Clean Water
 for America

Clean Water
 for America
CWA-9 '

ON May  10,  1966, the Federal Water
Pollution  Control  Administration was
established in the Department of the In-
terior, Washington,  D.C. The establish-
ment  of this  new  front-line  Federal
Agency represents the  increasing deter-
mination of the people  of  the United
States that the growth  of  population,
cities, industry, agriculture,  and recrea-
tion in this country shall never  be in-
hibited by a shortage of clean water.
To accomplish this  formidable  task will
require the services of a great number of
talented  professionals  in many  fields.
The professionals  employed  by the Ad-
ministration include:
            soil scientists
         planning specialists
          electronics experts
       computer and machine-
          tabulating experts
           technical  writers
        information  specialists
           statistical clerks

If you are skilled in any  of these fields
you will have  the  opportunity  to  play
a  part  in  combating one of the most
pressing social and economic evils of our
time  the spread of  water pollution
throughout the country.
You will  be entering  a relatively  new
field which is expanding at an astonish-
ing rate.
You will be entering an area which  will
afford you the opportunity to work in
your specialized discipline as part  of  a
team  seeking to solve this  many-faceted
national problem.
The diversity of talents needed illustrates
the realization  that no single group of
people and no  single method of abating
water pollution will suffice.
These are new realizations, based on new
conditions. Until recently, there seemed
to be plenty  of clean water  throughout
most of the country for all purposes, but
many  things have  occurred to destroy
this happy condition.
Since  1900 our population has tripled.
Our cities and metropolitan areas have
so spread out that  the boundary of  one
metropolitan area impinges on the out-
skirts of another; waste outfalls and  wa-
ter intakes have become uncomfortably
Total water use has increased eightfold,
from  40 billion to 325  billion gallons  a
day.  In our homes are multiple baths,
garbage grinders,  home laundry  units,
dishwashers, and more people using more
water in more  ways than ever before.

 A  fantastic growth in industry has in-
 creased  the amount and  complexity of
 the wastes going into our streams.  In
 some  instances,  treated effluents today
 have polluting  effects  greater than  the
 raw sewage discharges of  30 years ago.

 By using synthetic fertilizers and pesti-
 cides,  the farmer contributes greatly to
 the complexity of our water pollution

 The net result is that nearly six times as
 much  wastes  are contributed  to  our
 rivers, streams, lakes,  and  bays as there
 was 60 years ago.

 Even if, by some miracle,  all communi-
 ties and industries installed  tomorrow the
 best treatment we have  so-called  sec-
 ondary treatment  we would still need
 to  develop  revolutionary   processes  to
 cope with the  amounts and kinds of
 wastes that are  spoiling our rivers.

 Recreation-minded   Americans,  with
 more leisure time and increased income,
use the Nation's shorelines, streams, lakes,
 and rivers for swimming, fishing, water-
 skiing, ad pleasure boating. Because of
 pollution, the  number of areas in which
 to pursue these sports is decreasing, and
 at least one aquatic sport  boating  is
 contributing measurably to pollution.

The Federal program that has been de-
veloped to control water pollution con-
sists of six main elements.

cities are spending an average of $700
million  annually on new,  enlarged,  or

modernized treatment  plants.  To help,
the  Federal  Government  can   make
grants to communities of at least 30 per-
cent of the construction cost of a project.
And under certain  conditions, the Fed-
eral share may be as much as 55 percent.

Legislation passed in 1965 also provides
$80 million to be spent over a four-year
period  to find ways of combating pollu-
tion from  stormwater that  overflows.
carrying with it the wastes from streets
and sanitary sewers.

These programs offer sanitary, civil, and
construction  engineers  the opportunity
to  review requests for  Federal  grants
that will  help  to construct, enlarge, or
modernize the waste  treatment plants
so  desperately  needed  throughout  the

ENFORCEMENT. Because water respects
no  political boundaries,  Federal  law
enforcement is  necessary.  A poor neigh-
bor upstream can pollute and  contami-
nate a  river miles  below. If  pollution
from one State endangers the health or
welfare of people in another  State, the
Federal  Government  must initiate  en-
forcement action either upon  State re-
quest or, in the absence of it, on its own
responsibility.  Any Governor  can re-
quest Federal enforcement assistance to
deal with pollution problems which are
completely within one  State. Federal en-
forcement actions  have  now  involved
more than  7,500 miles of rivers,  1,200
municipalities and  a like number of in-

This Federal  enforcement program  re-
quires bacteriologists, biologists, chem-
ists,  hydrologists,  sanitary  engineers,
limnologists,  and  numerous  other ex-
perts who can document the evidences
of  pollution, identify  the  types and
locate  the sources.  It  also  requires
specialists with legal background to pre-
pare and present the evidence necessary
to  enforce the  laws against pollution
and against infractions of water stand-
ards criteria.

RESEARCH. To find out what pollutants
are dangerous, how they can be kept out
of our waterways,  and how  to remove
them once they are in, much more re-
search is needed.  Federal scientists are
even studying ways of renovating waste
water, of transforming it into pure clean
water again.

The program offers scientists the oppor-
tunity to do vital research in other chal-
lenging areas:
 Abating pollution  caused  by  acid
mine drainage.
 Controlling pollution caused by irri-
gation return flows.
 Controlling pollution from  storm and
combined  sewer discharges.
 Retarding or reversing the premature
aging of  our  lakes, arising from over-
fertilization by man-made  wastes.
 Preventing ground  water  pollution
caused by  the intrusion of  salt water.
Skilled  sanitary  engineers,   chemists,
biologists,  bacteriologists,  hydrologists,

geologists, algologists, oceanographers,
limnologists, soil  scientists,  epidemiol-
ogists and toxicologists are particularly
needed  in these research areas.

Water uses and  water pollution  prob-
lems vary among  different river basins.
This factor makes it necessary to develop
comprehensive  programs for each river
basin.   In nine major river basins  the
Administration has established  projects
that are seeking to preserve water quality
there not only for the present but for
years to come.

To  the  administrator,  the  planner,  the
economist,  and  the  computer expert,
this river basin  program offers work in
the complex science of water  manage-
ment, in the construction of mathemat-
ical models that can determine the best
approaches for  curbing water  pollution
over entire river basins, and in the use
of the latest methods of data collection
and retrieval.

ARDS.  This action makes it possible for
municipalities, industries, and other users
of water to know what their responsibil-
ities are for keeping clean waters  clean,
and for restoring polluted waters to a rea-
sonable degree of  purity.  Standards are
set by the Federal  Government only af-
ter the affected State or States have failed
to establish them,  and after they and all
other affected interests have had full op-
portunity to be heard.  When municipal,
industrial, or other wastes reduce the
quality  of water  below  the   adopted

standards, the Federal Government can
enforce the  abatement  of such  waste

This is a new program for the Federal
Water Pollution Control Administration.
To conduct it properly, the Administra-
tion will need  scientific and legal per-
sonnel,  preferably   expert  in  water

hundreds  of communities,  industries,
State, and  interstate agencies call upon
Federal scientists to provide them  with
technical assistance to prevent  or abate
pollution. To meet  these demands, the
scientists engage in a wide variety of ac-
tivities, ranging from solving complicated
problems required for cleaning up  tide-
water estuaries to determining the cause
of widespread fish kills.

The  growing number  of  requests  must
be  matched  by a growing number of
sanitary engineers and others skilled in
pure and applied science.

In sum, the number and variety of Fed-
eral activities for abating water pollution
hold great promise for the skilled man or
woman who is seeking room to grow pro-
fessionally,  to expand his  vision,  and to
serve the public.

To each qualified individual,  the  pro-
grams offer, in addition, the opportunity
of being stationed in almost any area he
desires:  In  laboratories located on  or
near college campuses  in Massachusetts,
Alaska, Georgia, Michigan, Maryland,

Oklahoma, Oregon, Minnesota, Rhode
Island, Ohio, Missouri,  Mississippi, and
Wisconsin; in research offices and head-
quarters  of  planning  projects in  25
States; and in the Administration's na-
tional headquarters, Washington, B.C.

The original surge  in the  Federal  pro--
gram for abating water pollution  took
place from 1955  to  1965.  During that
period, the operating budget increased
from less than $1 million to $140 million;
staff increased from 100 to 1,600.  With
the establishment of the new Administra-
tion, future increases are likely to be of
the same magnitude.  The  opportunities
for promotion  and  worthwhile careers
are obvious.

How TO APPLY.  Initially, you will need
to  submit  a completely filled  out Ap-
plication   for   Federal  Employment,
Standard Form 170.  If immediate open-
ings exist for which your specific experi-
ence  and training are appropriate, you
will be requested to complete a Person-
al  Qualifications  Statement, Standard
Form 171.  In  addition,  if  you  have
not already obtained an  eligible rating
from an appropriate Interagency Board
of  U.S.  Civil Service  Examiners you
will be requested to complete Form CSC
226  (or submit  complete  college tran-
scripts)  and card form CSC 5001.
The  majority of career positions in the
FWCPA and other Federal agencies are
filled by applicants successfully rated and
certified by the U.S.  Civil  Service Com-
mission  through its competitive  merit
examination procedure. This  rating of

eligibility is based on  an evaluation  of
your total experience and education and
does not, in most cases, require a written

There are several ways for you to apply
to FWPCA and have your application
papers rated by the correct board of ex-
aminers.  If you  already have a Civil
Service  announcement  describing  the
type of  position for which you intend to
apply, you will find in it directions for
sending your  application to the board
of examiners.

You may  obtain  announcements  and
forms from any Civil Service  office  or
first- or second-class post office.  If you
wish, you may write, enclosing your ap-
plication papers, to any one of  our FW-
PCA regional offices, field laboratories or
installations, or to our Washington, D.C.
headquarters at the address below.  You
may also write to that address for forms,
a directory of FWPCA regional offices
and field installations, and further details
regarding our career opportunities.   If
you ask an FWPCA  office to forward
your application to a board of examiners,
it will be helpful to enclose an  extra ap-
plication for us to review while this is
being done.   However you decide  to
apply,  you should notify  the  FWPCA
immediately upon  receiving an eligible

Department of the  Interior, FWPCA,
Division of Personnel  Management,
Washington, D.C., 20242.

FWPCA BENEFITS.  Equal employment,
promotion,  and  training  opportunity
without regard to race, creed, color, sex,
or national origin.

Challenging  work  of national  impor-
Paid travel and transportation of house-
hold effects for appointee and depend-
ents to first duty station  for most  tech-
nical positions.

From  2/2- to 5-weeks annual vacation.
Thirteen days  paid  sick  leave annually
with unlimited accumulation of unused
sick leave.
Eight  paid holidays  each year.

Outstanding Federal retirement plan.

Low-cost group life insurance and health
insurance plans, with the  Government
sharing costs.

Cash awards for adopted suggestions or
superior work performances; extra salary
increases for  outstanding performance.

Compensation for job-connected injuries.
Positive job protection if you are called
into military  service.

Job stability.
Opportunity for college study with full
or part-time educational assistance (FW-
PCA installations are located at or very
near 64 colleges and universities through-
out the U.S.).

Periodic salary  increases  within  each
grade  level.

Planned training program  includes  6
months or more on-the-job training, lec-
tures, seminars, and field training assign-

   As  the  Nation's  principal   conservation
agency,  the Department of the  Interior has
basic responsibilities for water, fish, wildlife,
mineral, land, park, and recreational resources,
Indian  and Territorial affairs are other major
concerns of America's "Department of Natural

The Department works  to  assure the  wisest
choice  in managing all our resources so each
will make  its full  contribution  to a  better
United  States  now and in the  future.

* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING  OFFICE : 1969 O - 359-516