United States
             Environmental Protection
3Ts for Reducing Lead  in  Drinking Water
                                                               in Schools and
                                                               Child  Care
As a public water supplier, you perform regular tests to
ensure that the water you deliver meets all federal and
state standards for lead.  However, children may still be
at risk from elevated levels of lead in drinking water due
to the pipes or plumbing fixtures found in their school
and child care facilities. Although most lead exposure
occurs when people eat paint chips and inhale dust, the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates
that up to 20% of lead exposure may come from drinking
water. Children are extremely vulnerable to the health
risks associated with exposure to elevated levels of lead.
As children spend a significant portion of their days in
a school or child care setting, it is critical to ensure that
the drinking water sources in these environments do not
contain elevated lead levels.
  Lend your expertise to prevent lead
  contamination and keep our children
  safe from lead exposure.  Partner with
  your local schools to start a Lead in
  Drinking Water Control Program.
To help schools safeguard their occupant's health, the
EPA developed the 37s for Reducing Lead in Drinking
Water in Schools: Revised Technical Guidance.  The
3Ts - training, testing and telling -  provide information
schools and child care centers need to: identify potential
sources of lead in their facilities, monitor school drinking
water for elevated lead levels, resolve problems if
elevated lead levels are found, and communicate about
their lead control programs.

You can affirm and communicate your utility's
commitment to minimizing lead exposure at the tap
by partnering with your local schools and child care
providers to implement a 37s Program. Your expertise
and collaboration could aid your local schools and child
care centers in:
                                                     Understanding the Source of Lead in Drinking
                                                     As a utility, you may choose to provide information
                                                     on how lead leaches from facility plumbing, water
                                                     quality factors affecting the water's corrosivity, or
                                                     your corrosion control program. Simply providing
                                                     your Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) may be
                                                     Developing a Sampling Plan
                                                     Most schools and child care facilities are not familiar
                                                     with water quality sampling. You can inform
                                                     appropriate school staff about identifying and
                                                     tracking sample locations, proper timing of sample
                                                     events, sampling protocols and management of
                                                     sample results.
                                                     Conducting Proper Sample Collection
                                                     You may assist schools and child care facilities in
                                                     proper sampling protocols to assure correct results.
                                                     This assistance may include direct participation
                                                     in training events or a train-the-trainer technical
                                                     assistance strategy.
                                                     Analyzing Samples
                                                     Assistance in this area can take a number of forms,
                                                     including explaining the appropriate analytical
                                                     methods, identifying certified laboratories and
                                                     assisting in selection of laboratory services, or
                                                     providing analytical services through in-house
                                                    Effects of Exposure to Lead:
                                                    Infants and children exposed to lead can
                                                    experience: delays in physical and mental
                                                    development, lower IQ levels, reduced attention
                                                    span, learning disabilities,  hearing loss,
                                                    hyperactivity, and poor classroom performance.

>  Reviewing Results and Options to Control Lead
   As a water supplier, you may have personnel available
   to interpret sample results and help school decision
   makers understand identify cost-effective control

>•  Targeting Evaluation Effort
   In school districts with multiple buildings dedicated
   to teaching, it may not be immediately possible to
   sample every location. You may be able to offer
   support in prioritizing locations by evaluating lead
   levels in a limited or targeted group of facilities. For
   example, you might help a school system develop
   a pilot approach to evaluating  its facilities and to
   identify the characteristics of buildings that make
   them especially vulnerable to elevated levels of lead
   in the drinking water.
                              Everyone can play a
                              role in ensuring that
                              schools and child care
                              centers provide safe
                              water for children to
                              drink. Water utilities
                              have established
                              themselves as
                              national leaders in
                              public health. You
                              can help prevent
                              children's exposure
to lead in drinking water by partnering with your local
schools and child care centers to promote and  implement
the 37s for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Schools.
Collaborative partnerships provide a great opportunity
for community involvement in drinking water issues and
public health protection.
Potential Sources of
Lead in Drinking Water:
lead solder; lead pipe
and pipe fittings; faucets,
valves, meters and other
system components
containing brass;
Here is a list of things to keep in mind
before you contact a school/child care

> If an effort is underway, find out
   who is heading up the effort and
   work with them

> Make sure your contribution is part
   of a coordinated effort

>• Ensure you've identified the cost and
   benefits of assistance for your utility

*• Identify possible roles for your utility
   and schools

> Have in mind possible and  realistic
   roles for the school, keeping in mind
   that they have many competing

> Schools may have complex
   governance structures—you may
   need to talk with many parties,
   including administrators, parents,
   lawyers, or school boards  before
   moving forward.
                                               DOWNLOAD The 37s For Reducing Lead In
                                               Drinking Water In Schools: Revised Technical
                                               Guidance at no cost by visiting www.epa.
                                               gov/safewater/schools or order a free copy
                                               by calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at
Office of Water (4606M)
    www. e pa. g ov/saf ewater
October 2007