whole, loose one cubic yard
Mixed rigid, no film or Dairy, whole, loose
Mixed rigid, no film, granulated
Mixed rigid/film, densified by
mixed plastic mold technology

Aluminum cans, whole
Aluminum cans, whole
Aluminum cans

Ferrous cans, whole
Ferrous cans, flattened
                                one cubic yard
                                one cubic yard






avg.  32
avg.  38

avg.  49
avg.  60
                                one cubic yard      50-74
                                one full grocery bag  avg.  1.5
                                one 55 gallon plastic bag 13-20

                                one cubic yard      150
                                one cubic yard      850

Select Joint Committee On Printing Standards

JCP Code   Title & Description
Recycled Offset Book (5/2/90)
•     50% waste paper content required
•     Postconsumer content encouraged
•     25% groundwood allowed

Recycled Groundwood Forms Bond (6/29/90)
•     50% waste paper content required
•     Postconsumer content encouraged
•     100% groundwood allowed

Recycled 25% Bond (6/29/90)
•     75% recovered material content required, of
      which not less than 25% must be cotton or
      linen fibers, the remainder bleached chemical
      wood pulp
•     Postconsumer content encouraged
•     5% groundwood allowed

Recycled Plain Copier Xerographic (6/29/90)
•     50% waste paper content required
•     Postconsumer content encouraged
•     5% groundwood allowed

Federal Minimum Content Standards
U.S. EPA recommended minimum content standards for paper
and paper products.*

Fine Paper                                Waste Paper
Offset printing                             50%
Mimeo and duplicator paper                 50%
Writing (stationery)                         50%
Office paper (e.g. note pads)                  50%
Paper for high-speed copiers                 50%
Envelopes                                 50%
Form bond, including computer              50%
      paper and carbonless
Book paper                                50%
Bond paper                                50%
Ledger                                    50%
Cover stock                                50%
Cotton fiber paper                          50%
      (Must contain 25% recovered
      cotton fiber or linen fiber and
      50% waste paper)

Newsprint                                 40%

Tissue and Towel
Toilet tissue                               20%
Paper towels                               40%
Paper napkins                             30%
Facial tissue                               5%
Doilies                                    40%

Corrugated boxes                           35%
Fiber boxes                                35%
Brown papers (e.g. bags)                     5%

Recycled paperboard products                80%
      (including folding cartons)
Pad backing                               90%

* The Standards are currently under review, and may be changed
in the near future.

Capitol Complex
Purchasing Division
Room 400, Kinkead Building
505 E. King Street
Carson City, NV 89710
Attn: Phyllis Williams, Administrator

New Mexico:
Department of General Services
Purchasing Division
1100 St. Francis Drive
Santa Fe, NM
Attn: Melinda Via, Procurement

New York:
Office of General Services
Standards & Purchase Group
Coming Tower Building, Room 3701
Empire State Plaza
Albany, NY 12242
Attn: Anne V. Samson, Purchasing

Department of General Services
Purchasing Division
1220 Ferry Street SE
Salem, OR 97310
Attn: Terry L. Lorance, Recycling
Procurement Analyst
Rhode Island:
Department of Administration,
Office of Purchases
One Capitol Hill
Providence, RI 02908-5855
Attn: Stephen A Vieira, Administrator,
Purchasing Systems

State Purchasing & General Services
1711 San Jacinto
PO Box 13047
Austin, TX 78711
Attn: John Batterton, Purchasing

Department of General Services,
Division of Purchases and Supply
PO Box 1199, 805 East Broad Street
Richmond, VA 23209-1199
Attn: Donald F. Moore, Director

State Address Listing
Department of Administration,
Division of General Services
2400 Viking Drive
Anchorage, AK 99501
Attn: Del Simpson, Contracting Officer

Department of Administrative
Services, Bureau of Purchases
PO Box 1141, 460 Silver Street
Middletown, CT 06457
Attn: Peter W.  Connolly, Director
of Purchasing

Department of Administrative
Services, Division of Purchasing
PO Box 299
Delaware City, DE 19706
Attn: MJkeConaway&DonWeiford,
Contract Procurement Officers

Department of General Services
Koger Executive Center
2737 Centerview Drive
Knight Building., Suite 110
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0950
Attn: George Banks, CPPO

Department of Central Management
Services, Procurement Services
801 William G. Stratton Building
Springfield, IL 62706
Attn: Charles  Rogers, Manager

Department of General Services
Hoover State Office Building, Level A
Des Moines, LA 50319
Attn: J. Robert Soldat, Administrator
Finance & Administration Cabinet
Department for Administration,
Division of Purchases
348 New Capitol Annex
Frankfort, KY 40601
Attn: Mary P. Cammack, Director

Division of Administration
PO Box 94095
Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9095
Attn: Greg Rogers, State Purchasing

Department of General Services,
Purchasing Bureau, Room M-2
301 W. Preston Street
Baltimore, MD 21201-2368
Attn:  Paul T. Harris, Sr. CPPO

Department of Management &
Budget, Office of Purchasing
PO Box 30026
Lansing,  MI 48909
Attn: William S. Warstler, Director

Department of Administration,
Material Management Division
112 Administration Building
50 Sherburne Avenue
St.  Paul.  MN 55155
Attn: James P. Kinzie, Manager

Office of Purchasing & Travel,
Department of Finance and
550 High Street, Suite 1504
Jackson, MS 39201-1189
Attn:  Don Buffum, Director

Louisiana, Michigan,
Mississippi, New
Mexico, Texas
Cover stock
Web roll
1 1" roll, white Florida
11" roll/ 14" roll, white Louisiana
dual purpose Alaska, Florida, Michigan,
white Texas
20 Ib. Delaware, Louisiana,
                                      Mississippi, Rhode Island,
                   25% rag, 8V4"xll"
Connecticut, Kentucky,
Minnesota, New Mexico,
New York, Rhode Island,
Tagboard & chipboard
Rhode Island
Paperboard/brown paper
Theme paper/kraft wrap
Minnesota, New Mexico
Calling cards
New Mexico
Automotive Supplies
Tires, retread, passenger/truck
Connecticut, Illinois,
Iowa, Minnesota, New
Mexico, New York
Oils/grease/fluids  motor oil
Illinois, Michigan, New
                   lubricating oil,
Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan,
New York
                   gear oils,
                   hydraulic fluid
New Mexico
Remanufactured parts
Minnesota, New York
Pavement markings, reflective
(glass spheres)
Building Materials
Building insulation
Iowa, New York
Carpet (100% recycled yarn/fiber):
Iowa, New Mexico
Parking stops/benches
Texas, New Mexico
Food trays




Specialty envelopes



Mimeograph, 8^'xll
Printing, carbonless


file pockets, expansion
notebook filler
memo books/slips
padded mailers
white wove,
mailing tubes
shipping tags
vehicle license
W-2 forms
index cards
business cards
adding machine
refillable stick pens
dual purpose
", white
& flat sheet
carbon interleaved
11" roll, white
11" roll/ 14" roll, white
Kentucky, Michigan
Kentucky, Minnesota
Florida, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Minnesota
Florida, Kentucky
Michigan, Minnesota
Florida, Michigan,
Florida, Minnesota
Connecticut, Delaware,
Kentucky, New Mexico
Florida, Minnesota
Connecticut, Minnesota
Florida, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Minnesota
Alaska, Texas
Connecticut, Florida, Iowa,
Kentucky, Louisiana,
Minnesota, Mississippi,
New York, Rhode Island
Connecticut, Kentucky,
Kentucky, Minnesota,
New Mexico, Oregon
Kentucky, New Mexico,
New York, Texas
Louisiana, Michigan
Alaska, Louisiana,
Michigan, Mississippi,

Storage cartons     storage files/boxes

                   corrugated boxes
                   fiber boxes
                   Connecticut, Louisiana,
                   Kentucky, Minnesota
Cafeteria Supplies
Food service equipment
(recycled aluminum)
Napkins, paper	single ply, folded   Connecticut
                   2 ply, folded
                   single, 2 . or 3 ply  Virginia
                   quarter folded
                   Florida, Nevada, Virginia
                   dinner & luncheon
                   Connecticut, Delaware,
                   Florida, Virginia
                   Delaware, Florida
                   Kentucky, Minnesota,
                   New Mexico, New York
Office/Paper Supplies
Writing pads       legal size/scratch
                   Connecticut, Florida,
                   Kentucky, Louisiana,
                   New York
                   Florida, Kentucky,
                   Louisiana, Minnesota,
                   telephone message Kentucky. Louisiana
                   Post-It notes
                   Florida, Louisiana
                   Kentucky, Louisiana
Florida, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Michigan,
                   Kentucky, Louisiana,
                   Minnesota, Texas
book «
                   report covers
                   sheet protectors


Resource Listing for Specifications
The following Is a list of various recycled products and the states that
have specifications available upon request The addresses for the various
states which can give further information are provided on page D-5.

Janitorial Supplies
Toilet paper         1 ply               Connecticut, Delaware,
	Florida. Virginia	
                   1 ply/2 ply
                    Louisiana, Mississippi,
                    Kentucky, Maryland,
                    New Mexico, New York,
Toilet Seat Covers
Towels, paper
single fold
                    Connecticut, Delaware,
                    Florida, Louisiana,
                    Mississippi, Nevada,
                    New York. Virginia	
                    Connecticut, Florida,
                    Louisiana, Mississippi,
                    New York, Virginia
                   roll, 1 ply
                   Florida, Nevada
                   roll, 1 ply/2 ply
                    Delaware, Louisiana,
                   narrow fold
                   New York
Towels, industrial
                   Kentucky, Minnesota,
                   New Mexico, Oregon
windshield towel,
wiper (2 ply)
Kentucky, Nevada
                   industrial wiping
                   towel (2 ply)
                   Connecticut, Kentucky,
                   New Mexico, Nevada
                   nonwoven disposal
                   wipers (4 ply)	
                   Connecticut, New Mexico
                   cloth wiping rags    Minnesota, New Mexico
Facial tissue
2 ply
Delaware, Florida, Nevada
                    Connecticut, Minnesota,
                    New Mexico. New York
Trash can liners (polyethylene)
Waste containers
                   Florida, Minnesota
Recycling containers
(deskside & larger)

There's More Than One Way to Recycle: Case Studies of Recycling
Programs; $2.00; Clean Air Council, 311 Juniper St., Room 603,
Philadelphia, PA; 215-545-1832.

Why Waste a Second Chance? A Small Town Guide to Recycling;
National Center for Small Communities, National Association of
Towns and Townships; 1522 K Street NW, Washington, DC
20005; 202-737-5200

Promoting Recycling to the Public: An Illustrated Guide to Recycling
and Litter Reduction Programs (1988); National Soft Drink Association;
1101 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC  20036

Public Education: 1986; Free; Massachusetts Department of Environmental
Quality Engineering; 1 Winter Street, 9th Floor, Boston, MA
02108; 617-292-5856

Recycle New Mexico 1990-1991; PO Box 27682, Albuquerque, NM
87107; 505-761-8176

Recycle Texas -- a Reuse, Recycling, and Products Directory: 1991;
Texas Water Commission; PO Box 13087, Austin, TX 78711; 512-463-7754

Setting Up An Office Recycling Program: A How To; Community
Environmental Council (CEC); 930 Miramonte Drive, Santa Barbara,
CA93109; 805-963-0583

Setting Up a Solid Waste Recycling Program in Schools; McDonald's
Education Resource Center; 3620 Swenson Avenue, PO Box 8002,
St. Charles, IL 60174-7307; 800-627-7646

Solid Waste Strategies for the Natural State (Oct. 1990); Arkansas
Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, Solid Waste Division;
PO Box 8913, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913

Solid Waste Management (1989); National Conference of State
Legislatures; 1050 17th Street, Suite 2100, Denver, CO 80265

Southeast Waste Exchange; Ms. Mary McDaniel, University of
North Carolina, Urban Institute; UNCC Station, Charlotte, NC
28223; 704-547-2307

Southern Waste Jn/ormation Exchange; Dr. Roy C. Herndon;
Florida State University; PO Box 6487, Tallahassee, FL 32313;

Steps in Organizing a Municipal Recycling Program; 1988; Free;
New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection, Division of Solid
Waste Management, Office of Recycling; 401 East State Street,
CN  414, Trenton, NJ 08625; 609-292-0331

A Strategy for Regional Recycling; 1985; 55 pages; Free; Massachusetts
Department of Environment Quality Engineering, Bureau of Solid
Waste Disposal; 1 Winter Street, 9th Floor, Boston, MA 02108;

How to Set Up a School Recycling Program; The Council for Solid
Solutions; 1275 K Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005; 202-371-5319

Incentives for Recycling; 1988; Sen. J. L. Bruno, Vice Chairman, New
York State  Legislative Commission on Solid Waste Management; 80
pages; Free; New York State Legislative Commission on Solid Waste
Management, 150 State Street, 5th Floor, Albany NY 12207; 518-455-4436

King County Home Waste Guide; 450 King County Administration
Building,  500 4th Avenue,  Seattle, WA 98104

Louisiana  Recycles: a Directory ofRecyclers and Recycling Industries
Serving Louisiana; August, 1991; Louisiana Department of Environmental
Quality; PO Box 82263, Baton Rouge, LA 70884-2263; 504-765-0674

Management Strategies for Landscape Waste; Collection, Composting,
Marketing  (1989); Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources,
Office of Solid Waste and Renewable Resources; 325 West Adams
Street, Room 300, Springfield, IL 62704-1892

Multi-Material Recycling Manual; 1987 (update expected mid 1989);
Keep America Beautiful, Inc.; 9 West Broad Street, Stamford, CT
06902; 203-323-8987

Office Paper Recycling; 1987; Free; Portland Metropolitan Service
District, METRO; 2000 SW First Avenue, Portland, OR 97201-5398;

Paper Matcher, Free; American Paper Institute; 1250 Connecticut
Avenue NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20036; 800-878-8878

Paper Recycling and Its Role in Solid Waste Management; 1987;
19 pages;  Free; Paper Recycling, American Paper Institute; 260
Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016

Pennsylvania Glass Recycling: A How to Guide; Free; Pennsylvania
Glass Recycling Corporation, 509 North Second Street, Harrisburg,
PA 17101; 717-234-8091

Planning and Implementing Community Recycling in Arkansas;
Ozark  Recycling Enterprise, Inc.; Sandy Garcia, Director; HC 79,
Box 271 A, Marshall, AR 72650; 501-448-2472

Plastic Bottle Recycling Today; 1988; $1.00; Plastic Bottle Institute,
The Society of the Plastics  Industry, Inc.; 1275 K Street NW,
Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005; 202-371-5200

Used Oil Recycling Bulletin March 1988, EPA/530-SW-88-047

Used Oil Recycling Bulletin November 1988, EPA/530-SW-89-006

Used Oil Recycling Bulletin Fall 1990, EPA/530-SW-89-068

Books, Guides, and Directories
Arkansas Source Reduction and Recycling Manual; Recycling Division,
Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology; PO Box 8913,
Little Rock, AR 72219-8913

The Complete Guide to Planning. Building and Operating a Multi-Mate-
rial Theme Center, 1984; 30 pages; Free; The Glass Packaging Institute;
1801 K Street NW, Suite 1105-L, Washington, DC 20006; 202-887^850

Comprenensiue Curbside Recycling: Collection Costs and How to Control Them
(1988); Glass Packaging Institute; 1801 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

Conducting a Recycling Program Publicity Campaign (series of pamphlets);
1985; Free; Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Solid Waste
Division; PO Box 1760, Portland, OR 97207; 503-229-5395

Curbside Waste in a Throuxzuiay World (1990); National Governor's
Association; 444 North Capitol Street, Washington, DC 20001-1572

The Earth's Future is in Your Grocery Cart; National Consumers
League; 815 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

Fund Raising Through Recycling: An Euents Planning Guide (1988);
Mid-America Glass Recycling; 29 Purfleet Drive, Bella Vista, AR 72714;

Green Guide; Sierra Club; 730 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109;

Guide for Preparing Commercial Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling
Plans; OSCAR, Department of Environmental Management; 83 Park
Street, Providence, RI 02903-1037

Household Battery Collection Program; 1988; Free; NH/VT Solid Waste
Project; Room 336 Moody Building, Claremont, NH 03743; 603-543-1201

How-To-Kit Household Hazardous Materials Collection Project 1990;
League of Women Voters of Arkansas; 2020 West Third Street, #501,
Little Rock, AR 72205; 501-376-7760

Developing a Comprehensive Federal Office Recycling Program

The Impacts of Lead Industry Economics and Hazardous Waste
Regulations on Lead-Acid Battery Recycling: Revision and Update; 1987

Office Paper Recycling Program, An Implementation Manual, EPA/

Operating a Recycling Program, A Citizen's Guide, H-SW-770

Recycle, EPA/530-SW-88-050

Recycling in Federal Agencies, EPA/530-SW-90-082

Recycling Works! State and Local Solutions to Solid Waste Management
Problems, EPA/530-SW-89-014

Use It Again, Sam — A Guide for Federal Office Paper Recycling

Yard Waste Composting — A Study of Eight Programs, EPA/530-SW-89-038

Yard Waste Composting — Environmental Fact Sheet, EPA/530-SW-91 -009

Source Reduction/Waste Minimization
Be An Environmentally Alert Consumer, EPA/530-SW-90-034A

Plastics:  The Facts on Source Reduction, EPA/530-SW-90-017C

Promoting Source Reduction and Recyclability in the Marketplace,

Used Oil/Automotive
How to Set Up Local Used Oil Recycling Program, EPA/530-SW-89-039A

Recycling Used OiL Service Stations and Other Vehicle-Service Facilities,

Recycling Used OiL 10 Steps to Change Oil,  EPA/530-SW-900-039C,
English and Spanish translations

Recycling Used Oil: What Can You Do?, EPA/530-SW-89-039B,
English and Spanish translations

Summary of Markets for Scrap Tires, EPA/530-SW-90-0743

Selected U.S. EPA Solid Waste Publications
Many of these publications are available at no charge from the
EPA RCRA Hotline, 800-424-9346.

Guide to EPA Hotline, Clearinghouse, Libraries, Dockets, 20K-1007

Your Guide to U.S. EPA, 21K1012

Procurement and Market Development
Guidance on Use of "Recycled" and "Recyclable" in Product Labeling
Fact Sheet, EPA/530-SW-91-072

Solid  Waste Information Clearinghouse GRCDA, SWICH

Assessing the Environmental Consumer Market, 21P-1003

EPA Guideline for Purchasing Building Insulation Containing Recovered
Materials Fact Sheet, EPA/530-SW-91 -044  .

EPA Guideline for Purchasing Paper and Paper Products Fact Sheet,

EPA Guideline for Purchasing Re-fined Lubricating Oil Fact Sheet,

EPA Guideline for Purchasing Retread Tires Fact Sheet, EPA/530-SW-91-045

Procurement Guidelines for Government Agencies, EPA/530-SW-91-011

Summary of Markets for Scrap Tires, EPA/530-SW-90-0743

Unit Pricing - Providing an Incentive to Reduce MSW, EPA/520-SW-87-026

The Facts on Degradable Plastics Fact Sheet, EPA/530-SW-90-017D

The Facts about Plastics in the Marine Environment, EPA/530-SW-90-017B

The Facts  on Recycling Plastics Fact Sheet, EPA/530-SW-90-017E

Methods to Manage and Control Plastic Wastes, EPA/530-SW-89-015A

Plastics: Fads About Production,  Use and Disposal EPA/530-SW-90-017A

Plastics; The Facts on Source Reduction, EPA/530-SW-90-017C

Pulp & Paper Week
Miller Freeman Publications
500 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94105

Recycled Paper News
5528 Hempstead Way
Springfield, VA 22151
703-642-1120, ext. 116

The Recycling Magnet
Steel Can Recycling Institute
608 Andersen Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15220

Recycling Polystyrene
Polystyrene Packaging Council
1025 Connecticut Avenue NW,
Suite 508
Washington, DC 20036

Recycling Times
1730 Rhode Island Avenue,
Suite 100
Washington, DC 20004

Recycling Today
G.I.E. Inc. Publishers
4012 Bridge Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44113
(216) 961-4130

Resource Recovery
National League of Cities
1301 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20004

Resource Recycling
1206 N. W. 21st Avenue
PO Box 10540
Portland, OR 97210
Reusable News
Communication Service Branch (05-305)
401 M Street SW
Washington, DC 20460

Box 3535
Lancaster, PA 17604

Scrap Age
3605-111 Woodhead Drive
Northbrook, IL 60062

Scrap Tire News
133 Mountain Road
Suffield, CT 06078

Solid Waste Management Newsletter
Office of Technology Transfer
University of Illinois at Chicago
Box 6998
Chicago, IL 60680

Sofid Waste & Power
410 Archibald Street
Kansas City, MO 64111

Waste Age
1730 Rhode Island Avenue NW,
Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20036

The following list is not intended to be a compendium of recy-
cling and industry publications.  Contact the publisher directly
for information.
Newsletters, Newspapers, and
PO Box 351
Emmaus, PA 18049

EHMI Re:Source
10 Newmarket Road
PO Box 70
Durham, NH 03824

Environmental Advocate - Renews
PO Box 44066
Baton Rouge, LA 70804

Fibre Market News
G.I.E.,  Inc. Publishers
4012 Bridge Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44113

Old House Journal Corp.
435 Ninth  Street
Brooklyn, NY 11215

Green Reader
1250 Capital of Texas Highway, 4th Floor
Austin, TX 78746

Industrial Material Exchange Service
2200 Churchill Road, #31
PO Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62794-9276
  Manufacturers Exchange
  Arkansas Industrial Development
  One Capitol Mall
  Little Rock, AR 72201

  Official Board Markets
  The Yellow Sheet"
  233 N. Michigan Avenue, 24th Floor
  Chicago, IL 60601

  The Paper Stock Report
  McEntee Media Corp.
  13727 Holland Road
  Cleveland, OH 44142-3920

  PCE Newsletter
  Solid Waste and Recycling Divisions
  PO Box 8913
  Little Rock, AR 72219-8913

  Plastic Bottle Reporter
  Society of the Plastics Industry
  1275 K Street NW, Suite 400
  Washington, DC 20005

  Pollution Prevention News
  U. S. EPA
  401 M Street SW, (PM-219)
  Washington, DC 20460

  Pulp & Paper Magazine
  500 Howard Street
  San Francisco, CA 94105

Natural Resources Defense Council
1350 New York Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20005

National Soft Drink Association
1101 Sixteenth Street NW
Washington, DC 20036

National Solid Wastes Management
1730 Rhode Island Avenue NW,
Suite  1000
Washington, DC 20036

Plastic Institute of America
277 Fairfield Road, Suite 100
Fairfield, NJ 07004-1932

Plastic Loose-Fill Council
PO Box 601
Grand Rapids, MI 49516-0601

Scrap Tire Management Council
1400 K Street NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC 20005

Sierra Club
PO Box 7959
San Francisco, CA 94120-9943

Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.
1275 K Street NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20005

Solid Waste Association of North
America (formerly GRCDA)
PO Box 7219
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Steel Can Recycling Institute
4900 Bayou Boulevard, Suite 1 IOC
Pensacola, FL 32503
800-876-SCRI (Pittsburgh)

Technical Association of the
Pulp and Paper Industry
15 Technology Parkway South
Norcross, GA 30092

Tire Retread Information Bureau
26555 Carmel Rancho Boulevard,
Suite 3
Carmel, CA 93923

U. S. Conference of Mayors
1620 Eye Street NW
Washington, DC 20006

U. S. Environmental Protection
401 M Street SW
Washington, DC 20460

U. S. EPA, Region 6
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202

Vinyl Environmental Resource
1 Cascade Plaza
Akron, OH 44308

WorldWatch Institute
1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20036

Councillor Solid Waste Solutions
1275 K Street NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20005

Council for Textile Recycling
7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 1212
Bethesda, MD 20814

Environmental Defense Fund
1616 P Street NW, Suite 150
Washington, DC 20036

Glass Packaging Institute
1801 K Street NW, Suite 1105-L
Washington, DC 20006

381 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10016

Institute for Local Self-Reliance
2425 18th Street NW
Washington, DC 20009

Institute of Scrap Recycling
1627 K Street NW, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20006

Keep America Beautiful, Inc.
Mill River Plaza
9 West Broad Street
Stamford, CT 06902

Lead Industries Association
295 Madison Avenue, 19th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Mid-America Glass
824 N. Mission
Sapulpa, OK 74066

National Association for Plastic
Container Recovery
5024 Parkway Plaza Boulevard,
Suite 200
Charlotte, NC 28217

National Association of Solid
Wastes Management
1730 Rhode Island Avenue NW,
Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20036

National Association of Solvent
1333 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Suite 1100
Washington, DC 20036

National Conference of State
1050 17th Street,  Suite 2100
Denver, CO 80265

National Institute of Governmental
115 Millwood Avenue, Suite 201
Falls Church, VA 22046

National League of Cities Institute
1301 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20004

National Recycling Coalition
1101 30th Street NW, Suite 305
Washington, DC 20007

Aluminum Association
900 19th Street NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20006

Aluminum Recycling Association
1000 16th Street NW, Suite 603
Washington, DC 20036

American Iron and Steel Institute
1000 16th Street NW
Washington, DC 20036

American Newspaper Publishers
Box 17407 Dulles Airport
Washington, DC 20041

American Paper Institute
260 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10016

American Retreaders Association
PO Box 172203
Louisville, KY40217

American Trucking Association
2200 Mill Road
Alexandria, VA 22314

Aseptic Packaging Council
1000 Potomac Street NW,  Suite 401
Washington, DC 20007
Association of Foam Packaging
1025 Connecticut Avenue NW,
Suite 515
Washington, DC 20036

Association of Petroleum Re-
2025 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20006

Can Manufacturers Institute
1625 Massachusetts Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20036

Center for Marine Conservation
1201 West 24th Street
Austin, TX 78705

Center for Plastics Recycling
Rutgers University
Busch Campus, Building 3529
Piscataway, NJ 08855

Citizens for a Better Environment
33 East Congress Parkway
Chicago, IL 60605

Composting Council
601 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,
Suite 900
Washington, DC 20004

Council on Plastics and Packaging
1001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 401
Washington, DC 20036

Region VI Resources
Arkansas Cooperative Extension
Arkansas Recyclers Association
Arkansas Recyclers Guide
Arkansas Solid Waste Office
Keep Arkansas Beautiful

Department of Environmental Quality
Department of Natural Resources
Keep Louisiana Beautiful
Louisiana Recycling Office
Louisiana Solid Waste Office
Office of Litter Control and Recycling

New Mexico
New Mexico Beautiful
New Mexico Energy Department
New Mexico Recyclers Guide
New Mexico Recycling
New Mexico Solid Waste

The MET Oil Recycling Hotline
Oklahoma Department of Commerce
Oklahoma Environmental Advocate
Oklahoma Recycling Coordinator
Solid Waste Management

Keep Texas Beautiful
Texas Energy Extension Service
Texas General Land Of flee/Re eye ling
Texas Office of Energy
Texas Renew Program
Texas Solid Waste Bureau

Electronic Bulletin Boards

Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse (SWICH)
SWICH is funded by the U.S. EPA for the purpose of increasing the
availability of information on solid waste management. SWICH may
provide assistance to government agencies, professional associa-
tions, industry, citizens groups and anyone else interested in any
aspect of solid waste management. SWICH operates an Electronic
Bulletin Board (EBB) to provide current information on solid waste
issues such as meeting and  conference information, new publica-
tions, expert contact information, technical information, and state
and federal legislative and regulatory changes.  SWICH also pro-
vides a Library System which includes Journals, reports, studies,
proceedings, curricula, films and video tapes.

Public access. Any PC-compatible or Apple equipped with a modem can
access the system, 24 hours a day. No cost. Modem information:  8
data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, 1200 or 2400 baud. 301-585-0204.

Contact:       SWICH, Solid  Waste Association of North America
              PO Box 7219
              Silver Spring,  MD 20910
              FAX: 301-585-0297

Both the SWICH EBB and Library System may be accessed by modem.

Pollution Prevention Information Exchange System (PIES)
Public access. Any PC-compatible or Apple equipped with a modem
can access the system 24 hours a day.  No cost. Modem informa-
tion:  8 data bits, no parity,  1 stop bit. Operates up to 2400 baud.

Contact:       Office of Pollution Prevention

Provides instant access to materials markets and prices for recyclable
materials, the recycled products derived from these materials, the
manufacturers producing these products, and where recycled products
can be purchased.  Essential  and special services utilized by the indus-
try are also incorporated into  RecycleLine. Modem information:  8  data
bits, no parity, 1 stop bit. 800-461-0707

Contact:       American Recycling Market


Information Sources
Currently there isn't one comprehensive source of information
on purchasing recycled products.  The following resources can
be useful in providing information on the different facets of Clos-
ing the Loop.

U. S. EPA Procurement Guidelines Hotline
EPA has established several mechanisms for assisting Federal
and non-Federal agencies in setting up programs  and for helping
vendors market their recovered materials to procuring agencies.
These include a telephone hotline and frequently  updated lists of
manufacturers and vendors of products designated in the guide-

Copies of the procurement guidelines, lists of manufacturers and
vendors, and information on purchasing guideline items can be
obtained from the procurement hotline by calling  703-941-4452.

Official Recycled Products Guide (RPG)
The RPG is a unique publication that lists thousands of recycled
products In hundreds  of product categories. Information is in-
dexed by product, brand name, geographic area, and company.
A telephone directory is included to assist users to find recycled
products.  It also provides a list of useful references, including
contacts, definitions, and Information about the U.S. EPA re-
cycled paper procurement guideline and the Canadian EcoLogo
standard.  It is available on a subscription basis.  Call 800-267-0707.

Peer Match Programs
The Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA), formerly
known as the Governmental Refuse Collection and Disposal As-
sociation (GRCDA) and the National Recycling Coalition, with
funding from the U.S.  EPA, provides advisors on all  aspects of
solid waste management, including purchasing through a peer
match program.  The program is designed to provide technical
assistance to state and local governments and includes provi-
sions for 50% of the advisor's travel cost to local communities.
Call 800-456-4723.

The International City Management Association (ICMA) also op-
erates a peer match program, with U.S. EPA funding, which pro-
vides advisors to local governments on all aspects of solid waste
management. The ICMA program covers up to 50% of travel
costs.  Call (202) 962-3649.


Despite the disposal problems associated with tires, they are
only beginning to be recognized as a valuable resource.  For sev-
eral reasons, used tires are well-suited to recycling or reuse.  Be-
cause used tires are often stored in stockpiles, or are disposed of
in large quantities by retailers who haul them by the truckload,
used tires are a particularly accessible material for recycling or
re-use.  Also, tire components are fairly standard making them
particularly suitable for recycling. Tire recycling options include
retreading or recapping decent-quality used tires for reuse; us-
ing whole tires for playground equipment or in reef construction;
chopping, shredding, or grinding used tires and reusing the rub-
ber in smaller rubber parts such as rubber mats and molded
rubber objects;  and mixing ground rubber from tires with as-
phalt to produce rubberized paving materials.
The energy value of tires is
high (comparable to high
grade coal) so re-use as fuel
may be an option.  Tire-de-
rived fuel (TDK) refers to tires
that have been shredded into
small rubber chips that are
burned in dedicated TDK boil-
ers or used as a replacement
for high grade bituminous
coal.  Facilities that may use
TDF as a fuel include cement
kilns, pulp and paper facili-
ties, and electric power plants. I
(Did You Know That... ?

In 1985, only one state regulated scrap
tires. As of January 1991, 36 states have
scrap tire regulations.

Virtually every commercial airline In the
world routinely uses retreaded tires on
their largest passenger planes.

In 1989, 585 million pounds of tread rub-
ber was used by the retread tire industry.

Retreaded passenger car tires are manu-
factured according to Federal safety stan-
dards developed by the Department of
Tires are covered by Procurement Guideline for Retread Tires, 40
CFR Part 253, 53 FR 46558 (November 17.  1988).

Steel cans are one of the easier products to recycle. Yet, this re-
cycling loop is often left open because people don't always recog-
nize the item  as recyclable steel.  Steel food cans are often called
"tin" cans, and not everyone recognizes that they are steel, and
therefore, recyclable.  Other steel products include common
                                               household items,
                                               that need little or
                                               no preparation for
                                               recycling include
                                               candy, cake and
                                               cookie tins; steel
                                               cans that hold
                                               spices  and syrup;
                                               shoe polish, and car
                                               and floor wax.
                                               There are also lots
                                               of steel products
                                               used as cooking
                                               tools such as cookie
                                               cutters, cheese grat-
                                               ers, and baking
                                               pans.  Included in
the easy-to-recycle list of steel products are items such as book
ends,  trash cans and in/out baskets.  These, and many other
common household items can be easily recycled, and most fit
into curbside bins and drop-off centers.  Recognition is often a
key factor in  closing the recycling loop.

  Did You Know That... ?                                                ]l\
  All steel food and drink cans are 100% recyclable.                           Ill
  The vast majority of steel products are made with recycled steel.                I
  The overall recycling rate of steel products In the U. S. is 68% — the highest rate
  of any material.
  Private investment and commercial recycling activity — without public funding or
  government mandates such as deposit laws — have achieved a steel recycling
  rate which averages 2/3 of annual production.
  The steel Industry is the single largest recycler in America because recycled steel
  is — and always has been — an integral Ingredient of steel production.
  The amount of steel recycled, instead of burled with other solid wastes, has, over
  the past decade, extended the life of the nation's landfills by more than three
  Steel products  from food and drink cans to automobiles are recycled over and
  over again.
  Adapted from the Steel Can Recycling Institute's "Steel.  Building on a History ol Recycling Leadership".

The term "plastic" encompasses a wide variety of resins or poly-
mers with different characteristics and product uses. The most
common among them include PET, primarily used to make soft
drink containers; HOPE, milk and detergent bottles, and base
cups on soft drink containers; PVC, which is used for cooking oil
containers, and food wrappers; LDPE is used to make garbage
bags and bread wrappers; PP, lids and heavy wrappers; and PS,
which is used to make "clamshells" and dairy product contain-
ers. The most popular plastics are HOPE and LDPE. These two
together make up more than two-thirds of all plastics produced.
To help the recycling effort,
many container manufac-
turers have begun stamping
the bottoms of their recy-
clable  plastic containers
with the recycling symbol
and a number indicating
the type of plastic.  Con-
sumers may want to con-
tact the local recycler to
find out which types of
plastics they accept.
                             Thirty-six two-liter bottles will make one
                             square yard of carpeting.
                             By the year 2000, the amount of plastic
                             thrown away will increase by 50%.

                             In 1989, 190 million pounds of plastic soft
                             drink bottles were recycled — more than
                             28% of all soft drink bottles produced.

                             Current volume estimates for plastic waste
                             range from 14% to 21% of the waste stream.
                             Plastic lumber is durable, rot-proof, weather-
                              root, and splinter free.
The availability of materials
has spawned the search for
new processing techniques and product uses, and new markets
are expected to develop in the near future.  While plastics recy-
cling is not an established money-maker in many areas, plastics
recycling industry is growing rapidly.  Included among the many
recycled plastic items now available are fences, park benches,
traffic sign posts and carpeting.
Steel, according to the Steel Can Recycling Institute, is the num-
ber-one recycled material in the world, as over 55 million tons of
iron and steel were recycled in the U.S. and Canada alone in
1988.  The overall market for ferrous metals is well established,
and the demand for scrap metal is expected to remain steady or
increase as processing technologies develop.

The largest amount of recycled steel has traditionally come from
large items such as cars and appliances.  However, recycling of
steel cans is also becoming more popular. Steel cans are easily
separated from mixed recyclables or municipal solid waste using
large magnets.

Corrugated Cardboard is the largest single source of waste paper
for recycling, according to the American Paper Institute. Unlike
ONP, markets for good quality, baled cardboard have historically
been steady.
"Did You Know That ... ? N

Each ton of recycled paper saves 3.3 cubic yards of landfill
space; 7000 gallons of water — half the amount required when
making paper from wood pulp; 380 gallons of oil; 4100 kilo-
watt-hours of energy — enough to power the average home for
6 months; and 60 pounds of air pollutants.

Each year we throw away more than 4.5 tons of office paper
and nearly 10 million tons of newspaper. We also throw away
enough wood and paper combined to heat 5 million homes for
200 years.

Making paper from recycled products can take as much as 64%
less energy than It would take to make paper from virgin pulp.

One press run of the Sunday edition of the New York Times
uses the paper produced by about 75,000 trees.
For every ton of paper manufactured from recycled papers, 17
trees are saved and 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space are saved.

The process of removing ink from scrap paper is cleaner and
less toxic than the process required to make paper from virgin

Paper includes
computer pa-
per, white led-
ger paper, key
punch cards,
and trim cut-

tings from in-
dustrial paper
ers. The mar-

ket for this
material has
historically re-
mained steady,
because good
quality prod-
uct can be
used as a di-
rect substitute
for wood pulp.
Mixed Paper is usually collected from office buildings and indus-
trial plants, but can also be collected in municipal programs.
Segregation is the key to success as mixed paper often has sig-
nificant quantities of valuable high quality paper, but also typi-
cally contains contaminate materials  such as rubber bands,
clay, and coatings. As with ONP, the  market for mixed paper is
currently soft.  In considering recycling mixed paper, keep in
mind the benefit of avoided disposal costs.

Paper falls under the Procurement Guideline for Paper and Paper
Products, 40 CFR Part 250, 53 FR 23546 (June 22, 1988).

Plastics recycling is a comparatively young industry, and only a
small percentage of plastics are currently recycled. However, as
processing technologies are developed, plastics recycling is ex-
pected to expand.

To meet the military
specifications or the
API service levels,
lubricating oil, vir-
gin or re-refined,
must pass certain
testing programs.
Oil meeting the mili-
tary specifications
also meets the API
service levels, but
not vice-versa. A
Qualified Products
List  of oil meeting
the military specifi-
cations is main-
tained by the U.S.
Army's Research
and  Development
Center at Fort
Belvoir, VA.
It takes 42 gallons of crude oil to make 2V4 quarts of lubri-
cating oil, but Just one gallon of used oil can be re-re-
fined Into the same quality of 2V4 quarts of lubricating oil.

Re-reflnlng used oil takes only about 1/3 the energy of
refining crude oil to lubricant quality.

If recycled, oil now Improperly disposed of by do-it-
yourselfers could produce enough energy to power
360,000 homes each year.

Coast Guard estimates Indicate that sewage treatment
plants discharge twice as much oil Into coastal waters
as do tanker accidents — IS million gallons per year
versus 7.5 million gallons from accidents.

Recycling used oil could reduce national petroleum im-
ports by 25.5 million barrels of oil per year.

Used oil is the largest single source of oil pollution
{over 40%) In our nation's waterways.	
Oil Is covered by "Procurement Guideline for Lubricating Oils Con-
taining Refined Oil", 40 CFR Part 252, 43 FR 24699 (June 30, 1988).

Waste paper recycling has several advantages: it provides mills
with a valuable fiber source, may provide income to recyclers,
and it reduces municipal disposal costs.  Paper is collected in
curbside programs, office collection programs, and at recycling
centers.  It is sorted by paper type, baled, and shipped to differ-
ent kinds of mills depending on the end product. These papers
are washed in big "pulpers" at the mill. Pulpers resemble giant
washing machines that clean the paper and break It down into
usable fibers and discards such as Inks, clays, paper clips and
staples.  The recycled pulp fibers are then incorporated into the
standard paper-making process.

Each of the different categories of paper represent a different
Old newspaper (ONP) is one of the most prevalent materials in
the municipal solid waste stream, and has historically been one
of the most commonly recycled materials.  In recent years recov-
ery of ONP and mixed paper has frequently exceeded domestic
mill capacity, and has led to a market which fluctuates greatly.

Did You Know That... ?

Most recycling programs require glass to be sepa-
rated by color. That's because the coloring In
green and brown glass can't be removed.

Both glass and aluminum are 100% recyclable
with no loss In quality when they are melted and

We throw away enough glass bottles and Jars to
Mil the 1350 foot twin towers of New York's World
Trade Center every two weeks.

Each year, we throw away more than 11 million
tons of glass.

Recycled glass Is being used for new road sur-
faces called "glassphalt".
Using recycled glass in
glass production saves
about 30 percent of the
energy usually required
when producing glass
from raw materials.  En-
ergy is saved because
crushed glass, cullet,
melts at a lower tem-
perature than the raw
materials used to make
glass. In addition to sav-
ing energy, using cullet
to produce new glass re-
duces the amount of
noxious emissions pro-
duced when creating glass from sand, soda ash, and limestone.

Consumers recycle over 7% of the total glass produced annually.  How-
ever, glass recycling faces three specific problems. The first and
probably the least of these is the low level of public awareness.  Sec-
ond, the requirement to separate  colors of glass makes the task more
complicated and, perhaps, less  attractive to some people.  Third, trans-
portation costs can make glass recycling more expensive than
conventional disposal in a landfill.

Re-refined oils are used lubricating oils that have been cleaned
through a refining process.  It can be re-refined into lubricating oil
and used again as motor oil, or  reprocessed and used as fuel in in-
dustrial burners and boilers.  EPA  reviewed of a number of studies
of re-refined oil, and found that all reached the conclusion that re-
refined oils perform as well as virgin oils. Further, re-refining  oil
takes only about one-third the energy required to refine crude oil to
lubricant quality resulting in a savings of both energy and natural

Purchasing agents should not require lubricating oils containing
re-refined oil to meet any performance standard higher than that
required of virgin lubricating oils.

In general,  engine oils are purchased using military specifications
or the engine service classification  system developed by the  Ameri-
can Petrolum Institute (API).  The API  service level is specified  in
the owner's manual  of a vehicle. Oils  meeting the API levels gener-
ally are packaged  in containers bearing the API-licensed logo.

Equal or reduced cost of total materials can be realized with the
use of fly ash while maintaining or improving concrete proper-
ties. In cases where no cost savings are realized by using fly
ash, it may still be advantageous since fly ash can improve both
the strength and durability of concrete.

As communities look for ways to divert significant amounts of
organic  wastes away from rapidly filling landfills, composting is
becoming an increasingly popular municipal waste management
alternative.  Composting falls into two main categories -- mu-
nicipal solid waste, and yard waste which usually is a compo-
nent of municipal solid waste.

Municipal solid waste (MSW) composting is a developing tech-
nology that is expected to see increased use in the future. MSW
composting can be developed simultaneously with recycling and
refuse-derived fuel operations.  Composting programs can sig-
nificantly benefit other waste management operations, both envi-
ronmentally and economically.

Unlike recyclable items such as aluminum and glass, no na-
tional markets for compost products are available. However,
there are compost product outlets in many locations throughout
the country.  Some typical compost markets include residential
for lawn and flower garden  application; commercial, which in-
cludes greenhouses, nurseries,  cemeteries, and top-soil  provid-
ers; public agencies for public parks and  playgrounds, roadside
and median strips, and military installations; and land reclama-
tion projects such as landfill cover, strip mined lands, and der-
elict urban land.

Glass is one of the most commonly recycled materials, and the
market for postconsumer glass has been historically steady.
Glass is often separated by color (clear, green, and brown) to be
reprocessed.  Separation can take place in the household, at the
drop-off center, or at materials recovery facilities by hand-pick-
ers or optical separators. Glass recycling involves crushing used
bottles and jars into small pieces, forming a material called
cullet.  Gullet is then sold to end-users who mix it with sand,
soda ash, and limestone to  form new glass containers.  Glass
crushing can take place at recycling centers, intermediate pro-
cessing  centers, or material recovery facilities.

Lead-Acid Batteries:  Automobiles use lead-acid batteries, each
of which contains approximately 18 pounds of lead and a gallon
of sulfuric acid, both hazardous materials. Automotive batteries
are the largest source of lead in the municipal solid waste
stream. Battery reprocessing involves breaking open the batter-
ies, neutralizing the acid, chipping the polypropylene containers
for recycling, and smelting the lead and lead oxides, to produce
reusable lead. Recycled lead must compete with virgin lead and
markets can fluctuate greatly. When virgin lead prices are low,
less recycling takes place. Another consideration in lead-acid
battery recycling is potential liability associated with the storage
and processing of hazardous materials.

Household Batteries: Household batteries come in a variety of
types, including: alkaline, carbon-zinc, mercury, silver, zinc, and
nickel-cadmium. Not all household batteries are recyclable and,
in fact, only those containing mercury and silver are usually
marketed to end users who extract the metals. Most batteries
are handled as hazardous wastes once they are segregated from
the waste stream.  The metals found in household batteries can
contaminate incinerator air  emissions and ash and cause ground
water contamination through leachate, so removal from the
waste stream is environmentally sound, regardless of the market

Cement/Concrete (Fly  Ash)
Fly ash is "the finely divided residue that results from burning
ground  or powdered coal and is transported from the combustion
chamber by exhaust gases." Fly ash has been used for decades
in the production of durable and economical concrete.  It is one
of the products for which the EPA
has issued procurement guide-
lines [Procurement Guideline for
Cement and Concrete Containing
Fly Ash, 40 CFR Part 249, 48 FR
4230 (January, 28, 1983).]

It comes from, almost always, coal-fired electric generating
plants.  The application and performance of concrete containing
fly ash has been documented by both the U.S. Bureau  of Recla-
mation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers since the 1940's.
Over the last 40 years fly ash has been used in virtually every
concrete market including highways, buildings, and tunnels.  It
is widely available throughout the United States, and can be
purchased either in blended cement or as a mineral admixture
for concrete.

Things to Know About Commonly Recycled Materials

Aluminum Is one of the recycling leaders in the United States.
Today, 40 percent of the aluminum products available Is made
up of recycled aluminum. Everything made of aluminum,  from
soft drink cans, to sid-
ing, to automobile
parts can be re-melted
and made into new alu-
minum products.  The
demand for  recycled
aluminum is high, as it
is estimated that it
takes 95 percent less
energy to produce an
aluminum can from an
existing can than from
ore.  And aluminum
cans are only one
[Did You Know That... ?

 In one year's time, Americans will throw away one
 million tons of aluminum cans and foil.

 Nationally, we throw away enough aluminum to
 rebuild our entire commercial air fleet every three

 Twenty cans can be produced from recycled alumi-
 num with the same amount of energy that It takes
 to manufacture a single can from raw materials.

 Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy
I to light a 100 watt bulb for over three hours.
                     source of recyclable aluminum. Materials
                     such as frozen food containers, residential
                     siding, home appliances, storm doors, and
                     lawn furniture are  also recyclable. Conse-
                     quently,  aluminum is a high-value prod-
                     uct that  is the greatest revenue generator
                     of many  recycling programs.
Battery recycling is a response to good market conditions (i.e.,
the price of lead) and to concern over the toxic components,
which  include lead, cadmium, and mercury, found in many bat-
teries.  These metals are contaminants in incinerator air emis-
sions and ash, and can cause ground water contamination
through leaching at landfills and composting facilities. Pressure
to remove them from the waste stream is becoming more intense.
Collection of batteries, however, does not constitute recycling —
it is only the first step.  Like other materials, battery recycling
requires consistent collection and processing.  However, as with
other recyclable  materials when markets are down recycling of
batteries slows down. And yet it can be  argued, that even when
markets are down, batteries should be separated and collected,
because disposal as hazardous waste, is more environmentally
sound than landfilling as municipal solid waste.

The plastic debris was cleaned, ground up, melted and remolded
into park benches by Hammer's Plastic Recycling of Iowa Falls,
Iowa. Exxon Chemical Co. picked up most of the financial cost.

Each of the six-foot benches is made out of 150 pounds of re-
cycled plastic, roughly 1050 soda bottles or gallon milk jugs.
Since plastic is more resistant to the corrosive beach environ-
ment than  wood, the new benches are expected to outlast several
generations of their more traditional wooden cousins.

Fort Howard
In 1991, Fort Howard Corporation of Green Bay, Wisconsin
agreed to recycle large quantities of outdated telephone books
from Ameritech Publishing/Wisconsin Bell. Telephone books,
along with  other grades of waste paper, are recycled into various
tissue products at Fort Howard's Green Bay mill. The recycling
of these telephone books not only provides a good use for this
poor quality, low grade paper, but also prevents unnecessary
landfilling of bulky telephone books.

Additionally, Ameritech Services, which is  the purchasing
branch for  Ameritech and the five Bell Companies surrounding
Wisconsin, have begun to purchase the recycled tissue products
manufactured by Fort Howard.  Purchasing these 100% recycled
tissue products is what closes the recycling loop and decreases
the use of limited virgin resources.


Mary Kay Cosmetics
In addition to meeting the beauty needs of women around the
world, Mary Kay Cosmetics headquartered in Dallas, Texas has
taken a leadership position in helping preserve the natural
beauty of the world itself.

Mary Kay's corporate letterhead, business cards, order forms,
package inserts, publications, and some brochures are now be-
ing printed on recycled paper and recycled cotton fiber.  Of all
paper purchased by Mary Kay for office use and printed  pieces,
90% is recycled stock.

Mary Kay also introduced recycled paperboard packaging in
June 1990. To  date, the company has used 4533 tons of re-
cycled paperboard.  In September 1990, recycled paperboard
cartons for all skin care products debuted. This represents 45%
of Mary Kay's product line (in terms of sales).

In early 1991, Mary Kay introduced a promotional product bro-
chure printed on a revolutionary new recycled paper stock de-
signed for top quality four-color printing.  Mary Kay was the first
major user of this paper, purchasing 225 tons to print 6.5 mil-
lion brochures.

Mary Kay Cosmetics was the first major cosmetics company to
introduce recycled packaging for such an  extensive product line.
Currently, 90%  of the regular line products feature cartons made
of recycled paperboard. Additionally, Mary Kay products are
shipped with "peanuts" made of recycled polystyrene resins in
recycled corrugated  cartons.

Galveston Beach
In March of 1990 volunteers  picked up plastic soda bottles and
milk jugs off Texas beaches.  Today, they're back on the beach
again —  this time as permanent park benches made completely
out of recycled plastics.

All told, twelve eco-friendly benches were  installed in beachfront
parks up and down the Texas coast, according to the "Adopt a
Park" brochure. They are the result of a far-reaching joint effort
by private citizens and the corporate community. Volunteers
picked up 1345 tons of trash and debris, and a Chicago  recy-
cling company then  sorted out 5000 pounds of reusable plastics.

An annual review of recycled product
purchasing programs will provide
useful information and should in-
     •     Data on recycled purchases in terms of volume and availability
          Review of the current availability/prices of products that could
          not be obtained
          Review of minimum content standards to determine whether
          they should be revised
          Survey of market developments

The United States Conference of Mayors and the National Recy-
cling Coalition, in cooperation with EPA, are conducting a "Buy
Recycled" campaign to encourage cities to purchase recycled
products. The Conference of Mayors Task Force developed a
technical assistance package, which contains model ordinances,
information on how to find suppliers in or near jurisdictions, ar-
ticles about procurement policies, and information on upcoming
workshops on local government procurement.  They have estab-
lished a network of cities already purchasing recycled products
to help other  cities form procurement policies and programs.

Successful solicitations of recycled products should be an-
nounced to encourage other vendors to stock recycled products
and to encourage other public and private purchases. Include
the phrase "Recycled ..." whenever appropriate.

Finally,  stress the importance of closing the recycling loop by
making  a corporate commitment to purchasing recycled prod-
ucts. The CEO, or other top official, needs to inform all employ-
ees of the company's mission  to buy recycled.  A percentage goal
can be set within e?ch category, e.g., 25% of all lubricating oils
will be re-refined, or all paper products must contain 10 percent
recycled fiber. The goal of the state agencies in Arkansas for the
percentages of paper products to be purchased that utilize re-
cycled paper steadily increases from 25% in 1992 to 60% by the
year 2000.  Make this commitment known to all employees
through announcements, memos and/or other visible means.

Monitor User Acceptance
Expect resistance to using re-
cycled products based on
misinformation about the
quality,  and performance of
the products available today.
Acceptance is an integral com-
ponent of a successful recycled product procurement program.
A survey of users is a valuable tool in determining how well the
recycled product is being used as well as any problems encoun-
tered. It is also important to determine if the problems identified
are real  or reflect resistance to use. For example, a problem with
copier malfunctions could be incorrectly blamed on recycled pa-
per when in fact the problem is a worn or defective part.  In
addition to identifying problems, user surveys will also Identify
successes and lessons learned. These successes and lessons
should be publicized in order  to educate other potential users
about the quality and performance of recycled products.

Cooperative Purchasing
Whatever you are purchasing, the greater the volume purchased,
the smaller the unit cost. Cooperative purchasing is a useful
mechanism for purchasing larger quantities and obtaining more
favorable prices.  In       \fotume Ordered          Un» Cewt
1991, the State of Loui-
siana purchased ap-
proximately $2 million
worth of products with
recycled content.  Con-
tracts awarded by the
State of Louisiana are
also available to most
political subdivisions throughout the state. All cities, counties,
and school districts are required to participate in the cooperative
purchasing program in Arkansas.

In addition to accessing  state government purchasing contracts,
local governments can work together to make  cooperative pur-
chases.  Similarly, businesses and nonprofit organizations can
make cooperative purchases.

Promote your Purchasing Program
One of the best methods to increase the availability of recycled
products is to advertise an interest in purchasing them. During the
                             past two years,  the quantity and
                             range of recycled paper products
                             has increased dramatically in re-
                             sponse to government and private
                             demand.  Promotion encourages
                             other government and private pur-
                             chasing agents  to consider using
                             recycled products. Promotion also
                             serves to increase awareness of the
                             existence of recycled products, and
                             the importance  of purchasing
                             them. Promotion has a ripple ef-
                             fect, and reaches far more people
                             than the initial  target audience.

In implementing your Buy Recycled strategy, let existing vendors
know in advance that future solicitations will  include recycled
requirements.  Announce your program in industry,  recycling,
and solid waste publications; in trade association newsletters; in
state or local recycling/solid waste newsletters;  and  in state or
local listings of solicitations.

Handling Cost Differentials
Recycled products
can cost more than
comparable products
manufactured using
virgin materials. The
cost differential varies
over time, and from
region to region.
Many factors can and
do affect the cost of
recycled products.
They include the cost
of virgin raw materials
All 50 states and the
District of Columbia
now have laws, regu-
lations or policies
which favor recycled
versus recycled raw materials; market conditions, including the
state of the economy; and perhaps the most telling, public de-
mand, which creates an increased supply.

Despite the sometimes higher price, some government agencies
and businesses regularly purchase recycled products. They use
preferential purchasing mechanisms, such  as price preferences,
set asides, and dual bids.

Price preferences allow the purchase of recycled products even if
they are slightly more expensive than comparable virgin items.
As a general rule, some government agencies use preferences of
10%, although some jurisdictions have preferences as low as 5%
or as high as 15%. Set asides are an alternative or complement
to price preferences.

Arkansas offers a 10% differential for paper products. An addi-
tional 1% is allowed in Arkansas for the product containing the
largest amount of postconsumer materials recovered within the
state.  During October 1991, 93.9% of all paper contracts origi-
nated by the Arkansas Office of State Purchasing contained
waste paper.  Louisiana offers 5% if the recycled product was
manufactured, produced, or assembled in Louisiana or the re-
cycled material was diverted from a Louisiana landfill.

For paper products, dual track bids allow receipt of bids from both
vendors offering recycled paper products as well as those offering
virgin  products. If a recycled paper offer is the low bid, the contract
is awarded to that vendor. If a virgin paper offer is the low bid, the
contract is awarded to that vendor and a contract is awarded to the
lowest priced recycled paper offerers. Dual bidding will decrease as
recycled paper availability is  established and  prices drop.

The decision to purchase recycled products has been made. In
preparation, information has been collected, needs have been in-
ventoried, and specifications have been identified.  Now you are
ready to accept proposals/bids from vendors.  Preparing a solici-
tation for a  recycled product is no different from nonrecycled.
The only difference may be the actual specifications which
should be highlighted in the solicitation in order to avoid confu-
sion. Any required
certifications or stan-
dards of performance
should also be clearly
spelled out.  For in-
stance, certification of
recycled content may
be  required for paper.
This certification
could be provided by
the papermill or the
vendor.  A solicitation
for bids for  tires would!  Postconsumer
                          recovered materials
                          content in newsprint
likely require an
equivalent-to-new tire
warranty for re-tread
                                     Sample Certification

                         The offerer shall certify that all papers supplied under
                         any contract resulting from this solicitation will meet or
                         exceed the minimum percentage of recovered materials
                         below (see definition).
                         (Offerer should only make entries that apply to this offer.)

                                                  Offerer's %   Weight
Minimum %
                         Waste paper
                         content in
                         offset and/or
                         writing paper
                          The Government reserves the right to require proof of
                          such certification prior to first delivery and  thereafter as
                          may be otherwise provided for. under the provisions of
                          the contract.

                              CERTIFICATE OF WASTE PAPER AND/OR
                                RECOVERED MATERIALS CONTENT

                          The offerer  hereby  certifies that all papers proposed I
                          to be  supplied under this contract will  contain the
                          percentage(s) in the column  "offerer's percentage' |
                          Bidder's Company	
                          Bidder  (type or print)	
                          Bidder's Signature	
Not every vendor will
carry all types of prod-
ucts. This is particu-
larly true for recycled
paper and paper prod-
ucts which have such
a diversity of product
type. To maximize
availability, do not use
"all or none" clauses
in the solicitation
which require vendors to supply all products.  Instead, allow
vendors to offer one or more of the items covered by a solicita-
tion.  When the U.S. Government Printing Office makes its quar-
terly paper purchases, each grade of paper required is assigned a
lot number, and offerers can bid on one or more lots.  This pro-
cedure has allowed recycled paper vendors to participate in the
bidding.  This arrangement might work equally well for building
insulation and lubricating oils.

A thorough review of existing specifications is essential in prepar-
ing specifications for the purchase of recycled products. Particular
attention should be paid to language that can create barriers to
purchasing recycled products, or that can limit their use unnec-
essarily.  In general, some of the requirements to be aware of

       •      Clauses that limit the materials to be used
             (e.g.,only virgin materials can be used);

       •      Minimum content standards;

       •      Aesthetics  requirements which are too
             stringent or unnecessary;

       •      Outdated requirements, which fail to recognize
             present-day standards and quality.

Many state agencies have already revised specifications for cer-
tain recycled  products. Appendix D lists a variety of products,
and the states that have specifications (at the time of this print-
ing) available upon request. Rewriting your specifications may
be unnecessary -- where appropriate, just borrow from your

Not all products require the same level of quality. If an item is
intended as a throw-away, then it need not be made to last for-
ever.  In the case of paper,  there are  a number of paper prod-
ucts, such as note pads and paper  used for draft reports, which
need not meet the same brightness standards or aesthetic re-
quirements as letterhead  or paper used in printing processes.

Understanding basic recycling terminology  is crucial to the de-
velopment of  specifications. Familiarity and understanding of
the terms  used to differentiate between and among recycled
products can also help you to choose wisely. To help you famil-
iarize yourself with these  terms, a glossary has been included in
Appendix  F.

EPA Procurement Guidelines
                        (Coal Fly Ash)
Fly ash has bean used for decades to produce durable and economical concrete
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has developed standards for
the use of fly ash that are updated annually
It's widely available throughout the United States
Fly ash can improve both the strength and durability of concrete
Among the materials which may be manufactured with recovered materials are cellu-
lose, fiberglass, perlite, composite board, plastic foams and boards, and rock wools.
Architects/Engineers are encouraged to
          • incorporate EPA minimum-content standards into the
          insulation selection criteria;
          * review and advise the agency on the availability of
          insulation containing recovered materials; and
          • document rationale for deciding against using recycled
Major studies of re-refined oil conclude that re-refined oils perform as well as virgin oils.
In some cases, re-refined oils perform better than virgin oils.

                Paper and Paper Products
Set minimum-content standards for paper and paper products containing recovered
Develop practical aesthetic requirements.
Increase minimum content standards wherever possible

Ail tires, including retreads, are federally regulated.
Retreads often carry the same warranty as new tires.

Review product requirements. For example, if the product is
computer print-out paper (CPO), remember that it is used for
printing drafts or data which are kept for short periods of time,
and for printing data which are retained for years. Recycled CPO
containing groundwood fibers (e.g., old newspaper) is suitable
for drafts and short retention periods, but not for records to be
retained for many years.
Identify requirements which are overly stringent or unnecessary.
For example, brightness requirements for office pads are prob-
ably unnecessary. In addition, many brightness requirements
for office stationery are higher than necessary.

Determine product availability in your area.  Recycled products,
particularly in an area where a "buy recycled" campaign is rela-
tively new, may not be as easy to locate as non recycled. Re-
member, demand will create supply!  With continued requests, a
product which is currently unavailable, will likely become avail-
able in the future. Inquiries help to  assure that product avail-
ability will increase.

Evaluate Specifications
Before purchasing recycled products, it is critical to evaluate
specifications so that the product meets your needs. Developing
specifications need not be a difficult or complicated task.  In the
case of re-refined oil, a review of the many studies which found
that re-refined oil was equal to the quality of virgin oil should
suffice.  For many products, e.g., plastic items such as desk
trays and trash baskets, it may only be necessary to retrain per-
sonnel to consciously watch for and  choose items with recycled
labels. New paper specifications may not be necessary in order
to buy recycled paper. A review of existing paper specifications
often finds that a revision of existing specifications is all that  is


End users and printers probably remember the poor quality of
the recycled papers available in the 1970's, and, as a result, are
reluctant or opposed to using recycled paper today.  Technologi-
cal advances have made high quality recycled paper as well as
other recycled products available which are similar in quality
and performance to products made from virgin materials. As the
interest in procuring recycled products increases, it is particu-
larly important to collect as much  Information on the subject as
possible.  This is necessary In order to make cost-effective and
responsible  decisions.

Begin the education process by discussing the specific recycled
product you are interested in with recycling coordinators and
other purchasing officials. This guidebook Includes some intro-
ductory information on each of the major categories of recycled
products. Information Is also available from state purchasing
and solid waste agencies,  vendors, and manufacturers. Names,
addresses, and telephone  numbers of a variety of Information re-
sources are  also included In Appendix B.  Appendix C provides a
list of recycling industry publications.

The range of recycled products changes monthly as manufacturers
introduce  new products in  response to demand.  Staying informed
of market developments either through recycling coordinators,
vendors, or industry publications will facilitate the procurement

Take  Inventory
After the research and fact-
finding stage, there are a
number of logical steps to
follow in order to determine
which recycled products
(within a given category) to

Take inventory.  Determine
the type and quantity of
product currently used. How
often  is the  selected product
ordered?  Are there any
unique product specifics you
should be aware of?

Encouraging markets for recovered materials and reducing the
amount of solid waste requiring disposal is a vital part of the
mission of the Environmental Protection Agency.  As a part of
these efforts,  EPA
has issued a series
of procurement
guidelines requiring
government agen-
cies to buy products
made with recovered
materials. The
guidelines provide
for implementing
certain requirements ^-
of Section 6002 of
the Resource  Con-
servation and Re-
covery Act (RCRA).

To date, EPA  has published five guidelines, designating the fol-
lowing specific items containing recovered materials for procure-
ment by government agencies including Federal, state and local
agencies using Federal funds, and their contractors:

       •      Paper and paper  products,

       •      Lubricating oils,

       •      Retread tires,

       •      Building insulation products, and

       •      Cement and concrete containing fly ash.

Once EPA issues a  procurement guideline designating a specific
item, procuring agencies have one year to meet the guideline's

As government agencies and businesses purchase and use re-
cycled  products, they set an example for everyone and promote
the merits of  purchasing recycled products.

Purchasing Power
According to the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing
(NIGP), purchases by Federal, state and local governments ac-
count for approximately 20% of the gross national product. This
market share enables government agencies to exert significant
influence on product supply. When businesses Join with govern-
ment, the influence is even greater.

Purchasing recycled products can have an incredible impact on
the availability and price of recycled products. Currently, the
supply is limited and the price of
some products is higher than vir-
gin products because recycled
products are often produced by
small manufacturers. Purchasing
recycled products supports small
manufacturers and encourages additional manufacturing.
mately prices will decline as supply is increased.
Providing a Model
Many government agencies and businesses are interested in
purchasing recycled products because "it's the right thing to do"
and helps them to project an image of concern for the environ-

Commitment by government, corporate, and agency management
is essential to begin any recycled product procurement program.
This commitment may be reflected in state laws, local ordi-
nances, executive  orders, and corporate management directives.
          Ideally, directives should include a
          commitment to purchase recycled
          products whenever it is reasonable
          and appropriate.  This commit-
          ment must then be translated into
         ' procurement regulations and
pc^IicyT^Purchasing officials  may be required to revise existing
specifications to include the purchase of recycled  products.

Each of the states in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 6 (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and
Texas) is encouraging the purchase of recycled products in one
way or another.  State regulations and policies vary from state to
state, and this guidebook lists resource telephone numbers and
addresses within each state (Appendix B) which you may contact
for more detailed information.

The recycling symbol has become increasingly familiar to all of
us. However, not everyone knows what the chasing arrows really
represent. Many people think that the arrows represent the
buzzwords of waste minimization and recycling — reduce, reuse,
recycle.  Actually, the arrows represent the three necessary steps
in recycling — collection, manufacturing, and purchasing.
                                 Purchasing Is
                                    the key to
                                  the recycling
The number of municipal and
commercial collection programs
has recently increased dramati-
cally. Through purchasing
programs, there is a unique op-
portunity to guarantee the
continued success of these col-
lection efforts by creating
demand for products containing
recycled materials.

This guidebook is designed to
provide purchasing officials
with practical information,
guidelines, resources for more
information, and a glossary of recycling terms.  The information
presented can be used by anyone, whether you  are purchasing
for a government agency or a private sector organization.  The
purchase of recycled products promotes community goodwill as
well as the conservation of natural resources.

Closing the Loop
It is no longer enough to separate garbage into components and
deposit separated materials in a recycling bin or at the curb.
Without markets, the separated cans, bottles and paper will sim-
ply end up as  discrete piles in the local landfill. The markets are
manufacturers who use  the cans, bottles and paper to produce
new products. These manufacturers, in turn, need markets for
their end products. By purchasing recycled products, a market
is provided  which is necessary to close the recycling loop.  Buy-
ing recycled products  is a vital component of the recycling sys-


D     Specifications
             Resource Listing for Specifications      D-l
             State Address Listing                   D-5
             Federal Minimum Content Standards    D-7
             Select Joint Committee on Printing Standards  D-8

E     Volume-to-Weight Conversion Table                E-1

F     Glossary of Terms                                 F-l


      Closing the Loop                            1
      Purchasing Power                           2
      Providing a Model                           2

GETTING STARTED                                     4
      Take Inventory                             4
      Evaluate Specifications                      5

      Handling Cost Differentials                  9
      Cooperative Purchasing                      10
      Promote Your Purchasing Program            10
      Monitor User Acceptance                    11

      Mary Kay Cosmetics                        13
      Galveston Beach                            13
      Fort Howard                                14

A     Things to Know About Commonly Recycled Materials   A-1
             Aluminum                           A-l
             Batteries                            A-l
             Cement/Concrete (Fly Ash)             A-2
             Composting                          A-3
             Glass                                A-3
             Oils                                 A-4
             Paper                                A-5
             Plastics                             A-6
             Steel                                A-7
             Tires                                A-9

B     Information Sources                             B-l
             U. S. EPA Procurement Guidelines Hotline B-1
             Official Recycled Products Guide (RPG)  B-l
             Peer Match Programs                 B-1
             Electronic Bulletin Boards             B-2
             Region VI Resources                  B-3
             Organizations                        B-4

C     Publications                                     C-l
             Newsletters, Newspapers, and Periodicals C-1
             Selected EPA Publications            C-3
             Books,  Guides, Directories            C-5

Care for Your World
    Buy Recycled
           New Orleans
           July 1992

       Printed on Recycled Paper
         Inks are non-toxic
  Please Recycle this Booklet Instead of Discarding


This handbook was compiled by the University of New Orleans,
Urban Waste Management and Research Center, under a grant
from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Dal-
las, Texas. Much of the information in this document was taken
from the Great Lakes Region Waste Paper Work Group and the
King County Solid Waste Division.  This booklet was developed
as a service  to purchasing officials.  Companies listed are not
endorsed by U. S. EPA, nor are any exclusions intentional.  In-
formation contained herein was obtained from industry-wide
sources. Mention of companies, trade names, products, or ser-
vices is  not, and should not be interpreted as conveying official
U. S. EPA approval, endorsement, or recommendation.  This
document and its contents do not necessarily reflect the position
or opinions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the
state agencies listed, or the  university.

Contributions were  also made by:
      Mr. James Weaver
   Office of State Purchasing
      State of Arkansas

     Ms. Virgie O. LeBlanc
  Director of State Purchasing
      State of Louisiana
   Mr. Robert Musgrave
Oklahoma State Recycling

   Mr. John Batterton
   Purchasing Manager
     State of Texas
                       Ms. Melinda Via
                  Office of State Purchasing
                     State of New Mexico
          Compiled by:
          Ms. Ellen Greeney
          U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
          Dr. Carol Giffin-Jeansonne
          University of New Orleans
          Urban Waste Management & Research
          Page Layout, Design, and Graphics By:
          Mr. Donald D. Brown
          University of New Orleans
          Urban Waste Management & Research
      It I u
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