United States
                            Environmental Protection
                            Agency
                     Office of Water
                     4601
                                          EPA 811-F-95-004u-T
                                                October 1995
                             National Primary Drinking
                            Water Regulations
                            Vinyl Chloride
  CHEMICAL/ PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

  CAS NUMBER: 75-01-4

  COLOR/ FORM/ODOR:
    Colorless gas, sweet odor

  M.P.: -13.37 C  B.P.: -153.2 C

  VAPOR PRESSURE: 2600 mm Hg at 25 C

  DENSITY/SPEC. GRAV.: 0.91 at 20 C
OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION (Kow):
  Log Kow = 0.6 (calculated)

SOLUBILITY: 2.7 g/L of water; Slightly
  soluble in water
ODOR/TASTE THRESHOLDS: N/A
                              BlOCONCENTRATION FACTOR.'
                                Estimated BCF = 7; not expected to
                                bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms.

                              HENRY'S LAW COEFFICIENT:
                                0.0560 atrri-cu m/mole;
SOIL SORPTION COEFFICIENT:
  Koc estimated at 56; highly mobile in  TRADE NAMES/SYNONYMS:
  soil                           Chlorethene; Chlorethylene;
                                monochloroethene; Monovinyl chloride
                                (MVC); Trovidur
DRINKING WATER STANDARDS
  MCLG:      zero mg/L
  MCL:       0.002 mg/L
  HAL(child):  1 - to 10-day: 3 mg/L
             Longer-term: 0.01 mg/L

HEALTH EFFECTS SUMMARY
  Acute: EPA has found vinyl chloride to potentially RELEASE PATTERNS
cause neurological effects from acute exposures at lev-
els above the MCL.
                 Limited quantities of vinyl chloride were used in the
               United States as an aerosol propellant, a refrigerant, an
               extraction solvent and as an ingredient of drug and
               cosmetic products.
                 Proportions consumed for various uses in 1989 were:
               polyvinyl chloride  products, 91%;  exports, 7%; other,
               including chlorinated solvents, 2%.
  Drinking water levels which are considered "safe" for
short-term exposures: Fora 10-kg (22 Ib.) child consum-
ing 1 liter of water per day: a one- to ten-day exposure of
3 mg/L; upto a 7-year exposure to 0.01 mg/L.
  Chronic:  Vinyl chloride has the potential to cause
neurological and liver effects from long-term exposure at
levels above the MCL.
                 Although vinyl chloride is produced in large quantities,
               almost all of it is used captively for the production of
               polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other polymers. Therefore,
               its major release to the environment will be as emissions
               and wastewater at these production and manufacturing
               facilities. Vinyl chloride is also a product of anaerobic
               degradation of chlorination solvents such as would be
               expected to occur in groundwater and landfills.
Cancer: Vinyl chloride has the potential to cause
cancer from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL.

USAGE PATTERNS
Production of vinyl chloride in 1993 was nearly 14
billion Ibs.

Vinyl chloride is used in the manufacture of numerous
products in building and construction, automotive indus-
try, electrical wire insulation and cables, piping, industrial
nd household equipment, medical supplies, and is
depended upon heavily by the rubber, paper, and glass
industries.


Toxic RELEASE INVENTORY -
RELEASES TO WATER AND LAND:
Water
TOTALS (in pounds) 21 ,693

Top Five States
LA 12,600
DE 86
OH 3,360
PA 0
SC 0

Major Industries
Plastics, resins 19,489


1987 TO 1993
Land
17,038


0
8,829
0
3,290
3,100


13,375
October 1995
         Technical Version

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   Small quantities of vinyl chloride can be released to
food by migration of vinyl chloride monomer present in
polyvinyl chloride food wrappings arid containers. Major
human exposure will be from inhalation of occupational
atmospheres and from ingestion of contaminated  food
and drinking water which has come into contact with
polyvinyl chloride packaging material or pipe which has
not been treated adequately to remove residual mono-
mer.
   From 1987 to 1992, according to EPA's Toxic Release
Inventory,  vinyl chloride releases to land totalled  over
17,000 IDS., and releases to water totalled over 21,000
Ibs. These releases were primarily from plastics materi-
als and resins industries. The largest releases occurred
in Louisiana and Delaware.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
  If vinyl chloride is released to soil, it will be subject to
rapid volatilization with reported half-lives of 0.2 and 0.5
days for evaporation from soil at 1 and 10 cm incorpora-
tion, respectively, based on a high vapor pressure of
2,600 mm Hg at 25 degrees C. Based on a reported water
solubility of 2,700  mg/L, a Koc of 56 was estimated.
According to estimated Koc values, vinyl chloride will be
expected to be highly mobile in soil and it may leach to the
groundwater.  It may be subject to biodegradation under
anaerobic conditions such as exists in flooded soil and
groundwater.
  If released to water, vinyl chloride will rapidly evapo-
rate. Using a  reported Henry's Law constant of 0.0560
atm/cu m-mole, a half-life of 0.805 hr was calculated for
evaporation from a model river 1 m deep with a current of
3 m/sec and with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. In waters
containing photosensitizers such as humic acid, photo-
degradation will occur fairly rapidly. Limited existing data
indicate that vinyl chloride is resistant to biodegradation
in aerobic systems and therefore, it may not be subject to
biodegradation in aerobic soils and natural waters. It will
not be expected to hydrolyze in soils or natural waters
under normal  environmental conditions.
  If vinyl chloride is released to the atmosphere, it can be
expected to exist mainly in the vapor-phase in the ambi-
ent atmosphere  and to  degrade  rapidly in air by gas-
phase reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl
radicals with an estimated half-life of 1.5 days.
  Some data indicate that vinyl chloride is too  readily
volatilized to undergo  bioaccumulation, except perhaps
in the most extreme exposure conditions. Based on a
reported water solubility of 2,700 mg/l, a BCF of 7 was
estimated,  indicating that  vinyl  chloride will not be ex-
pected to significantly bioconcentrate in aquatic organ-
isms.
         OTHER REGULATORY INFORMATION
         MONITORING:
         FOR GROUND/SURFACE WATER SOURCES:
           INITIAL FREQUENCY-  4 quarterly samples every 3 years
           REPEAT FREQUENCY- Annually after 1 year of no detection
         TRIGGERS - Return to Initial Freq. if detect at > 0.0005 mg/L
         ANALYSIS:
         REFERENCE SOURCE
         EPA 600/4-88-039
METHOD NUMBERS
502.2; 524.2
         TREATMENT:
         BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
         Granular Activated Charcoal and Packed Tower Aeration


         FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
         A EPA can provide further regulatory and other general information:
          EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline - 800/426-4791

         * Other sources of toxicological and environmental fate data include:
          Toxic Substance Control Act Information Line - 202/554-1404
          Toxics Release Inventory, National Library of Medicine - 301/496-6531
          Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry - 404/639-6000
October 1995
Technical Version
                    Page 2

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