SPECIAL  STUDIES OF  A  SANITARY LANDFILL

Robert C. Merz,  et  al

University of  Southern California
Los  Angei.os,  California

1970
                NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE
                                                       Distributed . , ,'to foster, serve and promote the
                                                                   nation's economic development
                                                                   and technological advancement.'
                                                                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

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STANDARD TITLE PACE
tVOR TtCHNKAL MrORTS
|4. Title And Subtitle
    SPECIAL STUDIES OF A SANITARY LANDFILL
7. Auhor(s)
    Robert C. Merz and Ralph Stone
II. PerforniBB OtgnizMioi Name and AddtcM
    University of Southern California
    Los Angeles, California
1L Sponsoring Agency NABC and Addre**
    Bureau of Solid Waste Management,  Public Health Service,
    U.S.  Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
    Rockville, Maryland Z085Z
                                                                    Repon Date
                                                                       1970
                                                                   . Performing Orgnnizntio* Code
                                                                                                                                 Performing OrgaaisntioA Rept.
                                                                                                                                  No.
                                                                   10. Projeci/T*>lc/*ock Unk No.
                                                                                                                                      _ /Crut No.
                                                                                                                                UI 00518-08;
                                                                                                                                8 RO1 UI00518-07;*
                                                                                                                                IX Type of Report * Period
                                                                                                                                  Cohered final and
                                                                                                                                In^jrnReports - -1964
                                                                                                                                14. Sponsoriog Agency Code
15. Supplementary Note!
    *9 RO1 SW 00028-06; EF-00160-05; EF-00160-04.
lo. Abstract*
>Model sanitary landfill cells were constructed and, over a 4+ year period, subjected
 to simulated environmental conditions  such as added water,  aeration, and aerobic and
 anaerobic operation.  The effect of these conditions on percolation, gas quality and
 production, settlement, and temperature was measured.  Examination of core sample
 taken at the end of the study period showed that refuse in the aerated cell was well
 decomposed except for plastics and other inerts and that refuse in the anaerobic cells
 was  easily identifiable.  Based on an original cell depth of 20 feet, volume reduction
 in the aerated cell was 21. 5% and in  the  anaerobic cells, 11. 5%.  The four parts of
 tm  report detail the activity during  the  last year of the project and summarize the
 data collected for the  span of the project "(-1^1/64 to 12/M/68)*  '   r
17. Key Wordi
 Refuse dj
 Environn
17k. ldntifiei

 Aerobic
 Landfill
It. DiMribwi

      Rel
                                                                                      Jb
                                                                                                 a
                                                                                                 c
                                                                                                 m

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            SPECIAL STUDIES OF A SANITARY LANDFILL
This final siamary report  (SW-8rg), which is combined with the
  first, second, and third progress reports, and final report
on factors oontrolling utilization of sanitary landfill sites,
      work performed under Research Grant No. UI-00518-08
           to the University of Southern California
                        was written by
                ROBERT C. MERZ and RALPH STONE
      U.S. DEPARTMENT  OF HEALTH,  EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
          Public    Health    Service
                Environmental  Health  Service
              Bureau of Solid  Waste Management
                             1970
                        A WEALTH OF LANDFILL DATA


     The objective of the Federal solid waste program is to aid efforts

across the Nation to develop economic and.efficient practices for managing

our increasing volumes of solid waste.  As authorized under the Solid

Waste Disposal Act (Public Law 89-272), the Bureau of Solid Waste Manage-

ment has made almost 100  research  grants  to nonprofit institutions for

the purpose of stimulating and  accelerating new  or improved  technology

for handling the  Nation's discarded solids.

      The  present  document reports  on work completed  under one of those

research  grants.   This grant has funded a long-term study of a sanitary

landfill, the  technical term for engineered deposit of solid waste within

the earth under controlled conditions.  The main effort over the years

 of this grant  has been to document in engineering terms the changes that

 take place within sanitary landfills.  We trust that other researchers

 will be able to use this wealth of  landfill data gathered over  the  four-

 year period.
                                                                                                                               RICHARD D.  VAUGHAN, Director
                                                                                                                                 Bureau of Solid Waste Management
                                                                                                                                ii

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                                 PREFACE
     On March 25, 1966, the Department of Civil Engineering of the Univer-
sity of Southern California submitted a final report, "Factors Controlling
Utilization of a Sanitary Landfill Site," which is reproduced herein as
Appendix 8.3.  Funds had been provided by two grants from the U.S. Public
Health Service, EF-00160-04 and EF-00160-05, covering the period January 1,
1964 to December 31, 1965.  Special studies of the sanitary landfill were
continued and expanded under new grants, SW-00028-06 covering the 1966
calendar year, UI-00518-07 covering the 1967 calendar year, and UI-00518-08
covering the 1968 calendar year.  Progress reports entitled "Special
Studies of a Sanitary Landfill" were submitted for the years 1966 and
1967 and are included in this volume as Appendices 8.2 and 8.1.  The
appendices give detailed information concerning the construction, instru-
mentation, and initial performance of the four landfill test cells
described as A, B, C, and D.
     The present report is offered both as a third statement of progress,
since only the data collected during 1968 are included, and as a final
summary report, with discussion of results of the four-year study and
statement of conclusions drawn.
                            ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
     The project was under the joint direction of Robert C. Herz, Chair-
man, Department of Civil Engineering, and Ralph Stone, Research Associate.
Field assistance was provided by Ramon Beluche and George de la Guardia.
The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County constructed the
test cells and provided field assistance when requested.  The help of the
staff of the Sanitation Districts, John D. Parkhurst, Chief Engineer and
General Manager, and Lester Haug, Deputy Assistant Chief Engineer, is
most gratefully acknowledged.
                                     ill
                                                                                                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
 SUMMARY STATEMENTS

 SUMMARY REPORT
   5.1 Percolation
   5.2 Gas Quality
   5.3 Settlement
   5.4 Gas Production
   5.5 Temperatures

 PROGRESS  REPORT - 1968
   6.1 External  Climatic Factors
   6.2 Application of Water
   6.3 Settlement
   6.4 Gas Quality
   6.5  Temperatures
   6.6  Gas Production

PROJECT CO-INVESTIGATORS

APPENDIX
  8.1 Progress Report for 1967
  8.2 Progress Report for 1966
  8.3 Progress Report for 1965-1964
Page

  1
  4
  8
 13
 18
 18
19
19
33
33
39
39

51
                                                                                                                                            iv

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                            LIST OF TABLES
Section  . Table                  Title

   5      5.1.1      Summary of Water Application to
                       Cells A, B and C
          5.1.2      Average Percent Moisture Content
                       of Top, Middle and Lower Bands
                       of Cells A, B and C on a Dry
                       Weight Basis from Core Samples
          5,2.1      Maximum Gas Components in Percent
                       by Volume and Time of Occurrence
                       in Cells A and B
          5.2.2      Average Major Gas Components in
                       Percent by Volume for Indicated
                       Time Intervals in Cells A and B
          5.2.3      Summary of Blower On-time, Cell C
          5.3.1      Summary of Cell Settlement

   6      6.1.1      External Climatic Factors
          6.2.1      Actual Amounts of Water Applied to
                       Cell A
          6.2.2      Actual Amounts of Water Applied to
                       Cell B
          6.2.3      Cell A Moisture Determined from
                       Core Samples
          6.2.4      Cell B Moisture Determined from
                       Core Samples
          6.2.5      Cell C Moisture Determined from
                       Core Samples
          6.2.6      Log of Cores for Cells A, B and C
                       December, 1968
          6.3.1      Cell Settlement Data
          6.4.1      Gas Composition in Cell A
          6.4.2      Gas Composition in Cell B
          6.4.3      Gas Composition in Cell C
          6.4.4      Summary of Blower Operation,  Cell C
          6.5.1      Temperatures in Cells A and B
          6.5.2      Temperatures in Cell C
          6.6.1      Gas Production and Temperatures,
                       Cell D
Page
 11


 12
 14
 15

 20

 22

 23

 24

 27

 29

 31
 34
 35
 36
 37
 38
 40
 41

 42
                            LIST OF FIGURES

          5.1.1       Time and Location of  Landfill Cores,
                       Cells A,  B and  C                             7
          5.3.1       Surface Settlement of Cells A, B and C        16
          5.4.1       Gas  Production and Temperatures for
                       Decomposing Refuse                          17
                                                                                                                    LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
                              Photograph                  Title

                                  1       Clamshell  Used  for  Excavating for  Cell  D

                                  2       Delivery of  Cell D  to  Site

                                          Installation of Cell D
                                 3-4-5

                                   6
Assembly of Internal Gas Collection Piping
  for Cell D

Gas Collection Piping Installed at Top Level
Page

 45

 45

 46


 47

8-9-10
11
12
13-14
15
16
17
During Packing of Cell D
External Gas Collection Manifold, Cell D
Cover Plate for Cell D Manhole Showing Gas
Line Connectors and Pipe Used as Water
Bath for Thermometer at 4-ft. Depth
Coring Rig
Core Examination
View of Cell C (March 1968) Showing Surface
Settlement
View of Cell C Showing Access Well Exposed
by Surface Settlement
View of Cell C Showing Settlement and
Development of Surface Cracks
47
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
                                                                                                                              vi

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                            4.  SUMMARY STATEMENTS
   The purposes of the field investigation, utilizing landfill cells having a




depth of approximately 20 ft and an earth cover of 2 ft, were to (1) study




the percolation through the landfill as a result of application of sufficient




water to maintain a golf course type turf, (2) study the percolation through




toe landfill as a result of application of sufficient water to simulate the




rainfall pattern of a temperate climate (Seattle), (3) study the effects of




aerating a landfill, (4) measure settlement of both aerobic and anaerobic




landfills, (5)-study the quality of gas produced in the landfills receiving




the various treatments, and (6) determine the volume of gas produced by a




known quantity of refuse decomposing under anaerobic conditions.




   Data were developed as a result of the construction of model landfills and




their treatment under selected environmental conditions.  Practical applica-




tion of the reported data requires detailed knowledge of individual landfill




conditions - existing or proposed - best known to the responsible authorities.






1.  Initial landfill compaction ratios from 2.1 to 2.2, and an in-place den-




    sity of 1000 Ib per cu yd were achieved for the 3 test cells A, B and C.




    The in-place density for Cell D was 634 Ib per cu yd.




2.  Cell A, receiving the Seattle rainfall equivalent of 184 in. plus an extra




    30 in. (for a total of 214 in. of water) , exhibited some percolation into




    the subgrade as evidenced by a 7% Increase in the percent moisture of the




    subgrade over that of undisturbed soil at similar depth.  At the close of




    the project, the differential was 12.SZ.




3.  Cell B, receiving 392 in. of applied irrigation water, exhibited greater




    percolation into the subgrade as evidenced by a 15Z increase in the mois-




    ture content of the subgrade over that of undisturbed soil at similar




    depth.  At the close of the project, the differential was 41X.






                                      -1-
 4.   The growth of Bermuda grass was successfully maintained on an anaerobic




     landfill with a top earth cover of 2 ft especially prepared to favor




     turf growth.




 5.   The greatest settlement of 4.25 ft occurred in aerobic Cell C.  The 2




     anaerobic cells each settled 2.20 ft.




 6.   In anaerobic Cells A and B, after ageing 2 yr, the major gas constitu-




     ents by volume were carbon dioxide and methane in almost equal amounts




     (nearly 50%).  Oxygen and nitrogen were present in small, varying




     amounts.




 7.   Cell C was aerobically operated and the gas composition was dependent




     upon the duration of the blower operation.  The gas samples obtained




     during aeration were characteristically high in nitrogen and oxygen,




     and low in carbon dioxide and methane.




 8.   The maximum temperature reached in anaerobic Cell A was 108 deg F after




     79 days.   Over the final 2 yr of the 4+ yr study the temperature ranged




     between 53 and 88 deg F.




 9.   The maximum temperature reached in Cell B was 120 deg F after 31 days.




     Over the final 2 yr of the 4+ yr study the temperature ranged between




     60 and 90 deg F.  Although intended to be an anaerobic cell, its per-




     formance was influenced by the passage of air from aerobic Cell C not-




     withstanding a 5-ft wide, continuous adobe-shale barrier.




10.   The maximum temperature reached In Cell C was 193 deg F after 174 days.




     Over the final 2 yr of the 4+ yr study the temperature ranged between 90




     and 164 deg F.  Bottom temperatures reached peaks high enough to destroy




     thermistors.  Smoke emanations with fire were noted on a few occasions.




     The cell temperature was affected by the aeration cycle.




11.   A cell similar in construction to Cell A or B, but smaller, intended for




     quantitative studies of gas production, was unsuccessful although






                                     -2-

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     constructed with extreme care by professional plastic fabricators.   The




     polyethylene envelope was not able to store gas.




12.  The aaximum temperature reached In Cell D was 117 deg F after 368 days.




     Over the final 2 yr, the temperature ranged between 67 and 120 deg F.




13.  Seventy-three cubic yards of refuse packed into an underground sealed




     and instrumented steel tank produced 2027 cu ft of gas, or 27.7 cu ft




     per cu yd of refuse, over 907 days.  Virtually all the gas was produced




     between the 230th and 600th day.




14.  Final examination of the cell materials during the coring operation




     shoved the aerated Cell C refuse to be well decomposed except for




     plastics and other inerts.  In contrast, the anaerobic cells A and B




     refuse was-easily identifiable.




15.  Based on the original cell .depth of 20 ft, the volume reduction




     achieved through aeration amounted to 21.SZ.  The volume reduction




     achieved in the anaerobic cells was 11.51.




16.  Epoxy-coated steels supplied by factory specialists provided protection




     against severe corrosion.  Stainless steel thermistors, copper conduits,




     teflon-coated leads, galvanized pipe, and asphalt-coated steel were




     found to be inadequate for this type of Investigation.  All seriously




     deteriorated or failed because of high temperatures, corrosion, or




     strain exerted by differential settlement.
                                     -3-
                         5.  SUMMARY REPORT








   5.1  Percolation.  Cells A and B were constructed for  the purpose of study-




ing percolation resulting from  (1) the application of water in accordance with




the Seattle rainfall pattern of 1961 and (2) the application of water neces-




sary to support a golf-course like turf.  In both cases,  efforts  to measure




moisture content of the landfill material by moisture probes and  percolation




by entrapment of water in collection lysimeters or cans were unsuccessful.  A




program of cell coring, with cores subjected to laboratory analysis for their




moisture content, was initiated in August, 1966.




   Water was applied manually to Cell A, the intent being to duplicate the




established Seattle monthly increments.  The schedule was immediately upset




la 1964 when unintentional flooding took place, and again in September 1967




when an adjacent reservoir overflowed.  Nevertheless, reference to Table




5.1.1 will show that the Seattle rainfall total was closely approxiaated in




1966, 1967 and 1968.  The amount applied in 1965 was reduced to compensate




for the 1965 flooding.




   The water applied to the turf on top of Cell B was automatically con-




trolled by tensiometers, beginning in October 1964.  Irrigation proceeded




in normal manner except for brief periods when the tensiometers needed re-




pair.  In September 1967 the reservoir overflow placed an unwanted volume of




water on the cell, and from July through October 1968 faulty operation of




the tensiometers placed considerable unnecessary water on the cell.




   Table 5.1.1 indicates that the amount of water applied to Cell B during




1968 was from 1.75 to 2.75 times the amount applied in previous years.   This




is not considered particularly damaging to the investigation since any land-




fill or golf course turf could be subjected to unexpected flooding.
                                                                                                                                          -4-

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                               TABLE 5.1.1
            SUMMARY OF WATER APPLICATION TO CELLS  A,  B AND  C
Year
1964*
1965
1966
1967
1968
Site
Rainfall
In.
4.13
24.63
14.59
18.77
9.39
locals
Seattle
Rainfall
Pattern
In.
13.72
42.52
42.52
42.52
42.52
183.78
Water Applied
to Cells, In.
A
52.98
5.24
28.70
21.37
33.94
B
23.75.
60.42
41.57
49.63
145.28
C
4.13
24.63
14.59
18.77
9.39

Total
Water Applied
to Cells, In.
A | B
57.11
29.87
43.29
40.14
43.33
213.74
27.88
85.05
56.16
68.40
154.67
392.09
C
4.13
24.63
14.59
18.77
9.39
71.51
Last 4 nonths only.
                                    -5-
   Tbe total amounts of water applied  to Cells A and B were approximately 214




and 392  in.,  respectively.  As stated above, the effect of this water on the




moisture content of the cells and the  possible movement of water down through




the cells and into the subgrade was checked by coring in the cells in August,




1966, February and November 1967, and  every 3 months thereafter in 1968.




Figure 5.1.1 locates the cores for all three cells and carries the- coring




dates.  Core samples taken at 2-ft depth increments were placed in sealed




containers immediately and transported to the laboratory where their moisture




contents were determined.  All data are summarized in the graphic presenta-




tion of Table 5,1.2.  Moisture contents on a dry weight basis have been aver-




aged for bands consisting of the top 6 ft, the middle 8 ft, and the bottom




6 ft.




   The top band of Cell A always had the lowest moisture content of the 3




bands   With 2 exceptions, the earth cover exhibited still lower moisture




content.  A combination of the upward  rise of the water through the cover by




capillarity with subsequent evaporation, and of downward movement of the




water through the cell, would account  for this.  At least during the final




year of the project, the moisture content of the middle band was considerably




greater than the bottom band, indicating great capacity of the fill material




to retain water.  Of greatest interest and importance is the fact that the




moisture content of the subgrade varied only -4% +71 from an average of 312




over the entire time, and was only 7%  more than the native soil samples taken




from equivalent depth.  The indication is that little water has percolated




into the tight, adobe-shale subgrade.




   The picture presented by the data of Cell B Is not quite as clear.  In




this case, there were 2 cores in which the moisture content of the top band




was not less than any other band,  The top earth cover had the least moisture




content in all cases.  There was no consistency in the relationship of the






                                     -6-

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                            FIGURE  5.1.1
                   12
                                                10
                                                                 NTS
TIME  AND   LOCATION   OF   LANDFILL   CORES.  CELLS  A. B 1 C

Nott : - All  corts  wtrt  located  approximately
        5ft.  from  the  cell   boundary
        The   cores   were  8 in.   dia
        The  coring  dates  appear on  the  cell  location   lines
                                  -7-
molature content of the middle band to the bottom band.  It is significant
that che nolsture content of the subgrade averaged 39% - or about the same
as Cell A - until the September-December  period of 1968 when it averaged 77%.
This Increase correlates with the excessive  amounts of water applied to the
surface in July, August, September and indicates that under such an unusual
condition there was appreciable percolation  into the subgrade.
   Cell C of course was kept in a drier condition by reason of aeration,
Attention is called to the fact that to prevent movement of air through the
cover and into the atmosphere, an impervious membrane was stretched over the
cell one foot below the surface.   Because of the varied off-on cycle of the
blower, as well as extended on and off periods, the data do not fall into any
pattern permitting rational explanation.  As expected, the bottom band which
received the full benefit of the air admitted was always much drier than the
middle baad and, over the final year,  was the driest band.  Over the last 6
mo, the average moisture content  of the bottom band was only 34Z.  The aver-
age moisture content of the subgrade was  30%.  Sampling of the subgrade was
discontinued after June, 1968 to  avoid further damage to the air gridwork.
Since Cell C received only rainfall totalling 72 in., most of which should
have been stopped by the membrane, plus about 8 in. applied through the sub-
surface spray piping between September and October 1966 to purposely increase
the moisture content, it may be concluded that no percolation into the sub-
grade took place.
   5.2 Gas Quality.   Samples of the gaseous  environment within Cells A, B and
C were taken on a regular basis over the  entire period of the investigation
until August 1968.   By then,  the  original field installation had deteriorated
to the point where gas samples were suspect.  For instance, many of the gas
samples from the anaerobic Cell A were analyzing as air.   Replacement of some
                                                                                                                                  -8-

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                                 TABLE  5.2.1
                  MAXIMUM GAS COMPONENTS  IN PERCENT BY VOLUME
                   AND TIME OF OCCURRENCE IN CELLS A AND B
Gas
Component
H2
co2
CH4
H2
2
7 -Foot Depth
Cell A
16,0 (290)
95.4 (48)
63.6 (1113)
0.4 (123)
5.7 (34)
Cell B
75.9 (234)
94.4 (35)
61.6 (1063)
0.2 (65)
6.7 (893)
13-Foot Depth
Cell A
24.3 (34)
96.3 (48)
58,5 (1106)
0.2 (34)
4.4 (72)
Cell B
81.2 (181)
92.7 (42)
57.1 (1091)
0.3 (58)
8.3 (35)
Note:  The figures in parentheses indicate number of days elapsed since
       -ampletion of cell.
                                     -11-
                                                                                                                                    TABLE 5.2.2
AVERAGE MAJOR GAS COMPONENTS IN PERCENT BY VOLUME
  FOR INDICATED TIME INTERVALS IN CELLS A AND B
Tine Interval
Since Cell
Completion
Start
to
3 Months
3 Months
to
6 Months
6 Months
to
1.0 Year
1.0 Year
to
1.5 Years
1.5 Years
to
2.0 Years
2.0 Years
to
2.5 Years
2.5 Years
to
3.0 Years
3.0 Years
to
3.5 Years
3.5 Years
to
4,0 Years
Gas
Component
N
CO*
4
N2
CO*
CH*
N2
CO*
CH*
N2
CO*
CH*
N
CO,
J
N2
C2
CH*
s2
2
CH*
N2
co2
CH*
N2
co2
CH4
7-Foot Depth
Cell A
5.2
88
5
3.8
76
21
0.4
65
29
1.1
52
40
0.4
53
47
0.2
52
48
1.3
46
51
0.9
50
47
0.4
51
48
Cell B
16
83
1.4
46
51
1.7
42
42
13
17
48
33
1.9
54
43
0.5
52
47
6.6
48
44
3.7
50
45
2.6
51
46
13-Foot Depth
Cell A
7.2
84
6.3
1.3
73
25
4.2
61
31
2.2
58
40
0.9
55
44
0.6
54
44
2.0
49
49
3.6
48
47
0.4
49
51
Cell B
25
72
1.4
58
40
1.1
54
37
6.7
43
35
20
20
48
29
3.9
53
42
11
38
42
6
47
46
1
50
49
                                                                                                                                     -12-

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 yr, the concentrations at both levels were comparable t 50%.   Methane built




 up at each level over the first 2 yr from approximately 1% to  40%,  and then




 held fairly constant over the balance of Che time at approximately  45Z.   Nitro-




 gen was a major component only during the first 1.5 yr, reaching concentrations




 of 55*.




    The data of Cell C cannot be grouped in the above described  fashion,  for




 the on-of f blower periods and the blower cycle used governed the gas  composi-




 tion more than the elapsed time.   In general,  when the blower was operating,




 the analysis would come up to expectations:  oxygen as high as  20Z, nitrogen




 as high as 80%, carbon dioxide as low as It, and methane as low as  0.5%.  Table




 5.2.3 carries a complete tabulation of blower  on-time, during which Cell  C




 received aeration.   Many combinations of on-time and off-time were  used,  and it




 was ultimately found that an on-time of 1.0  hr and an off-time  of 0.25 hr re-




 sulted in the maintenance of a satisfactory  cell environment.   Early  in  the




 investigation,  when the fill material was fresh,  a combination  of even shorter




 on-tiae and longer  off-time would result in  too rapid oxidation accompanied by




 high temperatures,  smoke,  occasional fire (2),  and odor problems.




    5.3  Settlement.   The bench marks used to measure settlement were  concrete




 oonuaents  originally set flush with the cell surface.   There were 4 at each




 cell,  located about  12  ft  from the access well  on N-S  and E-W diameters.  The




 reported settlement  refers to the average movement of  these benchmarks.   There




were portions of  the cells that settled to a greater extent.  In Cell C,  for




 instance,  the surface settlement  around the access well was over 6  ft.  The




 surveys  were  conducted weekly at  the start for  about the first  3 mo, biweekly




 for  the  next  3  no,  and  then at approximately monthly Intervals.  Total settle-




Bent of  Cells A,  B  and  C is  summarized  in Table 5.3.1  and graphed in Figure




 5.3.1.   Cells A and  B each settled a total of  2.20 ft  and Cell  C settled  a




total  of 4.25  ft.  The  fact  fhat  the aerobic Cell C  settled more than anaerobic




Cells  A  and B is  due to  the  greater reduction  in  volume of refuse through





                                      -13-
                                TABLE 5.2.3
                     SUMMARY OF BLOWER "ON" TIME, CELL C
Time Interval
Days
28-69
69-104
104-168
182-193
193-209
259-286
286-303
305-402
416-426
428-465
601-844
844-1145
1145-1229
1229-1266
1277-1286
1294-1312
1314-1316
1361-1368
1469-1606
Blower Cycle
Hr On
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Hr Off
5.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
1.0
2.5
7.5
7.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25


Remarks
Odor complaints
Fire in cell
Blower connections
Motor repaired

Motor damaged, air
Blower connections
Recirculation cell
at 862 day
Odor complaints
Ordor complaints


replaced


lines flooded
replaced
gas discontinued

Heavy rain; cave- in around access
well; blower flooded
Air line clogged
Air line clogged
Air line connected

to access well
Note:  Days reckoned from time of cell completion.
                                   -14-

-------
                   TABLE 5.3.1
           SUMMARY OF CELL SETTLEMENT
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion*
Years
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
Months
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
6
0
6
0
6
0
6
Total Settlement of
Cell Surface in Feet
Cell
A
-
0.07
0.14
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.41
0.52
0.63
0.76
1.06
1.36
1.76
2.24
B
-
0.07
0.05
0.10
0.14
0.17
0.28
0.43
0.61
0.75
0.95
1.29
1.67
2.22
C
0.09
0.22
0.36
0.67
1.08
1.27
1.66
1.90
2.24
2.61
3.28
3.83
4.13
4.29
* Times approximate

  Original cell  depth was 20 ft
                                                                                                                     a a

                                                                                                                     Is
                                                                                                                     c  E
                                                                                                                     o >_

                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     a
                                                                                                                    O
                                                                                                                               89-EZ-Zt
                                                                                                                               89-71-6
                                                                                                                               89-90-9
                                                                                                                               ^9-11-8
                                                                                                                               99-30-Z
                                                                                                                               99-91-01
                                                                                                                                   S
                                                                                                                                                   a
                                                                                                                                                  Q
                       E
                       o
                       o
                                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                                   a.
                                                                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                                                                8
                                                                             BSQ - sjn)DJ3daia|
SI>9
                     -15-
                                                                                                            -16-

-------
1180  o
    -17-
oxidation at the organic matter present.  There was little identifiable matter




in the December corings of Cell C other than plastic, rubber, some metal,




scorched paper, and highly decomposed rags.




   5,4  Gas Production.  The gas production of Cell D - the only purpose for




which it was constructed - is graphically illustrated in Figure 5.4,1.  This




cell consisted of a 10,000 gal underground steel storage tank, 95 in, I, D, x




28 ft high x % in. th, which was packed with refuse, instrumented, and care-




fully sealed.  The amount of gas produced was 2027 cu ft over a 907-day period.




This is equivalent to 27,7 cu ft per cu yd of refuse.




   The initial release of gas occurred within the first 3 days following pack-




ing and sealing of the tank.  Only one cubic foot was produced in the following




50 days, and then none until the 230th day.  This long period of non-production




could have been due to acidification or low temperatures unfavorable to bacte-




rial action.  By the time gas production ceased, the temperatures within the




tank were less than 90 deg F and ultimately dropped to the low seventies.  The




pickup in gas production accompanied a rise in temperature as shown in the




Figure 5.4.1.




   Gas production might also have been delayed until the tank was fully sta-




bilized as an anaerobic unit.  After packing, the tank was tested for leakage




by admitting compressed air, and the unit was initially aerobic




   A nanometer was fitted into a gas line and was used as a constant check to




make certain there were no leaks in the tank or piping,




   5-5  Temperatures.  All cells reached maximum temperatures very early in




the study.  Cell A reached 108 deg F after 79 days, Cell B 120 deg F after 31




days, Cell C 193 deg F after 174 days, and Cell D 117 deg F after 368 days.




Over the final 2 yr, temperatures in Cell A ranged between 53 and 88 deg F, in




Cell B between 60 and 90 deg F, in Cell C between 90 and 164 deg F, and in




Cell D between 67 and 120 deg F.  Cell 0, during the final year, never rose




above 92 deg F.



                                     -18-

-------
                           6.   PROGRESS  REPORT  -  1968






   61  External  Climatic  Factors.   Monthly  average air  temperatures and dally




rainfalls were  obtained  from the Pomona Weather  Station  records and are re-




corded In Table 6 1.1.   Dally temperatures are recorded  In Table 6.5.1.  The




total rainfall  at the  test  site  was  9.4 in.




   6.2  Application of Water.  In Table 6.2.1  are  shown  the amounts of water




applied to Cell A  The  required annual amount of  water  to simulate the




selected Seattle  rainfall  of  1961 is 42.52 in.   The actual amount of water




applied during  the year  was 33.94 in. irrigation water plus 9.39 in. rainfall




for a total of  43.33 in.




   In Table 6.2.2 are  shown the  amounts of water applied to Cell B.  The




actual amount of water applied during the year was 145.28 in* of irrigation




water plus 9 39 in. rainfall  for a total of  154.67 in.   Faulty operation of




the tensiometer equipment  resulted 4.n the application of far more water than




necessary during  July, August, and September for support of the Bermuda grass.




   The coring program  initiated  on August 22,  1966 for the purpose of deter-




mining the moisture content of the cells was continued.  The cells were cored




every 3 mo beginning in  March, 1968  and samples  were taken at 2-ft depth incre-




ments:  The top cover and subgrade were also sampled when feasible.  The mois-




ture analyses for the 2  cores  of Cell A appear In  Table  6.2.3.




   The moisture content  of  the core  profile  averaged 50% on a wet weight basis




during the year, an increase of  5% over the  previous year.   The moisture con-




tent of the subgrade was again less  than that  of the bottom layer of the refuse




in all but a single case, indicating very slow movement of water into the




ground or greater water  capillarity  of  the refuse  than the ground.   At the




bottom of the table are  shown  the average moisture contents for the top portion




of the cell (2-6 ft),  the middle portion (8-14 ft), and the bottom portion
                                                                                                                                   TABLE  6.1.1
External Climatic Factors
Month Day
1968
January





February





March







April

May



June
July
August
September
October


3
11
16
27
28
31
09
10
13
14
17
27
02
06
07
08
13
14
17
18
01
02
06
12
13
21
07
28
01
01
03
14
30
Rainfall, In
Daily
0.05
0.14
0.05
0.37
0.40
0.13
0.25
0.11
0.34
0.26
0.01
0.03
T
0.02
0.15
3.83
0.18
0.06
0.03
T
0.12
0.50
T
0.03
T
T
0.03
0.05
0.00
O.OOT
0.13
0.02
0.32
Cumulative





63.20





64.20







68.47





68.50
68.53
68.58
68.58
68.58


69.05
Temperatures, Deg F
Ave Max
64.2





69.3





70.4












76.2
81,9
90,1
87.7
86.4


78.4
Ave Min
42.9





50.1





47.7












53.5
56.9
61.9
60.8
60.3


55.4
Mean
53,6





59.7





59.0












64.9
69.4
76.0
74.3
73.4


67.0
  (Continued  on  Page  21)
                                     -19-
                                                                                                                                     -20-

-------
 TABLE 6.1.1 (Continued)
                                                                                                      TABLE  6.2,1
External Climatic Factors
Month
1968
Boveaber


December





Day

04
15
16
11
15
16
20
25
26
Rainfall, In
bally
0.04
0.42
0.03
0.06
0.02
0.20
0.10
0.54
0.37
Cumulative


69.54





70.83
Temperatures, Deg F
Ave Max 1 Ave Mln


71.2





62.0


49.4





48.5
Mean


60.3





51,8
                                                                                       Actual Amounts of Water Applied  to  Cell  A
Month
1968
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
Augus t
September
October
November
December
Water Applied
Gal
12,688
12,913
1,750
3,373
3,500
2,184
1,619
4,971
0
5,476
4,568
4,366
In.
6,64
8.08
0.70
1.80
2.00
1.00
0.31
2.17
0
2.55
4.69
4.00
Rainfall
In.
1.14
1.00
4.27
0.62
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.00
0.00
0.47
0.49
1.29
Total Water
Applied, In.
Monthly
7.78
9.08-
4.97
2.42
2.03
1,03
0.36
2.17
0.00
3.02
5.18
5.29
Cumulative
178.19
187.27
192.24
194.66
196.69
197.. 72 "
198.08
200.25
200.25
203.27
208.45
213.74
Seattle, Wash, Rainfall
Water Required, In,
Monthly
7.71
9.11
4.45
2,35
3.07
0.54
0.75
0.82
0.46
3.27
4.67
5.32
Cumulative
148.99
158.10
162.55
164.90
167,97
168.51
169.26
170,08
170,54
173.81
178,48
183,80
                                                                                                         -22-
          -21-

-------
               TABLE 6.2.2
Actual Amounts of Hater Applied to Cell B
Montk
1968
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Water Ap
Gal
0
0
0
5,120
9,373
3,422
53,709
85,107
43,564
42,399
1,901
2,328
plied
In.
0
0
0
3.28
6.00
2.20
34.43
54.50
27.80
14.36
1.22
1.49
Rainfall
In.
1.14
1.00
4.27
0.62
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.00
0.00
0.47
0.49
1.29
Total Water Applied, In.
Monthly
1.14
1.00
4.27
3.90
6.03
2.23
34.48
54.50
27.80
14.83
1.71
2.78
Cumulative
238.51
239.51
24.3,78
247,68
253.71
255.94
290.42
344.92
372. 72
387.55
389.26
392,04
                 -23-
                                                                                                                 TABLE 6.2.3
                                                                                                 CELL A MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
(ft)
Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-6
8-14
16-20
Entire Co
March 1968
Core No. 7
Core No. 8
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt
21.2
14.5
48.2
46.1
59.9
47.0
63.3
58.6

50.5
48.9
28.6
36.3
57.2
49.7
e 48.6
Dry Wt
27.0
17.0
93.1
85.5
149.1
88.7
172.5
141.3

102.0
95.5
40.1
65.2
137.9
98.8
105.0
Wet Wt
58.0
95.3
14.3
59.2
64.4
55.7
62.2
69.3
58.7
57.7
32.5
26.4
56.3
62.9
49.6
56.9
Dry Wt
137.9
131.6
16.7
145.4
180.8
125.9
164.2
219.0
142.2
136.6
48.2
35.9
97.9
172.5
109.0
131.1
June 1968
Core No. 9
Core No. 10
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt
17.8
22.4
48.7
46.7
43.1
57.2
67.1
56.3
64.8
53.2
27.4
26.4
39.3
55.9
48.5
48.7
Dry Wt
21.7
28,8
95.1
87.6
75.7
133.4
203.6
128.6
184.4
113.8
32,8
36.1
70.5
135.3
110.3
108.8
Wet Wt
21.3
10.9
38.1
46.7
52.5
33.5
46.0
73.9
43.5
56.8
28.9
24.9
31.9
51.5
43.1
43.1
Dry Wt
27.1
12.2
61,5
87,7
109.6
142.4
85,2
28.3
77.0
131.5
40.6
33.1
53,8
91.4
83.0
77.6
                                                                                                            (Continued on Page 25)
                                                                                                                    -24-

-------
           TABLE 6.2.3 (Continued)
CELL A MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
(ft)
Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-6
8-14
16-20
Entire Coi
September 1968
Core No. 11
Core No. 12
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt
18.5
23.8
30.0
30.6
79.1
58.8
78.5
83.9
56.9
67.0
35.5
26.0
28.1
75.1
53.1
e 54.4
Dry Wt
22.8
31.1
42.1
44.0
365.7
142.9
412.1
520.1
132.3
202.7
55.0
35.2
39.1
360.2
130.0
194.8
Wet Wt
22.6
23.4
32.5
46.5
52.2
54.9
59.5
54.9
61.4
55.0
32.7
27.3
34.1
55.4
49.7
47.3
Dry Wt
29-1
30.5
48.1
86.9
109.1
121.6
147.1
121.6
158.9
122.2
48.7
37.6
55.2
124.9
109.9
99.5
December 1968
Core No. 13

Wet Wt
28.3
18.6
44.7
48.9
25.7
22.2
59.4
86.3
60.8
84.4
23.7
29.8
37.4
48.4
56.3
47.5
Per Cent
Dry Wt
39.6
22,9
81.0
95.6
34.6
28.5
146.5
611.0
155.0
539.7
31.1
42.5
66.5
205.2
241.9
174.6
Core No. 14
Moisture
Wet Wt
31,4
22.6
13.2
41.7
61.1
59.2
76.1
66.7
72. 7
56.4
32.3
-
25.8
65,8
53.8
50.2
Dry Wt
45.8
29.3
15.3
71.7
73.0
145.4
317.9
200.0
266.5
129.3
47,6
-
38.7
184,1
147.8
129.6
                    -25-
(16-20ft).  The band with the highest moisture content was between 8 and 14 ft




below the surface.




   The Moisture analyses for the 2 cores of Cell B appear In Table 6.2.4.'  The




moisture content of the core profile averaged 50% on a. wet weight basis, the




same as Cell A despite the application of nearly 3.5 times as much water.  The




moisture content of the subgrade was generally from 10% to 25% less than that




of the bottom layer of refuse, again Indicating slow movement of water Into




the ground.  However, the moisture content of the earth cover was little dif-




ferent fro* that of the top layer of refuse, especially after application of




the excessive amounts of water during the summer months.  Considering the




greater application of water to Cell B, and that the top cover of the cell was




prepared for the growing of turf, the relationship is reasonable.  The average




moisture contents of the designated cell bands again indicate a downward trans-




fer of water as in Cell A, and, with the exception of the June cores, again




show that the highest moisture content was in the 8-14 ft band.  Direct obser-




vation of core samples taken at the bottom at the Fall coring showed a condi-




tion of saturation.




   Cell C received no water during the year other than the normal rainfall of




9.39 in.  The moisture analyses for the 2 cores of Cell C appear in Table




6.2.5.  The moisture content of the core profile averaged 40% on a wet weight




basis.  In contrast to Cells A and B, the driest material was always found in




the bottom band, a condition to be expected since the forced air was introduced




into the landfill from air ducts located beneath the fill.  Sampling of the




subgrade was discontinued because of the danger of striking the air ducts.




   The core descriptions and core temperatures for all of the cells for the




final coring in December are presented in Table 6,2.6.  As expected, the cores




of Cell C demonstrated an advanced stage of decomposition over Cells A and B.




Paper and paper products were frequently scorched, grass with the original






                                     -26-

-------
                 TABLE 6.2.4
CELL B MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
(ft)
Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-6
8-14
16-20

March 1968
Core No. 7
Core No. 8
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt

34.6
29.6
27.3
41.8
59.3
-
65.4
60.9
61.2
54.1
30.6
23.1
32.9
61.9
48.6

Entire Core 47.8
Dry Wt

52.8
42.1
37.6
71.8
145.7
-
188.7
155.7
157.6
117.9
44.0
30.1
50.5
163.4
106.5

106.8
Wet Wt

16.6
28.2
44.8
46.4
60.8
43.3
45.6
52.5
45.9
58.8
44.6
32.2
39.8
50.6
49.8

47.1
Dry Wt

19.9
39.2
81.3
86.4
154.9
76.5
83.9
110.4
84.8
142.7
80.6
47.5
69.0
106.4
102.7

94,1
June 1968
Core No. 9
Core No. 10
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt

19.7
27.4
67.4
81.5
56.6
37.7
78.1
54.5
72.8
64.2
47.4
28.7
58.8
56,6
61.5

58.7
Dry Wt

24.6
37.7
206.8
439.6
130.2
60.6
356.7
118.6
267.7
179.7
90.0
40.4
228.0
166.5
179.1

188.8
Wet Wt

14.9
16.9
26.5
50.4
33.1
61.7
57.2
48.7
73.8
61.9
50.1
25,0
31.3
50,2
61.9

48.0
Dry Wt

17.6
20.4
36.1
101.8
49,4
161.0
133.4
94.8
282.2
162.8
100.5
33.4
52.8
109.7
181.8

114,2
           (Continued on Page 28)
                    -27-
                                                                                                            TABLE 6.2.4 (Continued)
                                                                                                 CELL B MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
(ft)
Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-6
8-14
16-20
Entire Coi
September 1968
Core No. 11
Core No. 12
Per Cent Moisture
Vet Wt
25.8
24.7
39.1
41.0
63.1
52.7
60.5
58.1
57.0
53.7
36.4
27.6
34.9
5B.6
49.0
e 48.6
Dry Wt
34.8
32.9
64.2
69.5
168.9
111.5
153.4
138.6
132.6
116.0
57.1
38.1
55.5
143.1
101.9
104.5
Wet Wt
25.1
30.4
92.0
51.8
62.8
61.0
75.2
57.4
61.0
49.9
44.2
45.4
41.4
64.1
51.7
53.6
Dry Wt
33.5
43.7
72.4
107.7
168.5
156.6
299.1
134.5
156.6
99.5
79.2
84.4
74.6
189.7
111.8
131.8
December 1968
Core No. 13
Core No. 14
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt
30.0
30.9
56.2
56.6 j
67.4
51.6
73.1
65.4
64.5
68.5
33.1
-
47.9
64.4
55.4
56.7
Dry Wt
42.8
44.6
128.3
130.6
206.3
106.4
189.6
189.0
181.4
218.5
49.5
-
101.2
172.8
149.8
144.4
Wet Wt
30.6
33.2
50.6
49.9
64.7
66.8
29.8
66.9
68.0
67.9
43.4
41.4
44,6
57.1
59.8
54,1
Dry Wt
44.2
47.9
102.4
104.1
182.9
201.6
42.5
202.6
192,3
211.5
76.6
71.3
84.8
157.4
160.1
136.4
                                                                                                                     -28-

-------
                 TABLE 6.2.5
CELL C MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Distance
Below
Top Of
Cell
(ft)
March 1968
Core No. 7
Core No. 8
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt
Earth 1
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-6
8-14
16-18
Entire Co:
-
24.2
45.0
46.7
48.7
37.6
51.1
61.9
24.4
24.5
21.8
23.2
46.8
49.8
23.6
e 41.0
Dry Wt

-
32.0
81.7
85.6
95.1
60.3
104.3
162.7
32.3
32.5
27.6
30.1
66.4
105.6
30.8
71.4
Wet Wt

16.0
29.0
44.4
51.4
53.2
46.7
48.9
51.8
21.8
22.1
20.0
21.0
41.6
50.1
21.3
43.4
Dry Wt

19.0
40.8
79.9
105.7
113.8
87.5
95.8
107.4
27.9
28.4
25.0
26.7
75.5
101.1
27.1
71.2
June 1968
Core No. 9
Core No. 10
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt

16.9
26.1
29.3
42.9
41.0
48.0
47.7
39.6
59.8
19.0
12.1
21.8
32.8
44.1
30.3
36.6
Pry Wt

20.4
39.2
41.4
75.0
69.6
92.4
91.2
65.6
148.9
24.5
13.8
27.8
51.9
79.7
62.4
66.2
Wet Wt

19.9
23.5
57.3
55.4
49.3
53.2
51.5
58.1
49.1
24.8
22.9
-
45.4
53.0
32.3
44.5
Dry Wt

24.9
30.7
134.4
124.4
97.3
113.9
106.2
138.7
96.4
33.0
29.7
-
96.5
114.0
53.0
93.0
             (Continued on Page 30)
                    -29-
                                                                                                              TABLE 6.2.5 (Continued)
                                                                                                  CELL C MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM COSE SAMPLES
Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
(ft)
Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-6
8-14
16-18
Entire Coi
September 1968
Core No. 11
Per Cent
Wet Wt

17.6
26.4
33.9
48.8
38.4
54.0
46.0
20.0
27.2
19.9
22.2
-
36.4
39.6
23.1
e 33.7
Dry Wt

21.4
35.9
51.4
95.2
62.3
117.6
85.3
58.7
37.4
24.9
28.5
-
60.8
81.0
30.3
59.7
Core No. 12
Moisture
Wet Wt

18.4
21.5
44.7
66.2
48.4
47.7
49.4
-
20.1
23.3
18.4
-
44.1
48.5
20.6
34.0
Dry Wt

29.5
27.3
80.8
196.2
93.7
91.3
97.7
-
26.4
30.4
22.5
-
101.4
94.2
26.4
66.6
December 1968
Core No. 13
Per Cent
Wet Wt

23.7
27.7
41.4
44.7
50.7
47.7
40.8
49.8
26.6
26.5
28.1
-
37.9
47.3
27.1
38.4
Dry Wt

31.1
38.4
70.7
81.2
102.7
-
68.9
99.2
36.3
36.1
39.2
-
63.4
90.3
37,2
63.6
Core No. 14
Moisture
Wet Wt

14.2
27.8
56.2
62.1
57.5
53.8
67.2
58.7
34.3
27.9
24.7
-
48.7
59.3
29.0
47.0
Dry Wt

16.6
39.6
128.3
163.9
135.1
116.5
204.6
142.3
51.0
37.8
38.9
-.
110.6
149.6
42.6
105.8
                                                                                                                      -30-

-------
                    TABLE  6.2.6
LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND C - DECEMBER, 1968
Cell
and
Core
No.

A-13










A-14










B-13










ELspced
TIM Since
Cell
Completion
Day*
1625










1625










1625










Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
Ft
0
2
4
6
3
10
12
14
16
18
22
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Temp
Deg
F

62
59
60
74
68
74
72
72
72
68
70
66
66
70
76
70
69
68
70
74
74
74
66
66
68
68
74
74
73
76
76
76



Observation


Dirt

Pulpy, moist material
Chunky, very decomposed, rotten rags
Wood and plastic unaffected
Damp, chunky, pulpy paper, green grass
Some plastic decomposed, metal shiny
Rubber and wood unaffected
Rotten rags, wax paper unaffected
Muddy grey clay
Loose grey clay
Dirt
Dirt moist
Rotten. rags, chunky material no identity
Pulpy moist paper, wood unaffected
Plastic and tennis hoes unaffected
Plastic and cellophane unaffected
Glass and hose unaffected
Much paper and grass decomposed
Moist damp chunks no identity, metal shiny
Grass clippings green, hose unaffected
Loose moist grey clay
Dirt moist

Loose and pulpy material
Loose and pulpy material
Grass unaffected, paper pulpy, metal shiny
Plaster and wood unaffected
Brown chunk material no identity
Rubber unaffected, grass light green
Wet dark decomposed material
Metal shiny
Wet dirt
              (Continued on Page 32)
                       -31-
                                                                                                                    TABLE 6.2.6  (Continued)
                                                                                                   LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND C - DECEMBER, 1968
Cell
and
Core
No.

B-14











C-13










C-14










Elapsed
time Since
Cell
Completion
Days
1625











1602










1602










Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
Ft
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Temp
Deg
F

62
64
66
70
72
72
74
74
74
80
80

66
68
74
80
86
98
98
102
106
106
100
70
70
74
78
90
90
90
90
98
102
100


Observation


Dirt
Dirt
Moist slushy material, green grass
Wood, plaster and rubber unaffected
Very wet pulpy paper, shiny metal
Much glass unaffected, even labels
Rotten wet muddy rags
Plastic unaffected, shiny metal
Rubber unaffected
Wire unaffected
Dark mud
Dirt
Dirt
Dirt
Rotten rags, loose dry chunks
Brown burnt paper, no grass
Plastic, hose and metal unaffected
Paper burnt and illegible
Hot dry very decomposed material
Aluminum unaffected
Dark brown decomposed materials
Loose moist sand

Dirt
Dirt
Decomposition evident, wood unaffected
Rotten rags, metal oxidized
Glass and plastic unaffected
Dark warm chunky material
Rubber hose unaffected, no grass
Decomposed material, no identity
Dirt
Some oxidized metal, mostly dirt
Dirt
                                                                                                                       -32-

-------
green color was rarely seen, nd there was much unidentifiable material.




     6.3  Settlement.  The settlement of all cells wee periodically measured by




survey, and the data are given In Table 6.3.1.  During the year, Cell A settled




an additional 0.89 ft, Cell B 0.93 ft, and Cell C 0.51 ft.  This was the first




year in which settlement of the aerated Cell C lagged behind Cells A and B.




Cells A and B settled nearly twice as much as Cell C, thereby reducing the




settlement of Cell C from what had been 3 times as much as Cells A and B to




twice ae much.  Cells A and B each settled a total of approximately 2.20 ft, aud




Cell C settled a total of approximately 4.25 ft.




     The differential settlement between the top half and the bottom half of all




cells increased during the year.  In Cell A the differential was 0.70 ft, in




Cell B 0.86 ft, and In Cell C 0.64 ft.  This is simply indicative of an increase




in the "equivalent" density of the bottom fill material.




     6.4  Gas Quality.  As shown in Table 6.4.1, Cell A continued to produce a




gas high in carbon dioxide and methane at top and bottom levels.  Oxygen and




nitrogen were present in varying minor amounts.  There was no hydrogen.




     As shown in Table 6.4.2, Cell B  also continued to produce a gas high in




carbon dioxide and methane at top and bottom levels.  Oxygen and nitrogen were




present in varying minor amounts.  There was no hydrogen.




     The gas analyses for Cell C are shown in Table 6.4.3, and this table should




be correlated with Table 6.4.4 which summarizes blower operation.  Heavy rains




in March caused a cave-in around the access well and permitted surface water to




move down along the casing and into  the aeration channels thereby effectively




blocking air passage.  This difficulty was later compounded by the collapse of




the main air line because of corrosion.  In August, the main air line was relo-




cated to discharge directly into the center access well, and any aeration was




achieved by passage of air through existing openings or ports in the access well




casing and Into the cell.  Because of  the mistaken belief that air passage was






                                       -33-
                                                                                                                              Call Settlement Data
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(Days)
1266
1290
1294
1318
1329
1353
1357
1381
1378
1402
1429
1453
1452
1476
1483
1507
1509
1533
1546
1570
1584
1606
1606
1630
Total Settlement of Total Settlement of
Cell Surface, Ft Mid-Depth Surface, Ft
Cell Number Cell Number
A

1.4025

1.4250

1.5250

1.5700

1.6225

1.7500

1.8000

1.9150

1.9980

2.0755

2.1705

2.2155
B

1.3300

1.4000

1.4800

1.5050

1.5425

1.6675

1.7150

1.7925

1.8675

1.9475

2.0925

2.1825
C A
3.8225

3.9050

4.0325

4.0200

4.0375

4.0925

4.1175

4.1525

4.1775

4.2100

4.2325

4.2575


1.03

1.05

1.10

1.13

1.17

1.25

1.28

1.34

1.38

1.39

1.48

1.51
B

0.84

0.89

0.94

0.95

0.98

1.06

1.08

1.11

1.13

1.18

1.29

1.36
C
3.28

3.36

3.48

3.46

3.47

3.52

3.52

3.55

3.57

3.60

3.62

3.62

                                                                                                                                     -34-

-------
       TABLE 6.4.1
Gas Composition in Cell A




Date
1968
1-04
1-08
1-15
1-22
1-29
2-05
2-12
2-26
3-11
3-23
4-08
4-16
4-22
4-29
5-06
5-13
5-20
6-03
6-10
6-21
7-02
7-08
7-15
7-22
7-29
8-05
8-14

Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Completion o
Cell
1269
1273
1280
1287
1294
1301
1308
1322
1336
1348
1364
1372
1378
1385
1392
1399
1406
1420
1427
1438
1450
1456
1463
1470
1477
1484
1493
Percent Composition by Volume of Cases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet
co2
52.38
52.42
52.16
51.39
51.83
52.10
53.16
52.08
44.20
50.93
52.29
51.36
52.44
51.40
52.00
51.64
52.10
52.38
52.63
52.39
51.52
50.99

63.03
50.49
52.39
52.76
2
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.04
0.03
T
0.02
0.02
0,15
0.03
0.06
0.60
0.03
0.05
0.32
0.04
0.06
0.03
0.01

0.02
0.06

0.04
0.08
0.03
0.04
CH4
47.52
47.47
47.78
48.43
47.97
47.80
46.74
47.78
54.14
48.76
47.37
45.75
47.42
48.25
46.49
48.18
47.52
47.32
47.27
47.50
48.41
48.90

36.82
49.23
47.48
47.07
H2
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
N,
0.08
0.08
0.05
0.14
0.17
0.10
0.08
0.12
1.51
0.28
0.28
2.29
0.11
0.30
1.19
0.14
0.32
0.27
0.05

0.05
0.05

0.11
0.20
0.10
0.13

13 Feet
coz
48.43
48.86

48.85
46.84
48.55
50.70
50.20
36.41
44.31
47.82
49.68

48.90
45.83
47.64
48.00
50.16
49.64
55.14

55.16

46.78


47.62
2
0.01
0.02

0.11
0.08
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.07
0.07
0.07

0.07
0.01
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.13
0.56

0.15

1.08


0.67
CH4
51.40
50.90

50.64
52.77
51.29
49.04
49.57
62.06
55.19
51.91
50.08

50.84
54.08
52.11
51.73
49.57
49.64
42.14

43.77

46.78


48.93
H2
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00

0.00


0.00
H2
0.16
0.22

0.40
0.31
0.12
0.20
0.16
1.44
0.43
0.20
0.17

0.19
0.08
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.59
2.16

0.92

4.76


2.78
       TABLE 6.4.2
Gai Composition in Cell B


Date
1968
1-04
1-08
1-15
1-22
1-29
2-05
2-12
2-26
3-11
4-16
4-22
4-29
5-06
5-13
5-20
6-03
6-10
6-21
7-02
7-08
7-15
7-22
7-29
8-05
8-14

Elapsed Time
tn Days
Following
Cell
1269
1273
1280
1287
1294
1301
1308
1322
1336
1372
1378
1385
1392
1399
1406
1420
1427
1438
1450
1456
1463
1470
1477
1484
1493
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
CM Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface
7 Feet
co2
51.83
52.04
53.55
52.74
52.98
53.01
54.04
53.73

51.20
45.94
50.78
49.60
49.84
50.14

48.33
48.29







2
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.04
0.15
0.16
0.03
0.05

0.82
0.76
0.80
0.91
0.90
0.84

1.92
1.01







CH4
48.08
47.90
46.41
47.06
46.29
46.30
45.72
46.06

43.73
49.16
44.43
45.54
45.19
45.00

42.91
46.68







H2
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00







N2
0.06
0.04
0.03
0.16
0.58
0.53
0.21
0.16

3.95
4.14
3.99
3.95
4.07
4.02

6.84
4.02







13 Feet
co2
52.20
51.78


47.10
51.94


39.69
52.81
53.01
45.09
53.27
52.84
53.16
51.39
52.65
46.69
49.25
46.27
36.99

50.22
52.99
44.99
2
0.10
0.03
0.16

2.52
0.05


0.28
0.05
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.04
1.61
0.03
0.05
0.10

0.04
0.07
0.30
CH4
47.38
48.06


48.83
47.71


53.66
46.87
46.90
54.73
46.41
46.89
46.54
48.30
47.28
48.16
50.60
53.51
62.39

49.55
46.62
53.88
H?
0.00
0.00


0.00
0.00


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
N?
0.32
0.13


3.97
0.30


6.37
0.27
0.08
0.15
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.03
3.54
0.12
0.17
0.52

0.19
0.32
0.83

-------
e  *
  S-4
   e
                  oxr^\oa>vovoaoaooo^
                  888888888888888888888      8

                  OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO      O
O*o^OrHoocjcor*NOr^moo\
                                  OOt*o^mcMO\^o*7^DO\vOfOOG\C'>'''*'O
                  ^^iovOfs*f^>aoo\otf-ic4-4>-^irt4>%or^aootOiHe>im^mvooa'<^xo


                  i-liHiHiHiHrHM<-lrHt-lr-|i-trHtHfHi-lt-liHiHi-|r-lr-lr-lr-
-------
being blocked by flooded ducts, the collapse of the air line was not discovered

for about 3 mo and consequently the blower was not operated for this period.

     Values of carbon dioxide and methane were predictably high during the long

off period of the blower.  Conversely, oxygen and nitrogen values were high

during the blower on periods.

     6.5  Cell Temperatures.  The temperature data for Cells A and B are pre-

sented in Table 6.5.1, and for Cell C in Table 6.5.2.  To obtain the internal

temperatures of Cells A and B (following failure of thermistors), thermometers

were suspended in 3/4-in. dla, water-filled pipes which, in turn, were set into

the shafts established by the coring operation.  The system was the same as that

installed for Cell C in 1967.  All of the temperature readings are correlated

with the date on which they were taken and the total elapsed time in days fol-

lowing completion of each cell.

     In Cell A, the temperature range was 40 deg F, from 60 deg F in the winter

to 100 deg F in the summer.

     In Cell B, the temperature range was 28 deg F, from 62 deg F in the winter

to 90 deg F in the summer.  The excessive amounts of water applied apparently

had a cooling effect.

     In Cell C, the temperature range at a depth of 4 ft was 43 deg F, from 76

deg F to 119 deg F.  At the 10-ft depth, the range was 63 deg F, from 84 deg F

to 143 deg F.  With the blower operating in the normal manner, temperatures at

the 10-ft depth were much higher than at the 4-ft depth.  With the blower off,

the temperature differential was slight.

     6,6  Gas Production.  In Table 6.6.1 are presented the performance data for

Cell D for 1968.  Gas production within the cell totalled less than 100 cu ft,

with less than one-fourth of It being collected over the final 8 mo.  There was

virtually no gas produced over the last 6 mo.  Frequent checking Insured that

there were no leaks in the system.


                                     -39-
                                                                                                                                TABLE e.lhi
                         Temperatures in Cells A and B
Date
1968
4-16
4-22
4-29
5-06
5-13
5-20
5-31
6-03
6-10
6-17
6-29
7-02
7-08
7-15
7-22
7-29
8-05
8-14
8-20
8-29
9-09
9-17
9-24
10-01
10-07
10-18
10-28
11-03
11-11
11-18
11-25
12-02
12-08
12-15
12-30
Air Temperature*
Deg F
Max
65.1
72.0
86.1
72.2
62.0
81.2
79.0
82.8
86.6
96.6
73.7
87.8
90.7
83.4
92.3
91.3
89.2
79.2
77.6
96.9
103.2
89.8
99.1
68.5
70.4
85.0
80.2
70.0
81.1
73.1
62.5
62.7
69.6
59.6
66.3
Kin
53.0
44.0
51.8
52.6
49.4
49.1
59.0
57.1
51.4
61.4
56.0
53.8
68.8
59.7
62.8
66.8
59.7
56.9
61.0
67.0
70.0
53.9
59.0
60.1
59.2
57.0
55.4
49.2
53.0
49.4
44.1
41.4
42.9
48.7
39.2
Mean
59.0
62.0
69.0
62.4
55.7
65.0
69.0
70.0
69.0
79.0
64.8
70.8
79.7
72.5
77.3
81.0
74.4
68.0
69.3
82.0
87.0
71.8
79.0
64.3
64.8
71.0
67.8
59.6
67.0
62.2
53.3
52.0
56.3
54.2
52.7
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(Days)
1372
1378
1385
1392
1399
1406
1417
1420
1427
1434
1446
1449
1455
1462
1469
1476
1483
1492
1498
1507
1518
1526
1533
1540
1546
1557
1567
1573
1581
1588
1595
1602
1608
1615
1630
Cell A
Deg F
62
69
68
64
65
77
69
72
72
78
88
78
77
74
81
84
82
80
75
-
76
77
76
75
75
74
74
73
73
73
72
72
68
65
60
Cell B
Deg F
62
72
76
66
65
77
69
75
76
80
80
82
78
75
84
86
84
82
76
90
78
76
76
75
75
74
73
73
73
73
73
70
70
68
66
* Data from Pomona Weather Bureau

  Cell temperatures from thermometers suspended in 3/4-in., water-filled
  pipes installed March 5 in cored holes.  Thermometers located 8 ft
  above bottom.
                                                                                                                                   -40-

-------
                           TABLE  6.5.2
                     Temperatures In Cell C
Date
1968
1-04
1-08
1-15
1-22
1-29
2-05
2-14
2-20
2-26
4-16
4-22
4-20
5-06
5-13
5-20
5-31
6-03
6-10
6-21
6-29
7-02
7-08
7-15
7-22
7-29
8-05
8-14
8-20
8-29
9-09
9-17
9-24
10-01
10-07
10-18
10-28
11-03
11-11
11-18
11-25
12-02
12-08
12-15
12-30
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(Days)
1245
1249
1256
1263
1270
1277
1286
1292
1298
1348
1354
1361
1368
1375
1382
1393
1396
1403
1414
1422
1426
1432
1439
1446
1453
1460
1469
1475
1484
1494
1502
1508
1516
1522
1533
1543
1549
1557
1564
1571
1578
1584
1591
1606
Temperatures, *F
Air*
Max
60.5
60.0
67.8
75.2
54.7
73.4
61.2
59.0
75.0
65.1
72.0
86.1
72.2
62.0
81.2
79.0
82.8
86.6
96.6
73.7
87.8
90.7
83.4
92.3
91.3
89.2
79.2
77.6
96.9
103.2
89.8
99.1
68.5
70.4
85.0
80.2
70.0
81.1
73.1
62.5
62.7
69.6
59.6
66.3
Min
38.3
34.2
45.8
46.7
35.2
49.8
46.5
53.0
56.4
53.0
44.0
51.8
52.6
49.4
49.1
59.0
57.1
51.4
61.4
56.0
53.8
68.8
59.7
62.8
66.8
59.7
56.9
61.0
67.0
70.0
55.1
59.0
60.1
59.2
57.0
55.4
49.2
53.0
49.4
44.1
41.4
42.9
48.7
39.2

Mean
49.4
47.4
56.8
61.1
45.0
61.6
53.9
56.0
65.7
59.0
62.0
69.0
62.4
55.7
65.0
69.0
70.0
69.0
79.0
64.8
70.8
79.7
72.5
71.3
81.0
74.4
68.0
69.3
82.0
87.0
71.8
79.0
64.3
64.8
71.0
67.8
59.6
67.0
62.2
53.3
52.0
56.3
54.2
52.7
In Cell at
Indicated a
10 Ft
119
102
88

102
112

112
92
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
117
118
116
116
115
115
115
116
116
116
115
112
110
109
116
116
114
112
116
116
115
114
114
Distances
ove Bottom
2 Ft
143
123
94
84
110
126

122
96
120
121
120
118
122
112
110
112

117
117
111
114
118
114
114
113
109
110
116
115
118
117
115
115
116
109
106
107
107
104
104
102
102
102
* Data from Poaona Weather Bureau

  Cell temperatures from thermometers installed In water baths and
  placed in cored holes.

                              -41-
                                                                                                                            TABLE  6.6.1
                                                                                                             Gas Production and Temperatures  in Cell D
Date
1968
1-04
1-08
1-15
1-15
1-18
1-22
1-25
1-29
2-05
2-12
2-20
2-22
2-26
3-05
3-11
3-15
3-23
3-28
4-08
4-16
4-22
4-29
5-06
5-13
5-20
5-31
6-03
6-10
6-21
6-29
7-02
7-08
7-15
7-22
7-29
8-05
8-14
8-20
8-29
9-09
9-17
9-24
10-01
10-07
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(Days)
546
550
557
557
560
564
567
571
578
585
593
595
599
607
613
617
625
630
641
649
655
662
669
676
683
694
697
704
715
723
726
732
739
746
753
760
769
775
784
795
803
810
817
823
Cumulative
Volume of
Gas Produced
(cu ft)
1928.51
1933.50
1939.14
1939.14
1941.66
1945.25
1951.87
1956.90
1963.78
1971.99
1978.13
1979.22
1982.55
1982.55
1983.23
1983.38
1983.78
1983.94
1984.27
1989.17
1989.86
1994.28
1997.56
2001.22
2004.17
2018.01
2018.54
2019.11
2023.35
2023.45
2023.45
2023.53
2025.84
2026.48
2026.50
2026.51
2026.51

2027.01
2027.12

2026.70
2026.70
2026.70
Cell
Pressure
In.
Water
0.50
0.25
0.00

0.12
0.25

0.25
3.50
0.25
0.25

0.25





0.25
0.25
2.50
0.25
0.50
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.50
0.25

0.25

0.375

1.4
0.4

8.4*
1.0


0.1



Temperatures at
Locations Below
Top of Cell, Deg F
4 ft
62

68

68
68

69
70
78
77

81

80

76
76
74
75
75
74
74
74
80
79
79
75
88
88
82
82
83
86
88
86
85
82
86
88
86
85
85
80
14 ft



















76
82
82
82
81
88
81
84
84
84
84
89
86
87
83
92
91
90
87
90
90
90
90
90
90
(Continued on Page 43)
         -42-

-------
                          TABLE 6.6.1 (Continued)
                 Gaa Production and Temperatures In Cell D


Date
1968
10-18
10-28
11-03
11-11
11-18
11-25
12-02
12-08
12-15
12-30
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(Days)
834
844
850
858
865
S72
879
885
892
907
Cumulative
Volume of
Gas Produced
(cu ft)
2026.71
2026.71
2026.71
2026.72
2026.72
2026.72
2026.72
2026.72
2026.72
2026.73
Cell
Pressure
In.
Water
0.5

0.5

0.25


0.2


Temperatures at
Locations Below
Top of Cell, Deg F
4 ft 14 ft
80 89
79 89
73 88
78 89
75 89
72 C8
68 86
67 85
59 80
59 80
* Feed line to wet test cell closed for 4 days
  Temperatures measured by thermometers installed in water baths
                                  -43-
     The last thermistor in the tank failed.  A hole was drilled as close as

possible to the tank wall.  A 3/4-in. die water-filled pipe was placed in this

hole, and a thermometer was lowered into the pipe to a depth of 14 ft.  Still

available was a thermometer installed in an internal pipe at a depth of 4 ft.

     The temperature at the 14-ft depth ranged from 76 deg F to 92 deg F.  The

temperature at the 4-ft depth (inside of the tank) ranged from 59 deg F to 88

deg F.
                                                                                                                                     -44-

-------
        Photograph 1
Clamshell Used for Excavating
         for Cell D
                                                                                                      Photograph 3
                                                                                                  Installation of Cell D
        Photograph 2
   Delivery of Cell D to Site
    Photograph 4
Installation of Cell D
    Photograph 5
Installation of Cell D
            -45-
                                                                                                          -46-

-------
          Photograph 6
     Assembly of Internal Gas
    Collection Piping for Cell D
                            Photograph 8
                       External Gas Collection
                          Manifold, Cell D

           Photograph 7
 Gas Collection Piping Installed at
Top Level During Packing of Cell D
               -47-
     Photograph 9
External Gas Collection
   Manifold,  Cell D
     Photograph 10
External Gas Collection
    Manifold, Cell D
                                                                                                                -48-

-------
                                                                                                                       Photograph 15
                                                                                                                 View of Cell C (March 1968)
                                                                                                                 Showing Surface Settlement
        Photograph 11
Cover Plate for Cell D Manhole
 Showing Gas Line Connectors
 and Pipe Used as Water Bath
for Thermometer  at 4-ft Depth
 Photograph 12
  Coring Rig
                                                                                                                       Photograph 16
                                                                                                             View of Cell C Showing Access Well
                                                                                                                Exposed by Surface Settlement
         Photograph 13
       Core Examination
  Photograph 14
Core Examination
                                                                                                                       Photograph  17
                                                                                                            View of Cell C Showing Settlement and
                                                                                                               Development of Surface Cracks
                                 -49-

-------
                      7.  PROJECT CO-INVESTIGATORS



   The following are brief  sketches  of  the professional personnel who

served as co-investigators.



A.   Robert C. Merz

       Born September 13, 1911, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin

       BS in Civil Engineering, 1933, University of Wisconsin
       MS in Civil Engineering, 1950, University of Wisconsin

       1935-1948, Sanitary  Engineer, Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin
       1948-1950, Instructor, University of Wisconsin
       1950-date, Professor and Chairman, Department of Civil
                  Engineering, Assistant Dean, School of Engineering,
                  University of Southern California

       Member ASCE (F), AWWA, APHA,  WPCF, ASEE, AIDIS, RSH, Chi Epsilon,
                  Tau Beta  Pi, Sigma XI, Phi Kappa Phi, Blue Key
       Senior Sanitary Engineer, USPHS  (Inac. Res.)
       Certified by EEIB


B.   Ralph Stone

       Bom April 2, 1921,  at New York, New York

       BS in Engineering, 1943, University of California (Berkeley)
       MS in Civil Engineering, 1944, University of California (Berkeley)

       1944-1946, U. S. Public Health Service
       1946-1948, U. N. World Health Organization (in China)
       1948-1949, Inat. of  Inter-American Affairs (in Colombia, S.A.)
       1949-1951, Reaearch  Assoc., University of California (Berkeley)
       1951-1953, Project Engineer,  Fluor Corp., Los Angeles, California
       1953-date, Research  Assoc., University of Southern California, and
                  Consulting Sanitary Engineer in private practice,
                  President, Ralph Stone and Company, Inc.  - Engineers

       Registered Professional Engineer
       Member ASCE (F), AWWA, ACS, WPCF, APHA, APHA, RSH,  ASPO, AIP
       Senior Sanitary Engineer, USPHS  (Inac. Res.)
       Certified by EEIB
                                  -51-

-------
                                                                                                              UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
                                                                                                                      SCHOOL OP ENGINEERING
                                                                                                                        UNIVERSITY PARK
                                                                                                                   LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 0OOO7
                                                                                 OCPARTHEHT Or CIVIL ENOINURINO
SPECIAL STUDIES OF A SANITARY LANDFILL
                                                                                                                                             March  15,  1968
          Grant Number 8 E01 UI00518-07
            Second Progress Report to

             Office of Solid Wastes

       United States Public Health Service
  Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
      January 1, 1967 to December 31,  1967
       Prepared by Principal Investigators

            Robert C. Mere, Chairman
         Department of Civil Engineering

                   Ralph Stone
               Research Associate

        University of Southern California
             Los Angeles, California
Mr. Henry C. Steed, Jr.
Chief, Office of Grants Administration
Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare
National Center for Urban and Industrial
   Health
222 East Central Parkway
Cincinnati, Ohio  45202
                              Subject:  8 R01 UI00518-07
                                                                                                  Dear Mr.  Steed:
     Forty copies of our Second Progress Report covering
the investigation made under the subject grant on the
"Special Studies of a Sanitary Landfill" are submitted
to you with this letter.  This report summarizes the
project activity and services performed during the 1967
calendar year.
                                                                                                                                    Respectfully submitted,
RCM:bb
                                                 Chairman
                                                estigator
                                                                                                                            8.1-i

-------
                    2.  FOREWORD
                                                                                                                     3.   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
         On March 25, 1966, the Department of Civil Engineer-
ing of the University of Southern California submitted a final
report on the factors controlling the use of a sanitary landfill
cite.  Funds were provided by two grants from the United States
Public Health Service, EF-00160-04 and 5R01-EF-00160-03.  Copies
of the report are available from the University.

         These special studies of a sanitary landfill were con-
tinued and expanded under new grants, 9R01-SW-00028-06 covering
the 1966 calendar year, and 8 R01-UI-00518-07 covering the 1967
calendar year.  This report is offered as a second statement of
progress, and only the data collected during 1967 are included.
leaders are referred to the above referenced reports for full
and complete information concerning the construction, instrumen-
tation and initial performance of the four landfill test cells
described as A, B, C, and D.

         The project is under the joint direction of Robert
C. Jferz, Chairman, Department of Civil Engineering, and Ralph
Stone, Research Associate.  Field assistance was provided by
<" Curran and George De La Guardia, undergraduates,
Capt. Gerald Bar hour, Master of Science candidate, and Ramon
Beluche, Doctoral candidate.
This  investigation was  supported  in whole by

Public Health  Service Research  Grant  No.  UI-

00518-07 from  the National  Center for Urban

and Industrial Health.


The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles

County constructed the  test cells and provided

field assistance when requested.   The help of the

staff of the Sanitation Districts and of  John D.

Farkhurst, Chief Engineer and General Manager, are

most gratefully acknowledged.
                              8.1-11
                                                                                                                           8.1-111

-------
                TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section

   1

   2

   3

   4
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL                    1

FOREWARD                                 ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                          iii

CELLS A, B AND C
  4.1  External Climatic Factors          1
  4.2  Application of Water              14 10
  4.3  Settlement                       10
  4.4  Gas Production                   12
  4.5  Temperatures                     20

CELL D
  5.1  Performance                      24

PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS                 31

PROJECT CO-INVESTIGATORS                32
                           8.1-iv
                                                                                                                     LIST OF TABLES
                                                                                           Section
                                                                                                                          Title
                                                                                                                                                         Page
4.1.1      External Climatic Factors                2
4.2.1      Actual Amounts of Water Applied
              to Cell A                             4
4.2.2      Cell A Moisture Determined from
              Core Samples                          5
4.2.3      Actual Amounts of Water Applied
              to Cell B                             6
4.2.4      Cell B Moisture Determined from
              Core Samples                          7
4.2.5      Cell C Moisture Determined from
              Core Samples                          8
4.3.1      Cell Settlement Data                    11
4.4.1      Gas Composition in Cell A               13
4.4.2      Gas Composition in Cell B               15
4.4.3      Gas Composition in Cell C               17
4.4.4      Summary of Blower Operation,
              Cell C                               19
4.5.1      Temperatures in Cell A                  21
4.5.2      Temperatures in Cell B                  22
4.5.3      Temperatures In Cell C                  23
4.5.4      Log of Cores for Cells A, B and C,
              February, 1967                       25
4.5.5      Log of Cores for Cells A, B and C,
              November, 1967                       27

5.1.1      Gas Production and Temperatures,
              Cell D                               29
                                                                                                                            8.1-v

-------
                      4.   CELLS  A,  B,  AND C








  4.1  External  Climatic  Factors.  Monthly average air  temperatures and daily




rainfall* vere obtained from Pomona Weather Station  records and are recorded




in Table 4.1.1.   Daily temperatures are recorded  in  Tables 4.5.1 through




4.5.3.  Hie total rainfall  at the  test  site for the  full  3.5 yr. period of




study  (to December 31, 1967)  has been 62.1 in.  The  total rainfall for 1966




was 18.3 In.




  4.2  Application of Water.   In Table  4.2.1 are  shown  the amounts of water




applied to Cell  A.  The figures shown are cumulative since the start of this




investigation in September  1964.   The required annual amount of water to be




applied tc simulate the Seattle rainfall is 42.52 in.   The actual amount of




water  applied during  the  year was  21.37 in. irrigation  water plus 18.77 in.




rainfall for a total of 40.14 in.




     There is a  water supply  reservoir  located on top of  a high hill adjacent




to the research  site.  On September 3,  this reservoir accidentally overflowed,




and the water cascaded down the hill  and onto the surfaces of Cells A and B.




Based  on flood markings,  the  minimum  amount of water estimated to have entered




Cell A was 3750  gal and was included  in the September entry in Table 4.2.1.




The ulnlatBB amount  of water estimated te have entered Cell B was 2450 gal and




was included in  the September entry in  Table 4.2.3.




     The coring  program initiated  on  August 22, 1966, for the purpose of deter-




mining the moisture content of  the cells,  was continued.  The cells were cored




in February and  again in  November, and  samples were  taken at 2-ft depth Incre-




ments.  The top  cover and the subgrade  were also  sampled.  The samples were




sealed immediately  and transported to the laboratory where their moisture con-




tents were determined.  The core descriptions and the core temperatures appear




in Tables 4.5.4  and 4.5.5.  The moisture results  for Cell A are presented in



Table 4.2.2.



                                      8.1-1
                                                                                                                                         TABLE 4.1.1
External Climatic Factors
Month
Jan.





Feb.
March






April













May




June

July
Day
6
22
23
24
25
31
14
4
10
11
12
13
14
31
1
2
4
7
11
12
15
18
19
20
21
22
24
29
. 10
28
29
30
31
10
12

Rainfall, In
Daily
T
1.44
0.93
2.10
0.45
0.16
T
0.15
T
0.37
0.18
0.57
0.37
0.60
0.08
0.44
0.20
0.47
0.68
0.01
0.01
0.43
0.58
0.04
0.47
0.46
0.23
0.08
0.16
T
0.04
T
0.05
T
0.05

Cumulative





48.37
48.37






50.61













54.79




55.04

55.09
55.09
Temperatures, Deg F
Ave Max
65.8





71.2
67.8







63.4












77.2




77.2

91.3
Ave Min
41.8





43.7
47.3







42.8












52.3




53.8

61.8
Mean
53.8





57.5
57.5







53.1












64.7




65.5

76.6
  (Continued on Page 3)
          8.1-2

-------
 TABLE 4.1.1 (Continued)
                                                                                                         TABLE 4.2.1
External Climatic Factors
ttmth
Aug.
Spt.







Oct.
Hov.




Dec.




Day
30
2
10
22
23
27
28
29
30

19
20
21
28
30
8
16
17
18
19
Rainfall, In.
Daily
T
T
0.01
T
T
0.18
0.10
T
T

1.90
0.91
0.90
0.08
0.86
0.07
0.05
0.03
1.22
0.66
Cumulative
55.09







55.38
55.38




60.03




62.06
Temperatures, Deg
Ave Max
94.6
84.7







84.8
72.7




60.5




Ave Min
68.1
63.3







55.4
52.9




41.7




F
Mean
81.4
74.0







70.1
62.8




51.1




                                                                                          Actual Amounts of Water Applied to Cell A
Month
1964-65
J966
1967
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Water Applied
Gal



709
0
0
0
0
2,041
2,459
9,461
9,836
8,340
603
6,303
In.



0.45
0
0
0
0
1.17
1.62
5.06
5.60
4.28
0.41
2.78
Rainfall
In.



5.08
T
2.24
4.18
0.25
0.05
-
T
0.29
-
4.65
2.03
Total Water
Applied, In.
Monthly



5.53
0
2.24
4.18
0.25
1.22
1.62
5.06
5.89
4.28
5.06
4.81
Cumulative
86.98
43.29

135.80
135.80
138.04
142.22
142.47
143.69
145.31
150.37
156.26
160.54
165.60
170.41
Seattle, Wash. Rainfal
Water Required, In.
Monthly



7.71
9.11
4.45
2.35
3.07
0.54
0.75
0.82
0.46
3.27
4.67
5.32
Cumulative
56.24
42.52

106.47
115.58
120.03
122.38
125.45
125.99
126.74
127.56
128.02
131.29
135.96
141.28
           8.1-3
                                                                                                        8.1-4

-------
                 TABLE 4.2.2
CELL A MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Dlataoce
Top of
Cell
(ft)

Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-06
8-14
16-20
Entire Ce]
February 1967
Core No. 1
NW Corner
Core No. 2
SE Corner
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt

22.2
21.3
30.8
50.3
44.1
52.8
51.8
52.3
61.5
46.8
32.6


34.1
50.3
47.0
1 44.4
1
Dry Wt

28.5
27.1
44.6
101.1
78.7
112.0
107.7
109.6
159.6
87.9
48.5


57.6
102.0
98.7
87.6

Wet Wt

23.7
29.8
34.8
43.6
47.5
51.1
52.7
59.5
58.9
52.4
30.1


36.1
52.7
47.1
46.0

Dry Wt

31.0
42.4
53.3
77.3
91.3
104.4
111.3
147.9
143.0
110.8
43.1


57.7
113.7
98.9
92.4

November 1967
Core No. 1
N Side
Core No. 2
S Side
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt
1
21.2
12.3
28.1
41.5
39.6
56.6
53.5
45.0
48.7
53.4
61.6
30.6

27.3
48.7
54.6
44.0

Dry Wt

26.9
14.1
39.1
70.9
65.7
130.3
115.0
81.9
95.1
114.6
160.1
44.1

41.4
98.2
123.3
88.7

Wet Wt

20.9
11.3
60.7
48.7
44.0
60.1
49.6
48.0
64.0
60.7
41.4
25.4

40.2
50.4
55.4
48.9

Dry Wt

26.4
12.7
154.3
94.7
78.6
150.5
98.5
108.4
177.5
154.5
70.7
34.0

87.2
109.0
134.2
110.0

                    8.1-5
                                                                                                                      TABLE  4.2.3
                                                                                                       Actual Amounts of Water Applied  to Cell B
Month
1964-66
1967
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
Deceaber
Water Applied
Gal


0
3,571
0
0
7,236
10,822
14,060
14,617
19,186
7,685
57
0
In.


0
2,30
0
0
4.64
6.96
9.05
9.37
12.30
4.92
0,04
0.00
Rainfall
In


5.08
0
2.24
4.18
0.25
0.05
-
T
0.29
-
4.65
2.03
Total Water Applied, In
Monthly


5.08
2.30
2.24
4.18
4.89
7.01
9.05
9.37
12.59
4.92
4.69
2.03
Cumulative
169.02

174.10
176.40
178.64
182.82
187.71
194.72
203.77
213.14
225.73
230.65
235.34
237.37
                                                                                                                      8.1-6

-------
                 TABLE 4.2.4
CELL B MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Distance
Top of
Cell
(ft)


Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Averages
2-06
8-14
16-20
Entire Cel
February 1967
Core No. 1
SW Corner
Core No. 2
HE Corner

Per Cent Moisture
Wet Ut


44.2
54.7
51.6
63.3
63.0
37.5
67.1
47.2
63.1
27.3


50.2
57.7
45.9
1 51.9
Dry Wt


79.2
120.7
106.6
172.4
170.3
60.1
204.1
89.2
170.8
37.6


103.2
151.7
99.2
121.1
Wet Wt


39.2
53.9
48.6
48.6
53.7
35.7
42.2
45.9
47.7
22.0


47.2
45.1
38.5
43.8
Dry Wt


64.6
116.9
94.6
94.5
116.1
55.5
72.9
84.9
90.7
28.3


92.0
84.8
68.0
81.9
November 1967
Core No. 1
N Side
Core No. 2
S Side

Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt

22.3
26.1
46.1
40.1
44.4
46.7
41.5
45.8
-
57.8
58.0
25.5

37.5
44.6
57.9
45.2
Dry Wt

28.7
35.3
85.5
67.0
79.9
87.6
70.1
84.4
-
136.9
138.3
34.2

62.6
80.7
137.6
87.3
Wet Wt

23.7
25.6
37.9
47.2
49.0
51.6
51.1
61.2
65.1
63.0
56.1
33.5

36.9
53.2
61.3
50.8
Dry Wt

31.1
34.4
61.0
89.3
96.0
106.4
104.3
157.8
186.2
170.0
127.8
50.3

61.6
116.1
161.3
113.3
                   8.1-7
                                                                                                                  TABLE 4.2.5
                                                                                                 CELL C MOISTURE DETERMINED FROM CORE SAMPLES
Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
f f+\
lit)

Earth
Cover
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Subgrade
Av= rages
2-06
8-14
16-18
Entire Cel
February 1967
Core No. 1
NW Corner
Per Cent
Wet Wt


26.7
28.7
53.8
51.0
52.0
43.4
39.4
46.1
38.0
-
12.5

36.4
46.5
42.1
1 44.9
i
Dry Wt


36.3
40.2
116.3
103.9
108.4
76.6
65.0
85.3
61.3
-
14.3

64.3
88.5
73.3
85.1

Core No. 2
SE Corner
Moisture
Wet Wt


27.8
43.5
48.8
60.8
55.7
54.0
55.2
57.0
30.3
-


40.0
56.4
43.7
48.1

Dry Wt


38.4
77.0
95.2
155.4
125.6
117.6
123.0
132.3
43.5
-


70.2
130.4
87.9
100.9

November 1967
Core No. 1
N Side
Core No. 2
S Side
Per Cent Moisture
Wet Wt

11.7
26.7
57.2
32.0
50.0
41.0
43.8
43.2
28.3
16.2
-
16.7

38.6
44.5
22.2
37.6

Dry Wt

13.4
36.4
133.5
47.1
100.1
69.5
77.8
75.9
39.4
19.3
-
20.0

72.4
80.9
29.4
66.6

Wet Wt

15.9
18.2
24.4
50.4
49.9
46.9
47.7
51.4
52.8
23.6
-
21.9

31.0
49.0
38.2
40.6

Dry Wt

18.9
22.3
32.3
101.6
99.6
88.3
91.3
105.7
111.9
31.0
-
28.0

52.0
96.2
71.4
76.0

                                                                                                                     8.1-8

-------
     The aolsture  content  of  the  cell  as  a whole, on a wet weight basis, re-




mained virtually unchanged during the  interval between corlngs despite the




application of  29.8  in. water.  On a. dry  weight basis, the moisture content




increased 10%.  Ey the  end of the year, the moisture content of the earth cover




was considerably higher than  that of the  top  layer of refuse, indicating the




ready capillary rise of water from the top layer of refuse for subsequent evap-




oration froiB the bare cell surface.  The  moisture content of the subgrade, 2 ft




below the landfill,  was considerably less than that of the bottom layer of




refuse, when sampled in November, indicating  slow movement of water into the




ground.  At the bottom  of  Table 4.2.2  are shown the average moisture contents




for the top portion  of  the cell  (2-6 ft), the middle portion (8-14 ft), and the




bottom portion  (16-20 ft).  The November  figures indicate that a downward




transfer of water  has taken place,  since  in February the band with the highest




moisture content was between  8 and 14  ft  below the surface.




     In Table 4.2.3  are shown the amounts of  water applied to Cell B.  The




figures shown are  cumulative, as  in the case  of Cell A described above.  The




actual aaount of water  applied during  the year was 49.58 in. of irrigation




water applied on demand by the tensiometer equipment (and including the afore-




mentioned reservoir  drainage) plus 18.77  in.  rainfall for a total of 68.35 in.




This was adequate  to maintain an  excellent turf cover on top of the cell.




     Cell B received 61.2  In. water between corings.  The picture presented by




analysis of the core samples  in Table  4.2.4 is as follows.  The moisture con-




tent of the cell as  a whole on a  wet or dry weight basis remained virtually




unchanged, and  the moisture content of the subgrade when sampled in November




was considerably less than that of the bottom layer of refuse, again indicating




slow movement of water  into the ground.   However, the moisture content of the




earth cover was little  different  from  that of the top layer of refuse.
                                     8.1-9
Considering  that  Cell  B  received more  than twice  the  amount  of water  applied  to




Cell A  (on call from the tensiometer control  equipment),  and considering  that




the top  cover  of  Cell  B  was  especially prepared to  resist passage  of  applied




water, the relationship  is reasonable.  The average moisture contents in  Novem-




ber for  the  designated cell  portions (as  noted above  in Cell A)  again indicate




a downward transfer  of water as in  Cell A,  and again  show that the depth  with




the highest  moisture content was between  8  and 14 ft  below the surface in




February.




   Cell  C received no  water  during  the year other than normal rainfall of 18.8




in.  The cell  has continued  to exhibit a  loss of moisture.   The  moisture  con-




tent of  the  cell as  a  whole  decreased from 46.5% to 39.IX  on  a dry  weight  basis.




In contrast  to Cells A and B, the driest  material is  found in the  bottom  por-




tion (16-18  ft) in both  February and November, a condition to be expected since




the forced air is introduced into the fill  from the air ducts located beneath




the fill.  For the same  reason, there is  little difference in the  moisture




contents of  the bottom portion of the cell  and the  subgrade.




   4.3   Settlement.  The  settlement of all  cells was  periodically  measured by




survey,  and  the data are  given in Table 4.3.1.  During the year, Cell A settled




an additional 0.57 ft, Cell  B 0.51  ft and Cell C 1.14 ft.  As shown,  Cells A




and B have each settled a total of approximately 1.30 ft  and  Cell  C has settled




a total of 3.75 ft or  nearly three  times  as much.   The rate of settlement  of




all cells has been fairly uniform with the  few exceptions probably caused  by




expansion of the adobe cover soil.




   The bench marks used to measure settlement are concrete monuments  original-




ly set flush with the  cell surface.  There are four at each cell,  located  about




12 ft from the access well on N-S and E-W diameters.  The reported settlement




refers to the average movement of these benchmarks.   There are portions of the




cells that have settled to a greater and  lesser extent.   In Cell C, for
                                                                                                                                        8.1-10

-------
    TABLE 4.3.1
Cell Settlement Data
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)
896
920
935
959
963
987
991
1015
1044
1068
1079
1103
1110
1134
1148
1171
1180
1204
1208
1232
1222
1246
Total Settlement of
Cell Surface, Ft
Cell Number
A

0.8300

0.8575

0.9075

0.8900

0.9750

1.0550

1.0925

1.1550

1.2400

1.3100

1.3275
B

0.7850

0.8150

0.8500

0.8500

0.9150

0.9825

1.0175

1.0725

1.1475

1.2375

1.2550
C
2.6075

2.7100

2.8075

2.8775

3.0550

3.2350

3.3550

3.4600

3.5875

3.6950

3.7525

Total Settlement of
Mid-Depth Surface, Ft
Cell Number
A

0.65

0.68

0.71

0.71

0.77

0.83

0.84

0.88

0.93

0.97

0.98
B

0.53

0.54

0.57

0.57

0.60

0.65

0.65

0.68

0.72

0.77

0.80
C
2.18

2.32

2.42

2.48

2.60

2.78

2.86

2.94

3.05

3.17

3.24

instance, the surface settlement around the access well Is more than 5 ft.




   The differential settlement between the top half and bottom half of Call* A




and B increased during the year.  In Cell A the differential is now 0.35 ft,




and in Cell B it is 0.46 ft.  The differential in Cell C remained 0.51 ft.




This is simply indicative of an increase in the "equivalent" density of tha




bottom fill material.




   While there were no serious caveins during the year, surface fissures con-




tinued to develop and these were filled in as soon as possible.




   4.4  Gas Production.  As shown in Table 4.4.1, Cell A continued over the




entire year to produce a gas high in carbon dioxide and methane at top and




bottom levels.  Oxygen and nitrogen were present in varying minor amounts.




There was no hydrogen.  There has been no marked change in the gas composition




from what it was during 1966.




   As shown in Table 4.4.2, Cell B also continued to produce a gas high in




carbon dioxide and methane at top and bottom levels.  And again, because of air




from Cell C moving over 25 ft through an adobe soil wall into Cell B, oxygen




was generally present in quantities up to 4 percent, whereas the Cell A value




was generally less than one percent.  The continuing presence of oxygen is not




normally compatible with the presence of methane, and yet the technique as well




as the equipment used were thoroughly checked and appeared to be satisfactory.




   The gas analyses for Cell C are shown in Table 4.4.3, and this table should




be correlated with Table 4.4.4 which summarizes blower operation.




   The blower steadily supplied air at desired on-off schedules throughout the




full year.  The cycle of on 0.5 hr and off 1.0 hr started on Dec. 1, 1966, was




continued to Sept. 26, 1967.  On that date the cycle was changed to on 1.0 hr




and off 0.5 hr.  The change was made simply to determine what the effect of




more air would be in the gas composition and temperatures.




   The data Indicate there was little immediate or long-time change in the
                                                                                                          8.1-12
     8.1-11

-------
                                            TABLE 4.A.I
                                      Gas Composition In Cell A


Date
1 Qft7
i:*D/
1-03
1-18
2-01
3-08
3-15
3-22
3-29
4-06
5-03
5-11
6-12
6-19
6-26
7-03
7-10
7-25
8-01
8-08
8-16
8-22
8-29
9-26
10-03
10-09

Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Prvn\1 A^ 4 M\ nf
lOmp.Leil.On OI
Cell
903
918
932
967
974
981
988
996
1023
1031
1063
1070
1077
1084
1091
1106
1113
1120
1128
1134
1141
1169
1176
1182
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface
7 Feet
coz
48.75
50.77
44.44

53.05
52.24
51.46
48.23
49.49
47.18
40.75
37.05
43.18
43.73
41.20
38.01
34.09
51.90
50.00
44.12
51.23
53.48
53.97
53.35
2
0.07
0.48
0.24

0.05
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.07
0.02
0.02
3.66
0.94
0.64
2.03
2.27
0.38
0.67
0.85
2.37
1.24
0.67
1.02
T
CH4
50.86
46.88
54.33

46.70
47.63
48.47
51.65
50.20
52.74
59.14
46.82
51.18
53.07
52.70
48.37
63.64
45.44
47.23
45.59
41.33
43.15
40.95
44.35
H2
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
0.32
1.87
0.99

0.20
0.10
0.05
0.10
0.24
0.06
0.09
12.47
4.70
2.56
4.07
11.35
1.89
1.99
1.92
7.92
6.20
2.70
4.06
2.30
13 Feet
C02
50.94
53.32

49.24
51.80
51.04
53.80
48.75
48.02
46.85

43.02

32.36
40.44
38.40
35.67
46.22
48.28
51.27
43.64

52.57
53.61
2
0.16
0.55

1.68
0.65
1.27
0.19
0.42
0.06
0.10

0.03

3.71
0.91
0.87
3.30
0.01
3.28
1.98
4.27

1.83
1.00
CH4
48.30
43.89

42.76
45.03
42.86
45.29
49.15
51.67
52.67

56.73

42.51
55.25
58.48
52.46
53.74
35.34
36.83
37.88

38.29
40.40
H2
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.00
0.00
N2
0.60
2.24

6.32
2.52
4.83
0.72
1.68
0.25
0.38

0.22

21.42
3.40
2.25
8.57
0.03
13.10
9.92
14.21

7.31
4.99
                                       (Continued on Page 14)
                                        TABLE 4.4.1 (Continued)
                                       Gas Composition in Cell A
              Elapsed Time
                In  Days
               Following
              Completion of
                  Cell
10-23
10-30
11-06
11-27
12-04
12-11
12-21
12-28
52.75
53.89
53.25
51.55
51.60
52.91
51.67
49.71
46.18
46.11
46.51
48.38
46.88
47.03
48.19
50.16

-------
       TABLE 4.4.2
Gaa Composition In Cell B


Date
1967

1-03
1-18
2-01
2-22
3-08
3-15
3-22
3-29
4-06
5-03
5-11
6-12
6-19
6-26
7-03
7-10
7-25
8-01
8-08
8-16
8-22
8-29
9-12
9-21
9-26
Elapsed Tim*
In Dayi

Completion of
Cell
903
918
932
953
967
974
981
988
996
1023
1031
1063
1070
1077
1084
1091
1106
1113
1120
1128
1134
1141
1155
1164
1169
Percent Composition by Volume, of Uai Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below finiihed Surface

7 Feet
C02
53.30
64.37
52.39
47.17
42.27
45.62
57.48
48.00
53.63
57.38
53.48
38.34
41.82
31.72
41.41
41.65
48.12
37.91
41.27
47.10
51.22
44.49
53.25
48.07
53.85
2
0.05
0.79
0.13
2.61
3.39
4.26
0.70
0.78
0.14
0.04
0.05
0.01
0.01
2.80
1.98
1.18
0.65
1.29
3.13
3.18
3.96
3.21
2.46
2.41
2.00
CH4
46.23
29.34
46.41
38.35
33.73
33.68
38.71
45.47
45.45
42.39
46.33
61.56
58.11
51.48
46.70
48.28
47.31
58.21
46.23
39.13
35.57
39.46
38.39
43.50
38.15
H2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
0.42
5.50
1.07
11.87
20.61
16.44
3.11
5.75
0.78
0.19
0.14
0.19
0.06
14.00
9.91
8.89
3.92
2.59
9.37
10.59
9.25
12.84
5.90
6.02
6.00

13 Feet
C02
51.51
50.50
43.73


37.74



52.35

21.47
30.13
32.35
39.43
34.46
37.98
38.30
48.64
47.01
45.22
49.14
51.91
50.55
44.79
2
0.15
1.54
1.56


2.66



0.25

2.29
0.60
1.82
1.66
0.46
0.20
0.13
0.19
0.12
0.93
0.40
1.19
0.62
1.45
CH4
47.67
33.27
44.80


37.85



46.44

38.39
33.27
43.21
43.27
57.06
52.33
50.35
44.12
47.01
45.11
39.45
43.33
42.62
42.17
H2
0
0
0


0



0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
0.67
14.69
9.91


21.75



0.25

2.29
0.60
22.62
15.64
8.02
9.49
11.22
7.05
5.86
8.74
11.01
3.57
6.21
11.59
 (Continued on Page 16)
 TABLE 4.4.2 (Continued)
Gas Composition in Cell B


Date
1967

10-03
10-09
10-23
10-30
11-06
11-27
12-04
12-11
12-21
12-28
Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Completion of

1176
1182
1196
1203
1210
1231
1238
1245
1255
1262
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet
CO,
57.20
56.64
52.74
54.19
52.24
49.94
48.28
51.85
46.06
51.83
2
1.40
T
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.16
0.31
0.07
0.06
CH,
35.80
40.51
43.96
45.81
47.76
49.86
50.98
46.66
53.55
47.80
H2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
5.60
2.85
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.18
0.58
1.18
0.32
0.31

13 Feet
co2
39.13
53.13
41.53
43.12
50.36
50.42

53.31
49.81
51.07
2
2.37
0.34
0.35
o.n
0.15
0.03

0.03
0.04
0.03
CH4
38.51
38.78
54.96
55.18
38.55
49.32

46.54
49.89
48.75
H2
0
0
0
0
0.02
0.00

0
0
0

N2
19.99
7.75
3.16
1.59
10.92
0.23

0.12
0.26
0.15

-------
                                                            TABLE 4.4.3
oo
V
                                                    Gas Composition in Cell C


Date
1967

1-03
1-18
2-01
2-22
3-08
3-15
3-22
3-29
4-06
4-13
5-03
5-11
6-19
6-26
7-03
7-10
7-25
8-01
8-08
8-16
8-22
9-12
9-21
9-26
Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Completion of
Cell
879
894
908
929
943
950
957
964
972
979
999
1007
1046
1053
1060
1067
1082
1089
1096
1104
1110
1131
1140
1145
Percent Composition by Volume of Gacet Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet
co2
16.37
8.35
12.58
6.14
21.48
26.87
4.26
8.87
27.62
28.42
19.71
15.45




20.72
22.94
25.79
29.63
11.43
9.40
4.98
9.01
2
12.28
15.95
13.43
16.02
11.23
8.95
17.43
14.06
7.43
7.39
10.87
13.32




3.18
0.74
1.40
1.21
8.29
9.58
10.49
7.78
CH4
14.96
2.67
8.71
2.22
18.27
21.65
2.19
2.93
22.49
23.53
19.20
16.17




10.51
11.73
12.11
14.81
6.28
5.13
3.09
4.61
H2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0




0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
54.81
73.03
65.28
75.65
49.02
42.53
76.12
74.14
42.46
40.66
50.22
55.06




65.59
64.59
60.70
54.35
74.00
75.89
81.44
78.60

13 Feet
co2
20.56
8.00
20.43
10.53
23.74
22.93
14.08
9.99
27.30
30.98
32.19

8.76
11.02
10.30
8.92


5.24
2.12
1.87
1.79
2.90

2
11.30
15.79
8.96
14.84
9.66
10.97
12.40
13.35
7.11
7.06
5.05.

15.52
13.83
10.30
19.80


11.56
17.62
15.56
18.06
17.78

CH4
15.85
3.12
11.03
4.78
18.93
16.71
6.26
3.89
22.42
25.00
29.10

7.59
7.61
14.65
8.84


2.87
1.53
2.17
2.42
2.90

H,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0

N,
52.29
73.09
59.58
69.85
47.67
49.39
67.26
72. 77
43.17
36.96
33.66

68.13
67.54
64.75
62.44


80.33
78.73
80.40
77.73
76.42

                                                      (Continued on Page 18)
                                                      TABLE 4.4.3 (Continued)
                                                     Gas Composition in Cell C


Date
1967


10-03
10-09
10-23
10-30
11-06
12-04
12-11
12-28
Elapsed Time
In Days

Completion of
Cell

1152
1158
1172
1179
1186
1214
1221
1238
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet

C02





51.34



02





0.16


CH4





46.96


H2








N2








13 Feet

C02
3.94
2.66
2.01
4.57
1.37
2.82
6.33
6.24
2
18.64
19.26
20.09
18.15
20.65
19.33
17.57
16.87
CH4
2.87
1.03
0.40
1.52
0.55
1.42
3.45
3.87
H2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
74.55
77.05
77.50
75.76
77.43
76.43
72.65
73.02

-------
            TABLE 4.4.4
Summary of Blower Operation,  Cell  C
Elapsed Time
in Days
Following
Completion of Cell
B
-

980

1015

1148

1150
1157
1162

1171


1183

1204


1218


1232
C
877
954


991






1145
1147



1179

1182


1196


Blower
On
X
X
X

X

X

X
X
X
X
X


X
X
X
X

X
X

X
Off
























Blower Cycle
Hr on
0.5
i 	
r








j
 i
1.0
r









j
1.0
Hr off
1.0
1
r








j
	 i
0.5
i 	
r









_J
0.5
Remarks

Steam emitted from Cell C
3.5 ft water bottom
Cell B
8.5 ft water bottom Cell B
4.0 in. water bottom Cell C
Cell B cave-in due to
flooding
6.5 ft water bottom Cell B
5.5 ft water bottom Cell B
5.0 ft water bottom Cell B

6.2 ft water bottom Cell B
Installed new tarpaulin
Cell C
5.0 ft water bottom Cell B
Odor problem Cell C
4.5 ft water bottom Cell B
Filled and compacted surface
fissures Cell C
4.5 ft water bottom Cell B
Cave- in around access well,
caused by rain
6.8 ft water bottom Cell B
              8.1-19
analysts of the gas taken from the lower portion of the cell.  Oxygen values




remained In the range of 17-20 percent, carbon dioxide in the range of 1-6




percent, and nitrogen in the range of 73-77 percent.  While it was expected




that methane would disappear, small amounts persisted.




   Difficulties were encountered in obtaining valid gas samples from the upper




portion of the cell during this interval of 3 mo.  Methane, for instance, was




found in quantities that appeared unreasonably high.




   4.5  Cell Temperatures.  In Tables 4.5.1 through 4.5.3 are presented the




temperature data for all of the cells.  For each cell are shown the maximum,




minimum and average temperatures for the air, the access well temperature, and




the internal temperatures.  All of these readings are correlated with the date




on which they were taken and the total elapsed time in days following the com-




pletion of each cell.




   During the year, Cell A at mid-depth experienced a range of 24 F deg from 58




in the winter to 82 in the summer.




   In Cell B, the temperature range was 22 F deg from 60 in the winter to 82 In




the suer.




   Thermistors in Cell C at mid-depth and bottom levels failed in 1966.  To ob-




tain internal temperatures, thermometers immersed in water baths were suspended




in 2-in. dia pipes which, in turn, were set into the shafts established by the




coring operation.  The mid-depth temperatures are seen to be consistently




higher than bottom temperatures due to the fact that the air introduced into




the bottoa of the cell has a cooling effect.  By the end of November, after




2 mo of increased blower operation, the temperature had risen as high as 162




deg F.  When Cell C was cored in November, the core temperatures at depths of




8-12 ft on the North side confirmed this value.  However, core temperatures on




the South side of the cell were much lower through the middle portion, ranging




from 106-130 deg F.  The temperatures of all core samples are included in the
                                                                                                           8.1-20

-------
                              TABLE 4.5.1
                        Temperatures In Cell A
Bate
1967
1-05
1-12
1-27
2-01
2-07
4-13
4-27
5-04
5-11
5-18
5-25
6-12
6-19
6-26
7-03
7-10
8-01
8-08
8-16
8-22
8-29
9-12
9-21
9-26
10-03
10-09
10-16
10-23
10-30
11-06
11-27
12-04
12-11
12-21
12-28
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)
905
912
927
932
938
1003
1017
1024
1031
1038
1045
1053
1070
1077
1084
1091
1113
1120
1128
1134
1141
1155
1164
1169
1176
1182
1189
1196
1203
1210
1231
1238
1245
1255
1262
Temperatures , F
Air*
Max
57
70
71
63
71
60
71
71
67
81
71
62
81
90
86
94
90
88
93
90
105
89
82
82
80
86
93
84
81
52
52
61
68
54
63
Min
39
45
41
42
42
45
47
45
49
55
58
53
54
53
59
58
63
63
68
64
69
68
58
62
58
53
54
51
56
73
66
39
37
33
45
Avg
48
58
56
53
57
53
59
58
58
68
65
58
68
72
73
76
77
76
81
77
87
79
70
72
69
70
74
68
69
63
59
50
53
44
54
Access
Well
64
65
53
55
52
58
59
60
61
62
62
66
65
66
67
68
73

76
83
93
76
76
76
87
87
77
80
76
82
65
60
63
56
61
In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Finished Elevation
4 Ft
61
61
53
55
54
57
62
60
62
64
65
68
67
69
72
76

79
82
88
97
80
78
78
82
81
79
78
70

63
60
76


10 Ft
67
67
60
61
58
63
64
64
63
64
63
61
64
65
73

80
82
69
70
70
69
69
69
79
79
75
79


71
66
72
74

16 Ft
68
67
68
66
58
67
74
68
68
66
70
72
68
72
80
73

71
74
79
80
75
72
75











* Data From Pomona Weather Bureau
                             8.1-21
                                                                                                                         TABLE 4.5.2
                                                                                                                   Temperatures in Cell B
Date
1967
1-05
1-12
1-27
2-01
2-07
4-13
4-27
5-04
5-11
5-18
5-25
6-12
6-19
6-26
7-03
7-10
8-01
8-08
8-16
8-22
8-29
9-12
9-21
9-26
10-03
10-09
10-16
10-23
10-30
11-06
11-27
12-04
12-11
12-21
12-28
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)
905
912
927
932
938
1003
1017
1024
1031
1038
1045
1063
1070
1077
1084
1091
1113
1120
1128
1134
1141
1155
1164
1169
1176
1182
1189
1196
1203
1210
1231
1238
1245
1255
1262
Temperatures, F
Air*
Max
57
70
71
63
71
60
71
71
67
81
71
62
81
90
86
94
90
88
93
90
105
89
82
82
80
86
93
84
81
52
52
61
68
54
63
Hin |Avg
39
45
41
42
42
45
47
45
49
55
58
53
54
53
59
58
63
63
68
64
69
68
58
62
58
53
54
51
56
73
66
39
37
33
45
48
58
56
53
57
53
59
58
58
68
65
58
68
72
73
76
77
76
81
77
87
79
70
72
69
70
74
68
69
63
59
50
53
44
54
Access
Well
65
65
53
55
54
59
59
64
64
68
70
69
70
77
79
76
84
60
90
87

80
79
76
81
76
79
75
65

52

50


In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Flnl bed Elevation
4 Ft
67
67
64
64
60
71
67
64
64
64
64
70
66
68
72
71

74
74
82
78
76
76
76
78

80
77


73
73
75
70

10 Ft
75
74
73
72
63
70
72
72
70
70
70
70
70
71
74
73

74
77

75
74
74
76
78
76
80
74


67
60

60

16 Ft



































                                                                                            * Data From Pomona Weather Bureau
                                                                                                                        8.1-22

-------
                             TABLE A.5.3
                                                                                       log  shown la Table 4.5.5.
                        Temperatures  in Cell C
Date
1967
1-05
1-12
1-27
2-01
2-07
3-21
3-28
3-29
4-06
4-13
4-27
5-04
5-11
5-18
5-25
6-12
6-19
6-26
7-03
7-10
8-01
8-08
8-16
8-22
8-29
9-12
9-21
9-26
10-03
10-09
10-16
10-23
10-30
11-06
11-27
11-28
12-04
12-11
12-21
12-28
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)
881
888
903
908
914
956
963
964
972
979
993
1000
1007
1014
1021
1039
1046
1053
1060
1067
1089
1096
1104
1110
1117
1131
1140
1145
1152
1158
1165
1172
1179
1186
1207
1208
1214
1221
1231
1238
Temperatures . *F
Air*
Max | Min j
57
70
71
63
71
74
65
63
68
60
71
71
67
81
71
62
81
90
86
94
90
88
93
90
105
89
82
82
80
86
93
84
81
52
52
52
61
68
54
63
39
45
41
42
42
47
45
48
42
45
47
45
49
55
58
53
54
53
59
58
63
63
68
64
69
68
58
62
58
53
54
51
56
73
66
61
39
37
33
45
Avg
48
58
56
53
57
62
55
56
55
53
59
58
58
68
65
58
68
72
73
76
77
76
81
77
87
79
70
72
69
70
74
68
69
63
59
57
50
53
44
54
Access
Well
105
106

91
87




98
93
97

94
108
97
93
112






















In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Finished Surface
4 Ft | *10 Ft
97
96
95
95
94




102
97

95
94
96






























141
130
137
164
161
154
152
133
122
115
115

110
114
112
104
110
112
114
116
115
112
112
104
105
107
111
112
118
164
162
158
154
145
142
*20 Ft





103
94
93
117
120
125
124
110
97
90
102

100
100
104
100
104
106
106
106
108
108
108
104
102
103
102
101
103
116
116
118
122
119
120
                                                                                                                         5.   CELL D
                                                                                         5.1  Performance.   In Table  5.1.1  are  presented the  performance  data covering

                                                                                       the entire 18-mo  period  following  completion  of  the installation  of Cell D.

                                                                                       Cell, in this  case,  refers  to the  10,000  gal  underground  steel  storage  tank,

                                                                                       95 in. I.D. x  28  ft  high x  1/4  in.  th., which was  packed  with refuse, instru-

                                                                                       mented, and carefully  sealed.

                                                                                         Gas production within the cell  totalled  less  than one  cubic  foot between mid-

                                                                                       July and Che end  of  August, 1966.   There  was  no  gas produced from that  date

                                                                                       until February 22, 1967.  During this interval,  the tank  was observed to be

                                                                                       under a partial vacuum,  indicating  there  was  no  gas leakage taking  place.  Be-

                                                                                       ginning on that date and to year's  end, 1919  cu  ft were measured, equivalent to

                                                                                       26.3 cu ft per cu yd of  refuse.

                                                                                         During this period  of  gas production,  temperatures within the  cell rose

                                                                                       slowly and reached optimum values for bacterial  activity  throughout the  tank by

                                                                                       June 12.  During  the last 6 mo, the temperatures (by thermistors) ranged from

                                                                                       92 to 120 deg F.  At the  end of August, a thermometer was placed  in a water

                                                                                       bath and lowered  into  a  2-in. dla sealed  pipe  originally  affixed  within  the top

                                                                                       cover plate of the cell.  This thermometer  thus  reads the temperature existing

                                                                                       at the top level  of the  refuse in the tank, about  3 ft  below ground level.  The

                                                                                       data are included in Table 5.1.1 and are  observed  to be well below  the  internal

                                                                                       recorded temperatures.
*  Data from thermometers installed In water baths
   and placed in core holes.
                             8.1-23
                                                                                                                           8.1-24

-------
                    TABLE 4.5.4
LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND C - FEBRUARY, 1967
Cell
and
Core
No.

A-NW










A-SE








B-SW









B-NE








Elapsed
Time Since
Cell
Completion
Days
940










940








940









940








Distance
Below
Tep of
Cell
Ft
2
4
b

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

16
2 .
4
8
10
12
14
16
18

20
4
6
8

10
12
16
18
20


Observation


Moist refuse
Mushy - black chunks - light odor
Strong odor - metal shiny - grass light
green
Papfir in chunks - cloth unaffected - mild odor
Grass light green - paper legible - mild odor
Grass light green - metal shiny - plastic new
Grass, wood unaffected - cloth rotten
Grass green - plastic unaffected - mild odor
Materials massed together - rags rotted
Bottom muddy
Dry cool dirt - shiny metal
Material dry and decomposed - cellophane unaf.
Mushy, chunky material - rubber unaffected
Mushy, decomposed material - mild odor
Grass brown - cloth unaffected
Material dry and loose
Material very moist - ident. difficult -
plastic unaffected
Plastic - glass - rubber unaffected
Dirt only
Moist - no odor
Black, mushy decomposed material
Mushy paper - shiny metal - mild odor
Rags rotten - paper legible - leaves unaf.
Grass green - metal shiny - strong odor
Rags rotten
Grass decomposed - paper legible - metal
shiny - plastic unaf. - no odor
Bottom wet clay
Mushy material - yellow chunky paper
Paper legible - mild odor
Material dry, loose, decomposed - paper
legible
Plastic and glass unaffected - mild odor
Metal shiny
Paper yellow but legible - strong odor
Same
Moist clay bottom
              (Continued on Page 26)





                     8.1-25
                                                                                                             TABLE 4.5.4  (Continued)
                                                                                               LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND  C  -  FEBRUARY,  1967
Cell
and
Core
Ho.

C-HB














C-SE










Elapsed
Tine Since
Cell
Completion
Days
917














917










Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
Ft
2
4
6

8

10

12

14

16
18
20
2
4
6

8
10

12
14

18


Observation


Dirt only
Paper chunk, legible - cloth rotten
MatetiaJ chunky, brown, decomposed -
metal oxidized - 114 deg F
Black, charred material - strong burnt
odor - 128 deg F
Material very decomposed - glass unaf .
144 deg F
Material very decomposed - cans black -
plastic unaffected - 158 deg F
Charred and burnt - little identifiable
material - 164 deg F
Very strong odor - wood burnt - 158 deg F
Same - plastic unaffected - 154 deg F
Bottom gravel - injured clay pipe
Dirt dry
Grass dark green, mushy, moist
Materials black, moist - metal oxidized -
plastic unaffected
Paper mushy, moist but legible - 105 deg F
Most material black, unidentifiable -
cellophane brittle - 105 deg F
Same - rubber hose and plastic unaf.
Cloth rotted - wood unaffected - strong
odor - 120 deg F
Clay bottom - moist
8.1-26

-------
                    TABLE 4.5.5
LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND C - NOVEMBER, 1967
Cell
and
Core
Ho.

A-B










A-S









B-N








B-S










Elapsed
Time Since
Cell
Completion
Days
1218










1218









1218








1218










Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
Ft
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
18
20
22
2
4
8
10
12
14
18
20
22
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
Core
Temp.
Deg
F

72
70
68
70
74
74
75
75
75
75
74
68
69
72
72
73
73
74
75
74
72
69
70
72
74
76
79
78
78
76
70
73
78
90
88
85
87
85
86
84
84


Observation


Dirt only
Recognizable wood, rags - spicy
Same - septic odor
Refuse partially decomposed - musty
Graffs, green - musty
Undecomposed straw - spicy
Refuse well decomposed - spicy
Same - wood and grass recognizable
Same - musty
Mostly soil - balsamic
Soil - balsamic
Soil - earthy
Refuse moldy - septic
Refuse partially decomposed - spicy
Grass and rags evident - musty
Grass green - paper legible - musty
Material slimy - septic
Refuse partially decomposed - septic
Advanced decomposition - slimy - spicy
Same
Subgrade - spicy
Soil - earthy
Grass, wood, paper recog. - musty
Same
Refuse partially decomposed - musty
Same - newsprint legible - musty
Same - leaves unchanged - spicy
Same - septic
Well decomposed - slimy - septic
Subgrade soil - musty
Soil - earthy
Grass, paper unchanged - musty
Same - branches unchanged - musty
Same - spicy
Refuse partially decomposed - spicy
Rags, plastic, leaves unchanged - spicy
Same
Refuse slimy - septic
Same
Wood, paper, sticks, leaves recognizable
Subgrade soil - musty
              (Continued on Page 28)



                     8.1-27
                                                                                                               TABLE 4.5.5 (Continued)
                                                                                                 LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND C - NOVEMBER, 1967
Cell
and
Core
No.

C-N











c-s









Elapsed
Tine Since
Cell
Completion
Days
1193











1193









Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
Ft
2
4
6
8

10

12
14
16
18
20
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Core
Temp.
Deg
F

108
111
114
168

154

158
145
118
109
106
87
90
114
106
137
130
127
115
106
98


Observation


Soil only - musty
Granular appearance - musty
Refuse partially decomposed - musty
Paper charred - wood recognizable -
balsamic
Granular appearance - paper charred -
balsamic
Same - advanced decomposition - musty
Same
Same
Soil mostly - musty
Subgrade soil - musty
Soil only - earthy
Mostly soil - earthy
Paper , wood, plastic unchanged - musty
Grass appeared burnt - balsamic
Paper burnt - musty
Paper and wood burnt - musty
Refuse well decomposed - musty
Same
Mostly soil - musty
Subgrade soil - musty
8.1-28

-------
      TABLE 5.1.1
CELL D PERFORMANCE DATA
Date
1967
1-05
1-12
1-27
2-01
2-07
2-22
2-28
3-03
3-07
3-08
3-15
3-19
3-21
3-22
3-24
3-28
3-29
4-04
4-06
4-13
4-25
4-27
5-04
5-11
5-18
5-25
6-12
6-17
6-19
6-26
7-01
7-03
7-10
7-17
7-22
7-25
8-01
8-03
8-07
8-08
8-16
8-18
8-22
8-29
8-31
Days
Following
Completion
of Cell
182
189
204
209
215
230
236
239
243
244
251
255
257
258
260
264
265
271
273
280
292
294
301
308
315
322
340
345
347
354
359
361
368
375
380
383
390
392
396
397
405
407
411
418
420
Cumulative
Volume
of Gas
Produced
Cu Ft





40.63
40.84
41.07
41.29
41.50
41.73
42.01
42.47
42.92
43.33
43.66
48.15
72.47
80.39
113.30
180.15
192.10
238.43
288.26
329.07
403.06
465.58
520.48
541.64
629.10
682.85
701.89
758.13
813.49
853.27
878.72
929.38
942.91
971.06
975.31
1044.70
1062.31
1095.45
1155.61
1180.79
Cell
Pressure
In.
Water


































5.3
13.0
19.0
17.0
13.0
12.3
18.0
17.0
19.5
29.3
2.5
Temperatures at Locations
Below Top of Cell
Deg F
Bottom
80
80
80
81
73














86

89
87
87
87
87
92

91
94

105
98






118
120

107
95

21 Ft
84
82
84
85
74














91

93
92
89
91
92
101

98
99

110
110






100
110

110
120

14 Ft
86
83
88
89
77














99

94
92
91
97
100
107

108
122

112
117






108
115

112
113

7 Ft
76
70
76
75
67














86

83
82
82
86
91
98

97
101

103
100






103
111

106


Top











































91
90
        8.1-29
                                                                                                      TABLE 5.1.1 (Continued)
                                                                                                      CELL D PERFORMANCE DATA
Date
1967
9-05
9-06
9-07
9-12
9-14
9-19
9-21
9-26
9-28
10-03
10-09
10-10
10-16
10-23
10-30
10-31
11-02
11-06
11-14
11-16
11-27
11-28
12-04
12-11
12-19
12-21
12-28
Days
Following
Completion
of Cell
425
426
427
432
434
439
441
446
448
453
459
460
466
473
480
481
483
487
495
497
508
509
515
522
530
532
539
Cumulative
Volume
of Gas
Produced
Cu Ft
1231.43
1241.32
1249.91
1292.23
1306.59
1338.84
1348.67
1369.36
1375.15
1402.12
1431.20
1438.00
1493.42
1535.26
1577.83
1584.35
1602.95
1624.23
1672.36
1691.70
1772.55
1778.54
1811.08
1860.58
1893.52
1899.47
1917.83
Cell
Pressure
In.
Water
0.3
2.0

10.0

13.0
17.0
22.0
30.0
11.0
24.5
5.5
20.5
12.0
15.0
11.0
11.0
23.0
22.5
1.0
0.5

0.5
36.0
0.0
0.5
4.0
Temperatures at Locations
Below Top of Cell
Deg F
Bottom



93


93


94
93

98

98












21 Ft



98


98
97

100
87

108
110
102


116


106

104
105

110
92
14 Ft



106


106
106

108
110

116

107


112


105

110


104
99
7 Ft



























Top
90
90
89
90
89
87
86
86
86
87
85
85
86
84
83
84
84
84
84
86
74
74
68
68
62
62
62
                                                                          Note:   Wet Test Cell used to measure gas produced through 8-08-66
                                                                                 Gasometer used to measure gas produced beginning 8-09-66
                                                                                 No gas produced after 8-29-66
                                                                                 450 gal water added to cell 9-07 and 9-08-66
                                                                                                              8.1-30

-------
                          6.  PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS








With this investigation now two-thirds through its scheduled time, some prelim-




inary conclusions can be drawn from the data presented.




        1.  The Seattle rainfall pattern (about 40 in. per yr)




            has brought about a slow percolation of water through




            the test cell and into the subgrade.




        2.  The golf course irrigation pattern (about 62 in.




            per yr) has brought about a slow percolation of




            water through the test cell and Into the subgrade.




        3.  The principal gases present in the anaerobic cells




            have been carbon dioxide and methane; and in the




            aerobic cell carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen.




        4.  Gas production within the 10,000 gal sealed tank




            during the last, most active 10 mo totalled 1880




            cu ft, equivalent to 25.8 cu ft per cubic yard of




            refuse.




        5.  The surface settlement of the aerated cell, over




            the 3.5 yr test period, has been nearly 3 times




            that of the anaerobic cells.




        6.  The growth of Bermuda grass has been successfully




            maintained for 3.5 yr on an anaerobic landfill




            with an earth cover of 2 ft.
                                    8.1-31

-------
                                                                                                            UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

                                                                                                                    SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
                                                                                                                      UNIVERSITY PARK
                                                                                                                 LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA SOOO7
SPECIAL STUDIES OF A SANITARY LANDFILL
         Grant Number 9 R01 SW 00028-06
            First Progress Report to

             Office of Solid Wastes

       United States Public Health Service
  Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
                                                                                DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENOINEIRINO
      January 1, 1966 to December 31, 1966
       Prepared by Principal Investigators

            Robert C. Merz, Chaiman
         Department of Civil Engineering

                   Ralph Stone
               Research Associate

        University of Southern California
             Los Angeles, California
                                                                                                                                           March 15, 1967
Mr. Henry C. Steed, Jr.
Chief, Research and Training Grants
Office of Solid Waste*
Department of Health, Education and Welfare
United States Public Health Service
Washington, B.C.  20201
                       Subject! OSH-RIG
                                9 HOI SW 00028-06
                                                                                                    Dear Mr. Steed:
      Forty copies of our first Progress Report
covering the Investigation Bade under the subject
grant on the 'Special Studies of a Sanitary Land-
fill" are submitted to you Kith this letter.

      We are grateful for the opportunity to make
this contribution to the science of solid waste
disposal, and look forward to continuance of the
project.
                                                                                                                                  Respectfully submitted,
RCHijb
                              Robert C
                              & Princii
    Chairman
Investigator
                                                                                                                         8.2-i

-------
                                                                                                                    3.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
                    2.  FOREWORD
         On March  25,  1966,  the Department of Civil Engineer-
ing of the University  of  Southern California submitted a final
report on the factors  controlling the use of a sanitary landfill
site.  Funds were  provided by two grants from the United States
Public Health Service, 2F-OC160-04 and 5R01-EF-00160-05.   Copies
of the report ara  available  from the University.

         These special studies of a sanitary landfill were con-
tinued and expanded under a  new grant, 9R01-SV-00028-06,  covering
the 1966 calendar  year.   It  is this work which is reported upon
in the following pages.   Since this report is offered as a
statement of progress, only  those data collected during 1966 are
included; and readers  are referred to the above referenced re-
port for full and  complete information concerning the construc-
tion, Instrumentation  and initial performance of the three
landfill cells described  as  A, B and C.  A fourth cell D was
created especially for the current study, and is thus covered
fully in this report.

         The project is under the Joint directorship of Prof.
Robert C. Merz, Chairman, Department of Civil Engineering, and
Research Associate Ralph  Stone.  Field assistance is being pro-
vided by student research assistants, Damian Curran and George
De la Guardia.
This research has been supported by the Public

Health Service Research Grant 9 R01 SW 00028-06.


The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles

County constructed the test cells and provided

field assistance when requested.  The help of the

staff of the Sanitation Districts and of John D.

Parkhurst, Chief Engineer and General Manager, are

most gratefully acknowledged.
                          8.2-11
                                                                                                                            8.2-lii

-------
      TABLE OF CONTENTS
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

FOREWARD

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

EXISTING CELLS A, B AND C
  4.1  External Climatic Factors
  4.2  Application of Water
  4.3  Settlement
  4.4  Gas Production
  4.5  Temperatures

NEW CELL D
  5.1  Construction
  5.2  Performance

PROJECT CO-INVESTIGATORS
 i

 ii

 iii
 1
 1
 8
10
19
26
28
                                         33
                                                                                                          LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                                                              Title                          Page
                                                                                          5.1.1      Shop Drawing Cell D                      27
                                                                                          5.1.2      Assembly Diagram, Cell D                 30
               LIST OF TABLES
                                      Section    Figure              Title                          Page
4.1.1      External Climatic Factors                 2
4.2.1      Actual Amounts of Water Applied
              to Cell A                              4
4.2.2      Actual Amounts of Water Applied
              to Cell B                              5
4.2.3      Cell Moisture Determined From
              Core Samples                           6
4.3.1      Cell Settlement Data                      9
4.3.2      Rates of Cell Settlement                 11
4.4.1      Gas Composition In Cell A                12
4.4.2      Gas Composition in Cell B                14
4.4.3      Gas Composition in Cell C                16
4.4.4      Summary of Blower Operation,
              Cell C                                18
4.5.1      Temperatures in Cell A                   20
4.5.2      Temperatures in Cell B                   21
4.5.3      Temperatures in Cell C                   22
4.5.4      Log of Cores for Cells A, B and C        24
                                                                                          5.1.1      Construction Summary For Cell D
                                                                                          5.1.2      Gas Production in Cell D
                                                                                          5.2.1      Cell D Performance Data
                                                                                                     29
                                                                                                     30
                                                                                                     31
              8.2-iv
                                                                                                               8.2-v

-------
                      4.   EXISTING  CELLS A, B, AND C
  4.1  External  Climatic  Factors.  Monthly average air temperatures and daily




rainfalls vere taken  from Pomona Weather Station records and recorded in




Table 4.1.1.  Monthly average  humidities were discontinued by the Weather




Bureau after March, 1966.  Daily temperatures and humidities are recorded in




Tables 4.5.1 through  4.5.3.  The total rainfall on the tsst site for the full




period of study  (to December 31, 1966) has beer. 43.3 in.  The total rainfall




for 1966 was 14.6 in.




  4.2  Application of Water.   In Table 4.2.1 are shown the amounts of water




applied to Cell  A.  The figures shown are cumulative since the start of this




investigation in September 1964.  The required annual amount of water to be




applied to simulate Seattle rainfall is 42.52.  The actual amount of water




applied during the year was 28.70 in. irrigation water plus 14.59 in. rain-




fall for a total of 43.29 in.




  Since no leach has  been withdrawn from even the top collection can after




application of more than  10 ft of water over 28 months, it appears to be a




reasonable assumption that percolating water is bypassing the collection cans.




A coring program was  initiated on August 22, at which time all cells were




cored at opposite corners and  samples were taken at 2 ft depth increments.




The samples were sealed immediately and transported to the laboratory where




their moisture contents were determined.  The results appear in Table 4.2.3.




It is seen that  the moisture content at one cell location varied from 45 to




60 per cent on a wet  weight basis or 82 to 147 per cent on a dry weight




basis; and at a  second location varied from 32 to 64 per cent on a wet weight




basis or 47 to 180 per cent on a dry weight basis.  Averaging all figures,




the respective moisture contents were 53 and 117 per cent.  The computed mois-




ture content of  the cell  at the time of construction was 97 per cent on a dry






                                 8.2-1
                                                                                                                                 TABLE 4.1.1
                                                                                                                            External Climatic Factors
Month
1966
Jan.



Feb.







March




April

May




June
July

Aug.
Sept.



Oct.


Day
1
16
30
31
1
2
6
7
8
10
24
25
1
14
16
24
25
3
9
8
9
25
26
30
16
29
30

19
27
28
29
4
10
11
Inches of Rainfall
Daily
0.01
0.01
1.00
0.15
T
0.17
1.33
0.11
0.04
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
0.34
T
T
T
0.04
T
T
T
T
T
T
0
T
T
T
0.04
T
0.14
T
Cumulative



29.87







31.52




31.86

31.86




31.90
31.90

31.90
31.90



31.94


32.08
Tern
Ave. Max.
63.5



63.5







70.4




73.9

73.7




82.0
88.2

89.8

85.3


81.1


peratures
Ave. Min.
39.3



41.7







46.7




50.6

53.8




57.3
60.3

62.8

58.9


54.1


Mean
51.4



52.6







58.6




62.3

63.7




70.1
74.3

76.3

72.1


67.6


Humidity
Ave. (I)
37.4



44.7







45.2*






















(Continued on Page 3)



        8.2-2

-------
                            TABLE 4.1.1  (Continued)
                                                                                                                           TABLE 4.2.1
                           External  Climatic Factors
Month
Hov.





Dec.





Da,
7
8
17
23
28
29
3
4
5
6
7
26
Inches of Rainfall
Daily
2.08
0.25
T
0.19
0.02
0.03
2.61
0.01
2.79
2.37
0.44
0.42
Cumulative





34.65





43.29
Temperatures
Ave. Max.

68.8




64.7





Ave. Mln.

48.6




43.5





Mean

58.7




54.1





Humidity
Ave. U)












*  Final reporting of this figure by U. S. Weather Bureau.  All data from
   Weather Station, Pomona, California.
                                                                                                            Actual Amounts of Water Applied  to  Cell  A
Month
1964-65
1966
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Cater Applied
Gal


0
0
0
1,740
2,017
16,709
11,268
7,627
10,974
4,151
436
392
In.


0
0
0
1.00
0.88
8.99
4.65
4.08
6.12
2.49
0.25
0.24
Rainfall
In.


1.17
1.65
0.34
T
0.04
T
T
-
0.04
0.14
2.57
8.64
Total Water
Applied, In.
tonthly


1.17
1.65
0.34
1.00
0.92
8.99
4.65
4.08
6.16
2.63
2.82
8.88
Cumulative
86.98

88.15
89.80
90.14
91.14
92.06
101.05
105.70
109. 78
115.94
118.57
121.39
130.27
Seattle, Wash. Rainfall
Water Required, In.
Monthly


V.71
9.11
4.45
2.35
3.07
0.54
0.75
0.82
0.46
3.27
4.67
5.32
Cumulative
56.24

63.95
73.06
'7.51
79.86
82.93
83.47
84.22
85.04
85.50
88.77
93.44
98.76
                                 8.2-3
                                                                                                                               8.2-4

-------
               TABLE 4.2.2
Actual Amounts of Water Applied to Cell B
Month
1964-65
1966
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Water Applied
Gal


0
0
0
916
6,640
18,457
8,130
14,778
8,545
7,543
0
0
In.


0
0
0
0.54
4.25
11.82
5.22
9.45
5.47
4.82
0
0
Rainfall
In.


1.17
1.65
0.34
T
0.04
T
T
-
0.04
0.14
2.57
8.64
Total Water Applied, In.
Monthly


1.17
1.65
0.34
0.54
4.29
11.82
5.22
9.45
5.51
4.96
2.57
8.64
Cumulative
112.86

114.03
115.68
116.02
116.56
120.85
132.67
137.89
147.34
152.85
157.81
160.58
169.02
                 8.2-5


o
ft
0)
o



1-t
I-)
3



-4
i-i
4)




Distance
CM
M
. 0)
o c
* 8

<5g

t<
0 S
s5
Sg
CM
l-i
0 S
a S
1) U
1*
o w
U W
^-*
M
O C
Ba
o a
u 5
CM
)-<
d c
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0) U
8g

fc4
 01
B S
01 U
88

U-l
go -* x-
,-1 4,
-4 Q. 4) *t
41 0 0^-
EQ H

Lsture
9.
4J

h
<

loisture
4-1
c
41
O
h



Molstur
4J

U
n"


J
^
JJ

fr
O
4J
3
4-1
3
4J
S
*
4->

4J
W
3
4J
3
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(J
Q
4J
S
4J
5
4J
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4J
0)
3
jj
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h
o
4J
3
4J
;

h
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jj
2
4J
4)
3

CM oo >^- oo *r> QO m
r- ^O i-< CM i-i O ^
CM O O CM (* O\ ^>
iH i-t ^4
*j r m r-i oo >o -i
r-4 -< o "^ r- r- m

CMr-i r^ ^-r^-ou^ i-1
ONO C^ P-ONChi-^ O%
cor*- rH oO"~*oooo en
f-4 -!
CMCM in vomcMON r-<
r^iH sj ^D-J-r^,^ oo
*-* u" **mx>
m**ininmmin\o CM
^^^oo-alnr-l^4^^-.o^o\eo
oicOi-ivo-tfr-CMCM^om**
COCMON^CM^-Pnr^^HCMCS

r-iesioscominooc^r^oo
iriu-ir-coincTp-fncnmm
^in^t'ni^m^inmmcM
CM^t\D03OfM-4--OOOO O
i 1 r^ ^-1 r-t r-t CM 4J
4J
S
                                                                                                                    8.2-6

-------
weight basis  indicating  that  the  applied  water has  effectively increased the




moisture  content.   If  only  the  bottom half of the cell  is considered, from




which moisture  is  not  readily drawn through capillarity and subsequent evapo-




ration, the average figure  increases to 131 per  cent on a dry weight basis,




indicating effective downward percolation of the applied water.




    In Table 4.2.2  are  shown the amounts of water applied to Cell B.  The




figure* shown are  cumulative, as  in the case of  Cell A  described above.  The




actual amount of water applied  during the year was  41.57 in. of irrigation




water applied on demand  by  the  tensiometer equipment plus 14.59 in. rainfall




for a total of  56.16 in.  This  was  very adequate to maintain an excellent




turf cover on top  of the  cell.




     At the time of construction, this Cell B had had 9 half drums with open




end up installed within  it  In a descending spiral pattern between top and




bottom for tracking vertical  penetration  of the  percolating irrigation water.




Leach was withdrawn from  the  top  collection can  only, despite application of




some 14 ft. of water.  Suspecting that the collection cans were being by-




passed by the percolating water,  this cell was also cored at opposite corners




on  August 22.  The  results  of moisture determinations made on sealed samples




are shown in  Table  4.2.3.   It is  seen that the moisture content at one cell




location varied from 22 to  44 per cent on a wet  weight  basis or 28 to 79 per




cent on a dry weight basis; and at  the second location varied from 26 to 59




per cent on a wet weight basis  or 34  to 142 per  cent on a dry weight basis.



Averaging all figures, the  respective moisture contents were 43 and 80 per



cent.  The computed moisture  content  of the cell at the time of construction



was 73 per cent on  a dry weight basis, Indicating that the applied water has



had a slight  effect on the  cell.  If  only  the bottom half of the cell is con-



sidered,  the average figure decreases to  66 per  cent on a dry weight basis 



and a behavior just the reverse of  Cell A  is observed.   There are several rea-




sons for  this.  First,  the addition of water to Cell B is controlled by two





                                  8.2-7

pairs  of  tensiometers,  each pair  consisting  of  a unit  installed  3  in. below the




surface and  another  unit  installed  6 in.  below  the  surface.  When  an unsatis-




factory soil-moisture  relationship  was  reached  at any  of  the four  tensiometers,




the  spray system was activated  and  irrigation took  place  until the proper  soil-




moisture  condition was  obtained at  all  tensiometers.   Ideally, only enough




water  was to be applied at one  time to  take  care of the turf demand, with  no




excess left  to percolate  down through the cell.  Second,  the top cover for Cell




B was  carefully made up by combining "Loamite"  with native soil  to produce a




material  which would hold moisture  rather than  permit  its passage.  On the con-




trary, Cell  A was covered with  an imported sandy silt  which would  readily  per-




mit  passage  of surface  water through It.   Third, air introduced  into Cell  C is




known  to  penetrate into Cell B  and  would  have a drying out effect  at least in




the  lower portion of the  cell.  Fourth,   the collection pans do  not appear to




entrap moisture effectively.  These reasons  partially  explain and  justify  the




non-entrapment of leach.




   Cell C had been subject to flooding on several occasions for  various reasons




during its first 18  months of existence,  principally channeling  of surface




waters into  crevices and  cave-ins,  and moisture determinations made on core




samples could not be considered meaningful.   Nevertheless,  the cell was  cored




along with Cells A and  B  and the moisture data  are  presented in  Table 4.2.3.




The  data did suffice to Indicate  that at  the lower  depths the cell was drying




out  and that the moisture content should  be  increased  before a condition could




be reached which would  slow down or stop  bacterial  activity.  Water was there-




fore admitted to Cell C through the spray piping built  into the  cell at the




time of construction.  Between  early September  and mid-October,  12,800 gal.




were added at regular intervals in  small  increments.




   4.3  Settlement.   The settlement  of all cells was periodically measured by




survey, and the data are presented  in Table  4.3.1.  During the year Cell A






                                  8.2-8

-------
    TABLE 4.3.1
Cell Settlement Data
Elapsed Tine
Since Cell
Completion
(days)
517
541
552
576
597
601
625
641
665
670
694
698
722
723
747
758
782
788
812
816
843
858
885
Total Settlement of
Cell Surface in Feet
Cell Number
A

0.52

0.55
0.56

0.62

0.59

0.61

0.63

0.66

0.68

0.70

0.73

0.76
B

U.43

0.47
0.48

0.57

0.57

0.58

0.61

0.65

0.66

0.68

0.71

0.75
C
1.88

1.93
1.96

2.05

2.07

2.13

2.18

2.24

2.31

2.37

2.44

2.52

Total Settlement of
Mid-Depth Surface
in Feet
Cell Number
A

0.41

0.44
0.44

0.50

0.47

0.50

0.51

0.52

0.55

0.56

0.57

0.61
B

0.35

0.39
0.39

0.45

0.42

0.44

0.44

0.47

0.47

0.47

0.48

0.50
C
1.63

1.67
1.69

1.76

1.77

1.81

1.84

1.88

1.92

1.95

2.00

2.11

settUd an additional 0.24 ft, Cell B 0.32 ft and Cell C 0.64 ft.  As shown,
Cell A and B have each settled a total of 0.75 ft and Cell C has settled a
total of 2.50 ft or 3.33 times as much.  As shown in Table 4.3.2, the rate of
settlement of the surfaces of all cells has been fairly uniform with few ex-
ceptions.
   The differential settlement between the top half and bottom half of each
cell increased during the year.  In Cell A the differential is 0.15 ft, in
Cell B 0.25 ft, and in Cell C 0.51 ft.  This is simply indicative of an in-
creese in the "equivalent" density of the bottom fill material.
   Additional cave-ins occurred during the year in Cell C, and numerous fis-
sures developed on the surface of all 3 cells, but especially C.  The cave-
ins were backfilled as soon as possible and the fissures were packed with
sand.
   4.4  Gas Production.  As shown in Table 4,4.1, Cell A continued over the
entire year to produce a gas high in carbon dioxide and methane at top and
bottom levels.  Oxygen and nitrogen were present in varying minor amounts.  A
 trace of hydrogen appeared in only 9 samples.  There has been no marked change
in the gas composition from what it was over the last half of 1965.
   As shown in Table 4.4.2, Cell B also continued to produce a gas high in car-
bon dioxide and methane at top and bottom levels.  And again, because of air
from Cell C moving into Cell B, oxygen was always present in quantities much
higher than found in Cell A.  The presence of oxygen is not normally compati-
ble with the presence of methane, and yet the technique as well as the equip-
ment used was thoroughly checked often enough for them not to be suspect.  It is
to be noted that the gas composition changed greatly when the blower serving
Cell C was put into operation for the first time in the year early in April,
and that 3 months elapsed before a steady state analysis was reached.  At the
close of the year, the analysis was much the same as at the close of 1965.
   The gas analyses for Cell C are shown in Table 4.4.3; the summary of the
blower operation is shown in Table 4.4.4, and the two tables should be
                                  8.2-10
       8.2-9

-------
        TABLE 4.3.2
Rates  of  Cell  Settlement
Time Increment
(Month)
Seventeenth
Eighteenth
Nineteenth
Twentieth
Twenty-first
Twenty -second
Twenty-third
Twenty-fourth
Twenty-fifth
Twenty-sixth
Twenty -seventh
Twenty-eighth
Rate of Settlement
of Surface in Feet
per month
Cell A
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.02
0
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.02
Cell B
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.08
0
0.01
0.04
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.01
0.05
Cell C
0.03
0.04
0.10
0.02
0.05
0.05
0.08
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.07

                                                                                                               U  B
                                                                                                              O4 ~4
                                                                                                                 fc


                                                                                                               58

                                                                                                              Q  V
                                                                                                                 09
                                                                                                              1-1  01

                                                                                                              H  (0
                                                                                                               09 --I
                                                                                                               O CH

                                                                                                                  fa

                                                                                                                 U

                                                                                                              4J


                                                                                                              V
                                                                                                              u
                                                                                                              O Q 3  w -H
                                                                                                                    O  01 '
                                                                                                               CD    .-< r- U
                                                                                                               O. C -(  CL
                                                                                                               * M o  e
                                                                                                                                tACM(*"imcOOfMi-\oo\sS-aor^^O'-
-------
                                      TABLE 4.A.I (Continued)
                                     Gas Composition in Cell A


Date


9-01-66
9-08
9-15
9-20
9-27
10-04
10-11
11-01
11-15
11-29
12-28
Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Completion of
Cell
776
783
790
795
802
809
815
836
850
864
893
Per Cent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet
002
52.65
54.08
55.41


51.28
51.25
53.45
49.96
54.59

02
0.02
0.13



0.23
0.03
0.12
0.05
0.05

CH4
47.22
45.45
44.46


47.76
48.61
45.98
49.80
45.21

H2
0.02
0.01
0.03


0.01
0.01
0
0
0

N2
0.09
0.33
0.08


0.72
0.10
0.45
0.19
0.15


13 Feet
C02
54.10
60.36
49.42
55.97
55.64
61.20
51.22
52.34
60.55
51.18
49.35
02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.31
0.57
0.44
0.14
0.06
0.08
1.19
CH4
45.82
39.48
50.41
43.91
43.41
36.19
46.71
47.01
39.15
48.24
44.86
H2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
0.06
0.13
0.14
0.09
0.64
2.04
1.63
0.51
0.24
0.50
4.59
Note:  Chromatograph down for repairs 4-7 to 4-20 and 7-16 to 8-4.
                                           TABLE 4.4.2
                                   Gas  Composition  in  Cell  B
Date
1-06-66
1-13
2-10
2-17
2-24
3-03
3-10
3-17
3-24
3-31
4-21
4-28
5-05
5-19
5-26
6-02
6-15
7-16
8-04
8-11
8-18
8-29
9-01
Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Completion of
Cell
539
546
574
581
588
595
602
609
616
623
643
650
657
671
678
685
698
729
748
755
762
773
776
Per Cent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface
7 Feet
002
54.46
52.62
54.78
54.49
55.77
52.97


54.69
56.29
46.46
53.68
54.13
54.99
56.20
54.91
52.88
52.75
54.84
53.89
51.99
53.68
51.64
02
0.19
0.14
0.21
0.17
0.26
0.03


0.13
0.02
1.43
1.64
1.00
0.78
0.64
0.33
0.09
0.46

0.07
0.08
0.03
0.20
CH4
44.77
47.07
44.53
44.93
43.28
46.90


44.89
43.69
33.17
36.07
40.29
40.85
40.44
43.50
46.70
45.04
44.39
45.77
47.62
46.15
47.37
H2
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
0.01
0
0.02
0.01
N2
0.58
0.20
0.48
0.41
0.69
0.10


0.29
0.05
18.94
8.61
4.58
3.58
2.72
1.26
0.33
1.74

0.26
0.31
0.12
0.78
13 Feet
C02
52.16
52.56
57.82
51.67
61.16
61.56
63.35
59.94
59.85
59.08
26.19
31.32
32.40
36.60
37.15
41.23
45.52
48.11
53.86
53.28
52.85
52.38
51.75
02
0.69
0.32
0.22
0.12
0.31
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.14
0.07
4.68
5.50
5.44
3.30
4.98
3.94
3.06
1.42

X.18
0.93
0.88
0.84
CH4
45.07
46.36
41.43
47.88
37.58
38.27
36.48
39.85
39.77
40.63
6.92
7.57
7.21
16.28
17.51
22.95
33.46
34.66
37.11
39.44
39.51
43.14
43.07

H2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
0.01
0
0
0.01
N2
2.08
0.76
0.53
0.33
0.95
0.13
0.12
0.15
0.24
0.22
62.21
55.61
54.95
43.82
40.36
31.88
17.96
15.81

6.09
6.71
3.60
4.33
                                     (Continued  on  Page  15)

-------
                                     TABLE 4.4.2 (Continued)






9-08-66
9-15
9-20
9-27
10-04
10-11
11-01
11-15
11-29
12-28

Elapsed Time
In Days

Completion of
Cell
783
790
795
802
809
815
836
850
864
893
Gas Composition in Cell B
Per Cent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet
CQ2
53.85
50.90
52.14
54.20
49.96
51.56
52.70
51.07
50.24
34.28
2
0.13
0.06
0.07
0.14
0.07
0.14

0.03
0.42
6.67
CH4
45.69
48.82
47.28
45.25
49.61
47.82
46.54
48.73
47.54
33.70

H2
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.04
0.01
0
0
0
N2
0.32
0.21
0.50
0.40
0.32
0.44

0.17
1.80
25.35

13 Feet
C02
54.37
54.13
52.41
53.99
54.67
53.63
53.79
53.34
50.46
51.34
2
0.76
1.17
0.87
0.32
0.41
0.21
1.45
1.14
1.78
0.43
CH4
41.33
38.92
43.18
44.35
42.93
45.03
38.17
40.68
37.70
46.51
H2
0
0.01
0
0.01
0
0.04
0
0
0
0
N2
3.54
5.77
3.54
1.33
1.99
1.09
6.59
4.84
10.06
1.72
Note:  Chromatograph down for repairs 4-7 to 4-20 and 7-16 to 8-4.
                                           TABLE 4.4.3
                                   Gas Composition in Cell C


Date


1-06-66
1-13
2-10
2-17
2-24
3-03
3-10
3-17
3-24
3-31
4-21
4-28
5-05
5-19
5-26
6-02
6-15
7-16
8-04
8-11
8-18
8-29
9-01
Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Completion of
Cell
518
525
553
560
567
574
581
588
595
602
622
629
636
650
657
664
677
708
727
734
741
752
755
Per Cent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet
C02
57.34
61.78
59.73
57.14
61.10
58.88
59.35
58.67
59.16
60.11
19.63
23.90
24.67
24.28
18.46
19.89
19.87
10.79
16.82
19.98
11.44
22.64
21.91
02
0.36
0.43
0.48
0.18
0.15
0.07
0.18
0.32
0.12
0.79
4.55
12.23
7.04
6.36
9.34
9.06
6.44
5.66

7.89
7.62
7.98
8.33
CH4
40.82
36.76
38.65
41.91
38.10
40.62
39.81
40.25
40.24
36.43
4.50
4.03
4.88
4.87
3.68
4.59
5.04
7.73
4.15
8.29
11.12
18.13
17.84
H2
0.33
0.27
0.32
0.18
0.17
0.20
0.19
0.10
0.16
0.17
0.01
0.15
0.09
0.16
0.04
0.06
0
0.04
0.10
0.06
0.04
0.05
0.03
N2
1.15
0.76
0.82
0.59
0.48
0.23
0.47
0.66
0.32
2.50
71.21
59.69
63.32
64.33
68.48
66.40
68.65
75.78

63.78
69.78
51.20
51.89


C02
44.72
18.43
48.20


32.45
43.59
38.98
32.88
41.51
15.36
14.53
15.53
15.89
17.59
19.96
6.66
5.27
7.44
7.36
9.50
10.13
7.59
13 Feet
2
3.86
15.41
2.82


7.49
5.26
6.41
9.68
4.12
9.27
13.79
12.53
11.73
12.60
9.47
14.69
11.39

16.55
15.49
17.03
17.61
CH4
37.73
17.37
41.37


31.88
34.50
35.37
26.77
35.62
7.37
4.35
6.17
5.88
8.31
7.23
3.49
2.84
4.21
4.61
5.30
7.42
5.69
H2
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
13.69
48.79
7.61


28.18
16.65
19.24
30.67
18.75
68.00
67.33
65.77
66.50
61.50
63.34
75.16
80.50

71.48
69.71
65.42
69.11
                                      (Continued on Page 17)

-------
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                                                                                                                           TABLE 4.4.4
                                                                                                                    ry  of  Blower Operation,  Cell C
Elapsed Time
in Days
Following
Completion of Cell
A and B
541

576


625






667

791

817


819
847


869


C
517

552


601






643

767

793


795
823


844
862

Blower
On





X






X

X

X


X
X


X
X

Off
X

X























Blower Cycle
Hr on





0.5


































0.5


Hr off





3.5


































1.0


Remarks
Leach withdrawn upper level
Cell B
Leach withdrawn upper level
Cell B; 31 in. water bottom
Cell B
Blower started after being
off for 112 days because of
flooding of air distribution
system.
Leach withdrawn upper level
Cell B; 20 in. water bottom
Cell B
12 in. water bottom Cell B
2 in. water bottom Cell C
Started adding water to Cell
through top spray system
Finished adding water to Cell
C through top spray system
12800 gal added
Replaced blower connections
Cave-in in Cell C, 3-1/2 ft
dia by 4 ft deep, near edge;
hot spot temperature was 180
deg F December 1, 1966
Recirculation of Cell gas
discontinued
                                     8.2-17
                                                                                                                              8.2-18

-------
correllated.  As stated in the preceding paragraph,  the blower was put back in-




to service early in April, and the  immediate  effect  on the gas composition is




evident.  The nitrogen content increased greatly, accompanied by a decrease in




carbon dioxide and methane, all as  expected.  While  oxygen also increased as




anticipated, there remained considerably more methane than expected.




   It 1* emphasized that for the last  9 months  of the year the blower was in




continuous operation:  on 0.3 hr and off 3.5  hr to December 1 and then on 0.5




hr and off 1.0 hr.  The data obtained  dacing  that time have been very consist-




ent  more so than during any other operating  period when blower operation was




either changed or shut down.  The effect of increasing the blower "on" time on




December 1 is reflected in the last sample taken on  December 28 when, at the




upper level, the carbon dioxide and methane decreased and the oxygen and




nitrogen increased.  The new cycle had little effect on the cell bottom envi-




ronment .




   4.5  Cell Temperatures.  In Tables  4.5.1 through  4.5.3 are presented the




temperature data for all of the cells.  For each cell are shown the maximum,




minimum and average temperatures for the air  and the access well, and the In-




ternal temperatures at depths of 4, 10 and 16 ft below the finished surface el-




evation.  All of these readings are correlated with the date on which they




were taken and the total elapsed time  In days following the completion of each




cell.




   During the year, Cell A at mid-depth experienced a range of but 11 deg.  F,




from 64 in the winter to 75 in the summer, a  high insufficient to expect any




great amount of bacterial activity.  The frequent application of water appar-




ently serves to cool the landfill mass.




   The same may be said of Cell B,  wherein a  range of but 15 deg.  F was exper-




ienced,  from 66 in the winter to 81 in the summer.




   In Cell C,  the temperature of the upper level dropped during the first 3






                                8.2^-19
                                  TABLE 4.5.1
                             Temperatures  in  Cell A
Date
1966
1-08
1-13
2-10
2-17
2-24
3-03
3-10
3-17
3-24
3-31
4-06
4-16
4-21
4-28
5-05
5-12
5-19
5-26
6-02
6-09
6-15
6-23
7-13
7-21
8-02
8-11
8-18
8-26
9-01
9-09
10-06
10-20
11-01
11-10
11-27
11-29
12-08
12-15
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

541
545
573
580
587
594
601
608
615
622
628
638
644
651
658
665
672
679
686
693
698
706
726
734
746
755
762
770
776
784
811
825
837
846
858
865
874
881
Per Cent
Humidity
*Air

36
21
58
24
53
29
49
30
44
18
50
48
36
39
75
69
54
87
68
74
63
56
38
63
53
61
47
43
62
34
78
26
11
59
72
55
72
32
Access
Well

























91




98.5
83.0

91.0


99


Temperatures , F
Air*
Max

72
74
62
68
69
60
72
82
77
96
77
75
76
80
74
81
89
65
83
72
83
88
92
81
86
92
84
98
77
95
81
75
74
68
61
56
60
65
Min | Avg

41
42
34
36
42
28
39
38
50
52
45
45
42
44
52
50
47
55
43
56
56
50
46
54
60
60
60
54
60
60
52
48
44
42
37
41
38
46

52
57
46
50
52
42
53
58
60
71
58
67
58
59
59
61
62
59
58
61
66
68
66
62
70
70
71
70
68
73
62
59
56
51
48
47
48
58
Access
Well

62
67
68
66
64
67
66
67
67
68
68
69
69
70
71
72
72
73
73
74
74
74
77
84
76
76
80
77
77
77
74
74
73
73
73
73
61
62
Below
Finished Elevation , Ft
4

58
63
60
60
62
62
63
64
66
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
70
72
73
73
75
75
77
78
79
80
80
80
80
80
75
73
74
77
80
78
71
72
10

69
73
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
73
72
72
73
72
73
73
74
74
74
75
74
74
74
74
72
72
72
73
73
73
64
65
16

68
76
71
70
74
72
73
73
77
74
74
77
77
77
77
75
74
75
79
75
78
75
80
84
76
81
81
80
80
81
74
74
73
64
68
68
60
60
* Data From Pomona Weather Bureau
                                      8.2-20

-------
                                  TABLE 4.5.2
                             Temperatures In Cell B
Date
1966
1-08
1-13
2-10
2-17
2-24
3-03
3-10
3-17
3-24
3-31
4-06
4-16
4-21
4-28
5-05
5-12
5-19
5-26
6-02
6-09
6-15
6-23
7-13
7-21
8-02
8-11
8-18
8-26
9-01
9-09
10-06
11-01
11-10
11-22
11-29
12-08
12-15
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

541
545
573
580
587
594
601
608
615
622
628
638
644
651
658
665
672
679
686
693
698
706
726
734
746
755
762
770
776
784
811
837
846
858
865
874
881
Per Cent
Humidity
*Air

36
21
58
24
53
29
49
30
44
18
50
48
36
39
75
69
54
87
68
74
63
56
38
63
53
61
47
43
62
34
78
26
11
59
55
72
32
Access
Well

























84




81
89.6
95





Temperatures, F
Air*
Max

72
74
62
68
69
60
72
82
77
96
77
75
76
80
74
81
89
65
83
72
83
88
92
81
86
92
84
98
78
95
81
75
74
68
56
60
65
Mia

41
42
34
36
42
28
39
38
50
52
45
45
42
44
52
50
47
55
43
56
56
50
46
54
60
60
60
54
60
60
52
48
44
42
41
38
46
Avg

52
57
46
50
52
42
53
58
60
71
58
67
58
59
59
61
62
59
58
61
66
68
66
62
70
70
71
70
68
73
62
59
56
51
47
48
58
Access
Well

69
71
69
71
72
72
73
74
77
77
77
79
78
79
81
80
80
80
76
76
82
80
82
83
83
84
81
84
82
81

80
68
73
74
59
60
Finlst
4

67
68
67
66
66
66
66
66
67
67
68
69
69
69
72
73
73
73
74
73
75
74
77
77
78
79
79
81
81
81

74
73
72
71
70
68
Below
ied Elevi
10

81
83
82
82
82
82
80
80
81
80
80
80
80
79
81
82
80
80
80
79
80
79
79
80
79
80
82
81
81
80

81
77
78
77
76
76
ition. Ft
16

_
-
-


































* Data From Pomona Weather Bureau
                                     8.2-21
                                                                                                                                     TABLE 4.5.3
                                                                                                                                Temperatures in Cell C
Date
1966
1-08
1-13
2-10
2-17
2-24
3-03
3-10
3-17
3-24
3-31
4-06
4-16
4-21
4-28
5-05
5-12
5-19
5-26
6-02
6-09
6-15
6-25
7-13
7-21
8-02
8-11
8-18
8-26
9-01
9-09
10-20

11-01
11-10
11-22
11-29
12-08
12-15
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

516
521
549
556
563
570
577
584
591
598
605
615
620
627
634
641
648
655
662
669
677
685
703
711
723
732
739
747
753
761
802
fil A
oJ.4
823
835
842
851
858
Per Cent
Humidity
*Air

36
21
58
24
53
29
49
30
44
18
50
48
36
39
75
69
54
87
68
74
63
56
38
63
53
61
47
43
62
34
78
r\f
ZO
59
72
55
72
32
Access
Well






























96
97


98

Temperatures, F
Air*
Max

72
74
62
68
69
60
72
82
77
96
77
75
76
80
74
81
89
65
83
72
83
88
92
81
86
92
84
98
78
95
81
7 e
/ J
68
61
56
60
65
Mln | Avg

41
42
34
36
42
28
39
38
50
52
45
45
42
44
52
50
47
55
43
56
56
50
46
54
60
60
60
54
60
60
52
Aft
4O
42
37
41
38
46

52
57
46
50
52
42
53
58
60
71
58
67
58
59
59
61
62
59
58
61
66
68
66
62
70
70
71
70
68
73
62
CQ
J7
51
48
47
48
58
Access
Well

97
97
97
99
101
101
101
101
104
104
117
119
116
117
119
119
122
119
119
111
117
117
116
119
118
118
118
117
119
117
127

117
112
112
98
90
Below
Finished Elevation. Ft
4

111
108
99
95
93
93
92
90
92
91
91
91
92
93





















10




































16























f
103
103
112
113
113
114
114
, 108
/ in?
\ 107
\ 110
105
1 104
[102
^100
                                                                                                   * Data From Pomona Weather Bureau
                                                                                                                                         8.2-22

-------
months, while the blower waa shut down for repairs, from 111 to 91 deg. F.




Then, with restarting of the blower,  the temperature rose gradually to a high




of 114 deg. F.  The temperature  started to decline with the coming of cool




weather and was 100 deg. F at the close of the year.  The effect of increasing




the blower "on" tine on December 1  and discontinuing recirculation of cell gas




on December 19 has not yet shown up.




   Thermistors in Cell C at mid-depth and bottom levels were lost some time




ago.  To obtain bottom temperatures,  a thermometer Immersed in a water bath was




suspended in the access well.  As shown, the  thermometer readings are consist-




ently higher than the thermistor readings at  the upper level.  This condition




should exist since the air is introduced at the bottom of the cell and greatest




oxidation will occur at that level.   When Cell C was cored, those core samples




which appeared unusually warm were  checked with a thermometer Immediately upon




their being brought to the surface.   These spot temperatures are recorded in




the logs shown in Table 4.5.4 and are seen to be considerably higher on occa-




sion than the temperatures routinely  taken by thermistars.




   Thermometers were also suspended in the access wells of Cells A and B, and




they do a fair job of confirming thermistor readings.
                                 8.2-23
           TABLE 4.5.4
LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND C
Cell
and
Core
No.

A-l












A-2







B-l









B-2








Elapsed
Time Since
Cell
Completion
Days
766












766







766









766








Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
Ft
2
4

5

8
10
12
14
16
18
20

4
6
8
10
12
14
18

2
4
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

4
6
8
10
12
16
18
20



Observation


Moist sand and dirt - no odor
Paper moist ana legible - grass decom-
posing - plastic soft - mild odor
Wood very moist - grass brown -
strong odor
Paper moist - grass green
Cloth very moist and decomposing - no odor
Grass green - metal clean and shiny
Decomposed paper - metal clean
Cloth unaffected
Newspaper pulpy
Bottom temperature 78 deg F
Coring time 55 minutes
Cool moist dirt - mild odor
Wet paper and grass
Newspaper pulpy
Refuse decomposed
Grass green - metal clean and ahiny
Plastic unaffected
Grass moist and mushy
Coring time 35 minutes
Dirt only
Moist legible paper - no odor
Moist legible paper - cloth deteriorated
Metal shiny
Some decomposition of newspaper
Rubber and moist wood unaffected
Core temperature 84 deg F - mild odor
Refuse dry - metal clean and shiny
Cloth decomposing
Coring time 45 minutes
Moist green grass - odor mild
Paper moist but unaffected
Refuse wet and mushy - grass slimy
Grass green
Metal clean and shiny
Metal clean and shiny
Cloth and plastic unaffected
Moist clay - odor mild
Coring time 30 minutes
                                                                                                                                (Continued on Page 25)
                                                                                                                                       8.2-24

-------
      TABLE 4.5.4 Continued
LOG OF CORES FOR CELLS A, B AND C
Cell
and
Core
No.

C-l















C-2











Elapsed
Time Since
Cell
Completion
Days
743















743











Distance
Below
Top of
Cell
Ft
2
4
6

8

10


12
14

16
18


4

6

8

10
12
14

18



Observation


Dirt only
Grass decomposing - strong odor
Newspaper decomposing - metal dull -
core temperature 102 deg F
Refuse warm and mushy - grass
decomposing
Grass and cloth decomposing - plastic
unaffected - core temperature 122
deg F
Core temperature 115 deg F
Metal dull - much rotted material -
core temperature 128 deg F
Much decomposed material
Nylon decomposed - high temperature 180
deg F
Coring time 25 minutes
Dirt only (drilled in location of
former cave-in)
Charred material - milk cartons soft
and decomposed - steam visible
Refuse very decomposed - mild odor
core temperature 126 deg F
Newspaper charred
Cushion padding decomposed
Grass decomposed - paper soft but
legible
Clay bottom - core temperature 140 deg F
Coring time 18 minutes
                   8.2-25
                                                                                                           5.   NEW CELL D
                                                                                   5.1  Construction.   The present research program has as one of its announced




                                                                                purposes the construction of a large volume, gas-tight cell to be used for




                                                                                quantitative study of  gas production.




                                                                                   Since previous efforts to study gas production by encapsulating a large mass




                                                                                of  refuse within an impervious polyethelene membrane failed, it was decided to




                                                                                make  a new approach and seal the refuse within a steel anclosuie.  For this pur-




                                                                                pose, there was purchased a 10,000 gal underground storage tank, 95' I.D.  x




                                                                                28'0" high, manufactured from 1/4" A-36 steel.  To minlmimize corrosion the




                                                                                tank  was given a resinous inside coating and was covered with an asphalt paint




                                                                                on  the outside.  The tank is shown on Figure 5.1.1.




                                                                                   The tank was installed at a site adjacent to existing Cell C and, in fact,




                                                                                on  the site of former Cell D which failed in its purpose.  A standard




                                                                                clamshell-type bucket was used to take out the old refuse, sand, and plastic




                                                                                membrane until there had been formed an open pit 28.5 ft deep measuring about




                                                                                12  ft x 14 ft at the bottom and 36 ft x 36 ft at the top.  A 3-ft layer of




                                                                                refuse was placed at the bottom and this in turn was covered by 1/4-in. thick




                                                                                plywood, both to provide a cushion for the tank and protection for the tank




                                                                                bottom.  A crane was used to lower the tank into the hole and hold it in a ver-




                                                                                tical position while an insulating layer of refuse was placed around it.  The




                                                                                vertical free-standing tank in its final position extended 3 ft above ground




                                                                                level.  Dirt was packed around the above-ground projection to form a sloping




                                                                                berm.  The tank was then ready for filling with refuse.




                                                                                   A 6 in. layer of sand was placed  in the bottom of  the  tank.   Some 31,090 Ib




                                                                                of refuse as delivered to the tank in weighed packers were  then  placed  in  the




                                                                                tank.  The refuse was  typically domestic, having been collected  from homes  in




                                                                                Ponona.  From spot sampling of the refuse,  the breakdown  by volume was  42.11






                                                                                                                8.2-26

-------

               -4
                J.

paper, 38X grass and garden clippings, 3Z plastic, 5Z glass,  7Z metal and 5Z




dirt.  During placement of the refuse, a system of perforated piping was in-




stalled to permit withdrawal of gas at top, bottom and mid-depth (or to add




water), and thermistors were installed at similar locations.   Also during




placement of the refuse, sufficient water was added to bring the moisture con-




tent to 69.91 on a dry weight basis.  The construction summary is presented in




Table 5.1.1.  Since compaction was limited within the confines of so small an




area, the resulting in-place density was a low 634 Ib per cu yd.




   The top of the tank was sealed by a continuous, external weld.  After the




cover was welded in place, field personnel entered the tank through a manhole




to paint the inside of the weld with a protective sealant.   Additional refuse




and a top layer of dirt were then laboriously added through the cover manhole




to fill the tank.  Flexible, neoprene hoses connected the pipes carrying the




thermistor leads and the gas pipes to the hatch nipples, and the hatch was then




bolted down.  A plastic gasket in combination with a liquid sealant were used




to make the hatch gas tight.




   All joints and welds were brushed with a fluorsene soap solution and the




tank was tested by placing it under a pressure of 1 psi by pumping compressed




air into it.  After holding the pressure for 30 minutes, the pressure was re-




leased and the tank was considered sealed under zero pressure, confirmed by a




water manometer.




   The complete system is illustrated in Figure 5.1.2.




   The gas manifold was immediately connected to a wet test cell, later re-




placed by a gasometer, for measurement of all gas produced by the decomposing




refuse.



   5.2  Performance.  In Table 5.2.1 are presented the performance data cover-




ing the six-month period following completion of the installation.




   For approximately the first month, the exterior gas manifold was directly
8.2-27
                                                                                             8.2-28

-------
                             TABLE 5.1.1
Line
                   Construction Summary  for Cell D
  1    Date Started
  2    Date Completed
  3    Working Days to Place Refuse In  Cell
6-28-66
7-07-66
A
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Cubic Yards of Refuse Trucked to Cell2
Founds of Refuse Trucked to Cell2
Delivered Trucked Density, Pounds Per Cu Yd3
Volume of Cell, Cul/lc Yards4
Fill D*rsity> Pounds Per Cubic Yard3
Gallons of Water Added6
Pounds of Water Added
Pounds of Water Present in Trucked Refuse
Total Pounds of Water in Cell
Per Cent Moisture of Cell, Dry Weight Basis6
73
31,090
427
49
634
415
3,450
7,993
11,443
69.9
 Notes:

  1.   Calculations exclude  final fill  covers.

  2.   Actual truck volumes  and scaled  weights

  3.   Line 5
       Line 4

  4.   Determined  by field measurements

  5.   Line 5
       Line 7

  6.   Measured by water meter.

  7.   Determined  by laboratory tests of  representative
       samples

  8.   (Line 5  34.6 + Line 10   100
       Line 5 - (Line 5 x 34.61)
           Moisture content  of refuse on  wet basis -  34.61
                                      8.2-29
IATCU  COWQ fcOLTUD TO  UU.TC.U)

  3U.D DfPt
  QMOMLTLQ

          2+'  I-QOM  TA.KJK.   tOTTTOM

     TAUK : <6' LD  .  2AM
                                                                                                                                                        LLLXIbLC.  GAS  WDL COUUL.CTOU
                                                                                                                                                        GAS  COLLLCTlOtJ  PIDIUC fcLK-OC3ATLCiJ
                                                                                                                                                        at-1 AbovL  bcrrroM  oc.  TMJK
                                                                                                                                                        TUU3MIJTOQ  IT   LOOM  TA.KK  bCTTOM
                                                                                          PIDt  C&QQVIMC  TULOWI5TOQ  LLAD5
                                                                                      	TUtDMiaTOR  O1   LOOM  TA.WK  COTTOM
                                                                                          TAkK WkCKLD  VtTU  Dt3IDLUTlAL
                                                                                        - TTJLBM15TOQ  -5'  tBOM  TAkftC  bOTTOM
                                                                                                                                                          Ct SfclJD fcT DOTTOM CX-  TWJkt
                                                                                                            ASSEMBLY
                                                                                                                                  DIAGRAM
                                                                                                                                                         CELL
                                                                                                                                                                                  512
                                                                                                                                           8.2-30

-------
                                TABLE 5.2.1
                          CELL D PERFORMANCE DATA
Date
7-08
7-09
7-10
7-12
7-13
7-14
7-X6
7-18
7-19
7-21
7-22
7-26
7-27
7-28
8-01
8-02
8-04
8-05
8-08
8-11
8-12
8-15
8-16
8-18
8-19
8-22
8-25
8-26
8-29
9-01
9-07
9-09
10-13
10-20
11-01
11-03
11-22
11-29
12-08
12-15
12-19
12-28
Days
Following
Completion
of Cell
1
2
3
5
6
7
9
11
12
14
15
19
20
21
25
26
28
29
32
35
36
39
40
42
43
46
49
50
53
56
62
64
98
105
117
119
138
145
154
161
165
174
Cumulative
Volume
of Gaa
Produced
Cu Ft
15.68
34.39
39.28
39.35
39. 3b
39.42
39.54
39.68
40.01
40.03
40.06
40.10
40.10
40.10
40.10
40.10
40.11
40.11
40.16
40.20
40.28
40.30
40.34
40.34
40.34
40.34
40.34
40.34
40.39













Cell
Pressure
In.
Water
+12.9
+ 9.2
+ 6.6
+ 2.0
+ 2.3
+ 1.5
0
0
0
0
+ 0.3
	
+ 1.0
+ 0.4
	
	
+ 5.1
+ 3.5
+ 0.4























Temperatures at Locations
Below Top of Cell
Deg F
Bottom
88
89
88
88
88
89
88
89
89
89
85




86

86
87
86
86
85
86
85
86
86
84
84
86
84
85
87

87
81

80
83
78
78


21 Ft
100
97
96
96
96
98
96
99
96
101
94




92

92
91
92
91
89
92
90
90
90
95
90
89
90
89
89

89
85

85
84
83
83


14 Ft
93
93
93
93
93
94

95
95
97
94




94

95
96
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
93
93
93
96
92

89
88

89
89
87
87


7 Ft
100
100
97
97
97
97

99
97
104
95




95

97
96
94
96
94
94
94
94
94
97
97
93
98
92
91

88
88

83
85
79
78


Note:  Wet Test Cell used to measure gas produced through 8-08
       Gasometer used to measure gas produced beginning 8-09
       No gas produced after 8-29
       450 gal water added to cell 9-07 and 9-08
       The cell was under a vacuum after 10-13

                                    8.2-31
connected to a wet test cell.  All valves were open, permitting measurement of

all gas produced within the cell.  The discharge line from the wet test cell

was submerged to maintain a positive pressure on the entire system.  Within 3

days, 39.3 cu ft of gas had been produced and measured, and this volume proved

to be 98% of that which would be produced.  During these three days, the in-

ternal pressure (In. water) of the cell dropped from the initial reading of

12.C to 6.5, and then to zero 6 days late.:.  At that time, the wet test cell

was permitted to discharge into the atmosphere.

   Because gas production had fallen off to almost Immeasurable quantities, the

wet test cell was replaced after 33 days with a laboratory-built gasometer

which would permit storage of gas and more accurate volume determinations.

However, by the end of the second month, all gas production ceased.

   The tabulated data show a decline in temperature (deg F) at all levels; from

88 to 78 at the bottom, from 100 to 83 at the bottom quarter, from 93 to 87 at

mid-depth, and from 100 to 78 at the top quarter.  Using the gas collection

piping at the top of the cell as a spray system, 450 gallons of water were

added on the 62nd day to raise the moisture content of the refuse and improve

the environment necessary for bacterial activity.  The decision to add water

was prompted, of course, by the stoppage of gas production.  The addition of

water not only did not result in a step-up of gas production, but also served

to decrease cell temperatures at a still faster rate and put the entire cell

under a vacuum.  Negative pressures were first observed in the 98th day and

existed until the 145th day.  Temperatures remained low through the end of the

period covered by this progress report and it Is not expected that significant

gas quantities will be produced until temperatures come back up to at least 90

F.  The high percentage of cellulose packed into the cell will also markedly

limit the rate of gas production.
                                                                                                                              8.2-32

-------
FACTO
     PF
                  
              TORt
               Final Report to

Department of Health, H*uctton,''nd Welfare

        National'Institutes of Health

     United States Pufclic Health Service
    January 1, 1964 to December 31, 1565
     Prepared by Principal Investigators

          Robert C. Men, Chairman
       Department of  Civil Engineering

                 Ralph Ston*
              Research Associate

      University of Southern California
           Los Angelesi California
                                                                                                  FACTORS CONTROLLING  UTILIZATION
                                                                                                       OF  SANITARY  LANDFILL SITE
                                                                                                           Project Number EF-00160-05
                                                                                                                Final Report to

                                                                                                  Department of Health, Education,  and Welfare

                                                                                                         National Institutes of Health

                                                                                                       United States Public Health  Service
                                                                                                      January  1,  1964 to December 31, 1965
                                                                                                       Prepared by Principal Investigators

                                                                                                           Robert C. Merz, Chairman
                                                                                                         Department of Civil Engineering

                                                                                                                  Ralph Stone
                                                                                                               Research Associate

                                                                                                        University of Southern California
                                                                                                            Los Angeles, California

-------
                UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
                       SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
                    LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 9OOO7
                                      March 25, 1966
Mr. Harold R. Robinson, Chief
Research Grants Branch
Division of Environmental Engineering
    and Food Protection
Department of Health, Education & Welfare
United States Public Health Service
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda 14, Maryland
                                      Subject:  EF 00160-05
Dear Mr. Robinson:
       Forty copies of our final report covering the studies
made under Grants EF 00160-04 and -05 on the "Factors Control-
ling Utilization of Sanitary Landfill Sites," are submitted to
you with this letter.  The privilege of carrying out this work
has been very much appreciated, and we hope the information
included herein proves useful to those interested in solid
waste disposal.
                                      Respectfully submitted,
                                      Robert C.  tfr&ci,  Chairman
                                      Dept.  of 'tivil Engineering
                                      & Principal  Investigator
                         B.3-1
                                                                                                                       2.  FOREWORD
      -r.e Department of Civil Engineering of the University of  Southern
Califcrr.ia, in May 1963, completed a 3-year study  of the  factors  control-
ling -':.(: 'jse of a sanitary landfill site.  The purpose of  the study was
to detferrine the optimum means by which the most waste can be put into the
avai-iile volume and at the same time permit shrinkage prediction.  Funds
were provided by three grants from the United States Public Health Service
through assignment from the National Institutes of Health.  Copies of  the
final report are available from the University.

      A supplementary grant was provided to continue the  study.   Four
test cells of various sizes were constructed at the Spadra Landfill,
Walr.ut, California, by the County Sanitation Districts of  Los Angeles
County v'r.ich has continued to lend its support to  the project.  The con-
ditions of construction of the cells were varied,  and one has been per-
mittee to decompose in an aerobic environment.

      This report covers the completed 2-year study extending from
January 1, 1964 to December 31, 1965.

      The project was under the joint directorship of Professor Robert
C. Merz, Chairman, Dept. of Civil Engineering, and Research Associate
Ralph Stone.  Valuable assistance in the field and laboratory was
rendered by Andrew Boyd, Ramon Beluche, Raymond Rodrigue  and Roger Olack,
Graduate Research Assistants.
                                                                                                                           8.3-ii

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                           3.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      This research has been supported by the Public Health Service
Research Grants EF-00160-04 and -05.

      The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County constructed
the rest cells and provided field assistance when requested.   The help
of the staff of the Sanitation Districts, ard of John D.  Parkhurst, Chief
Engineer and General Manager, is gratefully acknowledged.

      Other individuals who have played important roles in this study
include the following:

      Mr. John Blatt, Palco Linings, Inc., Indio, California, for super-
vising the lining of one of the cells with VisQueen film;
      Dr. Glen Cannel, University of California, Riverside, for manufac-
turing and supplying the moisture probes installed in all of  the test
cells;
      Mr. Tom Fellows, Fellows & Associates, Inc., Los Angeles, for pro-
viding the sandy  silt needed as top cover for one of the cells;
      Mr. David C. Henderson, Southern California Edison Company, Pomona,
California, for consultative services in bringing power to the research
site;
      Mr. Paul Ledig, Asgro Seed Company, Azusa, California,  for furnish-
ing the Bermuda seed for the test grass plot for one of the cells;
      Mr. John McQuade, Pope and Talbot, Inc., San Francisco  for furnish-
ing the soil additive "Loamite" which was mixed with native soil to
provide cover for one of the cells;
      Mr. Wayne C. Morgan, Farm Advisor, University of California Farm
and Home Advisors, Los Angeles,  for assisting in the analysis of the
native soils and procurement of recommended additives;
      Mr. G. C. Pooley, Irrometer Company, Riverside, California, for
installation of the automatic sprinkler system for irrigation of the
grass cover on one of the cells;
      Mr. Stuart Shore, Sales Manager, Pacific Clay Products, Santa Fe
Springs, California, for providing the Wedge-Lock perforated  pipe and
fittings needed for supplying air to one of the cells.
                                 8.3-iii
                                                                                                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                             Section
                                                                                                                               Title
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

FOREWORD

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

SUMMARY

THE SANITARY LANDFILL SITE
   5.1  Selection
   5.2  Preparation
           5.2.1  Cell Excavation
           5.2.2  Access Well
           5.2.3  Power Supply

REFUSE AND SOIL
   6.1  Refuse Source
   6.2  Refuse Characteristics
   6.3  Soil Characteristics

CELL CONSTRUCTION
   7.1  Description of Cells
           7.1.1  Volumes
           7.1.2  Weights
   7.2  Construction Summary
   7.3  Mensurative Equipment
           7.3.1  Thermistors
           7.3.2  Thermometers
           7.3.3  Moisture Probes
           7.3.4  Gas and Leach Collection
                  Cans
           7.3.5  Gas Analysis
           7.3.6  Settlement Bench Marks
  i

 ii

iii

  1
  7
 11
 11
 12
 14
 14
 18
 18

 18
 19
 19
CELL ACTIVITY
                                                                                                9

                                                                                               10
     1  External Climatic Factors
     2  Application of Water
   8.3
   8.4
   8.5
                                                                                                                      Settlement
                                                                                                                      Gas Production
                                                                                                                      Cell Temperatures
PROJECT CO-INVESTIGATORS

APPENDIX
  10.1  Intended Quantitative Study of
        Gas Production
  10.2  Examination of Previous Test Site
 21
 21
 22
 30
 40

 45
                                                                                                                                                                 4b
                                                                                                                             8.3-iv

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                                  LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                                                                         LIST OF TABLES
Section   Figure
                                    Title
                                                                      Paee
                                                                                           Section   Table
                                                                                                                             Title
                                                                                                                                                                 Page
          5.1.1      Plot Plan of Test Facility with
                        Location Map

          7.3.1      Cross Section of Cell A
          7.3.2      Cross Section of Cell B
          7.3.3      Cross Section of Cell C

          8.3.1      Surface and Mid-Depth Settlement
                        of Cell A
          8.3.2      Surface and Mid-Depth Settlement
                        of Cell B
          8.3.3      Surface and Mid-Depth Settlement of
                        Cell C Related to Blower Cycle
          6.4.1      Variation in Gas Composition with Time
                        in Cell A from Inverted Collection
                        Can at 7-Ft Depth
          8.4.2      Variation in Gas Composition with Time
                        in Cell A from Inverted Collection
                        Can at 13-Ft Depth
          8.4.3      Variation in Gas Composition with Time
                        in Cell B from Inverted Collection
                        Can at 7-Ft Depth
          8.4.4      Variation in Gas Composition with Time
                        in Cell B from Inverted Collection
                        Can at 13-Ft Depth
          8.4.5      Variation in Gas Composition with Time
                        in Cell C from Inverted Collection
                        Can at 7-Ft Depth
          8.4.6      Variation in Gas Composition with Time
                        in Cell C from Inverted Collection
                        Can at 13-Ft Depth
                     Temperature Trends in Access Well and at
                        Various Depths, Cell A
                     Temperature Trends on Access Well and at
                        Various Depths, Cell B
                     Temperature Trends in Access Well and at
                        Various Depths, in Cell C
15
16
17
27

28

29


33


34


35


36


37


38

42

43

44
12
 7.1.1      Schedule of Amounts of Water to be
               Applied to Cell A
 7.2.1      Cell Construction Summary

 8.2.1      Actual Amounts of Water Applied to
               Cell A
 8.2.2      Actual Amounts of Water Applied to
               Cell B
 8.3.1      Rates of Cell Settlement
 8.4.1      Maximum and Minimum Gas Components
               by Volume in all Cells
 8.4.2      Summary of Blower Operation,
               Cell C

12.2.1      Log of Core Samples Taken From First
               Spadra Test Cells
12.3        External Climatic Factors
12.4        Cell Settlement Data
12.5        Gas Composition in Cell A
12.6        Gas Composition in Cell B
12.7        Gas Composition in Cell C
12.8        Temperatures in Cell A
12.9        Temperatures in Cell B
12.10       Temperatures in Cell C
                                                                                            9
                                                                                           13
                                                                                           23
                                                                     24
                                                                     26
                                                                     32

                                                                     39
                                                                     49
                                                                     53
                                                                     55
                                                                     57
                                                                     59
                                                                     61
                                                                     63
                                                                     65
                                                                     67
                                   8.3-v
                                                                                                                             8.3-vi

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Photograph Ho.

      1
      2
      3
      4

      5
      6
      7
      9
     10
     11
     12
     13
     14
     15
     16

     17
     18
     19
     20

     21
     22
     23
     24

     25
     26
     27
     28

     29

     30
     31
     32

     33

     34
     35
     36
                             LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
                      Title

Equipment Used for Cell Construction
Excavation of Cells, General View
Excavation of Cell A
Cells B and C Fully Excavated

General View of All Cells Fully Excavated
Start of Cell A
Watering of Cell A During Construction
Cell A at Mid-construction

Placing Upper Half of Cell A Access Well
Cells A and B Filled, Cell C Receiving First Load
Placing Earth Cover on Cells A and B
Floor of Cell C Showing Aeration Trenches and Inlet
   Pipe from Blower

Setting Access Well in Cell C
Underground Sprinkler, Cell C
Laying Top Membrane, Cell C
Top Membrane in Place, Cell C

Covering of Top Membrane, Cell C
Access Well Extension
Access Well Extension, Corner Detail
General Instrumentation, All Cells

Gas Collection Drum
Collecting Gas Sample
Blower Serving Cell C, Recirculation Line in Foreground
Blower Serving Cell C, General View

Panel Board
Finished Cells, C in Foreground
Irrometers Used in Cell B
Watering Cell B after Seeding

Cell C after Settlement, Showing Modified Air Inlet Pipe
   and Water Barrier Constructed around Center Access Well
Subsurface Irrigation Supply Line to Cell C
Settlement Crevices at Cell at Natural Ground Boundary
Cave-in In Cell C

Differential Settlement between Cells B and C as  Indicated
   by Car Position
Grass Cover on Cell B
Opening of 5-Year Old Test Site
Coring of 5-Year Old Test Site
Page

  69
  69
  69
  69

  70
  70
  70
  70

  71
  71
  71

  71

  72
  72
  72
  72

  73
  73
  73
  73

  74
  74
  74
  74

  75
  75
  75
  75
   76
   76
   76
   76
   77
   77
   77
   77
                               4.  SUMMARY



Two years were spent in the preparation and study of the landfill cells de-

scribed in this report.  They exist at the Spadra Landfill No. 2, operated

by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts.  The purposes for which

these cells were built were:

        Test Cell A - Seattle rainfa.U pattern replication

        Test Cell B - Turf development and irrigation

        Test Cell C - Maintenance of aerobic environment

        Test Cell D - Refuse encapsulation in polyethylene membrane
                      to measure gas production


Sunr.ary statements follow.


1.   Compaction ratios from 2.1 to 2.2, and an in-place density of 1000 Ib

    per cu yd, were achieved for the test cells.

2,   Cell A, receiving the Seattle rainfall equivalent plus an extra 55 in.

    (for a total of 87 in. of water), did not show percolation into the

    leach collection cans.

3.   Cell B, after receiving 113 in. of applied irrigation water, produced

    leach in the collection can located 7 ft below the surface.

4.   ^ornial turf development was readily achieved and maintained on Cell B.

5.   The greatest settlement, nearly 2 ft in 17 months, occurred in aerobic

    cell C, whereas the two anaerobic cells A and B settled 0.5 and 0.4 ft,

    respectively, during the same period.

6,   Extensive settlement in cell C produced cave-ins with holes measuring

    3 ft by 4 ft that extended to the bottom of the cell.  The cave-ins

    were caused by a combination of oxidation, heavy rainfall and surface

    flooding.
                                     8.3-vii
                                                                                                                                         8.3-1

-------
 7.  In anaerobic cell A, the major gas constituents by volume have been




     fairly steady over the past year at 60 percent carbon dioxide and 40




     percent methane.  Oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen were present in varying




     amounts.




 8.  In cell B, the gas composition was affected by movement of air from




     cell C when the blower was in operation.  The major gas components were




     carbon rtioxide, nitrogen and methane.




 9.  Cell C was aerobically operated anJ the gas composition was dependent




     upon the duration of the blower operation.  The chief gas components




     at the upper level of the cell were nitrogen  (70 to 80 percent) and




     carbon dioxide (10 to 20 percent).  Slightly  lesser amounts existed at




     the lower level, but oxygen averaged about 10 percent.  Methane was




     minimal when the blower was in operation.




10.  The temperature at the 10-ft depth in anaerobic cell A was about 100




     deg F for the first 5 months, and then gradually decreased to 71 deg F




     over the balance of the test period.  The temperature behavior at the




     bottom depth was similar.




11.  The temperature in cell B declined from an early peak of 120 deg to




     70 deg F.  Although intended to be an anaerobic cell, its performance




     was influenced by the passage of air from cell C notwithstanding a




     compacted, 5-ft wide, continuous earth barrier.




12.  The aerobic cell C supported a 193 deg F temperature at mid-depth as




     much as 174 days following cell construction.  Bottom temperatures




     reached peaks sufficiently high to destroy thermistors.  Smoke emana-




     tions with fire were noted on a few occasions.  The cell temperature




     was affected by the aeration cycle.




13.  Cell D, intended for determining quantitative studies of gas production,




     was unsuccessful although constructed with extreme care by professional
                                    3.3-2
     plastic fabricators.   The polyethylene envelope was  not  able  to  store



     gas.




14.   Coring and side cutting of the 5 original,  4-t- yr old,  anaerobic  test




     cells demonstrated that only minor decomposition of  the  solid wastes




     had occurred.   Moisture analyses on a dry weight basis for  numerous




     core samples ranged from 5.3 to 42.9 percent,  considerably  less  than




     computed values at the time of construction.
                                                                                                                               8.3-3

-------
                     5.  THE SANITARY LANDFILL SITE



    ;.l   Selection.  As in the case of the earlier study  (see  page  ii), this

 investigation was conducted at Spadra Landfill No. 2.  This landfill, oper-

 ated by  the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County,  is  located

 as  sr.own in Figure 5.1.1, near the City of Pomona at  4125 West  Valley Blvd.

    1.2   Preparation.  Preparation of the site on which the test cells were

 tc  be constructed included clearing away of walnut trees, excavation of the

 cells, placement of access wells, and installation of the facilities re-

 quired before placement of the refuse.

    5.2.1  Cell Excavation. It was decided to position 4  cells in an area

 adjacent to the entrance to the landfill, as close as possible  to  the

 Weighnaster' s office as well as a source of power.  This area was  of a

 gently sloping nature, so that it was necessary to resort to  both  cut and

 fill operations to form the 4 cells.  Cells A and B were formed by cutting

 into undisturbed earth.  Cells C and D were formed in well compacted earth.

 Construction of the cells was undertaken by the District personnel, utiliz-

 ing bulldozers and scrapers.  Cell D, which failed in its purpose, is further

 discussed in the appendix.

   When  completed, the 3 test cells were fully below  finished grade.  End

 slopes, established to permit easy entry and exit of  the equipment, were

 about one on two, and side slopes were about one on   one-half.  The result

was an 3ix-line series .of 3 cells having the appearance of inverted trun-

 cated pyramids, with tops and bottoms in essentially  parallel planes.

   All cells had bottoms measuring approximately 50 ft on a side and  tops

neasuring approximately ~0 ft by 130 ft.  Their average  depth was  approxi-

mately 20 ft.  That portion of each cell utilized for research  purposes was

 the mass rising vertically above the bottom area.

                                  8.3-4
                                                                                                    MAP  TAKEN  FROM
                                                                                                    DATA BY L.A. CO. SANITATION DllTKICTS
         LAMBFILL

LOCATION MAP
     FIGUM 5.1.1
  PLOT  PLAN OF
  TEST  FACILITY
 SCALE      I" * 100
 CONTOUR INTERVAL 5
                                                                                                                                8.3-5

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   5.2.2  Access Wall.  In the center of each cell there was  erected  an




access well to provida outlets for gas collection lines, leach collection




lines, and electrical leads, and a means of human access for  observing bot-




tom drainage (if any), the taking of internal humidity and temperature




measurements, and collection of leach.



   Each access well consisted of a steel pipe 44 in. diameter by 1/4" thick




by 18 ft long, with numerous openings cut into the side for admission of




the aforementioned conduits emanating from within the cell.  The earth bot-




tom of etfch teac cell provided a suitable foundation for the access well.




Since the access wells were but 18 ft long, and since it was  the intention




to carry the cells to a finished depth of 21 ft, it was necessary to build




a 3-ft high wooden extension on top of each of them.  Each structure was




fitted with a hinged, locked cover.  Each access well was sealed off from




the atmosphere by covering the wooden super-structure with an air-tight,




neoprene-coated nylon tarpaulin.  All gas conduits and electrical leads




were  carried outside  of the enclosure and housed in a wooden box flush with




grade for convenience in  taking samples, and so that the internal environ-




ment  would be unchanged during the sampling process.  A 6-in. high concrete




and aluminum berm was placed around each access well to prevent surface




drainage from reaching the access well.




   5.2.3  Power Supply.   It was necessary to bring in power from the near-




est lines strung along the adjacent highway.  New lines were strung from




there to a temporary  pole provided by the Districts to  furnish 6 KW, 220v-




3ph current.  To serve the research site, a panel board was erected and




fitted with control and time clock equipment for the blower, and a trans-




former to provide the single phase current for  the vacuum pump and irriga-




tion  controls.  Underground lines in  rigid conduits carried the single




phase current to 4 different locations within the test  site.
                                   8.3-6
                            6.  REFUSE AND SOIL









    6.1  Refuse Source.  All of the refuse placed in the cells originated in




 the residential districts of the adjoining communities of Pomona, San Dlmas,




 Clareoont and LaVerne, just as in the case of the earlier Spadra study.




    6.2  Refuse Characteristics.  In addition to accepting refuse from only




 the residential areas of the communities named in the preceding section,




 further control was exerted to make certain that only typical domestic




 refuse consisting of paper, grass and garden trimmings, garbage and miscel-




 laneous inert material was placed in the cells.   Further, such materials as




 industrial wastes, lath and plaster,  tree logs and stumps, and broken con-




 crete, were generally excluded from the cells.  The solid waste placed in




 the cells  was assumed to have the same composition as determined at the




 start  of  the earlier project,  approximately 65 percent paper, 25 percent




 grass  and  garden  trimmings, 5  percent garbage and 5 percent inerts by vol-




 ume.   In the laboratory,  the  average  moisture content  for the entire mass




 of  trucked refuse  was determined  to be 31 percent on a wet weight basis




 (44.8  percent  dry  weight  basis).




    6.3  Soil Characteristics.   The top soil  of the  entire Spadra site com-




prises  a   thin layer of  organic  clay.   It was skinned off and stockpiled




for use elsewhere.  The subsoil consists  of  a decomposed  shale.   It  is  this




material which was used for final cover on the top  of  cells  B and C.
                                                                                                                                  8.3-7

-------
                           7.  CELL COHSTRUCTION
   7.1  Degcription of Cells.  ID cell A, the refuse was placed continuously




until the full depth  (19 ft) was reached.  As the refuse was being placed,




sufficient water was  added to bring the moisture content to 97.4 percent on




a dry weight basis.   The refuse placed was subjected to the standard com-




paction procedure.  To bring the overall depth to 21 ft, a 2-ft thick earth




cover was placed.  Since this cell was to be used as a basis for studying




the effect of simulated rainfall, particularly with regard to rainfall pen-




etration, it was necessary to provide an earth cover that would permit




water penetration.  That portion of the earth cover having the same dimen-




sions as the bottom of the cell was therefore imported from a Pomona




construction site.  Laboratory tests showed the material to be a "sandy




silt" with 54 percent passing through a No. 4 sieve and 60 percent passing




through a No. 200 sieve.  The dry density was 102 Ib per cu ft.  The co-




efficient of permeability, assuming 75 percent degree of compaction, was




50 ft per yr.  For application of the simulated rainfall, irrigation piping




was laid just beneath the top surface to service individually controlled




Rain Bird nozzles located one at each corner and one in the center.  The




amount of water to be applied in simulation of the Seattle, Wash., rainfall




is shown in Table 7.1.1.




   In cell B, the refuse was placed continuously until the full depth




(19 ft) was reached.  As the refuse was being placed, sufficient water was




added to bring the moisture content to 73.3 percent on a dry weight basis.




The refuse placed was subjected to standard compaction procedure.  To bring




the overall depth to  21 ft, a 2-ft thick earth cover was placed.  Since




this cell was to be used as a basis for studying the effect of maintaining
                                  8.3-8
                                                                                                                               Table 7.1.1
 Schedule of Amounts of Water To Be Applied To Cell A



(As Related to Rainfall, 1961,  Seattle-Tacoma Airport)
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Measured Frecip.
in Inches
(0.S. Weather
Bureau Info.)
7.71
9.11
4.45
2.35
3.07
0.54
0.75
0.82
0.46
3.27
4.67
5.32
Comparable Water To Be Applied
Gallons Per Day
12,012
14,193
6,933
3,661
4,783
841
1,168
1,278
717
5,095
7,276
8,289
Minutes of Rain Bird Operation
Per Month
540
638
312
165
215
38
53
57
32
229
327
372
Pr Webk
135
160
78
41
54
9
13
14
8
57
82
93
                                                                                                                                   8.3-9

-------
a high quality, golf course  type turf, particularly with regard to penetra-




tion of irrigation .water,  It was necessary to provide a top soil favorable




to turf growth.  This was  done by mixing "Loamite," a lignin-organic base




material containing approximately 45 percent lignin, 85 percent organic




matter and one percent nitrogen, with the native topsoll.  The amount used




was 10 percent by volume.  An automatic sprinkler system was installed to




insure that the turf would be properly irrigated.  An "Irrometer" system




was installed, consisting  of two pairs of ten&iometers tied in electrically




wlt'a a solenoid valve.  The  tendiometers were installed in pairs, one 3 in.




below the surface and the  other 6 in. below the surface.  When an unsatisfac-




tory soil-moisture relationship was reached at any of the four tensiometers,




irrigation would automatically begin and continue until the proper soil-




noisture condition was obtained at all tensiometers.  Bermuda seed was




selected and chicken guano was used as a fertilizer to help produce the




turf.  The irrigation piping was laid just beneath the top surface, and




individually-controlled Rain Bird nozzles were located one in each corner




and one in the center.




   Before the refuse could be placed in cell C, a system of piping by which




air could be admitted to the completed cell was installed.  This system




consisted of A-in. dia VC  perforated Wedge-Lock pipe laid in trenches 12




in. deep by 12 in. wide.   The network was made up of 3 parallel 48-ft lines




on 24-ft centers crossed at  right angles by 7 lines on 6-ft centers.  The




outside periphery of the network was a closed loop.  A near-vertical 4-in.




galvanized steel line was  installed to convey the air from the blower




mounted at ground surface  to the cell aeration system.  The refuse was




then placed continually until the full depth (19 ft) was reached.  As the




refuse was being placed, sufficient water was added to bring the moisture




content to 80.0 percent on a dry weight basis.  The refuse was subjected
                                 8.3-10
 to standard compaction procedure.   To bring the overall depth to 21 ft,  a




 2-ft thick top cover was placed.   To prevent movement of forced air through




 the earth cover and into the atmosphere,  an impervious membrane was




 stretched over the cell one foot below the surface,  i.e.,  at mid-depth of




 the cover.   The membrane used was  a white, 6-mill thick polyethylene.  It




 was expected that movement of air  through the cell would tend to dry out




 the refuse.   For this reason, a network of perforated 1/2-in. dia PVC spray




 pipe was  laid on top of the refuse, immediately under the  top cover.  The




 layout used  was similar to that described for the air piping.  So that the




 cell gases  could be recirculated during blower operation,  a 6-in. dia VC




 Wedge-Lock  pipe was laid on top of the cell, connecting the housing on top




 of  the center access well to the blower intake.  The wooden extension to




 the center access well for this cell was  constructed so that it could be




 reduced easily in height since considerable settlement of  the cell surface




 was expected.   A Buffalo Forge Company Industrial exhauster was selected




 for supplying air to the cell.  The blower was rated at 1000 cfm against a




 b-in. static pressure at 2345 rpm.   The blower's inside surfaces were




 treated to prevent corrosion.  A valved manifold was provided at the intake




 to  mix fresh air with recirculated gases  in any desired proportion.   A




 time clock was  wired into the electrical  system so that the operating cycle




 of  the blower  could  be  varied.  A  plan view of the 3 cells with their  re-




 lationship to  the  surrounding terrain may be seen in Figure 5.1.1.




    7.1.1  Volumes.   Only refuse trucks (packers)  of  known  volume were per-




mitted to unload their  refuse at the test site.   The volumetric capacity




of  each packer was obtained  from the municipality  which owned it.




   The volume of each excavation in which refuse  was to be placed was  sur-




veyed and computed through use  of  the prismoidal  formula.




    7.1.2  Weights.   Each  truck  that entered the Spadra site was weighed.
                                                                                                                                8.3-11

-------
 The  Weighmaster issued a receipt on which was  recorded  the  truck number,

 the  total weight,  the tare weight,  and  the  net tonnage  of refuse carried

 by the  truck.   The truck was then routed to the test  site.   The field  rep-

 resentative of  the research staff was stationed at  the  site to direct  the

 unloading of each  truck and placement of the refuse.  The representative

 also recorded the  receipt number and the truck number as it unloaded,  and

 at conclusion of the  day's work the entire  listing  of receipt numbers  was

 check-id against the Weighmaster's record to make certain that only  those

 tonnages  were included on the record that actually  reached  the test site.

   A bulldozer  and scraper was normally used to transport and level the

 earth that  was  to  be  used for top cover.  The  permeable soil cover  for

 cell A was  imported by truck as described previously.

   All of the water used in the construction of the refuse  cells was

 mete red.   From  the known gallonage,  the weight of the water added was

 computed.

   7.2  Construction  Summary.   All  of the data pertaining to the cell  con-

 struction are presented in Table 7.2.1.  On line 6  of the table, the den-

 sity of the refuse as delivered to  each cell is shown and is seen to be

 uniform.  On line  7 are presented the volumes  of the  excavations.   On  line

 8 are shown the calculated cell densities.   These densities were virtually

 the  same  for all cells.

   The working  time required to build the 3 cells was longest for cell C.

Many man  days of hard,  physical labor were  required for placement of the

 aeration  lines and related equipment.

   The compaction  ratio is usually  considered  to be the trucked volume of

 the  refuse  divided by the in-place  volume of the same refuse.  A recent

 survey of sanitary landfill practices,  conducted by the Solid Wastes Engi-

neering Section of the  ASCE Committee on Sanitary Engineering Research,



                                  8.3-12






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-------
demonstrated that 70 percent of all operating landfills responding to



inquiry achieved a compaction ratio of from 2:1 to 3:1 by various proce-



dures.  However, the method of calculation used was generally not specified.



The compaction ratios achieved in the earlier study by this Group by the



various construction techniques employed varied from 1.29:1 to 2.12:1.  It



is emphasized that the trucked volumes used in determining the ratios repre-



sented known, "pre-compacted" values.  The compaction ratios achieved in



this study vare 2.06:1 for cell A, 2.13:1 for cell B, and 2.18:1 for cell C.



   7.3  Mensuratlve Equipment.  While the cells were being constructed to



their finished surface elevation, it was necessary to install the equipment



which would make possible the measurement of internal and external tempera-



tures, Internal moisture and cell settlement, and provide for collection of



gas and leach samples.  Figures 7.3.1-7.3.3 are diagrams of each cell showing



placement of all equipment.



   7.3.1  Thermistors.  To measure the internal temperatures of each cell, 3



general purpose, bead-type thermistors were buried in the refuse as the cell



was constructed.  These thermistors were located at distances of 4 ft, 10 ft,



and 16 ft above the bottom surface.  The thermistors were selected to operate



in a corrosive atmosphere over the full range of expected temperatures.



They and their leads were protected by enclosure in 3/8-in. dia copper tubing.



Each thermistor was fitted with 50-ft Teflon-coated leads to reach from the



thermistor location into the access well and up to ground surface.  A fourth



thermistor was installed near the bottom of the access well and was taped to



a conventional mercury thermometer for comparison of readings.  Even with



these precautions, thermistors were lost, apparently because of corrosion of



leads or because of tearing of leads with settlement.  The first losses



occurred in cell C at the bottom and mid-depth due to excessive temperatures



after 193 days.   The last loss occurred in cell B at the bottom depth after
                                    8.3-14
 1

 25

 g"
 u o
   w

3-

 :?
-I 9
- 3 S
u   u
                                                                                                                                                                -  Ft
                                                                                                                                     8.3-15

-------
     MOTE:   All  leada  continue
     up the cce*a well  to  the
     Instrument  box.   Leach
     cans are In a spiral at
     2  ft Interval*.
                                                                     In.  Dla Steel Pipe
                                                                      Access Well
                                                                      O
                                                                                   Differential  Settlement Marker
                                                                                   25 Ft X 25 Tt Graas Cover
                                                                                   Settlement Marker
                                                                                   Huaddgulde
                                                                                   Thermometer d Thermistor
                                                                                   3 Ft Access Well Cover
                                                                                   Instrument Lead Box
                                                                                   2 Ft Earth Cover Plus  Loamlte
                                                                                   Sprinkler System
                                                                                                                   10
                    15
                                                                                                                   20
                                                     Figure 7.3.2

                                               CROSS SECTION OF CELL "B"
     NOTE:  All lesds continue up the
     access well to the Instrument
     lead box
                 No Scale
                Instrument Lead Box
                   2 Ft Earth Cover
                  Settlement Marker
               Polyethylene Cover
         Underground Water System
Differential Settlement Marker -j
Humldgulde
Thermometer & Thermistor
6" Gas Return Line
4" Blower Discharge Line
Flexible Connecting Hose
Blower With Time Control
            Air Intake
           1 Ft Deep Trench
    4" VC Distribution Line
                 Pea Gravel
                                                                    In. Dia Steel Pipe
                                                                    Access Well
                                                     Figure 7.3.3

                                               CROSS SECTION OF CELL "C"

-------
233 days.  Temperature* were obtained by measuring the resistance in  the




thermistor with a "Thermistor Thermometer" and referring the resistance to




calibration curves prepared in the laboratory before installation.




   7.3.2  Thermometers.  An electrically driven recording thermometer using




7-day charts was located with the sensing device mounted in a shaded  area




at the office of the Weighmaster at the entrance to the Spadra site.   The




recording thermometer was calibrated against a standard laboratory thermome-




ter, and a maximum-minimum thermometer was installed near it as a constant




check on the recorded temperatures.




   7.3.3  Moisture Probes.  To secure the internal moisture content of each




cell, 3 moisture probes were burled in the refuse next to the thermistors as




the cell was constructed.  The purchased probes consisted of 2 stainless




steel, wire mesh, cylindrical electrodes, set concentrically in plaster-of-




Faris.  Each probe was fitted with a 50-ft lead of heavy duty, laminated




wire.  The soldered joint was protected with an epoxy resin.  It was  expected




that moisture readings could be obtained by taking readings with a conductiv-




ity bridge and referral of the readings to calibration curves prepared by the




supplying laboratory.  However, for the conditions under which the probes




were used, it proved impossible to take readings which could be converted




into meaningful humidity valves.  Even in the laboratory, calibration readings




proved unreliable.




   7.3.4  Gas and Leach Collection Cans.  As the cells were constructed,  half




sections of 55-gal steel drums were located within cells A and C, 2 with  open




end up for the collection of leach and 2 with closed end up for the collec-




tion of gas.  In cell B, 9 half drums with open end up were installed in  a




descending spiral pattern between top and bottom of the cell for tracking




vertical penetration of irrigation water.  Also, 2 half drums were installed




with open end down for gas collection.  These are hereinafter referred to as
                                   8.3-18
 "leach collection cans" and "inverted collection cans."  To protect the cans




 against corrosion, they were given a bitumastic coating before placement.




 Copper tubing was used to convey any leach and the expected gas from the




 cans to the center access wells.  Leach lines were valved at entrance to




 access wells.   Gas lines were carried on up to ground surface where they




 terminated in compression stop cocks housed in a wooden box flush with grade.




    The cans were  installed within the fill with the copper outlet tubing so




 positioned as  to  allow for future settlement.   Gas samples were obtained at




 distances  of approximately 6 and 12 fi above the bottom.   The take-off tubes




 from the leach collection cans were at the same distances above the bottom.




 No  gas collection lines were lost.




    7.3.5   Gas  Analysis.   All gas analyses were made in the laboratory utiliz-




 ing a Beckman  GC-2 gas chromatograph,  modified to provide both silica gel and




 molecular  sieve columns,  and a Sargent Model SR recorder  equipped with a Disc



 integrator.




    A standard, glass,  gas collector was installed between the terminal of the




 copper gas  line and a  portable vacuum pump.  To take a sample,  the  valve on




 the end of  the gas  collection line  was closed,  the pump was  started,  and the




 system back  to the  closed valve was evacuated.   The valve was then  opened,




 permitting movement of  the gas  from the cell into the  collection  system, and




 the pump was run  for 5 minutes  before  the  sample to be used  for analysis was




 sealed In the gas  collector.   The 5 minute purge used  was  determined  through




 experimentation.  All  timing was done  by  stopwatch  in  the  interest  of  uni-




 formity.  Less than 24 hrs  elapsed  between the  times of sample collection




 and  sample analysis.




    7.3.6  Settlement Bench Marks.   A survey monument was established in un-




disturbed earth at one end of the longitudinal  axis of the test cells.  Also,




4 survey markers consisting of  2-in. capped  pipes  set  in concrete were
                                                                                                                                8.3-19

-------
established 90 deg apart and 15 ft from the center-line of  the  access well




on the surface of each cell.  To measure differential settling  within a  cell,




a steel settlement plate was installed 10 ft.  above the bottom  within each




cell.  Each plate was approximately one foot square, to which was welded a




3/4-in. dla steel pipe of sufficient length to reach above  the  finished  sur-




face elevation.
                                     8.3-20
                             8.  CELL ACTIVITY








   8.1  External Climatic Factors.  Monthly average air temperatures and




humidities, and daily rainfalls, were taken from Pomona Weather Station




records and recorded in Table 12.3.  Daily temperatures and humidities are




recorded in Tables 12.8 through 12.10.  As shown in Table 12.3, there was




no measurable rainfall recorded during the time the cells were under con-




struction.  The total rainfall on the test site for the period of study




(to December 31, 1965) has been 28.7 in.




   8.2  Application of Water.  In Table 8.2.1 are shown the amounts of water




applied to cell A.  It will be noted that unintentional flooding of the cell




occurred in December, 1964, when some 53 in. of water were applied.  Collec-




tion gauges were used to measure irrigation quantities.  During the ensuing




6 months very little water was applied other than natural precipitation for




it was desired to permit the upper part of the cell to dry as well as




possible.  Beginning in July, 1965, an effort was made to correlate the total




amount of water applied (irrigation plus rainfall) with the required amount




in accordance with Seattle rainfall (see Table 7.1.1).  Approximately 16 in.




were applied which was 0.7 in. more than required.  Even with the flooding




which took place in December, 1964, (55 in.) plus the water applied since




that time (30 in.), no leach was collected.




   The Bermuda grass was planted on top of cell B on August 25, 1964.  Care-




ful and frequent hand watering was required (normal for any new lawn) until




a sturdy stand was obtained.  It was refertilized on October 9.  It was not




until October 16 that the tensiometers could be given control of the




watering cycle.  The first cutting was made on October 30.  A third appli-




cation of fertilizer was made on February 25, 1965.  On March 4, a broad leaf
                                                                                                                                     8.3-21

-------
weed killer was applied as part of the weed control measure exercised over




the entire research site.  Since that time, an excellent turf has been




maintained.  The total irrigation water applied for the period of study




was 84.2 in.  The total rainfall plus irrigation on cell B was thus 112.9 in.




as tabulated in Table 8.2.2.  These amounts have produced leach only from




the top collection pan.  The actual amount withdrawn was about 100 ml of a




typical dark green, odorous liquid.



   The entrapment of water percolating downward through a medium into a col-




lection pan is not a certainty, and there is  always the danger of the pan




being bypassed in spite of efforts to preserve the continuity of the medium




Inside and above the pan.  However, since 2 leach collection cans were set,




and since leach was appeared in the top can,  it is assumed that percolation




of the applied water has not yet occurred to  a depth of more than 7 ft.




   8.3  Settlement.  The settlement of the surface of the cells, due to com-




paction of the refuse, was periodically measured by survey.  Settlement was




also influenced by the unusually heavy rains  of November, 1965.  The settle-




ment data are presented in Table 12.4 and Figures 8.3.1 - 8.3.3.  They indi-




cate that the greatest settlement, nearly 2 feet in 17 months, has occurred




in aerobic  cell C.  In the 2,  full-size anaerobic cells, settlement of 0.50




ft has occurred in cell A and  0.40 ft has occurred in cell B.  Cell C devel-




oped several longitudinal settlement fissures adjacent to the natural earth,




approximately 30 ft long and 1/2 in. wide.  These fissures were filled with




earth and were not a particular problem.




   Cave-ins in cell C did prove to be quite a problem.  The  first occurred




in October, 1965, simply as the result of natural oxidation.  The cave-in




produced a hole in the cell measuring 3 ft by 4 ft and extending to the




bottom.  Two more cave-ins followed, one on November 26 and  one on




December 11, but these were hastened by the very unusual rains of that







                                     8.3-22
                                 TABLE  8.2.1
                  Actual Amounts of Water Applied to Cell A
Month
1964
September
October
November
December
1965
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Water Applied
Gal




82550

-
2063
2903
776
-
-
1136
1278
-
-
-
-
In.




52.98

-
1.33
1.86
0.50
-
-
0.73
0.82
-
-
-
-
Rainfall
In.

.01
.23
1.77
2.12

0.95
0.30
1.90
6.98
0.07
0.03
0.50
-
0.83
-
8.88
4.19
Total Water
Applied, In.
Monthly

.01
.23
1.77
55.10

0.95
1.63
3.76
7.48
0.07
0.03
1.23
0.82
0.83
-
8.88
4.19
Cumulative

.01
.24
2.01
57.11

58.06
59.69
63.45
70.93
71.00
71.03
72.26
73.08
73.91
73.91
82.79
86.98
Water Required, In.
Monthly

0.46
3.27
4.67
5.32

7.71
9.11
4.45
2.35
3.07
0.54
0.75
0.82
0.46
3.27
4.67
5.32
Cumulative

0.46
3.73
8.40
13.72

21.43
30.54
34.99
37.34
40.41
40.95
41.70
42.52
42.98
46.25
50.92
56.24
Note:  The "water required" is taken directly from Table 7.1.1
                              8.3-23

-------
               TABLE 8.2.2
Actual Amounts of Water Applied to Cell B
Month
1964
July
August
September
October
November
December
iac
^70^
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Water Ap
Gal



15,000
10,283
5,477
6,209

3,167
8,111
1,800
16,187
7,659
22,151
14,052
7,142
12,525
1,336
0
piled
In.



9.63
6.60
3.52
3.99

2.03
5.21
1.16
10.39
4.92
14.22
9.02
4.58
8.03
0.86
0
Rainfall
In.



0.01
0.23
1.77
2.13
0.95
0.30
1.90
6.98
0
0.03
0.50
0
0.83
0
8.88
4.19
Total Water Applied, In.
Monthly



9.64
6.83
5.29
6.12
0.95
2.33
7.11
8.14
10.39
4.95
14.72
9.02
5.31
8.03
9.74
4.19
Cumulative



9.64
16.47
21.76
27.88
28.83
31.16
38.27
46.41
56.80
61.75
76.47
85.49
90.80
98.83
108.67
112.86
               8.3-24
period.   These cave-ins  occurred at  the  periphery of the  cell  and  served  as




funnels  to  channel surface  runoff to the bottom of the cell.   The  result




was  an Inundation of  all aeration lines.   Backfilling with  clean earth  re-




paired the  cave-ins.




   A method of comparing cell  settlement is  to  use a rate measurement rather




than a total measurement.   From  the  tabulated figures in  Table 12.4, those




of Table 8.3.1 were computed and are graphed in Figures 8.3.1  - 8.3.3.  Data




for  the  blower cycle  has been  added  to tha settlement graph for cell C.




These plainly  indicate that during the first 5  months following completion




of construction,  the  aerobic cell surface had the greatest  rate of settle-




ment, reaching a  maximum of 0.39 ft  per  month.   This compares  with cells  A




and  B having a maximum rate of 0.05  ft per month.   At the end  of 10 months,




the  rate  of cell  settlement was  negligible and  remained so  for several




months.  Most  recently,  the rate has  increased  to about 0.05 ft per month




in all cells.   (Note:  for  two months, the cell C blower  was off due to




heavy rainfall flooding.)




   Settlement  under cells A, B and C was  measured by means  of  the differen-




tial settlement plates described in  Section  7.3.6.   The total  settlement




figures  for the bottom half of each  cell  are shown in Table 12.4.  The set-




tlement of the bottom half  of  cell A  and  cell B lagged behind  the settle-




ment of the top half  by  0.10 ft.   The differential settlement  between the




top half and the  bottom  half of  cell  C was 0.26 ft.   In other  words, the




lower portion  of  the  cell settled  1.59 ft  resulting  in Increased "equiva-




lent" density  of  the  bottom fill material.   The upper portion  of the cell




followed the lower  portion  down  and actually compressed 0.26 ft additional




to give a total surface  settlement of 1.85 ft.   Thus,  the density of the




upper portion  of  the  fill material was virtually unchanged.  It is ex-




pected that this  differential  would become greater as  the depth of fill
                                                                                                                  8.3-25

-------
       TABLE 8.3.1
Rates of Cell Settlement
Time Increment
First Month
Second Month
Third Month
Fourth Month
Fifth Month
Sixth Month
Seventh Month
Eighth
Ninth
Tenth
Eleventh
Twelfth
Thirteenth
Fourteenth
Fifteenth
Sixteenth
Seventeenth
Rate of Settlement
of Surface in Feet
per month
Cell A
0.04
0.03
0.08
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.02
0.02
0
0.01
0
0.01
0.04
0.04
Cell B
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.03
0.01
0
0
0
0.02
0.05
0.04
Cell C
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.26
0.39
0.25
0.18
0.07
0.04
0.08
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.04
0.05

         8.3-26

-------
        JULY        AUGUST    SEPTEMBER    OCTOBER     NOVEMBER    DECEMBER    JANUARY     FEBRUARY     MARCH       APRIL
                                                                                                                                             JUNE
                                                                                                                                                          JULY       AUGUST    SEPTEMBER    OCTOBER    NOVEMBER
0.6
0.5
0.2
0.1
                                   Top of  Cell
                                    Differential Marker
    0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70
90  100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280  290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 5W
                                                  ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL COMPLETION (DAYS)
                                                                                                       Figure 8.3.1
                                                                                        Surface and Mid-Depth Settlement of Cell A
                                                                                                                                                                                                             8.

-------
                            AUGUST    SEPTEMBER    OCTOBER    NOVEMBER    DECEMBER    JANUARY     FEBRUARY
                                                                                                               MARCH
                                                                                                                           APRIL
                                                                                                                                                    JUNE
                                                                                                                                                                               AUGUST    SEPTEMBER    OCTOBER    HOVEMBER
        0.6
            0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80   90   100 110 120 130 140  150  160  170 180  190 200  210  220  230  240  250  260  270  280  290 300 310 320 330 340  350  360  370  380  390 400  410  420  430  440  450 460 470  480 490  500 510
                                                                                                 ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL COMPLETION  (DAYS)


                                                                                                               Figure 8.3.2
                                                                                                Surface and Mid-Depth Settlement of Cell B
ft
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.3-28

-------
                Surface Settlement
          	Mid-depth Settlement
                                                                                                                           FIGURE 8.3.3
                                                                                                                 Surface and Mid-depth Settlement
                                                                                                                   of Aerobic Cell C Related to
                                                                                                                          Aeration Cycle
40
            80         120
                                   160
                                               200         240          280          320

                                             ELAPSED TIME  SINCE  CELL COMPLETION IN DATS
                                                                                                                                                520
                                                                                                                                            8.3-29

-------
Increased and/or as the settlement plate location is lowered.




   8.4  Gas Production.  In cell A, the chief component of the gas has been




carbon dioxide at top and bottom levels.  This gas component decreased




rapidly at the start, and then tapered off to a fairly steady 60 percent over




the  last year.  Methane increased rapidly at the start, and then less




rapidly to a fairly steady 40 percent over the last year.  Since cell A was




operated under anaerobic conditions with liberal application of water,




these quantities are not considered unusual.  Oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen




were all present in varying minor amounts.  Graphs of the tabulated data




are presented in Figures 8.4.1 and 8.4.2.  Gas components which measured




less than 3 percent by volume were in general omitted from the graphs.




Also, seemingly inconsistent high or low spot values were not plotted.




   Cell B was constructed also to operate under anaerobic conditions, and




it was separated from cell A by a 5-ft thick wall of undisturbed earth.




However, with the blower in operation, a slight billowing of the tarpaulin




covering the center access well could be seen, and later on the odor of de-




composing organic material was noticeable when one was standing on cell B.




It was thus evident that some of the air being sent into cell C was moving




through the earthen barrier into cell B.  The analyses shown in Table 12.6




present no orderly pattern such as those of cell A; on the contrary, all




components fluctuated throughout the test period.  Carbon dioxide, methane




and nitrogen were the major components.  Because of the passage of air into




cell B, oxygen was always present and in significant quantities.  Graphs of




the tabulated data are presented in Figures 8.4.3 and 8.4.4.  Information




concerning the blower operation has been included on these two graphs for




explanatory purposes.




   The gas composition data for cell C cannot be generalized.  In this cell,




intermittent aeration and accompanying recirculation of the gas produced
                                 8.3-30
within the  cell  was  practiced.   Also,  fresh make-up was added at all




times, usually by  positioning the flap valve in the intake line at  45 deg.




With  the blower  in operation for extended  periods,  the  chief  gas components




by volume at  the upper level were carbon dioxide (10-20 percent) and nitro-




gen  (70-80  percent),  and  at  the lower  level were carbon dioxide (8-15 percent),




nitrogen  (70-75  percent)  and oxygen (5-15  percent).   These ranges were due to




the facts that the blower was operated on  varying on-off cycles and the air




was admitted  through  the  piping system underlying the cell.   The blower tfas




off at timet,  either by choice when oxidation would  proceed too rapidly and




fire  would  break out,  or  by  reason of  breakdown of  equipment.   The  heavy




rains of November, 1965,  caused motor  failure necessitating removal and re-




pair,  and it  was found that  by  December the methane was rising rapidly at the




lower level and  to a  lesser  extent at  the  upper level,  accompanied  by a de-




crease in nitrogen.   Oxygen  almost disappeared  at the upper level,  but held




up at  the lower  level  to  a surprising  degree.   Graphs of the  tabulated data




are presented in Figures  8.4.5  and 8.4.6.   Information  concerning the blow-




er operation  has been  included  on these 2  graphs for explanatory purposes.




   The maximum and minimum concentrations  of all gas components  at  the 7-




ft and  13-ft  depths appear in Table 8.4.1.   For cells B and C,  these figures




per se  can  be misleading  since  a low or high value  of any  constituent would




depend upon the  blower being  off or in operation.  A summary of  blower op-




eration appears  in Table  8.4.2  and should  be referred to when  the gas




analysis tables  are being studied.




   The internal  gas pressure  of  all cells  was measured  several  times during




the test period,  using a water manometer connected to the  gas lines.   This




was done under various conditions  of temperature  and  blower operation,  and




before and after gas sampling.   The maximum  pressure  ever  found was  0.80 in.




in cell A on August 24, 1965.  Other maxima  were  0.60 in.  in cell B  on June
                                                                                                                                8.3-31

-------
                        TABLE  8.4.1
Maximum and Minimum Gas  Components by Volume In All Cells




                       7  Foot Depth
Gas
Component
N2
C02
CH4
H2
02
Tell A
Max
16.0
95.4
43.3
0.4
5.7
Min
0.1
55.2
1.0
0.0
0.1
Cell B
Max
75.9
4.4
43.6
0.2
5.3
Min
0.4
T
0.2
0.0
T
Cell C
Max
83.3
77.3
14.0
1.0
17.8
Min
0.9
3.6
0.2
0.0
0.3
                     13 Foot Depth
N2
C02
CH4
H2
2
17.6
96.3
45.9
0.2
4.4
0.1
54.0
0.7
0.0
T
81.2
8.3
42.9
0.3
8.3
1.9
0.1
0.2
T
0.5
84.2
61.6
27.1
0.4
15.7
23.9
6.1
0.2
0.0
0.8
                          8.3-32

-------
100  -


 90


 80  


 70  


 60  -


 50  -


 40  -


 30  


 20- -


 10  
                                                                              "*'
20    40    60    80    100   120   140   160   180   200   220   240   260   280   300   320   340   360   380   400    420   440   460   480   500   520   540

                                                          ELAPSED TIME AFTER CELL COMPLETION  (DAYS)
                                             Figure 8.4.1 - Variation in Gas Composition with Time in Cell A
                                                            From Inverted Collection Can at 7-Ft Depth
                                                                                                                                                         8.3-33

-------
   100 -
    90 -
    80 
    70 
    60 -
2   50
l-t
    30
                                                                                             Ef
    20  
             20
                   40
                         60
                               80
                                     100   120   140   160   180
                                                                   200   220   240   260   280   300   320    340    360


                                                                   ELAPSED TIME  SINCE CELL  COMPLETION (DAYS)
                                                                                                                          380   400   420   440   460   480   500   520   540
                                                        Figure  8.4.2 - Variation in Gas Composition with Time in Cell A

                                                                       From Inverted Collection Can at 13-Ft Depth
                                                                                                                                                                        8.3-34

-------
                                                                                                                      Refer to Table 8.4.2 for Correlation
                                                                                                                              with Blower Operation
20    40    60
                       100   120   140   160   180
                                                     200   220   240   260   280   300   320   340   360   380   400    420   440   460   480   500   520   540


                                                      ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL COMPLETION (DAYS)
                                           Fieure 8.4.3 - Variation in Gas Composition with Time  in  Cell  B
                                                          From Inverted Collection Can at  7-Ft Depth
                                                                                                                                                       8.3-35

-------
                                                                        Refer to Table 8.4.2 for Correlation
                                                                                with Blower Operation
                                                                           420    440    460
                                                                                             480
                                                                                                   500   520   540
          ELAPSED TIME  SINCE  CELL COMPLETION (DAYS)
Figure 8.4.4 - Variation in Gas Composition with Tine in Cell B
               from Inverted Collection Can at 13-Ft Depth
                                                                                                           8.3-36

-------
                                                                                                                              Refer to Table 8.4.2 for Correlation
                                                                                                                                      with Blower Operation
100-



 90-



 80-



 70-

CH4
2



         20    40    60    80    100   120   140   160   180    200    220    240    260    280    300   320   340   360   380   400   420   440   460   480   500   520

                                                               ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL COMPLETION  (DAYS)
                                                    Figure 8.4.5 - Variation in Gas Composition with Time in Cell C
                                                                   From Inverted Collection Can at 7-Ft Depth
                                                                                                                                                             8.3-37

-------
                                                                         Refer to Table 8.4.2 for Correlation
                                                                                 with Blower Operation
                                                                                                           520
           ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL COMPLETION  (DAYS)
Figure 8.4.6 - Variation in Gas Composition with Time in Cell C
               From Inverted Collection Can at 13-Ft Depth
                                                                                                       8.3-38

-------
            TABLE 8.4.2
Summary of Blower Operation, Cell C
Elapsed Tine
In, Days
Following
Completion of Cell
A and B
24
52
93
128
149

192
206
217
233
283
310
327
329
426
440
450
452
489
500
508
515
525
C
0
28
69
104
125

168
182
193
209
259
286
303
305
402
416
426
428
465
476
484
491
511
Blower
On

X





X


X


X

X

X





Off
X





X


X


X

X

X

X
X



Blower Cycle
Hr on

0.5
0.5
1.0



0.5
0.5

0.5
0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5





Hr off

.1.5
2.5
2.0



2.5
1.0

2.5
7.5

7.5

3.5

3.5





Remarks




First observation of effect
of blower on cell B.
Odor problem.


Fire in cell.
Replaced blower connections .

Short in motor.
Motor repaired.
Heavy Rains.

Cave-in in C because of fire.
Fissure filled.
Heavy rains. Motor damaged.
Cave-in in C because of rain.
22 in. water bottom cell B.
15 in. water bottom cell C.
Cave-in in C. Dec. 31, 1965.
            8.3-39
17, 1965, with the cell C blower running, and 1.00 in. in cell C on August




24, 1965, with the blower running.




   8.5  Cell Temperatures.  In Tables 12.8, 12.9 and 12.10 are presented




the temperature data for all of the cells.  For each cell are shown the




maximum, minimum and average temperatures for the air and the access well,




and the internal temperatures at depths of 4, 10 and 16 ft below the fin-




ished surface elevation.  All of these readings are correlated with the




date on which they were taken and the total elapced time in days following




the completion of each cell.




   Cell A, which was constructed with a moisture content of 97 percent, was




Initially cooler than cell B having a moisture content of 72 percent.  The




10-ft depth temperature varied between 100 and 103 deg F for the first 5




months and then gradually decreased to 71 deg F.  The 16-ft depth tempera-




ture, initially some 12 deg cooler, has been roughly equivalent to the 10-




ft depth temperature over the past 6 months.  At the end of the test period,




cell B was maintaining a higher temperature by 6 to 10 deg at both top and




mid-depth (probably due to the blower effect).




   Cell B, at the 4- and 10-ft depths, has gradually declined from a peak




of 120 to 70 deg F.  The bottom thermistor failed after 233 days.




   The highest temperatures, and the greatest range in temperatures, were




experienced in aerobic cell C, as was expected.  A peak temperature at the




4-ft depth of 193 deg F was found, which gradually declined to 106 deg F.




At the 10- and 16-ft depths, the temperature climbed to heights exceeding




190 deg F after 193 days, resulting in the loss of the thermistors.  With




fire being experienced in this cell, it is believed the slender teflon




leads were destroyed.




   In Figures 8.5.1 and 8.5.2 are plotted the variations in temperatures




and access wells for cells A and B.  Minor, day-to-day fluctuations were






                                 8.3-40

-------
not plotted; hence the curves represent temperature trends.  Similar curves




for cell C are plotted In Figure 8.5.3, plus the Information concerning the




blower operation.  It will be seen that there was usually  a temperature




rise following the starting up of the blower following a protracted shut




down.
                                 8.3-41

-------
120..

100..

 80 -.

 60..
          Access Well
           4 Ft Depth
          10 Ft Depth
          16 Ft Depth
    FIGURE 8.5.1

       CELL A

 Temperature Trends

   in Access Well

and at Various Depths
40 -
20 -
0 .


I,, , i . i i i l i l l l 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 -1- 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 ' 	 *
          20    40    60     80    100   120   140   160   180   200   220   240   260   280   300   320   340

                                                                  ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL COMPLETION (DAYS)
                                                                                                               360   380   400   420   440   460   480   500   520   540
                                                                                                                                                                  8.3-42

-------
   200

   180-

   160

   140
I100
u
   80

   60

   40

   20

    0
Access Well
 4 Ft Depth
10 Ft Depth
16 Ft Depth
    FIGURE R.5.2
       CELL B
 Temperature Trends
   In Access Well
and at Various Depths
                                          -t-
                                                       -t-
                                                                  -t-
                                                                         -t-
                                                                               -t-
                                                                                     -1-
                                                                                                 -f-
                                                                                                              -t-
            20
                        60
                              80
                                    100   120   140   160   180   200   220    240   260   280   300   320   340    360    380   400   420   440   460   480   500   520
                                                                      ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL COMPLETION  (DAYS)
                                                                                                                                                                           540
                                                                                                                                                                        8.3-43

-------

                                                                                                                         FIGURE  8.5.3




                                                                                                                            CELL C




                                                                                                                      Temperature Trends




                                                                                                                        in Access Well




                                                                                                                     and at Various Depths
                                     <	\-
                                                -+-
                                                       H	\-
                                                                         H	h
                                                                                                 -4-
                                                                                                        -+
                                                                                                              -4-
                                                                                                                          -+-
20    40
60    80    100   120   1 0   160   180   200    220    240    260   280   300   320   340   360    380    400   420   440   460   480   500   520



                                          ELAPSED TIME SINCE CELL  COMPLETION (DAYS)
                                                                                                                                                     8.3-44

-------
                               10.  APPENDIX
   10.1  Intended Quantitative  Study of Gas Production.  As a part of this




study, a fourth cell was  constructed for the purpose of making a quantita-




tive study of the gas produced  during decomposition.  The entire amount of




gas placed in this cell was to  be encapsulated within an impervious mem-




brane.  Black, 10-mill thick polyethylene was selected for this purpose.




Extreme care was taken to prevent puncturing of the membrane during place-




Bent of the refuse.  The  bottom sheet was laid on a 2-in. thick bed of




washed sand and was then  covered by a 4-in. thick layer of sand, chuted




into place, followed by a 2-ft  thick cover of earth.  The inclined sides of




the cell were protected in a similar-manner.  Suspended from ground surface




and resting against the near-vertical sides of the cell was the membrane




sandwiched between layers of 15 Ib. felt roofing paper.  Plywood, 1/4-in.




thick, was laid against the felt roofing paper to protect the membrane




during placement of the refuse.  All membrane joints were then sealed with




mastic and tape by the supplier's representatives.  Refuse was then brought




and carefully placed, without normal compaction, until the full depth (6.5




ft) was reached.  As the  refuse was being placed, sufficient water was




added to bring the moisture content to 68.3 percent on a dry weight basis.




To bring the overall depth to 7.5 ft, a 6-in. thick top earth cover was




placed, followed by a 3-In. layer of sand.  The covering membrane was then




placed on top of the sand and it, in turn, was protected by a second 3-in.




thick layer of sand, chuted in place.  The covering membrane was joined to




the side pieces in the manner described above to complete the capsule.  Gas




and electrical leads were taken out of the cell through a water-filled




U-tube.  The leg Inside the cell, and the U-section, were made of 6-in. dia
                                  8.3-46
galvanized pipe.  The leg which was carried up through the top cover was




made of 2-in. dia galvanized pipe, and was also used as a manometer for




measuring cell pressure.  To prevent debris from entering the system, the




leg inside the cell terminated in a reverse bend and the leg outside of the




cell was capped with membrane.  A seal was provided where the 2-in. leg




passed through the top membrane.




   The details are recorded here because, in spite of the care taken, the




cell was a failure.  Gas was able to pass through the membrane, either due




to punctures or to the nature of the membrane itself, in sufficient quan-




tity so that no pressure ever built up within the fill nor was any gas ever




withdrawn from the fill that could be measured in the wet test cell.




   10.2  Examination of Previous lest Site.  The 5 cells remaining of the




previous Spadra investigation (see page ii) were cored on April 22, 1965,




using a power driven, 12-in. auger.  The driller's log is reproduced in




Table 12.2.1, supplemented by moisture determinations performed on samples




sealed in the field and transported to the laboratory.  It will be noted




that the moisture contents at the time of coring ranged from 5 to 43 per-




cent on a dry weight basis, and were far below those computed at the time




of construction.




   On June 1, 1965, a bulldozer was used to cut into the side of some of




the cells to provide a visual inspection of the refuse in place.  In all of




the cells so uncovered, newsprint was readable and only minor decomposition




had taken place after the initial entrapped oxygen was used up.  In cells




2, 3 and 4 were found cuttings from an ivy plant whose leaves had the same




green color and whose stems still retained their toughness and strength,




indicating no appreciable decomposition.  Tin cans were bright and shiny




and appeared not to have rusted any from the time they were placed in the




cells.  Many bottles were found intact.  The rubber tires were smashed flat







                                 8.3-47

-------
and all life appeared to have gone out of the rubber.




   The only noticeable difference between the opened cells was the degree




of odor.  Cell 2, constructed with 4-ft thick layers of refuse separated




by 1-ft thick layers of earth and with water added, was the most odorous.




Cell 4, constructed entirely of refuse and with water added, was the least




odorous.
                  TABLE 12.2.1
Log of Core Samples Taken From First Spadra Cells

Moisture
Content
(Dry Wt)
Percent

16.5
19.7
18.1
30.6

27.8



17.4





18.6
15.0


24.6
14.8





Cell
No.

1








2















Elapsed
Time Since
Cell
Completion
(Days)
1634








1617















Below
Ground
Surface
Observation
Depth  Feet

3
6
9
12

15

17-17 1/2

2.3


2-1/2


6
9


10
12





Observation


2.8 ft earth cover
Partially decomposed - rotten odor
Decomposed - tin can clean

Clean tin cans - decomposed grass cut-
tings - damp odorous - read paper
Putrid - damn decomposed paper - some
garden trimmings, green
Bottom sample - wet saturated clay
1-1/2 ft dirt cover
No odor, decomoosed - metal not decom-
posed
Fill shakes under rig
First putrid odor - tin cans o.k. - paper
damp, plastic o.k. - trimmings and paper
Ran into earth cover at 4 ft
Decomposed
Moist, decomposed garden trim - decom-
posed paper - plastic o.k. - putrid
earthy odor
Earth cover - grey clay
Rags not decomposed - wire o.k., no decompo-
sition - trimmings and paper decomposed -
plastic clean - humus-like - putrid odor
not too strong
                                                                                                                        (Continued on Page 50)
                                8.3-48
                                                                                                                                 8.3-49

-------
                              TABLE  12.2.1  (Continued)
                                                                                                                              TABLE 12.2.1 (Continued)
                 Log of Core  Samples  Taken From First  Spadra  Cells
                 Elapsed        Be low
Moisture        Time Since      Ground
Content   Cell     Cell       Surface
(Dry Wt)   No.  Completion  Observation
Percent           (Days)    DepthFeet
                       Observation
  24.8


   5.3
  11.1
  19.5
  14.5
14-1/2   Dirt cover - odor humus - putrid -
         not bad

16       Read some newspaper - some rags clean -
         decomposed grass - clean tip cane

18       Clean tin cans - minor humus - putrid
         odor - decomposed garden trimmings -
         paper

19       Dirt - bottom of cell
7.4 3 1590
21.6


24.4


6
7
9
2.3 ft earth cover. No odor
5 ft Humus - putrid minor - moist -

Dry dirt cover - 1-1/2 ft thick
Clean newspapers - clean tin cans -

odor



         decomposed leaves, moist wood - strong
         putrid odor

10-1/2   Dirt dry - clean paper (dirt and paper
         1-1/2 ft thick) - putrid odor - strong

12       Clean tin cans - some clean paper -
         decomposed trimmings - clean wire -
         least decomposed refuse

15       More humus-like (less odor) - minor clean
         paper - clean tin cans - clean rags

15-1/2   Dirt cover (1 ft) - putrid odor - clean
         plastic - some clean paper - clean tin
         cans - fill shakes

16       Undeconposed rubber tire, cloth,
         newspaper, and plastic

18       Refuse - hit dirt bottom

19       Sample of clay dirt - putrid odor
                               (Continued  on Page  51)

                                       8.3-50
                                                                                                                 Log of Core Samples Taken From First Spadra Cells

Moisture
Content
(Dry Wt)
Percent

10.4

16.6


24.3



18.8




28.8

42.9

21.9
26.6

23.2



28.6




Cell
No.

4


















5









Elapsed
Time Since
Cell
Completion
(Days)
1590


















1542









Below
Ground
Surface
Observat ion
Depth- -Feet

3

6


9



12




15
17
18
19

6

9



12




Observation


0.6 ft dirt cover - no odor
Odor - -appears well decomposed - some
paper well rotted
Some putrid odor - moist - some plastic -
clean tin cans - some nylon stockings -
newspaper well rotted
Well rotted - a little paper - some
partially decomposed rags - slightly
decomposed tin cans - electric wire-
plastic; no decomposition
Well rotted paper - dark - tin can
partially oxidized - some plastic -
nylon stocking greenish color - rubber
shoes o.k. - moist paper - sloppy nylon
rags - curtain
Humus-like - rubber inner tube o.k.
Some plastic - wet saturated slop
Gumbo - saturated - clay
To solid clay bottom (yellow)
2-1/2 ft dirt cover - no odor
Rotted paper - clean tin cans - plastic -
clean - putrid odor
Plastic partially decomposed - glass no
decomposition - shiney cans - minor
putrid odor - dry, rotted brown paper -
wire untouched
Hemp rope o.k. - plastic o.k. - rotted
newsprint - tin cans o.k. - milk cartons
partially decomposed - putrid odor
                                                                                                                              (Continued on Page 52)
                                                                                                       8.3-51

-------
                    TABLE 12.2.1 (Continued)
       Log of Core Samples Taken From First Spaora Cells
Moisture
Content
(Dry Wt)
Percent
21.2

34.0


Cell
No.
5



Elapsed
Time Since
Cell
Completion
(Days)




Below
Ground
Surface
Observation
Depth  Feet
15

18
18-1/2

Observation

Decomposed paper - some straw, brownish
grey
Dry - not moist
Wet, saturated clay
The computed moisture contents of these cells at the
time of construction were (dry weight basis):
    Cell 1  167.1%
         2   51.9%
Cell 3   32.5%
     4   79.5%
                                          Cell 5   41.7%
                             8.3-52
                                                                                                                                  TABLE 12.3
                                                                                                                           External Climatic Factors
Month
1964
June


July
Aug.
Sept.

Oct.




Nov.




Dec.









Day

15
16
19
26
28
18
25
15
27
28
29

1
9
10
12
17
11
18
19
20
21
23
24
25
27
28
Inches of Rainfall
Daily
T
T
T
T
T
T
.01
T
T
.04
.19

T
.39
.38
.13
.87
T
.06
.03
.43
.06
.04
.03
T
1.25
0.23
1965 || ||
Jan.

Feb.

March





7
24
6
28
7
11
12
13.
15
31
0.45
0.50
0.28
0.02
0.39
0.04
0.08
0.40
0.30
0.69
Cumulative


T
T
T

.01



.24





2.01









4.14


5.09

5.39





7.29
Temperatures of
Ave. Max.
78.1


90.1
87.0

84.3
83.9




65.8




61.2









Ave. Min.
54.9


60.1
62.4

57.4
58.2




45.3




44.7









1
65.4

68.0

65.6





43.7

43.0

46.7





Mean
66.5


70.1
74.7

70.9
71.1




55.6




53.0









Humidity
Ave. (X)
48.4


35.0
43.0

41.0
41.1




40.6




60.3









il
54.6

55.4

56.0





41.9

40.4

50.5





                                                                                                    (Continued on Page 54)

                                                                                                            8.3-53

-------
  TABLE 12.3 (Continued)
                                                                                                         TABLE 12.4
External Climatic Factors
Month
1965
April








May
June
July


Aug.
Sept.




Oct.
Nov.









Dec.










Day
1
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10

26
15
16
29

6
17
18
19


14
15
16
17
18
22
23
24
25

9
10
12
13
14
15
16
29
30
31

Inches of Rainfall
Daily
1.88
0.31
1.22
0.22
0.05
0.06
1.14
0.72
1.38
0
0.03
0.05
0.01
0.44
0
0.09
0.08
0.50
0.16

0
0.29
1.00
1.10
0.78
0.24
2.20
1.76
1.07
0.44

0.20
0.53
0.39
0.02
0.11
0.12
0.09
2.19
0.32
0.22

Cumulative








14.27
14.27
14.30


14.80
14.80




15.63
15.63









24.51










28.70
Temperatures of
Ave. Max.
70.2








73.1
72.3
85.8


89.5
80.4




84.5
67.2









62.9










Ave. Min.
48.8








51.9
54.5
58.5


62.9
55.9




56.4
50.2









42.8










Mean
59.5








62.5
63.4
72.2


76.2
68.2




70.5
58.7









52.9










Humidity
Ave. (%)
50.4








50.4
56.4
40.6


40.8
45.8




30.9
59.0









50.7










                                                                                                    Cell Settlement Data
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)
34
41
48
55
58
62
65
69
72
79
86
90
93
114
125
149
156
174
180
193
198
Total Settlement of
Cell Surface in Feet
Cell Number
A




0.07

0.08

0.10
0.10
0.14

0.15
0.18

0.24


0.28

0.29
B




0.04

0.02

0.03
0.04
0.05

0.07
0.08

0.14


0.17

0.18
C
0.09
0.13
0.15
0.19

0.22

0.26



0.36


0.67

1.09
1.24

1.33

Total Settlement of
Mid-Depth Surface
in Feet
Cell Number
A




0.04

0.05

0.05
0.06
0.08

0.09
0.10

0.15


0.19

0.20
B




0.03

0.05

0.05
0.07
0.07

0.08
0.10

0.14


0.16

0.16
C
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.13

0.15

0.19



0.24


0.61

1.07
1.21

1.27

                                                                                                   (Continued on Page 56)
                                                                                                            8.3-55
           8.3-54

-------
TABLE 12.4 (Continued)
 Cell Settlement Data
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)
202
214
217
225
238
249
259
272
279
283
286
296
303
323
327
347
354
378
384
408
426
450
482
506
Total Settlement of
Cell Surface in Feet
Cell Number
A


0.31

0.32
0.32



0.38

0.38


0.40
0.40

0.41

0.41

0.42

0.50
B


0.20

0.21
0.21



0.27

0.28


0.29
0.28

0.29

0.29

0.31

0.40
C
1.37
1.47

1.48


1.53
1.55
1.57

1.58

1.63
1.62


1.66

1.68

1.74

1.85

Total Settlement of
Mid-Depth Surface
in Feet
Cell Number
A


0.22

0.23
0.23



0.29

0.29


0.31
0.31

0.32

0.30

0.35

0.40
B


0.19

0.19
0.19



0.24

0.25


0.26
0.25

0.25

0.24

0.26

0.33
C
1.30
1.41

1.40


1.47
1.48
1.48

1.48

1.51
1.51


1.50

1.49

1.52

1.59

         8.3-56
g
u
u
0)
f-t
U 0)
TJ 
0) M
B TJ
0)
H
M C
3
5|
01
a; .n
% a
u 8*
O T3
B a
3 U
EC
O t)
H 01
H d
a,
a
B 3
u u
c
0)
t*
aj
IS flj
H >, c
T3 O
0) r-
a c -
n M
^1 [i
w
<
i
c
C




w
Q)













O
ID C
: o
Complet
u
j
0
3
CM


CM

g
CM

CM
U



sc

CM


O

8

SSSSSSSSSS3SS3SS3SSSS
SSS00"^00000'-""'-""'"''"1"-'0

f<
-------
  TABLE 12.5 (Continued)
 Gas Composition In Cell A


Date


6-05-65
6-09
6-24
7-13
7-20
7-27
8-05
8-12
8-19
8-26
9-12
9-21
9-30
10-07
10-14
11-04
11-11
12-09
12-18
12-27
Elapsed Time
In Days
Followins
Completion of
Cell
326
330
345
364
371
378
387
394
401
408
424
433
440
447
454
475
482
510
519
528
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface

7 Feet
co2
67.13
65.20
63.99
62.41

61.38
55.23
58.35
59.58
59.89
57.82
58.37
60.04
61.27
58.83
59.73
58.37
57.99
56.03

2
0.39
0.31
0.41
0.45

0.56
0.74
0.47
0.32
0.35
0.30
0.30
0.19
0.05
0.10
0.13
0.78
0.26
0.15

CH4
31.17
32.72
33.99
35.08

35.85
41.10
39.42
38.51
38.21
40.74
40.40
39.09
38.49
40.71
39.71
39.46
41.01
43.28

H,
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.02

0.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

N2
1.19
1.67
1.59
2.04

2.19
2.93
1.76
1.59
1.55
1.14
0.93
0.68
0.19
0.36
0.43
1.39
0.74
0.54

13 Feet
co2
59.07
59.24
60.44
60.84
60.80
61.64
57.44
60.42
59.82
59.42
56.34
57.07


56.56
58.60
63.12
53.97
54.13
53.92
2
1.53
1.63
1.31
1.19
1.06
1.19
1.29
0.61
0.77
0.70
0.85
0.27


0.3
0.05
0.05
0.15
0.06
0.03
CH,
36.46
34.38
31.53
32.18
32.99
32.14
35.11
35.70
35.14
36.33
38.99
41.55


42.12
41.17
36.64
45.52
45.60
45.93
H,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
N,
2.57
4.51
6.72
5.79
5.15
5.03
6.15
3.27
4.27
3.55
3.82
1.11


1.02
0.18
0.19
0.36
0.21
0.12
       TABLE 12.6
Gas Composition in Cell B
Date
8-17-64
8-18
8-25
8-31
9-10
9-17
9-24
10-01
10-08
10-15
11-05
11-14
11-19
12-03
1-11-65
3-05
3-26
4-23
4-30
5-07
5-14
Elapsed Time
In Days
Following
Completion of
Cell
34
35
42
48
58
65
72
79
86
93
114
123
128
142
181
234
255
283
290
297
304
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface
7 Feet
C02
_
94.09
82.75
91.54
89.87
85.72
79.70
76.34
72.09
71.70
72.40
65.72
63.48
31.30
23.74
21.46
44.49
59.24
46.95
38.95
26.82
2
_
0.12
0.02
0.10
0.03
0.11
0.14
0.26
0.36
0.33
0.29
0.35
0.54
0.74
0.95
1.08
0.58
2.19
4.41
3.12
4.92
CH4
_
0.54
1.18
0.87
1.26
1.66
1.76
1.77
1.79
1.87
2.63
2.73
2.53
0.43
0.24
1.49
7.03
12.60
10.36
7.84
1.81
2
_
0.20
0.22
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.12
0.16
0.10
0.09
0.10
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.09
0.06
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.04
N2
^
5.05
15.82
7.31
8.67
12.36
18.27
21.51
25.60
26.00
24.59
31.10
33.39
67.49
75.05
75.88
47.84
25.93
38.25
50.06
66.41
13 Feet
C02
44.41
58.60
92.70
91.66
85.45
84.15
75.85
68.41
60.53
60.23
63.75
53.73
46.95
19.04
17.54
31.26
42.93
53.28
38.98
27.91
31.31
02
1.73
8.32
1.12
0.06
0.12
0.14
0.27
0.39
0.47
0.57
0.44
0.62
0.69
1.11
1.04
0.72
0.64
3.19
4.34
4.76
4.69
CH4
0.29
0.74
0.73
1.58
1.82
2.13
2.01
1.53
1.32
1.65
2.47
1.31
1.39
0.29
0.20
3.41
5.90
10.83
3.94
2.91
2.26
H2
0.06
0.18
0.13
0.25
0.26
0.22
0.17
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.14
0.11
0.12
0.04
0.02
0.30
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.07
N2
52.51
32.17
5.31
6.44
12.36
13.36
21.70
29.52
37.47
37.35
33.20
44.24
50.85
79.51
81.20
64.31
50.50
32.66
52.71
64.39
61.67
 (Continued on Page 60)

-------
  TABLE 12.6 (Continued)
Gas Composition in Cell B
Date
6-05-65
6-09
6-17
6-24
7-13
7-20
7-27
8-05
8-12
8-19
8-26
9-12
9-21
9-30
10-07
10-14
10-21
10-28
11-04
11-11
12-09
12-18
12-27
Elapsed Tine
In Days
Following
Completion of
Cell
326
330
338
345
364
371
378
387
394
401
408
424
433
440
447
454
461
468
475
482
510
519
528
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface
7 Feet
C02
42.75
44.67
46.83
47.24
46.16
46.97
47.07
41.74
52.98
53.17
52.02
26.10
58.87
53.57
43.64
54.52
44.70
38.58
40.28
39.05
56.79
55.61
55.93
2
2.74
3.31
2.22
1.36
1.52
1.38
2.04
1.85
1.07
0.80
1.30
1..62
1.68
0.63
3.81
0.73
2.21
2.01
5.29
3.19
0.35
0.17
0.12
CH4
17.54
21.26
21.42
21.23
18.85
19.14
21.28
31.72
37.32
39.66
36.23
15.66
28.31
42.47
24.57
40.95
23.67
29.17
26.67
25.53
41.77
43.62
43.59
2
0.05
0.04
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.03
0.04
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
0
0.09
0
0
0
0
0
0
HZ
36.87
30.72
29.51
30.14
33.42
32.48
29.57
24.69
8.63
6.37
10.45
56.62
11.14
3.33
27.95
3.80
29.33
30.24
27.76
32.23
1.09
0.60
0.36
13 Feet
C02
38.75
42.58
36.96
31.43
27.29
27.57
26.94
28.15
33.35
37.66
34.44
21.57
27.18
39.62
27.15
35.07

19.68
22.24
21.21
47.90
52.58
54.77
?
2.03
3.39
4.14
1.86
2.34
2.19
3.53
3.02
1.42
1.70
1.91
2.76
1.95
2.43
4.08
2.97

5.39
3.74
6.07
3.37
1.49
0.52
CH4
9.39
15 .-55
8.38
6.17
5.08
5.29
5.45
15.13
20.11
21.35
15.93
3.15
20.81
25.63
4.78
21.30

3.27
2.89
2.89
33.40
39.57
42.86
2
0.05
0.05
0.02
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.05
0
0
0.06
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
N2
49.75
38.43
50.50
60.50
65.26
64.92
64.03
53.70
45.12
39.23
47.72
72.52
50.06
32.32
63.99
40.66

71.66
71.13
69.83
15.33
6.36
1.85
              TABLE 12.7
       Gas Composition in Cell C

Date



9-17-64
9-24
10-01
10-08
10-15
11-05
11-14
11-19
11-24
12-03
12-10
12-17
1-11-65
2-26
3-05
3-26
4-02
4-23
4-30
5-07
5-14
6-05
6-09
6-17
6-24
Elapsed Time
In Days
Completion of
Cell

41
48
55
62
69
90
99
104
109
118
125
132
157
203
210
231
238
259
266
273
280
302
306
314
321
Percent Composition by Volume of Gases Drawn from Inverted Collection
Can Placed at Indicated Depth Below Finished Surface
7 Feet

C02
45.68
-
34.55
37.84
41.15
39.35
27.82
29.77
24.34
17.58
14.96
14.90
11.65
16.11
3.61
60.40
72.93
77.28
26.57
14.47
13.29
24.51
29.94
20.04
19.68

2
0.52
-
2.84
0.89
0.78
0.76
0.82
0.77
0.99
0.89
0.89
0.89
6.34
1.19
17.81
0.93
1.67
3.12
6.69
5.08
2.90
3.09
5.17
4.31
3.78

2
1.03
-
0.84
1.29
1.82
2.79
1.76
1.47
0.73
0.42
0.33
0.39
0.11
0.30
0.17
3.24
5.01
8.24
3.14
0.75
0.48
5.44
7.52
3.36
2.66
0.11
_
0.12
0.14
0.21
0.18
0.09
0.09
0.11
0.05
0.03
0.03
0
0.07
0.01
0.78
0.67
1.01
0.04
0.08
0.05
0
0.30
0.13
0.14

N2
52.66
-
61.65
59.84
56.03
56.92
69.51
67.90
73.83
81.05
83.79
83.79
81.90
82.33
78'. 40
34.65
19.72
10.40
63.56
79.62
83.28
66.61
59.80
72.16
73.74
13 Feet

C02
34.76
21.26
19.00
17.32
28.70
21.6o
23.23
19.58
17.56
16.56
14.74
14.70
17.81
6.08
12.07
41.73
53.41
61.60
22.26
14.35
10.79
14.90
10.05
8.11
6 69

02
5.76
5.44
7.74
8.53
0.76
5.47
1.05
4.52
1.10
0.90
1.00
0.90
0.91
14.20
11.60
5.17
4.02
3.13
8.73
9.17
4.29
11.65
15.04
15.67
11.14

CH4
0.67
0.36
0.36
0.30
0.65
0.87
0.74
0.54
0.16
0.20
0.16
0.20
0.05
0.25
0.96
1.14
2.87
11.39
2.27
2.08
2.06
4.04
2.91
1.98
1.96

H2
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.09
0.27
0.44
0.02
0
0
0
0.02
0.03
0
0

"2
58.76
72.89
72.84
73.80
69.82
71.94
74.93
75.34
81.16
82.31
84.08
84.18
81.18
79.44
75.28
51.69
39.26
23.86
66.74
74.40
82.86
69.39
71.97
74.24
80.21
 (Continued on Page 62)

-------
                                                                                                                                      TABLE  12.8
                 (MfOTHi^l)CNr-
-------
                              TABLE 12.8 (Continued)
                              Temperatures in Cell A
Date
1965
5-06
5-13
6-22
6-24
7-01
7-13
7-20
7-27
8-05
8-12
8-19
8-26
9-12
9-21
9-30
10-07
10-14
10-21
10-28
11-04
11-11
12-04
12-09
12-18
12-27
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

295
303
343
345
352
364
371
378
387
394
401
408
424
433
440
447
454
461
468
475
482
505
510
519
528
Percent
Humidity
Air

52
70
70
61
28
50
43
27
39
37
55
27
36
19
13
73
55
12
13
20
56
18
85
32
39
Access
Well















82
80


79


Buried
"
"

Temperatures, F
Air
Max

78
70
80
80
97
87
91
94
97
102
90
97
94
90
93
76
74
99
95
*84
*70
64
*57
*61
67
Min

43
48
54
53
48
54
54
49
56
69
62
54
49
51
49
52
57
58
60
*52
*46
47
*53
*36
38
Avg

57
57
62
63
69
69
69
68
71
82
75
75
68
68
71
62
62
78
76


52


50
Access
Well

64
64
67
67
67
68
68
69
69
70
72
72
73
69
70
72
72
71
73
73
73
65
66
67
67
In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Finished Elevation
4 Ft

64
64
70
70
70
73
74
74
75
77
79
79
79
72
72
73
74
73
77
75
74
64
66
63
63
10 Ft

73
73
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
73
73
73
73
73
73
74
74
74
75
75
75
69
71
71
71
16 Ft

73
74
75
75
73
75
74
75
75
75
82
75
76
76
75
86
84
75
85
75
79
68
68
72
70
* Data From Pomona Weather Bureau
                                      8.3-64
                                                                                                                                      TABLE  12.9
                                                                                                                                Temperatures  in Cell  B
Date
1964
7-28
7-30
7-31
8-03
8-05
8-06
8-07
8-10
8-11
8-14
8-17
8-18
8-21
8-24
8-25
8-31
9-04
9-10
9-17
9-24
10-01
10-08
10-15
11-05
11-14
11-19
12-01
1965
1-10
1-28
2-16
3-04
3-25
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

14
16
17
20
22
23
24
27
28
31
34
35
38
41
42
48
52
58
65
72
79
86
93
114
123
128
140

180
198
217
233
254
Percent
Humidity
Air

34
45
4C
39
47
37
38
52
51
58
37
39
33
42
37
58
32
26
57
26
34
34
55
19
35
23
64

31
22
18
11
51
Access
Well


































Temperatures, F
Air
Max

100
93
94
94
94
98
98
90
90
97
94
94
94
97
96
78
*88
*93
*76
*93
*89
*90
*74
86
60
62
66

76
76
70
76
70
Min

59
57
55
58
61
67
59
62
64
63
52
54
57
59
58
52
*57
*59
*59
*64
*56
*65
*55
51
31
32
43

41
40
38
41
42
Avg

77
74
72
74
77
79
78
74
74
71
72
72
71
73
73
65







66
43
46
55

55
58
50
57
53
Access
Well

















100
100
98
100
98
100
98
94
92
88
92

80
83
72
69
-
In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Finished Elevation
4 Ft

117
118
118
119
119
119
119
119
119
120
120
119
118
118
118
119
118
118
114
110
108
107
111
101
98
95
92

84
80
78
76
76
10 Ft

113
114
114
114
114
116
114
115
115
116
116
116
116
116
115
117
116
117
116
118

119
117
115
115
113
113

108
103
102
101
98
16 Ft

.107
106
106
107
106
infi
106
105
105
106
105
105
105
104
104
104
105
103
103
103
102
108
102
102
103
100
100

96
96
94
94
~
                                                                                                 * Data from Pomona Weather Bureau






                                                                                                                                (Continued on Page 66)






                                                                                                                                        8.3-65

-------
                               TABLE 12.9  (Continued)
                               Temperatures  In  Cell B
Date
1965
4-23
4-30
5-06
5-13
6-22
6-24
7-01
7-13
7-20
7-27
8-05
8-12
8-19
8-26
9-12
9-21
9-30
10-07
10-14
10-21
10-28
11-04
11-11
12-04
12-09
12-18
12-27
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

283
290
296
303
343
345
352
364
371
378
387
394
401
408
424
433
440
447
454
461
468
475
482
505
510
519
528
Percent
Humidity
Air

42
52
52
70
70
61
28
50
43
27
39
37
55
27
36
19
13
73
55
12
13
20
56
18
85
32
39
Access
Well









85




98


88
86


87


87



Temperatures, F
Air
Max

85
84
78
70
80
80
90
87
91
94
97
102
90
97
94
90
93
76
74
99
95
*84
*70
64
*57
*61
67
Min

44
50
43
48
54
53
48
54
54
49
56
69
62
54
49
51
49
52
57
58
60
*52
*46
47
*53
*36
38
Avg

62
66
57
57
62
63
69
69
69
68
71
82
75
75
68
68
71
62
62
78
76


52


50
Access
Well

30
79
76
79
78
78
76
76
72
75
77
76
79
79
71
72
74
70
74
76
75
77
78
70
73
69
70
In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Finished Elevation
4 Ft

77
75
75
SO
76
76
75
76
76
77
77
77
73
78
79
80
77
78
78
75
76
75
75
72
72
70
69
10 Ft

98
S3
92
96
88
88
86
86
85
85
84
83
83
83
83
85
83
86
83
82
83
83
83
81
82
81
81
16 Ft

_

_
























* Data from Pomona Weather Bureau
                                       8.3-66
                                                                                                                                     TABLE 12.10
                                                                                                                               Temperatures in Cell C
Date
1964
8-07
8-j.O
8-11
8-14
8-17
8-18
8-21
8-24
8-25
8-31
9-04
9-10
9-17
9-24
10-01
10-08
10-15
11-05
11-14
11-19
11-24
12-01
12-10
1965
1-10
1-28
2-16
2-25
3-04
3-09
3-25
4-23
4-30
Elapsed Time
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

0
3
4
7
10
11
14
17
18
24
28
34
41
48
55
62
69
90
99
104
109
116
125

156
174
193
202
209
214
230
259
266
Percent
Humidity
Air

38
52
51
58
37
39
33
42
37
58
32
26
57
26
34
34
55
19
35
23
28
64
37

31
22
18
27
11
57
51
42
52
Access
Well


































Temperatures, F
Air
Max

98
90
90
97
94
94
94
97
96
78
*88
*93
*76
*93
*89
*90
*74
86
60
62
78
66
68

76
76
70
82
76
71
70
85
84
Min

59
62
64
63
52
54
57
59
58
52
*57
*59
*59
*64
*56
*65
*55
51
31
32
47
43
41

41
40
38
46
41
42
42
44
50
Avg

78
74
74
71
72
72
71
73
73
65







66
43
46
59
55
53

55
58
50
61
57
55
53
62
66
Access
Well











104
104
104
113
114
120
122
118
120
118
113
115
116

113
116
113
112
113
130
96
107
107
In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Finished Elevation
4 Ft

130
129
129
130
128
127
126
124
124
123
122
120
119
117
118
117
114
109
108
107
106
108
106

157
163
157
-
163
167
111
111
108
10 Ft

113
114
114
116
116
115
116
116
117
118
117
118
119
119
120
119
121
120
125
124
123
128
173

193
193
-
-





16 Ft

111
111
111
112
112
110
111
110
111
112
110
114
112
112
116
120
124
127
134
134
137
150
177

188
187
187
-





                                                                                                 * Data from Pomona Weather Bureau






                                                                                                                         (Continued on Page 68)
                                                                                                                                      8.3-67

-------
                             TABLE 12.10 (Continued)
                             Temperatures in Cell C
Date
1965
5-Oo
i-13
o-22
6-24
;--oi
;-i3
7-20
7-27
B-05
5-12
S-19
3-26
9-12
9-16
9-21
9-30
;.o-o7
10-14
10-21
10-28
11-04
11-11
12-04
12-18
12-27
Elapsed Tine
Since Cell
Completion
(days)

272
279
319
321
328
340
347
354
363
370
377
384
400
404
409
416
423
430
437
444
451
458
481
495
504
Percent
Humidity
Access
Air Well

52
70
70
61
28
50
43 42
27 44
39
37 55
55
27
36
67
19
13 43
73 40
55
12
13 40
20
56
18 85
32
39
Temperatures, F
Air
Max

78
70
80
80
97
87
91
94
97
102
90
97
94
72
90
93
76
74
99
95
*84
*70
64
*61
67
Min

43
48
54
53
48
54
54
49
56
69
62
54
49
60
51
49
52
57
58
60
*52
*46
47
*36
38
Avg

57
57
62
63
69
69
69
68
71
82
75
75
68
64
68
71
62
62
78
76


52

50
Access
Well

133
134
115
112
120
115
120
116
118
122
124
122
117
121
95
117
121
109
124
122
124
121
91
170
159
In Cell at Depths
Indicated Below
Finished Elevation
4 Ft




127
127
129
130
131
131
130
133
131
133
138
138
137
135
134
133
132
134
138
120
120
116
10 Ft


























16 Ft


























* Data from Pomona Weather Bureau
                                    8.3-68
                                                                                                         Photograph 1
                                                                                                   Equipment Used For Cell
                                                                                                         Construction.
   Photograph 2
Excavation Of Cells
   General View.
                                                                                                           Photograph 3
                                                                                                       Excavation Of Cell A.
  Photograph 4
  Cells B And C
 Fully Excavated.
                                                                                                                                  8.3-69

-------
       Photograph 5
General View Of All Cells
      Fully Excavated.
      Photograph 6
     Start Of Cell A.
       Photograph 7
Watering Of Cell A During
       Construction.
      Photograph 8
Cell A At Mid-construction.
                              8.3-70
                                                                                                     Photograph 9
                                                                                                 Placing Upper Half Of
                                                                                                  Cell A Access Well.
                                                                                                   Photograph 10
                                                                                                Cells A And B Filled
                                                                                             Cell C Receiving First Load.
                                                           Photograph  1 1
                                                       Placing Earth Cover On
                                                           Cells A And B.
     Photoe raph 1 2
Floor Of Cell C Showing
 Aeration Trenches And
Inlet Pipe From Blower.
                                                                                                                             8.3-71

-------
        Photograph 1 3
    Setting Access Well In
            Cell C.
     Photograph 14
Underground Sprinkler,
        Cell C.
      Photograph 17
Covering of Top Membrane,
         Cell C.
                                                                                                                                         Photograph 18
                                                                                                                                     Access Well Extension.
    Photograph 1 ?
Laying Top Membrane,
       Cell C.
     Photograph 1 6
 Top Membrane In Place,
        Cell C.
                                                                                                 Photograph 19
                                                                                             Access Well Extension
                                                                                                 Corner Detail.
                                                                                                Photograph 20
                                                                                          General Instrumentation,
                                                                                                 All Cells.
                              8.3-72
                                                                                                                          8.3-73

-------
    Photograph 2 1
Gas Collection Drum.
    Photograph 22
Collecting Gas  Sample.
                                                                                               Photograph 25
                                                                                               Panel Board.
                                                                                               Photograph 26
                                                                                             Finished Cells,  C In
                                                                                                Foreground.
   Photograph 23
Blower Serving Cell C
Recirculation Line  In
    Foreground.
     Photograph 24
 Blower Serving Cell C
     General View.
                             8.3-74
                                                      Photograph 27
                                                Irrometers Used In Cell B.
                                                                                                                     8.3-75
    Photograph 2S
Watering Cell B After
      Seeding.

-------
      Photograph 29
 Cell C  After Settlement,
Showing Modified Air Inlet
 Pipe And Water Barrier
   Constructed Around
   Center Access Well.
      Photograph 30
Subsurface Irrigation Supply
      Line to Cell C.
      Photograph 31
  Settlement Crevices At
 Cell And Natural Ground
       Boundary.
       Photograph 32
     Cave-in In Cell C.
                               8.3-76
       Photograph 33
  Differential Settlement
Between Cells B And C As
Indicated By Car Position.
     Photograph 34
Grass  Cover On Cell B.
         Photograph 35
    Opening Of 5-Year Old
           Test Site.
     Photograph 36
  Coring Of 5-Year Old
        Test Site.
                                                                                  8.3-77

-------