xvEPA
    United States
    Environmental Protection
    Agency
Compilation of Quick Reference
OUICieS                                  816B11001

Quick Reference Guides Included are:
Arsenic and Clarifications to Compliance and New Source Monitoring
Rule: A Quick Reference Guide
Comprehensive Surface Water Treatment Rules Quick Reference Guide:
  4  Systems Using Conventional or Direct Filtration
  4  Systems Using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative
     Filtration
  4  Unfiltered Systems
Consumer Confidence Report Rule: A Quick Reference Guide
Filter Backwash Recycling Rule: A Quick Reference Guide
Ground Water Rule
  4  A Quick Reference Guide
  4  Compliance Monitoring: A Quick Reference Guide
  4  Sample Collection and Transport: A Quick Reference Guide
  4  Triggered and Representative Monitoring: A Quick Reference
     Guide
Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: A Quick Reference
Guide
Lead and Copper Rule: A Quick Reference Guide
Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: A Quick
Reference Guide
The Public Notification Rule: A Quick Reference Guide
Radionuclides Rule: A Quick Reference Guide
Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule:
  4  A Comprehensive Quick Reference Guide
  4  Laboratory Quick Reference Guide
The Standardized Monitoring Framework: A Quick Reference Guide
Total Coliform Rule: A Quick Reference Guide
Variances and Exemptions: A Quick Reference Guide
                        EPA 816-B-11-001
                           http://water.epa.gov/drink
                                                                       September 2011

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vvEPA
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
Comprehensive Surface Water Treatment  Rules Quick
Reference  Guide:  Systems Using Conventional or Direct
Filtration

                                 Title*
                                 Purpose
                                 General
                                 Description
             Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) - 40 CFR 141.70-141.75
             Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) - 40 CFR 141.170-141.175
             Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR) 40 CFR 141.76
             Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) - 40 CFR 141.500-141.571
             Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) - 40 CFR 141.700-141.722
             Improve public health protection through the control of microbial contaminants, particularly
             viruses, Giardia lamblia, and Ctyptosporidium.
             The Surface Water Treatment Rules:
             ^- Applies to all public water systems (PWSs) using surface water or ground water under the direct
                influence of surface water (GWUDI), otherwise known as "Subpart H systems."
             ^- Requires all Subpart H systems to disinfect.
             ^ Requires Subpart H systems to filter unless specific filter avoidance criteria are met.
             ^ Applies a treatment technique requirement for control of microbials.
                                 *This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please consult
                                 the federal regulations at 4.0 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                                 The purpose of this table is to show how the requirements for the IESWTR, FBRR, LT1 ESWTR and LT2ESWTR
                                 build on the existing requirements established in the original SWTR.
                                 APPLICABILITY: PWSs that use surface
                                 water or GWUDI (Subpart H systems) that
                                 practice conventional or direct filtration.
                                 Population
                                 Served
                                 Regulated
                                 Pathogens
                                 Residual
                                 Disinfection
                                 Requirements
                                 Source Water
                                 Monitoring
                                 Requirements
                                 and Bin
                                 Classification
                                 Turbidity
                                 Performance
                                 Standards
                                  Disinfection
                                  Profiling and
                                  Benchmarking
                                 Sanitary
                                 Surveys (state
                                 requirement)
                                  Finished
                                  Reservoirs/
                                  Water Storage
                                  Facilities
                                                      > 10,000
                                                      < 10,000
                                              99.99% (4-log) removal/
                                              inactivation of viruses
99.9% (3-log) removal/
inactivation of Giardia lamblia
                                              99% (2-log) removal of
                                              Cryptosporidium
Entrance to distribution system
(> 0.2 mg/L)
Detectable in the distribution
system    	
              Monitoring to calculate
              Cryptosporidium and determine
              appropriate bin classification
              for each plant required to
              monitor
                                              Combined Filter Effluent
                                              Individual Filter Effluent
              Systems must profile
              inactivation levels and generate
              benchmark, if required
              CWS**: Every 3 years
              NCWS**: Every 5 years
              All new facilities constructed
              must be covered
              Uncovered facilities must be
              covered or discharge treated
                                  Operated by Qualified Personnel as Specified
                                  by State
                                                                                           Final Rule Dates
                                                                       LT2ESWTR
                                                                          2006
LT1 ESWTR
   2002
                                               For sanitary
                                                 survey
                                              provisions only
                                                                      Regulated
                                                                     under SWTR
                                                          Regulated
                                                         under SWTR
 Regulated
under SWTR
                                                Regulated
                                               under SWTR
                                                                      Regulated
                                                                     under SWTR
             Regulated
            under SWTR
                                                                                Regulated
                                                                               under SWTR
                                                            Regulated
                                                           under SWTR
                         Regulated
                          under
                        IESWTR and
                        LT1 ESWTR
                                                                        Additional
                                                                        treatment
                                                                         may be
                                                                         required
             Regulated
            under SWTR
                                  Regulated
                                 under SWTR
                                                            Regulated
                                                           under SWTR
             Regulated
            under SWTR
                                                            Regulated
                                                           under SWTR
                                  Regulated
                                 under SWTR
                                                Regulated
                                               under SWTR
                                  ' Community water system (CWS), Noncommunity water system (NCWS)

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Turbidity
Compliance with turbidity provisions is measured at the Combined Filter Effluent (CFE) and Individual Filter Effluent (IFE). The
CFE turbidity results may mask the performance of an individual filter since the individual filter may have a turbidity spike of a
short duration not detected by 4 hours CFE readings. IFE performance is measured in systems using conventional or direct
filtration. The performance of each individual filter is critical to controlling pathogen breakthrough.
The IESWTR and LT1ESWTR created more stringent CFE turbidity standards and established a new IFE turbidity monitoring
requirement to address Cryptosporidium. These new  turbidity standards assure conventional and direct filtration systems will be
able to provide 2-log Cryptosporidium removal. Subpart H systems using the Treatment Performance Toolbox option under the
LT2ESWTR must meet the more stringent CFE and IFE turbidity monitoring levels in order to receive additional Cryptosporidium
log credit.
: M^jง^iiif. '3ง.^ :
Turbidity Type and Reporting Requirements (Reports
due by the 10th day of the following month the system
serves water to the public.)
CFE 95% Value
Report total number of CFE measurements and number and
percentage of CFE measurements < 95th percentile limit
CFE Maximum Value
Report date and time of any CFE measurement that
exceeds CFE maximum limit
IFE Monitoring
Report IFE monitoring conducted and any follow-up actions
Monitoring/
Recording
Frequency
At least every 4
hours*
At least every 4
hours*
Monitor
continuously
every 15 minutes
SWTR
As of June
29, 1993
< 0.5 NTU
5NTU
Contact state
within 24 hours
None
IESWTR
> 10,000 people
As of January
1,2002
< 0.3 NTU
1 NTU
Contact state
within 24 hours
LT1ESWTR
< 10,000 people
As of January 1, 2005
< 0.3 NTU
1 NTU
Contact state within 24 hours
Monitor-exceedances require follow-up action. Systems with 2
or fewer filters may monitor CFE continuously in lieu of IFE.
'Monitoring frequency may be reduced by the state to once per day for systems serving fewer than 500 people.

 Condition
 2 consecutive
 recordings > 0.5 NTU
 taken 15 minutes
 apart at end of first 4
 hours of continuous
 filter operation after
 backwash/offline:
 2 consecutive
 recordings > 1.0 NTU
 taken 15 minutes
 apart:
 2 consecutive
 recordings > 1.0 NTU
 taken 15 minutes apart
 at the same filter for 3
 months in a row:
                                       IESWTR (> 10,000)
                          Action
Produce filter
profile within 7
days (if unknown
cause).
Produce filter
profile within 7
days (if unknown
cause).
Conduct filter
self-assessment
within 14 days.
                       Report
   Filter #
   Turbidity value
   Date
   Cause (if known) or
   report profile was
   produced
   Filter #
   Turbidity value
   Date
   Cause (if known) or
   report profile was
   produced
   Filter #
   Turbidity value
   Date
   Report filter
   self-assessment
   produced
                           By
                                                                      LT1ESWTR(<10,000)**
                    Action
                       Report
                             By
  10th of the
following month
   10th of the
following month
               \> Filter*
                  - Turbidity value
                  • Date
                  - Cause (if known)
   10lhofthe
following month
Conduct a filter
self-assessment
within 14 days
Systems with 2
filters that monitor
CFE in lieu of
IFE must do  both
filters.
Date filter assessment
triggered & completed
                      10th of the following
                            month
10th of the following
month (or within 14
 days of filter self-
 assessment being
triggered if triggered
in last 4 days of the
     month).
 2 consecutive
 recordings > 2.0 NTU
 taken 15 minutes apart
 at the same filter for 2
 months in a row:
Arrange for
Comprehensive
Performance
Evaluation (CPE)
within 30 days
& submit report
within 90 days.
*•  Filter #
>•  Turbidity value
>•  Date
   10th of the
following month
                                      Submit CPE report
                       90 days after
                       exceedance
Arrange for CPE
within 60 days
& submit CPE
report within 120
days.
Date CPE triggered
 10lh of the following
      month
                                Submit CPE report
                        120 days alter
                         exceedance
** Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people had to begin complying with these requirements beginning January 1, 2005.

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 Filter Backwash Recycling Rule
 The FBRR applies to Subpart H systems that practice conventional or direct filtration, and recycle spent filter backwash, thickener
 suernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes. The FBRR requires systems that recycle to return specific recycle flows through
 all processes of the system's existing conventional or direct filtration system or at an alternate location approved by the state.
 The FBRR was developed to improve public health protection by assessing and changing, where needed, recycle practices for
 improved contaminant control, particularly microbial contaminants. Systems were required to submit recycle notification to the
 state by December 8, 2003. By June 8, 2004, systems were required to return recycle flows through the processes of a system's
 existing conventional or direct filtration system or an alternate recycle location approved by the state and collect recycle flow
 information and retain on file. Any system making capital improvements to modify the recycle return location was given until June
 8, 2006, to complete the improvements. All new systems must abide by these requirements.

 Disinfection
 Disinfection must be sufficient to ensure that the total treatment process (disinfection plus filtration) of the system achieves at
 least:
 ^  99.9% (3-log) inactivation and/or removal of Giardia lamblia.
 *•  99.99% (4-log) inactivation and/or removal of viruses.
 Subpart H systems using chlorine dioxide, ozone, or ultraviolet (UV) disinfection may achieve additional Cryptosporidium log credit
 by using the Inactivation Toolbox option under the LT2ESWTR. Systems must also comply with the maximum residual disinfectant
 level (MRDL)  and maximum contaminant level (MCL) requirements specified in the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection
 Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR) and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2 DBPR).
                                     |nc|:R|poilini
     Location
                              Concentration
                                                           Monitoring Frequency
                                                                               Reporting
                                                                    (Reports due 10th of the following month)
 Entry to distribution
 system.
Residual disinfectant concentration cannot be
< 0.2 mg/L for more than 4 hours.
Continuous, but states may allow
systems serving < 3,300 to take
grab samples from 1 to 4 times per
day, depending on system size.
Lowest daily value for each day, the date and
duration when residual disinfectant was
< 0.2 mg/L, and when state was notified of events
where residual disinfectant was < 0.2 mg/L.	
 Distribution system -
 same location as
 total coliform sample
 location(s).
Residual disinfectant concentration cannot be
undetectable in greater than 5% of samples
in a month, for any 2 consecutive months.
Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) & 500/mL is
deemed to have detectable residual disinfectant.
Same time as total coliform
samples.
Number of residual disinfectant or HPC
measurements taken in the month resulting in
no more than 5% of the measurements as being
undetectable in any 2 consecutive months.
LT2ESWTR Source Water Monitoring and Bin Classification
Bin concentration is calculated by averaging individual sample results from 1 or more years of monitoring (specific procedures
vary by frequency and duration of monitoring).
A combined distribution  system (CDS) is an interconnected distribution system consisting of the distribution systems of the
wholesale system and of the consecutive systems that receive finished water from that wholesale system. Under the LT2ESWTR,
wholesale systems in a  CDS must comply with the LT2ESWTR based on the population of the largest system in their CDS.
EPA has established four schedule categories based on system size to simplify the discussion of the LT2ESWTR monitoring
requirements. Schedule 1  applies to systems that serve 100,000 or more people or in a CDS that largest system serves 100,000
people. Schedule 2 applies to systems that serve 50,000 to 99,999 people or in a CDS that largest system serves 50,000 to
99,999 people. Schedule 3 applies to systems that serve 10,000 and 49,999 people or in a CDS that largest system serves
10,000 and 49,999 people. Schedule 4 applies to systems that serve less than 10,000 people.
Source water monitoring requirements are as follows:
^ Large systems (>  10,000 people served) must sample for Cryptosporidium, E.coli and turbidity at least monthly for 2 years.
>• Small systems (<  10,000 people served) must initially sample for E.coli at least once every 2 weeks for 1 year. Cryptosporidium
   monitoring is only required if E. coli levels are above certain levels based on the water source type.
> All systems must begin a second round of monitoring 6 years after initial bin classification.
Heafeirtt •JteG&irireirit*l?;' f • ••* .if' • •ง• i: • :-•,€?• M .'IS ..' "-M • II& 'f- • 9- "Hit :
--3m; 'ฃ&ฃ•;.••. --.^2. ';.M?g-. s^as> " .--MS-,- ...--m^ --mr- . -m-'' 	 .-:™.' •.>-•& • .^'-- f^. ??:*., '-ซ~r:r- -.-m.' .;-&-.• ':my .m'- .& ' ^.. %m^ " .JM- '-ym--: -s^": ..-•-& ' -;^i^" ;™gsiฃ-..
Bin
Bin1
Bin 2
Bin3
Bin 4
Cryptosporidium
Bin Concentration
Less than .075 oocysts/ L **
.075 oocysts/L or higher, but less than 1 .0 oocysts/L
1 .0 oocysts or higher, but less than 3.0 oocysts/L
3.0 oocysts or higher
Additional Treatment Requirements*
Conventional Filtration
No additional treatment
1-log treatment***
2-log treatment***
2.5 log treatment***
Direct Filtration
No additional treatment
1 ,5-log treatment***
2.5-log treatment***
3-log treatment***
' Requirements in addition to those met in full compliance with SWTR, IESWTR, and LT1ESWTR
* Or Subpart H systems not required to monitor for Cryptosporidium
** Removal or inactivation

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Microbial Toolbox: Inactivation Options, Credits and Criteria
The Microbial Toolbox provides a list of the tools that systems can use, and receive treatment credits for, in order to meet
additional treatment requirements of LT2ESWTR. The toolbox provides systems with the flexibility to use any combination of
applicable treatment options as long as the systems are in compliance with design, operational, and performance criteria which
are not detailed in this document. The toolbox options and credits available for Subpart H systems are divided into five categories:
>   Source protection and management: watershed control program (0.5-log), alternative source/intake  management (no
    prescribed  credit).
>•   Prefiltration: presedimentation basin with coagulation (0.5-log), two-stage lime softening (0.5-log), bank filtration (0.5- or
    1-log).
>•   Treatment performance: combined filter performance (0.5-log), individual filter performance (0.5-log), demonstration of
    performance (log credit variable).
>   Additional filtration: bag and cartridge filters individual (up to 2-log), bag and cartridge filters in series (up to 2.5-log),
    membrane filtration (log credit variable), second stage filtration (0.5-log), slow sand filters (2.5- to 3-log).
>•   Inactivation: chlorine dioxide (log credit variable), ozone (log credit variable),  UV (log credit variable).
Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Requirements
A disinfection profile is the graphical representation of a system's microbial inactivation over 12 consecutive months.
A disinfection benchmark is the lowest monthly average microbial inactivation value. The disinfection benchmark is used as a
baseline of inactivation when considering changes in the disinfection process.
 The purpose of disinfection profiling and benchmarking is to allow systems and states to assess whether a change in disinfection practices reduces
 microbial protection. Systems must develop a disinfection profile that reflects Giardia lamblia and viruses inactivation, calculate a benchmark
 (lowest monthly inactivation) based on the profile, and consult with the state prior to making a significant change to disinfection practices.
  Requirement
                 IESWTR
                                                                   LT1ESWTR
                                                                                          LT2ESWTR
 Affected
 Systems:
Community water systems (CWS), nontransient
noncommunity water systems (NTNCWS), and
transient noncommunity water systems (TNCWS)
> 10,000.
CWS and NTNCWS <10,000 only.
Any CWS, NTNCWS or TNCWS that proposes to
make a significant change in disinfection practice*.
 Begin
 Profiling By:
April 1,2000
>•  July 1, 2003, for systems
   serving 500-9,999 people.
>•  January 1, 2004, for systems
   serving < 500 people.
   Upon completion of initial round of source
   water monitoring, AND
   12 consecutive months prior to making the
   proposed change.
 Frequency &
 Duration:
Daily monitoring for 12 consecutive calendar
months to determine the total logs of Giardia
lamblia inactivation (and viruses, if necessary) for
each day in operation.
Weekly inactivation of Giardia
lamblia (and viruses, if necessary),
on the same calendar day each
week over 12 consecutive months.
At least weekly inactivation of Giardia lamblia and
viruses, for at least 1 year. May use data collected
for profile under IESWTR or LT1ESWTR.
  States
  May Waive
  Disinfection
  Profiling
  Requirements
  If:
TTHM annual average < 0.064 mg/L and HAA5
annual average < 0.048 mg/L:
^ Collected during the same period.
^- Annual average is arithmetic average of the
   quarterly averages of 4 consecutive quarters
   of monitoring.
>• At least 25% of samples at the maximum
   residence time in the distribution system.
^- Remaining 75% of samples at representative
   locations in the distribution system.
One TTHM sample < 0.064 mg/L
and one HAA5 sample < 0.048
mg/L:
^- Collected during the month of
   warmest water temperature;
   AND
^ At the maximum residence time
   in the distribution system.
Samples must have been collected
after January  1, 1998.
   The system has an existing disinfection profile
   for both Giardia lamblia and viruses, and
   has neither made a significant change to its
   treatment practices nor changed sources since
   the profile was developed; OR,
   The system has at least 1 year of existing data
   that can be used to complete a disinfection
   profile, and has neither made a significant
   change to its treatment practice nor changed
   sources since the data were collected.
  Disinfection
  Benchmark
  Must be
  Calculated If:
   Systems required to develop a disinfection
   profile and are considering making a
   significant changes in disinfection practice*.
   Systems must consult the state prior to
   making any modifications to disinfection
   practices.
Same as IESWTR, and systems
must obtain state approval prior
to making any modifications to
disinfection practices.
Complete disinfection profile and benchmark for
viruses and Giardia lamblia.
*A significant change in disinfection practice is defined as (1) change in the point of disinfection, (2) change to the type of disinfectant, (3) change to the disinfection
process, or (4) any other modification designated by the state.
  Office of Water (4606M)
                          EPA 816-F-10-074
                http://water.epa.gov/drink
                           August 2010

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vvEPA
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency

•  >:   ^Vi'
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                * " "4
Comprehensive Surface Water Treatment Rules
Quick Reference  Guide: Systems Using Slow Sand,
Diatomaceous Earth, or Alternative Filtration
                                 Overview of the Rules
                                  Title*
                                  Purpose
                                  General
                                  Description
             Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) - 40 CFR 141 .70-141 .75
             Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) - 40 CFR 141.170-141.175
             Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR) 40 CFR 141 .76
             Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1 ESWTR) - 40 CFR 141 .500-141 .571
             Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) - 40 CFR 141 .700-141 .722
             Improve public health protection through the control of microbial contaminants, particularly
             viruses, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium.
             The Surface Water Treatment Rules:
             >• Applies to all public water systems (PWSs) using surface water or ground water under the direct
               influence of surface water (GWUDI), otherwise known as "Subpart H systems."
             ^- Requires all Subpart H systems to disinfect.
             ^- Requires Subpart H systems to filter unless specific filter avoidance criteria are met.
             ^- Applies a treatment technique requirement for control of microbials.
                                  "This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please consult
                                  the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                                 Overview of Requirements
                                 The purpose of this table is to show how the requirements for the IESWTR, LT1 ESWTR and LT2ESWTR build
                                 on the existing requirements established in the original SWTR.
                                 APPLICABILITY: PWSs that use surface water or
                                 GWUDI (Subpart H systems) that practice slow
                                 sand, diatomaceous earth or alternative filtration.
                                  Population Served
                                  Regulated
                                  Pathogens
                                  Residual
                                  Disinfection
                                  Requirements
                                 Source Water
                                 Monitoring
                                 Requirements and
                                 Bin Classification
                                 Turbidity
                                 Performance
                                 Standards
                                 Disinfection
                                 Profiling and
                                 Benchmarking
                                 Sanitary Surveys
                                 (state requirement)
                                  Finished
                                  Reservoirs/ Water
                                  Storage Facilities
                                                          > 10,000
                                                          < 10,000
                                                 99.99% (4-log) removal/
                                                 inactivation of viruses
                99.9% (3-log) removal/
                inactivation of Giardia lamblia
                                                 99% (2-log) removal of
                                                 Cryptosporidium
                Entrance to distribution system
                (> 0.2 mg/L)
                Detectable in the distribution
                system
                Monitoring to calculate
                Cryptosporidium and determine
                appropriate bin classification for
                each plant required to monitor
                                                 Combined Filter Effluent - Slow
                                                 Sand and Diatomaceous Earth
                Combined Filter Effluent -
                Alternative
                Systems must profile inactivation
                levels and generate benchmark,
                if required
                CWS": Every 3 years
                NCWS**: Every 5 years
                All new facilities constructed must
                be covered
                Uncovered facilities must be
                covered or discharge treated
                                  Operated by Qualified Personnel as Specified by
                                  State
                                  ' Community water system (CWS), Noncommunity water system (NCWS)

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Turbidity
Turbidity is measured as Combined Filter Effluent (GFE) for slow sand, diatomaceous earth, and alternative filtration. The CFE
95th percentile value and CFE maximum value for slow sand and diatomaceous earth were not lowered in the IESWTR and
LT1ESWTR since these filtration technologies are assumed to provide 2-log Cryptosporidium removal with the turbidity limits
established by SWTR. Alternative filtration technologies (defined as filtration technologies other than conventional, direct, slow
sand, or diatomaceous earth) must demonstrate to the state that filtration and/or disinfection achieve 3-log Giardia lambia
and 4-log virus removal and/or inactivation. The IESWTR and LT1 ESWTR also require alternative filtration technologies to
demonstrate 2-log Cryptosporidium removal. Subpart H systems using the Treatment Performance Toolbox option under the
LT2ESWTR must meet the more stringent CFE turbidity monitoring levels in order to receive additional Cryptosporidium log credit.
Turbidity: Monitoring and Reporting Requirements ^L
Turbidity Type and Reporting Requirements
(Reports due by the 10th day of the following
month the system serves water to the public.)
Slow Sand & Diatomaceous
Earth
Alternative
^- Membranes
> Cartridges
> Other
CFE 95%
CFE Max
CFE 95%
CFE Max
Monitoring/
Recording
Frequency
At least every 4 hours*
At least every 4 hours*
At least every 4 hours*
At least every 4 hours*
SWTR
As of June
29, 1993
<1 NTU
5NTU
Established by
state
Established by
state
IESWTR
> 10,000 people
As of January 1, 2002
Regulated under SWTR
Regulated under SWTR
Established by state
Established by state
LT1 ESWTR
< 10,000 people
As of January 1, 2005
Regulated under SWTR
Regulated under SWTR
Established by state
(not to exceed 1 NTU)
Established by state
(not to exceed 5 NTU)
•Monitoring frequency may be reduced by the state to once per day for systems using slow sand or alternative filtration. Monitoring frequency may be reduced by
the state to once per day for systems serving 500 or fewer people regardless of type of filtration used.
CFE Turbidity: Reporting Requirements H
Report to State:
Within 10 days after
the end of the month:
Within 24 hours:
SWTR Measurements
Total number of monthly
measurements
Number and percent
< designated 95th
percentile turbidity limits
Date and value
exceeding 5 NTU
Exceedances of 5 NTU
for CFE
IESWTR Measurements
Total number of monthly measurements
Number and percent < designated 95th
percentile turbidity limits
Date and value exceeding 5 NTU for slow
sand and diatomaceous earth or maximum
level set by state for alternative filtration
Exceedances of 5 NTU for slow sand and
diatomaceous earth or maximum CFE level
set by state-for alternative filtration
LT1 ESWTR Measurements**
Total number of monthly measurements
Number and percent < designated 95th
percentile turbidity limits
Date and value exceeding 5 NTU for slow sand
and diatomaceous earth or maximum level set by
state for alternative filtration
Exceedances of 5 NTU for slow sand and
diatomaceous earth or maximum CFE level set
by state for alternative filtration
** Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must begin complying with these requirements beginning January 1, 2005.
Disinfection
Disinfection must be sufficient to ensure that the total treatment process (disinfection plus filtration) of the system achieves at
least:
>•  99.9% (3-log) inactivation and/or removal of Giardia lamblia.
*•  99.99%  (4-log) inactivation and/or removal of viruses.
Subpart H systems using chlorine dioxide, ozone, or ultraviolet (UV) disinfection may achieve additional Cryptosporidium log credit
by using the Microbial Toolbox option under the LT2ESWTR. Systems must also comply with the maximum residual disinfectant
level (MRDL) and maximum contaminant level (MCL) requirements specified in the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection
Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR) and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2 DBPR).

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 Residual Disinfectant Monitoring and Reporting Requirements
     Location
           Concentration
     Monitoring Frequency
               Reporting
  (Reports due 10th of the following month)
 Entry to distribution
 system.
Residual disinfectant concentration cannot
be < 0.2 mg/L for more than 4 hours.
Continuous, but states may allow
systems serving < 3,300 persons
to take grab samples from 1 to
4 times per day, depending on
system size.	
Lowest daily value for each day, the date and
duration when residual disinfectant was < 0.2
mg/L, and when state was notified of events
where residual disinfectant was < 0.2 mg/L.
 Distribution system-
 same location as
 total coliform sample
 location(s).
Residual disinfectant concentration cannot
be undetectable in greater than 5% of
samples in a month, for any 2 consecutive
months. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC)
< 500/mL is deemed to have detectable
residual disinfectant.
Same time as total coliform
samples.
Number of residual disinfectant or HPC
measurements taken in the month resulting in
no more than 5% of the measurements as
being undetectable in any 2 consecutive
months.
LT2ESWTR Source Water Monitoring and Bin Classification
Bin concentration is calculated by averaging individual sample results from 1 or more years of monitoring (specific procedures
vary by frequency and duration of monitoring).
A combined distribution system (CDS) is an interconnected distribution system consisting of the distribution systems of the
wholesale system and of the consecutive systems that receive finished water from that wholesale system.  Under the LT2ESWTR,
wholesale systems in a CDS must comply with the LT2ESWTR based on the population of the largest system in their CDS.
EPA has established four schedule categories based on system size to simplify the discussion of the LT2ESWTR monitoring
requirements. Schedule 1 applies to systems that serve 100,000 or more people or in a CDS that largest system serves 100,000
people. Schedule 2 applies to systems that serve 50,000 to 99,999 people or in a CDS that largest system serves 50,000 to
99,999 people. Schedule 3 applies to systems that serve 10,000 and 49,999 people or in a CDS that largest system serves
10,000 and 49,999 people. Schedule 4 applies to systems that serve less than 10,000 people.
Source water monitoring requirements are as follows:
*•  Large systems (>  10,000 people served) must sample for Cryptosporidium, E.coli and turbidity at least monthly for 2 years.
*•  Small systems (<  10,000 people served) must initially sample for E.coli at least once every 2 weeks for 1 year. Cryptosporidium
   monitoring is only required if E. coli levels are above certain levels based on  the water source type.
>  All systems must begin a second round of monitoring 6 years after initial bin classification.
Bin Classification and Additional Treatment Requirements
Bin
Bin1
Bin 2
Bin 3
Bin 4
Cryptosporidium Bin Concentration
less than .075 oocysts/ L**
.075 oocysts/L or higher, but less than 1 .0 oocysts/L
1.0 oocysts or higher, but less than 3.0 oocysts/L
3.0 oocysts or higher
Additional Treatment Requirements*
Slow Sand or
Diatomaceous Earth
Filtration
No additional treatment
1-log treatment***
2-log treatment***
2.5 log treatment***
Alternative Filtration Technologies
No additional treatment
As determined by state: Total must be at least 4-log***
As determined by state: Total must be at least 5-log***
As determined by state: Total must be at least 5. 5-log***
'Requirements in addition to those met in full compliance with SWTR, IESWTR, and LT1ESWTR
** Or Subpart H systems not required to monitor for Cryptosporidium
***Removal and/or inactivation

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Microbial Toolbox: Inactivation Options, Credits and Criteria
The Microbial Toolbox provides a list of the tools that systems can use, and receive treatment credits for, in order to meet
additional treatment requirements of LT2ESWTR. The toolbox provides systems with the flexibility to use any combination of
applicable treatment options as long as the systems are in compliance with design, operational, and performance criteria which
are not detailed in this document. The toolbox options and credits available for systems that use slow sand, diatomaceous earth or
alternative filtration are divided into five categories:
*•  Source protection and management: watershed control program (0.5-log), alternative source/intake management (no
   prescribed credit)
*•  Prefiltration: presedimentation basin with coagulation (0.5-log), two-stage lime softening (0.5-log), bank filtration (0.5- or 1-log)
>  Treatment performance: demonstration of performance (log credit variable)
*•  Additional filtration: bag and cartridge filters individual (up to 2-log), bag and cartridge filters in series (up to 2.5-log), membrane
   filtration (log credit variable), second stage filtration (0.5-log), slow sand filters (2.5- to 3-log)
>  Inactivation: chlorine dioxide (log credit variable), ozone (log credit variable), UV (log credit variable)

Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Requirements
A disinfection profile is the graphical representation of a system's microbial inactivation over 12 consecutive months.
A disinfection benchmark is the lowest monthly average microbial inactivation value. The disinfection benchmark is used as a
baseline of inactivation when considering changes in the disinfection process.
 Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Requirements
 The purpose of disinfection profiling and benchmarking is to allow systems and states to assess whether a change in disinfection
 practices reduces microbial protection. Systems must develop a disinfection profile that reflects Giardia lamblia and viruses inactivation,
 calculate a benchmark (lowest monthly inactivation) based on the profile, and consult with the state prior to making a significant change to
 disinfection practices.
  Requirement
                                IESWTR
                                                                  LT1ESWTR
                                                                                       LT2ESWTR
 Affected
 Systems:
Community water systems (CWS), nontransient
noncommunity water systems (NTNCWS),
and transient noncommunity water systems
(TNCWS)>10,000.
CWS and NTNCWS systems
<10,000 only.
Any CWS, NTNCWS, TNCWS that proposes to
make a significant change in disinfection practice*.
 Begin
 Profiling By:
April 1,2000
>•  July 1, 2003, for systems
   serving 500-9,999 people.
^  January 1, 2004, for systems
   serving < 500 people.
   Upon completion of initial round of source
   water monitoring, AND
   12 consecutive months prior to making the
   proposed change.
 Frequency &
 Duration:
Daily monitoring for 12 consecutive calendar
months to determine the total logs of Giardia
lamblia inactivation (and viruses, if necessary)
for each day in operation.
Weekly inactivation of Giardia
lamblia (and viruses, if necessary),
on the same calendar day each
week over 12 consecutive months.
At least weekly inactivation of Giardia lamblia and
viruses, for at least 1 year. May use data collected
for profile under IESWTR or LT1ESWTR.
 States
 May Waive
 Disinfection
 Profiling
 Requirements
 If:
TTHM annual average < 0.064 mg/L and HAAS
annual average < 0.048 mg/L:
>•  Collected during the same period.
^-  Annual average is arithmetic average of the
   quarterly averages of 4 consecutive quarters
   of monitoring.
^-  At least 25% of samples at the maximum
   residence time in the distribution system.
^-  Remaining 75% of samples at representative
   locations in the distribution system.
One TTHM sample < 0.064 mg/L
and one HAAS sample < 0.048
mg/L:
^ Collected during the month of
   warmest water temperature;
   AND
^- At the maximum residence time
   in the distribution system.
Samples must have been collected
after January  1, 1998.
   The system has an existing disinfection profile
   for both Giardia lamblia and viruses, and
   has neither made a significant change to its
   treatment practices nor changed sources since
   the profile was developed; OR,
   The system has at least 1 year of existing data
   that can be used to complete a disinfection
   profile and has neither made  a significant
   change to its treatment practices nor changed
   sources since the data were collected.
  Disinfection
  Benchmark
  Must be
  Calculated If:
   Systems required to develop a disinfection
   profile and are considering making a
   significant changes in disinfection practice*.
   Systems must consult the state prior to
   making any modifications to disinfection
   practices.
Same as IESWTR, and systems
must obtain state approval prior
to making any modifications to
disinfection practices.
Complete a disinfection profile and benchmark for
viruses and Giardia lamblia.
*A significant change in disinfection practice is defined as (1) change in the point of disinfection, (2) change to the type of disinfectant, (3) change to the disinfection
process, or (4) any other modification designated by the state.
    Office of Water (4606M)
                         EPA 816-F-10-076
                http://water.epa.gov/drink
                          August 2010

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
                            Comprehensive Surface  Water Treatment Rules
                            Quick  Reference  Guide:  Unfiltered Systems
    '         ''    ->
iV^%^ "'saSSBf** *'*•- iS^i
ff V^aJ^ ^~ ^m,-^^f ^ .  t^f"  **>•  -J^i***^^

                             Title*
                             Purpose
                             General
                             Description
                                                 Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) - 40 CFR 141.70-141.75
                                                 Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) - 40 CFR 141.170-141.175
                                                 Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) - 40 CFR 141.500-141.571
                                                 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) - 40 CFR 141.700-141.722
                                                  Improve public health protection through the control of microbial contaminants, particularly
                                                  viruses, Giardia lambia, and Cryptosporidium.             	         _
                                                 The Surface Water Treatment Rules:
                                                 > Applies to all public water systems (PWSs) using surface water or ground water under the direct
                                                    influence of surface water (GWUDI), otherwise known as "Subpart H systems."
                                                 ^- Requires all Subpart H systems to disinfect.
                                                 > Requires Subpart H systems to filter unless specific filter avoidance criteria are met.
                                                 >• Requires unfiltered systems to perform surface water monitoring and meet site specific conditions
                                                    for controls of microbials.                                               	
                             *This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please consult
                             the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                              The purpose of this table is to show how the requirements for the IESWTR, LT1 ESWTR and LT2ESWTR build
                             on the existing requirements established in the original SWTR.
                             APPLICABILITY: PWSs that use surface water or GWUDI
                              Subpart H systems) that do not provide filtration.
                              'opulation
                             Served
                              Regulated
                              Pathogens
                              Treatment
                              Requirements
                              Source Water
                              Monitoring
                              Requirements
                              Unfiltered
                              System
                              Requirements
                              Disinfection
                              Profiling and
                              Benchmarking
                              Sanitary
                              Surveys (state
                              requirement)
                              Finished
                              Reservoirs/
                              Water Storage
                              Facilities
                                                         > 10,000
                                                         < 10,000
                                          99.99% (4-log) removal/inactivation of viruses
                                          99.9% (3-log) removal/inactivation of Giardia
                                          lamblia
                                                                                              Final Rule Dates
                                                                                       SWTR
                                                                                        1989
IESWTR
 1998
LT1 ESWTR
   2002
LT2ESWTR
   2006
                                                                                               For sanitary
                                                                                                 survey
                                                                                              provisions only
                                                  99% (2-log) removal of
                                                  Cryptosporidium (through watershed control)
                                          99% (2-log) inactivation of Cryptosporidium
                                          for systems reporting < 0.01 oocysts/L;
                                          99.9% (3-log) inactivation of Cryptosporidium
                                          for systems reporting > 0.01 oocysts/L.
                                          Entrance to distribution system (> 0.2 mg/L)
                                                  Detectable in the distribution system
                                           Must use a minimum of two disinfectants to
                                           meet the Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia,
                                           and virus inactivation requirements.
                                                  Monitoring of Cryptosporidium to calculate
                                                  arithmetic mean of sample concentrations and
                                                  determine additional treatment requirements
                                                  Avoidance Criteria
                                                  Systems must profile inactivation levels and
                                                  generate benchmark, if required
                                                  CWS**: Every 3 years
                                                  NCWS**: Every 5 years
                                                  All new facilities constructed must be covered
                                           Uncovered finished water facilities must be
                                           covered or discharge treated	
                              Operated by Qualified Personnel as Specified by State
                                                                                                                         Regulated
                                                                                                                        under SWTR
                                                                                                                         Regulated
                                                                                                                        under SWTR
                        Regulated
                          under
                       IESWTR and
                       LT1 ESWTR
                                                                                                                         Regulated
                                                                                                                        under SWTR
                        Regulated
                       under SWTR
                        Regulated
                       under SWTR,
                       IESWTR and
                        LT1 ESWTR
                         Regulated
                          under
                         IESWTR
                         Regulated
                          under
                        IESWTR and
                        LT1 ESWTR
                                                                                                 Regulated  I  Regulated
                                                                                                under SWTR  under SWTR
                         Regulated
                        under SWTR
                              •Community water system (CWS), Noncommunity water system (NCWS)

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Filtration Avoidance Criteria
Since December 30, 1991, systems must meet source water quality and site specific conditions to remain unfiltered. If any of
the following criteria to avoid filtration are not met, systems must install filtration treatment within 18 months of the failure. The
following table outlines the avoidance criteria established by the SWTR and later enhanced by the IESWTR and LT1ESWTR.
'W''%;'jiฃ It' fc:':'fl : "lii, 11 'Of '•';

Source
Water Quality
Conditions
Site Specific
Conditions
Microbial
Quality
Turbidity
Systems
must:
System
must
comply
with:
Systems
must have:
Requirement
Monitor fecal coliform or total coliform density in representative
samples of source water immediately prior to the first point of
disinfection application:
>• Fecal coliform density concentrations must be < 20/100 ml;
OR
>• Total coliform density concentrations must be < 100/100 ml.
Sample results must satisfy the criteria listed above in at least 90%
of the measurements from previous 6 months.
Prior to the first point of disinfection application, turbidity levels
cannot exceed 5 NTU.
Calculate total inactivation ratio daily and provide 3-log Giardia
lamblia and 4-log virus inactivation daily (except any one day each
month) in 11 of 12 previous months (on an ongoing basis).
Frequency
^- 1 to 5 samples per week depending on system size, AND
^- Every day the turbitidy of the source water exceeds 1 NTU
Performed on representative grab samples of source water
every 4 hours (or more frequently)
Take daily measurements before or at the first customer at
each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point:
^ Temperature
>- pH (if chlorine used)
^- Disinfectant contact time (at peak hourly flow)
^- Residual disinfectant concentration measurements (at
peak hourly flow)
>• MCL for total coliforms in 11 of 12 previous months (as per Total Coliform Rule)
^- Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule requirements.
^- Adequate entry point residual disinfectant concentration (see disinfection requirements).
^ Detectable residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system (see disinfection requirements).
>• Redundant disinfection components or automatic shut-off whenever residual disinfectant concentration < 0.2 mg/L.
>• A watershed control program minimizing potential for contamination by Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses in source water;
IESWTR and LT1ESWTR update this requirement by adding Crypotosporidium control measures.
^ An annual on-site inspection by state or approved third party with reported findings.
^- Not been identified as a source of a waterborne disease outbreak.
Disinfection
Disinfection must be sufficient to ensure that the total treatment process of the system achieves at least:
> 99.9% (3-log) inactivation and/or removal of Giardia lamblia.
> 99.99% (4-log) inactivation and/or removal of viruses.
Subpart H systems using chlorine dioxide, ozone, or ultraviolet (UV) disinfection must achieve additional Cryptosporidium log
credit by using the Microbial Toolbox option under the LT2ESWTR. Systems must also comply with the maximum residual
disinfectant level (MRDL) and  maximum contaminant levels (MCL) requirements specified in the Stage 1 Disinfectants and
Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1  DBPR) and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2  DBPR).

     Location
           Concentration
     Monitoring Frequency
                  Reporting
      (Reports due 10th of the following month)
 Entry to distribution
 system.
Residual disinfectant concentration cannot
be < 0.2 mg/L for more than 4 hours.
Continuous, but states may allow
systems serving 3,300 or fewer
persons to take grab samples from
1 to 4 times per day, depending on
system size.	
Lowest daily value for each day, the date and duration
when residual disinfectant was < 0.2 mg/L, and when
state was notified of events where residual disinfectant
was < 0.2 mg/L.
 Distribution system -
 same location as
 total coliform sample
 location(s).
Residual disinfectant concentration cannot
be undetectable in greater than 5% of
samples in a month, for any 2 consecutive
months. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC)
ฃ 500/mL is deemed to have detectable
residual disinfectant.
Same time as total coliform
samples.
Number of residual disinfectant or HPC measurements
taken in the month resulting in no more than 5% of
the measurements as being undetectable in any 2
consecutive months.

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LT2ESWTR Source Water Monitoring and Treatment Requirements
Each PWS must determine the arithmetic mean of all Cryptosporidium samples collected during monitoring.
A combined distribution system (CDS) is an interconnected distribution system consisting of the distribution systems of the
wholesale system and of the consecutive systems that receive finished water from that wholesale system.  Under the LT2ESWTR,
wholesale systems in a CDS must comply with the LT2ESWTR based on the population of the largest system in their CDS.
EPA has established four schedule categories based on system size to simplify the discussion of the LT2ESWTR monitoring
requirements. Schedule 1 applies to systems that serve 100,000 or more people or in a CDS that largest system serves 100,000
people. Schedule 2 applies to systems that serve 50,000 to 99,999 people or in a CDS that largest system serves 50,000 to
99,999 people. Schedule 3 applies to systems that serve 10,000 and 49,999 people or in a CDS that largest system serves
10,000 and 49,999 people. Schedule 4 applies to systems that serve less than 10,000 people.

Source water monitoring requirements are as follows:
^ Schedule 1-3 systems must sample for Cryptosporidium at least monthly for 2 years.
>• Schedule 4 systems must sample for Cryptosporidium at a frequency of either (a) at least 2 times per month for 1 year or (b) 1
   time per month for 2 years.
^ All systems must begin  a second round of monitoring no later than 6 years after determining initial Cryptosporidium level.

  If Arithmetic Mean Cryptosporidium
             Level is:
 System Must Provide Treatment
            to:*
             Disinfectant System Must Use:
 < 0.01 oocysts/L
2-log Cryptosporidium inactivation
 > 0.01 oocysts/L or if PWS chooses not
 to monitor for Cryptosporidium
3-log Cryptosporidium inactivation
At least 2 disinfectants to provide 4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lambia and
2- or 3-log Cryptosporidium inactivation.
Each disinfectant must achieve by itself the total inactivation required
for one of these target pathogens
* Inactivation credit for treatment with chlorine dioxide, ozone or UV light.

Microbial Toolbox:  Inactivation Options, Credits and Criteria
The Microbial Toolbox provides a list of the tools that systems can use, and receive treatment credits for, in order to meet
additional treatment requirements of LT2ESWTR. The toolbox provides systems with the flexibility to use any combination of
applicable treatment options as long as the systems are in compliance with design, operational, and performance criteria which
are not detailed in this document. Unfiltered systems must use one of the following inactivation/disinfection tools to receive the
corresponding credits:
>. Chlorine dioxide: log credit received is based on measured CT in relation to the CT table.
*•  Ozone: log credit received is based on measured CT in relation to the CT table.
*•  UV: log credit received is based on validated UV dose in relation to the UV dose table; reactor validation testing is required to
   establish UV dose and associated operating conditions.

System Reporting Requirements
Report to State:
Within 10 days after the end of
the month:
Within 10 days after the end
of the first month following the
month when the source water
monitoring sample(s) were
collected:
By October 10 each year:
Within 24 hours:
ASAP but no later than the end
of the next business day:
Based on system's LT2ESWTR
schedule*:
What to Report:
> Source water quality information (microbial quality and turbidity measurements).
^- In addition to the disinfection information above, systems must report the daily residual disinfectant concentration(s)
disinfectant contact time(s) used for calculating the CT value(s).
and
>• Results from the required source water monitoring.
^- Report compliance with all watershed control program requirements.
^ Submit report on the on-site inspection, unless that state conducted the inspection, in which case the state must provide the
system with a copy of the report.
^- Turbidity exceedances of 5 NTU and waterborne disease outbreaks.
>• Instance where the residual disinfectant level entering the distribution system was < 0.2mg/L.
>• Sampling schedules and monitoring results for source water monitoring
^- Certain data elements of Cryptosporidium,~E. coli and turbidity analyses.
-See each of the four LT2ESWTR by schedule QRGs available online at http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/lt2/compliance.cfm for additional details.

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Disinfection Profiling and  Benchmarking Requirements
A disinfection profile is the graphical representation of a system's microbial inactivation over 12 consecutive months.
A disinfection benchmark is the lowest monthly average microbial inactivation value. The disinfection benchmark is used as a
baseline of inactivation when considering changes in the disinfection process.
 The purpose of disinfection profiling and benchmarking is to allow systems and states to assess whether a change in disinfection practices reduces
 microbial protection. Systems must develop a disinfection profile that reflects Giardia lamblia and viruses inactivation, calculate a benchmark
 (lowest monthly inactivation) based on the profile, and consult with the state prior to making a significant change to disinfection practices.
 Requirement
                IESWTR
          LT1ESWTR
                  LT2ESWTR
 Affected
 Systems:
Community water systems (CWS),
nontransient noncommunity water systems
(NTNCWS), and transient noncommunity
water systems (TNCWS) serving >10,000.
CWS and NTNCWS serving
<10,000 only.
Any CWS, NTNCWS, or TNCWS that proposes to
make a significant change in disinfection practice*.
 Begin
 Profiling By:
April1,2000
   July 1, 2003, for systems
   serving 500-9,999 people.
   January 1, 2004, for systems
   serving <  500 people.
   Upon completion of initial round of source water
   monitoring, AND
   12 consecutive months prior to making the
   proposed change.
 Frequency &
 Duration:
Daily monitoring for 12 consecutive calendar
months to determine the total logs of Giardia
lamblia inactivation (and viruses, if necessary)
for each day in operation.
Weekly inactivation of Giardia
lamblia (and viruses, if necessary),
on the same calendar day each
week over 12 consecutive months.
At least weekly inactivation of Giardia lamblia and
viruses, for at least 1 year. May use data collected for
profile under IESWTR and LT1SWTR.
 States
 May Waive
 Disinfection
 Profiling
 Requirements
 If:
TTHM annual average <0.064 mg/L and HAA5
annual average <0.048 mg/L:
> Collected during the same period.
^- Annual average is arithmetic average of
   the quarterly averages of 4 consecutive
   quarters of monitoring.
> At least 25% of samples at the maximum
   residence time in the distribution system.
^ Remaining 75% of samples at
   representative locations in the distribution
   system.
One TTHM sample <0.064 mg/L
and one HAA5 sample <0.048
mg/L:
^- Collected during the month of
   warmest water temperature;
   AND
^- At the maximum residence time
   in the distribution system.
Samples must have been collected
after January 1, 1998.
   The system has an existing disinfection profile for
   both Giardia lamblia and viruses, and has neither
   made a change in disinfection practices nor
   changed sources since the profile was developed;
   OR,
   The system has at least 1  year of existing data
   that can be used to complete a disinfection profile,
   and has neither made a significant change to its
   treatment practice nor changed sources since the
   data were collected.
  Disinfection
  Benchmark
  Must be
  Calculated If:
   Systems required to develop a disinfection
   profile and are considering making
   a significant changes in disinfection
   practice*.
   Systems must consult the state prior to
   making any modifications to disinfection
   practices.
Same as IESWTR, and systems
must obtain state approval prior
to making any modifications to
disinfection practices.
Complete a disinfection profile and benchmark for
viruses and Giardia lamblia.
*A significant change in disinfection practice is defined as (1) change in the point of disinfection, (2) change to the type of disinfectant, (3) change to the disinfection
process, or (4) any other modification designated by the state.
       Office of Water (4606M)
                            EPA 816-B-10-001
                 http://water.epa.gov/drink
                             August 2010

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
      4
                  I  .
       -%!,: ,^-Mv
Ground  Water Rule Triggered  and
Representative  Monitoring:  A  Quick
Reference  Guide
                         jbvirview <)f tie Eule
                         Title*
                         Purpose
                         General
                         Description
                         Utilities
                         Covered
            Ground Water Rule (GWR) 71 FR 65574, November 8, 2006, Vol. 71, No. 216
            Correction 71 FR 67427, November 21, 2006, Vol. 71, No. 224
            Reduce the risk of illness caused by microbial contamination in public ground
            water systems (GWSs).
            The GWR establishes a risk-targeted approach to identify GWSs susceptible
            to fecal contamination and requires corrective action to correct significant
            deficiencies and source water fecal contamination in all public GWSs.
            The GWR applies to all public water systems (PWSs) that use ground water,
            including consecutive systems, except that it does not apply to PWSs that
            combine all of their ground water with surface water or with ground water under
            the direct influence of surface water prior to treatment.
                         "This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please consult
                         the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                         Purpose of triggered Source Neater Monitoring
                           The purpose of triggered source water monitoring is to evaluate whether the presence of
                           total coliform in the distribution system is due to fecal contamination in the ground water
                           source.
                           This type of source water monitoring is triggered by routine total coliform monitoring
                           required by the Total Coliform Rule (TCR) (40 CFR 141.21).
                           •  Since TCR monitoring is conducted regularly, triggered source water monitoring can
                              occur at any time and thus provides an ongoing evaluation of ground water sources.
                         triggered Source Water Monitoring Requlrelrnents
 GWSs are
 subject to
 triggered source
 water monitoring
 if they:
 Do not provide, and conduct compliance monitoring for, at least 4-log
 treatment of viruses (through inactivation and/or removal).
•  This includes systems that decide to discontinue 4-log treatment.
 Do not purchase 100% of their water (and therefore have a source at
 which to sample).
                         GWSs must
                         conduct
                         triggered source
                         water monitoring
                         when:
                   The system is notified of a total coliform-positive routine sample
                   collected in compliance with the TCR unless:
                   •  The total coliform sample is invalidated by the State.
                   •  The State allows an exception to the GWR triggered source water
                      monitoring requirements.
                                         OR
                                           The system is a wholesale system and is notified by one of its
                                           consecutive systems that the consecutive system had a total coliform-
                                           positive sample during TCR monitoring.
                         When triggered
                         source water
                         monitoring is
                         required, GWSs
                         must:
                   Collect at least one ground water source sample from each source in
                   use at the time the total coliform-positive sample was collected.
                   •  Samples must be collected within 24 hours of being notified of the
                      total coliform-positive sample (unless the 24-hour limit is extended
                      by the State).
                   •  Sample must be taken before treatment or at a State-approved
                      location after treatment (see the diagram on the next page).
                   Ensure all samples are analyzed for the presence of a fecal indicator
                   (e.g., E. co//, enterococci, or coliphage) using an approved GWR
                   method.
                   If a fecal indicator-positive source sample is invalidated by the State,
                   the GWS must collect another source water sample within 24 hours of
                   being notified by the State of the sample invalidation and analyze for
                   the same fecal indicator using an approved method. See the "Analytical
                   Methods Approved for the Ground Water Rule" at http://water.epa.gov/
                   scitech/drinkinqwater/labcert/analvticalmethods.cfm.

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>• The diagram below represents an appropriate sampling location for triggered source water monitoring. GWSs
a sample tap at each source that enables triggered source water monitoring
Treatment ^1; I
i""* p '* f \
Distribution If
*• 1 System 3^
^ 	 r „ ป™s^w3^^;^^ ^ Jx" ^ (*/^^
*t. yi .,pr ซ..! i>^_^^HhpK ,';'..'. .!_^i'^-'r.,-r,<:' If the initial triggered source water sample is fecal indicator-positive, and the State does not require corrective action in
response, GWSs must conduct additional source water monitoring.
• GWSs must collect five additional source water samples (from the source(s) that contained the original fecal indicator-
positive samples) within 24 hours of being notified of the fecal indicator-positive sample.
• The additional samples must be tested for a fecal indicator using an approved GWR method.
>• If any one of the five additional samples is fecal indicator-positive, the system must take corrective action.
> If any additional sample is found to be fecal indicator-positive but is subsequently invalidated by the State, the GWS must
resample for the same fecal indicator within 24 hours of being notified of the invalidation.
Note: If the ฉWS is a whotesaJe system, it must notify alt consecutive -systems served by at souroฎ of any fecal indfeator-
postive samples from that source within 24 hours of being notified of fte sample reaalt

                                                                   ~-
>• If a GWS has multiple sources, the State may allow the GWS to conduct representative source sampling.
*• Representative source water sampling allows systems to collect samples from the sources that represent (serve) the TCR
   monitoring site rather than from all sources. These representative ground water sources must be approved by the State.
> Systems must still:
  •  Sample within 24 hours of total coliform-positive sample.
  •  Analyze using an approved GWR method.
                                                                     •SB*
>•  If the State allows representative site sampling, the State may require the GWS to submit a triggered source water
   monitoring plan for approval before the GWS starts conducting representative source sampling.
  •  A triggered source water monitoring plan may include:
       • A map of the water system (including location of ground water sources, location of pressure zones, and location of
         storage facilities),
       • A written explanation of how the GWS knows which source feeds which section of the distribution system, and
       • Seasonal or intermittent ground water sources and when they are used.
  •  Regardless of whether or not the State requires a plan to be submitted, all representative source sampling locations
     must  be approved by the State.

-------
   The diagram below provides an example of a system schematic that could be used to determine representative sources
   and develop a triggered source water monitoring plan, based on where in the distribution system the total coliform-
   positive sample is found. If approved by the State, the system could sample sources 1 and 2 after a total coliform-positive
   at Site 1 since Site 1 is in the zone served by those sources. A total coliform-positive at Site 2 would require source
   sampling from all sources since this area is served by all sources.
                                ?;Ba|Bd'fen System  Sizi

 > GWSs that serve fewer than 1,000 persons may be able to meet TCR repeat monitoring requirements and GWR triggered
   source water monitoring requirements together if the State allows:
   •  Repeat TCR monitoring at the source
      AND
   •  ฃ. co// to be used as a fecal indicator under the GWR.
 >• If the State allows this situation, then the GWS can use a TCR repeat sample collected at the source to meet the triggered
   source water monitoring requirement of the GWR. The fourth TCR repeat sample is collected at the source. Upstream and
   downstream samples and a sample at the TCR site are still needed to meet TCR requirements.
 >• Labs must use an approved GWR method to test for E. co//.
Note: If ftฉ T^Riepeat sample collected ซt the Source is TCR-positive but ฃ
further aotiojfbul ttegjygtem is if viotajorf of tht'TQft             *
                                                                        / & not found, the GWfR does mi require
                                                                                          <        <   -

Consecutive
Systems
              > Consecutive systems that purchase 100% of their water (and therefore do not have a source from which to
                sample) must:
                •  Notify their wholesale system within 24 hours of receiving notice of a total coliform-positive sample
                   taken under the TCR.
                •  Upon hearing from the wholesale system of a fecal indicator-positive source water sample (either initial
                   triggered samples or additional samples),  notify the public within 24 hours.
              >• Consecutive systems that purchase only some of their water must:
                •  Notify their wholesale system within 24 hours of receiving notice of a total coliform-positive sample
                   taken under the TCR.
                •  Collect GWR triggered source water monitoring samples and additional samples as required.
                •  Upon receipt of notification from the laboratory about a fecal indicator-positive source water sample at
                   the system's source(s) take corrective action, if required, and notify the public within 24 hours.
                •  Upon receipt of notification from the wholesale system of a fecal indicator-positive sample (either initial
                   triggered samples or additional samples) at the wholesale system's source(s), notify the public within 24
                   hours.
Wholesale
Systems
                Wholesale systems that are notified by a consecutive system of a total coliform-positive sample must:
                •  Within 24 hours of being notified, collect at least one ground water source sample from each source in
                   use (unless representative sampling is allowed) when the total coliform-positive sample was collected.
                ป  Notify the public and ALL consecutive systems served by the source within 24 hours of learning that a
                   source water sample is fecal-indicator positive.

-------
 (JivfelfiaflBnjpf Ffiaiyindiclti>r-P(psitive Samples
  >• The State can invalidate a fecal indicator-positive triggered source water sample if:
    •  The system provides the State with written notice from the laboratory that improper sample analysis occurred or
    •  The State determines there is substantial evidence that the sample does not reflect source water quality.
         •  The State must document in writing there is substantial evidence that the fecal indicator-positive ground water
           source sample is not related to source water quality.
  >• If any sample is found to be fecal indicator-positive and is subsequently invalidated by the State, the GWS must resample
    for the same indicator within 24 hours of being notified of the invalidation.
 |E|c%3t|:>i% t• The State may extend the 24-hour limit for collecting source water samples on a case-by-case basis if the State
    determines the system cannot collect the ground water source water sample within 24 hours due to circumstances
    beyond its control.
  >• In the case of an extension, the State must specify how much time the system has to collect the sample.
    A GWS is not required to conduct triggered source water monitoring under one of the following circumstances:
    •  The State determines and documents in writing that the total coliform-positive TCR sample is caused by a distribution
       system deficiency.
    •  The GWS determines the total coliform-positive TCR sample was collected at a location that meets State criteria for
       distribution conditions that will cause total coliform-positive samples and notifies the State within 30 days.
If a GWS receives notice of a fecal
indicator-positive source water sample
collected under the GWR, the system must:
If a GWS fails to conduct required triggered
or additional monitoring, the system must:
Wholesale and consecutive systems are
subject to:
*• Consult with the State within 24 hours.
>• Notify the public within 24 hours.
• Tier 1 Public Notification.
^ If the system is a community GWS, they must provide Special
fecal indicator-positive sample in their CCR.
Notice of the
>• Notify the public within 12 months.
• Tier 3 Public Notification.
>• Community GWSs may be able to use their CCR.
>• The same notification requirements outlined above, in addition
requirements to notify the wholesale or consecutive systems.
to the

sX^ittcIl 6eM if J
November 30, 2009
December 1 , 2009
New ground water sources put in place after this date must conduct triggered source water monitoring
if the GWS does not provide 4-log virus treatment and conduct compliance monitoring and the GWS is
notified that a sample collected for the TCR is total coliform-positive.
GWSs must conduct triggered source water monitoring if the GWS does not provide 4-log virus
treatment and conduct compliance monitoring and the GWS is notified that a sample collected for the
TCR is total coliform-positive.
Office of Water (4606)
EPA815-F-08-004
http://water.epa.aov/drink
                                                                                               Revised March 2010

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v>EPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Com pre hensiveD is i nfectantsan d
Disinfection  Byproducts  Rules (Stage 1
and Stage  2): Quick  Reference  Guide

                   ,ป<1
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            *•'  ^;  ****  "

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                              Titles*
                              Purpose
                              General
                              Description
                              Utilities
                              Covered
               Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR) 63 FR 69390,
               December 16, 1998, Vol. 63, No. 241
               Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2 DBPR) 71 FR 388, January 4,
               2006, Vol. 71, No. 2                                   	
           Improve public health protection by reducing exposure to disinfection byproducts. Some disinfectants
           and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have been shown to cause cancer and reproductive effects in
           lab animals and suggested bladder cancer and reproductive effects in humans.	
           The DBPRs require public water systems (PWSs) to:
              *•  Comply with established maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and operational evaluation
                  levels (OELs) for DBPs, and maximum residual disinfection levels (MRDLs) for disinfectant
                  residuals.
              ^-  Conduct an initial evaluation of their distribution system.
           In addition, PWSs using conventional filtration are required to remove specific percentages of
           organic material that may react to form DBPs through the implementation of a treatment technique.
           The DBPRs apply to all sizes of community water systems (CWSs) and nontransient noncommunity
           water systems (NTNCWSs) that add a disinfectant other than ultraviolet (UV) light or deliver
           disinfected water, and transient noncommunity water systems (TNCWSs) that add chlorine dioxide.
                              'This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please
                              consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.  	
                                           All CWSs and NTNCWSs that add
                                           disinfectant other than UV light and
                                           TNCWSs that treat with chlorine dioxide.
                                           Consecutive systems that deliver water
                                           treated with a disinfectant other than UV
                                           ight
                              TTHM&
                              HAAS MCL
                              Compliance
                              Regulated
                              Contaminants
                              & Disinfectants
                              Operational
                              Evaluation
              MCL compliance is calculated using the
              running annual average (RAA) of all
              samples from all monitoring locations
              across the system.
              MCL compliance is calculated using the
              locational RAA (LRAA) for each monitoring
              location in the distribution system.  	
                                           Contaminants
                                             Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM)
                                             5 Haloacetic Acids (HAAS)
                                             Bromate
                                             Chlorite
                                                            Regulated under
                                                             Stage 1 DBPR1
                                                            Regulated under
                                                             Stage 1 DBPR
                                           Disinfectants
                                             Chlorine/chloramines
                                             Chlorine dioxide
              If an operational evaluation level (OEL)
              is exceeded, systems must evaluate
              practices and identify DBP mitigation
              actions.
                                                             Regulated under
                                                             Stage 1 DBPR
                                                             Regulated under
                                                             Stage 1 DBPR
                                                                                               See Table 3
                                                                                               and Table 4.
                                                                          See Table 2.
                                                                                                See Table 5.
                              1. A new analytical method for bromate was approved with the Stage 2 DBPR.

-------

                                                                                                 'Stage 2

             Number of Samples
Based on source water type, population, and number
of treatment plants or wells.
Based on source water type and population.
             Sample Locations
At location of maximum residence time.1
Based on Initial Distribution System Evaluation
(IDSE) requirements.2	
             Compliance Calculation
RAA must not exceed the MCL for TTHM or HAAS.
LRAA must not exceed the MCL for TTHM or HAAS.
             Eligibility
                       TTHM/HAA5
All systems need TTHM RAA < 0.040 mg/L and HAAS
< 0.030 mg/L. Subpart H systems also need source
water TOC RAA at location prior to treatment < 4.0
mg/L.3'4
The Stage 2 DBPR left eligibility unchanged but
specifies that Subpart H systems must take source
water TOC samples every 30 days. Subpart H
systems on reduced monitoring must take source
water TOC samples every 90 days to qualify for
reduced monitoring.
                       Bromate5
Source water bromide RAA < 0.05 mg/L.
With the Stage 2 DBPR specified entry point to
distribution system bromate RAA < 0.0025 mg/L.
1Subpart H systems serving > 10,000 must have at least 25 percent of samples at the location of maximum residence time; the remaining samples
must be representative of average residence time.	      	
-All systems are required to satisfy their IDSE requirement by July 10, 2010.
'Subpart H systems are water systems that use surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI).
4Ground water systems serving < 10,000 must meet these RAA for 2 years; can also qualify for reduced monitoring if the TTHM RAA is < 0.020 mg/L
and a HAAS RAA < 0.015 mg/L for 1 year.	
5A new analytical method for bromate was established with the Stage 2 DBPR.


Bromate (plants that use ozone)1
Chlorite (plants that use chlorine
dioxide)

                                                                                           WftDLG (mg/L)
1A new analytical method for bromate was established with the Stage 2 DBPR.
2Stage 2 DBPR did not revise the MCL or MRDL for this contaminant/disinfectant.
 Stage 1 DBPR included MRDLs and MRDLGs for disinfectants, which are similar to

-------
 TTHM/HAA5
 Bromate1
 Chlorite
 Chorine dioxide
 Chlorine/chloramines
 DBP precursors
 (TOC sample set)*
     RAA
     RAA
     Daily/follow-up monitoring
     Daily/follow-up monitoring
      RAA
      Monthly for TOC and alkalinity
      LRAA
      Unchanged2
      Unchanged2
      Unchanged2
      Unchanged2
      Every 30 days for TOC and alkalinity
 1A new analytical method for bromate was established with the Stage 2 DBPR.
 ?Stage 2 DBPR did not change the compliance requirements for this contaminant/disinfectant.
 "TOG sample set is comprised of source water alkalinity, source water TOC, and treated TOC.
                               <500
                                 Per year2
                1 per treatment plant
                        Per year2
                               500 - 3,300
                               3,301 - 9,999
                                                                    1 per treatment plant
                   Subpart H
                               10,000-49,000
                               50,000 - 249,999
                                 Per quarter
                                        Per quarter
                               250,000 - 999,999
                                                 4 per treatment plant
                                                                    12
 TTHM/HAA5
            1,000,000-4,999,999
                                                                   16
                               > 5,000,000
                                                                                                    20
                               <500
                               500 - 9,999
                                                    Per year2
                                                                         Per year2
                   Ground
                   water
            10,000-99,999
                1 per treatment plant
                               100,000-499,999
                                 Per quarter
                                        Per quarter
                               > 500,000
 Bromate3
Systems that use ozone as a
disinfectant
Monthly
1 at entry point to
distribution system
Unchanged4
 Chlorite
Systems that use chlorine dioxide
as a disinfectant
Daily (at
entrance to
distribution
system);
monthly (in
distribution
system)
1 at entry point to
distribution system; 3 in
distribution system
                                                                                                          Unchanged4
 Chlorine dixoide
Systems that use chlorine dioxide
as a disinfectant
                                                    Daily
                1 at entry point to
                distribution system
                                       Unchanged4
 Chorine/
 Chloramines
All systems
Same location and frequency as Total
Coliform Rule (TCR) sampling
                                       Unchanged4
 DBP precursors
 (TOC sample
 set)*
Systems that use conventional
filtration
Monthly
1 per source water
source
Unchanged4
 1AII systems must monitor during the month of highest DBP concentrations. Systems on quarterly monitoring, except Subpart H systems serving
 500 - 3,300, must take dual sample sets every 90 days at each monitoring location. Systems on annual monitoring and Subpart H systems serving
 500 - 3,300 are required to take individual TTHM and HAAS samples (instead of a dual sample set) at the locations with the highest TTHM and HAAS
 concentrations, respectively. If monitoring annually, only one location with a dual sample set per monitoring period is needed if the highest TTHM and
 HAAS concentrations occur at the same location and in the same month.
 2Ground water systems serving < 10,000 and Subpart H systems serving < 500 must increase monitoring to quarterly if an MCL is exceeded.
 3A new analytical method for bromate was established with the Stage 2 DBPR.
 4Stage 2 DBPR did not revise the monitoring frequency or location requirements for this contaminant/disinfectant.
*TOC sample set is comprised of source water alkalinity, source water TOC, and treated TOC.

-------

Applies to:
Purpose of
establishing OELs:
OEL calculations:
OELs are exceeded:
If an OEL is
exceeded, a system
must:
The operational
evaluation must
include:
OEL requirements
take effect:
All systems subject to Stage 2 DBPR monitoring requirements that conduct compliance
monitoring and collect samples quarterly.
To reduce peaks in DBP levels and exposure to high DBP levels.
> Calculated for both TTHMs and HAASs at each monitoring location using Stage 2
DBPR compliance monitoring results.
^- OEL is determined by the sum of the two previous quarter's TTHM or HAAS result
plus twice the current quarter's TTHM or HAAS result at that location, divided by four.
> OEL = (Q1 +Q2 + 2Q3)/4
During any quarter in which the OEL is greater than the TTHM or HAAS MCL.
>• Conduct an operational evaluation.
> Submit a written report of the evaluation to the state no later than 90 days after being
notified of the analytical results that caused the exceedance(s).
^- Keep a copy of the operational evaluation report and make it publically available
upon request.
>• An examination of the treatment and distribution systems' operational practices that
may contribute to TTHM and HAAS formation.
^- Steps to minimize future exceedances.
When the system begins compliance monitoring for the Stage 2 DBPR.
?..-*>-

,!
3F. -f%\ ",_.;ฃ "*> ' VT.,.
At least 100,000 people or part of a
combined distribution system (CDS) serving
at least 100,000 people.
50,000 to 99,999 people or part of a CDS
serving 50,000 to 99,999 people.
1 0,000 to 49,999 people or part of a CDS
serving 10,000 to 49,999 people.
Less than 10,000 people or part of a CDS
serving less than 1 0,000 people.

•3f ~~.
1
2
3
4
"*!
' vrlflv _ 5*pwplwsFlfl|S tip?? }-
April 1,201 2
October 1, 2012
October 1,201 3
October 1, 20 132
1Your schedule is determined by the largest system in your CDS.
2Systems not conducting Cryptosporidium monitoring under Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment
Rule (LT2ESWTR) must begin LRAATTHM/HAA5 monitoring by this date. Systems conducting Cryptosporidium
monitoring under LT2ESWTR must begin LRAATTHM/HAA5 monitoring by October 1, 2014.
Office of Water (4606M)
            EPA 816-F-10-080
                                                         http://water.epa. gov/drink
                                                                                                         August 2010

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  r/EPA
       United States
       Environmental Protection
       Agency
The  Standardized  Monitoring Framework:
A Quick  Reference  Guide
                               O v e r v i e w  oft he  Framework
                                Title*
                                Purpose
                                General
                                Description
              The Standardized Monitoring Framework (SMF), promulgated in the
              Phase II Rule on January 30, 1991 (56 FR 3526).
              To standardize, simplify, and consolidate monitoring requirements across contaminant
              groups. The SMF increases public health protection by simplifying monitoring plans and
              synchronizing monitoring schedules leading to increased compliance with monitoring
              requirements.
              The SMF reduces the variability within monitoring requirements for chemical and
              radiological contaminants across system sizes and types.
                                *This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance,
                                please consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                               Add i t ipha I   Req u i re m e n t s
                                The SMF outlined on these pages summarizes existing systems' ongoing federal monitoring
                                requirements only. Primacy agencies have the flexibility to issue waivers, with EPA approval, which take
                                into account regional and state specific characteristics and concerns. To determine exact monitoring
                                requirements, the SMF must be used in conjunction with any EPA approved waiver and additional
                                requirements as determined by the primacy agency.

                                New water systems may have different and additional requirements as determined by the primacy
                                agency.
for                    ,,:
< Qui                     C
•                       ; wait
                  ;*;'   fi,
                       J4" ;
                       •'*,'*
'
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         GFR       •;"  • f;"' _
'                        "v \

              '",  "I \ '„'•,i>. \ •
                               SMF  Benefits
                                Implementation of the SMF results in ...
                                >  Increased public health protection through monitoring consistency.
                                >•  A reduction in the complexity of water quality monitoring from a technical and managerial
                                   perspective for both primacy agencies and water systems.
                                >•  Equalizing of resource expenditures for monitoring and vulnerability assessments.
                                >•  Increased water system compliance with monitoring requirements.
                               Reg u. I a t e d Contaminants
                                                    Utilities  Covered
                                Inorganic
                                Contaminants (lOCs)
                                Synthetic Organic
                                Contaminants (SOCs)
                                      &
                                Volatile Organic
                                Contaminants (VOCs)
                                Radionuclides
                       Fifteen (15)
                          (Nitrate, Nitrite, total
                          Nitrate/ Nitrite, and
                          Asbestos are exceptions
                          to SMF)
                       Fifty-One (51)
                       Four (4)
All PWSs

CWSs


NTNCWSs

Nitrate
Nitrite
lOCs
SOCS
VOCs
Radionuclides
IOCS
SOCS
VOCs
                               Office of Water (4606M)
                          EPA816-F-04-010
http://water.epa.aov/drink
March 2004

-------

-------

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-------

  vvEPA
       United States
       Environmental Protection
       Agency
^I^W'lSi^l^,
fp ~   ^k  - ** jjfe " "* ^ฐf ^
M\- ^4"& x s"
  For additional information:
  ซ Call the Safe Drinking
  Water Hotline at 1-800-
  426-4791.
  • Visit the EPA Web site at
  http://water.epa.gov/drink.
  • Contact your State's
  drinking water
  representatives.
* i if: v=5 t* ' • -S f -1 - :* * 31:- ฅง -
re/e*

Purpose
General
Compliance
Date
Contaminants
Excluded
Variances and Exemptions Rule, 63 FR 43834-43851, August 14, 1998
<3en6fia/ and Small System Variane&s
Variances allow eligible systems to provide
drinking water that does not comply with a
National Primary Drinking Water Regulation
(NPDWR) on the condition that the system
installs a certain technology and the quality of
the drinking water is still protective of public
health.
There are two types of variances:
1 . General variances are intended for
systems that are not able to comply with a
NPDWR due to their source water quality.
2. Small system variances are intended for
systems serving 3,300 persons or fewer
that cannot afford to comply with a
NPDWR (but may be allowed for systems
serving up to 10,000 persons).
General variances require compliance as
expeditiously as practicable and in accordance
with a compliance schedule determined by
the State. Small system variances require
compliance within 3 years (with a possible
2-year extension period).
• General variances may generally not be
granted for the maximum contaminant
level (MCL) for total conforms or any of the
treatment technique (TT) requirements of
Subpart H of 40 CFR 141 . Exemptions from
the MCL for total conforms may generally
not be granted.
• Small system variances may not be
granted for NPDWRs promulgated prior
to1986 or MCLs, indicators, and TTs for
microbial contaminants.
Exemptions
Exemptions allow eligible systems additional
time to build capacity in order to achieve and
maintain regulatory compliance with newly
promulgated NPDWRs, while continuing to
provide acceptable levels of public health
protection.
Exemptions do not release a water system
from complying with NPDWRs; rather, they
allow water systems additional time to comply
with NPDWRs.
Systems must achieve compliance as
expeditiously as practicable and in
accordance with the schedule determined by
the State. In addition:
Initial exemptions cannot exceed 3 years.
Systems serving < 3,301 persons may
be eligible for one or more additional 2-year
extension periods (not to exceed 6 years).
• Exemptions from the MCL for total conforms
may generally not be granted.
This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please consult
the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.


All public water
systems
Exclusions:
Systems that have received a small system variance are not eligible for an exemption.
Small system variances may not be granted for NPDWRs that do not list a small system
variance technology (SSVT).
• Systems that have received an exemption are generally not eligible for a variance.


3ฃ
State For purposes of this document, "State" is used to refer to the primacy agency.
Best Available The BAT, TT, or other means identified by EPA for use in complying with a NPDWR.
Technology (BAT)
Small System A treatment technology identified by EPA specifically for use by a small public water
Variance Technology system that will achieve the maximum reduction or inactivation efficiency that is
(SSVT) affordable considering the size of the system and the quality of its source water,
while adequately protecting publ c health.
Small System A treatment technology that is affordable by small systems and allows systems to
Compliance achieve compliance with the requirements of a NPDWR.
Technology (SSCT)

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" ; ;-%J ' $ /V/ *tf**lM|i^HU „ -V>\
Systems
General
and Small
System
Variances
Additional
Activities for
Small
System
Variances
Exemptions
May apply for, if eligible and unable to meet the NPDWR.
Work with the State to hold a public hearing on the
proposed variance.
Meet all compliance criteria, including schedule set by
the State, once the variance is approved.
Must provide public notice within 1 year after the system
begins operating under the variance.
May apply for only if EPA has identified an SSVT for the
rule.
Work with the State to provide notice of the proposed
variance to all persons served by the system.
May apply for, if eligible and unable to meet the NPDWR.
Work with the State to hold a public hearing on the
proposed exemption.
Upon approval, must meet all compliance criteria and
comply with the NPDWR within 3 years. (Note: systems
serving <3,301 persons may be eligible for an extension).
• Systems must provide public notice within 1 year after
the system begins operating under the exemption.
States
Review the system's application to determine whether the
system meets all eligibility criteria.
Before issuing a variance, determine a schedule for
compliance and implementation.
Work with the system to hold a public hearing on the
variance and notify EPA of all variances.
• Determine whether the system is financially and
technically able to install and operate an EPA-approved
SSVT.
Work with the system to provide notice of the proposed
variance to all persons served by the system and EPA.
• Review all small system variances every 5 years.
Review the system's application to determine whether the
system meets all eligibility criteria.
Before issuing an exemption, determine a schedule for
compliance and implementation.
Work with the system to hold a public hearing on the
exemption and notify EPA of all exemptions.
?f'^&*"':& ^fJiH'?^^^^^^•yJ::'•:i^^^f ,,rKi/fF- j
Eligibility Requirements
No Alternative Using raw water sources that are reasonably available, the system is unable to meet MCLs (SDWAง1415(a)(1)(A) and 40
Water Source CFR 142.40(a)(1)).
Does Not Pose The State must determine that the granting of the variance will not pose an unreasonable risk to health (URTH) (SDWA
an URTH ง1415(a)(1)(A) and 40 CFR 142.40(a)(2)).
•CompIi9fKeneyi}f>&mefltsj .,;"; :'v :i .__;•• j: j .ฃ ^ •..-"".:'•' „•'•' ,-.'."• ,~:~ J'- ' .~4' ^" .:.„>— ':z?~ ' .J?P?~? ••-?ฃ?' :ฃ.
Compliance Systems must comply with the NPDWR as soon as practicable and in accordance with a compliance schedule determined
Date by the State (SDWAง1415(a)(1)(A) and 40 CFR 1 42.41 (c)(4)).
Technology The system must install and operate the BAT, TT, or other means found available by EPA as expeditiously as possible
Improvements (SDWAง1415(a)(1)(A) and 40 CFR 142.42(c)).
. Before a variance may take effect, the State must provide notice and opportunity for a public hearing on the variance and
PUDIIC Hearing schedu|e (SDWAง1415(a)(1)(A) and 40 CFR 142.44).
Public Systems must provide public notice within 1 year after the system begins operating under a variance and repeat the notice
Notification annually for the duration of the variance (40 CFR 141 .204(b)(1 )).
Example Application |%oee^s; %neraf Variances
                  Start
            PWS must comply
             with NPDWR by
             compliance date
PWS determines it won't be able to comply
  with NPDWR by compliance date and
    requests variance from the State
                                  State and PWS work together to determine
                                     if the system is eligible for a variance
                                         and hold a public hearing
                                   State informs PWS of variance decision
                                    within 90 days of receiving the request
                                Denied
                                                      Granted
                                   State issues variance, including schedule
                                    for compliance and implementation, on
                                   condition that system install BAT, TT, or
                                   other treatment means that EPA finds is
                                                available
                                                                                  State informs EPA of all variances issued
                                                                                              for NPDWR

                                            Unless EPA revokes variance, system may operate
                                                          under variance
                                                                                     ItotJRevoked
                                                                                                               Revoked
                                                 PWS implements compliance strategy
                                                 and schedule defined by State-issued
                                                 variance, meeting all implementation
                                                milestones and informing customers as
                                                             directed
  State may revise
  variance (no later
  than the effective
   date of EPA's
revocation) based on
  EPA review and
     re-submit
                                                    PWS COMPLIES WITH NPDWR

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BigiMSfy Requirements
System Size
Generally available for systems serving < 3,301 persons and, with the approval of EPA, systems serving >3,300
persons but <10,000 persons (SDWAง1415(e)(1)(A)&(B) and 40 CFR 142.303(a)&(b)).
SSVT
Systems must install, operate, and maintain in accordance with guidance or regulations issued by the EPA
Administrator, a TT or other means that EPA has identified as a variance technology that is applicable to the size and
source water quality conditions of the system (SDWA ง1415(e)(2)(A)&(B) and 40 CFR 142.307(b)).
Affordability
In accordance with the affordability criteria established by the State, the system cannot afford to comply with the
NPDWR for which a small system variance is sought, including compliance through (SDWA ง1415(e)(3) and 40
CFR 142.306(b)(2)):
     Treatment
     Alternate source of water supply
     Restructuring or consolidation changes
•    Financial assistance
Ensure Adequate
Protection of Human
Health
The terms of the small system variance must ensure adequate protection of human health given source water quality,
removal efficiencies, and the expected useful life of the SSVT (SDWA ง1415(e)(3)(B) and 40 CFR 142.306(b)(5)).
Compliance Date
Systems must comply with the terms of the small system variance within 3 years, unless the State allows up to an
additional 2 years to make capital improvements. The State must review each variance at least once every 5 years to
determine whether the system remains eligible (SDWA ง1415(e)(4)&(5) and 40 CFR 142.307(c)(4)&(d)).
Technology
Improvements
Systems must install an SSVT no later than 3 years (with a possible 2-year extension period) after the issuance of the
variance and must be financially and technically capable of installing, operating, and maintaining the
SSVT (40 CFR 142.306(b)(3)&(4)).
Public Hearing
Before a small system variance may take effect, the State must work with the system to provide public notice to
everyone served by the system. Public notice must be issued 15 days before the proposed effective date and
30 days prior to a public meeting (40 CFR 142.308(a)).
Public Notification
Systems must provide public notice within 1 year after the system begins operating under a variance and repeat
the notice annually for the duration of the small system variance (40 CFR 141.204(b)(1)).
                       iifn Wroffessf Small System Variances
                              EPA identifies SSVT when promulgating
                                           NPDWR
                              Small PWS serving < 10,000 determines it
                              won't be able to comply with NPDWR by
                               compliance date and requests a small
                                  system variance from the State
                              State and PWS work together to determine
                              if the system is eligible for a small system
                               variance, issue public notice, and hold
                                         public hearing
I                             State informs PWS of small system variance
                                           decision
PWS must comply with   Denied
NPDWR by compliance
  date or apply for an
     exemption
                                                Granted
                            State issues small system variance, including
                            schedule for compliance and implementation,
                             on the condition that system install an SSVT

                              I--"  ..r~I'-"    "   V .*••"•"
                                                                            State informs EPA of all proposed
                                                                                small system variances
                                                    For systems between 3,301 and 10,000, EPA
                                                  must approve the variance. For smaller systems,
                                                    unless EPA overturns variance, system may
                                                            operate under variance
                                                                              NotRwoK&l
                                                                               Revoked
                                                                                 "
                                                    PWS implements compliance strategy and
                                                    schedule defined by State-issued variance,
                                                    meeting all implementation milestones and
                                                        informing customers as directed
                                                                                                           State may revise
                                                                                                          variance (no later
                                                                                                          than the effective
                                                                                                            date of EPA's
                                                                                                         revocation) based on
                                                                                                           EPA review and
                                                                                                              re-submit
                                                    State reviews variance at least once every
                                                       5 years after the compliance date
                                                    established in the variance to ensure that
                                                    system is still eligible and in compliance
                                                             with the variance
                                                                             PWS COMPLIES WITH VARIANCE

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-^-SiPi, &
Eligibility Requifements
No Alternative
Water Source
Does Not Pose An
URTH
System Operation
Management or
Restructuring
Changes
Unable to Achieve
Compliance
The system is unable to comply with the NPDWR due to compelling factors (which may include economic
factors) or to implement measures to develop an alternative source of water supply to achieve compliance
(SDWAง1416(a)(1)and40CFR 142.50(a)(1)).
The State must make a determination that the exemption will not pose an URTH and may require interim
compliance measures (SDWAง1416(a)(3) and 40 CFR 142.50(a)(3)).
Systems must have begun operation prior to the effective date of the NPDWR, however, this requirement may
be waived if the system does not have an alternative source of water supply (SDWA ง1416(a)(2) and 40 CFR
142.50(a)(2)).
The system cannot reasonably make management or restructuring changes that would result in compliance or
improved quality of the drinking water (SDWAง1416(a)(4) and 40 CFR 142.50(a)(4)).
No exemption shall be granted unless (SDWAง1416(b)(2)(B) and 40 CFR 142.50(b)(1),(2)&(3)):
Capital improvements are unable to be completed before the NPDWR effective date -or-
A system that needs financial assistance has entered into an agreement to obtain that assistance -or-
The system has entered into an enforceable agreement to become part of a regional public water system; and the
system is taking all appropriate steps to meet the standard.
Compliance Requirements . , ' ' • „ "••' •*,';>. ",* * ' ;
" - > , " ' 'i't ',
Duration
Public Hearing
Public Notification
Systems must achieve compliance with the MCL as expeditiously as practicable and in accordance with a
compliance schedule determined by the State, but no longer than 3 years from the date of issuance (SDWA
ง1416(b)(2)(A) and 40 CFR 142.56).
Systems serving <3,301 persons may be eligible for an additional one or more 2-year periods, but the total
duration of the exemption extensions may not exceed 6 years (SDWAง1416(b)(2)(C) and 40 CFR 142.56).
Before an exemption can take effect, the State must provide notice and opportunity for a public hearing on the
exemption schedule (SDWA ง141 6(b)(1)(B) and 40 CFR 142.54(a)).
Systems must provide public notice within 1 year after the system begins operating under an exemption and
must repeat the notice annually for the duration of the exemption (40 CFR 141 .204(b)(1 )).
Example Application Process: Exemptions
                         Start
 PWS determines it won't be able to comply
with NPDWR by compliance date and requests
       an exemption from the State
                                          State and PWS work together to determine
                                           if the system is eligible for an exemption
                                                 and hold a public hearing
                                          I State informs PWS of exemption decision I
                                          I  within 90 days of receiving the request j
               PWS must comply with
              NPDWR by compliance date
                or apply for a variance
                                     Denied
                                                             Granted
                                              State sets a compliance schedule
                                             (taking into account extensions) and
                                            appropriate control measures for PWS
    PWS implements compliance strategy
    and schedule defined by State-issued
   exemption, meeting all implementation
    milestones and informing customers
              as required
                                             State must decide whether to extend exemption   j
                                           (if applicable) by determining whether PWS is taking I
                                           all practicable steps to stay on compliance schedule J
                                                       Extended
                                                         ', ,   -*;
                                               PWS continues to implement compliance
                                               strategy, meeting all state milestones and
                                                   informing customers as directed
                                                                                            PWS COMPLIES WITH NPDWR
 Office of Water (4606M)
       EPA816-F-04-005
http://water.epa.gov/drink
September 2004

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&EPA
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
The  Public Notification  Rule:
A  Quick Reference Guide


                      onto   ;
   thฎ PMWrifer Weft งite
Title*
Purpose
General
Description
Utilities
Covered
Timing and
Distribution
Public Notification (PN) Rule, 65 FR 25982, May 4, 2000.
To notify the public of drinking water violations or situations that may pose a risk to public
health.
The PN Rule requires all public water systems (PWSs) to notify their consumers any time a
PWS violates a national primary drinking water regulation or has a situation posing a risk to
public health. Notices must be provided to persons served (not just billing customers).
All PWSs.
Notices must be sent within 24 hours, 30 days, or one year depending on the tier to which the
violation is assigned. The clock for notification starts when the PWS learns of the violation.
*This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please
consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                                   Tier 1 PN is required to be issued as soon as practical but no later than 24 hours after the PWS learns of the
                                   violation or situation including:
                                   >•  Distribution system sample violation when fecal conform or ฃ. coli are present; failure to test for fecal
                                       coliform or E. coli after initial total coliform distribution system sample tests positive.
                                   >  Nitrate, nitrite, or total nitrate and nitrite maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation; failure to take
                                       confirmation sample.
                                   >•  Special notice for noncommunity water systems (NCWSs) with nitrate exceedances between 10 mg/L and
                                       20 mg/L, where system is allowed to exceed 10 mg/L by primacy agency.
                                   >  Chlorine dioxide maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDL) violation when one or more of the samples
                                       taken in the distribution system exceeds the MRDL on the day after a chlorine dioxide measurement taken
                                       at the entrance to the distribution system exceeds the MRDL, or when required samples are not taken in the
                                       distribution system.
                                       Exceedance of maximum allowable turbidity level, if elevated to a Tier 1 notice by primacy agency.
                                       Waterborne disease outbreak or other waterborne emergency.
                                       Detection of E. coli, enterococci, or coliphage in a ground water source sample.
                                       Other violations or situations determined by the primacy agency.
                                   fir 2f(Notice as Soonks Practical ^ithir|3(|D|ys|
                                   Tier 2 PN is required to be issued as soon as practical or within 30 days. Repeat notice every 3 months until
                                   violation or situation is resolved.
                                   >•  All MCL, .MRDL, and treatment technique violations, except where Tier 1 notice is required.
                                   >  Monitoring violations, if elevated to Tier 2 notice by primacy agency.
                                   >  Failure to comply with variance and exemption conditions.
                                   >•  For ground water systems providing 4-log treatment and conducting Ground Water Rule (GWR) compliance
                                       monitoring, failure to maintain required treatment for more than 4 hours.
                                   >  Failure to take any required corrective action or be in compliance with a corrective action plan for a fecal
                                       indicator-positive ground water source sample.
                                   ^-  Failure to take any required corrective action or be in compliance with a corrective action plan for a
                                       significant deficiency under the GWR.
                                   >  Special public notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring for Cryptosporidium.
                                   Turbidity consultation is required when a PWS has a treatment technique violation resulting from a single
                                   exceedance of the maximum allowable turbidity limit or an MCL violation resulting from an exceedance of the
                                   2-day turbidity limit. The PWS must consult their primacy agency within 24 hours. Primacy agencies will then
                                   determine whether a Tier 1 PN is necessary. If consultation does not occur within 24 hours, violations are
                                   automatically elevated to require Tier 1 PN.
                                    fifer 3 (^pnjual\ Nptice)
  Tier 3 PN is required to be issued within 12 months and repeated annually for unresolved violations.
  >  All monitoring or testing procedure violations, unless primacy agency elevates to Tier 2, including failure
      to conduct benchmarking and profiling (surface water systems) and failure to develop a monitoring plan
      (disinfecting systems).
  >  Operating under a variance and exemption.
  >  Special public notice for availability of unregulated contaminant monitoring results.
  >  Special public notice for fluoride secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) exceedance.

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 1m R|||f:r@ ฐr violations of the conditions of a variance or exemption, use health effects language from Appendix B of'the
          PN Rule. For monitoring and testing procedure violations, use the standard monitoring language below.)
          The population at risk, including subpopulations that may be particularly vulnerable if exposed to the contaminant in their drinking water.
          Whether alternate water supplies should be used.
          Actions consumers should take, including when they should seek medical help, if known.
          What the PWS is doing to correct the violation or situation.
          When the PWS expects to return to compliance or resolve the situation.
                 e, business address, and phone number or those of a designee of the PWS as a source of additional information concerning the
         A statement (see standard distribution language below) encouraging notice recipients to distribute the notice to others, where applicable.
                                                                                                                  ,                .
 * These elements do not apply to notices for fluoride SMCL exceedances, availability of unregulated contaminant monitoring data and operation under
 a variance or exemption. Content requirements for these notices are specified in the PN Rule.                                      f       •
 Standard Language:
 Standard Monitoring Language: We are required to  monitor your drinking water for specific contaminants on a regular basis Results of regular
 monitoring are an indicator of whether or not our drinking water meets health standards. During [period] we [did not monitor or test/did not complete all
 monitoring or testing] for [contaminant(s)], and therefore cannot  be sure of the quality of the drinking water during that time.
 Standard Distribution Language: Please share this information with all the other  people who drink this water, especially those who may not have
 received this notice directly (for example,  people in apartments,  nursing homes,  schools, and businesses). You can do this by posting this notice in a
 public place or distributing copies by hand or mail.

     Where the PWS serves a large proportion of non-English speakers, the PWS must provide information in the appropriate language(s) on the
     importance of the notice or on how to get assistance or a translated copy.

**  Iw J16'1 ?N, mUSlbe iSSU6d Via mdi0' ^ hand delivery' posting' or other method specified by the primacy agency to reach all persons served
    PWSs must also initiate consultation with the primacy agency within 24 hours. Primacy agency may establish additional requirements durinq
    consultation.                                                                                                                 a
>  The Tier 2 and Tier 3 PNs must be issued by Community Water Systems (CWSs) via mail or direct delivery and by NCWSs via posting  direct
    delivery, or mail. Primacy agencies may permit alternate methods. All PWSs must use additional delivery methods reasonably calculated to reach
    other consumers not notified by the first method.*
+  Notices for individual violations can be combined into an annual notice (including the Consumer Confidence Report [CCR], if PN requirements can
    still DG mot).
*•  Each PN:
    ^   Must be displayed in a conspicuous way.
    >   Must not include overly technical language or very small print.
    >   Must not be formatted in a way that defeats the purpose of the notice.
    >   Must not include language that nullifies the purpose of the notice.
*•  If the notice is posted, it must remain in place for as long as the violation or situation persists, but in no case for less than seven davs even if the
    violation or situation is resolved.                                                                                          '
'PWSs should check with their primacy agency to determine the most appropriate delivery methods.

    All new billing units and customers must be notified of ongoing violations or situations requiring PN.

    PWSs have 10 days to send a certification of compliance and a copy of the completed notice to the primacy agency.
    PWS and primacy agency must keep notices on file for 3 years.

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 the  RecfMred Elements dl%; Public  Notice
  2. When the violation
  occurred  	
  6. Actions consumers
  should take 	
    3. Potential adverse
    health effects	
  7. What is being
  done to correct the
  violation or situation
  10. Required
  distribution language •
        IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR DRINKING WATER

                Tests Showed Presence of Coliform Bacteria

The Jonesville Water System routinely monitors for coliform bacteria. During
the month of July, 7 percent of our samples tested positive. The standard is that
no more than 5 percent of samples may test positive.

What should I do?

 •  You do not need to boil your water or take other corrective actions.
    However, if you have specific health concerns, consult your doctor.

 •  You do not need to use an alternate (e.g., bottled) water supply.

 •  People with severely compromised immune systems, infants, pregnant
    women, and some elderly may be at increased  risk. These people should
    seek advice  about drinking water from their health care providers. General
    guidelines on ways to lessen the risk of infection by microbes are available
    from EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791.


What does this mean?

This is not an emergency. If it had been, you would have been notified
immediately. Coliform bacteria are generally not harmful themselves. Conforms
are bacteria which are naturally present in the environment and are used as
an indicator that other, potentially-harmful, bacteria may be present. Conforms
were found in more samples than allowed and this was a warning of potential
problems.

Usually, coliforms are a sign that there could be a problem with the system's
treatment or distribution system (pipes). Whenever we detect coliform bacteria
in any sample, we do follow-up testing to see if other bacteria of greater
concern, such as fecal coliform or ฃ. coli, are present. We did not find any of
these bacteria in  our subsequent testing.

What was done?

We took additional samples for coliform bacteria which all came back negative.
As an added precaution, we chlorinated and flushed the pipes in the distribution
system to make sure bacteria were eliminated. This  situation is now resolved.

For more information, or to learn more about protecting your drinking water
please contact John Jones at (502) 555-1212.

Please share this information with all the other people who drink this water,
especially those who may not have received this notice directly (for example,
people in apartments, nursing homes, schools, and businesses). You can do
this by posting this notice in a public place or distributing copies by hand or
mail.

This is being sent by the Jonesville Water System.
                    State Water System ID#1234567. Date Distributed: 8/8/09
 1. Description of the
	   violation
                                                                                                              5. Should alternate
                                                                                                               water supplies be
                                                                                                             	  used
                                                                                                             4. The population at
                                                                                                            	  risk
                                                                                                             8. When the system
                                                                                                             expects to return to
                                                                                                            	  compliance
                                                                                                            9. Phone number for
                                                                                                            — more information
Office of Water (4606M)
          EPA816-F-09-010
                                                 http://water.epa.gov/drink
                                                                                                                       August 2009

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-------
oEPA
    United States
    Environmental Protection
    Agency
          K.
          f
Ground Water  Rule  Sample
Collection and  Transport: A Quick
Reference Guide
                           DvervieU/ of tie งul|
                           Title*
                            Purpose
                            General
                            Description
                            Utilities
                            Covered
            Ground Water Rule (GWR) 71 FR 65574, November 8, 2006, Vol. 71, No. 216
            Correction 71 FR 67427, November 21, 2006, Vol. 71, No. 224
            Reduce the risk of illness caused by microbial contamination in public ground
            water systems (GWSs).           	
            The GWR establishes a risk-targeted approach to identify GWSs susceptible
            to fecal contamination and requires corrective action to correct significant
            deficiencies and address source water fecal contamination in all public GWSs.
            The GWR applies to all public water systems (PWSs) that use ground water,
            including consecutive systems, except that it does not apply to PWSs that
            combine all of their ground water with surface water or with ground water under
            the direct influence of surface water prior to treatment.      	
                            This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full
                            compliance, please consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state
                            requirements.	
                           d>WR Situations Requiring Sample^Cdllection an<| T|a&|or|
   The GWR requires that systems that do not provide 4-log treatment of viruses for all
   their ground water sources collect at least one source water sample after detection of
   total coliform in a routine Total Coliform Rule (TCR) (40 CFR 141.21) sample. These
   triggered source samples must be collected from ground water sources in use at the
   time of the TC positive. Samples must be collected within 24 hours unless the State
   allows an extension and the State will specify how long the extension is. Samples must
   be analyzed for the presence of one of three fecal indicators, E. coli, enterococci, or
   coliphage. See Ground Water Rule Triggered and Representative Monitoring: A Quick
   Reference Guide (EPA815-F-08-004) for more information.
   If a fecal indicator is found to be present in a triggered source sample and the State
   does not require corrective action, the GWR requires systems to collect five additional
   source water samples and analyze the samples for the presence of one of the three
   fecal indicators.
   Assessment source water monitoring may be required by the State for systems
   with sources that may be at risk for fecal contamination. Systems must meet
   State requirements for the number of samples collected and the analyses (E. coli,
   enterococci, coliphage) conducted.	
                            Sampling Location
                              For both triggered source water monitoring and assessment source water monitoring,
                              samples must be collected at the ground water source before treatment, unless
                              another location is approved by the State.
                              GWSs should install a sample tap at each source to enable source water monitoring.
                              The diagram below represents an appropriate sampling location for source water
                              monitoring.
                                                         Treatment
                                        Pumps, Pump Facilities,
                                            and Controls
                                                     Source
                                                                    SAMPLING LOCATION

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   Samples should be collected in sterile, plastic or glass containers with a leak-proof lid.
   The GWR requires GWSs conducting source water monitoring to analyze at least a 100-mL sample volume.
  •  However, EPA recommends that the GWS collect and ship more than 100-mL of sample to ensure that a minimum
      of 100 mL is available for analysis (see below).
   The sample containers should be large enough to allow at least 1-inch of headspace to facilitate mixing of the sample
   by shaking prior to analysis.
   Sample volume and container size recommendations for samples of various types are provided below.
E. co// and
Enterococci
Samples
> Sample volume: At least 120 mL of sample should be collected to ensure sufficient volume for
   sample analysis is available in the event of spillage at the laboratory.
>• Container Size: The capacity of sample containers should allow at least a 1-inch headspace to
   facilitate mixing of the sample by shaking prior to analysis.
Coliphage
Samples
> Sample volume: If Method 1601 is used for coliphage sample analyses, either 100-mL or 1-L sample
   volumes may be analyzed (Method 1602 only accommodates 100-mL volumes).
  •  While the minimum sample volume requirement for the GWR is 100 mL, systems may wish to
     collect and analyze a 1-L sample volume to increase the sensitivity of the Method 1601 analysis.
  •  For all coliphage analyses, the GWS should collect 2.5 times more of the sample than necessary
     (i.e., 250 mL for 100 mL samples and 2.5 L for 1 L samples) to allow for sample re-analysis, if
     necessary.*
> Container size: The capacity of sample containers should allow at least a 1-inch headspace to
   facilitate mixing of the sample by shaking prior to analysis.
* Alternatively, samples for male-specific and somatic coliphage analyses can be collected in separate containers.
                                                                i^st^T-'^&y: ซ*=•:>,;?-:- =, r,.,^ ••~^^,
                                                        ?H'y= ^"-'^^"'•--^Is ^ง- '"•2.--*W -^^^•|^.s-la^ii^
Gloves and
hand washing
   When collecting samples from a ground water source, individuals should wash their hands before
   collecting samples and if possible wear gloves (latex, etc.).
Records
 •  All samples taken should be recorded in an on-site sample log book or on a sample collection
   form if it is to be sent to a laboratory for analysis. Sample log books and sample collection forms
   should contain the following information:
  •  Name of system (e.g., Public Water System Identification number)
  •  Sample site location
  •  Sample type (assessment, triggered)
  •  Sampler's name
  •  Sample number
  •  Date of sample collection
  •  Time of sample collection
  •  Analysis requested
Water tap and
service line
   Water taps used for sampling should be free of aerators, bubblers, strainers, hose attachments,
   mixing type faucets, and purification devices. The flow of water out of the tap should be adjusted so
   the water will not splash out when the sample is collected.  The tap should be cleaned and flushed.
   The service line should be cleared before sampling by maintaining a steady water flow for at least
   two minutes (or until the water changes temperature).
Collecting
samples
   Using aseptic technique (i.e., sanitize tap, do not touch the inside of the sample container), the
   individual taking the sample should fill the sample containers, leaving at least 1-inch of headspace.
Cap and label
the container
   Immediately following sample collection, the sampler should tighten the sample container lid.
   The system name, sampler's name, sample number, sample type, date and time of sample collection,
   sample location, and analysis requested should be recorded on the sample container.
   IMPORTANT: If the sample will not be shipped off-site for analysis immediately, the sample should be
   placed upright in a refrigerator to maintain the sample at a temperature of < 8ฐC prior to shipment. If
   a refrigerator is unavailable, the sample should be insulated in some other manner to keep it cool.

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 Packaging
^-  If the samples will be analyzed at a laboratory that is off-site, the water system should contact the
   laboratory as soon as possible (preferably prior to sampling) so that the laboratory can be prepared
   with the appropriate media.
>•  As soon as the sample has been collected, labeled and capped, the sample should be packaged in a
   shipping cooler or foam box that is used exclusively for this purpose.
  •   The cooler should be double lined with plastic (i.e., with trash bags) and contain ice (wet ice in
      ziplock bags, gel packs, or blue ice). The GWR recommends keeping samples below 10ฐC.
>-  The signed and dated sample collection form should be included with the sample.
>•  The lid of the cooler should be securely sealed and the joints of the container should be sealed with
   duct tape.
>•  If the package is being shipped, a copy of the airbill or shipping record should be kept by the ground
   water system.
>•  Packages should be sent priority overnight so that the arrangements for transport and shipping-time
   from collection to analysis does not exceed 30 hours as required by the GWR.
 Chain-of-
 Custody
   Sample collectors and laboratories should follow applicable State regulations pertaining to chain-of-
   custody procedures, since it is necessary to have an accurate written record to trace the possession
   and handling of samples from collection through reporting.
  •  This procedure includes:
       • Field records of sample collection (sample collection form),
       • Label or standardized tag on the  sample container(s),
       • Package sent to lab with chain-of-custody record form, pertinent field records, and analysis
         request form.
  •  The procedure used by the water system and the laboratory should be documented.
  •  Every person who takes custody of the sample should fill in the appropriate section of the chain-
     of-custody record.
  •  See EPA's Manual for the Certification of Laboratories Analyzing Drinking Water: Criteria and
     Procedures Quality Assurance (Fifth Edition) for more information.
Office of Water (4606)
               EPA815-F-08-007
http://water.epa.gov/drink
July 2008

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Arsenic and Clarifications to
Compliance and  New Source  Monitoring
Rule: A Quick  Reference  Guide
Overview of the Rule
Title*
Purpose
General
Description
Utilities
Arsenic and Clarifications to Compliance and New Source Monitoring Rule 66 FR 6976
(January 22, 2001)
To improve public health by reducing exposure to arsenic in drinking water.
Changes the arsenic MCL from 50 ug/L to 1 0 ug/L; Sets arsenic MCLG at 0; Requires
new systems and new drinking water sources to demonstrate compliance as specified
by the State; Clarifies the procedures for determining compliance with the MCLs for
lOCs, SOCs, and VOCs.
All community water systems (CWSs) and nontransient, noncommunity water systems
(NTNCWSs) must comply with the arsenic requirements. EPA estimates that 3,024
CWSs and 1 ,080 NTNCWSs will have to install treatment to comply with the revised
MCL.
*This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance,
please consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
Public Health Benefits
Implementation of
the Arsenic Rule
will result in ...
• Avoidance of 16 to 26 non-fatal bladder and lung cancers per year.
• Avoidance of 21 to 30 fatal bladder and lung cancers per year.
• Reduction in the frequency of non-carcinogenic diseases.

                    Critical Deadlines and Requirements
                    July 1,2002
                    and beyond
                    July 1,2002 -
                    July 1,2006
                    July 1,2007
                    and beyond
           For reports covering calendar years 2001 and beyond, systems that detect arsenic
           between 5 |jg/L and 10 ug/L must include an educational statement in the CCRs.
           For reports covering calendar years 2001 to 2005, systems that detect arsenic between
           10 ug/L and 50 ug/L must include a health effects statement in their CCRs.
           For reports covering calendar year 2006 and beyond, systems that are in violation of the
           arsenic MLC (10 M9/L) must include a health effects statement in their CCRs.
Jan. 22, 2004
Jan. 1,2005
Jan. 23, 2006
Dec. 31,2006
Dec. 31,2007
All NEW systems/sources must collect initial monitoring samples for all lOCs, SOCs,
and VOCs within a period and frequency determined by the State.
When allowed by the State, systems may grandfather data collected after this date.
The new arsenic MCL of 10 ug/L becomes effective. All systems must begin monitoring
or when allowed by the State, submit data that meets grandfathering requirements.
Surface water systems must complete initial monitoring or have a State approved
waiver.
Ground water systems must complete initial monitoring or have a State approved
waiver.
Spring 2002
Jan. 22, 2003
Jan. 22, 2005
EPA meets and works with States to explain new rule and requirements and to support
adoption and implementation activities.
State primacy revision applications due.
State primacy revision applications due from States that received 2-year extensions.
                    *For required educational and health effect statements, please see 40 CFR 141.154.

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. ..I • '
            1. Calculate compliance based on a running annual average at each sampling point.
            2. Systems will not be in violation until 1 year of quarterly samples have been collected (unless fewer
            samples would cause the running annual average to be exceeded.)
            3. If a system does not collect all required samples, compliance will be based on the running annual
            average of the samples collected.
           Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for Total Arsenic^
           One sample after the effective date of the MCL (January 23, 2006). Surface water systems must take
           annual samples. Ground water systems must take one sample during the 2005-2007 compliance period.
           If the monitoring result is less than the MCL ground water systems must collect one sample every 3
           years and surface water systems must continue to collect annual samples.
           A system with a sampling point result above the MCL must collect quarterly samples at that sampling
           point, until the system is reliably and consistently below the MCL.
           '"All samples must be collected at each entry point to the distribution system, unless otherwise specified by the State.
              Applicability of Standardized Monitoring  Framework to Arsenic
                            FIRST COMPLIANCE CYCLE

                              3rd Compliance Period

                             1999   2000   2001
              Results 10 |ig/L


             BROUlib WATER

            No Waiver  .-


            Walvef :   "




             SURFACE WATER

            No Waiver


            Waiver"
                   SECONC COMPLIANCE CYCLE  '.        ': •..

    IstCompliance Period  -.  2nd Compliance Period   , 3rd Compliance Period

    2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009 ./2010

ซ 1 1 	
xi Ln LXI en
10 |jg/L Revised MCL Becomes Effective
Jan. 23, 2006


4
•



| •

•

•



Surface Water Systems:
All Samples Collected
Dec. 31, 2006

| m


Ground Water Systems:
All Samples Collected
Dec. 31, 2007
i • i m i~j~
M

          'States may issue 9 year monitoring waivers under the January 22, 2001 final arsenic rule. To be eligible for a waiver,
          surface water systems must have monitored annually for at least 3 years. Ground water systems must conduct a
          minimum of 3 rounds of monitoring with detection limits below 10 pg/L.
               EPA816-F-01-004
http://water.eDa.aov/drink
                                                                                         January 2001

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        United States
        Environmental Protection
        Agency

v "    \f *~^**"J^$jS* ^^ ttBBst- VSiL''"* >'
:-•
 f

Consumer  Confidence  Report  Rule:
A Quick  Reference Guide
                                                                         ••
                                    Title*
                                     'urpose
                                    General Description
                                    Utilities Covered
                     Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule, 63 FR 44511, August 19, 1998, Vol. 63,
                     No. 160
                     Improve public health protection by providing educational material to allow consumers
                     to make educated decisions regarding any potential health risks pertaining to the
                     quality, treatment, and management of their drinking water supply.	
                     The CCR Rule requires all community water systems to prepare and distribute a brief
                     annual water quality report summarizing information regarding source water, detected
                     contaminants, compliance, and educational information.
                     Community water systems (CWSs), all size categories.
 *This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please
 consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                                    Implementation of the
                                    CCR Rule will result
                                    in ...
                         Increased consumer knowledge of drinking water sources, quality, susceptibility
                         to contamination, treatment, and drinking water supply management.
                         Increased awareness of consumers to potential health risks so they may
                         make informed decisions to reduce those risks, including taking steps toward
                         protecting their water supply.
                         Increased dialogue between drinking water utilities and consumers to increase
                         understanding of the value of drinking water and water supply services and to
                         facilitate consumer participation in decisions that affect public health.
                                    CWSs must prepare
                                    and distribute a CCR
                                    to all billing units or
                                    service connections.
                         April 1 - Deadline for CWS that sells water to another CWS to deliver the
                         information necessary for the buyer CWS to prepare their CCR (requirement
                         outlined in 40 CFR 141.152).
                         July 1 - Deadline for annual distribution of CCR to customers and state or
                         local primary agency for report covering January 1 - December 31 of previous
                         calendar year.
                         October 1 - (or 90 days after distribution of CCR to customers, whichever is first)
                         Deadline for annual submission of proof of distribution to state or local primacy
                         agency.
                         A CWS serving 100,000 or more persons must also post its current year's report
                         on a publicly accessible site on the Internet. Many systems choose to post their
                         reports at the following EPA Web site http://safewater.tetratech-ffx.com/ccr/index.
                         cfm.
                         All CWSs must make copies of the report available on request.
                                        CWSs that have a large proportion of non-English speaking residents must include information in the
                                        appropriate language(s) expressing the importance of the CCR, or a phone number or address where
                                        residents may contact the CWS to obtain a translated copy of the CCR or assistance in the appropriate
                                        language.
                                        The state or EPA will make the determination of which CWSs need to include this information.
                                        With the permission of the governor of a state (or designee), or where the tribe has primacy, in lieu of
                                        mailing, systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons may publish their CCR in a local newspaper.**
                                        With the permission of the governor of a state (or designee), or where the tribe has primacy, in lieu of a
                                        mailing and/or publication, systems serving 500 or fewer persons may provide a notice stating the CCR is
                                        available upon request.**                                                     	
 **Questions regarding whether the necessary permission has been granted should be addressed to the
 appropriate state or primacy agency.

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For additional information
on the CCR Rule

Call the Safe Drinking
Water Hotline at 1-800-
426-4791; visit the EPA
Web site at http://water.
epa.gov/drink: or contact
your state or local primacy
agency's drinking water
representative. Log onto
the CCRiWriter Web site
to use EPA's template at
www.CCRiWriter.com.
                                   Eight Content Requirements of a "CCR
                                       Item 1: Water System Information - Name/phone number of a contact person; information on public
                                       participation opportunities.

                                       Item 2: Source(s) of Water.

                                       Item 3: Definitions - Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL); MCL Goal (MCLG); Treatment Technique
                                       (TT); Action Level (AL); Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL); MRDL Goal (MRDLG).

                                       Item 4: Detected Contaminants -Atable summarizing reported concentrations and relevant MCLs and
                                       MCLGs or MRDLs and MRDLGs; known source of detected contaminants; health effects language.

                                       Item 5: Information on Monitoring for Cryptosporidium, Radon, and Other Contaminants (if
                                       detected).

                                       Item 6: Compliance with Other Drinking Water Regulations (any violations and Ground Water Rule
                                       [GWR] special notices).

                                       Item 7: Variances and Exemptions (if applicable).

                                       Item 8: Required Educational Information - Explanation of contaminants in drinking water and bottled
                                       water; information to vulnerable populations about Cryptosporidium; statements on nitrate,  arsenic, and
                                       lead.

                                   CWSs are not limited to providing only the required information in their CCR. CWSs may want to include:
                                       >   An explanation (or include a diagram of) the CWSs treatment processes.
                                       >   Source water protection efforts and/or water conservation tips.
                                       >   Costs of making the water safe to drink.
                                       >   A statement from the mayor or general manager.
                                       >   Information to educate customers about: Taste and odor issues, affiliations with programs such as
                                           the Partnership for Safe Water, opportunities for public participation, etc.
                                       Provide a consistent message. Be as simple, truthful, and straightforward as possible. Avoid acronyms,
                                       initials, and jargon.

                                       Provide links to useful information resources.

                                       Limit wordiness - write short sentences and keep your paragraphs short.

                                       Assume that consumers will only read the top half of the notice or what can be read in 10 seconds.

                                       Display important elements in bold and/or large type in the top half of the notice.

                                       Do not make your text size too small.

                                       Give a draft of your CCR to relatives or friends who are not drinking water experts and ask them if it
                                       makes sense. Ask customers for their comments when you publish the CCR.
                                       Use graphics, photographs, maps, and drawings to illustrate your message. Do not distract from your
                                       main message with graphics and/or pictures that do not complement your message.

                                       Consider printing the CCR on recycled paper and taking other steps to make the CCR "environmentally
                                       friendly." If you hope to get your customers involved in protecting or conserving water, set a good example
                                       for them to follow.

                                       Use the CCR as an opportunity to tell your customers about all of the things that you are doing well.
  CWSs must:
  >•   Mail or directly deliver a copy of the CCR to each of their customers by July 1 annually.
  >   Make a good faith effort to get CCRs to non-bill-paying consumers, using means recommended by
      the state.
  >•   Send a copy to the director of the state drinking water program and any other state agency that the
      state drinking water program director identifies when you mail it to customers.
  *•   Submit to the state a  certification, within 3 months of mailing, that the CWS distributed the CCR,
      and that its information is correct and consistent with the compliance monitoring data previously
      submitted to the state.
  ^   Post their CCRs on the Internet (if the CWSs serve 100,000 or more people).
  CWSs may  also want to send copies to state and local health departments, as well as local TV and radio
  stations and newspapers.
    rfWater (4606M)
EPA816-F-09-009
http://water.epa.gov/drink
August 2009

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      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
Filter Backwash Recycling  Rule:
A Quick Reference  Guide
                              Title*
                              Purpose
                              General
                              Description
                              Utilities
                              Covered
                Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR)
                66 FR 31086, June 8, 2001, Vol. 66, No. 111
                Improve public health protection by assessing and changing, where needed,
                recycle practices for improved contaminant control, particularly microbial
                contaminants.
                The FBRR requires systems that recycle to return specific recycle flows
                through all processes of the system's existing conventional or direct filtration
                system or at an alternate location approved by the state.
                Applies to public water systems that use surface water or ground water
                under the direct influence of surface water, practice conventional or direct
                filtration, and recycle spent filter backwash, thickener supernatant, or liquids
                from dewatering processes.
                              *This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full
                              compliance, please consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state
                              requirements.
ฎsS"^"^". rtr,^':;.^
ซ *"      -  '->'"  '.< 'i* ' I'r, H

                              Implementation of the
                              FBRR will result in ...
                              Estimated impacts of
                              the FBRR include . . .
                        >•  Reduction in risk of illness from microbial pathogens in
                           drinking water, particularly Cryptosporidium.
                        >   FBRR will apply to an estimated 4,650 systems serving 35
                            million Americans.

                        *•   Fewer than 400 systems are expected to require capital
                            improvements.

                        *•   Annualized capital costs incurred by public water systems
                            associated with recycle modifications are estimated to be $5.8
                            million.

                        >•   Mean annual cost per household is estimated to be less than
                            $1.70 for 99 percent of the affected households and between
                            $1.70 and $100 for the remaining one percent of affected
                            households.
                                  Conventional filtration, as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, is a series of processes including
                                  coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration resulting in substantial particulate
                                  removal. Conventional filtration is the most common type of filtration.

                                  Direct filtration, as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, is a series of processes including
                                  coagulation and filtration, but excluding sedimentation, and resulting in substantial
                                  particulate removal. Typically, direct filtration can be used only with high-quality raw
                                  water that has low levels of turbidity and suspended solids.

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           Spent Filter Backwash Water - A stream containing particles that are dislodged from filter
           media when water is forced back through a filter (backwashed) to clean the filter.

           Thickener Supernatant - A stream containing the decant from a sedimentation basin, clarifier
           or other unit that is used to treat water, solids, or semi-solids from the primary treatment
           processes.

           Liquids From Dewatering Processes -A stream containing liquids generated from a unit used
           to concentrate solids for disposal.

*F6r Drinking Water: Systems , '% ,_ •_, X*-,^ ;"?'-ฃ"';- """fee, '";, ,
December 8, 2003
June 8, 2004
June 8, 2006
Submit recycle notification to the state.
Return recycle flows through the processes of a system's existing
conventional or direct filtration system or an alternate recycle location
approved by the state (a 2-year extension is available for systems making
capital improvements to modify recycle location).
Collect recycle flow information and retain on file.
Complete all capital improvements associated with relocating recycle return
location (if necessary).
forStatfi "• •cf -|' s ,; :: ^ W • ^ '-ฃ" -"j^'C " ^-W: PIL'^ "J' ^
June 8, 2003
June 8, 2005
States submit FBRR primacy revision application to EPA (triggers interim
primacy).
Primacy extension deadline - all states with an extension must submit
primacy revision applications to EPA.

       >  Plant schematic showing origin of recycle flows, how recycle flows are conveyed, and return
           location of recycle flows.

       >•  Typical recycle flows (gpm), highest observed plant flow experienced in the previous year
           (gpm), and design flow for the treatment plant (gpm).

       >•  State-approved plant operating capacity (if applicable).
Fcr ?ddl:
thr
on
Call the Safe Drinking Water
Hotline at 1-800-426-4791;
visit the EPA web site at
http://water.epa.gov/ctrink: or
contact your state drinking
water representative,

           Copy of recycle notification and information submitted to the state.

           List of all recycle flows and frequency with which they are returned.

           Average and maximum backwash flow rates through filters, and average and maximum
           duration of filter backwash process (in minutes).

           Typical filter run length and written summary of how filter run length is determined.

           Type of treatment provided for recycle flows.

           Data on the physical dimension of the equalization and/or treatment units, typical and
           maximum hydraulic loading rates, types of treatment chemicals used, average dose,
           frequency of use, and frequency at which solids are removed, if applicable.
             EPA816-F-01-019
                                                                    httD://water.eDa.aov/drink
June 2001

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v>EPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
            .*•
Ground  Water  Rule:
A Quick  Reference  Guide

                                 Title*
                                 Purpose
                                 General
                                 Description
                                 Utilities
                                 Covered
           Ground Water Rule (GWR) 71 FR 65574, November 8, 2006, Vol. 71,  No. 216
           Correction 71 FR 67427, November 21, 2006, Vol. 71, No. 224
           Reduce the risk of illness caused by microbial contamination in public ground water systems
           (GWSs).
           The GWR establishes a risk-targeted approach to identify GWSs susceptible to fecal contamination
           and requires corrective action to correct significant deficiencies and source water fecal contamination
           in all public GWSs.
           The GWR applies to all public water systems (PWSs) that use ground water, including consecutive
           systems, except that it does not apply to PWSs that combine all of their ground water with surface
           water or with ground water under the direct influence of surface water prior to treatment.
                                 This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please
                                 consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                                 Public Health Benefits
                                 Implementation
                                 of the GWR will
                                 result in ...
                                 Estimated
                                 impacts of
                                 the GWR
                                 include...
                  Targeted protection for over 70 million people served by ground water sources that are either
                  not disinfected or receive less than 4-log treatment.
                  Avoidance of 42,000 viral illnesses and 1 related death annually.
               >.  The annualized present value of the GWR is $19.7 million, with a 90-percent confidence
                  interval of $6.5 to $45.4 million.
               ^-  Mean annual cost per household is estimated to be less than $1.00 for approximately 96
                  percent of affected households.	
                                 Critical  Deadlines and Requirements
                                 November 30, 2009
                                 December 1,2009
                                 December 1,2009
                                 December 1,2009
                  New ground water sources put in place after this date must meet triggered source water
                  monitoring requirements or conduct compliance monitoring.
                  By this date, GWSs conducting compliance monitoring because they provide at least 4-log
                  virus inactivation, removal, or a state-approved combination of these technologies before or
                  at the first customer, must have notified the state and must begin compliance monitoring. The
                  written notification to the state must include engineering, operational, and other information
                  the state requests
                  GWSs must conduct triggered source water monitoring if the GWS does not provide at least
                  4-log virus inactivation, removal, or a state-approved combination of these technologies
                  before or at the first customer and the GWS is notified that a sample collected for the Total
                  Coliform Rule (TCR) is total coliform-positive.	
                  GWSs for which the state has identified a significant deficiency and GWSs at which at least
                  one of the five additional ground water source samples (or at state discretion, after the initial
                  source sample or an assessment source sample) has tested positive for fecal contamination
                  must comply with the treatment technique requirements.
                                 August 8, 2008     I States are encouraged to submit final primacy applications or extension requests to EPA.
                                 November 8, 2008
                                 Augusts, 2010
                                 Novembers, 2010
                                 December 31, 2012
                                 December 31, 2014
                  Final primacy revision applications for GWR must be submitted to the EPA regional
                  administrator, unless state is granted an extension.
                  States with approved extension agreements are encouraged to submit final primacy
                  applications to EPA.
                  Final primacy applications must be submitted to the EPA regional administrator for states with
                  a full 2 year extensiojr
                  States must complete initial sanitary survey cycle for all community GWSs except those that
                  meet performance criteria.
                  States must complete initial sanitary survey cycle for all noncommunity GWSs and all
                  community GWSs that meet performance criteria.	
                                 Analytical Methods for Source Water Monitoring
                                 ฃ. co//
                                 Enterococci
                                 Coliphage

                     Colilert
                     Colisure
                     Membrane Filter Method with Ml Agar
                     m-ColiBlue24 Test
                     E*Colite Test
                     EC-MUG
                     NA-MUG
                     Multiple-Tube Technique
                     Membrane Filter Technique
                     Membrane Filter Technique
                     Enterolert
                     Two-Step Enrichment Presence-Absence Procedure
                     Single Agar Layer Procedure	
9223 B.
9223 B.
EPA Method 1604.
                                                                                                   9221 F.
                                                                                                   9222 G.
9230 B.
9230 C
EPA Method 1600.
EPA Method 1601.
EPA Method 1602.
 *Footnotes regarding methods can be _ found i
                                                                               141.402

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             of :i:f r^y||i
I  ,
       Treatment
       Technique
       Compliance
       Monitoring
In order not to be subject to triggered source water monitoring, a GWS can notify the
state that it provides at least 4-log treatment of viruses using virus inactivation, removal,
or a state-approved combination of 4-log virus inactivation and removal before or at the
first customer. The GWS must then begin compliance monitoring designed to show the
effectiveness of their treatment processes.
GWSs that use chemical disinfection and serve more than 3,300 people must continuously
monitor their disinfectant concentration. GWSs must maintain the minimum disinfectant
residual concentration determined by the state.
GWSs that use chemical disinfection and serve 3,300 people or fewer must take daily
grab samples or meet the continuous monitoring reqr'  nents described above for GWSs
serving  more than 3,300 people.
GWSs using membrane filtration for 4-log treatment of viruses must monitor the membrane
filtration process according to state-specified monitoring requirements.
GWSs may use alternative treatment technologies (e.g., ultraviolet radiation [UVj)
approved by the state. GWSs must monitor the alternative treatment according to state-
specified monitoring requirements, and must operate the alternative treatment according to
compliance requirements established by the state.
       Triggered Source
       Water Monitoring
       Additional
       Source Water
       Sampling
       Assessment
       Source Water
       Monitoring

GWSs that do not conduct compliance monitoring and are notified of a total coliform-positive
routine sample collected in compliance with the TCR (40 CFR 141.21) must conduct
triggered source water monitoring.
GWSs must collect at least one ground water source sample from each source in use at the
time the total coliform-positive sample was collected. The triggered source water sample
must be analyzed for the presence of a fecal indicator as specified in the rule.
If the triggered source water sample is fecal indicator-positive, the GWS must either take
corrective action, as directed by the state, or if corrective action is not required by the state
and the sample is not invalided by the state, the GWS must conduct additional source water
sampling.
States may waive the triggered source water monitoring requirement if the state determines
and documents, in writing, that the total coliform-positive routine sample is the result of a
documented distribution system deficiency.
States may develop criteria for distribution system conditions that cause total coliform
positive samples. A GWS can document to the  state that it met the state criteria within 30
days of the total coliform-positive sample and be exempt from collecting triggered source
water sample(s).
States may invalidate a fecal indicator-positive  ground water source sample under specific
conditions.  If a fecal indicator-positive source sample  is invalidated, the GWS must collect
another source water sample within 24 hours of being notified by the state of its invalidation
decision.
If the state does not require corrective action in response to a fecal indicator-positive
triggered source water sample, the GWS must collect five additional source water samples
(from the same source) within 24 hours of being notified of the fecal indicator-positive
sample.	         	
States have the opportunity to target higher risk GWSs for additional testing. States
independently can determine on a case by case basis whether monitoring is necessary and
when corrective action needs to be taken.
       GWSs with
       Significant
       Deficiencies
       or Source
       Water Fecal
       Contamination
GWSs must take corrective action if a significant deficiency is identified, or if the initial
source sample or a GWR assessment monitoring source sample (if required by the
state) or one of the five additional ground water source samples tests positive for fecal
contamination. The GWS must implement at least one of the following corrective actions:
>   Correct all significant deficiencies.
>   Provide an alternate source of water.
>•   Eliminate the source of contamination.
>   Provide treatment that reliably achieves at least 4-log treatment of viruses (using
    inactivation, removal, or a state-approved combination of 4-log virus inactivation and
    removal) before or at the first customer for the ground water source.	
       New Ground
       Water Sources
New sources which come on line after November 30, 2009 are required either to conduct
triggered source water monitoring as required by the GWR, or provide at least 4-log
inactivation, removal or a state-approved combination of these technologies and conduct
compliance monitoring within 30 days of the source being put in service.
       All Ground Water
       Systems
States are required to conduct sanitary surveys of all GWSs in order to identify significant
deficiencies, including deficiencies which may make a system susceptible to microbial
contamination.
Following the initial sanitary survey, states must conduct sanitary surveys every 3 years for
most CWSs and every 5 years for NCWSs and CWSs that provide at least 4-log treatment
of viruses or have outstanding performance records, as determined by the state.	
           EPA816-F-08-029
                                                     http://water.eDa.aov/drink
                                                                                            Revised March 2010

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vvEPA
    United States
    Environmental Protection
    Agency
Ground  Water  Rule  Compliance
Monitoring: A  Quick  Reference  Guide
                            Overview of thelR^le
                            Title*
           Ground	W^en?ule"(GWR)	71	FR'65574, Novembers, 2006, Vol. 71, No. 216
           Correction 71 FR 67427, November 21, 2006, Vol. 71. No. 224
                            Purpose
                            General
                            Description
                            Utilities
                            Covered
           Reduce the risk of illness caused by microbial contamination in public ground
           water systems (GWSs).
           The GWR establishes a risk-targeted approach to identify GWSs susceptible
           to fecal contamination and requires corrective action to correct significant
           deficiencies and address source water fecal contamination in all public GWSs
           The GWR applies to all public water systems (PWSs) that use ground water,
           including consecutive systems, except that it does not apply to PWSs that
           combine all of their ground water with surface water or with ground water under
           the direct influence of surface water prior to treatment.
                             This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full
                            compliance, please consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state
                            requirements.	
                                 Gse of Compliance Monitorin;
                               Compliance monitoring ensures that GWSs that provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses
                               using chemical disinfection, membrane filtration, or a State-approved alternative treatment
                               technology are consistently and effectively achieving this level of treatment.	
                            \Mien h Compliance Monitoring Required?
                               GWSs that provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses as a corrective action must conduct
                               compliance monitoring.
                               GWSs that provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses at or before the first customer
                               using chemical disinfection, membrane filtration, or a State-approved alternative treatment
                               technology and do not conduct GWR triggered source water monitoring must notify their
                               State in writing that they provide treatment and begin compliance monitoring.
                               The compliance dates for systems that provide 4-log treatment in lieu of GWR triggered
                               source water monitoring are as follows:
                              •   GWSs with existing ground water sources must notify the State by December
                                  1, 2009, that they provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses and begin compliance
                                  monitoring.
                              •   GWSs with new ground water sources placed into service after November 30, 2009,
                                  must notify the State that they provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses and begin
                                  compliance monitoring within 30 days.  	
                            What are the Compliance Monitoring Requirements for Chemical
                            Disinfection?                                                   :._  I
                             >• GWSs using chemical disinfection and serving 3,300 or fewer persons must monitor
                               for the residual disinfectant concentration and meet the State specified minimum
                               concentration at or before the first customer.
                             *• GWSs must monitor on a daily basis and collect a grab sample during the hour of peak flow
                               or at another time specified by the State.
                               •  If any daily grab sample is less than the minimum disinfectant residual concentration,
                                  the system must take follow-up samples every four hours until the residual meets or
                                  exceeds the State-specified minimum concentration.
                               •  These systems also have the option to monitor continuously.
                                         If the GWS monitors continuously, the system must meet the monitoring
                                         requirements for GWSs serving greater than 3,300 persons (see below).
                             >• GWSs must monitor at a State-approved location.	

-------


    GWSs using chemical disinfection and serving greater than 3,300 persons that conduct compliance monitoring must monitor
    for the residual disinfectant concentration and meet the State specified minimum concentration at or before the first
    customer.
   •  GWSs of this size must monitor continuously and record the lowest residual disinfectant concentration each day that
      water from the ground water source is served to the public.
          must monitor at a State-approved location.
 >•  In the event of equipment failure for continuous monitoring, provisions are available for ail GWSs serving greater than 3,300
    persons and GWSs serving 3,300 persons or fewer who opt to monitor continuously.
    •   If there is a failure in continuous monitoring equipment, the ground water system must conduct grab sampling every
       four hours until the continuous monitoring equipment is returned to service.
    •   The system must resume continuous residual disinfectant monitoring within 14 days.	

    GWSs that use membrane filtration systems to achieve 4-log virus treatment to meet GWR requirements must:
   •   Operate the process in accordance with State-specified compliance requirements.
   •   Monitor the membrane filtration process in accordance with all State-specified monitoring requirements.
   •   Verify that the integrity of the membrane is intact.
    The frequency and location of samples for systems ^
                                                                          ins
    GWSs that use alternative treatment systems to achieve 4-log virus treatment to meet GWR requirements must:
   •   Operate the process in accordance with State-specified compliance requirements.
       Monitor the process in accordance with State-specified monitoring requirements.
    GWSs using UV disinfection as an alternative technology to meet GWR requirements should:
   •   Monitor for UV intensity, as measured by a UV sensor, flow rate and UV lamp status and any additional State-specified
       parameters.
   •   Verify the calibration of UV sensors, and recalibrate in accordance with a State-approved protocol, at least monthly.
    UV reactors should undergo validation testing to determine the operating conditions under which the reactor delivers the UV
    dose corresponding to the virus log removal credit received. See "Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance for the Final Long Term
    2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule" (http://www.epa.g6v/ogwdw/disinfection/lt2/pdfs/guide_lt2_uvguidance.pdf) for
    more information.
    The following table summarizes the compliance monitoring requirements for systems providing 4-log virus treatment in
    lieu of triggered source water monitoring or as a corrective action under the GWR.
' * " > " &VJ* ~ Ji X, (SsWS*^ ซ * V~ ~~ . -K <*
:_s ,rX',%slero1i^^ ^
GWSs serving < 3,300 using
chemical disinfection
GWSs serving > 3,300 using
chemical disinfection
GWSs using membrane filtration
GWSs using State-approved
alternative treatment
'* "V \"ป*\ - ~^* ^.^ '~*ป<&l "*~ ~fl' ^L~ •
\ , * 7 ';* ~<; 7,, f,
Residual disinfectant concentration
(must meet State minimum)
Membrane filtration process
effectiveness
Alternative treatment effectiveness
I ^ 	 l^^ul^y-rll"l;l;-^"p 	 ^ ^ 	 •
Daily or continuous
Continuous only
-r
State-approved
location(s)
Consult State for specific information
    If operation according to the criteria or requirements for compliance monitoring (minimum residual disinfectant concentration,
    membrane operating criteria or membrane integrity, alternative treatment operating criteria, etc.) is not restored within four
    hours, a GWS must notify the State as soon as possible.
    For all GWSs conducting compliance monitoring, failure to conduct required compliance monitoring (Sec.  141.403(b))
    requires a Tier 3 public notice.
    If any GWS wishes to discontinue 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer, the GWS then becomes subject
    to the GWR triggered source water monitoring requirements.
   •  See "Ground Water Rule Factsheet: Monitoring Requirements" and "Ground Water Rule Triggered and Representative
      Monitoring: A Quick Reference Guide" for more information.	
Office of Water (4606)
EPA815-F-08-008
http://water.epa.aov/drink
July 2008

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&EPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Radionuclides  Rule:
A Quick  Reference Guide
                            Title*
                            Purpose
                            General
                            Description
                            Utilities
                            Covered
             Radionuclides Rule
             66 FR 76708
             December 7, 2000
             Vol. 65, No. 236
             Reducing the exposure to
             radionuclides in drinking water
             will reduce the risk of cancer.
             This rule will also improve
             public health protection by
             reducing exposure to all
             radionuclides.
             The rule retains the existing
             MCLs for combined
             radium-226 and radium-228,
             gross alpha particle
             radioactivity, and beta particle
             and photon activity. The rule
             regulates uranium for the first
             time.
             Community water systems, all
             size categories.
                            This document provides a summary of
                            federal drinking water requirements; to ensure
                            full compliance, please consult the federal
                            regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved
                            state requirements.
Implementation of
the Radionuclides
Rule will result in .
                                                                   Estimated impacts
                                                                   of the Radionuclides
                                                                   Rule include . . .
Reduced uranium
exposure for 620,000
persons, protection from
toxic kidney effects of
uranium, and a reduced
risk of cancer.
                 Annual compliance costs
                 of $81 million.

                 Only 795 systems will
                 have to install treatment.

Regulated
Radionuclide
Beta/photon emitters**
Gross alpha particle
Combined radium-
226/228
Uranium
MCL
4mrem/yr
15pCi/L
5 pCi/L
30ug/L
MCLG
0
0
0
0
**A total of 168 individual beta particle and photon
emitters may be used to calculate compliance with
the MCL.
          ,,,
     '"' '  ""*

Fei 0rtnMiAg^4e^Syrtems " ป ' 1 :' '\> *"'.'>'• '' '. "'? V "i'.!\f
June 2000 - December 8, 2003
December 8, 2003
December 31, 2007
When allowed by the State, data collected between these dates
may be eligible for use as grandfathered data (excluding beta
particle and photon emitters).
Systems begin initial monitoring under State-specified monitoring
plan unless the State permits use of grandfathered data.
All systems must complete initial monitoring.
rfer Sfalesf t '> -, "•:, "'" < "'. -"\ :-. '''•. V: -, " '". 'ป *- ' '
December 2000 - December 2003
December 8, 2000
Spring 2001
December 8, 2002
States work with systems to establish monitoring schedules.
States should begin to update vulnerability assessments for beta
photon and particle emitters and notify systems of monitoring
requirements.
EPA meets and works with States to explain new rules and
requirements and to initiate adoption and implementation
activities.
State submits primacy revision application to EPA. (EPA approves
within 90 days.)

-------
     J**:*&&^&,&
  '•. ^^^il^^E^3^^


'
   Cafl the Safe Drinking Water
   Hotline at 1-800-426-4791;
   visit the EPA Web site at
   http://water.epa.aov/drink.
: JLt" - *"ป**T< ฅ*_,„*'" ^^^'^^ Each entry point to the distribution system (EPTDS).
>• The distribution system, provided the system has a single EPTDS.
>• The distribution system, provided the State makes a written justification explaining why the sample is
representative of all EPTDS.
                                           Applicability of the Standardized Monitoring Framework to Radionuclides
                                                                (Excluding the Beta Particle and Photon Emitters)
                                                                                                 4 consecutive quarterly samples. Systems with MCL
                                                                                                 violations must continue to take quarterly samples until
                                                                                                 4 consecutive samples are at or below the MCL

                                                                                                ] When allowed by the State, data collected between
                                                                                                ] 6/00 and 12/08/03 may be used as grandfathered data
                                                                                                 to satisfy the initial monitoring requirements.
    Pff p* Water (4606M)
EPA816-F-01-003
http://water.epa.aov/drink
June 2001

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&EPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
                  -T
 , -For
 *;oป the
Stage  1  and Stage 2  Disinfectants  and
Disinfection  Byproduct Rules:
Laboratory  Quick  Reference  Guide
                               Title*
                               Purpose
                               General
                               Description
            Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR) 63 FR 69390, December 16,
            1998, Vol. 63, No. 241
            Revisions to the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR), the Stage 1 Disinfectants
            and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR), and Revisions to State Primacy Requirements to
            Implement the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments
            66 FR 3770, January 16, 2001, Vol. 66, No. 29
            Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2 DBPR) 71 FR 388, January 4, 2006,
            Vol. 71, No. 2
            Improve public health protection by reducing exposure to disinfection byproducts. Some disinfectants
            and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have been shown to cause cancer and reproductive effects in lab
            animals and are suspected to cause bladder cancer and reproductive effects in humans.
            The Stage 1 DBPR is the first of a staged set of rules that will reduce the allowable levels of DBPs in
            drinking water. The new rule establishes seven new standards and a treatment technique of enhanced
            coagulation or enhanced softening to further reduce DBP exposure. The rule is designed to limit capital
            investments and avoid major shifts in disinfection technologies until additional information is available on
            the occurrence and health effects of DBPs. The Stage 2 DBPR bases total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and
            haloacetic acids (HAAS) compliance on a locational running annual average (LRAA) calculated at each
            monitoring location.
                               "This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance, please consult the federal
                               regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
January 1 , 2002**
January 1,2004**
April 1,2009
Surface water systems and ground water systems under the direct influence of surface water
(GWUDI) serving > 10,000 people must comply with the Stage 1 DBPR requirements.
Surface water systems and GWUDI serving < 10,000, and all ground water systems must comply
with the Stage 1 DBPR requirements.
Systems that use ozone must qualify for reduced monitoring using a Bromate running annual
average (RAA) of less than or equal to 0.0025 mg/L. Systems can no longer qualify for reduced
monitoring using source water Bromide monitoring.
                                '*This is the compliance date for TTHM/HAA5 running annual average (RAA) under Stage 1 DBPR. For compliance dates under Stage 2
                               DBPR see the Quick Reference Guides for the rule.
iixDtitine Monitoring Retirements ";. % '%> % .11- f:.>\
- ^ _~^, ...^
regulated .„
: :> /"^ ~'"<
Under the Stage 1 DBPR the monitoring frequency is based on the system s source water
type, number of persons served, and number of plants. Under Stage 2 DBPR, the monitoring
frequency is based on the system's source water type and number of persons served.
Systems may be required to monitor quarterly or yearly depending on system size.
Systems that disinfect their water using ozone must monitor for bromate monthly at the
entrance to the distribution system.
Systems that disinfect their water using chlorine dioxide must monitor for chlorite daily at the
entrance to the distribution system and monthly in the distribution system.
All systems must monitor for chlorine/chloramines at the same location and with the same
frequency as Total Coliform Rule sampling.
Systems that disinfect their water using chlorine dioxide must monitor for chlorine dioxide
daily at the entrance to the distribution system.
Systems that use conventional filtration systems must monitor monthly for total organic
carbon and alkalinity or the specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) alternative.
I.,-- -.--- --.- 	 — — - — •.. '• • • • -• -,- "";- "-,„ •••..-.. -v . :,,,-..""::ป: .^;;^-: ••.r-,- ••";>;• -:|
laboratory Considerations •„ v, V > y yy- ^ •.ฃ>;.., ^y:..: :?-:;•••ฃ'
I Obtain certification (or state approval) to perform new analyses.
Become familiar with new monitoring requirements.
Prepare for increased number of samples (e.g., storage, supplies, staff).
Schedule to accommodate large number of samples, holding times, and demands on instrumentation.
                               The table on the reverse is a brief summary of available methods. The entire list of methods may be found in 40 CFR
                               141,SubpartC.

-------
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Office of Water (4606M)
                                      EPA816-F-10-081
                                               http://water.epa.gov/drink
                                                                                                                          August 2010

-------
oEPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Interim  Enhanced  Surface  Water
Treatment  Rule:
A  Quick Reference Guide
                            Overview of the Rule
                             Title*
                             Purpose
                             General
                             Description
                             Utilities
                             Covered
             Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) 63 FR 69478 - 69521,
             December 16, .1998, Vol. 63, No. 241

             Revisions to the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR), the Stage 1
             Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR), and Revisions to State
             Primacy Requirements to Implement the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments
             66 FR 3770, January 16, 2001, Vol 66, No. 29
             Improve public health control of microbial contaminants, particularly Cryptosporidium.
             Prevent significant increases in microbial risk that might otherwise occur when systems
             implement the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule.
             Builds upon treatment technique approach and requirements of the 1989 Surface Water
             Treatment Rule. Relies on existing technologies currently in use at water treatment plants.
             Sanitary survey requirements apply to all public water systems using surface water or
             ground water under the direct influence of surface water, regardless of size. All remaining
             requirements apply to public water systems that use surface water or ground water under
             the direct influence of surface water and serve 10,000 or more people.
                             This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance,
                             please consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.
                       1
                       r
                            Major Provisions
 Cryptosporidium
                             Turbidity Performance
                             Standards
>•  Maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) of zero.
>•  99 percent (2-log) physical removal for systems that filter.
>  Include in watershed control program for unfiltered systems.
                             Combined Filter Effluent
                         Conventional and direct filtration combined filter effluent:
                         >•  < 0.3 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) in at least 95 percent of
                            measurements taken each month.

                            Maximum level of 1 NTU.
                            Performed every 4 hours to ensure compliance with turbidity
                            performance standards.
                             Individual Filter Effluent
                            Performed continuously (every 15 minutes) to assist treatment plant
                            operators in understanding and assessing filter performance.
                                Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

                                Construction of new uncovered finished water storage facilities prohibited.

                                Sanitary surveys, conducted by the state, for all surface water and ground water under the direct
                                influence of surface water systems regardless of size (every 3 years for community water systems
                                and every 5 years for noncommunity water systems).

-------
                                    Rfofilijig,and Benchmarking
                                    Public water systems must evaluate impacts on microbial risk before changing disinfection
                                    practices to ensure adequate protection is maintained. The three major steps are:

                                    *•   Determine if a public water system needs to profile based on TTHM and HAAS levels (applicability
                                        monitoring)

                                    *•   Develop a disinfection profile that reflects daily Giardia lamblia inactivation for at least a year
                                        (systems using ozone or chloramines must also calculate inactivation of viruses)

                                    *•   Calculate a disinfection benchmark (lowest monthly inactivation) based on the profile and consult with
                                        the state prior to making a significant change to disinfection practices
                                   Critical  Deadlines and Requirements
•For additional information
oathelESWm'   "  -
          I™      ,      -
         •4      ?  ,    '-  ,
Cafl the Safe CMnklng)teter

                                    February 16, 1999
                                    March 1999
                                    April 16, 1999
                                    December 31, 1999
                                   April 1,2000
                                   March 31,2001
                                   January 1,2002
                       Construction of uncovered finished water reservoirs is prohibited.
                                                         Public water systems lacking ICR or other occurrence data begin 4 quarters of
                                                         applicability monitoring for TTHM and HAAS to determine if disinfection profiling
                                                         is necessary.
                       Systems that have 4 consecutive quarters of HAAS occurrence data that meet
                       the TTHM monitoring requirements must submit data to the state to determine if
                       disinfection profiling is necessary.
                       Public water systems with ICR data must submit it to states to determine if
                       disinfection profiling is necessary.
                      Public water systems must begin developing a disinfection profile if their annual
                      average (based on 4 quarters of data) for TTHM is greater than or equal to 0.064
                      mg/L or HAAS is greater than or equal to 0.048 mg/L.
                      Disinfection profile must be complete.
                      Surface water systems or ground water under the direct influence of surface
                      water systems serving 10,000 or more people must comply with all IESWTR
                      provisions (e.g., turbidity standards, individual filter monitoring).
                                               T-*
                                   	 	-^ป-       -
                                   December 16, 2000
                                   January 2002
                                   December 16, 2002
                                   December 2004
                                   December 2006
                      States submit IESWTR primacy revision applications to EPA (triggers interim
                      primacy).
                      States begin first round of sanitary surveys.
                      Primacy extension deadline - all states with an extension must submit primacy
                      revision applications to EPA.
                      States must complete first round of sanitary surveys for community water
                      systems.
                      States must complete first round of sanitary surveys for noncommunity water
                      systems.
Public Health Benefits
httD^/water.epa.aov/drink: or,,
contact your^tate dunking ,    >
water rspre|ihtative,            ซ

Additional rnatgrialls afraitebie at
rulesreas/sdvfe/ieswfof.
Implementation of
the IESWTR
will result in ...
Estimated impacts of
the IESWTR
include . ..
    Increased protection against gastrointestinal illnesses from Cryptosporidium
    and other pathogens through improvements in filtration.

    Reduced likelihood of endemic illness from Cryptosporidium by 110,000 to
    463,000 cases annually.

    Reduced likelihood of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis.
>•   National total annualized cost: $307 million

>•   92 percent of households will incur an increase of less than $1 per month.

>•   Less than 1 percent of households will incur an increase of more than $5 per
    month (about $8 per month).
                                         EPA816-F-01-011
                                                                         http://water.eDa.aov/drink
                                                                                                                     May 2001

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v>EPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Lead  and  Copper Rule: A Quick Reference  Guide
 Qiirvilw;fcf JhelRule
                                Title1
                                Purpose
                                General
                                Description
                                Utilities
                                Covered
            Lead and Copper Rule (LCR)2, 56 FR 26460 - 26564, June 7, 1991
            Protect public health by minimizing lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) levels in drinking water, primarily by reducing
            water corrosivity. Pb and Cu enter drinking water mainly from corrosion of Pb and Cu containing plumbing
            materials.
            Establishes action level (AL) of 0.015 mg/L for Pb and 1.3 mg/L for Cu based on 90tn percentile level of tap
            water samples. An AL exceedance is not a violation but can trigger other requirements that include water
            quality parameter (WQP) monitoring, corrosion control treatment (CCT), source water monitoring/treatment,
            public education, and lead service line replacement (LSLR).
            All community water systems (CWSs) and non-transient non-community water systems (NTNCWSs) are
            subject to the LCR requirements.
                                PLibliSHelltrf Bfnefjts^
                                Implementation
                                of the LCR has
                                resulted in
                 Reduction in risk of exposure to Pb that can cause damage to brain, red blood cells, and kidneys,
                 especially for young children and pregnant women.
                 Reduction in risk of exposure to Cu that can cause stomach and intestinal distress, liver or kidney
                 damage, and complications of Wilson's disease in genetically predisposed people.
:fv1|forSMoniforirjig Sroyisionsl |;.' .| & 1 ฅ % ::'k ฅ "'K ' ;W ''if^^sf- \

Applicability
Standard
Reduced
IP W ! ! ! ! s|p ! All CWSs and NTNCWSs. 1
*• CWSs and NTNCWSs must collect first-draw samples at taps in homes/buildings that are at high risk of I
Pb/Cu contamination as identified in 40 CFR 141 .86(a).
>• Number of samples is based on system size (see Table 1).
> Systems must conduct monitoring every 6 months unless they qualify for reduced monitoring.
*• See Table 1 for sample number and Table 2 for criteria.

Applicability
Standard
Reduced
> Systems serving
*• Systems serving
> 50,000 people.
< 50,000 during monitoring periods in which
either AL is exceeded.

> WQP samples at taps are collected every 6 months.
ป• WQPs at entry points to distribution system (EPTDS) are collected every 6 months prior to CCT
installation, then every 2 weeks.
*• See Table 1 for sample number and page 2 for criteria. Does

Size Category
Large
Medium
Small
3 With written S
4 Two WQP tap
Annual
Triennial
Every 9 years
System Size
>100K
50,001 -100K
10,001 -50K
3,301 - 10K
501 - 3,300
101 -500
<100
Number of Pb/Cu Tap Sample Sites3
Standard
100
60
60
40
20
10
5
Reduced
50
30
30
20
10
5
5
not apply to EPTDS WQP monitoring.

Number of WQP Tap Sample Sites4
Standard
25
10
10
3
2
1
1 .
Reduced
10
7
7
3
2
1
1
tate approval, PIVSs can collect < 5 samp/es ;f all faps used for human consumption are sampled.
samples are collected at each sampling site.





1 . PWS serves ฃ 50,000 people and is ฃ both ALs for 2 consecutive 6-month monitoring periods; or
2. Any PWS that meets optimal WQPs (OWQPs) and is < Pb AL for 2 consecutive 6-month monitoring
periods.
1 . PWS serves < 50,000 people and is < both ALs for 3 consecutive years of monitoring; or
2. Any PWS that meets OWQP specifications and is < Pb AL for 3 consecutive years of monitoring; or
3. Any PWS with 90th percentile Pb and Cu levels s 0.005 mg/L and ฃ 0.65 mg/L, respectively, for 2
consecutive 6-month monitoring periods (i.e., accelerated reduced Pb/Cu tap monitoring).
PWS serves ฃ 3,300 people and meets monitoring waiver criteria found at 40 CFR 141 .86(g).
                                lead Consumer Notice
                                Within 30 days of learning the results, all systems must provide individual Pb tap results to people who receive water from
                                sites that were sampled, regardless of whether the results exceed the Pb AL, as required by 40 CFR 141.85(d).	
                                ;C6nsumer Confidence Report (CCR)
                                 All CWSs, irrespective of their lead levels, must provide an educational statement about lead in drinking water in their
                                 CCRs as required by 40 CFR 141.154. Must be in 2008 CCR (due July 1, 2009) if EPA is Primacy Agency, State adopts the
                                 rule by reference automatically, or adopts during 2008. Otherwise, this statement is required in the 2009 CCR (due July 1,
                                 2010).                                                                    	_^^

-------
                               :ซ f
    for additional
    information on the LCR
k
' *   Call the Safs DrtnWng Water
v-  Hotline at 1-800-426-4791;'
=  visit the EPA Web site at
•3  http://water.epa.gov/drirtk;
~  or contact your State' drinking
r   water representative.
.feihiiiqie awd Jirrtbliig
!&%*?.-.. -.Mr.!. M: " ^= . 4K'. ' :%:... '.^t: *K-I-. .='. ;T.;-. : . J>::,' ...'!!;*;' - -43sK! <-* ^' :: ~3&' •" ' • ••$?* •'•#%ฃ&. '. ''' ' .' i;iiP;^ :'• : n >*fl&-:-~ ' '••:&%ฃ-.'"".;.•? 'iJ^Sil: .;-..' v'/li^BlsSi"^ ' •;;:'V^iMi!Pli |
5 Based on 90"1 percentile level. Multiply number of valid samples by 0.9 (e.g., 10 samples x0.9 = 9; thus, use 9f" highest
Pb and Cu test result to compare to AL). For 5 samples, average 4'" and 5^ highest results. For < 5 samples, use highest
result.
Water Quality Parameter (WQP) ;;
Applicability
Parameters
Frequency
Reduced Tap
Monitoring
Refer to page 1 .
>• pH, alkalinity, calcium (initial only, unless calcium carbonate stabilization is used), conductivity (initial
monitoring only), orthophosphate (if inhibitor is phosphate-based); silica (if inhibitor is silicate-based),
ai~r| temperature (initial monitoring only).
*• oystems installing CCT, must conduct follow-up monitoring for 2 consecutive 6-month periods.
>• WQP tap monitoring is conducted every 6 months, EPTDS monitoring increases to every 2 weeks.
*• After follow-up monitoring, State sets OWQP specifications that define optimal CCT.
*• Collect reduced number of sampling sites (see Table 1 ) if meet OWQPs for 2 consecutive 6-month
periods.
ป> Collect reduced number of sampling sites at reduced frequency if meet OWQPs for:
- 6 consecutive 6-month monitoring periods can monitor annually;
- 3 consecutive years of annual monitoring can monitor triennially.
Public Education (PE) >; ;
Applicability
Purpose
Delivery Method
Timing
*• Systems that exceed the Pb AL (not required if only the Cu AL is exceeded).
*• Educates consumers about lead health effects, sources, and steps to minimize exposure.
*• CWSs: deliver materials to bill-paying customers and post lead information on water bills, work in
concert with local health agencies to reach at-risk populations (children, pregnant woman), deliver
to other organizations serving "at-risk" populations, provide press releases, include new outreach
activities from list in 40 CFR 141 .85(a)(2)(vi), and post to Web site (CWSs serving > 100,000 only).
ป> NTNCWSs: posting and distribution to all consumers (can be electronic with State permission). Can
apply to CWSs such as hospitals and prisons where population cannot make improvements.
>• Within 60 days after end of monitoring period in which Pb AL was exceeded if not already delivering
PE.6
ป• Repeat annually except: water bill inserts - quarterly; press releases - 2x/year, and Web posting -
continuous.
*• Can discontinue whenever s Pb AL but must recommence if subsequently exceed Pb AL.
6 State may allow extension in some situations. Also, State may require approval of message content prior to delivery.
Source Water Monitoring and Source Water Treatment (SOWT) , ;
Applicability
Purpose
Timing
Standard
Reduced
>• Systems that exceed Pb or Cu AL.
*• Determine contribution from source water to total tap water Pb and Cu levels and need for SOWT.
*• One set of samples at each EPTDS is due within 6 months of first AL exceedance.
*• System has 24 months to install any required SOWT.
*• State sets maximum permissible levels (MPLs) for Pb and Cu in source water based on initial and
follow-up source water monitoring.
*• Ground water PWSs monitor once during 3-year compliance periods; surface water PWSs monitor
annually.
*• Monitor every 9 years if MPLs are not exceeded during 3 consecutive compliance periods for ground
water PWSs or 3 consecutive years for surface water PWSs.
Corrosion Control Treatment (CCT) ' ,2:||: ••'•':S|H;S-;'., ' ^jJM,
Applicability
Study
Treatment
OWQPs
*• All large systems except those meeting requirements of 40 CFR 141.81(b)(2) or (b)(3).
*• Medium and small systems that exceed either AL; may stop CCT steps if < both ALs for 2 consecutive
6-month periods but must recommence CCT if subsequently exceed either AL.
^- All large systems except as noted above.
*• If State requires study for small or medium systems, it must be completed within 18 months.
>• Once State determines type of CCT to be installed, PWS has 24 months to install.
ป• Systems installing CCT must conduct 2 consecutive 6 months of follow-up tap and WQP monitoring.
*• After follow-up Pb/Cu tap and WQP monitoring, State sets OWQPs. Refer to WQP section above.
Lead Service Line Replacement (LSLR) • .,
Applicability
Monitoring
Replacement
*• Systems that continue to exceed the Pb AL after installing CCT and/or SOWT.
*• Can discontinue LSLR whenever ฃ Pb AL in tap samples for 2 consecutive 6-month monitoring
periods; must recommence if subsequently exceed.
*• Optional: Sample from LSL to determine if line must be replaced. If all samples are < 0.015 mg/L,
line is considered "replaced through testing"; must reconsider these lines if Pb AL is subsequently
exceeded.
*• Required: Sample from any LSLs not completely replaced to determine impact on Pb levels.
>• Must replace at least 7% of LSLs annually; State can require accelerated schedule.
*• If only portion of LSL is replaced, PWS must:
- Notify customers at least 45 days prior to replacement about potential for increased Pb levels.
- Collect samples within 72 hours of replacement and provide results within 3 days of receipt.
                                          EPA816-F-08-018
http://water.epa.gov/drink
June 2008

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 xvEPA
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
For 9cci:kปnr'i I>I!C-:"TI/-!--;O:! or.
^^jffiiif MP' l^fi^'^i'PiilMtii^irS ^ ^K'': ^ !-^S 1I.MJP i I
   1 ii^S^Wi. i'r.'K'jii-'.i i.1 j f^^:,'.1:! ••feij :i &%%%$!;! :• :& I11::!!': 'i ilMJiu ^fil
Long  Term 1  Enhanced  Surface
Water Treatment  Rule:
A Quick  Reference Guide
                               Title
                               Purpose
                               General
                               Description
                               Utilities
                               Covered
             Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) 67 FR 1812,
             January 14, 2002, Vol. 67, No. 9
              Improve public health protection through the control of microbial contaminants, particularly
              Cryptosporidium. Prevent significant increases in microbial risk that might otherwise occur
              when systems implement the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule.
             Builds upon the requirements of the 1989 Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR).
             Smaller system counterpart of the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
             (IESWTR).
             Public water systems that use surface water or ground water under the direct influence of
             surface water (GWUDI) and serve fewer than 10,000 people.

                               Control of
                               Cryptosporidium
                               Combined Filter
                               Effluent (CFE)
                               Turbidity
                               Performance
                               Standards
Filter
1
Filter
2
Filter
3
IFE I IFE I IFE I
,lcFE
                  >  The maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) is set at zero.
                  >•  Filtered systems must physically remove 99% (2-log) of Cryptosporidium.
                  >•  Unfiltered systems must update their watershed control programs to minimize
                      the potential for contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts.
                  >  Cryptosporidium is included as an indicator of GWUDI.
                  Specific CFE turbidity requirements depend on the type of filtration
                  used by the system.
                  Conventional and direct filtration:
                  >•  & 0.3 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) in at least 95% of measurements
                      taken each month.
                  >•  Maximum level of turbidity: 1 NTU.
                  Slow sand and diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration:
                  >•  Continue to meet CFE turbidity limits specified in the SWTR:
                      •    1 NTU in at least 95% of measurements taken each month.
                          Maximum level of turbidity: 5 NTU.
                  Alternative technologies (other than conventional, direct, slow sand, or DE);
                  >•  Turbidity levels are established by the State based on filter demonstration data
                      submitted by the system.
                          State-set limits must not exceed 1 NTU (in at least 95% of measurements)
                          or 5 NTU (maximum).

                               Combined Filter
                               Effluent
                               Individual Filter
                               Effluent (IFE)
                               (for systems using
                               conventional and
                               direct filtration only)
                        Performed at least every 4 hours to ensure compliance with CFE turbidity
                        performance standards.2
                    Since the CFE may meet regulatory requirements even though one
                    filter is producing high turbidity water, the IFE is measured to assist
                    conventional and direct filtration treatment plant operators in
                    understanding and assessing individual filter performance.
                    >•  Performed continuously (recorded at least every 15 minutes).
                    ^-  Systems with two or fewer filters may conduct continuous monitoring of CFE
                        turbidity in place of individual filter effluent turbidity monitoring.
                    >•  Certain follow-up actions are required if the IFE turbidity (or CFE for
                        systems with two filters) exceeds 1.0 NTU in 2 consecutive readings
                        or more (i.e., additional reporting, filter self-assessments, and/or
                        comprehensive performance evaluations (CPEs)).

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|T_ ,""*" ~* - :>;*"j ป i ; '/">^a!"-/-r -JkV f/*^r- ,"5rri~-™%*/^
Community and non-transient non-community public water systems must evaluate impacts on microbial risk before changing disinfection
practices to ensure adequate microbial protection is maintained. This is accomplished through a process called disinfection profiling and
benchmarking.
What are the disinfection profiling and benchmarking requirements?
> Systems must develop a disinfection profile, which is a graphical compilation of weekly inactivation of Giardia lamblia, taken on the same
calendar day each week over 12 consecutive months. (Systems using chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection
must also calculate inactivation of viruses). Results must be available for review by the State during sanitary surveys.
> A State may deem a profile unnecessary if the system has sample data collected after January 1 , 1988-during the month of warmest
water temperature and at maximum residence time in the distribution system-indicating TTHM levels are below 0.064 mg/L and HAAS
levels are below 0.048 mg/L.
>• Prior to making a significant change to disinfection practices, systems required to develop a profile must calculate a disinfection
benchmark and consult with the State. The benchmark is the calculation of the lowest monthly average of inactivation based on the
disinfection profile.

=•ฃ'
>• Construction of new uncovered finished water reservoirs is prohibited.

i*fe *
For Drinking W
March 15,2002
July 1,2003
January 1, 2004
June 30, 2004
December 31,
2004
January 14, 2005


ater Systems
Construction of uncovered finished reservoirs is prohibited.
No later than this date, systems serving between 500-9,999 persons must report to the State:
> Results of optional monitoring which show levels of TTHM < 0.064 mg/L and HAAS < 0.048 mg/L, OR
>• System has started profiling.
No later than this date, systems serving fewer than 500 persons must report to the State:
> Results of optional monitoring which show levels of TTHM < 0.064 mg/L and HAAS < 0.048 mg/L, OR
>• System has started profiling.
Systems serving between 500 and 9,999 persons must complete their disinfection profile unless the State has
determined it is unnecessary.
Systems serving fewer than 500 persons must complete their disinfection profile unless the State has determined it is
unnecessary.
Surface water systems or GWUDI systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must comply with the applicable
LT1ESWTR provisions (e.g., turbidity standards, individual filter monitoring, Cryptosporidium removal requirements,
updated watershed control requirements for unfiltered systems).
For States ; / f / - - _. -- : - - " ~ -'• /. ^ A IE: -^ -:._
January 2002
October14, 2003
January 14, 2004
December 2004
January 14, 2006
December 2006
As per the IESWTR, States begin first round of sanitary surveys (at least every 3 years for community water systems and
every 5 years for non-community water systems).
States are encouraged to submit final primacy applications to EPA.
Final primacy applications must be submitted to EPA unless granted an extension.
States must complete first round of sanitary surveys for community water systems (as per the IESWTR).
Final primacy revision applications from States with approved 2-year extension agreements must be submitted to EPA.
States must complete first round of sanitary surveys for non-community water systems (as per the IESWTR).
- "Z.^." Jf ~-r-=M' "v"-! JP -"S^*, ^'^"•*e;^-^*^J-aA*^~^Ss""Tซ:ป -^&ซ^-2sfc? *V<* .J2S&J& *z.r',*i ^^M^^ "^
j.*>^ ;:~^'^:~
Implementation of
theLTIESWTR
will result in ...
Estimated impacts
of theLTIESWTR
include . . .
> Increased protection against gastrointestinal illnesses from Cryptosporidium and other pathogens through
improvements in filtration.
>• Reduced likelihood of endemic illness from Cryptosporidium by an estimated 12,000 to 41 ,000 cases annually.
> Reduced likelihood of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis.
>• National total annualized cost: $39.5 million.
>• 90% of affected households will incur an increase of less than $1 .25 per month.
>• One percent of affected households are likely to incur an increase of more than $10 per month.
Office of Water (4606M)
EPA816-F-02-001
http://water.eDa.aov/drink
January 2002

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      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
Total  Coliform  Rule:
A  Quick  Reference  Guide
                               Overview  of the  Rule
1 This document provides a summary of
federal drinking water requirements; to
ensure full compliance, please consult
the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141
and any approved state requirements.

2 The June 1989 Rule was
revised as follows: Corrections and
Technical Amendments, 6/19/90
and Partial Stay of Certain Provisions
(Variance Criteria) 56 FR1556-1557,
Vol56, No 10.

Note: The TCR is currently
undergoing the 6 year review process
and may be subject to change.
                               Title1
                                Purpose
                               General
                               Description
                                Utilities
                                Covered
             Total Coliform Rule (TCR)
             54 FR 27544-27568, June 29,1989, Vol. 54, No. 1242
             Improve public health protection by reducing fecal pathogens to minimal levels through
             control of total coliform bacteria, including fecal coliforms and Escherichia
             co/i (E. co//).
             Establishes a maximum contaminant level (MCL) based on the presence or absence of
             total coliforms, modifies monitoring requirements including testing for fecal coliforms
             or ฃ. co//', requires use of a sample siting plan, and also requires sanitary surveys for
             systems collecting fewer than five samples per month.
             The TCR applies to all public water systems.
                               Public  Health Benefits
                               Implementation
                               of the TCR has
                               resulted in...
              >•  Reduction in risk of illness from disease causing organisms associated with sewage
                 or animal wastes. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and
                 possibly jaundice, and associated headaches and fatigue.
                               NX^hat are the Major Provisions?
                                   Total coliform samples must be collected at sites which are representative of water quality throughout
                                   the distribution system according to a written sample siting plan subject to state review and revision

                                   Samples must be collected at regular time intervals throughout the month except groundwater
                                   systems serving 4,900 persons or fewer may collect them on the same day.

                                   Monthly sampling requirements are based on population served (see table on next page for the
                                   minimum sampling frequency).

                                   A reduced monitoring frequency may be available for systems serving 1,000 persons or fewer and
                                   using only ground water if a sanitary survey within the past 5 years shows the system is free of
                                   sanitary defects (the frequency may be no less than 1 sample/quarter for community and 1 sample/
                                   year for non-community systems).

                                   Each total coliform-positive routine sample must be tested for the presence of fecal coliforms or
                                   E. co//.

                                   If any routine sample is total coliform-positive, repeat samples are required.
>•  Within 24 hours of learning of a total coliform-positive ROUTINE sample result, at least 3 REPEAT
    samples must be collected and analyzed for total coliforms:

    >•  One REPEAT sample must be collected from the same tap as the original sample.
    >•  One REPEAT sample must be collected within five service connections upstream.
    >•  One REPEAT sample must be collected within five service connections downstream.
    >  Systems that collect 1 ROUTINE sample per month or fewer must collect a 4th REPEAT sample.

>•  If any REPEAT sample is total coliform-positive:

    >•  The system must analyze that total coliform-positive culture for fecal coliforms or E.coli.
    >•  The system must collect another set of REPEAT samples, as before, unless the MCL has been
       violated and the system has notified the state.
 >•  A positive ROUTINE or REPEAT total coliform result requires a minimum of five ROUTINE samples be
    collected the following month the system provides water to the public unless waived by the state.

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    Population
25-1,000*
 1,001-2,500
2,501-3,300
 3,301-4,100
 4,101-4,900
 4,901-5,800
 5,801-6,700
 6,701-7,600
 7,601-8,500
 8,501-12,900
 12,901-17,200
 17,201-21,500
                    Minimum ^
        ,',1
                     Population
21,501-25,000
                 25,001-33,000
                 33,001-41,000
                 41,001-50,000
                 50,001-59,000
                 59,001-70,000
                 70,001-83,000
                 83,001-96,000
                 96,001-130,000
                 130,001-220,000
                 220,001-320,000
                 320,001-450,000
                    Minimum
                    Samples/
                     Month
25
                       7ft
                       80
                       90
                       100
                       120
             Population
450,001-600,000
                               600,001-780,000
                               780,001-970,000
                               970,001-1,230,000
                               1,230,001-1,520,000
        1,520,001-1,850,000
        1,850,001-2,270,000
        2,270,001-3,020,000
        3,020,001-3,960,000
        > 3,960,001
                                                                    * Minimum
                               •*7240 -' ,
                                 330
                         360
                         420
                         4iOv 4*
                         480
 "Includes PWSs which have at least 15 service connections, but serve <25 people.
jX/|a|  aleltNl  ฉtier  Protislorfs?
 Systems collecting fewer than 5
 ROUTINE samples per month ...
 Systems using surface water or
 ground water under the direct
 influence of surface water (GWUDI)
 and meeting filtration avoidance
 criteria...
                    Must have a sanitary survey every 5 years (or every 10 years if it
                    is a non-community water system using protected and disinfected
                    ground water).**	
                    Must collect and have analyzed one coliform sample each day the
                    turbidity of the source water exceeds 1 NTU. This sample must be
                    collected from a tap near the first service connection.
 ** As per the IESWTR, states must conduct sanitary surveys for community surface water and GWUDI systems in this category
 every 3 years (unless reduced by the state based on outstanding performance).
>•  Compliance is based on the presence or absence of total coliforms.
>•  Compliance is determined each calendar month the system serves water to the public (or each
    calendar month that sampling occurs for systems on reduced monitoring).
ป•  The results of ROUTINE and REPEAT samples are used to calculate compliance.
IM Molt HI y IMC LIV i OI a t i in Is tr I gie rejE if:
A system collecting fewer than 40
samples per month ...
A system collecting at least 40
samples per month ...
                    Has greater than 1 ROUTINE/REPEAT sample per month which is
                    total coliform-positive.
                    Has greater than 5.0 percent of the ROUTINE/REPEAT samples in a
                    month total coliform-positive.
• ง ni Ajcule M € L  |/i J> I at i cfn |s "1*1 g|e r|d ii|
Any public water system ...
                                  Has any fecal coliform- or E. co//-positive REPEAT sample or has
                                  a fecal coliform- or E. co//-positive ROUTINE sample followed by a
                                  total coliform-positive REPEAT sample.
! .th::.PibIG
 For a Monthly MCL Violation
                                                                  i:i^fte(i^
 For an Acute MCL Violation
Systems with ROUTINE or
REPEAT samples that are fecal
coliform- or E. co//-positive ...
                     The violation must be reported to the state no later than the end
                     of the next business day after the system learns of the violation.

                     The public must be notified within 30 days after the system
                     learns of the violation.
                     The violation must be reported to the state no later than the end
                     of the next business day after the system learns of the violation.

                     The public must be notified within 24 hours after the system
                     learns of the violation.
                  Must notify the state by the end of the day they are notified of the
                  result or by the end of the next business day if the state office is
                  already closed.	
    EPA816-F-01-035
                        http://water.epa.aov/drink
                                                  Rev. March 2010

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