GREAT LAKES RiGION


                JANUARY 1968

             (Revised June 1968)
Great Lakes Region           Chicago, Illinois


CHAPTER                                                         PAGE

                  TO         EDITION...........................   II

    I     INTRODUCTION.........................................    i

   II     DESCRIPTION OF THE BASIN.............................    3

             Population........................................    3
             1 ndustry...........................................    4
             Commercial  Shipping...............................    7
             Wate r Resou rces...................................    7
             Lake Currents.....................................    9
             Water Uses,.......................................   12

  III           POLLUTION PROBLEMS.............................   2!

             Eutroph!cation....................................   22
             Bacterial Pollution,.'.....,...........,,..........   25
             Chem i caI  Po! I utIon................................   27
             Oxygen Dep I et i on...................................   28
             Electric Power Plants..............................   29
             Wastes from Watercraft............................   34
             Oil  Pollution.....................................   34
             Disposal  of Dredged Material ......................   36
             A1ew i ves..........................................   43

   IV     FWPCA ACTIVITIES.....................................   47

             Interstate  Enforcement Actions.....................   47
             Water Quality Standards...........................   47
             Great'Lakes-1j I I nois River Basins Project.........   48
             The Lake Michigan Diversion Case..................   49
             Construction Grants...............................   50
             Program Grants....................................   51
             Research  and Demonstration........................   53
             Federal  Installations.............................   58
             Techn i ca i Ass!stance..............................   61
             Public Information................................   62

        •          OF             ..............................   63

                     ..........................................   72

       This document was first issued in January 1968, in advance of
the conference in the matter of pollution of the waters of Lake Michi-
gan and its tributary basin, as further identified In the Introduction
which follows.

       To meet the continuing need for copies to provide information
for the many people interested In the subject, the report has been
reprinted in this revised edition.

       Principal  changes in this revised edition are as follows:

             Chapter V, Conclusions and Chapter. VI, Recom-
          mended Actions in the original have been deleted
          and replaced by the SUMMARY OF CONFERENCE ....,
          beginning on page 63 in this edition.  This sum-
          mary contains the conclusions and -recommendations
          unanimously agreed upon by the conferees and
          approved by the Secretary of the Interior.

             Appendix A In the original edition, consisting
          of a 20-page listing of waste treatment facilities
          at Federal Installations, has been deleted.  Copies
          of the list or information about waste treatment at
          Federal installations are available upon request to
          the FWPCA Regional Office.

             The I 1st of References at the end of the report
          has been expanded to include three technical papers
          presented by Federal Water Pollution Control Admin-
          istration scientists at the enforcement conference
          and one documentary report issued subsequent to the
          conference.  Copies of these are also available
          upon request to the FWPCA Regional Office.

       In the oral  presentation of the original report at the con-
ference, attention was called to a water pollution problem not empha-
sized In the report; that is, problems associated with soil erosion
and  land runoff resulting In siItation and other detrimental effects
to receiving waters.

       On the basis of a request from Governor Otto Keener of i Ilinois,
dated November 22, 1967, and on the basis of reports,  surveys or studies,
and in accordance with Section 10 of the Federal  Water Pollution Control
Act (33 USC 466 et seq.), Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Uda I 1
called a conference in the matter of pollution of the  waters of  Lake
Michigan and its tributary basin (I I Iinois-lndiana-Michigan-WIsconsin).
The area covered by the conference is shown  on Figure  I.

       The conference is to convene at Chicago,  Illinois  on January  31,
1968; conferees will  be representatives of the Federal  Government and
the four States involved.

       This report and its supporting documents  were prepared for the
information of the conferees and other interested parties,  and for use
by the conferees in their consideration of actions needed to improve and
preserve the quality of waters in the conference  area.   The report is
based on studies and investigations by the Federal  Water Pollution  Control
Administration, paralleling investigations made  through cooperative  agree-
ments by other agencies of the Department of the  Interior,  and  information
obtained from other Federal agencies,  agencies of the  four Lake  Michigan
States, municipalities, universities,  and others.

       The contributions of all who provided assistance and information
are gratefully acknowledged.

0        25



       Large concentrations of industry and people,,  as well  as consider-
able agricultural  activity, characterize the Lake Michigan watershed.   In
I960, approximately 5.5 million people lived within  its boundaries.   (I)*
Mi I I Ions more Iive in nearby areas, including almost seven mi I I Ion in  the
Chicago Metropolitan Area.  (2)  The population of the watershed has dou-
bled- within the past fifty years and is likely to double again during  the
next fifty.  (3)

       Nearly all  the population within the watershed Is accounted for by
the States of Wisconsin,, Michigan, and Indiana, which had watershed  popu-
lations of 2.2 million, 2.2 million and 970,000, respectively,  in I960.
Although a large part of the seven million people in the Chicago Metro-
politan Area use Lake Michigan for water supply and  other purposes,  the
population within  the watershed In Illinois was only 140,000.
             The population around Lake Michigan has doubled
             in the past fifty years.   Here, bathers enjoy the
             surf at a public beach at Grand Haven, Michigan.
^Numbers in parentheses refer to references IIsted at end of report.

       The major metropolitan areas lying entirely or substantially  with-
in the watershed are:  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin;  Gary-Hammond-East Chicago,
Indiana; and Lansing, Michigan, which had populations of approximately
1.2 mi i1 ion, 0.6 mi I  I ion,  and Q.3  mi I 1 ion,  respecti vely, in  I960.   (See
Figure 2)   Whereas the population  of  the watershed increased 22 percent
between  1950 and 1960, the population of the  ten  metropolitan areas  in-
creased  27 percent during  the same period.  The Gary-Hammond-East  Chicago
area had the most rapid rate of growth,  increasing by 40 percent.  Present
signs indicate that the metropolitan  areas will continue to  demonstrate
large increases in population, although  some  smaller areas have had  and
are likely to continue to  have rapid  growth rates.


        Industrial  activity in the  watershed is  both substantial  and  di-
versified.  Figure 3 shows the principal centers  of industrial  activity.
in 1963, value added by manufacturing activity  totaled almost 10 billion
dollars; manufacturing employed 834,000  people.  (4)  The.Nation's indus-
trial activity is expected to increase almost sixfold by the year  2020.
For the  most part, the Lake Michigan  watershed  will  share in this  increase
although different areas and industries  will  have varying growth rates.
The industrial distribution pattern varies, with  Wisconsin' having  its
largest concentration in the Milwaukee area,  in addition to  substantial
activity in the Racine and Kenosha areas.  Michigan's industrial activity
is located primarily in the five metropolitan areas of Grand Rapids,
Kalamazoo, Muskegon, Jackson and Lansing.  The  Gary-Hammond-East Chicago
area accounts for the major part of Indiana's industrial activity  in the
watershed,  There are major steel  and chemical  industries in the Calumet
area  in  111inois.

       The Industrial mix also differs considerably from area to area.
Many of the industries are those requiring large  quantities  of water and
producing substantial wastes, such as food and  beverages, chemicals, paper
products and primary metals.  Growth  of  these industries is  expected to be
substantial and to approximate national  growth  rates.  Food  and Kindred
Products and Primary Metal Industries are important in the Milwaukee area;
Primary 'Metal Industries,  Chemical Products,  Petroleum Refining, and
Fabricated Metal Products  predominate in the  Gary-Hammond-East Chicago
area, with the Primary Metals Industry accounting for about  two-thirds of
the area's value added by  manufactures.   This industry has expanded  greatly
in the area in recent years.  New  facilities  provide modern  production tech-
niques,    in 1963, the Gary-Hammond-East  Chicago area accounted for  I I.5
percent of the Nation's total of steel rolling  and finishing.

       Pulp, paper and paperboard  mills  are numerous in the  watershed,
primarily  in Wisconsin.   In  1963,  Wisconsin counties wholly  or partially
within  the basin had 21 such plants employing over  100 persons  in  each.
Principal Wisconsin  concentrations are along  the  Fox River  and other tribu-
taries to Green Bay.  In Michigan, the principal  concentration  is  in
Kalamazoo County.

LEGEND  (Population  in Thousands)  2j<
~~    ~~
   9    50-99
   0    100-199
   ra    Over 700
                                                                               FIGURE  Z

                                                                   INDIANA  i
H|) Food and  Kindred Products
    Paper and Allied Products
    Chemicals and Allied Products   —
f»| PetroJeum and Coal  Products
    •Primary Metal  Industries
                                                                                    FIGURE 3

       The value of farm products accounted for by counties of the Lake
Michigan watershed totaled over 900 million dollars in 1964.  In that
year., there were approximately 2.4 million cattle and calves on water-
shed farms of which 1.4 million were in Wisconsin counties.  The pro-
duction of crops, including fruits, is also substantial.    In 1964, over
a half million tons or fertilizers were used in their production.  15)


       The Great Lakes, with their connecting channels and the Wetland
Canal, form a deep-draft navigation chain with a controlling depth of
27 feet,, extending from the west end of Lake Superior to the south end
of Lake Michigan and to the east end of.Lake Ontario at the head of the
St. Lawrence River.  There is a 9-foot barge canal connection between
the deep draft Calumet Harbor and River project at the southerly end of
Lake Michigan and the 9-foot Illinois Waterway, which connects with the
Mississippi River inland waterway system.

       During the 10-year period (955-1964 annual commerce on the Great
Lakes averaged 190 mii!ion tons.  During this period, traffic in four
major commodities, iron ore, coal, stone and grain, comprised about
85 percent of total United States commerce OR the Great Lakes.   Commerce
at 27 Federal Harbors on Lake Michigan, excluding Internal, Intraport and
local traffic, totaled 70 million tons in 1964; Calumet Harbor (Illinois}
accounted for approximately 24 million tons, and Indiana Harbor, 18 million
tons.  Commerce at 15 private Lake Michigan Harbors totaled 29 mil lion tons,
including 9 million tons at Gary.

       A large percentage of total  shipments of petroleum products on the
Great Lakes is from Indiana Harbor, Indiana - there are also substantial'
shipments from Muskegon, Michigan.   ('6)


       The total  drainage area for the Lake Michigan basin Is 67,900 square
miles.  Of this,  22,400 square miles are the lake proper.  Sixty-four per-
cent of the remaining land area is in the State of Michigan,,, 31  percent Is
in Wisconsin, 5 percent Is in Indiana,  and 0.2 percent Is In the State of
Illinois.  (7)  The Illinois portion does not include the area formerly in
the Lake Michigan watershed, whose drainage has been diverted to the
Illinois watershed for pollution control.

       The topography and soils of the Lake Michigan basin have been formed
by several  glaciations.  The southern portion of the basin Is generally
rolling with glacial  moraines being the only prominent hill areas-.  The
northern portion  exhibits more rugged terrain with frequent rock outcrops.
which cause higher gradients on the streams, and more inland lakes,  typical
of ground moraine areas.  There are over 8,iOO; lakes in the basin, with
combined surface  area  of 680,000 acres.  (75

       Lake Michigan itself occupies a great valley in  Paleozoic  sedi-
mentary 'rocks at the edge of the preCambrian Canadian  shield.   This  valley
originated in preglaclai  times in rock subject to erosion.   The lake
exerted a strong influence on glacial  ice movements which  were  responsible
for the final shaping of  the land area.   The maximum depth of the lake,
923 feet, occurs in the northern portion; the average  depth is  276 feet.
The volume is 1,170 cubic miles, or 3.9 billion acre feet.   The average
outflow of the lake through the Straits of Mackinac is  estimated  to  be
48,000 cubic feet per second.  The straits are of sufficient size that
there  is no measurable loss in elevation, so Lake Michigan and  Lake  Huron
are at the same elevation, which has varied from 583.7  feet to  577.1  feet.
(85  An additional  3,100 cubic feet per second are diverted from  the lake
at Chicago for municipal  water supply and pollution control. This total
outflow of 37,000,000 acre feet per year is about one  percent of  the
volume of water in the lake.
             Boat marinas dot the shores of Lake Michigan.
             These ships are anchored at Michigan City9 Indiana,

      Most of the major streams (See Table I), start with relatively
steeper gradients at the headwaters and decrease as they approach Lake
Michigan.  Harbors have been developed at the mouths of most of these
rivers.  The 20 major streams drain 36,400 square miles or 80 percent
of the total land area.  Of this, 3i,940 square miles or 70 percent of
the area is gaged.  The discharge from this gaged area is 25,500 cfs.
These records are totaled without adjustment for nonconcurrent periods
and are summed only to show relative magnitude to the estimated outflow
of 51,000 cubic feet per second.

      The average precipitation over the basin ranges from 26 to 34
inches, and 60 percent occurs during the growing season, May through
September.  This supports the agricultural  economy, and irrigation is
of minor significance.

      The totaI  shoreline of Lake Michigan is I,660 miles; about 1,300
miles of this is suitable for recreation.  Only 80 miles have been de-
veloped as public recreation areas.  (7)  Unfortunately, the areas that
are closest to the large concentrations of population are also subject
to the highest pollution level.

      The groundwater resources of Lake Michigan basin have not been
studied as  intensively as the surface waters.  This is due in part to
the general adequacy of the groundwater for domestic, municipal and
industrial water use.  The northern portion of the basin,  with rela-
tively little sedimentary rock, must rely on groundwater from the
glacial material.  The southern portion of the basin can obtain sub-
stantial  quantities of water from the sedimentary rocks.  The quality
of this water is generally adequate for all purposes.  However, in the
past few years,  increased industrialization and urbanization has re-
sulted in scattered shortage areas.  The city of Green Bay, Wisconsin,
is one example where the groundwater was not adequate, as evidenced by
rapidly declining watertables (local  surface waters were unsatisfactory
in quality) so Lake Michigan was relied on for the municipal  water
supply.  The cities in the Grand River Basin are initiating studies to
determine feasibility of obtaining surface waters from Lake Michigan
to augment existing groundwater supply.  Most of the large municipali-
ties which  lie on the lake shore use Lake Michigan for municipal  water
supply; the groundwater sources have not been thoroughly exploited.


      Knowledge of lake currents is fundamental  to an understanding of
the fate of pollutants put into the lake and the effects,  both local  and
widespread, of these pollutants on water quality and associated water uses.
To fill  the need for this information the Federal  Water Pollution Control
Administration conducted a study of speed and direction of currents,  and
water temperatures,  throughout Lake Michigan.  Field instrumentation and
observation were made during 1962-64;  after analysis of the great mass of
data obtained from the study,  a report of the findings was published  re-
cently.   (9)

                                TABLE 1

Mi 1waukee
Man itowoc


Man istique
Pere Marquette

St. Joseph
Burns Ditch







 I ,600




1916-24, 50-65

1906-08, 13-65

1907-08, 13-65
1903-12, 50-65

1909-14, 16-19, 30-65
1901-05, 06-18, 30-65
1929-36, 37-65
1930-65, 51-65
1943-50, 55-65
   * Clockwise from Milwaukee
  ** Total of  Indian and Manistique Rivers above confluence
     Total of Manistee and Little Manistee Rivers above confluence
     Total of St. Joseph and Paw Paw Rivers above confluence
Data Source:
1965 Surface Water Records of
Wisconsin, U.S.G.S.
               Indiana, Michigan and

       Although the outflow rate from Lake Michigan is comparable to the
flow in the Mississippi River at Rock Island, Illinois, the lake itself
is so large in comparison that this outpouring of water produces an
almost imperceptible movement of water within the lake.  But the lake
water is not standing still; it is kept in constant motion principally
by the wind, which not only generates the visible surface waves but stirs
and mixes the water throughout the lake.  In fact, a combination of wind
force and seasonal density changes brings about vertical  exchange of waters
even, at times, extending to the bottom of the lake's deepest hole — some
920 feet.

       Both water movements and rate of mixing are materially influenced
by the formation of thermocl ines,  or zones of temperature transition be-
tween two layers of water which differ in temperature and density.  Once
stabilized at depths which prevent storm turbulence interruption, the
thermocline effectively prevents mixing of waters in the epilimnion (upper
stratum)  with those in the hypolimnion (lower stratum).  This stratifica-
tion is especially characteristic of Lake Michigan in the summer.  A weak
stratification, involving very small  density differences, sometimes occurs
in winter.  The summer thermocline begins to form in late spring at a depth
of a few feet, and progressively recedes to greater depths, probably reach-
ing a depth of about 200 feet by early fall.  With the onset of winter,
the thermocline disappears, stratification breaks up, and water mixing
occurs throughout the full depth of the lake.

       Thermal bars, phenomena resulting from a difference in temperature
between adjacent waters along a vertical plane, occur both in the spring
and in the fall in shaI low waters, parallel  to the shoreline.  Like the
thermocline, a thermal bar  inhibits mixing between the shallow waters
along the shore and the deeper lake waters.

       Because currents in the lake are motivated principally by the wind,
and winds are variable, horizontal movement of the lake water exhibits an
infinite variety and frequent changes in both direction and speed.  Never-
theless,  certain recurring patterns have been identified, resulting from
the fact that winds from one general  direction predominate in certain
seasons of the year.  For example, a typical summer pattern is created by
south-southwest winds which occur nearly 40 percent of the year.  In this
pattern,  the main body of water in the southern basin slowly revolves in
a counterclockwise direction,  while the currents closer to shore on both
sides of  the lake flow northward.   In the northern basin, the dominant
flow is southward in the center of the lake; this flow splits north of
Milwaukee, one part moving east and north, the othermoving west and north,
along the two shores.   At other times of the year and under other wind re-
gimes this whole pattern can be reversed.    In addition, the generalized
circulation patterns are obscured  and greatly modified by internal  waves,
and frequently the water in the upper layer will  be moving in one direction
while deeper water is flowing in the opposite direction.

       If the complex patterns of  motion in Lake Michigan water were to be
described in the shortest possible expression, it would be "restless waters."
There are, paradoxically, two extreme cases relevant to water pollution

                                     I I

which can and do exist.   At the one extreme,,  pol I ut ion-laden waters put
into the lake at a point can remain in the immediate vicinity in concen-
trated form for days on  end, moving slowly and virtually erijnasje.   On
the other hand, any persistent dissolved constituents put into the  lake
are certain to become mixed with and to affect the quality of water
through the whole lake,  in a time span of months or years.


       The data on water use can be subdivided into several  categories,
the first being municipal  water use which includes all  water processed
by municipalities even if utilized in industrial  processes.   Fifty  muni-
cipalities treat an average of 1.47 billion gallons of Lake Michigan water
daily; of this, over one billion gallons per day are utilized by the City
of Chicago and suburbs.   The cities in the State of Wisconsin use approxi-
mately 240 million gallons daily (mgd),Indiana and Michigan each use
80 mgd.  (10)  Utilization of water from surface sources other than Lake
Michigan is minimal, except for 18 mgd from Lake Winnebago used by  four
cities in that vicinity.  (II)  The remaining cities in the basin rely
on ground water for their municipal supplies.
           Industries use an estimated 4.25 billion gallons of
           Lake Michigan water daily.  The scene above shows
           Bethlehem Steel  Company  expanding its new plant
           facilities at Burns Harbor, Ind., into the lake.

       The demand for municipal waters from Lake Michigan is anticipated
to increase threefold by the year 2020, although the growth of population
will  be less.  This is due to  increased per capita usage and to use by
municipalities that have difficulty obtaining additional groundwater sup-
pi ies.  The value of Lake Michigan waters for municipal  supply is one of
the main reasons why the quality of this lake must be protected.

       The industrial  water use from Lake Michigan is estimated to be
4.25 billion gallons daily.  Of this, 3.2 billion is used in the Indiana
portion of Lake Michigan.  Michigan industries utilize 586 mgd; the
Illinois industries utilize 420 mgd.  (10)   It is anticipated that the
demand for industrial  water will also increase about threefold by the
year 2020, although the gross  industrial output may increase as much as
sixfold.  This will result from increased efficiency and reuse of water
in the manufacturing process.  .The use of industrial  water on the tribu-
taries of Lake Michigan is rather minor, when compared to the use from
the lake proper.  The largest use area is along the Fox River and Lake
Winnebago,- where pulp and paper industries are the major users.

       The use of water for electric power generation is of three types:
hydroelectric generation, thermal  cooling,  and consumptive use in steam
generation.  In the Lake Michigan basin, there-are 110 hydroelectric
generating plants with an installed capacity of 318,000 kilowatts,  which
generate 1,300,000 megawatt hours of energy annually.   (12)  The Federal
Power Commission lists an additional potential for generation of  745,000
megawatt hours; however, these stations are generally considered  uneco-
nomical.  The pollution effect of hydroelectric generation is minimal.
In streams that have become highly nutrified,  the ponds -behind the power
dams may have algaJ problems, and the waters released from the power
plants may be low in dissolved oxygen.  Also,  the operation of the hydro-
plants for peaking power may result in minimal discharges during  the
off-peak hours which can result in fish kills and inadequate dilution
of waste discharges.    •                .      •

       The hydroelectric generation is minor when compared to a total  of
8,500 megawatts of total installed steam generation capacity in Lake
Michigan Basin, of which 7,420 megawatts are along the lake shore;  and
5,750 megawatts are in the southern basin.   (13)   Approximately 600 mgd
are used for cooling water.  Current plans call -for the installation of
an additional 1,400 megawatts of fossil-fuel steam generat-ing capacity
in the Lake Michigan basin by  1972.  (14)

       There is currently one nuclear generating  plant in operation on
Lake Michigan,  the Big Rock Point nuclear power station near Charlevoix,
Michigan;  its capacity is 50 megawatts.-  There are two plants under con-
struction:   One of 700 megawatts,  near South Haven,  Michigan, and one of
497 megawatts near Manitowoc, Wisconsin.  There are plans for the addi-
tional  construction of five plants by 1973,  with  the total  generating
capacity of 6,182 megawatts.  (15)

       There are 1,087 megawatts of steam generation at sites which
utilize surface waters other than the lake for cooling.  It is antici-
pated that few add i t iona I  large p I ants will  be bu i 11 that jut i I ize
stream water; rather,  the new plants will  be located along the shores
of Lake Michigan.  There are smaller internal-combustion powered plants
in the basin utilized  for peaking power;  however, these have no impact
on water qua Iity.

       The total generating capacity by the year 1973 could be 17,624
megawatts, which will  mean that the reliance on Lake Michigan for cool-
ing purposes will more than double.  New technology in electrical  trans-
mission systems could  cause this figure to be adjusted upward to utilize
the available waters of Lake Michigan.  The long range demands for
cooling water may increase sixfold to parallel  expansion in industrial
production, but better efficiencies in nuclear plants may reduce this

       Consumptive use of water in the steam generation process is
minor; however, evaporative cooling may be used where waste heat cannot
be placed  in surface waters.  This requires nearly 7,000 gallons per day
for one megawatt of capacity and could become a significant consumptive
use of water.

       The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has prepared a report
on the Fish and Wildlife resources of Lake Michigan.  (16)  The commercial
fishing  industry has always been a significant part of the economy of the
Lake Michigan Basin.  Since 1879, the total  annual  commercial catch has
averaged 26.5 million  pounds.  However, the composition of the catch has
changed drastically through the years.  Originally, lake trout and herring
were the principal catch.  The amount of these decreased but a subsequent
increase in the number of yellow perch and chubs maintained the same
average catch.  Recently, carp, smelt and now the aiewlfe have become the
major components.  However, the value of the catch was  15.6 million dollars
in the 1950  period and has declined to only 9.3 million dollars in 1963.

       These past fluctuations of commercial fish poundage taken from Lake
Michigan have been related more closely to biological  and economical  fac-
tors than to water quality.  The sea  lamprey which caused a significant
decline  in the  lake trout and whitefish, and now the alewife which has
multiplied to an enormous quantity are 'introduced species.   It is hoped
that  introduction of the coho salmon will aid in restoring the Lake to a
proper ecological balance.

       However, pollution does have an effect on the fishery of Lake
Michigan.  Many of the species rely on the tributary streams and shore
areas for  spawning grounds.  The quality of these areas must be maintained
to facilitate the natural reproduction of the fish.

                 Ice fishing is a popular winter sport
                 in the Lake Michigan Basin.
       The Lake Michigan Basin  is abundantly .endowed with natural terrain
making it one of the major water oriented recreation areas in the nation.
The preservation and improvement of the water quality within the Basin is
-imperative to maintain this status.  The United States Bureau of Outdoor
Recreation report "Water Oriented Outdoor Recreation - Lake Michigan Basin",
(7), presents most of the facilities that are available, the problems thai-
are developing, and the action that must be taken to preserve this natural
heritage.  There are a total of 625 public recreation areas in the Basin.
Of these, 536 are- water oriented.  There are 74 recreational  harbors on
Lake Michigan.  Recreational areas are scattered throughoul the Basin,
although the major concentration of population is in the southern portion.
This, combined with the closing of some facilities due to pollution, has
resu ted in crowding of the facilities in the
Basin.  Figure 4 shows Lake Michigan beaches,
tion harbors.
                                              southern portion of the
                                              and Figure 5 shows recrea-


                                             Total Length             1,661 Miles
                                             Recreational              1,293 Miles

                                             Beach                     176 Miles
                                             Public Recreation Areas     80 Miles
                                             Beaches  Intermittently Closed
                                             Because  of Pollution.

                                             Beaches  Closed  Because of
            _J Z
                                                                       FIGURE 4


        SftEEN BAY
       23      50
                                          BENTON HARBOR
                                   IMICHIGAN  INDIANA
                                                                            F I G U R E 5


                A pleasure boat heads toward the harbor
                mouth and the open waters of Lake Michigan.
                There are 74 recreational harbors on  the  Lake.
       in I960, there was -a total  of 82 mil! ion activity days of  water
oriented recreation and 94 million activity days of  water related rec-
reational activities.  It is estimated that the demand  for water  oriented
activities could increase to 247 million
if adequate facilities are provided.
                                         activity days by the year 2010,
       A listing of the areas where recreation is impaired by water quality
would be a long one; however, major areas are the Menominee River,  Lake
Winnebago, the Fox River and the southern portion of Green Bay in Wisconsin,
the Calumet harbor area near Chicago, and at the shore lines near the larger
cities and harbors.  The problems are caused by excessive coliform counts
from inadequately treated sewage, combined sewer overflows,, vessel  wastes
and agricultural activities.  The over-ferti I ization of the lake results in
algal growth which makes- the waters objectionable for body contact.  Occa-
sionally, fish kills, due to polluting agents, are also responsible for
unsatisfactory condition.

       Sport fishing is the second largest form of water oriented recrea-
tion, and unlike swimming, which  is the  largest, cannot be duplicated in
a man-made facility such as a swimming pool.  The Fish and Wildlife Service
in  its report (16) estimates 19 million angler days per year are spent in
the Lake Michigan Basin.  This is expected to triple by the year 2010.  To
satisfy this demand, particularly in the locality of the densely concentrated

population, a strong effort is .required to .retain and restore pure water
both In Lake Michigan and its tributaries which are the major spawning  '
grounds of the sport fish.
            Fishing  in Lake Michigan and its tributaries
            is the second largest form of water recreation
            around the lake, topped only by swimming.

       The value of the Lake Michigan Basin for recreation and plain
esthetic enjoyment, which is part of most recreational  uses,  is diffi-
cult to measure.  It is,  however, recognized as a significant portion
of the economy of the basin.  One only has to look at the premium
prices paid for purchases and rental of apartments or cottages with  a
lake view or observe the  number of people who wiI I  go out of  their way
to take a lake shore drive,  as opposed to a more direct route, to get
an indication of the esthetic value of Lake Michigan.  A more indirect
way of measuring its value is by the amount that is spent annually for
recreation in the basin -- for lodging, food and recreational  equipment
such as boats and fishing tackle.  There is no detailed tabulation on
this available, but one need only visit several  of the prime  recreation
areas in the Basin to see the investment in recreational  facilities.

                     Hi-WATER POLLUTION

       When  Lake Michigan and the  thousands of smaller lakes that dot
its watershed were formed, the depressions left by the receding  icecap
were initially  filled with water characterized by a high  degree of
purity.   It  is  appropriate to note, however,  that purity  and ideal
quality  for  man's purposes are not synonymous.  Biologically speaking,
the lakes  at formation were a sort of water desert, lacking the neces-
sary ingredients to support either desirable  or undesirable life forms.
Ever since the  lakes were formed,  their quality has undergone continu-
ous and  progressive change, as a result of waste inputs from both
natural  phenomena and the activities of man.   Some of  the effects of
this deterioration in quality are  readily apparent, whi le others are
revealed only In subtle warning  signs of trouble to come  unless action
is taken.  Some of the problems  of Lake Michigan and its tributaries
are described in the following.

                                    1  &*> s       v^-^ v rf****^i;'
         Cladophora algae cling to a  rock in the water near
         Saugatuck, Michigan, a southern Michigan resort area.


       A biologically healthy iake contains a myriad of living organ-
Isms,  ranging from elemental one-ceil  life forms upward through suc-
cessively more complex forms to fish.   A balanced aquatic life system
can be visualized as a pyramid, in which each successive level  forms
a link in the food chain that sustains  the higher levels.   At the base
of this pyramid are one-celled plants  called algae,  which  are micro-
scopic in individual size but visible  when clustered in colonies.
Algae form the base of the food chain;  they are capable, through photo-
synthesis, of utilizing inorganic (non-living) elements in support of
growth.  (17)  Many inorganic elements  are required  for algal  cell
growth, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and iron --
as well as certain organic substances,  required in minute quantities.
Parts of Lake Michigan and many other  lakes in the Basin are richly
endowed with the right elements and conditions to support the growth of
algae; and therein  lies the problem.  (18)

       An over-production of algae is  occurring,  which upsets the
normal life balance in the fakes, impairs many water uses^ and accel-
erates the normally slow aging process, called eutrophication, by
which a lake evolves into a marsh, and  ultimately becomes completely
filled with detritus and disappears.  One group of filamentous green
algae that has been especially troublesome is called Cj_adgghora_.  In
suitable environments these plants attach to any firm object in the
water and grow, by cell division, into  strings which will  vary In
length, from a fraction of an inch where nutrients are scarce, to sev-
eral feet In nutrient-rich waters.  Growths of C^jadophorjai have been
observed in the southern end of Lake Michigan foF~many~~years; but,
where small tufts occurred ten years ago, there are now mats with fila-
ments several feet  long,  These growths are periodically broken  loose
by wave action and wash ashore to litter the beaches in slimy windrows.
They clog water intake screens and interfere with swimming.  When they
decay they produce a putrid odor and provide a breeding place for flies
and other insects.

       While the ultimate fate of Lake Michigan, as other lakes, Is in-
evitable, Its useful life span can be  prolonged thousands of years by
timely and continuing action.  The present overgrowth of algae can be
controlled, and the accelerated aging  of Lake Michigan and other lakes
can be arrested, by reducing the supply of one or more of the elements
needed for growth of algae.  The element most amenable to such control
5s phosphorus.  Many experiments, on both  laboratory and field scale,
have demonstrated the feasibility of regulating algal growth by varying
the quantities of phosphorus (In the form of soluble phosphates)
aval Iab is.

       The extensive volume of data collected in the study of Lake
Michigan and  its tributaries permits making an estimate of the relative
amounts of phosphate contributed annually  from its principal source
categories.  About  two-thirds of the present annual  supply of phosphate
going  into Lake Michigan  (estimated to be  about  15 million pounds) comes

__„,„  r______r^...^^ jfT^JK
   f  »;> '4''1» f)  f;  *»* *ll'^:


 ?|-i ''¥' vfelSi^^
   ' ;y.' '^.ijw^^.^i
                Algae are shown growing in  abundance
                in one of the lake's tributaries.
           Windrows  of algae washed up on many Lake Michigan
           beaches last summer  (1967).  The above, scene is
           Calumet Park beach in Chicago, Illinois.

from municipal  and industrial  wastewaters.   The other third is a com-
posite of all  non-point sources,  carried in solution and transported
into the lake by its tributary streams.   An unknown  fraction of this
latter third is natural  in origin;  it gets  into the  water by leaching
from soils and rocks on the watershed.   At  the same  time,,  a sizable
portion of this third undoubtedly stems  from man's  activities -- from
livestock manure,  wastes from dairying operations and s I aughteri ng,
and the residue from applications of phosphate-rich  fertilizers to
farm lands.  Therefore,  some part of this third of  all  phosphate in-
puts is amenable to reduction.

       Wherever phosphate-bearing waters can be captured and put through
a treatment plant, techniques are now available for  removing a high per-
centage of the phosphate content, at reasonable cost.  The main reason
this has not been done extensively in the past appears  to be that re-
moval of phosphates has only recently come  to be recognized as an
important function of sewage treatment plants.  In  fact,  most municipal
sewage treatment plants have not even analyzed their waters to obtain
records of phosphate content before and  after treatment.   In some places
where this has been done,  and plant modification effected, a large
reduction of phosphate has been achieved.  Notable  among these are San
Antonio, Texas and Milwaukee, Wisconsin  --  the latter being the largest
single point source of phosphates on the Lake Michigan  watershed.

       The Milwaukee Sewerage Commission has in progress a demonstra-
tion project, partly financed by a grant from the Federal  Water Pollution
Control Administration, to demonstrate the  feasibility  of and further
improve the effectiveness of phosphate removal in an activated sludge
treatment plant.

        Improvement in the design and operation of conventional  treat-
ment plants which provide the so-called  secondary,  or biological, form
of treatment is a necessary first step toward removing nutritive
material from wastewaters.  There is growing conviction, however, that
more will be required in the Lake Michigan  Basin, at least at the
larger plants where advanced waste treatment can be  added at reasonable
unit cost.  The standard treatment plant of the future in the Great
Lakes Basin may be some form of 3-stage  treatment:   physical, biological,
and chemical.  It is important to note that this will not render obso-
lete the 2-stage,  i.e., secondary, treatment plants  now existing or
planned.  Rather,  the third stage, of chemical precipitation and further
solids  removal, would be applied to the effluent from the first two --
and each stage supplements the others.

       Summing up what has just been said:   eutrophication is a threat
now, to the usefulness of Lake Michigan  and other lakes within the
Basin;  feasible methods exist for bringing this problem under control.
They need to be applied.


       Another indication of deteriorated water quality is the presence
of coliform bacteria.  Col iform organ!sms are significant because they
occur in the fecal matter of all warm-blooded animals,  including man.
Consequently, the presence of these bacteria in a body  of water is
usually evidence of fecal contamination.   Since such contamination is
one avenue of transmission of certain waterborne diseases, the presence
of coliforms is an indication of health hazard from accompanying patho-
genic bacteria and viruses.

       Generally, the severe problems of  bacterial  contamination in the
Lake Michigan Basin are  located around the population centers.   But, of
course,  this is precisely where the great demands for water usage occur.
Studies have shown that the  bacterial quality of Lake Michigan is gen-
erally good in deep water but is degraded along the shoreline and in
harbor areas.  Evidence of severe bacterial  pollution of tributaries
has been found in the Fox River between Lake Winnebago  and Green Bay,
Wisconsin; the Milwaukee River within Milwaukee County,  Wisconsin;  in
and downstream from the cities along the  Grand River in Michigan and the
St. Joseph River in Indiana  and Michigan; and the streams of the Calumet
Area, Illinois and Indiana.   (19)  In the last-named area, the recom-
mendations,  to provide disinfection, of an interstate enforcement con-
ference  described elsewhere  have not yet  been fully implemented.
               Bacterial contamination has forced the
               closing of some Lake Michigan beaches, such
               as the one shown here at Hammond, Indiana.

                            r US fe, E,	^^^^ . tj&f*., >« 'KAfcv, * V -v *i j, L ' 1» ' 1L JJM» s' w f
 The Bay  View  Beach  in  Green Bay,  Wisconsin, was a
 popular  swimming  area  at the time this picture was
 taken  in  1910.   (Photo courtesy State Historical
 Society  of Wisconsin.)
This is the same area  as  it  appears  today.   Swimming
has been prohibited for many years because  of water
pollution.  (Photo by  Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.)

       A number of Lake Michigan beaches are closed, either intermit-
tently or permanently, because of health hazard.   Permanently closed are
some beaches in the Calumet Area and a beach at the southern end of
Green Bay.  The latter area exhibits also an example of the eutrophi ca-
tion discussed earlier.  The Bay View Beach (City of Green Bay)  was
closed many years ago because of bacterial  pollution; over the ensuing
years, the beach's custodians understandably got tired of spending
time and money each year to clear aquatic growth from waters that were
not usable anyway.  The beach is now clogged with aquatic weeds  and its
once-sandy bottom now covered with the dead and decaying remains of
weed crops of previous years — a product of overferti I ization.   (7)

       Bacteria are easily destroyed by disinfection, wherever the
waters can be put through a treatment plant.  Unfortunately, most of
the cities on the watershed are served by combined sewer systems, so
that large quantities of a mixture of storm water and sewage are dis-
charged without treatment during and after every heavy rain.  This poi-
lutional overflow is the reason that Milwaukee beaches on Lake Michigan
have to be closed part of the time.


       Pollution of Lake Michigan and its tributaries by dissolved
chemicals covers a broad range of substances, effects, and sources, the
principal source being industrial wastewater effluents.   Two general
types of effects are produced:   I) local and immediate effects in the
vicinity of the discharge point, and 2) a progressive buildup in the
concentrations of certain persistent chemicals in the lake as a  whole.
Regarding the latter, Lake Michigan  has experienced an overall  increase
in average concentration of such dissolved constituents  as chlorides,
suI fates and the hardness-producing  salts.   (20)

       Areas of local pollution exist around centers of  industrial
activity and commercial shipping, especially the Calumet Area at the
south end of the lake, Milwaukee harbor and its tributary streams,  and
the southern end of Green Bay.  Contamination takes the form of  oil,
phenolic compounds or other persistent organic chemicals contributing
to taste and odor problems, ammonia  and other nitrogenous materials,
phosphorus, suspended matter, and highly acidic or alkaline materials.
Conditions in the Calumet Area have  been extensively documented  in con-
nection with the ongoing enforcement action relative to  its interstate
waters.  (21)  Details concerning the Milwaukee area and the Green Bay
area are given in reports published  by FWPCA last year.   (22 & 23)

            The heavily industrialized south  end of Lake
            Michigan suffers severe water pollution problems.
            This is a waste outfall located on  the  Indiana
            Harbor Ship Canal  in East Chicago,  Indiana,


       The small quantity of oxygen normally  dissolved in water is  per-
haps the most important single ingredient necessary for  a healthy,
balanced, aquatic life environment.  Dissolved  oxygen  is consumed by
living organisms through respiration and is replenished,  if  a  well-
balanced environment exists, by absorption from the atmosphere and
through the life processes of aquatic plants.   When organic  pollution
enters this environment, the balance is altered.  The  bacteria present
in the water or introduced with pollution utilize the  organic  matter as
food and multiply rapidly.  The resulting oxygen deficiency  may be
great enough to inhibit or destroy the fish and other  desirable organ-
isms and to convert the stream or lake into an  odor-producing  nuisance.

       At present, the main body of Lake Michigan has  not shown signs
of oxygen deficiency — even in its bottom waters,  where an  oxygen
deficit  is frequently observed in eutrophic lakes and  in manmade
reservoirs.  Oxygen depletion is a common occurrence,  however, in
many of the Lake Michigan tributaries.  Especially  bad in this respect
are the  Fox River in Wisconsin, between Lake  Winnebago and Green Bay;
and the tributary streams of the Calumet Area,  including  the Little
Calumet  River, Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor  Canal, and  Indiana
Harbor.  Other zones of periodic oxygen deficiency  are:  the Grand
River in Michigan downstream from Jackson and Lansing; the Menomi nee
River in certain stretches along the boundary between  Wisconsin and

Michigan, the Milwaukee River and  Milwaukee Harbor; the Kalamazoo  River,
Michigan; and the St. Joseph  River, Michigan and Indiana, and the
southern end of Green Bay.   In general the discharge of treated  and  un-
treated municipal and industrial wastes  in these areas produces  these
polluted conditions.   The high concentrations of biochemical  oxygen
demand (BOD) in the waste discharges combine, in some cases,  with
severe drought flows  of receiving  waters to intensify the problems of
this nature.
                               5w$£            A>f4M
                               s^^x-gf.v ^»»r     Xs*  ;,»** »4M
                               *>**., *..* ,#>. L>£ ii JL> jj ,\  i I* ..    «, , ii 'A w s.1 .\ i«3»®iL^,
            '  ^
                    \f  /*  «
           , A VJ'  /IFfM4
           '> &*&:-•;.,,
           This load  of  detergents has been discharged  by  the
           Jackson, Michigan, sewage treatment plant into  the
           Grand River,  a Lake Michigan tributary.


       Lake Michigan  has been an attractive location for  large electric
power plants.   Two principal reasons are the ready  availability of a
large quantity of cooling water, and the proximity  to the  large market
of its cities  and  industries.  The greatest concentration  of power
plants is around the  southern basin, from Milwaukee southward.  Within
this area are  located six major power plants having a total  installed
capacity in excess of 4.5 million kilowatts, and  some 20 smaller plants,
either public  utility or private industrial, which  bring the total capa-
city of plants in the southern basin to about 6 million kilowatts.
These are fossiI-fueled plants, burning either coal  or  gas.  (13)

       The Nuclear Power Age has come to the Great  Lakes area with dra-
matic suddenness within the  last few years.   One  of the earliest full-
scale, commercially-operated, nuclear power plants  is the  existing
plant at Big Rock Point, Michigan,  near the northern end of  Lake
Michigan.   Five  additional  plants are proposed or under construction,
3  of which will  have  twin reactor units,  and ail  of which  are scheduled
for completion between 1970 and 1973.  The three  largest of  tnese plants

 will be located  in the southern basin and  have a total  installed capacity
 of 5 million  kilowatts.   Thus, by 1973 the southern basin of the Lake
 will be ringed with power plants having an electrical output of I I  mi I-
 lion kilowatts — 6 fossil-fueled and 5 nuclear-fueled  (see Figure 6)
                  :-lfiS!«  '   i^PW^.^
                  •:!4  al *;««:-A*• $miuto&&    .
                              m-V >  "' T1»"
                     x;  ^i,^-"  '
                      ^  'J l«K*t '
                       "y**vw?f»lf'            ;/ ^
                           „ >/'»   i>i!      M?*«
                           *'  «/
                            ».'.,'„ * /. ^
            Wisconsin Electric Power Company at Oak Creek,
            Wisconsin, south of Milwaukee, is one of the many
            power plants  located in the southern basin of
            Lake Michigan.

       Power plants are of  concern to water quality because both types
add heat to  the Lake Michigan water, and nuclear plants also discharge
some waste  radioactivity  to the water.                         '

                             Waste Heat

       The typical  thermal  power plant  converts heat energy to electric
energy,  wasting large quantities of heat in the process.  In the pre-
sent status  of the art, a fossi I-fueled  plant wastes about 1  5 units of
heat for each equivalent  unit of useful  eneray output- a nuclear-
powered  plant wastes,  for comparable output/about  2.25 units 'of heat
energy.   (In technical  terms,  fossil-fuel and nuclear plants  reject
respectively 4,900  and  7,800 BTU per kwh.)  This waste heat,  in either
type,  is  conducted  from the plant in the cooling water and subsequently

Big Rock Point
Point Beach Unit 1
Poini Beach Unit 2
Zion Unit 1
Zion Unit 2
Bndgman Unit I
Bndgman Unit 2

Million KW
1. 10
1. 10

                                       GRAND HAVEN
                                       SAOGATUCK FOSSIL  FUEL PLANTS
J No. Name
Oi~ ] ^
/ (]p Lakeside
dissipated into the environment — the ambient air,  or receiving
waters, or some combination of both.   Power plants on  Lake  Michigan
are not usually equipped with  cooling towers for transfer of  heat
to the air, so that the bulk of this  waste  heat goes first  into the
water of the Lake.

       Heat added to Lake Michigan produces two effects:   I)  it creates
a local zone of water warmer than the natural  background  temperature,
and 2) it warms, albeit imperceptibly, the  whole body  of  lake water
and the air above it.  Regarding the  second effect,  the critical body
of water would be that contained in the epilimnion  (upper layer) of
the southern basin of the lake, and the critical  period would be the
summer months, when water and  air temperatures are warmest  and strati-
fication inhibits the dispersal of the input heat to a greater volume
of lake water.  An estimate has been  made of the overall  warming
effect of power plants on the   lake zone just delineated.  Assuming the
power plants to operate with an average output equal  to 80  percent of
plant capacity, and assuming no escape of the input  heat  from the
water (a conservative assumption), the combined effect of existing
plants plus the proposed nuclear plants would not raise the overall
average water temperature by as much  as one-tenth of a degree
Fahrenheit.  Even this minute   increase in water temperature would  be
nullified during the following winter, so that no progressive warming
tendency for Lake Michigan, attributable to power plants, is  expected
to occur.

       This focuses attention  on the  first  effect cited --  the local
zone of warm water created in  the immediate vicinity of a power plant
discharge.  Again citing a typical Lake Michigan power plant, it will
have a pipe or tunnel conduit  bringing water from an intake located
perhaps a few thousand feet offshore; as the cooling water  flows
through the plant its temperature will be increased  by 10 to  20 de-
grees F.; the used water will  be returned to the lake at  or near the
shoreline.  Since the water at the point of intake  will be  somewhat
colder than the shallow water at the  point  of discharge,  it can be
expected that the discharging  water may be  on the order of  I 0 to  15
degrees warmer than the lake at that  point.  The local warm water  zone
will thus have a peak temperature some 10 to 15 degrees warmer than
the background temperature.  Some of  this heat will  be transmitted to
the ambient air; the rest will transfer into lake water by  a  combina-
tion of dilution and convection, until the   local water temperature
merges with and becomes indistinguishable from that  of neighboring
water.  The areal extent of this warm water zone will  depend  upon  the
incremental temperature rise,  and the rate  at which  heated  water  is
being put  in — and the latter will depend  on the size and  design  of
the power pI ant.

        If the  local warmwater  zone occurs where the  lake  bottom has
suitable attachment surfaces,   it could promote a luxuriant  crop of
filamentous algae (Cladophora),  The  detrimental effects  of an over-
growth of algae have been described elsewhere.   It is sufficient  here
to point out that conditions are favorable  for promoting  over-

production of aigae in many parts of Lake Michigan;  and that anything
which may further promote their growth is to be viewed with concern.

                              Radioacti vi ty

       Most of the six commercial nuclear power stations (9 units)
built or planned in the Lake Michigan Basin are of the light-water
type, operating on the pressurized water principle.   "The water of
the primary coolant system passes through a heat exchanger in which
the heat is passed to the water of a secondary cycle in which steam
is produced for use by a turboelectric plant.   The primary cycle
coolant, after passing through the heat exchanger, is returned through
pumps to the reactor for reheating.  The two-loop system is used to
prevent fission products from entering the turbines  and thereby com-
plicating maintenance operations and adding to the complexity of
radiation protection.  In the event of a fuel-element failure in a
two-loop reactor, the fission products remain in the primary system and
do not contaminate either the secondary system or the turbines."  (24)

       Primary and secondary coolants are passed through ion-exchange
resins to remove activation products and fission products resulting
from fuel-pin failures.  "In the operation of a nuclear power plant,
there are many operations which produce contaminated liquids.  Leaks
of primary water from valves,, flanges, and pumps will  ultimately
result in the contamination of sump water.  Components which are re-
moved for repair must first be decontaminated, and this will  result
in contaminated water, as will the operation of washing casks, sluic-
ing resin beds, laundering contaminated clothes, and washing contami-
nated laboratory ware.  In addition, it may be expected that the
cooling pools for spent fuel may in time become contaminated as a
result of failures in the fuel element cladding."  (24)  Provisions
are made for containment, treatment, and ultimate disposal of these
waste liquids.  High-level wastes are shipped to burial sites but low-
level wastes are diluted and discharged to the environment.

       AM liquid and gaseous radioactive waste discharges from
nuclear power plants are limited by Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)
Rules and Regulations (IOCFR20) or State regulation  where they apply.
However, the AEC limits are set above "natural background."  Since
"natural  background" is not defined, the Rules can be interpreted in
three ways:  I) discharges are limited to concentrations in excess  of
pre-World War  II  levels; 2) discharges are limited to concentrations
in excess of pre-operationaI  levels; or 3) discharges are  limited to
concentrations in excess of cooling water intake levels.  None of these
interpretations are desirable.   In the case of I), pre-World War 11
levels are not known, since the technology was not developed to measure
minute quantities of radioactive materials.  Interpretation 2) would  be
adequate except that each additional reactor would have a higher base-
lino on which acceptable waste discharge levels would be determined,
since preoperational  levels for a new reactor would  be post-operational
for a previously built reactor in the same watercourse.  Case 3) is
whole ly unacceptable because there would be essentiai-ly no limit to
q_uant_i ties discharged.


       Since the original  standards were promulgated on the basis of
a moving stream receiving the radioactive effluent, and since Lake
Michigan has a very small  discharge rate, any radioactive waste
material entering into it will  diminish only by natural decay.   This
may result in significantly increased levels of the longer-lived
radio!sotopes.  The AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards,
October 12, 1966 (AEC News Release No. IN-725 dated October 25,
1966), made the following statements and recommendations:

       "The dilution, dispersion, and transport of liquid radioactive
wastes  in surface waters (rivers, lakes, estuaries, bays and open
ocean) are important factors in the siting of nuclear reactors.  In
addition to these phenomena, attention frequently needs to be directed
toward biological  concentration of radionuclides in aquatic life.  It
may be.desirable to review previous work on this subject, including
related research on discharge of municipal  and industrial liquid
wastes.   Preparation of a state of the art'review of current knowledge,
and delineation of areas where further research is needed, would be
useful.   A special  evaluation of the impact of siting many reactors on
the shores of the Great Lakes,  in relation to retention and flushing
characteristics and to accumulation of radionucl ides in aquatic organ-
isms,  may also be desirable."


       Vessels of all types, commercial, recreational  and Federal
(Corps of Engineers floating plant, Coast Guard cutters and Naval
Reserve Training Ships) plying the waters of Lake Michigan and its
tributaries are contributors of both untreated and inadequately
treated wastes in local harbors and in the open lake,  and intensify
local problems of bacteria! pollution.

       A report entitled "Pollution of Navigable Waters of the United
States by Wastes from Watercraft" (25), was submitted to the Congress
on June 30, 1967 by the FWPCA.   This report recognizes and analyzes
the serious problems that are caused by ail types of vratercraft, in-
cluding pollution from sanitary, garbage and oil wastes.  Implementa-
tion of the recommendations made in this report by the Congress will
provide an effective means for combating the vessel waste problem on
Lake Michigan,  FWPCA has proposed legislation to Congress, based on
this report.

       Some significant progress has been made in the abatement pro-
gram on Lake Michigan.  The City of Chicago recently enacted an ordi-
nance prohibiting the discharge of all wastes from vessels and shore
installations into the portion of the lake within the city's


       One of the problems in the Lake Michigan drainage basin is oil
pollution.  Discharges from industrial plants and commercial ships,

and careless  practices in loading  and unloading cargos,  cause con-
tamination  of water in many areas.  Oil discharges and spills produce
unsightly conditions which affect  beaches and recreational areas,
contribute  to taste and odor problems and treatment problems at water
treatment plants, coat the hulls of pleasure craft, and  in some cases
are toxic to  desirable fish and aquatic life.

       The  Oi I Pollution Act of  1924 prohibits the discharge of oi !  by
vessels in  the waters within the United States.  The FWPCA was made
responsible for enforcement of this Act by the Clean Waters Restoration
Act of 1966.  Oil pollution in navigable waters from any source which
Is a hazard to navigation is the responsibility of the Corps of Engi-
neers as authorized by the Rivers  and Harbors Act of 1899.  The Coast
Guard provides support to both the Corps and FWPCA.
                                      &WV," i^;/V<>;   * *'  r.t, ,.
                                       *.5/:  .^X'*J/v^-A  *-;"A-:
lvji*yliwi'£l|i1ltt} j»f ' *1
!^> llr'ftW4  i
                                                      '-• - -'s^sVrt! i4 *S*»v '*A kr I*
                                                 v,;   •'K:%-/»
                                                   '    i*.-vl!SSfi
       Oil pollution  is a serious problem at the Indiana Harbor
       Ship Canal,  East Chicago, Indiana.  Inland Steel  Company's
       turning basin  on the canal is  often coated with oil.

       Although oil  contamination has been observed in many areas of
the Basin as shown on Figure 7, the principal location in which it
occurs is the Calumet Area in  Illinois and Indiana.  Table 2 shows
the number of oil discharges and spills reported by the Coast Guard
in 1967.  The number of discharges and spills indicates the need for
greater care in transportation of oil by commercial ships, and the
need for separation of oil from industrial waste to reduce the effects
of oil contamination on the public waters.

       The Torrey Canyon ship disaster, which involved a major spill
of oil off the coast of England in 1966, focused attention on the
detrimental effects of oil contamination on recreational  facilities
and on fish and aquatic life.  It also pointed up the need for addi-
tional study of existing resources and techniques to deal with spills
of this magnitude should they occur again.  On May 26, 1967 the
President of the United States asked the Secretaries of  Interior and
Transportation to undertake a joint study to determine how best to
mobilize the resources of the  Federal Government and the Nation to
cope with the problems of major oil spills and other pollutants and
hazardous substances and their adverse affects.

       One of the major needs disclosed by the study was the develop-
ment of a contingency plan to deal with an emergency involving
Federal, State and  local agencies with due regard for each agency's
statutory responsibility and capability.  Preliminary coordination
has been effected by FWPCA with the Corps of Engineers and the Coast
Guard throughout the Region to dex'elop such a plan.


       Responsibility for improvement and maintenance of the water-
ways of the United States in the interest of navigation has been
delegated by Acts of Congress to the Corps of Engineers.   In carry-
ing out this responsi b i i i ty, the Corps dredges approximately 10
million cubic yards annually from Great Lakes harbors,, and in fiscal
year 1966 dredged 1-1/2 million cubic yards from harbors on Lake
Michigan (see Figure 8).   The Corps has fo! lowed the practice of
disposing of most of th is -materi a I in authorized dumping grounds in
the open waters of the Lakes.  The nature of the dredged material
ranges from gross ly- pol luted sludge to clean lake sand.  Private
dredging in the vicinity of docks, loading facilities,, etc., is ac-
comp I ished under permit from the Corps.

       The interest of FWPCA in the disposal  of  polluted dredged
material  dates back to !948, when a special  study was undertaken-, - i n
cooperation with the field staff of the Internationa!  Joint Commis-
sion,  of the pollutionai  effects of dredging operations  in the Rouge
River, at a request of the District Engineer, Detroit District, Corps
of Engineers.  As a result of this study,  the Re£orf^M1ie_jjri-_er-
         Joj jjrt Commi ss i on , Un i ted^tates_and Ca_n_ad_a , on fhe~ToTTuTion
                     9_ 5 IJ , contained a conclusion that "Dredged
material should be disposed of in such a manner and at such locations

                                       LANSING SHOALS LIGHT
                                                                                ST. 1QNACE
                                                       25  Number  of  oil discharge  incidents
                                                          from outfalls  and ships  in
                                                          indicated  vicinity-as reported  by
                                                          the U.S. Coast  Guard  for  1967.

                                 TABLE  2

                 REPORTED BY  THE U.  S.  COAST  GUARD  IN THE
                   LAKE MICHIGAN DRAINAGE BASIN  IN  1967
 i     Apr 4      Round Lake,  Charlevoix,  Mich.

 2    May 6      Grand River at Grand Haven,  Mich.

 3    May 14     Sturgeon Bay,  Wise.

 4    Jul 28     South Channel, Straits of Mackinac

 5    Aug 8      Indiana Harbor Canal

 6    Aug 9      Chicago & Calumet River and
                 Lake Michigan  Area

 7    Aug 10     Straits of Mackinac

 8    Sep 19     Milwaukee Harbor

 9    Sep 17-26  Southern end of Lake Michigan

 10    Sep 28     Lake Calumet

 11    Oct 3      Indiana Harbor Canal

 12    Oct 9      Lake George Branch,  Indiana
                 Harbor Canal

 13    Oct 9      Indiana Harbor Canal

 14    Oct  10     Indiana Harbor

 15    Oct  10     East Branch Grand Calumet River

 16    Oct  i I     Indiana Harbor Canal
                                             Sp iI I while  unload!ng

                                             Spill wn i le  refueIi ng

                                             Spi I I while  unloadi ng

                                             Discharge of ships

                                             Spi i 1 wh i le  unload!ng

                                             Leaking  ship

                                             Ship  discharge

                                             Leak  from tank farm

                                             Oil on water and
                                             beaches  from unknown

                                             Discharge of ships

                                             Outfall  discharge

                                             Outfall  discharge

                                             OutfaI I  discharge

                                             Outfa II  di scharge

                                             OutfaI I  di scharge

                                             OutfaII  di scharge

                           TABLE 2 (Continued)

                   LAKE MICHIGAN DRAINAGE BASIN IN 1967
17    Oct II     East Branch Grand Calumet

18    Oct li     Lake George Branch of Indiana
                 Harbor CanaI

19    Oct 12     Indiana Harbor

20    Oct 12     Lake George Branch of Indiana
                 Harbor Cana i

21   •Oct 12     Calumet River Branch of  Indiana
                 Harbor Canal

22.    Oct 13     Indiana Harbor Cana!

23    Oct 13     Lake George Branch of Indiana
                 Harbor Canal

24    Oct 14     Lake George Branch of Indiana
                 Harbor Canal

25    Oct 14     Indiana Harbor Canal

26    Oct 14     Straits of Mackinac

27    Oct 15     Lake George Branch of Indiana
                 Harbor Canal

28    Nov 9       Lansing Shoals light, vicinity
                 of Grand Isiand in Lake  Michigan
                                             Outfal!  discharge

                                             OutfaI!  discharge

                                             Outfa!I  discharge

                                             OutfaII  di scharge

                                             Seepage  of  oi I  from
                                             dock bu i knead

                                             OutfaII  di scharge

                                             Discharge  from  land

                                             OutfaII  d i scharge

                                             OutfaII  di scharge

                                             Spill wh iIe loadi ng

                                             Outfa i I  di scharge

                                             Ship discharge

                                           MICHIGAN   INDIANA

                                                                                               FIGURE  8

       Through  a  joint statement announced March  I,  1967,  the  Department
of the Army  and the  Department of the Interior agreed on a  program and
plan  for  attacking the problem of the disposition of polluted  material
dredged from harbors in the Great Lakes.  It was agreed that,  in  order
to maintain  navigation, the Corps of Engineers would proceed with dredg-
ing  in calendar year 1967 on 64 channel  and harbor projects  in  the Great
Lakes.  The  Corps also initiated a two-year pilot program early  in 1967
to develop alternative disposal  methods  which would  lead to a  permanent
plan  of action.   FWPCA is participating  in this program, which  has the
ultimate  objective of  providing leadership in the nationwide effort to
improve water quality  through prevention,  control and abatement of water
pollution by  Federal water resources projects.

       During the past season the Corps  of Engineers provided alrernate
disposal  of  dredged  materials from three of the most polluted harbors  on
Lake  Michigan:  Indiana Harbor,  Indiana; Calumet River, Illinois;  and
Green Bay Harbor, Wisconsin.   It is expected that alternate disposal will
be provided  for additional  Lake Michigan harbors during the  1968  season.
                                                       t o
                                       XWv      '««',    i.irr  v
                                            ^i \i(Ja s «"T*--, f
 s*  * < «-^~ "*•"«• *",,^ * ~  ••*   *„  ^  -.      ^rwJ_^w     f"^fcSi  '-      .^ '«% ' ^ $$?•.& •» »•     ITj*®*
 jfc,   ~,M«*S«'" -^-6, «™,^j£""  •«•£«*«. -^>Cf~a^  o-       *  * f"*Y' °*  A ^ ^^^^ *  .„ ,    f ?fc^l'*!lm? r™^ TA*J,** X   s ^ ffl^   **f •*.
 * * ^ «r%v T%P$^T  ^^T^"'^^ r ^-^ ^ **A  r-  % ^ n j ^/ v*,«   * >    Yjrirf^i^T A ^^ ^w** *>-r ^

 js^jvA?^ '^^^T "^ fc Y^«j/ -   v i -s.  "** "*''"* V  *C " r*-*-      f *   <^^f^£>r^* ^7^^3'v^^v*' ^' ^ ^
                  A dredge hauls muck from-the  bottom
                  of Calumet Harbor in Chicago,- Illinois,

    _  A  dramatic example of  an  upset  In  the  balance  of  nature is  the i n-
vas.on of _ the Great  Lakes  by the  alewlfe.  These  little fish, decendants
 I   .ff1!" Wh4'chkhas Crated  into  the Lakes  from  the ocean and adapted
itself to the fresh-water  environment, have  become pests mindful  of  the
great locust^ pi agues  recorded  in  history in  some  land areas of  the world
Ihe alew.fe  is a virtually useless fish.  They  are not  Good to  eat  and '
there is no sport to  catching them.   Efforts to find a  commercial  market
for food'.uir^K f°°d'  59Ve been °n'y Partia|!y successful.  By 'competing
for food supply, they crowd out more  desirable species.   Worst  of  all they
move in enormous schools from the deeper recesses of the  lakes, especially
Lake Michigan,  i nro inshore waters and die there by the millions -'
water intakes and piling up  in stinking masses on shores.
               -«*•> v^i.. ,':iJ
             ,».   Mi,  * •*- A- -
                                        «      ,     ,    ^    i   «>*--' -fr J
                                  ^*I3!i^/-^jt*'?y^f w^"Tl'?4>^v'/'
                                   1  - :„%„; ..^.""U *  / < "'.   '/*•'. ' <,«t.!W, t-. •» ~*f, " T
                                               -  '  ^  J*^^|^l!-|;«ii;
                                                                  """ii-v«- \/i
                Dead  alewives  litter  a  Chicago  harbor
                during  the alewife  die-off  of 1967.

       The massive influx and die-off of alewives has become an annual
event each spring in Lake Michigan and, to a lesser extent,, the down-
stream Great Lakes.  It reached record proportions in Lake Michigan
last spring and early summer, when deaths estimated in the billions
occurred.  On that occasion our agency conducted a special water sam-
pling survey to determine the quality of the water and whether water
pollution could have played a part in the die-off.  All evidence col-
lected indicates that water pollution did not contribute to the deaths.

       As a result of a recommendation by a special task force appointed
by Secretary Udall, the Interior Department's Bureau of Commercial
Fisheries is spearheading the search for further answers to the alewife
problem, including ways to bring the alewife population into balance
with other aquatic life.


       The use of pesticides in the United States has expanded rapidly
in recent years.  The total market value was over one billion dollars,
for the  first time, in  1964.  Usage in the United States increased from
34 million pounds in 1953 to 119 million pounds in 1965.  More than 58
percent of this usage was by agriculture.  Thousands of pounds of pesti-
cides annually run off the  land into rivers and lakes.

       Agencies such as the Federal and State Departments of Agricul-
ture have very little information on amounts of pesticide actually
applied  to the land-.  In addition, amounts used for domestic purposes
can only be estimated, since the purchase and sale of pesticides  Is in
no way control led.

       The use of pesticides has been so loosely controlled that man's
environment throughout the world Is now permeated with these substances.
Scientific facts are not yet known pertaining to the tolerance limits
for human beings, birds, fish, and most other forms of life.  Limited
studies  have taken place,  investigating the levels of the various pesti-
cides found in the waters of Lake Michigan and its tributary streams.

       The places in the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin where pesticides
are used most heavi ly -are the areas of extensive fruit growing.  These
areas are:  the Wisconsin portion of the Green Bay watershed; the south-
east quadrant of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin; and the area along
the northeast shore from Manistee to Traverse City, Michigan.

       An FWPCA study in the Green Bay area was designed to  investigate
the effects of chlorinated pesticides on the aqueous environment of
Green Bay.  Agricultural soil, river water, bay water, bottom sediments,
and algae were examined.  Chlorinated pesticides were detected in all
•types of samples.  Some of the soils tested had as high as 7,800 micro-
grams per kilogram.  Maximum concentration found In bottom sediments was
close to 3,000 mlcrograms per kilogram, which was more than two million
times that of the overlying water at the time of the study.  The algae
contained stiI i greater amounts than did the bottom sediments.  The
                                                                GPO 8O8--665—6

FWPCA analyses of several  drinking water intakes located at various
places along the Lake Michigan shore revealed the presence of pesti-
cides in the surface water.   Studies by other agencies indicate sub-
stantial levels of pesticides in Lake Michigan fish.

       Pesticide pollution of Lake Michigan and its tributary streams
results from the application of these materials by spraying and dust-
ing.  As a result of these methods of application,  some of the material
falls directly into the waters of the area being sprayed.  Pesticides
on the soil and crops are washed into the waters by rain and soil
e ros i on.

       Water uses affected by the application of pesticides are
recreation, fish and wildlife, and water supplies.   Up to this time,
the extent to which these materials are affecting the water supplies
and recreational uses of Lake Michigan has not been precisely deter-
mined.  However, with the ever-increasing use of these materials,
a! i  waters are threatened.

       Recent studies have shown that the eggs of coho salmon,
recently introduced into Lake Michigan, contain pesticides.  It re-
mains to be determined whether these pesticide levels are high enough
to have a significant effect on successful  reproduction of the coho

       The significance of the synthetic organic pesticides in their
high toxicity and their persistence in the environment after the
initial  application.   Kills  of fish, other aquatic life,  and wildlife
often result.  In addition,  pesticides are absorbed by microscopic
aquatic life and subsequently enter Into the food chain leading
through fish to man and other animals.   Purification  of water for  human
consumptions as commonly practiced, is largely ineffectual In removing
pesticides In the treatment  process.

       The synthetic organic pesticides accumulate  in fatty tissue,
whether fish, fowl, or human.  Food and water may both serve as
sources of these substances.  Lethal levels may be  carried in fatty
tissue without Immediate apparent effect on the organism.  When such
fatty deposits are utilized, physical  and metabolic complications  en-
sue.  In addition, combinations of accumulated pesticides may exert
synergistlc effects,  where the total toxic effect Is  greatly Increased.
in nature,  soils may remain  contaminated for years  after the Initial

       Each State and the Federal  government should reduce pollution
resulting from pesticides through the following activities:  placing
responsibility for control of pesticides in one agency; establishing
water quality standards for  pesticide levels; obtaining more precise in-
formation on total amounts of all  types of pesticides used, where  such
statistics are now unavailable;  establishing routine  monitoring of drink-
ing water sources for pesticide content; effecting  better agricultural
practices to prevent or minimize soil  erosion and runoff; encouraging

strict adherence to instructions for handling and application;  limiting
usage of pesticides in relation to solubility, persistence,  and foxi-
city; sponsoring research to ascertain toxic or lethal  concentrationsf
synergistic and accumulative effects for all life forms of the  aquatic
system, and for wildlife and man;  conducting research into environmenta!
factors controlling dispersion of  pesticides; encouraging research into
the development of natural  insect  predators; research into the  develop-
ment of degradable pesticides less toxic to higher life forms;  and
requiring the manufacturer to supply information pertaining to  persist-
ence, toxic or lethal  concentrations, and proper handling procedures
before permitting sale of the pesticide.

       The Federal  Water Pollution Control  Administration,  through  the
Great Lakes Regional  Office,  is pursuing a  vigorous  water pollution con-
trol program in the Great Lakes area in  cooperation  with  the  State  and
local agencies.  The responsibilities of FWPCA were  set forth by  the
Congress in the Federal  Water Pollution  Control  Act,  passed in 1956 and
subsequently amended in  1961, 1965, and  1966.   The  following  is a des-
cription of the activities being taken in carrying  out the agency's
responsibilities,  with particular reference to those  activities relevant
to Lake Michigan and its drainage basin,

Interstate Enforcement Actions

       Under the provisions of the Federal  Water Pollution Control  Act,
two previous enforcement conferences have been heid  in the Lake Michigan
Basin:  the Menominee River conference,  involving Michigan and Wisconsin,
held on November 7, 1963;  and the Calumet Area conference,  involving
Illinois and Indiana, held on March 2, 1965, "with a  technical session
January 4, 1966, and sessions to report  progress held on  March \5S  1967,
and September 6, 1967,

       in the Menominee  River conference, the  findings were that  inter-
state pollution did exist.  The major problems in this area were  paper
mill wastes and municipal  sewage.  Recommendations  were made  to require
more thorough waste treatment at three mi Sis cited  in the conference,
Further waste treatment  facilities were  recommended  for several communi-
ties on the river.   Investigation was undertaken to  determine whether
remedial  action would be required to alleviate the  effects of gross iron
pollution on the Brule River.  The investigators found that no remedial
action was needed.

       In the Calumet conference, findings  were that interstate pollution
did exist, originating in both Illinois  and Indiana,  and  that remedial
action was needed,   The  conference recommended water quality  criteria  for
the waters involved, secondary treatment and chlorination of  al!  municipal
waste discharged in the  area, action by  the States  to ensure  that indus-
tries minimize their wastes and a timetable for cleanup,  provisions for
sampling and surveillance, and ciosing the  Thomas j.  O'Brien  iocks  on  the
Calumet River to prevent flow into the lake.   The technical session held
January 4-5, 1966,  set the water quality criteria and the timetable for
control of industrial waste discharges.   On March 15, 1967, the conferees
met and decided sufficient progress in pollution abatement was being made,
and that the original timetable and recommendations  remained  satisfactory.
Essentially, the same conclusions were reached at the progress meeting
held September 6,  1967.

Water Quality Standards

       Under provisions  of the Water Quality Act of  1965, Indiana,  Illi-
nois, Wisconsin and Michigan  adopted water quality  standards  for  all of
their interstate streams/


       Standards are composed of two basin  parts:   the criteria  that
established quality levels that must be achieved to make  water suitable
for a designated use or usesj and the plans that specify  what  must be
done, by whom and by what date to achieve the established water  quality
goa is.

       The Indiana standards have been approved by the Secretary of the
Interior.  Standards for the other three States are currently  under
review by the Secretary.  Once the standards are accepted by the Secre-
tary of the Interior, they become Federal standards as well as State

       As part of the adoption procedure, public hearings were held to
elicit citizens' views on the proposed standards and to ascertain popular
wishes as to the use of specific areas of lakes and streams.   This action
preceded formal State adoption of the standards.

       Prior to submission to the Secretary, the standards for each State
were reviewed by the Regional Office of FWPCA to determine whether they
met the "Guidelines for Establishment of Water Quality Standards for
Interstate Waters" of May 1966, as well as the intent of  the  Federal  leg-
islation.  The review included a comparison of State standards and an
attempt to resolve conflicts in water use and/or criteria between con-
tiguous States.

       Comments and suggestions relative to specific items in  the stand-
ards were received from various agencies of the Interior  Department as
well as other Federal agencies.

       Each submission  included an overriding expression  of Intent to
provide for the maintenance of the present high quality of interstate

       A copy of the complete set of each State standard  is avai I able  to
the public upon, request to the appropriate State agency.

Great  Lakes-Illinois River Basins Project

       The Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins (GLIRB) Project  was estab-
 lished  In  I960 as a special task force  In what  is now the Federal Water
Pollution Control Administration.  With headquarters at Chicago, the
Project was charged with  developing comprehensive programs for eliminating
or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries thereof,   in
the Great  Lakes, the  Illinois River, and the!r tributaries.   In   Its early
years  the Project actually had two tasks,  I) the comprehensive program
development and 2) to act in a fact-finding and consulting capacity to the
U. S.  Department of Justice  In the Supreme Court  litigation over diversion
of Lake Michigan water  at Chicago,   The  latter assignment had top prior-
 ity and  from  1961 to  1963, represented  a large share of Project effort,
culminating  in the presentation of testimony and voluminous documentary
exhibits, to the Special Master  in Chancery appointed by  the Court to

gather evidence and make his recommendations  to the  Court.   It  is
believed that this work significantly  influenced the subsequent settle-
ment agreements reached in the case.   (Principal  points  of  the  settlement
agreement, as they affect water quality,  are  given  in the next  section.)

       The major objectives of the comprehensive program developed  by
GLIRB Project in cooperation with other Federal  agencies, with  State
water pollution control agencies and  interstate agencies, and with  the
municipalities and industries involved were:

          Identification of the causes of water pollution and
          the effects of such pollution on the  quality of water
          resources and on beneficial  uses.

       -  The development of agreements on the  desired beneficial
          uses and the water quality  required to accommodate
          those uses.

       -  The development of water quality control measures to
          achieve the desired objectives, including  the  estab-
          lishment of a timetable for  their accomplishment.

       -  Provision of the mechanisms  for carrying out program
          objectives, including continuing surveillance  for
          the purpose of updating the  programs  to accommodate
          changing technology and changing water quality needs.

The Lake Michigan Diversion Case

       A significant step toward preservation of Lake Michigan  and  the
entire Great Lakes was realized when the Lake States agreed to  the  recom-
mendations of the Special Master of the Supreme Court in the Chicago
Diversion Case.  The Special Master's  recommendations are summarized as

          I.  That the Metropolitan Sanitary  District of Greater
              Chicago not be required  to return its  treated
              effluent to Lake Michigan.

          2.  That total diversion Including  pumpage be  limited
              to the present 3,200 cubic feet per second and
              that diversion be averaged on a biennial rather
              than on an annual basis.

          3.  That the State of Illinois  be given the responsi-
              bility for allocating the diversion.

          4.  That the most wise and effective  use of the water
              be demonstrated before consideration  is given in
              the future to requests for diversion.   This will
              require improvements in  the water supply distri-
              bution and waste collection and treatment  practices,


Construction  Grants
                                    °n6 °f the
                                                    causes of ,aer
        Since 1956, 181 Federal  grants  have been awarded in
        the Lake Michigan Basin  to  help communities build
        sewage treatment facilities.  Picture above is of
        the Grand Rapids, Michigan, sewage treatment plant

       Since the 1956 Act, a total  of 181  Federal  grants  have been  made
in the Lake Michigan Basin to help  communities build needed sewage  treat-
ment facilities.  (See Figure 9)  Grant funds involved in these projects
have totaled over $22 million in support of total  project expenditures
in excess of $86 mil lion.  Over two-thirds of the 181  grant projects  have
already been completed and placed in operation.   The remaining projects
are either under construction or preparing to go under construction in
the very near future.

       The Construction Grants Section of the Federal  Act has been  amended
three times since its initial 1956  passage.  The trend of financial assist-
ance has been upward each time the  Act has been  amended.   Today's  legisla-
tion allows municipalities to qualify for a basic Federal grant of  30 per-
cent of the eligible cost of a project.   A grant of  40 percent can  be made
in those States which agree to match the basic 30 percent Federal grant.
The Federal grant may be Increased  to 50 percent if  the State agrees  to
pay at least 25 percent of the project cost and  enforceable water quality
standards have been established for the waters into  which the project dis-
charges.  A grant may be increased  by 10 percent,  to 33,  44,  or 55  percent,
as appropriate, if the project is certified by an appropriate metropolitan
or regional planning agency as conforming with a comprehensive metropolitan
area plan.

       The States of Wisconsin and  Indiana have  enacted legislation to
qualify their municipalities for consideration for the higher Federal
grant percentages.   The State of Illinois will  place a bond issue to  a
referendum in November of 1968.  A  favorable vote on the  referendum would
entitle Illinois municipalities to  consideration for higher Federal grants,
The State of Michigan has considered State matching  legislation to  qualify
its municipalities for higher Federal grants, but no legislation has  yet
been passed.  Michigan currently has a State grant program that provides
for local construction grants after the annual Federal  construction grant
allocation is exhausted, but the current Michigan grant program does  not
qualify its municipalities for the  higher Federal  grant levels.

Program Grants

       Section 7 of the Water Pollution Control  Act  authorizes an appro-
priation of $10 TOM lion annually for Fiscal Years 1968-1971  for grants to
State and interstate agencies to assist them in  meeting the costs of
establishing and maintaining adequate pollution  control programs.   Each
State is allotted $12,000, and the  remainder of  the  funds are distributed
on the basis of population, financial need, and  the  extent of the water
pollution problems facing the State.  Since the  program grants were insti-
tuted, a total of $5,673,440 in Federal  funds has been allocated to the
Lake Michigan States for their pollution control programs.  By June 1968,
Illinois will have received $2,119,976;  Indiana, $1,188,919;  Michigan,
$1,284,673 and Wisconsin, $1,079,872,

              W.ISCOJVSJN _
   •    Pre-consfruct ion
   A    Under Construction
   •    Completed
NT«^— - /
1 GARY ,
V r\ /
< ; •-' v
z <

.^-/MICHIGAN  _.
• '	B	:	 f
   INDIANA     '
       O  n
                                                                                FIGURE  9
                                                                             GPO 8O8—665—5

 Research and Demonstration

        The Federal Water Pollution Control  Act calls for establishing
 field laboratory and research facilities for the conduct of research,
 investigations, experiments, field demonstrations and studies,  and
 training relating to the prevention and control  of water pollution.   The
 law also provides for granting fellowships  and training grants  to educa-
 tional institutions, and grants or contracts to public and private
 agencies or individuals to demonstrate new  or improved methods  for dealing
 with water pollution problems.

        The Lake Michigan Basin has seven approved demonstration grants
 and two approved demonstration contracts in an active status.   Applica-
 tions for other possible grants are under review.  Table 3 shows the
 present grants and contracts awarded,  and Figure 10 shows locations.

                                 TABLE 3

E.Chicago, 1 nd.
E.Ch i cago, 1 nd.
Jackson, Mich
Mi lwaukee,Wi sc.

Mi i waukee,-Wi sc.

App leton,Wi sc.

Green Bay, Wise.

*Mi lwaukee,Wi sc.
*Mi lwaukee,Wi sc.
Grant or
Contract No.
WPRD 70-01-67
WPD- 1 57
WPO 188-01-67


WPRD 12-01-68

WPRD 60-01-67

App ! icant
E.Chicago S'an. Dist.
E.Chicago San. Dist,
City of Jackson
City of Milwaukee,
City of Mi Iwaukee,
Pulp Mfrs. Research
Green Bay Metro.
Sewerage Dist.
Rex Chainbelt
Ai 1 is-Chalmers
Federa 1
1 1,919

i, 468, 589



Esti mated
Total Cost
$3,1 1 6, .533
1 1,919

2,1 18,! 18



388-, 526


                          Nature of Projects

        II-IND-I - Project will evaluate the effectiveness of treating
combined sewer overflows in a very deep detention basin having aerobic
and anaerobic  levels of treatment.

       WPRD 70-01-67 - The objective of this project is to develop and
verify, on a small pilot scale, the preliminary design and operating con-
ditions for-chemical coagulation, sedimentation, dual media filtration,
and granular activated carbon adsorption for treatment of combined muni-
cipal-industrial wastes mixed with storm run-off.

       WPD 188-01-67 - A project to study phosphate removal by an acti-
vated sludge plant.

       WPD-157 - Aeration of secondary effluent to further reduce BOD.

        IO-WIS-1 - Reduction of degree of pollution in the Milwaukee River -
is anticipated by increasing the efficiency of intercepting devices and
by using a detention tank to capture and treat the storm overflow of com-
bined sewage for an urban area comprising 570 acres which constitutes
approximateiy 3 percent of the total  combined 'sewers of the city.  This
includes the measurement of fiows and quality at critical points within
the collector system affecting the controi  of facilities to be constructed,

       WPRD 12-01-68 - This project will demonstrate field scale, inplant
treatment of dilute pulping wastes with a portable reverse osmosis unit.
Development of in-plan-t techniques to reduce loadings on biological
secondary treatment processing will  be carried out.  Project will acceler-
ate development and evaluation of reverse osmosis as a method of concen-
trating dissolved solids in dilute wastes-'with recovery of clear water for
reuse by the mi 1 I.

       WPRD 60-01-67 - The project is a study, evaluation,, and determina-
tion of the effectiveness,  design, and operating parameters of four alter-
native biological  treatment processes and modifications for treating
combined municipal and industrial (primarily paper mill) wastewaters.

        14-12-40 - This project will  develop and demonstrate the applica-
ability of screening and chemical oxidation of storm and combined sewage.

       14-12-24 - The primary purpose of the contract is to demonstrate
the applicability of a new concept of biological  treatment to be applied
withi'n a sewerage system.

Research is being conducted to reduce pollution
of the Milwaukee River, shown here entering the
Lake at its harbor mouth.

       ^""",f iv     ^-             a

      tfV"*}*  e/  J'  ,.'i"^
Wastes pour  into Calumet Harbor on  Lake Michigan
from U.  S. Steel's Chicago South Works.

                       Present Status of Projects

       Most projects are either  in the construction phase or preconstruc-
 tion  phase of the grant or contract.  WPD  188-01-67 will complete one year
 of study about the  1st of February  1968, on the phosphate removal from an
 activated sludge plant.  One year of study is complete on -WPD  157; report
 now awaited; study  may be extended,

       FWPCA research facilities in the Great Lakes Region provide a
 National Water Quality Laboratory at Duluth, Minnesota and a proposed
 laboratory at Ann Arbor, Michigan.

       The National Water Quality Research Laboratory at Duluth, Minnesota
 is charged with the responsibility of developing water quality requirements
 for all fresh water uses in the United States.

       The proposed research laboratory for Ann Arbor, Michigan will be
 involved in studies that will cover most all problems relating to water
 pollution and especially those problems in the Great Lakes area.

 Federal Installations

       The Federal  Government has not overlooked the pollution hazards
 created by its own  activities.  By Executive Order  11288, President
 Johnson has directed the heads, of the departments, agencies, and estab-
 lishments of the Executive Branch of the Government to provide leadership
 in the nation-wide effort to improve water quality,

       The Order directed all agencies to present annually a phased and
 orderly plan for needed corrective and preventive measures and faci iities
 to the Bureau- of the Budget to faci litate budgeting procedures.  FWPCA
 has reviewed the plans submitted in an effort to achieve maximum pollution
"abatement.  Project priorities have been established on the basis of the
 severity of the pollution problem- wi.th due regard for legitimate water uses,
 enforcement actions, and applicable water qual-ity standards.  Secondary
 treatment is the- mini-mum acceptable under the Order for all projects.   The
 establishment of water quality standards may necessitate higher degrees of
 treatment, including nutrient control, at some installations.

       Federal installations in the Lake Michigan Basin have initiated pol-
 lution abatement programs in accordance with the Order.  There are approxi-
 mately 345 instaIlations .In the Basin, distributed as follows:  Illinois,
 12; Indiana, 34; Michigan,  171; and Wisconsin, 128.  About 50 percent of
 these are connected to municipal sewer systems.  The remaining 50 percent
 di scharge wastes, after .varying degrees of treatment,, to. ground-or surface
 waters of the Basin.  Some of the smaller -installations provide no treat-
 ment  at present.  Tabulated in the Appendix of this report is an inventory
 of these installations showing the waste treatment provided and the status
 of pollution abatement.

       Two installations account for three-fourths of all wastes generated
 by -independently-discharging Federal sources in the Lake Michigan Basin.

                -,«f»> „*'               ', \t -—•, ? j,v« ?"   ' '
                i'"" .  **' <*••**    r  *i le"»- » '  U*f  '   *!f

                • • -r'<-  *•.-.«*UV'/.:?«:V>•''•*?',>.<>*'»•.:.
Great Lakes Naval Training Center  (pictured
above) and Fort Sheridan account for
than half of all wastes contributed by
independently-discharging Federal  installations
in the Lake Michigan Basin.

These are the Navy's Great Lakes Naval  Training Center and the Army!s Fort
Sheridan.  The sewer system at the Naval  facility includes the training
center, the command center for Ninth Naval  District headquarters,  and a
Veterans Administration Hospital.  Fort Sheridan is headquarters for the
Fifth U.S. Army, recently relocated from the south side of Chicago.   Waste
treatment capability at both places is  the  conventional secondary  type.

       The more significant Federal vessels which frequent the .waters and
harbors of Lake Michigan are listed in  the  Appendix.   The U.S. Coast Guard,,
Navy,, and Army Corps of Engineers are all  acutely aware of the problems
associated with vessel pollution.  They are actively  pursuing abatement
and research and development programs in  an effort to obtain  waste treat-
ment devices suitable for ship board use.

       The U.S. Coast Guard is installing  a waste holding tank on  the
Cutter "Sundew" berthed at Charievoix,  Michigan.  Wastes wiI I be evacuated
to the municipal sewer system.  Other Coast Guard vessels have macerator/
chlorinator units which are not considered  adequate,,  and which wi i I  be
corrected as rapidly as funds permit.

       All Corps of Engineers'' vessels  and  floating pi ants (tugs, dredges,
derricks, etc.) operating In Lake Michigan, have been fitted  with  macera-
tor/chlorinator units.  Efforts are being  made to insure that these  devices
wi I! be replaced with acceptable treatment  units or holding tanks  at the
earliest possible date.  One dredge operating in Lake Erie is now  being
fitted with an extended aeration package  plant of a type that is suitable
for installation on-all such floating plants.

       The American Shipbuilding Company,  Lorain,  Ohio, has  designed and
is now installing secondary treatment plants on comma reia I  cargo vessels
under construction.  Units of this type could be made adaptable for instal-
lation on Federal vessels.

       Federal water resources projects and facilities and operations sup-
ported by Federal  loans, grants, or contracts are also included in Execu-
tive Order 1.1288.  Water resource projects  must be designed,  constructed,
and operated  in a manner which will reduce  pollution  from such activities
to the lowest practicable level.

       The head of each Federal department, agency, and estabIishment has
been directed to conduct a review of the loan, grant, and contract prac-
tices of his own organization to determine  to what extent water pollution
control requirements set forth in the Order should be adhered to by bor-
rowers, grantees, or contractors.  This review has resulted in practices
designed to reduce water pollution in various programs.  Urban renewal
.projects now  require the construction of separate storm and sanitary sewer
systems rather than combined sewers.  The nationwide  highway  construction
program, financed with Federal funds and administered by the  Bureau of
Public Roads,  is now being conducted in accordance with practices  aimed at

preventing water pollution, either during construction or in operation
and maintenance.  The various agencies have consulted with the Federal
Water Pollution Control Administration in an effort to insure maximum
consideration of water quality in their activities.

       This Order represents a major step forward in the battle to pre-
serve and enhance the quality of our Nation's waters.  It has sparked a
keen awareness on the part of government officials of the need for cor-
rective action and vigorous abatement programs.  The effort being shown
by these various Federal agencies provides leadership in the nationwide
quality improvement program.

Technical Assistance

       The Regional  Tachnical Program provides technical assistance to
States, local authorities, and industry upon request through the State
water pot I ution control agencies,, and to other Federal agencies.  Current
technical assistance projects in the Lake Michigan Basin include:

       !.  Participation in the Corps of Engineers'  pilot program to
deve-lop practicable alternate methods for disposal  of dredged material.
This has involved collection and/or analyses of samples collected from
24 harbors on Lake Michigan.

       2.  Participation in the International  Joint Commission study of
the feasibility of further regulation of the levels of the Great Lakes,
including Lake Michigan.  The object of further lake regulation would be
to reduce damages resulting from excessively high or low lake levels.

       3.  Investigation of character and source of oil  pollution.   In a
recent incident which involved a large oil  slick along the Chicago water- '
front, an extensive investigation was made involving analyses of samples
from 18 beaches and 10 lake stations.  The type of oil was identified,
and although this information eliminated several  possible sources,  the
actual source was not determined.

       The Technical  Program also has responsibility for maintaining water
quality surveillance through stations in the National  Water Pollution Sur-
veillance System.  Lake Michigan stations located at Milwaukee, Wisconsin
and Gary, Indiana, provide long-term records of water quality character-
istics which provide highly important indications of water quality  trends.
The Program is also providing surveillance of  water quality conditions in
the Calumet enforcement area, to determine status of compliance with con-
ference recommendations.   This operation has included weekly collection
and analyses of samples from Indiana Harbor Canal  and Lake Michigan, oper-
ation of two automatic water quality monitors,  and bi-weekly sampling of
beaches during the swimming season.

        Vi "'&"'
V  *  *
-,*« , wv
        Part of the residue of a 75-mile long oil slick that
        stretched along the Chicago water front last summer
        is shown on the beach.  (Photo courtesy of the Chicago
Public Information

     The Public information Program of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration is designed to present facts about water pollution
control to the news media, interested groups and organizations, and the
public,, generally. The Program serves the public's right to know what
FWPCA is doing and trying to accomplish. It aiso serves those who need
particular information in order to participate effectively in water
pollution control programs.

                     POLLUTION OF LAKE
                      AND ITS TRIBUTARY
       On the basis of a written request to the Secretary of the
Interior from the Honorable Otto Kerner, Governor of Illinois, dated
November 22, 1967, as we I I  as on the basis of reports,  surveys, or
studies, the Secretary of the Interior on December 16,  1967, called
a conference In the matter of pollution of Lake Michigan and its
tributary basin (WisconsI n-I I I inois-indlana-Michlgan) under the
provisions of section 10 of the Federai Water Pollution Control Act,
as amended (33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.).   The conference was heid on
January 31, February 1-2,  February. 5-7, March 7-8, and  March 12, 1968,
at the Sherman House, Chicago,  Illinois.

       The following conferees  representing the State water pollution
control agencies of Wisconsin,  ! ! i inois, Indiana, and Michigan, and
the U. S. Department of the Interior participated in the conference.
Max N. Edwards
Murray Stein
For the       of Illinois

Dr. C. S. Boruff

Clarence W. Klassen

Franklin D. Yoder, M. D.
                                    Assistant Secretary
                                    U.  S.  Department of the Interior
                                    Washington,  D.  C.

                                    Assistant Commissioner for Enforcement
                                    Federal  Water Pollution Control
                                    U.  S.  Department of the Interior
                                    Washington,  D.  C.
                                    Illinois State Sanitary Water Board
                                    Peoria,  ! 1 1 Inois

                                    Technical  Secrerary
                                    Illinois State Sanitary Water Board
                                    Springf iel d,  I 1 1 1 no I s

                                    Director,  State Department of Health
                                    Chairman,  Illinois State Sanitary
                                      Water  Board
                                    Sprin.gf Iel d,  III inois

For the State of Indiana:

John MItchei I

Blucher Poole
Colonel Charles Sidle

For the       of Michigan:

George F. Liddle

Loring F. Oeming

John Vogt

For the State of Wisconsin:

Freeman Hoi-mer
Russel!  6. Lynch

Lester P. Voigt
Director, Department of Natural
Indianapolis, 1ndiana

Technical Secretary
Indiana Stream Pollution Control
Indianapolis, I ndiana

Chairman, Indiana Stream Pollution
  Control Board
Indianapol is, Indiana
Chairman, Michigan Water Resources
Muskegon, Michigan

Executive Secretary
Michigan Water Resources Commission
Lansing, Michigan

Chief, Division of Engineering
Michigan Department of Public Health
Lansing, Michigan
Administrator, Division of Resource
Department of Natural Resources
Madison, Wisconsin

Chairman, Natural Resources Board
Madison, Wisconsin

Secretary, Department of Natural
Madison, Wisconsin
For the U. S. Department of the Interior:

H. W. Poston
Federal Water Pollution Control
U. S. Department of the Interior
Chicago, I I Ii noi s

       Also participating in the conference were:
NOTE:  The list of other participants in the conference has been
omitted here for the sake of brevity.  The list may be obtained
upon request to the FWPCA Regional Office.
       The Chairman of the Conference pointed out that:

           I.  Under the Federal Water Pollution Control  Act, as
amended (33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.), pollution of interstate or navi-
gable waters which endangers the health or welfare of any persons
is subject to abatement under procedures described in section 10 of
the Federal Act.

           2.  The first step of these procedures is the calling of
a conference.

           3.  The purpose of the conference is to bring together
representatives of the States and the U. S. Department of the
Interior to review the existing situation and the progress which
has been made, to lay a basis for future action by all parties
concerned, and to give the States, localities,  and industries an
opportunity to take any remedial action which may be Indicated
under State and local law.

       The conference was held on January 31, February 1-2, and
February 5-7, 1968.   The conference was recessed 'and reconvened
in Executive Session on March 7-8, and March 12, 1968.

       At the Executive Session the conferees agreed to the
following conclusions and recommendations:


       I.  Lake Michigan is a priceless natural  heritage which the
present generation holds in trust for posterity, with an obligation
to pass it on in the best possible condition.

       2.  Water uses of Lake Michigan for municipal  water supply,
recreation, including swimming, boating, and other body contact
sports, commercial fishery, propagation of fish and aquatic life,
and esthetic enjoyment, are presently Impaired  by pollution.  The
sources of this pollution include wastes from municipalities,

Industries, Federal activities, combined sewer overflows, agricultural
practices,, watercraft, natural runoff, and related activities through-
out the drainage basin.

       3.  Eutrophication is a threat now to the usefulness of Lake
Michigan.  Unless checked,, the aging of Lake Michigan will be accel-
erated by continuing pollution and particularly by wastes containing
phosphates.  Feasible methods exist for substantial removal of phos-
phates from sewage and Industrial waste discharges.  They need to be

       4.  Evidence of severe bacterial pollution of tributaries has-
been found In the Fox River between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay,
Wisconsin; in the Milwaukee River within Milwaukee County, Wisconsin;
In and downstream from cities along the Grand River In Michigan and
the St. Joseph River in Indiana and Michigan; and in the streams of
the Calumet Area, Illinois and Indiana.  Although the bacteria! qual-
ity of Lake Michigan Is generally good in deep water,, the water Is
degraded at some points along the shoreline and In harbor areas.

       5.  Pollution has contributed to the growth of excessive
inshore algal populations which have occurred in the vicinity of
ManEtowoc to Port' Washington, Wisconsin; Chicago, Illinois; the
eastern: shore of Lake Michigan, and near Manlstique, Michigan.
Interference with water treatment plant operations because of algae
has occurred at Green Bay, Sheboygan, and Mi Ewaukee, Wisconsin;
Waukegan, Evanston, and Chicago, Illinois; Gary and Michigan- City,,
Indiana; Benton Harbor, Holland, Grand Rapids, and Muskegon, Michi-
gan; and other cities.  Phosphate concentrations now exceed critical
algal growth values In many areas.

       6.  Excessive sludgeworm populations, indicating poHution of
lakebed sediments, have been found at points one mile off the shore
near Manitowoc; Sheboygan; Port Washington, Wisconsin to Waukegan,
11 i.fnols; and Chicago, Illinois to- Muskegon, Michigan,  Sludgeworms
were not found in shallow waters subject to wave action.

       7,  The smalt- quantity of oxygen normally dissolved in water Is
perhaps the- most important single Ingredient necessary for a healthy,
balanced, aquatic life environment.  The discharge of treated and
untreated municipal and Industrial wastes with high concentrarHo-ns of
biochemical oxygen demand have caused oxygen depletion "m many of the
Lake Michigan tributaries and In some harbors.  At present the main
body of Lake Michigan has not evidenced signs of oxygen deficiency.

       8.  In addition to one existing nuclear power plant, five
nuclear power plants, three of which will have twin; reactors, are

proposed or under construction at Lake Michigan cities for comple-
tion between 1970 and 1373.  The combined impact of siting many
reactors on the shores of the lake must be considered so that this
activity will not resuit in pollution from wastewater heat or from
the discharge of excessive amounts of radionuclIdes.

       9.  Water-craft plying the waters of Lake Michigan and its
tributaries are contributors of both untreated and  inadequately
treated wastes in local  harbors and in the open lake, and intensify
iocai poliutlon problems.

      10.  The danger of spills of pollutant chemicals, particularly
oil, whether accidental  or deliberate is so prevalent that it must
be considered a significant source of pollution of the waters of
Lake Michigan and treated as such.  Oil discharges  from industrial
plants and commercial ships, and careless loading and unloading of
cargos, despoil beaches and other recreational areas, contribute
to taste and odor problems and treatment problems at water treatment
plants, coat the hulls of boats, and may be deleterious to fish and
other aquatic life.

      II.  The maintenance of waterways for commercial and naviga-
tional use is a constantly necessary activity.  The continued depo-
sition of dredged material  containing nutrients, oil, and soiids of
sewage and Industrial waste origin in Lake Michigan poses a distinct
threat to the quality of the lake.

      12.  Pesticides are found in Lake Michigan and Its tributary
streams resulting from the application of these materials.  The ever-
increasing use of these materials threatens water uses for recreation,
fish and wildlife, and water supplies.

      13.  A persistent pollutant entering directly into Lake Michigan
or dissolved Into the water that feeds the lake, mixes with and may
become an Integral part of the lake water as a whole.

      14.  The massive die-off" of alewives that occurred in !967
created conditions that severely restricted recreational uses
causing losses In millions of dollars to the tourist Industry and
certain municipalities.   Although the dead fish .were not the resuit
of pollution, they caused poliutlon and     therefore a concern to
water pollution control  agencies,

      15.  Discharges of untreated and Inadequately treated wastes
originating in Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan cause pol-
lution of Lake Michigan which endangers the health or welfare of
persons In States other than those In which such discharges originate.
In large measure this pollution results from nutrients which fertilize

the Sake.  This pollution is subject to abatement under the pro-
visions of the Federal Water Pollution Control  Act, as amended
(33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.).

      16.  The Federal enforcement actions already in effect on the
Menominee River area and the Calumet River area are supplemented but
not superseded by this conference.


       !.  Waste treatment is to be provided by all municipalities to
achieve at least 80 percent reduction of total  phosphorus and to pro-
duce an effluent that will not result in degradation of Lake Michigan's
water quality.  Such treatment will provide compliance with the water
quality standards for Lake Michigan as.approved by the Secretary of
the Interior and the appropriate State water pollution control agency
of Illinois,  Indiana, Michigan or Wisconsin.  This action is to be
substantially accomplished by December 1972.

       2.  Industries not connected to municipal  sewer systems are
to provide treatment so as not to result in the degradation of Lake
Michigan's water quality and to meet the water quality standards for
Lake Michigan as approved by the Secretary of the  Interior and the
appropriate State water pollution control agency  of Illinois,
Indiana,  Michigan or Wisconsin.  This action is to be substantially
accomplished by December  1972.

       3.  Within six months each State water pollution control agency
shall  list the municipalities and industries discharging wastewater
to the Lake Michigan Basin.   The U. S. Department of the Interior
will  provide a comparable list of Federal installations.  Each source
so listed will indicate whether it discharges pollutants, including
nutrients, having a deleterious effect on the Lake Michigan water
quality.   Detailed action plans for treatment of  all  waste having
deleterious effect on the water quality of Lake Michigan are to be
developed.  Such plans shall  identify the principal characteristics
of the waste material now being discharged, the quantities, the
proposed program for construction or modification of remedial facil-
ities and a timetable for accomplishment, giving  target dates in
detail.  This list shall be presented to the conferees for their
review and consideration.  Pollution sources shall be added to or
removed from the list by formal action of the conferees.

       4.  Continuous disinfection is to be provided throughout the
year for all  municipal waste treatment plant effluents.  This action
is to be accomplished as soon as possible and not  later than May 1969.

       5.  Unified collection systems serving contiguous urban areas
are to be encouraged.
                                                              3PG 808—665—3

       6,  Adjustable overflow regulating devices are to be installed
on existing combined sewer systems, and be so designed and operated
as to utilize to the fullest extent possible the capacity of inter-
ceptor sewers for conveying combined flow to treatment facilities.
The treatment facilities shall be modified where necessary to mini-
mize bypassing.  This action is to be taken as soon as possible and
not later than December 1970.

       7,  Effective immediately, combined sewers are to be separated
in coordination with all urban reconstruction projects, and prohibited
in .all new developments, except where other techniques can be applied
to control such pollution.  Pollution from combined sewers is to be
controlled by July 1977,

       8.  Discharge of treatable industrial wastes -{following needed
preliminary treatment) to municipal sewer systems is to be encouraged.

       9.  Continuous disinfection is to be provided for industrial
effluents containing pathogenic organisms, or organisms which indicate
the presence of such pathogens, which may have a deleterious effect on
persons coming into contact with Lake Michigan waters.

      10.  The States and the Department of the Interior wfii  appoint
members of a special committee on nuclear discharges and the thermal
pollution aspects of power plants and reactors.  The committee will
meet with representatives of the Atomic Energy Commission and other
interested parties to develop guidelines for pollution control  from
nuclear power plants.  The committee is to pay special attention to
thermal  discharges which affect the aquatic life environment of the
lake.   Representatives of the committee will be available to appear
before any Federal  or State agency considering approval of a permit
for such power plants and reactors.

      II.  The prohibition of the dumping of polluted material  into
Lake Michigan is to be accomplished as soon as possible.  The Corps
of Engineers and the States are requested to report to the conferees
within six months concerning their program, at which time the con-
ferees will  consider adopting a coordinated approach toward the dis-
posal  of dredged material  together with a target date for getting the
program Into operation.

      12.  While the massive deaths of alewives In Lake Michigan are
probably not caused by pollution this phenomenon certainly creates
a pol I tit ion problem.  The U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish and
Wildlife Service, and the cooperating State agencies- In the four
States bordering Lake Michigan are to be commended on their efforts
to achieve an ecological balance to stop the massive alewlfe die-off
in Lake Michigan. - It is recognized that this is a long-range program.
in order to provide protection for the next several  years, stringent

interim measures must be provided.  Such measures will Include skim-
ming of dead alewives before they reach the shores of Lake Michigan,
disposal on properly located Sand sites and a local program to deal
with alewives which get to shore despite the offshore skimming pro-
gram.  Recognition is given to the program being developed by the
task force of the Great Lakes Basin Commission to meet this problem
during this and the next few years*  To assure the success of this
program the conferees recommend that the States concerned and the
Federal government support a program which would accomplish the
above objective with funds and personnel.

       !3.  The representatives of the conferess within 60 days meet
and agree upon uniform rules and regulations for control I ing wastes
from watercraft.  These rules and regulations will generally conform
with the harbor pollution code adopted by the City of Chicago and the  .
regulations adopted by the Michigan Water Resources Commission.  The
use of maceration chlorination is not approved at the present time.
Since each of the four States operates under different statutes, con-
ferees will recommend to their respective boards,  legislatures, etc.,
approval of the proposed uniform rules and regulations.  Commensurate
requirements controlling the discharge of wastes from commercial ves-
sels is to be the responsibility of the Federal government.

       14.  Each of the State water pollution control agencies accel-
erate programs to provide for the maximum USQ of area-wide sewage
facilities to discourage the proliferation of smaii treatment plants
in contiguous urbanized areas and foster the replacement of septic
tanks with adequate collection and treatment.

       15.  Technical committee on pesticides wi!I be established to be
chaired by a, member of the Federal Water Pol lution Control Administra-
tion with representatives from each state.  The committee shall evalu-
ate the pesticide problem and recommend to the conferees a program of
monitoring and control.  The first report will be submitted in six
months to the conferees.  The states shall seek  legislation to  license
commercial applicators.

       16.  The U. S. Department of Agriculture be requested to submit
to the conferees a report within six months on agricultural programs
to prevent pollution from agricultural land use such as siltation and
bank stabi1ization.

       17.  A committee be appointed to develop specific recommendations
for a coordinated four State-Federal monitoring program in the Lake
Michigan Basin and submit recommendations to the conferees at the
next progress meeting.

       18.  State wafer pollution control agencies and U. S. Depart-
ment of the Interior shall compile an  inventory of all sites where

potential exists for major spills of oil and other hazardous material,
which may affect the water quality of Lake Michigan, and require that
measures be taken where necessary to prevent the escape of this mat-
erial to the waters.  A report will be submitted to the conferees
within six months.

      19.  The State water pollution control agencies shall arrange
for a broad spectrum of water quality analyses, including planktonic
algae counts,, to be performed at least twice weekly at the following
water filtration plants:  Green Bay, Milwaukee, Evanston, Chicago
(both plants), Gary, Michigan City, Benton Harbor, and Grand Rapids.
Results will be reported annually to the conferees.

      20.  The Coast Guard will be requested to report at the next
progress meeting on present and future plans for monitoring by
aircraft and reporting of pollution on Lake Michigan.

      21.  The discharge of visible oil  from any source in such a
manner as to reach the waters of Lake Michigan shall be eliminated.

      22,  Present knowledge of water pollution control shall be
employed immediately to abate water pollution in the Lake Michigan
Basin, and research on pressing water pollution problems shall be
vigorously pursued.  Principal  areas in  which research is needed in
the Lake Michigan Basin include:  control  of over-production of
algae; more effective and less costly methods for removing dissolved
chemicals,  especially nutrients, from wastewaters; techniques for
restoring eutrophlc lakes; methods for ultimate disposal  of residues
removed from wastewaters; improved treatment and other measures for
handling industrial wastes including reelrculation; permanent solu-
tions for combined sewer problems; effective treatment plants for
ships; improvement and standardization of  water quality tests; and
improved techniques for water quality monitoring.

      23.  It is recommended by the State  conferees that Federal
legislation for the control  of oil  pollution on Lake Michigan be

      24.  it is recommended by the State  conferees that the full
appropriation be made of the grant authorizations in the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act.

      25.  Progress meetings be held at  least every six months
unless the conferees decide on another schedule for such meetings.

      26.  The conference will  be reconvened at the call  of the
Chai rman.


 !.  United States Census of Population,  1960, U. S. Department of
    Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

 2.  Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas  in the United States as
    defined on May  !,  1967, with  population  in  1950 and  1960, U. S.
    Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

 3.  Lake  Michigan Basin, Population and  Economy, Federal Water Pollution
    Control Administration, Great Lakes  Region, Chicago, Illinois.

 4.  County and City Data Book,  1967, U.  S. Department of Commerce,
    Bureau of the Census.

 5.  United States Census of Agriculture,  1964, U. S. Department of Commerce,
    Bureau of the Census.

 6.  Great Lakes Harbors Study,  U. S. Army Engineer Division, North Central
    Corps of Engineers, Chicago,  Illinois (November, 1966).

 7.  Water Oriented Outdoor Recreation -  Lake Michigan Basin, U. S. Depart-
    ment  of the  Interior, Bureau  of Outdoor Recreation, Ann Arbor, Michigan
    (March,  1966).

 8.  Water Levels of the Great  Lakes; Report on  Lake Regulation, U. S. Corps
    of  Engineers, North Central Division, Chicago,  Illinois (December,  1965),

 9.  Water Quality  investigations, Lake Michigan Basin - Lake Currents,
    U.  S. Department of the  interior, Federal Water Pollution Control
    Administration, Great Lakes Region,  Chicago,  Illinois (November,  1967),

10.   International Joint Commission Great Lakes  Levels Study (Preliminary
    Report), U. S. Department  of  the  interior,  Federal Water Pollution
    Control Administration, Chicago,  Illinois.

II.  Municipal Water Facilities -  1963  Inventory - Region V, U. S. Department
    of  Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service (1964).

12.  Planning Status Report - Water Resource Appraisals for Hydroelectric
    Licensing  (6  parts), Federal  Power Commission, Bureau of Power

13.  Principal Electric Facilities, Great Lakes  Region (map), Federal  Power
    Commission, Bureau of Power (1965).

14.  Tabulation of  Scheduled or Planned Changes  in  Installed Generating
    Capacity  (memorandum), Federal Power Commission, Bureau of Power
     (July 7,  1967).

15.  Nuclear Installations in the Great Lakes and Illinois River Watersheds.,
     U. S. Department of the Interior,  Federal  Water Pollution Control
     Administration (unpublished).

16.  Fish and Wildlife as Related to Water Quality of the Lake Michigan
     Basin,, U.  S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service
     (March, 1966).

17.  Biological   Investigations, Special  Report Number LM4, Great Lakes-
     Illinois River Basins Project; April  1963,   Presented as an Exhibit
     in the Supreme Court Hearings on Diversion  at Chicago.

18.  Water Quality Investigations, Lake Michigan Basin - Biology;  Federal
     Water Pollution Control  Administration,  Great Lakes Region, Chicago,
     Illinois (January, 1968).

19.  Water Pollution Problems of the Great Lakes Area, Federal  Water
     Pollution  Control Administration,  Great  Lakes Region, Chicago,
     Illinois (September, 1966).

20.  Ownbey, C.  R., and Willeke, G. E.,  Long-Term Solids Buildup In  Lake
     Michigan Water.  Proceedings, Eighth  Conference on Great Lakes  Research,
     Great Lakes Research Division, the University of Michigan (1965).

21.  Report on  Pollution of the Waters of  the Grand Ca i umet River,,  Little
     Calumet River, Calumet River, Lake Michigan, Wolf Lake and their
     tributaries, Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration (February,

22.  A Comprehensive Water Pollution Controi  Program, Lake Michigan  Basin,
     Milwaukee  Area.  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     (June, 1966).

23.  A Comprehensive Water Pollution Control  Program, Lake Michigan  Basin,
     Green Bay  Area, Federal  Water Pollution  Control  Administration  (June,

24.  Eisenbud,  M., Environmental Radioactivity,  McGraw-Hill, New York,
     p. 195 (1963).

25.  Pollution  of Navigable Waters of the  U.  S.  by Wastes from Watercraft,
     submitted  to the Congress on June 30, 1967, FWPCA

                               TO           LIST
       The following papers were presented  by  the  identified staff
members of the Federal Water Pollution  Control  Administration at the
conference on pollution of Lake Michigan  and  Its tributary basin,
Chicago, Illinois, January 3!,  1968:

26.  Bartsch, A. F., Statement on  Eutrophication Conditions in Lake
     Mi ch igan.

27.  Baumgartner, Donald J.„ Statement  on Currents  in  Lake Michigan.

28.  Weinberger, Leon W., Waste Treatment for  Phosphorus Removal.

       The following report containing  relevant information has been
published subsequent to the conference:

29.  Water Quality Investigations,  Lake Michigan Basin - Physical
     and Chemical Quality Conditions; U.  S. Department of the Interior,
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Great Lakes
     Region, Chicago, Illinois, January 1968.
                                  74      *U.S.Government Printing Office: 1971 — 750-652