Transport  Partnership

Overview  of Carrier  Strategies
                 Truck and mil transportation provides a cost-effective means to transport much of
                 America's freight. There are simple actions that can be taken to make ground freight
                 more  efficient and cleaner for the  environment. The following  technologies  and
                 practices can help truck carriers save fuel and money, reduce air pollution, and cut
                 carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to climate change.
     Idle Reduction

     An idling truck burns nearly one gallon of diesel fuel
     per hour. Reducing unnecessary idling could save nearly
     $3,000 in fuel costs, cut air pollutants, and cut 19 metric
     tons of carbon dioxide annually.

          On-board idle reduction systems include auxiliary
          power units that provide electricity to the cab,
          direct-fired heaters and coolant systems that
          provide temperature control, and programmable
          automatic engine shut-off systems.
          Truck plazas equipped with truck stop
          electrification systems allow trucks to draw
          electrical power and in some cases heating,
          cooling, telecommunication, and Internet
          hookups from a ground source.

     Improved Aerodynamics

     Improving the aerodynamics of a typical line-haul truck
     by 15 percent could cut annual fuel use more than 2,000
     gallons, save over $3,500 in fuel costs, and eliminate 20
     metric tons of carbon dioxide.

          Tractor aerodynamics can be improved by adding
          integrated  roof fairings, cab extenders, side
          fairings, and air dams. New truck buyers can
          purchase aerodynamic models with streamlined
          Trailer aerodynamics can be improved by
          minimizing tractor-trailer gap, adding side skirts
          and rear air dams, and arranging cargo and
          tarpaulins as low, taut and smooth as possible.
          Single-unit trucks can be improved with
          air deflector bubbles or by purchasing new
          streamlined models.
     Improved  Freight Logistics

     Improved logistics can reduce the miles that a truck
     drives empty. Eliminating 15 percent of a line-haul
     truck's empty mites could save $3,000 in fuel and
     reduce 24 metric tons of carbon dioxide annually.

          Improved logistics include load matching, more
          efficient routes and delivery schedules, and
          improved shipping and receiving practices.
          A carrier may employ low-cost options like
          triangular routing, coordinating loads with other
          fleets, and checking electronic load boards, or
          it may purchase freight broker services and
          logistics software.
           Automatic Tire Inflation Systems

           Retrofitting a line-haul truck with an automatic
           tire inflation system could save 100 gallons of fuel
           annually and reduce tire wear and maintenance, while
           eliminating one metric ton of carbon dioxide.

                Truck fleets that find it too difficult or expensive
                to monitor tire pressure on a regular basis should
                consider installing automatic tire inflation (ATI)
                systems on drive and trailer tires.
                An ATI system used on a typical line-haul truck
                can generally pay for itself in just over two years,
                while decreasing the risk of expensive tire failure
                caused by under inflation.

           Single Wide-base Tires
                   i single wide-base tires on a new combination
           truck could save $1,000 immediately and reap annual
           fuel savings of two percent or more while cutting
           carbon dioxide by more than four metric tons.

                Single wide-base tires save fuel  by reducing
                vehicle weight, rolling resistance and
                aerodynamic drag. These tires can also improve
                tank trailer stability by allowing the tank to be
                mounted lower.
                There are several single wide-base tire models
                from which to choose and these tires can be
           Driver Training

           Even highly experienced drivers can boost their skills
           with training aimed at raising fuel economy by five
           percent or more, which would save $1,200 in annual
           fuel costs and cut eight metric tons of carbon dioxide.

                Effective driver training programs can  improve
                fuel economy by five percent or higher. Some
                fleets report fuel economy gains of up  to 20
                Among other techniques, drivers learn
                progressive shifting, engine speed optimization,
                idle  reduction, smoother braking and
                acceleration, anticipatory driving, speed control,
                and  optimal gearing.
                                                              February 2004  EPA420F04003 www.epa.gov/smartway

Low-Viscosity Lubricants
Reducing Highway Speed
When used in a line-haul truck, synthetic engine and
drive train lubricants can improve fuel economy by three
percent, saving nearly 500 gallons of fuel and cutting
five metric tons of carbon dioxide annually.

      Low-viscosity synthetic or semi-synthetic
      lubricants flow more easily and withstand the
      extreme pressure  of engine, transmission, and
      drive train systems better than conventional
      mineral oil blends.
      The operator of a  typical line-haul truck can save
      up to $500 annually by switching to low-viscosity
      lubricants, with additional savings possible due to
      reduced wear and  maintenance of truck systems.
Intermodal Shipping

Intermodal freight transport combines the best
attributes of both truck and rait shipping. Over long
distances using intermodat can cut fuel and carbon
dioxide by 65 percent, compared to truck-only moves.

      Carriers can maximize resources by using freight
      trains to handle the long-distance portion of a
      freight move, especially for less time-sensitive
      cargo that is shipped over 500 miles.
      Intermodal options include trailer on flat car
      (TOFG, container on flat car (COFC), double stack
      service, rail bogeys and dual-mode trailers, and rail
      platforms that can accommodate standard trailers.
A line-haul truck with 90 percent highu/ay miles that
reduces its top speed from 70 to 65 miles per hour could
cut its annual fuel bill nearly $1,500 while eliminating
almost 10 metric tons of carbon dioxide.

      Reducing highway speed also reduces engine
      and brake wear, which cuts down the cost and
      frequency of maintenance service, and keeps
      revenue earning equipment on the road longer.
      Any truck carrier can adopt a speed  management
      policy at little  or no  cost. The most successful
      speed reduction policies combine electronic
      engine controls with driver training and incentives.
Weight Reduction

Reducing 3,000 pounds from a line-haul truck by using
lighter-weight components could save up to 500 gallons
of fuel annually and eliminate up to five metric tons of
carbon dioxide.

      Aluminum alloy wheels, axle hubs, clutch housings,
      and cab frame can trim hundreds of pounds from
      a truck tractor. Downsizing to a smaller engine can
      also provide significant weight savings.
      Thousands of pounds can be reduced from a truck
      trailer using aluminum roof posts, floor joists,
      upright posts, and hubs and wheels.
Hybrid Powertrain Technology

Hybrid vehicles can provide roughly $2,000 in fuel
savings and cut carbon dioxide by up to 12 metric tons
per year when used in stop-and-go freight applications
tike parcel delivery service.

      Hybrid vehicles have two propulsion power sources,
      making it possible to capture energy otherwise
      lost during braking and provide boost to the main
      engine which in turn can run more efficiently.
      Most hybrid vehicles use an internal combustion
      engine for the main power source with
      various secondary power and energy storage
      configurations, including electric and hydraulic
                                                            February 2004  EPA420F04003  www.epa.gov/smartway