United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office Of
Chief Financial Officer
(2732A)
EPA-205-S-00-001
February 2000
Summary Of The 2001  Budget

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                 Page#

Introduction

      EPA Mission and Purpose	3
      EPA's Goals	5

Overview

      Overview of the FY 2001 Budget	7

Goals

      Goal 1: Clean Air	17
      Goal 2: Clean and Safe Water	29
      Goal 3: Safe Food	39
      Goal 4: Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in
        Communities, Homes, Work Places and Ecosystems	45
      Goal 5: Better Waste Management, Restoration of
        Contaminated Waste Sites and Emergency Response	57
      Goal 6: Reduction of Global and Cross-Border
        Environmental Risks	67
      Goal 7: Expansion of Americans' Right-to-Know About
        Their Environment	75
      Goal 8: Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
        Risks and Greater Innovation to Address Environmental Problems	83
      Goal 9: A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater Compliance
        With the Law	91
      Goal 10: Effective Management	97

Additional Information

      Better America Bonds	107
      Categorical Program Grants (STAG)	109
      Water and Air Infrastructure Financing	113
      Trust Funds	117
      21st Century Research Fund	119
      Budget Tables	121

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Cover photos courtesy of Steve Delaney and Vivian Daub

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                       EPA Mission and Purpose
    The  mission of the Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA)  is  to
protect  human health  and to safeguard the  natural environment  air,
-water, and land  upon which life depends.  EPA's purpose is to ensure
that:
 4  All  Americans are protected  from
    significant risks to human health and
    the  environment  where  they  live,
    learn, and work.

 4  National efforts to  reduce environ-
    mental  risk are based on the best
    available scientific information.

 4  Federal  laws  protecting   human
    health  and the  environment  are
    enforced fairly and effectively.

 4  Environmental  protection   is   an
    integral consideration in U.S.  pol-
    icies  concerning  natural resources,
    human  health, economic  growth,
    energy,  transportation,  agriculture,
    industry, and international trade, and
    these factors are similarly considered
    in establishing environmental policy.

 4  All parts of society:  communities,
    individuals, business, state and  local
    governments, and tribal governments
    have  access to accurate  information
    sufficient to effectively participate in
    managing   human   health    and
    environmental risks.

 4  Environmental  protection contributes
    to  making  our  communities   and
    ecosystems diverse,  sustainable,  and
    economically productive.
4  The United States plays a leadership
   role in working with other nations to
   protect the global environment.

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                                     EPA Goals
       EPA has developed a series often strategic, long-term goals in its Strategic
Plan. These goals, together  -with the underlying principles that -will be used to
achieve them, define the Agency's planning, budgeting, analysis, and accountability
process.
    Clean Air:  The  air in every American
    community will be  safe and healthy to
    breathe. In particular, children, the elderly,
    and people with respiratory ailments will
    be protected from  the health risks of
    breathing  polluted  air.    Reducing  air
    pollution will also protect the environment,
    resulting   in  many   benefits,  such  as
    restoring life in damaged ecosystems and
    reducing  health risks to  those  whose
    subsistence  depends directly on  those
    ecosystems.

    Clean and Safe Water:  All Americans
    will have drinking  water that is clean and
    safe  to  drink. Effective  protection of
    America's rivers, lakes, wetlands, aquifers,
    and coastal and ocean waters will sustain
    fish,  plants, and  wildlife,  as well  as
    recreational,  subsistence,  and economic
    activities. Watersheds and their aquatic
    ecosystems will be restored and protected
    to improve public  health,  enhance  water
    quality,  reduce flooding,  and  provide
    habitat for wildlife.

    Safe Food: The foods Americans eat will
    be free from unsafe  pesticide residues.
    Children will especially be protected from
    the  health  threats  posed by  pesticide
    residues, because they are among the most
    vulnerable groups in  our society.
  Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk
   in Communities, Homes,  Workplaces
   and Ecosystems:  Pollution prevention
   and risk management strategies aimed at
   cost-effectively eliminating,  reducing, or
   minimizing emissions and contamination
   will   result  in   cleaner   and   safer
   environments in which all Americans can
   reside, work, and  enjoy life. EPA will
   safeguard ecosystems and  promote the
   health of natural communities that are
   integral to the quality of life in this Nation.

  Better Waste Management, Restoration
   of  Contaminated  Waste   Sites, and
   Emergency Response: America's wastes
   will be stored, treated, and disposed of in
   ways that prevent harm to people and to
   the natural environment.  EPA will work
   to  clean  up  previously polluted  sites,
   restoring them to  uses  appropriate for
   surrounding communities, and respond to
   and  prevent waste-related  or industrial
   accidents.

  Reduction of Global and Cross-Border
   Environmental Risks: The United States
   will  lead other  nations in successful,
   multilateral efforts  to reduce significant
   risks to human health and  ecosystems from
   climate  change,   stratospheric  ozone
   depletion, and other hazards  of inter-
   national concern.

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                                    EPA Goals
  Expansion  of Americans' Right to
   Know About Their Environment: Easy
   access to a wealth of information about the
   state of their local environment will expand
   citizen involvement and give people tools
   to  protect  their  families  and  their
   communities as they  see fit.  Increased
   information exchange between scientists,
   public health officials, businesses, citizens,
   and all levels of government will foster
   greater knowledge about the environment
   and what can be done to protect it.

  Sound  Science,  Improved   Under-
   standing of Environmental Risk, and
   Greater   Innovation   to  Address
   Environmental Problems:  EPA will
   develop  and apply the  best available
   science for addressing current and future
   environmental  hazards, as well  as  new
   approaches toward improving  environ-
   mental protection.

  A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and
   Greater Compliance with the Law:
   EPA will ensure full compliance with laws
   intended to protect human health and the
   environment.

+  Effective  Management:    EPA  will
   establish a management infrastructure that
   will set and implement the highest quality
   standards for effective internal manage-
   ment and fiscal responsibility.

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                      Overview of the 2001 Budget
       For  three decades,  the Environmental Protection  Agency (EPA)  and  its
partners  have   made  significant  strides  in  controlling  pollution  and  other
environmental risks to human health and the environment  The air, land, and water
are now safer for  all Americans due to our Nation's investment  in environmental
protection.
       The   Environmental  Protection
Agency's 2001 Annual Plan and Budget
Request   of     $7.257   billion   in
discretionary  budget   authority,   and
18,050 Full Time Equivalencies (FTE),
builds on our commitment to protect the
environment  and  public  health  with
common-sense programs  that  promote
environmental   health    and   sustain
economic growth.  This budget request
maintains  the Administration's  dedi-
cation to ensure that the air, water, and
land are  safe and healthy, and that the
American   public   has   the  health
protections they need and deserve.

Cleaning America's Water

       Over the past three decades, our
Nation has made significant progress in
water pollution prevention and cleanup.
While we  have substantially cleaned
many of our most polluted waterways,
and  provided safer drinking water for
millions  of U.S. residents, significant
challenges remain.  This budget request
addresses the challenge to provide clean
and  safe  water in  every  American
community.

Great Lakes Initiative

       The  Great Lakes,  our Nation's
most  significant  and  beautiful water
resources, will receive $50 million in the
President's Budget for a new Initiative
that  will  continue the progress we have
made in their  cleanup  and restoration.
Through  this   initiative,   states  and
municipalities  will  be  eligible   to
compete for grants to  improve water
quality  through  stormwater  pollution
control,   wetlands   restoration   and
contaminated  sediment  remediation  at
identified "areas of concern."   State  or
local  governments  will  be  required  to
provide  at  least  40 percent  of total
project costs.

Helping States Ensure Clean Water,
 Address Runoff

       For water,  the President's 2001
Budget  bolsters the  successes we have
achieved by providing  $250 million  in
grants, a $50 million increase, to address
polluted runoff, which  is currently the
largest  threat  to  our  Nation's water
quality.

Helping States Restore Polluted Waters

       This budget request strengthens
our  efforts  to identify  and  restore
polluted waterways with $161 million  in
Pollution Control (Section 106) grants, a
$45   million   increase  over   2000,
specifically  targeted  to  help  states
develop   pollution    allocation   and
implementation plans (known as Total
Maximum Daily Loads, or TMDLs) for
some   20,000  waterways  across  the
Nation.   States would  be required  to
provide at  least 40 percent of TMDL
program costs.

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                      Overview of the 2001 Budget
Clean Water State Revolving Fund

       This  budget  request   includes
$800 million for the Clean Water  State
Revolving   Fund   (CWSRF).     This
investment keeps EPA on track with our
commitment  to meet the goal for the
CWSRF to provide an average of $2.0
billion  in  annual  financial assistance.
Indeed, the President's Budget calls for
cumulative additional  capitalization of
$3.2 billion in fiscal  years 2002-2005,
which will  enable the program  to exceed
the Administration commitment.   Over
$17 billion has already been provided to
capitalize the CWSRF, more than twice
the original Clean Water Act authorized
level of $8.4 billion.   Total SRF funds
available for loans since 1987,  reflecting
loan repayments,  state match dollars,
and  other  sources  of  funding,  are
approximately $30 billion, of which $26
billion   having  been   provided   to
communities   as   financial  assistance
($4.2 billion was  available for loans as
of June 1999).

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

       The  Drinking   Water   State
Revolving  Fund  (DWSRF) request of
$825 million keeps the Administration
on track to provide an average of $500
million a year to states  and  tribes to
modernize drinking water systems.

U.S.Mexico Border

       This   request   includes   $100
million  for  water   and  wastewater
projects along the U.S./Mexico Border.
With  these   resources,  the  Agency
provides grant assistance to address the
environmental   and    public  health
problems  associated  with   untreated
industrial  and municipal  sewage on the
border.

Legislative Proposals

       This  budget  request   includes
three legislative  proposals  that would
provide   states  with   flexibility  in
operating  their  CWSRFs,  as  well  as
demonstrating   the   Admin-istration's
longstanding  commitment  to  protect
public health  and the environ-ment  on
tribal lands.

+   19% Set-Aside.   The Agency pro-
    poses to allow states to reserve  up to
    19% of their CWSRF capitalization
    grants  to  address  polluted runoff
    through  grants of no more than 60%
    of  the   costs   of  implementing
    nonpoint   source    and    estuary
    management projects. This set-aside
    will provide states with flexibility to
    help address the  leading  cause  of
    water pollution ~ polluted runoff.

t   Tribal  Wastewater  Grants.    To
    improve  public  health  and  water
    quality  in  Indian   Country,  the
    Agency  proposes  to increase the
    percentage   of   CWSRF    funds
    reserved  for wastewater  grants  to
    tribes from 0.5 percent to 1.5 percent
    for 2001  and beyond.    This will
    substantially increase the amount of
    funds    available   to   tribes   for
    wastewater treatment project grants.

*   Tribal Nonpoint Source Grants.  In
    this budget  request,  the Agency  is
    proposing to permanently  eliminate
    the statutory one-third of one percent
    cap on Clean Water Act Section 319
    Nonpoint  Source Pollution  grants
    that may be awarded  to  tribes.

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                      Overview of the 2001 Budget
Congress  eliminated the  cap for fiscal
year 2000 only.  Tribes applying for and
receiving   Section   319  grants   have
steadily increased from two  in 1991  to
eleven in 1999.  Twenty two tribes have
met   the   eligibility  requirements  to
receive  Section 319  grants.     This
proposal   recognizes  the   increasing
demand on the  limited pool of Section
319  grant funds  for  Tribal nonpoint
source program needs.

Cleaning America's Air

Clean Air Partnership Fund

       One of the Administration's most
important public health commitments is
to  improve  the  air  that  Americans
breathe.  Over  one-third  of Americans
still live in areas where the air does not
meet the new air quality standards. The
2001   budget   request  includes  $85
million for the Clean Air Partnership
Fund.     This   initiative  will   foster
public-private   partnerships   to   help
communities  achieve their own clean air
goals in ways that make the best sense
for them.
will:
       The Clean Air Partnership Fund
   be  a catalyst for innovative  local,
   state, and private partnerships for air
   pollution reductions;
   demonstrate    locally    managed,
   self-supporting    programs    that
   achieve early integrated reductions in
   soot,   smog,    air   toxics,   and
   greenhouse gases;
   be used to capitalize local revolving
   funds  and other  financial  mech-
   anisms that investment and pollution
   reduction: and
 4  stimulate technology innovation.

       The Clean Air Partnership Fund
 will fund more  optimal,  multi-pollutant
 control strategies.  Currently, businesses
 and municipalities often invest in short-
 term,   single-pollutant   control   ap-
 proaches.   The  Partnership will en-
 courage many industries, such as electric
 utilities and the  transportation sector,  to
 pursue comprehensive criteria pollutant
 reductions while improving energy and
 operational  efficiencies,  thereby  also
 reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Air Grants to States and Tribes

       This  budget   provides  $222.9
 million in state and tribal air grants.  Of
 these resources, $5 million will be for
 state,  tribal,  and  regional  planning
 bodies to implement programs to address
 regional   haze   and  integrate   those
 programs with approaches  to reducing
 ozone and fine particulate matter.

Meeting the Climate Change Challenge

       This budget request of $227.3
 million for EPA's portion of the Climate
 Change  Technology  Initiative  (CCTI)
 continues  the  Administration's  com-
mitment,  through this   multi-Agency
program, to address the significant threat
that global warming  poses to  public
health and  the  environment.    This
investment will  reduce greenhouse gas
 emissions through investments in energy
efficient   technologies,   as  well   as
partnerships  with businesses,  schools,
state  and local governments, and  other
organizations.  This initiative promotes
voluntary measures and  common-sense
approaches  to reduce energy use and
energy  bills  for  consumers and  bus-

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                      Overview of the 2001 Budget
inesses  while  protecting  the  global
environment for future generations.

Protecting our Children

       The    Administration   remains
dedicated to providing children with the
health protections they need through for
the Children's Health Initiative, which is
funded in 2001  at  over $67 million.
Children are among the most vulnerable
members of our society,  and prolonged
exposure to toxins in our environment
increases the  risks  to  their  health.
Through the Children's Health Initiative,
the Agency  supports research to develop
a  better  understanding   of children's
vulnerabilities and improve its ability to
assess their health risks.   The Agency
also focuses on children's exposure to
toxins in the environment.  The budget
continues to support the 2000 Children's
Asthma  Initiative and  an  interagency
2001    Children's   Lead   Poisoning
Initiative.

Providing for Communities

Promoting Smart Growth through
 Better America Bonds

       To  better  protect   America's
communities,   the  Administration   is
again proposing Better America Bonds
that states, tribes, and local governments
can use to preserve open space, protect
water  quality, and clean up  abandoned
industrial sites.  Through this Initiative,
the  Administration   will  provide  the
authority to issue $2.15 billion in bonds
to state,  local, and tribal governments in
2001.
Creating a New Source of Environ-
 mental Information: The Information
 Integration Initiative

       This Administration has made a
commitment to empower the public with
environmental  information  on  toxic
releases in  their  communities.   This
information is  a powerful tool for  the
public to take action to ensure that their
local  environment is safe and healthy.
This  budget request  expands on  the
public's   right-to-know   about   their
environment   with   the  Information
Integration Initiative.  This Initiative will
provide $30  million for the Agency to
work with the  states to develop  and
make public integrated   environmental
data,  providing  the  public  with  an
unprecedented   level  of  integrated
information  on   local   environments
across the Nation.

Cleaning  Up Toxic Waste

Keeping Superfund Working Fair,
 Fast and Cost-Effective

       This  budget continues a com-
mitment to clean  up toxic waste sites
with  a request  of  $1.45  billion  for
Superfund  cleanups.     Funding  will
provide resources to mitigate the effects
of   uncontrolled   releases  on   local
populations  and sensitive  environments.
This budget  request keeps us on track
with Superfund site cleanups.  Currently,
91%  of the 1,412  final sites  on  the
Superfund National Priorities List (NPL)
are  either  undergoing   cleanup  con-
struction  (remedial or removal) or  are
completed.   Combined with continuing
administrative reforms, these funds will
help meet the  President's goal of 900
clean up completions by 2002.
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                      Overview of the 2001 Budget
Expanding Brownfields to Revitalize
 Local Economies and Create Jobs

       The  2001  budget  request  of
nearly $92 million  for the Brownfields
initiative will continue to promote local
cleanup and redevelopment of industrial
sites,  returning  abandoned  land  to
productive use  and  bringing  jobs  to
blighted  areas.   This  budget  request
provides funding for technical assistance
and  grants  to  communities  for  site
assessment,   redevelopment   planning,
and  job  training, as  well as  revolving
loan funds to finance cleanup  efforts at
the local level.  Through 2001, EPA will
have funded Brownfields site assessment
pilots in more than 350 communities.

Sound Science

       Achieving   maximum  environ-
mental and  health  protections requires
employing the best  methods,  models,
tools, and approaches to implement  a
very demanding environmental agenda.
This  budget  request  includes   $674
million  to  develop  and  apply  sound
science  to  address both current and
future  environmental  challenges.  The
budget  request  describes  a  balanced
research   and  development  program
designed to meet  the  science challenges
of     administering     environmental
legislation such  as  the  Clean Air Act
(CAA),  the  Safe Drinking  Water Act
(SDWA),  the   Federal  Insecticide,
Fungicide,    and   Rodenticide   Act
(FIFRA),  the  Food Quality Protection
Act (FQPA), and  others,  and addressing
Administration and Agency priorities.
Strengthening Tribal Partnerships

       This budget request includes $53
million for the  Indian  Environmental
General   Assistance  Program  (GAP)
grants to  allow virtually every tribe in
the United States to have one or more
people working  in their community to
build a strong,  sustainable environment
for the future.  This request will support
vital work by assessing the status of a
tribe's  environmental  condition   and
developing  the   infrastructure  for  an
environmental program  tailored to  that
tribe's needs. In addition to developing,
for  example,  the  environmental  ed-
ucation  programs   and  solid   waste
management plans  needed  in  almost
every tribal community, a  key role of
these personnel is to alert EPA of serious
conditions requiring attention in the near
term so that, in  addition to assisting in
the  building  of tribal  environmental
capacity, EPA can work with the tribe to
respond to immediate public health  and
ecological threats.

Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)

       The 2001 request includes  $74.5
million to  help  meet  the  multiple
challenges of the  implementation of the
Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of
1996 so that all Americans will continue
to  enjoy   one   of  the   safest,  most
abundant,   and  most affordable  food
supplies in the world.  FQPA focuses on
the registration of reduced risk pesticides
to provide an alternative to  the  older
versions   on  the   market,   and  on
developing and delivering  information
on  alternative pesticides/techniques  and
best pest  control  practices to  pesticide
users.   FQPA implements a "whole
farm" approach to pollution management
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                      Overview of the 2001 Budget
and will help farmers transition - without
disrupting  production  -  to safer  sub-
stitutes and alternative farming practices.
Expanded   support   for    tolerance
reassessments  will reduce  the risks to
public health  from  older  pesticides.
Reassessing existing tolerances ensures
food  safety, especially for  infants  and
children and ensures that all pesticides
registered for use meet the  most current
health standards.   This budget request
also  enhances  FQPA-related  science
through   scientific   assessments   of
cumulative  risk,  including  funds  for
validation of testing  components of the
Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program.

Summary

       The  Environmental  Protection
Agency's 2001 Annual Plan and Budget
Request supports innovative, common-
sense, cost-effective programs to ensure
a  healthy  environment  and  healthy
communities for the 21st Century.  To
accomplish  our  mission,  we   will
continue to strengthen our partnerships
with  states, tribes, local communities,
and  other stakeholders.    This  budget
request  builds on  the  environmental
progress  of  the  Administration,  and
provides the American public with the
environmental  and  health  protections
they need and  deserve.
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                  Agency Workyear Decrease in 2001
 I	1  Operating Programs
 |	q  Trust Funds
     17,280  17,106  17,508   17,082  17,152  17,739   18,110  18,100  18,050
     1993   1994    1995   1996    1997   1998    1999   2000   2001
NOTE: FY1993 through 1999 reflect actual FTE usage.
                                     13

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In 2001, The Agency's Budget Totals $7.3 Billion
                          (dollars in millions)
 Better America Bonds
 Operating Programs
 Trust Funds
 Water and Air Infrastructure
* Total dollars for 2001 reflect offsetting recepts.
* * Better America Bonds - In 2001 the Adminstration is proposing bond authority of $2.15 billion.
                               14

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15

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                                     Clean Air
    Strategic Goal:  The air in every American community will be  safe and  healthy to
    breathe. In particular, children, the elderly, and people with respiratory ailments will be
    protected from health risks of breathing polluted air.  Reducing air pollution will also
    protect the environment, resulting in many benefits,  such as  restoring life in damaged
    ecosystems and reducing health risks to those whose subsistence depends directly on
    those ecosystems.
                                   Resource Summary
                                    (dollars in thousands)

Clean Air
Attain NAAQS for Ozone and PM
Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics
Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead
Acid Rain
Total Workyears:
FY2000
Enacted
$540,965.5
$382,105.9
$95,123.4
$44,103.4
$19,632.8
1,857.9
FY2001 FY 2001 -FY 2000
Request Delta
$647,514.2
$455,169.9
$132,939.4
$39,111.4
$20,293.5
1,856.6
$106,548.7
$73,064.0
$37,816.0
-$4,992.0
$660.7
-1.3
Means and Strategy:

Criteria Pollutants

    EPA  develops  standards  to  protect
public health and the environment that limit
concentrations   of   the  most  widespread
pollutants  (known   as  criteria  pollutants),
which are linked to many serious health and
environmental problems:

4   Ground-level ozone.  Causes respiratory
    illness,  especially  in  active  children;
    aggravates respiratory illnesses such as
    asthma; causes damage to vegetation and
    contributes to visibility problems.

4   Sulfur  dioxide  (SOa).   Aggravates the
    symptoms of asthma and is a  major
    contributor to acid rain.
Nitrogen  dioxide  (NO2).  Irritates  the
lung and contributes to the formation of
ground-level ozone,  acidic  deposition,
and visibility problems.

Carbon monoxide (CO).  Interferes with
the delivery of oxygen to body tissues,
particularly   affecting  people  with
cardiovascular diseases.

Lead.  Causes nervous system damage,
especially in children, leading to reduced
intelligence.

Particulate Matter (PM).    Linked  to
premature  death  in  the  elderly  and
people with cardiovascular disease and
to respiratory illness in children; affects
the   environment   through    visibility
impairment.
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                                    Clean Air
Hazardous Air Pollutants

       Hazardous  air pollutants  (HAPs),
commonly referred to as air toxics or toxic
air  pollutants, are  pollutants  that cause,  or
may  cause,  adverse  health   effects   or
ecosystem damage.   The Clean  Air Act
Amendments of 1990 list 188 pollutants  or
chemical groups as hazardous air pollutants
and  targets  sources  emitting  them  for
regulation.  Examples of air  toxics include
heavy   metals  such  as   mercury  and
chromium, dioxins, and  pesticides such  as
chlordane and toxaphene. HAPs are emitted
from literally thousands of sources including
stationary  as  well   as  mobile  sources.
Adverse effects to human health and the
environment due to HAPs can result from
exposure  to  air  toxics  from individual
facilities, exposures to mixtures of pollutants
found  in  urban settings,  or exposure  to
pollutants emitted  from  distant  sources that
are transported through the atmosphere over
regional, national, or even global airsheds.
       MOx, SOL;, and VOC
       Emisdon fronds,
       190O--1S-97
    30
    19OC
                     VOWS* 2000
       Compared  to information  for  the
criteria pollutants, the information about the
potential health effects of HAPs is relatively
incomplete.   Most of the information on
potential health effects of these pollutants is
derived from experimental animal data. Of
the 188 HAPs mentioned above, almost 60
percent are  classified by EPA  as  known,
probable, or possible carcinogens.  One of
the  more documented ecological concerns
associated  with toxic  air pollutants  is the
potential  for  some  to  damage  aquatic
ecosystems.  Deposited air pollutants can be
significant  contributors to overall pollutant
loadings entering water bodies.

Acid Rain

       The Clean Air Act Amendments of
1990  established   a  program  to  control
emissions  from electric power plants  that
cause acid  rain and other environmental and
public health problems.  Emissions of SO2
and  nitrogen oxides  (NOX)  react in the
atmosphere and fall to earth as acid rain,
causing acidification of lakes  and streams
and  contributing to the damage of trees at
   90

   80
          Change in Nonattainment Areas
                              PPf\ IFfTTCr^
   70
   60
   50
   40
   30

   20
    10
X
                            :O.NOj.SOj. ind
                                                     90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
                                                                   fiscal year
             CO   SO? Lead
                                                                           00 01 02 03 04 OS
high  elevations.    Acid  deposition  also
accelerates the decay of building materials
and paints and contributes to degradation of
irreplaceable cultural objects such as statues
and sculptures.  NOX emissions are a major
precursor of ground-level  ozone,  which
affects  public health and damages  crops,
forests, and  materials.   Additionally, NOX
deposition contributes to eutrophication of
coastal  waters, such as the Chesapeake and
Tampa  Bays. Before falling to  earth,  SO2
and NOX  gases can  form fine particles that
may  ultimately  affect  public  health  by
contributing to premature mortality, chronic
bronchitis, and  other respiratory problems.
                                           18

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                                     Clean Air
             Tons per yei
             600,001
                            Air Toxics Reductions
                         Emissions Reductions from Full Implementation of MACT Standards
                        MACT EmissgfSost-MACT Emisskj
HON


-90%
                          Solvent Dry Cleaning Gasoline
                          Cleaning        Distribution
                          -60%
                                 -56%
                                        -5%
                           Tons per year
                           10,000	
                                               8,000
                                               6,000
                                               4,000
                                               2,000
                                   |Pre-MACT EnrissipBost-MACT ErmssJns
                                                           LL
                                                  Shipbuilding  Secondary   Chrome
                                                                           Cooling
                                                                       Fumtun
                                                      Manufacturing          Manufacturing
                                                    -24%  -51%  -72%  -80%  -99%  -60% >-99%
       The  fine particles also  contribute to
reduced  visibility  in national parks  and
elsewhere.

       Air quality has continued to improve
during  the  past  10  years  for  all   six
pollutants.      Nationally,    air   quality
concentration data taken from  thousands of
monitoring  stations  across the  country  has
continued   to  show  improvement  since
the 1980s for ozone, PM, CO, NO2, SO2) and
lead.
 AfiyNAAQS(1-hrO3)


 AnyNAAOS
-------
                                    Clean Air
improvements  are  a  result  of  effective
implementation  of  clean  air  laws  and
regulations, as well as improvements in the
efficiency of  industrial technologies.

       While substantial progress has been
made, it is important not to lose sight of the
magnitude of the air pollution problem that
still remains.   Despite great progress in air
quality improvement, in  1998 there  were
still   approximately  59   million  people
nationwide who lived   in  counties  with
monitored air quality  levels  that did not
meet  the primary  National  Ambient Air
Quality Standards (NAAQSs) set to protect
public health.

       On May  14, 1999, the U.S. Court of
Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
issued an opinion (modified on October 29,
1999) that calls  into question EPA's ability
to adopt and enforce the new ozone and PM
NAAQSs that  were issued in July 1997.
EPA  strongly disagrees with  this decision
and, with the Department of Justice, has
filed a petition asking the  Supreme Court to
overturn  the  decision.   The case does not
affect the pre-existing NAAQS, which have
not yet been met in a number of areas.

       To continue to reduce  air  pollution,
the Clean Air Act sets specific targets for the
mitigation of  each air pollution problem.
The Act also  mandates  the air quality
monitoring that  helps us measure progress.
In  addition,  the Act lays  out  a specific
roadmap  for achieving those goals - what we
the Agency and our partners  states, tribes,
and local governments  have to do to clean
up the air. One constant across the titles  in
the  Act  is   that  the  pollution  control
strategies and programs it contains are all
designed  to  get  the   most  cost-effective
reductions early on.  The early reductions
program  in toxics, Phase 1 of the Acid Rain
program,  Tier  I auto emission  standards,
more stringent  standards on  diesel exhaust
from trucks  and  buses,  the reformulated
gasoline program, and the MACT  standards
program were all designed to achieve early
reductions, making our air cleaner and safer
to breathe.  The problems that remain are
some of the most difficult to solve.

       We have  developed  strategies  to
address   this   difficult   increment  and
overcome the barriers that  have  hindered
progress  in the  past.   We  will use  the
flexibility  built into the  Clean  Air  Act,
which is  not  wedded to  hard  and  fast
formulas or specific  technological require-
ments.

We will focus our efforts on:

t  Coupling ambitious goals with  steady
   progress - The emphasis  will be on the
    goal  of  achieving  near-term  actions
    towards meeting  the  standards, while
    giving   states,   tribes,    and   local
    governments time to come up with more
    difficult measures. We recognize that it
    will be difficult  for some  areas of the
    country to attain the new NAAQSs for
    ozone and fine particles, and we  believe
    it will  take  more than individual  state
    efforts  to achieve the needed emission
    reductions.   We  will work with states,
    tribes, and local governments to identify
    ways  to  achieve interim  reductions,
    principally  through regional  strategies,
    national measures, and the air toxics and
    acid rain programs by building on cross-
    pollutant emission reductions.

       These  strategies  will  move  many
    areas   steadily   toward  the  goal  of
    achieving   near-term   attainment.  For
    those  areas  where additional  measures
    are  required,  this  work  will provide
                                           20

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                                 Clean Air
 steady progress toward the  goal  while
 providing the time to identify measures
 that will  obtain the last  increment to
 fully achieve the goal.

 Maintaining    accountability     -with
flexibility -  Ensuring  that there  is  no
 backsliding in the progress already made
 to meeting the Clean Air goal is critical.
 We will also use the Act's flexibility to
 develop innovative measures  such as the
 NOX trading program (which builds  on
 the  acid rain program) to help states,
 tribes, and  local   governments reduce
 ozone precursor emissions at the lowest
 cost.   Under innovative provisions  of
 Title  II,   EPA  for   the  first   time
 established  vehicle emission standards
 and  fuel   quality  standards   simul-
 taneously.

 Promulgating    regulations    which
 maximize   emission  reductions  while
 giving consideration to cost, lead time,
 safety, and energy impacts - EPA will
 review existing  standards where appro-
 priate to ensure the long-term goals of
 the Clean Air Act are met.

 Fostering technical innovations where
 they  provide   clear    environmental
 benefits  -   Market-based  approaches
 provide "niches"   for  many  types  of
 technologies;  no one  size will fit  all.
 Sources can  improvise,  innovate, and
 otherwise    be  creative   in   reducing
 emissions.     We   will  promote   such
 technological   innovation   and   then
 disseminate it to  others  to  show  how
 they can get needed reductions.

Building  partnerships   -  There   are
 numerous forms of partnerships, all  of
 which  we  have used  at one  point  or
 another in implementing the   Clean Air
    Act:   using public  outreach to educate
    people on air problems and  encourage
    them to work to  solve them; involving
    broad-based groups, such  as  the  multi-
    state   Ozone   Transport   Assessment
    Group, to study a problem and provide
    recommendations  to EPA on ways to
    solve it; working with organizations like
    the  National   Academy  of  Sciences
    (NAS) on both short-term and long-term
    research  priorities;  and  engaging  in
    regulatory   negotiations    to   bring
    stakeholders to work on a problem and
    address a specific regulatory issue.  We
    will  continue  to  use these  types  of
    partnerships as appropriate to implement
    the Clean Air Act.

*  Anticipating   upcoming   issues   and
    ensuring  that research is  underway in
    those areas.  For instance, the  Agency is
    seeking to  better understand the root
    causes  of the environmental and human
    health problems created by air toxics in
    urban  areas,  thereby  improving  the
    ability to weigh alternative strategies  for
    solving those problems.  Research will
    be  devoted  to  the development  of
    currently unavailable health effects and
    exposure information to determine risk
    and  develop alternative  strategies  for
    maximizing  risk reductions.  Based  on
    this  research we will be able to  model
    and  characterize  not only the current
    toxics  risks  and   compare   national
    program  alternatives, but  also  identify
    regional  and  local  "hot   spots,"  and
    model  alternative  strategies  to  assist
    states  and localities in solving their  air
    and water toxics problems.

    Using  these  strategies,  we will  work
with areas  that have the worst problems to
develop  strategies  accounting for unique
local  conditions that may hinder them from
                                        21

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                                    Clean Air
reaching attainment.   We also will work
with states, tribes, and local governments to
ensure that work they are doing on the PM
and ozone standards effectively targets both
pollutants,  as  well  as  regional  haze,  to
maximize  the   effectiveness  of  control
strategies.  On the national  level, we will
continue to establish Federal standards to
require cleaner  motor vehicles,  fuels  and
non-road equipment that  are cost effective
and technically feasible. We also will target
source  characterization   work,  especially
development  and improvement of emission
factors, that is essential for the states, tribes
and local agencies to develop  strategies to
meet the standards. We will look closely at
urban areas to determine the various sources
of toxics that enter the air, water, and soil
and determine the best manner to reduce the
total toxics risk in these  urban areas.  We
will  also  focus  on  research  that   would
inform and enhance our regulatory  decisions
as well as  research  that would explore
emerging areas.

Research

        To reach the objective of attaining
the  NAAQS   for  tropospheric   ozone,
additional research is planned to improve
current models  of emissions  and  atmos-
pheric  processes  in  order  to   identify
effective control strategies. In  2001,  EPA
will  develop  tropospheric ozone  precursor
measurements methods, emissions-based air
quality models, observation based  modeling
methods, and source  emissions information
to guide State Implementation Plan (SIP)
development  under the current NAAQS.  In
support of  Agency  efforts  to attain the
NAAQS for  PM, in  2001,  research will
provide new information on the atmospheric
concentrations,  human   exposure,   health
effects  and   mechanisms of toxicity  of
particulate  matter, and will  facilitate  PM
NAAQS review through  the  development
and  consultation process  involved  in  the
formulation of a PM Air Quality  Criteria
Document.

       Air  toxics  research  will  seek  to
understand  further the root causes of the air
toxics  environmental  and  human  health
problems in urban areas, thereby improving
the ability to weigh alternative strategies for
solving those problems.  Efforts will focus
on providing new information and methods
to estimate human exposure  and  health
effects from high priority urban air toxics, as
well  as on completing health assessments for
the highest priority hazardous air pollutants,
including  fuel/fuel additives.   With this
information the Agency will be in  a better
position  to determine  risk  and   develop
alternative  strategies  for  maximizing risk
reductions.

Highlights:

Ozone/Particulate Matter/Regional Haze

       Ground-level ozone, fine PM  and
regional haze  have many  similarities.   All
three problems result from their formation
under certain atmospheric conditions in the
presence of gases,  such  as NOx and VOCs,
emitted by the  same  types  of  sources.
Because of these similarities, there  are
opportunities for  integrated  strategies  for
reducing pollutant  emissions  in the most
cost-effective ways.

       In 2001, EPA will assist states, tribes
and local governments in devising additional
stationary    source  and   mobile   source
strategies  to reduce ozone and paniculate
matter.     Some  specific  activities   and
initiatives in this program will include:
                                           22

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                                 Clean  Air
Implementation  of  reinstated  1-hour
ozone NAAQS - Develop and approve
measures to  attain  and maintain  the
1-hour standard for nonattainment areas.
Redesignate areas that meet standards to
attainment.

Completion    of  the   process   for
designation  of  attainment  and non-
attainment areas for the 8-hour  ozone
NAAQS.

Using the Clean Air Partnership Fund,
demonstration  of smart, multi-pollutant
strategies that  reduce ozone,  PM, and
other  pollutants,  including greenhouse
gases.

Implementation of ozone control  meas-
ures through an Economic Incentive Pro-
gram.

Continuation   of outreach  efforts   to
promote  public  awareness  of the Air
Quality   index  and  the  effects   of
pollution.

Continued implementation of the  PM-10
standards, including the collection and
review of air  quality data,  processing
state clean air  plans, and redesignating
areas with clean air.

Development   and  implementation   of
standards, plans, strategies,  and  actions
to  preserve  air  quality and prevent
further degradation  in areas  with the
potential to be  designated nonattainment
in the future.

Development and refinement of analysis
tools  for  use  by  states  and  tribes,
including for  development  of   mobile
and stationary source emissions data and
inventories.
Implementation of the Tier 2 vehicle and
fuel regulations.  The Agency will make
a   substantial investment in  developing
and evaluating  new  technologies  to
reduce   PM  emissions  from   diesel
engines,    including   engine    design
enhancements,     alternative     after-
treatment  controls   and  fuel   reform-
ulations.

Demonstration  of   the  feasibility"  of
diesel-engine  control   technology,  as
recently  done   for  gasoline  powered
sports utility vehicles as part of the Tier
2  rulemaking.   Laboratory capabilities
will be  upgraded to  keep  pace  with
rapidly   changing  control  technology,
emissions reductions, and measurement
needs and technology.

Investigation  and  characterization  of
particulate formation during the combus-
tion process, the impact of known trends
in  vehicle  engine  design  and   after
treatment   control    techniques,   and
determination of the leading edge oppor-
tunities for additional controls.

Assessments of  the  emission control
potential   of vehicles   powered  by
technologies such  as  lean-burn and/or
fuel-efficient  technologies,   including
diesel engines equipped  with advanced
after-treatment systems, gasoline direct
injection  engines, and other technologies
that  show  promise   for   significant
advances in fuel economy and meeting
the Tier  2  standards in the post-2004
time frame.   In this  assessment the
Agency  will maintain  a  "systems"
perspective, considering the  progress  of
advanced vehicle technologies in the
context of the role  that  sulfur in fuels
plays  in  enabling the  introduction  of
these  advanced  technologies or max-
                                        23

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                                   Clean Air
   imizing their effectiveness.

+  Initiation  of in-use  performance eval-
   uations  of  national   low   emission
   vehicles  (NLEVs)   sold  in   northeast
   states to determine durability, predictive
   value for Tier 2, and potential recall for
   any emission system defects.

4  Expansion   of  the   efforts   of  EPA's
   Transportation  Air  Quality  (TRAQ)
   Center in  assisting    state  and local
   communities  in   developing   trans-
   portation strategies and voluntary mobile
   source programs that respond to  unique
   local  conditions so that attainment  can
   be  reached.   Specifically, the  TRAQ
   Center   will   provide  transportation
   program information  and tools, technical
   assistance,   key  contacts  and funding
   sources, and partnership opportunities.

4  EPA   will  also  operate   the  NOx
   Allowance  and  Emissions   Tracking
   Systems for the NOx Budget Program,
   as requested by  the 12 States  of the
   Ozone Transport Region.    The Acid
   Rain  Program will also administer the
   Emission   and   Allowance   Tracking
   Systems for a  NOx reduction program
   involving  emissions  trading  across  22
   States.

4  Evaluation of state and tribal  particulate
   monitoring.

*  Working  with  states  and  tribes   on
   technical analyses and activities related
   to  regional  planning  and  developing
   state and tribal implementation plans.

Targeting Air Toxics Risks in Urban Areas

       In 2001, EPA will develop strategies
and rules to help states reduce emissions and
exposure  to   hazardous  air  pollutants,
particularly  in  urban  areas,  and  reduce
harmful deposition in water bodies.   Some
specific  activities and initiatives  in this
program include:

*  Promulgating 25 MACT standards and a
   rule  for   heavy-duty   highway   diesel
   vehicles and cleaner diesel fuel.

4  Ensuring     compliance    with    the
   promulgated MACT standards including
   developing implementation tools for  10
   MACT standards  and building  tribal
   capacity to address air toxics.

*  Implementing  an  ambient  air   toxics
   measurement and monitoring program to
   better quantify ambient air toxic  levels
   and  characterize   human  exposures;
   updating  and  improving  the  National
   Toxics  Inventory;   evaluating   and
   improving  models of the  impacts of air
   toxics on a national scale.

t  In partnership with states,  enhancing and
   expanding  the existing toxics monitoring
   network,  which  will  be  implemented
   through    a   peer-reviewed   strategy
   developed  with the  states.   Soliciting
   HAP  emission inventory  information
   from  states to improve   the  National
   Toxics Inventory.

*  Completing residual risk assessments for
   all 2-year  MACT standards; continuing
   residual risk assessments for all 4-year
   MACT standards.

*  Completing  regulatory determinations
   for electric utilities.

*  Evaluating  the   need   for   further
   regulations to control  mobile source  air
   toxics as required by  section  202(1) of
                                          24

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                                    Clean Air
    the  Clean Air  Act  and promulgating
    regulations if needed and appropriate.

 4  Implementing the reformulated gasoline
    program in areas  of 17 states and the
    District of Columbia.

 4  Using the Clean Air Partnership Fund to
    demonstrate smart,  multi-pollutant strat-
    egies that reduce  air toxics and  other
    pollutants.

 Carbon Monoxide,  Lead,  Nitrogen  Oxide
 and Sulfur Dioxide

       For all NAAQS pollutants, we will
 continue to redesignate areas to attainment
 as  they meet the standards, carry out the
 regular  review of the NAAQS using the
 most   current  science,  and   ensure  the
 maintenance of NAAQSs in areas that have
 clean air.  For the CO, SO2, NOX and lead
 NAAQSs, there  are some  states that have
 areas that cannot meet the standards because
 of some particular, source-specific problem.
 These  sources  are  often  high-profile and
 critical to the local economy. We will work
 cross-Agency to  develop strategies that help
 them  to  comply  while being sensitive to
 economic and other issues.

       EPA  has  established a  permitting
 program, run by  the states,  for air emission
 sources  to   bring   all   the   regulatory
 requirements of a  plant into one unified
 operating permit document.  There are also
 permit programs for preconstruction review
 of facilities. EPA will continue to simplify
 and streamline the  rules and  guidance in
implementing  these programs  to  simplify
their use by the industrial sources.
Acid Rain

       In 2001, Phase II of the Acid Rain
Program will  be  in  its  second  year of
operation,  affecting 2,000  industrial  and
utility sources.  The Program also intends to
launch a multi-year effort to re-engineer the
information technology support structure in
order  to  meet  current and  future  needs,
including increased emissions reporting and
verification,  and allowance trading activ-
ities.

Research

       EPA's Tropospheric  ozone research
program   is   focused   on    developing
information,  methods,  models  and assess-
ments  to  support  implementation of  the
current  ozone  NAAQS  and the  required
review  of the  standard  every  five years.
This research will produce an initial external
review  draft  of  the  ozone  Air  Quality
Criteria  Document  (AQCD)  for  public
comment and Clean Air Scientific Advisory
Committee (CASAC)  review,  which  will
help  guide  State Implementation  Plans
(SEPs) on the current NAAQS.  In 2001, the
Particulate Matter Research  Program  will
complete the final PM AQCD, in addition to
completing  data  collection  for   a  PM
longitudinal panel  study.  Efforts will  also
focus  on completing  a  report on  health
effects  of concentrated  ambient  PM in
healthy  animals and humans,  in asthmatic
and elderly humans, and in animal models of
asthma and respiratory infection. This  new
information will help move  the  Agency
toward its objective of reducing Americans'
exposure to harmful particulate matter.

       Air toxics  research  will  provide
effects information, as well as the exposure,
source  characterization, and other data to
quantify  existing emissions, key pollutants,
                                          25

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                                    Clean Air
and   strategies  for  cost  effective  risk
management.  In 2001, air  toxics research
will   focus  on  completing  three  draft
toxicological reviews  and  assessments  of
high priority air toxics for external review as
well as validating  a physiologically-based
model  for  neurotoxic   air  toxics  and
developing  microenvironment  and  neigh-
borhood scale exposure  models.   These
products will yield new information that will
be essential  to  effectively  and efficiently
decreasing   future  risk to  the  American
public through reduced air toxics emissions.

2001 Annual Performance Goals:

*  In 2001, 5 million tons of SO2 emissions
   from utility sources will be reduced from
   the 1980 baseline.

4  In 2001, 2 million tons of NOx from
   coal-fired utility sources  will be reduced
   from levels  before implementation  of
   Title  IV  of  the  Clean   Air  Act
   Amendments.

*  In 2001, air toxics emissions nationwide
   from  stationary  and  mobile  sources
   combined will be reduced by 5% from
   2000 (for a cumulative reduction of 35%
   from the 1993 level of 4.3 million tons
   per year.)

4  In 2001, maintain healthy air quality for
   33.4 million people living  in 43 areas
   attaining the ozone standard, increase by
    1.9  million the number of people living
   in  areas  with healthy air quality that
   have attained the standard; and  certify
   that 5 new areas have attained the 1-hour
   standard for ozone.

*  In  2001,   EPA  will   develop   the
   infrastructure to  implement the Clean
   Air  Partnership  Fund,  which  will
demonstrate    smart    multi-pollutant
approaches  that  reduce   greenhouse
gases, air toxics, soot, and smog.

In 2001, maintain healthy air quality for
1.26 million people  living in 13 areas
attaining the PM standards, and increase
by 60  thousand the  number of people
living in areas with  healthy air quality
that have attained the standard.

In 2001, maintain healthy air quality for
28.8 million people  living in 62 areas
attaining the CO,  SO2, NO2, and lead
standards, and increase by 16.4  million
the number of people living in areas with
healthy  air quality that have attained the
standard.

In 2001, provide new information on the
atmospheric concentrations, human ex-
posure, health effects and mechanisms of
toxicity of particulate matter, and facil-
itate PM  NAAQS review through Air
Quality Criteria Document development
and consultation.
                                           26

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Goal 1 : Clean Air Key Programs
(dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Acid Rain: CASTNET
Acid Rain: Program Implementation
Administrative Services
Air Toxics: Characterization
Air Toxics: Implementation
Air Toxics: Research
Air, State, Local and Tribal Assistance Grants
Children's Health
Clean Air Partnership Fund
Common Sense Initiative
EMPACT
Mobile Sources
Ozone
Particulate Matter
Particulate Matter Research
Project XL
Regional Haze
Regional Management
Rent, Utilities and Securities
Stationary Sources
Tropospheric Ozone Research
TOTAL
$4,000.0
$10,606.3
$4,250.4
$8,452.9
$5,081.7
$18,121.7
$209,758.8
$1,000.0
$0.0
$135.6
$2,969.1
$48,056.9
$29,696.0
$26,421.2
$62,300.5
$390.5
$1,851.5
$244.2
$21,852.9
$16,566.5
$6,273.7
$478,030.4

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$4,000.0
$12,287.1
$4,463.9
$9,503.7
$5,692.0
$17,406.4
$214,758.8
$1,000.0
$85,000.0
$237.2
$2,720.6
$56,123.8
$32,092.2
$33,226.4
$65,267.9
$0.0
$2,233.0
$405.5
$23,917.2
$17,812.9
$8,543.4
$596,692.0
27

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28

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                               Clean Water
Strategic Goal:  All Americans will have drinking water that is clean and safe to drink.
Effective protection of America's rivers, lakes, wetlands, aquifers, and coastal and ocean
waters will sustain fish, plants,  and wildlife,  as well as recreational, subsistence, and
economic  activities. Watersheds and  their aquatic  ecosystems will  be restored and
protected to improve public health, enhance water quality, reduce flooding, and provide
habitat for  wildlife.

                               Resource Summary
                                (dollars in thousands)

Clean and Safe Water
Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational Waters
Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters
Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition
Total Workyears:
FY2000
Enacted
$3,491,587.3
$1,189,400.4
$381,485.2
$1,920,701.7
2,722.8
FY 2001 FY 2001 -FY 2000
Request Delta
$2,754,826.5
$1,099,270.9
$438,783.0
$1,216,772.6
2,672.7
-$736,760.8
-$90,129.5
$57,297.8
-$703,929.1
-50.1
Means and Strategy:

       To achieve the nation's clean and
safe water goals, EPA will  implement
the watershed approach in carrying out
its  statutory authorities under the Safe
Drinking  Water  Act  Amendments  of
1996  and  the   Clean   Water  Act.
Protecting  watersheds involves partic-
ipation  by  a  wide variety  of  stake-
holders, a comprehensive  assessment of
the  condition of the watershed,  and
implementation of solutions based on the
assessment of conditions and stakeholder
input.  Full involvement of stakeholders
at all levels of government, the regulated
community, and  the public  is funda-
mental to the watershed approach. The
watershed  approach  helps  EPA,  its
Federal  partners,  states,   tribes,  local
governments, and other stakeholders to
implement   tailored   solutions    and
maximize the benefits gained from the
use  of increasingly  scarce  resources.
       EPA will continue to implement
the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
Amendments of 1996 that chart a new
and challenging course for EPA, states,
tribes,  and water suppliers. The central
provisions of the Amendments include:
1) improving  the  way  that  EPA sets
drinking  water safety   standards and
develops regulations that are  based  on
good science and data, prioritization of
effort,   sound  risk  assessment,  and
effective    risk    management;    2)
establishing  new prevention approaches,
including    provisions   for   operator
certification, capacity development, and
source  water  protection;  3)  providing
better   information  to  consumers,
including  consumer confidence/right-to-
know  reports;  and  4)capitalizing and
managing  the  drinking  water   state
revolving  fund (DWSRF) program  to
assist  public water  systems in meeting
drinking water standards.
                                       29

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                              Clean Water
       EPA  has   increased efforts  to
provide  states and tribes  tools  and
information to assist them in protecting
their   residents  from  health   risks
associated  with  contaminated   recre-
ational  waters and noncommercially-
caught fish. These tools will help reduce
health risks, including risks to sensitive
populations   such   as   children   and
subsistence  and  recreational  anglers.
EPA activities  include development of
criteria, enhanced  fish tissue monitoring,
risk assessment, and development of fish
and  shellfish  consumption  advisories.
EPA will also establish improved safety
guidelines and pollution indicators so
that local authorities can monitor their
recreational  waters  in a cost-effective
way and close them to public use when
necessary to protect human health.  For
beaches, EPA's three-part strategy is to
strengthen beach  standards and testing,
improve the  scientific basis  for  beach
assessment,  and  develop methods to
inform   the   public   about    beach
conditions.

       The  President's  Clean  Water
Action  Plan  (CWAP),  announced in
February 1998, calls for more than 100
specific key  actions by EPA  and  by
many other Federal agencies with either
water quality responsibilities or activities
that have an impact on water quality.
These key actions cover most aspects of
the water program at EPA.   The Action
Plan mobilizes Federal, state, and local
agencies to  achieve the Nation's  clean
water   goals  through  the   watershed
approach, brings  a  sharp focus to the
critical  actions that are required,  and
establishes  deadlines for meeting  these
commitments  over  the  next   several
years.  For  2001, EPA requests  $762
million for the CWAP  and an additional
$21.5 million in related funding.

       Key to the watershed approach is
continuation  of EPA-developed  scien-
tifically-based water  quality  standards
and criteria under the Clean Water Act.
Where water  quality  standards are not
being met, EPA will work with states
and tribes to improve  implementation  of
total  maximum  daily  load  (TMDL)
programs that establish the analytical
basis  for watershed-based decisions on
the   need  for  additional   pollution
reductions.    EPA  will continue   to
develop  and  revise  national  effluent
guideline  limitations   and  standards,
capitalize and manage the Clean Water
State    Revolving   Fund   (CWSRF)
program and other funding mechanisms,
streamline  the   National   Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permit program, and revise the NPDES
and water quality  standards regulations
to achieve progress toward attainment  of
water  quality  standards and   support
implementation of TMDLs in impaired
water bodies.  The Agency will continue
to work  on reducing the NPDES permit
backlog, in partnership with states, by
targeting permitting  activities  toward
those facilities posing the greatest risk to
the environment. In addition, the Agency
will continue to expand its training and
electronic  information  activities   to
improve the efficiency and effectiveness
of the   NPDES   program.     These
strategies and activities are particularly
important as the NPDES program faces
significant  new  demands  with  the
implementation  of the phase II  storm
water  rule,  the  strategy  for   animal
feeding  operations  and coverage   of
additional wet-weather sources contrib-
uting to pollution problems. EPA will
                                       30

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                              Clean  Water
also continue reorienting its point source
programs towards a watershed focus.

       The  CWSRF  is  a  significant
financial tool for achieving clean and
safe water and for helping to meet the
significant   needs   for   wastewater
infrastructure over the next 20 years. All
50   states  and  U.S.  territories  have
benefitted   from    this   and    other
wastewater funding.  This budget request
includes $800 million for the  Clean
Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF).
This  investment  keeps EPA  on  track
with our commitment to meet the goal
for the CWSRF to provide an average of
$2.0   billion   in  annual   financial
assistance.     Indeed,  the  President's
Budget calls for cumulative additional
capitalization  of $3.2  billion  in fiscal
years 2002-2005, which will enable the
program to exceed  the Administration
commitment.   Over  $17  billion  has
already been provided to  capitalize the
CWSRF, more than twice the original
Clean Water Act authorized level of $8.4
billion.   Total SRF  funds available for
loans   since  1987,  reflecting  loan
repayments,  state match  dollars,  and
other   sources    of   funding,   are
approximately $30 billion, of which $26
billion   having    been  provided   to
communities   as  financial   assistance
($4.2 billion was available for loans as
of June 1999).

       To further support the objectives
of the  Clean  Water Action Plan, the
Agency  proposes  for  2001 to  allow
states to reserve  up to  an amount equal
to 19% of their CWSRF  capitalization
grants to provide grants of no more than
60%  of  the  costs  of implementing
eligible  nonpoint  source and   estuary
management projects. Projects receiving
grant assistance must, to the maximum
extent practicable, rank  highest on  the
state's list used  to  prioritize  projects
eligible for assistance.  States may make
these grants using either  a portion  of
their capitalization grant itself,  or using
other funds in their state revolving fund
(e.g,  state  match,  repayments,  bond
proceeds).   Grants may also be  com-
bined with loans for eligible projects for
communities which might otherwise find
loans unaffordable.

       EPA is assisting states and  tribes
to characterize risks, rank priorities, and
implement  a   mix  of  voluntary and
regulatory approaches through improved
state   nonpoint  source   management
programs.   Working  with  EPA,  states
and   tribes  are  strengthening  their
nonpoint source programs to ensure that
needed  nonpoint  source  controls  are
implemented to  achieve and maintain
beneficial uses of water.   States will
continue to implement coastal nonpoint
source programs approved  by EPA and
the National Oceanic and  Atmospheric
Administration  under the Coastal  Zone
Act Reauthorization Amendments, and
to work with the U.S.  Department  of
Agriculture  to  promote implementation
of Farm Bill programs consistent with
state nonpoint source management  needs
and priorities.  EPA  will  also provide
tools to states to assess  and strengthen
controls  on air deposition sources  of
nitrogen, mercury, and other toxics.

       With respect to wetlands,  EPA
will  work with  Federal,  state,  tribal,
local, and private  sector  partners  on
protection and community-based restor-
ation  of wetlands, and with its Federal
partners   to  avoid,   minimize,   and
compensate for wetland losses through
                                       31

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                              Clean  Water
the Clean Water Act  Section 404 and
Farm Bill programs.

       Through continuing implemen-
tation  of  Clean  Water  Action  Plan
priorities, watershed  restoration  action
strategies will be  implemented in high
priority watersheds across the nation that
will  enable  local  leaders  to take  a
stronger  role  in  setting priorities and
solving  water quality problems  that
affect  the  quality  of  life  in  their
communities.   EPA  will  work  with
states,  tribes,  municipalities,  and the
regulated community to ensure that the
Phase  II  rules   for  the  stormwater
program   are  implemented   to   solve
problems caused by sediment  and other
pollutants in our waters.  EPA will also
establish  criteria  for  nutrients  (i.e.,
nitrogen  and phosphorus) so that  more
states   can   develop  water  quality
standards  that  protect   waters   from
harmful algal blooms such as pfiesteria,
dead zones, and fish kills, which develop
as  a  result  of   an  excess  of  these
nutrients. EPA will work with States to
fund priority watershed projects through
the CWSRF  to  reduce  nonpoint and
estuary pollution.  The Agency will also
work  to   reduce   nonpoint  source
pollution from failing septic systems.

Research

       EPA's  research   efforts   will
continue to   strengthen   the  scientific
basis  for   drinking   water  standards
through  the  use  of improved methods
and new data to better evaluate the risks
associated  with exposure to  chemical
and microbial contaminants in drinking
water.    To support the  Safe Drinking
Water   Act  (SDWA)  and   its   1996
Amendments,  the Agency's  drinking
water   research   will develop   dose-
response information on disinfected by-
products (DBPs), waterborne pathogens,
arsenic   and   other   drinking  water
contaminants  for  characterization  of
potential exposure risks from consuming
tap water, including an increased focus
on filling key data gaps and developing
methods for  chemicals  and  microbial
pathogens on the Contaminant Candidate
List (CCL).  The Agency  will develop
and  evaluate  cost-effective   treatment
technologies  for removing  pathogens
from water supplies while minimizing
DBF formation, and for maintaining the
quality   of   treated   water   in  the
distribution  system  and  preventing the
intrusion  of  microbial  contamination.
By reducing uncertainties and improving
methods associated  with the assessment
and control of risks posed by exposure to
microbial   contaminants   in   drinking
water,  EPA  is providing the scientific
basis necessary to protect human health
and  ensure that by  2005,  95  percent of
the  population  served by community
water  systems will  receive water that
meets drinking water standards in place
in 1994.

       Research to  support the develop-
ment of ecological criteria will improve
our  understanding   of the  struc-ture,
function and  characteristics  of aquatic
systems, and will evaluate exposures to
stressors  and  their effects   on  those
systems. This research can then be used
to improve risk assessment methods to
develop aquatic life, habitat, and wildlife
criteria.  Through the  development of a
framework   for  diagnosing   adverse
effects of chemical  pollutants  in surface
waters, EPA will be able to evaluate the
risks posed by chemicals that persist in
the environment and accumulate in  the
food chain,  threatening  wildlife  and
                                        32

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                               Clean Water
potentially human health. This research
will facilitate  the  assessment of  eco-
logical  health of the  nation's waters,
providing water resource managers  with
a  tool  for determining whether  their
aquatic resources support healthy aquatic
communities.    The Agency  also  will
develop cost  effective technologies for
managing contaminated  sediments  with
an emphasis on identifying innovative in
situ solutions.   EPA  will  continue  to
develop diagnostic tools to  evaluate the
exposures to  toxic constituents of wet
weather flows, and develop  and validate
effective    watershed    management
strategies  for controlling wet weather
flows,  especially when  they are  high
volume and  toxic.   This research  will
also develop effective  beach evaluation
tools necessary  to  make  timely  and
informed decisions on beach advisories
and closures.

Highlights:

       So that all Americans have water
that is safe to drink, EPA will work to
ensure that 91 percent  of the population
will continue  to receive  drinking water
from systems meeting all  health-based
standards  in effect as of  1994.   The
Agency  will  also  assist  states  in
implementing the requirements of the
Stage  1  Disinfection/Disinfection  By-
products (D/DBP) Rule and the Interim
Enhanced   Surface  Water  Treatment
Rule, as well as various other new rules
including  radon, Unregulated Contam-
inant Monitoring  (UCMR), and  filter
backwash rules.  EPA will also continue
to target  resources for  drinking water
rule-making,  as mandated by the 1996
SDWA Amendments,   and  for  risk
assessment   and  improved analytical
methods   on  potential   contaminants
identified  in  the  1998  Contaminant
Candidate  List  (CCL).   EPA  is  also
using  the  1998  CCL for  determining
drinking water  research priorities,  in
addition  to  rule-making   and   data
collection priorities.

       States   are  facing   increasing
workloads  to  expeditiously  develop,  in
many  cases  consistent  with  Court-
ordered deadlines, critically-needed total
daily maximum loads (TMDLs) for their
impaired water bodies.  To  assist states
in  addressing  their  TMDL  needs,  a
targeted  increase in  Section  106 grants
of $45 million is requested with a state
cost-share requirement of 40 percent  of
project costs.  These  funds, coupled with
state flexibility to use up to 20 percent  of
their increased Section 319 grants,  and
other funding sources are intended  to
provide  sufficient resources  to allow
States  to  meet their TMDL obligations
in 2001 based on the estimated cost  of
EPA's TMDL regulation  proposed  in
August 1999.

       EPA is requesting a  significant
new investment to restore water quality
in the Great  Lakes.   Under this  $50
million initiative,  EPA would  compet-
itively award  matching grants to state
and  local  governments  to  clean up
contaminated sediments,  control storm-
water,    restore   wetlands,    acquire
greenways  and   buffers, and  control
polluted runoff.  States or municipalities
would  use the funds  to address existing
"areas  of concern"  (AOCs) that were
defined in  1987  by the International
Joint Commission -  a joint partnership
between  the United  States and Canada.
These  funds  would  support  restorative
and   protective actions in the 31 AOCs
that fall wholly or partly in U.S. waters,
                                       33

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                              Clean Water
and  represent  a  dramatic increase in
support for  Great Lakes states'  and
communities'  efforts to  preserve  and
enhance their waterways.

       The   Administration's    Clean
Water  Action   Plan   provides   a
comprehensive   strategy  for assessing
and restoring the Nation's most impaired
watersheds.      Fundamental   to  the
Agency's   efforts  to  conserve   and
enhance  the Nation's  waters  is  the
management  of  water quality resources
on  a  watershed basis,  with  the  full
involvement of all stakeholders include-
ing   communities,   individuals,   bus-
inesses, state and local governments, and
tribes. A key priority for 2001 will be
continued  emphasis on development and
implementation  of Watershed  Restor-
ation Action Strategies (WRAS) in those
waters identified by the states as most in
need of restoration.  By the end of 2001,
the third year of its availability to  states,
incremental  funding  under  the  Clean
Water Act Section  319 grants program
will   have provided  $350  million in
environmental improvement  projects in
these impaired waters.  Starting in 2000,
these incremental section 319 funds are
only  available to states with approved
upgraded  section  319  programs,  as
specified in  the CWAP.  EPA will  also
encourage, using a watershed approach,
the establishment of additional planning
groups or partnerships to  develop local
comprehensive   plans  for   managing
dredged material in an environmentally
sound manner.   Furthermore, EPA will
be an active participant in the develop-
ment of these plans.

       Habitat restoration and protection
is another  key component of the Clean
Water Action  Plan.  By 2001,   with
EPA's  support, the  National Estuary
Program will have  preserved, restored,
or created an additional 50,000 acres of
habitat,  including sea grass and shellfish
beds.    In 2001,  EPA will  continue
implementing the national  assessments
regarding the causes of, and appropriate
management responses to, harmful algal
blooms  and hypoxia.  EPA will also be
working with   the  Invasive  Species
Council  on  the national  and  agency-
specific action  plan to implement the
Invasive Species Executive Order.

       A key element  of the Agency's
effort to achieve its overarching goal of
clean  and safe water is the  reduction of
pollutant discharges from point sources
and nonpoint  sources.   The National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
program  (which   includes  NPDES
permits, urban wet weather, large animal
feeding   operations,    mining,    the
pretreatment program for non-domestic
wastewater discharges  into  municipal
sanitary    sewers,     and    biosolids
management controls)  establishes con-
trols on pollutants discharged from point
sources into waters of the United States.
Key annual performance goals for 2001
are to  reduce  industrial discharges of
toxic  pollutants by 4  million  pounds,
nonconventional  pollutants  by   370
million   pounds,   and  conventional
pollutants by  386  million  pounds as
compared to 1992 reduction levels.  To
ensure that all point sources  are covered
by current permits, EPA has developed a
backlog reduction strategy under  which
89 percent of major permittees and 66
percent of minor permittees will have
current  permits in place by 2001.  EPA
will also begin  evaluating data received
from  the first round of monitoring from
All  monitoring sites under the National
                                       34

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                               Clean Water
Marine  Debris  Monitoring Program.
This program monitors marine debris in
an  effort to determine sources  of the
debris,  much of which enters  coastal
waters through stormwater runoff.

       States report that pollution from
nonpoint sources is the largest cause of
water  pollution,  with agriculture as  a
leading  cause  of  impairment  in  25
percent of the river miles surveyed.   In
order  to  restore  and  maintain water
quality,  significant  loading  reductions
from   nonpoint  sources     must  be
achieved.   Because  EPA has   limited
direct  NFS  authority under  the Clean
Water Act,  state  NFS programs  are
critical  to  our  overall  success.   To
achieve  reductions  in  loadings, it  is
essential for EPA to work with states to
expeditiously implement the nine key
program elements in their  strengthened
nonpoint source programs.    EPA will
encourage states to make use of Clean
Water State Revolving Funds and other
Federal resources to finance projects that
address polluted runoff.

Research

       In  2001, EPA's drinking water
research  program will conduct research
to  reduce  uncertainties and  improve
methods associated  with the  assessment
and control of risks posed by exposure to
microbial  contaminants  in  drinking
water,   with  a  focus  on   emerging
pathogens  listed on the Contaminant
Candidate List (CCL).  As required by
the SDWA  amendments, the first CCL
was published in 1998 and included nine
microbial contaminants  in its Research
Priorities  Category  that require  more
data before a regulatory determination
can be made. There are significant data
gaps  with regard  to  understanding the
occurrence of  these microbes in source
and distribution system water, linkages
between water exposure and  infection,
and   the   effectiveness  of  candidate
treatment technologies  to  remove  and
inactivate  these   contaminants.    The
development of this crucial information
will    provide   the   scientific  basis
necessary to protect human health  and
ensure that 95 percent of the population
served by community water systems will
receive water that meets drinking water
standards.

       As part  of  EPA's   effort  to
conserve  and  enhance  the   nation's
waters, the  aquatic stressors  research
program will develop a framework for
diagnosing adverse chemical pollutants
in surface waters.  In 2001, EPA  will
publish a compendium of case studies
illustrating  the   application   of  the
Stressor  Identification  Guidelines,  as
well as reports on risk characterization
for watersheds and sediment  toxicity.
These tools will enable water  resource
managers to identify critical stressors to
aquatic ecosystems and   better  focus
restoration and watershed  management
decisions.

       Because  almost 40 percent  of
rivers,   lakes,   and   coastal   waters
surveyed  by  states do not meet  water
quality   goals,    effective   watershed
management  strategies and  guidance for
Wet Weather Flow (WWF) dischargers
is one of the key priority areas remaining
to assure  clean water and safe  drinking
water.  In 2001,  EPA will continue to
develop and validate effective watershed
manage-ment strategies for controlling
WWFs, especially when they are high
volume  and toxic.  This  research will
                                        35

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                              Clean Water
also develop and provide effective beach
evaluation  tools  necessary timely and
informed decisions  on beach advisories
and closures.

2001 Annual Performance Goals:

4  In 2001, water quality will  improve
   on a watershed basis such that 550 of
   the Nation's 2,150  watersheds  will
   have  greater  than  80  percent of
   assessed waters  meeting all  water
   quality   standards,  up  from   500
   watersheds in  1998.

4  In 2001, 500 projects funded by the
   Clean  Water  SRF  will   initiate
   operations,  including  300  projects
   providing   secondary   treatment,
   advanced treatment, CSO correction
   (treatment),   and/or   storm  water
   treatment.  Cumulatively, 6,200 SRF
   funded  projects will have  initiated
   operations since program inception.

+  In 2001, restore and protect  estuaries
   through   the   implementation  of
   Comprehensive   Conservation   and
   Management Plans (CCMPs).

*  In  2001,  industrial  discharges of
   pollutants to the nation's waters will
   be  significantly  reduced  through
   implementation  of  effluent guide-
   lines.

*  In  2001,  current  NPDES  permits
   reduce  or  eliminate discharges into
   the  nation's  waters  of (1)    in-
   adequately  treated discharges  from
   municipal  and  industrial facilities;
   and (2) pollutants from urban storm
   water, CSOs, and CAFOs.
In 2001, assure that states and tribes
have  effective,  up-to-date  water
quality  standards programs  adopted

in accordance with the Water Quality
Standards regulation and the Water
Quality  Standards program priorities.

In  2001,  reduce   exposure   to
contaminated  recreation waters  by
increasing the information  available
to the public  and decision-makers.
(Supports CWAP)

In 2001, maintain  percent  of the
population served by  water systems
that  will  receive  drinking  water
meeting all health-based standards
that were in effect as of 1994.
                                        36

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| Goal 2: Clean and Safe Water Key Programs
(dollars in thousands)

FY2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
Chesapeake Bay (CWAP)
CWAP Related Research
Drinking Water Implementation
Drinking Water Regulations
Effluent Guidelines (CWAP)
EMPACT
Great Lakes Cleanup Grants
Great Lakes (CWAP)
Gulf of Mexico (CWAP)
Lake Champlain (CWAP)
Long Island Sound (CWAP)
Marine Pollution (CWAP)
National Estuaries Program/Coastal Watersheds (CWAP)
National Nonpoint Source Program Implementation (CWAP)
NPDES Program (CWAP)
Pacific Northwest (CWAP)
Pfiesteria (CWAP)
Project XL
Regional Management
Rent, Utilities and Securities
Rural Water Technical Assistance
Safe Drinking Water Research
Source Water Protection (CWAP related)
South Florida/Everglades (CWAP)
State Nonpoint Source Grants (CWAP)
State Pollution Control Grants (Section 106) (CWAP)
State PWSS Grants
State Underground Injection Control Grants
State Water Quality Cooperative Agreements (CWAP)
State Wetlands Program Grants (CWAP)
UIC Program
Water Infrastructure: Alaska Native Villages
Water Infrastructure: Bristol County
Water Infrastructure: CWSRF
Water Infrastructure: DWSRF
Water Infrastructure: New Orleans
Water Quality Criteria and Standards (CWAP)
Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment (CWAP)
Watershed Research
Wetlands (CWAP)
TOTAL
$7,123.3
$20,308.9
$2,646.9
$29,668.5
$33,230.5
$21,116.9
$125.0
$0.0
$3,263.7
$4,196.0
$2,187.3
$975.0
$7,580.0
$18,029.2
$15,401.1
$36,274.9
$1,043.2
$100.0
$220.5
$965.6
$40,847.0
$13,987.4
$47,367.6
$10,302.3
$2,923.0
$200,000.0
$115,529.3
$93,305.5
$10,975.0
$19,000.0
$15,000.0
$9,594.9
$30,000.0
$2,000.0
$1,345,421.3
$820,000.0
$3,800.0
$18,545.1
$9,762.6
$7,481.8
$15,730.0
$3,036,029.3
1

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$7,549.4
$19,517.4
$2,611.2
$32,234.5
$37,809.8
$23,610.1
$937.6
$50,000.0
$4,111.1
$4,019.5
$1,000.0
$500.0
$8,059.8
$16,135.0
$16,944.3
$41,592.0
$1,064.8
$250.0
$232.7
$1,117.2
$45,304.8
$688.0
$48,872.5
$11,631.1
$2,938.4
$250,000.0
$160,529.3
$93,305.5
$10,975.0
$19,000.0
$15,000.0
$10,687.6
$15,000.0
$3,000.0
$800,000.0
$825,000.0
$10,000.0
$22,765.0
$11,778.7
$6,398.3
$17,315.2
$2,649,485.8
37

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38

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                                 Safe Food
Strategic Goal: The foods Americans eat will be free from unsafe pesticide residues.
Children especially will be protected from the health threats posed by pesticide residues,
because they are among the most vulnerable groups in our society.

                                 Resource Summary
                                 (dollars in thousands)

Safe Food
Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk
FY2000
Enacted
$82,285.2
$35,826.0
FY2001
Request
$86,056.5
$39,057.3
2001 vs. 2000
Delta
$3,771.3
$3,231.3
 Reduce Use on Food of
 Pesticides Not Meeting Standards

 Total Workyears:
$46,459.2

   701.0
$46,999.2

   711.8
$540.0

  10.8
Means and Strategy

       The Agency works toward a two-
fold  strategy  for  accomplishing  the
objectives of the Safe Food goal:

4  encouraging the introduction of new,
    reduced risk  pesticide  ingredients
    (including  new  biological  agents)
    within  the  context of new  pest
    management practices; and

4  reducing   the  use  of   currently
    registered pesticides with the highest
    potential  to  cause adverse  health
    effects.

       In  2001,   the  Agency   will
accelerate the pace of new  registrations
for  pesticides  that  offer  improved
prevention or  risk  reduction  qualities
compared  to  those  currently  on  the
market.  Progressively replacing older,
higher-risk pesticides is one of the most
effective methods  for curtailing adverse
while preserving food production rates.
          The 2001  request  also  expands
   efforts to evaluate existing tolerances for
   currently registered pesticides to ensure
   they  meet  the  new  Food  Quality
   Protection  Act (FQPA) health standards.
   This  tolerance reassessment  program
   also  screens  and requires  testing  of
   certain   pesticides and  chemicals  to
   evaluate their potential for  disrupting
   endocrine  systems  in  animals or  in
   humans.   The emphasis will  be  on
   balancing  the need  for pesticides  with
   the risks of exposure, and allowing for
   smooth  transitions  to  safer  pesticide
   alternatives.

          EPA  uses  its  authority under
   Federal  Insecticide,   Fungicide   and
   Rodenticide Act  (FTFRA) and Federal
   Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)
   to systematically  manage  the risks of
   such  exposures by establishing  legally
   permissible food-borne exposure levels,
   or tolerances.   EPA  manages  the legal
   use of pesticides, up to and including the
   elimination of pesticides that present  a
                                        39

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                                 Safe Food
danger   to   human  health  and   the
environment.    This task  involves a
comprehensive   review   of  existing
pesticide  use   as   stipulated  by   the
reregistration  provision, as  well  as a
comprehensive reassessment and update
of existing tolerances within ten years,
as required by FQPA.

       Through developing  and using
the latest scientific  advances in  health
risk   assessment  practices,  EPA  is
ensuring current uses meet the test of a
reasonable certainty of  no  harm,  as
stipulated by FQPA. This includes the
incorporation  of  new  scientific  data
relating  to  the  effects  of  endocrine
disruption.

       New registration actions result in
more pesticides on the market that meet
FQPA  standards,   which  brings   the
Agency  closer  to  the  objective  of
reducing  adverse  risks from pesticide
use.  tolerance reassessments may mean
mandatory  use  changes  because  a
revision  in the allowable  residue levels
can   involve   changes  in  pesticide
application  patterns,  changes  in   the
foods the pesticides may be applied to,
and other risk management methods. As
measured by the number of tolerances
that  have been reassessed, the Agency's
progress in  the tolerance  reassessment
program directly serves the objective of
reducing the use of pesticides that do not
meet the new standards, on food.

       Finally, in addition to setting the
requirements of continued legal use of
agricultural  pesticides,  EPA  works in
partnership with USDA,  FDA and the
states  toward   the  broader  effort  to
prevent the misuse of pesticides.
       More information about EPA's
food  safety efforts is  available on  the
Office of Pesticides Program's website
at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides.

Research

       Current approaches  to  human
health risk assessment focus  on single
pesticides and do not adequately account
for  cumulative   risks  arising   from
complex exposure patterns  and human
variability  due  to  age,  gender,  pre-
existing disease, health and nutritional
status,  and  genetic   predisposition.
Existing  tools  for   controlling  and
preventing  exposure  are  limited   to
certain processes and materials.

       The   FQPA   identifies   clear
science  needs  consistent   with   the
evaluation of all  potential  routes and
pathways of exposures to pesticides, and
resulting health effects, particularly for
sensitive subpopulations and considering
effects from cumulative exposures.

       These  needs  are   overtaxing
existing tools.  To meet  them, in 2001,
research  will  continue  to  focus  on
developing  and  validating  methods  to
identify and characterize, and  models to
predict,    the   potential    increased
susceptibility  to human health effects
experienced  by infants  and  children;
identifying  and   understanding  major
exposure   routes  and   pathways  and
processes,  and  developing  theoretical
and experimentally based multipathway
exposure models for pesticides and other
toxic   substances;  and  addressing  the
adequacy   of current  risk  assessment
methods  and providing the  necessary
risk   assessment  guidance.    Pesticide
exposure    and   effects   data,   risk
                                        40

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                                 Safe Food
assessment  methods  and  models  for
children,   and   control   technologies
developed by 2001 will help to improve
the  Agency's  ability  to fully  comply
with  the  requirements   of  FQPA,
particularly  requirements   related   to
susceptible  subpopulations  and  cum-
ulative risk.

Highlights

Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk

       The  FFDCA  and  the  FIFRA
authorize  EPA   to  set  terms  and
conditions  of  pesticide   registration,
marketing and use.  EPA will use these
authorities to reduce the use of pesticides
with the highest potential to cause cancer
or  neurotoxic  effects,  including  those
which pose particular risks to children.

       New food/feed use pesticides are
registered after an extensive review and
evaluation  of  human   health   and
ecosystem studies and data, applying the
most recent scientific  advances in risk
assessment.  The  Registration program
includes  registration activities, such  as
setting tolerances, registering new active
ingredients,  new  uses,  and handling
experimental use permits and emergency
exemptions.

       In  2001,   the  Agency   will
continue  to decrease the risk the public
faces from agricultural  pesticides (from
1995 levels)   through the   regulatory
review  of  new   pesticides,  including
reduced     risk     pesticides     and
biopesticides.     EPA   expedites   the
registration of reduced risk pesticides,
which pose lower potential dietary risks
to consumers, lower risks to  agricultural
workers,  and reduce potential risk to the
earth's   ozone   layer,    groundwater,
aquatic  organisms  or wildlife.   These
accelerated pesticide reviews provide an
incentive   for   industry   to  develop,
register,  and use lower risk pesticides.
Additionally, the  availability  of these
reduced  risk pesticides provides alter-
natives   to  older,   potentially   more
harmful  products   currently  on   the
market.

Reduce  Food  Use  of Pesticides  Not
Meeting Current Standards

       FQPA requires  the Agency to
revise  its risk  assessment practices to
incorporate   additional   safeguards  to
ensure  the  adequate   protection  of
children's  health  and  that  of  other
vulnerable groups, such as tribes, and to
reevaluate  some  9,721  food  residue
tolerances approved before the passage
of FQPA.  The Agency has met its first
statutory mandate, to reassess 33 percent
of these tolerances by August 1999. In
2001, the Agency will continue toward
its   10-year   statutory   deadline  of
reassessing   all  9,721   tolerances  by
reassessing  an  additional   1,200  tol-
erances.  The Agency will also continue
screening and testing pesticides for their
potential to disrupt the endocrine system.

       The tolerance  reassessment  pro-
cess strives to  address  the highest-risk
pesticides  first.  Using   data surveys
conducted by the USDA,  the FDA and
other sources,  EPA  has  identified a
group of "top  20"  foods  consumed by
children  and matched  those with  the
tolerance  reassessments  required   for
pesticides used  on those  foods.   The
Agency has begun to track its progress
in determining appropriate tolerances for
these pesticides under the new  FQPA
                                        41

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                                Safe Food
standards.  By 2001, EPA will  reduce
dietary risks to children by completing a
cumulative   66   percent   of   these
tolerances of special concern.

       Organophosphates   and  carba-
mates have also been targeted as posing
higher risks than many other pesticide
types.  These pesticides are widely used
and  limitations will mean changes in
current farming practices.  The need for
broad input and participation lead to a
special stakeholder process to address
data,  analysis and regulatory require-
ments,  protocol,  and  scientific   and
public review as  the Agency moves to
reduce the risks posed by some of these
pesticides.

       The  Agency's Pesticide  Rereg-
istration  program is  now  in its  final
phase. The Reregistration program was
established in the 1988  amendments to
FJFRA  and  has  similar goals  to the
FQPA's  tolerance  reassessment  pro-
gram.   Through   the   Reregistration
program,  EPA also reviews  pesticides
currently on  the  market to ensure they
meet  the latest health standards set by
FQPA.   Pesticides  not in compliance
with the new standard will be eliminated
or  restricted  in  order to   minimize
harmful exposure.   The issuance of a
Reregistration    Eligibility    Decision
(RED)  for   a   pesticide   under   re-
registration   review  summarizes  the
health   and   environmental   effects
findings of that pesticide.  The findings
determine    whether   the   products
registered  under  this   chemical  are
eligible for reregistration.

       FQPA has  added  considerably
more complexity into  the  process of
reregistering pesticides.  New statutory
requirements have made risk assessment
more complex and lengthened the "front
end" portion of  reregistration.   These
requirements include considering aggre-
gate  exposure  and  cumulative  risk,
implementing new processes to increase
involvement of pesticide users and other
stakeholders, and ensuring a reasonable
opportunity  for agriculture to  make  the
transition to new pest control  tools and
practices.   Over  the  longer  run,  these
changes  will  enhance  protection  of
human health and the environment and
should speed risk reductions.

       EPA is now conducting rereg-
istration in  conjunction with  tolerance
reassessment, which FQPA mandates be
completed by 2006.   Reregistration of
pesticide active ingredients and products
will be completed prior to the statutory
deadline   for   completing   tolerance
reassessment.     However,  there   are
increasing indications that all elements
of   reregistration,   especially    those
elements  also  necessary   to  complete
tolerance  reassessment,   will   not  be
completed for all active ingredients by
2002.

       In  2001,  EPA will complete 30
REDs  and  approximately  750  product
reregistrations. By 2006, all 9,700 of the
tolerance  reassessments  mandated  by
FQPA will  be  completed.   EPA  has
evaluated    the   two   programs   and
consolidated analyses wherever possible
while  meeting   the  goals   of  both
programs.

       FQPA   requires   that   EPA
establish a process for periodic review of
pesticide registrations.  This requires the
updating  of all  pesticide registrations
using current scientific data, risk assess-
                                       42

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                                Safe Food
ment methodology, program policies and
effective risk reduction  measures.   In
2001,   the  Agency   will   continue
developing   the  framework  for  the
registration review program.

Research

       In 2001, research will continue to
develop pesticides exposure and effects
data,   risk  assessment  methods   and
models  for  children,   and   control
technologies  needed to comply with the
requirements of FQPA.   One  area of
increased  attention will  be cumulative
risk.   Research  will  be enhanced  to
address some of the complex issues and
uncertainties  in this area.   The Agency
will  begin   to develop  a  systematic
approach  for determining  cumulative
risk  for  a  given  set  of  exposure
conditions, beginning with less complex
paradigms and building toward the more
complex,  including   consideration  of
different   temporal    dimensions   of
exposure.

FY2001 Annual Performance Goals

4  In 2001, complete reassessment of a
   cumulative 66 percent (560) of these
   848 tolerances of special concern in
   protecting the health of children.

*  In  2001,  EPA  will  reassess an
   additional 1,200 of the 9,721 existing
   pesticide  tolerances to ensure that
   they meet the statutory standard of
   "reasonable certainty of  no harm"
   (for a cumulative 60 percent).

*  In 2001, decrease adverse risk from
   agricultural  uses  from  1995 levels
   and assure that new pesticides that
enter the market are safe for humans
and the environment.
                                       43

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Goal 3: Safe Food Key Programs
          (dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program
Pesticide Registration
Pesticide Reregistration
Pesticide Residue Tolerance Reassessments
Rent, Utilities and Securities
TOTAL
$977.1
$6,565.3
$21,126.3
$25,316.6
$11,597.8
$4,118.3
$69,701.4
FY 2001
President's
Budget
$1,014.7
$5,741.4
$25,014.4
$28,945.2
$7,722.7
$8,197.5
$76,635.9
                44

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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
                  Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
Strategic Goal:  Pollution prevention and risk management strategies aimed at cost-
effectively eliminating, reducing, or minimizing emissions and contamination will result
in cleaner and safer environments  in which all Americans can reside, work, and enjoy
life. EPA will safeguard ecosystems and promote the health of natural communities that
are integral to the quality of life in this Nation.

                                Resource Summary
                                 (dollars in thousands)
                                              FY 2000
                                              Enacted
              FY 2001
              Request
          FY 2001-FY 2000
               Delta
Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in
Communities, Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems

Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure

Reduce Lead Poisoning

Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals

Healthier Indoor Air

Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools

Decrease Quantity and Toxicitiy of Waste

Assess Conditions in Indian Country

Total Workyears:


Means and Strategy:

       The  diversity  and  fragility of
America's environments  (communities,
homes,  workplaces  and  ecosystems)
requires  EPA to adopt a multi-faceted
approach  to protecting the public  from
the threats posed by pesticide and  toxic
chemicals.  The underlying principle of
the  activities   in  this   goal   is  the
application  of   pollution  prevention,
which  is cheaper and smarter than costly
cleanup and remediation,  as  evidenced
with    Superfund,    the    Resource
Conservation    and   Recovery    Act
(RCRA), and  polychlorinated  biphenyls
(PCB) cleanups.
  $277,597.3


   $51,892.2

   $27,390.6

   $66,866.8

   $39,915.5

   $23,649.5

   $15,056.6

   $52,826.1

    1,176.1
$301,046.3


 $55,971.7

 $28,213.9

 $70,983.3

 $41,159.0

 $24,505.5

 $16,016.6

 $64,196.3

   1,186.5
$23,449.0


 $4,079.5

  $823.3

 $4,116.5

 $1,243.5

  $856.0

  $960.0

$11,370.2

    10.4
       Under this Goal,  EPA ensures
that pesticides   and  their  application
methods do  not present  unreasonable
risk to  human health, the environment,
and ecosystems.  In addition to the array
of risk-management measures entailed in
the  registration  authorities  under  the
Federal   Insecticide,   Fungicide   and
Rodenticide Act  (FIFRA)  for individual
pesticide ingredients, EPA has specific
programs   to   foster    worker   and
pesticide-user    safety,    ground-water
protection, and the safe, effective use of
antimicrobial  agents.   These programs
work  to  ensure  the  comprehensive
protection  of  the  environment   and
wildlife in general, endangered species
in  particular,   and  to   reduce    the
contribution of pesticides  to ecological
threats such as pollutant loading in select
                                        45

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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
                 Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
geographic areas.  Within this context,
EPA pursues a variety of field activities
at the regional,  state and local  levels,
including  the promotion of pesticide
environmental stewardship.  EPA is also
addressing  emerging threats  such  as
endocrine  disruptors  by developing and
implementing   new   screening   tech-
nologies to assess a chemical's hormonal
activity. Finally, EPA promotes the use
of sensible Integrated Pest Management
(IPM) and the prevention of misuse  in
the panoply  of uses within both the
urban and rural environments.

       Much remains  to be  done  to
safeguard  our  Nation's  communities,
homes, workplaces  and  ecosystems.
Preventing pollution through regulatory,
voluntary, and  partnership  actions  
educating and changing the behavior  of
our public ~ is a sensible and effective
approach  to sustainable  development
while  protecting our nation's  health.
Two groups  with significant potential to
effect environmental change are industry
and academia and the Agency pursues a
number of  these pollution  prevention
programs with both of the these groups.
Likewise, improved understanding of the
risks  to  health  from  airborne  toxic
chemicals  indoors may  strengthen our
ability to reduce residents' exposure
through voluntary changes in behavior
and    through    potential    product
reformulation.

       Preventing   pollution   through
partnerships    is   central   to   the
Administration's  Chemical  Right-to-
Know initiative launched in 1998.  This
initiative  provides  the   public   with
information  on  the  basic health and
environmental  effects  of  the   2,800
highest production   volume   (HPV)
chemicals  in the U.S.  Most residents
come into  daily contact with many of
these chemicals, yet relatively  little  is
known  about their  potential  impacts.
Getting basic hazard testing information
is  the  focus  of a the "HPV Challenge
Program",    a    voluntary    program
recognizing industry's contribution to
the  public knowledge base  on  these
prevalent  chemicals.   More  than 211
companies    have    committed   to
voluntarily provide  these test  data for
more than 1,152 of the HPV chemicals,
a remarkable expression of partnership
between government and  the  private
sector.  Risks to children is a particular
focus,  and  the Agency will supplement
the  information  from  industry  with
additional testing to identify and address
chemicals  of concern  for  children's
health.

       Children's health  is  also the
continuing  focus of  the multi-agency
initiative  begun  in  2000  to  combat
asthma in children. Efforts in 2001 will
target  reductions in  the  presence of
indoor  triggers  of  asthma,   such  as
environmental  tobacco   smoke  and
biological  contaminants,  by  educating
the public about the disease and the steps
they can take to reduce the severity and
frequency of asthma attacks.  Additional
voluntary work will be undertaken by
schools to empower their  students to
manage their asthma symptoms better,
by  school personnel  to improve the
indoor  environments  of  their schools,
and   by   health-care  personnel  to
incorporate  education  about  managing
environmental  asthma  triggers  into
asthma treatment plans for their patients.
Partnerships  with non-profit  environ-
mental  and public health organizations
with a particular focus on children are
                                       46

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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
                 Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
being  used to bring  about  voluntary
reductions in exposure to asthma triggers
found indoors.

       Reducing indoor air pollution is a
high  priority  for  the Agency.    U.S.
residents  spend  most  of their  time
indoors and the pollutants indoors can be
in much higher concentrations than what
occurs outside. Further, poor indoor air
quality  is  implicated  in   childhood
asthma. Recent studies indicate nearly 1
of 13 school age children have  asthma.
Over the last 20 years the number  of
deaths from asthma has increased three-
fold.   Partnerships, technology  transfer
and  public awareness are key tools  in
reducing indoor air pollution.

       Also  central to  the  Agency's
work under this goal in 2001  will be
increased attention on documenting and
taking  action  to  reduce  risk  from
persistent,  bioaccumulative and  highly
toxic  chemicals   (PBTs)  and  from
chemicals that have endocrine  disruption
effects.  PBT chemicals are of particular
concern not only because they are toxic
but also because they may remain in the
environment for a  long period of time,
are not readily destroyed, and  may build
up or accumulate in plant  or  animal
tissue, and  in  cases involving mercury,
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)  and
lead,   in  human  tissue.    Pollution
prevention  and controlling releases are
the   mainstays   of   protection  for
chemicals that exhibit these effects.

       The    Agency    mixes    both
regulatory  and voluntary methods to
accomplish its job.  For  example, each
year   the   New  Chemicals  program
reviews  and  manages  the  risks  of
approximately 1,800 new chemicals  and
40 products of biotechnology that enter
the marketplace.   This new chemical
review  process not  only . protects the
public from  the  immediate threats of
harmful  chemicals,  like PCBs,  from
entering the marketplace but it has also
contributed to changing the behavior of
the chemical industry, making industry
more  aware  and  responsible  for the
impact these  chemicals have on human
health and  the  environment.    This
awareness has led industry to produce
safer "greener" alternative chemicals and
pesticides.  Fewer harmful chemicals are
entering   the  marketplace  and  our
environment today because  of the New
Chemical Program.

       The Design for the Environment
(DfE)  and Green Chemistry Programs
build  on and expand  the new chemistry
efforts.    They  target industry  and
academia to maximize the impact of the
Agency's  pollution prevention  efforts.
Our  DfE  program  forms  partnerships
with industry to find sensible solutions
to prevent pollution.   In one example,
taking a  sector  approach,  EPA  has
worked  with  the electronics industry to
reduce the use  of formaldehyde  and
other   toxic   chemicals   from   the
manufacture of printed wiring boards.

      The  Pollution Prevention  (P2)
Framework developed in 1998 and 1999
is another example of EPA successfully
influencing   industry's  approach  to
chemical  selection  prior to  commer-
cialization.    The  P2 Framework  inte-
grates analytical methods and tools that
help predict risks of chemicals, based on
chemical structure; allows  stakeholders
to  evaluate  and  compare  chemical
choices and to identify  environmentally
preferable products and processes; and
                                      47

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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
                 Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
helps industry identify risk issues early
in product development, when pollution
prevention opportunities are most cost-
effective.

       In  several cases,  achieving  the
strategic objectives under this goal is a
shared responsibility  with other Federal
and state agencies. For example, EPA's
role   in  reducing   the   levels  of
environmental lead  exposure  involves
promotion of federal-state  partnerships
to    lower    specific   sources   of
environmental lead, such as  lead-based
paint and other lead-content products.
These partnerships  emphasize  devel-
opment of a professional infrastructure
to identify, manage and abate lead-based
paint   hazards,  as well  as  public
education and empowerment  strategies,
which fit into companion Federal efforts
(e.g.,  Centers  for   Disease   Control
(CDC), and Department of Housing and
Urban Development (HUD)) to  monitor
and  reduce  environmental  lead levels.
Likewise,  achieving  the goals  of  the
multi-agency  effort  to  substantially
increase  the  government's efforts to
combat asthma  in  children  requires
effective collaboration between EPA and
other Federal agencies.

       Intrinsic to the effort to prevent
pollution is  the minimization  of  the
quantities   of  waste  generated  by
industry, municipalities and hazardous-
waste management operations. Strategies
range from fostering materials reuse and
recycling  and  other  resource-recovery
processes to broad- based campaigns to
re-engineer the consumption and use of
raw  materials or personal conservation
of resources.  Effective and sustainable
programs reduce the need  for  storage,
treatment  or disposal of hazardous or
municipal wastes,  while reducing costs
to industry and municipalities.
       Since this Goal focuses on how
Americans  live  in  communities,   it
features the Agency's   commitment of
fulfilling its  responsibility  for assuring
human    health    and    promoting
environmental  protection   in  Indian
Country.  EPA's policy is to work with
tribes on a  govemment-to-government
basis  that   affirms  the   vital   trust
responsibility  that EPA has with  554
tribal   governments   and   remains
cognizant of the Nation's interest in
conserving the cultural  uses of natural
resources.
Research

       Currently, there are significant
gaps  with regard to understanding of
actual human  exposures  to  pesticides
and   toxic  substances  in  consumer
products in residential environments and
potential human health risks from such
exposures to the general population and
susceptible  subpopulations,   such  as
infants  and  children.    Methods for
detecting    and   estimating    human
exposures to these chemical stressors are
extremely  limited.     Health  effects
information is not available for most of
these stressors.  Tools that are currently
available to control or prevent exposures
are also limited to certain processes or
materials.    Research  is  needed  to
improve the characterization of health
risks    associated   with   community
exposures  to   environmental  chemical
stressors and to develop more  advanced
                                       48

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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
                 Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
control  technologies  to mitigate and
eliminate  human  exposures to  these
stressors.  To meet this need, the  2001
research program will develop exposure
data,     health     risk     assessment
methodologies, and control technologies
to improve the characterization of health
risks  and  reduce community exposures
to environmental chemical stressors.

Highlights:

       EPA seeks to prevent pollution at
the  source   as   the  first  choice  in
managing environmental risks to humans
and ecosystems.  Where pollution pre-
vention at the source is not a viable
alternative, the Agency will employ risk
management and remediation strategies
in a cost  effective manner.  Reducing
pollution at the source will be carried out
using a multi-media approach in the
following  environmental problem areas:

4 Reduce  Public   and   Ecosystem
   Exposure to Pesticides

       Reducing risk  from  exposure  to
pesticides    requires   a  multi-faceted
approach.     Beyond  being  exposed
through the food  we eat,  the  general
public,  applicators, and  farm workers
may be  exposed through direct handling,
groundwater  contamination  or  aerial
spray.   One intent of the Food  Quality
Protection Act (FQPA) is to protect the
public by shifting the nation toward safer
pesticide use.    Appropriate transition
strategies   to    safer  pesticides  are
important   to   the  nation  to   avoid
disruption of  food supply  or  sudden
changes in the market that  could  result
from abruptly  terminating the use of a
pesticide  before  well-targeted  safer
equivalents can be identified and made
available.    For  these  reasons,  the
Strategic    Agricultural    Partnership
initiative continues to  be an important
priority  in  2001.     The  Strategic
Agricultural   Partnership   assists   in
developing alternative pest management
tools   and   effective   implementation
approaches. The Agency   will work
closely   with   industry,   agricultural
pesticide users and other stakeholders to
develop  an effective transition  to  the
safer  pesticides  and pest management
practices envisioned by the FQPA.   In
2001, the initiative will expand efforts to
reach more farmers,  encourage them to
adopt safer pesticides, use environmental
stewardship   and    integrated    pest
management  practices,  and  adopt  a
"whole farm" approach to environmental
protection.

       In 2001, through the Certification
and   Training   (C&T)   and   Worker
Protection  (WP) programs, EPA will
continue increasing agricultural workers'
awareness and knowledge of the dangers
of pesticides and good worker  safety
practices.  EPA will continue to  protect
the Nation's  ecosystems  and  reduce
impacts to endangered  species through
the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship
Program (PESP),  and  integrated pest
management  (IPM).  The Agency will
emphasize   efforts  with   our   tribal
partners to address pesticide issues and
enhance  the  development  of  tribal
technical capacity,  particularly  in  the
areas of risk management, worker safety,
training, and pollution prevention.

       Together, the WP and the C&T
programs address the problem of  worker
pesticide exposure.    These programs
safeguard  workers  from  occupational
exposure to pesticides by providing
                                       49

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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
                 Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
training for  workers,  employers, and
pesticide  applicators   and  handlers.
Training and certification of applicators

of  restricted  use   pesticides   further
ensures  that   workers   and   other
vulnerable  groups are  protected from
undue   pesticide  exposure  and risk.
Recertification requirements keep their
knowledge  current with label changes
and  application   improvements.    The
Groundwater  Strategy,   a  cooperative
effort with states and regions to develop
Pesticide Management  Plans  (PMPs),
will  further  efforts to prevent pesticide
pollution of surface  and groundwaters.
The  Endangered  Species program will
enlist the support of the agricultural
community and other interested  groups
to protect wildlife and  critical habitats
from pesticides. This voluntary program
is carried  out through communications
and outreach efforts and in coordination
with other Federal agencies.  The PESP
and IPM play pivotal  roles in moving the
nation  to the  use of safe pest  control
methods,   including   reduced   risk
pesticides.     These  closely   related
programs promote risk reduction through
collaborative efforts with stakeholders to
utilize  safer  alternatives to traditional
chemical methods of pest control.

       Antimicrobial    sterilants  and
disinfectants   are    used   to   kill
microorganisms on surfaces and  objects
in hospitals,  schools,  restaurants and
homes.        Antimicrobials     require
appropriate  labeling  and handling  to
ensure  safety and efficacy. EPA remains
focused on accurate product labeling and
product efficacy and on meeting other
requirements for antimicrobial sterilants
set forth by FQPA.
*  Reduce Lead Poisoning

       EPA is part of the Federal effort
to  address lead poisoning and elevated

blood levels in children by assisting in,
and  in some  cases  guiding,  Federal
activities aimed at reducing the exposure
of children in homes with lead-based
paint.   During FY  2001, EPA will
continue       implementing       its
comprehensive program  to  reduce the
incidence  of lead poisoning and elevated
blood levels in children nationwide. The
Agency   has  established  a  national
program  to oversee  the training  and
certification   of   lead-based   paint
abatement and inspection professionals.
Many states and several tribes have been
authorized by EPA  to administer  and
enforce this program. EPA is responsible
for  administering and  enforcing  the
program in the remainder of the states
and tribal  lands.

       In 2001, EPA will finalize  two
new  proposed regulations  addressing
renovation activities in housing, and lead
paint removal from buildings, bridges
and steel structures. EPA will also issue
final regulations that will allow for safe
and   cost-effective  disposal  of  lead
painted debris.  EPA,  the Department of
Housing   and  Urban   Development
(HUD), and the Department of Justice
(DOJ) continue to enforce regulations
requiring  the  disclosure  of information
about lead-based paint during real estate
transactions. EPA recently issued a final
rule that requires contractors to provide
lead hazard information  to consumers
before  renovation or  remodeling  in
homes built before 1978.
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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
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       In  2001,  EPA will continue its
program  to educate the public  about
childhood  lead   poisoning.     These
activities  are  coordinated  with  other
Federal agencies  such as  HUD  and
the Center for Disease Control (CDC),
as  well   as  state,  tribal  and  local
governments.
   Safe   Handling   and   Use   of
   Commercial     Chemicals     and
   Microorganisms
       Under TSCA,  EPA   identifies
and    controls    unreasonable    risks
associated with chemicals.  In 1998, the
Vice-President called on EPA to launch
the Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative,
addressing a critical gap in the nation's
knowledge  about   the   health  and
environmental   hazards  of     high
production volume  chemicals  (HPVs).
EPA  is working  with  industry to put
information about those chemicals into
the hands of the public, communities,
environmental  groups,  states and  the
regions.

       Another   Agency  priority  is
implementation    of  the   Endocrine
Disruptor  Screening  Program (EDSP).
The    EDSP   is   based    on   the
recommendations   of  the   Endocrine
Disruptor   Screening   and   Testing
Advisory Committee (EDSTAC), which
provided  advice  and counsel to  the
Agency on a strategy to  screen and test
chemicals and pesticides that  may cause
endocrine  disruption in humans,  fish,
and wildlife.  In 1999, EPA  began the
validation   of  EDSP  screening  test
protocols which will be completed  in
2001. By 2005,  EPA anticipates that all
high production volume chemicals will
be  screened  for endocrine disrupting
potential.      The  resulting   priority
chemicals  will  be  tested  using the
approach  and test methods developed
from recommendations of the EDSTAC.

       In  2001, EPA will also  continue
efforts in three important program areas:
existing chemicals; new chemicals; and
national program chemicals (including
lead, fibers, dioxin, PCBs, and mercury).
The Agency reviews  chemicals already
in commerce, along with chemicals or
microorganisms   before   commercial-
ization  (i.e.,  "new"  chemicals)  to
determine whether they can be handled
and used  safely.  Another key focus  is
green   chemistry,   which   identifies
opportunities  for increasing the design,
development and use of inherently  safer
or  "greener"  chemicals and  chemical
processes.  For those chemicals whose
significant risks  are  well   established
(such as PCBs, asbestos,  and dioxin),
reductions  in  use  and  releases are
important  to  reducing exposure of the
general population as well  as  sensitive
sub-populations.  EPA's PCB control
efforts will shift from enforcing  PCB use
standards toward encouraging phase-out
of PCB electrical  equipment,  ensuring
proper  waste  disposal  methods  and
capacity,  and  fostering   PCB   site
cleanups.    An  Agency-wide dioxin
strategy will respond to the latest science
and address dioxin risk management in a
more    comprehensive    cross-media
approach.  EPA is also continuing  work
on its Dioxin Exposure Initiative which
focuses on identifying and  quantifying
the  link between dioxin sources and the
general population exposure.
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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
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* Achieving Healthier Indoor Air

         In 2001, the Indoor Environ-
ments   program   will   continue  to
emphasize  children's health with  an
emphasis  on  implementing  steps  to
reduce the  number of children affected
by asthma  from indoor  environmental
continue its education  and outreach
activities which implement portions of
"Asthma  and  the  Environment: An
Action  Plan  to Protect  Children," the
inter-agency plan developed under the
President's    Task    Force     On
Environmental Health Risks and Safety
Risks to Children. EPA's activities are
directed at increasing the extent to which
children with asthma, parents/caregivers,
and schools understand and take action
on the  links between the  condition of
their indoor environments and  asthma.
EPA works in close collaboration with
CDC  and  the National  Institutes  of
Health (NIH) to help ensure that each
organization  is  conducting   discrete
activities that complement  those  being
conducted by other  organizations.  In
addition, the Agency will continue  its
efforts to improve indoor air quality in
Tribal lands.  While many of the issues
are the  same,  radon,  Environmental
Tobacco  Smoke   (ETS),  increasing
incidents  of asthma,  Agency   efforts
often require a greater focus on capacity
building and sensitivity to customs and
culture.

4- Decrease the  Quantity and  Toxicity
   of Waste

       Pollution  prevention  and  waste
minimization require  a  comprehensive
effort of minimizing the  quantity and
toxicity of waste generated by industries,
the government and individual citizens.
EPA's role includes several specific
activities addressing industrial hazardous
waste and municipal and industrial solid
waste.

       In  the  hazardous waste  arena,
regulated under RCRA Subtitle C, the
RCRA program focuses on  the  most
persistent,  bioaccumulative  and  toxic
(PBT) chemicals,  consistent with the
national and international  priority  on
reducing  the presence of PBTs in the
environment. In 2001, the Agency will
encourage and  support implementation
activities    to   meet   our   GPRA
commitment of reducing PBT chemicals
in  RCRA   hazardous  waste, thereby
decreasing  human and environmental
exposure to toxic wastes.    This  will
include waste reuse and recycling efforts
which preserve  natural  resources  and
enhancement of industry partnerships to
minimize hazardous wastes  by building
on the tools and coordination activities
already established.

       The  Agency  will   continue
reducing the barriers to safe  recycling of
hazardous  waste  through  changes to
recycling   regulatory  standards,   and
ongoing  outreach  to  stakeholders to
explore additional options.

       EPA is also a  leader in reducing
generation  of municipal and industrial
solid   waste regulated  under  RCRA
Subtitle D  and  improving the recovery
and conservation of materials through
source reduction and recycling. With our
stakeholders,   we    have    promoted
financing and technology opportunities
for recycling/reuse businesses.  In 2001,
the Agency will serve as a catalyst for
innovative   source    reduction   and
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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
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recycling  in many  industrial  sectors,
including  waste reduction opportunities
for construction and demolition debris,
food    wastes,    tires,    electronics
equipment, carpet, transport packaging,
and plastic beverage packaging.

* Assess Conditions in Indian Country

       EPA places particular priority on
working with Federally recognized tribes
on a government- to-government basis to
improve  environmental  conditions  in
Indian country in a  manner that affirms
the vital trust responsibility that EPA has
with some 554 Tribal governments. The
Agency will concentrate on  building
Tribal infrastructure and completing  a
documented  baseline  assessment   of
environmental  conditions   in   Indian
country to enable EPA/Tribes to identify
high   priority   human   health    and
environmental risks.  These assessments
will  provide a  blueprint for  planning
future activities through the development
of  Tribal/EPA  Environmental  Agree-
ments  (TEAs)   or  similar   tribal
environmental  plans   to   address   and
support priority environmental  multi-
media concerns in Indian country.  By
the end   of 2001,  EPA  expects  to
complete key reforms  to the Agency's
data infrastructure to address tribes.  By
the end of 2001, EPA will also complete
a baseline assessment of 38 percent of
Indian    country    using    existing
information.    EPA   anticipates  that
existing  information   will  provide  a
sufficient basis for sound  environmental
planning and program implementation in
some   areas.    In  other areas,  EPA
anticipates the baseline assessment will
identify key data gaps for resolution.  By
the end of 2000, EPA will have invested
$2.1 million in these activities.
       In 2001, EPA is requesting an
additional $10 million  (total of $52.6
million)  for Indian General Assistance
Program grants.  These resources  will
allow  at least 80 additional tribes to
support  at least  one or two  persons
working  in their community to build a
strong, sustainable environment for the
future. These people perform vital work
by  assessing  the  status  of a tribe's
environmental condition and developing
the infrastructure for an environmental
program  tailored to  that tribe's needs.
Another  key role of this workforce  is to
alert EPA of serious conditions requiring
attention in the near term so  that, in
addition  to assisting in  the building of
tribal environmental  capacity, EPA can
work with  the tribe  to  respond to
immediate public health and ecological
threats.

       In   accordance    with    the
President's 1994 Memorandum and its
own  longstanding  policy,  EPA is
considering  additional  approaches  for
how EPA and tribes might work together
to  protect  public   health  and   the
environment in Indian country.  As part
of  that   effort,  EPA   is  proposing
appropriations   language  that  would
provide  another tool  to  implement its
Federal   programs  while  removing
existing    legal     and    procedural
impediments  to working  directly  and
effectively with tribal governments.  The
proposed language  would allow EPA to
award    cooperative  agreements   to
federally recognized tribes or intertribal
consortia if authorized  by their tribal
members to assist  the Administrator in
implementing   Federal   environmental
programs for tribes.      The proposed
language would improve environmental
protection  while  also   building  the
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    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
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capacity  and expertise of the tribes to
run their own environmental programs.

Research

       In 2001, research will continue to
develop  exposure  data,  health  risk
assessment methodologies, and  control
technologies     to     improve     the
characterization  of  health  risks  and
reduce   community   exposures   to
environmental chemical stressors.  For
example,  health  effects  research  will
continue   to   focus   on  developing
mechanistically-based predictive  models
for human health risk assessment, such
as structure-activity relationship  (SAR)
models to help determine testing needs
under  Section  5  of  TSCA,   which
addresses new chemicals.  The Agency
will also issue guidance on the  use of
SAR computer technologies in 2001.
2001 Annual Performance Goals:

4  In 2001, 890,000  additional people
   will be living in healthier residential
   indoor environments.

4  In 2001, 2,580,000 students, faculty
   and staff will experience  improved
   indoor air quality in their schools.

+  In   2001,  baseline  environmental
   information will be collected by 34%
   of  tribes  (covering 50%  of Indian
   Country).

4  In    2001,   administer   Federal
   programs    and   oversee   state
   implementation  of  programs   for
   lead-based     paint      abatement
   certification and training in 50 states
and  on  tribal  lands,  to  reduce
exposure to   lead-based  paint and
ensure   significant   decreases  in
children's blood levels by 2005.

In 2001, ensure that of the  up to
1,800    new    chemicals     and
microorganisms submitted by  indus-
try   each  year,  those  that  are
introduced in commerce are safe to
humans  and the environment for
their intended uses.

In     2001,     protect    homes,
communities, and workplaces from
harmful exposure to pesticides and
related pollutants  through improved
cultural  practices  and  enhanced
public  education,  resulting   in  a
reduction (to be determined)   in the
incidences of pesticide poisonings
reported nationwide.

In  2001, the  quantity  of  Toxic
Release Inventory (TRI) pollutants
released,  disposed  of,  treated  or
combusted   for   energy recovery,
(normalized for changes in industrial
production) will be  reduced by 200
million pounds, or  2%, from 2000
reporting levels.

In  2001, EPA will initiate  safety
reviews  on   chemicals  already in
commerce by obtaining data  on an
additional 10% of  the  2,800 HPV
chemicals on the  master test list, as
part of  the  implementation   of  a
comprehensive      strategy     for
screening, testing,  classifying and
managing  the   risks   posed  by
commercial chemicals.
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In 2001, divert an additional 1% (for
a cumulative  total of 30%  or 67
million  tons)  of  municipal  solid
waste   from   land   filling  and
combustion, and maintain per capita
generation of RCRA municipal solid
waste at 4.3 pounds per day.
                              55

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| Goal 4: Preventing Pollution Key Programs
(dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
Air, State, Local and Tribal Assistance Grants: Other Grants
Children's Health
Common Sense Initiative
Design for the Environment
Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program
Existing Chemical Data, Screening, Testing and Management
Grants to States for Lead Risk Reduction
Indoor Air: Buildings
Indoor Air: Homes
Indoor Air: School
Lead Risk Reduction Program
National Program Chemicals (PCBs, Asbestos, Fibers and Dioxin)
New Chemical Review
Pesticide Applicator Certification and Training
Pesticide Program Implementation Grant
Pesticide Registration
Pesticide Reregistration
Pollution Prevention Incentive Grants to States
Pollution Prevention Program
RCRA State Grants
Recycling
Regional Management
Rent, Utilities and Securities
Source Reduction
Tribal General Assistance Grants
Waste Minimization
TOTAL
$1,766.8
$8,158.0
$14,680.2
$379.5
$4,741.9
$5,988.5
$0.0
$20,394.5
$13,712.2
$1,672.7
$1,955.1
$4,288.4
$12,807.1
$5,753.6
$13,261.4
$9,391.2
$13,114.6
$11,346.3
$4,517.3
$5,999.5
$8,333.2
$3,073.0
$3,639.3
$62.3
$3,858.3
$1,950.9
$42,628.4
$1,913.3
$219,387.5

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$1,871.3
$8,158.0
$15,056.7
$386.1
$4,946.9
$4,474.0
$174.4
$24,412.4
$13,712.2
$1,693.4
$3,388.5
$5,120.9
$13,573.2
$5,648.5
$13,697.6
$10,587.0
$13,114.6
$12,053.5
$3,037.4
$5,999.5
$8,534.4
$3,073.0
$3,880.5
$76.8
$7,938.7
$2,069.1
$52,585.4
$1,966.5
$241,230.5
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    Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated
                Waste Sites and Emergency Response

Strategic Goal: America's wastes will be stored, treated,  and disposed of in ways that
prevent harm to people and to the natural  environment.  EPA  will work to clean up
previously  polluted sites,  restoring  them  to  uses  appropriate  for   surrounding
communities, and respond to and prevent waste-related or industrial accidents.
                               Resource Summary
                                (dollars in thousands)

                                          FY 2000
                                          Enacted
             FY 2001    FY 2001 - FY 2000
             Request	Delta	
 Better Waste Management, Restoration of
 Contaminated Waste Sites, and Emergency
 Response

 Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health
$1,622,372.6   $1,679,847.6
$1,451,859.3   $1,500,675.5
Prevent, Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills,
Accidents or Emergencies                      $ 170,513.3
Total Workyears:
    4,455.4
$179,172.1

   4,402.3
$57,475.0



$48,816.2


 $8,658.8

   -53.1
Means and Strategy:

       EPA  and  its   partners  will
continue their efforts to achieve this goal
by promoting better waste management,
cleaning up contaminated  waste sites,
and    preventing   waste-related    or
industrial accidents. To date, EPA and
its  partners  have  made  significant
progress toward  achieving  its  two
primary objectives that address  human
health and the environment at thousands
of  Superfund,   Brownfield,  Resource
Conservation   and    Recovery   Act
(RCRA),  underground  storage  tank
(UST), and oil  sites.  Brought together
by our common interest to protect our
health,  environment,  and  livelihoods,
EPA and its partners have established an
effective  structure  to   manage   the
nation's hazardous and solid wastes.

       One of the objectives of this goal
is to reduce or control the risks posed to
   human  health  and  the  environment
   through better waste management  and
   restoration of abandoned waste sites. In
   partnership     with     states,    tribal
   governments,  the  public,  and  other
   stakeholders, EPA will reduce or control
   the  risks to  human  health  and  the
   environment at thousands of Superfund,
   Brownfield,   RCRA,  and  UST  sites.
   EPA's strategy is to apply the fastest,
   most effective waste management  and
   cleanup   methods   available,   while
   involving  affected communities in the
   decision making process.  The Agency
   will   employ  enforcement efforts  to
   further assist in reducing risk to humans
   from hazardous waste exposure.

          To  accomplish   its  Superfund
   objectives,  EPA  works  with  states,
   tribes, and  other  Federal  agencies to
   protect    human   health    and    the
   environment and to restore sites to uses
   appropriate for the nearby communities.
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                Waste Sites and Emergency Response
Site assessment  is  the  first step  in
determining whether a  site meets  the
criteria for placement on the National
Priorities  List  (NPL)  or for removal
action to prevent, minimize or mitigate
significant  threats.   The  Agency  also
provides  outreach and education to the
surrounding communities to  improve
their direct involvement in every phase
of   the    cleanup    process    and
understanding of potential site risk, such
as risks posed by radioactive materials.

      One   of   Superfund's   major
program  goals  is  to  have responsible
parties pay for  and conduct cleanups at
abandoned or  uncontrolled  hazardous
waste sites. The Superfund enforcement
program     maximizes     Potentially
Responsible Party (PRP) participation
and  is  committed  to  reforms,  which
increase  fairness,  reduce  transaction
costs     and    promote    economic
redevelopment.  The Agency also seeks
to recover costs associated with a site
cleanup from responsible parties when
trust fund monies have been expended.

      Brownfields    are   abandoned,
idled,  or  under-used  industrial  and
commercial  properties   and  are   not
traditional Superfund  sites as they are
not generally highly contaminated and
present  lesser  health risks.   Economic
changes over several decades have left
thousands of communities  with  these
contaminated properties and abandoned
sites.   In several  important  ways, the
Agency's    Brownfields     Initiative
encourages the  redevelopment of these
sites by addressing  concerns such  as
environmental  liability  and  cleanup,
infrastructure  declines,   and changing
development priorities.
       A  significant  number  of  in-
dustrial sites are addressed by the RCRA
corrective action program,  administered
by EPA and the authorized states. These
include some of the most intractable and
controversial  cleanup projects  in  the
country.  Approximately 3,500 industrial
facilities  must  undergo a cleanup under
the RCRA  program.   Out  of  these
facilities,  the  Agency  has  identified
1,712 facilities as high priority - where
people or the environment are likely to
be at significant current or potential risk.
The Agency is pursuing a  strategy  for
addressing the worst  facilities first, as
reflected  in the strategic goal.

       The leaking underground storage
tank (LUST) program promotes  rapid
and effective responses to releases from
USTs    containing   petroleum    by
enhancing   state,   local   and   tribal
enforcement and response  capability.
Corrective actions at  sites  where UST
releases have contaminated soil and/or
groundwater is a key element of  the
UST/LUST  program.     Nearly  all
corrective actions are undertaken  by
UST  owners and  operators under  the
supervision  of state  or local agencies.
EPA oversees these activities on Indian
lands.

       The other objective of this goal is
to  prevent,  reduce,  and  respond to
releases,     spills,     accidents    or
emergencies.  Through the  UST and
RCRA   permitting   and   inspection
programs, the  Agency and its partners
manage  the practices of thousands of
facilities.  When releases do occur, EPA
employees and those of its partners, who
are  properly   trained  and   properly
equipped, will ensure that the Agency's
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    Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated
                Waste Sites and Emergency Response
objective is met by having the capability
to successfully respond.

       The goal of the UST program is
to prevent, detect, and correct leaks from
USTs  containing  petroleum and  haz-
ardous  substances.   The  strategy  for
achieving this goal is to promote and
enforce compliance with the regulatory
requirements aimed  at  preventing and
detecting UST releases.  States have the
primary responsibility for ensuring that
UST facilities (except those on Indian
lands) are brought into compliance. The
Agency's primary  role  is  to  provide
technical and financial support to states'
UST programs.  EPA has the  primary
responsibility for implementation of the
UST program on Indian lands.

       For  facilities   that  currently
manage hazardous wastes, EPA ensures
human   health    and   environmental
protection  through  the  issuance   of
RCRA hazardous  waste  permits.   The
RCRA  program  reduces the  risk  of
exposures   to   dangerous  hazardous
wastes  by  establishing  a  "cradle-to-
grave" waste  management  framework.
This framework  regulates the handling,
transport,    treatment,    storage,   and
disposal  of  hazardous waste,  ensuring
that  communities  are not  exposed  to
hazards through  improper management.
Significant progress has been made by
hazardous waste management  facilities
having appropriate controls  in place  to
minimize  the threat of exposure  to
hazardous substances.  To date, 47 of 50
states,   Guam  and   the  District   of
Columbia  are  authorized  to  issue
permits. The authorization of states for
all  portions  of the  RCRA program,
including regulations that address waste
management issues included in permits,
is  an important  Agency  goal.    In
addition, the Agency has developed a
strategy  to  address solid  waste  and
hazardous waste on  Indian  lands. A
highlight  of   this  strategy   is  the
interagency  project  to  address  issues
surrounding   open  dumps  and  their
cleanup, the  primary waste management
concern for tribes.

       The  Agency's chemical  emer-
gency  preparedness  and   prevention
program  addresses the risks associated
with  the  manufacture,   transportation,
storage and  use of hazardous chemicals
to  prevent   and   mitigate  chemical
releases.  The program also implements
right-to-know initiatives  to inform the
public  about   chemical  hazards  and
encourages actions at the local level to
reduce risk.  Section 112(r) of the Clean
Air Act  requires an estimated 36,000
facilities to develop comprehensive risk
management plans (RMPs) and submit
them  to EPA, state agencies, and Local
Emergency Planning Committees.   The
Agency believes that  states are  best
suited to implement the RMP  program
because they benefit directly  from its
success and  they often have established
relationships with the communities that
may be at risk.

       The oil  spill  program prevents,
prepares for, and responds to oil spills
mandated  and authorized in the Clean
Water Act  and Oil Pollution  Act of
1990.  EPA  utilizes  its  appropriated
monies to  protect  inland  waterways
through  oil  spill  prevention,   pre-
paredness, and  enforce  compliance at
450,000  non-transportation-related oil
storage facilities  that  EPA regulates.
When necessary, the Agency undertakes
oil  spill  response,  which  is   funded
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                Waste Sites and Emergency Response
through a reimbursable agreement with
the U.S. Coast Guard.

Research

       The   2001   research   program
supports  the  Agency's  objective  of
reducing or controlling risks to human
health    and   the   environment   at
contaminated waste sites by accelerating
scientifically  defensible   and   cost-
effective  decisions  for   cleanup  at
complex sites,  mining  sites,  marine
spills,  and  Brownfields.  The  research
program  will:   1)  provide improved
methods  and dose-response models for
estimating risks from complex  mixtures
contaminating soils and groundwater; 2)
provide    improved   methods   for
measuring,  monitoring, and character-
izing complex waste sites in soils and
groundwater;  and  3)  develop more
reliable  technologies  for  cleanup  of
contaminated soils and groundwater.  In
2001, EPA will also deliver the annual
Superfund  Innovative Technology  and
Evaluation  (SITE) report to Congress,
which  provides  program/project status
and cost savings information.

       Waste identification, combustion,
and  waste  management  constitute the
three major areas of research in 2001 as
the Agency works  towards preventing
releases by proper facility management.
Waste    identification  research   will
conduct   multimedia,    multi-pathway
exposure modeling  and  environmental
fate and transport-physical estimation in
support  of  the  hazardous  waste
identification  rule  (HWIR).    Waste
management research  will work  on
developing more cost-effective ways to
manage/recycle  non-hazardous wastes
and will examine other remediation
technologies while combustion research
continues to focus on characterizing and
controlling releases of nickel from waste
combustion.

Highlights

       In 2001, EPA and state cleanup
actions  will protect  human  health  by
reducing the  effects of  uncontrolled
releases  on   local  populations   and
sensitive environments.   The Agency
will continue to build on past successes
in cleaning up sites.   The  following
accomplishments  provide examples of
what has been done  by the Agency to
achieve its goal:
4 cleaned up more than 670 Superfund
   National Priority Sites;
* secured PRP commitments, over the
   life of the Superfund program, with
   an  estimated value of $16.2 billion
   ($13.5 billion in response settlements
   and $2.7  billion  in cost recovery
   settlements);
* resolved potential liability  of 21,000
   small  volume waste  contributing
   parties through 1999;
+ completed  about  6,000  Superfund
   removal response  actions from 1982
   through 1999;
* saved  more than $277 million in
   potential costs by working closely
   with Department of Defense to clean
   up or close contaminated bases;
* signed    307    agreements    for
   brownfields    assessment   pilots
   through 1999;
4 targeted 1,712 high  priority RCRA
   sites for aggressive risk reduction;
4 brought  more  than  80  percent
   (approximately  600,000)  of  the
   regulated USTs into compliance with
   new regulatory standards;
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 4  responded to an average of 70  oil
    spills  and monitored  130 oil spill
    cleanups in a typical year; and
 *  worked closely with states to prevent
    or   reduce  risks  from  chemical
    accidents.

       In  2001,  EPA will  complete
construction at 75 Superfund  sites and
will take action to address contamination
at 275  sites  using removal authorities.
The Superfund  enforcement  program
will also  obtain PRP  commitments to
initiate  work  at 70% of construction
starts at non-Federal facility sites on the
NPL and to conduct or fund removals.

       In   2001,   the    Superfund
redevelopment initiative  will  facilitate
the return of additional Superfund sites
to productive reuse. More than 170 sites
have already  been brought back into
productive  use  and  are  generating
approximately  11,000  jobs and   $255
million in annual income.  The initiative
builds   on administrative   reforms  to
explore future use opportunities  with
local  stakeholders  before  selecting  a
cleanup remedy.

       Enhancing  the Agency's current
ability to respond to a  terrorist event is
an  important element of the Agency's
2001   Superfund  request.    Terrorist
threats    could    include   biological,
chemical  and radiological  attacks  on
populations in the United States.  The
Agency   is   strengthening   its   anti-
terrorism capabilities.   The  focus is  on
improving   the   Agency's   response
capability, improving workforce  safety,
and working effectively with our Federal
and local partners.
       The    Brownfields    initiative
coordinates a federal approach to assist
our   partners  in   better  addressing
environmental  site  assessment   and
cleanup.    In  2001, the  Agency will
provide additional funding and technical
support  to  50   existing  assessment
demonstration  pilots.     These  pilots
provide    states     (including    U.S.
territories),  political  subdivisions  (in-
cluding cities, towns, and counties), and
federally recognized tribes with useful
information  and   new  strategies  for
promoting   a  unified   approach  to
environmental  site  assessment   and
characterization, and redevelopment.  In
addition,  the Agency  and its  Federal
partners  will select 10 new showcase
community pilots to serve as models to
demonstrate the benefits of interagency
cooperative   efforts    in   addressing
environmental  and economic  issues
related to brownfields.  Similar to the 16
showcase communities  designated  in
1998, the 10 new showcase communities
will   capitalize  on   a  multi-agency
partnership designed to provide a  wide
range  of support  depending  on  the
particular needs of each community.

       The  Agency will  also  provide
funding to  states  for activities that are
part   of  brownfields  site  assessment
pilots.     These   activities   include
facilitating    communication   among
brownfields   pilots  and  with   state
environmental authorities.  In  addition,
the Agency will provide funding for the
development   and   enhancement   (or
augmentation) of state voluntary cleanup
programs.    To   further  enhance   a
community's capacity  to  respond  to
brownfields redevelopment, the Agency
will also  make  70 awards to capitalize
brownfields  cleanup  revolving  loan
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    Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated
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funds   (BCRLF).       Communities
completing   their  brownfields   site
assessment demonstration pilot activities
and  communities completing  targeted
brownfields assessments are eligible to
apply for  BCRLF pilots.  To augment
the communities' capacities to clean up
brownfields sites, EPA will fund 10 job
training pilots for community residents
and  will  provide  $3,000,000  to  the
National  Institute  of  Environmental
Health  Sciences  to   supplement   its
minority worker training programs  that
focus   on   brownfields    workforce
development activities. In addition, EPA
will  continue to  explore  connections
between RCRA low-priority corrective
action efforts and cleanup of brownfields
properties.

       In  2001,  172   additional high
priority RCRA  facilities  will have
human  exposures controlled  and  172
additional  high priority RCRA facilities
will have toxic releases to  groundwater
controlled. To accomplish the Agency's
RCRA objectives, in 2001, the Agency
will implement RCRA cleanup reforms
through the  regions   and  authorized
states.   This  initiative  will reform  the
current RCRA corrective action program
to be faster, safer and promote  smarter
cleanups.  The initiative will also ensure
RCRA's strategic goals are met and  that
millions of people who live or work in
the vicinity of RCRA facilities  will be
protected.  The RCRA cleanup reforms
intend   to:   reduce  impediments  to
achieving  the Agency's objective;  en-
hance state and stakeholder involvement;
and, promote innovative approaches to
cleanup actions.  Implementation of this
initiative will be the key to a successful
corrective  action program for 2001  and
beyond.
       In  2001, the RCRA hazardous
waste permits program will have permits
or other approved controls in place for
106 additional RCRA hazardous waste
management facilities for a cumulative
total of 70 percent of the universe (2,900
facilities).   These efforts minimize the
threat   of  exposure   to   hazardous
substances because the RCRA program's
comprehensive framework regulates the
handling,  transport, treatment, storage,
and disposal of hazardous waste.

       The Agency has several  efforts
underway to reform the RCRA program
so that it better reflects actual  levels of
risk.  The hazardous waste identification
rule seeks to  exclude lower risk  wastes
from  hazardous waste regulation.  In
2001, the Agency will continue work to
develop concentration-based exemption
levels  for constituents  occurring in
hazardous   wastes.    The  Agency  is
working to improve test methods under
its toxic constituent leaching procedure
to  better  evaluate  waste   leaching
potential for assessing whether a waste
should be  classified as hazardous,  how
effective a treatment is, and whether
land disposal is an appropriate method
for managing particular wastes. Another
risk   evaluation  effort,   the   surface
impoundment study, will be completed
in March 2001.

       Phase   I   of  the  maximum
achievable  control technology  (MACT)
standards  under  the Clean   Air  Act
(CAA) was finalized in 1999.  Phase  I
revised standards  for incinerators and
cement and lightweight aggregate kilns
that  burn  hazardous  waste.   As  the
MACT standards are implemented, by
2002,  the  Agency  will  reduce  the
emissions of dioxins, furans, heavy
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                Waste Sites and Emergency Response
metals, acid gases and particulate matter
from these sources.  These efforts will
further  reduce the  indirect exposure
(primarily through the  food chain)  to
hazardous  constituents   in  emissions,
especially  to  children.     Phase   I
implementation  efforts   accelerate  in
2001 and focus on the  transition from
RCRA to CAA air emissions permitting
and  tracking  of facility progress.   In
2000, EPA will initiate work on Phase II
MACT  standards for hazardous  waste
burning boilers.   In  2001, the Agency
will   continue   efforts   to    pursue
development of the Phase II rule.  Like
Phase I, the Phase II rule will address
emissions  of dioxins,  furans,  heavy
metals, and particulate matter.

      In 2001, the Agency will work
with states and industry to complete the
development of voluntary guidelines for
industrial      non-hazardous      waste
management.   These voluntary  guide-
lines address a range of issues including
groundwater     contamination,     air
emissions,  and  alternatives  to   waste
disposal. Although the states implement
the  municipal  solid  waste  (MSW)
landfill regulatory programs, the Agency
establishes minimum national standards
for state compliance.   The Agency also
reviews   and  approves   state   MSW
landfill permit programs.  The Agency
will  continue  to  work  with states  to
ensure  that  facilities  have  approved
controls in place to prevent dangerous
releases  to air, soil,  groundwater and
surface  water.   These  activities  will
provide   a   uniform   application  of
minimal safe  management standards to
help  ensure that sufficient controls are in
place.
       In 2001, the Agency's priorities
 in the UST program are to:  1) prevent
 leaks from USTs; 2)  ensure  that USTs
 are   managed   properly  and  meet
 appropriate  technical  requirements;  and
 3) clean up releases from LUSTs. The
 Agency will work to ensure that 70% of
 USTs are in compliance with EPA  and
 state  leak detection  requirements  and
 that 93% of USTs are in compliance
 with   the  December  22,   1998,  re-
 quirements to upgrade, close, or replace
 substandard  tanks.    The Agency also
 plans   to   complete   21,000   LUST
 cleanups under the supervision of EPA
 and its state, local, and tribal partners.

       Reducing  chemical accidents is
 vital to ensure that communities are not
 exposed to  hazardous materials.   The
 Agency  continues its  efforts to help
 states  and  local  emergency planning
 committees  implement the  risk  man-
 agement plan (RMP) program. EPA has
 made steady progress  in this area and in
 2001  it  will  delegate the program  to
 seven additional states for a cumulative
 total of 20. To reach this goal, EPA will
 provide  technical  assistance  grants,
 technical support, outreach, and training
 to state  and local emergency planning
 committees.   Through  these activities,
 states, local communities and individuals
 will be better prepared to prevent and
 prepare for chemical accidents.

       Oil spills  pose risks  to human
 health and the environment. The Federal
 oil  spill  program prevents, responds to
 and monitors oil spills that occur  in the
 waters of the United States and adjoining
 shorelines.    Over 24,000  spills  are
 reported annually, about half of these in
 the  inland  zone  which  is  EPA's
jurisdiction.  EPA responds to approx-
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    Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated
                Waste Sites and Emergency Response
imately 70 significant spills a year and
monitors  the   work   of  others   at
approximately 130  additional spills a
year.   To reduce the risk of hazardous
exposure to people and the environment,
the Agency aims to prevent oil  spills
from occurring, prepare for oil spills that
do  occur, and respond  to  spills  when
necessary.

Research

       In 2001,  exposure research will
be  conducted to reduce uncertainties
associated with  soil/groundwater  sam-
pling and analysis and to reduce the time
and    cost   associated   with   site
characterization  and  site  remediation
activities.   Assessment  research  will
evaluate  the magnitude of the  risks
posed by contaminants to human health
and the ecosystem, the contributions  of
multiple    exposure    pathways,   the
bioavailability of adsorbed contaminants
and   treatment   residuals   and  the
toxicological properties  of contaminant
mixtures.   Risk  management research
will be   conducted  to  develop  and
demonstrate  more  effective and  less
costly     remediation     technologies
involving complex sites and hard-to-treat
wastes.

       Research   in   support  of the
hazardous   waste  identification   rule
(HWIR)  will focus on reducing the
uncertainty  associated  with exposure
assessment   model   predictions   by
providing improved process  level data
and  models  for quantifying pollutant
interactions   in  a variety  of  natural
systems.   The  research also provides
consultation  on  sampling  and  sample
design  related   to  compliance  with
proposed exit levels in support of the
proposed HWIR.   In 2001, EPA  will
update the  HWIR99 modeling  meth-
odology for delisting hazardous wastes.
Additionally,  waste  management   re-
search will be conducted to improve the
management of both solid and hazardous
wastes.    This includes development
and/or evaluation of more cost-effective
waste  treatment,   containment,   and
recycling processes, along with technical
guidance   on   their   design    and
implementation.

2001 Annual Performance Goals:

*  In 2001, 106 more hazardous waste
   management  facilities  will   have
   approved controls in place to prevent
   dangerous releases to air, soil,  and
   groundwater, for  an  approximate
   total of 70% of 2,900 facilities.

*  In 2001, 172 (for a cumulative total
   of 821 or 48 percent) of high priority
   RCRA  facilities  will have human
   exposures controlled and 172 (for a
   cumulative  total  of 784  or  46
   percent) of high  priority  RCRA
   facilities  will  have   groundwater
   releases controlled.

*  In 2001, complete  21,000  Leaking
   Underground Storage Tank (LUST)
   Cleanups for a cumulative total of
   271,000 cleanups since 1987.

4  In 2001, EPA will provide additional
   site   assessment   funding   to   50
   communities,   resulting    in    a
   cumulative  total  of  2,100  sites
   assessed,  the  generation  of 5,400
   jobs,  and  the  leveraging  of $1.8
   billion in cleanup and redevelopment
   funds.
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4  In 2001, 70 percent of USTs will be
   in compliance with EPA/State leak
   detection  requirements;   and   93
   percent  of USTs will  be in com-
   pliance  with EPA/State  December
   22, 1998  requirements to upgrade,
   close or replace substandard tanks .

4  In 2001, EPA and its partners will
   complete  75  Superfund  cleanups
   (construction    completions)    to
   achieve  the  overall goal  of 900
   construction completions by the end
   of2002.

4  In   2001,   ensure   trust   fund
   stewardship  by  getting  PRPs  to
   initiate or fund the work and recover
   costs from PRPs  when EPA expends
   trust fund  monies.  Address cost
   recovery at  all  NPL and  non-NPL
   sites with a statute of limitations
   (SOL) on total past costs equal to or
   greater than $200,000.

*  In 2001,  maximize all aspects  of
   PRP participation  which  includes
   maintaining PRP work at 70 percent
   of the new  remedial  construction
   starts    at   non-Federal    Facility
   Superfund, and emphasize fairness in
   the settlement process.

4  In 2001, continue to make formerly
   contaminated  parcels   of  land
   available for residential, commercial,
   and industrial reuse by addressing
   liability    concerns   through   the
   issuance  of  comfort  letters  and
   Prospective  Purchaser  Agreements
   (PPAs).

*  In 2001,  sign  Interagency  agree-
   ments (lAGs) in 18 months or less
from final listing on the NPL (but no
later than 180 days after completion
of  the  first  remedial investigation
/feasibility study (RI/FS)).

In  2001,  provide  technical infor-
mation  to  support  scientifically
defensible and  cost-effective decis-
ions for  cleanup of complex sites,
hard-to-treat  wastes,  mining,  oil
spills  near  shorelines, and  Brown-
fields to reduce risk to human health
and the environment.
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Goal 5: Waste Management Key Programs
(dollars in thousands)

FY2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
Assessments
ATSDR Superfund Support
Brownfields
Civil Enforcement
Community Right-to-Know (Title III)
Compliance Assistance and Centers
EMPACT
Federal Facilities
Federal Preparedness
Hazardous Substance Research: Haz Sub Research Centers
Hazardous Substance Research: (SITE)
Hazardous Waste Research
Leaking Underground Storage Tank Cooperative Agreements
NIEHS Superfund Support
Oil Spills Preparedness, Prevention and Response
Other Federal Agencies Superfund Support
Planning and Resource Management
Project XL
RCRA Corrective Action
RCRA Permitting
RCRA State Grants
Regional Managment
Rent, Utilities and Securities
Risk Management Plans
Superfund Remedial Actions
Superfund Removal Actions
Superfund: Cost Recovery
Superfund: Justice Support
Superfund: Maximize PRP Involvement (including reforms)
Underground Storage Tanks State Grants
Underground Storage Tanks (UST)
Waste Combustion
TOTAL
$16,213.0
$83,857.7
$70,000.0
$92,215.1
$1,298.5
$4,797.5
$867.5
$35.5
$27,750.6
$11,028.2
$2,504.7
$7,017.3
$5,379.8
$56,466.8
$60,000.0
$11,820.4
$10,000.0
$0.0
$117.4
$36,610.5
$15,724.4
$52,302.5
$1,398.6
$52,610.5
$7,242.8
$499,799.0
$200,860.3
$30,269.1
$28,663.5
$82,009.6
$11,944.7
$6,203.9
$4,438.3
$1,491,447.7

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$16,215.9
$83,204.7
$64,000.0
$91,626.7
$1,360.1
$5,137.5
$726.3
$436.0
$29,803.8
$12,854.8
$2,594.5
$5,932.0
$6,880.8
$58,050.0
$48,526.7
$12,560.3
$10,585.0
$31.8
$126.7
$40,062.8
$16,311.6
$60,302.5
$1,328.1
$55,061.1
$7,913.5
$543,682.9
$199,218.0
$32,886.4
$28,663.5
$86,040.1
$11,944.7
$6,906.4
$4,677.5
$1,545,652.7
66

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      Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks

Strategic Goal: The United States will lead other nations in successful, multilateral efforts to
reduce significant risks to human health and ecosystems from climate change, stratospheric
ozone depletion, and other hazards of international concern.
                                    Resource Summary
                                     (dollars in thousands)

                                             FY2000
                                             Enacted
                  FY2001        FY2001 FY2000
                  Request	        Delta
   Reduction of Global and
   Cross-Border Environmental Risks
   Reduce Transboundary Threats:
    Shared North American Ecosystems
   Climate Change

   Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

   Protect Public Health and
   Ecosystems From Persistent Toxics
   Achieve Cleaner and
   More Cost-Effective Practices

   Total Workyears:
 237,865.8

 $70,624.6
$132,115.1

 $17,832.2


  $4,857.4

 $12,436.5

   511.7
$425,070.5

$119,926.7
$257,909.6

 $27,998.0


  $5,482.8

 $13,753.4

    533.1
$187,204.7

 $49,302.1
$125,794.5

 $10,165.8


   $625.4

  $1,316.9

     21.4
   Means and Strategy

          Pollutants   do   not   stop   at
    geographic and political boundaries, and
    their propensity  to  migrate  threatens
    human  health and  the  environment,
    demanding   coordinated  international
    action.    The United  States  addresses
    global environmental problems, such as
    climate  change and  stratospheric ozone
    depletion, through  bilateral and multi-
    lateral consultations and agreements and
    capacity  building  programs.    Other
    problems are not necessarily of a global
    scale but cross our borders and require a
    geographic approach to  direct environ-
    mental action.

          EPA   will   use  a  variety   of
    approaches to prevent harm to the global
     and    regional   environments    and
     ecosystems including: 1) using regional
     or global negotiations to form bilateral
     and  multilateral environmental  agree-
     ments    and    environmental    policy
     initiatives;  2)  cooperating  with  other
     countries to ensure that domestic and
     international    environmental     laws,
     policies, and  priorities  are recognized
     and implemented; 3) working with other
     federal  agencies,  states, business, and
     environmental  groups  to promote the
     flow  of  environmentally  sustainable
     technologies and services  worldwide,
     facilitate  cooperative    research   and
     development  programs,  and  provide
     technical    assistance,    training   and
     information  internationally;  and  4)
     promoting public/private partnership
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  Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks
programs   to   reduce  emissions   of
greenhouse gases and other pollutants.

       U.S. leadership is  also required
to initiate international agreements and
actions  to  reduce  or eliminate  the
environmental   releases  of  persistent
toxic substances such as DDT, PCBs or
dioxins, which  travel great distances in
the environment  and  threaten human
health  and the  environment.  Although
the U.S. has controlled many of these
substances domestically for some time,
we remain vulnerable  to  them in part
because many  other countries still use
them, thus contributing to transboundary
flows back into the U.S. By marshaling
and coordinating government and private
sector  programs with  other developed
countries    and    key   international
organizations (i.e., the  Organization for
Economic  Cooperation and  Develop-
ment and United Nations Environmental
Program), EPA is leading the way for
international action to control  the use
and transboundary  migration  of these
substances.  EPA has  made significant
progress in negotiating  a legally binding
global  convention on persistent organic
pollutants  (POPs)  and in helping  to
establish international capacity building
programs  which  will  facilitate mean-
ingful  developing country compliance
with this convention.

Climate Change

       Carbon dioxide  and other green-
house  gases are  produced by  burning
coal, oil,  and natural  gas to  heat our
homes,  power our cars, and illuminate
our  cities.    Deforestation and  land
clearing also contribute to the production
of greenhouse gases. These gases which
persist in the environment may have
several  environmental effects:   rising
atmospheric  and  ocean  temperatures
may ultimately change weather patterns;
thereby   increasing   droughts,   pre-
cipitation,  flooding,  heat waves  and
raising sea levels.  Although the precise
magnitude, timing, and regional patterns
are uncertain, it  is likely that climate
change will have adverse  consequences
for human health, including:  increasing
the number of deaths associated with-
heat waves and  other weather pattern
disruptions;  increasing   incidence  of
allergic   disorders;   and   increasing
diseases that thrive in warmer climates,
such as malaria,  yellow  fever, dengue
fever, encephalitis, and cholera.

       Since the  early 1990s, EPA has
been    building   partnerships    with
businesses in all sectors to  meet the 1992
Framework  Convention  on  Climate
Change (FCCC)  objective to stabilize
greenhouse  gas  emissions.   EPA also
plays a major role  in  the President's
Climate Change  Technology Initiative
(CCTI), which is designed to stimulate
the adoption of  energy efficient  tech-
nologies  and the  use   of  renewable
energy.

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

       In  the stratosphere, ozone pro-
tects   us   from   harmful   sun   rays.
Anthropogenic  chemicals are respon-
sible   for  depleting  ozone  in  the
stratosphere.  Depletion  of this  ozone
layer means  more  exposure to  these
harmful   rays,  particularly  ultraviolet
radiation.    The  human   health  con-
sequences are increases in skin cancers
and cataracts, and impairment  to the
immune system.  Ecologically, crop
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  Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks
yields fall  and plant and animal life is
threatened.

       The United States is committed
to honoring the 1989 Montreal Protocol
Treaty by  phasing out domestic  pro-
duction of ozone-depleting substances
(ODSs).   EPA's role  stems from  the
Protocol  and  Title VI of the Clean  Air
Act  Amendments of 1990. EPA  helps
other countries find suitable alternatives
to ODSs ,  informs the  public about the
dangers   of    overexposure   to   UV
radiation, and uses pollution prevention
strategies  to  require the  recycling  of
ODSs and hydroflourocarbons.

Research

       EPA is working to  provide  the
capability to  assess the vulnerability of
human health and ecosystems to climate-
induced stressors at the regional scale,
and to assess mitigation and adaptation
strategies.  Research   into  the  con-
sequences of  global change  (particularly
climate change and climate variability)
on human  health and  ecosystems  will
improve our understanding of the nature
and  extent  of  global   change.    The
knowledge gained from these assess-
ments (e.g. the impacts climate change
could have on the spread of vector-borne
and  water-borne disease,  changes  in
landscape cover and the migration  of
plant and animal species, and changes in
farm productivity and food distribution),
will allow policy makers to find the most
appropriate, science-based   solutions  to
reduce greenhouse gasses and to reduce
significant  risks to human health  and
ecosystems posed by climate change.
Highlights:

       EPA's continued  leadership is
necessary  to build  international  co-
operation   and   technical   capacity
essential  in  preventing  harm to  the
global environment and ecosystems we
share with other nations.  In 2001, EPA
will use  a  variety  of approaches  to
prevent harm to the global environment
and ecosystems.

       To  reduce  environmental  and
human  health  risks  along  the  U.S./
Mexico border, EPA is working with the
border states and Mexico to target the
quality   of  air,  drinking  water  and
wastewater   treatment and  hazardous
waste management and disposal.  Nine
working groups  will address key  issues
while working closely with state  and
local  agencies on  both  sides of  the
border.    EPA  will  also  support  the
financing and  construction  of water,
wastewater treatment and  solid  waste
facilities.

       EPA,  through the  Great Lakes
National Program Office (GLNPO), will
coordinate  implementation of the eco-
system approach in the Great Lakes by
its  Federal,   state,  tribal  and  local
partners, fully  implementing  a  "com-
munity-based" approach.   GLNPO and
its  partners will  act  consistently with
goals of a new Great Lakes Strategy and
the Agency's Strategic Plan.  EPA, states
and local communities will strategically
target reductions of critical pollutants
through  Remedial  Action  Plans  for
Areas of Concern and through Lakewide
Management  Plans  for Lakes Ontario,
Michigan, Superior, and Erie.

      Recognizing   that    no   single
country can resolve the problem of
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  Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks
global climate  change,  EPA will  help
facilitate the international cooperation
necessary to achieve the stabilization of
greenhouse  gas   concentrations.  The
1992 Framework Convention on Climate
Change  (FCCC)  set the  objective  of
stabilizing   greenhouse  gas   concen-
trations at  a level  that would prevent
dangerous  anthropogenic   interference
with  the  climate  system.  On   the
domestic  side,  EPA  will  encourage
voluntary partnerships, provide technical
assistance and promote state and local
efforts to achieve future greenhouse gas
emission  reductions.  Administration-
wide, the programs launched in the 1993
Climate  Change  Action Plan  (CCAP)
have  the  potential  to   reduce  U.S.
greenhouse gas emissions by more than
160  million metric tons  of  carbon
equivalent  (MMTCE) annually  by the
year 2010.

       The Agency  will  contribute  to
the science underpinning  U.S.  policy,
including  the   assessment   of  con-
sequences of climate change and climate
variability.   Particular attention will  be
given  to the  potential  benefits  and
consequences of climate variability and
change  for human health, ecosystems,
and economic systems at  the  regional,
state and local levels.  EPA will play a
major  part in peer-reviewed economic
and  policy  analyses that serve  U.S.
policymakers  and  international   ne-
gotiators.

       EPA will also continue its efforts
in focusing on climate change  activities
that  would provide  "co-benefits"  to a
specific country.  Specifically,  EPA will
implement  partnership  activities  with
industrial and other priority countries by:
1) encouraging energy efficiency
through the introduction of government
policy   incentives   and  environmental
management  practices;  2) introducing
transportation  planning  and  manage-
ment; 3) implementing vehicle emissions
testing   programs;  4)  planning  and
funding methane capture and  utilization
programs; and, 5) planning and funding
sulfur dioxide trading programs.

       To  protect   the   earth's   stra-
tospheric ozone layer, EPA will continue
to regulate ozone-depleting compounds
and foster the development and use  of
alternative chemicals in  the  U.S. and
abroad. The United States' response to
the  harmful  effects  of  stratospheric
ozone  depletion  is  its commitment  to
honor the Montreal  Protocol by phasing
out  domestic  production of  ozone-
depleting  substances  (ODSs).   EPA's
role  originates   from  the   Montreal
Protocol and Title VI of the  Clean Air
Act Amendments of 1990. EPA helps
other countries find  suitable alternatives
to ODSs, informs the public about the
dangers   of   overexposure   to  UV
radiation, and uses pollution prevention
strategies  to  require  the  recycling  of
ODSs and hydroflourocarbons.

       Reduced   risks   from   toxics,
especially persistent organic  pollutants
(POPs) and selected metals that circulate
in the environment at global and regional
scales,  will be achieved by working with
the Department of State and with other
countries to control the  production  or
phase-out from  the  use  of  targeted
chemicals. EPA is also working to reach
agreement   on   import   and  export
requirements   applicable   to   certain
chemicals,  an expansion of pollutant
release  and  transfer  registers and the
harmonization  of  chemical   testing,
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  Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks
assessment  and   labeling  procedures.
The goal of international harmonization
of test guidelines is to reduce the burden
on   chemical  companies  of repeated
testing  in  satisfying  the  regulatory
requirements of  different jurisdictions
both  within  the  United  States  and
internationally.  Harmonization also ex-
pands the universe of toxic chemicals for
which needed  testing  information is
available,   and  fosters  efficiency  in
international information exchange  and
mutual   international   acceptance   of
chemical test data.  For  test  guideline
harmonization,  EPA will continue to
cooperate  closely with  other Federal
agencies and with other  industrialized
nations within the program framework
of  the  Organization  for  Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD)
in harmonizing testing guidelines.

       The U.S. is working with other
OECD member countries  to implement
the International Screening Information
Data  Set (SIDS)  program, a  voluntary
international  cooperative  testing  pro-
gram begun  in  1990.    The program
focuses on  developing  base-level  test
information  (including  data  on  basic
chemistry,  environmental  fate, enviro-
nmental effects and  health effects) for
international  high production volume
chemicals.  SIDS  data will be used to
screen chemicals and to set priorities for
further testing and/or assessment.  The
Agency will review testing needs for 50
SIDS chemicals in 2001.

       In  2001,   EPA  and  its U.S.
government  partners will conclude a
legally-binding  global  convention  on
persistent  organic  pollutants (POPs),
substances  such  as  DDT,  PCBs and
dioxins which travel great distances in
the  environment  and   thus  threaten
humans and the ecosystem in the  U.S.
even  though  we  have  long  worked
domestically to reduce releases into the
environment.    This  convention  will
require most other countries around the
world to reduce and/or eliminate  their
production, use  and trade  of specified
POPs,  as well  as  improve their  own
POPs risk  management practices.   To
ensure that developing countries comply
with obligations under this convention,
the U.S. is working  with the Global
Environment Facility  (a joint funding
program  run by the World Bank, the
United Nations  Environment Program,
and  the  United Nations Development
Program) to carry out capacity building
programs in developing countries.   To
do  this,  EPA will establish  emission
inventories and other needed data which
will  help  foster an understanding and
track  the release  contribution of the
listed POPs.

      In  2001,  EPA will initiate the
next stage of assisting Russia in its  goal
of total elimination of CFCs by assisting
in the development of a post phase-out
monitoring program. Activities would be
coordinated with the World Bank, donor
countries and agencies  in  facilitating
training and  other  forms of technical
exchange.  In addition, EPA will begin
targeting   countries  for  specific   en-
forcement  capacity   enhancement of
custom officials to prevent the  illegal
entry of banned  CFC's into the United
States.

      EPA will also establish a  new
international    monitoring    program,
assisted by  the State Department, which
aims to promote higher  environmental
standards  worldwide.  Specific objec-
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  Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks
lives of the program are to monitor and
report on other countries implementation
of environmental  laws and regulations,
identify technical assistance needs and
coordinate  its provision,  and counsel
U.S. firms on local environmental laws
and conditions.  By identifying targets
for technical  assistance, EPA will help
developing  countries apply cleaner and
more    cost-effective   environmental
practices and  technologies. For both the
U.S. and other countries,  the program
will  demonstrate  that global  economic
integration and environmental protection
can go together.

Research

       EPA  will  assess  the  possible
effects of global change, such as changes
in  climate   and  climate  variability,
changes  in land  use,  changes in UV
radiation and changes  on  air quality,
water  quality,  ecosystem  health,  and
public  health. EPA will also examine
possible adaptation strategies that could
enable communities to take advantage of
opportunities   and  reduce  the  risks
associated  with  global change.    The
outcome of these assessments will help
inform   decision-making    regarding
strategies  to  address  these  possible
changes.

Annual Performance Goals:

+ In  2001,  greenhouse gas  emissions
   will be reduced from projected levels
   by  approximately  66 MMTCE per
   year through EPA partnerships with
   businesses, schools, State and local
   governments,   and  other  organ-
   izations thereby offsetting growth in
   greenhouse gas  emissions  above
    1990 level by about 20%.
+  In 2001, provide assistance to at least
   75 developing countries to facilitate
   emissions reductions,  and  toward
   achieving the requirements  of the
   Montreal Protocol.

*  In  2001,  restrict  domestic  con-
   sumption of class II HCFCs  below
   15,240  Ozone  Depleting Potential
   (ODP)-weighted metric tonnes (ODP
   MTs) and restrict domestic exempted
   production  and import  of  newly
   produced class I  CFCs and halons
   below 60,000 ODP MTs.

*  In 2001, reduce energy consumption
   from  projected  levels  by more than
   70 billion kilowatt hours, resulting in
   over $9 billion in energy savings  to
   consumers and businesses.

*  In 2001,  for  60% of children  in
   SunWise  Schools,  the  dose   of
   ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to which
   they are exposed will  be reduced by
   50%  thus  decreasing the risk  of
   future UV-related  health  effects,
   including skin cancer, eye damage,
   and   suppression  of   the  immune
   system.

4  In 2001, demonstrate technology for
   an 80 MPG  mid-size  family sedan
   that has low emissions and is safe,
   practical, and affordable.

*  In 2001, assist 10 to  12  developing
   countries and countries with econ-
   omies in transition in  developing
   strategies  and actions for reducing
   emissions of greenhouse  gases and
   enhancing carbon sequestration.

*  In    2001,    provide   analysis,
   assessment, and reporting support to
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  Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks
   Administration  officials, the Inter-
   governmental   Panel   on Climate
   Change,  and  the Framework Con-
   vention on Climate Change.

4  In 2001, in close cooperation with
   USD A, identify and develop  specific
   opportunities to sequester carbon in
   agricultural   soils,   forests,  other
   vegetation and commercial products,
   with  collateral  benefits  for  pro-
   ductivity and the  environment, with
   carbon removal potential of up to 40
   MMTCEby2010.

4  In  2001, Great  Lakes  ecosystem
   components will improve, including
   progress on fish contaminants, beach
   toxics, air toxics, and trophic status.

*  In  2001,  increase  the number  of
   residents (approximately  11  million
   total) of the Mexico border area who
   are  protected  from  health risks,
   beach  pollution   and   damaged
   ecosystems  from  nonexistent and
   failing   water    and   wastewater
   treatment infrastructure by providing
   improved   water   and  wastewater
   service.

*  In 2001,  assess  the consequences of
   global change  (particularly  climate
   change and climate  variability)  on
   human health and ecosystems.

*  In   2001,   successfully   conclude
   international negotiations on a global
   convention  on  persistent   organic
   pollutants  (POPs),   and   initiate
   priority capacity building  projects in
   key developing countries.

*  In 2001, complete pilot  reports  on
   the implementation of environmental
laws and regulations in four develop-
ing countries.

In  2001,  enhance  environmental
management  and institutional cap-
abilities in priority countries.
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Goal 6: Global and Cross Border Key Programs |
(dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
CCTI: Buildings
CCTI: Carbon Removal
CCTI: Industry
CCTI: International Capacity Building
CCTI: State & Local Climate Change
CCTI: Transportation
Climate Change Research
Commission for Environmental Cooperation - CEC
EMPACT
Environment and Trade
Global Toxics
Great Lakes National Program Office (CWAP)
International Brownfields
International Safe Drinking Water
Multilateral Fund
Partnership with Industrial and Other Countries
Rent, Utilities and Securities
U.S. - Mexico Border
Water Infrastructure: Mexico Border
TOTAL
$2,405.8
$42,640.9
$1,000.0
$21,991.7
$5,594.4
$2,508.0
$29,604.8
$20,592.2
$3,222.5
$947.8
$518.0
$535.0
$15,077.6
$168.0
$793.0
$12,000.0
$6,855.6
$4,298.7
$4,142.3
$50,000.0
$224,896.3

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$2,556.3
$80,063.8
$3,410.0
$63,686.1
$10,576.2
$4,525.0
$65,084.0
$22,726.3
$3,263.5
$76.5
$4,606.4
$588.4
$13,196.7
$173.0
$848.0
$21,000.0
$5,776.3
$4,747.7
$5,176.2
$100,000.0
$412,080.4
74

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      Expansion of Americans' Right-to Know About Their
                                Environment

Strategic  Goal: Easy access to a wealth of information about the  state of their local
environment will  expand citizen involvement and  give people tools  to protect their
families and their communities as they see fit. Increased information exchange between
scientists, public health officials, businesses, citizens, and all levels  of government will
foster greater knowledge about the  environment and what can be  done to protect it.
                               Resource Summary
                                 (dollars in thousands)

                                           FY 2000
                                           Enacted
           FY 2001    FY 2001-FY 2000
           Request        Delta
 Expansion of Americans' Right-to-Know About their   $159,640.1
 Environment
 Increase Quality/Quantity of Education,                $98,700.3
 Outreach, Data Availability

 Improve Public's Ability to Reduce Exposure             $37,839.7

 Enhance Ability to Protect Public Health                $23,100.1

 Total Workyears:                                   818.4
            $185,109.1

            $120,751.8
$25,469.0

$22,051.5
             $39,605.9        $1,766.2

             $24,751.4        $1,651.3

                809.5           -8.9
Means and Strategy:

       The purpose of this  goal is  to
empower   the  American  public with
information,  enabling  them  to  make
informed  decisions regarding  environ-
mental  issues  in  their  communities.
EPA will accomplish this goal  through
three   strategic   objectives:     expand
environmental education, outreach and
data availability; improve  the public's
ability to reduce exposure; and enhance
the public's ability to protect health and
the environment.  These objectives will
be met by expanding the range of data it
collects and improving the quality and
usability of the data.   The Agency will
also ensure the data are widely available
through the Internet,  mass media and
other sources.

       Right-to-Know has  become  a
part of EPA's mission. The Agency has
accelerated  its efforts  to improve the
accuracy of its data, and to reduce the
burdens  to  industry  associated  with
reporting.  Also, the Agency is working
to  enhance  the  coordination of data
collection activities with states  and to
improve data collection methods and the
use   of  the  latest  technologies  to
consolidate   information  on  a   single
Internet site.

       The  Agency has  redesigned  its
internal   structure   to  better    meet
information  demands.     EPA's  new
approach  to  information management
employs a single program manager and
office  responsible  for   information
management,  policy  and  information
technology   stewardship   across   the
Agency. This Office is responsible for
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      Expansion of Americans' Right-to Know About Their
                               Environment
developing     and     implementing
information standards and accountability
systems that will improve environmental
information within the Agency  and the
information provided to the public.  This
Office is focusing its work  on reducing
information   collection  and  reporting
burden; filling significant data gaps; and
providing integrated environmental and
public health information and statistics
to the public.

Research

       The research program supports
this  goal  through  the Integrated  Risk
Information System (IRIS) and the  Risk
Assessment Forum  (RAF).  IRIS is an
EPA  database of  Agency  consensus
health  information on environmental
contaminants.   The database  is  used
extensively by EPA, the states,  and the
general public where consistent, reliable
toxicity  information   is  needed   for
credible risk assessments.  In 2001, the
Agency has  a goal of completing 21
chemical assessments and making them
available in IRIS.  The Risk Assessment
Forum     promotes     Agency-wide
consensus on difficult and controversial
risk assessment issues and  ensures that
this   consensus  is  incorporated  into
appropriate  Agency  risk  assessment
guidance.   In 2001, the RAF  will be
developing technical papers to  provide
initial  guidance on  difficult cumulative
risk assessment issues and a framework
for cumulative risk  assessment to serve
as a foundation for the potential future
development    of   cumulative   risk
assessment guidelines.   These  efforts
provide data/guidance  to  improve the
scientific   basis    for  environmental
decision making.
Highlights:

       The increasing public access to
electronic media offers  unprecedented
opportunities for EPA to provide citizens
with the  information necessary to effect
substantial   environmental   improve-
ments. In support of this objective and
the President's "Right-to-Know" goals,
EPA  will   continue  to  increase  the
amount and quality of publicly available
information on environmental programs.
EPA  also   realizes  that while  it  is
important to provide up-to-date, accurate
information, it must also  ensure that the
public finds the information useful.  The
Agency  collects  data  in a variety  of
systems,   on   diverse   environmental
pollutants that  impact land, air, water, as
well as data on potential health effects of
chemicals in  food  and  manufactured
products.  EPA  is aggressively  seeking
to integrate  all relevant sources of data
and   information  to  enhance  user-
friendliness  for  the  non-technical  user
and    to   support    comprehensive
approaches to environmental protection.

       In 2001,  EPA will  continue to
coordinate with  the  National Advisory
Council  on  Environmental Policy and
Technology  (NACEPT) and its standing
committees  to identify and  foster new
environmental   technologies.    Other
activities   include  facilitating   and
monitoring  the  Agency's response  to
NACEPT recommendations  that  are
accepted   by  the Administrator,  and
managing statutorily-mandated advisory
committees  dealing with   the  North
American   Free   Trade   Agreement
(NAFTA)  implementation   and  U.S./
Mexico  border  issues.   The advisory
committees  are:  the  National Advisory
Committee/Governmental Advisory
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      Expansion of Americans' Right-to Know About Their
                                Environment
Committee  and  the  Good  Neighbor
Environmental Board.

       The  Agency  will  establish  a
Federal   environmental    information
system that will integrate environmental
information.  The system  will  be fully
compatible with state and tribal systems,
allow   for   electronic   receipt   and
dissemination   of   information   and
incorporate   data   quality  and   error
correction processes.

       Key  to achieving high quality
will  be  the  Information  Integration
Initiative. In partnership with the States
and Tribes, and in close consultation
with   our  environmental   information
stakeholders, we will develop  a  single
integrated    multi-media   core   of
environmental  data and tools  -  an
integrated  environmental   information
system.  Under the new system, EPA's
individual  media  programs  (i.e,  air,
water,  hazardous  waste,  etc.)  will
maintain flexibility  to develop  "plug-in"
modules that will incorporate  program-
specific requirements.   However, at its
core,  the new system will be a single,
shared and integrated system.

       Efforts to allow better integration
with our  state  and local  partners will
continue, including  support to the Local
Government  Advisory  Committee  and
the   Small   Town  Advisory   Sub-
committee. In addition, EPA will design
and manage  meetings  and  conference
calls  and work with  states and state
associations to ensure that state concerns
are  considered   in Agency   policies,
guidance, and regulations.

       In partnership with  states, the
Agency  will  continue  its efforts to
expand publicly  available  information,
both electronically via the  Internet and
through  other  non-electronic  media.
This includes the One-Stop Reporting
initiative,  the  Reinventing  Environ-
mental Information (REI) initiative, and
the Envirofacts database.  In 2001, the
Agency  will  accelerate  its  efforts to
promote  public  access.  The program
will continue to support data integration
projects  such as Integrated  Data for
Enforcement Analysis (IDEA), which
makes integrated compliance data  from
several     media-specific     databases
available  nationally  in an  interactive,
online mode. The Agency will continue
to work to increase states' use of IDEA
by    demonstrating    its    analytical
capabilities  to  support  targeting   and
screening  based  on  risk  and  other
compliance  concerns.    Another  data
integration project, the Sector Facility
Indexing   Project   (SFIP),   will  be
continued in 2001. SFIP, a White House
Reinvention initiative, allows the public
to  monitor  the  records   of  nearby
facilities,    provides   the    regulated
community with a means of comparing
performance  against  competitors,   and
assists  government agencies in making
cross-media   comparisons.   EPA   is
committed to increasing use of the SFIP
by  increasing public awareness of the
project, ensuring customer  satisfaction
with  the  information  provided,   and
sustaining the utility of the SFIP  as  a
compliance and  analytical tool.    EPA
believes that these efforts will yield an
increase in web  site  user sessions  over
the 1999 levels.

       The  Agency   will  continue to
contribute to the Agency-wide Enhanced
Public Access Project. This Project is
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      Expansion of Americans' Right-to Know About Their
                               Environment
intended to make all significant Agency
guidance,  policy statements  and site-
specific inter-pretations of the regulated
entities'   environmental   management
practices electronically accessible to the
Regions, states, industry and the public.
In  2001,   90% of  enforcement  and
compliance policy and guidance will be
available on  the Internet  within thirty
days of issuance.  EPA intends to add
summaries   of  all   significant  cases
available on the Internet by April 2001.
Further, by the end of  2001, all ten EPA
regional    offices    will    have   an
enforcement  and compliance  website.
EPA will continue to manage telephone
hotlines, disburse brochures and reports
via the National  Service Center for
Environmental  Publications  (NSCEP),
respond to public inquiries and maintain
our national  library networks  to serve
those without personal computers.

       The  Agency  will  continue  to
participate    in  the   Environmental
Monitoring   for  Public   Access  and
Community    Tracking    (EMPACT)
program. A Presidential initiative begun
in 1998, EMPACT to date  has set  up
systems to  provide real-time data to the
nations' 86 largest  metropolitan cities.
EPA  is working with four EMPACT
cities   to   implement  the  Office  of
Enforcement      and      Compliance
Assurance's  Clean  Water  Compliance
Watch in those cities.  EPA will provide
reliable,  accurate,  and  user-friendly
information in a time- relevant period to
the  cities'  residents  regarding  the
environmental/public health condition in
the  communities' water bodies during
urban wet  weather  events and 24-hour
National      Pollutant      Discharge
Elimination     System      (NPDES)
wastewater   non-compliance     events
reported  by the regulated entity.   In
2001  the Agency  will  focus on  the
technology transference of this project to
other EMPACT metropolitan cities.

       The   Agency's   environmental
justice program  will help communities
access information to ensure that they do
not   experience   a   disproportionate
amount of pollution. Since 1994, more
than 500 grants have been awarded to
community organizations. As a result of
these grant awards, community-based
organizations  (i.e.,  grassroots  groups,
churches,    and    other    nonprofit
organizations)  have expanded  citizen
involvement  and  given  residents the
tools  to learn more about  exposure to
environmental   harms   and   about
associated risks, and, consequently, to
protect   their   families   and   their
communities as they see fit.  These small
grants have served as the "seed-money"
for empowerment of the residents of
these communities,  allowing  them to
speak for themselves and  make their
own decisions.  In 2001, the program
will continue to assist community-based
organizations  through  the  community
small grants program.

       Under  the Emergency  Planning
and Community Right-To-Know  Act
(EPCRA),   EPA   is   committed  to
expanding     environmental     release
information gathered under the Toxic
Release Inventory (TRI).  In 2001, EPA
will process 110,000 facility reports and
issue the TRI Public Data Release for
reporting year 1999.  EPA will continue
to  expand  the use of the  Internet for
delivering this information, and  we are
making  information available  by  zip
code and facility. Over   the   last   ten
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       Expansion of Americans' Right-to Know About Their
                                Environment
years,  there  has  been  a significant
decrease in the amount of toxic materials
released into the environment, according
to TRI reporting by facilities.

       In October 1999, EPA finalized a
rule to lower the TRI reporting threshold
for certain persistent bioaccumulative
toxics (PBT) chemicals and to add other
PBT chemicals to the section 313 list of
toxic  chemicals  reported  under TRI.
PBT chemicals are of particular concern
not only because they are toxic  but also
because   they may   remain  in   the
environment for a long period  of time,
are not readily destroyed, and may build
up or accumulate in plant, animal tissue,
and   in   cases  involving  mercury,
polychlorinated biphenyls  (PCBs) and
lead, human tissue.  Currently, facilities
that manufacture or process less then
25,000 pounds or otherwise use less than
10,000  pounds of a listed  chemical do
not need to report  releases.  Lowering
these  thresholds for PBTs will assure
that we get reporting on a larger fraction
of the releases of these chemicals.   In
August  1999,  EPA proposed a rule  to
lower the  threshold for reporting lead
releases  to TRI.  Lead remains in  the
environment for  long  periods  of time
and, at high levels,  is toxic to humans.
Currently, facilities  are not required  to
report  their lead and lead compound
releases  unless  they  manufacture   or
process  more than 25,000 pounds or use
more  than 10,000 pounds.  Under the
proposed  rule, the  reporting threshold
would be lowered to 10 pounds. This
would   substantially   increase  TRI
reporting  by industry  by about 1,390
facilities or about 15,000 reports.
       EPA  will   ensure  that  small,
minority and women-owned businesses
receive  a  "fair  share"  of  Agency
procurement  dollars.  This "fair share"
may  be  received  either  directly  or
indirectly through EPA grants, contracts,
cooperative agreements,  or interagency
agreements.  Pursuant to P.L.  102-389,
the Agency has a national goal of 8%
utilization  of  minority  and  women-
owned businesses in  the total value of
Agency  procurements   and   financial
assistance agreements. This activity will
enhance  the  ability of small,  minority
and    women-owned   businesses   to
participate  in the Agency's objective to
protect public health.

Research

       In 2001, the Agency will provide
guidance for risk assessment to improve
the scientific basis for decision making.
To achieve this goal, the  Agency's Risk
Assessment Forum  will  focus in three
areas:    cumulative  risk  assessment,
ecological  risk  assessment,  and  risk
assessments for children.  Efforts will
result  in  technical  guidance  on  the
identification   of    appropriate    age
groupings for exposure assessments for
children, technical issue  papers, and  a
framework for preparing cumulative risk
assessments.    The Agency  will  also
collect, manage,  and present  environ-
mental information for the benefit of the
Agency  and the  public in  order  to
enhance  the  availability  and  utility  of
data, information, and tools for decision
making.  To  that end, the Agency will
develop  new and/or  update  Agency
consensus human health assessments of
21  environmental  substances  of  high
priority to EPA and make them publicly
available on IRIS.
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      Expansion of Americans' Right-to Know About Their
                              Environment

2001 Annual Performance Goals:

*  In 2001, ensure that  EPA's policies,
   programs  and  activities   address
   disproportionately    exposed   and
   under-represented population issues
   so   that   no   segment   suffers
   disproportionately    from   adverse
   health and environmental effects.

4  In 2001, improve public access to
   compliance     and    enforcement
   documents   and    data   through
   multimedia data integration projects
   and  other  studies,   analyses  and
   communication/outreach activities.

4  In 2001, provide guidance for  risk
   assessment to improve the scientific
   basis  of  environmental  decision
   making.

4  In  2001, process  all   submitted
   facility  chemical  release  reports;
   publish annual summary of TRI data;
   provide improved information to the
   public  about TRI   chemicals;  and
   maximize  public  access  to   TRI
   information.
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Goal 7: Right-to-Know Key Programs |
(dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
Congressional Projects
Congressional/Legislative Analysis
Direct Public Information and Assistance
Drinking Water Consumer Awareness
EMPACT
Environmental Education
GLOBE
Integrated Information Initiative
NACEPT Support
NAFTA Implementation
National Association Liaison
Pesticide Registration
Pesticide Reregistration
Regional Management
Regional Operations and Liaison
Reinvention Programs, Development and Coordination
Rent, Utilities and Securities
SBREFA
Small Business Ombudsman
Small, Minority, Women-Owned Business Assistance
System Modernization
Toxic Release Inventory / Right-to-Know
TOTAL
$2,024.7
$1,968.5
$3,119.0
$4,248.9
$1,537.2
$9,691.5
$7,271.1
$1,000.0
$866.7
$1,822.5
$507.2
$322.4
$4,019.3
$4,018.1
$254.3
$598.3
$0.0
$849.8
$777.3
$1,120.3
$2,188.3
$13,692.9
$17,671.8
$79,570.1

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$2,128.2
$2,173.3
$3,274.6
$4,789.3
$1,595.8
$11,089.6
$9,390.7
$1,000.0
$30,936.0
$2,166.7
$603.7
$337.4
$4,446.1
$4,446.1
$405.5
$613.5
$2,152.5
$878.5
$801.9
$1,162.6
$2,367.4
$13,692.9
$17,647.7
$118,100.0
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   Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
              Risk, and Greater Innovation to Address
                       Environmental Problems
Strategic Goal: EPA will develop and apply the best available science for addressing
current and future environmental hazards, as well as new approaches toward improving
environmental protection.
                              Resource Summary
                               (dollars in thousands)

Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Env. Risk
and Greater Innovation to Address Env. Problems
Research for Ecosystem Assessment and
Restoration
Research for Human Health Risk Assessment
Research to Detect Emerging Risk Issues
Pollution Prevention and New Technology
For Environmental Protections
Increase Use of Integrated, Holistic,
Partnership Approaches
Increase Opportunities for Sector
Based Approaches
Regional Enhancement of Ability to
Quantify Environmental Outcomes
Science Advisory Board Peer Review
Incorporate Innovative Approaches
FY 2000
Enacted
$330,510.3
$120,401.8
$53,678.0
$46,106.5
$68,172.4
$9,286.8
$19,703.4
$6,089.0
$2,861.7
$4,210.7
FY 2001 FY 2001 vs FY 2000
Request Delta
$328,757.7
$115,130.3
$58,324.7
$54,357.3
$52,564.4
$17,088.5
$15,921.3
$7,756.8
$2,674.0
$4,940.4
-$1,752.6
-$5,271.5
$4,646.7
$8,250.8
-$15,608.0
$7,801.7
-$3,782.1
$1,667.8
-$187.7
$729.7
 to Environmental Management

 Total Workyears:
  1,057.5
1,048.6
-8.9
Means and Strategy:

      EPA is continuing to ensure that
it  is a source  of sound scientific and
technical  information, and that it is on
the leading  edge  of   environmental
protection innovations that  will  allow
achievement of our strategic objectives.
The Agency consults a number of expert
sources, both internal and external, and
uses  several  deliberative   steps  in
planning  its research programs.   As a
starting  point,  the Agency draws input
from the EPA Strategic Plan,  available
research plans, EPA program offices and
regions, Federal  research  partners, and
outside peer advisory bodies such as the
Science Advisory  Board  (SAB)  and
others.  This input is used internally by
cross-office   teams   that    prioritize
research  areas  using  risk  and  other
factors such as  National  Science and
Technology  Council  (NSTC)  research
and development priorities, client office
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   Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
              Risk, and Greater Innovation to Address
                        Environmental Problems
priorities,  court  orders  and legislative
mandates.  EPA's research program will
increase our understanding of environ-
mental processes  and our capability to
assess environmental risks - not only to
human health, but also to ecosystems.

      In   the   area   of  ecosystem
protection research, EPA will  strive to
establish baseline  conditions from which
changes, and ultimately trends,  in the
ecological  condition  of the  Nation's
estuaries    can     be    confidently
documented, and from which the results
of environmental management policies
can  be  evaluated  at  regional  scales.
Currently,  there  is a patchwork of
monitoring underway in the estuaries of
the  U.S.     Due  to   differences  in
objectives, methods, monitoring designs
and  needs,  these  data  cannot  be
combined   to  estimate,  with  known
confidence, the magnitude or extent of
improvement or degradation regionally
or nationally in this economically critical
resource.    Therefore,  the  ability to
demonstrate  success  or  failure  of
increasingly     flexible    watershed
management  policies,   regionally  and
nationally, is also not possible.  By the
end of 2001, the  methods, designs and
summary    of    existing   monitoring
programs will be in place to develop the
baseline  required  to  address  these
weaknesses. This work is an important
step toward providing  the  scientific
understanding   to   measure,   model,
maintain, or restore, at multiple scales,
the  integrity   and  sustainability  of
ecosystems.

      In order to improve the scientific
basis to  identify, characterize,  assess,
and  manage  environmental  exposures
that pose the greatest health risks to the
American public, EPA is committed to
developing  and verifying  innovative
methods  and  models for assessing the
susceptibilities   of   populations   to
environmental   agents,   aimed  at  en-
hancing  current risk assessment  and
management  strategies  and  guidance.
The   Agency  will  develop   initial
measurements, methods,  and models to
evaluate  exposures  and  effects  of
environmental contaminants, particularly
in children. Many of the current human
health risk assessment methods, models,
and data bases are based on environ-
mental risks for adults. The goal of this
research  is to address  the risks  of
environmental contaminants in children.
This  information  will  be  useful  in
determining whether children are more
susceptible  to environmental risks than
adults  and  how   to  assess risks  to
children.

       EPA's   leadership   role   in
environmental   protection  requires  a
continuing, vigilant search for emerging
issues  to  protect  both  human  and
ecosystem  health.   The  Agency  will
continue  to strive to establish research
capability and mechanisms to anticipate
and  identify   environmental  or  other
changes  that  may  portend future risk.
EPA  is  currently  attempting to focus
some  of its  planning  processes  and
research more expansively on the future.
EPA is currently investigating with the
help of the National Academy for Public
Administration  (NAPA)  a number of
futures methodologies for their potential
use in strategic, multi-year, and  annual
planning  efforts. Benefits will  include
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   Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
              Risk, and Greater Innovation to Address
                        Environmental Problems
an  improved  framework  for  decision-
making,  increased ability to anticipate
and perhaps deter serious environmental
risks, and enhanced communication with
the public and other stakeholders.

       The   Agency   also   seeks  to
develop  and  verify   improved  tools,
methodologies,  and  technologies  for
modeling,   measuring,   characterizing,
preventing, controlling, and cleaning up
contaminants  associated  with   high
priority human health and environmental
problems. In order to do this, EPA will
develop,  evaluate,  and  deliver  tech-
nologies  and approaches  that eliminate,
minimize, or control high risk pollutants
from multiple sectors.  Emphasis will be
placed on  preventive approaches for
industries  and   communities  having
difficulty  meeting   control/emission/
effluent  standards.   The Agency  is
accumulating data on performance and
costs  of environmental  pollution pre-
vention and control technologies which
will serve as a basis for EPA as well  as
other   organizations  to  evaluate and
compare  effectiveness  and  costs  of
technologies   developed   within  and
outside the Agency.

       EPA's   strategy   for   solving
environmental problems and improving
our system of environmental protection
includes  developing, implementing and
institutionalizing   new   policy   tools,
collaborative  community-based   and
sector-based strategies, and the capacity
to experiment and test innovative ideas
that result  in  better  environmental
outcomes. In each area, EPA is looking
to  advance  the  application   of the
innovative   tool   or  approach  by
promoting    broader    testing    and
incorporation  into  our  system   of
environmental protection.  For example,
EPA's Permit Action  Plan outlines a
broad  strategy  for  building the  next
generation of environmental permitting.
This    strategy     will    harmonize
requirements  across media  and  will
make permitting more accessible to the
public and more flexible for facilities.

       EPA's   community-based  ap-
proach  works  to  provide  integrated
assessment tools  and information and
direct  assistance   for   environmental
protection  in  partnership  with  local,
state, and tribal governments.  The work
focuses on  building the  capacity  of
communities  to  work   effectively  at
identifying and  solving  environmental
issues in ways that support healthy local
economies and improved quality of life.

       Sector   strategies   complement
current EPA activities by allowing the
Agency  to  approach   issues   more
holistically;   tailor  efforts   to  the
particular characteristics of each  sector;
identify related groups of  stakeholders
with  interest in a  set of  issues; link
EPA's efforts  with those  of  other
agencies; and craft new  approaches  to
environmental  protection.  The  exper-
ience  gained   in  working  with six
industry sectors on the Common  Sense
Initiative  provides the basis for moving
forward with sector-based approaches  to
environmental protection.

       Sustainable   industry  programs
serve as  incubators  and  developers  of
innovative approaches to  environmental
policy-making,   testing     alternative
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   Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
              Risk, and Greater Innovation to Address
                        Environmental Problems
regulatory and programmatic approaches
through regional  projects,  and multi-
stakeholder processes.

       Project XL  provides  regulated
entities a gateway to work with EPA, its
co-regulators, and other stakeholders to
develop   and  implement   alternative
environmental management   strategies
that  achieve  superior  environmental
performance in exchange for regulatory
flexibility.    These  initiatives offer  a
balance  between  the  uncertainty  in
testing promising new  approaches  and
safeguards to ensure the protection of
human  health  and  the  environment.
These  pilots, if successful,  will  be
integrated   into    our   system    of
environmental protection.   Sector-based
and facility-based approaches  will offer
valuable   supplements   to   traditional
media-specific  environmental  policy
and,   along  with   place-based   and
pollutant-based   approaches,   offer  a
menu  of solutions  to environmental
issues.

Highlights:

Research for  Ecosystem Assessment and
Restoration

       In order to balance the growth of
human activity and  the need  to protect
the  environment,  it  is  important to
understand the  current  condition  of
ecosystems, what stressors are changing
that  condition, what are the  effects of
those changes, and what can be done to
prevent,  mitigate,  or  adapt  to those
changes.  By  the end of 2001, EPA will
establish baseline conditions from which
changes, and ultimately trends, in  the
ecological  condition  of the  Nation's
estuaries  can   be  confidently   doc-
umented, and from which the results of.
environmental management policies can
be evaluated at regional scales.  As part
of this effort, EPA will issue a report
describing the condition of the Nation's
estuaries.  This report will provide EPA
with information needed to  determine"
existing  conditions   and  to   develop
baseline information from which we can
demonstrate the success of  watershed
management policies.

Research  for   Human  Health   Risk
Assessment

       An  important  aim  of human
health   research   in   2001   will   be
development  of initial measurements,
methods   and   models   to   evaluate
exposures and effects of environmental
contaminants,  particularly  in  children.
The Agency will continue  to support a
children's research program specifically
targeted  to  address  major   areas  of
uncertainty  and   susceptibility.    An
important element  of the program is the
children's research centers.  These nine
university-based    research    centers
explore a range of  children's risk issues,
including   childhood   asthma    and
development disorders. Other children's
research   focus on  data  gaps   and
endocrine disrupters.  A major product
of this research in 2001 will be guidance
on  improving  pharmacokinetic model
usage  for  children.     The  research
undertaken in  this goal  supports  the
ongoing  efforts   of  the  Interagency
President's  Task  Force  on  Environ-
mental Health Risks and Safety Risks to
Children.
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   Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
              Risk, and Greater Innovation to Address
                        Environmental Problems
Research to Detect Emerging Risk Issues

       In  recent years, EPA has begun
moving     beyond      environmental
regulation to environmental protection in
its broadest sense, including anticipating
and  preventing  problems before they
mushroom into  major  concerns.   In
2001, research will focus on improving
our  understanding of the  impact  on
human health and the environment of
exposure  to  potential   environmental
pollutants  and developing approaches to
reduce  human  health and  ecological
risks.  This  research  will  result  in
accessible, common  methodologies  for
combined  human health and ecological
risk  assessments, and sound approaches
for risk management so  that decision-
makers will have the integrated view of
risk   needed  to   make   intelligent
decisions.

Pollution Prevention and New
Technology for Environmental
Protections

       EPA supports pollution preven-
tion  (P2)  as a  necessary and  logical
strategy  for  dealing  with  high-risk
human   health   and    environmental
problems that are  addressed by Federal,
environmental, and  health,  and  safety
regulations.   P2 research will test the
ability  of  risk  assessors  and  risk
managers   to   develop   tools  and
methodologies which are  meaningful
and understandable to the public in terms
of the costs and benefits associated with
the   magnitude   of   the  risk  that  is
identified.     In  the  area  of  new
technologies,  the Agency also looks to
test  the performance of  commercial-
ready technologies through its Environ-
mental  Technology Verification (ETV)
program.  With  broad  support  from
industry and other Federal partners, the
ETV program will continue to verify the
environmental   performance   charac-
teristics of  technologies in all media
(e.g., industrial  pollution prevention,
recycling  and  waste  treatment;  field
monitoring   technologies;   and   air
pollution  control and greenhouse  gas
reduction technologies) under its twelve
pilots.  In 2001, the Agency will deliver
a report to  Congress  on the status and
effectiveness of the ETV program during
its first five years.

      A cornerstone of EPA's ability to
collect,  manage and provide access to
information  is a strong commitment to
data quality, which  is a key foundation
in   the   work  of  the  Office  of
Environmental Information. Building on
the initial work in EPA's Data Quality
Action Plan, we will work to create a
more   comprehensive   and   clear
understanding of data quality, and its
application  to  our  environmental and
public  health mission.   Creating this
understanding will be an early focus of
the Office of Environmental Information
and it's  Quality Staff.    We will  use a
Quality  Board  which will  have broad
responsibility   for   leadership,   coor-
dination, and oversight of issues related
to quality.   The Board, which will be
supported by a full-time staff, will serve
as the EPA focus for ensuring  that data
quality   policies   are  developed and
implemented in  EPA  programs  and
applied  throughout  the  life  cycle  of
information  that  EPA  generates  and
uses.
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   Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
              Risk, and Greater Innovation to Address
                        Environmental Problems
Increased Community-Based
Approaches

       In 2001,  EPA will continue to
strengthen local partnerships to address
serious  environmental  risks  to human
health   and  ecosystems.     Regional
Geographic  Initiatives  (RGI)  are  an
approach EPA Regional offices use to
partner  with states, local governments,
private organizations, and others to solve
environmental  problems.    The  work
targets specific environmental problems
identified as high risks to human health
and   ecosystems,   which   are   not
adequately  addressed by other Agency
resources.

Increased  Facility and Sector-Based
Strategies

       EPA's strategy for improving our
system of environmental protection is to
pilot innovative approaches designed to
achieve better protection at less cost and,
if successful, integrate  those pilots into
our core practices.  Through Project XL,
the  Agency has a number of innovative
ideas   that  are   being    tested  or
implemented  in  various environmental
programs that will lead to  changes in
rules, permits, information management,
environmental stewardship, enforcement
and  compliance  assurance,  stakeholder
involvement and  Agency culture.  For
example, in Project XL, EPA is testing
ways  to  streamline   permitting  so
manufacturers can respond more quickly
to market  demands.   In another XL
project, EPA is testing alternative ways
to   implement   air   regulations  to
encourage downtown redevelopment and
reduce the pressure for sprawl.
      A   sector-based   approach  to
solving  environmental  issues  comple-
ments EPA's analytic toolbox, including
community-based, pollutant-based,  and
traditional  media-based   approaches.
Sector approaches can be used to solve
environmental issues as a sole approach,
or can  be  used to complement other
approaches  to  focus  on  a particular
source of  a  particular  pollutant  in  a
particular ecosystem.  By  using these
approaches  together  to  target Agency
efforts, focused results are  achieved in
the most   cost-effective  and  efficient
manner  possible.  By utilizing a sector
approach in a collaborative manner, one
can garner the information and resources
to deal  with issues  more  holistically;
tailor    efforts    to   the   particular
characteristics  of each sector; identify
related  groups  of  stakeholders  with
interest  in  a set of issues;  link EPA's
efforts with those of other agencies; and
craft new approaches to environmental
protection.   Sustainable  industry pro-
grams   serve   as    incubators   and
developers  of innovative approaches to
environmental  policy-making,  and test
alternative regulatory and programmatic
approaches  through regional  projects and
multi-stakeholder processes.

Science  Advisory Board Peer Review
and Consultations

      The Agency  will  continue to
support  the activities, principally peer
reviews, of the Science Advisory Board
(SAB),  which  provides   independent
technical advice to  Congress  and the
Administrator on scientific, engineering,
and economic issues that  serve as the
underpinnings    for  Agency positions,
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   Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental
              Risk, and Greater Innovation to Address
                        Environmental Problems
from research direction to  regulations.

       The agenda of SAB  activities is
derived from  requests from  Congress
and  the Agency, as well as some self-
initiated activities aimed at highlighting
attention to areas of concern  that may
have escaped Agency attention or may
be incompletely addressed by individual
Agency office programs.

       The SAB's broad objective is to
help the Agency to "do the right science"
and  to use  the results of that science
appropriately and effectively in making
regulatory decisions.   In so doing, the
SAB promotes sound science within the
Agency and a wider  recognition of the
quality  of  that  science  outside  the
Agency.   In this regard, the  SAB is
active in consulting with the Agency on
how to incorporate science appropriately
and  effectively into the new approaches
the   Agency   is   using  to   make
environmental decisions.

       The  use  of the  SAB  for peer
reviews also supports the Agency-wide
commitment to sound science  based on
rigorous peer-review, a commitment that
has  been re-emphasized as  a  result  of
GAO findings in 1997 that such efforts
are applied unevenly within the Agency.
In addition, the SAB's activities provide
the kind of support described in the 1999
National  Academy  of Sciences  report,
"Evaluating Federal Research Programs:
Research and the Government  Perform-
ance and Results Act", which concludes
that the most effective way of evaluating
a federal research program is by expert
review, which  includes quality review,
relevance  review,  and bench-marking.
2001 Annual Performance Goals:

  In 2001,  establish baseline  condi-
   tions  from  which  changes,  and
   ultimately trends, in  the ecological
   condition of  the Nation's  estuaries
   can be confidently documented, and
   from which  the  results of environ-
   mental management policies can be
   evaluated at regional scales.

*  In  2001,  develop,  evaluate,  and
   deliver technologies and approaches
   that eliminate,  minimize, or control
   high risk  pollutants  from  multiple
   sectors.  Emphasis will be placed on
   preventive approaches for industries
   and communities having  difficulty
   meeting  control/emission/  effluent
   standards.

*  EPA  will  implement  significant
   improvements   to  core   Agency
   functions identified as high environ-
   mental or economic  impact   iden-
   tified during FY 2000 priority setting
   (Project XL).
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| Goal 8: Sound Science Key Programs |
(dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
Coastal Environmental Monitoring
Common Sense Initiative
CWAP Related Research
Endocrine Disruptor Research
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)
Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)
Exploratory Grants Program
Human Health Research
Innovative Community Partnership Program
Pollution Prevention Tools and Technologies
Project XL
Regional Geographic Program
Regional Science and Technology
Reinvention Programs, Development and Coordination
Rent, Utilities and Securities
Science Advisory Board
STAR Fellowships Program
Urban Environmental Quality and Human Health
TOTAL
$3,436.1
$6,954.0
$1,646.8
$4,440.6
$8,038.0
$30,543.5
$6,392.6
$10,803.5
$48,883.9
$309.8
$27,442.0
$1,750.5
$11,989.8
$6,111.3
$19,421.4
$20,804.1
$2,860.6
$8,952.6
$0.0
$220,781.1

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$3,680.4
$7,255.4
$3,482.2
$5,298.7
$13,241.1
$30,157.8
$6,699.5
$10,669.0
$52,988.6
$4,841.5
$19,469.3
$1,791.6
$12,193.1
$7,156.8
$21,351.5
$16,591.9
$2,674.0
$10,089.9
$3,395.0
$233,027.3
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           A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater
                         Compliance with the Law
Strategic Goal: EPA will ensure full compliance with laws intended to protect human
health and the environment.

                                Resource Summary
                                 (dollars in thousands)
                                          FY 2000      FY 2001     FY 2001 - FY 2000
                                          Enacted      Request           Delta
 A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and
 Greater Compliance with the Law

 Enforcement Tools to Reduce Non-Compliance

 Increase Use of Auditing, Self-Policing Policies

 Total Workyears:
$372,755.6
$403,771.5
$323,338.2     $351,306.7

 $49,417.4      $52,464.8

   2,570.8        2,572.7
$31,015.9


$27,968.5

 $3,047.4

     1.9
Means and Strategy:

       Many   of  the  environmental
improvements in this country during the
past three decades can be attributed to a
strong set of environmental  laws and
EPA's aggressive  enforcement of them.
Due  to  the  breadth   and  diversity of
private,  public,  and   federal  facilities
regulated by EPA under various statutes,
the   Agency   needs   to   target   its
enforcement and compliance  assurance
activities  strategically  to  address  the
most significant risks  to human health
and  the environment and to ensure that
certain  populations  do  not  bear  a
disproportionate environmental burden.
A strong enforcement program identifies
non-compliance    problems,    punishes
violators,   strives  to  secure  a  level
economic playing  field for law-abiding
companies, and deters  future violations.
EPA's  continued  enforcement  efforts
will   be   strengthened  through  the
development of measures to assess the
 impact  of enforcement  activities  and
 assist in targeting areas that pose risks to
 human  health  or  the  environment,
 display patterns  of non-compliance and
 include    disproportionately    exposed
 populations.

        State,     tribal    and     local
 governments   bear   much   of   the
 responsibility for ensuring compliance,
 and EPA works in partnership with them
 and other Federal  agencies to promote
 environmental protection.  Further, EPA
 cooperates with other nations  to enforce
 and  ensure environmental regulations
 compliance. At the Federal level,  EPA
 addresses  its  responsibilities  under the
 National   Environmental  Policy   Act
 (NEPA)   by   seeking   remedies  for
 potentially adverse  impacts  of major
 actions taken  by  EPA and other Federal
 agencies.

       The Agency's enforcement  and
 compliance   assurance  program  uses
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           A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater
                        Compliance with the Law
voluntary  compliance assistance  and
incentive  tools  to  ensure compliance
with regulatory requirements and reduce
adverse public health and environmental
problems.        Because    government
resources    are   limited,   maximum
compliance requires the active efforts of
the regulated community to police itself.
EPA supports  the regulated community
by assuring that requirements are clearly
understood and by helping industry find
cost-effective options to comply through
the use  of pollution prevention  and
innovative   technology.    EPA   will
continue   to  investigate  options   for
encouraging  self-directed  audits  and
disclosure; measure and  evaluate  the
effectiveness of Agency  programs in
improving  compliance  rates;   provide
information  and compliance assistance
to the regulated community; and develop
innovative   approaches   to   meeting
environmental  standards through better
communication,  cooperative approaches
and application of new technologies.

Highlights

Compliance  Monitoring and Civil and
Criminal Enforcement

       EPA will continue to  support
deterrence and compliance activities by
devoting  a  vast   majority   of  its
compliance monitoring resources for on-
site   inspections   and    investigations
including  monitoring,  sampling  and
emissions   testing.     In  2001,   the
compliance  monitoring  program  will
continue the cross-cutting, multi-media
initiatives  begun in 1999 which make
full  use  of  the   Agency's   statutory
authorities.
       The    civil    and    criminal
enforcement program, in contributing to
EPA's goal to protect public health and
the environment, targets its actions based
on   health  and   environmental   risk.
Further, the program  aims to level the
economic playing field by ensuring that
violators do  not  realize  an  economic
benefit from non-compliance and seeks
to deter future violations. In 2001, the
Agency's enforcement initiatives include
continued   enforcement   of  regulated
sources  contributing  to  beach  and
shellfish area closings, in support of the
Clean  Water   Action Plan  (CWAP),
enforcement of the lead paint rules, and
modernization  of  its data systems  to
assist  in   targeting  compliance  and
enforcement efforts.

Compliance Incentives and Assistance

       The  Agency  will  continue  to
support  the  regulated   communities'
compliance     with     environmental
requirements    through     voluntary
compliance  incentives  and assistance
programs.   In 2001, the compliance
incentives  program  will  continue  to
implement  the  policy on Incentives for
Self-Policing as a core  element of the
enforcement and  compliance assurance
program.  In addition, the Agency will
provide  information   and  technical
assistance to the regulated community
through  the   compliance   assistance
program to increase its understanding of
all statutory or regulatory environmental
requirements,  thereby reducing risk to
human health  and the environment and
gaining measurable  improvements  in
compliance.   The program  will  also
continue  to  develop  strategies  and
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           A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater
                        Compliance with the Law
compliance  assistance tools  that  will
support  initiatives   targeted  toward
improving   compliance   in   specific
industrial  and  commercial  sectors or
with certain regulatory requirements.

State and Tribal Capacity

       A   strong   state   and  tribal
enforcement and compliance assurance
presence   contributes   to    creating
deterrence   and   to   reducing  non-
compliance.   In 2001, the enforcement
and compliance assurance programs will
work with and support state agencies
implementing authorized, delegated, or
approved    environmental    programs.
Consistent  with regulations  and  EPA
policy,  the  Agency  will  provide  an
appropriate  level   of  oversight  and
guidance  to   states  to  ensure   that
environmental regulations are fairly and
consistently enforced across the nation.

       The  Agency   provides grant
funding, oversight, training and technical
assistance to states and tribes. The state
and tribal grant programs are designed to
build environmental partnerships  with
states and  tribes and  strengthen  their
ability to address  environmental  and
public health  threats.  These  threats
include  contaminated  drinking water,
pesticides  in  food,  hazardous waste,
toxic substances and air pollution.

2001 Annual Performance Goals

4  In 2001, maintain and improve the
   quality   and accuracy  of EPA's
   enforcement  and  compliance  data
   to identify noncompliance  and focus
on  human  health  and  environmental
problems.

*  In  2001, improve  the  capacity  of
   states, localities and tribes to conduct
   enforcement     and    compliance
   programs. EPA will provide training
   as well as assistance with state and
   tribal inspections to build capacity,
   including  implementation   of  the
   inspector credentials program  for
   tribal law enforcement personnel.

+  In    2001,    EPA   will    direct
   enforcement  actions  to maximize
   compliance       and       address
   environmental  and  human  health
   problems;   75%   of   concluded
   enforcement  actions  will  require
   environmental  or  human   health
   improvements  such  as  pollutant
   reductions    and/or   changes   in
   practices at facilities.

4  In 2001, EPA will conduct 15,000
   inspections,   550  criminal   inves-
   tigations, and 150 civil investigations
   targeted  to areas that pose risks  to
   human  health or the environment,
   display  patterns  of non-compliance
   or  include  disproportionately ex-
   posed populations.

*  In   2001,   increase  opportunities
   through   new   targeted    sector
   initiatives for industries to volun-
   tarily   self-disclose  and   correct
   violations on a corporate-wide basis.

*  In   2001,  promote  the  use   of
   Environmental Management Systems
   (EMS) to address known compliance
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      A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater
                 Compliance with the Law
and performance problems.

In 2001,  ensure  compliance  with
legal requirements for proper hand-
ling of hazardous waste imports and
exports.
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Goal 9: Credible Deterrent Key Programs
(dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Services
Civil Enforcement
Civil Enforcement - CWAP/AFO Related
Common Sense Initiative
Compliance Assistance and Centers
Compliance Incentives
Compliance Monitoring
Criminal Enforcement
Enforcement Training
NEPA Implementation
Project XL
RCRA State Grants
Regional Management
Rent, Utilities and Securities
State Pesticides Enforcement Grants
State Toxics Enforcement Grants
TOTAL
$5,144.2
$82,350.9
$935.6
$448.6
$22,549.7
$5,195.7
$56,404.2
$37,128.8
$5,705.4
$9,901.4
$2,635.4
$43,222.7
$1,058.8
$38,719.6
$19,911.6
$7,364.2
$338,676.8

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$5,444.6
$92,090.1
$1,008.6
$471.8
$23,711.8
$5,679.1
$67,519.5
$41,530.2
$5,728.2
$10,711.9
$2,880.0
$43,222.7
$1,101.7
$44,878.2
$19,911.6
$7,364.2
$373,254.2
95

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96

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                           Effective Management
Strategic Goal:   EPA will establish a management infrastructure  that will set  and
implement the highest  quality standards for effective internal management and fiscal
responsibility.
                                Resource Summary
                                 (dollars in thousands)

Effective Management
Executive Leadership
Management Services, Administrative, and
Stewardship
Building Operations, Utilities and New
Construction
FY2000
Enacted
$447,231.0
$33,547.1
$198,776.4
$171,375.0
FY 2001 FY 2001 - FY 2000
Request Delta
$464,598.9
$37,066.7
$220,125.2
$161,518.1
$17,367.9
$3,519.6
$
21,348.8
-$9,856.9
Provide Audit and Investigative
 Products and Services

Total Workyears:
$43,532.5

  2,228.4
$45,888.9

  2,256.2
$2,356.4

   27.8
Means and Strategy:

   The Agency will continue to provide
vision and leadership as well as direction
and policy  oversight for all its programs
and partnerships.   In  doing  so, EPA's
strategy will focus on:

4  Recognizing the special vulnerability
   of children to  environmental risks
   and  facilitating   the   intensified
   commitment  to protect  children's
   health;

4  Preparing EPA  for future challenges
   by  building    the   skills   of  its
   workforce and fostering diversity;

4  Building  and managing  safe  and
   healthy workplaces;
    Ensuring a high level of integrity and
     accountability in the management of
     grants and contracts;

  4  Encouraging  testing  and  adopting
     innovative tools and technologies to
     achieve  better protection of human
     health and  the  environment at less
     cost;

  *  Changing the way we do business by
     working     collaboratively     with
     stakeholders,  cutting  red  tape and
     finding ways to work smarter and
     more efficiently, and managing for
     better results; and

  4  Performing  independent evaluations
     of Agency programs.
                                                   The  Agency  will  continue  its
                                            commitment to protect children's health
                                        97

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                          Effective Management
by targeting resources towards its many
diverse  children's activities, including
working  to assure  that EPA's  health-
based  standards  consider  risks   to
children  and  to  continue to  develop
sound scientific methods for addressing
risks  to   children  from  exposure  to
environmental pollutants.  The  Agency
will  also  provide policy  direction and
guidance    on   equal   employment
opportunity and  civil  rights.    The
Agency's  Administrative  Law  Judges
and  its  Environmental  Appeals Board
Judges   will   issue   decisions    on
administrative complaints  and environ-
mental adjudications,  respectively, in a
timely manner.

      To      achieve      effective
management of and  accountability for
EPA's fiscal resources, the Agency will
improve   capabilities  to  make cost-
effective investments  for environmental
results. EPA will build on the success of
its   integrated  planning,  budgeting,
analysis  and   accountability  program
while continuing to enhance its ability to
provide   the  highest  quality   fiscal
resources    management.       EPA
collaborates extensively with  partners
and   stakeholders      to   forge   the
partnerships   required    for   shared
approaches to  meeting the challenges of
the   Government  Performance  and
Results Act (GPRA). EPA consults with
internal customers on fiscal management
services   to  meet   their  needs  for
timeliness, efficiency and quality.

      The  Agency  will  continue  to
invest in human resources to ensure that
it has the scientific and technology skills
needed  for  the  future,  and that the
workforce   reflects   the  talents  and
perspectives of a growing multi-cultural
 society.  This strategy will enable EPA
 to  attract, retain and further develop a
 diverse workforce prepared to meet the
. Agency's current and fiiture challenges.

        The  Agency  will  provide  a
 quality work environment  that places
 high  value  on  employee  safety  and
 security   and    the    design    and
 establishment     of     state-of-the-art
 laboratories.  These facilities provide the
 tools essential for researching innovative
 solutions   to    current   and   future
 environmental problems  and enhancing
 our  understanding   of  environmental
 risks.  Plans for building operations and
 new   construction   support   existing
 infrastructure requirements  that ensure
 healthy,   safe    and    secure   work
 environments  and   reflect   pollution
 prevention values of EPA, in addition to
 fulfilling the scientific  and functional
 requirements of our programs. EPA has
 adopted an aggressive strategy to utilize
 energy savings performance contracts in
 order  to  reduce energy consumption
 significantly over the next five years.

        In the  contracts area, Agency
 efforts focus on selecting the appropriate
 contract vehicle to deliver the best value
 for the taxpayer.   Performance  based
 contracts  allow  the  Government  to
 manage for results, not  process. Under
 this system  the  Government pays for
 results,   not  effort  or process,  and
 contractors are encouraged to determine
 the best and most cost effective ways to
 fulfill    the   Government's   needs.
 Performance based contracts save time
 and money for the Agency by reducing
 unnecessary   contract   administration
 costs. This is accomplished  by moving
 away  from cost reimbursement and level
 of  effort to  fixed   price   completion
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                          Effective Management
contracts.  In addition, the Agency will
put  increased  emphasis  on  contract
oversight,  including  speeding  up  the
contract processes  through  fast-track
system enhancements and automation
efforts.

       Audit,    investigative,     and
advisory services contribute to effective
management    by    facilitating    the
accomplishment   of   the   Agency's
mission.     Specifically,  audits  and
advisory  services  lead  to   improved
economy, efficiency, and  effectiveness
in EPA business practices  and assist in
the attainment of environmental goals.
Investigations detect and deter fraud and
other improprieties that  undermine  the
integrity   of   EPA  programs   and
resources.

Highlights:

       Agency  management  provides
vision  and  leadership,  and  conducts
policy   oversight   for   all   Agency
programs.  The effectiveness  of EPA's
management will determine,  in  large
measure, how successful we will be in
pursuit of the other goals  identified in
the  Agency's   annual  plan.     Sound
management    principles,     practices,
results-based planning  and budgeting,
fiscal  accountability, quality  customer
service,  rational policy  guidance  and
careful stewardship of our resources  are
the foundation for everything EPA does
to  advance  the  protection of  human
health and the environment.

       In keeping with our commitment
to protect children's health, the Agency
will   direct   resources   toward   the
programs that will protect children from
a  range of environmental  hazards.  In
2001, the Agency will focus on reducing
asthma through reduction and avoidance
of   key  asthma  triggers,   including
environmental tobacco smoke, prevalent
indoor   allergens  and  ambient   air
pollution.  Childhood lead poisoning is
increasingly a problem that is occurring
in isolated pockets, such as low-income
minority  neighborhoods,  and  areas  of
older   housing.       Inspection   and
enforcement can  be targeted to address
these areas with  the most  vulnerable
children.  EPA will focus inspection and
enforcement  efforts  in  these  targeted
communities since, outside of federally-
assisted  and federally-owned  housing,
there  is  no   mandate  for  hazard
evaluation and control in approximately
3 million low-income units built before
1946.   Disclosure should  provide an
incentive  for  action; enforcement  and
compliance  assistance   is  needed  to
ensure that the disclosure program works
to  inform the  residents  of  potential
hazards in these units. EPA will ensure
that its standards address the  heightened
risks faced by  children and  that all
covered  regulations  being revised  or
developed in  EPA address children's
environmental health issues.

       The Agency expects  to achieve
cost    effective     investment     in
environmental  protection  and public
health through responsible management,
increased  analysis  and  accountability,
and high quality  customer service.  In
2001, EPA will build on its progress in
linking   resources   to  environmental
results   through   goals-based  fiscal
resources  management.   The  Agency
will provide more useful cost accounting
information   that   will  better  inform
environmental decision making.   EPA
will make   continued  progress   in
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                          Effective Management
evaluating the environmental results of
its  program activities.   Highlights  of
expected Agency 2001 achievements in
effective management are:

4   The  Agency   will   continue   to
    improve  the accountability process
    that provides  timely   performance
    information used in  strategic and
    annual   planning    and    budget
    formulation.

*   EPA will  maintain a clean audit
    opinion  of the Agency's  financial
    statements   that  demonstrates  the
    highest caliber resource stewardship
    and gives  credibility and reliability
    to the Agency financial information.

*   EPA will substantially complete the
    implementation  of  a  new  payroll
    system that will reduce processing
    costs and  burdens through  use  of
    efficient technology.

4   EPA will begin implementation of a
    long   term   solution   for   the
    replacement of the Agency's major
    financial   system   and   ancillary
    specialized systems that will better
    integrate these systems with other
    Agency  resource   databases  and
    administrative systems.

       The  Agency will   continue  to
strengthen  pre-award  and  post-award
management of assistance agreements.
For example,  by 2001, in addition  to
planning  to  eliminate the   close-out
backlog   of  non-construction   grant
ending before September 30, 2000, EPA
will  eliminate  the   entire   close-out
backlog for interagency agreements that
ended  before September 30,  1997.   In
addition, in  2001,  the Agency  will
continue to improve efficiencies in the
contract process, while saving taxpayers
dollars, through  use  of performance-
based contracts and reduced use of cost
reimbursable  contracts.     All  new
contracts will be  evaluated for possible
award  or  conversion  to  performance
based contracts. In addition, the Agency
will put increased emphasis on contract
oversight,  including  speeding  up the
contract   process  through   fast-track
system  enhancements  and  automation
efforts.

       In  2001,   the  Agency  will
continue  its  workforce  development
strategy. The purpose of this initiative is
to attract,  recruit, develop and deploy
EPA's employees to address the critical
environmental issues of the 21st century.
This initiative will implement a support
staff development pilot to improve the
professionalism and performance of our
clerical workforce;  will  identify  and
develop  career  tracks for  employees
skills and tools requirements needed to
fully develop in their chosen occupation;
and  will  develop leadership skills in
employees throughout the organization
while   improving   the   managerial
competencies of our line  managers.  A
significant component of the initiative is
the EPA Intern Program that is designed
to  hire   diverse,  high  performing
individuals who will become part of the
Agency's future leadership.

       The    Agency's      building
operations  and new construction budget
ensures a healthy, safe and secure work
environment for  its  employees,  and
integrates pollution prevention and state-
of-the-art   technology into  its  daily
activities.  The  Agency will complete
construction  of the  new   consolidated
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                          Effective Management
research lab at Research Triangle Park in
North  Carolina.  New construction and
renovation activities will continue at the
New Headquarters  project.  EPA  will
also address  critical  repairs  in  EPA
facilities related to employee health and
safety.  These facilities provide the tools
essential  for  researching  innovative
solutions   to   current   and   future
environmental problems and enhancing
our  understanding  of environmental
risks. The Agency will also implement a
Laboratories  for the 21st Century "Labs
21"  initiative,  which  will  include  a
demonstration fuel cell project at EPA's
Ft.  Meade  laboratory.    This  is  an
initiative   in  accordance   with  the
Executive Order issued on June 3, 1999,
that  set energy and pollution targets for
all   federal    facilities,    including
laboratories.

       The Office of Inspector General
(OIG)   will   conduct  and   supervise
independent  and  objective audits  and
investigations  relating   to   Agency
programs  and operations.  The OIG will
also review and make recommendations
regarding    existing    and   proposed
legislation and  regulations.  The Office
of Audit  will  conduct  four  types of
audits:  program,  financial  statement,
assistance  agreement,   and   contract
audits.  The Office of Investigations will
perform  four types of investigations:
program integrity, assistance agreement,
contract and procurement, and employee
integrity investigations.  In addition, the
OIG will  provide  advisory/consulting
services   and  program  evaluations.
Combined,  these  activities   promote
economy,  efficiency,  and  effectiveness
within  the Agency, and  prevent  and
detect fraud, waste, and abuse.  The OIG
will keep the EPA Administrator and
Congress  fully  informed of problems
and  deficiencies identified  in Agency
programs   and   operations   and  the
necessity for corrective actions.
2001 Annual Performance Goals:

*  In   2001,  EPA  will   install   a
   demonstration fuel cell at Ft. Meade
   Laboratory.

*  In 2001, EPA will ensure personnel
   are  relocated   to  new  space  as
   scheduled.

*  In 2001,  EPA  will ensure that  all
   new   and   ongoing   construction
   projects    are    progressing   and
   completed as scheduled.

4  In 2001,  EPA continues  improving
   how   it   measures   progress   in
   achieving its strategic objectives and
   annual goals by increasing external
   performance  goals  and   measures
   characterized as outcomes by 4% in
   the 2002 Annual Performance Plan.

+  In 2001, EPA's fiscal management,
   processes,  operation,  and  systems
   reflect sound financial management
   principles.

*  In 2001, evaluate the effectiveness of
   the  economic  guidance  issued  in
   2000, "A Practical Guide to Valuing
   Children's Health Effects."

4  In 2001, provide independent audits,
   evaluations, and advisory services,
   responsive to customers and clients,
   leading  to   improved   economy,
   efficiency  and   effectiveness    in
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                    Effective Management
Agency  business  practices  and
attainment of its environment goals.
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| Goal 10: Effective Management Key Programs
(dollars in thousands)

FY 2000
Key Program Enacted
Administrative Law
Administrative Services
Assistance Agreement Audits
Assistance Agreement Investigations
Civil Rights/Title VI Compliance
Contract and Procurement Investigations
Contract Audits
EMPACT
Employee Integrity Investigations
Environmental Appeals Board
Environmental Finance Center Grants (EFC)
Financial Statement Audits
Immediate Office of the Administrator
Information Technology Management
Planning and Resource Management
Planning, Analysis, and Results - IG
Program Audits
Program Evaluation - IG
Program Integrity Investigations
Regional Management
Regional Program Infrastructure
Regional Science and Technology
Rent, Utilities and Securities
TOTAL
$2,470.3
$35,053.0
$7,349.3
$2,762.8
$1,331.7
$3,005.1
$5,439.5
$599.7
$991.8
$1,880.8
$1,250.0
$4,334.3
$3,729.8
$15,689.9
$44,079.9
$0.0
$11,025.6
$1,636.3
$1,471.7
$6,080.0
$29,883.3
$1,372.5
$30,616.8
$212,054.1

FY 2001
President's
Budget
$2,465.0
$38,993.7
$5,363.9
$2,771.1
$1,404.5
$2,986.3
$5,358.0
$526.1
$923.2
$1,865.2
$480.0
$4,256.6
$3,008.2
$14,641.4
$53,739.9
$1,615.8
$12,791.6
$2,774.1
$1,486.3
$6,762.1
$28,670.4
$1,372.5
$37,867.7
$232,123.6
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104

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105

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                          Better America Bonds
       As    one   feature   of   the
Administration's comprehensive Livable
Communities Initiative, Better America
Bonds will  help  communities grow in
ways that ensure sustainable  economic
growth. The President's budget proposes
a   new,  innovative,   financing   tool
providing $10.75  billion  in  bonding
authority  to  state,  local,  and  tribal
governments over  five  years  funded
through Federal tax credits.  In lieu of
interest payments from state  and  local
governments, the Better America Bond
program will provide  to  bond holders
approximately  $1.5 billion in net tax
credits over  the 15 year life of the $2.15
billion in proposed 2001 bond authority.

       EPA will  be at the forefront of
giving  local  communities  maximum
flexibility and resources to address the
most  pressing  environmental  needs.
This new tool will allow communities to
preserve green  space,  create or restore
urban parks, protect water quality,  and
clean up  Brownfields.   Communities
will, for instance,  be able to protect land
either by  acquiring title or purchasing
permanent easements.   Bond proceeds
can also be  used for  reforestation,  and
replanting.   Pressure  to develop  green
space  from  previously   undeveloped
properties can be lessened by cleaning
up  alternative land for redevelopment
such as Brownfields for new  economic
uses.  Rivers, lakes, coastal waters, and
wetlands can be  restored  or  protected
from   polluted  runoff through  land
acquisition and/or other measures.

       State,    local     and    tribal
governments will submit  proposals to
EPA for initial review in consultation
with other Agencies.   EPA will award
bond authority  in conjunction with the
Vice President's Community Empower-
ment   Board  and  other  Agencies.
Preferences will  be given  to  regional
proposals  that  reflect  collaborative
planning by  neighboring communities,
particularly partnerships among  cities,
suburbs, and rural areas.

       Through the availability of these
bonds  supported by federal  tax credits,
EPA  will  assist  in  building  healthy,
livable communities for the 21st century.
Better America Bonds will enable states,
tribes   and   local   governments  to
reconnect  with their land  and  water,
preserve   green   space  and  provide
attractive    settings    for   economic
development.
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108

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           Categorical Program Grants (STAG)
                                (dollars in millions)
                        $643   $66S   $645   $674
            1992   1993   1994  1995  1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001
       In 2001, the President's Budget
requests a total of $1,069.0 million for
20 'categorical' program grants for state
and  tribal  governments.   This is an
increase of $184.0  million over 2000.
These   grants  are   part  of  EPA's
Operating Programs even though they
are  funded  in the  State  and  Tribal
Assistance Grant (STAG) appropriation
account. EPA will continue to pursue its
strategy of building and supporting state,
local and tribal capacity  to implement,
operate,  and   enforce   the  Nation's
environmental  laws.   Most  environ-
mental laws envision establishment of a
decentralized  nationwide  structure to
protect   public   health   and    the
environment.    In  this  way, environ-
mental goals will ultimately be achieved
through  the  actions,  programs,  and
commitments of state, tribal  and  local
governments, organizations and citizens.

       In 2001, EPA will continue to
give more flexibility to state  and  tribal
governments to manage  their environ-
mental  programs as well  as provide
technical and financial assistance. First,
EPA and its state and tribal partners will
continue  implementing  the  National
Environmental Performance Partnership
System (NEPPS). NEPPS is designed to
allow states more flexibility to operate
their  programs  with less  interference
from  the Federal government,  while
increasing emphasis on measuring  and
reporting environmental improvements.
Second, Performance Partnership Grants
(PPGs) will continue to  allow states and
tribes  funding  flexibility  to  combine
categorical  program  grants to address
environmental priorities.
HIGHLIGHTS:

Water Quality Grant Programs

       In 2001, the President's Budget
requests a total of $494.5  million for
water  quality  program grants  to  help
state  and  tribes implement their water
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           Categorical Program Grants (STAG)
pollution control programs. This amount
represents  a  total increase  of $145.0
million  over 2000 for  three  specific
initiatives:

4  Great Lakes Grant Program

      A new initiative in the amount of
$ 50 million is requested to increase the
pace of achieving cleanups and restoring
the Nation's  Great Lakes.   Funds will
support   matching  grants  (with   the
Federal share not to exceed 60 percent of
project   costs)   to  state   and  local
governments  to implement a variety of
activities    including    cleanup    of
contaminated sediments,  storm water
controls,  wetlands  restoration,  acqui-
sition of green ways  and buffers, and
other polluted runoff control measures in
designated "areas of concern."

4  Water Pollution Control Grants

      A   $45   million  increase   is
requested for section 106  water quality
program  management  grants  targeted
specifically to help states develop  Total
Maximum  Daily  Loads  (TMDLs)  for
their  impaired   waterbodies.    These
TMDL allocations will serve  as the basis
for comprehensive implementation plans
that  integrate both point and nonpoint
source controls  to achieve water quality
objectives.  States would be  required to
provide   at  least  40  percent  of state
TMDL program costs.

*  Nonpoint Source Grants

      A  $50  million  increase   is
requested for non-point source (Section
319) grants. This will enable states with
approved,  upgraded  nonpoint source
programs to  receive  additional funding
to implement Water Restoration Action
Strategies.  These strategies are response
plans  for  waters not  meeting  Clean
Water Act requirements.

Elimination of Tribal Cap on
 Non-Point Sources

       In 2001,  the  President's Budget
is  proposing to  permanently eliminate
the stautory one-third-of-one-percent cap
on   Clean  Water   Act  Section   319
Nonpoint Source Pollution  grants  that
may  be  awarded  to tribes.  Tribes
applying for and receiving Section  319
grants have steadily increased from  two
in 1991  to 11  in  1999.   Twenty-two
tribes    have    met   the   eligibility
requirements to  receive  Section  319
grants.   This proposal recognizes  the
increasing demand on the limited pool of
Section  319  grant  funds  for  tribal
nonpoint source program needs.

Information Integration Initiative

       In 2001,  the  President's Budget
requests  $16.0 million to help establish
an integrated environmental  information
system.  This initiative will provide a
fundamentally    new   approach   to
management of  environmental data  and
information.  Building on work already
begun in several  states,   EPA would
work with  our  State  partners  and  the
private marketplace to build  a single,
integrated   multi-media    information
system that would reduce the burden of
environmental     reporting,     while
providing   the   highest    quality   of
environmental data at the national level.
The  majority of the  requested  funds
would go to the states to advance the
development of this system.  The  new
approach will   also  accelerate  EPA's
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           Categorical Program Grants (STAG)
ability   to   have   performance-based
reporting, which will provide improved
information  for environmental assess-
ment and decision-making.

Indian General Assistance Program
 Grants

       In 2001, the  President's Budget
requests  a total of $52.6 million for the
Indian Environmental  General Assist-
ance  Program  (GAP).   This  amount
represents an  increase of $10 million
over  2000  to primarily  significantly
increase   the   number   of  Federally
recognized tribes that have at least one
or two persons in their community to
build a strong sustainable environment
for the future.  Tribes that already have
an environmental  presence will be able
to   develop   more   sustainable   and
comprehensive core  environmental pro-
grams.

Air and Radiation Program Grants

       In 2001, the  President's Budget
requests a total of $222.9 million for Air
and  Radiation Program  grants to  help
state and tribal governments address air
and  radiation  program  requirements.
This amount  represents  an  increase of
$5.0 million over 2000 to specifically
support state  and regional planning on
regional haze.  Since 1999, when a rule
was  issued  addressing  regional  haze
problems, states  have  been  working
through  regional  planning groups to
reduce haze pollution prevalent in many
of our national  parks and wilderness
areas.  These   increased  funds   are
requested  to   strengthen  state   and
regional   groups' planning  efforts to
develop  control  strategies  to  reduce
multi-state particulate  matter  pollution
problems.

Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance

       In 2001,  the President's Budget
requests a total of $106.6 million for the
Hazardous Waste  Financial Assistance
Program.  An increase of $8.0 million is
requested  to  advance  the   pace   of
Resource  Conservation and  Recovery
Act (RCRA) corrective action clean-ups.
Through  the RCRA  clean-up  reforms
initiative,    states    and   stakeholder
involvement will be enhanced, imped-
iments to clean-up  actions  will  be
reduced,  and re-use of RCRA facilities
will be encouraged.
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                  Water and Air Infrastructure Financing
                                     (dollars in millions)

                                                                        FY2001
                                                         FY 2000      President's
     Water and Air Infrastructure Financing             Enacted        Budget

     Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF)              $1,345.4         $800.0
     Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF)             $820.0         $825.0
     Mexican Border Projects                                   $50.0         $100.0
     Special Needs Projects                                    $345.3          $28.0
     Clean Air Partnership Fund                                  $0.0          $85.0

     TOTAL:                                              $2,560.8       $1,838.0
Water and Air Infrastructure Funds

       EPA's Clean Air Partnership Fund
and Water Infrastructure Financing request
totals $1,838.0  million.    Funds  in  these
programs support three goals in 2001: Clean
Air,  Clean and  Safe Water,  and Reducing
Cross-Border Environmental Threats.

Clean Air Partnership Fund

       In  2001   the   Administration   is
launching an investment of $85.0 million for
the Clean Air Partnership Fund - a program
that  provides  financing  for  smart,  multi-
pollutant control  strategies  that will reduce
air pollution  as  well as  greenhouse  gases,
and  provide  healthy  clean   air  to  local
citizens as soon  as possible.  Funds will be
for  projects   demonstrating   simultaneous
early reductions  in smog, soot or air toxics,
as well as greenhouse gases.

       Recognizing that cost restraints often
play  a part in businesses  and  municipalities
investing  in  short-term,  single   pollutant
strategies, the Clean Air Partnership  Fund
will   encourage  many  industries   to
demonstrate   long-range  comprehensive
pollution  reduction  strategies. Grants will
be   made   available  to   states,   local
governments,  and  tribes  under  existing
authority.

Water Infrastructure Financing

       EPA's water infrastructure financing
efforts support two of EPA's strategic goals:
Clean and Safe Water, and Reducing Global
and Cross-border Environmental Risks.  The
Nation's cities face a  challenge to keep our
rivers,  streams,  and  beaches  free  from
untreated  sewage.     Vast  quantities  of
pollution contaminate residential areas and
wildlife  habitats along  our  border  with
Mexico.  In Alaska  native villages,  more
than 20,000 households lack even the most
rudimentary 20th century sanitation facilities
and technology.

       In hundreds  of cities and towns, the
systems for ensuring safe drinking water lag
behind modern demands. In some cases, the
costs  associated  with meeting  national
standards  for  drinking   water   quality
('maximum  contaminant   levels')   have
outstripped  a community's investment in
drinking water treatment  and distributions
systems. In other cases, aging and deterior-
ated  systems need  to be restored to ensure
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                  Water and Air Infrastructure Financing
continued protection of public health.

       The  State  and   Tribal  Assistance
Grants  (STAG)  Appropriation   provides
financial assistance to states, municipalities
and tribal governments to fund a variety of
drinking  water,  water,  and  wastewater
infrastructure  projects.   These  funds are
essential to fulfill the federal government's
commitment to  help  our state,  tribal and
local  partners obtain adequate funding to
construct  the facilities required  to comply
with  federal  environmental  requirements.
States and localities rely on a  variety of
revenue sources to finance  their  environ-
mental programs and to pay for the facilities
needed  to keep the water clean and  safe
from harmful contaminants.

       Providing STAG funds through State
Revolving Fund  (SRF)  programs,  EPA
works in partnership  with  the  states to
provide low-cost loans to municipalities for
infrastructure construction.   SRF funds are
also provided as grants to tribal governments
to help  them address their water,  drinking
water, and wastewater needs.  Special Needs
projects also  provide  focused wastewater
grant   assistance  to  local  areas  facing
extraordinary needs.

       The  President's  Budget  requests  a
total of $1,753.0 million in 2001 for  EPA's
Water Infrastructure programs, a decrease of
$807.8  million from 2000.    Of  the  total
water   infrastructure   request,    $1,653.0
million  will support EPA's Goal  2: Clean
and Safe  Water, and  $100.0 million will
support EPA's Goal 6: Reduction of  Global
and Cross-border Environmental Risks. The
$807.8 million decrease  is the net result of a
$540.4 million reduction in the Clean Water
State   Revolving   Fund   (CWSRF)  and
Drinking  Water  State  Revolving  Fund
(DWSRF)  programs,   a  $309.5  million
reduction in 2000 Congressional earmarks, a
net $7.8 million decrease for Special Needs
projects, including $15.0 million for water
and wastewater projects  for Alaska native
villages and a $50.0 million increase for the
U.S./Mexico Border Fund.

       The  resources  requested   in  this
budget  will  enable   the  Agency,   in
conjunction  with  EPA's state, local,  and
Tribal partners, to achieve several important
goals  for 2001.    Some  of these goals
include.

       Maintain  the percent  (91)  of the
       population  served  by  community
       drinking water  systems that  will
       receive drinking water  meeting all
       health-based standards that were  in
       effect as of 1994.  This represents an
       increase, up from 83% in 1994;

       500 projects  funded by the Clean
       Water SRF will initiate operations,
       including  300  projects providing
       secondary treatment, advanced treat-
       ment,  Combined  Sewer Operation
       correction  (treatment), and/or storm
       water  treatment.     Cumulatively,
       6,200 State Revolving Fund funded
       projects  will have  initiated oper-
       ations since program inception.

Goal   2:    Enhancing  Human   Health
through Clean and Safe Water

Capitalizing Clean Water and Drinking
 Water State Revolving Funds

       The  Clean   Water  and  Drinking
Water  State  Revolving  Fund  programs
demonstrate  a true  partnership  between
states,    localities,    and    the    federal
government.    These  programs   provide
Federal   financial   assistance   to   states,
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                  Water and Air Infrastructure Financing
localities, and tribal governments to protect
the nation's  water resources  by providing
funds for the construction of drinking water
and  wastewater treatment facilities.   The
SRFs are two of the Agency's premier tools
for building  the  financial capacity of our
partners.

Capitalizing the CWSRF

       As  part of the President's environ-
mental  initiatives, the Administration will
continue to capitalize the CWSRF.  Through
this   program,  the  federal   government
provides financial assistance for wastewater
and other water projects, including nonpoint
sources,   estuaries,    stormwater,   and
combined   sewer   overflows.      Water
infrastructure  projects contribute to  direct
ecosystem  improvements by  lowering  the
amount of nutrients and toxic pollutants in
all types of surface waters.

        This budget request includes $800
million  for the Clean Water State Revolving
Fund (CWSRF).    This investment  keeps
EPA on track with our commitment to meet
the goal for  the  CWSRF  to provide  an
average of $2.0 billion in annual  financial
assistance.  Indeed, the President's Budget
calls for cumulative additional  capitalization
of $3.2 billion in fiscal years 2002-2005,
which will enable the program  to exceed the
Administration commitment.    Over $17
billion  has  already  been   provided   to
capitalize the CWSRF, more than twice the
original Clean Water Act authorized level of
$8.4 billion.  Total SRF funds available for
loans   since   1987,    reflecting    loan
repayments, state match dollars, and  other
sources of funding, are approximately $30
billion,  of  which $26 billion  having been
provided  to   communities   as   financial
assistance ($4.2 billion  was  available  for
loans as of June 1999).
Using the CWSRF to Address the Highest
 Priority Threats to our Waters

       Pollution  from nonpoint sources  is
the largest cause of water pollution. In order
to better address the Nation's most pressing
water   quality   problems,   the   Federal
government needs to  provide incentives  to
encourage more  SRF  resources  to high
priority non-point projects.

       In the  Clean   Water Action Plan
(CWAP), EPA  committed to continue  its
work with states to increase the  number and
dollar  amount  of loans made through the
CWSRF  for priority  projects  to  prevent
polluted runoff.  In  2001, the  Agency  is
proposing  to  allow  states  the option  to
reserve up to  19 percent  of their  annual
CWSRF  capitalization  grants  to  provide
grant funding for implementation of non-
point  source  and   estuary  management
projects.  Projects  receiving  grants assist-
ance   must,   to  the  maximum   extent
practicable, rank highest on the state's list  of
prioritized projects   eligible  for   funding
assistance.  Grants may also be combined
with  loans  for eligible  projects  to help
communities  which  might otherwise  find
loans unaffordable.

       Appropriations  language   is  also
proposed  in the President's Budget  for an
increase to the tribal  share of the  CWSRF
from 0.5 to 1.5 percent.

Capitalizing the DWSRF

       In 2001,  the President is requesting
$825.0 million for the DWSRF,  which is an
increase of $5.0 million over 2000. Through
the DWSRF  program, states will  provide
loans   to   finance   improvements    to
community water systems and to restructure
small  systems  so  that they  can achieve
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                  Water and Air Infrastructure Financing
compliance with the mandates  of the Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments.
Some  non-state  recipients,  such  as  the
District of Columbia and  the  tribes, will
receive their DWSRF allocations in the form
of   grants.    The  DWSRFs  will   be
self-sustaining  in  the  long  run  and will
directly  help  offset  the rising  costs  of
ensuring safe  drinking water supplies  and
assist  small communities in  meeting their
responsibilities.  The Administration's goal
for the DWSRF is for the fund to provide an
average  of   $500.0   million  in  annual
financial assistance.

Supporting Alaska Native Villages

       The President's  Budget   requests
$15.0 million for Alaska native villages for
the construction of wastewater and drinking
water  facilities  to  address  very  serious
sanitation problems.  EPA will  continue to
work with the Department  of Health  and
Human Services' Indian Health  Service, the
State of Alaska, and local communities to
provide  needed  financial  and  technical
assistance.

Assisting Needy Communities

       The President's  Budget   requests
$13.0  million  for  the  construction  of
wastewater treatment facilities for Bristol
County, MA, and New Orleans, LA.  Funds
are targeted to these areas because of special
circumstances including  financial  hardship
and unique sewer system problems.

Goal 6: Reducing Cross-border
  Environmental Risks - U.S./Mexico
  Border

       The President's Budget requests a
total   of   $100.0  million   for  water
infrastructure   projects  along  the  U.S./
Mexico Border -  an  increase  of $50.0
million  from  2000.    The  goal  of  this
program  is to  reduce the  incidence  of
waterborne  diseases  and  enhance  water
quality  along  the  Mexico  border.    The
communities along both sides of the Border
are  facing  unusual  human   health  and
environmental threats because of the lack of
adequate wastewater  and  drinking water
facilities.    EPA's  U.S./Mexico  Border
program  provides  funds  to  support   the
planning, design and  construction of high
priority water  and  wastewater  treatment
projects along  the U.S./Mexico Border and
for wastewater projects.
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                                  Trust Funds
                                   (dollars in millions)
                            FY2000
                            Enacted
Response
Enforcement
Management & Support
Other Federal Agencies
$917.6
$140.0
$124.7
$168.7
  FY2000
Enacted FTE

      1,701.9
      1,144.9
        547.5
          0.0
 FY2001
President's
  Budget

     $964.0
     $148.6
     $138.1
     $151.8
  FY2001
 President's
Budget FTE

      1,680.8
      1,137.4
       544.0
         0.0
Transfers
IG
R&D
Superfund Total
LUST
Trust Funds Total:
$11.0
$38.0
$1,400.0
$70.0
$1,470.0
Superfund Orphan Shares $0.0
100.0
123.9
3,618.2
82.3
3,700.5
0.0
$11.7
$35.9
$1,450.0
$72.1
$1,522.1
$150.0
95.4
121.6
3,582.2
81.9
3,661.1
0.0
 SUPERFUND

        In 2001, the President's Budget
 requests a total of $1,450.0 million  in
 discretionary  budget authority, $150.0
 million in mandatory budget  authority
 and 3,582.2 workyears  for  Superfund.
 Currently,  91  percent of 1,412 sites on
 the  Superfund final  national priorities
 list (NPL)  are either undergoing cleanup
 construction  (remedial  or  removal) or
 are completed.

        The   2001   Budget   provides
 $964.0  million and 1,680.8 workyears
 for  Superfund  cleanups and  Brown-
 fields  redevelopment.    The Agency's
 Superfund  cleanup  program addresses
 public health  and environmental threats
 from uncontrolled releases of hazardous
 substances.    In  2001,  EPA  and  its
 partners will  complete  75  Superfund
           cleanups  at  NPL sites  to  achieve the
           overall   goal   of   900   construction
           completions  by the  end of 2002.  The
           2001 Budget provides funding for the
           Brownfields  Initiative.  Brownfields are
           abandoned,   idled,   or    under-used
           industrial  and  commercial  properties,
           and are not traditional Superfund sites as
           they   are   not    generally    highly
           contaminated and present  lesser health
           risks.     The   Agency's   Brownfields
           Initiative  encourages the redevelopment
           of these  sites  by addressing  concerns
           such  as   environmental  liability  and
           cleanup,   infrastructure  declines  and
           changing  development priorities.

                 The  2001  President's  Budget
           requests  $148.6 million  and  1,137.4
           workyears    for    the    Superfund
           Enforcement program.    The Agency
           will continue its efforts to maximize all
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                                Trust Funds
aspects of potentially responsible parties
(PRPs) at 70 percent of the new remedial
construction starts at non-Federal facility
Superfund   sites  on   the   National
Priorities  List  (NPL),  and emphasize
fairness  in  the  settlement   process.
Where PRP negotiations fail, the Agency
will either pursue enforcement action to
compel PRP cleanup or use Trust Fund
dollars to remedy sites.

         The 2001 President's Budget
requests  $150.0 million in mandatory
budget  authority to  pay  for  Orphan
shares   at   Superfund   sites.     The
Administration  will support Superfund
legislative  reforms  that   allow  costs
attributable to identifiable but nonviable
parties  at  sites,  and  certain  other
categories of costs, to be paid  from the
Trust Fund in some cases where viable
PRPs are  performing  or paying  for
cleanup  under a settlement agreement.
In 1999, EPA made offers to compensate
settling parties,  through forgiveness  of
past  costs  and  future oversight costs,
for orphan shares at all eligible remedial
design/remedial  action  and   removal
sites.

      Management and Support, other
Federal    agencies,    Research    and
Development  and  Inspector   General
form  the  remaining  portion  of  the
Superfund   2001  President's  Budget
request.     The  President's   Budget
requests   $138.1  million  and  544.0
workyears for management and support
activities.    These  resources  support
Agency-wide resource management and
control  functions  including:  essential
infrastructure,   contract administration,
financial  accounting  and  other fiscal
operations.   The President's  Budget
requests  $151.8 million for our Federal
agency  partners.   The Agency works
with several  other Federal agencies to
perform essential services in areas where
the  Agency  does  not   possess  the
specialized expertise.  The three largest
transfers from  the  Superfund program
are the Agency for Toxic Substances and
Disease  Registry  (ATSDR),  National
Institute   of  Environmental   Health
Sciences (NDEHS),  and Department of
Justice (DOT).  The  President's  Budget
also  requests $47.6  million and 217.0
workyears transferred to Research  and
Develop-ment  for  innovative  cleanup
technology testing  and the  Inspector
General for program auditing.

LUST

The  2001 President's  Budget requests
$72.1 million and 81.9 workyears for the
Leaking  Underground  Storage Tank
(LUST)  program.    Approximately  85
percent  of this will be used  for  state
cooperative agreements and support for
tribal cleanup.   The  Agency's  highest
priorities in the LUST program over the
next several years will be to address the
backlog  of  168,900 cleanups  (as  of
September 1999), and to address LUST
sites  that  are  difficult  to  remediate
because  they  are  contaminated   by
methyl tertiary  butyl ether  (MTBE) and
other oxygenates. In 2001 the Agency's
goal is  to  complete  21,000 cleanups
under the supervision of   EPA  and its
State, local and tribal partners.
                                       118

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                       21st Century Research Fund
      The President's Budget  continues
the 21st Century Research Fund, which
demonstrates    the    Administration's
commitment to science  and technology
and to  enhancing  high-priority civilian
research and development activities.

BACKGROUND:

*  This Fund supports key environmental
   and research programs, and  promotes
   stability and growth  for  the highest
   priority research efforts.

*  EPA's    entire    research     and
   development program and the Climate
   Change  Technology  Initiative  are
   included in the 21st Century Research
   Fund.

*  The Fund includes major research and
   development  performed   by Federal
   agencies   and   includes  National
   Science  and  Technology   Council
   initiatives.
                                      119

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|i                          21st Century Research Fund
                                       (dollars in millions)

                                                                  FY 2000      FY 2001
                                                                  Enacted      Pres Bud
  Goal 1: Clean Air
   Attain NAAQS for Ozone and PM                                       $69.2          $73.8
   Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics                                         $18.1          $17.4

  Goal 2: Clean and Safe Water
   Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational Waters                          $47.7          $48.9
   Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters                                    $30.6          $30.6
   Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition                                       $7.5           $6.4

  Goal 3: Safe Food
   Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not Meeting Standards                      $8.1           $10.5

  Goal 4: Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in
     Communities, Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
    Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals & Microorganisms           $16.7           $18.2

  Goal 5: Better Waste Management, Restoration of
     Contaminated Waste Sites, and Emergency Response
   Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health                                 $47.7           $40.8
   Prevent, Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills,
     Accidents or Emergencies                                              $6.3           $6.9

  Goal 6: Reduction of Global and Cross-border
     Environmental Risks
   Climate Change                                                      $20.6          $22.7

  Goal 7: Expansion of Americans'Right to Know About
     their Environment
   Enhance Ability to Protect Public Health                                    $5.3           $5.9

  Goal 8: Sound Science, Improved Understanding of
     Environmental Risk and Greater Innovation to Address
     Environmental Problems
   Research for Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration                        $111.6         $106.1
   Research for Human Health Risk Assessment                               $49.1           $53.4
   Research to Detect Emerging Risk Issues                                  $37.5           $45.5
   Pollution Prevention and New Technology for Environmental
    Protections                                                         $60.2           $42.8

  Office of Research & Development                               $536.3        $530.0

  Climate Change Technology Initiative                           $103.3        $227.3

  Total                                                             $639.6        $757.3
                                             120

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Environmental Protection Agency
Summary of Agency Resources
(dollars in


Agencv Programs by Goal
1. Clean Air
2. Clean & Safe Water
3. Safe Food
4. Preventing Pollution
5. Better Waste Management
6. Global & Cross Border
7. Right-to-Know
8. Sound Science
9. Credible Deterrent
10. Effective management
Subtotal Operating Programs
5. Better Waste Management
7. Right-to-Know
8. Sound Science
9. Credible Deterrent
10. Effective Management
Subtotal Trust Funds:
1. Clean Air
2. Clean & Safe Water
6. Global and Cross Border
Subtotal Water and Air Infrastructure Financing
Grand Total Discretionary
Superfund Orphan Share (mandatory)
GRAND TOTAL Budget Authority
Better America Bond Authority
thousands)

FY2000
Enacted
$540,965.5
$980,822.0
$82,285.2
$277,597.3
$252,700.1
$187,865.8
$155,931.6
$326,055.8
$355,924.5
$372,137.8
$3,532,285.6
$1,369,672.5
$3,708.5
$4,454.5
$16,831.1
$75,093.2
$1,469,759.8
$0.0
$2,510,765.3
$50,000.0
$2,560,765.3
$7,562,810.7
$0.0
$7,562,810.7
$0.0

FY2001
President's
Budget
$562,514.2
$1,101,826.5
$86,056.5
$301,046.3
$268,637.0
$325,070.5
$181,421.2
$323,990.6
$384,236.1
$381,703.4
$3,916,502.3
$1,411,210.6
$3,687.9
$4,767.1
$19,535.4
$82,895.5
$1,522,096.5
$85,000.0
$1,653,000.0
$100,000.0
$1,838,000.0
$7,276,598.8 i\
$150,000.0
$7,426,598.8
$2,150,000.0

Delta
FY 2001 vs.
FY 2000
$21,548.7
$121,004.5
$3,771.3
$23,449.0
$15,936.9
$137,204.7
$25,489.6
($2,065.2)
$28,311.6
$9,565.6
$384,216.7
$41,538.1
($20.6)
$312.6
$2,704.3
$7,802.3
$52^36.7
$85,000.0
($857,765.3)
$50,000.0
($722,765.3)
($286,211.9)
$150,000.0
($136,211.9)
$2,150,000.0
1\  Does not include $20 million in offsetting receipts
                                                                    121

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Environmental Protection Agency
Summary of Agency Resources



Agency Programs by Goal
1. Clean Air
2. Clean & Safe Water
3. Safe Food
4. Preventing Pollution
5. Better Waste Management
6. Global & Cross Border
7. Right-to-Know
8. Sound Science
9. Credible Deterrent
10. Effective management
Subtotal Operating Programs
5. Better Waste Management
7. Right-to-Know
8. Sound Science
9. Credible Deterrent
10. Effective Management
Subtotal Trust Funds:
1. Clean Air
2. Clean & Safe Water
6. Global and Cross Border
Workyears

FY2000
Enacted
1,857.9
2,722.8
701.0
1,176.1
1,384.9
511.7
809.3
1,055.5
2,466.7
1,937.5
14,623.4
3,070.5
9.1
2.0
104.1
290.9
3,476.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
Subtotal Water and Air Infrastructure Financing 0.0

FY 2001
President's
Budget
1,856.6
2,672.7
711.8
1,186.5
1,356.0
533.1
800.4
1,046.6
2,469.4
1,972.8
14,605.9
3,046.3
9.1
2.0
103.3
283.4
3,444.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Delta
FY 2001 vs.
FY2000
(1.3)
(50.1)
10.8
10.4
(28.9)
21.4
(8.9)
(8.9)
2.7
35.3
(17.5)
(24.2)
0.0
0.0
(0.8)
(7.5)
(32.5)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Grand Total
18,100.0
18,050.0
(50.0)
                                             122

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