United States
Environmental Protection
EPA  Water  Security  &
Resiliency  Highlights
Program Overview
Safe drinking water and properly treated wastewater are critical to human health, the
environment, and the economy. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 (HSPD-
7) designates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the Sector-Specific
Agency responsible for identifying, prioritizing and coordinating the protection of the
nation's drinking water and water treatment systems. EPA works with tribes, states,
drinking water and wastewater utilities, communities, and other partners to enhance the
security and resiliency of water and wastewater infrastructure. Protecting this critical
infrastructure is key to maintaining not only the public health and environmental ben-
efits of safe and clean drinking water, but also  to maintaining the services of the other
17 critical infrastructure sectors, which share interdependencies with the Water Sector.

EPA's mission is to provide national leadership in developing and promoting security
and resiliency programs that enhance the Water Sector's ability to prevent, detect, re-
spond to, and recover from all hazards.

The Water Sector's Security Vision is a secure and resilient drinking water and waste-
water infrastructure that provides clean and safe water as an integral part of daily life,
ensuring the economic vitality of and public confidence in the nation's drinking water
and wastewater through a layered defense of effective security and resiliency prac-
tices in the sector. EPA, in partnership with drinking water and wastewater utilities
and their associations, has developed four goals that will drive development of EPA's
security and resiliency program. These goals are:

Goal 1 - Sustain protection of public health and the environment
Goal 2 - Recognize and reduce risk
Goal 3 - Maintain  a resilient infrastructure
Goal 4 - Increase communication, outreach and public confidence

This document highlights water security projects and partnerships managed or funded
by EPA. For more information, visit water.epa.gov/infrastructure/watersecurity/.
Goal   1
      Sustain  Protection of Public Health
      & the Environment
Water Security (WS) initiative: The overall goal of this initiative is to design and demonstrate an effective system for timely
detection of and appropriate response to drinking water contamination threats and incidents that will have broad application to the na-
tion's drinking water utilities. The initiative is being implemented in three phases: (1) develop the conceptual design of a contamina-
tion warning system; (2) demonstrate, evaluate, and refine the contamination warning system design through full-scale pilot programs
at drinking water utilities and municipalities; and (3) develop practical guidance and provide outreach and training to promote and
support voluntary national adoption of a contamination warning system.


Currently, five Water Security initiative pilots are in different stages of deployment
in Cincinnati, San Francisco, New York City, Dallas, and Philadelphia. Using infor-
mation gathered through deployment of the Cincinnati pilot, EPA has published three
interim guidance documents on drinking water contamination warning systems. The
documents advise utilities regarding the design, development, deployment, and use
of monitoring and warning systems.

Water Laboratory Alliance (WLA): The WLA provides the Water Sector
with an integrated nationwide network of laboratories with the analytical capabil-
ity and capacity to respond to drinking water contamination events. Launched in
September 2009, the WLA is composed of public health, env ironmental, and com-
mercial laboratories. The WLA  leverages existing laboratory network capability
and infrastructure and is designed to fill  gaps in national laboratory preparedness  HHJIH^HHiiHHHS^"
for water analyses. The foundation of the  Alliance is the Water Laboratory Alliance
Response Plan (WLA-RP). It establishes a comprehensive, national laboratory response approach to water contamination events
including preparedness, response, remediation, and recovery. In particular, the WLR-RP provides laboratories with a structure
for a systematic, coordinated response  to a water contamination incident that can be used in conjunction with existing Incident
Command System (ICS) structure and procedure. Additional activities of the Alliance include laboratory response exercises and
the development of chemical and biological methods. WLA membership has multiple benefits, including: improved laboratory
emergency preparedness and response  capabilities; improved communications with peer laboratories to help address emerging
analytical, security, or operational challenges; access to validated methods for unregulated contaminants of interest to the Water
Sector; and opportunities for water security-related training.

EPA/U.S. Department of  Homeland Security (DHS) Coordination: EPA coordinates with DHS on critical
infrastructure/key resource (Cl/KR) activities to ensure a consistent approach to security across the Water Sector. EPA activi-
ties include participating in Water Government Coordinating Council (GCC) and Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory
Council (CIPAC) working groups, and updating the Water Sector-Specific Plan (SSP) and Water Sector Annual Report (SAR).
                              Recognize  & Reduce
Risk Assessment Methodologies (RAM): Drinking water and wastewater utilities are encouraged to conduct or up-
date risk assessments as well as to prepare or revise emergency response plans (ERPs) on a regular basis. Three risk assessment
tools are widely used across the Water Sector: Risk Assessment Methodology - Water (RAM-W); Security and Environmen-
tal Management System (SEMS) emergency response checklist; and the Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool (VSAT). EPA,
DHS, and sector partners worked collaboratively to upgrade and revise existing assessment methodologies by using consistent
vulnerability, consequence, and  threat information within the Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection
(RAMCAP) framework. These actions resulted in  analysis and calculation of risk that is comparable within the sector. Revi-
sions to the tools also aligned with the features and elements of risk assessments as identified in the National Infrastructure
Protection Plan (NIPP).

A revised version of EPA's VSAT software tool is also now available for download.  Revised methodologies provide Water Sector
utility owners and operators with  qualified and quantified risk assessment processes to measure risk at the asset and system level;
prioritize utility investments and efforts to mitigate risk; and, track utility risk management performance and investment over time.

Consequence Analysis:  EPA-supported efforts on consequence analysis include coordination with the Water Sector
and experts in risk  assessments,  utility operations,  public  health, and economics to analyze the potential health and economic
consequences of various contamination and damage scenarios.

EPA has developed a generalized (threat-neutral) consequence analysis tool, the Water Health and Economic Analysis Tool
(WHEAT), to assist in quantifying public health and economic  consequences  for a variety of asset-threat combinations  that
pose a risk for the Water Sector.  WHEAT analyzes two different event scenarios—release of hazardous gas and loss of operat-
ing assets for drinking water systems—and provides information that can be used by  utilities as part  of a comprehensive  risk
assessment. The tool estimates the public health consequences (i.e., injuries and fatalities) for hazardous gas releases. Utility
financial costs and  regional economic impacts are estimated for both scenarios.

Future versions of the tool will include contamination scenarios and functionality for wastewater systems. The WHEAT loss of
operating assets and hazardous gas release modules for drinking  water systems are available for download.

Goal   3
Maintain a Resilient Infrastructure
Water Contaminant Information Tool (WCIT): This free, secure online
tool has been created to support the Water Sector in preparedness, detection, re-
sponse, and remediation. WCIT is a comprehensive database of information for 102
chemical, biological and radiological contaminants of concern for the Water Sector.
In 2010, EPA integrated the National Environmental Methods Index for Chemical,
Biological, and Radiological Methods (NEMI-CBR) database of analytical methods
into WCIT, providing a one-stop, easy-to-use tool for the Water Sector. EPA con-
tinues to enhance the tool and update its information to reflect the most current data
available to the Water Sector.
Water/Waste water Agency Response Networks (WARNs):  intra-
state mutual  aid and assistance agreements,  available to both private and public
Water Sector utilities, facilitate the sharing of resources, personnel and equipment
during events that disrupt drinking water and wastewater services. To date, WARNs
have been established in 47 states and the National Capital Region.
EPA continues to provide  support to help WARNs develop and evolve their programs.  This includes sponsoring a variety
of intra-state and inter-state exercises, providing tools and resources to WARN members and their partners and stakeholders,
providing operational plan  support to WARN  programs whose plans have not yet been fully developed, and sponsoring annual
meetings of WARN chairs. Recently, EPA published the first issue of a new, semi-annual WARN e-bulletin, WARN Highlights,
which features articles and announcements from members of the WARN community, including EPA.

Emergency Response Exercises/Training: EPA, working with its partners in the states and national Water Sector
associations,  has conducted exercises and provided extensive training programs to improve coordination and communication be-
tween emergency response partners at the local, state, and federal levels. For example, EPA has sponsored state-wide emergency
response exercises that examine Water Sector-specific issues. Recent exercises were completed in California, Arkansas, Missouri,
Kentucky, and Tennessee.  In  addition,  EPA provides training on the Incident Command System (ICS) and National Incident
Management System  (NIMS), which are national standards used by the Water Sector and its first response partners.

Tabletop  Exercise TOOl for Water Systems: EPA recently updated the Tabletop Exercise Tool for Water Systems:
Preparedness, Response, and Climate Resiliency (TTX Tool) to include additional scenarios focused on both natural hazards
and hazards imposed by climate-related impacts. The new TTX Tool is designed  to provide the Water Sector with the neces-
sary resources to plan, conduct, and evaluate tabletop exercises. Tabletop exercises allow water systems to practice, test, and
improve emergency response plans (ERPs) and  procedures. The TTX Tool simplifies the process of planning and conducting
tabletop exercises, and provides resources that aid in the development of customized scenario-driven, discussion-based tabletop
exercises. Additionally, EPA is conducting "train-the-trainer" sessions on the TTX Tool.

Community Based Water Resiliency (CBWR) Initiative: CBWR is designed to strengthen community resilien-
cy by raising awareness of interdependencies  with the Water Sector and the importance of incorporating the Water Sector into
preparedness planning.  The aim of CBWR is to enhance resiliency of communities in the face of water service interruptions
from all-hazards threats. The main feature of the initiative is  the Electronic Tool,  which offers a budget-friendly suite of over
300 tools and resources to assist in water planning and preparedness across the entire community. A self-assessment portion of
the tool provides communities with recommendations, tools, and resources to enhance water security and protection measures.
Communication and outreach materials in the  toolbox can be used to educate critical community partners and promote collabo-
ration and partnerships between water utility owners and operators and the communities they serve.

Key Features of an  Active and  Effective Protective  Program: The Key Features provide water Sector
stakeholders with the  elements of a protective program and address physical, cyber, and human elements of prevention, detection,
response, and recovery. The Key Features also  promote a better understanding of the interdependencies between the Water Sector
and other critical infrastructure sectors to enhance community preparedness in the event of a Water Sector emergency.

•  Seattle - King County Case Study: EPA  sponsored a pilot project in Seattle-King County, Washington in which it docu-
   mented active and  effective security and emergency practices underway in the community that protect its drinking water and
   wastewater utilities.

•  Chicagoland Case Study:  The Chicagoland Water and Wastewater Preparedness and Business Resiliency pilot project


  demonstrated how to integrate security concepts into daily utility operations in order to reduce risk and enhance business
  resilience during a water service disruption.

Pandemic Influenza Plan: EPA supports DHS and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in
preparing the nation's drinking water and wastewater critical infrastructure for an avian or pandemic flu outbreak. EPA sup-
ports HHS by providing Water Sector input on pandemic and pre-pandemic vaccine and antiviral prioritization guidance. EPA
recently conducted a webinar to gather lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and published a fact sheet that sum-
marizes key lessons learned.

Federal Disaster Support: EPA provides federal disaster support under the National Response Framework (NRF) as
a support agency to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USAGE) under Emergency Support Function (ESF) #3, Public Works
and Engineering.  Under ESF #3, EPA provides technical assistance to USAGE in assessing the operating status of water and
wastewater systems. EPA also provides assistance during hazardous material incidents  involving contaminated water and
wastewater systems, and during similar Water Sector-related incidents. EPA continues to collaborate with USAGE by facilitat-
ing planning sessions to increase communication and coordination between all response partners.

EPA is also a key player in the National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF), which is targeted to providing support during
the recovery phase of disasters. While still under development, EPA is tentatively identified as a support agency under the
Recovery Support Function (RSF) for Infrastructure Systems. EPA is also working with Water Sector stakeholders to provide
outreach information on federal disaster funding programs that could be applicable for water and wastewater utilities.

Decontamination Strategy and Technologies: The Water Sector Coordinating Council (SCC) and the GCC,
through a CIPAC working group, identified Water Sector decontamination priorities and provided recommendations for a
strategic plan to support these priorities. The plan identifies the need for information tools and resources that enable the timely
recovery (and return to service) of utility operations from all-hazards contamination incidents. It addresses decontamination
priorities related to the type of system (e.g., drinking water, wastewater), type of contaminant (e.g., chemical, biological, ra-
diological), type of media affected (e.g., water, water infrastructure, decontamination equipment, household plumbing), type
of incident (e.g., natural or man-made, accidental or intentional), and extent of contamination (e.g., concentrations, spatial and
temporal variations). The strategic plan also helps to meet requirements for EPA under HSPD-10, which charges EPA with
developing strategies, guidelines, and plans for decontamination.

All-Hazards Consequence  Management Planning Document:  The resource document, Ail-Hazard
Consequence Management Planning for the Water Sector (All-Hazard CMP), was prepared by the Emergency Response (ER)
CIPAC working group, and was finalized in November 2009.  The document assists drinking water and wastewater utility
owners and operators with development of templates for detection, response, and recovery plans. The All-Hazard CMP is an
easy-to-use document for utilities, and includes: customizable check-lists of preparedness, response, and recovery actions that
will improve resiliency; example incident-specific flow charts and checklists developed by a utility; and information on how the
National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) are used in preparedness and during
response and recovery.

                             Increase Communication,
                             Outreach & Public Confidence

Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterlSAC): This tool is a mechanism for aii-hazards
security information within the Water Sector. WaterlSAC facilitates sharing of information about physical and cyber threats,
vulnerabilities, incidents, potential protective measures, and effective security practices. WaterlSAC is a secure, Internet-
based, rapid notification system and information resource for gathering, evaluating, conveying, and  sharing security-related
information on drinking water and wastewater systems; communications are geared to utility executives, managers, operators,
and security officers.
  More Questions? For more information on any of the projects listed, please visit EPA's water security
  website at water.epa.gov/infrastructure/watersecurity or send an email to WSD-Outreach@epa.gov.
  If you have general questions about safe drinking water, please visit EPA's Ground Water and Drinking
  Water website at: water.epa.gov/drink/hotline/index.cfm or call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at
                  Office of Water (4608-T)  EPA 817-F-11-005   www.epa.gov/safewater  June 2011