United States
                             Environmental Protection
                             Agency
                     Office of Water
                     4601
            EPA 811-F-95-004S-T
                  October 1995
                             National  Primary Drinking
                             Water Regulations
                             1,1,2-Trichloroethane
  CHEMICAL/ PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

  CAS NUMBER: 79-00-5

  COLOR/ FORM/ODOR:
    Clear liquid with a pleasant, chloro-
    form-like odor

  M.P.: -36.6 C   B.P.: 113.8'C

  VAPOR PRESSURE:  23 mm Hg at 25 C
OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION (Kow):
  Log Kow = 2.17

DENSITY/SPEC. GRAV.: 1.4 at 20 C

SOLUBILITY:  4.4 g/L of water at 20 C;
  Soluble in water
ODOR/TASTE THRESHOLDS:  N/A

BlOCONCENTRATION FACTOR:
  BCF <1 in fish; not expected to biocon-
  centrate in aquatic organisms.

HENRY'S LAW COEFFICIENT:
  8.24x10-* atm-cu m/mole;
SOIL SORPTION COEFFICIENT:
   Koc measured at 83 to 209; moderate TRADE NAMES/SYNONYMS:
   to high mobility in soil                Beta-trichloroethane; Beta-T; Vinyl
                                 trichloride
DRINKING WATER STANDARDS
  MCLG:      0.003 mg/L
  MCL:       0.005 mg/L
  HAL(child):  1 day: 0.6 mg/L
             Longer-term: 0.4 mg/L

HEALTH EFFECTS SUMMARY
  Acute: EPA has found 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-
TCE) to potentially cause the following health effects
from acute exposures at levels above the MCL: irritation
of gastrointestinal tract; red or hemorrhaged lungs; pale
liver.
  Drinking water levels which are considered "safe" for
short-term exposures: Fora  10-kg (22 Ib.) child consum-
ing 1 liter of water per day: a one-day exposure of 0.6 mg/
L; upto a 7-year exposure to 0.4 mg/L.
  Chronic:  1,1,2-TCE has the potential to cause the
following  health effects from long-term exposures at
levels above the MCL: damage to liver and kidneys.
  Cancer: There is some evidence that 1,1,2-TCE may
have the potential to cause cancer from a lifetime expo-
sure at levels above the MCL.

USAGE PATTERNS
  1,1,2-Trichloroethane is only important as an interme-
diate in the production  of 1,1-dichloroethylene (vinyli-
dene chloride) and to some extent for the synthesis of
tetrachloroethanes. It is also used in adhesives, produc-
tion of teflon tubing, in lacquer and coating formulations,
and as  a solvent for fats, oils, waxes, etc.
                 An estimated 124 million Ibs. of 1,1,2-TCE was pro-
               duced in the US during 1974, based on the manufacture
               of vinylidene chloride.

               RELEASE PATTERNS
                 1,1,2-Trichloroethane will enter the atmosphere from
               its use in the manufacture of vinylidene chloride and its
               use as a solvent. It will also be discharged in wastewater
               associated with these uses and in leachates and volatile
               emissions from landfills. The EPA estimates the gross
               annual discharge of 1,1,2-TCE waste in the US to be 4
               million Ibs.
                 From 1987 to 1993, according to EPA's Toxic Chemi-
                 Toxic RELEASE INVENTORY -
                 RELEASES TO WATER AND LAND:
              1987 TO 1993
                                     Water
                 TOTALS (in pounds)     30,326

                 Top Five States*
                 LA                  14,481
                 TX                  9,699
                 NY                  4,570
                 MD                    750
                 KY                    447
                 Major Industries*
                 Alkalies, chlorine       21,783
                 Photograph equipment    4,570
                 Meat packing plants        981
                 Petroleum refining         959
                 Blast furnaces, steelworks   750
                       Land
                        756
                        332
                        294
                        130
                          0
                          0
                        361
                        130
                          0
                          0
                          0
                 * Water/Land totals only include facilities with releases
                 greater than a certain amount - usually 1000 to 10,000 Ibs.
October 1995
         Technical Version

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 cal Release Inventory, 1,1,2-TCE releases to land and
 watertotalled over 30,000 IDS., of which about 98 percent
 was to water. These releases were primarily from alkalis
 and chlorine industries which use it as an intermediate in
 chemical manufacture. The largest releases occurred in
 Louisiana and Texas.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
   When released into water, 1,1,2-trichloroethane should
primarily evaporate. Little of the chemical will be lost by
adsorption to sediment or by biodegradation. Aquatic
hydrolysis is not expected to be important.
   Once in  the atmosphere, 1,1,2-trichloroethane  will
photodegrade slowly by reaction with hydroxyl radicals
(half-life 24-50 days in unpolluted atmospheres to a few
days in polluted atmospheres).
   When released to land 1,1,2-trichloroethane should
partially volatilize and partially leach into the groundwa-
ter.  Experimentally determined Koc values of 83-209
indicated that 1,1,2-trichloroethane will be moderately to
highly mobile in soil. Several biodegradation screening
studies  have determined that 1,1,2-trichloroethane is
resistantto biodegradation. Other screening studies have
observed biotransformation under anaerobic conditions.
Biodegradation in groundwater or subsurface regions
may occur, but appears to be very slow.
   1,1,2-Trichloroethane would not be expected to biocon-
centrate since the  experimental log BCF  in fish was
reported to be <1.
   Primary human exposure is from occupational expo-
sure  and from ambient air in the vicinity of industrial
sources and contaminated drinking water.
         OTHER REGULATORY INFORMATION
         MONITORING:
         FOR GROUND/SURFACE WATER SOURCES:
           INITIAL FREQUENCY-  4 quarterly samples every 3 years
           REPEAT FREQUENCY- Annually after 1 year of no detection
         TRIGGERS - Return to Initial Freq. if detect at > 0.0005 mg/L
                                                        ANALYSIS:
                                                        REFERENCE SOURCE
                                                        EPA 600/4-88-039
                                   METHOD NUMBERS
                                   502.2; 524.2
                                                        TREATMENT:
                                                        BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
                                                        Granular Activated Charcoal and Packed Tower Aeration


                                                        FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
                                                        * EPA can provide further regulatory and other general information:
                                                         EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline - 800/426-4791


                                                        * Other sources of toxicological and environmental fate data include:
                                                         Toxic Substance Control Act Information Line - 202/554-1404
                                                         Toxics Release Inventory, National Library of Medicine - 301/496-6531
                                                         Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry - 404/639-6000
October 1995
Technical Version
Page 2

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