United States
            Environmental Protection
            Agency
             Air and Radiation
             6202J
EPA 430-B-96-030
June 1996
oEPA
Opportunities for Landfill
Gas Energy Recovery in
Washington
Draft Profiles of Candidate Landfills
and Current Projects
   LANDFILL
   OUTRtAjCH

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        Opportunities for
Landfill Gas Energy Recovery in
           Washington
 Draft Profiles of Candidate Landfills
       and Current Projects
            Prepared for:

Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

            Prepared by:

          ICF Incorporated
     Under Contract Number 68-D4-0088
             June 1996

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section                                                                         Page
PREFACE
ACRONYMS AND TERMS
1.     Introduction  	1-1
       1.1    Purpose 	1-1
       1.2    Summary of State Landfill Profiles	1-2
       1.3    Background Information	1-2
             1.3.1   Landfill Gas Generation	1-2
             1.3.2   Landfill Gas Collection	1-3
             1.3.3   Landfill Gas Utilization	1-3
       1.4    Benefits 	1-6
             1.4.1   General Benefits  	1-6
             1.4.2   Benefits to Specific Groups	1-7
       1.5    Opportunities for Project Participants  	1-10
       1.6    References	1-11
2.     Instructions for Evaluating Landfill Profiles	2-1
       2.1    Landfill Location and Status	2-1
       2.2    Waste Collection Information	2-2
       2.3    Gas Collection and Control Data	2-5
       2.4    Gas Utilization Data	2-6
       2.5    Site Potential  	2-7
       2.6    Environmental Benefits of Utilization	2-13
       2.7    Contact Information  	2-17
       2.8    Comment Field	2-17
       2.9    References	2-18
3.     Data Collection Methods and Evaluation Processes	3-1
       3.1    Methodology Used to Collect Data from State and Local Agencies	3-1
       3.2    National Databases Used to Complete Profiles  	3-1
       3.3    Data Interpretation Issues 	3-5
       3.4    Landfill Candidacy Screening Process 	3-5
       3.5    References	3-8

                                Working Draft - June 1996

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                   TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

Section                                                                 Page
4.     Profiles of Candidate Landfills	4-1
5.     Profiles of Current Projects  	5-1
6.     Index of Landfill Profiles	6-1
                            Working Draft -- June 1996

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                                     PREFACE
                  EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program

       The EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program, a key component of President Clinton's
Climate Change Action Plan, encourages the use of landfill gas (LFG) as an energy resource.
EPA assists utilities, municipal and private landfill owners and operators, tribes, and state
agencies in reducing methane emissions from landfills through the development of profitable
landfill energy recovery projects. Methane captured from landfills can be transformed into a
cost-effective fuel source for electricity, heat, boiler and vehicular fuel, or sale to a pipeline. The
goals of the Program are to promote cost-effective projects at U.S. landfills and remove barriers
to their development.   There are currently about 130 landfill methane recovery projects in the
U.S., although EPA estimates that up to 750 landfills could install economically viable landfill
energy projects  by the  year 2000.

       The Landfill Methane Outreach Program includes three important components:  the
State Ally, Utility Ally, and Industry Ally programs. EPA establishes separate alliances with
state agencies, utilities (including investor-owned, municipal and other public power utilities and
cooperatives), and members of the landfill gas development community (including developers,
engineers, equipment vendors, and others) through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
By signing the MOU, each Ally acknowledges a shared commitment to the promotion of landfill
gas-to-energy recovery at solid waste landfills, recognizes that the widespread use of landfill gas
will reduce emissions of methane and other emissions, and commits to certain activities to
enhance development  of this resource.  In return, EPA agrees to provide landfill gas-to-energy
project assistance and  public recognition of the Allies' participation in the program.
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                          ACRONYMS AND TERMS
Acronym

Btu
cf
CH4
C02
CRER
DOE
EPA
GW
GWh/yr
GWP
hr
1C
IRS
kW
kWh
LFG
LMOP
m3
mmBtu
mmcf/d
mmcf/yr
MOU
MSW
MW
NA
NARUC
NOx
PUC
REPI
RFP
SO2
VOCs
WIP
yd3
yr
Term

british thermal unit
cubic feet
methane
carbon dioxide
Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
gigawatt (1 billion watts)
gigawatt hours/year
Global Warming Potential
hour
internal combustion
Internal Revenue Service
kilowatt (1,000 watts)
kilowatt hour
landfill gas
Landfill Methane Outreach Program
cubic meters
million Btu
million cubic feet per day
million cubic feet per year
Memorandum of Understanding
municipal solid waste
megawatt (1 million watts)
not available
National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
nitrogen oxides
Public Utility Commission
Renewable Energy Production Incentive
request for proposals
sulfur dioxide
volatile organic compounds
waste-in-place
cubic  yards
year
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                                   1.   Introduction
1.1    Purpose

       In the United States there are over 130 fully operational landfill gas energy recovery
projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that up to 750 economic
landfill gas energy recovery projects could be developed; these potential projects are
constrained by informational, regulatory, and other barriers. Through the Landfill Methane
Outreach Program (LMOP), EPA is working to remove these barriers and encourage the
environmentally and economically beneficial development of landfill gas-to-energy projects. The
LMOP encourages the economic use of landfill gas generated by waste deposited in landfills
over the last few decades and from waste that continues to be deposited after implementation of
source reduction and reuse-recycling practices.1 A key component of the LMOP is to provide
landfill owners and operators, developers of landfill gas-to-energy projects, utilities, and other
potential project participants with information on landfills that may offer attractive energy
development opportunities. EPA has developed a series of documents that identify and profile
landfills in each of the following 31 states: Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida,
Georgia, Illinois,  Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts,
Minnesota, Missouri,  Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and
Wisconsin.

       This document in the first step in identifying and profiling landfills in  Washington that are
candidates for landfill gas-to-energy recovery projects. Candidate landfills  have been chosen
based on specific criteria (see Chapter 3). This document also contains profiles of current
landfill gas recovery and utilization projects, as well as a list of landfills for which the data
gathering efforts  are still in progress ("profiles in progress"). Existing landfill projects have been
included to illustrate the  wide range of successful project development options, and  also
because they may have  considerable potential for expansion. Landfills for which EPA has
incomplete information have been included because many of these landfills are likely to be
candidates for the development of energy recovery projects; ongoing research efforts conducted
by EPA in cooperation with relevant state agencies will clarify the status of  these landfills.

       This document is a first step in determining the potential for developing landfill gas
recovery projects and can also serve to address informational barriers by providing details about
specific candidate landfills  to organizations that may be interested in the development of such
projects. It does not,  however, include a detailed technical and economic analysis of each site,
a critical step in determining whether the development of a landfill gas-to-energy recovery
project at a particular site is feasible.

       Profiles are available from EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach Program, Atmospheric
Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Air and Radiation. For information call 1-888-STAR-YES
(782-7937).
   1 This is consistent with the principles of EPA's integrated waste management hierarchy, which places
landfilling of waste after source reduction and reuse/recycling.
Introduction                        Working Draft -- June 1996                          Page 1-1

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1.2    Summary of State Landfill Profiles

       Chapter 4 of this report contains profiles of landfills that are potential candidates for
energy recovery projects and Chapter 5 contains profiles of landfills with projects in place.  The
preliminary results of the evaluation of landfills in Washington are summarized below.

       In Washington, EPA has collected information on 5 landfills that currently have energy
recovery projects in place or in planning. EPA estimates that another 10 landfills have the
potential to support economically viable gas-to-energy recovery projects. Chapter 6 of this
report contains an index of landfills profiled, a list of profiles in progress and a list of additional
landfills that might be candidates for energy recovery projects in the future (dependent on their
continued operation).  The landfills in  this last group were selected based on their annual
acceptance rate and the amount of waste landfilled (i.e., landfills that have between 500,000 and
999,999 tons of waste landfilled and landfills with less than 500,000 tons of waste landfilled with
an annual acceptance rate greater than 75,000 tons).

       As discussed in Chapter 3 of this report, the data used to produce the landfill profiles
were assembled from state and local  sources as well as various national solid waste
publications.  Thus, the accuracy of information contained in this report depends upon the
accuracy of information contained in these sources and publications.  Some landfills may have
been missed during data collection efforts; their omission from this report does not automatically
exclude them as potential candidates for landfill gas recovery and utilization projects. EPA plans
to update these profiles periodically.  Please report any new information or corrections to the
LMOP hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES (782-7937).
1.3    Background Information

       This section provides general background information on landfill gas generation,
collection, and utilization. For more detailed information, a number of additional sources are
available, including Turning a Liability into an Asset: A Landfill Gas-to-Energy Handbook for
Landfill Owners and Operators (U.S. EPA, 1994) and Opportunities to Reduce Anthropogenic
Methane Emissions in the United States: Report to Congress (EPA 430-R-93-012).

1.3.1  Landfill Gas Generation

       Landfill gas is produced through the natural process of anaerobic (i.e., without oxygen)
decomposition of organic wastes.  Typically, landfill gas is composed of about 50 percent
methane, 45 percent carbon dioxide, and 5 percent of other gases including hydrogen sulfides
and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since methane is the primary constituent of natural
gas, landfill gas can be used as a fuel. Characteristics of the landfill gas, such as quantity of
methane per unit of landfill gas and amount of landfill gas generated per unit of waste, are a
function of  the quantity arid type of waste-in-place, climate, and several other site-specific
factors.

       Landfill gas generation is thought to begin from six months to two years after waste is
placed in a landfill. Gas generation rates vary depending on moisture content and other site-
specific factors.  Generally, the generation rate will increase until landfill (or cell) closure, when
Page 1-2                         Working Draft -- June 1996                       Introduction

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it will decline relatively rapidly. However, the gas profile for an individual landfill may vary
considerably from this trajectory; for example, landfill gas generation may continue at a
significantly higher rate than expected for many years after landfill closure depending on site
conditions.

       A first order decay model is often used to predict landfill gas generation, following the
profile described above.  However, a simpler model was used for the profiles contained  in this
report. This model assumes a constant rate of landfill gas generation, unlike the first order
decay model which accounts for changing gas generation over the life of the landfill. Therefore,
it may predict a lower or higher gas generation rate than the first order decay model (depending
on the age of the landfill). The model used is explained in greater detail in Chapter 2 of  this
report.

1.3.2  Landfill Gas Collection

       Landfill gas can be collected using a relatively simple system of vertical wells drilled into
the landfill at selected points. Well spacing depends on site-specific variables, but typically
ranges from 150 to 300 feet. Horizontal trenches can also be used in place of, or in addition to,
vertical wells. Horizontal trenches tend to be less durable than vertical wells because refuse
added to the top of the trenches can weaken the pipes and cause breakage. All of the wells (or
trenches) are connected  by horizontal piping to a central point  where a motor/blower provides a
vacuum to  remove the gas from the landfill.  In an effectively designed and constructed system,
methane recovery efficiencies in excess of 85 percent can be achieved (Maxwell, 1990).

       Collection systems are usually operated as part of an overall landfill gas control system.
In many cases, a collection system is necessary because of the potential  safety hazard  posed
by the explosive potential of landfill gas, as well as to suppress landfill  gas odors. Accidents
involving landfill gas have resulted in explosions and landfill fires that have caused death, injury,
and extensive property damage.

1.3.3  Landfill Gas Utilization

       Once collected, landfill gas can be used as an energy source for many different
applications, including electricity generation, space heating and cooling, industrial processes,
and vehicle fuels.  In addition, landfill gas can simply be flared  when a  cost-effective utilization
option cannot be developed. Exhibit  1-1  illustrates various landfill gas-to-energy recovery
systems. In each of these options, the methane contained in the recovered landfill gas is
consumed, either through combustion (i.e., use as a fuel, including upgrading to pipeline quality
gas and flaring) or conversion to a non-greenhouse gas (i.e., production of industrial chemicals),
thereby reducing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. Moreover, using landfill gas to
generate electricity can displace other fossil fuel use, thereby further reducing carbon dioxide
emissions,  as well as reduce emissions of local air pollutants.

       As mentioned previously, there are over 130 fully operational landfill gas recovery and
utilization projects in the U.S., with over 90 additional projects under development (GAA, 1994).
Landfill gas-to-energy projects have established a track record that demonstrates the reliability
and economic viability of  landfill gas recovery and utilization technology. Electric power
generation  is the most common gas utilization method for landfill gas recovery projects.  In fact,
more than 70 percent of the planned or operational landfill energy projects generate electricity,
while about 24 percent sell medium-Btu gas to a direct user, and 4 percent upgrade
Introduction                       Working Draft -- June 1996                          Page 1-3

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                                     Exhibit 1-1
                         SCHEMATIC OF VARIOUS LANDFILL
                       GAS-TO-ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS
                                GASENGINE&
                                ALTERNATOR
             DISTRICT
                                BOILER
their gas to pipeline quality (Thomeloe, 1995). The electricity generating capacity of landfill gas
projects typically ranges between 0.5 and 4 megawatts (MW), with the largest operational facility
generating almost 50 MW. Total U.S. operational capacity fired by landfill gas is roughly 400
MW, with an additional 245 MW of capacity planned or under construction.

      The following is a brief summary of landfill methane utilization options. Fror more
information on these technologies and their costs, see EPA's Turning a Liability into an Asset: A
Landfill Gas-to-Energy Handbook for Owners and Operators (U.S. EPA, 1994).
Page 1 -4
Working Draft -- June 1996
Introduction

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       Electricity Generation

       For landfills that generate significant amounts of landfill gas (i.e., more than 1.3 million
cubic feet per day), electric power generation can be a cost-effective method of utilization.
Several proven technologies can be used to generate electricity from landfill gas.

       Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (1C). These engines have proven to
       be cost-effective in many applications, and, in the case of small landfills, may be
       the only available, proven generating option. 1C engines are currently in use at
       about 73 sites (Thorneloe, 1995), with typical engine sizes ranging from 250
       kilowatts (kW) to 1 MW in size (more than one engine can be installed at a single
       site, and a typical project's total generating capacity is 3 to 4 MW). The three
       primary manufacturers of these engines have modified their designs and
       operating procedures to make the engines "landfill-gas-adapted."

       Gas Turbines.  Gas turbines have higher capital costs than 1C engines per
       kilowatt of installed capacity, but at larger landfills they have a lower cost of
       electricity (i.e., 0/kWh). Turbines require a reliable gas flow of approximately 2
       million cubic feet per day (mmcf/d) in order to be economically feasible, which
       corresponds to a generating capacity of at least 3 to 4 MW. Although they
       require higher gas flows, gas turbines have a number of advantages over 1C
       engines.  Because of the large quantities of excess air, NOX emissions are
       considerably lower than from 1C engines.  In addition, gas turbines have
       continuous combustion which better adjusts to fluctuations in heat values of the
       landfill gas fuel.  Furthermore,  the alloys used in turbines tend to be more
       resistant to corrosion  from impurities within the gas supply.  There are about 26
       landfill gas projects in the U.S. using gas turbines (Thorneloe,  1995).

       Rankine Cycle (Steam) Turbines. In rare cases where gas flow rates are
       extremely  high, a rankine cycle turbine may be used. If the scale of the operation
       will support a rankine cycle turbine,  high electrical efficiencies can be achieved
       with lower emissions of air pollutants and lower costs per kWh of output.  Steam
       turbines also produce large  amounts of high temperature water that can be easily
       utilized for thermal co-generation activities. The smallest facilities usually
       generate at least 8 to 9 MW of power. Currently, rankine cycle turbines are only
       used at a handful of landfills in the U.S., the largest being a 47 MW facility at
       Puente Hills, California.

       Gas Delivery Systems

       Gas processing and delivery systems process  landfill gas so it can be sold as a gaseous
fuel. The fuel can be delivered directly to a customer via dedicated pipes or to the natural gas
pipeline network.  The two main  options include:

       Sale as a Medium-Btu Fuel. Landfill gas can be used for a variety of industrial
       and commercial applications, such as firing boilers and space heating, and can
       also be co-fired with other fuels. Medium-Btu gas can be economically
       transported via dedicated pipelines to one or more industrial facilities. An ideal
       medium-Btu gas customer is located within 5 miles of the landfill and has
       constant demand for gas.
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       Sale as a High-Btu Fuel.  Landfill gas can be upgraded to a high-Btu fuel and sold
       directly to natural gas companies. The cost to upgrade the gas to pipeline quality
       is generally very high, as the process involves the removal of water, carbon
       dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrocarbons, and on some occasions,
       nitrogen.  In addition, sale as a high-Btu fuel to a pipeline usually requires that a
       natural gas pipeline be located within close proximity of the site.

       Emerging Utilization Options

       Other less conventional utilization options for landfill gas are also available or may soon
become available.  Some of these options, such as fuel cells, are currently in the demonstration
phase to determine their operational and economic viability.  Other options, such as the use of
landfill gas to produce alternative vehicle fuels are underway at several landfills.  Recently, a
small number of landfills have used recovered gas to incinerate soil contaminated with
hazardous waste (GAA, 1994).

1.4    Benefits

       This section discusses the many benefits of recovering energy from landfill gas. Section
1.4.1 discusses general benefits of landfill gas-to-energy recovery projects and Section 1.4.2
discusses benefits realized by specific groups.

1.4.1  General Benefits

       Recovery of energy from landfill gas conveys many important global and local
environmental benefits as well as energy and economic benefits. For example, landfill gas-to-
energy improves the global environment by reducing methane emissions, and provides local
environmental benefits by reducing VOC emissions, as well as displacing other pollutants
associated with fossil fuel use. In addition, it provides a secure,  low-cost energy supply (an
energy supply that is currently wasted) that can reduce dependence on fossil fuels.  These
benefits are discussed in more detail below.

       Environmental Benefits

       Landfill gas projects provide both direct and indirect environmental benefits.  Direct
environmental benefits from utilizing landfill gas include: reducing VOC emissions; reducing risk
of global warming; and reducing  pungent decaying waste odor.  Landfill gas contains VOCs,
which contribute substantially to  ground-level ozone and include air toxics.  Without control
systems, these compounds are released to the atmosphere as waste decomposes. When
landfill gas is collected and burned through flaring or in an energy recovery system, VOCs are
destroyed. However, since energy recovery projects try to optimize gas recovery for the
economic  benefit, they minimize emissions to the atmosphere relative to flaring. Combusting
landfill gas also destroys methane, which is a principle greenhouse gas. Landfill gas is the
single largest source of methane emissions in the U.S., contributing almost 40 percent of annual
methane emissions. Because of methane's potency and its rapid cycling through the
atmosphere, reducing methane emissions is crucial in slowing global warming; a ton of methane
emitted into the atmosphere is 24.5 times more damaging than a ton of carbon dioxide, over a
100 year time frame (IPCC, 1994). Furthermore, landfill gas-to-energy recovery projects also
substantially reduce the odor of landfills.
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       The primary indirect environmental benefit of landfill gas-to-energy recovery projects is
the displacement of fossil fuels. Generating electricity from oil and coal leads to the emission of
several pollutants,  including sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is a major contributor to acid rain.  By
generating electricity from landfill gas, instead of fossil fuels, these emissions are avoided.
Moreover, displacing fossil fuels substantially reduces the production of ash and scrubber
sludge.

       Energy Benefits

       There are several energy benefits associated with utilizing landfill gas.  First, because
decomposing organic waste continuously produces landfill gas, landfill gas-to-energy recovery
projects are a nearly constant source of energy. For example, a landfill that has two million tons
of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) produces on average 1.8 mmcf/day of landfill gas and
can generate 2.5 MW of electricity. Second, landfill gas has a variety of applications such as
electricity generation and direct use.  Third, landfill energy projects add to a community's and
utility's fuel diversity, as well as provide valuable experience in renewable energy. Finally,
landfill projects can provide important distributive generation benefits typical of demand-side
management options; since electricity generated from landfill gas is typically directed to local
users, transmission losses from the point of generation to the point of consumption are
negligible.

       The value of landfill gas as an energy source has been recognized by the National
Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).  In March of 1994, NARUC adopted
a resolution "urging regulators to focus their regulatory attention on the landfill gas resources in
their states to determine the role that energy from landfill gas can play as an energy resource for
utilities and their customers."

       Economic Benefits

       Landfill gas provides a low-cost source of renewable energy.  In addition, more
widespread use of landfill gas as an energy source will create jobs related to the design,
construction, and operation and maintenance of these systems and lead to advancements in
U.S. environmental technology.

1.4.2  Benefits to Specific Groups

       Traditionally, landfill gas has been viewed as a safety hazard and a general  nuisance.
However, there is now an increasing awareness on the part of landfill owners and operators,
project developers,  utilities, state and local governments, and others, of the environmental,
energy, and economic benefits that can result from recovering the energy value of this gas.
Some of  the principle benefits for different groups and their potential roles in the development
process are highlighted below.

       Utilities

       There are many ways in which electric utilities can benefit from the development of
landfill gas-to-energy. Examples include:

       Stronger Relations With Key Customer Groups:  Landfill gas-to-energy recovery
       projects enable  utilities to enhance long-term relationships with a variety of
       customer groups. A utility can add significant value to their service
Introduction                       Working Draft--June 1996                          Page 1-7

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       offerings through direct or indirect involvement in landfill gas-to-energy
       development. Some innovative approaches a utility may wish to consider include
       participation in projects that directly supply landfill gas as a medium-Btu fuel to
       industrial or commercial end-users, offering project development assistance to a
       municipality, or initiating a residential or commercially-oriented green marketing
       program.

       Diversified Resource Base:  Landfill gas-to-energy projects offer utilities the
       opportunity to add dispersed base-load capacity to their current system and to
       diversify their fuel mix. They also offer a competitive source of renewable energy
       to utilities.

       Contribution to Environmental Protection:  By participating in landfill gas-to-
       energy projects, utilities help prevent local and global air pollution.  The EPA
       Landfill Methane Outreach Program recognizes utilities that work with EPA  to
       identify, explore, and act on the best project opportunities.  These utilities gain
       recognition from EPA as well as greenhouse gas reductions that satisfy Climate
       Challenge commitments.

       Landfill Owners and Operators

       Benefits of participating in landfill gas-to-energy recovery projects for landfill owners and
operators include:

       Revenue Creation/Reduction of Regulatory Costs:  Landfill gas projects may be a
       significant source of revenue generation for landfill owners/operators, depending
       on the size of the landfill, energy costs, and other site specific factors. Even
       where projects do not generate profits, they may  offset the cost of regulatory
       compliance.  EPA's New Source Performance Standards and Emission
       Guidelines were promulgated on April 12, 1996 and require many landfill owners
       and operators to collect and combust their landfill gas. States are already
       requiring collection and flaring of landfill gas. Utilizing the collected landfill gas as
       an energy resource, instead of flaring  it, will offer many owners and operators an
       opportunity to recover some of the regulatory costs, and may generate profit.

       Reduction of Risk:  Even in low concentrations, methane is explosive and can
       result in fires and explosions that can imperil both people and property.
       Regulations  promulgated under Subtitle D of the  Resource Conservation and
       Recovery Act require owners and operators of landfills to monitor their facilities
       for methane  levels to reduce the risk of landfill gas explosions.  If methane
       concentrations exceed specified limits, owners and operators are required to take
       necessary steps to ensure protection of human health. Landfill gas-to-energy
       recovery projects offer the opportunity to virtually eliminate the risk of injury and
       property damage by collecting and combusting landfill gas before it can
       accumulate to dangerous concentration levels within the landfill.

       Financial Incentives:  Developers of landfill gas-to-energy recovery projects may
       qualify for a number of financial incentives.  The Renewable Energy Production
       Incentive (REPI), mandated under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, provides  a cash
       subsidy of up to $0.015 per kWh to publicly owned facilities that generate
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       electricity from renewable energy sources, such as landfills, for the period
       October 1993 through September 2002. Also, developers of landfill gas-to-
       energy projects who sell to an unrelated third party may qualify for a tax credit
       under Section 29 of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax code. The credit is
       worth $3.00 per barrel of oil-equivalent (on a mmBtu basis) and is adjusted
       annually for inflation. Currently, the credit is worth $0.979 per mmBtu, about
       $0.012/kWh for a typical landfill gas electricity project.

       Industrial and Other End-Users

       Industrial and other potential landfill gas end-users can benefit from landfill gas-to-energy
recovery projects. Facilities with constant energy needs that are located near landfills can lower
their fuel costs, improve environmental quality, and enhance their public image by using landfill
gas in place of traditional fuels.

       Lower Fuel Costs: For industrial end-users, a nearby landfill that is collecting its
       landfill gas can be an inexpensive source of medium Btu fuel or steam.

       Environmental Benefits:  By using landfill gas, industrial end-users contribute to
       environmental protection by displacing local air emissions associated with fossil
       fuel use and  reducing emissions of methane.

       Public Image Enhancement: Through participation in the development of landfill
       energy recovery projects, industrial end-users can enhance their public image by
       mitigating the threat of global warming and contributing to  improvements in the
       local economy and environment.

       Municipalities/Communities

       Municipalities and local communities can also benefit from landfill gas-to-energy recovery
projects. Benefits include:

       Increased Tax Base: Municipalities or communities that have a landfill gas
       project in their area increase their tax base, as well as create new job
       opportunities.

       Attract New Industries:  A local energy source may attract new industry to the
       area.  For example, industrial producers that could use large quantities of
       medium Btu gas might want to locate a plant near the landfill since the landfill
       could provide a cheap source of energy.

       Reduction of Air Pollution Emissions and Odors: VOCs emitted from landfill
       waste decomposition can endanger human health, particularly for those who work
       on or live near landfills without a collection system.  Landfill gas recovery projects
       offer an opportunity to greatly reduce this health risk by collecting and destroying
       these harmful compounds before they escape into the atmosphere.  In addition,
       collection and combustion of landfill gas reduces noxious odors.
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1.5    Opportunities for Project Participants

       As mentioned above, there are numerous benefits from participating in a landfill gas-to-
energy project. For each potential project participant, a brief discussion of how to assess
opportunities is provided below.

       Utilities

       Utilities should assess how, in light of rapid restructuring in the energy industry,
participating in landfill gas projects can enhance critical business objectives. These business
objectives include building stronger relationships with key customer groups, broadening utility's
resource base, and realizing substantial environmental benefits.  This document can help
utilities determine the best opportunities for using landfill gas to help achieve these company
objectives. Innovative approaches to consider include: assistance to municipalities that must
install gas collection systems to comply with regulations or that have candidate landfills ready for
project development; participation in projects that directly provide landfill gas as a medium-Btu
fuel to targeted industrial or commercial end-users; and development of new marketing
programs, such as green pricing, with landfill gas as part of the energy mix to meet customer
demands for cleaner, renewable energy sources. These "value-added" services are effective
mechanisms to build stronger, more responsive relationships with key customer groups, while
acquiring a competitive renewable resource. Moreover, utilities should consider how landfill gas-
to-energy furthers their environmental objectives. By participating in landfill gas-to-energy
projects, utilities help improve local and global air quality; receive national recognition from the
EPA; and fulfill commitments under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Climate Challenge
Program.

       Landfill Owners and Operators

       Landfill owners and operators can assess conditions at their sites to determine whether
their landfill can support an economically attractive project. If it appears that the landfill has
potential for energy recovery, owners and operators can take active roles in determining what
project configuration is right for the landfill, identifying potential energy customers, and seeking
potential development partners. As necessary during each stage of this process,  landfill owners
and operators can work with project development experts for guidance in designing a successful
and profitable project.

       Industrial End-Users

       Potential industrial commercial, or other end-users should assess the potential for
reducing energy expenses by using landfill gas  in their facilities. These industrial customers can
assess project potential by examining conditions at the local  landfill and evaluating their current
and future energy requirements.  If it appears that there is a match between the end-user and
the landfill, they can work as partners in project development, potentially involving additional
project developers as well,
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1.6    References

GAA 1994. 1994-5 Methane Recovery from Landfill Yearbook, Governmental Advisory
       Associates.

IPCC 1994.  The 1994 Report of the Scientific Assessment Working Group of IPCC,
       Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Landfill Control Technologies, 1994. "Landfill Gas System Engineering Design Seminar."

Maxwell 1990. Will Gas-to-Energy Work at Your Landfill?  Solid Waste & Power.

Thorneloe 1992.  Landfill Gas Recovery/Utilization - Options and Economics. Presented at the
       Sixteenth Annual Conference by the Institute of Gas Technology on Energy from
       Biomass and Wastes, Orlando, Florida, March 15, 1992.

Thorneloe and Pacey, 1994a. Database of North American Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects.
       Presented at the 17th Annual International Landfill Gas Symposium by the Solid Waste
       Association of North America, Long Beach, California,  March 22-24, 1994. Published in
       Conference Proceedings.

Thorneloe and Pacey, 1994b. Landfill Gas Utilization - Technical and Non-Technical
       Considerations.  Presented at the 17th Annual International Landfill Gas Symposium by
       the Solid Waste Association of North America, Long Beach, California, March 22-24,
       1994.  Published in Conference Proceedings.

Thorneloe and Pacey, 1995. Database of North American Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects.
       Presented at the 18th Annual International Landfill Gas Symposium by the Solid Waste
       Association of North America, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 27-30,  1995. Published in
       Conference Proceedings.

U.S. EPA 1993.  Opportunities to Reduce Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in the United
       States: Report to Congress, United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 430-
       R-93-012.

U.S. EPA 1994.  Turning a Liability into an Asset: A Landfill Gas-to-Energy Handbook for
       Landfill Owners and Operators, United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Introduction                      Working Draft -- June 1996                       Page 1-11

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               2.   Instructions for Evaluating Landfill  Profiles
       This chapter provides instructions for interpreting the profiles contained in Chapters 4
and 5. A landfill profile has been prepared for each of the current projects (which include both
operational and planned landfill gas-to-energy projects) and candidate landfills (landfills
potentially generating enough landfill gas to make recovery economical). The information in
each profile is grouped into eight sections:

              Landfill Location and Status;
              Waste Collection Information;
              Gas Collection and Control Data;
             Gas Utilization Data;
              Site Potential;
             Environmental Benefits of Utilization;
             Contact  Information; and
              Comments Relating to Landfill Gas Recovery  Projects.

The current projects profile sheet has all of the above sections, while the candidate landfill profile
omits the gas utilization data section. In addition, the contact information for the candidate
landfill does not include information on an energy recovery system owner or operator, as these
fields do not apply.

       Information contained in the profiles has been compiled from a number of sources, the
most important of which was state and local sources, such as permits and annual acceptance
reports, supplemented  by: the 1994-5 Methane Recovery from Landfill Yearbook (GAA, 1994);
Implementation Guide for Landfill Gas Recovery Projects in the Northeast:  Draft Final Report
(SCS,  1994); Survey of Landfill Gas Generation Potential: 2 MW Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
(EPRI, 1992); and Landfill Gas-to-Energy: 1994-1995 Activity Report (SWT, 1994).

       A detailed description of each entry on the landfill profile sheet is presented  below.
When no information was available for a value, the data field is reported as not available (N.A.).
The accuracy of the data  depends on the quality of the information contained in the documents
reviewed (further information on data collection activities and data interpretations is provided in
Chapter 3).

       Data marked with  a single asterisk (*) indicates that default values were used.  For
example, if the number of days per week waste is accepted at a landfill is not known, a default
value of 5.5 days is used  and an asterisk appears next to the value.  It should also be noted that
numbers within a profile may not add correctly due to rounding. The remainder of this section is
organized by sub-section  of a landfill profile.

2.1    Landfill Location  and Status

       The first section of each profile provides a brief overview of the landfill site, including its
physical location, operating  status, and the status of gas collection and energy recovery
activities. This overview section also lists any alternate names for the landfill. Specific items
included are:
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       Location: The physical location of the site, including city, county, and state.  More
       information is included in the Contact Information section of the profile, such as
       owner, operator, contact names, and telephone numbers.

       Status: The current operational status of the landfill. Standard entries are Open
       (active) or Closed (inactive). Landfills that were reported as temporarily closed in
       state documents were considered closed.

       Year Opened: The year that waste was first accepted at the landfill.  In cases in
       which the open year was not available, the year the first (or oldest) permit was
       issued was assumed to be the open year.

       Year Closed: The year the landfill stopped accepting waste (closed landfills), or
       is scheduled to stop accepting waste (open landfills). For open landfills, if a
       reported year of closing is not available, the year is estimated by dividing the
       remaining landfill capacity by the annual waste acceptance rate, and adding the
       result to the current year.  (Remaining capacity is estimated as the difference
       between the design capacity and the current waste-in-place.)

       Gas Collection:  The status of gas collection at the landfill; standard responses
       include operational, planned, shutdown, none, or N.A. (Not Available).  Additional
       detail on gas collection activities is provided in the Gas Collection and Control
       Data section of the profile.

       Gas Utilization:  The status of gas utilization at the landfill; standard responses
       include operational, planned, shutdown, none, or N.A. (Not Available).  Gas
       utilization is synonymous with energy recovery; flaring and venting are not
       considered utilization in the context of the landfill profiles.  Additional detail on gas
       utilization activities is provided in the Gas Utilization  Data section of the profile.

       Primary Contact: The  name and telephone number of the primary contact for the
       landfill. More detailed  contact information is provided in the Contact Information
       section at the end of the profile.

       Alternative  Name(s): Any identified name for the landfill that is significantly
       different from the main landfill name.  Many landfills have operated under different
       names at different times in their history.

2.2    Waste Collection Information

       This section presents important waste collection information that can affect the suitability
of a site for landfill  gas recovery.  The information includes the design capacity, the estimated
current waste-in-place and waste acceptance rate, the waste types and percent MSW, acreage,
average depth, and tipping fee.

       Types of Wastes Accepted: The types of wastes accepted at the landfill; possible
       entries include MSW, yard waste, paper mill waste, sewage sludge, other sludge,
       commercial solid waste, industrial solid waste, ash, construction and demolition
       debris, and other waste. Some of these wastes contain
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       inorganic material and therefore will generate no methane; others, such as
       sludges and yard waste, have a lower methane generation potential due to
       excess moisture and other factors.

       Percent of Waste that is MSW: If known, the percent of the total waste-in-place
       at the landfill that is MSW.  If the percentage of MSW in the total waste-in-place is
       unknown, the percentage of MSW in annual waste accepted was used. Currently
       this value is not used in the methane generation equations described later in this
       section. The percentage of MSW in the landfilled waste is an indication of the
       potential suitability of the landfill for gas recovery.

       Tipping  Fee: The standard fee charged for the disposal of MSW, in $/ton. This
       value has been converted from $/cubic yards to $/tons where necessary, using
       an assumed density of 1 ton/1.667 cubic yards.2 In some cases the tipping fee
       varies by waste type or origin of the waste.  The entry reflects, to the extent
       possible, the average fee levied on the waste accepted.

       Design Capacity:  The total amount of waste that the landfill is designed to
       accept, reported in tons. This information is also called current permitted
       capacity. Values reported  in cubic yards have been converted to tons, by
       assuming a density of 1 ton/1.667 cubic yards.

       Days Open per Week:  The reported number of days per week the landfill is
       open. When both a daily acceptance rate and annual acceptance rate were
       given in a single source, the number of days open per week was calculated by
       dividing the annual acceptance rate by the daily acceptance rate and by 52
       weeks per year. Where not available, a default of 5.5 days per week was used,
       consistent with typical industry operating experience.

       Annual Acceptance Rate: The amount of waste received and landfilled for a
       reported year, including all  waste types, reported in  short tons (tons).  Values
       reported in units other than tons per year have been converted using an assumed
       density of 1 ton/1.667 cubic yards. If only a daily acceptance  rate was available,
       an annual acceptance  rate has been calculated by multiplying the daily
       acceptance rate by 52  weeks and the days open per week. When multi-year
       annual acceptance rate data were available, the most recent year's acceptance
       rate is presented in the profile.

       Total Landfill Acreage: The number of acres that have been landfilled. Where
       possible, this has been made distinct from permitted or site acreage.

       Average Depth: The average  depth of the landfilled waste, reported in feet.
       Where a breakdown is available, this value includes any buried soil cover and
       landfill cap material.
   2 NSWMA (1985), page 5, presents the density of refuse in landfills as a range. The lower end of this
range, 1,200 Ib/cubic yard was used in the profiles.
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      Estimated Current Waste-in-Place: The total amount of waste that has been
      landfilled since the landfill opened. All waste types have been included, and units
      other than tons have been converted using landfill specific information where
      available, or by assuming a density of 1 ton/1.667 cubic yards.  The following
      methods are used, in the order presented, to estimate WIP:
      1.
For landfills where the estimated current year WIP is not known, it has
been estimated from the most recent available estimates of waste-in-
place (WIP) and acceptance rate.
           Equation 1:

           Estimated WIP (tons)  =
                        Reported WIP (tons) + (Annual
                        Acceptance Rate (tons/yr) x ((Current or
                        Closed Year) - Year WIP Reported))
      2.
If no estimate of the reported WIP was available for any year, then the
estimated current WIP was estimated from the Year Opened, ancl the
Acceptance Rate, as follows:
           Equation 2:

           Estimated WIP (tons)  =
                       Annual Acceptance Rate (tons/yr) x (((Current
                       or Closed Year) + 1) - Year Opened)
             When multi-year annual acceptance rates were available, the average
             value of the reported acceptance rates was used in the above equations.
      3.     If acceptance rate data were not available, the reported WIP was used as
             the estimated current WIP.
      4.     If acceptance rate data and reported WIP were not available, the
             estimated current WIP was estimated from the landfilled acreage, the
             average depth, and an assumed MSW density of 1 ton/1.667 cubic yards.
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            Equation 3:

            Estimated WIP


            or


            Estimated WIP (tons)   =
       Landfill Area Used x Average Depth x
       Density of Waste
       Area (acres) x Depth (ft) x 1613.33
       (yd3/acre-ft) x (1 ton/1.667 yd3)
2.3    Gas Collection and Control Data

       This section presents information on current and planned gas collection activities,
including the type of collection equipment, its operational status and initial year of operation, the
percentage of waste welled and the collection efficiency, and the amount of gas collected.  Many
landfills without gas utilization systems still collect landfill gas for safety reasons.  Note that many
landfills are in the planning stages of developing a collection system, in which case data
presented in this section represents the anticipated characteristics of the system.  In other
cases, landfills have collection systems in place which have been shutdown.  In these cases the
data reflect the characteristics of the collection system when it was operating.  Gas collection
and control information was obtained from: GAA, 1994; SCS, 1994; SWT, 1994; EPRI, 1992;
and state lists.

       Collection System Status:  The status of gas collection activities at the landfill.
       Standard entries are: operational, planned, shutdown, none, or N.A. (Not
       Available).   Note that this entry is also printed at the top of the Landfill Location
       and Status section of the profile.

       Collection System Type: The type of landfill gas collection systems used at the
       landfill; standard entries are wells, trenches, wells & trenches, none, or N.A. (Not
       Available).

       Collection Efficiency: The efficiency of the gas collection system, expressed in
       percent. The efficiency will be less than 100 percent due to a number of potential
       factors, including: poor well placement and air infiltration through the landfill
       cover, the wellhead, or lateral pipe connections.  Collection efficiency can range
       from 50 percent or lower at existing landfills to 95 percent at newer, well-designed
       landfills. Unless an estimate is provided by the landfill, a default value of 85
       percent is  used.
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       Methane Concentration: The concentration of methane in the collected gas,
       which may vary due to differences in waste type, other landfill specific factors,
       and collection system inefficiencies. The methane concentration directly affects
       the heat value of the recovered gas. A default value of 50 percent methane is
       used in the absence of reported data.

       Year Gas Collection Began:  The year that the landfill gas collection system
       became operational. If in planning or construction stages, the date of anticipated
       operation is used.

       Estimated Percent of Landfill Area Welled: The  portion of the landfill supporting
       the landfill gas collection system, expressed in percentage.  Landfills sometimes
       do not install gas collection systems over the entire landfill area. Reasons for this
       include: the collection system is a demonstration project or the first phase of a
       larger planned system; there are diminishing returns on gas production in some
       areas of the landfill; some areas may be too far from the central collection point;
       continued landfilling has expanded the landfill acreage; or installing wells or
       trenches would interfere with ongoing operations.  If not reported, the percentage
       of waste welled is calculated by dividing  the welled acreage by landfill acreage.

       Landfill Gas Collected: The reported volume of landfill gas (i.e., not only
       methane) flowing through the collection system,  in million cubic feet per day
       (mmcf/d) and million cubic feet per year (mmcf/yr).  Values reported in units other
       than mmcf/d or mmcf/yr have been converted.

       Methane Gas Collected: The estimated  volume of methane in the collected
       landfill gas. Unless reported, this is  calculated by multiplying the amount of
       landfill gas collected by the reported methane concentration or a default value of
       50 percent.

2.4    Gas Utilization Data

       This section presents information on the current or planned use of collected landfill gas,
including the portion of the collected gas that is used, the utilization option, its operational status
and first year of operation, the size of the project, and any expansion plans.  This section is only
included  in the profiles of landfills with current projects.  Note that some landfills are in the
planning  stages of developing a gas utilization system, in which case data presented in this
section represents the anticipated characteristics of the system.  In other cases, landfills have
utilization systems in place which are no longer operating.  Utilization data for landfills with a
shutdown utilization system reflect the characteristics of the utilization system when it was
operating. Gas utilization status was obtained from a number of sources, including: GAA, 1994;
SCS, 1994; SWT, 1994; EPRI, 1992; and state data sources.

       Utilization System Status:  The status of gas utilization activities at the landfill.
       Standard entries are:  operational, planned, shutdown, none, or N.A. (Not
       Available). Note that this entry is also  printed at the top of the Landfill Location
       and Status section of the profile.
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       Year Project Initiated: The year that the landfill gas recovery project began using
       collected gas, or, if in planning or construction stages, the date of anticipated
       operation.

       End-Use of Collected Gas: The percentage of gas utilized, flared, or vented.
       Collected gas may be utilized as fuel for power generation or in other energy
       applications, in addition to being flared or vented.  Where known, the percentage
       of each option is provided; otherwise N.A. (Not available) is entered.

       Utilization System Type:  The type of energy utilization system.  Standard entries
       include:  electricity generation, electricity generation/direct gas sales, high Btu
       gas production, medium Btu gas, on-site use, other, to be determined, or N.A.
       (Not Available).

       System Description:  Additional available information on the utilization  system.
       For example, the type of equipment used to generate electricity is included here
       when available or appropriate. Standard entries include: 1C Engines,  Gas
       Turbines, 1C Engines/Gas Turbines, Steam Turbines, Combined Cycle, and gas
       upgrade equipment.

       Energy Purchaser(s): The name of the utility or gas customer(s).

2.5    Site Potential

       This section presents information on landfill gas generation and collection potential,
power generation potential, and other gas utilization  options.  The information includes:
estimates of the total volume of methane generated in the landfill, current and potential landfill
gas collection, additional gas available for use, and possible energy utilization options  for the
additional collection potential.

       Estimated Total Methane Generation

       Methane (CH4) is generated in landfills as the organic content of the waste decomposes.
Estimated Methane Generation in million cubic feet per day (mmcf/d) is based on an equation
adapted from U.S. EPA  1993b, Opportunities to Reduce Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in
the United States.  The equation was derived from statistical analyses of existing projects.3 The
equation, valid for landfills with over 1 million tons of waste-in-place, is:
   3 Equation 4 was adapted from:

                       CH4 (rrrVmin) = 8.22 + 5.27 WIP (million metric tons),

found on page 4-25 of U.S. EPA 1993b, Opportunities to Reduce Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in
the United States:  Report to Congress.
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         Equation 4:

         CH4 generation (mmcf/d)  = 0.05085 x  [8.22+(4.78x106 x WIP (tons))]
where WIP best reflects the current amount of waste in the landfill, as described in
Section 2.2.

       The result of this equation is also presented in the profile in mmcf/yr, which is obtained
by multiplying mmcf/d by 365 days per year.
         Equation 4a:

         CH4 generation (mmcf/yr) = CH4 generation (mmcf/d) x 365 days/yr
       One limitation of this methane generation model is its use of national averages to
estimate individual landfills' gas generation rates.  While such a model may provide a useful
indication of potential gas flow, site specific factors not included in such a model, such as
percent MSW, age, moisture content, temperature, pH, and density of waste, may diminish the
accuracy of the predicted gas flow. Since such models can generate estimates with potentially
large uncertainties, site monitoring is extremely important in order to verify gas flows.

       Landfill Gas Collection and Utilization Potential

       The following data and estimates for gas collection  and use are presented in terms of
landfill gas volume, not methane volume. This conforms with typical industry practice. All of the
entries are reported in both mmcf/d and mmcf/yr.

       Estimated Total LF:G Collection Potential:  The estimated maximum volume of
       landfill gas that can feasibly be  recovered from the landfill. Because landfill gas
       contains other  gases in addition to methane,  the volume of landfill gas generated
       will typically be about twice the  volume of methane  generated (i.e., the methane
       concentration is typically 50 percent).  The estimates of gas collection and
       utilization potential are presented in terms of  landfill gas, as opposed to pure
       methane, to conform with industry practice.
         Equation 5:

         Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential

             =    Estimated Methane Generation x Collection Efficiency x
                  1/Methane Concentration
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       where:
              Collection Efficiency represents the amount of gas generated in the landfill
              that can be recovered by a gas collection system. A default value of 85
              percent is used (U.S. EPA, 1993b); and

              Methane Concentration represents the percentage of methane contained
              in the landfill gas.  This value is based on the reported value from the Gas
              Collection and Control section, if available, or a default value of 50
              percent (U.S. EPA, 1993b).
       When default values are used:
         Equation 5a:

         Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/d)

             =    CH4 generation (rnmcf/d) x 0.85 x 2
       or, substituting equation 4,
         Equation 5b:

         Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/d)

                  {0.05085 x [8.22 + (4.78x106 x WIP (tons))]} x 0.85 x 2
       The result of this equation is also presented in the profile in million cubic feet per
       year (mmcf/yr):
         Equation 5c:

         Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/yr)

                  Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/d) x 365 days/yr
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       However, if the Current or Planned Reported LFG Collection Volume exceeds the
       value estimated using Equation 5, the Current or Planned Reported LFG
       Collection Volume is used as the Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential.

       Current Reported LFG  Collection Volume: This is the average volume of landfill
       gas currently being collected each day.  This value is typically obtained from GAA
       (1994) and SWT (1994).  If this reported value exceeds the Total LFG Collection
       Potential estimated above, then the value reported here will also be used as the
       Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential.

       Planned Reported LFG Collection Volume: This is the planned volume of landfill
       gas that will be collected each day. Planned LFG Collection may represent the
       installation of a new collection system or the expansion of an existing collection
       system.  This value is typically  obtained from GAA (1994) and SWT (1994).  If this
       reported value exceeds the Total LFG Collection Potential estimated above, then
       the value reported here will also be used as the Estimated Total LFG Collection
       Potential.

       Estimated Additional LFG Collection Potential: This value represents the
       additional volume of landfill gas that can be collected, assuming a default
       collection efficiency of 85 percent. This includes the volume of gas that could be
       collected if the entire landfill acreage had a collection system.  It is estimated as
       the Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential less the Current and Planned
       Landfill Gas Collection  Volume (described above).
         Equation 6:

         Estimated Additional LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/d)

                 Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/d) - Current LFG Collection
                 Volume (mmcf/d) - Planned LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/d)
       The additional collection potential will be zero if the sum of the Current and
       Planned LFG Collection Volumes equals or exceeds the Estimated Total LFG
       Collection Potential, even though additional potential may exist.

       Estimated Total LFG Utilization Volume Potential: The total amount of landfill gas
       that could be utilized for energy recovery; this value is equal to the Estimated
       Total LFG Collection Potential.

       Current Reported Volume of LFG Utilized:  This is the  amount of landfill gas that
       is currently collected and used for power generation or another energy
       application.  It does not include that fraction of the collected gas that is flared or
       vented into the atmosphere. The value is calculated as the product of the Current
       LFG Collection Volume and the Percent Utilized value reported in the Gas
       Utilization Data section, which are typically obtained from GAA (1994),
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       SWT (1994), or state data. If the percent utilized is not available, the Current
       Reported Volume of LFG Utilized is N.A. (Not Available).

       Planned Reported Volume of LFG Utilized: This is the planned volume of landfill
       gas that will be used for power generation or another energy recovery operation.
       This value is calculated as the product of the Planned LFG Collection Volume
       and the Percent Utilized value reported in the Gas Utilities Data section, which
       are typically obtained from GAA (1994), SWT (1994), or state data.  If the percent
       utilized is not available, the Planned Reported Volume of LFG Utilized is N.A.
       (Not Available).

       Estimated Additional LFG Available for Use: This is the amount of landfill gas
       that is potentially available for use in power generation or other energy
       application.  This includes any additional gas to be collected as well as gas
       currently being collected that is currently vented or flared. Thus:
         Equation 7:

         Estimated Additional LFG Available for Use (mmcf/d)

                  Estimated Total Utilization Potential (mmcf/d) - Current Utilization
                  Volume (mmcf/d) - Planned Utilization Volume (mmcf/d)
       If either Current LFG Utilization Volume or Planned Utilization Volume is N.A. (Not
       Available), then the above equation is not evaluated and N.A. (Not Available) is entered
       in the profile.

       Power Generation Potential

       Entries in this section are presented both as capacity (MW) and energy generation
(GWh/yr).  Assuming an availability (load) factor of 85 percent (7446 operational hours/yr), the
capacity can be converted to energy by multiplying by the number of hours in a year that the
equipment is operational,  and then dividing by 1000 (i.e., to convert from MWh to GWh).

       Estimated Total Electric Potential: This value represents the total installed
       electricity generation capacity that could be supported by the landfill site,
       assuming that all uncollected and unutilized landfill gas is collected and used for
       power generation. The equation for generation capacity assumes the use of 1C
       engines with a heat rate of 13,000 Btu per kWh:
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         Equation 8:

         Estimated Total Electrical Potential (MW)

                  Estimated Total LFG Utilization Potential (mmcf/d) x %CH4 x
                  (1  day/24 hr) x (1000 Btu/cf) x (1,000,000 cf/mmcf) x
                  (1  kWh/13,000 Btu) x (1 MW/1000 kw)
       or
         Equation 8a:

         Estimated Total Electrical Potential (GWh/yr)

             =    Estimated Total Electrical Potential (MW) x 7446 hours/yr x
                  1 GW/1000MW
       Current Generation: This value, typically obtained from either GAA (1994) or
       SWT (1994), is the reported installed generation capacity of landfills for existing
       utilization projects. If a landfill gas project is currently selling, or is planning, to
       sell gas directly to a nearby customer, then this entry is entered as zero. For
       planned electricity generation projects, this value will be zero. For candidate
       landfills, this value will be N.A. (Not Available).

       Planned Generation: If a landfill gas project is in the planning stages, the
       Planned Generation is presented here. This value is typically obtained from
       either GAA (1994) or SWT (1994).  For current electricity generation projects, this
       value will be zero. For candidate landfills, this value will be N.A. (Not Available).

       Estimated Additional Generation Potential:  The estimated installed generating
       capacity, in MW, that could be supported by the Estimated Additional LFG
       Available for Use (i.e., the currently uncollected and  unutilized volume of landfill
       gas).
         Equation 9:

         Estimated Additional Generation Potential (MW)

             =    Estimated Total Electrical Potential (MW) - Current Electrical
                  Potential (MW) - Planned Electrical Potential (MW)
       or
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         Equation 9a:

         Estimated Additional Generation Potential (GWh/yr)

             =    Estimated Additional Generation Potential (MW) x 7446 hours/yr x
                  1 GW/1000MW
       For landfills for which either the current or planned electrical potential is N.A. (Not
       Available), the additional generation potential will also be N.A. (Not Available).
       One limitation of the electric potential estimates is their derivation from the current
       waste-in-place.  For landfills that are still accepting waste, as are most of those
       profiled, the waste-in-place and associated gas flow will be increasing over time.
       Depending on the anticipated closure date, the generating capacity may be
       significantly underestimated.

       Utilities in County:  The electric utilities that are located in or serve the county in
       which the landfill is located. The majority of the electric utilities listed are located
       in the same county as the landfill.  These data are based on DOE's Energy
       Information Administration's publication Electricity Trade in the United States in
       1992 and supporting databases (U.S. DOE, 1992). The rest of the utilities listed
       serve the county in which the landfill is located and supplement the utilities listed
       in DOE's database. They are provided by the Utility Data Institute's Electric Utility
       Demographic Database (UDI, 1995). Note that utilities in nearby counties that do
       not serve the county in which the landfill is located, are not listed, even though
       they could be closer to the landfill then the utilities located in the same county.

2.6    Environmental Benefits of Utilization

       This section presents data on both the current environmental benefits of landfill  gas
collection and utilization, as well as the additional environmental benefits that can be achieved
by further utilizing landfill gas.  For landfills where the breakdown between percent flared,
percent vented, and percent utilized is not available, only the Estimated Total Potential  Methane
Reductions are presented, and N.A. is reported for Current and Planned Methane Reductions,
as well as Estimated Potential (Additional) Methane Reductions.

       Estimated Total Potential Methane Reductions: The  sum of the current, planned,
       and additional methane reductions, in mmcf/yr. This value differs from Estimated
       Total Methane Generation  because it incorporates the collection efficiency. For
       landfills where these values are not available, the following equation can be used.
Instructions for Evaluating           Working Draft - June 1996                         Page 2-13
Landfill Profiles

-------
         Equation 10:

         Estimated Total Potential Methane Reductions (mmcf/yr)

            =    Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/d) x Methane
                 Concentration x 365 days/yr
      The estimate of Methane Emissions Reduction Potential presented here is likely
      to be an overestimate because in the absence of the gas recovery system, a
      portion of the methane produced in the landfill would be oxidized as it migrates
      out of the landfill. The portion of the methane that is oxidized is not emitted to the
      atmosphere, and therefore does not contribute to landfill methane emissions.
      Withdrawing the gas with a collection system prevents this oxidation step, so that
      more methane is recovered than would otherwise have been emitted. The extent
      of oxidation that will occur can vary greatly depending on local conditions, and an
      estimate is not incorporated here.

      Current and Planned Methane Reductions: The amount of methane that is not
      being released to the atmosphere  because it is being collected and either utilized
      or flared. It is calculated in mmcf/yr, using the following equation:
         Equation 11:

         Current and Planned Methane Reductions (mmcf/yr)

                 ((Current LFG Collection Volume + Planned LFG Collection
                 Volume (mmcf/d) x Methane Concentration) x (100 - percent
                 vented)) x 365 days/yr
      where:

                    Methane concentration is reported in the Gas Collection and
                    Control Data section of the profile (Default value of 50 percent.)

                    Percent Vented is reported in the Gas Utilization Data section of
                    the profile.

      If Percent Vented is not available, this equal is not evaluated and N.A. (Not
      Available) is entered in the profile.

      Estimated Potential (Additional) Methane Reductions: The amount of methane
      that could be reduced by collecting and either flaring or utilizing gas that is
      currently being emitted. The additional  methane reduction potential is estimated
      using the following formula:
Page 2-14                        Working Draft -- June 1996           Instructions for Evaluating
                                                                           Landfill Profiles

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         Equation 12:

         Estimated Additional Methane Reduction Potential (mmcf/yr)

             =    {((Estimated Additional LFG Collection Potential) x Methane
                  Concentration) + ((Current + Planned LFG Collection Potential) x
                  Methane Concentration x Percent Vented)} (mmcf/d) x 365
                  days/yr
       or, substituting equation 6,
         Equation 12a:

         Estimated Additional Methane Reduction Potential (mmcf/yr)

                  {[(Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential - Current LFG
                  Collection Volume - Planned LFG Collection Volume) x Methane
                  Concentration] + [((Current + Planned LFG Collection) x Methane
                  Concentration) x Percent Vented]} (mmcf/d) x 365 days/year
       where:

                     Methane concentration is reported in the Gas Collection and
                     Control Data section of the profile (Default value of 50 percent.)

                     Percent Vented is reported in the Gas Utilization Data section of
                     the profile.

       If Percent Vented is not available, this equal is not evaluated and N.A. (Not
       Available) is entered in the profile.

       CO3 Equivalent of Methane Emission Reductions: The magnitude of the methane
       emissions that could potentially be reduced through increased landfill gas
       collection, expressed in thousand tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year.
       The Emissions Reduction Potential, presented in thousand tons per year, is
       converted to thousand standard tons of  CO2 equivalent per year using a Global
       Warming Potential of methane equal to 24.5:4
   4 The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is an expression of the radiative forcing of one mass unit of
methane relative to one mass unit of carbon dioxide.  Thus, one gram of methane has 24.5 times the
radiative forcing of one gram of carbon dioxide over a 100 year timeframe. For additional information see
IPCC1994.
Instructions for Evaluating
Landfill Profiles
Working Draft -- June 1996
Page 2-15

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         Equation 13:

         Annual CO2 Equivalent of CH4 Emission Reductions (thousand tons/yr)

            =    Estimated CH4 Reduction Potential (mmcf/yr) x 21.12 tons/mmcf x
                 24.5 tons CCytons CH4 x 1 thousand tons/1000 tons
      where the CH4 Reduction Potential can be either Total, Current and Planned, or
      Additional, assuming the density of methane at 15C and 1 atmosphere is 21.12
      ton/mmcf.

      Estimated Acid Rain "Bonus Allowances": Under Title IV of the Clean Air Act (the
      EPA Acid Rain Program), the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve
      (CRER) allocates a pool of SO2 allowances for renewable energy technologies.
      These allowances are available to utilities for landfill energy recovery projects,  at
      the rate of one for every 500 MWh/yr generated (i.e., one for every 0.5 GWh/yr
      generated).  These bonus allowances can be earned each year between 1994
      and 2000 by applying to the CRER.  The allowance is rounded down to a whole
      number.
        Equation 14:

        Total EARBA == Total Electric Potential (GWh/yr) x 1 EARBA/0.5 GWh/yr
        Equation 15:

        Current or Planned EARBA  =  (Current + Planned Generation (GWh/yr)) x
                                     (1 EARBA/0.5 GWh/yr)
        Equation 16:

        Additional EARBA =  Additional Generation Potential (GWh/yr) x 1
                            EARBA/0.5 GWh/yr
      Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: Landfill gas utilization projects
      can result in avoided emissions not only of methane, but also of CO2 and SO2.
      The collection of landfill gas and its subsequent use as a fuel for generating
      electricity (or other energy application) will displace the use of fuel by other
      generating units, and thereby avoid the emissions associated with the displaced
      generating units (in addition to the reduced methane emissions).
Page 2-16                       Working Draft - June 1996           Instructions for Evaluating
                                                                         Landfill Profiles

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       The magnitude of the emissions avoided in this manner depends on the
       difference between the emission characteristics of the landfill generating unit and
       those of the displaced utility unit.  These marginal emission characteristics are
       highly dependent on the exact type of fuel (especially the sulfur content of coal),
       the equipment type, and emission control technologies in place. While the
       emission characteristics for individual projects should be estimated using regional
       or local values, national averages have been used for illustrative purposes in the
       profiles.
         Equation 17:

         Total Emissions Avoided (tons/yr) =
            Total Electrical Potential (GWh/yr) x
            Incremental Emission (tons/GWh)
       The annual incremental emissions per GWh generated are presented in the table
       below.
Displaced Fuel
Coal (High/Med S) - Steam
Oil - Steam
Incremental Emissions (tons/GWh)
C02
379.58
174.38
S02
11.126
9.481
2.7    Contact Information

       This section presents, where available and applicable, the following contact information:
landfill owner, landfill operator, energy utilization system developer, and the energy utilization
system operator.  For each contact, a name, position, organization name, mailing address, city,
state, zip, phone,  and fax are included.  This section also states whether the landfill owner and
operator are public or private entities. In addition, the appropriate site contact name and number
are indicated.

2.8    Comment Field

       The  information in this field, taken from GAA (1994), Solid Waste Technologies'
Bimonthly Periodical, and/or  state data provides additional information on gas collection or gas
utilization activities. In addition,  comments related to the potential impacts of each landfill's
operating status on its gas generation rate are also included.
Instructions for Evaluating
Landfill Profiles
Working Draft -- June 1996
Page 2-17

-------
2.9    References

EPRI 1992. Survey of landfill Gas Generation Potential: 2 MW Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell,
       Electric Power Research Institute.

GAA 1994.  1994-5 Methane Recovery from Landfill Yearbook, Governmental Advisory
       Associates.

IPCC 1994. The 1994 Report of the Scientific Assessment Working Group of IPCC,
       Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

NSWMA 1985. Basic Data:  Solid Waste Amounts, Composition and Management Systems,
       National Solid Waste  Management Association, Technical bulletin #85-6, October 1,
       1985.

SCS 1994.  Implementation Guide for Landfill Gas Recovery Projects in the Northeast: Draft
       Final Report, SCS Engineers.

Solid Waste Technologies 1994.  Landfill Gas-to-Energy 1994-1995 Activity Report, HCI
       Publications.

U.S. DOE Energy Information Administration  1992. Electricity Trade in the United States in 1992
       and supporting Data Bases.

U.S. EPA 1993a. Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in the United States: Estimates for 1990,
       Report to Congress, United States Environmental Protection Agency.  EPA 430-R-93-
       003.

U.S. EPA 1993b. Opportunities to Reduce Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in the United
       States: Report to Congress, United States Environmental Protection Agency.  EPA 430-
       R-93-012.

Utility Data Institute 1995. U.S. Electric Utility Demographics from the Electrical World Directory.
       UDI, Washington, DC.
Page 2-18                       Working Draft -- June 1996           Instructions for Evaluating
                                                                         Landfill Profiles

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          3.  Data Collection Methods and Evaluation Processes
       This chapter describes the methodology used to collect data from state and local
sources, the national databases used to complete profiles, data interpretation issues, and the
landfill candidacy screening process.

3.1    Methodology Used to Collect Data from State and Local Agencies

       In general, a top-down  approach was used to gather data, by obtaining the maximum
amount of information on all landfills from state records, and then filling in data gaps with
information from records at the regional, county, or municipal levels, as well as from published
national reports.

       In many cases, states did not have data available in a consolidated format (e.g., a
database).  In these situations, discrete data sources that provided essential data were
gathered.   When state documents did not provide the level of detailed information necessary to
determine candidate landfills, regional offices located within each state and/or county or
municipal offices were contacted to assess the types of information in their files.

3.2    National Databases Used to Complete Profiles

       In addition to data collected from state, regional, or local offices, data was drawn from
several national data sources.  These sources include:

             Government Advisory Associates (GAA, 1994), which provides
             information on current and planned LFG Energy Recovery Projects;

             Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 1992), which examines the
             potential to use fuel-cells at large landfills;

             SCS Engineers (SCS, 1994), which examines the potential for landfill
             energy recovery projects in the Northeast;

             Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA, 1992), which  lists all
             landfills in the U.S.;

             Solid Waste Technologies (SWT, 1994), which reports on landfill gas-to-
             energy facilities throughout North America; and

             Solid Waste Atlas (SWA, 1994), which lists all  solid waste landfills  in the
             U.S., transfer stations, incinerators, and waste-to-energy facilities.

Exhibit 3-1  provides a detailed description of the types of information available from each data
source. The data obtained from the  national databases was used mainly to supplement or verify
data received from state or local offices. One exception is the Government Advisory Associates
(GAA,  1994) data, which provides information on current and planned landfill gas recovery
projects. Because data on landfill gas recovery projects were difficult to obtain from
Data Collection Methods and         Working Draft--June 1996                         Page 3-1
Evaluation Processes

-------
n
4^
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lary of National Databases
e
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"~ fh
SCS
Implementation Guide for Landfi
Recovery Projects in the North
V
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o tj-
.2 ,
EPRI
Survey of Landfill Gas Generat
Potential; 2 MW Molten Carbonati
Cell


GAA
Methane Recovery from Landfill
Yearbook




Z^l
Report examines polenlial for landf
energy recovery projects in the
Northeast
JO
o

Report examines potential to use fue
at large landfills


Report provides information on current and
planned LFG energy recovery projects

(Purpose of
Report
c m1
re -S

MSW landfills with 20 or more acre
daily waste receipts of 100 tons pe
or more
CD iU
^ *J
O !^
CO !>
Large MSW landfills with a minimum
life of 15 years and an aveiaye suiiu
delivery rate of 72,000 tons per year


MSW landfills that have current or planned
energy recovery projects
c
1 Types of
Landfills
Discussed
the Report
13
c
0 >. CO
Northeastern states (Connecticut,
Delaware, Massachusetts, Marylan
Maine, New Hampshire, New Jerse
New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Is
Vermont)

c
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All states, but more detailed informal
provided for Minnesota and Wiscons


CO
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a
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o
CO CL
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ISO:
85 =
m  - c
Jr - ^ re
^ m P "D
Identifies 207 candidate landfills in
northeast, and provides: landfill sit
name, location, address, phone nur
contact person, and ownership; Ian
acreage; estimated in-place refuse
waste flow; estimated closure year;
landfill gas features
o
- c
c re ^ CD -_j- CO

	 -j L: *^ *" p- O)
Identifies 749 candidate landfills in a
states, and provides: site name, loc;
waste flow, years remaining, maximi
ten year gas flows, and number of 2f
units. For Minnesota and Wisconsin
above information includes year ope
contacl name and phone, utility, and
controls


Detailed information on more than 120 fully
operational LFG energy recovery projects
and over 90 in development, including
general landfill data, landfill gas collection
system, landfill gas processing/energy
generation system, institutional
arrangements, operating issues, and costs
CO
w .E
||JE
0^30
n c ^ Q-
03"
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CO =
re *_
Contacted solid waste regulatory
agencies; reviewed Solid Waste At
SWANA Directory, and SCS Projec
and incorporated EPRI data
< 1
z. <"
< F
Data gathered from Cambridge
Environmental Group, GAA, and SW
Data on landfills in Minnesota and
Wisconsin were obtained directly fro
agencies and from landfill operators


Listing of sites compiled through GAA's
contacts in the public and private sector as
well as a review of articles. A detailed
questionnaire was administered by phone,
in several cases the contact person
provided supplementary written materials
T>S
co 3 c
(A IA O
_f I-. Q fl)
1I5



03
03



CM
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03


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re
o
re
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 - 3
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III



Data used to supplement missing
information



Data used to supplement missing
information


Data used to supplement missing
information
tin
1 How Data f
1 National Re
1 is Used in 1
| Profiles Re
    Page 3-2
Working Draft -- June 1996
Data Collection Methods and

      Evaluation Processes

-------
                                                        Exhibit 3-1 (continued)
                                                   Summary of National Databases
                                 SWANA
                          U.S. Landfill Directory
                                                           SWT
                                            Landfill Gas-to-Energy 1994-1995
                                                     Activity Report
                                                         SWA
                                          Directory and Atlas of Solid Waste
                                                  Disposal Facilities
Purpose of
Report
Report lists all landfills in the U.S.; goal of
report not linked to energy recovery
A comprehensive status report on landfill
gas-to-energy facilities throughout North
America
Report lists all landfills in the U.S.,
transfer stations, and incinerators and
waste-to-energy facilities
Types of
Landfills
Discussed in
the Report
MSW landfills
214 landfill gas recovery facilities; 143
operational, 14 under construction, and 57
planned
MSW disposal facilities
States Included
in Report
All states with the exception of Montana
35 states with operating facilities, and
under construction and planned facilities.
Includes landfills in Canada
All states
Types of
Landfill Data
Included in
Report
The Directory is comprised of over 4,300
facility names and addresses with most
referencing the contact name and telephone
number
Information includes the capital cost of
each facility, the current gas generation of
the landfill, megawatt capacity for projects
producing electricity, and the identity of
electricity or direct gas sales customers
Directory contains 4,500 public and
private disposal facilities. Provides
names and locations, with corresponding
names, addresses, and phone numbers
for both owners and operators, average
daily intake, and the expected or
permitted closure dates
Methods and
Sources Used
for Data
Collection
Directory information obtained by contacting
each state using the "Directory of Solid
Waste Management Program Officials"
Community personnel and owners of
landfills and landfill gas-to-energy projects
Publisher's solid waste database, state
agencies, trade associations, and
facilities
Year When
Landfill Data
Was Collected
1993; Pin Point Technologies now collects
this data, which is updated daily
1994
1994

-------
                                                    Exhibit 3-1 (continued)
                                               Summary of National Databases
                               SWANA
                        U.S. Landfill Directory
                                                      SWT
                                         Landfill Gas-to-Energy 1994-1995
                                                 Activity Report
                                                     SWA
                                       Directory and Atlas of Solid Waste
                                              Disposal Facilities
How Data from
National Report
is Used in EPA
Profiles Report
Data used to supplement missing
information
Data on operating facilities and under
construction and planned facilities is used
Confirmation of owner/operator contact
data
EPRI      =    Electric Power Research Institute
GAA      =    Government Advisory Associates
SCS      =    SCS Engineers
SWA      =    Solid Waste Atlas
SWANA   =    Solid Waste Association of North America
SWT      =    Solid Waste Technologies

-------
the states, GAA data was used as the primary source of information on current and planned
energy recovery projects.

3.3    Data Interpretation Issues

       During the data collection and key entering processes, certain data interpretation
questions arose.  To ensure consistency across all states, the following guidelines were
established for interpreting data:

              For landfills where open years were either unavailable or extremely
              difficult to obtain, initial permit dates were used when available.

              Because several data sources were used, many landfills had multiple data
              for some fields. In some cases, data from one source conflicted with data
              from  another source. For example, two different sources may report
              completely different  names for a landfill owner.  To resolve problems with
              conflicting data, each data source was ranked according to its probable
              reliability. When data from all sources was collapsed to form one record
              for each landfill, a computer program scanned for data from the highest
              ranking source first,  filling in as many fields as possible with that data, and
              then  scanned for the next highest ranking data source, filling in fields with
              data  from this source. Fields that already contained data from a higher
              ranking source were skipped.  This procedure continued until all data
              sources had been scanned and all data fields with information from at
              least one data source were filled.

3.4    Landfill Candidacy Screening Process

       After the landfill data was collected, interpreted, and key-entered, the database was
analyzed to evaluate each landfill's probability of supporting a landfill gas-to-energy project.
Landfills were categorized into one of the following groups:

              The landfill is a current project (i.e., the landfill has participated, is
              participating or is planning to participate in a gas recovery project);

              The landfill is a candidate (i.e., the landfill has a high probability of
              generating enough methane to make a landfill gas recovery project
              economical);

              The landfill is a profile in progress (i.e., more data is required to determine
              the status of the landfill);

              The landfill is not a candidate, but may be a candidate in the future (i.e.,
              the landfill has between 500,000 and 1,000,000 tons of waste-in-place; or
              the landfill has less than 500,000 tons waste-in-place, but is receiving
              more than 75,000 tons of waste annually); or

              The landfill is not a candidate and is not likely to be a candidate in the
              future.
Data Collection Methods and         Working Draft -- June 1996                          Page 3-5
Evaluation Processes

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This categorization scheme is based on the premise that a landfill must be capable of generating
a certain amount of methane to make a gas recovery project desirable. The generation of
methane is a function of many factors, the most critical being the amount of waste-in-place and
the number of years the waste has been in the landfill. Peak methane generation occurs soon
after closure. Therefore, the longer a landfill has been closed, the less attractive it becomes for
methane recovery. For the purposes of determining candidate landfills, those landfills that
ceased accepting waste prior to 1989 were eliminated because they have a low probability of
generating enough methane to make a gas recovery project economical.  By modelling the
relationship between waste-in-place and methane generation, a cut-off of 1,000,000 tons of
waste was established; landfills having at least 1,000,000 tons of waste-in-place were
considered candidate landfills.

      The following four steps describe the landfill candidacy screening process:
         Step 1:   The first step in the process involves determining if a landfill has
                  a current project ~ is the landfill already participating in a landfill
                  gas-to-energy recovery project or planning to do so? Those
                  facilities that are already participating, are classified as
                  "operational."  Facilities that are planning landfill gas (LFG)
                  recovery projects are classified as "planned." When readily
                  available, additional data were gathered for operational and
                  planned facilities in order to present a more complete landfill
                  profile.
         Step 2:  The next step is to determine whether the landfill is receiving
                  municipal solid waste.  If a landfill receives MSW, the landfill then
                  underwent additional screening.  Landfills that do not receive
                  MSW are not considered potential candidates, since they may
                  not generate enough landfill gas to support a utilization project.
Page 3-6
Working Draft -- June 1996
Data Collection Methods and
      Evaluation Processes

-------
         Step 3:   If gas utilization is neither planned nor occurring at a facility, the
                   landfill's operating status (i.e., open or closed) is determined.
                   Landfills closed prior to January 1, 1989 were not candidates;
                   landfills that have closed after January 1, 1989 were potential
                   candidates and underwent additional screening before their
                   candidacy could be confirmed. Open landfills were all
                   considered potential candidates in this stage of the screening
                   process.  If the operating status of a landfill was not available, the
                   landfill's candidacy could not be determined.
         Step 4:   In the next step of the screening process, waste-in-place data
                   were examined for all active landfills and inactive landfills that
                   stopped receiving waste after 1988. Landfills with waste-in-place
                   in excess of 1,000,000 tons were considered candidate landfills.
                   Some states do not collect the total amount of waste-in-place at
                   each landfill. Instead, the state may have on file annual
                   acceptance rates, open years, landfill  acreage and depth, daily
                   acceptance rates, and number of days operating per week. From
                   different combinations of these data elements, a value for the
                   landfill's waste-in-place could be estimated in some cases.  If the
                   estimated waste-in-place exceeded 1,000,000 tons, the landfill
                   was considered a candidate.
       Landfills which did not meet the candidacy criteria, but have between 500,000 and
999,999 tons of waste-in-place are also listed in Chapter 6. These landfills have been included
for two reasons: (1) it is likely, if they remain operational, they will reach 1 million tons WIP within
a few years; and (2) landfills with this amount of WIP may generate enough landfill gas for direct
gas sales to industries or other end-users with smaller energy requirements.

       Landfills which had less than 500,000 tons of waste-in-place but accept at least 75,000
tons per year of waste are also listed in Chapter 6, because they also may become candidates
within a few years. Finally, Chapter 6 also lists the landfills for which waste-in-place could not be
estimated (i.e., profiles in progress). Therefore, their candidacy could not be determined, and
they could not be eliminated from this analysis.
Data Collection Methods and
Evaluation Processes
Working Draft -- June 1996
Page 3-7

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3.5    References

Chartwell 1994. Directory and Atlas of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities 1994, Chartwell
       Information Publishers.

EPRI 1992.  Survey of landfill Gas Generation Potential: 2 MW Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell,
       Electric Power Research Institute.

GAA 1994.  1994-5 Methane Recovery from Landfill Yearbook, Governmental Advisory
       Associates.

SCS 1994. Implementation Guide for Landfill Gas Recovery Projects in the Northeast:  Draft
       Final Report, SCS Engineers.

SWANA 1992. U.S. Landfill Directory, Solid Waste Association of North America.

Solid Waste Technologies 1994.  Landfill Gas-to-Energy 1994-1995 Activity Report, HCI
       Publications.
Page 3-8                        Working Draft -- June 1996         Data Collection Methods and
                                                                    Evaluation Processes

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 Summary of Statewide Collection Potential and Benefits for Candidate Landfills



Number of Candidate Landfills:                           10

Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/day):      27.9

Estimated Total Generation Potential (MW):               44.8

CO  Equivalent Available (tons/yr):1                      2,638,045 - 2,764,577
   1 - The range of values are the total annual carbon dioxide equivalent of methane reductions (low range) and
   the total annual carbon dioxide equivalent of methane reductions plus the annual carbon dioxide reductions
   realized from coal displacement (high range).

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                                                                         Updated:  June 1996
                                       Centralia LF
                               Landfill Location and Status
  Location
  City:     N.A.
  County:   Lewis
  State:    WA
       Operating Status
       Status:      Closed
       Year Open:   1958
       Year Closed: 1993
  Primary Contact (see contact information):  Robert Berg
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
                 Gas Utilization
                 Gas Collection?: Operational
                 Gas Utilization?: N.A.

                         Phone: (206)740-1371
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Construction Demolition; Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill
                         Wastes; Yard Waste
  % of Waste that is MSW:         83%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   49,160
                Year Reported:   1993

  Waste-in-Place (tons):!1/          1,769,760
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:  N.A.

                    Average Depth (feet):      25
                             Gas Collection and Control Data
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
Operational
N.A.
 85%*
 50%*
Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled:  N.A.
LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):   .    N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

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                                    Updated: June 1996
Centralia LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
Est. Additional Generation Potential:
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; Centralia Light
Environmental Benefits of

Total
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 263.1
CO Equivalent of CH Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 136.2
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 34
mmcf/d
0.8
mmcf/d
1.4
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1.4
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Capacity
(MW)
2.3
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Dept; PUD No 1 of
Utilization
Current &
Planned
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
mmcf/vr
309.6
mmcf/vr
526.3
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
526.3
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Energy
(GWh/vrt
17.2
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Lewis County

Additional
Potential
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CO-
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 6,531
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 3,000
SP_2
191
163



Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated: June 1996
                              Centraiia LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:               N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:  N.A.      Zip Code:  N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Lewis County Public Services
Contact Name:      Robert Berg
Phone Number:      (206)740-1371       Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     350 North Market Boulevard
City:               Chehalis            State:  WA       Zip Code:  98532
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is closed. Therefore, the gas generation may be declining.
                               Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                    Cheyne Road LF
  Location
  City:    N.A.
  County:  Yakima
  State:   WA
  Primary Contact (see contact information): Ron Pepper
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
    Landfill Location and Status
       Operating Status             Gas Utilization
       Status:       Open          Gas Collection?: N.A.
       Year Open:   1968           Gas Utilization?: N.A.
       Year Closed: N.A.
                                           Phone: (509) 454-2230
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes; Sewage Sludge
  % of Waste that is MSW:         55%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   41,344
               Year Reported:   1993
  Waste-in-Placeflons):3/          1,198,976
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:  N.A.
                    Average Depth (feet):      N.A.
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
N.A.              Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
N.A.              Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled:  N.A.
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):       N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                      Updated:  June 1996
                             Cheyne Road LF (continued)
                                     Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION                         mmcf/d         mmcf/vr
 (Estimated from Waste-in-Place):                                 0.7          258.9
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL            mmcf/d         mmcf/vr
   Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:                           1.2          440.2
      Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                  N.A.           N.A.
      Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                 N.A.           N.A.
      Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:                   N.A.           N.A.
   Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:                    1.2          440.2
      Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:                  N.A.           N.A.
      Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:             N.A.           N.A.
      Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:                     N.A.           N.A.
                                                           Capacity       Energy
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL                            (MW)       (GWh/vr)
   Est. Total Electric Potential:                                    1.9           14.4
      Current Reported Generation:                               N.A.           N.A.
      Planned Reported Generation:                              N.A.           N.A.
      Est. Additional Generation Potential:                         N.A.           N.A.
Utilities in County: Benton Rural Electric Assn; Bonneville Power Admin; Pacificorp; PUD No 1 of
                Benton County; PUD No 1 of Klickitat County
                         Environmental Benefits of Utilization
 Est. Potential CH_ Reduction (mmcf/yr):
               4
 CO_ Equivalent of CH  Reduction ('000 tons/yr):
 Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances:
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement:
   Displacement of Coal (tons/yr):
   Displacement of Oil (tons/yr):
 Total
  220.1
  113.9
    28
Current &
 Planned
    N.A.
    N.A.
    N.A.
                                               Total Emissions Avoided
  co2
5,462
2,509
        SO,
        160
        136
Additional
Potential
    N.A.
    N.A.
    N.A.
                                 Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated: June 1996
                            Cheyne Road LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:   N.A.     Zip Code: N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Yakima County Solid Waste Division
Contact Name:      Ron Pepper
Phone Number:      (509)454-2230       Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     128 North 2nd Street, Room 408 Courthouse
City:              Yakima             State: WA      Zip Code: 98901-2644
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                              Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                 Cowlitz County LF-B
                               Landfill Location and Status
  Location
  City:    N.A.
  County:  Cowlitz
  State:   WA
       Operating Status
       Status:      Open
       Year Open:   1974
       Year Closed: 2014
Gas Utilization
Gas Collection?: N.A.
Gas Utilization?: N.A.
  Primary Contact (see contact information): Martin Carty
  Alternate Landfill Name(s):  N.A.
                                           Phone: (206) 577-3030
                              Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Commercial Solid Waste; Construction Demolition; Industrial Solid
                         Waste; Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes
  % of Waste that is MSW:         60%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):    86,294
                Year Reported:    1993

  Waste-in-Place (tons):Jl/          1,984,762
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:  N.A.

                    Average Depth (feet):      N.A.
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
N.A.              Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
N.A.              Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled: N.A.
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):   .   N.A.
*- Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                     Updated:  June 1996
Cowlitz County LF-B (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:
. Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:

POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
Est. Additional Generation Potential:

mmcf/d
0.9
mmcf/d
1.5
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1.5
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Capacity
(MW)
2.5
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

mmcf/vr
328.6
mmcf/vr
558.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
558.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Energy
(GWh/vr)
18.3
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 1 of Cowlitz County
Environmental Benefits of
Total
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 279.4
CO Equivalent of CH Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 144.5
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 36
Utilization
Current &
Planned
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
. Additional
Potential
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CCu
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 6,933
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 3,185
so2
203
173



Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated:  June 1996
                         Cowlitz County LF-B (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.                Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.                State:  N.A.     Zip Code:  N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Cowlitz County Public Works Department
Contact Name:      Martin Carty
Phone Number:      (206)577-3030       Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     207 North 4th Avenue
City:              Kelso              State: WA      Zip Code:  98626-4189
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                               Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                 Greater Wenatchee LF
  Location
  City:     N.A.
  County:  Douglas
  State:    WA
    Landfill Location and Status
       Operating Status             Gas Utilization
       Status:      Open          Gas Collection?: N.A.
       Year Open:   1975           Gas Utilization?: N.A.
       Year Closed: N.A.
  Primary Contact (see contact information):  Eldon Richardson
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
                                           Phone: (509) 662-4591
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes; Sewage Sludge
  % of Waste that is MSW:         99%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   91,284
                Year Reported:   1993
  Waste-in-Placeflons):^         2,008,248
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:   N.A.
                    Average Depth (feet):       N.A.
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
N.A.              Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
N.A.              Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled:  N.A.
85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):   .    N.A.
*- Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                    Updated: June 1996
Greater Wenatchee LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
Est. Additional Generation Potential:
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; Nespelem Valley
Douglas County; Waterville Light Utility
mmcf/d mmcf/vr
0.9 330.7
mmcf/d mmcf/vr
1.5 562.2
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
1.5 562.2
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
Capacity Energy
(MW) (GWh/vr)
2.5 18.4
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
Elec Coop Inc; PUD No 1 of
Environmental Benefits of Utilization

Total
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 281.1
CO Equivalent of CH Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 145.5
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 36
Current & . Additional
Planned Potential
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
N.A. N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CCX,
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 6,977
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 3,205
SQ2
205
174
Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                 Updated: June 1996
                        Greater Wenatchee LF (continued)
                               Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:   N.A.     Z'PCode: N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Waste Management of Washington
Contact Name:      Eldon Richardson
Phone Number:      (509)662-4591       Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     P.O. Box 1440
City:               Wenatchee          State:  WA      Zip Code:  98807-1440
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                              Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                    Hawks Prairie LF
                               Landfill Location and Status
  Location
  City:    N.A.
  County:  Thurston
  State:   WA
       Operating Status
       Status:      Open
       Year Open:   1970
       Year Closed: 1997
  Primary Contact (see contact information): Jeff Sternhagen
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
                 Gas Utilization
                 Gas Collection?:  Operational
                 Gas Utilization?:  N.A.

                         Phone: (206)786-5136
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes
  % of Waste that is MSW:         99%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   89,467
                Year Reported:   1993

  Waste-in-Place (tons):*7          2,415,609
                     Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                     Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                     Acres Currently Landfilled:  65
                     Average Depth (feet):      60
                             Gas Collection and Control Data
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
Operational
N.A.
 85%*
 50%*
Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled:  N.A.
LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):       N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                    Updated: June 1996
Hawks Prairie LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
Est. Additional Generation Potential:
mmcf/d
1.0
mmcf/d
1.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Capacity
(MW)
2.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 1 of Lewis County; Puget
Light Co
Environmental Benefits of

Total
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 311.8
CO Equivalent of CH. Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 161.4
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 40
Utilization
Current &
Planned
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
mmcf/vr
366.9
mmcf/vr
623.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
623.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Energy
(GWh/vr)
20.4
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Sound Power &

Additional
Potential
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CO2
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 7,740
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 3,556
so2
227
193



Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated: June199(
                            Hawks Prairie LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.                Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.                State:  N.A.     Zip Code: N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Thurston County Solid Waste Division
Contact Name:      Jeff Sternhagen
Phone Number:     (206)786-5136        Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     2000 Lakeridge Drive SW
City:              Olympia             State:  WA       Zip Code:  98502-6045
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                               Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                    Hidden Valley LF
  Location
  City:     N.A.
  County:  Pierce
  State:    WA
    Landfill Location and Status
                                  Gas Utilization
Operating Status
Status:      Open
Year Open:  1959
Year Closed: 1996
  Primary Contact (see contact information):  Harvey Doman
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
                                  Gas Collection?: Operational
                                  Gas Utilization?: N.A.

                                           Phone: (206) 847-7555
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Commercial Solid Waste; Construction Demolition; Municipal Solid
                         Waste; Other Landfill Wastes
  % of Waste that is MSW:         56%
  Days Open Per Week:           7
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   458,560
                Year Reported:   1993

  Waste-in-Place (tons): a/         17,425,280
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:   65
                    Average Depth (feet):       110
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational       Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
N.A.              Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled:  N.A.
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):   .    N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                      Updated: June 199(
                            Hidden Valley LF (continued)
                                     Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION                        mmcf/d          mmcf/vr
 (Estimated from Waste-in-Place):                                 4.7         1,698.5
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL           mmcf/d         mmcf/vr
   Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:                            7.9         2,887.5
      Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                  N.A.            N.A.
      Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                  N.A.            N.A.
      Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:                    N.A.            N.A.
   Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:                     7.9         2,887.5
      Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:                  N.A.            N.A.
      Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:             N.A.            N.A.
      Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:                      N.A.            N.A.
                                                          Capacity       Energy
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL                             (MW)        (GWh/vr)
   Est. Total Electric Potential:                                   12.7            94.4
      Current Reported Generation:                               N.A.            N.A.
      Planned Reported Generation:                               N.A.            N.A.
      Est. Additional Generation Potential:                         N.A.            N.A.
Utilities in County: Alder Mutual Light Co Inc;  Bonneville Power Admin; Eatonville Power & Light
                Dept; Elmhurst Mutual Power & Light Co; Fircrest Public Light Utility;
                Lakeview Light & Power Company; Milton Electric Dept; Chop Mutual Light
                Company; Parkland Light & Water Company; Peninsula Light Company; PUD
                No 1 of Lewis County; Puget  Sound Power & Light Co
 Est. Potential CH  Reduction (mmcf/yr):
 CO  Equivalent of CH  Reduction ('000 tons/yr):
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances:

Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement:
   Displacement of Coal (tons/yr):
   Displacement of Oil (tons/yr):
Environmental Benefits of Utilization
                                Current &
                                 Planned
                                    N.A.
                                    N.A.
                                    N.A.
  Total
 1,443.7
  747.0
    188
 Total Emissions Avoided
    CO0             SO,
    	.             	'.I
35,831            1,050
16,461              895
Additional
Potential
    N.A.
    N.A.
    N.A.
                                 Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated: June 1996
                           Hidden Valley LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:   N.A.     Zip Code:  N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Land Recovery Incorporated
Contact Name:      Harvey Doman
Phone Number:      (206)847-7555       Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     P.O. Box 73057
City:              Puyallup            State: WA      Zip Code:  98373-0057
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                              Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                       Leichner LF
                               Landfill Location and Status
  Location
  City:    N.A.
  County:  Clark
  State:   WA
  Primary Contact (see contact information):  N.A.
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
       Operating Status
       Status:      Closed
       Year Open:  1939
       Year Closed: 1991
Gas Utilization
Gas Collection?: Operational
Gas Utilization?: N.A.

         Phone: N.A.
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes
  % of Waste that is MSW:         N.A.
  Days Open Per Week:            5.5*
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   N.A.
                Year Reported:   N.A.

  Waste-in-Place(tons):a'          5,750,000
                     Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                     Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                     Acres Currently Landfilled:  80

                     Average Depth (feet):      38
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational       Year Gas Collection Began:          N.A.
N.A.              Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled:  N.A.
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):          N.A.
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):       N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - Unadjusted Reported WIP (1991) value.
                                    Candidate Landfills

-------
                                     Updated:  June 1996
Leichner LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
 Est. Additional Generation Potential:
mmcf/d
1.8
mmcf/d
3.1
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
3.1
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Capacity
(MW)
4.9
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
mmcf/yr
662.7
mmcf/vr
1,126.6
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1,126.6
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Energy
(GWh/yr)
36.8
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 1 of Clark County
Environmental Benefits of
Total
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 563.3
CO Equivalent of CH Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 291.5
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 73
Utilization
Current &
Planned
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

Additional
Potential
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CO2
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 13,980
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 6,422
so2
410
349


Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated: June 1996
                              Leichner LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.                Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.                State:  N.A.     Zip Code: N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.                Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.                State:  N.A.     Zip Code:  N.A.
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is closed.  Therefore, the gas generation may be declining.
                               Candidate Landfills

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                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                    Olympic View LF
                               Landfill Location and Status
  Location
  City:     N.A.
  County:  Kitsap
  State:    WA
       Operating Status
       Status:      Open
       Year Open:  1960
       Year Closed: 2004
  Primary Contact (see contact information):  Scott Daniels
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): Olympic View SLF
Gas Utilization
Gas Collection?: Operational
Gas Utilization?: N.A.

         Phone: (206) 674-2331
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Commercial Solid Waste; Construction Demolition; Industrial Solid
                         Waste; Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes; Sewage Sludge;
                         Yard Waste
  % of Waste that is MSW:         34%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   189,304
                Year Reported:   1993

  Waste-in-Place(tons):a/          7,004,248
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:   65

                    Average Depth (feet):       100
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational        Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
N.A.               Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled: N.A.
85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):   .    N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                    Updated: June 1996
Olympic View LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
Est. Additional Generation Potential:
mmcf/d
2.1
mmcf/d
3.6
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
3.6
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Capacity
(MW)
5.8
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 3 of Mason County; Puget
Light Co
Environmental Benefits of
Total
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 657.9
CO Equivalent of CH. Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 340.4
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 86
Utilization
Current &
Planned
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
mmcf/yr
774.0
mmcf/vr
1,315.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1,315.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Energy
(GWh/vr)
43.0
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Sound Power &

Additional
Potential
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CCX,
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 16,328
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 7,501
so2
479
408



Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated:  June 1996
                            Olympic View LF (continued)
                                Contact information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:  N.A.     Zip Code: N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Kitsap County SLF Incorporated
Contact Name:      Scott Daniels
Phone Number:      (206)674-2331        Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     P.O. Box 438
City:              Bremerton           State: WA      Zip Code:  98312
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                              Candidate Landfills

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                                                                        Updated: June 1996
                                Roosevelt Regional LF
  Location
  City:    N.A.
  County: Klickitat
  State:   WA
    Landfill Location and Status
       Operating Status             Gas Utilization
       Status:       Open          Gas Collection?: Operational
       Year Open:   1990           Gas Utilization?: N.A.
       Year Closed:  2030
  Primary Contact (see contact information): Rick Morck
  Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
                                           Phone: (206) 646-2400
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Ash; Construction Demolition; Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill
                         Wastes; Sewage Sludge; Yard Waste
  % of Waste that is MSW:         45%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5

  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   1,018,032
                Year Reported:   1993

  Waste-in-Place (tons):!1/          7,126,224
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.

                    Acres Currently Landfilled:   72

                    Average Depth (feet):       180
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type;:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational        Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
N.A.              Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled: N.A.
85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):   .    N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                    Updated:  June 1996
Roosevelt Regional LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
Est. Additional Generation Potential:
mmcf/d
2.2
mmcf/d
3.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
3.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Capacity
(MW)
5.9
IM.A.
N.A.
N.A.
mmcf/vr
784.8
mmcf/vr
1,334.1
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1,334.1
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Energy
(GWh/vr)
43.6
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 1 of Klickitat County
Environmental Benefits of

Total
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 667.1
CO Equivalent of CH. Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 345.2
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 87
Utilization
Current &
Planned
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

. Additional
Potential
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CCu
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 16,556
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 7,606
so.
485
414



Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated: June 1996
                        Roosevelt Regional LF (continued)
                               Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:               N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:   N.A.     Zip Code:  N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Regional Disposal Company
Contact Name:      Rick Morck
Phone Number:      (206) 646-2400       Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     200 112th Avenue NE, Suite 300
City:               Bellevue            State: WA      Zip Code: 99004
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                              Candidate Landfills

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                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                                   Terrace Heights LF
  Location
  City:     N.A.
  County:  Yakima
  State:    WA
  Primary Contact (see contact information):  Ron Pepper
  Alternate  Landfill Name(s): N.A.
    Landfill Location and Status
       Operating Status             Gas Utilization
       Status:       Open          Gas Collection?: N.A.
       Year Open:   1974           Gas Utilization?: N.A.
       Year Closed: 2012
                                           Phone: (509) 454-2230
                               Waste Collection Information
  Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes; Sewage Sludge; Yard
                         Waste
  % of Waste that is MSW:         89%
  Days Open Per Week:           5.5
  Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):  ' 162,053
                Year Reported:   1993

  Waste-in-Place(tons):a/          3,727,219
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:  N.A.
                    Average Depth (feet):      N.A.
  Collection System Status:
  Collection System Type:
  Collection Efficiency:
  Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
N.A.              Year Gas Collection Began:         N.A.
N.A.              Est. Percentage of LF Acres Welled:  N.A.
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         N.A.
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):       N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - WIP calculated from acceptance rate and open year.
                                   Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                       Updated: June 1996
                           Terrace Heights LF (continued)
                                     Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION                         mmcf/d         mmcf/yr
 (Estimated from Waste-in-Place):                                  1.3          483.2
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL            mmcf/d         mmcf/vr
   Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:                            2.3          821.5
      Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                  N.A.           N.A.
      Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                 N.A.           N.A.
      Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:                   N.A.           N.A.
   Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:                     2.3          821.5
      Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:                  N.A.           N.A.
      Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:            N.A.           N.A.
      Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:                     N.A.           N.A.
                                                           Capacity       Energy
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL                            (MW)       (GWh/vr)
   Est. Total Electric Potential:                                     3.6           26.9
      Current Reported Generation:                              N.A.           N.A.
      Planned Reported Generation:                              N.A.           N.A.
      Est. Additional Generation Potential:                         N.A.           N.A.
Utilities in County: Benton Rural Electric Assn; Bonneville Power Admin; Pacificorp; PUD No 1 of
                Beriton County; PUD No 1 of Klickitat County
                         Environmental Benefits of Utilization
 Est. Potential CH.  Reduction (mmcf/yr):
               4
 CO2 Equivalent of CHL Reduction ('000 tons/yr):
 Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances:
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement:
   Displacement of Coal (tons/yr):
   Displacement of Oil (tons/yr):
  Total
  410.8
  212.5
     53
Current &
 Planned
    N.A.
    N.A.
    N.A.
                                               Total Emissions Avoided
   CQ2
10,194
 4,683
        sa,
        299
        255
Additional
Potential
    N.A.
    N.A.
    N.A.
                                 Candidate Landfills

-------
                                                                  Updated: June 1996
                          Terrace Heights LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:   N.A.     Zip Code: N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Yakima County Solid Waste Division
Contact Name:      Ron Pepper
Phone Number:      (509)454-2230       Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     128 North 2nd Street, 408 Courthouse
City:              Yakima             State: WA      Zip Code:  98901-2644
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                               Candidate Landfills

-------

-------

-------

-------
   Summary of Statewide Collection Potential and Benefits for Current Projects
Number of Current Projects:                            5

Estimated Total LFG Collection Potential (mmcf/day):     25.6

Estimated Total Generation Potential (MW):              57.0

CO  Equivalent Available (tons/yr):1                     2,415,613 - 2,576,626
    1 - The range of values are the total annual carbon dioxide equivalent of methane reductions (low range) and
    the total annual carbon dioxide equivalent of methane reductions plus the annual carbon dioxide reductions
    realized from coal displacement (high range).

-------
                                                                        Updated: June 1996
                                      Cathcart LF
                              Landfill Location and Status
 Location
 City:   Snohomish
 County: Snohomish
 State:  WA
      Operating Status
      Status:       Closed
      Year Open:   1980
      Year Closed:  1992
 Primary Contact (see contact information): Jeff Kelly-Clarke
 Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
              Gas Utilization
              Gas Collection?: Operational
              Gas Utilization?: Planned

                        Phone: (206) 388-3425
                              Waste Collection Information
 Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes
 % of Waste that is MSW:
 Days Open Per Week:
 Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):
               Year Reported:

 Waste-in-Place (tons):a/
      N.A.
      5.5*
      314,600
      N.A.

      3,258,989
Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
Acres Currently Landfilled:  56
Average Depth (feet):      110
 Collection System Status:
 Collection System Type:
 Collection Efficiency:
 Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational       Year Gas Collection Began:        1989
Trenches; Wells   Est. Percentage of LF Area Welled:  100%
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):        5.18
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):      2.59
 Utilization System Status:
 End-use of Collected Gas:
 Utilization System Type:
 System Description:
 Energy Purchaser(s):
         Gas Utilization Data
Planned           Year Project Initiated:   N.A.
100%  utilized;    0%    flared;   0%     vented
1C Engine
N.A.
PUD No 1 of Snohomish County
* - Default value.
a/ - Unadjusted Reported WIP (1992) value.
                                    Current Projects

-------
                                                                                    Updated:  June 1996
Cathcart LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:^
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:07
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:c/
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
Est. Total Electric Potential:
Current Reported Generation:
Planned Reported Generation:
Est. Additional Generation Potential:0'
mmcf/d
1.2
mmcf/d
5.2
5.2
0.0
0.0
5.2
0.0
5.2
0.0
Capacity
(MW)
8.3
0.0
6.6
1.7
mmcf/vr
441.7
mmcf/vr
1,892.2
1,892.2
0.0
0.0
1,892.2
0.0
1,892.2
0.0
Energy
(GWh/vr)
61.9
0.0
49.1
12.7
Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 1 of Snohomish County
Environmental Benefits of Utilization
Current &
Total Planned
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 946.1
4
COn Equivalent of CH A Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 489.5
2 4
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 123
946.1
489.5
98
Additional
Potential
0.0
0.0
25
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CO9
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 23,480
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 10,787
S00
.
688
586



c/ - This value is calculated from other estimated values and is particularly sensitive to the following factors:
(1) whether the landfill is open or closed and (2) portion of landfill that is welled.
d/ - The Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume exceeded the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential.
Therefore, the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential was set to the Current Reported LF Gas Collection
Volume.  Consequently, no value for Estimated Additional LF Gas Collection Potential is calculated, although
Additional Potential may exist.
                                          Current Projects

-------
                                                                   Updated: June 1996
                              Cathcart LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  Snohomish County
                  N.A.
                  N.A.                Fax Number:   N.A.
Contact Name:
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:               N.A.
                                      State:  N.A.
Zip Code:  N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR;
Organization Name:  Snohomish County Solid Waste Division
Contact Name:      Jeff Kelly-Clarke
Phone Number:     (206)388-3425        Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     2930 Wetmore Avenue
City:               EEverett              State:  WA      Zip Code:  98201-4017
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM DEVELOPER
Organization Name:  F'UD No 1 of Snohomish County
                  N.A.
                  N.A.                Fax Number:   N.A.
                  N.A.
                  N.A.                State:  N.A.      Zip Code:  N.A.
Contact Name:
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:
City:
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM OPERATOR
Organization Name:  F*UD No 1 of Snohomish County
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.                Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:               N.A.                State:  N.A.     Zip Code:  N.A.

                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Gas-to-electricity project tabled & later revived; now economically viable. However, gas
generation curve on downside; need to do something soon. Public Utility District No 1 will
probably develop energy recovery. Condensate analyzed & can be treated with leachate.
Removes cost risk for County. Gas currently flared.

Note:  This landfill is closed. Therefore, the gas generation may be declining.
                                 Current Projects

-------
                                                                        Updated:  June 1996
                                     Cedar Hills LF
                               Landfill Location and Status
 Location
 City:   Maple Valley
 County: King
 State:  WA
      Operating Status
      Status:       Open
      Year Open:   1964
      Year Closed:  2022
 Primary Contact (see contact information):  Rodney Hansen
 Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
Gas Utilization
Gas Collection?: Operational
Gas Utilization?: Planned

          Phone:  (206) 296-4385
                              Waste Collection Information
 Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes
 % of Waste that is MSW:        97%
 Days Open Per Week:            5.5*
 Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   919,857
               Year Reported:   1993

 Waste-in-Place (tons): a/         21,839,714
                    Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
                    Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
                    Acres Currently Landfilled:  200
                    Average Depth (feet):       150
 Collection System Status:
 Collection System Type:
 Collection Efficiency:
 Methane Concentration:
   Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational       Year Gas Collection Began:        1989
Trenches; Wells   Est. Percentage of LF Area Welled:  47%
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):        10.00
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):      5.00
 Utilization System Status:
 End-use of Collected Gas:
 Utilization System Type:
 System Description:
 Energy Purchaser(s):
         Gas Utilization Data
Planned           Year Project Initiated:   1996
N.A.   utilized;   N.A.   flared;    N.A.    vented
Combined Cycle
Electricity
Puget Sound Power & Light Co
* - Default value.
a/ - Reported WIP (1994) adjusted to current year.
                                    Current Projects

-------
                                                                           Updated: June 1996
                                Cedar Hills LF (continued)
 EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
                                        Site Potential
     (Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
 LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
    Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:d/
       Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
       Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
       Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:c/
    Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
       Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
       Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
       Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
 POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
    Est. Total Electric Potential:
       Current Reported Generation:
       Planned Reported Generation:
       Est. Additional Generation Potential:c/
             mmcf/d
                 5.7
             mmcf/d
                10.0
                10.0
                 0.0
                 0.0
                10.0
                N.A.
                N.A.
                N.A.
             Capacity
               (MvV)
                32.0
                 0.0
                32.0
                 0.0
                   mmcf/yr
                  2,090.1
                   mmcf/yr
                  3,650.0
                  3,650.0
                      0.0
                      0.0
                  3,650.0
                     N.A.
                     N.A.
                     N.A.
                 Energy
                (GWh/vr)
                    238.3
                      0.0
                    238.3
                      0.0
 Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 1 of Snohomish County; Puget Sound
                  Power & Light Co; Seattle City Light; Tanner Electric Cooperative
                          Environmental Benefits of Utilization
 Est. Potential CH  Reduction (mmcf/yr):
                4
 CO,, Equivalent of CH A Reduction ('000 tons/yr):
    2                4
 Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances:
 Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement:
    Displacement of Coal (tons/yr):
    Displacement of Oil (tons/yr):
  Total
1,825.0
  944.3
   476
Current &
 Planned
    N.A.
    N.A.
    476
Additional
Potential
    N.A.
    N.A.
      0
                                                  Total Emissions Avoided
    CQ2
 90,443
 41,550
          2
        2,651
        2,259
c/ - This value is calculated from other estimated values and is particularly sensitive to the following factors:
(1) whether the landfill is open or closed and (2) portion of landfill that is welled.
d/ - The Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume exceeded the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential.
Therefore, the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential was set to the Current Reported LF Gas Collection
Volume.  Consequently, no value for Estimated Additional LF Gas Collection Potential is calculated, although
Additional Potential may exist.
                                     Current Projects

-------
                                                                   Updated: June 1996
                             Cedar Hills LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:
Contact Name:
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:
City:
King County
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State:  N.A.
Zip Code:  N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  King County Solid Waste Division
Contact Name:      Rodney Hansen
Phone Number:      (206) 296-4385        Fax Number:
Mailing Address:     400 Yesler Way, Room 600
City:               Seattle              State:  WA
                                N.A.
                                   Zip Code:  98104-2637
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM DEVELOPER
Organization Name:  Laidlaw, Inc.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:               N.A.
                   Fax Number:  N.A.
                   State:  N.A.
                Zip Code:  N.A.
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM OPERATOR
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:               N.A.
                   Fax Number:  N.A.
                   State:  N.A.
                Zip Code:  N.A.
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Laidlaw, Inc. will finance this project. This facility is expected to have a generating capacity
greater than 20 MW.
Note: This landfill is open. Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                                 Current Projects

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                                                                        Updated:  June 1996
                                  Kent Highlands LF
                               Landfill Location and Status
 Location
 City:   Kent
 County: King
 State:  WA
      Operating Status
      Status:       Closed
      Year Open:   1968
      Year Closed:  1986
 Primary Contact (see contact information):  N.A.
 Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
              Gas Utilization
              Gas Collection?: Operational
              Gas Utilization?: Planned

                       Phone: N.A
                              Waste Collection Information
 Types of Waste Accepted: Other Landfill Wastes; Yard Waste
 % of Waste that is MSW:
 Days Open Per Week:
 Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):
               Year Reported:

 Waste-in-Place (tons):a/
      N.A.

      5.5*
      N.A.
      N.A.

      8,000,000
Tipping Fee ($/ton):        ISI.A.
Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
Acres Currently Landfilled:   60
Average Depth (feet):       110
 Collection System Status:
 Collection System Type:
 Collection Efficiency:
 Methane Concentration:
   Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational       Year Gas Collection Began:         1986
Trenches; Wells   Est. Percentage of LF Area Welled:   100%
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         3.67
 50%*             CH 4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):       1.84
 Utilization System Status:
 End-use of Collected Gas:
 Utilization System Type:
 System Description:
 Energy Purchaser(s):
         Gas Utilization Data
Planned          Year Project Initiated:   N.A.
0%    utilized;   100%   flared;   0%     vented
1C Engine
N.A.
Seattle City Light
*- Default value.
a/ - Unadjusted Reported WIP (1994) value.
                                    Current Projects

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                                                                         Updated: June 1996
                              Kent Highlands LF (continued)
                                       Site Potential
 EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION                         mmcf/d         mmcf/vr
     (Estimated from Waste-in-Place):                                2.4          862.3
 LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL           mmcf/d         mmcf/vr
    Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:                            4.0         1,465.9
       Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                    3.7         1,340.3
       Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:                   0.0            0.0
       Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:07                    0.3          125.6
    Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:                     4.0         1,465.9
       Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:                    0.0            0.0
       Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:              0.0            0.0
       Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:c/                      4.0         1,465.9
                                                             Capacity       Energy
 POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL                              (MW)       (GWh/vr)
    Est. Total Electric Potential:                                     6.4           47.9
       Current Reported Generation:                                0.0            0.0
       Planned Reported Generation:                                3.0           22.3
       Est. Additional Generation Potential:07                          3.4           25.6
 Utilities in County: Bonneville Power Admin; PUD No 1 of Snohomish County; Puget Sound
                  Power & Light Co; Seattle City Light; Tanner Electric  Cooperative
                          Environmental Benefits of Utilization
 Est. Potential CH  Reduction (mmcf/yr):
                4
 CO  Equivalent of CH  Reduction ('000 tons/yr):
 Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances:
 Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement:
    Displacement of Coal (tons/yr):
    Displacement of Oil (tons/yr):
 Total
 733.0
 379.3
   95
Current &
 Planned
   670.1
   346.8
     44
Additional
Potential
    62.8
    32.5
     51
                                                 Total Emissions Avoided
   co2
18,191
 8,357
         S0_2
         533
         454
c/ - This value is calculated from other estimated values and is particularly sensitive to the following factors:
(1) whether the landfill is open or closed and (2) portion of landfill that is welled.
                                     Current Projects

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                                                                   Updated: June 1996
                          Kent Highlands LF (continued)
                               Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  City of Seattle
Contact Name:
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:
City:
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.


Fax Number:

State:

N.A.

N.A.

Zip Code:



N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.
Fax Number:   N.A.
State: N.A.
Zip Code:  N.A.
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM DEVELOPER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:
City:
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Fax Number:
State: N.A.
N.A.
Zip Code: N.A.
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Energy Tactics, Inc. (in discussion)
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:      N.A.                 Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.                 State:  N.A.      Zip Code: N.A.

                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
In discussion phase with Energy Tactics (energy portion of project). Problem: low energy
prices. Interior wells are drilled but not yet hooked up. Former passive vents hooked up to gas
extraction system. Landfill in final closure;  HOPE cover system. Condensate piped to leachate
collection system.

Note:  This landfill is closed. Therefore, the gas generation may be declining.
                                 Current Projects

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                                                                        Updated: June 1996
                                      Northside LF
                               Landfill Location and Status
 Location
 City:   Spokane
 County: Spokane
 State:  WA
 Primary Contact (see contact information):  Dennis Hein
 Alternate Landfill Name(s): N.A.
      Operating Status
      Status:       Closed
      Year Open:   1968
      Year Closed:  1993
              Gas Utilization
              Gas Collection?: Operational
              Gas Utilization?: Planned

                        Phone:  (509) 625-7878
                              Waste Collection Information
 Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste
 % of Waste that is MSW:
 Days Open Per Week:
 Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):
               Year Reported:

 Waste-in-Place (tons): a/
      N.A.

      5.5*
      N.A.
      N.A.

      4,000,000
Tipping Fee ($/ton):        N.A.
Design Capacity (tons):     N.A.
Acres Currently Landfilled:  350
Average Depth (feet):       100
 Collection System Status:
 Collection System Type:
 Collection Efficiency:
 Methane Concentration:
   Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational       Year Gas Collection Began:         1993
Trenches; Wells   Est. Percentage of LF Area Welled:   44%
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         2.88
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):       1.44
 Utilization System Status:
 End-use of Collected Gas:
 Utilization System Type:
 System Description:
 Energy Purchaser(s):
         Gas Utilization Data
Planned           Year Project Initiated:   1995
0%    utilized;   100%   flared;   0%     vented
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - Unadjusted Reported WIP (1994) value.
                                    Current Projects

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                                                                                   Updated:  June 1996
Northside LF (continued)
Site Potential
EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION mmcf/d
(Estimated from Waste-in-Place): 1.4
LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL mmcf/d
Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:^ 2.9
Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume: 2.9
Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume: 0.0
Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential: c/ 0.0
Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential: 2.9
Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized: 0.0
Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized: 0.0
Est. Additional Lfr Gas Available for Use:c/ 2.9
Capacity
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL (MW)
Est. Total Electric Potential: 4.6
Current Reported Generation: N.A.
Planned Reported Generation: N.A.
Est. Additional Generation Potential: N.A.
Utilities in County: Bornneville Power Admin; Cheney Light Dept; Inland Power &
Kootenai Electric Coop Inc; Modern Electric Water Company;
Power; Washington Water Power Company
Environmental Benefits of Utilization
Current &
Total Planned
Est. Potential CH Reduction (mmcf/yr): 525.6 525.6
4
CO,, Equivalent of CH t Reduction ('000 tons/yr): 272.0 272.0
2 4
Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances: 68 N.A.
Total Emissions Avoided
Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement: CO? SO?
Displacement of Coal (tons/yr): 13,045 382
Displacement of Oil (tons/yr): 5,993 326

mmcf/yr
507.4
mmcf/vr
1,051.2
1,051.2
0.0
0.0
1,051.2
0.0
0.0
1,051.2
Energy
(GWh/vr)
34.4
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Light Company;
Vera Water &

Additional
Potential
0.0
0.0
N.A.




c/ - This value is calculated from other estimated values and is particularly sensitive to the following factors:
(1) whether the landfill is open or closed and (2) portion of landfill that is welled.
d/ - The Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume exceeded the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential.
Therefore, the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential was set to the Current Reported LF Gas Collection
Volume.  Consequently, no value for Estimated Additional LF Gas Collection Potential is calculated, although
Additional Potential may exist.
                                          Current Projects

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                                                                   Updated: June 1996
                             Northside LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  City of Spokane
Contact Name:
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:
City:
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.


Fax Number:

State:

N.A.

N.A.

Zip Code:



N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  Spokane Solid Waste Management
Contact Name:      Dennis Hein
Phone Number:     (509) 625-7878       Fax Number:  N.A.
Mailing Address:     East 1225 Marietta
City:               Spokane           State:  WA      Zip Code:  99201-2751
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM DEVELOPER
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:
City:
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Fax Number:
State: N.A.
N.A.
Zip Code:
N.A.
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM OPERATOR
Organization Name:  N.A.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:
Mailing Address:
City:
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Fax Number:

State: N.A.
N.A.

Zip Code:


N.A.
                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Feasibility study being done by Bovay Northwest. Looking at electricity generation, direct gas
sales or upgrade to high Btu pipeline quality gas. Gas currently collected & flared from wellfield
& perimeter systems. Thus far, tipping fees have paid for LFG collection system.
Note: This landfill is closed. Therefore, the gas generation may be declining.
                                 Current Projects

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                                                                        Updated:  June  1996
                                       Tacoma LF
                              Landfill Location and Status
 Location
 City:   Tacoma
 County: Pierce
 State:  WA
 Primary Contact (see contact information):  Phillip Ringrose
 Alternate Landfill Name(s): City of Tacoma LF
      Operating Status
      Status:      Open
      Year Open:  1960
      Year Closed: 2014
              Gas Utilization
              Gas Collection?: Operational
              Gas Utilization?: Planned

                        Phone: (206)591-5543
                              Waste Collection Information
 Types of Waste Accepted: Municipal Solid Waste; Other Landfill Wastes
 % of Waste that is MSW:
 Days Open Per Week:
      99%
      5.5*
Tipping Fee ($/ton):
IM.A.
 Annual Acceptance Rate (tons):   55,378
               Year Reported:   1993
Design Capacity (tons):     IM.A.
Acres Currently Landfilled:  130
Average Depth (feet):      50
 Waste-in-Place (tons): a/
     5,610,756
 Collection System Status:
 Collection System Types:
 Collection Efficiency:
 Methane Concentration:
  Gas Collection and Control Data
Operational       Year Gas Collection Began:         1986
Wells             Est. Percentage of LF Area Welled:   82%
 85%*             LF Gas Collected (mmcf/d):         3.50
 50%*             CH4 Gas Collected (mmcf/d):       1.75
 Utilization System Status:
 End-use of Collected Gas:
 Utilization System Type::
 System Description:
 Energy Purchaser(s):
         Gas Utilization Data
Planned           Year Project Initiated:   1995
N.A.   utilized;    N.A.   flared;   N.A.   vented
1C Engine
Electricity
N.A.
* - Default value.
a/ - Reported WIP (1994) adjusted to current year.
                                    Current Projects

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                                                                          Updated:  June 1996
                                  Tacoma LF (continued)
 EST. TOTAL METHANE GENERATION
                                        Site Potential
     (Estimated from Waste-in-Place):
 LF GAS COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL
    Est. Total LF Gas Collection Potential:0"
       Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
       Planned Reported LF Gas Collection Volume:
       Est. Additional LF Gas Collection Potential:c/
    Est. Total LF Gas Utilization Volume Potential:
       Current Reported Volume of LF Gas Utilized:
       Planned Reported Volume of LF Gas to be Utilized:
       Est. Additional LF Gas Available for Use:
 POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL
    Est. Total Electric Potential-
       Current Reported Generation:
       Planned Reported Generation:
       Est. Additional Generation Potential:0'
            mmcf/d
                1.8
            mmcf/d
                3.5
                3.5
                0.0
                0.0
                3.5
               N.A.
               N.A.
               N.A.
            Capacity
              (MW)
                5.6
                0.0
                3.0
                2.6
                  mmcf/vr
                   650.3
                  mmcf/vr
                  1,277.5
                  1,277.5
                      0.0
                      0.0
                  1,277.5
                    N.A.
                    N.A.
                    N.A.
                 Energy
                (GWh/vrt
                    41.8
                      0.0
                    22.3
                    19.4
 Utilities in County: Alder Mutual Light Co Inc; Bonneville Power Admin; Eatonville Power & Light
                  Dept; Elmhurst Mutual Power & Light Co; Fircrest Public Light Utility;
                  Lakeview Light & Power Company; Milton Electric Dept; Ohop Mutual Light
                  Company; Parkland Light & Water Company; Peninsula Light Company; PUD
                  No 1 of Lewis County; Puget Sound Power & Light Co
                          Environmental Benefits of Utilization
 Est. Potential CH  Reduction (mmcf/yr):
                4
 CO,, Equivalent of CH A Reduction ('000 tons/yr):
    2                4
 Estimated Acid Rain Bonus Allowances:
 Emissions Avoided through Fuel Displacement:
    Displacement of Coal (tons/yr):
    Displacement of Oil (tons/yr):
 Total
 638.8
 330.5
   83
Current &
 Planned
    N.A.
    N.A.
     44
Additional
Potential
    N.A.
    N.A.
     38
                                                 Total Emissions Avoided
   co2
15,853
 7,283
         SQ2
         465
         396
c/ - This value is calculated from other estimated values and is particularly sensitive to the following factors:
(1) whether the landfill is open or closed and (2) portion of landfill that is welled.
d/ - The Current Reported LF Gas Collection Volume exceeded the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential.
Therefore, the Estimated Total LF Gas Collection Potential was set to the Current Reported LF Gas Collection
Volume.  Consequently, no value for Estimated Additional LF Gas Collection Potential is calculated, although
Additional Potential may exist.
                                     Current Projects

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                                                                    Updated: June 1996
                              Tacoma LF (continued)
                                Contact Information
LANDFILL OWNER
Organization Name:  City of Tacoma, Refuse Utility Division
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     IM.A.                Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              IM.A.                State:  N.A.      Zip Code:  N.A.
LANDFILL OPERATOR
Organization Name:  City of Tacoma, Refuse Utility Division
Contact Name:      Phillip Ringrose
Phone Number:     (206)591-5543       Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     3510 South Mullen Street
City:              Tacoma             State:  WA       Zip Code:  98409-2200
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM DEVELOPER
Organization Name:  Energy Tactics, Inc.
Contact Name:      Stan Drake
Phone Number:     (516)924-5300       Fax Number:   (516)924-5627
Mailing Address:     P.O. Box 7
City:	Yaphank	State:  NY       Zip Code:  11980	
ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM OPERATOR
Organization Name:  E-nergy Tactics, Inc.
Contact Name:      N.A.
Phone Number:     N.A.                Fax Number:   N.A.
Mailing Address:     N.A.
City:              N.A.                State:  N.A.      Zip Code:  N.A.

                  Comments Relating to LFG Recovery Projects
Project has been delayed due to low electricity prices. Energy Tactics, Inc. (developer)
negotiating with several utilities for better rates. Landfill operating under consent decree
(Superfund site).
Note: This landfill is open.  Therefore, the gas generation may be increasing.
                                 Current Projects

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Profile Index

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F

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                                   Landfill Index
                                    Washington
Candidate Landfills
     Centralia LF
     Cheyne Road LF
     Cowlitz County LF-B
     Greater Wenatchee LF
     Hawks Prairie LF
     Hidden Valley LF
     Leichner LF
     Olympic View LF
     Roosevelt Regional LF
     Terrace Heights LF
Current Projects
     Cathcart LF
     Cedar Hills LF
     Kent Highlands LF
     Northside LF
     Tacoma LF
Profiles in Progress
     Carnation LF
     Delano LF
     Enumclaw LF
     Ephrata LF
     Fort Lewis LF #5
     Gibralter LF
     Holden Village LF
     Inmari LF
     Manson LF
     New Waste Inc.  LF
     North County LF
     Odessa LF
     Okanogan LF
     Olalla LF

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                                    Landfill Index
                                     Washington
     Pasco SLF
     Point Roberts LF
     Port Angeles SLF
     Rainbow Valley LF
     Richland LF
     San Juan County LF
     Snipes Mount LF
     South County LF
     Stevens County LF
     Sudbury Road LF
     West LF
     Whitman County LF
     Yakima Firing Center
WIP* 500,000 to 999,999 tons
     Asotin County LF
     Cowlitz County LF(A)
     Hansville  LF
     Mason County LF
* WIP = Waste-in-Place. Profiles for landfills with WIP between 500,000 and 999,999 tons are not included in
this report.

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